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Sample records for acute cholesterol loading

  1. Alterations in plasma lecithin : cholesterol acyltransferase and myeloperoxidase in acute myocardial infarction: Implications for cardiac outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Kwakernaak, Arjan J.; Dikkeschei, Bert D.; Perton, Frank; Tio, Rene A.

    Background: The cholesterol esterifying enzyme, lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), plays a key role in HDL maturation and remodeling. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) may compromise LCAT enzymatic activity. We tested the extent to which plasma LCAT activity is altered in acute myocardial infarction

  2. [Blood cholesterol spectre in patients with acute and chronic inflammation of infectious origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchyshyn, Iu M; Srokopud, O O; Zhakun, I B; Komarytsia, O I; Huk-Leshnevs'ka, S O; Panchyshyn, M V

    2006-12-01

    Low level of blood cholesterol is often found in patients with diseases which pathogenesis is mainly associated with inflamation. To detect blood cholesterol spectre, 383 patients with acute and chronic infections have been observed, level of blood cholesterol of 1259 patients with different pathology was retrospectively analyzed. It was found that an increase in frequency of low cholesterol and decrease in frequency of high cholesterol in patients with diseases not associated with infections do not depend on the age of patients. Extremely low level of cholesterol (Cholesterol inflamation of infectious origion, oftener in patients with community-acquired pneumonia and chronic virus hepatitis. Patients with intestinal infections have extremely low level of cholesterol; two-fold oftener than healthy persons have.

  3. The 2-oxoglutarate carrier promotes liver cancer by sustaining mitochondrial GSH despite cholesterol loading

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    Anna Baulies

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells exhibit mitochondrial cholesterol (mt-cholesterol accumulation, which contributes to cell death resistance by antagonizing mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM permeabilization. Hepatocellular mt-cholesterol loading, however, promotes steatohepatitis, an advanced stage of chronic liver disease that precedes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, by depleting mitochondrial GSH (mGSH due to a cholesterol-mediated impairment in mGSH transport. Whether and how HCC cells overcome the restriction of mGSH transport imposed by mt-cholesterol loading to support mGSH uptake remains unknown. Although the transport of mGSH is not fully understood, SLC25A10 (dicarboxylate carrier, DIC and SLC25A11 (2-oxoglutarate carrier, OGC have been involved in mGSH transport, and therefore we examined their expression and role in HCC. Unexpectedly, HCC cells and liver explants from patients with HCC exhibit divergent expression of these mitochondrial carriers, with selective OGC upregulation, which contributes to mGSH maintenance. OGC but not DIC downregulation by siRNA depleted mGSH levels and sensitized HCC cells to hypoxia-induced ROS generation and cell death as well as impaired cell growth in three-dimensional multicellular HCC spheroids, effects that were reversible upon mGSH replenishment by GSH ethyl ester, a membrane permeable GSH precursor. We also show that OGC regulates mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis. Moreover, OGC silencing promoted hypoxia-induced cardiolipin peroxidation, which reversed the inhibition of cholesterol on the permeabilization of MOM-like liposomes induced by Bax or Bak. Genetic OGC knockdown reduced the ability of tumor-initiating stem-like cells to induce liver cancer. These findings underscore the selective overexpression of OGC as an adaptive mechanism of HCC to provide adequate mGSH levels in the face of mt-cholesterol loading and suggest that OGC may be a novel therapeutic target for HCC treatment. Keywords: Cholesterol

  4. Significant improvement in statin adherence and cholesterol levels after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Hilde Vaiva Tonstad; Køhn, Morten Ganderup; Berget, Oline Sofie

    2012-01-01

    Not all patients recovering from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are optimally treated with statin, and their adherence to statin treatment may be inadequate. We set out to describe changes in statin treatment adherence and cholesterol values over time.......Not all patients recovering from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are optimally treated with statin, and their adherence to statin treatment may be inadequate. We set out to describe changes in statin treatment adherence and cholesterol values over time....

  5. Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... found in some meats, dairy products, chocolate, baked goods, and deep-fried and processed foods. Another type, trans fat, is in some fried and processed foods. Eating these fats can raise your LDL (bad) cholesterol. Lack of physical activity, with lots of ...

  6. Cholesterol loaded cyclodextrin increases freezability of buffalo bull (Bubalus bubalis spermatozoa by increasing cholesterol to phospholipid ratio

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    J. S. Rajoriya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted to investigate the effect of cholesterol loaded cyclodextrin (CLC on freezability of buffalo spermatozoa. Materials and Methods: Murrah buffalo bull semen samples with progressive motility of 70% and greater were used. After the evaluation of motility and livability, four equal fractions of semen samples were made. Group I was kept as control and diluted with Tris, whereas Group II, III and IV were treated with CLC solution at the rate of 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 mg/ml respectively to obtain 120 × 106 sperm/ml as final spermatozoa concentration. The aliquots of all the groups were incubated for action of CLC, followed by dilution and freezing. Evaluation at pre-freeze and post-thaw stage of progressive motility, viability and level of cholesterol and phospholipid was done. Results: The mean cholesterol content (μg/100 × 106 spermatozoa of Group I, II, III and IV at pre-freeze stage was 21.55±0.63, 49.56±1.38, 55.67±0.45 and 47.79±1.01 and at post-thaw stage were 13.18±0.45, 34.27±0.71, 36.21±0.48 and 33.68±0.56, respectively. At pre-freeze stage, cholesterol content was significantly (p<0.01 higher in Group III in comparison to other groups. The mean cholesterol and phospholipids content of fresh sperm was 24.14±0.58 and 51.13±0.66 μg/100 × 106 sperm cells, respectively, and C/P ratio of spermatozoa at fresh stage was 0.47±0.067. Conclusion: CLC treatment maintains the C/P ratio and plays an important role in maintaining membrane architecture of spermatozoa. Hence, addition of CLC may be helpful in increasing freezability of buffalo spermatozoa by increasing the C/P ratio of spermatozoa.

  7. Cholesterol rich lipid raft microdomains are gateway for acute phase protein, SERPINA1.

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    Subramaniyam, Devipriya; Zhou, Huiping; Liang, Min; Welte, Tobias; Mahadeva, Ravi; Janciauskiene, Sabina

    2010-09-01

    Cholesterol is the most abundant lipid component of the plasma membrane, and thus the equilibrium between free cholesterol and raft cholesterol act as a determinant of raft function and cell signalling. The mechanisms that regulate the lipid raft cholesterol levels are largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that SERPINA1 (alpha1-antitrypsin), an acute phase protein and the classical neutrophil elastase inhibitor, is localized within lipid rafts in primary human monocytes in vitro. SERPINA1 association with monocytes is inhibited by cholesterol depleting/efflux-stimulating agents (nystatin, filipin, MbetaCD (methyl-beta-cyclodextrin) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and conversely, enhanced by free cholesterol. Furthermore, SERPINA1/monocyte association per se depletes lipid raft cholesterol as characterized by the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2, formation of cytosolic lipid droplets, and a complete inhibition of oxLDL uptake by monocytes. Our findings for the first time highlight that the entry and cell association of SERPINA1 is dependent on lipid raft cholesterol and that SERPINA1 depletes lipid raft cholesterol. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Cholesterol on the Properties of Spray-Dried Lysozyme-Loaded Liposomal Powders

    OpenAIRE

    Charnvanich, Dusadee; Vardhanabhuti, Nontima; Kulvanich, Poj

    2010-01-01

    The influence of cholesterol (Chol) in the liposomal bilayer on the properties of inhalable protein-loaded liposomal powders prepared by spray-drying technique was investigated. Lysozyme (LSZ) was used as a model protein. Feed solution for spray drying was prepared by direct mixing of aqueous solution of LSZ with mannitol solution and empty liposome dispersions composed of hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine and Chol at various molar ratios. The spray-dried powders were characterized with respec...

  9. Cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin improves ram sperm cryoresistance in skim milk-extender.

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    Salmon, Vianney M; Castonguay, François; Demers-Caron, Vincent; Leclerc, Pierre; Bailey, Janice L

    2017-02-01

    Cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin (CLC) is known to improve ram sperm cryosurvival. This study expands on previous research to: (1) determine the mechanism by which CLC improves ram sperm cryosurvival and (2) compare the efficiency of a novel, skim milk-based extender containing CLC to a traditional egg yolk-based extender. Hypothesis #1 was that CLC enhances membrane cholesterol content to increase the resistance of ram sperm to cold and osmotic stress, thereby improving cryosurvival. We first assessed the ability of fresh sperm treated with CLC to withstand cold shock. Second, fresh sperm were treated with CLC to evaluate their tolerance to osmotic stress. Third, to confirm that cholesterol is incorporated into the sperm using CLC, we quantified sperm cholesterol. To test Hypothesis #2 that CLC is most effective in a medium without competing cholesterol, we compared sperm cryosurvival and fertility in skim milk-based extender containing CLC versus in a traditional egg yolk-based freezing extender without CLC. Our data confirmed that CLC treatment improves ram sperm cold shock and osmotic stress resistance, and augments sperm cholesterol content. Semen in skim milk-based extender containing CLC prior to freezing, had more motile sperm with intact acrosomes after thawing compared to semen in egg yolk-based extender. In contrast, sperm plasma membrane integrity and in vivo fertility of the semen cryopreserved in the skim milk-based extender with CLC did not differ from semen that was cryopreserved in egg yolk-based extender. Further research is warranted to combine CLC with other cryoprotection strategies or to modify the insemination protocol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Free-cholesterol loading does not trigger phase separation of the fluorescent sterol dehydroergosterol in the plasma membrane of macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüstner, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    membrane distribution of the fluorescent cholesterol-mimicking sterol dehydroergosterol (DHE) was investigated in FC-loaded J774 macrophages. Wide field fluorescence and deconvolution microscopy were combined with quantitative assessment of sterol distribution in straightened plasma membrane image segments...

  11. Sesamol treatment reduces plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels in mouse models of acute and chronic hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nitesh; Mudgal, Jayesh; Parihar, Vipan K; Nayak, Pawan G; Kutty, N Gopalan; Rao, C Mallikarjuna

    2013-06-01

    The active constituents of Sesamum indicum, sesamin and sesamolin, have already been explored for hypolipidemic action. In this study we have explored the anti-dyslipidemic activity of another active component and metabolite of sesamolin (sesamol), by using acute models of hyperlipidemia viz., a fat tolerance test, a tyloxapol-induced hyperlipidemia model and a chronic model of hyperlipidemia viz., a high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia model in Swiss albino mice. Sesamol (100 and 200 mg/kg) significantly (P cholesterol and triacylglycerol compared with the tyloxapol group at 12 and 24 h, which indicates its probable effect on cholesterol synthesis. Chronic hyperlipidemia in mice was produced by feeding a high-diet, a mixture of cholesterol (2 % w/w), cholic acid (1 % w/w) and coconut oil 30 % (v/w) with standard powdered standard animal chow (up to 100 g). Niacin (100 mg/kg) and sesamol (100 mg/kg) significantly (P cholesterol and triacylglycerol were significantly (P cholesterol as well.

  12. Dietary carbohydrates, glycemic load and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations among South Indian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhika, G; Ganesan, A; Sathya, R M; Sudha, V; Mohan, V

    2009-03-01

    To examine the relationship between dietary carbohydrates, glycemic load and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations in Asian Indians, a high-risk group for diabetes and premature coronary artery disease. The study population comprised of 2043 individuals aged >/=20 years randomly selected from Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiological Study (CURES), an ongoing population-based study on a representative population of Chennai (formerly Madras) city in southern India. Participants with self-reported history of diabetes or heart disease or on drug therapy for dyslipidemia were excluded from the study. Dietary carbohydrates, glycemic index and glycemic load were assessed using a validated interviewer administered semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Both dietary glycemic load (Pcarbohydrate intake (Pglycemic load, the multivariate-adjusted mean HDL-C values were 44.1 mg per 100 ml and 41.2 mg per 100 ml (6.6% difference, P for trendcarbohydrate it was less (5% difference, P for trend=0.016). The pattern of decrease in HDL-C for the lowest to highest quintile of glycemic load was more pronounced among men (1st vs 5th quintile: adjusted HDL-C: 4.3 mg per 100 ml decrease (10.3%)) than women (1st vs 5th quintile: adjusted HDL-C: 3.2 mg per 100 ml decrease (6.9%)). Our findings indicate that both total carbohydrates and dietary glycemic load intake are inversely associated with plasma HDL-C concentrations among Asian Indians, with dietary glycemic load having a stronger association.

  13. Effect of cholesterol on the properties of spray-dried lysozyme-loaded liposomal powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnvanich, Dusadee; Vardhanabhuti, Nontima; Kulvanich, Poj

    2010-06-01

    The influence of cholesterol (Chol) in the liposomal bilayer on the properties of inhalable protein-loaded liposomal powders prepared by spray-drying technique was investigated. Lysozyme (LSZ) was used as a model protein. Feed solution for spray drying was prepared by direct mixing of aqueous solution of LSZ with mannitol solution and empty liposome dispersions composed of hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine and Chol at various molar ratios. The spray-dried powders were characterized with respect to morphology, thermal property, and crystallinity using scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction, respectively. Most formulations gave slightly aggregated, spherical particles, and percentage yields of the spray-dried powders decreased with increasing Chol content. Degree of particle aggregation depended on the powder composition. The powders spontaneously formed liposomes which efficiently entrapped LSZ after reconstitution with HEPES buffered saline (HBS) at 37 degrees C. Lysozyme entrapment efficiency and size distribution of the reconstituted liposomes were evaluated after the powders were reconstituted with HBS. Increasing Chol content resulted in a decrease in size of the reconstituted liposomes and an increase in entrapment efficiency of LSZ. These results correlated with thermal behaviors of the reconstituted liposomes. Biological activity of LSZ was not affected by the spray-drying process. It was also demonstrated that LSZ-loaded liposomal powders could be produced without the need to preload the LSZ into liposomes prior to spray-drying process.

  14. Clinical Factors and Viral Load Influencing Severity of Acute Hepatitis A.

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    Hyun Woong Lee

    Full Text Available Clinical manifestations of hepatitis A virus (HAV infection vary from mild to fulminant hepatic failure (FHF in adults. We investigated the relationship between laboratory findings, including viral load, and clinical outcomes in patients with acute hepatitis A (AHA and evaluated predictive factors for severe acute hepatitis (s-AH.We analyzed the clinical manifestations of AHA in 770 patients. Patients with a prothrombin time (PT of less than 40% of normal were classified as s-AH and included 4 patients with FHF, 11 patients with acute renal failure, and 3 patients with prolonged jaundice (n = 128. Other patients were defined as mild acute hepatitis (m-AH (n = 642. Serum samples were obtained from 48 patients with acute hepatitis A. Among them, 20 with s-AH, and 28 with m-AH, were tested for HAV RNA titer.In a multivariate analysis, age (HR = 1.042, P = 0.041, peak creatinine (HR = 4.014, P = 0.001, bilirubin (HR = 1.153, P = 0.003, alanine aminotransferase (ALT (HR = 1.001, P < 0.001, initial lactate dehydrogenase (LDH (HR = 1.000, P = 0.045 and total cholesterol (HR = 0.978, P < 0.001 were independent factors for s-AH. Serum HAV RNA was detected in 20/20 (100% patients with s-AH and 22/28 (78.6% patients with m-AH. In a multivariate analysis of the 48 patients who were tested for HAV RNA, peak ALT (HR = 1.001, P = 0.004 and HAV RNA titer (HR = 2.076, P = 0.012 were independent factors for s-AH.Clinical factors including age, peak creatinine, bilirubin, ALT, initial LDH and total cholesterol were independent factors for s-AH in a multivariate analysis. In particular, HAV load strongly correlated with the severity of hepatitis A.

  15. High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Concentration and Acute Kidney Injury After Cardiac Surgery.

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    Smith, Loren E; Smith, Derek K; Blume, Jeffrey D; Linton, MacRae F; Billings, Frederic T

    2017-12-09

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery is associated with increased short- and long-term mortality. Inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction and damage play important roles in the development of AKI. High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and improve endothelial function and repair. Statins enhance HDL's anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capacities. We hypothesized that a higher preoperative HDL cholesterol concentration is associated with decreased AKI after cardiac surgery and that perioperative statin exposure potentiates this association. We tested our hypothesis in 391 subjects from a randomized clinical trial of perioperative atorvastatin to reduce AKI after cardiac surgery. A 2-component latent variable mixture model was used to assess the association between preoperative HDL cholesterol concentration and postoperative change in serum creatinine, adjusted for known AKI risk factors and suspected confounders. Interaction terms were used to examine the effects of preoperative statin use, preoperative statin dose, and perioperative atorvastatin treatment on the association between preoperative HDL and AKI. A higher preoperative HDL cholesterol concentration was independently associated with a decreased postoperative serum creatinine change (P=0.02). The association between a high HDL concentration and an attenuated increase in serum creatinine was strongest in long-term statin-using patients (P=0.008) and was further enhanced with perioperative atorvastatin treatment (P=0.004) and increasing long-term statin dose (P=0.003). A higher preoperative HDL cholesterol concentration was associated with decreased AKI after cardiac surgery. Preoperative and perioperative statin treatment enhanced this association, demonstrating that pharmacological potentiation is possible during the perioperative period. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique Identifier: NCT00791648. © 2017 The Authors

  16. Associations between COX-2 polymorphisms, blood cholesterol and risk of acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Segel, Stine; Dethlefsen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    Background: The use of specific COX-2 inhibitors in cancer prevention has been associated with higher risk of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and myocardial infarction. The aim of this study was to investigate if the polymorphisms COX2 T8473C (rs5275), and COX2 A-1195G (rs689466), which modify...... significant interactions between genotypes and alcohol intake, smoking and NSAID use in relation to risk of ACS. Among males, there was interaction between COX-2 T8473C and alcohol in relation to total cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and LDL levels (p for interaction: 0.003, 0.007 and 0.01, respectively...... the enzyme levels of COX-2, were associated with risk of ACS and if alcohol intake, smoking, and use of NSAID would modify the associations. We also wanted to investigate associations with blood lipid levels. Methods: A case–cohort study including 1031 ACS cases and a sub-cohort of 1703 persons was nested...

  17. High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, Blood Urea Nitrogen, and Serum Creatinine Can Predict Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wandong Hong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Early prediction of disease severity of acute pancreatitis (AP would be helpful for triaging patients to the appropriate level of care and intervention. The aim of the study was to develop a model able to predict Severe Acute Pancreatitis (SAP. Methods. A total of 647 patients with AP were enrolled. The demographic data, hematocrit, High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C determinant at time of admission, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN, and serum creatinine (Scr determinant at time of admission and 24 hrs after hospitalization were collected and analyzed statistically. Results. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that HDL-C at admission and BUN and Scr at 24 hours (hrs were independently associated with SAP. A logistic regression function (LR model was developed to predict SAP as follows: −2.25–0.06 HDL-C (mg/dl at admission + 0.06 BUN (mg/dl at 24 hours + 0.66 Scr (mg/dl at 24 hours. The optimism-corrected c-index for LR model was 0.832 after bootstrap validation. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for LR model for the prediction of SAP was 0.84. Conclusions. The LR model consists of HDL-C at admission and BUN and Scr at 24 hours, representing an additional tool to stratify patients at risk of SAP.

  18. A prospective cohort study on risk of acute pancreatitis related to serum triglycerides, cholesterol and fasting glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindkvist, Björn; Appelros, Stefan; Regnér, Sara; Manjer, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    To investigate risk for acute pancreatitis related to moderately elevated triglycerides, cholesterol and fasting glucose. This was a prospective cohort study in Malmö, Sweden of 33,346 subjects investigated 1974-1992 and followed until December 31, 2006. Baseline investigation included a self-administered questionnaire and analysis of serum triglycerides, cholesterol and fasting glucose. Cases of acute pancreatitis (n = 277, median time since baseline investigation 15.6 years) were identified in diagnosis registries and validated retrospectively. Attacks were classified as obstructive or non obstructive (alcohol or non alcohol related). Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for acute pancreatitis related to relevant risk factors, adjusting for age, sex, smoking habits and alcohol consumption. Triglycerides were associated with overall, non obstructive and non obstructive non alcohol related acute pancreatitis with adjusted HRs of 1.21 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-1.36), 1.23 (95% CI, 1.06-2.43) and 1.34 (95% CI, 1.11-1.62) per 1 mmol/l increment, respectively. Corresponding HRs for forth versus first quartile of triglycerides were 1.55 (95% CI, 1.09-2.21), 1.60 (95% CI, 1.60-1.01-1.35) and 2.07 (95% CI, 1.13-3.79). Triglycerides were not associated with obstructive acute pancreatitis and there were no associations between glucose or cholesterol and the risk of acute pancreatitis. We found an association between prediagnostic levels of triglycerides and risk for acute pancreatitis. This association was most pronounced in the non obstructive non alcohol related group. Our findings suggest that triglycerides may be a more important risk factor for acute pancreatitis than what has previously been estimated. Copyright © 2012 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cellular Cholesterol Regulates Ubiquitination and Degradation of the Cholesterol Export Proteins ABCA1 and ABCG1*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Victar; Kim, Mi-Jurng; Gelissen, Ingrid C.; Brown, Andrew J.; Sandoval, Cecilia; Hallab, Jeannette C.; Kockx, Maaike; Traini, Mathew; Jessup, Wendy; Kritharides, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the influence of cholesterol in post-translational control of ABCA1 and ABCG1 protein expression. Using CHO cell lines stably expressing human ABCA1 or ABCG1, we observed that the abundance of these proteins is increased by cell cholesterol loading. The response to increased cholesterol is rapid, is independent of transcription, and appears to be specific for these membrane proteins. The effect is mediated through cholesterol-dependent inhibition of transporter protein degradation. Cell cholesterol loading similarly regulates degradation of endogenously expressed ABCA1 and ABCG1 in human THP-1 macrophages. Turnover of ABCA1 and ABCG1 is strongly inhibited by proteasomal inhibitors and is unresponsive to inhibitors of lysosomal proteolysis. Furthermore, cell cholesterol loading inhibits ubiquitination of ABCA1 and ABCG1. Our findings provide evidence for a rapid, cholesterol-dependent, post-translational control of ABCA1 and ABCG1 protein levels, mediated through a specific and sterol-sensitive mechanism for suppression of transporter protein ubiquitination, which in turn decreases proteasomal degradation. This provides a mechanism for acute fine-tuning of cholesterol transporter activity in response to fluctuations in cell cholesterol levels, in addition to the longer term cholesterol-dependent transcriptional regulation of these genes. PMID:24500716

  20. Acute Effects of Apple Cider Vinegar Intake on Some Biochemical Risk Factors of Atherosclerosis in Rabbits Fed with a High Cholesterol Diet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Setorki M; Nazari B; Asgary S; Eidi A; Haeri Rohani A

    2010-01-01

    .... Apple cider vinegar is an acidic juice with useful medicinal effects. In this research; we investigated acute effects of apple cider vinegar intake on some of the biochemical atherosclerosis risk factors in high cholesterol fed...

  1. Acute caloric restriction counteracts hepatic bile acid and cholesterol deficiency in morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straniero, S; Rosqvist, F; Edholm, D; Ahlström, H; Kullberg, J; Sundbom, M; Risérus, U; Rudling, M

    2017-05-01

    Bile acid (BA) synthesis is regulated by BA signalling in the liver and by fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), synthesized and released from the intestine. In morbid obesity, faecal excretion and hepatic synthesis of BAs and cholesterol are strongly induced and caloric restriction reduces their faecal excretion considerably. We hypothesized that the high intestinal food mass in morbidly obese subjects promotes faecal excretion of BAs and cholesterol, thereby creating a shortage of both BAs and cholesterol in the liver. Ten morbidly obese women (BMI 42 ± 2.6 kg m-2 ) were monitored on days 0, 3, 7, 14 and 28 after beginning a low-calorie diet (800-1100 kcal day-1 ). Serum was collected and liver size and fat content determined. Synthesis of BAs and cholesterol was evaluated from serum markers, and the serum levels of lipoproteins, BAs, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), insulin, glucose and FGF19 were monitored. Fifty-four nonobese women (BMI cholesterol and serum levels of BAs and PCSK9 were elevated in the obese group compared to controls. Already after 3 days on a low-calorie diet, BA and cholesterol synthesis and serum BA and PCSK9 levels normalized, whereas LDL cholesterol increased. FGF19 and triglyceride levels were unchanged, and liver volume was reduced by 10%. The results suggest that hepatic BAs and cholesterol are deficient in morbid obesity. Caloric restriction rapidly counteracts these deficiencies, normalizing BA and cholesterol synthesis and circulating PCSK9 levels, indicating that overproduction of cholesterol in enlarged peripheral tissues cannot explain this phenotype. We propose that excessive food intake promotes faecal loss of BAs and cholesterol contributing to their hepatic deficiencies. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Internal Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Publication of The Journal of Internal Medicine.

  2. Simvastatin promotes NPC1-mediated free cholesterol efflux from lysosomes through CYP7A1/LXRα signalling pathway in oxLDL-loaded macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Aolin; Halquist, Matthew S; Yuan, Xinxu; Henderson, Scott C; Dewey, William L; Li, Pin-Lan; Li, Ningjun; Zhang, Fan

    2017-02-01

    Statins, 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, are the first-line medications prescribed for the prevention and treatment of coronary artery diseases. The efficacy of statins has been attributed not only to their systemic cholesterol-lowering actions but also to their pleiotropic effects that are unrelated to cholesterol reduction. These pleiotropic effects have been increasingly recognized as essential in statins therapy. This study was designed to investigate the pleiotropic actions of simvastatin, one of the most commonly prescribed statins, on macrophage cholesterol homeostasis with a focus on lysosomal free cholesterol egression. With simultaneous nile red and filipin staining, analysis of confocal/multi-photon imaging demonstrated that simvastatin markedly attenuated unesterified (free) cholesterol buildup in macrophages loaded with oxidized low-density lipoprotein but had little effect in reducing the sizes of cholesteryl ester-containing lipid droplets; the reduction in free cholesterol was mainly attributed to decreases in lysosome-compartmentalized cholesterol. Functionally, the egression of free cholesterol from lysosomes attenuated pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. It was determined that the reduction of lysosomal free cholesterol buildup by simvastatin was due to the up-regulation of Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1), a lysosomal residing cholesterol transporter. Moreover, the enhanced enzymatic production of 7-hydroxycholesterol by cytochrome P450 7A1 and the subsequent activation of liver X receptor α underscored the up-regulation of NPC1. These findings reveal a novel pleiotropic effect of simvastatin in affecting lysosomal cholesterol efflux in macrophages and the associated significance in the treatment of atherosclerosis. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  3. Is non-HDL-cholesterol a better predictor of long-term outcome in patients after acute myocardial infarction compared to LDL-cholesterol? : a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongcharoen, Wanwarang; Sutthiwutthichai, Satjatham; Gunaparn, Siriluck; Phrommintikul, Arintaya

    2017-01-05

    It has recently been shown that non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) may be a better predictor of cardiovascular risk than low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Based on known ethic differences in lipid parameters and cardiovascular risk prediction, we sought to study the predictability of attaining non-HDL-C target and long-term major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) in Thai patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared to attaining LDL-C target. We retrospectively obtained the data of all patients who were admitted at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai hospital due to AMI during 2006-2013. The mean non-HDL-C and LDL-C during long-term follow-up were used to predict MACE at each time point. The patients were classified as target attainment if non-HDL-C 130 mg/dl had higher incidence of MACEs (HR 3.15, 95% CI 1.46-6.80, P = 0.003). Surprisingly, LDL-C >100 mg/dl was associated with reduced risk of MACE as compared to LDL <70 mg/dl (HR 0.42, 95% CI 0.18-0.98, p = 0.046) after direct pairwise comparison with non-HDL-C level. Non-attaining non-HDL-C goal predicted MACE at long-term follow-up after AMI whereas non-attaining LDL-C goal was not associated with the higher risk. Therefore, non-HDL-C may be a more suitable target of dyslipidemia treatment than LDL-C in patients after AMI.

  4. HDL function is impaired in acute myocardial infarction independent of plasma HDL cholesterol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Wijtske; Willemsen, Hendrik M.; de Boer, Jan Freark; Dikkers, Arne; van der Giet, Markus; Nieuwland, Wybe; Muller Kobold, Anna; van Pelt, L. Joost; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Tio, Rene A.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) protect against the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. HDL function represents an emerging concept in cardiovascular research. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the association between HDL functionality and acute myocardial infarction

  5. Blue toe syndrome treated with sympathectomy in a patient with acute renal failure caused by cholesterol embolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Gang Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Blue toe syndrome is the most frequent manifestation of tissue ischemia caused by cholesterol embolization (CE, which can lead to amputation of affected lower extremities, if severe. However, any effective treatment is lacking. We experienced a case of spontaneously presenting blue toe syndrome and concomitant acute renal failure in a patient with multiple atherosclerotic risk factors. CE was confirmed by renal biopsy. Despite medical treatment including prostaglandin therapy and narcotics, the toe lesion progressed to gangrene with worsening ischemic pain. Therefore, we performed lumbar sympathectomy, which provided dramatic pain relief as well as an adequate blood flow to the ischemic lower extremities, resulting in healing of the gangrenous lesion and avoiding toe amputation. This is the first reported case of a patient with intractable ischemic toe syndrome caused by CE that was treated successfully by sympathectomy. Our observations suggest that sympathectomy may be beneficial in some patients with CE-associated blue toe syndrome.

  6. Acute Effects of Apple Cider Vinegar Intake on Some Biochemical Risk Factors of Atherosclerosis in Rabbits Fed with a High Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setorki M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Objectives: Metabolic changes in postprandial stage, especially after consumption of high fat meal cause atherosclerosis and increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Apple cider vinegar is an acidic juice with useful medicinal effects. In this research; we investigated acute effects of apple cider vinegar intake on some of the biochemical atherosclerosis risk factors in high cholesterol fed rabbits.Methods: Thirty two male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet group, high cholesterol diet group (%1cholesterol, %1 cholesterol with 5ml apple cider vinegar group, %1 cholesterol with 10ml apple cider vinegar group. The C-Reactive Protein (CRP, low density lipoprotein (LDL-C, high density lipoprotein (HDL-C, total cholesterol (TC, malondialdehyde (MDA, oxidized-LDL (OxLDL, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT, serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, nitrite, nitrate, glucose, fibrinogen triacylglycerol (TG, apolipoprotein A (ApoA1, apolipoprotein B (ApoB100 were all measured before the experiment and three hours after feeding with these treatment diets. Results: In high cholesterol diet fibrinogen, nitrite, glucose, OxLDL, MDA and CRP showed a significant increase compared to normal diet. Significant differences were observed between both groups of apple cider vinegar by fibrinogen in comparison with hypercholesterolemic diet. Using 10ml apple cider vinegar with cholesterolemic diet caused a significant reduction in Ox-LDL, MDA and glucose in comparison with hypercholesterolemic diet. Moreover, the consumption of 5ml apple cider vinegar with cholesterolemic diet caused a significant decrease in LDL-C and TC compared to hypercholesterolemic diet. No significant difference was found between apple cider vinegar taking groups and hypercholesterol diet in CRP, TG ApoA, HDL-C, ApoB, SGOT, SGPT, nitrite and nitrate.Conclusion: The results showed that acute consumption of apple cider

  7. Chlamydia pneumoniae acute liver infection affects hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangoni, Antonella; Fiorino, Erika; Gilardi, Federica; Aldini, Rita; Scotti, Elena; Nardini, Paola; Foschi, Claudio; Donati, Manuela; Montagnani, Marco; Cevenini, Monica; Franco, Placido; Roda, Aldo; Crestani, Maurizio; Cevenini, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae has been linked to atherosclerosis, strictly associated with hyperlipidemia. The liver plays a central role in the regulation of lipid metabolism. Since in animal models C. pneumoniae can be found at hepatic level, this study aims to elucidate whether C. pneumoniae infection accelerates atherosclerosis by affecting lipid metabolism. Thirty Balb/c mice were challenged intra-peritoneally with C. pneumoniae elementary bodies and thirty with Chlamydia trachomatis, serovar D. Thirty mice were injected with sucrose-phosphate-glutamate buffer, as negative controls. Seven days after infection, liver samples were examined both for presence of chlamydia and expression of genes involved in inflammation and lipid metabolism. C. pneumoniae was isolated from 26 liver homogenates, whereas C. trachomatis was never re-cultivated (P pneumoniae infected mice showed significantly increased serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels compared both with negative controls (P pneumoniae compared to controls and C. trachomatis infected mice. In C. pneumoniae infected livers, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr) mRNA levels were reduced, while inducible degrader of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (Idol) expression was increased. Hypertriglyceridemia was associated to reduced expression of hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1a (Cpt1a) and medium chain acyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase (Acadm). Pro-inflammatory cytokines gene expression was increased compared to negative controls. Conversely, in C. trachomatis infected animals, normal serum lipid levels were associated with elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines gene expression, linked to only a mild disturbance of lipid regulatory genes. Our results indicate that C. pneumoniae mouse liver infection induces dyslipidemic effects with significant modifications of genes involved in lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Acute and chronic effects of a 24-hour intravenous triglyceride emulsion challenge on plasma lecithin : cholesterol acyltransferase, phospholipid transfer protein, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemens, SC; Van Tol, A; Sluiter, WJ; Dullaart, RPF

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) are key factors in remodeling of high density lipoproteins (HDL) and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. We examined the effect of a large, 24 h intravenous fat load on plasma

  9. [Is vesicular cholesterolosis a particular anatomo-clinical form of cholesterol lithiasis? Apropos of a case of cholesterol polyp manifested by an acute complication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palot, J P; Pluot, M; Delattre, J F; Remy, G

    1986-01-01

    A case of cholesterolic polyp, revealed by the formation of an infundibulo-cystic enclave, is reported, the polyp having the appearance of a cholesterolic calculus, but a pediculated one, and one acting as a calculus. The extreme rarity of this complication is emphasized. Despite the frequency of associated lithiasis, the cholesterolosis are included in a different framework from lithiasis, that of the cholecystoses that on histology show typical pure parietal lesions without inflammation. Findings in this atypical case suggest possible common pathogenic factors for the two affections, and raise a proposal for inclusion of cholesterolosis within the nosologic framework of lithiasis.

  10. About Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More About Cholesterol Updated:Jul 5,2017 Whether you’ve just ... Quiz This content was last reviewed April 2017. Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol Introduction Atherosclerosis What Your Cholesterol ...

  11. Effects of acute voluntary loaded wheel running on BDNF expression in the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minchul; Soya, Hideaki

    2017-12-31

    Voluntary loaded wheel running involves the use of a load during a voluntary running activity. A muscle-strength or power-type activity performed at a relatively high intensity and a short duration may cause fewer apparent metabolic adaptations but may still elicit muscle fiber hypertrophy. This study aimed to determine the effects of acute voluntary wheel running with an additional load on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the rat hippocampus. Ten-week old male Wistar rats were assigned randomly to a (1) sedentary (Control) group; (2) voluntary exercise with no load (No-load) group; or (3) voluntary exercise with an additional load (Load) group for 1-week (acute period). The expression of BDNF genes was quantified by real-time PCR. The average distance levels were not significantly different in the No-load and Load groups. However, the average work levels significantly increased in the Load group. The relative soleus weights were greater in the No-load group. Furthermore, loaded wheel running up-regulated the BDNF mRNA level compared with that in the Control group. The BDNF mRNA levels showed a positive correlation with workload levels (r=0.75), suggesting that the availability of multiple workload levels contributes to the BDNF-related benefits of loaded wheel running noted in this study. This novel approach yielded the first set of findings showing that acute voluntary loaded wheel running, which causes muscular adaptation, enhanced BDNF expression, suggesting a possible role of high-intensity short-term exercise in hippocampal BDNF activity.

  12. Acute and Chronic Impact of Bariatric Surgery on Plasma LDL Cholesterol and PCSK9 Levels in Patients With Severe Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Marjorie; Piché, Marie-Eve; Auclair, Audrey; Grenier-Larouche, Thomas; Biertho, Laurent; Marceau, Simon; Hould, Frédéric-Simon; Biron, Simon; Lebel, Stéfane; Lescelleur, Odette; Julien, François; Martin, Julie; Tchernof, André; Carpentier, André C; Poirier, Paul; Arsenault, Benoit J

    2017-11-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a key regulator of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations. In patients with severe obesity, biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD-DS) surgery induces substantial weight loss and influences lipoprotein metabolism. The effect of BPD-DS on PCSK9 levels is unknown. To determine the acute and chronic impact of BPD-DS on PCSK9 levels and whether the acute impact of BPD-DS could be explained by BPD-DS-associated caloric restriction (CR). PCSK9 levels were measured in 20 men and 49 women (age, 41.5 ± 11.1 years) with severe obesity before, 24 hours, 5 days, and 6 and 12 months after BPD-DS and in a comparable control group (n = 31) at baseline and at 6 and 12 months. PCSK9 levels were also measured during 3-day CR in patients (n = 7) with severe obesity and type 2 diabetes. PCSK9 levels increased 13.4% after 24 hours (248.7 ± 64.8 to 269.7 ± 63.8 ng/mL; P = 0,02) and decreased 9.5% at 12 months compared with baseline (217.6 ± 43.0 ng/mL; P < 0,0001). LDL-C levels decreased 36.2% after 24 hours (2.6 ± 0.7 to 1.7 ± 0.6 mmol/L; P < 0.0001) and 30% at 12 months compared with baseline (1.7 ± 0.5 mmol/L; P < 0.0001). Compared with baseline levels, PCSK9 levels were lower at day 2 but not at day 1 or 3 after CR. BPD-DS is associated with acute increases in PCSK9 levels that do not appear to be explained by CR but may be due to an acute response following surgery. BPD-DS induces chronic reductions in both PCSK9 and LDL-C levels.

  13. Acute Consumption of Walnuts and Walnut Components Differentially Affect Postprandial Lipemia, Endothelial Function, Oxidative Stress, and Cholesterol Efflux in Humans with Mild Hypercholesterolemia1234

    OpenAIRE

    Berryman, Claire E.; Grieger, Jessica A.; West, Sheila G.; Chen, Chung-Yen O.; Blumberg, Jeffrey B.; Rothblat, George H.; Sankaranarayanan, Sandhya; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.

    2013-01-01

    Walnut consumption improves cardiovascular disease risk; however, to our knowledge, the contribution of individual walnut components has not been assessed. This study evaluated the acute consumption of whole walnuts (85 g), separated nut skins (5.6 g), de-fatted nutmeat (34 g), and nut oil (51 g) on postprandial lipemia, endothelial function, and oxidative stress. Cholesterol efflux (ex vivo) was assessed in the whole walnut treatment only. A randomized, 4-period, crossover trial was conducte...

  14. Acute Effects of Apple Cider Vinegar Intake on Some Biochemical Risk Factors of Atherosclerosis in Rabbits Fed with a High Cholesterol Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Setorki M.; Nazari B.; Asgary S.; Eidi A.; Haeri Rohani A.

    2010-01-01

    AbstractBackground and Objectives: Metabolic changes in postprandial stage, especially after consumption of high fat meal cause atherosclerosis and increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Apple cider vinegar is an acidic juice with useful medicinal effects. In this research; we investigated acute effects of apple cider vinegar intake on some of the biochemical atherosclerosis risk factors in high cholesterol fed rabbits.Methods: Thirty two male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided ...

  15. Acute Effects of Apple Cider Vinegar Intake on Some Biochemical Risk Factors of Atherosclerosis in Rabbits Fed with a High Cholesterol Diet

    OpenAIRE

    M Setorki

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Metabolic changes in postprandial stage, especially after consumption of high fat meal cause atherosclerosis and increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Apple cider vinegar is an acidic juice with useful medicinal effects. In this research; we investigated acute effects of apple cider vinegar intake on some of the biochemical atherosclerosis risk factors in high cholesterol fed rabbits.&l...

  16. [Acute epiglottitis in adults. Our case load in 11 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino Rivero, V; Pando Pinto, J M; Mogollón Cano-Cortés, T; Rejas Ugena, E; Trinidad Ramos, G; Blasco Huelva, A

    2002-11-01

    We report a retrospective study of 20 cases of acute epiglottitis in adults admitted at our hospital between 1991 and 2001. We gather a series of variables: Patient sex, age, year and month of admission, personal history, initial clinical symptoms, complementary tests asked, given treatment, evolution and hospital average stay. We found an obvious predominance in male (19:1 with respect to female), with an average age of 45 years. The main symptoms were dysphagia-odynophagia (85%), followed by fever (55%) and pharyngocervical pain. Dyspnea was confirmed in 9 of 20 patients (45%); 5 of them required airway control with the help of intubation in one case, urgent coniotomy in three cases and tracheotomy in another one. A patient suffered from an acute mediastinitis and required assistance and medical i.v. extended treatment in UCI. We show a case of another patient who suffered sudden cardiorespiratory arrest a followed by death. He did not present previous dyspnea. Acute epiglottitis in adults is a rare pathology with a good prognosis in general, but may lead to an unpredictable and serious complication even in the absence of airway blockage. We carry out a medical literature review in this respect.

  17. Virus Type and Genomic Load in Acute Bronchiolitis: Severity and Treatment Response With Inhaled Adrenaline

    OpenAIRE

    Skjerven, Håvard O.; Megremis, Spyridon; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Mowinckel, Petter; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Carlsen, Karin C Lødrup

    2016-01-01

    Background. Acute bronchiolitis frequently causes infant hospitalization. Studies on different viruses or viral genomic load and disease severity or treatment effect have had conflicting results. We aimed to investigate whether the presence or concentration of individual or multiple viruses were associated with disease severity in acute bronchiolitis and to evaluate whether detected viruses modified the response to inhaled racemic adrenaline. Methods. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collecte...

  18. Cholesterol Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/cholesterollevels.html Cholesterol Levels To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Cholesterol Test? Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance ...

  19. Effects of acute exercise on high density lipoprotein cholesterol and high density lipoprotein subfractions in moderately trained females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, P M; Fowler, S; Warty, V; Danduran, M; Visich, P; Keteyian, S

    1998-03-01

    Increases in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels have previously been reported after moderate exercise bouts lasting less than two hours in men. Little information exists, however, on HDL-C responses after moderate duration exercise in women. Post-exercise HDL-C modifications may appear differently in women because of higher baseline HDL-C concentrations and differences in lipolytic activity. To determine the influence of exercise on acute HDL-C responses in women, 12 trained premenopausal women (22 (4) years old; mean (SD)) who ran 24-48 km a week exercised on a motor driven treadmill at 75% VO2MAX until 3.34 MJ (800 kcal) were expended (72 (9) min). Subjects were all tested during the early follicular phase of their menstrual cycle. Fasting blood samples were obtained before exercise (baseline), immediately after (IPE), one hour after (1 h PE), 24 hours after (24 h PE), and 48 hours after (48 h PE) exercise. Plasma was analysed for HDL-C, HDL2-C, and HDL3-C. A significant increase in HDL-C was observed 48 h PE (p<0.05). HDL3-C increased IPE (p<0.01) but returned to baseline at 1 h PE. In contrast, HDL2-C was not significantly different from baseline at any time point. The rise in HDL-C, however, was attributed to an increase in both HDL2 and HDL3. Moreover, at 48 h PE, the increase in HDL-C correlated highly with changes in HDL2-C (r = 0.92). Thus it appears that exercise of moderate duration can elicit similar post-exercise increases in HDL-C in women to those previously reported in men. However, the changes in HDL subfractions leading to the rise in HDL-C may be different in women.

  20. Acute Effects of Apple Cider Vinegar Intake on Some Biochemical Risk Factors of Atherosclerosis in Rabbits Fed with a High Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Setorki

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Metabolic changes in postprandial stage, especially after consumption of high fat meal cause atherosclerosis and increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Apple cider vinegar is an acidic juice with useful medicinal effects. In this research; we investigated acute effects of apple cider vinegar intake on some of the biochemical atherosclerosis risk factors in high cholesterol fed rabbits.

    Methods: Thirty two male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet group, high cholesterol diet group (%1cholesterol, %1 cholesterol with 5ml apple cider vinegar group, %1 cholesterol with 10ml apple cider vinegar group. The C-Reactive Protein (CRP, low density lipoprotein (LDL-C, high density lipoprotein (HDL-C, total cholesterol (TC, malondialdehyde (MDA, oxidized-LDL (OxLDL, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT, serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, nitrite, nitrate, glucose, fibrinogen triacylglycerol (TG, apolipoprotein A (ApoA1, apolipoprotein B (ApoB100 were all measured before the experiment and three hours after feeding with these treatment diets.

    Results: In high cholesterol diet fibrinogen, nitrite, glucose, OxLDL, MDA and CRP showed a significant increase compared to normal diet. Significant differences were observed between both groups of apple cider vinegar by fibrinogen in comparison with hypercholesterolemic diet. Using 10ml apple cider vinegar with cholesterolemic diet caused a significant reduction in Ox-LDL, MDA and glucose in comparison with hypercholesterolemic diet. Moreover, the consumption of 5ml apple cider vinegar with cholesterolemic diet caused a significant decrease in LDL-C and TC compared to hypercholesterolemic diet. No significant difference was found between apple cider vinegar taking groups and

  1. Safety and Efficacy of Acute Clopidogrel Load in Patients with Moderate and Severe Ischemic Strokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Shaban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the safety and efficacy of a clopidogrel loading dose in patients with moderate and severe acute ischemic strokes. Background. The safety of clopidogrel loading has been extensively investigated in patients with minor strokes and transient ischemic attacks. Methods. Acute ischemic stroke patients presenting consecutively to our center from 07/01/08 to 07/31/13 were screened. Clopidogrel loading was defined as at least 300 mg dose (with or without aspirin given within 6 hours of admission. We compared outcomes in patients with baseline NIHSS > 3 with and without clopidogrel loading. Results. Inclusion criteria were met for 1011 patients (43.6% females, 69.1% black, median age 63. Patients with clopidogrel loading had lower baseline NIHSS than patients who were not loaded (8 versus 9, p=0.005. The two groups had similar risk for hemorrhagic transformation (p=0.918 and symptomatic hemorrhage (p=0.599. Patients who were loaded had a lower rate of neurological worsening (38.9% versus 48.3%, p=0.031 and less in-hospital mortality (4.3% versus 13.4%, p=0.001 compared to those who were not loaded. The likelihood of having a poor functional outcome did not differ between the two groups after adjusting for NIHSS on admission (OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.4633–1.0906, p=0.118. Conclusion. Clopidogrel loading dose was not associated with increased risk for hemorrhagic transformation or symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in our retrospective study and was associated with reduced rates of neuroworsening following moderate and severe stroke.

  2. Low levels of high-density lipoproteins cholesterol are independently associated with acute coronary heart disease in patients hospitalized for chest pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Alberto; Moreno-Arribas, José; Bertomeu-González, Vicente; Agudo, Pilar; Miralles, Beatriz; Masiá, M Dolores; López-Palop, Ramón; Bertomeu-Martínez, Vicente

    2012-04-01

    The role of high-density lipoproteins in the context of acute chest pain has not been well characterized. The objective of this study was to determine the relative contribution of lipid profile to the risk of acute coronary syndrome in patients admitted to a cardiology ward for chest pain. We included all consecutive admissions in a single cardiology department over a period of 10 months and 1-year follow-up was performed. In total, 959 patients were included: 457 (47.7%) were diagnosed with non-ischemic chest pain, 355 (37%) with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome, and 147 (15.3%) with ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome. Prevalence of high-density lipoproteins acute coronary syndrome (69.4% vs 30.6%; Pacute coronary syndrome increased with reductions in mean high-density lipoproteins. Age, active smoking, diabetes, fasting glucose >100 mg/dL, and high-density lipoproteins acute coronary syndrome, and low high-density lipoproteins was the main associated factor (odds ratio, 4.11; 95% confidence interval, 2.87-5.96). Survival analysis determined that, compared with non-ischemic chest pain, the presence of acute coronary syndrome was associated with significantly greater risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Low levels of high-density lipoproteins cholesterol (≤40 mg/dL) were independently associated with a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome in patients hospitalized for chest pain, with an inverse relationship between lower levels of high-density lipoproteins and prevalence of acute coronary syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of cholesterol loaded cyclodextrins on post-thawing quality of buffalo semen in relation to sperm DNA damage and ultrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezz, Mohamed Aboul; Montasser, Abd Elmonem; Hussein, Mamdouh; Eldesouky, Ashraf; Badr, Magdy; Hegab, Abd Elraouf; Balboula, Ahmed; Zaabel, Samy M

    2017-03-01

    The cryopreservation of germ cells is a major tool for the propagation of animals with desired genetic traits. Although cryopreservation of spermatozoa in some animals is effective, its effectiveness is variable. For example, cryopreservation efficiency of buffalo bull spermatozoa remains very poor. In this study, we evaluated sperm DNA damage and ultrastructure in buffalo bull spermatozoa vitrified in the presence or absence of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrins (CLC). Our results showed that cryopreserved buffalo spermatozoa had elevated levels of deteriorated plasma and mitochondrial membranes, which are the likely causes of DNA damage after vitrification. Accordingly, the levels of the activity of Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) were also elevated following exposure of buffalo bull spermatozoa to a cycle of freezing-thawing. Importantly, supplementation of Tris-Egg Yolk-Glucose (TEYG) extender with (CLC) improved the quality of buffalo spermatozoa following cryopreservation. This protective effect of CLC is likely due to decreasing mitochondrial and plasma membrane deterioration with subsequent inhibition of DNA damage. These results suggest that cholesterol loss is the likely reason for poor semen quality in buffaloes following cryopreservation, and provide evidence that manipulating lipid content during cryopreservation is a promising strategy to improve the quality of buffalo semen. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  4. Prevalence of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as a marker of residual cardiovascular risk among acute coronary syndrome patients from Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Sulaiman, Kadhim; Al-Rasadi, Khalid; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

    2011-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence as well as predictors of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels among acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients in Oman. Data were analyzed from the records of 1583 consecutive patients admitted with a diagnosis of ACS as part of the Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE). A low HDL-C was considered as prevalence of low HDL-C for this ACS population in Oman was 53% mostly affecting females (67 vs. 43%; p 2 mg/dL), triglycerides, and body mass index (BMI) were positive predictors of low HDL-C. However, male gender, total cholesterol, and heart failure (Killip class score ≥3) were negative predictors of low HDL-C. Omani ACS patients have a high prevalence of low HDL-C. Renal impairment, triglycerides, and BMI were positive predictors of low HDL-C. The clinical relevance of a low HDL-C abnormality needs to be evaluated in light of the study's limitations (e.g., cross sectional study design as well as the effects of the acute phase reaction and treatment).

  5. Evidence for distinct pathways of hepcidin regulation by acute and chronic iron loading in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Emilio; Kautz, Léon; Rodriguez, Richard; Hansen, Michael; Gabayan, Victoria; Ginzburg, Yelena; Roth, Marie-Paule; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Ganz, Tomas

    2011-04-01

    In response to iron loading, hepcidin synthesis is homeostatically increased to limit further absorption of dietary iron and its release from stores. Mutations in HFE, transferrin receptor 2 (Tfr2), hemojuvelin (HJV), or bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) prevent appropriate hepcidin response to iron, allowing increased absorption of dietary iron, and eventually iron overload. To understand the role each of these proteins plays in hepcidin regulation by iron, we analyzed hepcidin messenger RNA (mRNA) responsiveness to short and long-term iron challenge in iron-depleted Hfe, Tfr2, Hjv, and Bmp6 mutant mice. After 1-day (acute) iron challenge, Hfe(-/-) mice showed a smaller hepcidin increase than their wild-type strain-matched controls, Bmp6(-/-) mice showed nearly no increase, and Tfr2 and Hjv mutant mice showed no increase in hepcidin expression, indicating that all four proteins participate in hepcidin regulation by acute iron changes. After a 21-day (chronic) iron challenge, Hfe and Tfr2 mutant mice increased hepcidin expression to nearly wild-type levels, but a blunted increase of hepcidin was seen in Bmp6(-/-) and Hjv(-/-) mice. BMP6, whose expression is also regulated by iron, may mediate hepcidin regulation by iron stores. None of the mutant strains (except Bmp6(-/-) mice) had impaired BMP6 mRNA response to chronic iron loading. TfR2, HJV, BMP6, and, to a lesser extent, HFE are required for the hepcidin response to acute iron loading, but are partially redundant for hepcidin regulation during chronic iron loading and are not involved in the regulation of BMP6 expression. Our findings support a model in which acute increases in holotransferrin concentrations transmitted through HFE, TfR2, and HJV augment BMP receptor sensitivity to BMPs. A distinct regulatory mechanism that senses hepatic iron may modulate hepcidin response to chronic iron loading. 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  6. Evidence for distinct pathways of hepcidin regulation by acute and chronic iron loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Emilio; Kautz, Léon; Rodriguez, Richard; Hansen, Michael; Gabayan, Victoria; Ginzburg, Yelena; Roth, Marie-Paule; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Ganz, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    In response to iron loading, hepcidin synthesis is homeostatically increased to limit further absorption of dietary iron and its release from stores. Mutations in HFE, transferrin receptor 2 (Tfr2), hemojuvelin (HJV) or bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) prevent appropriate hepcidin response to iron, allowing increased absorption of dietary iron, and eventually iron overload. To understand the role each of these proteins plays in hepcidin regulation by iron, we analyzed hepcidin mRNA responsiveness to short and long-term iron challenge in iron-depleted Hfe, Tfr2, Hjv and Bmp6 mutant mice. After 1-day (acute) iron challenge, Hfe−/− showed a smaller hepcidin increase than their wild-type strain-matched controls, Bmp6−/− nearly no increase, and Tfr2 and Hjv mutants no increase in hepcidin expression, indicating that all four proteins participate in hepcidin regulation by acute iron changes. After a 21-day (chronic) iron challenge, Hfe and Tfr2 mutants increased hepcidin expression to nearly wild-type levels but a blunted increase of hepcidin was seen in Bmp6−/− and Hjv−/− mice. BMP6, whose expression is also regulated by iron, may mediate hepcidin regulation by iron stores. None of the mutant strains (excepting Bmp6−/− mice) had impaired BMP6 mRNA response to chronic iron loading. Conclusion: TfR2, HJV and BMP6 and, to a lesser extent, HFE, are required for the hepcidin response to acute iron loading, but are partially redundant for hepcidin regulation during chronic iron loading, and are not involved in the regulation of BMP6 expression. Our findings support a model in which acute increases in holotransferrin concentrations transmitted through HFE, TfR2 and HJV augment BMP receptor sensitivity to BMPs. A distinct regulatory mechanism that senses hepatic iron may modulate hepcidin response to chronic iron loading. PMID:21480335

  7. THE RATE OF CLINICAL RESPONSE OF ORAL LOADING SODIUM VALPROATE IN ACUTELY MANLC PATIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K SHAFIEE

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acheiving accelerated clinical response is desirable in patients with acute manic episode. We conducted a prospective study to compare the rate of clinical response of oral loading sodium valproate versus standard dose titration. Methods: Fourty - two patients who met DSM - IV critevia for current manic episode and who had a "Young mania rating scale "score between 20 and 50 were randomly assigned on a double blind basis to recieve valproate oral "loading"(N = 21 at a dose of 20 mg/kg in divided doses for 7 days and valproate "non -loading" at a starting dose of 10 mg/kg followed by standard titration which at day 6 , they recieved 20 mg/kg valproate. Patients were scored at day 0, 3, 5 and 7 by a blindraterusing YMRS. Results: There was no significat differences between the groups in advers events and useing of adjunctive tranquilizer .The efficacy of valproate in both two groups was similar but " the rate of improvement on YMRS" over the first 3 days was significantly greater in loading group. Conclusion: Valproate oral loading with sodium valproate can induced a more rapid clinical response in acutely manic patient.

  8. Reduced natriuretic response to acute sodium loading in COMT Gene deleted mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uhlén Staffan

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intrarenal natriuretic hormone dopamine (DA is metabolised by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT and monoamine oxidase (MAO. Inhibition of COMT, as opposed to MAO, results in a potent natriuretic response in the rat. The present study in anaesthetized homozygous and heterozygous COMT gene deleted mice attempted to further elucidate the importance of COMT in renal DA and sodium handling. After acute intravenous isotonic sodium loading, renal function was followed. Results COMT activity in heterozygous mice was about half of that in wild type mice and was zero in the homozygous mice. MAO activity did not differ between the genotypes. Urinary sodium excretion increased 10-fold after sodium loading in wild type mice. In heterozygous and homozygous mice, the natriuretic effects of sodium loading were only 29 % and 39 %, respectively, of that in wild type mice. Arterial pressure and glomerular filtration rate did not differ between genotypes. Baseline norepinephrine and DA excretions in urine were elevated in the homozygous, but not in heterozygous, COMT gene deleted mice. Urinary DA excretion increased after isotonic sodium loading in the wild type mice but not in the COMT gene deleted mice. Conclusions Mice with reduced or absent COMT activity have altered metabolism of catecholamines and are unable to increase renal DA activity and produce normal natriuresis in response to acute sodium loading. The results support the hypothesis that COMT has an important role in the DA-mediated regulation of renal sodium excretion.

  9. Renal response to acute acid loading--an organ physiological approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Engel, K; Kildeberg, P

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In previous studies of the renal response to acute NH4Cl acidosis no correlation was found between systemic acid-base status and the traditionally used quantity, renal net acid excretion (NAE). If NAE is to be considered a physiologically meaningful quantity then this is surprising......, as the extracellular acid-base status would be expected to be the key physiological trigger for renal NAE. The object of this study was to investigate the renal response to acute non-carbonic acid loading using a quantitative organ physiological approach. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five-h NH4Cl loading studies were...... from bone contributed substantially to the current net extrarenal NA input. CONCLUSION: From a physiological point of view, NB can be regarded as the actual substrate for renal acid-base control, and measurement of renal turnover of NB may give a more precise description of renal acid-base metabolism...

  10. Mitochondrial cholesterol import.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elustondo, Pia; Martin, Laura A; Karten, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    All animal subcellular membranes require cholesterol, which influences membrane fluidity and permeability, fission and fusion processes, and membrane protein function. The distribution of cholesterol among subcellular membranes is highly heterogeneous and the cholesterol content of each membrane must be carefully regulated. Compared to other subcellular membranes, mitochondrial membranes are cholesterol-poor, particularly the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM). As a result, steroidogenesis can be controlled through the delivery of cholesterol to the IMM, where it is converted to pregnenolone. The low basal levels of cholesterol also make mitochondria sensitive to changes in cholesterol content, which can have a relatively large impact on the biophysical and functional characteristics of mitochondrial membranes. Increased mitochondrial cholesterol levels have been observed in diverse pathological conditions including cancer, steatohepatitis, Alzheimer disease and Niemann-Pick Type C1-deficiency, and are associated with increased oxidative stress, impaired oxidative phosphorylation, and changes in the susceptibility to apoptosis, among other alterations in mitochondrial function. Mitochondria are not included in the vesicular trafficking network; therefore, cholesterol transport to mitochondria is mostly achieved through the activity of lipid transfer proteins at membrane contact sites or by cytosolic, diffusible lipid transfer proteins. Here we will give an overview of the main mechanisms involved in mitochondrial cholesterol import, focusing on the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein StAR/STARD1 and other members of the StAR-related lipid transfer (START) domain protein family, and we will discuss how changes in mitochondrial cholesterol levels can arise and affect mitochondrial function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Lipids of Mitochondria edited by Guenther Daum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cholesterol (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholesterol is a soft, waxy substance that is present in all parts of the body including the ... and obtained from animal products in the diet. Cholesterol is manufactured in the liver and is needed ...

  12. Virus Type and Genomic Load in Acute Bronchiolitis: Severity and Treatment Response With Inhaled Adrenaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjerven, Håvard O; Megremis, Spyridon; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Mowinckel, Petter; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Lødrup Carlsen, Karin C

    2016-03-15

    Acute bronchiolitis frequently causes infant hospitalization. Studies on different viruses or viral genomic load and disease severity or treatment effect have had conflicting results. We aimed to investigate whether the presence or concentration of individual or multiple viruses were associated with disease severity in acute bronchiolitis and to evaluate whether detected viruses modified the response to inhaled racemic adrenaline. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from 363 infants with acute bronchiolitis in a randomized, controlled trial that compared inhaled racemic adrenaline versus saline. Virus genome was identified and quantified by polymerase chain reaction analyses. Severity was assessed on the basis of the length of stay and the use of supportive care. Respiratory syncytial virus (83%) and human rhinovirus (34%) were most commonly detected. Seven other viruses were present in 8%-15% of the patients. Two or more viruses (maximum, 7) were detected in 61% of the infants. Virus type or coinfection was not associated with disease severity. A high genomic load of respiratory syncytial virus was associated with a longer length of stay and with an increased frequency of oxygen and ventilatory support use. Treatment effect of inhaled adrenaline was not modified by virus type, load or coinfection. In infants hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis, disease severity was not associated with specific viruses or the total number of viruses detected. A high RSV genomic load was associated with more-severe disease. NCT00817466 and EudraCT 2009-012667-34. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Combined training (strength plus aerobic) potentiates a reduction in body fat but only functional training reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in postmenopausal women with a similar training load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Fabrício Eduardo; Fortaleza, Ana Claudia S; Neves, Lucas M; Diniz, Tiego A; de Castro, Marcela R; Buonani, Camila; Mota, Jorge; Freitas, Ismael F

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of combined (CT; strength plus aerobic) and functional training (FT) on the body composition and metabolic profile with a similar training load in postmenopausal women. The participants were divided into three groups: CT (n=20), FT (n=17), and control group (CG, n=15). The trunk FM, fat mass (FM), percentage of FM (FM%), and fat-free mass were estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The metabolic profile, glucose, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) were assessed. There were main effects of time in trunk fat, FM, and FM% ( P training loads are equivalent CT potentiated a reduction in FM and FM%, however, only FT reduced LDL-c in postmenopausal women.

