WorldWideScience

Sample records for acute chemical releases

  1. Public Health Consequences on Vulnerable Populations from Acute Chemical Releases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perri Zeitz Ruckart

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Data from a large, multi-state surveillance system on acute chemical releases were analyzed to describe the type of events that are potentially affecting vulnerable populations (children, elderly and hospitalized patients in order to better prevent and plan for these types of incidents in the future. During 2003-2005, there were 231 events where vulnerable populations were within ¼ mile of the event and the area of impact was greater than 200 feet from the facility/point of release. Most events occurred on a weekday during times when day care centers or schools were likely to be in session. Equipment failure and human error caused a majority of the releases. Agencies involved in preparing for and responding to chemical emergencies should work with hospitals, nursing homes, day care centers, and schools to develop policies and procedures for initiating appropriate protective measures and managing the medical needs of patients. Chemical emergency response drills should involve the entire community to protect those that may be more susceptible to harm.

  2. Public Health Consequences on Vulnerable Populations from Acute Chemical Releases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perri Zeitz Ruckart

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Data from a large, multi-state surveillance system on acute chemical releases were analyzed to describe the type of events that are potentially affecting vulnerable populations (children, elderly and hospitalized patients in order to better prevent and plan for these types of incidents in the future. During 2003–2005, there were 231 events where vulnerable populations were within ¼ mile of the event and the area of impact was greater than 200 feet from the facility/point of release. Most events occurred on a weekday during times when day care centers or schools were likely to be in session. Equipment failure and human error caused a majority of the releases. Agencies involved in preparing for and responding to chemical emergencies should work with hospitals, nursing homes, day care centers, and schools to develop policies and procedures for initiating appropriate protective measures and managing the medical needs of patients. Chemical emergency response drills should involve the entire community to protect those that may be more susceptible to harm.

  3. The association of the original OSHA chemical hazard communication standard with reductions in acute work injuries/illnesses in private industry and the industrial releases of chemical carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinick, Arthur

    2014-02-01

    OSHA predicted the original chemical Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) would cumulatively reduce the lost workday acute injury/illness rate for exposure events by 20% over 20 years and reduce exposure to chemical carcinogens. JoinPoint trend software identified changes in the rate of change of BLS rates for days away from work for acute injuries/illnesses during 1992-2009 for manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries for both chemical, noxious or allergenic injury exposure events and All other exposure events. The annual percent change in the rates was used to adjust observed numbers of cases to estimate their association with the standard. A case-control study of EPA's Toxic Release Inventory 1988-2009 data compared carcinogen and non-carcinogens' releases. The study estimates that the HCS was associated with a reduction in the number of acute injuries/illnesses due to chemical injury exposure events over the background rate in the range 107,569-459,395 (Hudson method/modified BIC model) depending on whether the HCS is treated as a marginal or sole factor in the decrease. Carcinogen releases have declined at a substantially faster rate than control non-carcinogens. The previous HCS standard was associated with significant reductions in chemical event acute injuries/illnesses and chemical carcinogen exposures. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Toxic Release Inventory Chemicals by Groupings

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) makes available information for more than 600 toxic chemicals that are being used, manufactured, treated, transported, or released...

  5. Expansion of ARAC for chemical releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskett, R.L.; Blair, M.D.; Foster, C.S.; Taylor, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    In 1996 the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) completed an effort to expand its national emergency response modeling system for chemical releases. Key components of the new capability include the integration of (1) an extensive chemical property database, (2) source modeling for tanks and evaporating pools, (3) denser-than-air dispersion, (4) public exposure guidelines, and (5) an interactive graphical user interface (GUI). Recent use and the future of the new capability are also discussed

  6. Toxic chemical considerations for tank farm releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Keuren, J.C.; Davis, J.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This topical report contains technical information used to determine the accident consequences of releases of toxic chemical and gases for the Tank Farm Final Safety Analysis report (FSAR).It does not provide results for specific accident scenarios but does provide information for use in those calculations including chemicals to be considered, chemical concentrations, chemical limits and a method of summing the fractional contributions of each chemical. Tank farm composites evaluated were liquids and solids for double shell tanks, single shell tanks, all solids,all liquids, headspace gases, and 241-C-106 solids. Emergency response planning guidelines (ERPGs) were used as the limits.Where ERPGs were not available for the chemicals of interest, surrogate ERPGs were developed. Revision 2 includes updated sample data, an executive summary, and some editorial revisions.

  7. Slow Release Of Reagent Chemicals From Gel Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnam, William J.; Barber, Patrick G.; Coleman, James

    1988-01-01

    Procedure developed for slow release of reagent chemicals into solutions. Simple and inexpensive and not subject to failure of equipment. Use of toothpaste-type tube or pump dispenser conceivably provides more controlled technique for storage and dispensation of gel matrix. Possible uses include controlled, slow release of reagents in chemical reactions, crystal growth, space-flight experiments, and preformed gel medications from packets.

  8. Environmental Impact Analysis Process Chemical Release Experiment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force proposes to conduct an experiment to identify the potential environmental consequences of an inadvertent release of hydrazine rocket propellant in space, during orbital or suborbital operations...

  9. Acute oral toxicities of wildland fire control chemicals to birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hill, E.F.

    2009-01-01

    Wildland fire control chemicals are released into the environment by aerial and ground applications to manage rangeland, grassland, and forest fires. Acute oral 24 h median lethal dosages (LD50) for three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R?, Phos-Chek D-75F?, and Fire-Trol LCG-R?) and two Class A fire suppressant foams (Silv-Ex? and Phos-Chek WD881?) were estimated for northern bobwhites, Colinus virginianus, American kestrels, Falco sparverius, and red-winged blackbirds, Agelaius phoeniceus. The LD50s of all chemicals for the bobwhites and red-winged blackbirds and for kestrels dosed with Phos-Chek WD881? and Silv-Ex? were above the predetermined 2000 mg chemical/kg body mass regulatory limit criteria for acute oral toxicity. The LD50s were not quantifiable for kestrels dosed with Fire-Trol GTS-R?, Phos-Chek D-75F?, and Fire-Trol LCG-R? because of the number of birds which regurgitated the dosage. These chemicals appear to be of comparatively low order of acute oral toxicity to the avian species tested.

  10. Recognition of illness associated with covert chemical releases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manish M; Schier, Joshua G; Belson, Martin G

    2006-08-01

    Public health threats from intentional releases of chemicals into the environment (ie, chemical terrorism) are an increasing concern in the United States. Recent situations of deliberate contamination of food and beverages with chemicals highlight the need for health care providers and public health officials to be alert for adult and pediatric patients in their communities who have signs and symptoms consistent with chemical exposures. In an effort to increase knowledge of surveillance and preparedness for illness related to potential chemical releases, we provide guidance to health care providers and public health personnel for recognizing illnesses or patterns of illnesses that might be associated with the intentional, covert release of chemical agents. In this article, we will discuss 5 examples of outbreaks of illnesses after a covert chemical release, obstacles to recognition of these illnesses, clues (ie, epidemiological patterns and syndromic presentations) that might enhance the recognition of illnesses from a covert chemical release, and public health strategies to enhance the rapid identification of a chemical terrorism event.

  11. Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) Chemical Release Modeling Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stirrup, Timothy Scott [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-20

    This evaluation documents the methodology and results of chemical release modeling for operations at Building 518, Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) Core Facility. This evaluation is intended to supplement an update to the CINT [Standalone] Hazards Analysis (SHA). This evaluation also updates the original [Design] Hazards Analysis (DHA) completed in 2003 during the design and construction of the facility; since the original DHA, additional toxic materials have been evaluated and modeled to confirm the continued low hazard classification of the CINT facility and operations. This evaluation addresses the potential catastrophic release of the current inventory of toxic chemicals at Building 518 based on a standard query in the Chemical Information System (CIS).

  12. Modeling release of chemicals from multilayer materials into food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Xiu-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The migration of chemicals from materials into food is predictable by various mathematical models. In this article, a general mathematical model is developed to quantify the release of chemicals through multilayer packaging films based on Fick's diffusion. The model is solved numerically to elucidate the effects of different diffusivity values of different layers, distribution of chemical between two adjacent layers and between material and food, mass transfer at the interface of material and food on the migration process.

  13. Acute chemical pneumonitis caused by nitric acid inhalation: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Hyung Shim; Lee, In Jae; Ko, Eun Young; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Hyun Beom; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Lee, Kwan Seop; Lee, Yul; Bae, Sang Hoon

    2003-01-01

    Chemical pneumonitis induced by nitric acid inhalation is a rare clinical condition. The previously reported radiologic findings of this disease include acute permeability pulmonary edema, delayed bronchiolitis obliterans, and bronchiectasis. In very few published rare radiologic reports has this disease manifested as acute alveolar injury; we report a case of acute chemical pneumonitis induced by nitric acid inhalation which at radiography manifested as bilateral perihilar consolidation and ground-glass attenuation, suggesting acute alveolar injury

  14. Acute chemical pneumonitis caused by nitric acid inhalation: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Hyung Shim; Lee, In Jae; Ko, Eun Young; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Hyun Beom; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Lee, Kwan Seop; Lee, Yul; Bae, Sang Hoon [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-01

    Chemical pneumonitis induced by nitric acid inhalation is a rare clinical condition. The previously reported radiologic findings of this disease include acute permeability pulmonary edema, delayed bronchiolitis obliterans, and bronchiectasis. In very few published rare radiologic reports has this disease manifested as acute alveolar injury; we report a case of acute chemical pneumonitis induced by nitric acid inhalation which at radiography manifested as bilateral perihilar consolidation and ground-glass attenuation, suggesting acute alveolar injury.

  15. Toxic chemical considerations for tank farm releases. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Keuren, J.C.

    1995-11-01

    This document provides a method of determining the toxicological consequences of accidental releases from Hanford Tank Farms. A determination was made of the most restrictive toxic chemicals that are expected to be present in the tanks. Concentrations were estimated based on the maximum sample data for each analyte in all the tanks in the composite. Composite evaluated were liquids and solids from single shell tanks, double shell tanks, flammable gas watch list tanks, as well as all solids, all liquids, head space gases, and 241-C-106 solids. A sum of fractions of the health effects was computed for each composite for unit releases based emergency response planning guidelines (ERPGs). Where ERPGs were not available for chemical compounds of interest, surrogate guidelines were established. The calculation method in this report can be applied to actual release scenarios by multiplying the sum of fractions by the release rate for continuous releases, or the release amount for puff releases. Risk guidelines are met if the product is less than for equal to one.

  16. Toxic chemical considerations for tank farm releases. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Keuren, J.C.

    1995-11-01

    This document provides a method of determining the toxicological consequences of accidental releases from Hanford Tank Farms. A determination was made of the most restrictive toxic chemicals that are expected to be present in the tanks. Concentrations were estimated based on the maximum sample data for each analyte in all the tanks in the composite. Composite evaluated were liquids and solids from single shell tanks, double shell tanks, flammable gas watch list tanks, as well as all solids, all liquids, head space gases, and 241-C-106 solids. A sum of fractions of the health effects was computed for each composite for unit releases based emergency response planning guidelines (ERPGs). Where ERPGs were not available for chemical compounds of interest, surrogate guidelines were established. The calculation method in this report can be applied to actual release scenarios by multiplying the sum of fractions by the release rate for continuous releases, or the release amount for puff releases. Risk guidelines are met if the product is less than for equal to one

  17. Release mitigation spray safety systems for chemical demilitarization applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Jonathan; Tezak, Matthew Stephen; Brockmann, John E.; Servantes, Brandon; Sanchez, Andres L.; Tucker, Mark David; Allen, Ashley N.; Wilson, Mollye C.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.

    2010-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has conducted proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating effective knockdown and neutralization of aerosolized CBW simulants using charged DF-200 decontaminant sprays. DF-200 is an aqueous decontaminant, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, and procured and fielded by the US Military. Of significance is the potential application of this fundamental technology to numerous applications including mitigation and neutralization of releases arising during chemical demilitarization operations. A release mitigation spray safety system will remove airborne contaminants from an accidental release during operations, to protect personnel and limit contamination. Sandia National Laboratories recently (November, 2008) secured funding from the US Army's Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materials Agency (PMNSCMA) to investigate use of mitigation spray systems for chemical demilitarization applications. For non-stockpile processes, mitigation spray systems co-located with the current Explosive Destruction System (EDS) will provide security both as an operational protective measure and in the event of an accidental release. Additionally, 'tented' mitigation spray systems for native or foreign remediation and recovery operations will contain accidental releases arising from removal of underground, unstable CBW munitions. A mitigation spray system for highly controlled stockpile operations will provide defense from accidental spills or leaks during routine procedures.

  18. Treatment of acute ocular chemical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Namrata; Kaur, Manpreet; Agarwal, Tushar; Sangwan, Virender S; Vajpayee, Rasik B

    Ocular chemical burns are an ophthalmic emergency and are responsible for 11.5%-22.1% of ocular injuries. Immediate copious irrigation is universally recommended in acute ocular burns to remove the offending agent and minimize damage. Conventional medical therapy consists of the use of agents that promote epithelialization, minimize inflammation, and prevent cicatricial complications. Biological fluids such as autologous serum, umbilical cord blood serum, platelet-rich plasma, and amniotic membrane suspension are a rich source of growth factors and promote healing when used as adjuncts to conventional therapy. Surgical treatment of acute ocular burns includes the debridement of the necrotic tissue, application of tissue adhesives, tenoplasty, and tectonic keratoplasty. Amniotic membrane transplantation is a novel surgical treatment that is increasingly being used as an adjunct to conventional treatment to promote epithelial healing, minimize pain, and restore visual acuity. Various experimental treatments that aim to promote wound healing and minimize inflammation are being evaluated such as human mesenchymal and adipose stem cells, beta-1,3 glucan, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, cultivated fibroblasts, zinc desferrioxamine, antifibrinolytic agents, antioxidants, collagen cross-linking, and inhibitors of corneal neovascularization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Acute and subacute chemical-induced lung injuries: HRCT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akira, Masanori, E-mail: Akira@kch.hosp.go.jp [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization Kinki-Chuo Chest Medical Center, 1180 Nagasone-cho, Kita-ku, Sakai City, Osaka 591-8555 (Japan); Suganuma, Narufumi [Department of Environmental Medicine, Kochi Medical School (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    Lung injury caused by chemicals includes bronchitis, bronchiolitis, chemical pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, organizing pneumonia, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, and sarcoid-like granulomatous lung disease. Each chemical induces variable pathophysiology and the situation resembles to the drug induced lung disease. The HRCT features are variable and nonspecific, however HRCT may be useful in the evaluation of the lung injuries and so we should know about HRCT features of lung parenchymal abnormalities caused by chemicals.

  20. 76 FR 64022 - Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Lifting of Administrative Stay for Hydrogen Sulfide. SUMMARY: EPA is announcing... (EPCRA) section 313 toxic chemical release reporting requirements for hydrogen sulfide (Chemical...

  1. Probabilistic consequence model of accidenal or intentional chemical releases.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y.-S.; Samsa, M. E.; Folga, S. M.; Hartmann, H. M.

    2008-06-02

    In this work, general methodologies for evaluating the impacts of large-scale toxic chemical releases are proposed. The potential numbers of injuries and fatalities, the numbers of hospital beds, and the geographical areas rendered unusable during and some time after the occurrence and passage of a toxic plume are estimated on a probabilistic basis. To arrive at these estimates, historical accidental release data, maximum stored volumes, and meteorological data were used as inputs into the SLAB accidental chemical release model. Toxic gas footprints from the model were overlaid onto detailed population and hospital distribution data for a given region to estimate potential impacts. Output results are in the form of a generic statistical distribution of injuries and fatalities associated with specific toxic chemicals and regions of the United States. In addition, indoor hazards were estimated, so the model can provide contingency plans for either shelter-in-place or evacuation when an accident occurs. The stochastic distributions of injuries and fatalities are being used in a U.S. Department of Homeland Security-sponsored decision support system as source terms for a Monte Carlo simulation that evaluates potential measures for mitigating terrorist threats. This information can also be used to support the formulation of evacuation plans and to estimate damage and cleanup costs.

  2. Health risk assessments of DEHP released from chemical protective gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Keh-Ping; Huang, Chan-Sheng; Wei, Chung-Ying

    2015-01-01

    The substance di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is widely used as a plasticizer in chemical protective gloves to improve their flexibility and workability. However, it is possible that workers using protective gloves to handle various solvents may be exposed to DEHP leached by the solvents. Using an ASTM F739 permeation cell, it was found that BTEX solvents permeating through the glove samples dissolved DEHP from the gloves. Even without continuously contacting the permeant, DEHP was released from the contaminated glove samples during the desorption experiments. The DEHP leaching amounts were found to be inversely correlated to the permeability coefficients of BTEX in the glove samples. This result implied that the larger the amount of DEHP released from the glove samples, the higher the permeation resistance of gloves. Although chemical protective gloves provide adequate skin exposure protection to workers, the dermal exposure model developed herein indicates that leaching of DEHP from the glove samples may pose a potential health risk to the workers who handle BTEX. This study suggests that the selection of protective gloves should not only be concerned with the chemical resistance of the gloves but also the health risk associated with leaching of chemicals, such as DEHP, used in the manufacturing of the gloves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Reaction initiation and chemical energy release in nitramines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigert, Igor

    2017-06-01

    Available kinetic data for condensed-phase reactions responsible for reaction initiation and chemical energy release in reacting explosives is extremely limited, even for widely used classes of molecular explosives such as nitramines. Transient temperatures and stresses generated in different initiation scenarios can vary by several orders of magnitude making it difficult to interpret kinetic data from initiation measurements. In this presentation, I will describe an ongoing theoretical effort aimed at identifying the dominant reaction mechanisms under different thermodynamic conditions, estimating the corresponding rate constants, and developing reduced-order rate models suitable for mesoscale simulations of detonation initiation. This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research, both directly and through the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory.

  4. Chemical release and radiation effects (CRRES) data directory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, George P.

    1993-01-01

    The following tasks were completed under this contract: a revision and update of the Chemical Release and Radiation Effects (CRRES) data directory was performed taking into account the corrections and suggests for improvements obtained from the participants at the final CRRES IWG meeting held at SAIC on 14-16 Dec. 1992. A draft copy of the report was then circulated to as many as possible of the relevant CRRES Principal Investigators, co-Investigators, and technicians with a request for a final check on accuracy and completion. A copy of the mailing list is given in Appendix A. All corrections and updates received were implemented. A hard copy together with a floppy disk version was forwarded to Richard Howard, NASA Headquarters, who is arranging for the archiving of the CRRES Data Summary at NSSDC. Final copies were sent where possible.

  5. Acute Immobilization Stress Modulate GABA Release from Rat Olfactory Bulb: Involvement of Endocannabinoids—Cannabinoids and Acute Stress Modulate GABA Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Delgado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of cannabinoids and acute immobilization stress on the regulation of GABA release in the olfactory bulb. Glutamate-stimulated 3H-GABA release was measured in superfused slices. We report that cannabinoids as WIN55, 212-2, methanandamide, and 2-arachidonoylglycerol were able to inhibit glutamate- and KCl-stimulated 3H-GABA release. This effect was blocked by the CB1 antagonist AM281. On the other hand, acute stress was able per se to increase endocannabinoid activity. This effect was evident since the inhibition of stimulated GABA release by acute stress was reversed with AM281 and tetrahydrolipstatin. Inhibition of the endocannabinoid transport or its catabolism showed reduction of GABA release, antagonized by AM281 in control and stressed animals. These results point to endocannabinoids as inhibitory modulators of GABA release in the olfactory bulb acting through an autocrine mechanism. Apparently, stress increases the endocannabinoid system, modulating GABAergic synaptic function in a primary sensory organ.

  6. Toxics Release Inventory Chemical Hazard Information Profiles (TRI-CHIP) Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Chemical Hazard Information Profiles (TRI-CHIP) dataset contains hazard information about the chemicals reported in TRI. Users can...