  14. Acute cholesterol depletion leads to net loss of the organic osmolyte taurine in Ehrlich Lettré tumor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Duelund, Lars; Lambert, Ian Henry

    2010-01-01

    In mammalian cells, the organic osmolyte taurine is accumulated by the Na-dependent taurine transporter TauT and released though the volume- and DIDS-sensitive organic anion channel. Incubating Ehrlich Lettré tumor cells with methyl-ß-cyclodextrin (5 mM, 1 h) reduces the total cholesterol pool to...

  15. Cholesterol and lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperlipidemia - cholesterol and lifestyle; CAD - cholesterol and lifestyle; Coronary artery disease - cholesterol and lifestyle; Heart disease - cholesterol and lifestyle; Prevention - cholesterol and lifestyle; ...

  16. Effect of acute acid loading on acid-base and calcium metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, Palle J

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the acid-base and calcium metabolic responses to acute non-carbonic acid loading in idiopathic calcium stone-formers and healthy males using a quantitative organ physiological approach. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five-h ammonium chloride loading studies were performed in 12...... male recurrent idiopathic calcium stone-formers and 12 matched healthy men using a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Arterialized capillary blood, serum and urine were collected hourly for measurement of electrolytes, ionized calcium, magnesium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone and acid-base...... status. Concentrations of non-metabolizable base (NB) and acid (NA) were calculated from measured concentrations of non-metabolizable ions. RESULTS: The extracellular acid-base status in the stone-formers during basal conditions and acid loading was comparable to the levels in the healthy controls...

  17. Clinical Factors and Viral Load Influencing Severity of Acute Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Woong; Chang, Dong-Yeop; Moon, Hong Ju; Chang, Hye Young; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Lee, June Sung; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Hyung Joon

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Clinical manifestations of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection vary from mild to fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) in adults. We investigated the relationship between laboratory findings, including viral load, and clinical outcomes in patients with acute hepatitis A (AHA) and evaluated predictive factors for severe acute hepatitis (s-AH). Methods We analyzed the clinical manifestations of AHA in 770 patients. Patients with a prothrombin time (PT) of less than 40% of normal were classified as s-AH and included 4 patients with FHF, 11 patients with acute renal failure, and 3 patients with prolonged jaundice (n = 128). Other patients were defined as mild acute hepatitis (m-AH) (n = 642). Serum samples were obtained from 48 patients with acute hepatitis A. Among them, 20 with s-AH, and 28 with m-AH, were tested for HAV RNA titer. Results In a multivariate analysis, age (HR = 1.042, P = 0.041), peak creatinine (HR = 4.014, P = 0.001), bilirubin (HR = 1.153, P = 0.003), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (HR = 1.001, Phepatitis A. PMID:26090677

  18. Bimodal response to aspirin loading in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fefer, Paul; Beigel, Roy; Varon, David; Shenkman, Boris; Shechter, Michael; Savion, Naphthali; Hod, Hanoch; Matetzky, Shlomi

    2013-01-01

    Patients with stable coronary disease who exhibit platelet hypo-responsiveness to aspirin (ASA) have worse outcomes. Little data exist regarding platelet response to ASA in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. Our objective was to assess acute platelet response to ASA loading in STEMI patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The study comprised 102 consecutive patients with STEMI. All patients received a loading dose of 300 mg chewable ASA upon admission. Platelet reactivity was assessed immediately prior to primary PCI, at a median of 95(63 139) minutes after ASA loading. A bimodal response to arachidonic acid (AA) stimulation was observed, such that two distinct populations could be discerned: "good responders" had a mean AA-induced platelet aggregation of 36 ± 11% vs. 79 ± 9% for "poor responders." Despite equivalent demographic, clinical, and angiographic characteristics, good responders were significantly more likely to demonstrate early ST-segment resolution ≥70% after primary PCI (80% vs. 48%, p = 0.001), suggestive of better myocardial reperfusion. Early inhibition of AA-induced platelet aggregation post-ASA loading in the setting of STEMI is associated with better tissue reperfusion; however, a sizeable proportion of patients do not achieve significant inhibition of AA-induced platelet aggregation in response to ASA loading at the time of primary PCI.

  19. Acute and Long-term Responses to Different Rest Intervals in Low-load Resistance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Julius Etienne; Schoenfeld, Brad Jon; Kikuchi, Naoki; Nakazato, Koichi

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the effects of low-load resistance training to failure performed with different rest intervals on acute hormonal responses and long-term muscle and strength gains. In the acute study, 14 participants were assigned to either a short rest (S, 30 s) or long rest (L, 150 s) protocol at 40% one-repetition maximum. Blood samples were taken before and after the workout. Both groups showed significant (phormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 immediately post-workout. In the longitudinal study, the same protocol as in the acute study was performed 2 times per week for 8 weeks by 21 volunteers. Both groups showed significant increases in triceps (S: 9.8±8.8%, L: 10.6±9.6%, phormonal responses, as well as chronic changes in muscle hypertrophy and strength in low-load training to failure are independent of the rest interval length. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Lack of association between viral load and severity of acute bronchiolitis in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Duarte de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the correlation between respiratory syncytial viral load and length of hospitalization in infants with acute wheezing episodes. Methods: This was a two-year, cross-sectional study of infants ≤ 12 months of age with bronchiolitis at the time of admission to a tertiary hospital. For the identification of respiratory viruses, nasopharyngeal secretions were collected. Samples were analyzed (throughout the study period by direct immunofluorescence and (in the second year of the study by quantitative real-time PCR. We screened for three human viruses: rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and metapneumovirus. Results: Of 110 samples evaluated by direct immunofluorescence, 56 (50.9% were positive for a single virus, and 16 (14.5% were positive for two or more viruses. Among those 72 samples, the most prevalent virus was respiratory syncytial virus, followed by influenza. Of 56 samples evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR, 24 (42.8% were positive for a single virus, and 1 (1.7% was positive for two viruses. Among those 25 samples, the most prevalent virus was again respiratory syncytial virus, followed by human rhinovirus. Coinfection did not influence the length of the hospital stay or other outcome s. In addition, there was no association between respiratory syncytial virus load and the length of hospitalization. Conclusions: Neither coinfection nor respiratory syncytial viral load appears to influence the outcomes of acute bronchiolitis in infants.

  1. Effects of basic training on acute physiological responses to a combat loaded run test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santtila, Matti; Häkkinen, Keijo; Kraemer, William J; Kyröläinen, Heikki

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of an 8-week basic training (BT) with added strength training (ST) or endurance training (ET) on both the performance of a 3K-combat loaded run test and the acute neuromuscular and hormonal responses. All training groups improved (p < 0.001) their run-test times: ST by 12.4%, ET by 11.6%, and normal training (NT) by 10.2%. Significant acute decreases were observed in maximal isometric force of leg extensors (p < 0.01-0.05) in all subject groups following the run. Increases were observed in acute testosterone responses (p < 0.001) after the test in all groups both at pre- and post-training. However, ET and NT demonstrated lower (p < 0.001-0.05) acute post-training serum cortisol responses than ST. In conclusion, the present results indicate that within a demanding BT, the added training for ET and especially ST may be compromised in their adaptation potential due to interference from the demands of BT.

  2. Traditional risk factors of acute coronary syndrome in four different male populations - total cholesterol value does not seem to be relevant risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubacek, J A; Stanek, V; Gebauerova, M; Adamkova, V; Lesauskaite, V; Zaliaduonyte-Peksiene, D; Tamosiunas, A; Supiyev, A; Kossumov, A; Zhumadilova, A; Pitha, J

    2017-04-05

    Cardiovascular diseases are the most common cause of mortality and morbidity in most populations. As the traditional modifiable risk factors (smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and obesity) were defined decades ago, we decided to analyze recent data in patients who survived acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The Czech part of the study included data from 999 males, and compared them with the post-MONICA study (1,259 males, representing general population). The Lithuanian study included 479 male patients and 456 age-matched controls. The Kazakhstan part included 232 patients and 413 controls. In two countries, the most robust ACS risk factor was smoking (OR 3.85 in the Czech study and 5.76 in the Lithuanian study), followed by diabetes (OR 2.26 and 2.07) and hypertension (moderate risk elevation with OR 1.43 and 1.49). These factors did not influence the ACS risk in Kazakhstan. BMI had no significant effect on ACS and plasma cholesterol was surprisingly significantly lower (Prisk factors in different populations with the exception of plasma total cholesterol which was inversely associated with ACS risk in all involved groups. These data reflect ethnical and geographical differences as well as changing pattern of cardiovascular risk profiles.

  3. Evaluation of phenytoin serum levels following a loading dose in the acute hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selioutski, Olga; Grzesik, Katherine; Vasilyeva, Olga N; Hilmarsson, Ágúst; Fessler, A James; Liu, Lynn; Gross, Robert A

    2017-11-01

    Due to the complex pharmacokinetic profiles of phenytoin (PHT) and fosphenytoin (FOS), achieving sustained, targeted serum PHT levels in the first day of use is challenging. A population based approach was used to analyze total serum PHT (tPHT) level within 2-24h of PHT/FOS loading with or without supplementary maintenance or additional loading doses among PHT-naïve patients in the acute hospital setting. Adequate tPHT serum level was defined as ≥20μg/mL. Among 494 patients with 545 tPHT serum levels obtained in the first 2-24h after the loading dose (LD), tPHT serum levels of either loading dose, 63% and 51% respectively did not attain tPHT serum level of ≥20μg/mL even within the first 6h of treatment. For the 393 available concomitant free and total serum PHT levels, correlation was weak, r=0.36. Close laboratory surveillance and PHT/FOS dose adjustments are recommended to ensure adequate and sustained tPHT serum levels early in treatment. Free serum PHT level is the preferred method of drug monitoring. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. What's Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the foods you eat. Meat, fish, eggs, butter, cheese, and whole or low-fat milk all have cholesterol in them. You Need a Little, Not a ... are some foods that have a lot of cholesterol? Meat, eggs, butter, cheese, and milk (and stuff that's made with some ...

  5. High blood cholesterol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholesterol - high; Lipid disorders; Hyperlipoproteinemia; Hyperlipidemia; Dyslipidemia; Hypercholesterolemia ... There are many types of cholesterol. The ones talked about most are: ... lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol -- often called "good" cholesterol ...

  6. Acute glycaemic load breakfast manipulations do not attenuate cognitive impairments in adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamport, Daniel Joseph; Dye, Louise; Mansfield, Michael W; Lawton, Clare L

    2013-04-01

    Research on young healthy samples suggests that low glycaemic load foods can confer benefits for cognitive performance. The aim was to examine the effects of type 2 diabetes on cognitive function, and to investigate whether consumption of low glycaemic load breakfasts affects cognitive function in adults with type 2 diabetes. Memory, psychomotor skill and executive function were examined at two morning test sessions in 24 adults with type 2 diabetes and 10 adults with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) aged 45-77 years without dementia after water, low, and high glycaemic load breakfasts were consumed in accordance with a crossover, counterbalanced design. The type 2 diabetes and NGT groups were matched for education, depression, and IQ. Type 2 diabetes was associated with impairments in verbal memory, spatial memory, psychomotor skill, and executive function compared to adults with NGT. Consumption of the three breakfast conditions did not impact on cognitive performance in the type 2 diabetes or NGT participants. Abnormalities in glucose tolerance such as type 2 diabetes can have demonstrable negative effects on a range of cognitive functions. However, there was no evidence that low GL breakfasts administered acutely could confer benefits for cognitive function (ClincalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01047813). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  7. The acute effects of manipulating volume and load of back squats on countermovement vertical jump performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moir, Gavin L; Mergy, David; Witmer, Ca; Davis, Shala E

    2011-06-01

    The acute effects of manipulating the volume and load of back squats on subsequent countermovement vertical jump performance were investigated in the present study. Eleven National Collegiate Athletic Association division II female volleyball players performed 10 countermovement vertical jumps (CMJs) on a force platform 2 minutes after the last squat repetition of a high-load (HL) or high-volume (HV) squat protocol. Two minutes of rest was provided between each CMJ. The HL protocol culminated in the subjects having to perform 3 repetitions with a load equivalent to 90% 1 repetition maximum (1RM) back squat, whereas 12 repetitions with a load equivalent to 37% 1RM were performed in the HV protocol. During an initial familiarization session, knee angles were recorded during a series of CMJs, and these angles were used to control the depth of descent during all subsequent back squats. Jump height (JH) and vertical stiffness (VStiff) were calculated during each of the 10 CMJ, and the change in these variables after the 2 squat protocols was assessed using an analysis of variance model with repeated measures on 2 factors (Protocol [2-levels]; Time [2-levels]). There was no significant difference in JH after the HL and HV protocols (p > 0.05). A significant Protocol × Time interaction for VStiff resulted from the increase after the HL protocol being greater than that after the HV protocol (p = 0.03). The knee angles before the HL and HV protocols were significantly greater than those measured during the initial familiarization session (p = 0.001). Although neither squat protocol provided any benefit in improving JH, the heavy squat protocol produced greater increases in VStiff during the CMJ. Because of the increased VStiff caused by the HL protocol, volleyball coaches may consider using such protocols with their players to improve performance in jumps performed from a run such as the spike and on-court agility.

  8. Effect of Acute Power Load on the Parameters of Hormonal Response in Untrained Young Men During Weight Training Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Chernozub

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article displays the results of experimental studies on the characteristics of the changes in steroid hormones cortisol and testosterone levels in the blood of untrained young men in response to the acute power load of various kinds. It is found that the power load of high intensity at a small volume of work increase the level of hormones in the blood. However, the use of power loads of average intensity during training and with heavy workload causes opposite hormonal response that shown in reducing hormones in blood in comparison with the state of rest. In turn, it was found that, irrespective of the nature of the hormonal response to acute power load, fixed for three months of training athleticism, morphometric parameters and power capabilities of the body of participants in both groups showed positive growth dynamics.

  9. Acute Cocoa Supplementation Increases Postprandial HDL Cholesterol and Insulin in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes after Consumption of a High-Fat Breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M; Leyva, Misti J; Fu, Dongxu; Aston, Christopher E; Lyons, Timothy J

    2015-10-01

    Dietary cocoa is an important source of flavonoids and is associated with favorable cardiovascular disease effects, such as improvements in vascular function and lipid profiles, in nondiabetic adults. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with adverse effects on postprandial serum glucose, lipids, inflammation, and vascular function. We examined the hypothesis that cocoa reduces metabolic stress in obese T2D adults after a high-fat fast-food-style meal. Adults with T2D [n = 18; age (mean ± SE): 56 ± 3 y; BMI (in kg/m(2)): 35.3 ± 2.0; 14 women; 4 men] were randomly assigned to receive cocoa beverage (960 mg total polyphenols; 480 mg flavanols) or flavanol-free placebo (110 mg total polyphenols; breakfast [766 kcal, 50 g fat (59% energy)] in a crossover trial. After an overnight fast (10-12 h), participants consumed the breakfast with cocoa or placebo, and blood sample collection [glucose, insulin, lipids, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)] and vascular measurements were conducted at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h postprandially on each study day. Insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment. Over the 6-h study, and specifically at 1 and 4 h, cocoa increased HDL cholesterol vs. placebo (overall Δ: 1.5 ± 0.8 mg/dL; P ≤ 0.01) but had no effect on total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and hsCRP. Cocoa increased serum insulin concentrations overall (Δ: 5.2 ± 3.2 mU/L; P < 0.05) and specifically at 4 h but had no overall effects on insulin resistance (except at 4 h, P < 0.05), systolic or diastolic blood pressure, or small artery elasticity. However, large artery elasticity was overall lower after cocoa vs. placebo (Δ: -1.6 ± 0.7 mL/mm Hg; P < 0.05), with the difference significant only at 2 h. Acute cocoa supplementation showed no clear overall benefit in T2D patients after a high-fat fast-food-style meal challenge. Although HDL cholesterol and insulin remained higher throughout the 6-h postprandial period, an overall

  10. Superior short-term cholesterol control and achievement of the adult treatment panel III low-density lipoprotein goals with initiation of statin therapy by the time of hospital discharge following acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Kevin A; Powell, Brian D; Williams, Brent A; Murphy, Joseph G; Kopecky, Stephen L; Wright, R Scott

    2004-03-15

    In a community-based population, we compared serum cholesterol concentrations following hospital discharge after acute myocardial infarction based on statin therapy at the time of hospital discharge. At the time of follow-up cholesterol measurement, patients discharged from the hospital on a statin had lower mean low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (106.4 vs 116.7 mg/dl, p Adult Treatment Panel III LDL goal of <100 mg/dl at the time of follow-up compared with patients who were discharged without a statin (49% vs 33%; adjusted odds ratio 2.56; p <0.01).

  11. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis and acute phase response link pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes to risk of cardiovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, Sarah S., E-mail: spo@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Saber, Anne T., E-mail: ats@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Mortensen, Alicja, E-mail: almo@food.dtu.dk [National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Søborg (Denmark); Szarek, Józef, E-mail: szarek@uwm.edu.pl [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 10-719 Olsztyn (Poland); Wu, Dongmei, E-mail: dongmei.wu@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Williams, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.williams@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Andersen, Ole, E-mail: oa@ruc.dk [Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Jacobsen, Nicklas R., E-mail: nrj@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Yauk, Carole L., E-mail: carole.yauk@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Wallin, Håkan, E-mail: hwa@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, DK-1014 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Halappanavar, Sabina, E-mail: sabina.halappanavar@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Vogel, Ulla, E-mail: ubv@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-03-15

    Adverse lung effects following pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are well documented in rodents. However, systemic effects are less understood. Epidemiological studies have shown increased cardiovascular disease risk after pulmonary exposure to airborne particles, which has led to concerns that inhalation exposure to MWCNTs might pose similar risks. We analyzed parameters related to cardiovascular disease, including plasma acute phase response (APR) proteins and plasma lipids, in female C57BL/6 mice exposed to a single intratracheal instillation of 0, 18, 54 or 162 μg/mouse of small, entangled (CNT{sub Small}, 0.8 ± 0.1 μm long) or large, thick MWCNTs (CNT{sub Large}, 4 ± 0.4 μm long). Liver tissues and plasma were harvested 1, 3 and 28 days post-exposure. In addition, global hepatic gene expression, hepatic cholesterol content and liver histology were used to assess hepatic effects. The two MWCNTs induced similar systemic responses despite their different physicochemical properties. APR proteins SAA3 and haptoglobin, plasma total cholesterol and low-density/very low-density lipoprotein were significantly increased following exposure to either MWCNTs. Plasma SAA3 levels correlated strongly with pulmonary Saa3 levels. Analysis of global gene expression revealed perturbation of the same biological processes and pathways in liver, including the HMG-CoA reductase pathway. Both MWCNTs induced similar histological hepatic changes, with a tendency towards greater response following CNT{sub Large} exposure. Overall, we show that pulmonary exposure to two different MWCNTs induces similar systemic and hepatic responses, including changes in plasma APR, lipid composition, hepatic gene expression and liver morphology. The results link pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs with risk of cardiovascular disease. - Highlights: • Systemic and hepatic alterations were evaluated in female mice following MWCNT instillation. • Despite being physicochemically

  12. Effects of load on the acute response of muscles proximal and distal to blood flow restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessee, Matthew B; Mouser, J Grant; Buckner, Samuel L; Dankel, Scott J; Mattocks, Kevin T; Abe, Takashi; Loenneke, Jeremy P

    2018-01-18

    To determine the effects of load and blood flow restriction (BFR) on muscular responses, we asked 12 participants to perform chest presses under four different conditions [30/0, 30/40, 50/0, and 50/40, presented as percentage one-repetition maximum (1RM)/percentage arterial occlusion pressure (AOP)]. Muscle thickness increased pre- to post-exercise [chest: mean 0.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21, 0.37 cm; triceps: mean 0.44, 95% CI 0.34, 0.54 cm], remaining elevated for 15 min post-exercise. Electromyography amplitude was greater with 50% 1RM and increased over time for the first three repetitions of each set of chest presses. The last three repetitions differed across time only. AOP increased from pre- to post-exercise, augmented by BFR [30/0: mean 31, 95% CI 18, 44 mmHg; 30/40: mean 39, 95% CI 28, 50 mmHg; 50/0: mean 32, 95% CI 23, 41 mmHg; 50/40: mean 46, 95% CI 32, 59 mmHg). Tranquility decreased and physical exhaustion increased from the pre- to post-condition, with both parameters returning to the baseline 15 min post-exercise level. In conclusion, load and BFR do not elicit meaningful differences in the acute response of chest press exercise taken to failure.

  13. Role of HGF-loaded nanoparticles in treating rat acute hepatic failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ren-An; Chen, Zhong; Li, Zhi-Feng

    2013-10-01

    To explore the role of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-loaded polylactic acid-O-carboxymethylated chitosan (PLA-O-CMC) nanoparticles in hepatocyte transplantation (HCT) for treating rat acute liver failure (ALF). Five milliliters of hepatocytes respectively treated with conventional culture (group I), PLA-O-CMC nanoparticles (group II) and HGF-loaded PLA-O-CMC nanoparticles (group III) were transplanted into the abdominal cavities of rat with ALF. In group IV, rats were treated as group II except intravenous 10 pg of HGF daily for 7 days, and in group V, rats were given intraperitoneal RPMI-1640. The survival rate on the 14th day after HCT was higher in groups III IV, and II than in group V (pimproved 24 h after HCT (precovery of hepatic function was the best in group III. In group III, mitotic index was 10.20% on the 5th day after HCT (pnanoparticles can steadily release HGF, and exhibits better tendencies in liver regeneration, survival rate and hepatic function compared with intravenous HGF.

  14. Lipoprotein(a) Interactions With Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Premature Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Mehdi; Pilote, Louise; Dufresne, Line; Engert, James C; Thanassoulis, George

    2016-04-23

    Current recommendations for lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) focus on the control of other risk factors, including lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), with little evidence to support this approach. Identifying interactions between Lp(a) and other risk factors could identify individuals at increased risk for Lp(a)-mediated disease. We used a case-only study design and included 939 participants (median age=49 years, interquartile range 46-53, women=33.1%) from the GENdEr and Sex determInantS of cardiovascular disease: from bench to beyond-Premature Acute Coronary Syndrome (GENESIS-PRAXY) study, a multicenter prospective cohort study of premature acute coronary syndrome. There was a higher prevalence of elevated Lp(a) levels (>50 mg/dL; 80th percentile) in PRAXY participants as compared to the general population (31% versus 20%; P2.5 mmol/L, indicating a synergistic interaction (adjusted odds ratio 1.51; 95% CI 1.08-2.09; P=0.015). The interaction with high Lp(a) was stronger at increasing LDL-C levels (LDL-C >3.5, adjusted odds ratio 1.87; LDL-C >4.5, adjusted odds ratio 2.72). In a polytomous logistic model comparing mutually exclusive LDL-C categories, the interaction with high Lp(a) became attenuated at LDL-C ≤3.5 mmol/L (odds ratio 1.16; 95% CI 0.80-1.68, P=0.447). Other risk factors were not associated with high Lp(a). In young acute coronary syndrome patients, high Lp(a) is more prevalent than in the general population and is strongly associated with high LDL-C, suggesting that Lp(a) confers greater risk for acute coronary syndrome when LDL-C is elevated. Individuals with high Lp(a) and LDL-C >3.5 mmol/L may warrant aggressive LDL-C lowering. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  15. Acute Effects of Elastic Bands on Kinetic Characteristics During the Deadlift at Moderate and Heavy Loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galpin, Andrew J; Malyszek, Kylie K; Davis, Kyle A; Record, Shaina M; Brown, Lee E; Coburn, Jared W; Harmon, RoQue A; Steele, Jeff M; Manolovitz, Adam D

    2015-12-01

    Loading a barbell with variable resistance positively alters kinetic characteristics during the back squat and bench press but has never been studied during the deadlift. The purpose of this project was to examine the acute effects of combining elastic bands and free weights during the deadlift at moderate and heavy loads. Twelve trained men (age: 24.08 ± 2.35 years, height: 175.94 ± 5.38 cm, mass: 85.58 ± 12.49 kg, deadlift 1 repetition maximum (RM): 188.64 ± 16.13 kg) completed 2 variable resistance (B1 and B2) and 1 traditional free-weight (NB) condition at both 60 and 85% 1RM on a force plate. B1 had 15% resistance from bands, with the remaining 85% from free weights. B2 had 35% bands and 65% free weights. NB used free weights only. Average resistance was equated for all conditions. Power and velocity generally increased, whereas force decreased with the addition of bands. The amount of band tension (B1 or B2) had little impact on power when lifting at 60% 1RM. However, greater resistance from bands resulted in greater peak and relative power when lifting at 85% 1RM. Adding elastic bands decreased time to peak force (PF), time between PF and peak power (PP), and time between PF and peak velocity (PV) when compared with NB at 60% 1RM (NB > B1 > B2). These differences only reached significance for NB > B2 when lifting at 85% 1RM. These same differences existed for time between PP and PV. Thus, the amount of tension from bands has less impact on interpeak variables at heavier absolute loads. Practitioners should consider using heavy bands when prescribing the deadlift for speed or power, but not maximal force.

  16. Affective Responses to Acute Resistance Exercise Performed at Self-Selected and Imposed Loads in Trained Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focht, Brian C; Garver, Matthew J; Cotter, Joshua A; Devor, Steven T; Lucas, Alexander R; Fairman, Ciaran M

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the affective responses to acute resistance exercise (RE) performed at self-selected (SS) and imposed loads in recreationally trained women. Secondary purposes were to (a) examine differences in correlates of motivation for future participation in RE and (b) determine whether affective responses to RE were related to these select motivational correlates of RE participation. Twenty recreationally trained young women (mean age = 23 years) completed 3 RE sessions involving 3 sets of 10 repetitions using loads of 40% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM), 70% 1RM, and an SS load. Affective responses were assessed before, during, and after each RE session using the Feeling Scale. Self-efficacy and intention for using the imposed and SS loads for their regular RE participation during the next month were also assessed postexercise. Results revealed that although the SS and imposed load RE sessions yielded different trajectories of change in affect during exercise (p self-efficacy and intention for future RE participation (p self-efficacy or intention. It is concluded that acute bouts of SS and imposed load RE resulted in comparable improvements in affect; recreationally trained women reported the highest self-efficacy and intention to use the load chosen in SS condition in their own resistance training; and affective responses were unrelated to motivational correlates of resistance training.

  17. Contemporary data on treatment practices for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in 3867 patients who had suffered an acute coronary syndrome across the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitt, Anselm K; Lautsch, Dominik; Ferrières, Jean; De Ferrari, Gaetano M; Vyas, Ami; Baxter, Carl A; Bash, Lori D; Ashton, Veronica; Horack, Martin; Almahmeed, Wael; Chiang, Fu-Tien; Poh, Kian Keong; Brudi, Philippe; Ambegaonkar, Baishali

    2018-02-01

    DYSIS II ACS was a longitudinal, observational study in 3867 patients from 18 countries. They were being hospitalized after suffering an acute coronary syndrome. Evaluations were performed at the time of admission and again 120±15 days following the date of admission (the follow-up time point). 2521 patients were on active lipid lowering treatment (LLT) at admission. Mean atorvastatin dose was 22 mg per day and 2.7% received ezetimibe in combination with a statin. At discharge from hospital, 3767 patients received LLT expressed as a mean atorvastatin dose of 36 mg per day with 4.8% receiving ezetimibe on top of a statin. After 120 days, intensity in lipid lowering treatment was reduced to 32 mg per day with 4.9% of the patients receiving ezetimibe and a statin. Of note, during this 4-month follow up period, only 32% of all patients received laboratory lipid testing. 37% attained the low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) target value of <70 mg/dl after 120 days. There are differences in the therapy administered as well as in the switch strategies when comparing the data from the respective countries studied. Only one in three patients achieved the LDL-C target value following only marginal improvements in atorvastatin dose or combination therapy after an ACS event.

  18. [Relationship between viral load of human bocavirus and clinical characteristics in children with acute lower respiratory tract infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Bing; Zhong, Li-Li; Xie, Le-Yun; Xiao, Ni-Guang

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence of human bocavirus (HBoV) in children with acute lower respiratory tract infection and to explore the relationship between the viral load of HBoV and the clinical characteristics of acute lower respiratory tract infection in children. A total of 1 554 nasopharyngeal aspirates from children who were hospitalized due to acute lower respiratory tract infection between March 2011 and March 2014 were collected. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect 12 RNA and 2 DNA viruses, adenovirus (ADV) and HBoV, and to measure the viral load of HBoV in HBoV-positive children. A comprehensive analysis was performed with reference to clinical symptoms and indicators. In the 1 554 specimens, 1 212 (77.99%) were positive for viruses, and 275 (17.70%) were HBoV-positive. In HBoV-positive cases, 94.9% were aged infection, and 230 (83.64%) had mixed infection. There was no significant difference in viral load between children with single infection and mixed infection (P>0.05). The patients with fever had a significantly higher viral load than those without fever (Pacute lower respiratory tract infection (P>0.05). HBoV is one of the important pathogens of acute lower respiratory tract infection in children. Children with a higher viral load of HBoV are more likely to experience symptoms such as fever and wheezing. However, the severity of disease and mixed infection are not significantly related to viral load.

  19. Ultrasound-Mediated Kallidinogenase-Loaded Microbubble Targeted Therapy for Acute Cerebral Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yanling; Chen, Jia; Zheng, Xuan; Chen, Zhiyi; Liu, Yuming; Li, Siying; Fang, Xiaobo

    2017-11-15

    The neuroprotective effects of kallidinogenase against acute cerebral infarction have been demonstrated, and the use of microbubbles has been suggested as a therapeutic mechanism for drug delivery. This study was designed to investigate the optimal parameters for preparing kallidinogenase-loaded microbubbles (KLMs) and to evaluate the effects of KLM-targeted therapy on neurogenesis and angiogenesis following experimental acute cerebral infarction in rats. KLMs were prepared by mechanical shaking. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into an ultrasound-mediated KLM-treated group and 4 control groups. Treatments were administered via daily tail vein injection on 6 consecutive days, starting at 24 hours after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The ultrasound-treated groups were subjected to a 2-MHz pulse of ultrasonic irradiation on the lateral skull of the ischemic side for 10 minutes during injection. Cell proliferation was examined using a 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine assay. Infarct volume and neurological function were evaluated on days 3 and 7 after MCAO. The ultrasound-mediated KLM and kallidinogenase treatments significantly increased the numbers of doublecortin-immunoreactive cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and laminin(+) cells in the peri-infarction region on day 7 after MCAO, compared with the other 3 groups (all P KLM-treated group were significantly better than those of rats treated with kallidinogenase alone or with the other treatments (all P <.05). Treatment with the ultrasound-mediated KLMs promoted the proliferation of SVZ neuroblasts and vascular regeneration, which contributed to functional improvement after stroke. These findings provide a novel therapy for ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The effectiveness of session rating of perceived exertion to monitor resistance training load in acute burns patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisbrook, Tiffany L; Gittings, Paul M; Wood, Fiona M; Edgar, Dale W

    2017-02-01

    Session-rating of perceived exertion (RPE) is a method frequently utilised in exercise and sports science to quantify training load of an entire aerobic exercise session. It has also been demonstrated that session-RPE is a valid and reliable method to quantify training load during resistance exercise, in healthy and athletic populations. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of session-RPE as a method to quantify exercise intensity during resistance training in patients with acute burns. Twenty burns patients (mean age=31.65 (±10.09) years), with a mean TBSA of 16.4% (range=6-40%) were recruited for this study. Patients were randomly allocated to the resistance training (n=10) or control group (n=10). All patients completed a four week resistance training programme. Training load (session-RPE×session duration), resistance training session-volume and pre-exercise pain were recorded for each exercise session. The influence of; age, gender, %TBSA, exercise group (resistance training vs. control), pre-exercise pain, resistance training history and session-volume on training load were analysed using a multilevel mixed-effects linear regression. Session-volume did not influence training load in the final regression model, however training load was significantly greater in the resistance training group, compared with the control group (ptraining load, where increasing pain was associated with a higher session-RPE (p=0.004). Further research is indicated to determine the exact relationship between pain, resistance training history, exercise intensity and session-RPE and training load before it can be used as a method to monitor and prescribe resistance training load in acute burns patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  1. REDUCTION DEGREE OF LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS CHOLESTEROL LEVELS ACCORDING TO DIFFERENT DOSES OF STATINS; ITS EFFECT ON THE RISK OF ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE ACUTE EPISODES DEPENDING ON TREATMENT DURATION; AND RISK OF ISCHEMIC AND THROMBOEMBOLIC STROKE. COMMENT ON THE PAPER OF LAW M.R., WALD N.J., RUDNICKA A.R. QUANTIFYING EFFECT OF STATINS ON LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, ISCHAEMIC HEART DISEASE, AND STROKE: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS. BMJ 2003; 326:1423-1427

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Perova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative dose-dependent ability of different statins to lower serum low-density lipoproteins (LDL cholesterol was determined in three large meta-analysis. Besides, it was found that standardized decrease in LDL cholesterol levels on 1.0 or 1.8 mmol/l leads to rate reduction in ischemic heart disease acute episodes as well as stroke depending on treatment duration. Effect of LDL cholesterol reduction on stroke occurrence was more significant in studies, which included a major share of patients with vascular disease, because these patients have a higher risk of thromboembolic stroke (rather than haemorrhagic stroke in comparison with the general population.

  2. Acute toxicity study of tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil-solid lipid nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Shuyu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our previous studies demonstrated that tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil solid lipid nanoparticles (Til-HCO-SLN are a promising formulation for enhanced pharmacological activity and therapeutic efficacy in veterinary use. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the acute toxicity of Til-HCO-SLN. Methods Two nanoparticle doses were used for the study in ICR mice. The low dose (766 mg/kg.bw with tilmicosin 7.5 times of the clinic dosage and below the median lethal dose (LD50 was subcutaneously administered twice on the first and 7th day. The single high dose (5 g/kg.bw was the practical upper limit in an acute toxicity study and was administered subcutaneously on the first day. Blank HCO-SLN, native tilmicosin, and saline solution were included as controls. After medication, animals were monitored over 14 days, and then necropsied. Signs of toxicity were evaluated via mortality, symptoms of treatment effect, gross and microscopic pathology, and hematologic and biochemical parameters. Results After administration of native tilmicosin, all mice died within 2 h in the high dose group, in the low dose group 3 died after the first and 2 died after the second injections. The surviving mice in the tilmicosin low dose group showed hypoactivity, accelerated breath, gloomy spirit and lethargy. In contrast, all mice in Til-HCO-SLN and blank HCO-SLN groups survived at both low and high doses. The high nanoparticle dose induced transient clinical symptoms of treatment effect such as transient reversible action retardation, anorexy and gloomy spirit, increased spleen and liver coefficients and decreased heart coefficients, microscopic pathological changes of liver, spleen and heart, and minor changes in hematologic and biochemical parameters, but no adverse effects were observed in the nanoparticle low dose group. Conclusions The results revealed that the LD50 of Til-HCO-SLN and blank HCO-SLN exceeded 5 g/kg.bw and thus the

  3. Association between feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) plasma viral RNA load, concentration of acute phase proteins and disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Rebecca K C; Seddon, Jennifer M; Kyaw-Tanner, Myat T; Henning, Joerg; Meers, Joanne

    2014-08-01

    Veterinarians have few tools to predict the rate of disease progression in FIV-infected cats. In contrast, in HIV infection, plasma viral RNA load and acute phase protein concentrations are commonly used as predictors of disease progression. This study evaluated these predictors in cats naturally infected with FIV. In older cats (>5 years), log10 FIV RNA load was higher in the terminal stages of disease compared to the asymptomatic stage. There was a significant association between log10 FIV RNA load and both log10 serum amyloid A concentration and age in unwell FIV-infected cats. This study suggests that viral RNA load and serum amyloid A warrant further investigation as predictors of disease status and prognosis in FIV-infected cats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cholesterol IQ Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cholesterol IQ Quiz Updated:Jul 5,2017 Begin the quiz Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol Introduction Atherosclerosis What Your Cholesterol ...

  5. High Blood Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To Health Topics / High Blood Cholesterol High Blood Cholesterol Also known as Hypercholesterolemia High blood cholesterol is ... Lipid panel tests to check for healthy blood cholesterol levels Doctors use lipid panels to check whether ...

  6. Cholesterol and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Needs a Kidney Transplant Vision Facts and Myths Cholesterol KidsHealth > For Parents > Cholesterol Print A A A ... español El colesterol y su hijo What Is Cholesterol? Cholesterol is a waxy substance made by the ...

  7. Impact of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cholesterol guidelines on the prescription of high-intensity statins in patients hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome or stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Michael; Al Danaf, Jad; Panakos, Andrew; Ragupathi, Loheetha; Duffy, Danielle; Whellan, David

    2016-11-01

    The 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cholesterol management guidelines represented a paradigm shift from the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines, replacing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol targets with a risk assessment model to guide statin therapy. Our objectives are to compare provider prescription of high-intensity statin therapy in patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) before and after the publication of the 2013 cholesterol guidelines, determine potential predictors of high-intensity statin utilization, and identify targets for improvement in cardiovascular risk reduction among these high-risk populations. A single-center retrospective cohort study of 695 patients discharged with a diagnosis of ACS or CVA in the 6months before (n=359) and after (n=336) the release of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cholesterol guidelines. Patient characteristics were compared using analysis of variance and χ2 tests. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess clinical predictors of provider utilization of high-intensity statins. After the 2013 cholesterol guidelines, the rate of prescribing high-intensity statins was greater for statin-naïve patients compared with those already on statin therapy (odds ratio [OR]0.51, P=.02). Prescription of high-intensity statins was higher for patients with ACS compared with CVA (OR 8.4, Pguidelines; OR 4.5, Pguidelines). Prescription of high-intensity statins steadily improved over the study period, significantly among patients with CVA (P<.001). Physicians were more likely to prescribe high-intensity statins in statin-naïve patients as compared with intensifying existing statin therapy, and their prescription pattern was lower after CVA vs ACS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The acute angiogenic signalling response to low-load resistance exercise with blood flow restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Richard A; Hunt, Julie E A; Lewis, Mark P; Martin, Neil R W; Player, Darren J; Stangier, Carolin; Taylor, Conor W; Turner, Mark C

    2018-01-17

    This study investigated protein kinase activation and gene expression of angiogenic factors in response to low-load resistance exercise with or without blood flow restriction (BFR). In a repeated measures cross-over design, six males performed four sets of bilateral knee extension exercise at 20% 1RM (reps per set = 30:15:15:continued to fatigue) with BFR (110 mmHg) and without (CON). Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis before, 2 and 4 h post-exercise. mRNA expression was determined using real-time RT-PCR. Protein phosphorylation/expression was determined using Western blot. p38MAPK phosphorylation was greater (p = 0.05) at 2 h following BFR (1.3 ± 0.8) compared to CON (0.4 ± 0.3). AMPK phosphorylation remained unchanged. PGC-1α mRNA expression increased at 2 h (5.9 ± 1.3 vs. 2.1 ± 0.8; p = 0.03) and 4 h (3.2 ± 0.8 vs. 1.5 ± 0.4; p = 0.03) following BFR exercise with no change in CON. PGC-1α protein expression did not change following either exercise. BFR exercise enhanced mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) at 2 h (5.2 ± 2.8 vs 1.7 ± 1.1; p = .02) and 4 h (6.8 ± 4.9 vs. 2.5 ± 2.7; p = .01) compared to CON. mRNA expression of VEGF-R2 and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α increased following BFR exercise but only eNOS were enhanced relative to CON. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 mRNA expression was not altered in response to either exercise. Acute low-load resistance exercise with BFR provides a targeted angiogenic response potentially mediated through enhanced ischaemic and shear stress stimuli.

  9. Ratings of Perceived Exertion During Acute Resistance Exercise Performed at Imposed and Self-Selected Loads in Recreationally Trained Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Joshua A; Garver, Matthew J; Dinyer, Taylor K; Fairman, Ciaran M; Focht, Brian C

    2017-08-01

    Cotter, JA, Garver, MJ, Dinyer, TK, Fairman, CM, and Focht, BC. Ratings of perceived exertion during acute resistance exercise performed at imposed and self-selected loads in recreationally trained women. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2313-2318, 2017-Resistance exercise (RE) is commonly used to elicit skeletal muscle adaptation. Relative intensity of a training load links closely with the outcomes of regular RE. This study examined the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) responses to acute bouts of RE using imposed (40% and 70% of 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and self-selected (SS) loads in recreationally trained women. Twenty physically active women (23.15 ± 2.92 years), who reported regular RE training of at least 3 weekly sessions for the past year, volunteered to participate. During the initial visit, participants completed 1RM testing on 4 exercises in the following order: leg extension, chest press, leg curl, and lat pull-down. On subsequent visits, the same exercises were completed at the SS or imposed loads. The RPE was assessed after the completion of each set of exercises during the 3 RE conditions using the Borg-15 category scale. Self-selected loads corresponded to an average of approximately 57%1RM (±7.62). Overall, RPE increased with load (40%1RM = 11.26 [±1.95]; SS 57%1RM = 13.94 [±1.58]; and, 70%1RM = 15.52 [±2.05]). Reflecting the linear pattern found between load and perceived effort, the present data provide evidence that RPE levels less than 15 likely equate to loads which are not consistent with contemporary American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines for enhancing musculoskeletal health which includes strength and hypertrophy. Women desiring increases in strength and lean mass likely need to train at an exertion level at or surpassing a rating of 15 on the Borg-15 category. This article examined the modification of training load on perceived exertion, but other variables, such as the number of repetitions completed, may also be

  10. When to increase or reduce sodium loading in the management of fluid volume status during acute decompensated heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirotani, Shinichi; Masuyama, Tohru

    2014-12-01

    Sodium restriction has been believed to be indispensible to manage fluid overload during acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). However, recently, it was reported that a change in aggression of sodium and water restriction did not affect the outcome of ADHF. In contrast, current data suggest that small amount of hypertonic saline solution with high-dose furosemide produces an improvement in haemodynamic and clinical parameters without any severe adverse effects. In this perspective, first, we are going to describe the effects of sodium loading on neurohormonal activation, body's sodium balance, and renal function in chronic heart failure and the efficacy of loop diuretics in ADHF. Then, we are going to explain the possible mechanisms by which sodium loading enhances the efficacy of loop diuretics and about the clinical conditions during which sodium loading should be avoided. © 2014 The Authors. ESC Heart Failure published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  11. Acute hormonal and force responses to combined strength and endurance loadings in men and women: the "order effect".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritva S Taipale

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To examine acute responses and recovery of serum hormones and muscle force following combined strength (S and endurance (E loading sessions in which the order of exercises is reversed (ES vs. SE. METHODS: This cross-over study design included recreationally endurance trained men and women (age 21-45 years, n = 12 men n = 10 women who performed both loadings. Maximal bilateral isometric strength (MVC, isometric rate of force development (RFD and serum concentrations of testosterone (T, cortisol (C, growth hormone (GH, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1, binding protein 3 (IGFBP3 and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG were measured during and after both loadings. RESULTS: Both of the present combined (ES and SE loadings led to a greater acute decrease in MVC in men than in women, while RFD was slightly affected only in men. Recovery of MVC and RFD to baseline was complete at 24 h regardless of the order of exercises. In men, neuromuscular fatigue was accompanied by increased C concentrations observed post SE. This was followed by decreased concentrations of T at 24 h and 48 h that were significantly lower than those observed following ES. GH response in men also differed significantly post loadings. In women, only a significant difference in T between ES and SE loadings was observed at post. CONCLUSION: These observed differences in hormonal responses despite similarities in neuromuscular fatigue in men indicate the presence of an order effect as the body was not fully recovered at 48 h following SE. These findings may be applicable in training prescription in order to optimize specific training adaptations.

  12. What Is Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... School Counselors Kidney Stones Brain and Nervous System Cholesterol KidsHealth > For Teens > Cholesterol Print A A A ... High Cholesterol? en español ¿Qué es el colesterol? Cholesterol Is a Fat in the Blood Cholesterol (kuh- ...

  13. Causes of High Cholesterol

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    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Causes of High Cholesterol Updated:Nov 16,2017 If you have high ... for a heart or stroke event? Find out . Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • HDL, LDL, and Triglycerides • Causes ...

  14. Cholesterol Facts and Statistics

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    ... Blood Pressure Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program High Cholesterol Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Find ... about high cholesterol in the United States. High Cholesterol in the United States In 2011–2012, 78 ...

  15. Acute effects of a loaded warm-up protocol on change of direction speed in professional badminton players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Sean J; Turner, Anthony N; Miller, Stuart

    2014-10-01

    It has previously been shown that a loaded warm-up may improve power performances. We examined the acute effects of loaded dynamic warm-up on change of direction speed (CODS), which had not been previously investigated. Eight elite badminton players participated in three sessions during which they performed vertical countermovement jump and CODS tests before and after undertaking the dynamic warm-up. The three warm-up conditions involved wearing a weighted vest (a) equivalent to 5% body mass, (b) equivalent to 10% body mass, and (c) a control where a weighted vest was not worn. Vertical jump and CODS performances were then tested at 15 seconds and 2, 4, and 6 minutes post warm-up. Vertical jump and CODS significantly improved following all warm-up conditions (P badminton players.

  16. Cholesterol testing and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholesterol test results; LDL test results; VLDL test results; HDL test results; Coronary risk profile results; Hyperlipidemia-results; Lipid disorder test results; Heart disease - cholesterol results

  17. Molecular Diagnosis of Chagas Disease in Colombia: Parasitic Loads and Discrete Typing Units in Patients from Acute and Chronic Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Carolina; Cucunubá, Zulma; Flórez, Carolina; Olivera, Mario; Valencia, Carlos; Zambrano, Pilar; León, Cielo; Ramírez, Juan David

    2016-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of Chagas disease is complex due to the dynamics of parasitemia in the clinical phases of the disease. The molecular tests have been considered promissory because they detect the parasite in all clinical phases. Trypanosoma cruzi presents significant genetic variability and is classified into six Discrete Typing Units TcI-TcVI (DTUs) with the emergence of foreseen genotypes within TcI as TcIDom and TcI Sylvatic. The objective of this study was to determine the operating characteristics of molecular tests (conventional and Real Time PCR) for the detection of T. cruzi DNA, parasitic loads and DTUs in a large cohort of Colombian patients from acute and chronic phases. Methodology/Principal Findings Samples were obtained from 708 patients in all clinical phases. Standard diagnosis (direct and serological tests) and molecular tests (conventional PCR and quantitative PCR) targeting the nuclear satellite DNA region. The genotyping was performed by PCR using the intergenic region of the mini-exon gene, the 24Sa, 18S and A10 regions. The operating capabilities showed that performance of qPCR was higher compared to cPCR. Likewise, the performance of qPCR was significantly higher in acute phase compared with chronic phase. The median parasitic loads detected were 4.69 and 1.33 parasite equivalents/mL for acute and chronic phases. The main DTU identified was TcI (74.2%). TcIDom genotype was significantly more frequent in chronic phase compared to acute phase (82.1% vs 16.6%). The median parasitic load for TcIDom was significantly higher compared with TcI Sylvatic in chronic phase (2.58 vs.0.75 parasite equivalents/ml). Conclusions/Significance The molecular tests are a precise tool to complement the standard diagnosis of Chagas disease, specifically in acute phase showing high discriminative power. However, it is necessary to improve the sensitivity of molecular tests in chronic phase. The frequency and parasitemia of TcIDom genotype in chronic

  18. The effect of acute magnesium loading on the maximal exercise performance of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Florípedes do Amaral

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The potential influence of magnesium on exercise performance is a subject of increasing interest. Magnesium has been shown to have bronchodilatatory properties in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute magnesium IV loading on the aerobic exercise performance of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. METHODS: Twenty male chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients (66.2 + 8.3 years old, FEV1: 49.3+19.8% received an IV infusion of 2 g of either magnesium sulfate or saline on two randomly assigned occasions approximately two days apart. Spirometry was performed both before and 45 minutes after the infusions. A symptom-limited incremental maximal cardiopulmonary test was performed on a cycle ergometer at approximately 100 minutes after the end of the infusion. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00500864 RESULTS: Magnesium infusion was associated with significant reductions in the functional residual capacity (-0.41 l and residual volume (-0.47 l, the mean arterial blood pressure (-5.6 mmHg and the cardiac double product (734.8 mmHg.bpm at rest. Magnesium treatment led to significant increases in the maximal load reached (+8 w and the respiratory exchange ratio (0.06 at peak exercise. The subgroup of patients who showed increases in the work load equal to or greater than 5 w also exhibited significantly greater improvements in inspiratory capacity (0.29 l. CONCLUSIONS: The acute IV loading of magnesium promotes a reduction in static lung hyperinflation and improves the exercise performance in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Improvements in respiratory mechanics appear to be responsible for the latter finding.

  19. Biomechanical and structural response of healing Achilles tendon to fatigue loading following acute injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Benjamin R; Sarver, Joseph J; Buckley, Mark R; Voleti, Pramod B; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2014-06-27

    Achilles tendon injuries affect both athletes and the general population, and their incidence is rising. In particular, the Achilles tendon is subject to dynamic loading at or near failure loads during activity, and fatigue induced damage is likely a contributing factor to ultimate tendon failure. Unfortunately, little is known about how injured Achilles tendons respond mechanically and structurally to fatigue loading during healing. Knowledge of these properties remains critical to best evaluate tendon damage induction and the ability of the tendon to maintain mechanical properties with repeated loading. Thus, this study investigated the mechanical and structural changes in healing mouse Achilles tendons during fatigue loading. Twenty four mice received bilateral full thickness, partial width excisional injuries to their Achilles tendons (IACUC approved) and twelve tendons from six uninjured mice were used as controls. Tendons were fatigue loaded to assess mechanical and structural properties simultaneously after 0, 1, 3, and 6 weeks of healing using an integrated polarized light system. Results showed that the number of cycles to failure decreased dramatically (37-fold, ptendon structural properties, the apparent birefringence was able to best predict dynamic modulus (R(2)=0.88-0.92) throughout healing and fatigue life. This study reinforces the concept that fatigue loading is a sensitive metric to assess tendon healing and demonstrates potential structural metrics to predict mechanical properties. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Changes in MR Relaxation Times of the Meniscus With Acute Loading: An In Vivo Pilot Study in Knee Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subburaj, Karupppasamy; Souza, Richard B.; Wyman, Bradley T.; Le Graverand-Gastineau, Marie-Pierre Hellio; Li, Xiaojuan; Link, Thomas M.; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To prospectively evaluate changes in T1ρ and T2 relaxation times in the meniscal body with acute loading using MRI in osteoarthritic knees and to compare these findings with those of age-matched healthy controls. Materials and Methods Female subjects above 40 years of age with (N1 = 20) and without osteoarthritis (OA) (N2 = 10) were imaged on a 3 Tesla MR scanner using a custom made loading device. MR images were acquired, with the knee flexed at 20°, with and without a compressive load of 50% of the subject's bodyweight. The subjects were categorized based on the radiographic evidence of OA. Three different zones (outer, middle, and inner) of meniscus body were defined (each occupying 1/3rd the width). After adjusting for age and body mass index in the general linear regression model, repeated measures analysis of variance was used to detect significant differences in T1ρ and T2 with and without loading. Results In the unloaded condition, the average T1ρ and T2 times were elevated in the outer and middle zones of the medial meniscus in OA subjects compared with the controls. In the loaded condition, T1ρ and T2 times of the outer zone of the medial meniscus was significantly elevated in OA subjects compared with controls. Finally the change (from unloaded to loaded) was significantly higher in controls than OA subjects (15.1% versus 8.3%; P = 0.039 for ΔT1ρ, and 11.5% versus 6.9%, P = 0.049 for ΔT2). Conclusion These findings suggest that while the OA process appears to affect the relaxation times of all regions within the meniscus, it may affect some regions sooner or to a greater degree. Furthermore, the differences in the change in relaxation times between unloaded and loaded conditions may reveal evidence about load transmission failure of the outer zone of the medial meniscus in subjects with knee OA. It is possible that these metrics (ΔT1ρ and ΔT2) may be valuable as an early biomechanical biomarker, which could be used to predict load

  1. Fasting Serum Glucose and Cholesterol as Predictors of Cardiovascular Reactivity to Acute Stress in a Sample of African American College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Vernessa R; Perkins, Patrice; Carson, Bernice L; Boyd, Kimberly; Jefferson, Trayce M

    2015-01-01

    African Americans are at a greater risk of cardiovascular hyperactivity to stress than Caucasians; however the risk factors for this activity are not clearly delineated for African Americans. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of fasting serum cholesterol concentration and fasting serum glucose (FSG) to predict cardiovascular reactivity to stress in African Americans. Serum cholesterol concentration and FSG levels were measured in 48 (40 women, 8 men) African American college students aged 18-30 years. Heart rate, cardiac output, stroke volume, mean arterial pressure and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured as the participants viewed a racially noxious scene on a digital video disc. Measurements were taken prior to the scene (pre stressor period), during the scene (stressor period), and while the participant recovered from the scene (recovery period). A multiple regression analysis revealed that total serum cholesterol and LDL significantly predicted diastolic blood pressure during the pre-stressor period. FSG significantly predicted mean arterial pressure during the recovery period, and predicted stroke volume during the pre-stressor period, stressor period, and the recovery period. FSG was a better predictor of cardiovascular reactivity to stress than serum cholesterol concentration, predicting mean arterial pressure and stroke volume. This finding may be due to the association of glucose with diabetes, which is more prevalent in African Americans.

  2. Compared with Acyl-CoA:cholesterol O-acyltransferase (ACAT) 1 and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase, ACAT2 displays the greatest capacity to differentiate cholesterol from sitosterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Ryan E; Gebre, Abraham K; Parks, John S; Rudel, Lawrence L

    2003-11-28

    The capacity of acyl-CoA:cholesterol O-acyltransferase (ACAT) 2 to differentiate cholesterol from the plant sterol, sitosterol, was compared with that of the sterol esterifying enzymes, ACAT1 and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). Cholesterol-loaded microsomes from transfected cells containing either ACAT1 or ACAT2 exhibited significantly more ACAT activity than their sitosterol-loaded counterparts. In sitosterol-loaded microsomes, both ACAT1 and ACAT2 were able to esterify sitosterol albeit with lower efficiencies than cholesterol. The mass ratios of cholesterol ester to sitosterol ester formed by ACAT1 and ACAT2 were 1.6 and 7.2, respectively. Compared with ACAT1, ACAT2 selectively esterified cholesterol even when sitosterol was loaded into the microsomes. To further characterize the difference in sterol specificity, ACAT1 and ACAT2 were compared in intact cells loaded with either cholesterol or sitosterol. Despite a lower level of ACAT activity, the ACAT1-expressing cells esterified 4-fold more sitosterol than the ACAT2 cells. The data showed that compared with ACAT1, ACAT2 displayed significantly greater selectively for cholesterol compared with sitosterol. The plasma cholesterol esterification enzyme lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase was also compared. With recombinant high density lipoprotein particles, the esterification rate of cholesterol by LCAT was only 15% greater than for sitosterol. Thus, LCAT was able to efficiently esterify both cholesterol and sitosterol. In contrast, ACAT2 demonstrated a strong preference for cholesterol rather than sitosterol. This sterol selectivity by ACAT2 may reflect a role in the sorting of dietary sterols during their absorption by the intestine in vivo.

  3. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus load normalized by cell quantification as predictor of acute respiratory tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Novo, Miriam; Boga, José A; Álvarez-Argüelles, Marta E; Rojo-Alba, Susana; Fernández, Ana; Menéndez, María J; de Oña, María; Melón, Santiago

    2018-01-05

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a common cause of respiratory infections. The main objective is to analyze the prediction ability of viral load of HRSV normalized by cell number in respiratory symptoms. A prospective, descriptive and analytical study was performed. From 7307 respiratory samples processed between December 2014 to April 2016, 1019 HRSV-positive samples, were included in this study. Low respiratory tract infection was present in 729 patients (71.54%). Normalized HRSV load was calculated by quantification of HRSV genome and human β-globin gene and expressed as log10 copies/1000 cells. HRSV mean loads were 4.09 ± 2.08 and 4.82 ± 2.09 log10 copies/1000 cells in the 549 pharyngeal and 470 nasopharyngeal samples, respectively (p respiratory tract infection and 4.22 ± 2.28 log10 copies/1000 cells with upper respiratory tract infection or febrile syndrome (p < 0.05). A possible cut off value to predict LRTI evolution was tentatively established. Normalization of viral load by cell number in the samples is essential to ensure an optimal virological molecular diagnosis avoiding that the quality of samples affects the results. A high viral load can be a useful marker to predict disease progression. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute neuromuscular response during eccentric overload protocol by using a mechanical device to increase the load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel B Lanza

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2017v19n4p375   The aim of this study was to propose a mechanical device that could increase the mechanical load during the entire eccentric (ECC action on a knee flexor machine and to compare the muscular activity when the device was used during a testing protocol. Fifteen physically active women were recruited, and they performed two protocols: control and eccentric overload. Control protocol was performed with concentric (CON and ECC actions with similar load (60% of one repetition maximum whilst eccentric overload protocol consisted of ECC actions with 40% more load than CON actions. Muscular activation was measured using surface electromyography of the biceps femoris (BF and the gastrocnemius medialis (GM muscles. ECC actions presented a higher muscular activation during eccentric overload protocol than control protocol for BF (p = 0.032, but not for the GM (p = 0.439. The mechanical device increased the mechanical load during the ECC muscle action and consequently increased the amplitude of the neural drive to the BF muscle; however, it did not increase the amplitude of the neural drive to the GM muscle.

  5. Loading of acute myeloid leukemia cells with poly(I:C) by electroporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lion, E.; Winde, C.M. de; Tendeloo, V.F. Van; Smits, E.L.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe the technique of electroporation as an efficient method to load primary leukemic cells with the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) analogue, polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), and detail on the delicate freezing and thawing procedure of primary leukemic

  6. Acute caffeine ingestion's increase of voluntarily chosen resistance-training load after limited sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Christian; Beaven, C Martyn; Kilduff, Liam P; Drawer, Scott

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to determine whether caffeine ingestion would increase the workload voluntarily chosen by athletes in a limited-sleep state. In a double-blind, crossover study, 16 professional rugby players ingested either a placebo or 4 mg/kg caffeine 1 hr before exercise. Athletes classified themselves into nondeprived (8 hr+) or sleep-deprived states (6 hr or less). Exercise comprised 4 sets of bench press, squats, and bent rows at 85% 1-repetition maximum. Athletes were asked to perform as many repetitions on each set as possible without failure. Saliva was collected before administration of placebo or caffeine and again before and immediately after exercise and assayed for testosterone and cortisol. Sleep deprivation produced a very large decrease in total load (p = 1.98 × 10(-7)). Caffeine ingestion in the nondeprived state resulted in a moderate increase in total load, with a larger effect in the sleep-deprived state, resulting in total load similar to those observed in the nondeprived placebo condition. Eight of the 16 athletes were identified as caffeine responders. Baseline testosterone was higher (p sleep-deprived athletes. Changes in hormones from predose to preexercise correlated to individual workload responses to caffeine. Testosterone response to exercise increased with caffeine compared with placebo, as did cortisol response. Caffeine increased voluntary workload in professional athletes, even more so under conditions of self-reported limited sleep. Caffeine may prove worthwhile when athletes are tired, especially in those identified as responders.

  7. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis and acute phase response link pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes to risk of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sarah S.; Saber, Anne T.; Mortensen, Alicja

    2015-01-01

    Adverse lung effects following pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are well documented in rodents. However, systemic effects are less understood. Epidemiological studies have shown increased cardiovascular disease risk after pulmonary exposure to airborne particles, which...... g/mouse of small, entangled (CNTsmall, 0.8 +/- 0.1 pm long) or large, thick MWCNTs (CNTLarge, 4 +/- 0.4 mu m long). Liver tissues and plasma were harvested 1,3 and 28 days post-exposure. In addition, global hepatic gene expression, hepatic cholesterol content and liver histology were used to assess...

  8. Tissue storage and control of cholesterol metabolism in man on high cholesterol diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintão, E C; Brumer, S; Stechhahn, K

    1977-03-01

    The possibility of accumulation of tissue cholesterol in human beings submitted to high cholesterol feeding was investigated in liver biopsies and through fecal sterol balance studies. Feeding to 10 individuals 3.1 to 3.4 g/day of cholesterol for 3 weeks raised the mean serum level from 293 to 349 mg/100 ml, namely 19%, whereas the liver cholesterol content was 417 mg/100 g of wet weight. In 10 control cases eating 0.1--0.4 g/day of cholesterol serum cholesterol remained stable throughout the experimental period and the liver cholesterol content was 256 mg/100 g. Difference of liver colesterol level between the two groups was 62%. In 7 patients submitted to two periods of balance investigation on a cholesterol-free synthetic formula diet respectively prior to (PI) and after (PIII) eating the high cholesterol solid food from 4 to 15 weeks (PII), fecal steroid excretion in PIII exceeded PI in 3 patients. Such data are a direct evidence for the existence of an efficient system to release acutely stored cholesterol. In one patient bile acid excretion accounted for the difference between PIII and PI.

  9. Cinnamon modulates biochemical alterations in rats loaded with acute restraint stress

    OpenAIRE

    Khataibeh, Moayad

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate pretreatment efficacy of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) on blood glucose level as well as oxidative changes at the liver level. Following acute restraint stress, the experimental animals (n = 6) were randomly assigned into four groups, i.e., non-stressed control, stress control and treatment groups (cinnamon decoction 10%, 3 and 6 ml/kg, p.o, for 7 days). Anti-stress effect of cinnamon was studied by estimation of blood glucose level, liver...