  7. Tapentadol immediate release versus oxycodone immediate release for treatment of acute low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, David; Xiang, Jim; Benson, Carmela; Etropolski, Mila; Moskovitz, Bruce; Rauschkolb, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Tapentadol has demonstrated analgesic efficacy across a range of pain conditions. In a head-to-head study of up to 10 days in duration, the analgesic efficacy and tolerability of tapentadol immediate release (IR) versus oxycodone IR using a flexible dosing regimen were compared in patients with acute low back pain (LBP) and associated radicular leg pain. Randomized (1: 1), double-blind, parallel-group study (NCT00986180). Independent Ethics Committee/Institutional Review Board approval of the protocol was obtained. Ninety US outpatient treatment centers. Patients with moderate to severe, acute LBP received tapentadol IR (50, 75, or 100 mg) or oxycodone HCl IR (5, 10, or 15 mg) every 4 to 6 hours as needed for pain for up to 10 days. Patients reported current pain intensity twice daily (11-point numerical rating scale). The primary efficacy endpoint was the sum of pain intensity differences (SPID) over 120 hours for LBP. Tapentadol IR was considered non-inferior to oxycodone IR if the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval (CI) for the least-squares mean (LSM) difference in SPID120 was less than 120. Secondary efficacy endpoints included 2-, 3-, and 10-day SPID for LBP; 2-, 3-, 5-, and 10-day SPID for index leg pain; 30% and 50% responder rates; patient and clinician global impressions of change; and patient satisfaction. The safety population included 645 patients, and the modified intent-to-treat population included 585 patients. In the tapentadol IR and oxycodone IR groups, respectively, 86.3% (277/321) and 82.7% (268/324) of patients completed the study. The most common reason for study withdrawal in both treatment groups was adverse events (tapentadol IR, 6.5% [21/321]; oxycodone IR, 7.1% [23/324]). The LSM (standard error) SPID120 for LBP was 264.6 (11.43) for tapentadol IR (n = 287) and 264.0 (11.22) for oxycodone IR (n = 298). The 95% CI for the LSM difference was -32.1 to 30.9; therefore, tapentadol IR was non-inferior to oxycodone IR for relief of LBP

  8. 40 CFR 350.18 - Release of chemical identity determined to be non-trade secret; notice of intent to release...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... determined to be non-trade secret; notice of intent to release chemical identity. 350.18 Section 350.18... INFORMATION: AND TRADE SECRET DISCLOSURES TO HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Trade Secrecy Claims § 350.18 Release of chemical identity determined to be non-trade secret; notice of intent to release chemical identity. (a...

  9. Changes is radioactive iodine metabolism in acute chemical intoxications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selyutitskij, G.V.; Likhtarev, I.A.; Volkova, N.V.; Zvonova, I.A.; Ostryakova, N.I.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that the response of the endocrine system (iodine-absorbing and hormone-secreting fUnctions of the thyroid) as studied by the radioactive iodine test may be a reasonably versatile indicator of the response of the thyroid component of the endocrine system to acute intoxication of the organism. Trials of this test using seven chemical substances have confirmed that the radioiodine test is a sufficienty universal method to be used in setting sanitary and hygienic standards for permissible levels of chemical substances

  10. 2001 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act SEC 313

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZALOUDEK, D.E.

    2002-01-01

    Pursuant to section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act of 1986 (EPCRA), and Executive Order 13148, Greening the Government Through Leadership in Environmental Management, the US Department of Energy has prepared and submitted a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory for the Hanford Site covering activities performed during calendar year 2001. EPCRA Section 313 requires facilities that manufacture, process, or otherwise use listed toxic chemicals in quantities exceeding established threshold levels to report total annual releases of those chemicals. During calendar year 2001, Hanford Site activities resulted in one chemical used in amounts exceeding an activity threshold. Accordingly, the Hanford Site 2001 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory, DOE/RL-2002-37, includes total annual amount of lead released to the environment, transferred to offsite locations, and otherwise managed as waste

  11. Acute fasting increases somatodendritic dopamine release in the ventral tegmental area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseberry, Aaron G

    2015-08-01

    Fasting and food restriction alter the activity of the mesolimbic dopamine system to affect multiple reward-related behaviors. Food restriction decreases baseline dopamine levels in efferent target sites and enhances dopamine release in response to rewards such as food and drugs. In addition to releasing dopamine from axon terminals, dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) also release dopamine from their soma and dendrites, and this somatodendritic dopamine release acts as an autoinhibitory signal to inhibit neighboring VTA dopamine neurons. It is unknown whether acute fasting also affects dopamine release, including the local inhibitory somatodendritic dopamine release in the VTA. In these studies, I have tested whether fasting affects the inhibitory somatodendritic dopamine release within the VTA by examining whether an acute 24-h fast affects the inhibitory postsynaptic current mediated by evoked somatodendritic dopamine release (D2R IPSC). Fasting increased the contribution of the first action potential to the overall D2R IPSC and increased the ratio of repeated D2R IPSCs evoked at short intervals. Fasting also reduced the effect of forskolin on the D2R IPSC and led to a significantly bigger decrease in the D2R IPSC in low extracellular calcium. Finally, fasting resulted in an increase in the D2R IPSCs when a more physiologically relevant train of D2R IPSCs was used. Taken together, these results indicate that fasting caused a change in the properties of somatodendritic dopamine release, possibly by increasing dopamine release, and that this increased release can be sustained under conditions where dopamine neurons are highly active. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. OrganoRelease - A framework for modeling the release of organic chemicals from the use and post-use of consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Mengya; Li, Dingsheng; Song, Runsheng; Suh, Sangwon; Keller, Arturo A

    2018-03-01

    Chemicals in consumer products have become the focus of recent regulatory developments including California's Safer Consumer Products Act. However, quantifying the amount of chemicals released during the use and post-use phases of consumer products is challenging, limiting the ability to understand their impacts. Here we present a comprehensive framework, OrganoRelease, for estimating the release of organic chemicals from the use and post-use of consumer products given limited information. First, a novel Chemical Functional Use Classifier estimates functional uses based on chemical structure. Second, the quantity of chemicals entering different product streams is estimated based on market share data of the chemical functional uses. Third, chemical releases are estimated based on either chemical product categories or functional uses by using the Specific Environmental Release Categories and EU Technological Guidance Documents. OrganoRelease connects 19 unique functional uses and 14 product categories across 4 data sources and provides multiple pathways for chemical release estimation. Available user information can be incorporated in the framework at various stages. The Chemical Functional Use Classifier achieved an average accuracy above 84% for nine functional uses, which enables the OrganoRelease to provide release estimates for the chemical, mostly using only the molecular structure. The results can be can be used as input for methods estimating environmental fate and exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Histamine is not released in acute thermal injury in human skin in vivo: a microdialysis study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars J; Pedersen, Juri L; Skov, Per S

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Animal models have shown histamine to be released from the skin during the acute phase of a burn injury. The role of histamine during the early phase of thermal injuries in humans remains unclear. PURPOSE: The objectives of this trial were to study histamine release in human skin during...... the acute phase of a standardized thermal injury in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Histamine concentrations in human skin were measured by skin microdialysis technique. Microdialysis fibers were inserted into the dermis in the lower leg in male healthy volunteers. A standardized superficial thermal injury...... was elicited by a heating thermode (49 degrees C) applied to the skin for 5 min. Histamine in dialysate was analyzed for up to 2 h after the injury using two different analytical methods. RESULTS: Spectrofluorometric assay of histamine showed no histamine release in separate studies using 2-min samples over 20...

  14. Application of fuzzy c-means clustering to PRTR chemicals uncovering their release and toxicity characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mianqiang; Zhou, Liang; Kojima, Naoya; Dos Muchangos, Leticia Sarmento; Machimura, Takashi; Tokai, Akihiro

    2018-05-01

    Increasing manufacture and usage of chemicals have not been matched by the increase in our understanding of their risks. Pollutant release and transfer register (PRTR) is becoming a popular measure for collecting chemical data and enhancing the public right to know. However, these data are usually in high dimensionality which restricts their wider use. The present study partitions Japanese PRTR chemicals into five fuzzy clusters by fuzzy c-mean clustering (FCM) to explore the implicit information. Each chemical with membership degrees belongs to each cluster. Cluster I features high releases from non-listed industries and the household sector and high environmental toxicity. Cluster II is characterized by high reported releases and transfers from 24 listed industries above the threshold, mutagenicity, and high environmental toxicity. Chemicals in cluster III have characteristics of high releases from non-listed industries and low toxicity. Cluster IV is characterized by high reported releases and transfers from 24 listed industries above the threshold and extremely high environmental toxicity. Cluster V is characterized by low releases yet mutagenicity and high carcinogenicity. Chemicals with the highest membership degree were identified as representatives for each cluster. For the highest membership degree, half of the chemicals have a value higher than 0.74. If we look at both the highest and the second highest membership degrees simultaneously, about 94% of the chemicals have a value higher than 0.5. FCM can serve as an approach to uncover the implicit information of highly complex chemical dataset, which subsequently supports the strategy development for efficient and effective chemical management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. HADOC: a computer code for calculation of external and inhalation doses from acute radionuclide releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strenge, D.L.; Peloquin, R.A.

    1981-04-01

    The computer code HADOC (Hanford Acute Dose Calculations) is described and instructions for its use are presented. The code calculates external dose from air submersion and inhalation doses following acute radionuclide releases. Atmospheric dispersion is calculated using the Hanford model with options to determine maximum conditions. Building wake effects and terrain variation may also be considered. Doses are calculated using dose conversion factor supplied in a data library. Doses are reported for one and fifty year dose commitment periods for the maximum individual and the regional population (within 50 miles). The fractional contribution to dose by radionuclide and exposure mode are also printed if requested.

  16. 75 FR 8889 - Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting AGENCY: Environmental Protection... for hydrogen sulfide (Chemical Abstracts Service Number (CAS No.) 7783-06-4). Hydrogen sulfide was... requirements for hydrogen sulfide in order to evaluate issues brought to the Agency's attention after...

  17. The physical and chemical stability of suspensions of sustained-release diclofenac microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, L; Boni, R L; Adeyeye, C M

    1998-01-01

    The major challenge in liquid sustained-release oral suspensions is to minimize drug diffusion into the suspending medium and to retain the original properties of the microparticles during storage. Diclofenac wax microspheres prepared by the hydrophobic congealable disperse phase method were formulated as a sustained release suspension and stored at three different temperatures (25, 37 and 45 degrees C) for 3 months, to evaluate the physical and chemical stability of the suspended microspheres. Suspensions of microspheres stored at ambient temperatures were both physically and chemically stable, but at higher temperatures, up to 45 degrees C, there was a decrease in drug release due to scaling and melting on the microsphere surface as observed by scanning electron microscopy. However, on prolonged storage, up to 90 days, especially at 45 degrees C, temperature became a dominant factor causing an increase in drug release. The suspension of diclofenac microspheres was chemically stable for 3 months, while the plain drug suspension exhibited slight degradation.

  18. Microfluidic Device for Controllable Chemical Release via Field-Actuated Membrane Incorporating Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    We report a robust magnetic-membrane-based microfluidic platform for controllable chemical release. The magnetic membrane was prepared by mixing polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and carbonyl-iron nanoparticles together to obtain a flexible thin film. With combined, simultaneous regulation of magnetic stimulus and mechanical pumping, the desired chemical release rate can easily be realized. For example, the dose release experimental data was well fitted by a mathematical sigmoidal model, exhibiting a typical dose-response relationship, which shows promise in providing significant guidance for on-demand drug delivery. To test the platform’s feasibility, our microfluidic device was employed in an experiment involving Escherichia coli culture under controlled antibiotic ciprofloxacin exposure, and the expected outcomes were successfully obtained. Our experimental results indicate that such a microfluidic device, with high accuracy and easy manipulation properties, can legitimately be characterized as active chemical release system.

  19. Microfluidic Device for Controllable Chemical Release via Field-Actuated Membrane Incorporating Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a robust magnetic-membrane-based microfluidic platform for controllable chemical release. The magnetic membrane was prepared by mixing polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS and carbonyl-iron nanoparticles together to obtain a flexible thin film. With combined, simultaneous regulation of magnetic stimulus and mechanical pumping, the desired chemical release rate can easily be realized. For example, the dose release experimental data was well fitted by a mathematical sigmoidal model, exhibiting a typical dose-response relationship, which shows promise in providing significant guidance for on-demand drug delivery. To test the platform’s feasibility, our microfluidic device was employed in an experiment involving Escherichia coli culture under controlled antibiotic ciprofloxacin exposure, and the expected outcomes were successfully obtained. Our experimental results indicate that such a microfluidic device, with high accuracy and easy manipulation properties, can legitimately be characterized as active chemical release system.

  20. Principles for establishing acceptance criteria for releases of chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkeskov Jensen, L.

    1989-01-01

    The Danish National Agency of Environmental Protection is in the process of making guidelines for setting limit values on chemicals emission. They are going to serve the following purposes: to promote consistency and improve quality in judicial settlements; to make it possible for the population to evaluate and discuss these settlements; to make it possible for the technical experts to plan their investigations in order to make use of them in a subsequent evaluation; to provide information to the public and enable them to take the necessary precautions against air pollution; and to make it possible to use the guidelines in future planning in e.g. local authorities

  1. Toxics release inventory: List of toxic chemicals within the polychlorinated alkanes category and guidance for reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986 (EPCRA) requires certain facilities manufacturing, processing, or otherwise using listed toxic chemicals to report their environmental releases of such chemicals annually. On November 30, 1994 EPA added 286 chemicals and chemical categories. Six chemical categories (nicotine and salts, strychnine and salts, polycyclic aromatic compounds, water dissociable nitrate compounds, diisocyanates, and polychlorinated alkanes) are included in these additions. At the time of the addition, EPA indicated that the Agency would develop, as appropriate, interpretations and guidance that the Agency determines are necessary to facilitate accurate reporting for these categories. This document constitutes such guidance for the polychlorinated alkanes category.

  2. 2008 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory 2008 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecology and Air Quality Group

    2009-10-01

    For reporting year 2008, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) submitted a Form R report for lead as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (EPCRA) Section 313. No other EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 2008 above the reportable thresholds. This document was prepared to provide a description of the evaluation of EPCRA Section 313 chemical use and threshold determinations for LANL for calendar year 2008, as well as to provide background information about data included on the Form R reports. Section 313 of EPCRA specifically requires facilities to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report (Form R) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies if the owners and operators manufacture, process, or otherwise use any of the listed toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities. EPA compiles this data in the Toxic Release Inventory database. Form R reports for each chemical over threshold quantities must be submitted on or before July 1 each year and must cover activities that occurred at the facility during the previous year. In 1999, EPA promulgated a final rule on persistent bioaccumulative toxics (PBTs). This rule added several chemicals to the EPCRA Section 313 list of toxic chemicals and established lower reporting thresholds for these and other PBT chemicals that were already reportable. These lower thresholds became applicable in reporting year 2000. In 2001, EPA expanded the PBT rule to include a lower reporting threshold for lead and lead compounds. Facilities that manufacture, process, or otherwise use more than 100 lb of lead or lead compounds must submit a Form R.

  3. Acute health effects after exposure to chlorine gas released after a train derailment⋆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sickle, David; Wenck, Mary Anne; Belflower, Amy; Drociuk, Dan; Ferdinands, Jill; Holguin, Fernando; Svendsen, Erik; Bretous, Lena; Jankelevich, Shirley; Gibson, James J.; Garbe, Paul; Moolenaar, Ronald L.

    2015-01-01

    In January 2005, a train derailment on the premises of a textile mill in South Carolina released 42 to 60 tons of chlorine gas in the middle of a small town. Medical records and autopsy reports were reviewed to describe the clinical presentation, hospital course, and pathology observed in persons hospitalized or deceased as a result of chlorine gas exposure. Eight persons died before reaching medical care; of the 71 persons hospitalized for acute health effects as a result of chlorine exposure, 1 died in the hospital. The mean age of the hospitalized persons was 40 years (range, 4 months-76 years); 87% were male. The median duration of hospitalization was 4 days (range, 1-29 days). Twenty-five (35%) persons were admitted to the intensive care unit; the median length of stay was 3 days. Many surviving victims developed significant pulmonary signs and severe airway inflammation; 41 (58%) hospitalized persons met Po2/Fio2 criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome or acute lung injury. During their hospitalization, 40 (57%) developed abnormal x-ray findings, 74% of those within the first day. Hypoxia on room air and Po2/Fio2 ratio predicted severity of outcome as assessed by the duration of hospitalization and the need for intensive care support. This community release of chlorine gas caused widespread exposure and resulted in significant acute health effects and substantial health care requirements. Pulse oximetry and arterial blood gas analysis provided early indications of outcome severity. PMID:19041527

  4. Acute health effects after exposure to chlorine gas released after a train derailment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sickle, David; Wenck, Mary Anne; Belflower, Amy; Drociuk, Dan; Ferdinands, Jill; Holguin, Fernando; Svendsen, Erik; Bretous, Lena; Jankelevich, Shirley; Gibson, James J; Garbe, Paul; Moolenaar, Ronald L

    2009-01-01

    In January 2005, a train derailment on the premises of a textile mill in South Carolina released 42 to 60 tons of chlorine gas in the middle of a small town. Medical records and autopsy reports were reviewed to describe the clinical presentation, hospital course, and pathology observed in persons hospitalized or deceased as a result of chlorine gas exposure. Eight persons died before reaching medical care; of the 71 persons hospitalized for acute health effects as a result of chlorine exposure, 1 died in the hospital. The mean age of the hospitalized persons was 40 years (range, 4 months-76 years); 87% were male. The median duration of hospitalization was 4 days (range, 1-29 days). Twenty-five (35%) persons were admitted to the intensive care unit; the median length of stay was 3 days. Many surviving victims developed significant pulmonary signs and severe airway inflammation; 41 (58%) hospitalized persons met PO2/FiO2 criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome or acute lung injury. During their hospitalization, 40 (57%) developed abnormal x-ray findings, 74% of those within the first day. Hypoxia on room air and PO2/FiO2 ratio predicted severity of outcome as assessed by the duration of hospitalization and the need for intensive care support. This community release of chlorine gas caused widespread exposure and resulted in significant acute health effects and substantial health care requirements. Pulse oximetry and arterial blood gas analysis provided early indications of outcome severity.

  5. Can nanofluidic chemical release enable fast, high resolution neurotransmitter-based neurostimulation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D Jones

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Artificial chemical stimulation could provide improvements over electrical neurostimulation. Physiological neurotransmission between neurons relies on the nanoscale release and propagation of specific chemical signals to spatially-localized receptors. Current knowledge of nanoscale fluid dynamics and nanofluidic technology allows us to envision artificial mechanisms to achieve fast, high resolution neurotransmitter release. Substantial technological development is required to reach this goal. Nanofluidic technology — rather than microfluidic — will be necessary; this should come as no surprise given the nanofluidic nature of neurotransmission.This perspective reviews the state of the art of high resolution electrical neuroprostheses and their anticipated limitations. Chemical release rates from nanopores are compared to rates achieved at synapses and with iontophoresis. A review of microfluidic technology justifies the analysis that microfluidic control of chemical release would be insufficient. Novel nanofluidic mechanisms are discussed, and we propose that hydrophobic gating may allow control of chemical release suitable for mimicking neurotransmission. The limited understanding of hydrophobic gating in artificial nanopores and the challenges of fabrication and large-scale integration of nanofluidic components are emphasized. Development of suitable nanofluidic technology will require dedicated, long-term efforts over many years.

  6. Experimental Study on the Application as the Mold Release Agent of a Chemically Adsorbed Fluorocarbon Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Ohkubo, Yuji; Ogawa, Kazufumi; Utsumi, Kunihiro

    In this study, the use of an extremely thin and chemically adsorbed fluorocarbon film with no influences on the dimension accuracy of the mold geometries on an injection mold (The thickness is about 1 nanometer order.) was experimentally studied as a great releasing agent to reduce the ejection resistance without any influences on the dimensional accuracy of the mold geometries. As a result, this surface treatment on the mold was practically confirmed not only to be very beneficial for the polymers those are difficult to release from the mold surface such as silicone, urethane and elastomers, but also to be useful for making high precision products such as optical components and chemical chips.

  7. Acute Stress Suppresses Synaptic Inhibition and Increases Anxiety via Endocannabinoid Release in the Basolateral Amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Shi; Itoga, Christy A; Fisher, Marc O; Solomonow, Jonathan; Roltsch, Emily A; Gilpin, Nicholas W; Tasker, Jeffrey G

    2016-08-10

    Stress and glucocorticoids stimulate the rapid mobilization of endocannabinoids in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Cannabinoid receptors in the BLA contribute to anxiogenesis and fear-memory formation. We tested for rapid glucocorticoid-induced endocannabinoid regulation of synaptic inhibition in the rat BLA. Glucocorticoid application to amygdala slices elicited a rapid, nonreversible suppression of spontaneous, but not evoked, GABAergic synaptic currents in BLA principal neurons; the effect was also seen with a membrane-impermeant glucocorticoid, but not with intracellular glucocorticoid application, implicating a membrane-associated glucocorticoid receptor. The glucocorticoid suppression of GABA currents was not blocked by antagonists of nuclear corticosteroid receptors, or by inhibitors of gene transcription or protein synthesis, but was blocked by inhibiting postsynaptic G-protein activity, suggesting a postsynaptic nongenomic steroid signaling mechanism that stimulates the release of a retrograde messenger. The rapid glucocorticoid-induced suppression of inhibition was prevented by blocking CB1 receptors and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) synthesis, and it was mimicked and occluded by CB1 receptor agonists, indicating it was mediated by the retrograde release of the endocannabinoid 2-AG. The rapid glucocorticoid effect in BLA neurons in vitro was occluded by prior in vivo acute stress-induced, or prior in vitro glucocorticoid-induced, release of endocannabinoid. Acute stress also caused an increase in anxiety-like behavior that was attenuated by blocking CB1 receptor activation and inhibiting 2-AG synthesis in the BLA. Together, these findings suggest that acute stress causes a long-lasting suppression of synaptic inhibition in BLA neurons via a membrane glucocorticoid receptor-induced release of 2-AG at GABA synapses, which contributes to stress-induced anxiogenesis. We provide a cellular mechanism in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) for the rapid stress

  8. Profile of extended-release oxycodone/acetaminophen for acute pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekhit MH

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mary Hanna Bekhit1–51David Geffen School of Medicine, 2Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, 3UCLA Ambulatory Surgery Center, 4UCLA Wasserman Eye Institute, 5UCLA Martin Luther King Community Hospital, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: This article provides a historical and pharmacological overview of a new opioid analgesic that boasts an extended-release (ER formulation designed to provide both immediate and prolonged analgesia for up to 12 hours in patients who are experiencing acute pain. This novel medication, ER oxycodone/acetaminophen, competes with current US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved opioid formulations available on the market in that it offers two benefits concurrently: a prolonged duration of action, and multimodal analgesia through a combination of an opioid (oxycodone with a nonopioid component. Current FDA-approved combination analgesics, such as Percocet (oxycodone/acetaminophen, are available solely in immediate-release (IR formulations. Keywords: opioid, analgesic, xartemis, acute postsurgical pain, substance abuse, acetaminophen, extended release 

  9. Tapentadol immediate release: a new treatment option for acute pain management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Afilalo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Marc Afilalo1, Jens-Ulrich Stegmann2, David Upmalis31Sir Mortimer B. Davis Jewish General Hospital, Montréal, Canada; 2Global Drug Safety, Grünenthal GmbH, Aachen, Germany; 3Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, L.L.C., Raritan, New Jersey, USAAbstract: The undertreatment of acute pain is common in many health care settings. Insufficient management of acute pain may lead to poor patient outcomes and potentially life-threatening complications. Opioids provide relief of moderate to severe acute pain; however, therapy with pure µ-opioid agonists is often limited by the prevalence of side effects, particularly opioid-induced nausea and vomiting. Tapentadol is a novel, centrally acting analgesic with 2 mechanisms of action, µ-opioid receptor agonism and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition. The analgesic effects of tapentadol are independent of metabolic activation and tapentadol has no active metabolites; therefore, in theory, tapentadol may be associated with a low potential for interindividual efficacy variations and drug–drug interactions. Previous phase 3 trials in patients with various types of moderate to severe acute pain have shown that tapentadol immediate release (IR; 50 to 100 mg every 4 to 6 hours provides analgesia comparable to that provided by the pure µ-opioid agonist comparator, oxycodone HCl IR (10 or 15 mg every 4 to 6 hours, with a lower incidence of nausea, vomiting, and constipation. Findings suggest tapentadol may represent an improved treatment option for acute pain.Keywords: tapentadol IR, acute pain, opioid, gastrointestinal tolerability

  10. Chemical incidents resulted in hazardous substances releases in the context of human health hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pałaszewska-Tkacz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The research purpose was to analyze data concerning chemical incidents in Poland collected in 1999–2009 in terms of health hazards. Material and Methods: The data was obtained, using multimodal information technology (IT system, from chemical incidents reports prepared by rescuers at the scene. The final analysis covered sudden events associated with uncontrolled release of hazardous chemical substances or mixtures, which may potentially lead to human exposure. Releases of unidentified substances where emergency services took action to protect human health or environment were also included. Results: The number of analyzed chemical incidents in 1999–2009 was 2930 with more than 200 different substances released. The substances were classified into 13 groups of substances and mixtures posing analogous risks. Most common releases were connected with non-flammable corrosive liquids, including: hydrochloric acid (199 cases, sulfuric(VI acid (131 cases, sodium and potassium hydroxides (69 cases, ammonia solution (52 cases and butyric acid (32 cases. The next group were gases hazardous only due to physico-chemical properties, including: extremely flammable propane-butane (249 cases and methane (79 cases. There was no statistically significant trend associated with the total number of incidents. Only with the number of incidents with flammable corrosive, toxic and/or harmful liquids, the regression analysis revealed a statistically significant downward trend. The number of victims reported was 1997, including 1092 children and 18 fatalities. Conclusions: The number of people injured, number of incidents and the high 9th place of Poland in terms of the number of Seveso establishments, and 4 times higher number of hazardous industrial establishments not covered by the Seveso Directive justify the need for systematic analysis of hazards and their proper identification. It is advisable enhance health risk assessment, both qualitative and

  11. Acute gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment enhances extinction memory in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, L Y; Taha, M B; Cover, K K; Glynn, S S; Murillo, M; Lebron-Milad, K; Milad, M R

    2017-08-01

    Leuprolide acetate (LEU), also known as Lupron, is commonly used to treat prostate cancer in men. As a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor agonist, it initially stimulates the release of gonadal hormones, testosterone (T) and estradiol. This surge eventually suppresses these hormones, preventing the further growth and spread of cancer cells. Individuals receiving this treatment often report anxiety and cognitive changes, but LEU's effects on the neural mechanisms that are involved in anxiety during the trajectory of treatment are not well known. In this study, we examined the acute effects of LEU on fear extinction, hypothesizing that increased T levels following a single administration of LEU will facilitate extinction recall by altering neuronal activity within the fear extinction circuitry. Two groups of naïve adult male rats underwent a 3-day fear conditioning, extinction, and recall experiment. The delayed group (n=15) received a single injection of vehicle or LEU (1.2mg/kg) 3weeks before behavioral testing. The acute group (n=25) received an injection one day after fear conditioning, 30min prior to extinction training. Following recall, the brains for all animals were collected for c-fos immunohistochemistry. Blood samples were also collected and assayed for T levels. Acute administration of LEU increased serum T levels during extinction training and enhanced extinction recall 24h later. This enhanced extinction memory was correlated with increased c-fos activity within the infralimbic cortex and amygdala, which was not observed in the delayed group. These results suggest that the elevation in T induced by acute administration of LEU can influence extinction memory consolidation, perhaps through modification of neuronal activity within the infralimbic cortex and amygdala. This may be an important consideration in clinical applications of LEU and its effects on anxiety and cognition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 40 CFR 372.85 - Toxic chemical release reporting form and instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Dun and Bradstreet identification number. (7) The name(s) of receiving stream(s) or water body to... receiving streams or water bodies including an indication of the percent of releases due to stormwater. (D... R Schedule 1. (15) Information on transfers of the chemical in wastes to off-site locations as...

  13. Differential effects of environmental chemicals and food contaminants on adipogenesis, biomarker release and PPARγ activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Sørensen, Karin Dreisig; Boberg, Julie

    2012-01-01

    and resistin from the cells. Butylparaben activated PPARγ as well, which may be a mediator of the adipogenic effect. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)153 also stimulate adipogenesis and biomarker release, but did not affect PPARs. The data indicates that PPARγ activating chemicals often stimulate adipocyte...

  14. 76 FR 69136 - Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Lifting of Administrative Stay for Hydrogen Sulfide; Correction. SUMMARY: The... Administrative Stay of the reporting requirements for hydrogen sulfide. The Office of the Federal Register...

  15. Consequences of the release of chemical pollutants on the transfers of radiioactive products in aquatic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittel, R.

    1975-01-01

    With the increasing rate of industrial activities, aquatic systems undergo, more and more frequently, the accumulation of chemical and radioactive wastes released separatly or associated in the same discharge. An attempt is made to evaluate the consequence of the association of pollutants on the transfers of neutron activation radionuclides. Emphasis is given to heavy metal pollution and complexing agents [fr

  16. Atrial distension, haemodilution, and acute control of renin release during water immersion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabrielsen, A; Pump, B; Bie, P

    2002-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that atrial distension (stimulation of cardiopulmonary baroreceptors) is not the single pivotal stimulus for the acute suppression of renin release during water immersion in humans and that immersion-induced haemodilution constitutes an important additional stimulus....... In nine healthy male subjects, identical increases in atrial distension were induced by two immersion procedures (of 30 min each); one without (WI) and one with attenuation (WI + cuff) of the concomitant haemodilution (estimated from changes in plasma protein concentration) by inflating thigh cuffs during...... immersion. During WI, central venous pressure (CVP) and left atrial diameter (LAD) increased (P

  17. Rhabdomyolysis following Acute Extended-Release Quetiapine Poisoning: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios Liolios

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. During the past few years, there have been a number of case reports concerning rhabdomyolysis following quetiapine poisoning; however, there has been none concerning the medication in its extended-release form. Methods. We present the case report of a 48-year-old man presenting a major depressive disorder and borderline personality disorder, who after voluntary intoxication with 12000 mg of quetiapine extended-release developed signs of acute rhabdomyolysis. Results. The rhabdomyolysis was confirmed by the laboratory and the clinical findings, with elevated levels of creatinine, creatine phosphokinase, and CRP. Discussion. We would like to pinpoint the importance of this complication and our concern of prescribing it for psychiatric patients with chronic somatic comorbidities.

  18. Inventory of chemical releases of nuclear installations in the North-Cotentin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-05-01

    The nuclear installations concerned by this study are Cogema La Hague, the Flamanville nuclear power plant, the Manche plant and the National Navy of Cherbourg.The objective followed by the ' source term ' work group has consisted in counting and examining the whole of existing measures relative to the releases of chemical substances in the liquid and gaseous effluents. Then because of the lack of measures for the operation first years of installations, the work group has estimated the order of magnitude of these chemical releases (essentially for Cogema La Hague). This report presents a review of the literature looking at the background levels of chemicals in different environmental compartments: air, soil, plants and animals products. these values have been summarized here to be available for comparisons with concentrations input by the North Cotentin nuclear installations, calculated by the G.R.N.C. (radioecology group of Nord Cotentin)

  19. The release behavior and kinetic evaluation of tramadol HCl from chemically cross linked Ter polymeric hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malana, Muhammad A; Zohra, Rubab

    2013-01-18

    Hydrogels, being stimuli responsive are considered to be effective for targeted and sustained drug delivery. The main purpose for this work was to study the release behavior and kinetic evaluation of Tramadol HCl from chemically cross linked ter polymeric hydrogels. Ter-polymers of methacrylate, vinyl acetate and acrylic acid cross linked with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) were prepared by free radical polymerization. The drug release rates, dynamic swelling behavior and pH sensitivity of hydrogels ranging in composition from 1-10 mol% EGDMA were studied. Tramadol HCl was used as model drug substance. The release behavior was investigated at pH 8 where all formulations exhibited non-Fickian diffusion mechanism. Absorbency was found to be more than 99% indicating good drug loading capability of these hydrogels towards the selected drug substance. Formulations designed with increasing amounts of EGDMA had a decreased equilibrium media content as well as media penetrating velocity and thus exhibited a slower drug release rate. Fitting of release data to different kinetic models indicate that the kinetic order shifts from the first to zero order as the concentration of drug was increased in the medium, showing gradual independency of drug release towards its concentration. Formulations with low drug content showed best fitness with Higuchi model whereas those with higher concentration of drug followed Hixson-Crowell model with better correlation values indicating that the drug release from these formulations depends more on change in surface area and diameter of tablets than that on concentration of the drug. Release exponent (n) derived from Korse-Meyer Peppas equation implied that the release of Tramadol HCl from these formulations was generally non-Fickian (n > 0.5 > 1) showing swelling controlled mechanism. The mechanical strength and controlled release capability of the systems indicate that these co-polymeric hydrogels have a great potential to

  20. Glutaraldehyde release from heat-polymerized acrylic resins after disinfection and chemical and mechanical polishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Iara Augusta; Andrade, Vanessa Gomes; Bonato, Pierina Sueli; Raimundo, Lariça Barbosa; Herzog, Daniella Silva; Borie, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the release of glutaraldehyde from heat-polymerized acrylic resins subjected to disinfection followed by chemical and mechanical polishing. Ninety disc-shaped specimens (15 x 4 mm), 30 per resin (Lucitone 550, QC-20 and Classico), were made and assigned to 2 groups according to the type of polishing. One side of each specimen was not polished and the other was either mechanically (n = 45) or chemically (n = 45) polished, and immersed in water at 50 °C for 1 h to allow the release of intrinsic substances and then kept in distilled water for 7 days. The specimens were disinfected by immersion in 2% glutaraldehyde for 10 min. After this period, 3 specimens from each group were immersed in water for 15, 30, 60, 120 and 240 min. For the 15-, 30-, 60-min immersions, 4 water exchanges were done at the end of period. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to detect and quantify the glutaraldehyde released after each period. Data were analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA and multiple comparisons were done by Tukey's and Scheffé's tests (α = 0.05). No glutaraldehyde release was observed from the specimens with chemical polishing at any of the immersion periods, while the mechanically polished specimens released glutaraldehyde. In the groups with water exchanges, Lucitone released more disinfectant in the 15-min period (0.040 μg/mL), Classico in the 30-min (0.021 μg/mL) and 60-min (0.018 μg/mL) periods, and QC-20 the same amount (-1.760 μg/mL) in all periods. In the groups without water exchanges, Lucitone released the highest amount of disinfectant (-1.370 μg/mL), differing significantly from QC-20 (0022 g/mL) and Classico (0019 g/mL), which were similar. The findings of this showed that chemically polished specimens from the 3 resin brands did not release glutaraldehyde after different periods of immersion, while glutaraldehyde release was observed from the mechanically polished specimens, especially from those made of

  1. Chemical form of release tritium from solid breeder materials under the various purge gas conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomohiro Kinjyo; Masabumi Nishikawa; Naoya Yamashita; Takanori Koyama; Takaaki Tanifuji; Mikio Enoeda

    2006-01-01

    Understanding of the release behavior of bred tritium from solid breeder materials is necessary to design tritium recovery system from blanket of a fusion reactor because permeation loss of bred tritium in the piping system or type of tritium recovery system depends on the tritium release behavior. Chemical form of released tritium from Li 4 SiO 4 (from FzK), LiAlO 2 (from JAERI), Li 2 TiO 3 (from CEA) and Li 2 ZrO 3 (from MAPI) under various purge gas condition is discussed in this study by using the data obtained from the out-pile tritium release experiment in JAEA. It is experimentally confirmed in this study that not a little portion of bred tritium is release as the chemical form of HTO even when hydrogen is added to the purge gas. It is also confirmed that desorption of surface water together with liberation of water vapor formed by water formation reaction from contact of hydrogen with solid breeder materials at high temperature gives rather high partial pressure of water vapor in the blanket purge gas. Tritium liberation model to represent the release behavior of bred tritium from solid breeder materials has been developed by the present authors considering tritium migration in bulk of grain, tritium transfer from bulk to surface and surface reactions on grain. Then, competition of such surface reactions as adsorption/desorption, isotope exchange reaction with hydrogen in purge gas and isotope exchange reaction with water vapor in purge gas decides the portion of HTO and HT. Using the tritium release model obtained so far, the portion of HTO or HT released from solid breeder materials is estimated and compared with observed values under various conditions in this study. The tritium release behavior and chemical form of tritium in the test blanket module with solid breeder under the ITER condition is also discussed based on the estimation obtained using the tritium release model formed by the present authors. (author)

  2. Releases of PCDD/F from U.S. Chemical Production Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyke, P. (PD Consulting, Brobury); Amendola, G. [Amendola Engineering, Westlake, OH (United States); Abel, T. [CCC, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    There is continuing concern over the exposure of humans and ecosystems to trace levels of highly toxic organic compounds, in particular chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD and PCDF). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing inventories of releases of PCDD/F. As a contribution to this effort the Chlorine Chemistry Council (CCC is a business council of the American Chemistry Council) worked with EPA to develop estimates of releases of PCDD/F to the environment and off-site transfers from selected chemical production facilities in the U.S. that produce or use large quantities of chlorine.

  3. Analysis of Heat Release from Gain Medium of Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Noriyuki; Sugimoto, Daichi; Tei, Kazuyoku; Nanri, Kenzo; Fujioka, Tomoo

    2005-02-01

    Heat release into the operating gas of a chemical oxygen iodine laser is analyzed on the basis of stagnation and cavity pressures. The energy of excited oxygen molecules is released as heat in this device through pooling reactions, iodine dissociation, and the interactions of these processes with water vapor. The proposed estimation method is applied to the analysis of subsonic and transonic iodine injection schemes to examine energy loss during iodine dissociation. The results also provide the number n of excited oxygen molecules consumed in each iodine dissociation. The values of n were estimated to be n≥ 10 and n≥ 6 in the subsonic and transonic injection schemes, respectively.

  4. Study about the integrated treatment of chemical and radioactive effluents, introducing the zero release concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mierzwa, Jose Carlos

    1996-01-01

    An Integrated System to the treatment of Chemical and Radioactive Effluents to the Centro Experimental Aramar is proposed and evaluated, introducing the Effluent Zero Release concept, where factors related to the environmental regulation in vigor in the country, as well as the availability of hydrological resources in the place where CEA have been implanted, are considered. Through a literature analysis of the main effluents treatment techniques available nowadays and after a case of study selection, take into account two industrial installations that will be implanted at CEA, it was defined an arrangement to compose the Integrated System to the Treatment of Chemicals and Radioactive Effluents, focusing the Zero Release concept consolidation. A defined arrangement uses a combination among three treatment processes, it means chemical precipitation, reverse osmosis and evaporation, that were experimentally evaluated. The proposed arrangement was evaluated using synthetic effluents, that were prepared based on data from literature and conception documents of the installation considered in this work. Three kinds of effluents were simulated, one arising from a nuclear reactor laundry, one arising from the water refrigeration system and demineralized water production to the nuclear reactor and the other one arising from a nuclear material production laboratory. Each effluent were individually submitted to the selected treatment processes, to get the best operational conditions for each treatment process. The results got during the laboratory assays show that the proposed Integrated System to the Treatment of Chemicals and Radioactive Effluents is feasible, consolidating the Effluent Zero Release concept, which is the proposition of this work. (author)

  5. Endocannabinoid release modulates electrical coupling between CCK cells connected via chemical and electrical synapses in CA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eIball

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Electrical coupling between some subclasses of interneurons is thought to promote coordinated firing that generates rhythmic synchronous activity in cortical regions. Synaptic activity of cholesystokinin (CCK interneurons which co-express cannbinoid type-1 (CB1 receptors are powerful modulators of network activity via the actions of endocannabinoids. We investigated the modulatory actions of endocannabinoids between chemically and electrically connected synapses of CCK cells using paired whole-cell recordings combined with biocytin and double immunofluorescence labelling in acute slices of rat hippocampus at P18-20 days. CA1 stratum radiatum CCK Schaffer collateral associated (SCA cells were coupled electrically with each other as well as CCK basket cells and CCK cells with axonal projections expanding to dentate gyrus. Approximately 50% of electrically coupled cells received facilitating, asynchronously released IPSPs that curtailed the steady-state coupling coefficient by 57%. Tonic CB1 receptor activity which reduces inhibition enhanced electrical coupling between cells that were connected via chemical and electrical synapses. Blocking CB1 receptors with antagonist, AM-251 (5M resulted in the synchronized release of larger IPSPs and this enhanced inhibition further reduced the steady-state coupling coefficient by 85%. Depolarization induced suppression of inhibition (DSI, maintained the asynchronicity of IPSP latency, but reduced IPSP amplitudes by 95% and enhanced the steady-state coupling coefficient by 104% and IPSP duration by 200%. However, DSI did not did not enhance electrical coupling at purely electrical synapses. These data suggest that different morphological subclasses of CCK interneurons are interconnected via gap junctions. The synergy between the chemical and electrical coupling between CCK cells probably plays a role in activity-dependent endocannabinoid modulation of rhythmic synchronization.