  10. Cinnamon modulates biochemical alterations in rats loaded with acute restraint stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moayad Khataibeh

    2016-09-01

    Following acute restraint stress, the experimental animals (n = 6 were randomly assigned into four groups, i.e., non-stressed control, stress control and treatment groups (cinnamon decoction 10%, 3 and 6 ml/kg, p.o, for 7 days. Anti-stress effect of cinnamon was studied by estimation of blood glucose level, liver marker enzymes; aspartate amino transferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and lactate dehydrogenase, liver reduced glutathione (GSH and liver antioxidant enzymes; super oxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, catalase (CAT and glutathione reductase (GR. Acute restraint stress was evidenced by reduction of blood glucose level and liver GSH and elevation of liver marker enzymes in serum. In addition, antioxidant enzymes were drastically inhibited in liver homogenate of stress control rats. Pre-treatment with cinnamon decoction 10%, (3 ml/kg and 6 ml/kg, p.o, for 7 days avoided the changes observed in stress control rats. This study substantiates that cinnamon is effective in minimizing stress responses thereby beneficial in stress therapy.

  11. In vivo pharmacokinetics of a gentamicin-loaded collagen sponge in acute periprosthetic infection: serum values in 19 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swieringa, Anne J; Goosen, Jon H M; Jansman, Frank G A; Tulp, Niek J A

    2008-10-01

    The in vivo pharmacokinetics of gentamycin- loaded collagen fleeces in humans have not been described in the current literature. We therefore analyzed in vivo pharmacokinetics of these fleeces when used in the treatment of periprosthetic infections. Gentamycin concentrations were measured in 19 consecutive patients with an acute periprosthetic infection. Each patient received 2-5 fleeces (130 mg gentamycin/fleece). Initially, the blood concentration increased to 3.2-7.2 mg/L, depending on the number of fleeces that were applied. The serum peak concentrations resulted in peak/MIC ratios of 2.5-36 for P. aeruginosa, S. aureus,and Klebsiella spp. Subsequently, the serum values decreased almost linearly below 0.3 mg/L in 18 to 62 hours. After 24 hours, the serum levels of gentamicin dropped below 2 mg/L, the toxicity threshold. The application of 2 to 5 130-mg gentamycin-loaded collagen fleeces may be useful as an adjuvant treatment for implant-related infections, since no toxic concentrations were measured 24 hours postoperatively.

  12. Get Your Cholesterol Checked

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cholesterol levels with a blood test called a lipid profile. For the test, a nurse will take a ... blood tests that can check cholesterol, but a lipid profile gives the most information. Find out more about ...

  13. Controlling Cholesterol with Statins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Controlling Cholesterol with Statins Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... not, the following tips can help keep your cholesterol in check: Talk with your healthcare provider about ...

  14. Low Cholesterol Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changes (TLC) and medicines. TLC includes a healthy diet, weight management, and regular physical activity. What is a low cholesterol diet? Therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLC) includes a low cholesterol ...

  15. LDL: The "Bad" Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... waxy, fat-like substance that's found in all the cells in your body. Your liver makes cholesterol, ... stands for low-density lipoproteins. It is called the "bad" cholesterol because a high LDL level leads ...

  16. Cholesterol oxides inhibit cholesterol esterification by lecithin: cholesterol acyl transferase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder de Carvalho Pincinato

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol oxides are atherogenic and can affect the activity of diverse important enzymes for the lipidic metabolism. The effect of 7β-hydroxycholesterol, 7-ketocholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol, cholestan-3β,5α,6β-triol,5,6β-epoxycholesterol, 5,6α-epoxycholesterol and 7α-hydroxycholesterol on esterification of cholesterol by lecithin:cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT, EC 2.3.1.43 and the transfer of esters of cholesterol oxides from high density lipoprotein (HDL to low density lipoproteins (LDL and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL by cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP was investigated. HDL enriched with increasing concentrations of cholesterol oxides was incubated with fresh plasma as source of LCAT. Cholesterol and cholesterol oxides esterification was followed by measuring the consumption of respective free sterol and oxysterols. Measurements of cholesterol and cholesterol oxides were done by gas-chromatography. 14C-cholesterol oxides were incorporated into HDL2 and HDL3 subfractions and then incubated with fresh plasma containing LCAT and CETP. The transfer of cholesterol oxide esters was followed by measuring the 14C-cholesterol oxide-derived esters transferred to LDL and VLDL. All the cholesterol oxides studied were esterified by LCAT after incorporation into HDL particles, competing with cholesterol by LCAT. Cholesterol esterification by LCAT was inversely related to the cholesterol oxide concentration. The esterification of 14C-cholesterol oxides was higher in HDL3 and the transfer of the derived esters was greater from HDL2 to LDL and VLDL. The results suggest that cholesterol esterification by LCAT is inhibited in cholesterol oxide-enriched HDL particles. Moreover, the cholesterol oxides-derived esters are efficiently transferred to LDL and VLDL. Therefore, we suggest that cholesterol oxides may exert part of their atherogenic effect by inhibiting cholesterol esterification on the HDL surface and thereby disturbing

  17. Acute Cocoa Supplementation Increases Postprandial HDL Cholesterol and Insulin in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes after Consumption of a High-Fat Breakfast123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M; Leyva, Misti J; Fu, Dongxu; Aston, Christopher E; Lyons, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dietary cocoa is an important source of flavonoids and is associated with favorable cardiovascular disease effects, such as improvements in vascular function and lipid profiles, in nondiabetic adults. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with adverse effects on postprandial serum glucose, lipids, inflammation, and vascular function. Objective: We examined the hypothesis that cocoa reduces metabolic stress in obese T2D adults after a high-fat fast-food–style meal. Methods: Adults with T2D [n = 18; age (mean ± SE): 56 ± 3 y; BMI (in kg/m2): 35.3 ± 2.0; 14 women; 4 men] were randomly assigned to receive cocoa beverage (960 mg total polyphenols; 480 mg flavanols) or flavanol-free placebo (110 mg total polyphenols; blood sample collection [glucose, insulin, lipids, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)] and vascular measurements were conducted at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h postprandially on each study day. Insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment. Results: Over the 6-h study, and specifically at 1 and 4 h, cocoa increased HDL cholesterol vs. placebo (overall Δ: 1.5 ± 0.8 mg/dL; P ≤ 0.01) but had no effect on total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and hsCRP. Cocoa increased serum insulin concentrations overall (Δ: 5.2 ± 3.2 mU/L; P blood pressure, or small artery elasticity. However, large artery elasticity was overall lower after cocoa vs. placebo (Δ: −1.6 ± 0.7 mL/mm Hg; P postprandial period, an overall decrease in large artery elasticity was found after cocoa consumption. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01886989. PMID:26338890

  18. Acute Consumption of Walnuts and Walnut Components Differentially Affect Postprandial Lipemia, Endothelial Function, Oxidative Stress, and Cholesterol Efflux in Humans with Mild Hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walnut consumption improves cardiovascular disease risk; however, to our knowledge, the contribution of individual walnut components has not been assessed. This study evaluated the acute consumption of whole walnuts (85 g), separated nut skins (5.6 g), de-fatted nutmeat (34 g), and nut oil (51 g) on...

  19. What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean Updated:Nov 16,2017 Keeping your ... stroke. This content was last reviewed April 2017. Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol Introduction Atherosclerosis What Your Cholesterol ...

  20. Home-Use Tests - Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Home Use Tests Cholesterol Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... a home-use test kit to measure total cholesterol. What cholesterol is: Cholesterol is a fat (lipid) ...

  1. Relationships between static foot alignment and dynamic plantar loads in runners with acute and chronic stages of plantar fasciitis: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Ana P.; Sacco, Isabel C. N.; Dinato, Roberto C.; João, Silvia M. A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk factors for the development of plantar fasciitis (PF) have been associated with the medial longitudinal arch (MLA), rearfoot alignment and calcaneal overload. However, the relationships between the biomechanical variables have yet to be determined. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to investigate the relationships between the MLA, rearfoot alignment, and dynamic plantar loads in runners with unilateral PF in acute and chronic phases. METHOD: Cross-sectional study which thirty-five runners with unilateral PF were evaluated: 20 in the acute phase (with pain) and 15 with previous chronic PF (without pain). The MLA index and rearfoot alignment were calculated using digital images. The contact area, maximum force, peak pressure, and force-time integral over three plantar areas were acquired with Pedar X insoles while running at 12 km/h, and the loading rates were calculated from the vertical forces. RESULTS: The multiple regression analyses indicated that both the force-time integral (R 2=0.15 for acute phase PF; R 2=0.17 for chronic PF) and maximum force (R 2=0.35 for chronic PF) over the forefoot were predicted by an elevated MLA index. The rearfoot valgus alignment predicted the maximum force over the rearfoot in both PF groups: acute (R 2=0.18) and chronic (R 2=0.45). The rearfoot valgus alignment also predicted higher loading rates in the PF groups: acute (R 2=0.19) and chronic (R 2=0.40). CONCLUSION: The MLA index and the rearfoot alignment were good predictors of plantar loads over the forefoot and rearfoot areas in runners with PF. However, rearfoot valgus was demonstrated to be an important clinical measure, since it was able to predict the maximum force and both loading rates over the rearfoot. PMID:26786073

  2. Relationships between static foot alignment and dynamic plantar loads in runners with acute and chronic stages of plantar fasciitis: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana P. Ribeiro

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The risk factors for the development of plantar fasciitis (PF have been associated with the medial longitudinal arch (MLA, rearfoot alignment and calcaneal overload. However, the relationships between the biomechanical variables have yet to be determined. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to investigate the relationships between the MLA, rearfoot alignment, and dynamic plantar loads in runners with unilateral PF in acute and chronic phases. METHOD: Cross-sectional study which thirty-five runners with unilateral PF were evaluated: 20 in the acute phase (with pain and 15 with previous chronic PF (without pain. The MLA index and rearfoot alignment were calculated using digital images. The contact area, maximum force, peak pressure, and force-time integral over three plantar areas were acquired with Pedar X insoles while running at 12 km/h, and the loading rates were calculated from the vertical forces. RESULTS: The multiple regression analyses indicated that both the force-time integral (R2=0.15 for acute phase PF; R2=0.17 for chronic PF and maximum force (R2=0.35 for chronic PF over the forefoot were predicted by an elevated MLA index. The rearfoot valgus alignment predicted the maximum force over the rearfoot in both PF groups: acute (R2=0.18 and chronic (R2=0.45. The rearfoot valgus alignment also predicted higher loading rates in the PF groups: acute (R2=0.19 and chronic (R2=0.40. CONCLUSION: The MLA index and the rearfoot alignment were good predictors of plantar loads over the forefoot and rearfoot areas in runners with PF. However, rearfoot valgus was demonstrated to be an important clinical measure, since it was able to predict the maximum force and both loading rates over the rearfoot.

  3. Enhanced acute anti-inflammatory effects of CORM-2-loaded nanoparticles via sustained carbon monoxide delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Omer Salman; Zeb, Alam; Akram, Muhammad; Kim, Myung-Sic; Kang, Jong-Ho; Kim, Hoo-Seong; Majid, Arshad; Han, Inbo; Chang, Sun-Young; Bae, Ok-Nam; Kim, Jin-Ki

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to enhance the anti-inflammatory effects of carbon monoxide (CO) via sustained release of CO from carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2-loaded lipid nanoparticles (CORM-2-NPs). CORM-2-NPs were prepared by hot high pressure homogenization method using trilaurin as a solid lipid core and Tween 20/Span 20/Myrj S40 as surfactant mixture. The physicochemical properties of CORM-2-NPs were characterized and CO release from CORM-2-NPs was assessed by myoglobin assay. In vitro anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated by nitric oxide assay in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity was investigated by measuring paw volumes and histological examination in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. Spherical CORM-2-NPs were around 100nm with narrow particle size distribution. The sustained CO release from CORM-2-NPs was observed and the half-life of CO release increased up to 10 times compared with CORM-2 solution. CORM-2-NPs showed enhanced in vitro anti-inflammatory effects by inhibition of nitric oxide production. Edema volume in rat paw was significantly reduced after treatment with CORM-2-NPs. Taken together, CORM-2-NPs have a great potential for CO therapeutics against inflammation via sustained release of CO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The acute effect of lower-body training on average power output measured by loaded half-squat jump exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matúš Krčmár

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: High muscular power output is required in many athletic endeavors in order for success to be achieved. In the scientific community postactivation potentiation and its effect on performance are often discussed. There are many studies where the effect of resistance exercise on motor performance (such as vertical jump performance and running speed has been investigated but only a few of them studied power output. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the acute responses to a 2 set loaded half-squat jumps and 2 set loaded back half-squat protocols designed to induce the acute maximum average power output during loaded half-squat jumps. Methods: A randomized cross-over design was used. 11 participants of this study performed 3 trials in randomized order separated by at least 48 hours where maximum average power output was measured. The specific conditioning activities were comprised of 2 sets and 4 repetitions of half-squat jumps, 2 sets and 4 repetitions of back half-squat exercises and a control protocol without an intervention by specific a conditioning activity. Participants were strength trained athletes with different sport specializations (e.g. ice-hockey, volleyball. Mean age of the athletes was 22 ± 1.8 years, body mass 80 ± 7.1 kg and body height 185 ± 6.5 cm. Analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to determine differences between pre- and post-condition in each protocol, as well as between conditioning protocols, and also effect size was used to evaluate practical significance. Results: Maximum average power was significantly enhanced after application of the half-squat jump condition protocol (1496.2 ± 194.5 to 1552 ± 196.1 W, Δ ~ 3.72%, p < .001 and after application of the back half-squat protocol (1500.7 ± 193.2 to 1556 ± 191.2 W, Δ ~ 3.68%, p < .001 after 10 min of rest. Power output after control protocol was

  5. The impact of an acute oral phosphate load on endothelium dependent and independent brachial artery vasodilation in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levac, Brendan M; Adams, Michael A; Pyke, Kyra E

    2017-12-01

    Serum phosphate levels are associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the general population and endothelial dysfunction may be mechanistically involved. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of acute phosphate supplementation on endothelial-dependent (flow-mediated dilation; FMD) and -independent (glyceryl trinitrate; GTN)) vasodilation in young, healthy males. Seventeen healthy male participants (age, 23 ± 3 years) were exposed to an oral load of phosphate (PHOS; liquid supplement containing 1200 mg of phosphorous) and placebo (PLAC) over 2 experimental days. A brachial artery FMD test was performed pre-ingestion and at 20 min, 60 min, and 120 min following the ingestion of the phosphate load or the placebo. GTN tests were performed pre- and 140 min post-ingestion. Serum phosphate was not impacted differently by phosphate versus placebo ingestion (p = 0.780). In contrast, urinary phosphate excretion was markedly increased in the PHOS (p < 0.001) but not in the PLAC condition (p = 0.130) (Δ fractional excretion of phosphate in PHOS (29.2%) vs. PLAC (9.3%)). This indicates that circulating phosphate levels were homeostatically regulated. GTN-mediated vasodilation was not significantly affected by phosphate ingestion. In primary analysis no impact of phosphate ingestion on FMD was detected. However, when the shear stress stimulus was added as a covariate in a subset of participants, exploratory pairwise comparisons revealed a significantly lower FMD 20 min post-phosphate ingestion versus placebo (p = 0.024). The effects of phosphate ingestion on FMD and serum phosphate are in contrast with previous findings and the mechanisms that underlie the disparate results require further investigation.

  6. Normalized lactate load is associated with development of acute kidney injury in patients who underwent cardiopulmonary bypass surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongheng Zhang

    Full Text Available Cardiac surgery associated acute kidney injury is a major postoperative complication and has long been associated with adverse outcomes. However, the association of lactate and AKI has not been well established. The study aimed to explore the association of normalized lactate load with AKI in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.This was a prospective observational cohort study conducted in a 47-bed ICU of a tertiary academic teaching hospital from July 2012 to January 2014. All patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass surgery were included. Normalized lactate load (L was calculated by the equation: [Formula: see text], where ti was time point for lactate measurement and vi was the value of lactate. L was transformed by natural log (Lln to improve its normality. Logistic regression model was fitted by using stepwise method. Scale of Lln was examined by using fractional polynomial approach and potential interaction terms were explored.A total of 117 patients were included during study period, including 17 AKI patients and 100 non-AKI patients. In univariate analysis Lln was significantly higher in AKI as compared with non-AKI group (1.43±0.38 vs 1.01±0.45, p = 0.0005. After stepwise selection of covariates, the main effect logistic model contained variables of Lln (odds ratio: 11.1, 95% CI: 1.22-101.6, gender, age, baseline serum creatinine and fluid balance on day 0. Although the two-term fractional polynomial model was the best-fitted model, it was not significantly different from the linear model (Deviance difference = 6.09, p = 0.107. There was no significant interaction term between Lln and other variables in the main effect model.Our study demonstrates that Lln is independently associated with postoperative AKI in patients undergoing CPB. There is no significant interaction with early postoperative fluid balance.

  7. Reverse cholesterol transport : a potential therapeutic target for atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Ying

    2011-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the major cause of death in the Western society due to the development of acute clinical events such as myocardial infarction and cerebral stroke. Currently, lowering plasma LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) levels using statins, inhibitors of de-novo cholesterol synthesis, is the main

  8. Monitoring of Dual CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein Gene Deletion and Cholesterol Accumulation Using High-Resolution Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization in a Single Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwoo Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in fluorescence microscopy, coupled with CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology, provide opportunities for understanding gene regulation at the single-cell level. The application of direct imaging shown here provides an in situ side-by-side comparison of CRISPR/Cas9-edited cells and adjacent unedited cells. We apply this methodology to the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR gene in Y-1 adrenal cells and MA-10 testis cells. StAR is a gatekeeper protein that controls the access of cholesterol from the cytoplasm to the inner mitochondria. The loss of this mitochondrial cholesterol transfer mediator rapidly increases lipid droplets in cells, as seen in StAR−/− mice. Here, we describe a dual CRISPR/Cas9 strategy marked by GFP/mCherry expression that deletes StAR activity within 12 h. We used single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization (sm-FISH imaging to directly monitor the time course of gene editing in single cells. We achieved StAR gene deletion at high efficiency dual gRNA targeting to the proximal promoter and exon 2. Seventy percent of transfected cells showed a slow DNA deletion as measured by PCR, and loss of Br-cAMP stimulated transcription. This DNA deletion was seen by sm-FISH in both loci of individual cells relative to non-target Cyp11a1 and StAR exon 7. sm-FISH also distinguishes two effects on stimulated StAR expression without this deletion. Br-cAMP stimulation of primary and spliced StAR RNA at the gene loci were removed within 4 h in this dual CRISPR/Cas9 strategy before any effect on cytoplasmic mRNA and protein occurred. StAR mRNA disappeared between 12 and 24 h in parallel with this deletion, while cholesterol ester droplets increased fourfold. These alternative changes match distinct StAR expression processes. This dual gRNA and sm-FISH approach to CRISPR/Cas9 editing facilitates rapid testing of editing strategies and immediate assessment of single-cell adaptation responses without the

  9. Sex Differences in the Hepatic Cholesterol Sensing Mechanisms in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingemar Björkhem

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is linked to many multifactorial disorders, including different forms of liver disease where development and severity depend on the sex. We performed a detailed analysis of cholesterol and bile acid synthesis pathways at the level of genes and metabolites combined with the expression studies of hepatic cholesterol uptake and transport in female and male mice fed with a high-fat diet with or without cholesterol. Lack of dietary cholesterol led to a stronger response of the sterol sensing mechanism in females, resulting in higher expression of cholesterogenic genes compared to males. With cholesterol in the diet, the genes were down-regulated in both sexes; however, males maintained a more efficient hepatic metabolic flux through the pathway. Females had higher content of hepatic cholesterol but this was likely not due to diminished excretion but rather due to increased synthesis and absorption. Dietary cholesterol and sex were not important for gallbladder bile acids composition. Neither sex up-regulated Cyp7a1 upon cholesterol loading and there was no compensatory up-regulation of Abcg5 or Abcg8 transporters. On the other hand, females had higher expression of the Ldlr and Cd36 genes. These findings explain sexual dimorphism of cholesterol metabolism in response to dietary cholesterol in a high-fat diet in mice, which contributes to understanding the sex-basis of cholesterol-associated liver diseases.

  10. Correlations between Peripheral Blood Coxiella burnetii DNA Load, Interleukin-6 Levels, and C-Reactive Protein Levels in Patients with Acute Q Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, R.; Wielders, C. C. H.; Kampschreur, L. M.; Schneeberger, P. M.; Netten, P. M.; de Klerk, A.; Hodemaekers, H. M.; Hermans, M. H. A.; Notermans, D. W.; Wever, P. C.

    2014-01-01

    From 2007 to 2010, the Netherlands experienced the largest reported Q fever outbreak, with >4,000 notified cases. We showed previously that C-reactive protein is the only traditional infection marker reflecting disease activity in acute Q fever. Interleukin-6 is the principal inducer of C-reactive protein. We questioned whether increased C-reactive protein levels in acute Q fever patients coincide with increased interleukin-6 levels and if these levels correlate with the Coxiella burnetii DNA load in serum. In addition, we studied their correlation with disease severity, expressed by hospital admission and the development of fatigue. Interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein levels were analyzed in sera from 102 patients diagnosed with seronegative PCR-positive acute Q fever. Significant but weak negative correlations were observed between bacterial DNA loads expressed as cycle threshold values and interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein levels, while a significant moderate-strong positive correlation was present between interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein levels. Furthermore, significantly higher interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein levels were observed in hospitalized acute Q fever patients in comparison to those in nonhospitalized patients, while bacterial DNA loads were the same in the two groups. No marker was prognostic for the development of fatigue. In conclusion, the correlation between interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein levels in acute Q fever patients points to an immune activation pathway in which interleukin-6 induces the production of C-reactive protein. Significant differences in interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein levels between hospitalized and nonhospitalized patients despite identical bacterial DNA loads suggest an important role for host factors in disease presentation. Higher interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein levels seem predictive of more severe disease. PMID:24477856

  11. Treating boar sperm with cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrins or cyclodextrins prior to cryopreservation: effects on post-thaw in vitro sperm quality of sperm cryopreserved in different freezing extenders.

    OpenAIRE

    BLANCH TORRES, EVA

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Cryopreserved boar sperm is not used extensively for artificial insemination due to poor fertility rates of the sperm after freezing and thawing. The sperm membrane is damaged when cooled from body temperature to 5 ºC (cold shock), as well as during the freeze-thaw process. Increasing the cholesterol content of boar sperm membranes could increase their post-thaw survival, similarly to other species that are cold shock sensitive. Cholesterol can be easily added to sperm membranes using ch...

  12. National Cholesterol Education Panel III guidelines performance role in preventing myocardial infarction in a large cohort without a history of coronary artery disease: Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yeonyee E; Rivera, Juan J; Kwon, Dong-A; Chae, In-Ho; Jeong, Myung-Ho; Rha, Seung-Woon; Blumenthal, Roger S; Nasir, Khurram; Chang, Hyuk-Jae

    2009-01-01

    The Third Report of the Adult Treatment Panel National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-ATP III) guidelines are widely used for the primary prevention of a coronary event. These guidelines were developed using experimental data from studies that enrolled mostly Caucasian patients. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis varies with ethnicity. Given these two circumstances, the authors sought to investigate the performance of the guidelines in a large Asian cohort. The Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR) includes data collected between November 2005 and December 2006 from 41 referral centers in South Korea. A retrospective review of the clinical data was performed. After patients with a history of coronary heart disease (CHD), CHD equivalent, and those taking lipid-lowering medications were excluded, 2969 individuals (76% men; 61+/-12 years) were enrolled. The recommendations for lipid-lowering treatments according to the NCEP-ATP III were examined in the context of the cohort. A total of 38%, 66%, and 8% of the study participants had hypertension, were smokers, and had a family history of premature CHD, respectively. When patients were stratified by the number of risk factors present and their 10-year CHD risk, 69% diagnosed with an acute myocardial infarction did not qualify for drug therapy. Irrespective of the age group examined (young, intermediate, and old), the percentage of patients who did not qualify for a lipid-lowering pharmacologic intervention was higher than 60%. NCEP-ATP III underestimates CHD risk in individuals of Asian descent. Further studies are needed to improve primary CHD prevention in this patient population. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Intracellular cholesterol-binding proteins enhance HDL-mediated cholesterol uptake in cultured primary mouse hepatocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Stephen M.; McIntosh, Avery L.; Huang, Huan; Landrock, Kerstin K.; Martin, Gregory G.; Landrock, Danilo; Payne, H. Ross; Atshaves, Barbara P.; Kier, Ann B.

    2012-01-01

    A major gap in our knowledge of rapid hepatic HDL cholesterol clearance is the role of key intracellular factors that influence this process. Although the reverse cholesterol transport pathway targets HDL to the liver for net elimination of free cholesterol from the body, molecular details governing cholesterol uptake into hepatocytes are not completely understood. Therefore, the effects of sterol carrier protein (SCP)-2 and liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), high-affinity cholesterol-binding proteins present in hepatocyte cytosol, on HDL-mediated free cholesterol uptake were examined using gene-targeted mouse models, cultured primary hepatocytes, and 22-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)-amino]-23,24-bisnor-5-cholen-3β-ol (NBD-cholesterol). While SCP-2 overexpression enhanced NBD-cholesterol uptake, counterintuitively, SCP-2/SCP-x gene ablation also 1) enhanced the rapid molecular phase of free sterol uptake detectable in cholesterol and 2) differentially enhanced free cholesterol uptake mediated by the HDL3, rather than the HDL2, subfraction. The increased HDL free cholesterol uptake was not due to increased expression or distribution of the HDL receptor [scavenger receptor B1 (SRB1)], proteins regulating SRB1 [postsynaptic density protein (PSD-95)/Drosophila disk large tumor suppressor (dlg)/tight junction protein (ZO1) and 17-kDa membrane-associated protein], or other intracellular cholesterol trafficking proteins (steroidogenic acute response protein D, Niemann Pick C, and oxysterol-binding protein-related proteins). However, expression of L-FABP, the single most prevalent hepatic cytosolic protein that binds cholesterol, was upregulated twofold in SCP-2/SCP-x null hepatocytes. Double-immunogold electron microscopy detected L-FABP sufficiently close to SRB1 for direct interaction, similar to SCP-2. These data suggest a role for L-FABP in HDL cholesterol uptake, a finding confirmed with SCP-2/SCP-x/L-FABP null mice and hepatocytes. Taken together

  14. Electrochemical oxidation of cholesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek W. Morzycki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Indirect cholesterol electrochemical oxidation in the presence of various mediators leads to electrophilic addition to the double bond, oxidation at the allylic position, oxidation of the hydroxy group, or functionalization of the side chain. Recent studies have proven that direct electrochemical oxidation of cholesterol is also possible and affords different products depending on the reaction conditions.

  15. National Cholesterol Education Month

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-09-01

    Do you know your cholesterol numbers? Your doctor can do a simple test to check your cholesterol levels and help you make choices that lower your risk for heart disease and stroke.  Created: 9/1/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/9/2009.

  16. Cholesterol and Health

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cholesterol. In the gall bladder cholesterol crystalizes from the bile producing large crystalline aggregates. The causes of gall- stones are too complex for us to go into, but it can be stated that such factors as high levels of estrogens, multiple pregnancies, obesity, genetic factors and certain drugs influence the degree to.

  17. Phosphatidylcholine: cholesterol phase diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thewalt, J L; Bloom, M

    1992-10-01

    Two mono-cis-unsaturated phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipid molecules, having very different gel-liquid crystalline phase transition temperatures as a consequence of the relative positions of the double bond, exhibit PC:cholesterol phase diagrams that are very similar to each other and to that obtained previously for a fully saturated PC:cholesterol mixture (Vist, M. R., and J. H. Davis. 1990. Biochemistry 29:451-464). This leads to the conjecture that PC:cholesterol membrane phase diagrams have a universal form which is relatively independent of the precise chemical structure of the PC molecule. One feature of this phase diagram is the observation over a wide temperature range of a fluid but highly conformationally ordered phase at bilayer concentrations of more than approximately 25 mol% cholesterol. This ;liquid ordered' phase is postulated to be the relevant physical state for many biological membranes, such as the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells, that contain substantial amounts of cholesterol or equivalent sterols.

  18. Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000787.htm Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol To use the sharing features on this page, ... are medicines that help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol . Too much cholesterol in your blood can stick ...

  19. Cholesterol modulates open probability and desensitization of NMDA receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korinek, Miloslav; Vyklicky, Vojtech; Borovska, Jirina; Lichnerova, Katarina; Kaniakova, Martina; Krausova, Barbora; Krusek, Jan; Balik, Ales; Smejkalova, Tereza; Horak, Martin; Vyklicky, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are glutamate-gated ion channels that mediate excitatory neurotransmission in the CNS. Although these receptors are in direct contact with plasma membrane, lipid–NMDAR interactions are little understood. In the present study, we aimed at characterizing the effect of cholesterol on the ionotropic glutamate receptors. Whole-cell current responses induced by fast application of NMDA in cultured rat cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) were almost abolished (reduced to 3%) and the relative degree of receptor desensitization was increased (by seven-fold) after acute cholesterol depletion by methyl-β-cyclodextrin. Both of these effects were fully reversible by cholesterol repletion. By contrast, the responses mediated by AMPA/kainate receptors were not affected by cholesterol depletion. Similar results were obtained in CGCs after chronic inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis by simvastatin and acute enzymatic cholesterol degradation to 4-cholesten-3-one by cholesterol oxidase. Fluorescence anisotropy measurements showed that membrane fluidity increased after methyl-β-cyclodextrin pretreatment. However, no change in fluidity was observed after cholesterol enzymatic degradation, suggesting that the effect of cholesterol on NMDARs is not mediated by changes in membrane fluidity. Our data show that diminution of NMDAR responses by cholesterol depletion is the result of a reduction of the open probability, whereas the increase in receptor desensitization is the result of an increase in the rate constant of entry into the desensitized state. Surface NMDAR population, agonist affinity, single-channel conductance and open time were not altered in cholesterol-depleted CGCs. The results of our experiments show that cholesterol is a strong endogenous modulator of NMDARs. Key points NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are tetrameric cation channels permeable to calcium; they mediate excitatory synaptic transmission in the CNS and their excessive activation can lead to

  20. The Impairment of Macrophage-to-Feces Reverse Cholesterol Transport during Inflammation Does Not Depend on Serum Amyloid A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. de Beer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggest that inflammation impairs reverse cholesterol transport (RCT. We investigated whether serum amyloid A (SAA contributes to this impairment using an established macrophage-to-feces RCT model. Wild-type (WT mice and mice deficient in SAA1.1 and SAA2.1 (SAAKO were injected intraperitoneally with 3H-cholesterol-labeled J774 macrophages 4 hr after administration of LPS or buffered saline. 3H-cholesterol in plasma 4 hr after macrophage injection was significantly reduced in both WT and SAAKO mice injected with LPS, but this was not associated with a reduced capacity of serum from LPS-injected mice to promote macrophage cholesterol efflux in vitro. Hepatic accumulation of 3H-cholesterol was unaltered in either WT or SAAKO mice by LPS treatment. Radioactivity present in bile and feces of LPS-injected WT mice 24 hr after macrophage injection was reduced by 36%   (P<0.05 and 80%   (P<0.001, respectively. In contrast, in SAAKO mice, LPS did not significantly reduce macrophage-derived 3H-cholesterol in bile, and fecal excretion was reduced by only 45%   (P<0.05. Injection of cholesterol-loaded allogeneic J774 cells, but not syngeneic bone-marrow-derived macrophages, transiently induced SAA in C57BL/6 mice. Our study confirms reports that acute inflammation impairs steps in the RCT pathway and establishes that SAA plays only a minor role in this impairment.

  1. Regulation of cholesterol homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wulp, Mariette Y. M.; Verkade, Henkjan J.; Groen, Albert K.

    2013-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is caused by a disturbed balance between cholesterol secretion into the blood versus uptake. The pathways involved are regulated via a complex interplay of enzymes, transport proteins, transcription factors and

  2. High Blood Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cholesterol or other fats, such as triglycerides. Total testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate tests can help rule out ... Intramural Research , which includes investigators in our Lipoprotein Metabolism Laboratory , is actively engaged in the study of ...

  3. Cholesterol - drug treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease Heart attack Heart bypass surgery Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive Heart disease and diet High blood cholesterol levels Peripheral artery bypass - leg Patient Instructions Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open - discharge Angina - discharge Angina - ...

  4. Cholesterol Domains Enhance Transfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betker, Jamie L.; Kullberg, Max; Gomez, Joe; Anchordoquy, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    The formation of cholesterol domains in lipoplexes has been associated with enhanced serum stability and transfection rates both in cell culture and in vivo. This study utilizes the ability of saturated phosphatidylcholines to promote the formation of cholesterol domains at much lower cholesterol contents than have been utilized in previous work. The results show that lipoplexes with identical cholesterol and cationic lipid contents exhibit significantly improved transfection efficiencies when a domain is present, consistent with previous work. In addition, studies assessing transfection rates in the absence of serum demonstrate that the ability of domains to enhance transfection is not dependent on interactions with serum proteins. Consistent with this hypothesis, characterization of the adsorbed proteins composing the corona of these lipoplex formulations did not reveal a correlation between transfection and the adsorption of a specific protein. Finally, we show that the interaction with serum proteins can promote domain formation in some formulations, and thereby result in enhanced transfection only after serum exposure. PMID:23557286

  5. High Blood Cholesterol Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lots of foods high in saturated fat and trans fat may contribute to high cholesterol and related conditions, ... Choose foods that are low in saturated fat, trans fat, sodium (salt), and added sugars. These foods include ...

  6. The Influence of Changes in Acute Training Load on Daily Sensitivity of Morning-Measured Fatigue Variables in Elite Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Robin T; Strudwick, Anthony J; Buchheit, Martin; Atkinson, Greg; Drust, Barry; Gregson, Warren

    2017-04-01

    To determine the sensitivity of a range of potential fatigue measures to daily training load accumulated over the previous 2, 3, and 4 d during a short in-season competitive period in elite senior soccer players (N = 10). Total highspeed-running distance, perceived ratings of wellness (fatigue, muscle soreness, sleep quality), countermovement-jump height (CMJ), submaximal heart rate (HRex), postexercise heart-rate recovery (HRR), and heart-rate variability (HRV: Ln rMSSD) were analyzed during an in-season competitive period (17 d). General linear models were used to evaluate the influence of 2-, 3-, and 4-d total high-speed-running-distance accumulation on fatigue measures. Fluctuations in perceived ratings of fatigue were correlated with fluctuations in total high-speed-running-distance accumulation covered on the previous 2 d (r = -.31; small), 3 d (r = -.42; moderate), and 4 d (r = -.28; small) (P training loads. Perceived ratings of fatigue and HRex were sensitive to fluctuations in acute total high-speed-running-distance accumulation, although sensitivity was not systematically influenced by the number of previous days over which the training load was accumulated. The present findings indicate that the sensitivity of morning-measured fatigue variables to changes in training load is generally not improved when compared with training loads beyond the previous day's training.

  7. Reference intervals for serum total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reference intervals of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations were determined on 309 blood donors from an urban and peri-urban population of Botswana. Using non-parametric methods to establish 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles of the distribution, the intervals were: total cholesterol 2.16 ...

  8. Effect of loading-dose ticagrelor on coronary blood flow, left ventricular remodeling and myocardial enzyme spectrum in patients with acute myocardial infarction after interventional therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Rui Xie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of loading-dose ticagrelor on coronary blood flow, left ventricular remodeling and myocardial enzyme spectrum in patients with acute myocardial infarction after interventional therapy. Methods: A total of 86 patients with acute myocardial infarction who received emergency PCI in our hospital between May 2013 and May 2016 were selected and randomly divided into two groups, ticagrelor group received perioperative ticagrelor therapy and clopidogrel group received perioperative clopidogrel therapy. After PCI, coronary blood flow reperfusion was evaluated, serum myocardial remodeling indexes and myocardial enzymes were determined, and cardiac color Doppler ultrasonography was conducted to determine the cardiac function indexes. Results: TIMI grading and TMPG grading of ticagrelor group after PCI were significantly higher than those of clopidogrel group; serum MMP9, BNP, CITP, PICP, PIIINP, CK, CK-MB, cTnI and cTnT content of ticagrelor group 24h after operation were significantly lower than those of clopidogrel group; LVEDD, LVSED and LVMI of ticagrelor group 2 weeks after operation were significantly lower than those of clopidogrel group while LVEF was significantly higher than that of clopidogrel group. Conclusion: Peri-PCI loading-dose ticagrelor can improve coronary blood perfusion and reduce ventricular remodeling and myocardial injury in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

  9. Comparison of the effects of two low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goals for secondary prevention after acute myocardial infarction in real-world practice: ≥ 50% reduction from baseline versus <70 mg/dL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyung Hoon; Jeong, Myung Ho; Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Lee, Sang Rok; Chae, Jei Keon; Hong, Young Joon; Kim, Ju Han; Ahn, Youngkeun; Cho, Jeong Gwan; Park, Jong Chun

    2015-01-01

    The present study compared the effects of two low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals for secondary prevention after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in real-world practice. Of 3091 consecutive patients with AMI who had baseline LDL-C levels ≥ 70 mg/dL and underwent successful percutaneous coronary intervention, 1305 eligible patients who received discharge statin prescriptions were analyzed. Patients were categorized into 2 groups according to the values of LDL-C at 1 year in two different manners using percent reduction from baseline (≥ 50% reduction, n=428 versus 50% reduction, n=877) and fixed levels (year major cardiac events including cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, percutaneous coronary intervention, and coronary artery bypass grafting after hospital discharge. At 2 years, major cardiac events occurred in 139 patients (10.7%). Compared with 50% LDL-C reduction from baseline, patients with ≥ 50% LDL-C reduction had a 47% risk reduction in major cardiac events (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.53; 95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 0.79; P=0.002). But, compared with LDL-C levels ≥ 70 mg/dL at 1 year, patients with LDL-C levels year had a similar risk of major cardiac events (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.68 to 1.34; P=0.793). Obtaining a ≥ 50% reduction in LDL-C was associated with better clinical outcomes after AMI in real-world practice, whereas achieving a < 70 mg/dL was not. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The value of E/Em ratio in the estimation of left ventricular filling pressures: impact of acute load reduction: a comparative simultaneous echocardiographic and catheterization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manouras, Aristomenis; Nyktari, Evangelia; Sahlén, Anders; Winter, Reidar; Vardas, Panagiotis; Brodin, Lars-Åke

    2013-07-01

    The ratio of the early transmitral flow velocity to the early diastolic tissue velocity (E/Em) has been suggested as a reliable estimate of left ventricular diastolic pressures (LVDP). However, the evidence regarding the ability of E/Em to detect LVDP changes is relatively equivocal. Our aim was to evaluate the validity of the ratio following acute load reduction. 68 consecutive patients referred for coronary angiography underwent LV catheterization and echocardiography simultaneously. Doppler signals of transmitral flow and spectral TD signals at the level of the mitral annulus were obtained before and directly after intravenous administration of nitroglycerin (NTG). The predictive ability of E/Em to identify elevated LVDP was modest (area under curve=0.71 ± 0.08, pEm lacked any predictive potential for elevated LVDP whereas changes LVDP could not be reliably tracked using E/Em. The predictive capacity of E/Em for elevated LVDP was weak and declined significantly following acute reduction in LV load. Changes in LVDP were not reliably predicted by E/Em. The current findings derived from a real-world patient population with relatively high filling pressures indicate that E/Em may not be sufficiently robust to be employed as a single non-invasive estimate of LVDP nor for monitoring load reducing medical therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cholesterol through the Looking Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiana, Ika; Luu, Winnie; Stevenson, Julian; Cartland, Sian; Jessup, Wendy; Belani, Jitendra D.; Rychnovsky, Scott D.; Brown, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    How cholesterol is sensed to maintain homeostasis has been explained by direct binding to a specific protein, Scap, or through altering the physical properties of the membrane. The enantiomer of cholesterol (ent-cholesterol) is a valuable tool in distinguishing between these two models because it shares nonspecific membrane effects with native cholesterol (nat-cholesterol), but not specific binding interactions. This is the first study to compare ent- and nat-cholesterol directly on major molecular parameters of cholesterol homeostasis. We found that ent-cholesterol suppressed activation of the master transcriptional regulator of cholesterol metabolism, SREBP-2, almost as effectively as nat-cholesterol. Importantly, ent-cholesterol induced a conformational change in the cholesterol-sensing protein Scap in isolated membranes in vitro, even when steps were taken to eliminate potential confounding effects from endogenous cholesterol. Ent-cholesterol also accelerated proteasomal degradation of the key cholesterol biosynthetic enzyme, squalene monooxygenase. Together, these findings provide compelling evidence that cholesterol maintains its own homeostasis not only via direct protein interactions, but also by altering membrane properties. PMID:22869373

  12. HDL cholesterol: atherosclerosis and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Bochem, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Western world. Myocardial infarction and stroke are the result of a compromised blood flow which may result from cholesterol accumulation in the vessel wall due to high plasma levels of LDL cholesterol. High plasma levels of HDL cholesterol, however, are inversely associated with CVD. This is commonly ascribed to a concept called "reverse cholesterol transport" a mechanism by which the HDL particle takes up cholesterol from the...

  13. Transintestinal and Biliary Cholesterol Secretion Both Contribute to Macrophage Reverse Cholesterol Transport in Rats-Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Jan Freark; Schonewille, Marleen; Dikkers, Arne; Koehorst, Martijn; Havinga, Rick; Kuipers, Folkert; Tietge, Uwe J F; Groen, Albert K

    2017-04-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport comprises efflux of cholesterol from macrophages and its subsequent removal from the body with the feces and thereby protects against formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Because of lack of suitable animal models that allow for evaluation of the respective contributions of biliary cholesterol secretion and transintestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE) to macrophage reverse cholesterol transport under physiological conditions, the relative importance of both pathways in this process has remained controversial. To separate cholesterol traffic via the biliary route from TICE, bile flow was mutually diverted between rats, continuously, for 3 days. Groups of 2 weight-matched rats were designated as a pair, and both rats were equipped with cannulas in the bile duct and duodenum. Bile from rat 1 was diverted to the duodenum of rat 2, whereas bile from rat 2 was rerouted to the duodenum of rat 1. Next, rat 1 was injected with [ 3 H]cholesterol-loaded macrophages. [ 3 H]Cholesterol secreted via the biliary route was consequently diverted to rat 2 and could thus be quantified from the feces of that rat. On the other hand, [ 3 H]cholesterol tracer in the feces of rat 1 reflected macrophage-derived cholesterol excreted via TICE. Using this setup, we found that 63% of the label secreted with the fecal neutral sterols had travelled via the biliary route, whereas 37% was excreted via TICE. TICE and biliary cholesterol secretion contribute to macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in rats. The majority of macrophage-derived cholesterol is however excreted via the hepatobiliary route. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Volume Load and Neuromuscular Fatigue During an Acute Bout of Agonist-Antagonist Paired-Set vs. Traditional-Set Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Gabriel A; Robbins, Daniel W; de Oliveira, Carlos G; Bottaro, Martim; Miranda, Humberto

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of performing paired-set (PS) vs. traditional-set (TS) training over 3 consecutive sets, on volume load and electromyographic fatigue parameters of the latissimus dorsi, biceps brachii, pectoralis major, and triceps brachii muscles. Fifteen trained men performed 2 testing protocols (TS and PS) using 10 repetition maximum loads. The TS protocol consisted of 3 sets of bench press (BP) followed by 3 sets of wide-grip seated row (SR). The PS consisted of 3 sets of BP and 3 sets of SR performed in an alternating manner. Volume load was calculated as load × repetitions. The electromyographic signal, time (CRMS) and frequency (Cf5) domain, parameters were recorded during SR. Under the PS protocol, sets of SR were performed immediately after the sets of BP. A 2-minute rest interval between the completion of the set of SR and the subsequent set of BP was implemented (e.g., between PSs). Under the TS protocol, 2-minute rest intervals were implemented between all sets. BP and SR volume loads decreased significantly from set 1 to set 2 and from set 2 to set 3 under both conditions. Volume load was greater for all sets of both exercises under PS as compared with TS. Muscle fatigue indices were greater under PS as compared with TS. In general, these results indicate that as compared with TS, PS produced a greater training volume in less time and may induce greater fatigue and thereby provide an enhanced training stimulus.

  15. Clinical characteristics and viral load of respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus in children hospitaled for acute lower respiratory tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Li; Li, Yu-Ning; Tang, Yi-Jie; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Gao, Han-Chun; Yang, Xue-Mei; Li, Yu-Mei; Liu, Li-Jun; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2017-04-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) are two common viral pathogens in acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI). However, the association of viral load with clinical characteristics is not well-defined in ALRTI. To explore the correlation between viral load and clinical characteristics of RSV and HMPV in children hospitalized for ALRTI in Lanzhou, China. Three hundred and eighty-seven children hospitalized for ALRTI were enrolled. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) were sampled from each children. Real-time PCR was used to screen RSV, HMPV, and twelve additional respiratory viruses. Bronchiolitis was the leading diagnoses both in RSV and HMPV positive patients. A significantly greater frequency of wheezing (52% vs. 33.52%, P = 0.000) was noted in RSV positive and negative patients. The RSV viral load was significant higher in children aged infections (P = 0.000). No difference was found in the clinical features of HMPV positive and negative patients. The HMPV viral load had no correlation with any clinical characteristics. The incidences of severe disease were similar between single infection and coinfection for the two viruses (RSV, P = 0.221; HMPV, P = 0.764) and there has no statistical significance between severity and viral load (P = 0.166 and P = 0.721). Bronchiolitis is the most common disease caused by RSV and HMPV. High viral load or co-infection may be associated with some symptoms but neither has a significant impact on disease severity for the two viruses. J. Med. Virol. 89:589-597, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Cholesterol crystallization within hepatocyte lipid droplets and its role in murine NASH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, George N; Subramanian, Savitha; Chait, Alan; Haigh, W Geoffrey; Yeh, Matthew M; Farrell, Geoffrey C; Lee, Sum P; Savard, Christopher

    2017-06-01

    We recently reported that cholesterol crystals form in hepatocyte lipid droplets (LDs) in human and experimental nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Herein, we assigned WT C57BL/6J mice to a high-fat (15%) diet for 6 months, supplemented with 0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75%, or 1% dietary cholesterol. Increasing dietary cholesterol led to cholesterol loading of the liver, but not of adipose tissue, resulting in fibrosing steatohepatitis at a dietary cholesterol concentration of ≥0.5%, whereas mice on lower-cholesterol diets developed only simple steatosis. Hepatic cholesterol crystals and crown-like structures also developed at a dietary cholesterol concentration ≥0.5%. Crown-like structures consisted of activated Kupffer cells (KCs) staining positive for NLRP3 and activated caspase 1, which surrounded and processed cholesterol crystal-containing remnant LDs of dead hepatocytes. The KCs processed LDs at the center of crown-like structures in the extracellular space by lysosomal enzymes, ultimately transforming into lipid-laden foam cells. When HepG2 cells were exposed to LDL cholesterol, they developed cholesterol crystals in LD membranes, which caused activation of THP1 cells (macrophages) grown in coculture; upregulation of TNF-alpha , NLRP3, and interleukin 1beta ( IL1β ) mRNA; and secretion of IL-1beta. In conclusion, cholesterol crystals form on the LD membrane of hepatocytes and cause activation and cholesterol loading of KCs that surround and process these LDs by lysosomal enzymes.

  17. Training loads and injury risk in Australian football-differing acute: chronic workload ratios influence match injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, David L; Blanch, Peter; Ong, Kok-Leong; Crossley, Kay M; Crow, Justin; Morris, Meg E

    2017-08-01

    (1) To investigate whether a daily acute:chronic workload ratio informs injury risk in Australian football players; (2) to identify which combination of workload variable, acute and chronic time window best explains injury likelihood. Workload and injury data were collected from 53 athletes over 2 seasons in a professional Australian football club. Acute:chronic workload ratios were calculated daily for each athlete, and modelled against non-contact injury likelihood using a quadratic relationship. 6 workload variables, 8 acute time windows (2-9 days) and 7 chronic time windows (14-35 days) were considered (336 combinations). Each parameter combination was compared for injury likelihood fit (using R 2 ). The ratio of moderate speed running workload (18-24 km/h) in the previous 3 days (acute time window) compared with the previous 21 days (chronic time window) best explained the injury likelihood in matches (R 2 =0.79) and in the immediate 2 or 5 days following matches (R 2 =0.76-0.82). The 3:21 acute:chronic workload ratio discriminated between high-risk and low-risk athletes (relative risk=1.98-2.43). Using the previous 6 days to calculate the acute workload time window yielded similar results. The choice of acute time window significantly influenced model performance and appeared to reflect the competition and training schedule. Daily workload ratios can inform injury risk in Australian football. Clinicians and conditioning coaches should consider the sport-specific schedule of competition and training when choosing acute and chronic time windows. For Australian football, the ratio of moderate speed running in a 3-day or 6-day acute time window and a 21-day chronic time window best explained injury risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Acute coronary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Have plenty of fruits, veggies, whole grains, and lean meats. Try to limit foods high in cholesterol ... et al. 2014 AHA/ACC guideline for the management of patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary ...

  19. Biogenesis of plasma membrane cholesterol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Y.

    1986-05-01

    A striking feature of the molecular organization of eukaryotic cells is the singular enrichment of their plasma membranes in sterols. The authors studies are directed at elucidating the mechanisms underlying this inhomogeneous disposition. Cholesterol oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of plasma membrane cholesterol in intact cells, leaving intracellular cholesterol pools untouched. With this technique, the plasma membrane was shown to contain 95% of the unesterified cholesterol of cultured human fibroblasts. Cholesterol synthesized from (/sup 3/H) acetate moved to the plasma membrane with a half-time of 1 h at 37/sup 0/C. They used equilibrium gradient centrifugation of homogenates of biosynthetically labeled, cholesterol oxidase treated cells to examine the distribution of newly synthesized sterols among intracellular pools. Surprisingly, lanosterol, a major precursor of cholesterol, and intracellular cholesterol both peaked at much lower buoyant density than did 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase. This suggests that cholesterol biosynthesis is not taken to completion in the endoplasmic reticulum. The cholesterol in the buoyant fraction eventually moved to the plasma membrane. Digitonin treatment increased the density of the newly synthesized cholesterol fractions, indicating that nascent cholesterol in transit is associated with cholesterol-rich membranes. The authors are testing the hypothesis that the pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis is spatially organized in various intracellular membranes such that the sequence of biosynthetic steps both concentrates the sterol and conveys it to the plasma membrane.

  20. Role of CYP2C19 gene polymorphism in acute alcohol withdrawal treatment with loading dose of diazepam in a South Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Manu; Mathaiyan, Jayanthi; Kattimani, Shivanand; Adithan, Surendiran; Chandrasekaran, Adithan

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol dependence is a public health problem worldwide, commonly associated with withdrawal symptoms for which diazepam is a frequently used drug. We studied the effect of CYP2C19 gene polymorphisms on diazepam loading dose requirement and time to reversal of acute alcohol withdrawal symptoms. We also studied the influence of the polymorphism in this gene on the persistent symptoms after loading dose of diazepam. Sixty-nine patients who reported to the psychiatry department with symptoms of alcohol withdrawal diagnosed by DSM-IV criteria were included for the study. A 10-mg loading dose of diazepam was administered iv after baseline assessment of withdrawal severity using CIWA-Ar scoring. The patients were assessed for improvement of the symptoms every two hourly and 20 mg oral diazepam was given based on improvement of symptoms. Genotyping for CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3 and CYP2C19*17 was done by PCR-RFLP and RT-PCR methods. The diazepam dose requirement as well as the time required for reversal of acute symptoms was not statistically different among the different genotype groups. Similarly, the frequency of patients with persistent symptoms after successful treatment of the acute episode was not different among the groups. However, the total diazepam dose requirement was influenced by baseline CIWA-Ar scores (adjusted OR 0.21, p = 0.026). In addition, the odds of treatment with a lower dose (10 mg) of diazepam were higher in smokers (adjusted OR 5.22, p = 0.025) and patients with other addiction (adjusted OR 9.26, p = 0.026). We found that CYP2C19 polymorphism did not have any significant effect on the diazepam dose requirement, time duration needed for successful treatment or on the persistent symptoms after loading dose of diazepam in South Indian population. However, diazepam dose requirement was influenced by baseline CIWA-Ar score, smoking status and other comorbid addictions.

  1. Cholesterol and Health

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 2. Cholesterol and Health. Pravina Piste Vidyadhar Patil. General Article Volume 11 Issue 2 February 2006 pp 74-77. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/011/02/0074-0077. Keywords.

  2. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of less than 70 mg/dL is associated with fewer cardiovascular events in acute coronary syndrome patients: a real-life cohort in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinwong D

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dujrudee Chinwong,1,2 Jayanton Patumanond,3 Surarong Chinwong,1 Khanchai Siriwattana,4 Siriluck Gunaparn,5 John Joseph Hall,6 Arintaya Phrommintikul5 1Department of Pharmaceutical Care, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 2Clinical Epidemiology Program, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 3Center of Excellence in Applied Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathum Thani, Thailand; 4Division of Medicine, Nakornping Hospital, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 5Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 6Centre for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia Background: Elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease or mortality; however, the LDL-C goal for therapy in acute coronary syndrome (ACS patients is controversial and varies among guidelines. This study aimed to assess the effect of reaching an LDL-C goal of <70 mg/dL (<1.8 mmol/L on first composite cardiovascular outcomes in routine clinical practice in Thailand.Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using medical charts and the electronic hospital database of patients diagnosed with ACS and treated with statins at a tertiary care hospital in Thailand between 2009 and 2012. After admission, patients were followed from the date of LDL-C goal assessment until the first event of composite cardiovascular outcomes (nonfatal ACS, nonfatal stroke, or all-cause death. Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for potential confounders were used.Results: Of 405 patients, mean age was 65 years (60% males. Twenty-seven percent of the patients attained an LDL-C goal of <70 mg/dL, 38% had LDL-C between 70 and 99 mg/dL, and 35% had LDL-C ≥100 mg/dL. Forty-six patients experienced a composite

  3. The administration of a loading dose of aspirin to patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction while receiving chronic aspirin treatment reduces thromboxane A2-dependent platelet reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria Teresa; Madrid, Isabel; Moscardo, Antonio; Latorre, Ana M; Bonastre, Juan; Ruano, Miguel; Valles, Juana

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The optimal dose of aspirin for patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) while receiving chronic aspirin therapy has not been clearly established. We evaluated whether continued treatment with 100 mg of aspirin or a loading dose (200-500 mg) influences thromboxane A2 (TX) suppression or platelet reactivity. Sixty-four consecutive patients with AMI and 98 healthy subjects (82 aspirin-free and 16 receiving 100 mg daily for a week) were evaluated. Treatment was at the discretion of the attending physician. Collagen (1 µg/ml)-induced TX synthesis, (14)C-serotonin-release, platelet aggregation, and the PFA-100 assay were evaluated. The platelet TX synthesis of patients receiving a loading dose of aspirin was sixfold lower than that of patients receiving 100 mg of aspirin (psynthesis (aspirin-free subjects) revealed that 8% of the patients treated with loading doses had a poor response (aspirin to patients with AMI during existing chronic aspirin treatment induced greater reductions in platelet TX synthesis and TX-dependent platelet reactivity than the continued treatment alone.

  4. In vivo pharmacokinetics of a gentamicin-loaded collagen sponge in acute periprosthetic infection - Serum values in 19 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swieringa, Anne J.; Goosen, Jon H. M.; Jansman, Frank G. A.; Tulp, Niek J. A.

    2008-01-01

    Background The in vivo pharmacokinetics of gentamycin- loaded collagen fleeces in humans have not been described in the current literature. We therefore analyzed in vivo pharmacokinetics of these fleeces when used in the treatment of periprosthetic infections. Patients and methods Gentamycin

  5. The acute effect of lower-body training on average power output measured by loaded half-squat jump exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Matúš Krčmár; Jaromír Šimonek; Ivan Vasiľovský

    2015-01-01

    Background: High muscular power output is required in many athletic endeavors in order for success to be achieved. In the scientific community postactivation potentiation and its effect on performance are often discussed. There are many studies where the effect of resistance exercise on motor performance (such as vertical jump performance and running speed) has been investigated but only a few of them studied power output. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the acute ...

  6. Bacterial load of pneumococcal serotypes correlates with their prevalence and multiple serotypes is associated with acute respiratory infections among children less than 5 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhoubhadel, Bhim Gopal; Yasunami, Michio; Nguyen, Hien Anh Thi; Suzuki, Motoi; Vu, Thu Huong; Thi Thuy Nguyen, Ai; Dang, Duc Anh; Yoshida, Lay-Myint; Ariyoshi, Koya

    2014-01-01

    Among pneumococcal serotypes, some serotypes are more prevalent in the nasopharynx than others; determining factors for higher prevalence remain to be fully explored. As non-vaccine serotypes have emerged after the introduction of 7-valent conjugate vaccines, study of serotype specific epidemiology is in need. When two or more serotypes co-colonize, they evolve rapidly to defend host's immune responses; however, a clear association of co-colonization with a clinical outcome is lacking. Children less than 5 years old who were admitted to hospital due to acute respiratory infections (ARI) (n = 595) and healthy children (n = 350) were recruited. Carriage of pneumococcus was determined by culture and lytA PCR in the nasopharyngeal samples. Serotype/serogroup detection and its quantification were done by the nanofluidic real time PCR system. Spearman's correlation and logistic regression were used to examine a correlation of serotype/serogroup specific bacterial load with its prevalence and an association of co-colonization with ARI respectively. Serotype/serogroup specific bacterial load was correlated with its prevalence, both in ARI cases (Spearman's rho = 0.44, n = 186; Pprevalence of multiple serotypes was more common in ARI cases than in healthy children (18.5% vs 7.1%; aOR 2.92, 95% CI: 1.27-6.71; P = 0.01). The dominant serotype in the co-colonization had a 2 log10 higher bacterial load than the subdominant serotype, both in ARI cases (P<0.001) and healthy children (P<0.05). High bacterial load in the nasopharynx may help transmit pneumococci among hosts, and increase the chance of successful acquisition and colonization. Co-colonization of multiple serotypes of pneumococci is linked with ARI, which infers the interactions of multiple serotypes may increase their pathogenicity; however, they may compete for growth in number.

  7. Specificity of the Acute Tryptophan and Tyrosine Plus Phenylalanine Depletion and Loading Tests I. Review of Biochemical Aspects and Poor Specificity of Current Amino Acid Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla A.-B. Badawy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The acute tryptophan or tyrosine plus phenylalanine depletion and loading tests are powerful tools for studying the roles of serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline in normal subjects and those with behavioural disorders. The current amino acid formulations for these tests, however, are associated with undesirable decreases in ratios of tryptophan or tyrosine plus phenylalanine to competing amino acids resulting in loss of specificity. This could confound biochemical and behavioural findings. Compositions of current formulations are reviewed, the biochemical principles underpinning the tests are revisited and examples of unintended changes in the above ratios and their impact on monoamine function and behaviour will be demonstrated from data in the literature. The presence of excessive amounts of the 3 branched-chain amino acids Leu, Ile and Val is responsible for these unintended decreases and the consequent loss of specificity. Strategies for enhancing the specificity of the different formulations are proposed.

  8. Cholesterol binding to ion channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena eLevitan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies demonstrated that membrane cholesterol is a major regulator of ion channel function. The goal of this review is to discuss significant advances that have been recently achieved in elucidating the mechanisms responsible for cholesterol regulation of ion channels. The first major insight that comes from growing number of studies that based on the sterol specificity of cholesterol effects, show that several types of ion channels (nAChR, Kir, BK, TRPV are regulated by specific sterol-protein interactions. This conclusion is supported by demonstrating direct saturable binding of cholesterol to a bacterial Kir channel. The second major advance in the field is the identification of putative cholesterol binding sites in several types of ion channels. These include sites at locations associated with the well-known cholesterol binding motif CRAC and its reversed form CARC in nAChR, BK, and TRPV, as well as novel cholesterol binding regions in Kir channels. Notably, in the majority of these channels, cholesterol is suggested to interact mainly with hydrophobic residues in non-annular regions of the channels being embedded in between transmembrane protein helices. We also discuss how identification of putative cholesterol binding sites is an essential step to understand the mechanistic basis of cholesterol-induced channel regulation. Clearly, however, these are only the first few steps in obtaining a general understanding of cholesterol-ion channels interactions and their roles in cellular and organ functions.

  9. The response of the prostate to circulating cholesterol: activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3 as a prominent node in a cholesterol-sensing network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayoung Kim

    Full Text Available Elevated circulating cholesterol is a systemic risk factor for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, however the manner in which the normal prostate responds to variations in cholesterol levels is poorly understood. In this study we addressed the molecular and cellular effects of elevated and suppressed levels of circulating cholesterol on the normal prostate. Integrated bioinformatic analysis was performed using DNA microarray data from two experimental formats: (1 ventral prostate from male mice with chronically elevated circulating cholesterol and (2 human prostate cells exposed acutely to cholesterol depletion. A cholesterol-sensitive gene expression network was constructed from these data and the transcription factor ATF3 was identified as a prominent node in the network. Validation experiments confirmed that elevated cholesterol reduced ATF3 expression and enhanced proliferation of prostate cells, while cholesterol depletion increased ATF3 levels and inhibited proliferation. Cholesterol reduction in vivo alleviated dense lymphomononuclear infiltrates in the periprostatic adipose tissue, which were closely associated with nerve tracts and blood vessels. These findings open new perspectives on the role of cholesterol in prostate health, and provide a novel role for ATF3, and associated proteins within a large signaling network, as a cholesterol-sensing mechanism.

  10. Data on respiratory variables in critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure placed on proportional assist ventilation with load adjustable gain factors (PAV+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Georgopoulos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data show respiratory variables in 108 critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure placed on proportional assist ventilation with load adjustable gain factors (PAV+ after at least 36 h on passive mechanical ventilation. PAV+ was continued for 48 h until the patients met pre-defined criteria either for switching to controlled modes or for breathing without ventilator assistance. Data during passive mechanical ventilation and during PAV+ are reported. Data are acquired from the whole population, as well as from patients with and without acute respiratory distress syndrome. The reported variables are tidal volume, driving pressure (ΔP, the difference between static end-inspiratory plateau pressure and positive end-expiratory airway pressure, respiratory system compliance and resistance, and arterial blood gasses. The data are supplemental to our original research article, which described individual ΔP in these patients and examined how it related to ΔP when the same patients were ventilated with passive mechanical ventilation using the currently accepted lung-protective strategy “Driving pressure during assisted mechanical ventilation. Is it controlled by patient brain?” [1].

  11. Effects of load-volume on EPOC after acute bouts of resistance training in resistance-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, George J; Greer, Beau K; Campbell, Sara C; Panton, Lynn B

    2013-07-01

    Recent investigations have shown excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) to be elevated for up to 48 hours in both untrained and trained subjects after resistance training (RT). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of load-volume on EPOC. Eight trained men (aged 22 ± 3 years) participated in 2 randomized RT bouts separated by at least 1 week with total load-volumes of 10,000 and 20,000 kg, respectively. Intensity of RT (85% 1 repetition maximum) did not differ between trials. Exercise energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were measured by indirect calorimetry at 8.5 hours before, 1.5 hours before, and during RT bouts and 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours after exercise. Creatine kinase (CK) was measured before and after RT, and 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours postexercise; ratings of perceived muscle soreness were measured on a similar time course save the immediate postexercise time point. Analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to analyze dependent variables. During the 20,000 kg trial, subjects expended significantly (p EPOC above baseline RMR.

  12. Characterization of placental cholesterol transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie L; Wassif, Christopher A; Vaisman, Boris

    2008-01-01

    Patients with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) are born with multiple congenital abnormalities. Postnatal cholesterol supplementation is provided; however, it cannot correct developmental malformations due to in utero cholesterol deficit. Increased transport of cholesterol from maternal to fetal...... circulation might attenuate congenital malformations. The cholesterol transporters Abca1, Abcg1, and Sr-b1 are present in placenta; however, their potential role in placental transport remains undetermined. In mice, expression analyses showed that Abca1 and Abcg1 transcripts increased 2-3-fold between...... embryonic days 13.5 and 18.5 in placental tissue; whereas, Sr-b1 expression decreased. To examine the functional role of Abca1, Abcg1 and Sr-b1 we measured the maternal-fetal transfer of (14)C-cholesterol in corresponding mutant embryos. Disruption of either Abca1 or Sr-b1 decreased cholesterol transfer...

  13. Recent advances in cholesterol chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morzycki, Jacek W

    2014-05-01

    This review article presents advances in cholesterol chemistry since 2000. Various transformations (chemical, enzymatic, electrochemical, etc.) of cholesterol are presented. A special emphasis is given to cholesterol oxidation reactions, but also substitution of the 3β-hydroxyl group, addition to the C5-C6 double bond, C-H functionalization, and C-C bond forming reactions are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Bacterial load of pneumococcal serotypes correlates with their prevalence and multiple serotypes is associated with acute respiratory infections among children less than 5 years of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhim Gopal Dhoubhadel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among pneumococcal serotypes, some serotypes are more prevalent in the nasopharynx than others; determining factors for higher prevalence remain to be fully explored. As non-vaccine serotypes have emerged after the introduction of 7-valent conjugate vaccines, study of serotype specific epidemiology is in need. When two or more serotypes co-colonize, they evolve rapidly to defend host's immune responses; however, a clear association of co-colonization with a clinical outcome is lacking. METHODS: Children less than 5 years old who were admitted to hospital due to acute respiratory infections (ARI (n = 595 and healthy children (n = 350 were recruited. Carriage of pneumococcus was determined by culture and lytA PCR in the nasopharyngeal samples. Serotype/serogroup detection and its quantification were done by the nanofluidic real time PCR system. Spearman's correlation and logistic regression were used to examine a correlation of serotype/serogroup specific bacterial load with its prevalence and an association of co-colonization with ARI respectively. RESULTS: Serotype/serogroup specific bacterial load was correlated with its prevalence, both in ARI cases (Spearman's rho = 0.44, n = 186; P<0.0001 and healthy children (Spearman's rho = 0.41, n = 115; P<0.0001. The prevalence of multiple serotypes was more common in ARI cases than in healthy children (18.5% vs 7.1%; aOR 2.92, 95% CI: 1.27-6.71; P = 0.01. The dominant serotype in the co-colonization had a 2 log10 higher bacterial load than the subdominant serotype, both in ARI cases (P<0.001 and healthy children (P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: High bacterial load in the nasopharynx may help transmit pneumococci among hosts, and increase the chance of successful acquisition and colonization. Co-colonization of multiple serotypes of pneumococci is linked with ARI, which infers the interactions of multiple serotypes may increase their pathogenicity; however, they may compete

  15. Cholesterol screening in US adults and awareness of high cholesterol among individuals with severe hypertriglyceridemia: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Jennifer Briley; Bourgeois, Nancy Ellen; Lowe, Kimberly Anne

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol screening is an effective method for identifying individuals with elevated triglyceride levels. Individuals with severe hypertriglyceridemia (SHTG; ≥500 mg/dL) have a substantially higher risk for developing coronary heart disease and acute pancreatitis than individuals with lower triglyceride levels. The aims of this study were to estimate the proportion of US adults who reported having their cholesterol checked, to evaluate the characteristics associated with having cholesterol checked, and to assess factors that are associated with awareness of having high cholesterol among adults with SHTG. The sample included 7988 adults who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2001-2008. Polytomous logistic regression models were used to identify factors that were associated with time since the last cholesterol screening, categorized as never screened, screened less than 2 years ago, and screened 2 or more years ago. Approximately 71% of the US adults reported ever having their cholesterol checked. Only 56% of the individuals with SHTG were aware of having high cholesterol. Factors associated with awareness of high cholesterol among those with SHTG included obesity, education, having insurance, having diabetes, and having a history of cardiovascular events. Most adults in the United States have had their cholesterol checked; however, only half of those with SHTG were aware of having high cholesterol. Awareness is the first step in implementing strategies to attenuate the health risks associated with dyslipidemia.

  16. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy modifies cholesterol synthesis but not cholesterol absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vuono, S; Ricci, M A; Siepi, D; Boni, M; Gentili, A; Scavizzi, M; Daviddi, G; Labate, P; Roscini, A R; Lupattelli, G

    Each bariatric surgery procedure impacts differently on cholesterol synthesis and absorption. Although a restrictive procedure, sleeve gastrectomy resolves diabetes mellitus and, like mixed-type procedures, induces early changes in gastrointestinal hormones. To our knowledge the present study is the first to assess the effects of sleeve gastrectomy on cholesterol synthesis and absorption. 42 consecutive subjects with obesity and sleeve gastrectomy candidates were included in the study together with a control group of 20 subjects without obesity. Before sleeve gastrectomy and 10 months afterwards, all subjects underwent a clinical examination, blood tests, ultrasound visceral fat area estimation and determination of plasma lathosterol, campesterol and sitosterol concentrations. After sleeve gastrectomy, significant decreases were observed in BMI, waist circumference, visceral and subcutaneous fat, blood pressure, triglycerides, insulin and glucose levels, lathosterol and HOMA-IR. HDL-C and apolipoprotein AI levels increased significantly. No significant differences emerged in LDL-C, apolipoprotein B levels or cholesterol absorption markers. Lathosterol levels correlated significantly with BMI, visceral fat area and HOMA-IR. Differences in cholesterol intake after surgery were not significantly associated with differences in lathosterol, campesterol and sitosterol concentrations. Sleeve gastrectomy reduced the markers of cholesterol synthesis but did not modify cholesterol absorption. Changes in cholesterol synthesis and absorption were independent of variations in cholesterol intake, suggesting a specific sleeve gastrectomy-related effect. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [The real measurement of non-HDL-cholesterol: Atherogenic cholesterol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, Jesús; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio; Ascaso, Juan F; Blasco, Mariano; Brea, Angel; Díaz, Ángel; González-Santos, Pedro; Mantilla, Teresa; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Pintó, Xavier

    Lowe density lipoproteins (LDL) are the causal agent of cardiovascular diseases. In practice, we identify LDL with cholesterol transported in LDL (cLDL). So, cLDL has become the major target for cardiovascular prevention. Howewer, we have progressive evidences about the role of triglycerides rich lipoproteins, particularly those very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) in promotion and progression of atherosclerosis, that leads cholesterol in VLDL and its remanents as a potential therapeutic target. This feature is particularly important and of a great magnitude, in patients with hypertiglyceridemia. We can to considere, that the non-HDL cholesterol -cLDL+cVLDL+c-remmants+Lp(a)- is the real measurement of atherogenic cholesterol. In addition, non-HDL-cholesterol do not show any variations between postprandial states. In fact, non-HDL-cholesterol should be an excellent marker of atherogenic cholesterol, and an major therapeutic target in patients with atherogenic dyslipidaemia. According with different clinical trials and with the epidemiological and mendelian studies, in patients with high cardiovascular risk, optimal level of cLDL will be under 70mg/dl, and under 100 ng/dl for non-HDL-cholesterol; and in high risk patients, 100mg/dl and 130mg/dl, respectively. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  18. The acute effect of coffee on endothelial function and glucose metabolism following a glucose load in healthy human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Evan A J; Croft, Kevin D; Shinde, Sujata; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Ward, Natalie C

    2017-09-20

    A diet rich in plant polyphenols has been suggested to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, in part, via improvements in endothelial function. Coffee is a rich source of phenolic compounds including the phenolic acid, chlorogenic acid (CGA). The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of coffee as a whole beverage on endothelial function, blood pressure and blood glucose concentration. Twelve healthy men and women were recruited to a randomised, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, with three treatments tested: (i) 18 g of ground caffeinated coffee containing 300 mg CGA in 200 mL of hot water, (ii) 18 g of decaffeinated coffee containing 287 mg CGA in 200 mL of hot water, and (iii) 200 mL of hot water (control). Treatment beverages were consumed twice, two hours apart, with the second beverage consumed simultaneously with a 75 g glucose load. Blood pressure was recorded and the finger prick glucose test was performed at time = 0 and then every 30 minutes up to 2 hours. Endothelial function, assessed using flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery, was measured at 1 hour and a blood sample taken at 2 hours to measure plasma nitrate/nitrite and 5-CGA concentrations. The FMD response was significantly higher in the caffeinated coffee group compared to both decaffeinated coffee and water groups (P coffee and water. Blood glucose concentrations and blood pressure were not different between the three treatment groups. In conclusion, the consumption of caffeinated coffee resulted in a significant improvement in endothelial function, but there was no evidence for benefit regarding glucose metabolism or blood pressure. Although the mechanism has yet to be elucidated the results suggest that coffee as a whole beverage may improve endothelial function, or that caffeine is the component of coffee responsible for improving FMD.

  19. HDL cholesterol: atherosclerosis and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochem, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Western world. Myocardial infarction and stroke are the result of a compromised blood flow which may result from cholesterol accumulation in the vessel wall due to high plasma levels of LDL cholesterol. High plasma levels of HDL

  20. Crystal structure of Δ(185-243)ApoA-I suggests a mechanistic framework for the protein adaptation to the changing lipid load in good cholesterol: from flatland to sphereland via double belt, belt buckle, double hairpin and trefoil/tetrafoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursky, Olga

    2013-01-09

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) is the major protein of plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), macromolecular assemblies of proteins and lipids that remove cell cholesterol and protect against atherosclerosis. HDL heterogeneity, large size (7.7-12 nm), and ability to exchange proteins have prevented high-resolution structural analysis. Low-resolution studies showed that two apoA-I molecules form an antiparallel α-helical "double belt" around an HDL particle. The atomic-resolution structure of the C-terminal truncated lipid-free Δ(185-243)apoA-I, determined recently by Mei and Atkinson, provides unprecedented new insights into HDL structure-function. It allows us to propose a molecular mechanism for the adaptation of the full-length protein to increasing lipid load during cholesterol transport. ApoA-I conformations on small, midsize, and large HDLs are proposed based on the tandem α-helical repeats and the crystal structure of Δ(185-243)apoA-I and are validated by comparison with extensive biophysical data reported by many groups. In our models, the central half of the double belt ("constant" segment 66-184) is structurally conserved while the N- and C-terminal half ("variable" segments 1-65 and 185-243) rearranges upon HDL growth. This includes incremental unhinging of the N-terminal bundle around two flexible regions containing G39 and G65 to elongate the belt, along with concerted swing motion of the double belt around G65-P66 and G185-G186 hinges that are aligned on various-size particles, to confer two-dimensional surface curvature to spherical HDLs. The proposed conformational ensemble integrates and improves several existing HDL models. It helps provide a structural framework necessary to understand functional interactions with over 60 other HDL-associated proteins and, ultimately, improve the cardioprotective function of HDL. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Crystal Structure of Δ(185–243)apoA-I Suggests a Mechanistic Framework for the Protein Adaptation to the Changing Lipid Load in Good Cholesterol: From Flatland to Sphereland via Double Belt, Belt-Buckle, Double Hairpin and Trefoil/Tetrafoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursky, Olga

    2012-01-01

    ApoA-I is the major protein of plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDL), macromolecular assemblies of proteins and lipids that remove cell cholesterol and protect against atherosclerosis. HDL heterogeneity, large size (7.7–12 nm) and ability to exchange proteins have prevented high-resolution structural analysis. Low-resolution studies showed that two apoA-I molecules form an antiparallel α-helical “double belt” around an HDL particle. Atomic-resolution structure of the C-terminal truncated lipid-free Δ(185–243)apoA-I, determined recently by Mei and Atkinson, provides unprecedented new insights into HDL structure-function. It allows us to propose a molecular mechanism for the adaptation of the full-length protein to increasing lipid load during cholesterol transport. ApoA-I conformations on the small, mid-size and large HDL are proposed based on the tandem α-helical repeats and the crystal structure of Δ(185–243)apoA-I, and are validated by comparison with extensive biophysical data reported by many groups. In our models, the central half of the double belt (“constant” segment 66–184) is structurally conserved while the N- and C-terminal half (“variable” segments 1–65 and 185–243) re-arranges upon HDL growth. This includes incremental unhinging of the N-terminal bundle around two flexible regions containing G39 and G65 to elongate the belt, along with concerted swing motion of the double belt around G65-P66 and G185–G186 hinges that are aligned on various-size particles, to confer 2D surface curvature to spherical HDL. The proposed conformational ensemble integrates and improves several existing HDL models. It helps provide a structural framework necessary to understand functional interactions with over 60 other HDL-associated proteins and, ultimately, improve cardioprotective function of HDL. PMID:23041415

  2. Epigenetic Regulation of Cholesterol Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve eMeaney

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Although best known as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, cholesterol is a vital component of all mammalian cells. In addition to key structural roles, cholesterol is a vital biochemical precursor for numerous biologically important compounds including oxysterols and bile acids, as well as acting as an activator of critical morphogenic systems (e.g. the Hedgehog system. A variety of sophisticated regulatory mechanisms interact to coordinate the overall level of cholesterol in cells, tissues and the entire organism. Accumulating evidence indicates that in additional to the more ‘traditional’ regulatory schemes, cholesterol homeostasis is also under the control of epigenetic mechanisms such as histone acetylation and DNA methylation. The available evidence supporting a role for these mechanisms in the control of cholesterol synthesis, elimination, transport and storage are the focus of this review.

  3. How to Get Your Cholesterol Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More How To Get Your Cholesterol Tested Updated:Nov 16,2017 High cholesterol usually ... diabetes and high blood pressure. How often should cholesterol be checked? The American Heart Association recommends that ...

  4. [Thoracic aortic dissection revealed by systemic cholesterol embolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braem, L; Paule, P; Héno, P; Morand, J J; Mafart, B; La Folie, T; Varlet, P; Mioulet, D; Fourcade, L

    2006-10-01

    Systemic cholesterol embolism is a rare complication of atherosclerosis, and has various presentations. Arterial catheterisms are a common cause. However, the association with an aortic dissection has been exceptionally reported. We report the observation of a 70 year-old man, with coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia. Six months before hospitalization, a coronary angioplasty was performed due to recurrent angina. The association of purpuric lesions on the feet, with acute renal failure confirmed cholesterol embolism syndrome. Transoesophageal echocardiography showed a dissection of the descending thoracic aorta associated with complex atheroma. The evolution was marked by the pulpar necrosis of a toe and by a worsening of the renal failure, requiring definitive hemodialysis. Further echographic control highlighted the rupture of the intimal veil of the dissection. Cholesterol embolism syndrome may reveal an aortic dissection in patients without thoracic symptoms. In such cases, transoesophageal echocardiography is a useful and non-invasive examination.

  5. [Ca2+]i recordings from neural cells in acutely isolated cerebellar slices employing differential loading of the membrane-permeant form of the calcium indicator fura-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirischuk, S; Verkhratsky, A

    1996-04-01

    This paper contains a description of the procedure for monitoring the cytoplasmic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) from intact neurones and glial cells in acutely isolated cerebellar slices. The loading of cells with the calcium indicator fura-2 was achieved by slice incubation in Tyrode solution containing 5 "mu"M fura-2 acetoxymethylester (fura-2/AM) and 0.02% (w/v) pluronic-F127 under a controlled (temperature, 35 degrees C; humidity, 98%; and gas, 5% O2 +95% CO2) environment. In such conditions, different cellular elements of the cerebellum (namely granule neurones, Bergmann glial cells and Purkinje neurones) acquired fura-2 at different rates. Ten minutes of slice incubation gave adequate staining of granule neurones only, 20 min of incubation allowed calcium-dependent changes of fluorescence signal measurements in Bergmann glial cells, whereas loading of Purkinje neurones required 40 min of slice exposure to fura-2/AM. In order to assure dye deesterification, slices were kept in continuously gassed bicarbonate-buffered solution for not less than 1 h thereafter. The fluorescence signals (excited at 360 and 380 nm) were collected from either a 25- "mu"m or 40- "mu"m area limited by fixed diaphragm inserted in front of the photomultiplier tube; an individual cell was positioned in approximately the centre of the fluorescence measurement area. These signals were comprised of [Ca2+]i-related changes in fura-2 fluorescence recorded from a cell of interest and background fluorescence. The latter resulted from the summation of slice autofluorescence, signals from the fura-2 acquired by neighbouring tissue and signals from fura-2 compartmentalized by intracellular organelles. After the end of fluorescence recordings, the cell was internally dialysed with dye-free intracellular solution in order to determine the actual levels of background fluorescence. In parallel, electrophysiological properties were determined, allowing identification of cell type and viability

  6. High Epstein-Barr Virus Load and Genomic Diversity Are Associated with Generation of gp350-Specific Neutralizing Antibodies following Acute Infectious Mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Eric R; Alter, Galit; Ogembo, Javier Gordon; Henderson, Jennifer L; Tabak, Barbara; Bakiş, Yasin; Somasundaran, Mohan; Garber, Manuel; Selin, Liisa; Luzuriaga, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) gp350 glycoprotein interacts with the cellular receptor to mediate viral entry and is thought to be the major target for neutralizing antibodies. To better understand the role of EBV-specific antibodies in the control of viral replication and the evolution of sequence diversity, we measured EBV gp350-specific antibody responses and sequenced the gp350 gene in samples obtained from individuals experiencing primary EBV infection (acute infectious mononucleosis [AIM]) and again 6 months later (during convalescence [CONV]). EBV gp350-specific IgG was detected in the sera of 17 (71%) of 24 individuals at the time of AIM and all 24 (100%) individuals during CONV; binding antibody titers increased from AIM through CONV, reaching levels equivalent to those in age-matched, chronically infected individuals. Antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) was rarely detected during AIM (4 of 24 individuals; 17%) but was commonly detected during CONV (19 of 24 individuals; 79%). The majority (83%) of samples taken during AIM neutralized infection of primary B cells; all samples obtained at 6 months postdiagnosis neutralized EBV infection of cultured and primary target cells. Deep sequencing revealed interpatient gp350 sequence variation but conservation of the CR2-binding site. The levels of gp350-specific neutralizing activity directly correlated with higher peripheral blood EBV DNA levels during AIM and a greater evolution of diversity in gp350 nucleotide sequences from AIM to CONV. In summary, we conclude that the viral load and EBV gp350 diversity during early infection are associated with the development of neutralizing antibody responses following AIM. Antibodies against viral surface proteins can blunt the spread of viral infection by coating viral particles, mediating uptake by immune cells, or blocking interaction with host cell receptors, making them a desirable component of a sterilizing vaccine. The EBV surface protein gp350 is a

  7. Cholesterol worships a new idol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, Ira G

    2009-12-01

    The growing worldwide epidemic of cardiovascular disease suggests that new therapeutic strategies are needed to complement statins in the lowering of cholesterol levels. In a recent paper in Science, Tontonoz and colleagues have identified Idol as a protein that can control cholesterol levels by regulating the stability of the low-density lipoprotein receptor; inhibiting the activity of Idol could provide novel approaches for the treatment of cardiovascular disease.

  8. The acute effects of different training loads of whole body vibration on flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in divers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, G; Paradisis, G; Kirialanis, P; Mellos, V; Argitaki, P; Smirniotou, A

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of different vibration loads (frequency and amplitude) of whole-body vibration (WBV) on flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in springboard divers. Eighteen male and female divers, aged 19 ± 2 years, volunteered to perform 3 different WBV protocols in the present study. To assess the vibration effect, flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs were measured before (Pre), immediately after (Post 1) and 15 min after the end of vibration exposure (Post 15). Three protocols with different frequencies and amplitudes were used in the present study: a) low vibration frequency and amplitude (30 Hz/2 mm); b) high vibration frequency and amplitude (50 Hz/4 mm); c) a control protocol (no vibration). WBV protocols were performed on a Power Plate platform, whereas the no vibration divers performed the same protocol but with the vibration platform turned off. A two-way ANOVA 3 x 3 (protocol × time) with repeated measures on both factors was used. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Univariate analyses with simple contrasts across time were selected as post hoc tests. Intraclass coefficients (ICC) were used to assess the reliability across time. The results indicated that flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs were significantly higher in both WBV protocols compared to the no vibration group (NVG). The greatest improvement in flexibility and explosive strength, which occurred immediately after vibration treatment, was maintained 15 min later in both WBV protocols, whereas NVG revealed a significant decrease 15 min later, in all examined strength parameters. In conclusion, a bout of WBV significantly increased flexibility and explosive strength in competitive divers compared with the NVG. Therefore, it is recommended to incorporate WBV as a method to increase flexibility and vertical jump height in sports where these parameters play an important role in the success outcome of

  9. Increased cardiovascular reactivity to acute stress and salt-loading in adult male offspring of fat fed non-obese rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Rudyk

    Full Text Available Diet-induced obesity in rat pregnancy has been shown previously to be associated with consistently raised blood pressure in the offspring, attributed to sympathetic over-activation, but the relative contributions to this phenotype of maternal obesity versus raised dietary fat is unknown. Sprague-Dawley female rats were fed either a control (4.3% fat, n = 11 or lard-enriched (23.6% fat, n = 16 chow 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and lactation. In conscious adult (9-month-old offspring cardiovascular parameters were measured (radiotelemetry. The short period of fat-feeding did not increase maternal weight versus controls and the baseline blood pressure was similar in offspring of fat fed dams (OF and controls (OC. However, adult male OF showed heightened cardiovascular reactivity to acute restraint stress (p<0.01; Δ systolic blood pressure (SBP and Δheart rate (HR with a prolonged recovery time compared to male OC. α1/β-adrenergic receptor blockade normalised the response. Also, after dietary salt-loading (8%-NaCl ad libitum for 1 week male OF demonstrated higher SBP (p<0.05 in the awake phase (night-time and increased low/high frequency ratio of power spectral density of HR variability versus OC. Baroreflex gain and basal power spectral density components of the heart rate or blood pressure were similar in male OF and OC. Minor abnormalities were evident in female OF. Fat feeding in the absence of maternal obesity in pregnant rats leads to altered sympathetic control of cardiovascular function in adult male offspring, and hypertension in response to stressor stimuli.

  10. The acute effects of different training loads of whole body vibration on flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in divers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Dallas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of different vibration loads (frequency and amplitude of whole-body vibration (WBV on flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in springboard divers. Eighteen male and female divers, aged 19 ± 2 years, volunteered to perform 3 different WBV protocols in the present study. To assess the vibration effect, flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs were measured before (Pre, immediately after (Post 1 and 15 min after the end of vibration exposure (Post 15. Three protocols with different frequencies and amplitudes were used in the present study: a low vibration frequency and amplitude (30 Hz/2 mm; b high vibration frequency and amplitude (50 Hz/4 mm; c a control protocol (no vibration. WBV protocols were performed on a Power Plate platform, whereas the no vibration divers performed the same protocol but with the vibration platform turned off. A two-way ANOVA 3 x 3 (protocol × time with repeated measures on both factors was used. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Univariate analyses with simple contrasts across time were selected as post hoc tests. Intraclass coefficients (ICC were used to assess the reliability across time. The results indicated that flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs were significantly higher in both WBV protocols compared to the no vibration group (NVG. The greatest improvement in flexibility and explosive strength, which occurred immediately after vibration treatment, was maintained 15 min later in both WBV protocols, whereas NVG revealed a significant decrease 15 min later, in all examined strength parameters. In conclusion, a bout of WBV significantly increased flexibility and explosive strength in competitive divers compared with the NVG. Therefore, it is recommended to incorporate WBV as a method to increase flexibility and vertical jump height

  11. Monomethylarsonous acid inhibited endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis in human skin fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Lei [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States); Xiao, Yongsheng [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States); Wang, Yinsheng, E-mail: yinsheng.wang@ucr.edu [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Human exposure to arsenic in drinking water is a widespread public health concern, and such exposure is known to be associated with many human diseases. The detailed molecular mechanisms about how arsenic species contribute to the adverse human health effects, however, remain incompletely understood. Monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)] is a highly toxic and stable metabolite of inorganic arsenic. To exploit the mechanisms through which MMA(III) exerts its cytotoxic effect, we adopted a quantitative proteomic approach, by coupling stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) with LC-MS/MS analysis, to examine the variation in the entire proteome of GM00637 human skin fibroblasts following acute MMA(III) exposure. Among the ∼ 6500 unique proteins quantified, ∼ 300 displayed significant changes in expression after exposure with 2 μM MMA(III) for 24 h. Subsequent analysis revealed the perturbation of de novo cholesterol biosynthesis, selenoprotein synthesis and Nrf2 pathways evoked by MMA(III) exposure. Particularly, MMA(III) treatment resulted in considerable down-regulation of several enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. In addition, real-time PCR analysis showed reduced mRNA levels of select genes in this pathway. Furthermore, MMA(III) exposure contributed to a distinct decline in cellular cholesterol content and significant growth inhibition of multiple cell lines, both of which could be restored by supplementation of cholesterol to the culture media. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of MMA(III) may arise, at least in part, from the down-regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis enzymes and the resultant decrease of cellular cholesterol content. - Highlights: • MMA(III)-induced perturbation of the entire proteome of GM00637 cells is studied. • Quantitative proteomic approach revealed alterations of multiple cellular pathways. • MMA(III) inhibits de novo cholesterol biosynthesis. • MMA

  12. Amperometric determination of serum total cholesterol with nanoparticles of cholesterol esterase and cholesterol oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, V; Malik, J; Prashant, A; Jaiwal, P K; Pundir, C S

    2016-05-01

    We describe the preparation of glutaraldehyde cross-linked and functionalized cholesterol esterase nanoparticles (ChENPs) and cholesterol oxidase nanoparticles (ChOxNPs) aggregates and their co-immobilization onto Au electrode for improved amperometric determination of serum total cholesterol. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of ChENPs and ChOxNPs showed their spherical shape and average size of 35.40 and 56.97 nm, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies of Au electrode confirmed the co-immobilization of enzyme nanoparticles (ENPs). The biosensor exhibited optimal response at pH 5.5 and 40°C within 5 s when polarized at +0.25 V versus Ag/AgCl. The working/linear range of the biosensor was 10-700 mg/dl for cholesterol. The sensor showed high sensitivity and measured total cholesterol as low as 0.1 mg/dl. The biosensor was evaluated and employed for total cholesterol determination in sera of apparently healthy and diseased persons. The analytical recovery of added cholesterol was 90%, whereas the within-batch and between-batch coefficients of variation (CVs) were less than 2% and less than 3%. There was a good correlation (r = 0.99) between serum cholesterol values as measured by the standard enzymic colorimetric method and the current method. The initial activity of ENPs/working electrode was reduced by 50% during its regular use (200 times) over a period of 60 days when stored dry at 4°C. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hepatitis C Virus Replication Depends on Endosomal Cholesterol Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeck, Ina Karen; Lee, Ji-Young; Tabata, Keisuke; Romero-Brey, Inés; Paul, David; Schult, Philipp; Lohmann, Volker; Kaderali, Lars; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2018-01-01

    Similar to other positive-strand RNA viruses, hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes massive rearrangements of intracellular membranes, resulting in a membranous web (MW) composed of predominantly double-membrane vesicles (DMVs), the presumed sites of RNA replication. DMVs are enriched for cholesterol, but mechanistic details on the source and recruitment of cholesterol to the viral replication organelle are only partially known. Here we focused on selected lipid transfer proteins implicated in direct lipid transfer at various endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-membrane contact sites. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown identified several hitherto unknown HCV dependency factors, such as steroidogenic acute regulatory protein-related lipid transfer domain protein 3 (STARD3), oxysterol-binding protein-related protein 1A and -B (OSBPL1A and -B), and Niemann-Pick-type C1 (NPC1), all residing at late endosome and lysosome membranes and required for efficient HCV RNA replication but not for replication of the closely related dengue virus. Focusing on NPC1, we found that knockdown or pharmacological inhibition caused cholesterol entrapment in lysosomal vesicles concomitant with decreased cholesterol abundance at sites containing the viral replicase factor NS5A. In untreated HCV-infected cells, unesterified cholesterol accumulated at the perinuclear region, partially colocalizing with NS5A at DMVs, arguing for NPC1-mediated endosomal cholesterol transport to the viral replication organelle. Consistent with cholesterol being an important structural component of DMVs, reducing NPC1-dependent endosomal cholesterol transport impaired MW integrity. This suggests that HCV usurps lipid transfer proteins, such as NPC1, at ER-late endosome/lysosome membrane contact sites to recruit cholesterol to the viral replication organelle, where it contributes to MW functionality. IMPORTANCE A key feature of the replication of positive-strand RNA viruses is the rearrangement of the host cell

  14. Niacin to Boost Your HDL "Good" Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niacin can boost 'good' cholesterol Niacin is a B vitamin that may raise your HDL ("good") cholesterol. But side effects might outweigh benefits for most ... been used to increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol — the "good" cholesterol that helps remove low-density ...

  15. Cholesterol-Modified Amino-Pullulan Nanoparticles as a Drug Carrier: Comparative Study of Cholesterol-Modified Carboxyethyl Pullulan and Pullulan Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Tao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To search for nano-drug preparations with high efficiency in tumor treatment, we evaluated the drug-loading capacity and cell-uptake toxicity of three kinds of nanoparticles (NPs. Pullulan was grafted with ethylenediamine and hydrophobic groups to form hydrophobic cholesterol-modified amino-pullulan (CHAP conjugates. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance were used to identify the CHAP structure and calculate the degree of substitution of the cholesterol group. We compared three types of NPs with close cholesterol hydrophobic properties: CHAP, cholesterol-modified pullulan (CHP, and cholesterol-modified carboxylethylpullulan (CHCP, with the degree of substitution of cholesterol of 2.92%, 3.11%, and 3.46%, respectively. As compared with the two other NPs, CHAP NPs were larger, 263.9 nm, and had a positive surface charge of 7.22 mV by dynamic light-scattering measurement. CHAP NPs showed low drug-loading capacity, 12.3%, and encapsulation efficiency of 70.8%, which depended on NP hydrophobicity and was affected by surface charge. The drug release amounts of all NPs increased in the acid media, with CHAP NPs showing drug-release sensitivity with acid change. Cytotoxicity of HeLa cells was highest with mitoxantrone-loaded CHAP NPs on MTT assay. CHAP NPs may have potential as a high-efficiency drug carrier for tumor treatment.

  16. Cholesterol influences potassium currents in inner hair cells isolated from guinea pig cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimitsuki, Takashi

    2017-02-01

    There is a correlation between serum hyperlipidemia and hearing loss. Cholesterol is an integral component of the cell membrane and regulates the activity of ion channels in the lipid bilayer. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cholesterol on the potassium currents in IHCs by using the cholesterol-depleting drug, MβCD, and water-soluble cholesterol. IHCs were acutely isolated from a mature guinea-pig cochlea and potassium currents were recorded. MβCD and water-soluble cholesterol were applied to IHCs under pressure puff pipettes. IHCs showed outwardly rectifying currents (IK,f and IK,s) in response to depolarizing voltage pulses, with only a slight inward current (IK,n) when hyperpolarized. In 10mM MβCD solutions, the amplitude of outward K currents reversely decreased; however, fast activation kinetics was preserved. In contrast, in solution of 1mM water-soluble cholesterol, the amplitude of outward K currents reversely increased. At the membrane potential of +110mV, relative conductances were 0.87±0.07 and 1.18±0.11 in MβCD solutions and cholesterol solutions, respectively. The amplitude of K currents in isolated IHCs was reversely changed by cholesterol-depleting drug and water-soluble cholesterol. These results demonstrated the possibility of the involvement of IHC function in hyperlipidemia-induced inner ear disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationship of oxidized phospholipids and biomarkers of oxidized low-density lipoprotein with cardiovascular risk factors, inflammatory biomarkers, and effect of statin therapy in patients with acute coronary syndromes: Results from the MIRACL (Myocardial Ischemia Reduction With Aggressive Cholesterol Lowering) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, Alexander E; Schwartz, Gregory G; Olsson, Anders G; Kinlay, Scott; Szarek, Michael; Rifai, Nader; Libby, Peter; Ganz, Peter; Witztum, Joseph L; Tsimikas, Sotirios

    2009-06-09

    This study sought to define the relationship between oxidative biomarkers, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, and inflammatory and thrombosis biomarkers. Elevated levels of oxidized phospholipids (OxPL) on apolipoprotein B particles (apoB) represent a novel biomarker of CVD. Previous studies suggest that an increase in OxPL/apoB reflects a positive response to statins and a low-fat diet. This study measured OxPL/apoB, lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)], and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) biomarkers, consisting of immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM autoantibodies to malondialdehyde (MDA)-low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and IgG and IgM apoB-100 immune complexes (IC/apoB), at baseline and after 16 weeks of treatment with atorvastatin 80 mg/day or placebo in 2,342 patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) enrolled in the MIRACL (Myocardial Ischemia Reduction With Aggressive Cholesterol Lowering) trial. At baseline, potentially atheroprotective IgM autoantibodies and IgM IC/apoB were lower in male patients, diabetic patients, and patients >65 years of age. Patients with an LDL level greater than the median (122 mg/dl) had higher levels of OxPL/apoB, Lp(a), and OxLDL biomarkers compared with those who had an LDL level less than the median. Atorvastatin resulted in significantly larger changes in all biomarkers in female patients, patients age LDL cholesterol risk factors and were largely independent of inflammatory biomarkers. Atorvastatin uniformly increased OxPL/apoB levels in all subgroups studied. Future studies are warranted to assess whether the increase in OxPL/apoB levels reflects the benefit of effective therapeutic interventions and prediction of new CVD events.

  18. Pulmonary surfactant function is abolished by an elevated proportion of cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekara, Lasantha; Schürch, Samuel; Schoel, W Michael; Nag, Kaushik; Leonenko, Zoya; Haufs, Michael; Amrein, Matthias

    2005-10-15

    A molecular film of pulmonary surfactant strongly reduces the surface tension of the lung epithelium-air interface. Human pulmonary surfactant contains 5-10% cholesterol by mass, among other lipids and surfactant specific proteins. An elevated proportion of cholesterol is found in surfactant, recovered from acutely injured lungs (ALI). The functional role of cholesterol in pulmonary surfactant has remained controversial. Cholesterol is excluded from most pulmonary surfactant replacement formulations, used clinically to treat conditions of surfactant deficiency. This is because cholesterol has been shown in vitro to impair the surface activity of surfactant even at a physiological level. In the current study, the functional role of cholesterol has been re-evaluated using an improved method of evaluating surface activity in vitro, the captive bubble surfactometer (CBS). Cholesterol was added to one of the clinically used therapeutic surfactants, BLES, a bovine lipid extract surfactant, and the surface activity evaluated, including the adsorption rate of the substance to the air-water interface, its ability to produce a surface tension close to zero and the area compression needed to obtain that low surface tension. No differences in the surface activity were found for BLES samples containing either none, 5 or 10% cholesterol by mass with respect to the minimal surface tension. Our findings therefore suggest that the earlier-described deleterious effects of physiological amounts of cholesterol are related to the experimental methodology. However, at 20%, cholesterol effectively abolished surfactant function and a surface tension below 15 mN/m was not obtained. Inhibition of surface activity by cholesterol may therefore partially or fully explain the impaired lung function in the case of ALI. We discuss a molecular mechanism that could explain why cholesterol does not prevent low surface tension of surfactant films at physiological levels but abolishes surfactant

  19. Imagem radiográfica de acúmulo fecal no ceco, como sinal diagnóstico de apendicite aguda Radiographic image of fecal loading in the cecum as a diagnostic sign of acute appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Petroianu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apesar de os achados radiográficos de apendicite aguda serem bem documentados, o valor da radiografia simples ainda não foi completamente determinado. O objetivo do presente estudo foi estabelecer a freqüência da associação de apendicite aguda a um sinal radiográfico caracterizado por imagem de acúmulo fecal ocupando todo o ceco. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram realizadas radiografias simples de abdome de 100 pacientes consecutivos com apendicite aguda, comprovada por operação e exame anatomopatológico. Pesquisou-se, nas radiografias, a presença de imagem de acúmulo fecal no ceco, caracterizada por hipotransparência ocupando todo o ceco e, eventualmente, também o cólon ascendente. RESULTADOS: A imagem de acúmulo fecal no ceco foi encontrada em 97% dos doentes, independentemente de idade, sexo, cor da pele ou estádio da apendicite. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo sugere que a presença de imagem radiográfica de acúmulo fecal no ceco pode ser um sinal útil no diagnóstico de apendicite aguda.OBJECTIVE: Although the radiological features of acute appendicitis are well documented, the value of the plain radiography has not been fully appreciated yet. The present study was aimed at determining the frequency of association between acute appendicitis and a radiological sign characterized as an image of fecal loading in the whole cecum. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plain abdominal radiographs of 100 consecutive adult patients with acute appendicitis proved by surgery and histology were assessed. The presence of fecal loading characterized by hypotransparency in the whole cecum, and sometimes also in the ascending colon, was observed. RESULTS: The image of fecal loading in the cecum was found in 97% of cases of acute appendicitis, independently of age, gender, skin color or stage of appendicitis. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that the presence of radiological images of fecal loading in the cecum may be a useful sign for the

  20. Regulation of biliary cholesterol secretion and reverse cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, Arne

    2016-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization the number one cause of death throughout the world is cardiovascular disease. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new therapeutic strategies to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease. One possible way is to target the HDL-driven reverse cholesterol

  1. Remnant cholesterol and ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent advances in the field of remnant cholesterol as a contributor to the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD). RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiologic, mechanistic, and genetic studies all support a role for elevated remnant cholesterol (=cholesterol in triglyceride......-rich lipoproteins) as a contributor to the development of atherosclerosis and IHD. Observational studies show association between elevated remnant cholesterol and IHD, and mechanistic studies show remnant cholesterol accumulation in the arterial wall like LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) accumulation. Furthermore, large...... genetic studies show evidence of remnant cholesterol as a causal risk factor for IHD independent of HDL-cholesterol levels. Genetic studies also show that elevated remnant cholesterol is associated with low-grade inflammation, whereas elevated LDL-C is not. There are several pharmacologic ways of lowering...

  2. Membrane Cholesterol Modulates Superwarfarin Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marangoni, M. Natalia; Martynowycz, Michael W.; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Braun, David; Polak, Paul E.; Weinberg, Guy; Rubinstein, Israel; Gidalevitz, David; Feinstein, Douglas L.

    2016-04-26

    Superwarfarins are modified analogs of warfarin with additional lipophilic aromatic rings, up to 100-fold greater potency, and longer biological half-lives. We hypothesized that increased hydrophobicity allowed interactions with amphiphilic membranes and modulation of biological responses. We find that superwarfarins brodifacoum and difenacoum increase lactate production and cell death in neuroblastoma cells. In contrast, neither causes changes in glioma cells that have higher cholesterol content. After choleterol depletion, lactate production was increased and cell viability was reduced. Drug-membrane interactions were examined by surface X-ray scattering using Langmuir monolayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and/or cholesterol. Specular X-ray reflectivity data revealed that superwarfarins, but not warfarin, intercalate between dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine molecules, whereas grazing incidence X-ray diffraction demonstrated changes in lateral crystalline order of the film. Neither agent showed significant interactions with monolayers containing >20% cholesterol. These findings demonstrate an affinity of superwarfarins to biomembranes and suggest that cellular responses to these agents are regulated by cholesterol content.

  3. Differences in viral load among human respiratory syncytial virus genotypes in hospitalized children with severe acute respiratory infections in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadji, Francois Marie Ngako; Okamoto, Michiko; Furuse, Yuki; Tamaki, Raita; Suzuki, Akira; Lirio, Irene; Dapat, Clyde; Malasao, Rungnapa; Saito, Mariko; Pedrera-Rico, Gay Anne Granada; Tallo, Veronica; Lupisan, Socorro; Saito, Mayuko; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-06-27

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a leading viral etiologic agent of pediatric lower respiratory infections, including bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Two antigenic subgroups, HRSV-A and B, each contain several genotypes. While viral load may vary among HRSV genotypes and affect the clinical course of disease, data are scarce regarding the actual differences among genotypes. Therefore, this study estimated and compared viral load among NA1 and ON1 genotypes of HRSV-A and BA9 of HRSV-B. ON1 is a newly emerged genotype with a 72-nucleotide duplication in the G gene as observed previously with BA genotypes in HRSV-B. Children <5 years of age with an initial diagnosis of severe or very severe pneumonia at a hospital in the Philippines from September 2012 to December 2013 were enrolled. HRSV genotypes were determined and the viral load measured from nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS). The viral load of HRSV genotype NA1 were significantly higher than those of ON1 and BA9. Regression analysis showed that both genotype NA1 and younger age were significantly associated with high HRSV viral load. The viral load of NA1 was higher than that of ON1 and BA9 in NPS samples. HRSV genotypes may be associated with HRSV viral load. The reasons and clinical impacts of these differences in viral load among HRSV genotypes require further evaluation.

  4. Dietary cholesterol supplementation to a plant-based diet suppresses the complete pathway of cholesterol synthesis and induces bile acid production in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortner, Trond M; Björkhem, Ingemar; Krasnov, Aleksei; Timmerhaus, Gerrit; Krogdahl, Åshild

    2014-06-28

    Plants now supply more than 50 % of protein in Norwegian salmon aquafeeds. The inclusion of plant protein in aquafeeds may be associated with decreased lipid digestibility and cholesterol and bile salt levels, indicating that the replacement of fishmeal with plant protein could result in inadequate supplies of cholesterol in fish. A reduction in feed efficiency, fish growth and pathogen resistance is often observed in parallel to alterations in sterol metabolism. Previous studies have indicated that the negative effects induced by plant components can be attenuated when diets are supplemented with cholesterol. The present study evaluated the effects of dietary cholesterol supplementation (1·5 %) in Atlantic salmon fed a plant-based diet for 77 d. The weights of body, intestines and liver were recorded and blood, tissues, faeces, chyme and bile were sampled for the evaluation of effects on growth, nutrient utilisation and metabolism, and transcriptome and metabolite levels, with particular emphasis on sterol metabolism and organ structure and function. Cholesterol supplementation did not affect the growth or organ weights of Atlantic salmon, but seemed to promote the induction of cholesterol and plant sterol efflux in the intestine while suppressing sterol uptake. Cholesterol biosynthesis decreased correspondingly and conversion into bile acids increased. The marked effect of cholesterol supplementation on bile acid synthesis suggests that dietary cholesterol can be used to increase bile acid synthesis in fish. The present study clearly demonstrated how Atlantic salmon adjusted their metabolic functions in response to the dietary load of cholesterol. It has also expanded our understanding of sterol metabolism and turnover, adding to the existing, rather sparse, knowledge of these processes in fish.

  5. Effects of acute and chronic attenuation of postprandial hyperglycemia on postglucose-load endothelial function in insulin resistant individuals: is stimulation of first phase insulin secretion beneficial for the endothelial function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Major-Pedersen, A; Ihlemann, N; Hermann, T S

    2008-01-01

    -resistant subjects with the Flow-Mediated-Dilation (FMD) technique. We randomized subjects to intervention/control group, and examined the acute and chronic effect of nateglinide, an oral antidiabetic drug of rapid action. In the intervention group, postoral glucose-load (post-OGL) FMD delta values deteriorated when......-day "Closing day", p=0.001]. Post-OGL changes in the control group were nonsignificant both at Baseline and on Closing day. After a single dose of nateglinide "Acute day", post-OGL FMD deterioration was abolished. There was an increment in post-OGL FMD delta values most significant at 2 h post-OGL (p=0....... We found no relationship between postprandial hyperglycemia and post-OGL FMD....

  6. Healthy Dietary Fats Help Beat High Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 166625.html Healthy Dietary Fats Help Beat High Cholesterol Eating them can reduce your risk of heart ... ones found in some vegetable oils can reduce cholesterol levels and heart disease risk as much as ...

  7. High Cholesterol: Medicines to Help You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women High Cholesterol--Medicines To Help You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... side effects for each drug, check Drugs@FDA . Cholesterol Absorption Inhibitors Brand Name Generic Name Zetia Ezetimibe ...

  8. New Cholesterol Fighting Meds Target Key Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165942.html New Cholesterol Fighting Meds Target Key Gene Two trials show ... New gene-based therapies appear to significantly decrease cholesterol levels in people, and could even cut down ...

  9. Do You Know Your Cholesterol Levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Health Information Center Do You Know Your Cholesterol Levels? Print-friendly Version (PDF, 6.1 MB) ... Eat Smart Did you know that high blood cholesterol is a serious problem among Latinos? About one ...

  10. Cholesterol: the debate should be terminated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, David G

    2017-07-01

    Here, I offer personal perspectives on cholesterol homeostasis that reflect my belief that certain aspects of the debate have been overstated.-Nathan, D. G. Cholesterol: the debate should be terminated. © FASEB.

  11. Reversible encephalopathy associated with cholesterol embolism syndrome: magnetic resonance imaging and pathological findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreux, F; Marro, B; Khoury, N EI; Seilhean, D; Alamowitch, S

    2007-01-01

    We describe a patient found to have acute diffuse and reversible encephalopathy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) associated with cholesterol emboli syndrome (CES). The initial MRI showed extensive white matter, basal ganglia and cortical damage without evidence of brain infarction. Dramatic clinical and MRI improvement was observed with corticosteroids. Pathologically, cholesterol crystal emboli were found in the lumen of skin and brain arteries and were associated with varying degrees of inflammation of the arteriole wall. This case suggests that CES may be responsible for extensive, acute and reversible encephalopathy underlined by an inflammation of brain arteries. PMID:17229746

  12. Cholesterol 24-hydroxylase: Brain cholesterol metabolism and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho, Miguel; Nunes, Maria João; Rodrigues, Elsa

    2016-12-01

    Dysfunctions in brain cholesterol homeostasis have been extensively related to brain disorders. The major elimination pathway of brain cholesterol is its hydroxylation into 24 (S)-hydroxycholesterol by the cholesterol 24-hydroxylase (CYP46A1). Interestingly, there seems to be an association between CYP46A1 and high-order brain functions, in a sense that increased expression of this hydroxylase improves cognition, while a reduction leads to a poor cognitive performance. Moreover, increasing amount of epidemiological, biochemical and molecular evidence, suggests that CYP46A1 has a role in the pathogenesis or progression of neurodegenerative disorders, in which up-regulation of this enzyme is clearly beneficial. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are poorly understood, which highlights the importance of studies that further explore the role of CYP46A1 in the central nervous system. In this review we summarize the major findings regarding CYP46A1, and highlight the several recently described pathways modulated by this enzyme from a physiological and pathological perspective, which might account for novel therapeutic strategies for neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of cholesterol supplementation on cryosurvival of goat spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Behera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Sperm membrane cholesterol influences cryodamage during cryopreservation. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of varying cholesterol levels in Tris based extenders on the freezability of sexually healthy Malabari buck semen. Materials and Methods: A total of 48 ejaculates from two adults healthy sexually healthy Malabari bucks were utilized for the study. The collected and pooled ejaculates were divided into four groups with Group I serving as Control - I, Group II and III were treated with 1 mg and 2 mg of cholesterol-loaded-cyclodextrin (CLC/120 × 106 spermatozoa, respectively, and Group IV treated with 1 mg methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD served as Control - II. Manual freezing was carried out to cryopreserve the treated and control spermatozoa. Results: Treatment of semen samples with CLC resulted in improved maintenance of sperm motility at pre-freeze and post-thaw stages of cryopreservation without affecting hypo-osmotic swelling response. Treatment of semen with 1 mg of CLC/120 × 106 spermatozoa was observed to be better than treatment with 2 mg of CLC/120 × 106 spermatozoa. In general, MβCD treatment was found to result in significantly lower sperm characteristics than those of Control - I and CLC treatment at pre-feeze and post-thaw stages and when incubated up to 4 h. Conclusion: Cholesterol treatment of sexually healthy Malabari buck semen was found to hold promise for improving cryopreser-vability of spermatozoa.

  14. Nanoscale Membrane Domain Formation Driven by Cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javanainen, Matti; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2017-01-01

    . The complex nanodomain substructure forms when cholesterol positions itself in the domain boundary region. Here cholesterol can also readily flip-flop across the membrane. Most importantly, replacing cholesterol with a sterol characterized by a less asymmetric ring region impairs the emergence of nanodomains...

  15. Intestinal cholesterol secretion : future clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakulj, L.; Besseling, J.; Stroes, E. S. G.; Groen, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Together with the liver, the intestine serves as a homeostatic organ in cholesterol metabolism. Recent evidence has substantiated the pivotal role of the intestine in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). RCT is a fundamental antiatherogenic pathway, mediating the removal of cholesterol from tissues

  16. Isolation of Cholesterol from an Egg Yolk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Douglass F.; Li, Rui; Anson, Cory M.

    2011-01-01

    A simple procedure for the isolation of the cholesterol, by hydrolysis and extraction followed by column chromatography, is described. The cholesterol can be further purified by complexation with oxalic acid. It can also be oxidized and conjugated to cholestenone. The source of the cholesterol is one egg yolk, which contains about 200 mg of…

  17. Public health aspects of serum cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Houterman (Saskia)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractIn the beginning of this century Anitschkow and De Langen started pioneering work concerning the relation between cholesterol and coronary heart disease. Both showed that there was a possible relation between cholesterol in the diet, blood cholesterol levels and atherosclerosis. It took

  18. Cholesterol Level: Can It Be Too Low?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D. A high blood cholesterol level increases your risk of coronary artery disease. Lower cholesterol is usually better, but in rare cases having ... in individuals with heart disease or at high risk of heart disease or stroke. If ... about your cholesterol level, consult your doctor. If you're taking ...

  19. Prevention and Treatment of High Cholesterol (Hyperlipidemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t is the first step in lowering your risk of heart disease. Cooking for Lower Cholesterol A heart-healthy eating plan can help you ... lowers HDL cholesterol. When a person with high cholesterol also smokes, their risk of coronary heart disease increases more than it otherwise would. ...

  20. Peptide mediators of cholesterol efflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielicki, John K.; Johansson, Jan

    2013-04-09

    The present invention provides a family of non-naturally occurring polypeptides having cholesterol efflux activity that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins (e.g., Apo AI and Apo E), and having high selectivity for ABAC1 that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins. The invention also provides compositions comprising such polypeptides, methods of identifying, screening and synthesizing such polypeptides, and methods of treating, preventing or diagnosing diseases and disorders associated with dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia and inflammation.

  1. Cholesterol Depletion from a Ceramide/Cholesterol Mixed Monolayer: A Brewster Angle Microscope Study

    KAUST Repository

    Mandal, Pritam

    2016-06-01

    Cholesterol is crucial to the mechanical properties of cell membranes that are important to cells’ behavior. Its depletion from the cell membranes could be dramatic. Among cyclodextrins (CDs), methyl beta cyclodextrin (MβCD) is the most efficient to deplete cholesterol (Chol) from biomembranes. Here, we focus on the depletion of cholesterol from a C16 ceramide/cholesterol (C16-Cer/Chol) mixed monolayer using MβCD. While the removal of cholesterol by MβCD depends on the cholesterol concentration in most mixed lipid monolayers, it does not depend very much on the concentration of cholesterol in C16-Cer/Chol monolayers. The surface pressure decay during depletion were described by a stretched exponential that suggested that the cholesterol molecules are unable to diffuse laterally and behave like static traps for the MβCD molecules. Cholesterol depletion causes morphology changes of domains but these disrupted monolayers domains seem to reform even when cholesterol level was low.

  2. Analysis of Cholesterol Trafficking with Fluorescent Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxfield, Frederick R.; Wustner, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Cholesterol plays an important role in determining the biophysical properties of biological membranes, and its concentration is tightly controlled by homeostatic processes. The intracellular transport of cholesterol among organelles is a key part of the homeostatic mechanism, but sterol transport...... that can bind to cholesterol to reveal its distribution in cells. We also discuss the use of intrinsically fluorescent sterols that closely mimic cholesterol, as well as some minimally modified fluorophore-labeled sterols. Methods for imaging these sterols by conventional fluorescence microscopy...... and by multiphoton microscopy are described. Some label-free methods for imaging cholesterol itself are also discussed briefly....

  3. Biliary cholesterol secretion : More than a simple ABC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, Arne; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    2010-01-01

    Biliary cholesterol secretion is a process important for 2 major disease complexes, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and cholesterol gallstone disease With respect to cardiovascular disease, biliary cholesterol secretion is regarded as the final step for the elimination of cholesterol

  4. Intracellular transport of cholesterol in mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasaemle, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    The erythrocyte was selected as a simple cell for the study of transbilayer movement of cholesterol. Cholesterol oxidase was used to measure the distribution of ({sup 3}H)cholesterol across the erythrocyte membrane. Cholesterol oxidase was also used to estimate the rate of transport of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol to the plasma membrane of cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) fibroblasts; the half-time of this process was 42 minutes. The rate of transport of LDL cholesterol to the plasma membrane was confirmed by a second procedure using amphotericin B. Amphotericin B was also used to estimate the rate of transport of endogenously synthesized cholesterol to the plasma membrane of CHO cells. New methodology was developed including improvements of the previously published cholesterol oxidase assay for plasma membrane cholesterol. A new method for detecting transport of cholesterol to the plasma membrane in cultured cells was developed using amphotericin B. Preliminary studies investigated the use of fluorescent polyenes, pimaricin and etruscomycin, as probes for plasma membrane cholesterol in transport studies. Finally, a modification of a previously published cell staining protocol yielded a simple, quantitative assay for cell growth.

  5. Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family HealthInfants and Toddlers Kids and Teens Pregnancy and ... Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family HealthInfants and Toddlers Kids and Teens Pregnancy and ...

  6. DNA separation by cholesterol-bearing pullulan nanogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Keisuke; Kaji, Noritada; Toita, Sayaka; Okamoto, Yukihiro; Tokeshi, Manabu; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Baba, Yoshinobu

    2010-01-01

    We present an application of a novel DNA separation matrix, cholesterol-bearing pullulan (CHP) nanogels, for microchip electrophoresis. The solution of the CHP showed a unique phase transition around 30 mg∕ml and formed gel phase over this critical concentration. This gel phase consists of the weak hydrophobic interactions between the cholesterols could be easily deformed by external forces, and thus, loading process of the CHP nanogels into microchannels became easier. The high concentration of the CHP nanogels provided excellent resolutions especially for small DNA fragments from 100 to 1500 bp. The separation mechanism was discussed based on Ogston and Reptation models which had developed in gels or polymer solutions. The result of a single molecule imaging gave us an insight of the separation mechanism and the nanogel structures as well. PMID:21045931

  7. Evaluation of Cholesterol-lowering Activity of Standardized Extract of Mangifera indica in Albino Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gururaja, G M; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Kumar, A Senthil; Dethe, Shekhar Michael; Allan, J Joshua; Agarwal, Amit

    2017-01-01

    Cholesterol lowering activity of Mangifera indica L. has been determined by earlier researchers and kernel, leaf and bark have shown significant activity. However, the specific cholesterol lowering activity of leaf methanol extract has not been determined. The present study involved evaluation of cholesterol lowering potential of methanol extract of M. indica leaves using high cholesterol diet model in albino Wistar rats. The acute oral toxicity at a dose of 5000 mg/ kg body weight was also determined in female albino Wistar rats. Phytoconstituents Iriflophenone 3-C-β-D-glucoside and mangiferin were quantified in methanol extracts of different varieties of mango leaves using high performance liquid chromatography. Significant cholesterol lowering activity was observed with methanol extract of M. indica leaves, at dose of 90 mg/kg body weight in rats and it was also found to be safe at dose of 5000 mg/kg rat body. Iriflophenone 3-C-β-D-glucoside and mangiferin were found to be in the range of 1.2 to 2.8% w/w and 3.9 to 4.6% w/w, respectively which along with 3 β taraxerol and other sterols could be contributing to the cholesterol lowering activity of mango leaves extract. The phytosterols rich extract of Mangifera indica leaves is a good source of nutraceutical ingredient that have the potential to lower serum cholesterol levels. The Mangifera indica leaves methanolic extract showed significant cholesterol lowering activity in high cholesterol diet induced hypercholesterolaemia model in rats when evaluated at a dose of 90 mg/kg rat body weight. The extract was found to contain Iriflophenone 3-C-β-D-glucoside and mangiferin which along with 3 β taraxerol and other sterols could be contributing to the cholesterol lowering activity.