  6. Application of Chemically Adsorbed Fluorocarbon Film with Highly Durability as a Mold Release Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Ohkubo, Yuji; Ogawa, Kazufumi; Utsumi, Kunihiro

    In this study, the physical performance (adhesion resistance, heat resistance, abrasion resistance, chemical resistance) extremely thin, highly durable and chemically adsorbed fluorocarbon film with low surface energy on the metal surface (the thickness is about 1 nm order.) was evaluated, and the evaluation results (durability, demolding resistance) on the actual injection molding performance up to 100,000 shots using a test mold were reported. The demolding resistance could be drastically decreased without losing the mold shape and dimensional accuracy by using the chemically adsorbed and highly durable fluorocarbon film. From these results, this technique should be useful for molding various elastomers such as silicone and urethane resin which are difficult to release from a mold for making high precision products such as optical components and chemical chips.

  7. Acute stress increases depolarization-evoked glutamate release in the rat prefrontal/frontal cortex: the dampening action of antidepressants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Musazzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral stress is recognized as a main risk factor for neuropsychiatric diseases. Converging evidence suggested that acute stress is associated with increase of excitatory transmission in certain forebrain areas. Aim of this work was to investigate the mechanism whereby acute stress increases glutamate release, and if therapeutic drugs prevent the effect of stress on glutamate release.Rats were chronically treated with vehicle or drugs employed for therapy of mood/anxiety disorders (fluoxetine, desipramine, venlafaxine, agomelatine and then subjected to unpredictable footshock stress. Acute stress induced marked increase in depolarization-evoked release of glutamate from synaptosomes of prefrontal/frontal cortex in superfusion, and the chronic drug treatments prevented the increase of glutamate release. Stress induced rapid increase in the circulating levels of corticosterone in all rats (both vehicle- and drug-treated, and glutamate release increase was blocked by previous administration of selective antagonist of glucocorticoid receptor (RU 486. On the molecular level, stress induced accumulation of presynaptic SNARE complexes in synaptic membranes (both in vehicle- and drug-treated rats. Patch-clamp recordings of pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex revealed that stress increased glutamatergic transmission through both pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms, and that antidepressants may normalize it by reducing release probability.Acute footshock stress up-regulated depolarization-evoked release of glutamate from synaptosomes of prefrontal/frontal cortex. Stress-induced increase of glutamate release was dependent on stimulation of glucocorticoid receptor by corticosterone. Because all drugs employed did not block either elevation of corticosterone or accumulation of SNARE complexes, the dampening action of the drugs on glutamate release must be downstream of these processes. This novel effect of antidepressants on the response to stress

  8. Chemical Control of FGF-2 Release for Promoting Calvarial Healing with Adipose Stem Cells*

    OpenAIRE

    Kwan, Matthew D.; Sellmyer, Mark A.; Quarto, Natalina; Ho, Andrew M.; Wandless, Thomas J.; Longaker, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical control of protein secretion using a small molecule approach provides a powerful tool to optimize tissue engineering strategies by regulating the spatial and temporal dimensions that are exposed to a specific protein. We placed fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) under conditional control of a small molecule and demonstrated greater than 50-fold regulation of FGF-2 release as well as tunability, reversibility, and functionality in vitro. We then applied conditional control of FGF-2 se...

  9. Biological effects of activation products and other chemicals released from fusion power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, J.A.; Poston, T.M.

    1976-09-01

    Literature reviews indicate that existing information is incomplete, often contradictory, and of questionable value for the prediction and assessment of ultimate impact from fusion-associated activation products and other chemical releases. It is still uncertain which structural materials will be used in the blanket and first wall of fusion power plants. However, niobium, vanadium, vanadium-chromium alloy, vanadium-titanium alloy, sintered aluminum product, and stainless steel have been suggested. The activation products of principal concern will be the longer-lived isotopes of /sup 26/Al, /sup 49/V, /sup 51/Cr, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 58/Co, /sup 60/Co, /sup 93/Nb, and /sup 94/Nb. Lithium released to the environment either during the mining cycle, from power plant operation or accident, may be in the form of a number of compound types varying in solubility and affinity for biological organisms. The effects of a severe liquid metal fire or explosion involving Na or K will vary according to inherent abiotic and biotic features of the affected site. Saline, saline-alkaline, and sodic soils of arid lands would be particularly susceptible to alkaline stress. Beryllium released to the environment during the mining cycle or reactor accident situation could be in the form of a number of compound types. Adverse effects to aquatic species from routine chemical releases (biocides, corrosion inhibitors, dissolution products) may occur in the discharge of both fission and fusion power plant designs.

  10. Chemical cues released by an alien invasive aquatic gastropod drive its invasion success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raw, Jacqueline L; Miranda, Nelson A F; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2013-01-01

    Chemical cues provide aquatic organisms with sensory information that guides behavioural responses and thus interactions among themselves, each other and the environment. Chemical cues are considered important for predator avoidance, foraging, larval settlement and broadcast spawning in aquatic environments. However, the significance of their role as drivers of direct interactions between heterospecifics has been largely overlooked. A video camera and a demarcated arena were used in situ to record behavioural responses of three native gastropod species, Assiminea cf. capensis, Melanoides tuberculata and Coriandria durbanensis, exposed to treatments representing chemical cues released by a non-native invasive gastropod, Tarebia granifera. The responses were measured quantitatively as displacement and orientation of movement at locations in St Lucia Estuary, within the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site on the east coast of South Africa. All native gastropods exhibited a negative taxis response to chemical cues released by T. granifera, while T. granifera individuals responded randomly to conspecifics. Displacement was measured relative to the source of the extract, the number of steps taken were determined with path analysis and orientation was determined from the mean (±95% CIs) turning angles, with significant negative turning angles representing negative taxis. Responses to treatments corresponding to the environment and conspecifics were random and undirected, indicating kinesis. This study presents evidence for interactions driven by chemical cues between a non-native invasive gastropod and several gastropods native to South Africa. The results indicate that chemical cues can facilitate invasion success as the behavioural response of native gastropods is to move away allowing additional food and space resources to become available to T. granifera.

  11. Chemical cues released by an alien invasive aquatic gastropod drive its invasion success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline L Raw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chemical cues provide aquatic organisms with sensory information that guides behavioural responses and thus interactions among themselves, each other and the environment. Chemical cues are considered important for predator avoidance, foraging, larval settlement and broadcast spawning in aquatic environments. However, the significance of their role as drivers of direct interactions between heterospecifics has been largely overlooked. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A video camera and a demarcated arena were used in situ to record behavioural responses of three native gastropod species, Assiminea cf. capensis, Melanoides tuberculata and Coriandria durbanensis, exposed to treatments representing chemical cues released by a non-native invasive gastropod, Tarebia granifera. The responses were measured quantitatively as displacement and orientation of movement at locations in St Lucia Estuary, within the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site on the east coast of South Africa. All native gastropods exhibited a negative taxis response to chemical cues released by T. granifera, while T. granifera individuals responded randomly to conspecifics. Displacement was measured relative to the source of the extract, the number of steps taken were determined with path analysis and orientation was determined from the mean (±95% CIs turning angles, with significant negative turning angles representing negative taxis. Responses to treatments corresponding to the environment and conspecifics were random and undirected, indicating kinesis. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study presents evidence for interactions driven by chemical cues between a non-native invasive gastropod and several gastropods native to South Africa. The results indicate that chemical cues can facilitate invasion success as the behavioural response of native gastropods is to move away allowing additional food and space resources to become available to T. granifera.

  12. Nitric Oxide Release for Improving Performance of Implantable Chemical Sensors - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kyoung Ha; Wang, Xuewei; Meyerhoff, Mark E

    2017-12-01

    Over the last three decades, there has been extensive interest in developing in vivo chemical sensors that can provide real-time measurements of blood gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH), glucose/lactate, and potentially other critical care analytes in the blood of hospitalized patients. However, clot formation with intravascular sensors and foreign body response toward sensors implanted subcutaneously can cause inaccurate analytical results. Further, the risk of bacterial infection from any sensor implanted in the human body is another major concern. To solve these issues, the release of an endogenous gas molecule, nitric oxide (NO), from the surface of such sensors has been investigated owing to NO's ability to inhibit platelet activation/adhesion, foreign body response and bacterial growth. This paper summarizes the importance of NO's therapeutic potential for this application and reviews the publications to date that report on the analytical performance of NO release sensors in laboratory testing and/or during in vivo testing.

  13. Decontamination and Management of Human Remains Following Incidents of Hazardous Chemical Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Army Public Health Command; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Bock, Robert Eldon [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To provide specific procedural guidance and resources for identification, assessment, control, and mitigation of compounds that may contaminate human remains resulting from chemical attack or release. Design: A detailed technical, policy, and regulatory review is summarized. Setting: Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present. Settings would include sites of transportation accidents, natural disasters, terrorist or military operations, mortuary affairs or medical examiner processing and decontamination points, and similar. Patients, Participants: While recommended procedures have not been validated with actual human remains, guidance has been developed from data characterizing controlled experiments with fabrics, materiel, and laboratory animals. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presentation of logic and specific procedures for remains management, protection and decontamination of mortuary affairs personnel, as well as decision criteria for determining when remains are sufficiently decontaminated so as to pose no chemical health hazard. Results: Established procedures and existing equipment/materiel available for decontamination and verification provide appropriate and reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from remains. Extensive characterization of issues related to remains decontamination indicates that supra-lethal concentrations of liquid chemical warfare agent VX may prove difficult to decontaminate and verify in a timely fashion. Specialized personnel can and should be called upon to assist with monitoring necessary to clear decontaminated remains for transport and processing. Conclusions: Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for remains processing and transport to the decedent s family and the continental United States can be followed.

  14. The Effects of Diesel Exhaust and Stress on the Acute Phase Response and in the Chemically Intolerant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fideler, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    .... The purpose of the proposed study is to test a model for chemical sensitivity in GWV, in which simultaneous acute exposures to DE and psychological stress cause increased symptoms via the acute phase response (APR...

  15. The Effects of Diesel Exhaust and Stress on the Acute Phase Response and Symptoms in the Chemically Intolerant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fiedler, Nancy; Leumbach, Robert; Kipen, Howard; Lioy, Paul; Zhang, Jungfeng; Lehrer, Paul

    2006-01-01

    .... The purpose of the proposed study is to test a model for chemical sensitivity in GWV in which simultaneous acute exposures to DE and psychological stress cause increased symptoms via the acute phase response (APR...

  16. Acute respiratory failure after aspiration of activated charcoal with recurrent deposition and release from an intrapulmonary cavern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Roland C E; Schefold, Joerg C; Bercker, Sven; Temmesfeld-Wollbrück, Bettina; Weichert, Wilko; Spies, Claudia D; Weber-Carstens, Steffen

    2009-02-01

    To report on the recurrent release of charcoal from an intrapulmonary cavern in a case of acute respiratory failure after charcoal aspiration. Case report. Anaesthesiological ICU, university hospital. An 18-year-old ethanol intoxicated comatose patient regurgitated and aspirated activated charcoal during orotracheal intubation. After 2 days of mechanical ventilation, the patient was transferred to a tertiary care university hospital. On admission, acute respiratory distress syndrome with bilateral pulmonary infiltrations was diagnosed. The patient's recovery was hampered by recurrent release of charcoal from an intrapulmonary cavern. Sophisticated ventilatory support, prone positioning, secretolytics, repetitive bronchoscopy, and antibiotic therapy may have facilitated bronchoalveolar clearance and weaning after 18 days. Aspiration may be a dramatic complication if charcoal is administered in comatose patients without airway protection. In this case report, advanced intensive care measures were necessary to tackle the special feature of charcoal release from an intrapulmonary cavern.

  17. Soil-release behaviour of polyester fabrics after chemical modification with polyethylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, T. M. R.; Santos, J.; Soares, G. M. B.

    2017-10-01

    The fibres cleanability depends, among other characteristics, on their hydrophilicity. Hydrophilic fibres are easy-wash materials but hydrophobic fibres are difficult to clean due to their higher water-repellent surfaces. This type of surfaces, like polyester (PET), produce an accumulation of electrostatic charges, which favors adsorption and retention of dirt. Thus, the polyester soil-release properties can be increased by finishing processes that improve fiber hydrophilicity. In present study, PET fabric modification was described by using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and N,N´-dimethylol-4,5-dihydroxyethylene urea (DMDHEU) chemically modified resin. Briefly, the modification process was carried out in two steps, one to hydrolyse the polyester and create hydroxyl and carboxylic acid groups on the surface and other to crosslink the PEG chains. The resulting materials were characterized by contact angle, DSC and FTIR-ATR methods. Additionally, the soil release behavior and the mechanical properties of modified PET were evaluated. For the best process conditions, the treated PET presented 0° contact angle, grade 5 stain release and acceptable mechanical performance.

  18. Safety and Efficacy of Paliperidone Extended-Release in Acute and Maintenance Treatment of Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Spina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Paliperidone, the major active metabolite of risperidone, is a second-generation antipsychotic that has been developed as an extended-release (ER tablet formulation that minimizes peak-trough fluctuations in plasma concentrations, allowing once-daily administration and constant drug delivery. Paliperidone ER has demonstrated efficacy in the reduction of acute schizophrenia symptoms in 6-week, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials and clinical benefits were maintained in the longer-term according to extension studies of up to 52 weeks in duration. Compared with quetiapine, paliperidone ER was associated with a more rapid symptom improvement. In addition, it was more effective than placebo in the prevention of symptom recurrence. Paliperidone ER is generally well tolerated with a predictable adverse event profile. Like risperidone, it is associated with a dose-dependent risk of extrapyramidal symptoms and prolactin elevation. Short-and longer-term studies have indicated a low liability for paliperidone ER to cause metabolic (ie, weight gain, hyperglycaemia and lipid dysregulation or cardiovascular adverse effects. Available safety data from elderly patients appear to be promising. Due to negligible hepatic biotransformation, paliperidone ER is unlikely to be involved in clinically significant metabolic drug-drug interactions. Additional active comparator trials evaluating efficacy, tolerability and cost-effectiveness are required to better define the role of paliperidone ER in the treatment of schizophrenia in relation to other currently available second-generation antipsychotics, particularly risperidone.

  19. Biogeochemistry of Lead. Its Release to the Environment and Chemical Speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Jay T; McAlister, Jason

    2017-04-10

    Lead (Pb) is a metal that is not essential for life processes and proves acutely toxic to most organisms. Compared to other metals Pb is rather immobile in the environment but still its biogeochemical cycling is greatly perturbed by human activities. In this review we present a summary of information describing the physical and chemical properties of Pb, its distribution in crustal materials, and the processes, both natural and anthropogenic, that contribute to the metal's mobilization in the biosphere. The relatively high volatility of Pb metal, low melting point, its large ionic radius, and its chemical speciation in aquatic systems contributes to its redistribution by anthropogenic and natural processes. The biogeochemical cycle of Pb is significantly altered by anthropogenic inputs. This alteration began in antiquity but accelerated during the industrial revolution, which sparked increases in both mining activities and fossil fuel combustion. Estimates of the flux of Pb to the atmosphere, its deposition and processing in soils and freshwater systems are presented. Finally, the basin scale distribution of dissolved Pb in the ocean is interpreted in light of the chemical speciation and association with inorganic and organic particulate matter. The utility of stable radiogenic Pb isotopes, as a complement to concentration data, to trace inputs to the ocean, better understand the biogeochemical cycling of Pb and track water mass circulation in the ocean is discussed. An ongoing international survey of trace elements and their isotopes in seawater will undoubtedly increase our understanding of the deposition, biogeochemical cycling and fate of this infamous toxic metal.

  20. 75 FR 19319 - Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Extension of Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Extension of Comment Period... reporting requirements for hydrogen sulfide (Chemical Abstracts Service Number (CAS No.) 7783-06-4) (75 FR... may be potentially affected by this action if you manufacture, process, or otherwise use hydrogen...

  1. PML-RARa modulates the vascular signature of extracellular vesicles released by acute promyelocytic leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yi; Garnier, Delphine; Lee, Tae Hoon; D'Asti, Esterina; Montermini, Laura; Meehan, Brian; Rak, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic transformation is believed to impact the vascular phenotype and microenvironment in cancer, at least in part, through mechanisms involving extracellular vesicles (EVs). We explored these questions in the context of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells (NB4) expressing oncogenic fusion protein, PML-RARa and exquisitely sensitive to its clinically used antagonist, the all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). We report that NB4 cells produce considerable numbers of EVs, which are readily taken up by cultured endothelial cells triggering their increased survival. NB4 EVs contain PML-RARa transcript, but no detectable protein, which is also absent in endothelial cells upon the vesicle uptake, thereby precluding an active intercellular trafficking of this oncogene in this setting. ATRA treatment changes the emission profile of NB4-related EVs resulting in preponderance of smaller vesicles, an effect that occurs in parallel with the onset of cellular differentiation. ATRA also increases IL-8 mRNA and protein content in NB4 cells and their EVs, while decreasing the levels of VEGF and tissue factor (TF). Endothelial cell uptake of NB4-derived EVs renders these cells more TF-positive and procoagulant, and this effect is diminished by pre-treatment of EV donor cells with ATRA. Profiling angiogenesis-related transcripts in intact and ATRA-treated APL cells and their EVs reveals multiple differences attributable to cellular responses and EV molecular packaging. These observations point to the potential significance of changes in the angiogenic signature and activity associated with EVs released from tumor cells subjected to targeted therapy.

  2. Early application of airway pressure release ventilation may reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yongfang; Jin, Xiaodong; Lv, Yinxia; Wang, Peng; Yang, Yunqing; Liang, Guopeng; Wang, Bo; Kang, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Experimental animal models of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have shown that the updated airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) methodologies may significantly improve oxygenation, maximize lung recruitment, and attenuate lung injury, without circulatory depression. This led us to hypothesize that early application of APRV in patients with ARDS would allow pulmonary function to recover faster and would reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation as compared with low ...

  3. Characterization and nutrient release from silicate rocks and influence on chemical changes in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Ramos Guelfi Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of Brazilian agriculture has led to a heavy dependence on imported fertilizers to ensure the supply of the growing food demand. This fact has contributed to a growing interest in alternative nutrient sources, such as ground silicate rocks. It is necessary, however, to know the potential of nutrient release and changes these materials can cause in soils. The purpose of this study was to characterize six silicate rocks and evaluate their effects on the chemical properties of treated soil, assessed by chemical extractants after greenhouse incubation. The experimental design consisted of completely randomized plots, in a 3 x 6 factorial scheme, with four replications. The factors were potassium levels (0-control: without silicate rock application; 200; 400; 600 kg ha-1 of K2O, supplied as six silicate rock types (breccia, biotite schist, ultramafic rock, phlogopite schist and two types of mining waste. The chemical, physical and mineralogical properties of the alternative rock fertilizers were characterized. Treatments were applied to a dystrophic Red-Yellow Oxisol (Ferralsol, which was incubated for 100 days, at 70 % (w/w moisture in 3.7 kg/pots. The soil was evaluated for pH; calcium and magnesium were extracted with KCl 1 mol L-1; potassium, phosphorus and sodium by Mehlich 1; nickel, copper and zinc with DTPA; and the saturation of the cation exchange capacity was calculated for aluminum, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium, and overall base saturation. The alternative fertilizers affected soil chemical properties. Ultramafic rock and Chapada mining byproduct (CMB were the silicate rocks that most influenced soil pH, while the mining byproduct (MB led to high K levels. Zinc availability was highest in the treatments with mining byproduct and Cu in soil fertilized with Chapada and mining byproduct.

  4. On transient electric fields observed in chemical release experiments by rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, G.; Brenning, N.; Holmgren, G.; Haerendel, G.

    1986-06-01

    As a follow-up to the successful chemical release experiment Trigger in 1977, the TOR (Trigger Optimized Repetition) rocket was launched from Esrange on Oct. 24, 1984. Like in the Trigger experiment a large amplitude electric field pulse of 200 mV/m was detected shortly after the explosion. The central part of the pulse was found to be clearly correlated with an intense layer of swept up ambient particles behind a propagating shock-front. The field was directed towards the centre of the expanding ionized cloud, which is indicative of a polarisation electric field source. Expressions for this radial polarisation field and the much weaker azimuthal induced electric field are derived from a simple cylindrical model for the field and the expanding neutral cloud. Time profiles of the radial electric field are shown to be in good agreement with observations. (authors)

  5. Standing operating procedures for developing acute exposure guideline levels for hazardous chemicals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Staff; National Research Council Staff; Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology; Commission on Life Sciences; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council

    ... Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Chemicals Subcommittee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels Committee on Toxicology Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Commission on Life Sciences National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. i Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, origina...