  8. Association of Cholesterol Efflux Capacity With Clinical Features of Metabolic Syndrome: Relevance to Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Julie; Frisdal, Eric; Bittar, Randa; Le Goff, Wilfried; Bruckert, Eric; Lesnik, Philippe; Guerin, Maryse; Giral, Philippe

    2016-11-23

    The contribution of high-density lipoprotein to cardiovascular benefit is closely linked to its role in the cellular cholesterol efflux process; however, various clinical and biochemical variables are known to modulate the overall cholesterol efflux process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent to which clinical and biological anomalies associated with the establishment of the metabolic syndrome modulate cholesterol efflux capacity and contribute to development of atherosclerosis. This study involved patients (n=1202) displaying atherogenic dyslipidemia in primary prevention who were referred to our prevention center. Among these patients, 25% presented at least 3 criteria of the metabolic syndrome, as defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. We measured the capacity of 40-fold diluted serum to mediate cholesterol efflux from cholesterol-loaded human THP-1 macrophages. Cholesterol efflux capacity was reduced progressively by 4% to 11% (Pmetabolic syndrome from 1 to 5. This observation was primarily related to reductions in scavenger receptor class B member 1 and ATP binding cassette subfamily G member 1-dependent efflux. Multivariate analyses indicate that serum efflux capacity was significantly associated with established metabolic syndrome (odds ratio 0.45; 95% CI 0.28-0.72; P=0.009) independent of age, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, status with regard to lipid-lowering therapy, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. Our study revealed that individual criteria of metabolic syndrome are closely related synergistically to cholesterol efflux capacity. In addition, established metabolic syndrome and cholesterol efflux capacity were independently associated with clinical features of atherosclerosis. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  9. SNARE-Mediated Cholesterol Movement to Mitochondria Supports Steroidogenesis in Rodent Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ye; Hou, Xiaoming; Shen, Wen-Jun; Hanssen, Ruth; Khor, Victor K.; Cortez, Yuan; Roseman, Ann N.; Azhar, Salman

    2016-01-01

    Vesicular transport involving soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins is known to be responsible for many major cellular activities. In steroidogenic tissues, chronic hormone stimulation results in increased expression of proteins involved in the steroidogenic pathway, whereas acute hormone stimulation prompts the rapid transfer of cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane to be utilized as substrate for steroid hormone production. Several different pathways are involved in supplying cholesterol to mitochondria, but mobilization of stored cholesteryl esters appears to initially constitute the preferred source; however, the mechanisms mediating this cholesterol transfer are not fully understood. To study the potential contribution of SNARE proteins in steroidogenesis, we examined the expression levels of various SNARE proteins in response to hormone stimulation in steroidogenic tissues and cells and established an in vitro mitochondria reconstitution assay system to assess the contribution of various SNARE proteins on cholesterol delivery for steroidogenesis. Our results from reconstitution experiments along with knockdown studies in rat primary granulosa cells and in a Leydig cell line show that soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment protein-α, synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa, syntaxin-5, and syntaxin-17 facilitate the transport of cholesterol to mitochondria. Thus, although StAR is required for efficient cholesterol movement into mitochondria for steroidogenesis, specific SNAREs participate and are necessary to mediate cholesterol movement to mitochondria. PMID:26771535

  10. The macrophage and its related cholesterol efflux as a HDL function index in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Suguru; Narita, Ichiei; Kotani, Kazuhiko

    2016-06-01

    The macrophage and its related cholesterol efflux are considered to be a key player in atherosclerotic formation in relation to the function of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). The HDL function can be evaluated by the reaction between lipid-loaded macrophages and lipid-acceptors in the HDL fraction from the plasma, apolipoprotein B-depleted serum, and/or whole serum/plasma. Recent studies have reported that an impaired cholesterol efflux of HDL is observed in patients with cardiometabolic diseases, such as dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease. A population-based cohort study has reported an inverse association between the cholesterol efflux capacity of HDL and the incidence of atherosclerotic disease, regardless of the serum HDL-cholesterol level. Moreover, in this paper, when we summarized several clinical interventional studies of statin treatment that examined cholesterol efflux, a potential increase in the efflux in patients treated with statins was implied. However, the effect was not fully defined in the current situation because of the small sample sizes, lack of a unified protocol for measuring the efflux, and short-term intervention periods without cardiovascular outcomes in available studies. Further investigation is necessary to determine the effect of drugs on cholesterol efflux. With additional advanced studies, cholesterol efflux is a promising laboratory index to understand the HDL function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cholesterol can modulate mitochondrial aquaporin-8 expression in human hepatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielli, Mauro; Capiglioni, Alejo M; Marrone, Julieta; Calamita, Giuseppe; Marinelli, Raúl A

    2017-05-01

    Hepatocyte mitochondrial aquaporin-8 (mtAQP8) works as a multifunctional membrane channel protein that facilitates the uptake of ammonia for its detoxification to urea as well as the mitochondrial release of hydrogen peroxide. Since early oligonucleotide microarray studies in liver of cholesterol-fed mice showed an AQP8 downregulation, we tested whether alterations of cholesterol content per se modulate mtAQP8 expression in human hepatocyte-derived Huh-7 cells. Cholesterol loading with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (mβCD):cholesterol complexes downregulated the proteolytic activation of cholesterol-responsive sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) transcriptions factors 1 and 2, and the expression of the target gene 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR). Under such conditions, mtAQP8 mRNA and protein expressions were significantly reduced. In contrast, cholesterol depletion using mβCD alone increased SREBP-1 and 2 activation and upregulated HMGCR and mtAQP8 mRNA and protein expressions. The results suggest that cholesterol can regulate transcriptionally human hepatocyte mtAQP8 expression likely via SREBPs. The functional implications of our findings are discussed. © 2017 IUBMB Life, 69(5):341-346, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  12. Raising HDL cholesterol in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny J Eapen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Danny J Eapen1, Girish L Kalra1, Luay Rifai1, Christina A Eapen2, Nadya Merchant1, Bobby V Khan11Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2University of South Florida School of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C concentration is essential in the determination of coronary heart disease (CHD risk in women. This is especially true in the postmenopausal state, where lipid profiles and CHD risk mimic that of age-matched men. Thus, interventions designed to reduce CHD risk by raising HDL-C levels may have particular significance during the transition to menopause. This review discusses HDL-C-raising therapies and the role of HDL in the primary prevention of CHD in women. Lifestyle-based interventions such as dietary change, aerobic exercise regimens, and smoking cessation are initial steps that are effective in raising HDL-C, and available data suggest women respond similarly to men with these interventions. When combined with pharmacotherapy, the effects of these lifestyle alterations are further amplified. Though studies demonstrating gender-specific differences in therapy are limited, niacin continues to be the most effective agent in raising HDL-C levels, especially when used in combination with fibrate or statin therapy. Emerging treatments such as HDL mimetic therapy show much promise in further raising HDL-C levels and improving cardiovascular outcomes.Keywords: high-density lipoprotein, HDL, women, cholesterol, heart disease

  13. Arctigenin promotes cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages through PPAR-γ/LXR-α signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xiaolin [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Li, Qian [Department of Integrative Medicine and Neurobiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Pang, Liewen; Huang, Guoqian; Huang, Jiechun; Shi, Meng; Sun, Xiaotian [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Wang, Yiqing, E-mail: yiqingwangbiopaper@163.com [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •Arctigenin enhanced cholesterol efflux in oxLDL-loaded THP-1 macrophages. •The expression of ABCA1, ABCG1 and apoE was upregulated in arctigenin-treated cells. •Arctigenin promoted the expression of PPAR-γ and LXR-α. •Inhibition of PPAR-γ or LXR-α reversed arctigenin-mediated biological effects. •Arctigenin promotes cholesterol efflux via activation of PPAR-γ/LXR-α/ABCA1 pathway. -- Abstract: Cholesterol efflux from macrophages is a critical mechanism to prevent the development of atherosclerosis. Here, we sought to investigate the effects of arctigenin, a bioactive component of Arctium lappa, on the cholesterol efflux in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-loaded THP-1 macrophages. Our data showed that arctigenin significantly accelerated apolipoprotein A-I- and high-density lipoprotein-induced cholesterol efflux in both dose- and time-dependent manners. Moreover, arctigenin treatment enhanced the expression of ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), ABCG1, and apoE, all of which are key molecules in the initial step of cholesterol efflux, at both mRNA and protein levels. Arctigenin also caused a concentration-dependent elevation in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) and liver X receptor-alpha (LXR-α). The arctigenin-mediated induction of ABCA1, ABCG1, and apoE was abolished by specific inhibition of PPAR-γ or LXR-α using small interfering RNA technology. Our results collectively indicate that arctigenin promotes cholesterol efflux in oxLDL-loaded THP-1 macrophages through upregulation of ABCA1, ABCG1 and apoE, which is dependent on the enhanced expression of PPAR-γ and LXR-α.

  14. A sensitive assay for ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux using BODIPY-cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Sandhya; Kellner-Weibel, Ginny; de la Llera-Moya, Margarita; Phillips, Michael C.; Asztalos, Bela F.; Bittman, Robert; Rothblat, George H.

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown a negative association between cellular cholesterol efflux and coronary artery disease (CAD). Standard protocol for quantitating cholesterol efflux involves labeling cells with [3H]cholesterol and measuring release of the labeled sterol. Using [3H]cholesterol is not ideal for the development of a high-throughput assay to screen large numbers of serum as would be required in studying the link between efflux and CAD. We compared efflux using a fluorescent sterol (boron dipyrromethene difluoride linked to sterol carbon-24, BODIPY-cholesterol) with that of [3H]cholesterol in J774 macrophages. Fractional efflux of BODIPY-cholesterol was significantly higher than that of [3H]cholesterol when apo A-I, HDL3, or 2% apoB-depleted human serum were used as acceptors. BODIPY-cholesterol efflux correlated significantly with [3H]cholesterol efflux (p cholesterol efflux correlated significantly with preβ-1 (r2 = 0.6) but not with total HDL-cholesterol. Reproducibility of the BODIPY-cholesterol efflux assay was excellent between weeks (r2 = 0.98, inter-assay CV = 3.31%). These studies demonstrate that BODIPY-cholesterol provides an efficient measurement of efflux compared with [3H]cholesterol and is a sensitive probe for ABCA1-mediated efflux. The increased sensitivity of BODIPY-cholesterol assay coupled with the simplicity of measuring fluorescence results in a sensitive, high-throughput assay that can screen large numbers of sera, and thus establish the relationship between cholesterol efflux and atherosclerosis. PMID:21957199

  15. NPC2 regulates biliary cholesterol secretion via stimulation of ABCG5/G8-mediated cholesterol transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanashi, Yoshihide; Takada, Tappei; Yoshikado, Takashi; Shoda, Jun-Ichi; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2011-05-01

    Biliary cholesterol secretion helps maintain cholesterol homeostasis; it is regulated by the cholesterol exporter adenosine triphosphate-binding cassettes G5 and G8 (ABCG5/G8) and the cholesterol importer Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1). We studied another putative regulator of cholesterol secretion into bile, Niemann-Pick C2 (NPC2)--a cholesterol-binding protein secreted by the biliary system--and determined its effects on transporter-mediated biliary secretion of cholesterol. Mice with hepatic knockdown of Npc2 or that overexpressed NPC2 were created using adenovirus-mediated gene transfer; biliary lipids were characterized. The effects of secreted NPC2 on cholesterol transporter activity were examined in vitro using cells that overexpressed ABCG5/G8 or NPC1L1. Studies of mice with altered hepatic expression of NPC2 revealed that this expression positively regulates the biliary secretion of cholesterol, supported by the correlation between levels of NPC2 protein and cholesterol in human bile. In vitro analysis showed that secreted NPC2 stimulated ABCG5/G8-mediated cholesterol efflux but not NPC1L1-mediated cholesterol uptake. Consistent with these observations, no significant changes in biliary cholesterol secretion were observed on hepatic overexpression of NPC2 in ABCG5/G8-null mice, indicating that NPC2 requires ABCG5/G8 to stimulate cholesterol secretion. Analyses of NPC2 mutants showed that the stimulatory effect of biliary NPC2 was independent of the function of lysosomal NPC2 as a regulator of intracellular cholesterol trafficking. NPC2 is a positive regulator of biliary cholesterol secretion via stimulation of ABCG5/G8-mediated cholesterol transport. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Protective effects of alginate–chitosan microspheres loaded with alkaloids from Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss. Benth. (Zuojin Pill against ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang QS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Qiang-Song Wang,1,2,* Xiao-Ning Zhu,1,* Heng-Li Jiang,1,* Gui-Fang Wang,3 Yuan-Lu Cui1 1Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Research Center of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College, 3Pharmacy Department, Baokang Hospital, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Zuojin Pill (ZJP, a traditional Chinese medicine formula, consists of Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss. Benth. in a ratio of 6:1 (w/w and was first recorded in “Danxi’s experiential therapy” for treating gastrointestinal disorders in the 15th century. However, the poor solubility of alkaloids from ZJP restricted the protective effect in treating gastritis and gastric ulcer. The aim of the study was to investigate the protective mechanism of mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids from C. chinensis Franch. and E. rutaecarpa (Juss. Benth. on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats. Surface morphology, particle size, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, mucoadhesiveness, and fluorescent imaging of the microspheres in gastrointestinal tract were studied. The results showed that the mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could sustain the release of drugs beyond 12 hours and had gastric mucoadhesive property with 82.63% retention rate in vitro. The fluorescence tracer indicated high retention of mucoadhesive microspheres within 12 hours in vivo. The mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could reduce the gastric injury by decreasing the mucosal lesion index, increasing the percentage of inhibition and increasing the amount of mucus in the gastric mucosa in an ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury rat model. Moreover, the

  17. Acute load-dependent effects of oral whey protein on gastric emptying, gut hormone release, glycemia, appetite, and energy intake in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Amy T; Piscitelli, Diana; Horowitz, Michael; Jones, Karen L; Clifton, Peter M; Standfield, Scott; Hausken, Trygve; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D

    2015-12-01

    In healthy individuals, intraduodenal whey protein load-dependently modulates gastrointestinal motor and hormonal functions and suppresses energy intake. The effect of oral whey, particularly the impact of load, has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to quantify gastric emptying of 30 and 70 g of oral whey protein loads and their relation to gastrointestinal hormone, glycemic, and appetitive responses. On 3 separate occasions in a randomized, double-blind order, 18 lean men [mean ± SEM age: 24.8 ± 1.4 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 21.6 ± 0.5] received iso-osmolar, equally palatable drinks (∼450 mL) containing 30 g pure whey protein isolate (L), 70 g pure whey protein isolate (H), or saline (control). Gastric emptying (with the use of 3-dimensional ultrasound), plasma cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide 1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, insulin, glucagon, total amino acids, and blood glucose were measured for 180 min after consumption of the drinks, and energy intake at a buffet-style lunch was quantified. Gastric emptying of the L and H drinks was comparable when expressed in kilocalories per minute (L: 2.6 ± 0.2 kcal/min; H: 2.9 ± 0.3 kcal/min) and related between individuals (r = 0.54, P drinks were comparable until ∼45-60 min after ingestion, after which time the responses became more differentiated. Blood glucose was modestly reduced after the H drink between t = 45 and 150 min when compared with the L drink (all P drinks compared with control (P protein is independent of load and determines the initial gastrointestinal hormone response. This study was registered at www.anzctr.org.au as 12611000706976. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Cholesterol and late-life cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Peter

    2012-01-01

    High cholesterol levels are a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but their role in dementia and cognitive decline is less clear. This review highlights current knowledge on the role of cholesterol in late-life cognitive function, cognitive decline, and dementia. When measured in midlife, high cholesterol levels associate with an increased risk of late-life dementia and cognitive decline. However, when measured in late-life, high cholesterol levels show no association with cognitive function, or even show an inverse relation. Although statin treatment has been shown to associate with a lower risk of dementia and cognitive decline in observational studies, randomized controlled trials show no beneficial effect of statin treatment on late-life cognitive function. Lowering cholesterol levels may impair brain function, since cholesterol is essential for synapse formation and maturation and plays an important role in the regulation of signal transduction through its function as a component of the cell membrane. However, membrane cholesterol also plays a role in the formation and aggregation of amyloid-β. Factors that influence cholesterol metabolism, such as dietary intake, are shown to play a role in late-life cognitive function and the risk of dementia. In conclusion, cholesterol associates with late-life cognitive function, but the association is strongly age-dependent. There is no evidence that treatment with statins in late-life has a beneficial effect on cognitive function.

  19. Effects of acute and chronic exercise on the osmotic stability of erythrocyte membrane of competitive swimmers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Ferreira Paraiso

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the influence of acute and chronic exercise on erythrocyte membrane stability and various blood indices in a population consisting of five national-level male swimmers, over 18 weeks of training. The evaluations were made at the beginning and end of the 1st, 7th, 13th and 18th weeks, when volume and training intensity have changed. The effects manifested at the beginning of those weeks were considered due to chronic adaptations, while the effects observed at the end of the weeks were considered due to acute manifestations of the exercise load of that week. Acute changes resulting from the exercise comprised increases in creatine kinase activity (CK and leukocyte count (Leu, and decrease in hematocrit (Ht and mean corpuscular volume (MCV, at the end of the first week; increase in the activities of CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, in the uric acid (UA concentration and Leu count, at the end of the seventh week; increases in CK and LDH activities and in the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, at the end of the 13th week; and decrease in the value of the osmotic stability index 1/H50 and increases in the CK activity and platelets (Plt count, at the end of the 18th week. Chronic changes due to training comprised increase in the values of 1/H50, CK, LDH, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, serum iron (Fe, MCV and Plt. Although acute training has resulted in decrease in the osmotic stability of erythrocytes, possibly associated with exacerbation of the oxidative processes during intense exercise, chronic training over 18 weeks resulted in increased osmotic stability of erythrocytes, possibly by modulation in the membrane cholesterol content by low and high density lipoproteins.

  20. High Density Lipoproteins and Arteriosclerosis: Role of Cholesterol Efflux and Reverse Cholesterol Transport

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    von Eckardstein, Arnold; Nofer, Jerzy Roch; Assmann, Gerd

    2001-01-01

    Abstract—High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is an important risk factor for coronary heart disease, and HDL exerts various potentially antiatherogenic properties, including the mediation of reverse transport of cholesterol...

  1. Factors associated with serum cholesterol level in a pediatric practice. Cholesterol screening in a pediatric practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donker, G A; Goff, D C; Ragan, J D; Killinger, R P; Harrist, R B; Labarthe, D R

    1993-01-01

    The associations between age, sex, height, Quetelet index, blood pressure, and serum cholesterol level were examined among 1406 routinely screened children, aged 4 to 19 years, in a pediatric practice. After adjustment for sex and age, height and Quetelet index were associated with serum cholesterol levels. Quetelet index was shown by multiple linear regression to be positively related to cholesterol levels (b = 0.780, P Quetelet index was marginal. Clustering of elevated serum cholesterol level, Quetelet index, and systolic blood pressure was observed. Familial aggregation of cholesterol levels was demonstrated using analysis of variance for 742 children from 342 families included in the regression analysis (F341,400 = 1.56, P Quetelet index, and familial aggregation accounted for 10.6% of the variance in serum cholesterol levels. Siblings of children with high cholesterol levels are a high-yield group in cholesterol screening.

  2. Black pepper and piperine reduce cholesterol uptake and enhance translocation of cholesterol transporter proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangjai, Acharaporn; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Praputbut, Sakonwun; Limpeanchob, Nanteetip

    2013-04-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) lowers blood lipids in vivo and inhibits cholesterol uptake in vitro, and piperine may mediate these effects. To test this, the present study aimed to compare actions of black pepper extract and piperine on (1) cholesterol uptake and efflux in Caco-2 cells, (2) the membrane/cytosol distribution of cholesterol transport proteins in these cells, and (3) the physicochemical properties of cholesterol micelles. Piperine or black pepper extract (containing the same amount of piperine) dose-dependently reduced cholesterol uptake into Caco-2 cells in a similar manner. Both preparations reduced the membrane levels of NPC1L1 and SR-BI proteins but not their overall cellular expression. Micellar cholesterol solubility of lipid micelles was unaffected except by 1 mg/mL concentration of black pepper extract. These data suggest that piperine is the active compound in black pepper and reduces cholesterol uptake by internalizing the cholesterol transporter proteins.

  3. Pharmacological blockade of small conductance Ca2+-activated K+channels by ICA reduces arrhythmic load in rats with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundahl, Laura A; Sattler, Stefan M; Skibsbye, Lasse; Diness, Jonas G; Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob; Jespersen, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with development of ventricular fibrillation (VF) is a common cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD). At present, no pharmacological treatment has successfully been able to prevent VF in the acute stage of AMI. This study investigates the antiarrhythmic effect of inhibiting small conductance Ca 2+ -activated K + (SK) channels using the pore blocker N-(pyridin-2-yl)-4-(pyridin-2-yl)thiazol-2-amine (ICA) in AMI rats. Acute coronary ligation was performed in 26 anesthetized rats, and ECG, monophasic action potentials (MAPs), and ventricular effective refractory period (vERP) were recorded. Rats were randomized into four groups: (i) 3 mg/kg i.v. ICA with AMI (AMI-ICA-group, n = 9), (ii) vehicle with AMI (AMI-vehicle-group, n = 9), (iii) vehicle with sham operation (sham-vehicle-group, n = 8), and (iv) 3 mg/kg i.v. ICA with sham operation (sham-ICA-group, n = 6). At the end of experiments, hearts were stained for the non-perfused area at risk (AAR). AMI resulted in the development of ventricular tachycardia (VT) in all AMI-vehicle and AMI-ICA rats; however, ICA significantly decreased VT duration. VF occurred in 44% of AMI-vehicle rats but not in AMI-ICA rats. Monophasic action potential duration at 80% repolarization (MAPD80) in the ischemic area decreased rapidly in both AMI-vehicle and AMI-ICA rats. However, 5 min after occlusion, MAPD80 returned to baseline in AMI-ICA rats but not in AMI-vehicle rats. The vERP was prolonged in the AMI-ICA group compared to AMI-vehicle after ligation. AAR was similar between the AMI-vehicle group and the AMI-ICA group. In rats with AMI, ICA reduces the burden of arrhythmia.

  4. Oxidised LDL, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol levels in patients of coronary artery disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Joya; Mishra, T. K.; Rao, Y. N.; Aggarwal, S K

    2006-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is a major cause of morbidity and has various risk factors. Lipid profile i.e. low HDL-cholesterol, high LDL cholesterol, high total cholesterol, high triglycerides playing important role in its causation. Recently interest has been shown in the oxidized fraction of LDL as one of the risk factors. In the present study 60 age and sex matched normal healthy individuals were taken as controls and 60 patients of CAD were taken. Cholesterol was measured by enzymatic method,...

  5. Cholesterol Transport Revisited: A New Turbo Mechanism to Drive Cholesterol Excretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Jan Freark; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2017-01-01

    A fine-tuned balance between cholesterol uptake and excretion by the body is pivotal to maintain health and to remain free from the deleterious consequences of cholesterol accumulation such as cardiovascular disease. The pathways involved in intracellular and extracellular cholesterol transport are

  6. Cholesterol Transport Revisited: A New Turbo Mechanism to Drive Cholesterol Excretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Jan Freark; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2018-01-01

    A fine-tuned balance between cholesterol uptake and excretion by the body is pivotal to maintain health and to remain free from the deleterious consequences of cholesterol accumulation such as cardiovascular disease. The pathways involved in intracellular and extracellular cholesterol transport are

  7. Statins increase hepatic cholesterol synthesis and stimulate fecal cholesterol elimination in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Marleen; de Boer, Jan Freark; Mele, Laura; Wolters, Henk; Bloks, Vincent W.; Wolters, Justina C.; Kuivenhoven, Jan A.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Brufau, Gemma; Groen, Albert K.

    Statins are competitive inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis. Statins reduce plasma cholesterol levels, but whether this is actually caused by inhibition of de novo cholesterol synthesis has not been clearly established. Using three different statins, we

  8. Dietary cholesterol and fats at a young age : do they influence cholesterol metabolism in adult life?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmerman, A.M.; Vonk, R.J.; Niezen-Koning, K.; Berger, R.; Fernandes, J.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of dietary cholesterol and fats on cholesterol metabolism later in life were studied in Mongolian gerbils. Three groups were given a basic diet with soybean oil, palm kernel oil amounting to 8.75% (w/w), or the basic diet only. In three other groups, cholesterol (0.05%) was added to the

  9. Statins increase hepatic cholesterol synthesis and stimulate fecal cholesterol elimination in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Marleen; de Boer, Jan Freark; Mele, Laura; Wolters, Henk; Bloks, Vincent W.; Wolters, Justina C.; Kuivenhoven, Jan A.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Brufau, Gemma; Groen, Albert K.

    2016-01-01

    Statins are competitive inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis. Statins reduce plasma cholesterol levels, but whether this is actually caused by inhibition of de novo cholesterol synthesis has not been clearly established. Using three different statins, we

  10. Specificity of the Acute Tryptophan and Tyrosine Plus Phenylalanine Depletion and Loading Tests Part II: Normalisation of the Tryptophan and the Tyrosine Plus Phenylalanine to Competing Amino Acid Ratios in a New Control Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla A.-B. Badawy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Current formulations for acute tryptophan (Trp or tyrosine (Tyr plus phenylalanine (Phe depletion and loading cause undesirable decreases in ratios of Trp or Tyr + Phe to competing amino acids (CAA, thus undermining the specificities of these tests. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA cause these unintended decreases, and lowering their content in a new balanced control formulation in the present study led to normalization of all ratios. Four groups (n = 12 each of adults each received one of four 50 g control formulations, with 0% (traditional, 20%, 30%, or 40% less of the BCAA. The free and total [Trp]/[CAA] and [Phe + Tyr]/[BCAA + Trp] ratios all decreased significantly during the first 5 h following the traditional formulation, but were fully normalized by the formulation containing 40% less of the BCAA. We recommend the latter as a balanced control formulation and propose adjustments in the depletion and loading formulations to enhance their specificities for 5-HT and the catecholamines.

  11. ACAT inhibitors: the search for novel cholesterol lowering agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Palash; Gandhi, Hardik; Giridhar, Rajani; Yadav, Mange Ram

    2013-06-01

    Increased level of serum cholesterol (hyperlipidemia) is the most significant risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. Cholesterol levels are affected by factors such as rate of endogenous cholesterol synthesis, biliary cholesterol excretion and dietary cholesterol absorption. Acyl CoA: Cholesterol O-acyl transferases (ACAT) are a small family of enzymes that catalyze cholesterol esterification and cholesterol absorption in intestinal mucosal cells and maintain the cholesterol homeostasis in the blood. Inhibition of the ACAT enzymes is one of the attractive targets to treat hyperlipidemia. Literature survey shows that structurally diverse compounds possess ACAT inhibitory properties. In this review, a comprehensive presentation of the literature on diverse ACAT inhibitors has been given.

  12. Nuclear receptors in control of cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Jelske Nynke

    2007-01-01

    Cholesterol is een structurele component van celmembranen en een grondstof voor de aanmaak van steroïde hormonen en galzouten en vervult dus een aantal essentiële fysiologische functies. Een goede balans van cholesterol opname, synthese, afbraak en uitscheiding is noodzakelijk, omdat verhoogde

  13. Chemical activity of cholesterol in membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, A; McConnell, H M

    2000-07-18

    Measurements are reported for the rate constants for the release of cholesterol (and dihydrocholesterol) to beta-cyclodextrin from mixtures with phospholipids in homogeneous monolayers at constant pressure at the air-water interface. In each mixture, it is found that the release rate shows a sharp decrease as the cholesterol concentration in the monolayer decreases through a composition corresponding to the stoichiometry of a cholesterol-phospholipid complex. The stoichiometry of the complex was established previously by the position of a sharp cusp in the thermodynamic phase diagram of each mixture and also by a minimum in average molecular area versus composition measurements. A theoretical model used earlier to account for the phase diagrams predicts the chemical potential and chemical activity of cholesterol in these mixtures. The calculated chemical activity also shows a sharp change at the complex stoichiometry in homogeneous monolayers. The similarities in change of observed release rate and calculated chemical activity are expected from reaction rate theory where the release rate is proportional to the cholesterol chemical activity. The chemical activity of cholesterol as determined by complex formation between some phospholipids and cholesterol in the plasma membrane of cells may serve a regulatory function with respect to intracellular cholesterol transport and biosynthesis.

  14. Evaluating computational models of cholesterol metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paalvast, Yared; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Groen, Albert K.

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of cholesterol homeostasis has been studied extensively during the last decades. Many of the metabolic pathways involved have been discovered. Yet important gaps in our knowledge remain. For example, knowledge on intracellular cholesterol traffic and its relation to the regulation of

  15. HDL (Good), LDL (Bad) Cholesterol and Triglycerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More HDL (Good), LDL (Bad) Cholesterol and Triglycerides Updated:Feb 19,2018 Cholesterol isn’t just something that sits in your body like fat around your waist. It’s carried through your bloodstream ...

  16. Role of cholesterol in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Maurine D; Chang, Jennifer C; Pandey, Amit K; Sassetti, Christopher M; Sherman, David R

    2009-06-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) acquisition and utilization of nutrients within the host cell is poorly understood, although it has been hypothesized that host lipids probably play an important role in MTB survival. Cholesterol has recently been identified as an important lipid for mycobacterial infection. The mce4 transport system is required for cholesterol import into bacterial cells, and deletion of mce4 locus resulted in severe attenuation in a chronic mouse model of infection. However, it has remained unclear what additional bacterial functions were required for utilization of this sterol. We have found that the igr locus, which was previously found essential for intracellular growth and virulence of MTB, is required for cholesterol metabolism: igr-deficient bacteria cannot grow using cholesterol as a primary carbon source. The growth-inhibitory effect of cholesterol in vitro depends on cholesterol import, as the delta igr mutant growth defect during the early phase of disease is completely suppressed by mutating mce4, implicating cholesterol intoxication as the primary mechanism of attenuation. We conclude that M. tuberculosis metabolizes cholesterol throughout the course of infection, and that degradation of this sterol is crucial for bacterial persistence.

  17. Cholesterol: a Century of Research and Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew B C

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To The Editor: The excellent article by Dr Elmehdawi RR entitled “Hypolipidemia: A word of caution” has once again shown the multifaceted properties of cholesterol which is the most highly decorated molecule in biology [1]. Thirteen nobel prizes have been awarded to scientists who devoted major parts of their careers to cholesterol [2].

  18. Cholesterol efflux is differentially regulated in neurons and astrocytes: implications for brain cholesterol homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Zhang, Xiaolu; Kusumo, Handojo; Costa, Lucio G.; Guizzetti, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Disruption of cholesterol homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS) has been associated with neurological, neurodegenerative, and neurodevelopmental disorders. The CNS is a closed system with regard to cholesterol homeostasis, as cholesterol-delivering lipoproteins from the periphery cannot pass the blood-brain-barrier and enter the brain. Different cell types in the brain have different functions in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis, with astrocytes producing and releasing apolipoprotein E and lipoproteins, and neurons metabolizing cholesterol to 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol. We present evidence that astrocytes and neurons adopt different mechanisms also in regulating cholesterol efflux. We found that in astrocytes cholesterol efflux is induced by both lipid-free apolipoproteins and lipoproteins, while cholesterol removal from neurons is triggered only by lipoproteins. The main pathway by which apolipoproteins induce cholesterol efflux is through ABCA1. By upregulating ABCA1 levels and by inhibiting its activity and silencing its expression, we show that ABCA1 is involved in cholesterol efflux from astrocytes but not from neurons. Furthermore, our results suggest that ABCG1 is involved in cholesterol efflux to apolipoproteins and lipoproteins from astrocytes but not from neurons, while ABCG4, whose expression is much higher in neurons than astrocytes, is involved in cholesterol efflux from neurons but not astrocytes. These results indicate that different mechanisms regulate cholesterol efflux from neurons and astrocytes, reflecting the different roles that these cell types play in brain cholesterol homeostasis. These results are important in understanding cellular targets of therapeutic drugs under development for the treatments of conditions associated with altered cholesterol homeostasis in the CNS. PMID:23010475

  19. Cholesterol Absorption and Synthesis in Vegetarians and Omnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lütjohann, Dieter; Meyer, Sven; von Bergmann, Klaus; Stellaard, Frans

    2018-02-10

    Vegetarian diets are considered health-promoting; however, a plasma cholesterol lowering effect is not always observed. We investigate the link between vegetarian-diet-induced alterations in cholesterol metabolism. We study male and female omnivores, lacto-ovo vegetarians, lacto vegetarians, and vegans. Cholesterol intake, absorption, and fecal sterol excretion are measured as well as plasma concentrations of cholesterol and noncholesterol sterols. These serve as markers for cholesterol absorption, synthesis, and catabolism. The biliary cholesterol secretion rate is estimated. Flux data are related to body weight. Individual vegetarian diet groups are statistically compared to the omnivore group. Lacto vegetarians absorb 44% less dietary cholesterol, synthesized 22% more cholesterol, and show no differences in plasma total and LDL cholesterol. Vegan subjects absorb 90% less dietary cholesterol, synthesized 35% more cholesterol, and have a similar plasma total cholesterol, but a 13% lower plasma LDL cholesterol. No diet-related differences in biliary cholesterol secretion and absorption are observed. Total cholesterol absorption is lower only in vegans. Total cholesterol input is similar under all vegetarian diets. Unaltered biliary cholesterol secretion and higher cholesterol synthesis blunt the lowered dietary cholesterol intake in vegetarians. LDL cholesterol is significantly lower only in vegans. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. [Evaluation of a nutritional intervention to reduce cholesterol levels in patients with coronary artery disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Solange; Zegers, Yvette; Stockins, Benjamín; Bustos, Luis; Sanhueza, Antonio; Rivera, Adriana; Soto, Lidia; Mackay, Angélica; Vega, Danitza; Rapimán, Pablo; Atton, Rousmery; Alberti, Gigliola

    2004-12-01

    The mainstay of cholesterol reduction therapy is the diet. But the lack of compliance and prescription problems limit its usefulness. To compare the effectiveness of a nutritional intervention given by a nutritionist with the usual recommendations given by a physician to reduce the LDL cholesterol levels in patients with coronary artery disease, treated at the Regional public hospital in Temuco. One hundred and forty patients with coronary heart disease (last acute episode at least three months before), without nutritional interventions nor cholesterol-lowering drugs, who gave informed consent, were randomized to receive either instructions by their physician or to take part in a nutritional program. The nutritional intervention consisted in five educational sessions, adapted from the NCEP and from a program of the Nutrition Department of the Catholic University of Chile. Patients randomized to the medical intervention received the standard written recommendations about diet. Lipid profile was measured before the intervention and after a three and twelve months follow up. After one year the group on the nutritionalprogram reduced LDL cholesterol by 11.1% (p=0.03). There were no changes in the medical group. However, only 10% patients on the nutritional intervention group and 8% of those with medical recommendations achieved LDL cholesterol levels less than 100 mg/dl. There were no changes in triglycerides, weight or body mass index during the period. Although this nutritional intervention proved to be more effective than usual medical instructions, most patients on secondary prevention did not achieve acceptable LDL cholesterol levels.

  1. Hemorheological and Glycemic Parameters and HDL Cholesterol for the Prediction of Cardiovascular Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sung Woo [Division of Cardiology - Department of Internal Medicine - Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Division of Cardiology - Department of Medicine - Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung Gyu; Kim, Byung Ok; Byun, Young Sup; Goh, Choong Won; Rhee, Kun Joo [Division of Cardiology - Department of Internal Medicine - Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Hyuck Moon; Lee, Byoung Kwon, E-mail: cardiobk@yuhs.ac [Division of Cardiology - Department of Internal Medicine - Gangnam Severance Hospital - Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Hemorheological and glycemic parameters and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are used as biomarkers of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. To investigate the association and clinical relevance of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), fibrinogen, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and HDL cholesterol in the prediction of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and coronary heart disease (CHD) in an outpatient population. 708 stable patients who visited the outpatient department were enrolled and followed for a mean period of 28.5 months. Patients were divided into two groups, patients without MACE and patients with MACE, which included cardiac death, acute myocardial infarction, newly diagnosed CHD, and cerebral vascular accident. We compared hemorheological and glycemic parameters and lipid profiles between the groups. Patients with MACE had significantly higher ESR, fibrinogen, fasting glucose, and HbA1c, while lower HDL cholesterol compared with patients without MACE. High ESR and fibrinogen and low HDL cholesterol significantly increased the risk of MACE in multivariate regression analysis. In patients with MACE, high fibrinogen and HbA1c levels increased the risk of multivessel CHD. Furthermore, ESR and fibrinogen were significantly positively correlated with HbA1c and negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol, however not correlated with fasting glucose. Hemorheological abnormalities, poor glycemic control, and low HDL cholesterol are correlated with each other and could serve as simple and useful surrogate markers and predictors for MACE and CHD in outpatients.

  2. C57Bl/6 N mice on a western diet display reduced intestinal and hepatic cholesterol levels despite a plasma hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmarchelier Charles

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small intestine and liver greatly contribute to whole body lipid, cholesterol and phospholipid metabolism but to which extent cholesterol and phospholipid handling in these tissues is affected by high fat Western-style obesogenic diets remains to be determined. Methods We therefore measured cholesterol and phospholipid concentration in intestine and liver and quantified fecal neutral sterol and bile acid excretion in C57Bl/6 N mice fed for 12 weeks either a cholesterol-free high carbohydrate control diet or a high fat Western diet containing 0.03% (w/w cholesterol. To identify the underlying mechanisms of dietary adaptations in intestine and liver, changes in gene expression were assessed by microarray and qPCR profiling, respectively. Results Mice on Western diet showed increased plasma cholesterol levels, associated with the higher dietary cholesterol supply, yet, significantly reduced cholesterol levels were found in intestine and liver. Transcript profiling revealed evidence that expression of numerous genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and uptake via LDL, but also in phospholipid metabolism, underwent compensatory regulations in both tissues. Alterations in glycerophospholipid metabolism were confirmed at the metabolite level by phospolipid profiling via mass spectrometry. Conclusions Our findings suggest that intestine and liver react to a high dietary fat intake by an activation of de novo cholesterol synthesis and other cholesterol-saving mechanisms, as well as with major changes in phospholipid metabolism, to accommodate to the fat load.

  3. Cholesterol-lowering effect of plant sterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuMweis, Suhad S; Jones, Peter J H

    2008-12-01

    Plant sterols are plant components that have a chemical structure similar to cholesterol except for the addition of an extra methyl or ethyl group; however, plant sterol absorption in humans is considerably less than that of cholesterol. In fact, plant sterols reduce cholesterol absorption and thus reduce circulating levels of cholesterol. Earlier studies that have tested the efficacy of plant sterols as cholesterol-lowering agents incorporated plant sterols into fat spreads. Later on, plant sterols were added to other food matrices, including juices, nonfat beverages, milk and yogurt, cheese, meat, croissants and muffins, and cereal and chocolate bars. The beneficial physiologic effects of plant sterols could be further enhanced by combining them with other beneficial substances, such as olive and fish oils, fibers, and soy proteins, or with exercise. The addition of plant sterols to the diet is suggested by health experts as a safe and effective way to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease.

  4. Trapping crystal nucleation of cholesterol monohydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomonov, I.; Weygand, M.J.; Kjær, K.

    2005-01-01

    Crystalline nucleation of cholesterol at the air-water interface has been studied via grazing incidence x-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation. The various stages of cholesterol molecular assembly from monolayer to three bilayers incorporating interleaving hydrogen-bonded water layers...... in a monoclinic cholesterol . H2O phase, has been monitored and their structures characterized to near atomic resolution. Crystallographic evidence is presented that this multilayer phase is similar to that of a reported metastable cholesterol phase of undetermined structure obtained from bile before...... transformation to the triclinic phase of cholesterol . H2O, the thermodynamically stable macroscopic form. According to grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements and crystallographic data, a transformation from the monoclinic film structure to a multilayer of the stable monohydrate phase involves...

  5. How much in vitro cholesterol reducing activity of lactobacilli predicts their in vivo cholesterol function?

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    Golnoush Madani

    2013-01-01

    Results: No cholesterol assimilation was detected by growth and incubation of the active culture in either of the medium. Thus, in vivo cholesterol function of LA7 was not caused by cholesterol consumption. A comprehensive review of literature on the related studies also showed that there are other documented studies which evidenced the uncertainty of the direct relation between in vitro and in vivo studies. Conclusion: Cholesterol removal from the cultured media may not be considered as an appropriate integral index for selection of Lactobacillus strains with cholesterol-lowering activity.

  6. Effects of psyllium on plasma total and lipoprotein cholesterol and hepatic cholesterol in hamsters fed n-3 PUFA or n-6 PUFA with high cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Young-Chau; Liu, Shyun-Yeu; Lin, Mei-Huei

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether psyllium is known to alter cholesterol metabolism modulate the hypercholesterolemic effect of a high cholesterol, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) diet in hamsters. Concentrations of plasma, hepatic total cholesterol and lipoprotein cholesterol were measured in male hamsters fed an n-3 PUFA plus psyllium (8%, wt/wt) diet combined with variable levels of cholesterol (0, 0.05, 0.1%, wt/wt) or a cholesterol-enriched (0.2%, wt/wt) n-3 PUFA or n-6 PUFA diet that contained either 8% methyl cellulose or psyllium for 4 weeks. In the n-3 PUFA-fed hamsters, we have found that psyllium was able to reduce plasma total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol significantly when 0.1% cholesterol was added to the diet. In contrast, the effects of psyllium were not seen in the n-3 PUFA-fed hamsters without dietary cholesterol or with 0.05% dietary cholesterol. However, no matter in the presence of psyllium or not, the increase of plasma total cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels was depend on the content of dietary cholesterol. Although the cholesterol diet increased the liver total cholesterol level, 80 g psyllium/kg diet resulted in a significantly lower concentration of liver total cholesterol in the cholesterol-fed hamsters. In the second experiment, we have also found that psyllium feeding lowered significantly plasma total cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol concentrations in hamsters fed n-3 PUFA but not in those fed n-6 PUFA. However, the levels of plasma total cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels of the (n-6) PUFA-fed hamsters were significantly lower than those in the (n-3) PUFA-fed hamsters in the absence or presence of dietary psyllium. Our data also showed that hamsters fed both high-cholesterol n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA diets had a significant decrease in hepatic cholesterol with intake of

  7. Continuous transport of a small fraction of plasma membrane cholesterol to endoplasmic reticulum regulates total cellular cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, Rodney Elwood; Radhakrishnan, Arun

    2017-04-17

    Cells employ regulated transport mechanisms to ensure that their plasma membranes (PMs) are optimally supplied with cholesterol derived from uptake of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and synthesis. To date, all inhibitors of cholesterol transport block steps in lysosomes, limiting our understanding of post-lysosomal transport steps. Here, we establish the cholesterol-binding domain 4 of anthrolysin O (ALOD4) as a reversible inhibitor of cholesterol transport from PM to endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Using ALOD4, we: (1) deplete ER cholesterol without altering PM or overall cellular cholesterol levels; (2) demonstrate that LDL-derived cholesterol travels from lysosomes first to PM to meet cholesterol needs, and subsequently from PM to regulatory domains of ER to suppress activation of SREBPs, halting cholesterol uptake and synthesis; and (3) determine that continuous PM-to-ER cholesterol transport allows ER to constantly monitor PM cholesterol levels, and respond rapidly to small declines in cellular cholesterol by activating SREBPs, increasing cholesterol uptake and synthesis.

  8. Arctigenin promotes cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages through PPAR-γ/LXR-α signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaolin; Li, Qian; Pang, Liewen; Huang, Guoqian; Huang, Jiechun; Shi, Meng; Sun, Xiaotian; Wang, Yiqing

    2013-11-15

    Cholesterol efflux from macrophages is a critical mechanism to prevent the development of atherosclerosis. Here, we sought to investigate the effects of arctigenin, a bioactive component of Arctium lappa, on the cholesterol efflux in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-loaded THP-1 macrophages. Our data showed that arctigenin significantly accelerated apolipoprotein A-I- and high-density lipoprotein-induced cholesterol efflux in both dose- and time-dependent manners. Moreover, arctigenin treatment enhanced the expression of ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), ABCG1, and apoE, all of which are key molecules in the initial step of cholesterol efflux, at both mRNA and protein levels. Arctigenin also caused a concentration-dependent elevation in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) and liver X receptor-alpha (LXR-α). The arctigenin-mediated induction of ABCA1, ABCG1, and apoE was abolished by specific inhibition of PPAR-γ or LXR-α using small interfering RNA technology. Our results collectively indicate that arctigenin promotes cholesterol efflux in oxLDL-loaded THP-1 macrophages through upregulation of ABCA1, ABCG1 and apoE, which is dependent on the enhanced expression of PPAR-γ and LXR-α. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cholesterol: Top Five Foods to Lower Your Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... store-bought cookies, crackers and cakes, are particularly bad for your cholesterol levels. Trans fats raise LDL cholesterol, and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL), the "good" cholesterol. Food labels report the content of trans ...

  10. Cholesterol Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/cholesteroltest.html Cholesterol Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Cholesterol Test? Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance ...

  11. High Cholesterol and Complementary Health Practices: What the Science Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health NCCIH Clinical Digest for health professionals High Cholesterol and Complementary Health Practices: What the Science Says ... chemically identical to the active ingredient in the cholesterol-lowering drug lovastatin. Available evidence on the cholesterol- ...

  12. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: High Blood Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease High Blood Cholesterol High blood cholesterol is another major risk factor for heart disease ... can do something about. The higher your blood cholesterol level, the greater your risk for developing heart ...

  13. Endogenous cholesterol synthesis, fecal steroid excretion and serum lanosterol in subjects with high or low response of serum cholesterol to dietary cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beynen, A.C.; Katan, M.B.; Gent, van C.M.

    1986-01-01

    In this study we addressed the question whether hypo- and hyper-responders to dietary cholesterol differ with regard to the flexibility of endogenous cholesterol synthesis after changes in cholesterol intake. Whole-body cholesterol synthesis was measured as faecal excretion of neutral steroids and

  14. Cholesterol Accumulation in CD11c(+) Immune Cells Is a Causal and Targetable Factor in Autoimmune Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Ayaka; Hong, Cynthia; Oka, Kazuhiro; Salazar, Jon V; Diehl, Cody; Witztum, Joseph L; Diaz, Mercedes; Castrillo, Antonio; Bensinger, Steven J; Chan, Lawrence; Tontonoz, Peter

    2016-12-20

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) are regulators of cholesterol metabolism that also modulate immune responses. Inactivation of LXR α and β in mice leads to autoimmunity; however, how the regulation of cholesterol metabolism contributes to autoimmunity is unclear. Here we found that cholesterol loading of CD11c(+) cells triggered the development of autoimmunity, whereas preventing excess lipid accumulation by promoting cholesterol efflux was therapeutic. LXRβ-deficient mice crossed to the hyperlipidemic ApoE-deficient background or challenged with a high-cholesterol diet developed autoantibodies. Cholesterol accumulation in lymphoid organs promoted T cell priming and stimulated the production of the B cell growth factors Baff and April. Conversely, B cell expansion and the development of autoantibodies in ApoE/LXR-β-deficient mice was reversed by ApoA-I expression. These findings implicate cholesterol imbalance as a contributor to immune dysfunction and suggest that stimulating HDL-dependent reverse cholesterol transport could be beneficial in the setting of autoimmune disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mitochondrial function is involved in regulation of cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein (apoA-I from murine RAW 264.7 macrophages

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    Allen Anne Marie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial DNA damage, increased production of reactive oxygen species and progressive respiratory chain dysfunction, together with increased deposition of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters, are hallmarks of atherosclerosis. This study investigated the role of mitochondrial function in regulation of macrophage cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein A-I, by the addition of established pharmacological modulators of mitochondrial function. Methods Murine RAW 264.7 macrophages were treated with a range of concentrations of resveratrol, antimycin, dinitrophenol, nigericin and oligomycin, and changes in viability, cytotoxicity, membrane potential and ATP, compared with efflux of [3H]cholesterol to apolipoprotein (apo A-I. The effect of oligomycin treatment on expression of genes implicated in macrophage cholesterol homeostasis were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and immunoblotting, relative to the housekeeping enzyme, Gapdh, and combined with studies of this molecule on cholesterol esterification, de novo lipid biosynthesis, and induction of apoptosis. Significant differences were determined using analysis of variance, and Dunnett’s or Bonferroni post t-tests, as appropriate. Results The positive control, resveratrol (24 h, significantly enhanced cholesterol efflux to apoA-I at concentrations ≥30 μM. By contrast, cholesterol efflux to apoA-I was significantly inhibited by nigericin (45%; ppAbca1 mRNA. Oligomycin treatment did not affect cholesterol biosynthesis, but significantly inhibited cholesterol esterification following exposure to acetylated LDL, and induced apoptosis at ≥30 μM. Finally, oligomycin induced the expression of genes implicated in both cholesterol efflux (Abca1, Abcg4, Stard1 and cholesterol biosynthesis (Hmgr, Mvk, Scap, Srebf2, indicating profound dysregulation of cholesterol homeostasis. Conclusions Acute loss of mitochondrial function, and in particular Δψm, reduces

  16. Genetic therapies to lower cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    This review surveys the state-of-the-art in genetic therapies for familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), caused most commonly by mutations in the LDL receptor (LDLR) gene. FH manifests as highly elevated low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and consequently accelerated atherosclerosis. Modern pharmacological therapies for FH are insufficiently efficacious to prevent premature cardiovascular disease, can cause significant adverse effects and can be expensive. Genetic therapies for FH have been mooted since the mid 1990s but gene replacement strategies using viral vectors have so far been unsuccessful. Other strategies involve knocking down the expression of Apolipoprotein B100 (APOB100) and the protease PCSK9 which designates LDLR for degradation. The antisense oligonucleotide mipomersen, which knocks down APOB100, is currently marketed (with restrictions) in the USA, but is not approved in Europe due to its adverse effects. To address this problem, we have devised a novel therapeutic concept, APO-skip, which is based on modulation of APOB splicing, and which has the potential to deliver a cost-effective, efficacious and safe therapy for FH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Physiological and pathological implications of cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Victor A; Busso, Dolores; Maiz, Alberto; Arteaga, Antonio; Nervi, Flavio; Rigotti, Attilio

    2014-01-01

    Cholesterol has evolved to fulfill sophisticated biophysical, cell signaling and endocrine requirements of animal systems. At a cellular level, cholesterol is found in membranes, where it increases both bilayer stiffness and impermeability to water and ions. Furthermore, cholesterol is integrated into specialized lipid-protein membrane microdomains with critical topographical and signaling functions. At an organismal level, cholesterol is the precursor for all steroid hormones, including gluco- and mineralo-corticoids, sex hormones and vitamin D, all of which regulate carbohydrate, sodium, reproductive and bone homeostasis, respectively. This sterol is also the precursor for bile acids, which are important for intestinal absorption of dietary lipids as well as energy and glucose metabolic regulation. Importantly, complex mechanisms maintain cholesterol within physiological ranges and the disregulation of these mechanisms results in embryonic or adult diseases, caused by either excessive or reduced tissue cholesterol levels. The causative role of cholesterol in these diseases has been demonstrated by diverse genetic and pharmacologic animal models that are commented in this review.

  18. Pharmacological blockade of small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels by ICA reduces arrhythmic load in rats with acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundahl, Laura A; Sattler, Stefan M; Skibsbye, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    of inhibiting small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels using the pore blocker N-(pyridin-2-yl)-4-(pyridin-2-yl)thiazol-2-amine (ICA) in AMI rats. Acute coronary ligation was performed in 26 anesthetized rats, and ECG, monophasic action potentials (MAPs), and ventricular effective refractory period (v......ERP) were recorded. Rats were randomized into four groups: (i) 3 mg/kg i.v. ICA with AMI (AMI-ICA-group, n = 9), (ii) vehicle with AMI (AMI-vehicle-group, n = 9), (iii) vehicle with sham operation (sham-vehicle-group, n = 8), and (iv) 3 mg/kg i.v. ICA with sham operation (sham-ICA-group, n = 6). At the end...... of experiments, hearts were stained for the non-perfused area at risk (AAR). AMI resulted in the development of ventricular tachycardia (VT) in all AMI-vehicle and AMI-ICA rats; however, ICA significantly decreased VT duration. VF occurred in 44% of AMI-vehicle rats but not in AMI-ICA rats. Monophasic action...

  19. Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferases

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Ta-Yuan; Li, Bo-Liang; Chang, Catherine C. Y.; Urano, Yasuomi

    2009-01-01

    The enzymes acyl-coenzyme A (CoA):cholesterol acyltransferases (ACATs) are membrane-bound proteins that utilize long-chain fatty acyl-CoA and cholesterol as substrates to form cholesteryl esters. In mammals, two isoenzymes, ACAT1 and ACAT2, encoded by two different genes, exist. ACATs play important roles in cellular cholesterol homeostasis in various tissues. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge on ACAT-related research in two areas: 1) ACAT genes and proteins and 2) ACAT enzymes as...

  20. Biotechniques in Electrochemical Determination of Cholesterol: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIKAS

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available With rising healthcare costs and to improve patient care, diagnostic laboratories have been challenged to develop new tests that are reliable, cost–effective and accurate and to optimize existing protocols by making them faster and more economical. Determination of serum total cholesterol is one of the most vital biochemical parameters in healthcare. With the availability of new materials associated with new sensing techniques has led to remarkable innovations in the design and construction of cholesterol biosensors. The present review describes the specifications of most of the electrochemical cholesterol biosensors reported till date.

  1. Cholesterol homeostasis in cardiovascular disease and recent advances in measuring cholesterol signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hong Seog; Choi, Man Ho

    2015-09-01

    Despite the biochemical importance of cholesterol, its abnormal metabolism has serious cellular consequences that lead to endocrine disorders such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). Nevertheless, the impact of blood cholesterol as a CVD risk factor is still debated, and treatment with cholesterol-lowering drugs remains controversial, particularly in older patients. Although, the prevalence of CVD increases with age, the underlying mechanisms for this phenomenon are not well understood, and metabolic changes have not been confirmed as predisposing factors of atherogenesis. The quantification of circulating biomarkers for cholesterol homeostasis is therefore warranted, and reference values for cholesterol absorption and synthesis should be determined in order to establish CVD risk factors. The traditional lipid profile is often derived rather than directly measured and lacks a universal standard to interpret the results. In contrast, mass spectrometry-based cholesterol profiling can accurately measure free cholesterol as a biologically active component. This approach allows to detect alterations in various metabolic pathways that control cholesterol homeostasis, by quantitative analysis of cholesterol and its precursors/metabolites as well as dietary sterols. An overview of the mechanism of cholesterol homeostasis under different physiological conditions may help to identify predictive biomarkers of concomitant atherosclerosis and conventional CVD risk factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in rats exposed to premium motor spirit fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberare, Ogbevire L; Okuonghae, Patrick; Mukoro, Nathaniel; Dirisu, John O; Osazuwa, Favour; Odigie, Elvis; Omoregie, Richard

    2011-06-01

    Deliberate and regular exposure to premium motor spirit fumes is common and could be a risk factor for liver disease in those who are occupationally exposed. A possible association between premium motor spirit fumes and plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol using a rodent model could provide new insights in the pathology of diseases where cellular dysfunction is an established risk factor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effect of premium motor spirit fumes on lipids and lipoproteins in workers occupationally exposed to premium motor spirit fumes using rodent model. Twenty-five Wister albino rats (of both sexes) were used for this study between the 4(th) of August and 7(th) of September, 2010. The rats were divided into five groups of five rats each. Group 1 rats were not exposed to premium motor spirit fumes (control group), group 2 rats were exposed for 1 hour daily, group 3 for 3 hours daily, group 4 for 5 hours daily and group 5 for 7 hours daily. The experiment lasted for a period of 4 weeks. Blood samples obtained from all the groups after 4 weeks of exposure were used for the estimation of plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein- cholesterol and low density lipoprotein- cholesterol. Results showed significant increase in means of plasma total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein levels (Plevel of high density lipoprotein, the ratio of low density lipoprotein to high density lipoprotein and the ratio of total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein did not differ significantly in exposed subjects when compared with the control group. These results showed that frequent exposure to petrol fumes may be highly deleterious to the liver cells.

  3. estimations of cholesterol, triglycerides and fractionation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    . 2Department of Science Laboratory .... clinical-chemistry parameters directly from whole blood, plasma or serum. The direct use of ..... Research suggests that men with high cholesterol levels when they are young. (mean age of 22 years) ...

  4. [Cholesterol and atherosclerosis. Historical considerations and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárate, Arturo; Manuel-Apolinar, Leticia; Basurto, Lourdes; De la Chesnaye, Elsa; Saldívar, Iván

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol is a precursor of steroid hormones and an essential component of the cell membrane, however, altered regulation of the synthesis, absorption and excretion of cholesterol predispose to cardiovascular diseases of atherosclerotic origin. Despite, the recognition of historical events for 200 years, starting with Michel Chevreul naming «cholesterol»; later on, Lobstein coining the term atherosclerosis and Marchand introducing it, Anichkov identifying cholesterol in atheromatous plaque, and Brown and Goldstein discovering LDL receptor; as well as the emerging of different drugs, such as fibrates, statins and cetrapibs this decade, promising to increase HDL and the most recent ezetimibe and anti-PCSK9 to inhibit the degradation of LDL receptor, however morbidity has not been reduced in cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2016. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A.

  5. What Are High Blood Cholesterol and Triglycerides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in your blood. How can I control my cholesterol? • Cut down on foods high in saturated and trans fats. These include fatty meats, organ meats such as liver, shellfish, cheese, whole-milk dairy products, and solid fats such ...

  6. Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    DWB) for raw and fried samples, respectively, but decreased to 295.20 ... Key words: Rhynchophorus phoenicis, Oryctes monoceros, proximate composition, cholesterol, heat treatment. INTRODUCTION. Insects have played ...

  7. Wheat alkylresorcinols reduce micellar solubility of cholesterol in vitro and increase cholesterol excretion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Kazumasa; Hashimoto, Chiaki; Kikuchi, Yosuke; Makita, Miki; Fukudome, Shin-Ichi; Okita, Kimiko; Wada, Naoyuki; Oishi, Katsutaka

    2017-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that the consumption of whole grains can reduce risk for metabolic disorders. We recently showed that chronic supplementation with wheat alkylresorcinols (ARs) prevents glucose intolerance and insulin resistance with hepatic lipid accumulation induced in mice by a high-fat high-sucrose diet (HFHSD). This study examines the effects of ARs on the micellar solubility of cholesterol in vitro, as well as the effects of transient AR supplementation on faecal lipid excretion and plasma lipid levels in mice. We found that ARs formed bile micelles with taurocholate independently of phospholipids, and dose-dependently decreased the micellar solubility of cholesterol in a biliary micelle model. Transient AR supplementation with HFHSD increased faecal cholesterol and triglyceride contents and decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations. These suggest that one underlying mechanism through which ARs suppress diet-induced obesity is by interfering with the micellar cholesterol solubilisation in the digestive tract, which subsequently decreases cholesterol absorption.

  8. SNAREs and cholesterol movement for steroidogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Fredric B; Shen, Wen-Jun; Azhar, Salman

    2017-02-05

    Steroidogenesis is a complex process through which cholesterol traffics to mitochondria and is converted via a series of enzymatic steps to steroid hormones. Although the rate-limiting step in this process is the movement of cholesterol from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane via the actions of StAR, a continuous supply of cholesterol must be delivered to the outer mitochondrial membrane during active steroidogenesis and this is derived from multiple sources, including lipoprotein uptake, endogenous cholesterol synthesis and release from stores within cytoplasmic lipid droplets. A number of mechanisms have been suggested to contribute to cholesterol trafficking to mitochondria; however, there is no definitive consensus and this is particularly so in regards to trafficking from cytoplasmic lipid droplets. In this paper we review experiments in which we have surveyed the expression of SNARE proteins in steroidogenic tissue and cells and examined the role of SNAREs in mediating cholesterol movement from lipid droplets to the mitochondria based on multiple studies that identified SNAREs as components of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. We established and characterized an in vitro mitochondria reconstitution assay system that enabled us to examine the impact of adding recombinant SNARE proteins specifically on the movement of cholesterol from model lipid droplets to the outer mitochondrial membrane. Using this reconstitution assay system in combination with siRNA knockdown experiments in rat primary granulosa cells or in steroidogenic cell lines, we showed that several SNARE proteins are important components in the trafficking of cholesterol from lipid droplets to the mitochondria for steroidogenesis. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Assessing possible hazards of reducing serum cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, M R; Thompson, S G; Wald, N J

    1994-02-05

    To assess whether low serum cholesterol concentration increases mortality from any cause. Systematic review of published data on mortality from causes other than ischaemic heart disease derived from the 10 largest cohort studies, two international studies, and 28 randomised trials, supplemented by unpublished data on causes of death obtained when necessary. Excess cause specific mortality associated with low or lowered serum cholesterol concentration. The only cause of death attributable to low serum cholesterol concentration was haemorrhagic stroke. The excess risk was associated only with concentrations below about 5 mmol/l (relative risk 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 2.5), affecting about 6% of people in Western populations. For noncirculatory causes of death there was a pronounced difference between cohort studies of employed men, likely to be healthy at recruitment, and cohort studies of subjects in community settings, necessarily including some with existing disease. The employed cohorts showed no excess mortality. The community cohorts showed associations between low cholesterol concentration and lung cancer, haemopoietic cancers, suicide, chronic bronchitis, and chronic liver and bowel disease; these were most satisfactorily explained by early disease or by factors that cause the disease lowering serum cholesterol concentration (depression causes suicide and lowers cholesterol concentration, for example). In the randomised trials nine deaths (from a total of 687 deaths not due to ischaemic heart disease in treated subjects) were attributed to known adverse effects of the specific treatments, but otherwise there was no evidence of an increased mortality from any cause arising from reduction in cholesterol concentration. There is no evidence that low or reduced serum cholesterol concentration increases mortality from any cause other than haemorrhagic stroke. This risk affects only those people with a very low concentration and even in these will be

  10. Biodynamics of cholesterol and bile acids in the lithiasic hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khallou, J; Riottot, M; Parquet, M; Verneau, C; Lutton, C

    1991-11-01

    By using the isotopic equilibrium method in the young male Syrian hamster, the rates of cholesterol turnover processes, i.e. dietary cholesterol absorption, cholesterol synthesis, cholesterol excretion in the faeces and urine and cholesterol transformation into bile acids, were determined in the hamster receiving a control (C) or a lithogenic diet (L) for 7 weeks. At the end of this period the gall bladder of all animals in group L contained cholesterol gallstones. The coefficient of dietary cholesterol absorption was reduced by 26%, cholesterol synthesis and cholesterol faecal excretion were twofold higher in group L than in group C. Bile acid content in the small intestine was diminished in group L, but bile acid composition was similar in the two groups. The increase in cholesterogenesis in lithiasic animals essentially took place in the liver. Bile acid biosynthesis did not significantly differ in the two groups, but represented only 35% of total cholesterol input (dietary absorption + internal secretion) in group L v. 52% in group C. Thus, in the lithiasic hamster, hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and bile acids are not coupled. The molar percentage of cholesterol in bile was twofold higher in group L than in group C but those of bile acids and of phospholipids were not modified. In the lithiasic hamster the specific activity of biliary cholesterol was similar to that in plasma and liver. Consequently, biliary cholesterol does not derive directly from cholesterol newly synthesized in the liver but from hepatic cholesterol rapidly exchangeable with plasma cholesterol.

  11. Evaluation of LDL-Cholesterol / HDL-Cholesterol Ratio as Predictor of Dyslipidemia in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita S. Kottagi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Subclinical hypothyroidism is defined as a serum TSH concentration above the upper limit of the reference range when serum T3 and T4 concentrations are within reference ranges. Subclinical thyroid disease is a laboratory diagnosis. Patients with subclinical disease have few or no definitive clinical signs or symptoms of thyroid dysfunction. It has been associated with higher levels of some cardiovascular risk factors. Despite some conflicting results, many studies have found that subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism have total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels higher than euthyroid subjects. The association between subclinical hypothyroidism and dyslipidemia is well known. Aims and Objectives: This study is an attempt to find the importance of Low Density Lipoprotein – Cholesterol / Higher Density Lipoprotein - Cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C ratio rather than measurement of individual lipid profile parameters in bringing to light the dyslipidemic state associated with subclinical hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods: We studied 30 subclinical hypothyroid cases with age above 35 yrs and 30 age matched euthyroid controls. Serum T3, T4, TSH were estimated by ELISA method, serum total cholesterol, HDL Cholesterol by enzymatic CHOD-PAP method, and LDL cholesterol using Friedewald formula. Results: We found the significant increase in the serum levels of TSH (p < 0.001, Total cholesterol (p<0.001, LDL cholesterol (p<0.001, and LDL-C/HDL-C (p<0.001, Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.001. There was no significant change in the levels of serum T3, T4, HDL- cholesterol. Conclusion: Increased levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and increased LDL-C/HDL-C ratio are seen in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. LDL-C/HDLC ratio is a better indicator for dyslipidemia in subclinical hypothyroid cases.

  12. Dietary cholesterol modulates pathogen blocking by Wolbachia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric P Caragata

    Full Text Available The bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis protects its hosts from a range of pathogens by limiting their ability to form infections inside the insect. This "pathogen blocking" could be explained by innate immune priming by the symbiont, competition for host-derived resources between pathogens and Wolbachia, or the direct modification of the cell or cellular environment by Wolbachia. Recent comparative work in Drosophila and the mosquito Aedes aegypti has shown that an immune response is not required for pathogen blocking, implying that there must be an additional component to the mechanism. Here we have examined the involvement of cholesterol in pathogen blocking using a system of dietary manipulation in Drosophila melanogaster in combination with challenge by Drosophila C virus (DCV, a common fly pathogen. We observed that flies reared on cholesterol-enriched diets infected with the Wolbachia strains wMelPop and wMelCS exhibited reduced pathogen blocking, with viral-induced mortality occurring 2-5 days earlier than flies reared on Standard diet. This shift toward greater virulence in the presence of cholesterol also corresponded to higher viral copy numbers in the host. Interestingly, an increase in dietary cholesterol did not have an effect on Wolbachia density except in one case, but this did not directly affect the strength of pathogen blocking. Our results indicate that host cholesterol levels are involved with the ability of Wolbachia-infected flies to resist DCV infections, suggesting that cholesterol contributes to the underlying mechanism of pathogen blocking.

  13. Cholesterol suppresses antimicrobial effect of statins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Haeri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Isoprenoid biosynthesis is a key metabolic pathway to produce a wide variety of biomolecules such as cholesterol and carotenoids, which target cell membranes. On the other hand, it has been reported that statins known as inhibitors of isoprenoid biosynthesis and cholesterol lowering agents, may have a direct antimicrobial effect on the some bacteria. The exact action of statins in microbial metabolism is not clearly understood. It is possible that statins inhibit synthesis or utilization of some sterol precursor necessary for bacterial membrane integrity. Accordingly, this study was designed in order to examine if statins inhibit the production of a compound, which can be used in the membrane, and whether cholesterol would replace it and rescue bacteria from toxic effects of statins. Materials and Methods: To examine the possibility we assessed antibacterial effect of statins with different classes; lovastatin, simvastatin, and atorvastatin, alone and in combination with cholesterol on two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis and two Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli bacteria using gel diffusion assay. Results: Our results showed that all of the statins except for lovastatin had significant antibacterial property in S. aureus, E. coli, and Enter. faecalis. Surprisingly, cholesterol nullified the antimicrobial action of effective statins in statin-sensitive bacteria. Conclusion: It is concluded that statins may deprive bacteria from a metabolite responsible for membrane stability, which is effectively substituted by cholesterol.

  14. Methotrexate in Atherogenesis and Cholesterol Metabolism

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    Eric Coomes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methotrexate is a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug commonly used to treat inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis which itself is linked to increased cardiovascular risk. Treatments that target inflammation may also impact the cardiovascular system. While methotrexate improves cardiovascular risk, inhibition of the cyclooxygenase (COX-2 enzyme promotes atherosclerosis. These opposing cardiovascular influences may arise from differing effects on the expression of proteins involved in cholesterol homeostasis. These proteins, ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC A1 and cholesterol 27-hydroxylase, facilitate cellular cholesterol efflux and defend against cholesterol overload. Methotrexate upregulates expression of cholesterol 27-hydroxylase and ABCA1 via adenosine release, while COX-2 inhibition downregulates these proteins. Adenosine, acting through the A2A and A3 receptors, may upregulate proteins involved in reverse cholesterol transport by cAMP-PKA-CREB activation and STAT inhibition, respectively. Elucidating underlying cardiovascular mechanisms of these drugs provides a framework for developing novel cardioprotective anti-inflammatory medications, such as selective A2A receptor agonists.

  15. Dietary cholesterol impairs memory and memory increases brain cholesterol and sulfatide levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Deya S; Wang, Desheng; Konat, Gregory W; Schreurs, Bernard G

    2010-02-01

    Cholesterol and sulfatides play many important roles in learning and memory. To date, our observations about the effects of cholesterol on learning have been assessed during response acquisition; that is, the learning of a new memory. Here, we report for the first time to our knowledge, on the effect of a cholesterol diet on a previously formed memory. Rabbits were given trace conditioning of the nictitating membrane response for 10 days, then fed a 2% cholesterol diet for 8 weeks, and then assessed for memory recall of the initially learned task. We show that dietary cholesterol had an adverse effect on memory recall. Second, we investigated whether dietary cholesterol caused an increase in brain cholesterol and sulfatide levels in four major brain structures (hippocampus, frontal lobe, brainstem, and cerebellum) using a technique for analyzing myelin and myelin-free fractions separately. Although our data confirm previous findings that dietary cholesterol does not directly affect cholesterol and establish that it does not affect sulfatide levels in the brain, these levels did increase rather significantly in the hippocampus and frontal lobe as a function of learning and memory. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Cholesterol aided etching of tomatine gold nanoparticles: a non-enzymatic blood cholesterol monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Vidya; Johnson, Teslin; Joseph, Kuruvilla

    2014-10-15

    Colloidal gold is extensively used for molecular sensing because of the wide flexibilities it offers in terms of modifications of the gold nanoparticles (GNPs) surface with a variety of functional groups. We describe a simple, enzyme free assay for the detection of cholesterol, and demonstrate its applicability by estimating cholesterol in human serum samples. To enable cholesterol detection, we functionalized GNPs with tomatine, a glycoalkaloid found in the leaves and stem of tomato plants. The binding of cholesterol onto tomatine functionalized gold nanoparticles (TGNPs) was characterized by a blue shift in the plasmon absorption spectra (SPR) followed by reduction in the particle size. The TGNPs have been core etched with increasing concentration of cholesterol and with 800 ng/mL of cholesterol particles in the size range of 10-12 nm have been obtained. This behavior was attributed to the enhanced hydrophobicity of the surface acquired by cholesterol binding resulting in the folding or shrinkage of molecule in turn leading to core etching. The method was successfully applied for the detection of cholesterol in real samples and agrees well with values obtained from the conventional method. Because of its significant plasmonic shift and simplicity, this biosensor could be used for cholesterol detection as it does not demand either any hazardous and costly chemicals or any complex synthetic routes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Intracellular cholesterol transport proteins: roles in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffientini, Ugo; Graham, Annette

    2016-11-01

    Effective cholesterol homoeostasis is essential in maintaining cellular function, and this is achieved by a network of lipid-responsive nuclear transcription factors, and enzymes, receptors and transporters subject to post-transcriptional and post-translational regulation, whereas loss of these elegant, tightly regulated homoeostatic responses is integral to disease pathologies. Recent data suggest that sterol-binding sensors, exchangers and transporters contribute to regulation of cellular cholesterol homoeostasis and that genetic overexpression or deletion, or mutations, in a number of these proteins are linked with diseases, including atherosclerosis, dyslipidaemia, diabetes, congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia, cancer, autosomal dominant hearing loss and male infertility. This review focuses on current evidence exploring the function of members of the 'START' (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein-related lipid transfer) and 'ORP' (oxysterol-binding protein-related proteins) families of sterol-binding proteins in sterol homoeostasis in eukaryotic cells, and the evidence that they represent valid therapeutic targets to alleviate human disease. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  18. Study of Cholesterol Repletion Effect on Nanomechanical Properties of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cell Via Rapid Broadband Atomic Force Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bo; Ren, Juan; Liu, Yue; Huang, Huarong; Zheng, Xi; Zou, Qingze

    2017-03-01

    Abnormalities of blood cholesterol concentration are associated with increased risks for vascular disease, especially heart attacks and strokes. As one of the main lipid components of plasma membrane in all mammalian cells, cholesterol has a major impact on the mechanical properties of the membrane of endothelial cells. Although the effect of cholesterol depletion on cell mechanical properties has been studied, no results yet have been reported on quantitative investigation of cholesterol repletion effect. In this study, the cholesterol repletion effect on the nanomechanical properties of human umbilical vein endothelial cell (EA.hy926) was studied using a control-based atomic force microscope (AFM) nanomechanical measurement protocol. The viscoelasticity of EA.hy926 cells were measured over a large frequency range (0.1-100 Hz) using both constant-rate excitation force with different loading rates and a broadband excitation force. The viscoelasticity oscillation of the cell membranes under the cholesterol effect was also monitored in real-time. The experiment results showed that under the effect of cholesterol repletion, both the Young's modulus and the complex modulus of EA.hy926 cell were increased over 30%, respectively, and moreover, the amplitudes of both the elasticity oscillation and the viscosity oscillation at a period of around 200 s were increased over 70%, respectively. Therefore, this work is among the first to investigate the mechanical properties, particularly, the broadband viscoelasticity variations of EA.hy926 cells under cholesterol repletion treatment. The results revealed that cholesterol repletion may reinforce the coupling of F-actin to plasma membrane by increasing actin stability, and the cholesterol might have modified the submembrane cytoskeletal organization of EA.hy926 cell by causing the involvement of the motor protein nonmuscle myosin II.

  19. Polyunsaturated fatty acyl-coenzyme As are inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis in zebrafish and mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh Karanth

    2013-11-01

    Lipid disorders pose therapeutic challenges. Previously we discovered that mutation of the hepatocyte β-hydroxybutyrate transporter Slc16a6a in zebrafish causes hepatic steatosis during fasting, marked by increased hepatic triacylglycerol, but not cholesterol. This selective diversion of trapped ketogenic carbon atoms is surprising because acetate and acetoacetate can exit mitochondria and can be incorporated into both fatty acids and cholesterol in normal hepatocytes. To elucidate the mechanism of this selective diversion of carbon atoms to fatty acids, we fed wild-type and slc16a6a mutant animals high-protein ketogenic diets. We find that slc16a6a mutants have decreased activity of the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (Hmgcr, despite increased Hmgcr protein abundance and relative incorporation of mevalonate into cholesterol. These observations suggest the presence of an endogenous Hmgcr inhibitor. We took a candidate approach to identify such inhibitors. First, we found that mutant livers accumulate multiple polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and PUFA-CoAs, and we showed that human HMGCR is inhibited by PUFA-CoAs in vitro. Second, we injected mice with an ethyl ester of the PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid and observed an acute decrease in hepatic Hmgcr activity, without alteration in Hmgcr protein abundance. These results elucidate a mechanism for PUFA-mediated cholesterol lowering through direct inhibition of Hmgcr.

  20. Role of cholesterol in the biophysical dysfunction of surfactant in ventilator-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vockeroth, Dan; Gunasekara, Lasantha; Amrein, Matthias; Possmayer, Fred; Lewis, James F; Veldhuizen, Ruud A W

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation may lead to an impairment of the endogenous surfactant system, which is one of the mechanisms by which this intervention contributes to the progression of acute lung injury. The most extensively studied mechanism of surfactant dysfunction is serum protein inhibition. However, recent studies indicate that hydrophobic components of surfactant may also contribute. It was hypothesized that elevated levels of cholesterol significantly contribute to surfactant dysfunction in ventilation-induced lung injury. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 30) were randomized to either high-tidal volume or low-tidal volume ventilation and monitored for 2 h. Subsequently, the lungs were lavaged, surfactant was isolated, and the biophysical properties of this isolated surfactant were analyzed on a captive bubble surfactometer with and without the removal of cholesterol using methyl-beta-cyclodextrin. The results showed lower oxygenation values in the high-tidal volume group during the last 30 min of ventilation compared with the low-tidal volume group. Surfactant obtained from the high-tidal volume animals had a significant impairment in function compared with material from the low-tidal volume group. Removal of cholesterol from the high-tidal volume group improved the ability of the surfactant to reduce the surface tension to low values. Subsequent reconstitution of high-cholesterol values led to an impairment in surface activity. It is concluded that increased levels of cholesterol associated with endogenous surfactant represent a major contributor to the inhibition of surfactant function in ventilation-induced lung injury.

  1. Dairy products and plasma cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Ohlsson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol synthesized in the body or ingested is an essential lipid component for human survival from our earliest life. Newborns ingest about 3–4 times the amount per body weight through mother's milk compared to the dietary intake of adults. A birth level of 1.7 mmol/L plasma total cholesterol will increase to 4–4.5 mmol/L during the nursing period and continue to increase from adulthood around 40% throughout life. Coronary artery disease and other metabolic disorders are strongly associated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol as well as triacylglycerol concentration. Milk fat contains a broad range of fatty acids and some have a negative impact on the cholesterol rich lipoproteins. The saturated fatty acids (SFAs, such as palmitic acid (C16:0, myristic acid (C14:0, and lauric acid (C12:0, increase total plasma cholesterol, especially LDL, and constitute 11.3 g/L of bovine milk, which is 44.8% of total fatty acid in milk fat. Replacement of dairy SFA and trans-fatty acids with polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases plasma cholesterol, especially LDL cholesterol, and is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Available data shows different effects on lipoproteins for different dairy products and there is uncertainty as to the impact a reasonable intake amount of dairy items has on cardiovascular risk. The aim of this review is to elucidate the effect of milk components and dairy products on total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and the LDL/HDL quotients. Based on eight recent randomized controlled trials of parallel or cross-over design and recent reviews it can be concluded that replacement of saturated fat mainly (but not exclusively derived from high-fat dairy products with low-fat dairy products lowers LDL/HDL cholesterol and total/HDL cholesterol ratios. Whey, dairy fractions enriched in polar lipids, and techniques such as fermentation, or fortification of cows feeding can be used

  2. Inhibition of rat mammary tumorigenesis by dietary cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Sohemy, A; Bruce, W R; Archer, M C

    1996-01-01

    The effects of dietary cholesterol and oxidized cholesterol on mammary tumor development were examined in female Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to the carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU). Animals were administered 50 mg/kg MNU at 50 days of age and fed either a control (AIN-76) diet or the control diet supplemented with 0.3% cholesterol or 0.3% oxidized cholesterol for up to 26 weeks. The oxidized cholesterol was prepared by heating cholesterol at 110 degrees C for 48 h. Gas chromatographic analysis of the oxidized cholesterol revealed a 2% yield of oxidation products in addition to a large amount of unchanged cholesterol (> 96%). Tumor incidence in the cholesterol group (67%) was significantly lower than in the control group (96%, P < 0.05), but the oxidized cholesterol group (79%) was not significantly different from the control or cholesterol groups. Average number of tumors per animal was lower in the cholesterol group (1.5) than in the control (2.8) or oxidized cholesterol groups (2.3, P < 0.005). Serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was greater in the cholesterol (185 +/- 38 mg/dl) and the oxidized cholesterol groups (160 +/- 34 mg/dl) than in the controls (55 +/- 4 mg/dl, P < 0.05), although there was no difference between the cholesterol and the oxidized cholesterol groups. These results show that dietary cholesterol inhibits mammary tumor development in this model. Elevated serum LDL cholesterol may inhibit de novo cholesterol synthesis in preneoplastic and/or tumor cells, thereby inhibiting their proliferation.

  3. The usefulness of total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the usefulness of total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and/or highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol/total cholesterol ratios in the interpretation of lipid profile result in clinical practice. Methods: This is a prospective case-control study involving 109 diabetics, 98 diabetic hypertensives, 102 ...

  4. Cholesterol granuloma of the breast: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Eun; Park, In Seo; Lee, Kyung Hee; Kim, Mi Young; Kim, Youn Jeong [College of Medicine, Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    Cholesterol granuloma is histologically characterized as fibrous granulation tissue containing cholesterol crystals within surrounding giant cells. Cases of cholesterol granuloma of the breast are rare. In fact, only eight cases have been previously described, and of these, an ultrasonography was performed in only. Here, we report the ultrasonographic findings of a breast cholesterol granuloma accompanied with a literature review.

  5. Dietary cholesterol - the role of eggs in the prudent diet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eggs from the diet should be weighed against the effect of deprivation of these nutrients. Dietary cholesterol, serum cholesterol and CHD. Metabolic ward and controlled studies have demonstrated that an increase in dietary cholesterol as the only dietary variable, taken either as crystalline cholesterol, egg yolk or whole egg ...

  6. Cholesterol-Lowering Therapy Interventions: A Pharmacoeconomic Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Michael A. Kortt; Armstrong, Edward P.

    1998-01-01

    Elevated cholesterol levels are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Treatment strategies promoting the associated health benefits from a reduction in elevated cholesterol levels have been outlined in guidelines published by the National Cholesterol Education Program. Clinicians and researchers have also examined the economic benefits associated with reducing elevated cholesterol levels. Most of these studies have employed traditional pharmacoeconomic techniques like ...

  7. Cholesterol and ocular pathologies: focus on the role of cholesterol-24S-hydroxylase in cholesterol homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fourgeux Cynthia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The retina is responsible for coding the light stimulus into a nervous signal that is transferred to the brain via the optic nerve. The retina is formed by the association of the neurosensory retina and the retinal pigment epithelium that is supported by Bruch’s membrane. Both the physical and metabolic associations between these partners are crucial for the functioning of the retina, by means of nutrient intake and removal of the cell and metabolic debris from the retina. Dysequilibrium are involved in the aging processes and pathologies such as age-related macular degeneration, the leading cause of visual loss after the age of 50 years in Western countries. The retina is composed of several populations of cells including glia that is involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. Cholesterol is the main sterol in the retina. It is present as free form in cells and as esters in Bruch’s membrane. Accumulation of cholesteryl esters has been associated with aging of the retina and impairment of the retinal function. Under dietary influence and in situ synthesized, the metabolism of cholesterol is regulated by cell interactions, including neurons and glia via cholesterol-24S-hydroxylase. Several pathophysiological associations with cholesterol and its metabolism can be suggested, especially in relation to glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration.

  8. The Role of Macrophage Lipophagy in Reverse Cholesterol Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se-Jin Jeong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Macrophage cholesterol efflux is a central step in reverse cholesterol transport, which helps to maintain cholesterol homeostasis and to reduce atherosclerosis. Lipophagy has recently been identified as a new step in cholesterol ester hydrolysis that regulates cholesterol efflux, since it mobilizes cholesterol from lipid droplets of macrophages via autophagy and lysosomes. In this review, we briefly discuss recent advances regarding the mechanisms of the cholesterol efflux pathway in macrophage foam cells, and present lipophagy as a therapeutic target in the treatment of atherosclerosis.

  9. Perilipin 2 (PLIN2-deficiency does not increase cholesterol-induced toxicity in macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se-Hee Son

    Full Text Available Interventions on macrophages/foam cells to redirect intracellular cholesterol towards efflux pathways could become a very valuable addition to our therapeutic arsenal against atherosclerosis. However, certain manipulations of the cholesteryl ester cycle, such as the inhibition of ACAT1, an ER-resident enzyme that re-esterifies cholesterol, are not well tolerated. Previously we showed that targeting perilipin-2 (PLIN2, a major lipid droplet (LD-associated protein in macrophages, prevents foam cell formation and protects against atherosclerosis. Here we have assessed the tolerance of PLIN2-deficient bone marrow derived macrophages (BMM to several lipid loading conditions similar to the found during atherosclerosis development, including exposure to modified low-density lipoprotein (mLDL and 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC, a free cholesterol (FC metabolite, in media with or without cholesterol acceptors. BMM isolated from mice that do or do not express PLIN2 were tested for apoptosis (TUNEL and cleaved caspase-3, ER stress (CHOP induction and XBP-1 splicing, and inflammation (TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA levels. Like in other cell types, PLIN2 deficiency impairs LD buildup in BMM. However, while most stress parameters were elevated in macrophages under ACAT inhibition and 7-KC loading, PLIN2 inactivation was well tolerated. The data support the safety of targeting PLIN2 to prevent foam cell formation and atherosclerosis.

  10. Enhancement of liposome mediated gene transfer by adding cholesterol and cholesterol modulating drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Yun-Ui; Huh, Jae-Wan; Kim, Bieong-Kil; Park, Hyeon Young; Seu, Young-Bae; Doh, Kyung-Oh

    2016-12-01

    Cholesterol is an important cell membrane component and has been used as co-lipid for cationic liposome to enhance gene delivery. However, the role of cholesterol in transfection efficiency has not been fully understood. In this study, transfection efficiency of liposome was measured after cholesterol was added to the cell culture medium. As a result, addition of cholesterol increased transfection efficiency of several liposomes consisting of different lipid components in various cells (AGS, CHO, COS7 and, MCF7). Furthermore, treatment of cells with cholesterol modulating drugs, imipramine and U18666A, also increased transfection efficiency of liposomes. To elucidate the role of added cholesterol in gene transfer, endocytotic mechanism was studied and also revealed that adding cholesterol in culture media induced participation of caveolae-mediated endocytosis and micropinocytosis in CHO cell. Therefore, the results of this work suggest that modulation of intracellular cholesterol can be an important method to enhance gene delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevention of cholesterol gallstones by inhibiting hepatic biosynthesis and intestinal absorption of cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Helen H; Portincasa, Piero; de Bari, Ornella; Liu, Kristina J; Garruti, Gabriella; Neuschwander-Tetri, Brent A; Wang, David Q.-H

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol cholelithiasis is a multifactorial disease influenced by a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors, and represents a failure of biliary cholesterol homeostasis in which the physical-chemical balance of cholesterol solubility in bile is disturbed. The primary pathophysiologic event is persistent hepatic hypersecretion of biliary cholesterol, which has both hepatic and small intestinal components. The majority of the environmental factors are probably related to Western-type dietary habits, including excess cholesterol consumption. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures in the US, is nowadays a major treatment for gallstones. However, it is invasive and can cause surgical complications, and not all patients with symptomatic gallstones are candidates for surgery. The hydrophilic bile acid, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has been employed as first-line pharmacological therapy in a subgroup of symptomatic patients with small, radiolucent cholesterol gallstones. Long-term administration of UDCA can promote the dissolution of cholesterol gallstones. However, the optimal use of UDCA is not always achieved in clinical practice because of failure to titrate the dose adequately. Therefore, the development of novel, effective, and noninvasive therapies is crucial for reducing the costs of health care associated with gallstones. In this review, we summarize recent progress in investigating the inhibitory effects of ezetimibe and statins on intestinal absorption and hepatic biosynthesis of cholesterol, respectively, for the treatment of gallstones, as well as in elucidating their molecular mechanisms by which combination therapy could prevent this very common liver disease worldwide. PMID:23419155

  12. Alcohol consumption stimulates early steps in reverse cholesterol transport

    OpenAIRE

    Gaag, M.S.; Tol, A; Vermunt, S.H.F.; Scheek, L.M.; Schaafsma, G.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2001-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with increased HDL cholesterol levels, which may indicate stimulated reverse cholesterol transport. The mechanism is, however, not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of alcohol consumption on the first two steps of the reverse cholesterol pathway: cellular cholesterol efflux and plasma cholesterol esterification. Eleven healthy middle-aged men consumed four glasses (40 g of alcohol) of red wine, beer, spirits (Dutch gin), or carbonated m...

  13. Inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption with ezetimibe increases components of reverse cholesterol transport in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Michael H; Voogt, Jason; Luchoomun, Jayraz; Decaris, Julie; Killion, Salena; Boban, Drina; Glass, Alexander; Mohammad, Hussein; Lu, Yun; Villegas, Deona; Neese, Richard; Hellerstein, Marc; Neff, David; Musliner, Thomas; Tomassini, Joanne E; Turner, Scott

    2013-10-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) can be defined as a pathway of flux of cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver for potential excretion into feces. This prospective, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study assessed the effect of ezetimibe on several RCT parameters in hyperlipidemic patients. Following 7 weeks of treatment (ezetimibe 10 mg/day or placebo), 26 patients received 24-h continuous IV infusions of [3,4-(13)C2]-cholesterol, then took heavy water ((2)H2O) by mouth. Cholesterol excretion was measured by quantification of neutral/acid sterols in stool and blood samples during 7 days post-infusion with continued treatment. Plasma de novo cholesterol synthesis was assessed by (2)H-labeling from (2)H2O. Ezetimibe significantly reduced levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (22%, P < 0.001) without significant changes in triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and significantly increased the flux of plasma-derived cholesterol into fecal neutral sterols by 52% (P = 0.04) without change in flux into fecal bile acids. Total fecal neutral sterol output increased by 23% (P = 0.02). Plasma de novo cholesterol synthesis increased by 57% (P < 0.001). The fractional clearance rate (FCR) of plasma cholesteryl-ester trended higher (7%; P = 0.055) with a reduction in absolute cholesteryl-ester production rate (9%, P < 0.01). Whole-body free cholesterol efflux rate from extra-hepatic tissues into plasma was not measurably changed by ezetimibe. Ezetimibe treatment approximately doubled the flux of plasma-derived cholesterol into fecal neutral sterols, in association with increases in total fecal neutral sterol excretion, FCR of plasma cholesterol ester, and plasma de novo cholesterol synthesis. These effects are consistent with increased cholesterol transport through the plasma compartment and excretion from the body, in response to ezetimibe treatment in hyperlipidemic humans. Clintrials.gov: NCT00701727. Copyright

  14. Heavy-Load Lifting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomquist, Kira; Oturai, Peter; Steele, Megan L

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Despite a paucity of evidence, prevention guidelines typically advise avoidance of heavy lifting in an effort to protect against breast cancer-related lymphedema. This study compared acute responses in arm swelling and related symptoms after low- and heavy-load resistance exercise among...... women at risk of lymphedema while receiving adjuvant taxane-based chemotherapy. METHODS: This is a randomized, cross-over equivalence trial. Women receiving adjuvant taxane-based chemotherapy for breast cancer who had undergone axillary lymph node dissection (n=21) participated in low- (60-65% 1...... repetition maximum (RM), two sets of 15-20 repetitions) and heavy-load (85-90% 1RM, three sets of 5-8 repetition) upper-extremity resistance exercise separated by a one-week wash-out period. Swelling was determined by bioimpedance spectroscopy and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, with breast cancer...

  15. Doxorubicin enhances oxysterol levels resulting in a LXR-mediated upregulation of cardiac cholesterol transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzel, Judith V; Budde, Thomas; Meyer Zu Schwabedissen, Henriette E; Schwebe, Matthias; Bien-Möller, Sandra; Lütjohann, Dieter; Kroemer, Heyo K; Jedlitschky, Gabriele; Grube, Markus

    2017-11-15

    The anthracycline-mediated cardiotoxicity is still not completely understood. To examine the impact of cholesterol metabolism and transport in this context, cholesterol and oxysterol levels as well as the expression of the cholesterol transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 were analyzed in doxorubicin-treated HL-1 murine cardiomyocytes as well as in mouse model for acute doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Doxorubicin-treated HL-1 cells exhibited enhanced cholesterol (153±20% of control), oxysterol (24S-hydroxycholesterol: 206±29% of control) and cholesterol precursor levels (lathosterol: 122±12% of control; desmosterol: 188±10% of control) indicating enhanced cholesterol synthesis. Moreover, abca1 and abcg1 were upregulated on mRNA, protein and functional level caused by a doxorubicin-mediated activation of the nuclear receptor LXR. In addition, the oxysterols not only induced the abca1 and abcg1 in HL-1 cells but also enhanced the expression of endothelin-1 and transforming growth factor-β, which have already been identified as important factors in doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. These in vitro findings were verified in a murine model for acute doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity, demonstrating elevated cardiac (2.1±0.2vs. 3.6±1.0ng/mg) and systemic cholesterol levels (105.0±8.4vs. 130.0±4.3mg/dl), respectively, as well as enhanced oxysterol levels such as cardiac 24S-hydroxycholesterol (2.1±0.2vs. 3.6±1.0ng/mg). In line with these findings cardiac mRNA expression of abca1 (303% of control) and abcg1 (161% of control) was induced. Taken together, our data demonstrate enhanced cholesterol and oxysterol levels by doxorubicin, resulting in a LXR-dependent upregulation of abca1 and abcg1. In this context, the cytotoxic effects of oxysterols and their impact on cardiac gene expression should be considered as an important factor in doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Inhibition of Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption on the Prevention of Cholesterol Gallstone Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portincasa, Piero; Wang, David Q-H

    2017-01-01

    Cholesterol cholelithiasis is a multifactorial hepatobiliary disease. Interactions between genetic and environmental factors play a critical role in biliary cholesterol homeostasis and its imbalance enhances cholelithogenesis. In patients developing symptoms or complications of gallstone disease, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is recommended for treatment of gallstones. In a subgroup of patients with small, radiolucent pure cholesterol gallstones, the hydrophilic bile acid, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is still considered the only pharmacological therapy able to induce oral litholysis. Identifying novel and effective pharmacological therapies is being investigated. We propose that the specific intestinal Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 protein inhibitor ezetimibe is a potential agent for preventing gallstone formation by reducing bioavailability of intestine- derived cholesterol to the liver for biliary secretion and desaturating bile through the inhibition of intestinal absorption of cholesterol. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Sphingomyelin synthase overexpression increases cholesterol accumulation and decreases cholesterol secretion in liver cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yue

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels are negatively correlated with the development of atherosclerosis, whereas epidemiological studies have also shown that plasma sphingomyelin level is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. Methods To evaluate the relationship between cellular sphingomyelin level and cholesterol metabolism, we created two cell lines that overexpressed sphingomyelin synthase 1 or 2 (SMS1 or SMS2, using the Tet-off expression system. Results We found that SMS1 or SMS2 overexpression in Huh7 cells, a human hepatoma cell line, significantly increased the levels of intracellular sphingomyelin, cholesterol, and apolipoprotein A-I and decreased levels of apolipoprotein A-I and cholesterol in the cell culture medium, implying a defect in both processes. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the manipulation of sphingomyelin synthase activity could influence the metabolism of sphingomyelin, cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I.

  18. Enzymatic quantification of cholesterol and cholesterol esters from silicone hydrogel contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucker, Andrew D; Thangavelu, Mirunalni; Nichols, Jason J

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop an enzymatic method of quantification of cholesterol and cholesterol esters derived from contact lenses, both in vitro and ex vivo. Lotrafilcon B (O2 Optix; CIBA Vision, Inc., Duluth, GA) and galyfilcon A (Acuvue Advance; Vistakon, Inc., Jacksonville, FL) silicone hydrogel contact lenses were independently incubated in cholesterol oleate solutions varying in concentrations. After incubation, the lenses were removed and underwent two separate 2:1 chloroform-methanol extractions. After in vitro studies, 10 human subjects wore both lotrafilcon B and galyfilcon A contact lenses for 7 days. The lenses also underwent two separate 2:1 chloroform-methanol extractions. All in vitro and ex vivo samples were quantified with a cholesterol esterase enzymatic reaction. Calibration curves from quantifications of in vitro contact lens samples soaked in successively decreasing concentrations of cholesterol oleate yielded coefficients of determination (R(2)) of 0.99 (lotrafilcon B) and 0.97 (galyfilcon A). For in vitro contact lens samples, galyfilcon A was associated with an average cholesterol oleate extraction of 39.85 +/- 48.65 microg/lens, whereas lotrafilcon B was associated with 5.86 +/- 3.36 microg/lens (P = 0.05) across both extractions and all incubation concentrations. For ex vivo contact lens samples, there was significantly more cholesterol and cholesterol esters deposited on galyfilcon A (5.77 +/- 1.87 microg/lens) than on lotrafilcon B (2.03 +/- 1.62 microg/lens; P = 0.0005). This is an efficient and simple method of quantifying total cholesterol extracted from silicone hydrogel contact lenses and, potentially, the meibum and/or tear film. Certain silicone hydrogel materials demonstrate more affinity for cholesterol and its esters than do others.

  19. Free cholesterol and cholesterol esters in bovine oocytes: Implications in survival and membrane raft organization after cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschiazzo, Jorgelina; Ríos, Glenda L; Canizo, Jesica R; Antollini, Silvia S; Alberio, Ricardo H

    2017-01-01

    Part of the damage caused by cryopreservation of mammalian oocytes occurs at the plasma membrane. The addition of cholesterol to cell membranes as a strategy to make it more tolerant to cryopreservation has been little addressed in oocytes. In order to increase the survival of bovine oocytes after cryopreservation, we proposed not only to increase cholesterol level of oocyte membranes before vitrification but also to remove the added cholesterol after warming, thus recovering its original level. Results from our study showed that modulation of membrane cholesterol by methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) did not affect the apoptotic status of oocytes and improved viability after vitrification yielding levels of apoptosis closer to those of fresh oocytes. Fluorometric measurements based on an enzyme-coupled reaction that detects both free cholesterol (membrane) and cholesteryl esters (stored in lipid droplets), revealed that oocytes and cumulus cells present different levels of cholesterol depending on the seasonal period. Variations at membrane cholesterol level of oocytes were enough to account for the differences found in total cholesterol. Differences found in total cholesterol of cumulus cells were explained by the differences found in both the content of membrane cholesterol and of cholesterol esters. Cholesterol was incorporated into the oocyte plasma membrane as evidenced by comparative labeling of a fluorescent cholesterol. Oocytes and cumulus cells increased membrane cholesterol after incubation with MβCD/cholesterol and recovered their original level after cholesterol removal, regardless of the season. Finally, we evaluated the effect of vitrification on the putative raft molecule GM1. Cholesterol modulation also preserved membrane organization by maintaining ganglioside level at the plasma membrane. Results suggest a distinctive cholesterol metabolic status of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) among seasons and a dynamic organizational structure of cholesterol

  20. Free cholesterol and cholesterol esters in bovine oocytes: Implications in survival and membrane raft organization after cryopreservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgelina Buschiazzo

    Full Text Available Part of the damage caused by cryopreservation of mammalian oocytes occurs at the plasma membrane. The addition of cholesterol to cell membranes as a strategy to make it more tolerant to cryopreservation has been little addressed in oocytes. In order to increase the survival of bovine oocytes after cryopreservation, we proposed not only to increase cholesterol level of oocyte membranes before vitrification but also to remove the added cholesterol after warming, thus recovering its original level. Results from our study showed that modulation of membrane cholesterol by methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD did not affect the apoptotic status of oocytes and improved viability after vitrification yielding levels of apoptosis closer to those of fresh oocytes. Fluorometric measurements based on an enzyme-coupled reaction that detects both free cholesterol (membrane and cholesteryl esters (stored in lipid droplets, revealed that oocytes and cumulus cells present different levels of cholesterol depending on the seasonal period. Variations at membrane cholesterol level of oocytes were enough to account for the differences found in total cholesterol. Differences found in total cholesterol of cumulus cells were explained by the differences found in both the content of membrane cholesterol and of cholesterol esters. Cholesterol was incorporated into the oocyte plasma membrane as evidenced by comparative labeling of a fluorescent cholesterol. Oocytes and cumulus cells increased membrane cholesterol after incubation with MβCD/cholesterol and recovered their original level after cholesterol removal, regardless of the season. Finally, we evaluated the effect of vitrification on the putative raft molecule GM1. Cholesterol modulation also preserved membrane organization by maintaining ganglioside level at the plasma membrane. Results suggest a distinctive cholesterol metabolic status of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs among seasons and a dynamic organizational structure

  1. Evidence for generation of a large amount of nitric oxide-like vascular smooth muscle relaxant by cholesterol-rich neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, J L; Lawson, D L; Nicolini, F A; Cain, D A; Mehta, P; Schreier, H

    1990-11-30

    To determine the effect of cholesterol incorporation on the ability of neutrophils to generate superoxide radicals and nitric oxide-like vasorelaxant material, isolated human neutrophils were incubated with cholesterol-rich liposomes, which increased total cholesterol content by 141% and esterified cholesterol content by 523%. Cholesterol loading resulted in 5 to 7 fold increase in cytosolic calcium in resting as well as in PMA or f-MLP-stimulated cells, but a marked (P less than 0.01) reduction in both PMA- and f-MLP-stimulated superoxide radical generation by these cells. Nitric oxide-like activity measured as relaxation of rat aortic rings was more pronounced (P less than 0.02) in cholesterol-rich than in cholesterol-poor cells. The greater relaxation of aortic rings in response to cholesterol-rich neutrophils was observed in rings with or without intact endothelium, and was potentiated by superoxide dismutase and inhibited by oxyhemoglobin as well as L-NMMA, thus suggesting that the vasorelaxant material was nitric oxide. The greater generation of nitric oxide by cholesterol-rich neutrophils occurs perhaps in response to increased cytosolic calcium.

  2. Structure of cholesterol/ceramide monolayer mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheffer, L.; Solomonov, I.; Weygand, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The structure of monolayers of cholesterol/ ceramide mixtures was investigated using grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, immunofluorescence, and atomic force microscopy techniques. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements showed the existence of a crystalline mixed phase of the two...... that in uncompressed ceramide monolayers, the highly crystalline phase coexists with a disordered loosely packed phase. In contrast, no disordered phase coexists with the new crystalline mixed phase. We conclude that the new mixed phase represents a stable homogeneous arrangement of cholesterol with ceramide...... components within a range of compositions of cholesterol/ ceramide between 100: 0 and 67: 33. The mixed phase coexists with the ceramide crystalline phase in the range of compositions between 50: 50 and 30: 70; between 30: 70 and 0: 100 only the highly crystalline phase of ceramide was detected. The latter...

  3. Ordering effects of cholesterol and its analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Róg, Tomasz; Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, Marta; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2009-01-01

    Without any exaggeration, cholesterol is one of the most important lipid species in eukaryotic cells. Its effects on cellular membranes and functions range from purely mechanistic to complex metabolic ones, besides which it is also a precursor of the sex hormones (steroids) and several vitamins....... In this review, we discuss the biophysical effects of cholesterol on the lipid bilayer, in particular the ordering and condensing effects, concentrating on the molecular level or inter-atomic interactions perspective, starting from two-component systems and proceeding to many-component ones e.g., modeling lipid...... rafts. Particular attention is paid to the roles of the methyl groups in the cholesterol ring system, and their possible biological function. Although our main research methodology is computer modeling, in this review we make extensive comparisons between experiments and different modeling approaches....

  4. CHOBIMALT: A Cholesterol-Based Detergent†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Stanley C.; Mittal, Ritesh; Huang, Lijun; Travis, Benjamin; Breyer, Richard M.; Sanders, Charles R.

    2010-01-01

    Cholesterol and its hemisuccinate and sulfate derivatives are widely used in studies of purified membrane proteins, but are difficult to solubilize in aqueous solution, even in the presence of detergent micelles. Other cholesterol derivatives do not form conventional micelles and lead to viscous solutions. To address these problems a cholesterol-based detergent, CHOBIMALT, has been synthesized and characterized. At concentrations above 3–4μM, CHOBIMALT forms micelles without the need for elevated temperatures or sonic disruption. Diffusion and fluorescence measurements indicated that CHOBIMALT micelles are large (210 ± 30 kDa). The ability to solubilize a functional membrane protein was explored using a G-protein coupled receptor, the human kappa opioid receptor type 1 (hKOR1). While CHOBIMALT alone was not found to be effective as a surfactant for membrane extraction, when added to classical detergent micelles CHOBIMALT was observed to dramatically enhance the thermal stability of solubilized hKOR1. PMID:20919740

  5. Dietary glycemic index, dietary glycemic load, blood lipids, and C-reactive protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, Emily B; Cook, Nancy R; Stampfer, Meir J; Ridker, Paul M; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Buring, Julie E; Manson, JoAnn E; Liu, Simin

    2008-03-01

    Carbohydrate quantity and quality may influence the risk of cardiovascular disease through blood lipid concentrations and inflammation. We measured dietary glycemic index (GI) and dietary glycemic load (GL) among 18137 healthy women > or = 45 years old without diagnosed diabetes using a food-frequency questionnaire. We assayed fasting total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol; LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio; triacylglycerols (TG); and C-reactive protein (CRP). We evaluated associations with dietary GI and GL using a cross-sectional design, adjusting for age, body mass index, lifestyle factors, and other dietary factors. Dietary GI was significantly associated with HDL and LDL cholesterol, LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio, TG, and CRP (comparing top to bottom quintile difference in HDL cholesterol = -2.6 mg/dL, LDL cholesterol = 2.2 mg/dL, LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio = 0.16, TG = 12 mg/dL, and CRP = 0.21 mg/L). Dietary GL was associated with HDL cholesterol, LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio, and TG (comparing top to bottom quintile HDL cholesterol = -4.9 mg/dL, LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio = 0.24, and TG = 13 mg/dL). Differences in blood lipids and CRP between extreme quintiles of dietary GI and GL were small, but may translate into a clinically meaningful difference in cardiovascular risk.

  6. [Screening and optimization of cholesterol conversion strain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dan; Xiong, Bingjian; Pang, Cuiping; Zhu, Xiangdong

    2014-10-04

    Bacterial strain SE-1 capable of transforming cholesterol was isolated from soil and characterized. The transformation products were identified. Fermentation conditions were optimized for conversion. Cholesterol was used as sole carbon source to isolate strain SE-1. Morphology, physiological and biochemical characteristics of strain SE-1 were studied. 16S rRNA gene was sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Fermentation supernatants were extracted with chloroform, the transformation products were analyzed by silica gel thin layer chromatography and Sephadex LH20. Their structures were identified by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Fermentation medium including carbon and nitrogen, methods of adding substrates and fermentation conditions for Strain SE-1 were optimized. Strain SE-1 was a Gram-negative bacterium, exhibiting the highest homologs to Burkholderia cepacia based on the physiological analysis. The sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene of SE-1 strain and comparison with related Burkholderia show that SE-1 strain was very close to B. cepacia (Genbank No. U96927). The similarity was 99%. The result of silica gel thin layer chromatography shows that strain SE-1 transformed cholesterol to two products, 7beta-hydroxycholesterol and the minor product was 7-oxocholesterol. The optimum culture conditions were: molasses 5%, (NH4 )2SO4 0.3%, 4% of inoculation, pH 7.5 and 36 degrees C. Under the optimum culture condition, the conversion rate reached 34.4% when concentration of cholesterol-Tween 80 was 1 g/L. Cholesterol 7beta-hydroxylation conversion rate under optimal conditions was improved by 20.8%. Strain SE-1 isolated from soil is capable of converting cholesterol at lab-scale.

  7. Tympanomastoid cholesterol granulomas: Immunohistochemical evaluation of angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannella, Giannicola; Di Gioia, Cira; Carletti, Raffaella; Magliulo, Giuseppe

    2017-08-01

    This study investigates the immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CD34 in patients treated for middle ear and mastoid cholesterol granulomas to evaluate the angiogenesis and vascularization of this type of lesion. A correlation between the immunohistochemical data and the radiological and intraoperative evidence of temporal bone marrow invasion and blood source connection was performed to validate this hypothesis. Retrospective study. Immunohistochemical expression of VEGF and CD34 in a group of 16 patients surgically treated for cholesterol granuloma was examined. Middle ear cholesteatomas with normal middle ear mucosa and external auditory canal skin were used as the control groups. The radiological and intraoperative features of cholesterol granulomas were also examined. In endothelial cells, there was an increased expression of angiogenetic growth factor receptors in all the cholesterol granulomas in this study. The quantitative analysis of VEGF showed a mean value of 37.5, whereas the CD34 quantitative analysis gave a mean value of 6.8. Seven patients presented radiological or intraoperative evidence of bone marrow invasion, hematopoietic potentialities, or blood source connections that might support the bleeding theory. In all of these cases there was computed tomography or intraoperative evidence of bone erosion of the middle ear and/or temporal bone structures. The mean values of VEGF and CD34 were 41.1 and 7.7, respectively. High values of VEGF and CD34 are present in patients with cholesterol granulomas. Upregulation of VEGF and CD34 is indicative of a remarkable angiogenesis and a widespread vascular concentration in cholesterol granulomas. 3b. Laryngoscope, 127:E283-E290, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. Dietary cholesterol from eggs increases the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in humans : a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weggemans, R.M.; Zock, P.L.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Several epidemiologic studies found no effect of egg consumption on the risk of coronary heart disease. It is possible that the adverse effect of eggs on LDL-cholesterol is offset by their favorable effect on HDL cholesterol. Objective: The objective was to review the effect of dietary cholesterol

  9. Cholesterol mediates membrane curvature during fusion events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivankin, Andrey; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Gidalevitz, David

    2012-06-08

    Biomembranes undergo extensive shape changes as they perform vital cellular functions. The mechanisms by which lipids and proteins control membrane curvature remain unclear. We use x-ray reflectivity, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, and epifluorescence microscopy to study binding of HIV-1 glycoprotein gp41's membrane-bending domain to DPPC/cholesterol monolayers of various compositions at the air-liquid interface. The results offer a new insight into how membrane curvature could be regulated by cholesterol during fusion of the viral lipid envelope and the host cell membranes.

  10. Cholesterol oxidation products and their biological importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulig, Waldemar; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Jurkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    and precisely regulated level, with an excess of cholesterol. Like cholesterol, many oxysterols are hydrophobic and hence confined to cell membranes. However, small chemical differences between the sterols can significantly affect how they interact with other membrane components, and this in turn can have...... a substantial effect on membrane properties. In this spirit, this review describes the biological importance and the roles of oxysterols in the human body. We focus primarily on the effect of oxysterols on lipid membranes, but we also consider other issues such as enzymatic and nonenzymatic synthesis processes...

  11. 2013 Cholesterol Guidelines Revisited: Percent LDL Cholesterol Reduction or Attained LDL Cholesterol Level or Both for Prognosis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bangalore, Sripal; Fayyad, Rana; Kastelein, John J.; Laskey, Rachel; Amarenco, Pierre; Demicco, David A.; Waters, David D.

    2016-01-01

    The 2013 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol recommends moderate- to high-intensity statins for patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease but departs from the traditional treat-to-target approach. Whether

  12. Aspirin Increases the Solubility of Cholesterol in Lipid Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Richard; Barrett, Matthew; Zheng, Sonbo; Dies, Hannah; Rheinstadter, Maikel

    2014-03-01

    Aspirin (ASA) is often prescribed for patients with high levels of cholesterol for the secondary prevention of myocardial events, a regimen known as the Low-Dose Aspirin Therapy. We have recently shown that Aspirin partitions in lipid bilayers. However, a direct interplay between ASA and cholesterol has not been investigated. Cholesterol is known to insert itself into the membrane in a dispersed state at moderate concentrations (under ~37.5%) and decrease fluidity of membranes. We prepared model lipid membranes containing varying amounts of both ASA and cholesterol molecules. The structure of the bilayers as a function of ASA and cholesterol concentration was determined using high-resolution X-ray diffraction. At cholesterol levels of more than 40mol%, immiscible cholesterol plaques formed. Adding ASA to the membranes was found to dissolve the cholesterol plaques, leading to a fluid lipid bilayer structure. We present first direct evidence for an interaction between ASA and cholesterol on the level of the cell membrane.

  13. [Basic mechanisms: absorption and excretion of cholesterol and other sterols].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofan Pujol, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Cholesterol is of vital importance for vertebrate cell membrane structure and function. It is obvious that adequate regulation of cholesterol homeostasis is essential. Hypercholesterolemia promotes atherosclerosis and thereby represents a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The liver has been considered the major site of control in maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis. The liver facilitates clearance of (very) low density lipoprotein particles and cholesterol-containing chylomicron remnants, synthesizes cholesterol, synthesizes and secretes (nascent) high density lipoprotein particles, secretes cholesterol and bile salts to bile, and is involved in reverse cholesterol transport. In recent years, however, the importance of the intestine in many aspects of cholesterol physiology is increasingly recognized. It has become apparent that direct secretion of cholesterol from the blood compartment into the intestine, or transintestinal cholesterol excretion, plays a major role in disposal of cholesterol via the feces. This review will discuss current knowledge on the physiology of cholesterol homeostasis, with emphasis on cholesterol absorption, cholesterol synthesis and fecal excretion, and therapeutic options for hypercholesterolemia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEA. All rights reserved.

  14. An amperometric cholesterol biosensor based on epoxy resin membrane bound cholesterol oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pundir, C S; Narang, Jagriti; Chauhan, Nidhi; Sharma, Preety; Sharma, Renu

    2012-10-01

    The use of epoxy resin membrane as a support for immobilization of enzyme has resulted into improved sensitivity and stability of biosensors for uric acid, ascorbic acid and polyphenols. The present work was aimed to prepare an improved amperometric biosensor for determination of serum cholesterol required in the diagnostics and management of certain pathological conditions. Epoxy resin membrane with immobilized cholesterol oxidase was mounted on the cleaned platinum (Pt) electrode with a parafilm to construct a working electrode. This working electrode along with Ag/AgCl as reference and Ag wire as an auxiliary electrode were connected through a three terminal electrometer to construct a cholesterol biosensor. The sensor showed optimum response within 25 sec at pH 7.0 and 45°C. The linear working range of biosensor was 1.0 to 8.0 mM cholesterol. K m and I max for cholesterol were 5.0 mM and 9.09 μA, respectively. The biosensor measured serum cholesterol. The minimum detection limit of the sensor was 1.0 mM. The mean analytical recoveries of added cholesterol in serum (2.84 and 4.13 mM) were 91.4 ± 2.8 and 92.3 ± 3.1 per cent (n=6), respectively. Within and between assay coefficient of variation (CV) were epoxy resin membrane as a support for immobilization of cholesterol oxidase has resulted into an improved amperometric cholesterol biosensor. The present biosensor had an advantage over the existing biosensors as it worked at comparatively lower potential.

  15. Inhibiting Cholesterol Absorption During Lactation Programs Future Intestinal Absorption of Cholesterol in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, Lidiya G; de Boer, Jan Freark; Plantinga, Josee; Plösch, Torsten; Hoekstra, Menno; Verkade, Henkjan J; Tietge, Uwe J F

    2017-08-01

    In nematodes, the intestine senses and integrates early life dietary cues that lead to lifelong epigenetic adaptations to a perceived nutritional environment-it is not clear whether this process occurs in mammals. We aimed to establish a mouse model of reduced dietary cholesterol availability from maternal milk and investigate the consequences of decreased milk cholesterol availability, early in life, on the metabolism of cholesterol in adult mice. We blocked intestinal absorption of cholesterol in milk fed to newborn mice by supplementing the food of dams (for 3 weeks between birth and weaning) with ezetimibe, which is secreted into milk. Ezetimibe interacts with the intestinal cholesterol absorption transporter NPC1l1 to block cholesterol uptake into enterocytes. Characterization of these offspring at 24 weeks of age showed a 27% decrease in cholesterol absorption (P < .001) and reduced levels of Npc1l1 messenger RNA and protein, but not other cholesterol transporters, in the proximal small intestine. We observed increased histone H3K9me3 methylation at positions -423 to -607 of the proximal Npc1l1 promoter in small intestine tissues from 24-week-old offspring fed ezetimibe during lactation, compared with controls. These findings show that the early postnatal mammalian intestine functions as an environmental sensor of nutritional conditions, responding to conditions such as low cholesterol levels by epigenetic modifications of genes. Further studies are needed to determine how decreased sterol absorption for a defined period might activate epigenetic regulators; the findings of our study might have implications for human infant nutrition and understanding and preventing cardiometabolic disease. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Elevated Remnant Cholesterol Causes Both Low-Grade Inflammation and Ischemic Heart Disease, Whereas Elevated Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Causes Ischemic Heart Disease Without Inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Benn, Marianne; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Elevated nonfasting remnant cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol are causally associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD), but whether elevated nonfasting remnant cholesterol and LDL cholesterol both cause low-grade inflammation is currently unknown.......Elevated nonfasting remnant cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol are causally associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD), but whether elevated nonfasting remnant cholesterol and LDL cholesterol both cause low-grade inflammation is currently unknown....

  17. High Cholesterol/Low Cholesterol: Effects in Biological Membranes: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subczynski, Witold K; Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, Marta; Widomska, Justyna; Mainali, Laxman; Raguz, Marija

    2017-12-01

    Lipid composition determines membrane properties, and cholesterol plays a major role in this determination as it regulates membrane fluidity and permeability, as well as induces the formation of coexisting phases and domains in the membrane. Biological membranes display a very diverse lipid composition, the lateral organization of which plays a crucial role in regulating a variety of membrane functions. We hypothesize that, during biological evolution, membranes with a particular cholesterol content were selected to perform certain functions in the cells of eukaryotic organisms. In this review, we discuss the major membrane properties induced by cholesterol, and their relationship to certain membrane functions.

  18. Histone deacetylase inhibition decreases cholesterol levels in neuronal cells by modulating key genes in cholesterol synthesis, uptake and efflux.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Nunes

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is an essential component of the central nervous system and increasing evidence suggests an association between brain cholesterol metabolism dysfunction and the onset of neurodegenerative disorders. Interestingly, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi such as trichostatin A (TSA are emerging as promising therapeutic approaches in neurodegenerative diseases, but their effect on brain cholesterol metabolism is poorly understood. We have previously demonstrated that HDACi up-regulate CYP46A1 gene transcription, a key enzyme in neuronal cholesterol homeostasis. In this study, TSA was shown to modulate the transcription of other genes involved in cholesterol metabolism in human neuroblastoma cells, namely by up-regulating genes that control cholesterol efflux and down-regulating genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and uptake, thus leading to an overall decrease in total cholesterol content. Furthermore, co-treatment with the amphipathic drug U18666A that can mimic the intracellular cholesterol accumulation observed in cells of Niemman-Pick type C patients, revealed that TSA can ameliorate the phenotype induced by pathological cholesterol accumulation, by restoring the expression of key genes involved in cholesterol synthesis, uptake and efflux and promoting lysosomal cholesterol redistribution. These results clarify the role of TSA in the modulation of neuronal cholesterol metabolism at the transcriptional level, and emphasize the idea of HDAC inhibition as a promising therapeutic tool in neurodegenerative disorders with impaired cholesterol metabolism.

  19. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  20. Garbanzo diet lowers cholesterol in hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholesterol-lowering potential of diets with 22% protein from Chickpea (Cicer arietinum, European variety of Garbanzo, Kabuli Chana), Bengal gram (Cicer arietinum, Asian variety of Garbanzo, Desi Chana, smaller in size, yellow to black color), lentils, soy protein isolate, hydrolyzed salmon protein...

  1. Cholesterol oxidation products and their biological importance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kulig, W.; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Rog, T.; Vattulainen, I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 199, SI (2016), s. 144-160 ISSN 0009-3084 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP208/12/G016; GA ČR GA15-14292S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : cholesterol * oxidation * oxysterols Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.361, year: 2016

  2. Cholesterol levels in fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Levin, Rebecca; Shah, Haroon; Mathur, Shaguna; Darnell, Jennifer C; Ouyang, Bichun

    2015-02-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is associated with intellectual disability and behavioral dysfunction, including anxiety, ADHD symptoms, and autistic features. Although individuals with FXS are largely considered healthy and lifespan is not thought to be reduced, very little is known about the long-term medical health of adults with FXS and no systematically collected information is available on standard laboratory measures from metabolic screens. During the course of follow up of a large cohort of patients with FXS we noted that many patients had low cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (HDL) values and thus initiated a systematic chart review of all cholesterol values present in charts from a clinic cohort of over 500 patients with FXS. Total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and HDL were all significantly reduced in males from the FXS cohort relative to age-adjusted population normative data. This finding has relevance for health monitoring in individuals with FXS, for treatments with cholesterol-lowering agents that have been proposed to target the underlying CNS disorder in FXS based on work in animal models, and for potential biomarker development in FXS. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Estimations of cholesterol, triglycerides and fractionation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cholesterol (VLDL-C) in 53 female subjects in Warri, Delta State, Nigeria using the Reflotron® (an auto analyser), supported with the use of questionnaire to get information on age and sex. Age range of the subjects was 18–80 years. The TG levels in ...

  4. globulins and cholesterol levels in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rum total protein, globulin and cholesterol levels were sig- nificantly increased in oral contraceptive and their control counterparts. The albumin/globulin ratio in subjects on oral contraceptives users is significantly decreased compared with controls. In view of the findings of this study, it is suggested that the biochemical ...

  5. Resveratrol protects rabbits against cholesterol diet- induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The excessive consumption of high cholesterol diet has been associated with an increased incidence of lipidaemia. Lipidaemia is enhanced by formation of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and hyperglycaemia. The aim of these experiments was to investigate the protective effect of resveratrol co-administered with ...

  6. Expression and comparison of recombinant cholesterol oxidases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The structure and bio-activity of an endogenous cholesterol oxidase from Brevibacterium sp. was compared to the same enzyme exogenously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) with and without N- or C-terminal his-tags. The different proteins were purified with affinity and subtractive protocols. The specific activity of ...

  7. Blood cholesterol : a public health perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, W.M.M.

    1995-01-01

    Changes in total cholesterol levels (TC) were studied using data from three epidemiological studies: about 30,000 men and women aged 37-43 were examined between 1974 and 1980 (CB Project), about 80,000 men aged 33-37 between 1981 and 1986 (RIFOH Project) and 42,000 men and women aged 20-59 from 1987

  8. Top Five Lifestyle Changes to Reduce Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protein is one of two proteins in dairy products — the other is casein. Whey protein may account for many of the health benefits attributed to dairy. Studies have shown that whey protein given as a supplement lowers both LDL and total cholesterol. You can ...

  9. Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of Rhynchophorus phoenicis and Oryctes monoceros larvae subjected to different heat treatments. ... 514.63 mg/100g dry weight basis (DWB) for raw and fried samples, respectively, but decreased to 295.20 mg/100 g DWB in the smoke-dried samples. Similarly, the ...

  10. Dietary cholesterol increases paraoxonase 1 enzyme activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Daniel S; Burt, Amber A; Ranchalis, Jane E; Richter, Rebecca J; Marshall, Julieann K; Nakayama, Karen S; Jarvik, Ella R; Eintracht, Jason F; Rosenthal, Elisabeth A; Furlong, Clement E; Jarvik, Gail P

    2012-01-01

    .... Five dietary components, cholesterol (P < 2.0 × 10(-16)), alcohol (P = 8.51 × 10(-8)), vitamin C (P = 7.97 × 10(-5)), iron (P = 0.0026), and folic acid (0.037) were independently predictive of PON1 activity...

  11. Clot dissolution is better with ultrasound assisted thrombolysis for fresh clots with higher cholesterol content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yufeng; Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Murugappan, Kanna Suresh; Ahmad, Aftab

    2012-11-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) remains the only drug for recanalization in acute ischemic stroke, and the dose is determined by the patient's body-weight. Properties of the blood clot as well as ultrasound exposure might affect the thrombolysis outcome. In this study, clot was prepared by mixing horse blood with CaCl2 solution and cholesterin up to 1.0 mg/ml. To simulate the aging effect serum was replaced by fresh blood periodically. 225 IU/ml of tPA was used to initiate lysis. Clot was exposed to continuous 2 MHz transcranial Doppler ultrasound at acoustic intensity of 340 mW/cm2. The weight of the blood clot increased with its age (from 37.28±2.87 mg at 2 hrs to 51.56±5.34 mg at 10 hrs, p < 0.05). Although no difference between clot-cholesterol levels and thrombolysis with ultrasound or tPA alone was found, combination of these modalities induced significant lysis in the clots with cholesterol levels of more than 0.5 mg/ml (clot-weight reduced by 41.68±2.3%) as compared to clots with normal cholesterol (30.60±4.10%; p < 0.05). Altogether, sonothrombolysis seems to work better in fresh thrombi with high-cholesterol levels.

  12. The implication of cigarette smoking and cessation on macrophage cholesterol efflux in coronary artery disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Wang, Wei; Dou, Li-Yang; Wang, Yu; Xu, Yan; Chen, Lian-Feng; Yan, Xiao-Wei

    2015-03-01

    We investigated ATP-binding cassette transporters A1/G1 expression and function in mediating cholesterol efflux by examining the macrophages of cigarette-smoking patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) before and after smoking abstinence. Peripheral blood monocyte cells were collected from nonsmokers (n = 17), non-CAD (NCAD) smokers (n = 35), and CAD smokers (n = 32) before and after 3 months of smoking cessation. We found that the ABCA1 expression level was lower in macrophages from NCAD and CAD smokers than from nonsmokers at baseline. The ABCA1 function of mediating cholesterol efflux was reduced in NCAD and CAD smokers as compared with nonsmokers. After 3 months of smoking cessation, ABCA1 expression and function were improved in CAD smokers. However, ABCG1 expression and function did not change after smoking cessation. Furthermore, ABCA1 expression was inhibited by tar in human acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1-derived macrophages through the inhibition of liver X receptors. Nicotine and carbon monoxide did not inhibit ABCA1 expression. Our results indicate that chronic cigarette smoking impaired ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux in macrophages and that tobacco abstinence reversed the function and expression of ABCA1, especially in CAD patients. It was tobacco tar, rather than nicotine or carbon monoxide, that played a major role in the tobacco-induced disturbance of cellular cholesterol homeostasis. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Transbilayer movement and net flux of cholesterol and cholesterol sulfate between liposomal membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigueza, W V; Wheeler, J J; Klimuk, S K; Kitson, C N; Hope, M J

    1995-05-09

    The kinetics of cholesterol and cholesterol sulfate (CS) movement between vesicles have been investigated. CS is widely distributed in cell membranes, plasma and skin and is similar in structure to cholesterol, but possesses an ionizable sulfate moiety at the 3 beta-position which imparts a negative charge at physiological pHs. Donor vesicles of various sizes ranging from 40 to 250 nm, composed of egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC)/sterol/N-palmitoyldihydrolactosylcerebroside (75:10:15 mole ratio) containing trace amounts of [3H]sterol, were used to monitor sterol transfer into a 10-fold excess of large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) composed of EPC with a diameter of 100 nm. The two populations of vesicles were separated by centrifugation following the addition of a lectin which caused the aggregation of donor vesicles. Both cholesterol and CS exhibited biphasic kinetics of exchange. The rate constants for efflux and transbilayer diffusion for both sterol molecules were determined after fitting kinetic data, using numerical integration, to a three-compartment model, which includes the inner and outer monolayers of donor vesicles and the acceptor bilayer. The rate of intermembrane exchange for CS was approximately 10-fold faster than for cholesterol in all liposomes tested. Using the kinetic model, a rate of transbilayer movement for cholesterol and CS was estimated. In both cases, it was found to be slower than the rate of efflux from the surface of vesicles. For vesicles containing CS, the surface charge was monitored to demonstrate that the slowly exchanging pool was located in the inner monolayer, and the rapidly exchanging pool in the outer half of the bilayer. For cholesterol, it was not possible to distinguish between this model and one where lateral domains of cholesterol within the plane of the bilayer may influence the kinetics of exchange.