  6. A combined spectroscopic and plasma chemical kinetic analysis of ionospheric samarium releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jeffrey M.; Dressler, Rainer A.; Pedersen, Todd R.; Caton, Ronald G.; Miller, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    Two rocket-borne releases of samarium vapor in the upper atmosphere occurred in May 2013, as part of the Metal Oxide Space Clouds experiment. The releases were characterized by a combination of optical and RF diagnostic instruments located at the Roi-Namur launch site and surrounding islands and atolls. The evolution of the optical spectrum of the solar-illuminated cloud was recorded with a spectrograph covering a 400-800 nm spectral range. The spectra exhibit two distinct spectral regions centered at 496 and 636 nm within which the relative intensities change insignificantly. The ratio between the integrated intensities within these regions, however, changes with time, suggesting that they are associated with different species. With the help of an equilibrium plasma spectral model we attribute the region centered at 496 nm to neutral samarium atoms (Sm I radiance) and features peaking at 649 nm to a molecular species. No evidence for structure due to Sm+ (Sm II) is identified. The persistence of the Sm I radiance suggests a high dissociative recombination rate for the chemi-ionization product, SmO+. A one-dimensional plasma chemical kinetic model of the evolution of the density ratio NSmO/NSm(t) demonstrates that the molecular feature peaking at 649 nm can be attributed to SmO radiance. SmO+ radiance is not identified. By adjusting the Sm vapor mass of the chemical kinetic model input to match the evolution of the total electron density determined by ionosonde data, we conclude that less than 5% of the payload samarium was vaporized.

  7. Chemical identities of radioiodine released from U3O8 in oxygen and inert gas atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachikawa, E.; Nakashima, M.

    1977-01-01

    Irradiated U 3 O 8 was heated from room temperature to 1100 0 C in a temperature-programmed oven (5 0 C/min) in a flow of carrier gas. The iodine released to an inert gas was deposited in the temperature range from 200 to 300 0 C with a peak at 250 0 C (speciesA). This species is neither in a form combined with other fission products nor in elemental form. It is possibly a chemical combination with uranium. It reacts with oxygen, yielding species B characterized by its deposition at a temperature close to room temperature. The activation energy of this oxidation reaction was determined to be 6.0 +-0.5 Kcal/mol. Comparing the deposition-profile with those obtained with carrier-free I 2 and HI indicated that species B was I 2 . As for the formation of organic iodides accompanying the release in an inert gas, it was concluded that these were produced in radical reactions. Thus, in a presence of oxygen, organic iodides were formed in competition with the reactions of organic radicals with oxygen. (author)

  8. Field Experiment of a Three-Chemical Controlled-Release Dispensers to Attract Codling Moth (Cydia pomonella) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Benjamin D; Landolt, Peter J

    2018-03-13

    Male and female codling moths, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were shown to be attracted to a three-chemical kairomonal lure consisting of pear ester, acetic acid, and n-butyl sulfide. A controlled-release device based on sachets was developed in the laboratory and field tested to optimize the attractiveness of C. pomonella to this combination of attractants, and to decrease material costs associated with the controlled-release of these chemicals. The lure was most effective when pear ester was released from a separate dispenser than when combined acetic acid and n-butyl sulfide. We found that acetic acid and n-butyl sulfide can be combined into one device without decreasing C. pomonella trap catches and that there is minimal pear release rate before trap catch is negatively affected. A sachet-based controlled-release system of pear ester, acetic acid, n-butyl sulfide is a cost-effective alternative to a vial and septa controlled-release system and allows for easier quantification of ideal release rates. A reduction in material costs associated with management are important in promoting the adoption of attract-and-kill and mass-trapping paradigms for C. pomonella management. These findings also have important consequences in interpreting studies that use different loads of pear ester, and emphasize the need to better understand the release rates of attractants.

  9. Prescription launching related to the chemical measurement methods in the waste and environmental field with regards to the regulation framework dedicated to the NPP chemical releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierre, M.; Dupin, M.; Cosse, C.; Lepetit, D.; Gacon, A. [EDF/Ceidre/DLAB, Avoine (France)

    2010-07-01

    At the present time, chemical analytical methods are elaborated by EDF Corporate Laboratories and then transmitted to the NPP laboratories for them to decline these procedures to fit with their own analytical devices. In fact, the feedback linked to the exceedings of the regulatory release thresholds pointed out that some differences in the chemical releases regarding several chemical substances could be attributed to the measurement channel. In some cases, one can exhibit a significant increase concerning some NPP chemical releases which can be due to modifications inherent to preservation methods and/or sample analyses. In 2004, this context lead EDF Nuclear Generation Corporate Division supported by NPP Representatives to prescribe the chemical analytical methods in the effluents and environment field and to standardise the dedicated chemical analytical devices. Several goals are carried on : To develop reliable, simple, rapid and applicable on site procedures which are congruent with the existing standards or with a simple adaptation of the standardised method when the standard is not directly applicable or does not fit; To standardise the dedicated analytical devices already available or available at a reasonable investment; To encourage an optimisation of the human resources; and, Health potential problems are also taken into account in the choice of the chemical reagents to be used in the analytical procedures. Other positive consequences can be pointed out concerning the regulatory framework, that is to say a consolidation with regards to the documents linked to the new requests exhibited in the NPP new licences for waste releases and water supply. For the citizens, it reinforces the confidence in the efficiency of the releases surveillance. (author)

  10. Prescription launching related to the chemical measurement methods in the waste and environmental field with regards to the regulation framework dedicated to the NPP chemical releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierre, M.; Dupin, M.; Cosse, C.; Lepetit, D.; Gacon, A.

    2010-01-01

    At the present time, chemical analytical methods are elaborated by EDF Corporate Laboratories and then transmitted to the NPP laboratories for them to decline these procedures to fit with their own analytical devices. In fact, the feedback linked to the exceedings of the regulatory release thresholds pointed out that some differences in the chemical releases regarding several chemical substances could be attributed to the measurement channel. In some cases, one can exhibit a significant increase concerning some NPP chemical releases which can be due to modifications inherent to preservation methods and/or sample analyses. In 2004, this context lead EDF Nuclear Generation Corporate Division supported by NPP Representatives to prescribe the chemical analytical methods in the effluents and environment field and to standardise the dedicated chemical analytical devices. Several goals are carried on : To develop reliable, simple, rapid and applicable on site procedures which are congruent with the existing standards or with a simple adaptation of the standardised method when the standard is not directly applicable or does not fit; To standardise the dedicated analytical devices already available or available at a reasonable investment; To encourage an optimisation of the human resources; and, Health potential problems are also taken into account in the choice of the chemical reagents to be used in the analytical procedures. Other positive consequences can be pointed out concerning the regulatory framework, that is to say a consolidation with regards to the documents linked to the new requests exhibited in the NPP new licences for waste releases and water supply. For the citizens, it reinforces the confidence in the efficiency of the releases surveillance. (author)

  11. Animal manure phosphorus characterization by sequential chemical fractionation, release kinetics and 31P-NMR analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales Tiecher

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate release kinetics from manures are of global interest because sustainable plant nutrition with phosphate will be a major concern in the future. Although information on the bioavailability and chemical composition of P present in manure used as fertilizer are important to understand its dynamics in the soil, such studies are still scarce. Therefore, P extraction was evaluated in this study by sequential chemical fractionation, desorption with anion-cation exchange resin and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR spectroscopy to assess the P forms in three different dry manure types (i.e. poultry, cattle and swine manure. All three methods showed that the P forms in poultry, cattle and swine dry manures are mostly inorganic and highly bioavailable. The estimated P pools showed that organic and recalcitrant P forms were negligible and highly dependent on the Ca:P ratio in manures. The results obtained here showed that the extraction of P with these three different methods allows a better understanding and complete characterization of the P pools present in the manures.

  12. Amnestic disturbance and posttraumatic stress disorder in the aftermath of a chemical release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, R M; Hartney, C; Ngo, L H

    1998-07-01

    Neuropsychological assessments were performed on 70 patients referred after a Catacarb chemical release in a Northern California town. After appropriate exclusions, the 59 patients used in the final analysis were mostly White (66%), with 56% having some college level education. They were administered the: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), Memory Assessment Scale (MAS), Trails A and B, Stroop, Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT), Fingertapping Test, Purdue Pegboard, Dynamometer, Rey 15-Item Test, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), Beck Depression Index (BDI), Profile of Mood States (POMS), and Impact of Events Scale (IES) scales in addition to a health questionnaire and symptom checklist. Results indicate impaired scores on mnestic function and information processing when compared to Heaton's (1992) normative data, and the MAS norms (Williams, 1991). MMPI-2, BSI, BDI, POMS, and IES results indicate significant elevations on scales of depression, anxiety, anger, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The more brief tests of affect and mood appear sufficiently sensitive in measuring the dysphoric mood in group research studies. Clinical diagnoses using criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) criteria indicate a prevalence of 54% PTSD and 64% Amnestic or Cognitive disturbance. New onset of dermatological, respiratory, visual, and gastrointestinal symptoms and illnesses are consistent with the chemical exposure, the PTSD may be in reaction to it, and Amnestic/Cognitive disturbance, from both an organic and functional etiology.

  13. MODELING DISPERSION FROM CHEMICALS RELEASED AFTER A TRAIN COLLISION IN GRANITEVILLE, SOUTH CAROLINA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R; Chuck Hunter, C; Robert Addis, R; Matt Parker, M

    2006-08-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory's (SRNL) Weather INformation and Display (WIND) System was used to provide meteorological and atmospheric modeling/consequence assessment support to state and local agencies following the collision of two Norfolk Southern freight trains on the morning of January 6, 2005. This collision resulted in the release of several toxic chemicals to the environment, including chlorine. The dense and highly toxic cloud of chlorine gas that formed in the vicinity of the accident was responsible for nine fatalities, and caused injuries to more than five hundred others. Transport model results depicting the forecast path of the ongoing release were made available to emergency managers in the county's Unified Command Center shortly after SRNL received a request for assistance. Support continued over the ensuing two days of the active response. The SRNL also provided weather briefings and transport/consequence assessment model results to responders from South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Emergency Operations Center (EOC), Department of Energy Headquarters, and hazmat teams dispatched from the SRS. Although model-generated forecast winds used in consequence assessments conducted during the incident were provided at 2-km horizontal grid spacing during the accident response, a high-resolution Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS, version 4.3.0) simulation was later performed to examine potential influences of local topography on plume migration. The detailed RAMS simulation was used to determine meteorology using multiple grids with an innermost grid spacing of 125 meters. Results from the two simulations are shown to generally agree with meteorological observations at the time; consequently, local topography did not significantly affect wind in the area. Use of a dense gas dispersion model to simulate localized plume behavior using the higher resolution

  14. Acute effects of zolpidem extended-release on cognitive performance and sleep in healthy males after repeated nightly use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleykamp, Bethea A; Griffiths, Roland R; McCann, Una D; Smith, Michael T; Mintzer, Miriam Z

    2012-02-01

    The extended-release formulation of zolpidem (Ambien CR) is approved for the treatment of insomnia without a treatment duration limit. Acutely zolpidem impairs performance, and no research to date has examined whether tolerance develops to these performance impairments during nighttime awakening. The present double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined whether tolerance develops to zolpidem-induced acute performance impairment after repeated (22-30 days) nightly use. Effects of bedtime administration of zolpidem extended-release (ZOL; 12.5 mg) were tested on a battery of performance measures assessed during a forced nighttime awakening in 15 healthy male volunteers who completed overnight polysomnographic recording sessions in our laboratory at baseline and after approximately a month of at-home ZOL. As expected, bedtime ZOL administration was associated with changes in sleep architecture and impairments across all performance domains during nighttime testing (psychomotor function, attention, working memory, episodic memory, metacognition) with no residual next morning impairment. Tolerance did not develop to the observed ZOL-related impairments on any outcome. Possible evidence of acute abstinence effects after discontinuation of ZOL was observed on some performance and sleep outcomes. Overall, these findings suggest that performance is significantly impaired during nighttime awakening even after a month of nightly ZOL administration, and these impairments could significantly impact safety should nighttime awakening require unimpaired functioning (e.g., driving; combat-related activities in the military).

  15. Cryo-electron Microscopy Study of the Genome Release of the Dicistrovirus Israeli Acute Bee Paralysis Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullapudi, Edukondalu; Füzik, Tibor; Přidal, Antonín; Plevka, Pavel

    2017-02-15

    Viruses of the family Dicistroviridae can cause substantial economic damage by infecting agriculturally important insects. Israeli acute bee paralysis virus (IAPV) causes honeybee colony collapse disorder in the United States. High-resolution molecular details of the genome delivery mechanism of dicistroviruses are unknown. Here we present a cryo-electron microscopy analysis of IAPV virions induced to release their genomes in vitro We determined structures of full IAPV virions primed to release their genomes to a resolution of 3.3 Å and of empty capsids to a resolution of 3.9 Å. We show that IAPV does not form expanded A particles before genome release as in the case of related enteroviruses of the family Picornaviridae The structural changes observed in the empty IAPV particles include detachment of the VP4 minor capsid proteins from the inner face of the capsid and partial loss of the structure of the N-terminal arms of the VP2 capsid proteins. Unlike the case for many picornaviruses, the empty particles of IAPV are not expanded relative to the native virions and do not contain pores in their capsids that might serve as channels for genome release. Therefore, rearrangement of a unique region of the capsid is probably required for IAPV genome release. Honeybee populations in Europe and North America are declining due to pressure from pathogens, including viruses. Israeli acute bee paralysis virus (IAPV), a member of the family Dicistroviridae, causes honeybee colony collapse disorder in the United States. The delivery of virus genomes into host cells is necessary for the initiation of infection. Here we present a structural cryo-electron microscopy analysis of IAPV particles induced to release their genomes. We show that genome release is not preceded by an expansion of IAPV virions as in the case of related picornaviruses that infect vertebrates. Furthermore, minor capsid proteins detach from the capsid upon genome release. The genome leaves behind empty

  16. Involvement of calcium and G proteins in the acute release of tissue- type plasminogen activator and von Willebrand factor from cultured human endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijnden-Schrauwen, Y. van den; Atsma, D.E.; Lupu, F.; Vries, R.E.M. de; Kooistra, T.; Emeis, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the role of Ca2+ and G proteins in thrombin-induced acute release (regulated secretion) of tissue-type plasminogen activator (TPA) and yon Willebrand factor (vWF), using a previously described system of primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The acute

  17. Cocktail of chemical compounds robustly promoting cell reprogramming protects liver against acute injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuewen Tang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tissue damage induces cells into reprogramming-like cellular state, which contributes to tissue regeneration. However, whether factors promoting the cell reprogramming favor tissue regeneration remains elusive. Here we identified combination of small chemical compounds including drug cocktails robustly promoting in vitro cell reprogramming. We then administrated the drug cocktails to mice with acute liver injuries induced by partial hepatectomy or toxic treatment. Our results demonstrated that the drug cocktails which promoted cell reprogramming in vitro improved liver regeneration and hepatic function in vivo after acute injuries. The underlying mechanism could be that expression of pluripotent genes activated after injury is further upregulated by drug cocktails. Thus our study offers proof-of-concept evidence that cocktail of clinical compounds improving cell reprogramming favors tissue recovery after acute damages, which is an attractive strategy for regenerative purpose.

  18. Cocktail of chemical compounds robustly promoting cell reprogramming protects liver against acute injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuewen; Cheng, Lin

    2017-04-01

    Tissue damage induces cells into reprogramming-like cellular state, which contributes to tissue regeneration. However, whether factors promoting the cell reprogramming favor tissue regeneration remains elusive. Here we identified combination of small chemical compounds including drug cocktails robustly promoting in vitro cell reprogramming. We then administrated the drug cocktails to mice with acute liver injuries induced by partial hepatectomy or toxic treatment. Our results demonstrated that the drug cocktails which promoted cell reprogramming in vitro improved liver regeneration and hepatic function in vivo after acute injuries. The underlying mechanism could be that expression of pluripotent genes activated after injury is further upregulated by drug cocktails. Thus our study offers proof-of-concept evidence that cocktail of clinical compounds improving cell reprogramming favors tissue recovery after acute damages, which is an attractive strategy for regenerative purpose.

  19. Protecting buildings from a biological or chemical attack: Actions to take before or during a release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Phillip N.; Sohn, Michael D.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Delp, William W.; Lorenzetti, David M.; Finlayson, Elizabeth U.; Thatcher, Tracy L.; Sextro, Richard G.; Derby, Elisabeth A.; Jarvis, Sondra A.

    2003-01-29

    This report presents advice on how to operate a building to reduce casualties from a biological or chemical attack, as well as potential changes to the building (e.g. the design of the ventilation system) that could make it more secure. It also documents the assumptions and reasoning behind the advice. The particular circumstances of any attack, such as the ventilation system design, building occupancy, agent type, source strength and location, and so on, may differ from the assumptions made here, in which case actions other than our recommendations may be required; we hope that by understanding the rationale behind the advice, building operators can modify it as required for their circumstances. The advice was prepared by members of the Airflow and Pollutant Transport Group, which is part of the Indoor Environment Department at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The group's expertise in this area includes: tracer-gas measurements of airflows in buildings (Sextro, Thatcher); design and operation of commercial building ventilation systems (Delp); modeling and analysis of airflow and tracer gas transport in large indoor spaces (Finlayson, Gadgil, Price); modeling of gas releases in multi-zone buildings (Sohn, Lorenzetti, Finlayson, Sextro); and occupational health and safety experience related to building design and operation (Sextro, Delp). This report is concerned only with building design and operation; it is not a how-to manual for emergency response. Many important emergency response topics are not covered here, including crowd control, medical treatment, evidence gathering, decontamination methods, and rescue gear.

  20. Identification and characterization of a pituitary corticotropin-releasing factor binding protein by chemical cross-linking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishimura, E; Billestrup, Nils; Perrin, M

    1987-01-01

    A corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) binding protein has been identified based on the chemical cross-linking of ovine [Nle21,m-125I-Tyr32]CRF (125I-oCRF) to bovine anterior pituitary membranes using disuccinimidyl suberate (DSS). The apparent molecular weight of the cross-linked complex...

  1. Field validation of a three chemical controlled release dispenser to attract codling moth (Cydia pomonella) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male and female codling moths, Cydia pomonella, were shown to be attracted to three chemical kairoonomal lure comprised of pear ester, acetic acid, and n-butyl sulfide. A novel controlled-release device based on sachets was developed in the laboratory and field tested to optimize the attractivness ...

  2. Anaerobic sediment potential acidification and metal release risk assessment by chemical characterization and batch resuspension experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanno, M.P. di [Univ. de San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Escuela de Ciencia y Technologia; Curutchet, G. [Univ. de San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Escuela de Ciencia y Technologia; CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ratto, S. [Univ. de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Catedra de Edafologia

    2007-06-15

    Background, Aim and Scope: Sediments act as a sink for toxic substances (heavy metals, organic pollutants) and, consequently, dredged materials often contain pollutants which are above safe limits. In polluted anaerobic sediments, the presence of sulphides and redox potential changes creates a favorable condition for sulphide oxidation to sulphate, resulting in potential toxic metal release. The oxidation reaction is catalyzed by several microorganisms. Some clean up measures, such as dredging, can initiate the process. The aim of the present work is to assess the acidification and metal release risk in the event of sediment dredging and also to compare two different acid base account techniques with the resuspension results. The oxidation mechanism by means of inoculation with an Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain was also evaluated. Materials and Methods: The sediments were chemically characterized (pH; organic oxidizable carbon; acid volatile sulphides; total sulphur; moisture; Cr, Cu and Zn aqua regia contents). A metal sequential extraction procedure (Community Bureau of Reference, BCR technique) was applied to calculate the Acid Producing Potential (APP) and Acid Consuming Capacity (ACC) of the sediment samples through Fe, Ca{sup 2+} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} measurements. The acid base account was also performed by the Sobek methodology (Acid producing potential - AP - calculated with total sulphur and neutralization potential - NP - by titration of the remaining acid after a reaction period with the sample). Fresh sediments were placed in agitated shake flasks and samples were taken at different times to evaluate pH, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and Cr, Cu, Zn and Fe{sup 2+} concentration. Some of the systems were inoculated with an Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain to assess the biological catalysis on sulphide oxidation. Results: Sediment chemical characterization showed high organic matter content (5.4-10.6%), total sulphur (0.36-0.86%) and equivalent CaCO{sub 3

  3. Reducing Mortality from Terrorist Releases of Chemical and Biological Agents: I. Filtration for Ventilation Systems in Commercial Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thatcher, Tracy L.; Daisey, Joan M.