  14. Quercetin improves macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yingjie; Hou, Pengbo; Li, Fahui; Liu, Qinghua; Qin, Shucun; Zhou, Guanghai; Xu, Xuelian; Si, Yanhong; Guo, Shoudong

    2017-01-14

    Quercetin, one of the most widely distributed flavonoids in plants, has been demonstrated to reduce hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerotic lesion formation. Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) plays a crucial role in exporting cholesterol from peripheral cells, which is one mechanism utilized in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study is to investigate whether quercetin reduces lipid accumulation by improving RCT in vivo. Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet were used to investigate the effect of quercetin on RCT by an isotope tracing method, and the underlying mechanisms were clarified by molecular techniques. These novel results demonstrated that quercetin significantly improved [(3)H]-cholesterol transfer from [(3)H]-cholesterol-loaded macrophages to the plasma (approximately 34% increase), liver (30% increase), and bile (50% increase) and finally to the feces (approximately 40% increase) for excretion in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet. Furthermore, quercetin markedly increased the cholesterol accepting ability of plasma and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and dramatically decreased the content of malondialdehyde in plasma and oxidized phosphocholine carried by HDL. Therefore, the underlying mechanisms of quercetin in improving RCT may be partially due to the elevated cholesterol accepting ability of HDL, the increased expression levels of proteins related to RCT, such as ATP-binding cassettes (ABC) A1 and G1, and the improved antioxidant activity of HDL. Quercetin accelerates RCT in an atherosclerosis model, which is helpful in clarifying the lipid-lowering effect of quercetin.

  15. Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated Fat and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated Fat and Cholesterol Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... I Do About Saturated Fat, Trans Fat, and Cholesterol? When comparing foods, look at the Nutrition Facts ...

  16. Short communication Fatty acid and cholesterol content, chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    This study aimed to determine the fatty acid and chemical composition and cholesterol ... It is an essential component of cell membranes and lipoproteins, and a ... present in large quantities, cholesterol may cause cardiovascular diseases, ...

  17. Plasma Ubiquinone, Alpha-Tocopherol and Cholesterol in Man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Jan; Diamant, Bertil; Edlund, Per Olof

    1992-01-01

    Farmakologi, Coenzyme Q10, free cholesterol, vitamin E, antioxidants, Alpha-Tocopherol, vitamin Q, plasma, LDL-particle......Farmakologi, Coenzyme Q10, free cholesterol, vitamin E, antioxidants, Alpha-Tocopherol, vitamin Q, plasma, LDL-particle...

  18. Are You Taking the Right Treatment for Your High Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You Taking the Right Treatment For Your High Cholesterol? Our analysis and new guidelines could change your ... and 75 years old and have diabetes, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, or if you smoke: • If ...

  19. Remnant cholesterol as a cause of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on remnant cholesterol as a causal risk factor for ischemic heart disease (IHD), on its definition, measurement, atherogenicity, and levels in high risk patient groups; in addition, present and future pharmacological approaches to lowering remnant cholesterol levels...... are considered. Observational studies show association between elevated levels of remnant cholesterol and increased risk of cardiovascular disease, even when remnant cholesterol levels are defined, measured, or calculated in different ways. In-vitro and animal studies also support the contention that elevated...... levels of remnant cholesterol may cause atherosclerosis same way as elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, by cholesterol accumulation in the arterial wall. Genetic studies of variants associated with elevated remnant cholesterol levels show that an increment of 1mmol/L (39mg...

  20. Nonfasting triglycerides, cholesterol, and ischemic stroke in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Current guidelines on stroke prevention have recommendations on desirable cholesterol levels, but not on nonfasting triglycerides. We compared stepwise increasing levels of nonfasting triglycerides and cholesterol for their association with risk of ischemic stroke in the general population....

  1. Implementation of cellulomonas cholesterol oxidase for total serum cholesterol determination by the endpoint method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisawasdi, Pornpen; Chaichanajarernkul, Upsorn; Teerakranjana, Narumon; Kroll, Martin H

    2008-01-01

    Cellulomonas has been shown to be a good source of cholesterol oxidase in addition to Streptomyces for serum cholesterol determination by the endpoint method, inexpensive in cost, and showing excellent performance. For clinical use, we have assessed the reliability of Cellulomonas reagent for cholesterol determination. We constructed the user-defined endpoint methods on three automated analyzers. The analytical performances (linearity, precision, recovery, interference, stability, and comparison with the standardized method) of Cellulomonas cholesterol reagents were evaluated and compared to those of Streptomyces reagents. Linearity (18.1-23.3 mmol/L) and stability of reagents (6-11 weeks) depended on the analyzers being used. The average within-run and between-day % coefficients of variation (CVs) ranged from 1.44 to 2.45 and 1.98 to 2.99, respectively, and were within National Cholesterol Education Program analytical criteria (Cellulomonas enzyme is analytically reliable when used for serum cholesterol determination by the endpoint method. Its analytical performance is equivalent to Streptomyces enzymes and meets the analytical goals. It has an advantage over the other enzymes in that it does not ship in the frozen state. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Acute Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis get better within several days. But your cough ... that cause colds and the flu often cause acute bronchitis. These viruses spread through the air when people ...

  3. Diet-induced dyslipidemia impairs reverse cholesterol transport in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tréguier, Morgan; Briand, François; Boubacar, Adamou; André, Agnès; Magot, Thierry; Nguyen, Patrick; Krempf, Michel; Sulpice, Thierry; Ouguerram, Khadija

    2011-09-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) is an anti-atherogenic process by which cholesterol is effluxed from peripheral tissues by high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and returned to the liver for excretion into the bile and faeces. Dyslipidemia is thought to impair RCT through higher triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL), low HDL-cholesterol and higher activity of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), which transfers cholesteryl esters from HDL to TRL for further hepatic uptake. As CETP pathway would represent a major route in human RCT, we therefore investigated whether diet-induced dyslipidemia impairs RCT in hamster, a CETP-expressing species. Golden Syrian hamsters were fed a chow or chow+0·3% cholesterol diet over 4 weeks. Biochemical parameters and in vivo VLDL-triglycerides secretion (Triton WR-1339 injection) were then measured. In vitro macrophage cholesterol efflux was measured, and in vivo macrophage-to-faeces RCT was also assessed after an intraperitoneal injection of (3) H-cholesterol-labelled hamster primary macrophages. Cholesterol-enriched diet increased plasma total cholesterol (144%), triglycerides (101%), VLDL-triglycerides secretion (175%), CETP activity (44%) and reduced HDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol ratio by 20% (P diet significantly increased hepatic total cholesterol and triglycerides by 459 and 118% and increased aortic total cholesterol content by 304%. In vitro cholesterol efflux from macrophages to plasma was significantly reduced by 25% with plasma from cholesterol-fed hamsters. In vivo RCT experiments showed a significant 75% reduction of macrophage-derived cholesterol faecal excretion in cholesterol-fed hamsters. Overall, these data demonstrate that diet-induced dyslipidemia severely impairs in vivo RCT in hamsters. © 2011 The Authors. European Journal of Clinical Investigation © 2011 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  4. Cholesterol and Copper Affect Learning and Memory in the Rabbit

    OpenAIRE

    Schreurs, Bernard G.

    2013-01-01

    A rabbit model of Alzheimer’s disease based on feeding a cholesterol diet for eight weeks shows sixteen hallmarks of the disease including beta amyloid accumulation and learning and memory changes. Although we have shown that feeding 2% cholesterol and adding copper to the drinking water can retard learning, other studies have shown that feeding dietary cholesterol before learning can improve acquisition and feeding cholesterol after learning can degrade long-term memory. We explore the devel...

  5. Cholesterol in the retina: the best is yet to come

    OpenAIRE

    Pikuleva, Irina A.; Curcio, Christine A.

    2014-01-01

    Historically understudied, cholesterol in the retina is receiving more attention now because of genetic studies showing that several cholesterol-related genes are risk factors for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and because eye pathology studies showing high cholesterol content of drusen, aging Bruch's membrane, and newly found subretinal lesions. The challenge before us is determining how the cholesterol-AMD link is realized. Meeting this challenge will require an excellent understand...

  6. Localization of human acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) in macrophages and in various tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakashita, N; Miyazaki, A; Takeya, M; Horiuchi, S; Chang, C C; Chang, T Y; Takahashi, K

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the distribution of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) in various human tissues, we examined tissues of autopsy cases immunohistochemically. ACAT-1 was demonstrated in macrophages, antigen-presenting cells, steroid hormone-producing cells, neurons, cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle cells, mesothelial cells, epithelial cells of the urinary tracts, thyroid follicles, renal tubules, pituitary, prostatic, and bronchial glands, alveolar and intestinal epithelial cells, pancreatic acinar cells, and hepatocytes. These findings showed that ACAT-1 is present in a variety of human tissues examined. The immunoreactivities are particularly prominent in the macrophages, steroid hormone-producing cells, followed by hepatocytes, and intestinal epithelia. In cultured human macrophages, immunoelectron microscopy revealed that ACAT-1 was located mainly in the tubular rough endoplasmic reticulum; immunoblot analysis showed that the ACAT-1 protein content did not change with or without cholesterol loading; however, on cholesterol loading, about 30 to 40% of the total immunoreactivity appeared in small-sized vesicles. These vesicles were also enriched in 78-kd glucose-regulated protein (GRP 78), a specific marker for the endoplasmic reticulum. Immunofluorescent microscopy demonstrated extensive colocalization of ACAT-1 and GRP 78 signals in both the tubular and vesicular endoplasmic reticulum before and after cholesterol loading. These results raise the possibility that foam cell formation may activate an endoplasmic reticulum vesiculation process, producing vesicles enriched in the ACAT-1 protein.

  7. 25-Hydroxycholesterol Increases the Availability of Cholesterol in Phospholipid Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Brett N.; Schlesinger, Paul H.; Ory, Daniel S.; Baker, Nathan A.

    2011-02-01

    Side-chain oxysterols are enzymatically generated oxidation products of cholesterol that serve a central role in mediating cholesterol homeostasis. Recent work has shown that side-chain oxysterols, such as 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC), alter membrane structure in very different ways from cholesterol, suggesting a possible mechanism for how these oxysterols regulate cholesterol homeostasis. Here we extend our previous work, using molecular dynamics simulations of 25-HC and cholesterol mixtures in 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) bilayers to examine interactions between 25-HC and cholesterol in the same bilayer. When added to cholesterol-containing membranes, 25-HC causes larger changes in membrane structure than when added to cholesterol-free membranes, demonstrating interactions between the two sterols. We also find that the presence of 25-HC changes the position, orientation, and solvent accessibility of cholesterol, shifting it into the water interface and therefore its availability to external acceptors. This is consistent with experimental results showing that oxysterols can trigger cholesterol trafficking from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum. These interactions provide a potential mechanism for 25-HC-mediated regulation of cholesterol trafficking and homeostasis through direct modulation of cholesterol availability.

  8. Regulation of direct transintestinal cholesterol excretion in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Astrid E.; Vrins, Carlos L. J.; van den Oever, Karin; Seemann, Ingar; Elferink, Ronald P. J. Oude; van Eck, Miranda; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2008-01-01

    Biliary secretion is generally considered to be an obligate step in the pathway of excess cholesterol excretion from the body. We have recently shown that an alternative route exists. Direct transintestinal cholesterol efflux ( TICE) contributes significantly to cholesterol removal in mice. Our aim

  9. diagnostic potential of serum vitamin e tocopherol and cholesterol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-08-01

    Aug 1, 2003 ... 8 August 2003. DIAGNOSTIC POTENTIAL OF SERUM VITAMIN E TOCOPHEROL AND CHOLESTEROL LEVELS IN CHILDREN WITH PROTEIN ENERGY .... taken as significant. Cholesterol assay of serum: Cholesterol was determined after enzymatic hydrolysis and oxidation of the EDTA-serum samples.

  10. Understanding Lipoproteins as Transporters of Cholesterol and Other Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggerstaff, Kyle D.; Wooten, Joshua S.

    2004-01-01

    A clear picture of lipoprotein metabolism is essential for understanding the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. Many students are taught that low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol is "bad" and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol is "good." This misconception leads to students thinking that lipoproteins are types of cholesterol rather than…

  11. Immuno-histochemical localization of cholesterol binding proteins in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-09

    Jul 9, 2014 ... Positive control tissue sections were stained with Sudan Black-B for microscopic visualization of cholesterol .... 6 cm) by holes made. .... Sudan black-B specially stained the cholesterol droplets in form of black granules, which gave positive binding of cholesterol at appropriate binding sites (Figure 8).

  12. Tuberculosis treatment raises total cholesterol level and restores ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine whether tuberculosis (TB) treatment normalizes the lipid profile strongly affected by pulmonary TB. Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) were determined in 83 patients with ...

  13. Beyond Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Respective Contributions of Non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels, Triglycerides, and the Total Cholesterol/High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio to Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Apparently Healthy Men and Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsenault, Benoit J.; Rana, Jamal S.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Després, Jean-Pierre; Shah, Prediman K.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to test the hypothesis that at any low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level, other lipid parameters such as non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, triglyceride (TG) levels, and the total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C are still associated with

  14. Alcohol consumption stimulates early stemps in reverse cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, van der M.S.; Tol, van A.; Vermunt, S.H.F.; Scheek, L.M.; Schaafsma, G.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2001-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with increased HDL cholesterol levels, which may indicate stimulated reverse cholesterol transport. The mechanism is, however, not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of alcohol consumption on the first two steps of the reverse cholesterol

  15. CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHODS IN THE ANALYSIS OF CHOLESTEROL AND RELATED LIPIDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOVING, EB

    1995-01-01

    Methods using thin-layer chromatography, solid-phase extraction, gas chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography and supercritical fluid chromatography are described for the analysis of single cholesterol, esterified and sulfated cholesterol, and for cholesterol in the context of other

  16. HDL Cholesterol and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Christiane L; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    associated with type 2 diabetes is unknown. In a prospective study of the general population (n = 47,627), we tested whether HDL cholesterol-related genetic variants were associated with low HDL cholesterol levels and, in turn, with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. HDL cholesterol-decreasing gene scores...

  17. Emerging roles of the intestine in control of cholesterol metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruit, Janine K.; Groen, Albert K.; van Berkel, Theo J.; Kuipers, Folkert

    2006-01-01

    The liver is considered the major "control center" for maintenance of whole body cholesterol homeostasis. This organ is the main site for de novo cholesterol synthesis, clears cholesterol-containing chylomicron remnants and low density lipoprotein particles from plasma and is the major contributor

  18. Cholesterol Profile of Adults Resident in Eastern Nigeria | Igweh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The present study aims to determine a cholesterol profile for people living in this part of Eastern Nigeria. This will enable recommendation of a range of normal Cholesterol levels for the people living in this part of the world. Method: Total serum cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL and triglycerides levels were determined ...

  19. The treatment of cholesterol: issues, effects and targets

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review: The treatment of cholesterol: issues, effects and targets. 523. Vol 52 No 6. SA Fam Pract 2010. Statins: what are they? Statins are the most powerful cholesterol lowering drugs currently available. Statins inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methyl- glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase, which leads to reduced cholesterol ...

  20. Alcohol consumption stimulates early steps in reverse cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, M.S. van der; Tol, A. van; Vermunt, S.H.F.; Scheek, L.M.; Schaafsma, G.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2001-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with increased HDL cholesterol levels, which may indicate stimulated reverse cholesterol transport. The mechanism is, however, not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of alcohol consumption on the first two steps of the reverse cholesterol

  1. Diet and lifestyle: its association with cholesterol levels among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary patterns, physical activities related with work, habit of consuming liquor were noted while cholesterol level, blood glucose levels, blood pressure, height, weight, waist girth, and hip circumference were measured. Results: The overall prevalence rate of borderline high cholesterol level (200-239) and high cholesterol ...

  2. Moderate alcohol consumption increases cholesterol efflux mediated by ABCA1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Sierksma, A.; Tol, van A.; Fournier, C.

    2004-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption increases HDL cholesterol, which is involved in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on cholesterol efflux, using J774 mouse macrophages and Fu5AH cells, and on other parameters in the

  3. Cholesterol-Lowering Supplements: Lower Your Numbers without Prescription Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fat protein sources May reduce LDL None Whey protein May reduce total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides May cause nausea, constipation, diarrhea or gas Another popular cholesterol-lowering supplement is red yeast rice. There is some evidence that red yeast rice ...

  4. Cholesterol crystallization in human atherosclerosis is triggered in smooth muscle cells during the transition from fatty streak to fibroatheroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho-Tin-Noé, Benoît; Vo, Sophie; Bayles, Richard; Ferrière, Stephen; Ladjal, Hayette; Toumi, Sondes; Deschildre, Catherine; Ollivier, Véronique; Michel, Jean-Baptiste

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that in addition to being major constituents of the atheromatous core, solid cholesterol crystals (CCs) promote atherosclerotic lesion development and rupture by causing mechanical damage and exerting cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory effects. These findings suggest that targeting CCs might represent a therapeutic strategy for plaque stabilization. However, little is known about how cholesterol crystallization is initiated in human atherothrombotic disease. Here, we investigated these mechanisms. We performed a thorough immunohistological analysis of non-embedded, minimally processed human aortic tissues, combining polarized light and fluorescence microscopy. We found that CC formation was initiated during the fatty streak to fibroatheroma transition in tight association with the death of intralesional smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Cholesterol-loaded human SMCs were capable of producing CCs in vitro, a process that was enhanced by type I collagen and by inhibition of autophagy and cholesterol esterification. The fibrous transition, which was characterized by increased type I collagen expression, was associated with changes in the expression of autophagy and cholesterol flux-related genes, including a decrease in the autophagic adapter p62 and an increase in the cholesterol intracellular transporter Niemann-Pick C1. Collagen was identified as a potent inducer of these changes in SMCs. Collagen-induced changes in cholesterol metabolism and autophagy flux in smooth muscle foam cells at the fibrolipid transition likely contribute to initiate cholesterol crystallization in human atherosclerosis. Also, our data are in support of a protective role of autophagy against CC formation. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Effect of testosterone deficiency on cholesterol metabolism in pigs fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Zhaowei; Xi, Haitao; Pan, Yongming; Jiang, Xiaoling; Chen, Liang; Cai, Yueqin; Zhu, Keyan; Chen, Cheng; Xu, Xiaoping; Chen, Minli

    2015-01-01

    Background Testosterone deficiency is associated with increased serum cholesterol levels. However, how testosterone deficiency precisely affects cholesterol metabolism remains unclear. Therefore, in the current study, we examined the effect of testosterone deficiency on cholesterol metabolism and liver gene expression in pigs fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFC) diet. Methods Sexually mature male miniature pigs (6?7 months old) were randomly divided into 3 groups as follows: intact male ...

  6. Structure and function of lysosomal phospholipase A2 and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glukhova, Alisa; Hinkovska-Galcheva, Vania; Kelly, Robert; Abe, Akira; Shayman, James A; Tesmer, John J G

    2015-03-02

    Lysosomal phospholipase A2 (LPLA2) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) belong to a structurally uncharacterized family of key lipid-metabolizing enzymes responsible for lung surfactant catabolism and for reverse cholesterol transport, respectively. Whereas LPLA2 is predicted to underlie the development of drug-induced phospholipidosis, somatic mutations in LCAT cause fish eye disease and familial LCAT deficiency. Here we describe several high-resolution crystal structures of human LPLA2 and a low-resolution structure of LCAT that confirms its close structural relationship to LPLA2. Insertions in the α/β hydrolase core of LPLA2 form domains that are responsible for membrane interaction and binding the acyl chains and head groups of phospholipid substrates. The LCAT structure suggests the molecular basis underlying human disease for most of the known LCAT missense mutations, and paves the way for rational development of new therapeutics to treat LCAT deficiency, atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndrome.

  7. Structure and function of lysosomal phospholipase A2 and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glukhova, Alisa; Hinkovska-Galcheva, Vania; Kelly, Robert; Abe, Akira; Shayman, James A.; Tesmer, John J. G.

    2015-03-01

    Lysosomal phospholipase A2 (LPLA2) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) belong to a structurally uncharacterized family of key lipid-metabolizing enzymes responsible for lung surfactant catabolism and for reverse cholesterol transport, respectively. Whereas LPLA2 is predicted to underlie the development of drug-induced phospholipidosis, somatic mutations in LCAT cause fish eye disease and familial LCAT deficiency. Here we describe several high-resolution crystal structures of human LPLA2 and a low-resolution structure of LCAT that confirms its close structural relationship to LPLA2. Insertions in the α/β hydrolase core of LPLA2 form domains that are responsible for membrane interaction and binding the acyl chains and head groups of phospholipid substrates. The LCAT structure suggests the molecular basis underlying human disease for most of the known LCAT missense mutations, and paves the way for rational development of new therapeutics to treat LCAT deficiency, atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndrome.

  8. Potent and selective mediators of cholesterol efflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielicki, John K; Johansson, Jan

    2015-03-24

    The present invention provides a family of non-naturally occurring polypeptides having cholesterol efflux activity that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins (e.g., Apo AI and Apo E), and having high selectivity for ABAC1 that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins. The invention also provides compositions comprising such polypeptides, methods of identifying, screening and synthesizing such polypeptides, and methods of treating, preventing or diagnosing diseases and disorders associated with dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia and inflammation.

  9. EVALUATION OF SERUM CHOLESTEROL, AMINO TRANSFERASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantha Babu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of red yeast rice (Monascus purpureus-fermented rice in lowering cholesterol in the blood. At the same time, alanine aminotranferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and gamma-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT were measured for notable side effects in the liver. Possible muscle damage was determined by measuring creatine kinase (CK. METHODS The cholesterol lowering effect in serum of red yeast rice-fed rats were studied over a 42-day feeding period. A total of 16 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised into 8 per group: control and treated. Treated rats were administered 1.35g/kg/day. Control rats were maintained on ordinary rat chow. RESULTS Serum cholesterol levels were significantly decreased by 19.13% in treated group compared to controls. This treatment also showed increase in serum ALT and AST activities by 41.90% and 21.53%, respectively. Mean CK activity in treated rats showed an increase by 32.32% when compared with control rats. γ-GT is the only enzyme that showed a decrease of 15.16% in sera of treated rats. Body weights of control and treated rats increased significantly by 10% end of feeding period but were not due to treatment. CONCLUSION Red yeast rice significantly decreased serum cholesterol level at a dosage of 1.35g/kg/day. However, the differences in serum enzyme activities between control and treated rats were not significant.

  10. Formulation and in-vitro characterisation of fulvestrant loaded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formulation B with Lecithin: Cholesterol ratio of 1:2 showed the highest drug loading, the highest percentage cumulative released of the drug (in a sustained manner for a prolonged period of time) and adequately internalized in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line in vitro. Conclusion: Therefore formulation B is more suitable ...

  11. Evidence for condensed complexes of cholesterol in lipid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Maria K.

    Although cholesterol is a predominant lipid in the eukaryotic plasma membrane, its interactions with other lipids are still not well understood. Insights into the nature of lipid assembly can be gained from examining lipid-cholesterol interaction using model systems. A key observation was the discovery of liquid-liquid phase diagrams with two critical points in the binary mixtures of cholesterol and lipids. The shape of the phase diagrams can be explained by a thermodynamic model of "condensed complexes". In our quest to characterize cholesterol-lipid interactions, we determined phase diagrams of cholesterol and phospholipids that point to the existence of condensed complexes. This complex formation hypothesis was further supported by experiments involving cholesterol removal by cyclodextrin, grazing x-ray diffraction and x-ray reflectivity studies and isothermal calorimetry. Our study aimed at establishing a correlation (or the lack of) between domain formation and complex formation, as well as determining the mode of cholesterol association with different lipids based on their structural and physical properties. We established a displacement assay by which we were able to probe cholesterol-lipid interactions by perturbing them in the presence of an intercalator that competes with cholesterol for association with lipids. Our data support the condensed complex model between cholesterol and lipids, and cholesterol when complexed with lipids shows low activity whereas free, uncomplexed cholesterol exhibits high activity. We were successful in modulating cholesterol activity by varying the level of intercalator while keeping the cholesterol content fixed. In this thesis, not only have we shown that cholesterol can be displaced by intercalators in model systems, we have further established that such displacement can take place in membranes of live cell.

  12. Cholesterol impairment contributes to neuroserpin aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampietro, Costanza; Lionetti, Maria Chiara; Costantini, Giulio; Mutti, Federico; Zapperi, Stefano; La Porta, Caterina A. M.

    2017-03-01

    Intraneural accumulation of misfolded proteins is a common feature of several neurodegenerative pathologies including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, and Familial Encephalopathy with Neuroserpin Inclusion Bodies (FENIB). FENIB is a rare disease due to a point mutation in neuroserpin which accelerates protein aggregation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here we show that cholesterol depletion induced either by prolonged exposure to statins or by inhibiting the sterol reg-ulatory binding-element protein (SREBP) pathway also enhances aggregation of neuroserpin proteins. These findings can be explained considering a computational model of protein aggregation under non-equilibrium conditions, where a decrease in the rate of protein clearance improves aggregation. Decreasing cholesterol in cell membranes affects their biophysical properties, including their ability to form the vesicles needed for protein clearance, as we illustrate by a simple mathematical model. Taken together, these results suggest that cholesterol reduction induces neuroserpin aggregation, even in absence of specific neuroserpin mutations. The new mechanism we uncover could be relevant also for other neurodegenerative diseases associated with protein aggregation.

  13. Fibroblast cholesterol efflux to plasma from metabolic syndrome subjects is not defective despite low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Groen, Albert K.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; de Vries, Rindert; Sluiter, Wim J.; van Tol, Arie

    Objective: We tested whether in metabolic syndrome (MetS) subjects the ability of plasma to stimulate cellular cholesterol efflux. an early step in the anti-atherogenic reverse cholesterol transport pathway. is maintained despite low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Design: In 76 subjects

  14. Fibroblast cholesterol efflux to plasma from metabolic syndrome subjects is not defective despite low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Groen, Albert K.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; de Vries, Rindert; Sluiter, Wim J.; van Tol, Arie

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We tested whether in metabolic syndrome (MetS) subjects the ability of plasma to stimulate cellular cholesterol efflux, an early step in the anti-atherogenic reverse cholesterol transport pathway, is maintained despite low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. DESIGN: In 76 subjects

  15. Fibroblast cholesterol efflux to plasma from metabolic syndrome subjects is not defective despite low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.F. Dullaart (Robin); A. Groen (Albert); G.M. Dallinga-Thie (Geesje); R. de Vries (Rindert); W. Sluiter (Wim); A. van Tol (Arie)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: We tested whether in metabolic syndrome (MetS) subjects the ability of plasma to stimulate cellular cholesterol efflux, an early step in the anti-atherogenic reverse cholesterol transport pathway, is maintained despite low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Design: In

  16. Endoscopic Transnasal Approach for Cholesterol Granuloma of the Petrous Apex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Samadian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol granulomas are rare round or ovoid cysts. They contain cholesterol crystals surrounded by foreign bodies of giant cells and are characterized by chronic inflammation. Large cholesterol granuloma can compress surrounding tissue especially cranial nerves. There are several types of surgery for the resection of cholesterol granuloma. We describe 4 cases of cholesterol granuloma operated on via transnasal endoscopic approach. In this report, we describe radiologic and pathologic features of this lesion and explain the advantages and disadvantages of transsphenoidal endoscopic approach for these rare lesions.

  17. Cholesterol monohydrate nucleation in ultrathin films on water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapaport, H.; Kuzmenko, I.; Lafont, S.

    2001-01-01

    The growth of a cholesterol crystalline phase, three molecular layers thick at the air-water interface, was monitored by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction and x-ray reflectivity. Upon compression, a cholesterol film transforms from a monolayer of trigonal symmetry and low crystallinity...... to the triclinic 3-D crystal structure of cholesterol . H(2)O. By comparison, the cholesterol derivative stigmasterol transforms, upon compression, directly into a crystalline trilayer in the rectangular lattice. These results may contribute to an understanding of the onset of cholesterol crystallization...

  18. Biochemical and Bioimaging Evidence of Cholesterol in Acquired Cholesteatoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsted, Bjarne; Bloksgaard, Maria; Groza, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    : The results show that the total lipid content of the cholesteatoma matrix is similar to that of stratum corneum from skin and that the cholesteatoma matrix unquestionably contains cholesterol. The cholesterol content in the cholesteatoma matrix is increased by over 30% (w/w dry weight) compared to the control....... The cholesterol sulfate content is below 1% of the total lipids in both the cholesteatoma and the control. Cholesterol ester was reduced by over 30% when compared to the control. CONCLUSIONS: The content of cholesterol in the cholesteatoma matrix is significantly different from that in stratum corneum from skin...

  19. Effect of Moderate Alcohol Consumption on Parameters of Reverse Cholesterol Transport in Postmenopausal Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, A.; Vermunt, S.H.F.; Lankhuizen, I.M.; Gaag, M.S. van der; Scheek, L.M.; Grobbee, D.E.; Tol, A. van; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Alcohol consumption is associated with increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. One of the main antiatherogenic functions of HDL is reverse cholesterol transport. Three early steps of reverse cholesterol transport are (1) cellular cholesterol efflux, (2) plasma

  20. Janus kinase 2 modulates the apolipoprotein interactions with ABCA1 required for removing cellular cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chongren; Vaughan, Ashley M; Oram, John F

    2004-02-27

    ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) mediates transport of cellular cholesterol and phospholipids to high density lipoprotein (HDL) apolipoproteins, such as apoA-I. ABCA1 mutations can cause a severe HDL deficiency and atherosclerosis. Here we show that the protein-tyrosine kinase (TK) Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) modulates the apolipoprotein interactions with ABCA1 required for removing cellular lipids. The protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H89, the TK inhibitor genistein, and the JAK2 inhibitor AG490 suppressed apoA-I-mediated cholesterol and phospholipid efflux from ABCA1-expressing cells without altering the membrane ABCA1 content. Whereas PKA inhibition had no effect on apoA-I binding to cells or to ABCA1, TK and JAK2 inhibition greatly reduced these activities. Conversely, PKA but not JAK2 inhibition significantly reduced the intrinsic cholesterol translocase activity of ABCA1. Mutant cells lacking JAK2 had a severely impaired apoA-I-mediated cholesterol and phospholipid efflux and apoA-I binding despite normal ABCA1 protein levels and near normal cholesterol translocase activity. Thus, although PKA modulates ABCA1 lipid transport activity, JAK2 appears to selectively modulate apolipoprotein interactions with ABCA1. TK-mediated phosphorylation of ABCA1 was undetectable, implicating the involvement of another JAK2-targeted protein. Acute incubation of ABCA1-expressing cells with apoA-I had no effect on ABCA1 phosphorylation but stimulated JAK2 autophosphorylation. These results suggest that the interaction of apolipoproteins with ABCA1-expressing cells activates JAK2, which in turn activates a process that enhances apolipoprotein interactions with ABCA1 and lipid removal from cells.

  1. HDL Cholesterol, LDL Cholesterol, and Triglycerides as Risk Factors for CKD: A Mendelian Randomization Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanktree, Matthew B; Thériault, Sébastien; Walsh, Michael; Paré, Guillaume

    2017-07-26

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations are heritable risk factors for vascular disease, but their role in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unclear. 2-sample Mendelian randomization analysis of data derived from the largest published lipid and CKD studies. Effect of independent genetic variants significantly associated with lipid concentrations was obtained from the Global Lipids Genetics Consortium (n=188,577), and the effect of these same variants on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), CKD (defined as eGFRGenetics Consortium (n=133,814). Using conventional, multivariable, and Egger Mendelian randomization approaches, we assessed the causal association between genetically determined lipid concentrations and kidney traits. eGFR, dichotomous eGFRGenetically higher triglyceride concentrations appeared associated with higher eGFRs, but this finding was driven by a single pleiotropic variant in the glucokinase regulator gene (GCKR). After exclusion, genetically higher triglyceride concentration was not associated with any kidney trait. Individual patient-level phenotype and genotype information were unavailable. 2-sample Mendelian randomization analysis of data from the largest lipid and CKD cohorts supports genetically higher HDL cholesterol concentration as causally associated with better kidney function. There was no association between genetically altered LDL cholesterol or triglyceride concentration and kidney function. Further analysis of CKD outcomes in HDL cholesterol intervention trials is warranted. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Preparation of cholesterol oxidase nanoparticles and their application in amperometric determination of cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Sheetal; Rawal, Rachna; Sonia; Ramrati; Pundir, C. S.

    2013-09-01

    The nanoparticle (NP) aggregates of commercial cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) were prepared by desolvation method. The formation and characterization of ChOxNP aggregates were studied by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. NP aggregates were more stable, active and had a higher shelf life than that of free enzyme. An amperometric cholesterol biosensor was constructed by immobilizing ChOxNPs onto Au electrode. The biosensor showed optimum response within 8 s at pH 6.0 and 35 °C, when polarized at +0.27 V versus Ag/AgCl. The biosensor possesses high sensitivity and measures cholesterol concentrations as low as 1.56 mg/dl. The working linear range was 12.5-700 mg/dl for cholesterol. The biosensor was evaluated and employed for measurement of total cholesterol in human serum. The enzyme electrode lost 50 % of its initial activity during its regular use for 180 times over a period of 90 days when stored in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0 at 4 °C.

  3. Preparation of cholesterol oxidase nanoparticles and their application in amperometric determination of cholesterol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chawla, Sheetal; Rawal, Rachna; Sonia; Ramrati; Pundir, C. S., E-mail: pundircs@rediffmail.com [M. D. University, Department of Biochemistry (India)

    2013-09-15

    The nanoparticle (NP) aggregates of commercial cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) were prepared by desolvation method. The formation and characterization of ChOxNP aggregates were studied by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. NP aggregates were more stable, active and had a higher shelf life than that of free enzyme. An amperometric cholesterol biosensor was constructed by immobilizing ChOxNPs onto Au electrode. The biosensor showed optimum response within 8 s at pH 6.0 and 35 Degree-Sign C, when polarized at +0.27 V versus Ag/AgCl. The biosensor possesses high sensitivity and measures cholesterol concentrations as low as 1.56 mg/dl. The working linear range was 12.5-700 mg/dl for cholesterol. The biosensor was evaluated and employed for measurement of total cholesterol in human serum. The enzyme electrode lost 50 % of its initial activity during its regular use for 180 times over a period of 90 days when stored in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0 at 4 Degree-Sign C.

  4. THE REDUCTION OF CHOLESTEROL WITH CUPPING THERAPY ON CHOLESTEROL REDUCTION IN PATIENTS WITH HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Fikri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypercholesterolemia is a risk factor causes of death at younger ages. Hypercholesterolemia may increase the risk of atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, pancreatitis (pancreas inflammation in organs, diabetes mellitus, thyroid disorders, liver disease and kidney disease. Many patients with hypercholesterolemia using cupping therapy. Cupping therapy is alternative treatment process of throwing dirty blood from the body through the skin surface. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of cupping therapy to decrease cholesterol levels in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Method: Design used in this study was quasy experimental design. The population is all patients with hypercholesterolemia in the health center plaza Gresik. The total sample is 18 respondents, taken according to inclusion criteria. Independent variable is the cupping therapy. The dependent variable was the decrease in cholesterol levels. Data were collected using a questionnaire and observation of cholesterol. Data were analyzed using independent t-test and paired t tests with signi fi cance level α < 0.05. Result: The results show that cholesterol levels in patients with hypercholesterolemia treated groups decreased majority. Independent statistical analysis using t-test showed p = 0.001 and with the Paired t-test p value = 0.003. Discussion: This result means that there are significant effects of cupping therapy on cholesterol reduction in patients with hypercholesterolemia aged 45 years and over. Further research needs to be done in control diet, lifestyle and daily activities for the success of cupping therapy.

  5. Microwave assisted direct saponification for the simultaneous determination of cholesterol and cholesterol oxides in shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Hugo A L; Mariutti, Lilian R B; Bragagnolo, Neura

    2017-05-01

    A novel microwave-assisted direct saponification method for the simultaneous determination of cholesterol and cholesterol oxides in shrimp was developed and validated. Optimal saponification conditions, determined by means of an experimental design, were achieved using 500mg of sample and 20mL of 1mol/L KOH ethanol solution for 16min at 45°C at maximum power at 200W and magnetic stirring at 120rpm. Higher extraction of cholesterol oxides in a reduced saponification time (∼75 times) was achieved in comparison with the direct cold saponification method. The new method showed low detection (≤0.57μg/mL) and quantification (≤1.73μg/mL) limits, good repeatability (≤10.50% intraday and ≤8.56% interday) and low artifact formation (evaluated by using a deuterated cholesterol-D6 standard). Raw, salted and dried-salted shrimps were successfully analyzed by the validated method. The content of cholesterol oxides increased after salting and decreased after drying. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of honey on serum cholesterol and lipid values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münstedt, Karsten; Hoffmann, Sven; Hauenschild, Annette; Bülte, Michael; von Georgi, Richard; Hackethal, Andreas

    2009-06-01

    Small studies have suggested that honey benefits patients with high cholesterol concentrations. The present study aimed to confirm this finding in a larger group of subjects. Sixty volunteers with high cholesterol, stratified according to gender and hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (statin) treatment (yes/no), were randomized to receive 75 g of honey solution or a honey-comparable sugar solution once daily over a period of 14 days. Baseline measurements, including body mass index (BMI) and lipid profile, were obtained, and subjects also completed dietary questionnaires and the Inventory for the Assessment of Negative Bodily Affect-Trait form (INKA-h) questionnaire. Measurements were repeated 2 weeks later. BMI and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol values were significantly correlated (r = -0.487; P cholesterol to HDL cholesterol (r = 0.420; P cholesterol value. INKA-h scores and LDL cholesterol values were also significantly correlated (r = 0.273, P = .042). Neither solution influenced significantly cholesterol or triglyceride values in the total group; in women, however, the LDL cholesterol value increased in the sugar solution subgroup but not in the women taking honey. Although ingesting honey did not reduce LDL cholesterol values in general, women may benefit from substituting honey for sugar in their diet. Reducing the BMI lowers the LDL cholesterol value, and psychological interventions also seem important and merit further investigation.

  7. Cholesterol in the retina: the best is yet to come

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuleva, Irina A.; Curcio, Christine A.

    2014-01-01

    Historically understudied, cholesterol in the retina is receiving more attention now because of genetic studies showing that several cholesterol-related genes are risk factors for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and because eye pathology studies showing high cholesterol content of drusen, aging Bruch's membrane, and newly found subretinal lesions. The challenge before us is determining how the cholesterol-AMD link is realized. Meeting this challenge will require an excellent understanding these genes’ roles in retinal physiology and how chorioretinal cholesterol is maintained. In the first half of this review, we will succinctly summarize physico-chemical properties of cholesterol, its distribution in the human body, general principles of maintenance and metabolism, and differences in cholesterol handling in human and mouse that impact on experimental approaches. This information will provide a backdrop to the second part of the review focusing on unique aspects of chorioretinal cholesterol homeostasis, aging in Bruch's membrane, cholesterol in AMD lesions, a model for lesion biogenesis, a model for macular vulnerability based on vascular biology, and alignment of AMD-related genes and pathobiology using cholesterol and an atherosclerosis-like progression as unifying features. We conclude with recommendations for the most important research steps we can take towards delineating the cholesterol-AMD link. PMID:24704580

  8. Cholesterol in the retina: the best is yet to come.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuleva, Irina A; Curcio, Christine A

    2014-07-01

    Historically understudied, cholesterol in the retina is receiving more attention now because of genetic studies showing that several cholesterol-related genes are risk factors for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and because of eye pathology studies showing high cholesterol content of drusen, aging Bruch's membrane, and newly found subretinal lesions. The challenge before us is determining how the cholesterol-AMD link is realized. Meeting this challenge will require an excellent understanding these genes' roles in retinal physiology and how chorioretinal cholesterol is maintained. In the first half of this review, we will succinctly summarize physico-chemical properties of cholesterol, its distribution in the human body, general principles of maintenance and metabolism, and differences in cholesterol handling in human and mouse that impact on experimental approaches. This information will provide a backdrop to the second part of the review focusing on unique aspects of chorioretinal cholesterol homeostasis, aging in Bruch's membrane, cholesterol in AMD lesions, a model for lesion biogenesis, a model for macular vulnerability based on vascular biology, and alignment of AMD-related genes and pathobiology using cholesterol and an atherosclerosis-like progression as unifying features. We conclude with recommendations for the most important research steps we can take towards delineating the cholesterol-AMD link. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Anticancer Activity of the Cholesterol Exporter ABCA1 Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Smith

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ABCA1 protein mediates the transfer of cellular cholesterol across the plasma membrane to apolipoprotein A-I. Loss-of-function mutations in the ABCA1 gene induce Tangier disease and familial hypoalphalipoproteinemia, both cardiovascular conditions characterized by abnormally low levels of serum cholesterol, increased cholesterol in macrophages, and subsequent formation of vascular plaque. Increased intracellular cholesterol levels are also frequently found in cancer cells. Here, we demonstrate anticancer activity of ABCA1 efflux function, which is compromised following inhibition of ABCA1 gene expression by oncogenic mutations or cancer-specific ABCA1 loss-of-function mutations. In concert with elevated cholesterol synthesis found in cancer cells, ABCA1 deficiency allows for increased mitochondrial cholesterol, inhibits release of mitochondrial cell death-promoting molecules, and thus facilitates cancer cell survival, suggesting that elevated mitochondrial cholesterol is essential to the cancer phenotype.

  10. Potential of BODIPY-cholesterol for analysis of cholesterol transport and diffusion in living cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüstner, Daniel; Lund, Frederik Wendelboe; Röhrl, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol is an abundant and important lipid component of cellular membranes. Analysis of cholesterol transport and diffusion in living cells is hampered by the technical challenge of designing suitable cholesterol probes which can be detected for example by optical microscopy. One strategy...... and collaborative efforts with Bob Bittman for studying diffusion in the plasma membrane (PM) and uptake of BChol in a quantitative manner. For that purpose, we used a variety of fluorescence approaches including fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and its imaging variants, fluorescence recovery after...... photobleaching (FRAP) and fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP). We also describe pulse-chase studies from the PM using BChol in direct comparison to DHE. Based on the gathered imaging data, we present a two-step kinetic model for sterol transport between PM and recycling endosomes. In addition, we...

  11. When cholesterol is not cholesterol: a note on the enzymatic determination of its concentration in model systems containing vegetable extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamplona Reinald

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental evidences demonstrate that vegetable derived extracts inhibit cholesterol absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. To further explore the mechanisms behind, we modeled duodenal contents with several vegetable extracts. Results By employing a widely used cholesterol quantification method based on a cholesterol oxidase-peroxidase coupled reaction we analyzed the effects on cholesterol partition. Evidenced interferences were analyzed by studying specific and unspecific inhibitors of cholesterol oxidase-peroxidase coupled reaction. Cholesterol was also quantified by LC/MS. We found a significant interference of diverse (cocoa and tea-derived extracts over this method. The interference was strongly dependent on model matrix: while as in phosphate buffered saline, the development of unspecific fluorescence was inhibitable by catalase (but not by heat denaturation, suggesting vegetable extract derived H2O2 production, in bile-containing model systems, this interference also comprised cholesterol-oxidase inhibition. Several strategies, such as cholesterol standard addition and use of suitable blanks containing vegetable extracts were tested. When those failed, the use of a mass-spectrometry based chromatographic assay allowed quantification of cholesterol in models of duodenal contents in the presence of vegetable extracts. Conclusions We propose that the use of cholesterol-oxidase and/or peroxidase based systems for cholesterol analyses in foodstuffs should be accurately monitored, as important interferences in all the components of the enzymatic chain were evident. The use of adequate controls, standard addition and finally, chromatographic analyses solve these issues.

  12. The Impairment of Macrophage-to-Feces Reverse Cholesterol Transport during Inflammation Does Not Depend on Serum Amyloid A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Maria C; Wroblewski, Joanne M; Noffsinger, Victoria P; Ji, Ailing; Meyer, Jason M; van der Westhuyzen, Deneys R; de Beer, Frederick C; Webb, Nancy R

    2013-01-01

    Studies suggest that inflammation impairs reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). We investigated whether serum amyloid A (SAA) contributes to this impairment using an established macrophage-to-feces RCT model. Wild-type (WT) mice and mice deficient in SAA1.1 and SAA2.1 (SAAKO) were injected intraperitoneally with (3)H-cholesterol-labeled J774 macrophages 4 hr after administration of LPS or buffered saline. (3)H-cholesterol in plasma 4 hr after macrophage injection was significantly reduced in both WT and SAAKO mice injected with LPS, but this was not associated with a reduced capacity of serum from LPS-injected mice to promote macrophage cholesterol efflux in vitro. Hepatic accumulation of (3)H-cholesterol was unaltered in either WT or SAAKO mice by LPS treatment. Radioactivity present in bile and feces of LPS-injected WT mice 24 hr after macrophage injection was reduced by 36% (P bone-marrow-derived macrophages, transiently induced SAA in C57BL/6 mice. Our study confirms reports that acute inflammation impairs steps in the RCT pathway and establishes that SAA plays only a minor role in this impairment.

  13. Effects on cholesterol balance and LDL cholesterol in the rat of a soft-ripened cheese containing vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    During, A; Combe, N; Mazette, S; Entressangles, B

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine effects of a modified soft-ripened cheese containing vegetable oils on cholesterol status, using the rat as the experimental model and the traditional soft-ripened cheese as the control. Adult male Wistar rats (approximately 370 g) were divided into two dietary groups (20 rats/group) and fed either the standard diet (STD, containing traditional cheeses made from whole milk) or the experimental diet (EXP, containing modified cheeses made from the combination of skim milk with the following fat mixture: milk fat/oleic acid-enriched sunflower oil/soybean oil mixture). Lipids of the diets came solely from cheeses (14 g/100 g diet); the EXP diet contained (3-fold) less saturated fat, (2-fold) less cholesterol, and (15-fold) more phytosterols than the STD diet. Although serum triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations were not affected by the type of diet, the EXP diet resulted in a significant reduction of LDL-cholesterol (31%, p cholesterol (11%, p cholesterol ratio was observed in the EXP group (p cholesterol and total neutral sterols (for which phytosterols were excluded) were significantly higher by 183% and 174%, respectively for the EXP group, compared to the STD group (p cholesterol than they ingested dietary cholesterol (cholesterol balance > 1), indicating that those animals eliminated some endogenous cholesterol in their feces, while the opposite was true for rats fed the STD diet (cholesterol balance cheese resulted in a decreased blood LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio and an increased fecal excretion of endogenous cholesterol and neutral sterols and, thus, markedly improved its nutritional qualities. Therefore, the consumption of the described modified cheese may meet the demand of subjects who wish to lower their risk for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease.

  14. Daidzein Augments Cholesterol Homeostasis via ApoE to Promote Functional Recovery in Chronic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunhee; Woo, Moon-Sook; Qin, Luye; Ma, Thong; Beltran, Cesar D; Bao, Yi; Bailey, Jason A; Corbett, Dale; Ratan, Rajiv R; Lahiri, Debomoy K; Cho, Sunghee

    2015-11-11

    Stroke is the world's leading cause of physiological disability, but there are currently no available agents that can be delivered early after stroke to enhance recovery. Daidzein, a soy isoflavone, is a clinically approved agent that has a neuroprotective effect in vitro, and it promotes axon growth in an animal model of optic nerve crush. The current study investigates the efficacy of daidzein on neuroprotection and functional recovery in a clinically relevant mouse model of stroke recovery. In light of the fact that cholesterols are essential lipid substrates in injury-induced synaptic remodeling, we found that daidzein enhanced the cholesterol homeostasis genetic program, including Lxr and downstream transporters, Apoe, Abca1, and Abcg1 genes in vitro. Daidzein also elevated the cholesterol homeostasis genes in the poststroke brain with Apoe, the highest expressing transporter, but did not affect infarct volume or hemispheric swelling. Despite the absence of neuroprotection, daidzein improved motor/gait function in chronic stroke and elevated synaptophysin expression. However, the daidzein-enhanced functional benefits and synaptophysin expression were abolished in Apoe-knock-out mice, suggesting the importance of daidzein-induced ApoE upregulation in fostering stroke recovery. Dissociation between daidzein-induced functional benefits and the absence of neuroprotection further suggest the presence of nonoverlapping mechanisms underlying recovery processes versus acute pathology. With its known safety in humans, early and chronic use of daidzein aimed at augmenting ApoE may serve as a novel, translatable strategy to promote functional recovery in stroke patients without adverse acute effect. There have been recurring translational failures in treatment strategies for stroke. One underlying issue is the disparity in outcome analysis between animal and clinical studies. The former mainly depends on acute infarct size, whereas long-term functional recovery is an

  15. Daidzein Augments Cholesterol Homeostasis via ApoE to Promote Functional Recovery in Chronic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunhee; Woo, Moon-Sook; Qin, Luye; Ma, Thong; Beltran, Cesar D.; Bao, Yi; Bailey, Jason A.; Corbett, Dale; Ratan, Rajiv R.; Lahiri, Debomoy K.

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is the world's leading cause of physiological disability, but there are currently no available agents that can be delivered early after stroke to enhance recovery. Daidzein, a soy isoflavone, is a clinically approved agent that has a neuroprotective effect in vitro, and it promotes axon growth in an animal model of optic nerve crush. The current study investigates the efficacy of daidzein on neuroprotection and functional recovery in a clinically relevant mouse model of stroke recovery. In light of the fact that cholesterols are essential lipid substrates in injury-induced synaptic remodeling, we found that daidzein enhanced the cholesterol homeostasis genetic program, including Lxr and downstream transporters, Apoe, Abca1, and Abcg1 genes in vitro. Daidzein also elevated the cholesterol homeostasis genes in the poststroke brain with Apoe, the highest expressing transporter, but did not affect infarct volume or hemispheric swelling. Despite the absence of neuroprotection, daidzein improved motor/gait function in chronic stroke and elevated synaptophysin expression. However, the daidzein-enhanced functional benefits and synaptophysin expression were abolished in Apoe-knock-out mice, suggesting the importance of daidzein-induced ApoE upregulation in fostering stroke recovery. Dissociation between daidzein-induced functional benefits and the absence of neuroprotection further suggest the presence of nonoverlapping mechanisms underlying recovery processes versus acute pathology. With its known safety in humans, early and chronic use of daidzein aimed at augmenting ApoE may serve as a novel, translatable strategy to promote functional recovery in stroke patients without adverse acute effect. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT There have been recurring translational failures in treatment strategies for stroke. One underlying issue is the disparity in outcome analysis between animal and clinical studies. The former mainly depends on acute infarct size, whereas long

  16. Managing residual risk after myocardial infarction among individuals with low cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colantonio, Lisandro D; Bittner, Vera

    2015-05-01

    About one-half of individuals with an acute myocardial infarction have a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level of less than 100 mg/dL at the time of occurrence, but remain at risk for recurrent events. This residual risk is likely mediated by multiple factors, including burden of atherosclerosis, residual dyslipidemia, nonlipid risk factors, and suboptimal implementation of lifestyle therapy and evidence-based pharmacologic therapy. This article reviews management options for this high-risk population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Dietary Cholesterol and Cholesterol Oxides on Blood Cholesterol, Lipids, and the Development of Atherosclerosis in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Sun Jin; Min, Byungrok; Nam, Ki Chang; Lee, Eun Joo; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2013-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of dietary cholesterol (CHO) and cholesterol oxides (COPs) on the development of atherosclerosis and the changes in fatty acid and blood characteristics in rabbits. In the first study, forty male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into 5 groups and fed commercial rabbit chow with no added CHO or COPs, 1 g CHO, 0.9 g CHO + 0.1 g COPs, 0.8 g CHO + 0.2 g COPs, or 0.5 g CHO + 0.5 g COPs per kg diet. In the second study, 24 male New Zealand White rabbits were divided into 3 groups and fed a diet containing 2 g CHO, 1.6 g CHO + 0.4 g COPs, or 1.2 g CHO + 0.8 g COPs per kg diet. All diets induced atherosclerotic lesions in the rabbits’ ascending thoracic aorta. The serum CHO and triglyceride levels (p < 0.05) increased significantly with the increased levels of CHO in the diets. Dietary CHO or COPs did not influence high-density lipoprotein CHO levels. The ratio of saturated fatty acid to unsaturated fatty acid increased as the level of dietary CHO and COPs increased. PMID:23774834

  18. ACAT1 deficiency increases cholesterol synthesis in mouse peritoneal macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Dwayne E; Su, Yan Ru; Swift, Larry L; Linton, MacRae F; Fazio, Sergio

    2006-06-01

    Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) esterifies free cholesterol and stores cholesteryl esters in lipid droplets. Macrophage ACAT1 deficiency results in increased atherosclerotic lesion area in hyperlipidemic mice via disrupted cholesterol efflux, increased lipoprotein uptake, accumulation of intracellular vesicles, and accelerated apoptosis. The objective of this study was to determine whether lipid synthesis is affected by ACAT1. The synthesis, esterification, and efflux of new cholesterol were measured in peritoneal macrophages from ACAT1(-/-) mice. Cholesterol synthesis was increased by 134% (p=0.001) in ACAT1(-/-) macrophages compared to wildtype macrophages. Increased synthesis resulted in a proportional increase in the efflux of newly synthesized cholesterol. Although the esterification of new cholesterol was reduced by 93% (pSREBP1a mRNA was increased 6-fold in ACAT1(-/-) macrophages compared to wildtype macrophages, suggesting an up-regulation of cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis in ACAT1(-/-) macrophages. Increased cholesterol synthesis and up-regulation of SREBP in ACAT1(-/-) macrophages suggests that ACAT1 affects the regulation of lipid metabolism in macrophages. This change in cholesterol homeostasis may contribute to the atherogenic potential of ACAT1(-/-) macrophages.

  19. Effects of postprandial lipemia on plasma cholesterol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, G R; Fielding, C J

    1985-01-01

    Cholesterol net transport, esterification, and cholesteryl ester transfer have been determined in plasma during fasting, and postprandially, after a high fat-cholesterol meal. Significant rises in plasma triglyceride, phospholipid, and free cholesterol were associated with increases in cholesterol net transport, esterification, and transfer (all P less than 0.005), which were well correlated in individual subjects (r greater than 0.60). Essentially, the whole of free cholesterol required for such increased esterification was derived from cell membranes, when cultured fibroblasts were present, despite the increased level of free cholesterol in postprandial plasma; most of the additional cholesteryl ester generated was transferred to the low and very low density lipoproteins (LDL and VLDL) of plasma. Postprandial LDL (the major carrier of free and ester cholesterol and phospholipids among the acceptor lipoproteins) contained significantly decreased ratios of free cholesterol to phospholipid (P less than 0.001), which may modulate the increased transfer of cholesteryl ester to VLDL and LDL. These data suggest that the presence of postprandial acceptor lipoproteins in plasma may play an important role in stimulating the "reverse" transport of cholesterol from peripheral cells for hepatic degradation, which is effective even after the ingestion of dietary cholesterol. PMID:3856571

  20. ABCA1. The gatekeeper for eliminating excess tissue cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oram, J F; Lawn, R M

    2001-08-01

    It is widely believed that HDL functions to transport cholesterol from peripheral cells to the liver by reverse cholesterol transport, a pathway that may protect against atherosclerosis by clearing excess cholesterol from arterial cells. A cellular ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC) called ABCA1 mediates the first step of reverse cholesterol transport: the transfer of cellular cholesterol and phospholipids to lipid-poor apolipoproteins. Mutations in ABCA1 cause Tangier disease (TD), a severe HDL deficiency syndrome characterized by accumulation of cholesterol in tissue macrophages and prevalent atherosclerosis. Studies of TD heterozygotes revealed that ABCA1 activity is a major determinant of plasma HDL levels and susceptibility to CVD. Drugs that induce ABCA1 in mice increase clearance of cholesterol from tissues and inhibit intestinal absorption of dietary cholesterol. Multiple factors related to lipid metabolism and other processes modulate expression and tissue distribution of ABCA1.Therefore, as the primary gatekeeper for eliminating tissue cholesterol, ABCA1 has a major impact on cellular and whole body cholesterol metabolism and is likely to play an important role in protecting against cardiovascular disease.

  1. Overactivation of intestinal SREBP2 in mice increases serum cholesterol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Ma

    Full Text Available Sterol Response Element Binding Protein 2 (SREBP2 transcription factor is a master regulator of cholesterol homeostasis. Treatment with statins, inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis, activates intestinal SREBP2, which may hinder their cholesterol-lowering effects. Overactivation of SREBP2 in mouse liver was shown to have no effect on plasma cholesterol. However, the influence of activating intestinal SREBP2 on plasma cholesterol is not known. We have generated a novel transgenic mouse model with intestine specific overexpression of active SREBP2 (ISR2 driven by villin promoter. ISR2 mice showed overexpression of active SREBP2 specifically in the intestine. Microarray analysis of jejunal RNA from ISR2 mice showed a significant increase in genes involved in fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis. Cholesterol and triglyceride (TG in jejunum and liver (mg/g protein were significantly increased in ISR2 vs wild type mice. Serum Cholesterol was significantly increased in VLDL and LDL fractions whereas the level of serum triglycerides was decreased in ISR2 vs wild type mice. In conclusion, activation of intestinal SREBP2 alone seems to be sufficient to increase plasma cholesterol, highlighting the essential role of intestine in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis in the body.

  2. Brain cholesterol in normal and pathological aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Mauricio; Dotti, Carlos G; Ledesma, Maria Dolores

    2010-08-01

    Correct lipid homeostasis at the plasma membrane is essential for cell survival and performance. These are critically challenged in the aging brain. Changes in the levels of cholesterol, a major membrane component especially enriched in neurons, accompany the brain aging process. They also occur in neurodegenerative diseases. Understanding the causes and consequences of these changes is a crucial step when trying to delay the cognitive decline, which comes with age, or to design strategies to fight neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. We here review work that has contributed to this understanding. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Load testing circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A load testing circuit a circuit tests the load impedance of a load connected to an amplifier. The load impedance includes a first terminal and a second terminal, the load testing circuit comprising a signal generator providing a test signal of a defined bandwidth to the first terminal of the load...

  4. Effects of a saturated fat and high cholesterol diet on memory and hippocampal morphology in the middle-aged rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granholm, Ann-Charlotte; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A; Moore, Alfred B; Nelson, Matthew E; Freeman, Linnea R; Sambamurti, Kumar

    2008-06-01

    Diets rich in cholesterol and/or saturated fats have been shown to be detrimental to cognitive performance. Therefore, we fed a cholesterol (2%) and saturated fat (hydrogenated coconut oil, Sat Fat 10%) diet to 16-month old rats for 8 weeks to explore the effects on the working memory performance of middle-aged rats. Lipid profiles revealed elevated plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL, and LDL for the Sat-Fat group as compared to an iso-caloric control diet (12% soybean oil). Weight gain and food consumption were similar in both groups. Sat-Fat treated rats committed more working memory errors in the water radial arm maze, especially at higher memory loads. Cholesterol, amyloid-beta peptide of 40 (Abeta40) or 42 (Abeta42) residues, and nerve growth factor in cortical regions was unaffected, but hippocampal Map-2 staining was reduced in rats fed a Sat-Fat diet, indicating a loss of dendritic integrity. Map-2 reduction correlated with memory errors. Microglial activation, indicating inflammation and/or gliosis, was also observed in the hippocampus of Sat-Fat fed rats. These data suggest that saturated fat, hydrogenated fat and cholesterol can profoundly impair memory and hippocampal morphology.

  5. Effects of cholesterol on plasma membrane lipid order in MCF-7 cells by two-photon microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yixiu; Chen, Jianling; Yang, Hongqin; Wang, Yuhua; Li, Hui; Xie, Shusen

    2014-09-01

    Lipid rafts are cholesterol- and glycosphingolipids- enriched microdomains on plasma membrane surface of mammal cells, involved in a variety of cellular processes. Depleting cholesterol from the plasma membrane by drugs influences the trafficking of lipid raft markers. Optical imaging techniques are powerful tools to study lipid rafts in live cells due to its noninvasive feature. In this study, breast cancer cells MCF-7 were treated with different concentrations of MβCD to deplete cholesterol and an environmentally sensitive fluorescence probe, Laurdan was loaded to image lipid order by two-photon microscopy. The generalized polarization (GP) values were calculated to distinguish the lipid order and disorder phase. GP images and GP distributions of native and cholesterol-depleted MCF-7 cells were obtained. Our results suggest that even at low concentration (0.5 mM) of MβCD, the morphology of the MCF-7 cells changes. Small high GP areas (lipid order phase) decrease more rapidly than low GP areas (lipid disorder phase), indicating that lipid raft structure was altered more severely than nonraft domains. The data demonstrates that cholesterol dramatically affect raft coverage and plasma membrane fluidity in living cells.