    1999-09-01

    There is growing concern about potential terrorist attacks involving releases of chemical and/or biological (CB) agents, such as sarin or anthrax, in and around buildings. For an external release, the CB agent can enter the building through the air intakes of a building's mechanical ventilation system and by infiltration through the building envelope. For an interior release in a single room, the mechanical ventilation system, which often recirculates some fraction of the air within a building, may distribute the released CB agent throughout the building. For both cases, installing building systems that remove chemical and biological agents may be the most effective way to protect building occupants. Filtration systems installed in the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems of buildings can significantly reduce exposures of building occupants in the event of a release, whether the release is outdoors or indoors. Reduced exposures can reduce the number of deaths from a terrorist attack. The purpose of this report is to provide information and examples of the design of filtration systems to help building engineers retrofit HVAC systems. The report also provides background information on the physical nature of CB agents and brief overviews of the basic principles of particle and vapor filtration.

  4. Acute administration of melatonin at two opposite circadian stages does not change responses to gonadotropin releasing hormone, thyrotropin releasing hormone and ACTH in healthy adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paccotti, P; Terzolo, M; Torta, M; Vignani, A; Schena, M; Piovesan, A; Angeli, A

    1987-10-01

    We evaluated the effect of a single oral administration of 100 mg melatonin (MT) vs placebo (PL) on the pituitary release of LH, FSH, TSH and prolactin (PRL) after GnRH + TRH and on the adrenocortical release of cortisol, aldosterone and progesterone after ACTH in healthy adult males. We carried out a double blind study in 6 volunteers in winter, at two opposite stages of the circadian cycle: 08:00 and 20:00 h. Injection of GnRH (100 micrograms), TRH (200 micrograms) and ACTH (10 micrograms of the synthetic ACTH 1-17 analogue, Alsactide) was performed one h after MT or PL ingestion. Plasma MT levels were 200-4,000-fold higher after MT than PL thus confirming the effective gastrointestinal absorption of the pineal hormone. The hormonal patterns were superimposable after MT and PL. A higher response of PRL, FSH and cortisol was observed in the evening vs morning protocols independently of previous MT or PL. Our data demonstrate that the acute oral administration of a pharmacological dose of MT at two opposite circadian stages is ineffective to change a variety of pituitary and adrenocortical responses in human male subjects. The circadian chronosusceptibility of pituitary and adrenocortical cells to specific stimuli deserves interest to future investigation.

  5. A screening tool to prioritize public health risk associated with accidental or deliberate release of chemicals into the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The Chemical Events Working Group of the Global Health Security Initiative has developed a flexible screening tool for chemicals that present a risk when accidentally or deliberately released into the atmosphere. The tool is generic, semi-quantitative, independent of site, situation and scenario, encompasses all chemical hazards (toxicity, flammability and reactivity), and can be easily and quickly implemented by non-subject matter experts using freely available, authoritative information. Public health practitioners and planners can use the screening tool to assist them in directing their activities in each of the five stages of the disaster management cycle. PMID:23517410

  6. Comprehensive default methodology for the analysis of exposures to mixtures of chemicals accidentally released to the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, D.K. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Baskett, R.L.; Powell, T.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Davis, J.S. [Duke Engineering Services, Hanford, Inc., Charlotte, NC (United States); Dukes, L.L. [Automated Solutions of Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hansen, D.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Petrocchi, A.J. [AlphaTRAC, Inc. (United States); Sutherland, P.J. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Safety analysis of Department of Energy (DOE) facilities requires consideration of potential exposures to mixtures of chemicals released to the atmosphere. Exposure to chemical mixtures may lead to additive, synergistic, or antagonistic health effects. In the past, the consequences of each chemical have been analyzed separately. This approach may not adequately protect the health of persons exposed to mixtures. However, considerable time would be required to evaluate all possible mixtures. The objective of this paper is to present reasonable default methodology developed by the EFCOG Safety Analysis Working Group Nonradiological Hazardous Material Subgroup (NHMS) for use in safety analysis within the DOE Complex.

  7. Comprehensive default methodology for the analysis of exposures to mixtures of chemicals accidentally released to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, D.K.; Baskett, R.L.; Powell, T.J.; Davis, J.S.; Dukes, L.L.; Hansen, D.J.; Petrocchi, A.J.; Sutherland, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    Safety analysis of Department of Energy (DOE) facilities requires consideration of potential exposures to mixtures of chemicals released to the atmosphere. Exposure to chemical mixtures may lead to additive, synergistic, or antagonistic health effects. In the past, the consequences of each chemical have been analyzed separately. This approach may not adequately protect the health of persons exposed to mixtures. However, considerable time would be required to evaluate all possible mixtures. The objective of this paper is to present reasonable default methodology developed by the EFCOG Safety Analysis Working Group Nonradiological Hazardous Material Subgroup (NHMS) for use in safety analysis within the DOE Complex

  8. PEDIC: a computer program to estimate the effect of evacuation on population exposure following acute radionuclide releases to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strenge, D.L.; Peloquin, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    The computer program PEDIC is described for estimation of the effect of evacuation on population exposure. The program uses joint frequency, annual average meteorological data and a simple population evacuation model to estimate exposure reduction due to movement of people away from radioactive plumes following an acute release of activity. Atmospheric dispersion is based on a sector averaged Gaussian model with consideration of plume rise and building wake effects. Appendices to the report provide details of the computer program design, a program listing, input card preparation instructions and sample problems

  9. PEDIC - A COMPUTER PROGRAM TO ESTIMATE THE EFFECT OF EVACUATION ON POPULATION EXPOSURE FOLLOWING ACUTE RADIONUCLIDE RELEASES TO THE ATOMSPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strenge, D. L.; Peloquin, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    The computer program PEDIC is described for estimation of the effect of evacuation on population exposure. The program uses joint frequency, annual average meteorological data and a simple population evacuation model to estimate exposure reduction due to movement of people away from radioactive plumes following an acute release of activity. Atmospheric dispersion is based on a sector averaged Gaussian model with consideration of plume rise and building wake effects. Appendices to the report provide details of the computer program design, a program listing, input card preparation instructions and sample problems.

  10. Role of lysosomal enzymes released by alveolar macrophages in the pathogenesis of the acute phase of hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Pérez-Arellano

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolytic enzymes are the major constituents of alveolar macrophages (AM and have been shown to be involved in many aspects of the inflammatory pulmonary response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of lysosomal enzymes in the acute phase of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HPs. An experimental study on AM lysosomal enzymes of an HP-guinea-pig model was performed. The results obtained both in vivo and in vitro suggest that intracellular enzymatic activity decrease is, at least partly, due to release of lysosomal enzymes into the medium. A positive but slight correlation was found between extracellular lysosomal activity and four parameters of lung lesion (lung index, bronchoalveolar fluid total (BALF protein concentration, BALF LDH and BALF alkaline phosphatase activities. All the above findings suggest that the AM release of lysosomal enzymes during HP is a factor involved, although possibly not the only one, in the pulmonary lesions appearing in this disease.

  11. Sustained-release indomethacin in the management of the acute painful shoulder from bursitis and/or tendinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabro, J J; Londino, A V; Eyvazzadeh, C

    1985-10-25

    Of all the forms of nonarticular rheumatism, by far the most common are bursitis and tendinitis. Yet, the bursae and neighboring tendon sheaths are the most neglected anatomic structures of the body. Moreover, like the joints, they are lined by synovial membrane, secrete synovial fluid, and are common sites of rheumatic problems. The vast majority of painful shoulder problems are caused by acute subacromial (subdeltoid) bursitis and bicipital tendinitis. In the management of these periarticular disorders, the ultimate goal is to preserve shoulder motion. Although this is accomplished by daily range-of-motion exercises, it is clearly facilitated by suppression of periarticular inflammation and discomfort through the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Of these, sustained-release indomethacin provides the anti-inflammatory efficacy of indomethacin and by virtue of its sustained-release formulation, may promote patient compliance since it need be given only once or twice daily.

  12. 1995 Toxic chemical release inventory: Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Section 313

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mincey, S.L.

    1996-08-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act (EPCRA) requires the annual submittal of toxic chemical release information to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.Executive Order 12856, 'Federal Compliance With Right-to-Know Laws and Pollution Prevention Requirements' extends the requirements of EPCRA to all Federal agencies. The following document is the August 1996 submittal of the Hanford Site Toxic Chemical Release Inventory report. Included is a Form R for ethylene glycol, the sole chemical used in excess of the established regulatory thresholds at the Hanford Site by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office and its contractors during Calendar Year 1995

  13. Kinetics study of solid ammonia borane hydrogen release--modeling and experimental validation for chemical hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Joon; Rönnebro, Ewa C E; Rassat, Scot; Karkamkar, Abhi; Maupin, Gary; Holladay, Jamie; Simmons, Kevin; Brooks, Kriston

    2014-05-07

    Ammonia borane (AB), NH3BH3, is a promising material for chemical hydrogen storage with 19.6 wt% gravimetric hydrogen capacity of which maximum 16.2 wt% hydrogen can be released via an exothermic thermal decomposition below 200 °C. We have investigated the kinetics of hydrogen release from AB and from an AB-methyl cellulose (AB/MC) composite at temperatures of 160-300 °C using both experiments and modeling. The hydrogen release rate at 300 °C is twice as fast as at 160 °C. The purpose of our study was to show safe hydrogen release without thermal runaway effects and to validate system model kinetics. AB/MC released hydrogen at ∼20 °C lower than neat AB and at a faster release rate in that temperature range. Based on the experimental results, the kinetics equations were revised to better represent the growth and nucleation process during decomposition of AB. We explored two different reactor concepts; auger and fixed bed. The current auger reactor concept turned out to not be appropriate, however, we demonstrated safe self-propagation of the hydrogen release reaction of solid AB/MC in a fixed bed reactor.

  14. Acute mixture toxicity of halogenated chemicals and their next generation counterparts on zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Amy; Abdel-Moneim, Ahmed; Sepúlveda, Maria S

    2017-08-01

    Perfluorinated chemicals and flame retardants are halogenated compounds commonly used in food packaging and in clothing and electronics, respectively. Due to the hazardous effects of many of these chemicals, manufacturers are developing next generation potential less toxic alternatives. The objective of this study was to assess the toxicity of potentially "safer" alternatives, singly and in mixtures, in relation to their first generation counterparts. We used zebrafish embryos as our model organism due to its high structural and functional homology to other vertebrates and its suitability for early developmental studies. We tested three well studied halogens, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) and tetrabromobisphenal A (TBBPA), and two less-studied next generation chemicals, 9,10-Dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene 10-oxide (DOPO) and perfluorobutyric acid (PFBA). First, we identified their lethal concentration (LC 50 ) under 96 h exposures using zebrafish embryos; chemical LC50 values ranged from 1.3 to 13,795 ppm. Next, we tested the toxicity of tertiary mixtures containing the estimated LC 50 values for each chemical which ranged from 126 to 5,094 ppm. We found that chemicals within these mixtures displayed concentration addition suggesting a similar mode of toxic action. Importantly, next generation chemicals were less acutely toxic singly and in mixtures than their first generation counterpart. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 78 FR 37176 - Addition of Nonylphenol Category; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... species of marine animals; the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), the three-spined stickleback fish...., A. Bergman, A. Granmo, and M. Berggren. 1990. Bioaccumulation of 4-nonylphenol in marine animals--A... previously peer reviewed (Ref. 3). A. Acute Toxicity to Aquatic Animals 1. Freshwater Species. The acute...

  16. Role of cardiac volume receptors in the control of ADH release during acute simulated weightlessness in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.; Benjamin, B. A.; Keil, L. C.; Sandler, H.

    1984-01-01

    Hemodynamic responses and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) were measured during body position changes, designed to induce central blood volume shifts in ten cardiac and one heart-lung transplant recipients, to assess the contribution of cardiac volume receptors in the control of ADH release during the initial acute phase of exposure to weightlessness. Each subject underwent 15 min of a sitting-control period (C) followed by 30 min of 6 deg headdown tilt (T) and 30 min of resumed sitting (S). Venous blood samples and cardiac dimensions were taken at 0 and 15 min of C; 5, 15, and 30 min of T; and 5, 15, and 30 min of S. Blood samples were analyzed for hematocrit, plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity (PRA), and ADH. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded every two min. Plasma osmolality was not altered by posture changes. Mean left ventricular end-diastolic volume increased (P less than 0.05) from 90 ml in C to 106 ml in T and returned to 87 ml in S. Plasma ADH was reduced by 20 percent (P less than 0.05) with T, and returned to control levels with S. These responses were similar in six normal cardiac-innervated control subjects. These data may suggest that cardiac volume receptors are not the primary mechanism for the control of ADH release during acute central volume shifts in man.

  17. IMPACT OF THE CHEMICAL FORM OF IN-CONTAINMENT SOURCE ON FISSION PRODUCT RELEASE FROM WWER-1000/V-320 TYPE NPP CONTAINMENT DURING LOCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Kecek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear power plant accidents may be followed by a release of fission products into the environment. This release is dependent on several phenomena, such as chemistry, pressure, type of the accident etc. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of the chemical form of iodine on the fission product release into the environment.

  18. Chemical toxicity of uranium hexafluoride compared to acute effects of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, S.A.

    1991-02-01

    The chemical effects from acute exposures to uranium hexafluoride are compared to the nonstochastic effects from acute radiation doses of 25 rems to the whole body and 300 rems to the thyroid. The analysis concludes that an intake of about 10 mg of uranium in soluble form is roughly comparable, in terms of early effects, to an acute whole body dose of 25 rems because both are just below the threshold for significant nonstochastic effects. Similarly, an exposure to hydrogen fluoride at a concentration of 25 mg/m{sup 3} for 30 minutes is roughly comparable because there would be no significant nonstochastic effects. For times t other than 30 minutes, the concentration C of hydrogen fluoride considered to have the same effect can be calculated using a quadratic equation: C = 25 mg/m{sup 3} (30 min/t). The purpose of these analyses is to provide information for developing design and siting guideline based on chemical toxicity for enrichment plants using uranium hexafluoride. These guidelines are to be similar, in terms of stochastic health effects, to criteria in NRC regulations of nuclear power plants, which are based on radiation doses. 26 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  19. Kinetics and Mechanisms of Chemical and Biological Agents Release from Biopolymeric Microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinceković, Marko; Jurić, Slaven; Đermić, Edyta; Topolovec-Pintarić, Snježana

    2017-11-08

    Kinetics and mechanisms of copper cations and Trichoderma viride spores release from uncoated and chitosan coated alginate microcapsules were investigated. The gelation of a fixed amount of sodium alginate at different concentrations of copper ion solutions resulted in distinct kinetics and release mechanisms. The increase in copper cation concentration promoted, but the presence of the chitosan layer on the microcapsule surface and the increase in microcapsule size reduced the rate of active agent release. Fitting to simple Korsmeyer-Peppas empirical model revealed that the underlying release mechanism (Fickian diffusion or a combination of the diffusion and erosion mechanisms) depends on the copper cation concentration and presence of T. viride spores. The investigation pointed out that the proper selection of formulation variables helps in designing microcapsules with the desirable release of copper ions and T. viride for plant protection and nutrition.

  20. Evaluating Systemic Toxicity in Rabbits after Acute Ocular Exposure to Irritant Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshma Sebastian Cherian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute systemic toxicity via ocular exposure route is not a well understood aspect. Any material/drug/chemical that comes in contact with the eye can evade the first pass metabolism and enter the systemic circulation through the conjunctival blood vessels or via the nasolacrimal route. In this study, the effect of ocular irritant chemicals on the systemic toxicity was assessed in rabbit. Eyes of rabbits were exposed to known ocular irritant (cetyl pyridinium chloride, sodium salicylate, imidazole, acetaminophen, and nicotinamide for 24 h and scored. After a period of 72 h, blood was collected from the animals for examining the hematological and biochemical parameters. The animals were then sacrificed and the eyes were collected for histopathology and cytokine analysis by ELISA. Splenocyte proliferation was assessed by tritiated thymidine incorporation assay. The liver and brain of the treated animals were retrieved for evaluating oxidative damage. The chemicals showed moderate to severe eye irritation. Inflammation was not evident in the histopathology but proinflammatory markers were significantly high. The splenocyte proliferation capacity was undeterred. And there was minimal oxidative stress in the brain and liver. In conclusion, acute exposure of ocular irritants was incapable of producing a prominent systemic side effect in the current scenario.

  1. Acute oral toxicity of chemicals in terrestrial life stages of amphibians: Comparisons to birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Mark; Finnegan, Meaghean; Weltje, Lennart; Kosmala-Grzechnik, Sylwia; Gross, Melanie; Wheeler, James R

    2016-10-01

    Amphibians are currently the most threatened and rapidly declining group of vertebrates and this has raised concerns about their potential sensitivity and exposure to plant protection products and other chemicals. Current environmental risk assessment procedures rely on surrogate species (e.g. fish and birds) to cover the risk to aquatic and terrestrial life stages of amphibians, respectively. Whilst a recent meta-analysis has shown that in most cases amphibian aquatic life stages are less sensitive to chemicals than fish, little research has been conducted on the comparative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages. Therefore, in this paper we address the questions "What is the relative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages to acute chemical oral exposure when compared with mammals and birds?" and "Are there correlations between oral toxicity data for amphibians and data for mammals or birds?" Identifying a relationship between these data may help to avoid additional vertebrate testing. Acute oral amphibian toxicity data collected from the scientific literature and ecotoxicological databases were compared with toxicity data for mammals and birds. Toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages are generally sparse, as noted in previous reviews. Single-dose oral toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages were available for 26 chemicals and these were positively correlated with LD50 values for mammals, while no correlation was found for birds. Further, the data suggest that oral toxicity to terrestrial amphibian life stages is similar to or lower than that for mammals and birds, with a few exceptions. Thus, mammals or birds are considered adequate toxicity surrogates for use in the assessment of the oral exposure route in amphibians. However, there is a need for further data on a wider range of chemicals to explore the wider applicability of the current analyses and recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Release Kinetic in Yogurt from Gallic Acid Microparticles with Chemically Modified Inulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Paula; Vergara, Cristina; Robert, Paz

    2015-10-01

    Gallic acid (GA) was encapsulated with native (NIn), cross-linked (CIn) and acetylated (AIn) inulin by spray-drying. Inulin microparticles were characterized by encapsulation efficiency (EE) and their release profile in yogurt. The EE was significantly higher for GA-CIn (98%) compared with GA-NIn (81%) and GA-AIn (77%) microparticles, showing the effect of the modification of inulin on interaction of GA-polymer. GA release profile data in yogurt for GA-CIn, GA-NIn and GA-AIn were fitted to Peppas and Higuchi models in order to obtain the GA release rate constant. Although the GA release rate constants were significantly different among systems, these differences were slight and the GA release was fast (80% yogurt. The mechanism of GA release followed a Fickian diffusion and relaxation of chains for all microparticles. According to the release profile, these microparticles would be best suited for use in instant foods. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part I. Acute toxicity of five chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, F.J.; Mayer, F.L.; Sappington, L.C.; Buckler, D.R.; Bridges, C.M.; Greer, I.E.; Hardesty, D.K.; Henke, C.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kunz, J.L.; Whites, D.W.; Augspurger, T.; Mount, D.R.; Hattala, K.; Neuderfer, G.N.

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of contaminant impacts to federally identified endangered, threatened and candidate, and state-identified endangered species (collectively referred to as "listed" species) requires understanding of a species' sensitivities to particular chemicals. The most direct approach would be to determine the sensitivity of a listed species to a particular contaminant or perturbation. An indirect approach for aquatic species would be application of toxicity data obtained from standard test procedures and species commonly used in laboratory toxicity tests. Common test species (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus; and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) and 17 listed or closely related species were tested in acute 96-hour water exposures with five chemicals (carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin) representing a broad range of toxic modes of action. No single species was the most sensitive to all chemicals. For the three standard test species evaluated, the rainbow trout was more sensitive than either the fathead minnow or sheepshead minnow and was equal to or more sensitive than listed and related species 81% of the time. To estimate an LC50 for a listed species, a factor of 0.63 can be applied to the geometric mean LC50 of rainbow trout toxicity data, and more conservative factors can be determined using variance estimates (0.46 based on 1 SD of the mean and 0.33 based on 2 SD of the mean). Additionally, a low- or no-acute effect concentration can be estimated by multiplying the respective LC50 by a factor of approximately 0.56, which supports the United States Environmental Protection Agency approach of multiplying the final acute value by 0.5 (division by 2). When captive or locally abundant populations of listed fish are available, consideration should be given to direct testing. When direct toxicity testing cannot be performed, approaches for developing protective measures using common test

  4. Evaluation of umbilical cord serum therapy in acute ocular chemical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Namrata; Goel, Manik; Velpandian, Thirumurthy; Titiyal, Jeewan S; Tandon, Radhika; Vajpayee, Rasik B

    2011-02-25

    To evaluate the role of umbilical cord serum therapy in cases of acute ocular chemical burns. In a double-blind prospective randomized controlled clinical study, 33 eyes of 32 patients with acute ocular chemical burns of grade III, IV, and V severity were randomized into three groups: umbilical cord serum (n = 12), autologous serum (n = 11), and artificial tears (0.5% HPMC+0.3% glycerin; n = 10). In addition, all eyes received standard medical therapy. The parameters evaluated were pain score, size, and area of epithelial defect, extent of limbal ischemia, corneal clarity, and symblepharon formation. The patients were followed up at day 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 and at the end of months 1, 2, and 3. Mean time to complete epithelialization was 21.16 ± 26.81, 56.6 ± 35.5, and 40.13 ± 35.79 days in cord serum, autologous serum, and artificial tears groups respectively (P = 0.02). By day 21, the mean percentage decrease in epithelial defect diameter was 94.63 ± 11.99 with cord serum compared with 53.17 ± 34.81 and 64.22 ± 42.43 with autologous serum and artificial tears, respectively (P = 0.01). By month 3, the extent of limbal ischemia with cord serum showed a mean percentage decrease of 73.43 ± 25.51 compared with 35.64 ± 25.60 and 43.71 ± 28.71 with autologous serum and artificial tears, respectively (P = 0.008). More patients had clear corneas with cord serum compared with autologous serum and artificial tears (P = 0.048). No significant difference was seen between the groups with regard to symblepharon formation (P = 0.07). Umbilical cord serum therapy is more effective than autologous serum eye drops or artificial tears in ocular surface restoration after acute chemical injuries. (www.controlled-trials.com number, ISRCTN08131903.).