  6. Low dietary cholesterol availability during lactation programs intestinal absorption of cholesterol in adult mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimova, Lidiya G; de Boer, Jan Freark; Plantinga, Josee; Plösch, Torsten; Hoekstra, Menno; Verkade, Henkjan J; Tietge, Uwe J F

    In nematodes, the intestine senses and integrates early-life dietary cues that lead to lifelong epigenetic adaptations to a perceived nutritional environment-it is not clear whether this process occurs in mammals. We aimed to establish a mouse model of reduced dietary cholesterol availability from

  7. Apoprotein E genotype and the response of serum cholesterol to dietary fat, cholesterol and cafestol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weggemans, R.M.; Zock, P.L.; Ordovas, J.M.; Pedro-Botet, J.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies on the effect of apoprotein E (APOE) polymorphism on the response of serum lipids to diet showed inconsistent results. We therefore studied the effect of apoprotein E polymorphism on responses of serum cholesterol and lipoproteins to various dietary treatments. We combined data on

  8. Effect of dietary Maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms on plasma cholesterol and hepatic gene expression in cholesterol-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Mayumi; Tokuji, Yoshihiko; Yoneyama, Shozo; Fujii-Akiyama, Kyoko; Kinoshita, Mikio; Chiji, Hideyuki; Ohnishi, Masao

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of dietary Grifola frondosa on cholesterol, normal mice were fed a diet containing 1% cholesterol (HC group) or 1% cholesterol and 10% freeze-dried G. frondosa powder (HC+G group) for 4 weeks and hepatic and plasma lipid levels were compared with those of a cholesterol-free diet-fed mice (N group). Hepatic total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol contents were considerably increased and plasma TC / phospholipid (PL) was also increased significantly in the HC group compared with the N group. However, plasma TC content decreased in the HC+G group compared with the HC group. To characterize the mechanisms responsible for lowered plasma cholesterol in G. frondosa-supplemented mice, hepatic gene expression was profiled using DNA microarray and gene ontology. Genome analyses revealed that de novo cholesterol synthesis genes were suppressed following cholesterol intake. However, expression of bile acid biosynthesis and low-density lipoprotein receptor genes showed little change. Scarb1, Abcg5, and Abcg8, involved in cholesterol transport and excretion, were slightly upregulated in the HC+G group compared with the HC group. These data indicate the plasma cholesterol-lowering effect of G. frondosa. Moreover, fatty acid (FA) β-oxidation was promoted via adipocytokine signaling pathways, and Saa, encodes serum amyloid A related to arteriosclerosis, was suppressed in the HC+G group.

  9. Specific Ion Effects in Cholesterol Monolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Del Castillo-Santaella

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of ions with interfaces and, in particular, the high specificity of these interactions to the particular ions considered, are central questions in the field of surface forces. Here we study the effect of different salts (NaI, NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2 on monolayers made of cholesterol molecules, both experimentally (surface area vs. lateral pressure isotherms measured by a Langmuir Film Balance and theoretically (molecular dynamics (MD all-atomic simulations. We found that surface isotherms depend, both quantitatively and qualitatively, on the nature of the ions by altering the shape and features of the isotherm. In line with the experiments, MD simulations show clear evidences of specific ionic effects and also provide molecular level details on ion specific interactions with cholesterol. More importantly, MD simulations show that the interaction of a particular ion with the surface depends strongly on its counterion, a feature ignored so far in most theories of specific ionic effects in surface forces.

  10. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol: How High

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Rajagopal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C is considered anti-atherogenic good cholesterol. It is involved in reverse transport of lipids. Epidemiological studies have found inverse relationship of HDL-C and coronary heart disease (CHD risk. When grouped according to HDL-C, subjects having HDL-C more than 60 mg/dL had lesser risk of CHD than those having HDL-C of 40-60 mg/dL, who in turn had lesser risk than those who had HDL-C less than 40 mg/dL. No upper limit for beneficial effect of HDL-C on CHD risk has been identified. The goals of treating patients with low HDL-C have not been firmly established. Though many drugs are known to improve HDL-C concentration, statins are proven to improve CHD risk and mortality. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP is involved in metabolism of HDL-C and its inhibitors are actively being screened for clinical utility. However, final answer is still awaited on CETP-inhibitors.

  11. Membrane cholesterol access into a G-protein-coupled receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guixà-González, Ramon; Albasanz, José L.; Rodriguez-Espigares, Ismael; Pastor, Manuel; Sanz, Ferran; Martí-Solano, Maria; Manna, Moutusi; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Hildebrand, Peter W.; Martín, Mairena; Selent, Jana

    2017-02-01

    Cholesterol is a key component of cell membranes with a proven modulatory role on the function and ligand-binding properties of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Crystal structures of prototypical GPCRs such as the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) have confirmed that cholesterol finds stable binding sites at the receptor surface suggesting an allosteric role of this lipid. Here we combine experimental and computational approaches to show that cholesterol can spontaneously enter the A2AR-binding pocket from the membrane milieu using the same portal gate previously suggested for opsin ligands. We confirm the presence of cholesterol inside the receptor by chemical modification of the A2AR interior in a biotinylation assay. Overall, we show that cholesterol's impact on A2AR-binding affinity goes beyond pure allosteric modulation and unveils a new interaction mode between cholesterol and the A2AR that could potentially apply to other GPCRs.

  12. The perspective on cholesterol-lowering mechanisms of probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimwe, Nestor; Daliri, Eric B; Lee, Byong H; Fang, Fang; Du, Guocheng

    2015-01-01

    The use of probiotics as food components combats not only cardiovascular diseases but also many gastrointestinal tract disorders. Their health benefits along with their increased global market have interested scientists for better formulation and appropriate administration to the consumers. However, the lack of clear elucidation of their cholesterol-lowering mechanisms has complicated their proper dosage and administration to the beneficiaries. In this review, proposed mechanisms of cholesterol reduction such as deconjugation of bile via bile salt hydrolase activity, binding of cholesterol to probiotic cellular surface and incorporation into their cell membrane, production of SCFAs from oligosaccharides, coprecipitation of cholesterol with deconjugated bile, and cholesterol conversion to coprostanol have been discussed. Also, hypocholesterolemic effects on human- and animal-trial results, commonly used probiotics and synbiotics with effect on serum cholesterol regulation, types of bile salt hydrolase genes, and substrate specificities have been discussed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Cyclodextrin-carbon nanotube composites for fluorescent detection of cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Simeon; Jeong, Hae Kyung; Dowben, P. A.

    2017-11-01

    The efficiency of cyclodextrin-carbon nanotube composites (CD-CNT) for cholesterol detection was investigated using their fluorescent yields in the presence of rhodamine 6G (R6G). The CD-CNT composites using α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrin (x-CD) all showed strong fluorescent responses to cholesterol when in the presence of R6G. The α-CD based composites, however, exhibit more dramatic fluorescent changes in response to cholesterol, over a wider range of cholesterol concentrations, and also display the highest binding constant of 2.98 × 105 M-1 with cholesterol. The effectiveness of these fluorescent responses for the detection of cholesterol depends primarily on the concentration and cavity size of the CD.

  14. Pairing of cholesterol with oxidized phospholipid species in lipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khandelia, Himanshu; Loubet, Bastien; Olzynska, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    We claim that (1) cholesterol protects bilayers from disruption caused by lipid oxidation by sequestering conical shaped oxidized lipid species such as 1-palmitoyl-2-azelaoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PZPC) away from phospholipid, because cholesterol and the oxidized lipid have complementary...... shapes and (2) mixtures of cholesterol and oxidized lipids can self-assemble into bilayers much like lysolipid–cholesterol mixtures. The evidence for bilayer protection comes from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. Unimodal size distributions of extruded...... vesicles (LUVETs) made up of a mixture of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and PZPC containing high amounts of PZPC are only obtained when cholesterol is present in high concentrations. In simulations, bilayers containing high amounts of PZPC become porous, unless cholesterol is also present...

  15. EFFECTS OF LUDARTIN AND LEUKOMISIN ON THE ACUTE HYPERLIPIDEMIA MODEL INDUCED BY ETHANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ratkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: study sesquiterpene lactones ludartin and leukomisin lipid-lowering properties on the model of acute hyperlipidemia induced by ethanol in rats.Material and methods. Rats during 7 days injected into the stomach ludartin and leukomisin in a dose 10 mg/kg or reference drug nicotinic acid in a dose 25 mg/kg. Hyperlipidemia caused by single introduc-tion of ethanol into the stomach in a dose 5 g/kg. In blood serum of tail vein measured the triacylgly-cerols, total cholesterol, high density and low density lipoproteins cholesterol, also the level of free fatty acids. Calculated the ratio of high density lipoproteins cholesterol to the amount of low density lipopro-teins cholesterol and the index of atherogenicity.Results. A single dose of ethanol increased serum level of triacylglycerols in 1.9 times, free fatty acids – in 3.2 times, low density lipoproteins – on 44% in comparison with the intact animals indices. It shows the development of acute hyperlipidemia. Serum total cholesterol, high density lipoproteins cholesterol and the index of atherogenicity were not changed. Course introduction of sesquiterpene lactones ludartin and leukomisin against the background of acute hyperlipidemia was accompanied by a decrease in the serum of triacylglycerols levels respectively by 37.5% and 49.5%. Nicotinic acid lowered the content of triacylglycerols by 42.4%. Ludartin, leukomisin and nicotinic acid reduced the increased level of free fatty acids in the blood serum by 63.4%, 41.6% and 67.9%. Ludartin, leukomisin and nicotinic acid de-creased by 15.8%, 20.3% and 17.2% of total cholesterol in the blood serum. In acute hyperlipidemia ludartin and leukomisin reduced low density lipoproteins cholesterol by 23.8% and 14.8%, respectively, nicotinic acid – by 15.7%. Both of sesquiterpene lactone and nicotinic acid did not modify the content of high density lipoproteins cholesterol. When introduction ludartin and nicotinic acid ratio of high density

  16. EFFECTS OF GROSSHEMIN AND GROSSMISIN ON THE ACUTE HYPERLIPIDEMIA MODEL INDUCED BY ETHANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ratkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: study sesquiterpene lactones grosshemin and grossmisin lipid-lowering properties on the model of acute hyperlipidemia induced by ethanol in rats.Materials and methods. Rats during 7 days injected into the stomach grosshemin and grossmisin in a dose 10 mg/kg or reference drug nicotinic acid in a dose 25 mg/kg. Hyperlipidemia caused by single introduction of ethanol into the stomach in a dose 5 g/kg. In blood serum of tail vein measured the triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, high density and low density lipoproteins cholesterol, also the level of free fatty acids. Calculated the ratio of high density lipoproteins cholesterol to the amount of low density lipoproteins cholesterol and the index of atherogenicity.Results. A single dose of ethanol increased serum level of triacylglycerols in 1.9 times, free fatty acids – in 3.2 times, low density lipoproteins – on 44% in comparison with the intact animals indices. It shows the development of acute hyperlipidemia. Serum total cholesterol, high density lipoproteins cholesterol and the index of atherogenicity were not changed. Course sesquiterpene lactones grosshemin and grossmisin introduction against the background of acute hyperlipidemia was accompanied by a decrease in the serum of triacylglycerols levels respectively by 19.8% and 34.1%. Nicotinic acid lowered the content of triacylglycerols by 42.4%. Grosshemin and nicotinic acid reduced the increased level of free fatty acids in the blood serum by 60.7–67.9%. Grossmisin and nicotinic acid decreased by 14.6–17.2% of total cholesterol in the blood serum. In acute hyperlipidemia grosshemin and grossmisin reduced low density lipoproteins cholesterol by 17.6% and 20%, respectively, nicotinic acid – by 15.7%. Both of sesquiterpene lactone and nicotinic acid did not modify the content of high density lipoproteins cholesterol. When introduction grosshemin, grossmisin and nicotinic acid ratio of high density lipoproteins cholesterol to

  17. Cholesterol esterification during differentiation of mouse erythroleukemia (Friend cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Franca Mulas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is an essential constituent of all mammalian cell membranes, and its availability is therefore a prerequisite for cellular growth and other functions. Several lines of evidence are now indicating an association between alterations of cholesterol homeostasis and cell cycle progression. However, the role of cholesterol in cell differentiation is still largely unknown. To begin to address this issue, in this study we examined changes in cholesterol metabolism and in the mRNA levels of proteins involved in cholesterol import and esterification (multi-drug resistance, MDR-3 and acylCoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT and cholesterol export (caveolin-1 in Friend virus-induced erythroleukemia cells (MELC, in the absence or in the presence of the chemical inducer of differentiation, hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA. FBS-stimulated growth of MELC was accompanied by an immediate elevation of cholesterol synthesis and cholesterol esterification, and by an increase in the levels of MDR-3 and ACAT mRNAs. A decrease in caveolin-1 expression was also observed. However, when MELC were treated with HMBA, the inhibition of DNA synthesis caused by HMBA treatment, was associated with a decrease in cholesterol esterification and in ACAT and MDR-3 mRNA levels and an increase in caveolin-1 mRNA. Detection of cytoplasmic neutral lipids by staining MELC with oil red O, a dye able to evidence CE but not FC, revealed that HMBA-treatment also reduced growth-stimulated accumulation of cholesterol ester to approximately the same extent as the ACAT inhibitor, SaH. Overall, these results indicate for the first time a role of cholesterol esterification and of some related genes in differentiation of erythroid cells.

  18. Cholesterol enhances classical conditioning of the rabbit heart rate response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, Bernard G; Smith-Bell, Carrie A; Darwish, Deya S; Wang, Desheng; Burhans, Lauren B; Gonzales-Joekes, Jimena; Deci, Stephen; Stankovic, Goran; Sparks, D Larry

    2007-07-19

    The cholesterol-fed rabbit is a model of atherosclerosis and has been proposed as an animal model of Alzheimer's disease. Feeding rabbits cholesterol has been shown to increase the number of beta amyloid immunoreactive neurons in the cortex. Addition of copper to the drinking water of cholesterol-fed rabbits can increase this number still further and may lead to plaque-like structures. Classical conditioning of the nictitating membrane response in cholesterol-fed rabbits is retarded in the presence of these plaque-like structures but may be facilitated in their absence. In a factorial design, rabbits fed 2% cholesterol or a normal diet (0% cholesterol) for 8 weeks with or without copper added to the drinking water were given trace classical conditioning using a tone and periorbital electrodermal stimulation to study the effects of cholesterol and copper on classical conditioning of heart rate and the nictitating membrane response. Cholesterol-fed rabbits showed significant facilitation of heart rate conditioning and conditioning-specific modification of heart rate relative to normal diet controls. Consistent with previous research, cholesterol had minimal effects on classical conditioning of the nictitating membrane response when periorbital electrodermal stimulation was used as the unconditioned stimulus. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a significant increase in the number of beta amyloid positive neurons in the cortex, hippocampus and amygdala of the cholesterol-fed rabbits. Supplementation of drinking water with copper increased the number of beta amyloid positive neurons in the cortex of cholesterol-fed rabbits but did not produce plaque-like structures or have a significant effect on heart rate conditioning. The data provide additional support for our finding that, in the absence of plaques, dietary cholesterol may facilitate learning and memory.

  19. Bronchitis - acute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute bronchitis is swelling and inflamed tissue in the main ... present only for a short time. Causes When acute bronchitis occurs, it almost always comes after having a ...

  20. Acute cholecystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000264.htm Acute cholecystitis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute cholecystitis is sudden swelling and irritation of the gallbladder. ...

  1. Colorimetric detection of cholesterol based on enzyme modified gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirala, Narsingh R; Saxena, Preeti S; Srivastava, Anchal

    2018-02-05

    We develop a simple colorimetric method for determination of free cholesterol in aqueous solution based on functionalized gold nanoparticles with cholesterol oxidase. Functionalized gold nanoparticles interact with free cholesterol to produce H2O2 in proportion to the level of cholesterol visually is being detected. The quenching in optical properties and agglomeration of functionalized gold nanoparticles play a key role in cholesterol sensing due to the electron accepting property of H2O2. While the lower ranges of cholesterol (lower detection limit i.e. 0.2mg/dL) can be effectively detected using fluorescence study, the absorption study attests evident visual color change which becomes effective for detection of higher ranges of cholesterol (lower detection limit i.e. 19mg/dL). The shades of red gradually change to blue/purple as the level of cholesterol detected (as evident at 100mg/dL) using unaided eye without the use of expensive instruments. The potential of the proposed method to be applied in the field is shown by the proposed cholesterol measuring color wheel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The metabolic syndrome using the National Cholesterol Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The metabolic syndrome using the National Cholesterol Education Program and International Diabetes Federation definitions among urbanised black South Africans with established coronary artery disease.

  3. Cholesterol and copper affect learning and memory in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, Bernard G

    2013-01-01

    A rabbit model of Alzheimer's disease based on feeding a cholesterol diet for eight weeks shows sixteen hallmarks of the disease including beta amyloid accumulation and learning and memory changes. Although we have shown that feeding 2% cholesterol and adding copper to the drinking water can retard learning, other studies have shown that feeding dietary cholesterol before learning can improve acquisition and feeding cholesterol after learning can degrade long-term memory. We explore the development of this model, the issues surrounding the role of copper, and the particular contributions of the late D. Larry Sparks.

  4. Cholesterol and Copper Affect Learning and Memory in the Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard G. Schreurs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rabbit model of Alzheimer’s disease based on feeding a cholesterol diet for eight weeks shows sixteen hallmarks of the disease including beta amyloid accumulation and learning and memory changes. Although we have shown that feeding 2% cholesterol and adding copper to the drinking water can retard learning, other studies have shown that feeding dietary cholesterol before learning can improve acquisition and feeding cholesterol after learning can degrade long-term memory. We explore the development of this model, the issues surrounding the role of copper, and the particular contributions of the late D. Larry Sparks.

  5. Cholesterol granuloma of the anterior mediastinum with osseous metaplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Frederick Ezzat

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol granuloma is a well-characterized entity comprised of a foreign-body giant cell-reaction that forms in response to the presence of cholesterol crystals. It is usually found in the middle-ear or mastoid process in patients with diseases associated with chronic inflammation such as cholesteatoma and otitis media. They are rarely seen in the mediastinum. Osseous metaplasia is an exceedingly rare feature of cholesterol granulomas only reported twice in the literature. We report a case of a cholesterol granuloma of the anterior mediastinum with osseous metaplasia in a 75 year-old man that was found incidentally during urgent coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

  6. Retracted: Advances in the physiological and pathological implications of cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Victor A; Busso, Dolores; Mardones, Pablo; Maiz, Alberto; Arteaga, Antonio; Nervi, Flavio; Rigotti, Attilio

    2013-11-01

    Cholesterol has evolved to fulfill sophisticated biophysical, cell signalling, and endocrine functions in animal systems. At the cellular level, cholesterol is found in membranes where it increases both bilayer stiffness and impermeability to water and ions. Furthermore, cholesterol is integrated into specialized lipid-protein membrane microdomains with critical topographical and signalling functions. At the organismal level, cholesterol is the precursor of all steroid hormones, including gluco- and mineralo-corticoids, sex hormones, and vitamin D, which regulate carbohydrate, sodium, reproductive, and bone homeostasis, respectively. This sterol is also the immediate precursor of bile acids, which are important for intestinal absorption of dietary lipids as well as energy homeostasis and glucose regulation. Complex mechanisms maintain cholesterol within physiological ranges and the dysregulation of these mechanisms results in embryonic or adult diseases, caused by either excessive or reduced tissue cholesterol levels. The causative role of cholesterol in these conditions has been demonstrated by genetic and pharmacological manipulations in animal models of human disease that are discussed herein. Importantly, the understanding of basic aspects of cholesterol biology has led to the development of high-impact pharmaceutical therapies during the past century. The continuing effort to offer successful treatments for prevalent cholesterol-related diseases, such as atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative disorders, warrants further interdisciplinary research in the coming decades. © 2013 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2013 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  7. Cholesterol assimilation by Lactobacillus probiotic bacteria: an in vitro investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaro-Duchesneau, Catherine; Jones, Mitchell L; Shah, Divya; Jain, Poonam; Saha, Shyamali; Prakash, Satya

    2014-01-01

    Excess cholesterol is associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD), an important cause of mortality worldwide. Current CVD therapeutic measures, lifestyle and dietary interventions, and pharmaceutical agents for regulating cholesterol levels are inadequate. Probiotic bacteria have demonstrated potential to lower cholesterol levels by different mechanisms, including bile salt hydrolase activity, production of compounds that inhibit enzymes such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A, and cholesterol assimilation. This work investigates 11 Lactobacillus strains for cholesterol assimilation. Probiotic strains for investigation were selected from the literature: Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 11951, L. reuteri NCIMB 701359, L. reuteri NCIMB 702655, L. reuteri NCIMB 701089, L. reuteri NCIMB 702656, Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221, L. fermentum NCIMB 8829, L. fermentum NCIMB 2797, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103 GG, Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 314, and Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917. Cholesterol assimilation was investigated in culture media and under simulated intestinal conditions. The best cholesterol assimilator was L. plantarum ATCC 14917 (15.18±0.55 mg/10(10) cfu) in MRS broth. L. reuteri NCIMB 701089 assimilated over 67% (2254.70±63.33 mg/10(10) cfu) of cholesterol, the most of all the strains, under intestinal conditions. This work demonstrates that probiotic bacteria can assimilate cholesterol under intestinal conditions, with L. reuteri NCIMB 701089 showing great potential as a CVD therapeutic.

  8. Cholesterol granuloma of the petrous apex: CT diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, W.W.M.; Solti-Bohman, L.G.; Brackmann, D.E.; Gruskin, P.

    1984-12-01

    Cholesterol granuloma of the petrous apex is a readily recognizable and treatable entity that is more common than previously realized. Cholesterol granuloma grows slowly in the petrous apex as a mass lesion until it produces hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo, and facial twitching. Twelve cases of cholesterol granuloma of the petrous apex are illustrated; ten of these analyzed in detail, especially with respect to CT findings. A sharply and smoothly marginated expansile lesion in the petrous apex, isodense with plain and nonenhancing on CT, is in all probability a cholesterol granuloma. Preoperative recognition by CT is important for planning proper treatment.

  9. Colorimetric detection of cholesterol based on enzyme modified gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirala, Narsingh R.; Saxena, Preeti S.; Srivastava, Anchal

    2018-02-01

    We develop a simple colorimetric method for determination of free cholesterol in aqueous solution based on functionalized gold nanoparticles with cholesterol oxidase. Functionalized gold nanoparticles interact with free cholesterol to produce H2O2 in proportion to the level of cholesterol visually is being detected. The quenching in optical properties and agglomeration of functionalized gold nanoparticles play a key role in cholesterol sensing due to the electron accepting property of H2O2. While the lower ranges of cholesterol (lower detection limit i.e. 0.2 mg/dL) can be effectively detected using fluorescence study, the absorption study attests evident visual color change which becomes effective for detection of higher ranges of cholesterol (lower detection limit i.e. 19 mg/dL). The shades of red gradually change to blue/purple as the level of cholesterol detected (as evident at 100 mg/dL) using unaided eye without the use of expensive instruments. The potential of the proposed method to be applied in the field is shown by the proposed cholesterol measuring color wheel.

  10. Dietary glycemic index, dietary glycemic load, blood lipids, and C-reactive protein

    OpenAIRE

    Levitan, Emily B.; Cook, Nancy R.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Ridker, Paul M; Rexrode, Kathryn M.; Buring, Julie E.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Liu, Simin

    2008-01-01

    Carbohydrate quantity and quality may influence risk of cardiovascular disease through blood lipid concentrations and inflammation. We measured dietary glycemic index (GI) and dietary glycemic load (GL) among 18,137 healthy women ≥ 45 years old without diagnosed diabetes using a food-frequency questionnaire. We assayed fasting total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol, LDL:HDL cholesterol ratio, triacylglycerols (TG), and C-reactive protein (CRP). We evaluated associations with dietary GI and GL using ...

  11. The role of cholesterol metabolism and cholesterol transport in carcinogenesis; A review of scientific findings, relevant to future cancer therapeutics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Miguel Cruz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available While the unique metabolic activities of malignant tissues as potential targets for cancer therapeutics has been the subject of several recent reviews, the role of cholesterol metabolism in this context is yet to be fully explored. Cholesterol is an essential component of mammalian cell membranes as well as a precursor of bile acids and steroid hormones. The hypothesis that cancer cells need excess cholesterol and intermediates of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway to maintain a high level of proliferation is well accepted, however the mechanisms by which malignant cells and tissues reprogram cholesterol synthesis, uptake and efflux are yet to be fully elucidated as potential therapeutic targets. High and low density plasma lipoproteins, area the likely major suppliers of cholesterol to cancer cells and tumors, potentially via receptor mediated mechanisms. This review is primarily focused on the role(s of lipoproteins in carcinogenesis, and their future roles as drug delivery vehicles for targeted cancer chemotherapy.

  12. The role of cholesterol metabolism and cholesterol transport in carcinogenesis: a review of scientific findings, relevant to future cancer therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Pedro M R; Mo, Huanbiao; McConathy, Walter J; Sabnis, Nirupama; Lacko, Andras G

    2013-09-25

    While the unique metabolic activities of malignant tissues as potential targets for cancer therapeutics has been the subject of several recent reviews, the role of cholesterol metabolism in this context is yet to be fully explored. Cholesterol is an essential component of mammalian cell membranes as well as a precursor of bile acids and steroid hormones. The hypothesis that cancer cells need excess cholesterol and intermediates of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway to maintain a high level of proliferation is well accepted, however the mechanisms by which malignant cells and tissues reprogram cholesterol synthesis, uptake and efflux are yet to be fully elucidated as potential therapeutic targets. High and low density plasma lipoproteins are the likely major suppliers of cholesterol to cancer cells and tumors, potentially via receptor mediated mechanisms. This review is primarily focused on the role(s) of lipoproteins in carcinogenesis, and their future roles as drug delivery vehicles for targeted cancer chemotherapy.

  13. Alterations of serum cholesterol and serum lipoprotein in breast cancer of women

    OpenAIRE

    Hasija, Kiran; Bagga, Hardeep K.

    2005-01-01

    Fasting blood sample of 50 normal subjects (control) and 100 patients of breast cancer were investigated for serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein cholesterol:low density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and total cholesterol:high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio during breast cancer of women. Five cancer stages, types, age groups, parity and menopausal status were undertaken...

  14. Relative variations of gut microbiota in disordered cholesterol metabolism caused by high-cholesterol diet and host genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Tao; Shao, Shanshan; Wu, Dongming; Niu, Shaona; Zhao, Jiajun; Gao, Ling

    2017-08-01

    Recent studies performed provide mechanistic insight into effects of the microbiota on cholesterol metabolism, but less focus was given to how cholesterol impacts the gut microbiota. In this study, ApoE(-/-) Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and their wild-type counterparts (n = 12) were, respectively, allocated for two dietary condition groups (normal chow and high-cholesterol diet). Total 16S rDNA of fecal samples were extracted and sequenced by high-throughput sequencing to determine differences in microbiome composition. Data were collected and performed diversity analysis and phylogenetic analysis. The influence of cholesterol on gut microbiota was discussed by using cholesterol dietary treatment as exogenous cholesterol disorder factor and genetic modification as endogenous metabolic disorder factor. Relative microbial variations were compared to illustrate the causality and correlation of cholesterol and gut microbiota. It turned out comparing to genetically modified rats, exogenous cholesterol intake may play more effective role in changing gut microbiota profile, although the serum cholesterol level of genetically modified rats was even higher. Relative abundance of some representative species showed that the discrepancies due to dietary variation were more obvious, whereas some low abundance species changed because of genetic disorders. Our results partially demonstrated that gut microbiota are relatively more sensitive to dietary variation. Nevertheless, considering the important effect of bacteria in cholesterol metabolism, the influence to gut flora by "genetically caused cholesterol disorder" cannot be overlooked. Manipulation of gut microbiota might be an effective target for preventing cholesterol-related metabolic disorders. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Investigating the allosterism of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) by using various sterols: in vitro and intact cell studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jay; Chang, Catherine C Y; Westover, Emily J; Covey, Douglas F; Chang, Ta-Yuan

    2005-10-15

    ACAT1 (acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 1) is thought to have two distinct sterol-binding sites: a substrate-binding site and an allosteric-activator site. In the present work, we investigated the structural features of various sterols as substrates and/or activators in vitro. The results show that without cholesterol, the plant sterol sitosterol is a poor substrate for ACAT. In the presence of cholesterol, ACAT1-mediated esterification of sitosterol is highly activated while ACAT2-mediated esterification of sitosterol is only moderately activated. For ACAT1, we show that the stereochemistry of the 3-hydroxy group at steroid ring A is a critical structural feature for a sterol to serve as a substrate, but less critical for activation. Additionally, enantiomeric cholesterol, which has the same biophysical properties as cholesterol in membranes, fails to activate ACAT1. Thus ACAT1 activation by cholesterol is the result of stereo-specific interactions between cholesterol and ACAT1, and is not related to the biophysical properties of phospholipid membranes. To demonstrate the relevance of the ACAT1 allosteric model in intact cells, we showed that sitosterol esterification in human macrophages is activated upon cholesterol loading. We further show that the activation is not due to an increase in ACAT1 protein content, but is partly due to an increase in the cholesterol content in the endoplasmic reticulum where ACAT1 resides. Together, our results support the existence of a distinct sterol-activator site in addition to the sterol-substrate site of ACAT1 and demonstrate the applicability of the ACAT1 allosteric model in intact cells.

  16. Impaired Cholesterol Efflux Capacity of High-Density Lipoprotein Isolated From Interstitial Fluid in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus-Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apro, Johanna; Tietge, Uwe J F; Dikkers, Arne; Parini, Paolo; Angelin, Bo; Rudling, Mats

    2016-05-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, the mechanism of which is incompletely understood. Their high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles in plasma have been reported to have impaired cholesterol efflux capacity. However, the efflux capacity of HDL from interstitial fluid (IF), the starting point for reverse cholesterol transport, has not been studied. We here investigated the cholesterol efflux capacity of HDL from IF and plasma from T2D patients and healthy controls. HDL was isolated from IF and peripheral plasma from 35 T2D patients and 35 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Cholesterol efflux to HDL was determined in vitro, normalized for HDL cholesterol, using cholesterol-loaded macrophages. Efflux capacity of plasma HDL was 10% lower in T2D patients than in healthy controls, in line with previous observations. This difference was much more pronounced for HDL from IF, where efflux capacity was reduced by 28% in T2D. Somewhat surprisingly, the efflux capacity of HDL from IF was lower than that of plasma HDL, by 15% and 32% in controls and T2D patients, respectively. These data demonstrate that (1) HDL from IF has a lower cholesterol efflux capacity than plasma HDL and (2) the efflux capacity of HDL from IF is severely impaired in T2D when compared with controls. Because IF comprises the compartment where reverse cholesterol transport is initiated, the marked reduction in cholesterol efflux capacity of IF-HDL from T2D patients may play an important role for their increased risk to develop atherosclerosis. © 2016 The Authors.

  17. Cholesterol esterification by ACAT2 is essential for efficient intestinal cholesterol absorption: evidence from thoracic lymph duct cannulation[S

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Tam M.; Sawyer, Janet K.; Kelley, Kathryn L.; Davis, Matthew A.; Rudel, Lawrence L.

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis tested in this study was that cholesterol esterification by ACAT2 would increase cholesterol absorption efficiency by providing cholesteryl ester (CE) for incorporation into chylomicrons. The assumption was that absorption would be proportional to Acat2 gene dosage. Male ACAT2+/+, ACAT2+/−, and ACAT2−/− mice were fed a diet containing 20% of energy as palm oil with 0.2% (w/w) cholesterol. Cholesterol absorption efficiency was measured by fecal dual-isotope and thoracic lymph du...

  18. [The analysis of data of large study of cholesterol level in population: on the issue of reference values of cholesterol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igonina, N A; Zhuravlev, E A; Kondrashova, E A; Torshina, I G; Chashchikhina, E V; Makarova, T A; Kopaeva, L B; Sysoeva, S N

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with analysis of the results of large study of cholesterol level at the sampling of 52 075 patients. The median of values of common cholesterol exceeds 5.0 mmol/l in all groups of males older than 30-35 years and females older than 35-40 years. The percentage of patients with level of common cholesterol > or = 6.2 mmol/l consisted 40.15 in the age group of 40-69 years. The issue of presentation of the results of laboratory analysis of common cholesterol (reference values as compared with recommended values) is discussed.

  19. Selection of Cholesterol-Lowering Lactic Acid Bacteria and its Effects on Rats Fed with High-Cholesterol Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yufang; Zhao, Fengchun; Liu, Jiye; Wang, Huimin; Han, Xiao; Zhang, Yongxin; Yang, Zhengyou

    2017-05-01

    High cholesterol level in serum is a major factor of influence for coronary heart disease. The cholesterol-lowering ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) without side effects makes them more and more attractive. Seventy-nine strains of LAB isolated from fermented food were screened in vitro for their ability to assimilate cholesterol. Then, ten strains which exhibited higher ability of cholesterol assimilation were investigated with the characteristics of acidic resistance, bile salt tolerance, and cell adhesion. According to the results, the best strain LP96 was picked out, and used to evaluate its effects on the high-cholesterol diet-fed rats. The results demonstrated that the levels of serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and liver TC and TG were reduced significantly in the groups that received the strain LP96 solution compared with the model group, and that the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were increased without any significant difference. Furthermore, LP96 also showed good antioxidative activity and improvement of intestinal microbial balance in the rats. Thus, LP96 may be a promising probiotics with potential cholesterol-lowering ability.

  20. Capsaicinoids lower plasma cholesterol and improve endothelial function in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yin Tong; Tian, Xiao-Yu; Chen, Jing Nan; Peng, Cheng; Ma, Ka Ying; Zuo, Yuanyuan; Jiao, Rui; Lu, Ye; Huang, Yu; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2013-02-01

    Capsaicinoids are the active compounds in chili pepper. The present study investigated the effect of capsaicinoids on plasma lipids, functionality of aorta including atherosclerotic plaque development, cholesterol absorption biomarker, fecal sterol excretion, and gene expression of major receptors, enzymes, and transporters involved in cholesterol metabolism. Hamsters were divided into five groups and fed a high-cholesterol diet containing 0 % (CON), 0.010 % (LD), 0.015 % (MD), 0.020 % (HD), and 0.030 % (VD) capsaicinoids, respectively, for 6 weeks. Plasma lipids were measured using the enzymatic kits, and the gene expression of transporters, enzymes, and receptors involved in cholesterol absorption and metabolism was quantified using the quantitative PCR. Endothelial function was assessed by measuring the acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxations in aorta. Capsaicinoids reduced plasma total cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triacylglycerols with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol being unaffected. All four experimental groups had a decrease in the atherosclerotic plaque compared with CON. Dietary capsaicinoids increased the fecal excretion of total acidic sterols possibly mediated by up-regulation of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase and down-regulation of liver X receptor alpha. Plasma sterol analysis demonstrated that capsaicinoids decreased the ratio of plasma campesterol/cholesterol, suggesting they decreased cholesterol absorption. Capsaicinoids could improve the endothelium-dependent relaxations and reduce the endothelium-dependent contractions by inhibiting the gene expression of COX-2. However, no dose-dependent effect of capsaicinoids on these parameters was seen. Capsaicinoids were beneficial in improving lipoprotein profile and aortic function in hamsters fed a high-cholesterol diet.

  1. Electrical load detection aparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A load detection technique for a load comprising multiple frequency-dependant sub-loads comprises measuring a representation of the impedance characteristic of the load; providing stored representations of a multiplicity of impedance characteristics of the load; each one of the stored representat...

  2. Saturated fatty acid (SFA) status and SFA intake exhibit different relations with serum total cholesterol and lipoprotein cholesterol : a mechanistic explanation centered around lifestyle-induced low-grade inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz Nunez, Begona; Kuipers, Remko S.; Luxwolda, Martine F.; De Graaf, Deti J.; Breeuwsma, Benjamin B.; Dijck-Brouwer, Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    We investigated the relations between fatty acid status and serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio in five Tanzanian ethnic groups and one Dutch group. Total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol

  3. Elevated Cholesterol in the Coxiella burnetii Intracellular Niche Is Bacteriolytic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulye, Minal; Samanta, Dhritiman; Winfree, Seth; Heinzen, Robert A; Gilk, Stacey D

    2017-02-28

    Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen and a significant cause of culture-negative endocarditis in the United States. Upon infection, the nascent Coxiella phagosome fuses with the host endocytic pathway to form a large lysosome-like vacuole called the parasitophorous vacuole (PV). The PV membrane is rich in sterols, and drugs perturbing host cell cholesterol homeostasis inhibit PV formation and bacterial growth. Using cholesterol supplementation of a cholesterol-free cell model system, we found smaller PVs and reduced Coxiella growth as cellular cholesterol concentration increased. Further, we observed in cells with cholesterol a significant number of nonfusogenic PVs that contained degraded bacteria, a phenotype not observed in cholesterol-free cells. Cholesterol had no effect on axenic Coxiella cultures, indicating that only intracellular bacteria are sensitive to cholesterol. Live-cell microscopy revealed that both plasma membrane-derived cholesterol and the exogenous cholesterol carrier protein low-density lipoprotein (LDL) traffic to the PV. To test the possibility that increasing PV cholesterol levels affects bacterial survival, infected cells were treated with U18666A, a drug that traps cholesterol in lysosomes and PVs. U18666A treatment led to PVs containing degraded bacteria and a significant loss in bacterial viability. The PV pH was significantly more acidic in cells with cholesterol or cells treated with U18666A, and the vacuolar ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin blocked cholesterol-induced PV acidification and bacterial death. Additionally, treatment of infected HeLa cells with several FDA-approved cholesterol-altering drugs led to a loss of bacterial viability, a phenotype also rescued by bafilomycin. Collectively, these data suggest that increasing PV cholesterol further acidifies the PV, leading to Coxiella death.IMPORTANCE The intracellular Gram-negative bacterium Coxiella burnetii is a significant cause of culture-negative infectious

  4. Apolipoprotein A-I Helsinki promotes intracellular acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) protein accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Juan D; Garda, Horacio A; Cabaleiro, Laura V; Cuellar, Angela; Pellon-Maison, Magali; Gonzalez-Baro, Maria R; Gonzalez, Marina C

    2013-05-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport is a process of high antiatherogenic relevance in which apolipoprotein AI (apoA-I) plays an important role. The interaction of apoA-I with peripheral cells produces through mechanisms that are still poorly understood the mobilization of intracellular cholesterol depots toward plasma membrane. In macrophages, these mechanisms seem to be related to the modulation of the activity of acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), the enzyme responsible for the intracellular cholesterol ester biosynthesis that is stored in lipid droplets. The activation of ACAT and the accumulation of lipid droplets play a key role in the transformation of macrophages into foam cells, leading to the formation of atheroma or atherosclerotic plaque. ApoA-I Helsinki (or ∆K107) is a natural apoA-I variant with a lysine deletion in the central protein region, carriers of which have increased atherosclerosis risk. We herein show that treatment of cultured RAW macrophages or CHOK1 cells with ∆K107, but not with wild-type apoA-I or a variant containing a similar deletion at the C-terminal region (∆K226), lead to a marked increase (more than 10 times) in the intracellular ACAT1 protein level as detected by western blot analysis. However, we could only detect a slight increase in cholesteryl ester produced by ∆K107 mainly when Chol loading was supplied by low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Although a similar choline-phospholipid efflux is evoked by these apoA-I variants, the change in phosphatidylcholine/sphyngomyelin distribution produced by wild-type apoA-I is not observed with either ∆K107 or ∆K226.

  5. Psychometric properties of the Perceived Therapeutic Efficacy Scale for adhering to a cholesterol-lowering diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yaguang; Terhorst, Lauren; Choo, Jina; Burke, Lora E

    2014-01-01

    Outcome expectancy may play an important role in behavior change. Previous studies tested the validity and the reliability of the Perceived Therapeutic Efficacy Scale (PTES), a scale that measures outcome expectancy related to adhering to a cholesterol-lowering diet. Further study was needed to examine its psychometric properties in a larger sample. The aim of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the 10-item PTES in a large sample. The PTES and the Connor Diet Habit Survey were administered to adults enrolled in a cardiac rehabilitation program. The final sample for the analysis (N = 224) was, on average, 69.35 years old and was predominantly men (66.50%) and white (92.40%); nearly all (96.00%) completed high school. The inter-item correlation matrix revealed that correlation coefficients were greater than 0.80 between 4 pairs of items, suggesting that the 4 items were redundant. After consulting with a content expert and an examination of item content, we removed the 4 redundant items (items 2, 3, 4, and 10) and reduced the scale to 6 items. Principal component analysis revealed a 1-factor scale with high loadings for the 6 items, each greater than 0.70. The reliability of the scale, measured by Cronbach's α, was 0.91. The total PTES score had a moderate correlation with self-reported behaviors of adhering to a cholesterol-lowering diet, as measured by the Connor Diet Habit Survey subscale for cholesterol and fat intake (r = 0.36, P PTES scale is reliable and valid to measure outcome expectancy related to adhering to a cholesterol-lowering diet.

  6. In situ synthesis of cylindrical spongy polypyrrole doped protonated graphitic carbon nitride for cholesterol sensing application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bishnu Kumar; Ahmad, Rafiq; Shrestha, Sita; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2017-08-15

    Herein, we demonstrate the exfoliation of bulk graphitic carbon nitrides (g-C 3 N 4 ) into ultra-thin (~3.4nm) two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets and their functionalization with proton (g-C 3 N 4 H + ). The layered semiconductor g-C 3 N 4 H + nanosheets were doped with cylindrical spongy shaped polypyrrole (CSPPy-g-C 3 N 4 H + ) using chemical polymerization method. The as-prepared nanohybrid composite was utilized to fabricate cholesterol biosensors after immobilization of cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) at physiological pH. Large specific surface area and positive charge nature of CSPPy-g-C 3 N 4 H + composite has tendency to generate strong electrostatic attraction with negatively charged ChOx, and as a result they formed stable bionanohybrid composite with high enzyme loading. A detailed electrochemical characterization of as-fabricated biosensor electrode (ChOx-CSPPy-g-C 3 N 4 H + /GCE) exhibited high-sensitivity (645.7 µAmM -1 cm -2 ) in wide-linear range of 0.02-5.0mM, low detection limit (8.0μM), fast response time (~3s), long-term stability, and good selectivity during cholesterol detection. To the best of our knowledge, this novel nanocomposite was utilized for the first time for cholesterol biosensor fabrication that resulted in high sensing performance. Hence, this approach opens a new prospective to utilize CSPPy-g-C 3 N 4 H + composite as cost-effective, biocompatible, eco-friendly, and superior electrocatalytic as well as electroconductive having great application potentials that could pave the ways to explore many other new sensors fabrication and biomedical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Interleukin-10 increases reverse cholesterol transport in macrophages through its bidirectional interaction with liver X receptor α

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, Bente, E-mail: Bente.Halvorsen@rr-research.no [Research Institute of Internal Medicine, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway); Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); K.G. Jebsen Inflammation Research Center, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Holm, Sverre [Research Institute of Internal Medicine, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway); Yndestad, Arne [Research Institute of Internal Medicine, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway); Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); K.G. Jebsen Inflammation Research Center, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Scholz, Hanne [Section for Transplantation, Institute for Surgical Research, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway); Sagen, Ellen Lund [Research Institute of Internal Medicine, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway); Nebb, Hilde [Department of Nutrition, Institute for Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Holven, Kirsten B. [Department of Nutrition, Institute for Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Dahl, Tuva B. [Research Institute of Internal Medicine, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway); Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Aukrust, Pål [Research Institute of Internal Medicine, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway); Section of Clinical Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway); Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); K.G. Jebsen Inflammation Research Center, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • IL-10 promotes reverse cholesterol efflux from lipid loaded macrophages. • IL-10 increases the expression of ABCA-1 and ABCG-1. • IL-10 exhibits cross-talk with the nuclear receptor LXRα. - Abstract: Interleukin (IL)-10 is a prototypical anti-inflammatory cytokine that has been shown to attenuate atherosclerosis development. In addition to its anti-inflammatory properties, the anti-atherogenic effect of IL-10 has recently also been suggested to reflect a complex effect of IL-10 on lipid metabolism in macrophages. In the present study we examined the effects of IL-10 on cholesterol efflux mechanism in lipid-loaded THP-1 macrophages. Our main findings were: (i) IL-10 significantly enhanced cholesterol efflux induced by fetal-calf serum, high-density lipoprotein (HDL){sub 2} and apolipoprotein A-1. (ii) The IL-10-mediated effects on cholesterol efflux were accompanied by an increased IL-10-mediated expression of the ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1, that was further enhanced when the cells were co-activated with the liver X receptor (LXR)α agonist (22R)-hydroxycholesterol. (iii) The effect of LXRα activation on the IL-10-mediated effects on the ATP-binding cassette transporters seems to include enhancing effects on the IL-10 receptor 1 (IL10R1) expression and interaction with STAT-3 signaling. (iv) These enhancing effects on ABCA1 and ABCG1 was not seen when the cells were stimulated with the IL-10 family members IL-22 and IL-24. This study suggests that the anti-atherogenic properties of IL-10 may include enhancing effects on cholesterol efflux mechanism that involves cross-talk with LXRα activation.

  8. Synthetic LXR Agonist Suppresses Endogenous Cholesterol Biosynthesis and Efficiently Lowers Plasma Cholesterol

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeifer, Thomas; Buchebner, Marlene; Chandak, Prakash G.; Patankar, Jay; Kratzer, Adelheid; Obrowsky, Sascha; Rechberger, Gerald N.; Kadam, Rajendra S.; Kompella, Uday B.; Kostner, Gerhard M.; Kratky, Dagmar; Levak-Frank, Sanja

    2011-01-01

    The liver X receptors (LXRs) are key regulators of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Natural ligands and activators of LXRs are oxysterols. Numerous steroidal and non-steroidal synthetic LXR ligands are under development as potential drugs for individuals suffering from lipid disorders. N,N-dimethyl-3ß-hydroxycholenamide (DMHCA) is a steroidal ligand of LXRs that exerts anti-atherogenic effects in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice without causing negative side effects such as liver ste...

  9. Ezetimibe Added to Statin Therapy after Acute Coronary Syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannon, Christopher P; Blazing, Michael A; Giugliano, Robert P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Statin therapy reduces low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and the risk of cardiovascular events, but whether the addition of ezetimibe, a nonstatin drug that reduces intestinal cholesterol absorption, can reduce the rate of cardiovascular events further is not known....... METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial involving 18,144 patients who had been hospitalized for an acute coronary syndrome within the preceding 10 days and had LDL cholesterol levels of 50 to 100 mg per deciliter (1.3 to 2.6 mmol per liter) if they were receiving lipid-lowering therapy...... was a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina requiring rehospitalization, coronary revascularization (≥30 days after randomization), or nonfatal stroke. The median follow-up was 6 years. RESULTS: The median time-weighted average LDL cholesterol level during the study...

  10. Plasma cholesterol and sodium in some Nigerians | Ighoroje ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cholesterol moderates the fluidity of cell membrane and this in turn controls the transmembrane movement of Na+. We have thus attempted to investigate the relationship of serum cholesterol and Na+ concentrations in some Nigerians. Blood samples were obtained from 122 healthy adult Nigerians and the plasma ...

  11. Serum cholesterol decline and depression in the postpartum period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van R.M.; Schuit, A.J.; Schouten, E.G.; Vader, H.L.; Pop, V.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    We examined the relation between total serum cholesterol decline and depression in the postpartum period in a prospective study of 266 Dutch women, who were followed until 34 weeks after delivery. The decline in serum cholesterol between week 32 of pregnancy and week 10 postpartum was similar for

  12. Serum cholesterol decline and depression in the postpartum period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, R M; Schuit, A.J.; Schouten, E G; Vader, H L; Pop, V.J.

    We examined the relation between total serum cholesterol decline and depression in the postpartum period in a prospective study of 266 Dutch women, who were followed until 34 weeks after delivery. The decline in serum cholesterol between week 32 of pregnancy and week 10 postpartum was similar for

  13. Diet and lifestyle: its association with cholesterol levels among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    populations. It was found that 71.7% were non-vegetarian and 28.3% were vegetarian out which 82.6% were males and 63.2% were females. It was observed that males (10.7%) had high cholesterol level as compared to females. (8.4%). Females were slightly more at borderline high cholesterol level as compared to males.

  14. Tuberculosis treatment raises total cholesterol level and restores ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2013-10-09

    Oct 9, 2013 ... cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) were determined in 83 patients with ... Our results show that tuberculosis treatment increases TC levels and normalizes HDL while reducing atherogenic ..... Atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease are common in ...

  15. Growth and micro-topographical studies of gel grown cholesterol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Cholesterol (C27H46O) is the most abundant and best-known steroid in the animal kingdom. The in vitro crystallization of this important biomaterial has been attempted by few researchers. Here we are reporting crystallization of pure cholesterol monohydrate crystals in gel medium. It is found that the morpho-.

  16. The ins and outs of reverse cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, AK; Elferink, RPJO; Verkade, HJ; Kuipers, F

    2004-01-01

    It is generally assumed that HDL is the obligate transport vehicle for 'reverse cholesterol transport'. the pathway for removal of excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues via the liver into bile and subsequent excretion via the feces. During the last few years, intensive research has generated

  17. Exercise Enhances Whole-Body Cholesterol Turnover in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meissner, Maxi; Havinga, Rick; Boverhof, Renze; Kema, Ido; Groen, Albert K.; Kuipers, Folkert

    MEISSNER, M., R. HAVINGA, R. BOVERHOF, I. KEMA, A. K. GROEN, and F. KUIPERS. Exercise Enhances Whole-Body Cholesterol Turnover in Mice. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 42, No. 8, pp. 1460-1468, 2010. Purpose: Regular exercise reduces cardiovascular risk in humans by reducing cholesterol levels, but

  18. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy with cholesterol deposits in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeyro, Pablo; Sponenberg, D Philip; Pancotto, Theresa; King, Rosalind H M; Jortner, Bernard S

    2015-11-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy occurred in an 11-year-old Labrador Retriever dog. Spinal cord compression resulted from massive radiculitis with prominent cholesterol granulomas. Cholesterol deposition and associated granuloma formation is unique in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, in both its human and canine expressions. © 2015 The Author(s).

  19. Cholesterol Balance in Prion Diseases and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Hannaoui

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are transmissible and fatal neurodegenerative disorders of humans and animals. They are characterized by the accumulation of PrPSc, an aberrantly folded isoform of the cellular prion protein PrPC, in the brains of affected individuals. PrPC is a cell surface glycoprotein attached to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane by a glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI anchor. Specifically, it is associated with lipid rafts, membrane microdomains enriched in cholesterol and sphinoglipids. It has been established that inhibition of endogenous cholesterol synthesis disturbs lipid raft association of PrPC and prevents PrPSc accumulation in neuronal cells. Additionally, prion conversion is reduced upon interference with cellular cholesterol uptake, endosomal export, or complexation at the plasma membrane. Altogether, these results demonstrate on the one hand the importance of cholesterol for prion propagation. On the other hand, growing evidence suggests that prion infection modulates neuronal cholesterol metabolism. Similar results were reported in Alzheimer’s disease (AD: whereas amyloid β peptide formation is influenced by cellular cholesterol, levels of cholesterol in the brains of affected individuals increase during the clinical course of the disease. In this review, we summarize commonalities of alterations in cholesterol homeostasis and discuss consequences for neuronal function and therapy of prion diseases and AD.

  20. Changes in remnant-like particle cholesterol level during treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RLP-cholesterol level was significantly reduced after clinidipine treatment while the reduction in RLP-cholesterol level after amlodipine treatment was not statistically significant. Our findings show that calcium channel blockers may lower the risk of myocardial infarction, coronary atherosclerosis and/or coronary thrombus ...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1175 - Cholesterol (total) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cholesterol (total) test system. 862.1175 Section 862.1175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... the diagnosis and treatment of disorders involving excess cholesterol in the blood and lipid and...

  2. Musings on genome medicine: cholesterol and coronary artery disease

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan, David G.; Orkin, Stuart H.

    2009-01-01

    Cholesterol levels and not inflammatory markers are the major variables that pose a risk of coronary artery disease. Diabetes greatly increases the risk at any cholesterol level. Coronary artery disease and cancer are linked by a common protein - an apoptotic protein that also functions as a regulator of insulin secretion.

  3. Cholesterol-Lowering Effect of Calcium Alginate in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idota, Yoko; Kogure, Yumi; Kato, Takako; Ogawa, Mana; Kobayashi, Shoko; Kakinuma, Chihaya; Yano, Kentaro; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Miyajima, Chihiro; Kasahara, Fumiyoshi; Ogihara, Takuo

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether calcium alginate (Ca-Alg) reduces blood cholesterol levels in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. First, we examined taurocholate adsorption in vitro by various types of sodium alginate (Na-Alg). High molecular-weight, guluronic acid-rich Na-Alg showed the greatest adsorption of taurocholate, and therefore the corresponding Ca-Alg was chosen for the in vivo study. Rats were fed a high-cholesterol diet or a Ca-Alg-containing diet for 2 weeks. Body weight and diet intake were measured, and the general condition of the animals was monitored during this period. After 14 d, the plasma concentration of cholesterol, portal plasma concentration of bile acid, and bile acid in feces were measured. The plasma concentration of cholesterol was significantly reduced in rats fed a 2% Ca-Alg-containing diet. Furthermore, the portal concentration of bile acid was significantly lowered in the 2% Ca-Alg group. A tendency for a Ca-Alg concentration-dependent increase in fecal excretion of bile acid was also seen, although it was not statistically significant. While several changes in biochemical parameters and histopathological findings were observed, all the values remained within the physiological range. These results indicate that Ca-Alg is effective in reducing plasma cholesterol. A possible mechanism would be enhanced fecal excretion of bile acid due to reduced intestinal reabsorption, which in turn might stimulate bile acid synthesis from cholesterol in the liver, leading to a decrease in plasma cholesterol.

  4. Dietary Cholesterol Protects Anesthesia-Induced Cognitive Deficits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    indicates that dietary cholesterol may retard long- term memory [7]. In addition to changes in learning and memory, studies have also shown that cholesterol can impact brain pathology, including breakdown of blood brain barrier (BBB), microglia activation, apoptosis, elevated inflammatory marker expression, myelin sheath.

  5. Serum cholesterol levels and the risk of Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M.L. de Lau (Lonneke); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); A. Hofman (Albert); M.M.B. Breteler (Monique)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractSeveral recent findings suggest a role of lipid and cholesterol metabolism in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Therefore, the authors examined the association between serum levels of cholesterol and the risk of Parkinson's disease in the prospective, population-based Rotterdam

  6. Assimilation (in vitro) of cholesterol by yogurt bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilmi-Bouras, Abdelkader

    2006-01-01

    A considerable variation is noticed between the different species studied and even between the strains of the same species, in the assimilation of cholesterol in synthetic media, in presence of different concentrations of bile salts and under anaerobiosis conditions. The obtained results show that certain strains of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus resist bile salts and assimilate appreciable cholesterol quantities in their presence. The study of associations shows that only strains assimilating cholesterol in a pure state remain active when they are put in associations, but there is no additional effect. However, the symbiotic effect between Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus of yogurt, with regard to bile salts, is confirmed. The lactic fermenters of yogurt (Y2) reduce the levels of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, in a well-balanced way. In all cases, the assimilated quantity of HDL-cholesterol is lower than that of LDL-cholesterol. Moreover, yogurt Y2 keeps a significant number of bacteria, superior to 10(8) cells ml(-1), and has a good taste 10 days after its production.

  7. Modulating cancer cell survival by targeting intracellular cholesterol transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzu, Omer F; Gowda, Raghavendra; Noory, Mohammad A; Robertson, Gavin P

    2017-08-08

    Demand for cholesterol is high in certain cancers making them potentially sensitive to therapeutic strategies targeting cellular cholesterol homoeostasis. A potential approach involves disruption of intracellular cholesterol transport, which occurs in Niemann-Pick disease as a result of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) deficiency. Hence, a class of lysosomotropic compounds that were identified as functional ASM inhibitors (FIASMAs) might exhibit chemotherapeutic activity by disrupting cancer cell cholesterol homoeostasis. Here, the chemotherapeutic utility of ASM inhibition was investigated. The effect of FIASMAs on intracellular cholesterol levels, cholesterol homoeostasis, cellular endocytosis and signalling cascades were investigated. The in vivo efficacy of ASM inhibition was demonstrated using melanoma xenografts and a nanoparticle formulation was developed to overcome dose-limiting CNS-associated side effects of certain FIASMAs. Functional ASM inhibitors inhibited intracellular cholesterol transport leading to disruption of autophagic flux, cellular endocytosis and receptor tyrosine kinase signalling. Consequently, major oncogenic signalling cascades on which cancer cells were reliant for survival were inhibited. Two tested ASM inhibitors, perphenazine and fluphenazine that are also clinically used as antipsychotics, were effective in inhibiting xenografted tumour growth. Nanoliposomal encapsulation of the perphenazine enhanced its chemotherapeutic efficacy while decreasing CNS-associated side effects. This study suggests that disruption of intracellular cholesterol transport by targeting ASM could be utilised as a potential chemotherapeutic approach for treating cancer.

  8. Making Aggressive Prostate Cancer Quiescent by Abrogating Cholesterol Esterification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    pathways, altered lipid metabolism is increasingly recognized as a signature of cancer cells. Enabled by label-free coherent Raman scattering...Cholesterol is an essential biomolecule that plays important roles in the maintenance of membrane structure, signal transduction, and provision of...precursor to hormone synthesis. While cholesterol accumulation is known to be a hallmark of atherosclerosis, its exact role in cancer progression

  9. Marital Status and Occupation versus Serum Total Cholesterol and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of marital status and occupation on serum total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL – CH) concentrations was studied in sixty one (61) adult male and female Hausa subjects aged 20 – 50 years. Irrespective of marital status and occupation, female subjects had higher mean serum ...

  10. Cholesterol Balance in Prion Diseases and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannaoui, Samia; Shim, Su Yeon; Cheng, Yo Ching; Corda, Erica; Gilch, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Prion diseases are transmissible and fatal neurodegenerative disorders of humans and animals. They are characterized by the accumulation of PrPSc, an aberrantly folded isoform of the cellular prion protein PrPC, in the brains of affected individuals. PrPC is a cell surface glycoprotein attached to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane by a glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI) anchor. Specifically, it is associated with lipid rafts, membrane microdomains enriched in cholesterol and sphinoglipids. It has been established that inhibition of endogenous cholesterol synthesis disturbs lipid raft association of PrPC and prevents PrPSc accumulation in neuronal cells. Additionally, prion conversion is reduced upon interference with cellular cholesterol uptake, endosomal export, or complexation at the plasma membrane. Altogether, these results demonstrate on the one hand the importance of cholesterol for prion propagation. On the other hand, growing evidence suggests that prion infection modulates neuronal cholesterol metabolism. Similar results were reported in Alzheimer’s disease (AD): whereas amyloid β peptide formation is influenced by cellular cholesterol, levels of cholesterol in the brains of affected individuals increase during the clinical course of the disease. In this review, we summarize commonalities of alterations in cholesterol homeostasis and discuss consequences for neuronal function and therapy of prion diseases and AD. PMID:25419621

  11. marital status and occupation versus serum total cholesterol and hdl

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    ABSTRACT. The influence of marital status and occupation on serum total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL – CH) concentrations was studied in sixty one (61) adult male and female Hausa subjects aged 20 – 50 years. Irrespective of marital status and occupation, female subjects had higher ...

  12. LDL cholesterol still a problem in old age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postmus, Iris; Deelen, Joris; Sedaghat, Sanaz

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational studies in older subjects have shown no or inverse associations between cholesterol levels and mortality. However, in old age plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) may not reflect the lifetime level due to reverse causality, and hence the risk may...

  13. Factors associated with high cholesterol levels in Lusaka, Zambia: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: High cholesterol level is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates for high cholesterol levels in Lusaka district, Zambia. Methods: A modified World Health Organization STEPwise approach to surveillance method was used to collect data ...

  14. Recognition of Odontogenic Cyst-Fluid Cholesterol Concentration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypercholesterolaemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Serum cholesterol is usually determined to know if a subject is at a risk of heart diseases. This lipid is found in most fluids in the body including the odontogenic cyst-fluid. We investigated the concentration of cholesterol in the odontogenic ...

  15. Cholesterol-lowering drug, in combination with chromium chloride ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Since the parasite synthesizesergosterol instead of cholesterol, using the same biochemical pathway and enzymes, an inhibitor of HMG-CoA-Reductase ... Lovastatin, being an inhibitor of HMG-CoA-Reductase, inhibitsinfection by cholesterol depletion, while chromium chloride complexes, at their higher concentrations, are ...

  16. Lecithin : cholesterol acyltransferase: old friend or foe in atherosclerosis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnen, S.; Eck, van M.

    2012-01-01

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is a key enzyme that catalyzes the esterification of free cholesterol in plasma lipoproteins and plays a critical role in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism. Deficiency leads to accumulation of nascent preβ-HDL due to impaired maturation of HDL

  17. Role of proteins and cholesterol in human senile cataractogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Savita

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Cataracts are a major cause of blindness in man with far reaching personal, social and economic consequences. The clarity of the lens is dependent upon the maintenance of the integrity of the fiber cell plasma membrane whose important component is cholesterol. In the present study, we have demonstrated that cataract formation influences the cholesterol and protein distribution within the lens.

  18. Immuno-histochemical localization of cholesterol binding proteins in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In treatments, dietary cholesterol was found to be internalized bound to complexed with CBPs before absorption. Further, same protein was also localized in other tissues like fat body, testis, and ovary of male and female insects of S. gregaria. However, present study done on immuno-cytochemical localization of cholesterol ...

  19. Cholesterol Check (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-09-10

    High blood cholesterol is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This podcast discusses the importance of a healthy diet and regular cholesterol screening.  Created: 9/10/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 9/10/2015.

  20. Manipulation of Host Cholesterol by Obligate Intracellular Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhritiman Samanta

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is a multifunctional lipid that plays important metabolic and structural roles in the eukaryotic cell. Despite having diverse lifestyles, the obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens Chlamydia, Coxiella, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia all target cholesterol during host cell colonization as a potential source of membrane, as well as a means to manipulate host cell signaling and trafficking. To promote host cell entry, these pathogens utilize cholesterol-rich microdomains known as lipid rafts, which serve as organizational and functional platforms for host signaling pathways involved in phagocytosis. Once a pathogen gains entrance to the intracellular space, it can manipulate host cholesterol trafficking pathways to access nutrient-rich vesicles or acquire membrane components for the bacteria or bacteria-containing vacuole. To acquire cholesterol, these pathogens specifically target host cholesterol metabolism, uptake, efflux, and storage. In this review, we examine the strategies obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens employ to manipulate cholesterol during host cell colonization. Understanding how obligate intracellular pathogens target and use host cholesterol provides critical insight into the host-pathogen relationship.