  5. Chemical Safety Alert: Hazards of Ammonia Releases at Ammonia Refrigeration Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anhydrous ammonia is used as a refrigerant in mechanical compression systems, often liquefied under pressure which increases exposure risk due to potential for rapid release into the air as a toxic gas.

  6. Chemical evolution. XXI - The amino acids released on hydrolysis of HCN oligomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, J. P.; Wos, J. D.; Nooner, D. W.; Oro, J.

    1974-01-01

    Major amino acids released by hydrolysis of acidic and basic HCN oligomers are identified by chromatography as Gly, Asp, and diaminosuccinic acid. Smaller amounts of Ala, Ile and alpha-aminoisobutyric acid are also detected. The amino acids released did not change appreciably when the hydrolysis medium was changed from neutral to acidic or basic. The presence of both meso and d, l-diaminosuccinic acids was established by paper chromatography and on an amino acid analyzer.

  7. Effects of Sediment Chemical Properties on Phosphorus Release Rates in the Sediment-Water Interface of the Steppe Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Su, Derong; Lv, Shihai; Diao, Zhaoyan; Xie, Jingjie; Luo, Yan

    2017-11-22

    Rising temperature causes a process of phosphorus release, which can be characterized well using phosphorus release rates (V P ). The objective of the present study was to investigate the major factors affecting sediment phosphorus release rates through a wetland habitat simulation experiment. The results showed that the V P of different wetland sediments were different and changed with the order of W-R (river wetland) > W-L (lake wetland) > W-M (grassy marsh wetland) > W-A (reservoir wetland). The main driving factors which influenced sediment phosphorus flux velocity in the sediment-water interface were sediment B-SO₄ 2- , B-MBN and A-MBP content. Path analysis and determination coefficient analysis indicated the standard multiple regression equation for sediment phosphorus release rates in the sediment-water interface, and each main factor was Y = -0.105 + 0.096X₁ + 0.275X₂ - 0.010X₃ ( r = 0.416, p phosphorus release rates; X₁ is sediment B-SO₄ 2- content; X₂ is sediment B-MBN; and X₃ is sediment A-MBP content. Sediment B-SO₄ 2- , B-MBN and A-MBP content and the interaction between them were the main factors affecting sediment phosphorus release rates in the sediment-water interface. Therefore, these results suggest that soil chemical properties and microbial activities likely play an important role in phosphorus release rates in the sediment-water interface. We hope to provide effective scientific management and control methods for relevant environmental protection departments.

  8. Effects of Sediment Chemical Properties on Phosphorus Release Rates in the Sediment-Water Interface of the Steppe Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Rising temperature causes a process of phosphorus release, which can be characterized well using phosphorus release rates (VP. The objective of the present study was to investigate the major factors affecting sediment phosphorus release rates through a wetland habitat simulation experiment. The results showed that the VP of different wetland sediments were different and changed with the order of W–R (river wetland > W–L (lake wetland > W–M (grassy marsh wetland > W–A (reservoir wetland. The main driving factors which influenced sediment phosphorus flux velocity in the sediment–water interface were sediment B-SO42−, B-MBN and A-MBP content. Path analysis and determination coefficient analysis indicated the standard multiple regression equation for sediment phosphorus release rates in the sediment–water interface, and each main factor was Y = −0.105 + 0.096X1 + 0.275X2 − 0.010X3 (r = 0.416, p < 0.01, n = 144, where Y is sediment phosphorus release rates; X1 is sediment B-SO42− content; X2 is sediment B-MBN; and X3 is sediment A-MBP content. Sediment B-SO42−, B-MBN and A-MBP content and the interaction between them were the main factors affecting sediment phosphorus release rates in the sediment–water interface. Therefore, these results suggest that soil chemical properties and microbial activities likely play an important role in phosphorus release rates in the sediment–water interface. We hope to provide effective scientific management and control methods for relevant environmental protection departments.

  9. Chemical shift selective magnetic resonance imaging of the optic nerve in patients with acute optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, H B; Thomsen, C; Frederiksen, J

    1988-01-01

    of the 16 patients, abnormalities were seen. In one patient with bilateral symptoms, signal hyperintensity and swelling of the right side of the chiasm were found. In another patient the optic nerve was found diffusely enlarged with only a marginally increased signal in the second echo. In the third patient......Optic neuritis is often the first manifestation of multiple sclerosis (MS). Sixteen patients with acute optic neuritis and one patient with benign intracranial hypertension (BIH) were investigated by magnetic resonance imaging, using a chemical shift selective double spin echo sequence. In 3...... an area of signal hyperintensity and swelling was seen in the left optic nerve. In the patient with BIH the subarachnoid space which surrounds the optic nerves was enlarged. Even using this refined pulse sequence, avoiding the major artefact in imaging the optic nerve, the chemical shift artefact, lesions...

  10. Flavor release measurement by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometry, construction of interface and mathematical modeling of release profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anne-Mette; Madsen, Henrik; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    An instrumental on-line retronasal flavor analysis was developed to obtain information about the release of flavor compounds in expired air from humans during eating. The volatile flavor compounds were measured by ion trap mass spectrometry with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source...... (APCI). An interface was designed to sample the breath directly from the nose. The repeat-ability in vitro for seven different flavor compounds came out with relative standard derivation less than 10% in most cases, which is acceptable. In vitro quantification was carried out by a determination...... of the concentration in the gas phase over a flavor solution by GC/MS, followed by measurements of intensities by the APCI ion trap. Ion suppression by acetone in the breath was negligible at concentration levels relevant in these experiments. The instrumental limits of detection for menthone and menthol coincide...

  11. Acute antioxidant pre-treatment attenuates endothelial microparticle release after decompression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrismas, Bryna Cr; Midgley, Adrian W; Taylor, Lee; Vince, Rebecca V; Laden, Gerard; Madden, Leigh A

    2010-12-01

    The hyperbaric and hyperoxic effects of a dive have been demonstrated to elicit changes in oxidative stress, endothelial function and microparticle (MP) release. Endothelial MP, which are small membrane vesicles shed from the endothelium, have been suggested as a valid in vivo marker of endothelial function. Furthermore, recent research has shown an increase in CD105 MP post-dive to be associated with a decline in endothelial function. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether antioxidant (AOX) pre-treatment can attenuate increased CD105 MP release post-dive. Five healthy, male, pressure-naive subjects completed two simulated dives (control and intervention) breathing compressed air to a depth of 18 metres' sea water for 80 min. For the intervention dive, all subjects received a commercially available AOX pill containing vitamins C and E, selenium and beta-carotene 2 h pre-dive. CD105 MP, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and thiobarbituric reactive substances assay (TBARS) were determined pre-dive, at depth, immediately and 4 h post-dive. In the control dive, there was a significant increase in CD105 MP immediately post-dive when compared with at depth (P < 0.001) and pre-dive (P = 0.039) values. Antioxidant pre-treatment significantly attenuated this release of CD105 MP post-decompression (P = 0.002). There were no significant changes in TBARS or TAC. These results may provide evidence of the potential use of AOX pre-treatment as an effective endothelial pre-conditioner for divers.

  12. ACUTRI: a computer code for assessing doses to the general public due to acute tritium releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Sumi; Noguchi, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Ryufuku, Susumu; Sasaki, Toshihisa; Kurosawa, Naohiro [Visible Information Center, Inc., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    Tritium, which is used as a fuel of a D-T burning fusion reactor, is the most important radionuclide for the safety assessment of a nuclear fusion experimental reactor such as ITER. Thus, a computer code, ACUTRI, which calculates the radiological impact of tritium released accidentally to the atmosphere, has been developed, aiming to be of use in a discussion of licensing of a fusion experimental reactor and an environmental safety evaluation method in Japan. ACUTRI calculates an individual tritium dose based on transfer models specific to tritium in the environment and ICRP dose models. In this calculation it is also possible to analyze statistically on meteorology in the same way as a conventional dose assessment method according to the meteorological guide of the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan. A Gaussian plume model is used for calculating the atmospheric dispersion of tritium gas (HT) and/or tritiated water (HTO). The environmental pathway model in ACUTRI considers the following internal exposures: inhalation from a primary plume (HT and/or HTO) released from the facilities and inhalation from a secondary plume (HTO) reemitted from the ground following deposition of HT and HTO. This report describes an outline of the ACUTRI code, a user guide and the results of test calculation. (author)

  13. Neutrophil-derived microparticles are released into the coronary circulation following percutaneous coronary intervention in acute coronary syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Gonzalo J; Barraclough, Jennifer Y; Nakhla, Shirley; Kienzle, Vivian; Robertson, Stacy; Mallat, Ziad; Celermajer, David S; Patel, Sanjay

    2017-02-28

    To evaluate (i) local coronary and systemic levels of microparticles (MP) in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and stable angina pectoris (SAP) patients and (ii) their release after plaque disruption with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). MP are small vesicles originating from plasma membranes of cells after activation or apoptosis and are implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Neutrophils play a role in plaque destabilization and shed neutrophil-derived MP that have the potential to drive significant proinflammatory and thrombotic downstream effects. Eight ACS and eight SAP patients were included. Coronary sinus (CS) samples pre-intervention (CS1), 45 s following balloon angioplasty (CS2) and at 45 s intervals following stent deployment (CS3, CS4 and CS5), together with peripheral vein samples, pre- and post-PCI were analysed for neutrophil-derived (CD66b+), endothelial-derived (CD144+), platelet-derived (CD41a+), monocyte-derived (CD14+) and apoptotic (Annexin V+) MP. ELISA for interleukin (IL)-6, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and P-selectin was also performed. CD66b+ MP levels were similar in both groups pre-intervention. Post-PCI, CS levels rose significantly in ACS but not SAP patients (ACS area under the curve (AUC): 549 ± 83, SAP AUC: 24 ± 29, Pderived MP release post-PCI occurs in ACS compared with stable patients, likely to be reflective of plaque MP content in vulnerable lesions. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Release kinetics of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in a clinical model of acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebetrau, Christoph; Gaede, Luise; Dörr, Oliver; Troidl, Christian; Voss, Sandra; Hoffmann, Jedrzej; Paszko, Agata; Weber, Michael; Rolf, Andreas; Hamm, Christian; Nef, Holger; Möllmann, Helge

    2014-02-15

    N-terminal segment of B-type natriuretic peptide prohormone (NT-proBNP) is elevated in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) thus providing both diagnostic information and prognostic information. The aim of the present study was to determine the time course of NT-proBNP release in patients undergoing transcoronary ablation of septal hypertrophy (TASH) a procedure mimicking AMI. We analyzed the release kinetics of NT-proBNP in 18 consecutive patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy undergoing TASH. Serum samples were collected prior to and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, and 105 min, and 2, 4, 8, and 24h after TASH. NT-proBNP concentrations showed a continuous increase during the first 75 min with a significant percent change compared to baseline value already 15 min after TASH (105.6% [IQR 102.2-112.7]; Pmax]: 103.5-137.2%; range of absolute increase [min-max]: 23.5-304.0 ng/L). NT-proBNP concentrations decreased below the baseline value until the 8th h after initiation of myocardial infarction. NT-proBNP concentration increases immediately after induction of myocardial infarction proving early evidence of myocardial injury despite the decrease of the left ventricular wall stress due to the TASH related reduction of the left ventricular outflow gradient. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Carbon monoxide-Releasing Molecule-2 (CORM-2 attenuates acute hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Weihui

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/Ri is a serious complication occurring during liver surgery that may lead to liver failure. Hepatic I/Ri induces formation of reactive oxygen species, hepatocyte apoptosis, and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which together causes liver damage and organ dysfunction. A potential strategy to alleviate hepatic I/Ri is to exploit the potent anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects of carbon monoxide (CO by application of so-called CO-releasing molecules (CORMs. Here, we assessed whether CO released from CORM-2 protects against hepatic I/Ri in a rat model. Methods Forty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups (n = 10. Sham group underwent a sham operation and received saline. I/R group underwent hepatic I/R procedure by partial clamping of portal structures to the left and median lobes with a microvascular clip for 60 minutes, yielding ~70% hepatic ischemia and subsequently received saline. CORM-2 group underwent the same procedure and received 8 mg/kg of CORM-2 at time of reperfusion. iCORM-2 group underwent the same procedure and received iCORM-2 (8 mg/kg, which does not release CO. Therapeutic effects of CORM-2 on hepatic I/Ri was assessed by measuring serum damage markers AST and ALT, liver histology score, TUNEL-scoring of apoptotic cells, NFkB-activity in nuclear liver extracts, serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, and hepatic neutrophil infiltration. Results A single systemic infusion with CORM-2 protected the liver from I/Ri as evidenced by a reduction in serum AST/ALT levels and an improved liver histology score. Treatment with CORM-2 also up-regulated expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, down-regulated caspase-3 activation, and significantly reduced the levels of apoptosis after I/Ri. Furthermore, treatment with CORM-2 significantly inhibited the activity of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB as measured in

  16. ACUTRI a computer code for assessing doses to the general public due to acute tritium releases

    CERN Document Server

    Yokoyama, S; Noguchi, H; Ryufuku, S; Sasaki, T

    2002-01-01

    Tritium, which is used as a fuel of a D-T burning fusion reactor, is the most important radionuclide for the safety assessment of a nuclear fusion experimental reactor such as ITER. Thus, a computer code, ACUTRI, which calculates the radiological impact of tritium released accidentally to the atmosphere, has been developed, aiming to be of use in a discussion of licensing of a fusion experimental reactor and an environmental safety evaluation method in Japan. ACUTRI calculates an individual tritium dose based on transfer models specific to tritium in the environment and ICRP dose models. In this calculation it is also possible to analyze statistically on meteorology in the same way as a conventional dose assessment method according to the meteorological guide of the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan. A Gaussian plume model is used for calculating the atmospheric dispersion of tritium gas (HT) and/or tritiated water (HTO). The environmental pathway model in ACUTRI considers the following internal exposures: i...

  17. Kinetic, spectroscopic and chemical modification study of iron release from transferrin; iron(III) complexation to adenosine triphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.P.

    1985-01-01

    Amino acids other than those that serve as ligands have been found to influence the chemical properties of transferrin iron. The catalytic ability of pyrophosphate to mediate transferrin iron release to a terminal acceptor is largely quenched by modification non-liganded histine groups on the protein. The first order rate constants of iron release for several partially histidine modified protein samples were measured. A statistical method was employed to establish that one non-liganded histidine per metal binding domain was responsible for the reduction in rate constant. These results imply that the iron mediated chelator, pyrophosphate, binds directly to a histidine residue on the protein during the iron release process. EPR spectroscopic results are consistent with this interpretation. Kinetic and amino acid sequence studies of ovotransferrin and lactoferrin, in addition to human serum transferrin, have allowed the tentative assignment of His-207 in the N-terminal domain and His-535 in the C-terminal domain as the groups responsible for the reduction in rate of iron release. The above concepts have been extended to lysine modified transferrin. Complexation of iron(II) to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was also studied to gain insight into the nature of iron-ATP species present at physiological pH. 31 P NMR spectra are observed when ATP is presented in large excess

  18. Kinetics Study of Solid Ammonia Borane Hydrogen Release – Modeling and Experimental Validation for Chemical Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong-Joon; Ronnebro, Ewa; Rassat, Scot D.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Maupin, Gary D.; Holladay, Jamelyn D.; Simmons, Kevin L.; Brooks, Kriston P.

    2014-02-24

    Ammonia borane (AB), NH3BH3, is a promising material for chemical hydrogen storage with 19.6 wt% gravimetric hydrogen capacity of which 16.2 wt% hydrogen can be utilized below 200°C. We have investigated the kinetics of hydrogen release from AB and from an AB-methyl cellulose (AB/MC) composite at temperatures of 160-300°C using both experiments and modeling. The purpose of our study was to show safe hydrogen release without thermal runaway effects and to validate system model kinetics. AB/MC released hydrogen at ~20°C lower than neat AB and at a rate that is two times faster. Based on the experimental results, the kinetics equations were revised to better represent the growth and nucleation process during decomposition of AB. We explored two different reactor concepts; Auger and fixed bed. The current Auger reactor concept turned out to not be appropriate, however, we demonstrated safe self-propagation of the hydrogen release reaction of solid AB/MC in a fixed bed reactor.

  19. Acute toxicity of fire control chemicals to Daphnia magna(Straus) and Selenastrum capricornutum(Printz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Susan F.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Heisinger, James F.

    1996-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted exposingDaphnia magnaStraus (daphnid) in soft and hard reconstituted waters (hardness 42 and 162 mg/liter as CaCO3, respectively), andSelenastrum capricornutumPrintz (algae) in ASTM algal assay medium (hardness 15 mg/liter as CaCO3) to fire retardants Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F, and foam suppressants Phos-Chek WD-881 and Silv-Ex. The chemicals were slightly toxic to practically harmless to daphnids and moderately toxic to algae. Water quality did not consistently alter the toxicity of the test chemicals to daphnids. The most toxic chemical to daphnids was Silv-Ex (48-hr EC507 mg/liter in soft and hard waters), whereas the least toxic chemical to daphnids was Fire-Trol LCG-R (48-hr EC50848 mg/liter in soft water, 813 mg/liter in hard water). The most toxic chemical to algae was Fire-Trol LCG-R (96-hr IC5010 mg/liter), and the least toxic chemical was Phos-Chek D75-F (96-hr IC5079 mg/liter). Un-ionized ammonia concentrations near the EC50or IC50value in tests with the Fire-Trol compounds were frequently equal to or above reported LC50un-ionized ammonia concentrations. Un-ionized ammonia concentrations in tests with Phos-Chek D75-F were low, thus other toxic components present in the compounds probably contributed to the toxicity. When compared to the daphnids tested in ASTM soft water, the Fire-Trol compounds were most toxic to algae, whereas Phos-Chek D75-F and the foam suppressants were most toxic to daphnids. The results of these tests are comparable to those obtained from research conducted in other laboratories with the same species and similar chemicals. Accidental entry of fire-fighting chemicals into aquatic environments could adversely affect algae and aquatic invertebrates, thus disrupting ecosystem function.

  20. Release patterns of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A in patients with acute coronary syndromes assessed by an optimized monoclonal antibody assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Mikkel; Iversen, Kasper; Teisner, Ane

    2008-01-01

    Objective. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) is expressed in eroded and ruptured atheromatous plaques, and circulating levels are elevated in acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Our objective was to investigate release patterns of PAPP-A in ACS and whether they differ among different types...

  1. A dynamic compartment model for evaluating transfer of radionuclide into rice-plant after acute release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keum, D.K.; Lee, H.S.; Choi, H.J.; Kang, H.S.; Lee, C.W.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a dynamic compartment model is presented to estimate the transfer of radionuclides deposited on rice-fields after an accidental release. The present model includes a surface water compartment and a direct shoot-base absorption from the surface water to the rice plant to account for the flooded condition of rice-fields, which are major features discriminating the present model from the existing model. In order to test the validity of model, a number of simulated Cs-137 deposition experiments were performed while growing rice-plant in a green house. For the experiments the radionuclide was indirectly treated in the root zone soil before transplanting and on the surface water without a direct contamination of rice-plant after transplanting. In the first year of deposition the shoot-base absorption was a predominant process for the transfer of radionuclide into rice when the radionuclide was treated on the surface water, and from the second year, the root-uptake was dominant. The model calculation predicted reasonably well the first year experimental result showing the importance of shoot base absorption as well as the concentration of rice-body and grain measured from respective rice-plant grown consecutively on the contaminated soils for years. (author)

  2. Chemical Characterization and Release Efficiency of Defatted Mustard Meals: 2000-2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morra, M. J.

    2005-07-01

    Glucosinolates, compounds that occur in agronomically important crops, may represent a viable source of allelochemic control for various soil-borne plant pests. Toxicity is not attributed to intact glucosinolates, but instead to biologically active products such as isothiocyanates (ITCs), organic cyanides, oxazolidinethiones, and ionic thiocyanate (SCN-) released upon enzymatic degradation by myrosinase (thioglucoside glucohydrolase, EC 3.2.3.1) in the presence of water.

  3. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  4. Technogenic radionuclides of Chernobyl NPP accidental release and their physical and chemical forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Lypska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of radionuclides in the vertical soil profile on the nearest Chernobyl NPP zone of alienation was investigated. It is showed experimentally that the main activity of radionuclides is concentrated in the topsoil (10 сm. Coefficients of accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr radionuclides by plants are estimated. The physico-chemical forms of radionuclides in soil and plants were defined using the method of sequential chemical extraction. It was established that the main contents of 137Cs and 90Sr in soils are represented in non-exchange and fixed forms, in plants - mainly in exchange-adsorption and organic forms.

  5. Investigation of Acute Toxicity of a Chemical Warfare Agent in Kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Topal

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important chemical warfare agents, sulfur mustard (SM causes crucial acute and chronic toxic effects. Lung, skin, eye and kidneys are the most affected organs. In this work, it was investigated if increased nitric oxide (NO and peroxynitrite are involved in nitrogen mustard (NM induced kidney damage. In this experimen, aminoguanidine (AG as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS inhibitor and ebselen as peroxynitrite scavenger were used. NM administration resulted in important oxidant and antioxidant changes as well as tissue damage in kidneys. Therapeutic agents showed significant protection and reduced oxidant parameteres leading to tissue healing was observed. Results of this study suggest that drugs with similar properties can be used to protect kidney damage caused by NM. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 227-232

  6. Investigation of Acute Toxicity of a Chemical Warfare Agent in Kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Topal

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important chemical warfare agents, sulfur mustard (SM causes crucial acute and chronic toxic effects. Lung, skin, eye and kidneys are the most affected organs. In this work, it was investigated if increased nitric oxide (NO and peroxynitrite are involved in nitrogen mustard (NM induced kidney damage. In this experimen, aminoguanidine (AG as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS inhibitor and ebselen as peroxynitrite scavenger were used. NM administration resulted in important oxidant and antioxidant changes as well as tissue damage in kidneys. Therapeutic agents showed significant protection and reduced oxidant parameteres leading to tissue healing was observed. Results of this study suggest that drugs with similar properties can be used to protect kidney damage caused by NM. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 227-232

  7. Real-Time Measurement of Volatile Chemicals Released by Bed Bugs during Mating Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole Østerlund; Liu, Dezhao; Adamsen, Anders Peter

    2012-01-01

    mass spectrometry recordings were always observed close to the termination of mating attempts, corresponding to the defensive emissions that bed bugs have been suspected to exploit for prevention of unwanted copulations. The main components of these emissions were (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal...... observed in the ratio or the amount of the two components released from males or females. In summary, this study has demonstrated that combining proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry with video analysis can provide detailed information about semiochemicals emitted during specific behavioural...

  8. Identification of Predictive Biomarkers for Cytokine Release Syndrome after Chimeric Antigen Receptor T cell Therapy for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teachey, David T.; Lacey, Simon F.; Shaw, Pamela A.; Melenhorst, J. Joseph; Maude, Shannon L.; Frey, Noelle; Pequignot, Edward; Gonzalez, Vanessa E.; Chen, Fang; Finklestein, Jeffrey; Barrett, David M.; Weiss, Scott L.; Fitzgerald, Julie C.; Berg, Robert A.; Aplenc, Richard; Callahan, Colleen; Rheingold, Susan R.; Zheng, Zhaohui; Rose-John, Stefan; White, Jason C.; Nazimuddin, Farzana; Wertheim, Gerald; Levine, Bruce L.; June, Carl H.; Porter, David L.; Grupp, Stephan A.

    2017-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells with anti-CD19 specificity are a highly effective novel immune therapy for relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) is the most significant and life-threatening toxicity. To improve understanding of CRS, we measured cytokines and clinical biomarkers in 51 CTL019-treated patients. Peak levels of 24 cytokines, including IFNγ, IL6, sgp130, and sIL6R in the first month after infusion were highly associated with severe CRS. Using regression modeling, we could accurately predict which patients would develop severe CRS with a signature composed of three cytokines. Results validated in an independent cohort. Changes in serum biochemical markers, including C-reactive protein and ferritin, were associated with CRS but failed to predict development of severe CRS. These comprehensive profiling data provide novel insights into CRS biology, and importantly represent the first data that can accurately predict which patients have a high probability of becoming critically ill. PMID:27076371

  9. Characterizing the physio-chemical properties and release kinetics of dissolved organic carbon from thermally treated soils in arid climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retuta, A.; Webster, J.; McKay, G.; Rosario-Ortiz, F.

    2016-12-01

    The soil matrix contains a significant portion of the global terrestrial carbon reservoir. Potential shifts in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations from incoming raw water sources have severe implications for downstream water treatment facilities and, ultimately, for public health. The process through which DOC desorbs from the soil surface is a topic that lacks widespread consensus; understanding the structural and chemical properties is a crucial step to obtaining both consensus and consistency in this field. The aim of this study is two-fold: to thoroughly profile the physical and chemical properties of DOC from both unperturbed and thermally treated soils and to assess the release kinetics of DOC from the soil surface into solution. The goal was to attempt to systematically, carefully, and fundamentally characterize the soil-solution transference of carbon to inform future studies of this phenomena in a changing and perturbed environment. To accomplish the first objective of this study, soil from three different geographical locations in the Western United States were sampled, processed, and partitioned with portions of it undergoing thermal treatment. Both unperturbed and thermally treated samples were leached in simulated a rain water solution prior to filtration and analyzed for ultra-violet (UV) absorbance and fluorescence spectra to evaluate the physical and chemical properties of the desorbed carbon. The photochemical reactivity of the desorbed DOC in solution was also analyzed by measuring the production of reactive intermediates (RI). To accomplish the second objective, both unperturbed and thermally treated soil samples were leached in a sufficient volume of solution in order to extract 40 mL of leachate in timed increments of 5, 15, 30, 60, and 120 minutes. These leachates were analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC) content and the release kinetics of both soil types were assessed. The results of this study served as critical information in

  10. Acute exposure to chemical substances and the occurrence of chronic health effects. A report from an RIVM workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaij MTM van; Bruggen M; Jansen PJCM; Ruijten MMWM; Vries I de; SIR; SEC; MGO; IMD; NVIC

    2003-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the presentations and the discussion at the RIVM workshop "Acute exposure and chronic effects". A single exposure to chemical substances can potentially induce long lasting health effects (e.g. developmental toxicity, carcinogenicity, immunotoxicity, allergy).

  11. Review of acute chemical incidents as a first step in evaluating the usefulness of physiologically based pharmacokinetic models in such incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunault, C. C.; Boerleider, R. Z.; Hof, B. G H; Kliest, J. J G; Meijer, M.; Nijhuis, N. J.; De Vries, I.; Meulenbelt, J.

    2014-01-01

    Context. Acute chemical incidents can have substantial public health consequences in terms of morbidity and mortality. Objective. We aimed to characterize acute chemical incidents and near-misses in the Netherlands and compare the results with previous studies. This review is a first step in

  12. Impact of bioavailability on the correlation between in vitro cytotoxic and in vivo acute fish toxic concentrations of chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guelden, Michael; Seibert, Hasso

    2005-01-01

    The lower sensitivity of in vitro cytotoxicity assays currently restricts their use as alternative to the fish acute toxicity assays for hazard assessment of chemicals in the aquatic environment. In vitro cytotoxic potencies mostly refer to nominal concentrations. The main objective of the present study was to investigate, whether a reduced availability of chemicals in vitro can account for the lower sensitivity of in vitro toxicity test systems. For this purpose, the bioavailable free fractions of the nominal cytotoxic concentrations (EC 50 ) of chemicals determined with a cytotoxicity test system using Balb/c 3T3 cells and the corresponding free cytotoxic concentrations (ECu 50 ) were calculated. The algorithm applied is based on a previously developed simple equilibrium distribution model for chemicals in cell cultures with serum-supplemented culture media. This model considers the distribution of chemicals between water, lipids and serum albumin. The algorithm requires the relative lipid volume of the test system, the octanol-water partition coefficient (K ow ) and the in vitro albumin-bound fraction of the chemicals. The latter was determined from EC 50 -measurements in the presence of different albumin concentrations with the Balb/c 3T3 test system. Organic chemicals covering a wide range of cytotoxic potency (EC 50 : 0.16-527000 μM) and lipophilicity (log K ow : -5.0-6.96) were selected, for which fish acute toxicity data (LC 50 -values) from at least one of the three fish species, medaka, rainbow trout and fathead minnow, respectively, were available. The availability of several chemicals was shown to be extensively reduced either by partitioning into lipids or by serum albumin binding, or due to both mechanisms. Reduction of bioavailability became more important with increasing cytotoxic potency. The sensitivity of the Balb/c 3T3 cytotoxicity assay and the correspondence between in vivo and in vitro toxic potencies were increased when the free cytotoxic

  13. How Do I Know? A Guide to the Selection of Personal Protective Equipment for Use in Responding to A Release of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, C.B.

    1999-05-01

    An incident involving chemical warfare agents requires a unique hazardous materials (HAZMAT) response. As with an HAZMAT event, federal regulations prescribe that responders must be protected from exposure to the chemical agents. But unlike other HAZMAT events, special considerations govern selection of personal protective equipment (PPE). PPE includes all clothing, respirators and monitoring devices used to respond to a chemical release. PPE can differ depending on whether responders are military or civilian personnel.

  14. Chemical composition, acute toxicity, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Moroccan Tetraclinis articulata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem El Jemli

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydro-distilled essential oil (EO from the leaves of the western Mediterranean and Moroccan endemic plant Tetraclinis articulata was analyzed by GC/MS and examined for its acute toxicity on mice, in order to establish the safe doses. Furthermore, the anti-Inflammatory activity was evaluated based on carrageenan and trauma induced rats paw edema and the antioxidant potential has been investigated using different methods including DPPH radical-scavenging assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and Ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP. The major identified compounds in GC/MS analysis were bornyl acetate (26.81%, camphor (22.40% and α-pinene (7.16%, with 25 other minor constituents. No mortalities in acute toxicity were observed, indicating that the LD50 of T. articulata essential oil is highest than 5 g/kg. In the anti-inflammatory test based on chemical and mechanical induced trauma, the EO demonstrated an effective reduce swelling by 64.71 ± 9.38% and 69.09 ± 6.02% respectively obtained 6 h after administration at the dose of 200 mg/kg when compared to the control groups. Moreover in the antioxidant testing battery, T. articulata essential oil showed a promising scavenging effect measured by DPPH, TEAC and ferric-reducing power assays with IC50 values of 12.05 ± 0.24 mg/mL, 8.90 ± 0.17 mg/mL and 0.15 ± 0.01 mg/mL respectively. These results suggest that, the EO from the leaves of T. articulata constitutes a valuable source of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant metabolites. These findings argue for the possible integration of this oil in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries.

  15. Chemical composition, acute toxicity, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Moroccan Tetraclinis articulata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Jemli, Meryem; Kamal, Rabie; Marmouzi, Ilias; Doukkali, Zouhra; Bouidida, El Houcine; Touati, Driss; Nejjari, Rachid; El Guessabi, Lahcen; Cherrah, Yahia; Alaoui, Katim

    2017-07-01

    Hydro-distilled essential oil (EO) from the leaves of the western Mediterranean and Moroccan endemic plant Tetraclinis articulata was analyzed by GC/MS and examined for its acute toxicity on mice, in order to establish the safe doses. Furthermore, the anti-Inflammatory activity was evaluated based on carrageenan and trauma induced rats paw edema and the antioxidant potential has been investigated using different methods including DPPH radical-scavenging assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and Ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). The major identified compounds in GC/MS analysis were bornyl acetate (26.81%), camphor (22.40%) and α-pinene (7.16%), with 25 other minor constituents. No mortalities in acute toxicity were observed, indicating that the LD 50 of T. articulata essential oil is highest than 5 g/kg. In the anti-inflammatory test based on chemical and mechanical induced trauma, the EO demonstrated an effective reduce swelling by 64.71 ± 9.38% and 69.09 ± 6.02% respectively obtained 6 h after administration at the dose of 200 mg/kg when compared to the control groups. Moreover in the antioxidant testing battery, T. articulata essential oil showed a promising scavenging effect measured by DPPH, TEAC and ferric-reducing power assays with IC 50 values of 12.05 ± 0.24 mg/mL, 8.90 ± 0.17 mg/mL and 0.15 ± 0.01 mg/mL respectively. These results suggest that, the EO from the leaves of T. articulata constitutes a valuable source of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant metabolites. These findings argue for the possible integration of this oil in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries.

  16. Topical ayurvedic ointment-induced chemical injury presenting as bilateral acute keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Pranita; Saluja, Gunjan; Maharana, Prafulla Kumar; Titiyal, Jeewan S

    2017-08-20

    A 40-years-old female patient was referred to the cornea clinic as a probable case of bilateral keratitis. The patient had a history of headache followed by acute onset of redness, pain and discharge from both eyes for 15 days. The patient was diagnosed as bilateral keratitis by the first contact physician and was started on topical antibiotics, cycloplegics and lubricating eye-drops. At presentation, both eyes had visual acuity of perception of light, conjunctival congestion, limbal blanching, diffuse corneal oedema and epithelial defect. A detailed history revealed application of Vicks VapoRub [topical ayurvedic analgesic which contains (per 100 g of product) menthol (2.82 g), camphor (5.25 g) and eucalyptol (1.49 mL) and excipients include thymol (0.1 g), turpentine oil (5.57 mL), nutmeg oil (0.54 mL), cedar wood oil and petrolatum)] on the forehead and eyelids for headache several times over 2-3 days before the onset. The patient further confirmed the accidental application of the ointment in the eyes. A provisional diagnosis of acute chemical injury with Vicks VapoRub was made and treatment with topical antibiotic, cycloplegic, steroid, lubricant and vitamin C was started. On follow-up, both eyes showed gradual resolution of corneal oedema and epithelial defect. Visual acuity improved in the left eye to 6/60 with no change in right eye due to corneal haze. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Mitochondrial DNA is Released in Urine of SIRS Patients With Acute Kidney Injury and Correlates With Severity of Renal Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Marcel P B; Pulskens, Wilco P; Butter, Loes M; Florquin, Sandrine; Juffermans, Nicole P; Roelofs, Joris J T H; Leemans, Jaklien C

    2018-03-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is characterized by the activation of the innate immune system resulting in stimulation of inflammatory responses, coagulation, and platelet activation that may contribute to complication such as the development of acute kidney injury (AKI). AKI importantly worsens the outcome of SIRS, implying the existence of a detrimental cross talk via systemic messages. Mitochondria are a source of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and are thought to form a molecular link between tissue injury and stimulation of innate immunity. The role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the cross talk between the onset of SIRS and subsequent development of AKI is unknown. Hence, we performed a case control study in critically ill patients with SIRS diagnosed with or without AKI, in which we determined mtDNA levels in plasma and urine, and correlated these to markers of renal impairment, inflammation, coagulation, and platelet activation. In addition, we exposed mice, primary renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs), and platelets to mtDNA or purified mitochondrial ligands, and measured their response to elucidate underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Our data reveal that increased systemic mtDNA levels in SIRS patients do not correlate with systemic inflammation and renal disease activity. Moreover, AKI does not have an additional effect on circulating mtDNA levels. In contrast, we found that urinary mtDNA levels correlate with an elevated albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) as well as with increased urinary markers of inflammation, coagulation, and platelet activation. Both renal TECs and platelets respond to mtDNA and mtDNA ligands, leading to increased expression of, respectively, inflammatory cytokines and P-selectin. Moreover, activation of platelets results in mtDNA release. Together, these data suggest that circulating mtDNA is probably not important in the detrimental cross talk between SIRS and AKI, whereas renal mtDNA accumulation

  18. Contact Antimicrobial Surface Obtained by Chemical Grafting of Microfibrillated Cellulose in Aqueous Solution Limiting Antibiotic Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Seema; Belgacem, Naceur; Mendes, Joana; Elegir, Graziano; Bras, Julien

    2015-08-19

    Contact active surfaces are an innovative tool for developing antibacterial products. Here, the microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) surface was modified with the β-lactam antibiotic benzyl penicillin in aqueous medium to prepare antimicrobial films. Penicillin was grafted on the MFC surface using a suspension of these nanofilaments or directly on films. Films prepared from the penicillin-modified MFC were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, contact angle measurements, elemental analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and tested for antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli. Penicillin-grafted MFC films exhibited successful killing effect on Gram-positive bacteria with 3.5-log reduction whereas bacteriostatic efficiency was found in penicillin-grafted MFC suspension. The zone of inhibition test and leaching dynamic assay demonstrated that penicillin was not diffused into the surrounding media, thus proving that the films were indeed contact active. Thus, penicillin can be chemically bound to the modified substrate surface to produce promising nonleaching antimicrobial systems.

  19. Transport and release of chemicals from plastics to the environment and to wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuten, Emma L; Saquing, Jovita M; Knappe, Detlef R U; Barlaz, Morton A; Jonsson, Susanne; Björn, Annika; Rowland, Steven J; Thompson, Richard C; Galloway, Tamara S; Yamashita, Rei; Ochi, Daisuke; Watanuki, Yutaka; Moore, Charles; Viet, Pham Hung; Tana, Touch Seang; Prudente, Maricar; Boonyatumanond, Ruchaya; Zakaria, Mohamad P; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Ogata, Yuko; Hirai, Hisashi; Iwasa, Satoru; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Hagino, Yuki; Imamura, Ayako; Saha, Mahua; Takada, Hideshige

    2009-07-27

    Plastics debris in the marine environment, including resin pellets, fragments and microscopic plastic fragments, contain organic contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides (2,2'-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane, hexachlorinated hexanes), polybrominated diphenylethers, alkylphenols and bisphenol A, at concentrations from sub ng g(-1) to microg g(-1). Some of these compounds are added during plastics manufacture, while others adsorb from the surrounding seawater. Concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants adsorbed on plastics showed distinct spatial variations reflecting global pollution patterns. Model calculations and experimental observations consistently show that polyethylene accumulates more organic contaminants than other plastics such as polypropylene and polyvinyl chloride. Both a mathematical model using equilibrium partitioning and experimental data have demonstrated the transfer of contaminants from plastic to organisms. A feeding experiment indicated that PCBs could transfer from contaminated plastics to streaked shearwater chicks. Plasticizers, other plastics additives and constitutional monomers also present potential threats in terrestrial environments because they can leach from waste disposal sites into groundwater and/or surface waters. Leaching and degradation of plasticizers and polymers are complex phenomena dependent on environmental conditions in the landfill and the chemical properties of each additive. Bisphenol A concentrations in leachates from municipal waste disposal sites in tropical Asia ranged from sub microg l(-1) to mg l(-1) and were correlated with the level of economic development.

  20. Transport and release of chemicals from plastics to the environment and to wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuten, Emma L.; Saquing, Jovita M.; Knappe, Detlef R. U.; Barlaz, Morton A.; Jonsson, Susanne; Björn, Annika; Rowland, Steven J.; Thompson, Richard C.; Galloway, Tamara S.; Yamashita, Rei; Ochi, Daisuke; Watanuki, Yutaka; Moore, Charles; Viet, Pham Hung; Tana, Touch Seang; Prudente, Maricar; Boonyatumanond, Ruchaya; Zakaria, Mohamad P.; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Ogata, Yuko; Hirai, Hisashi; Iwasa, Satoru; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Hagino, Yuki; Imamura, Ayako; Saha, Mahua; Takada, Hideshige

    2009-01-01

    Plastics debris in the marine environment, including resin pellets, fragments and microscopic plastic fragments, contain organic contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides (2,2′-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane, hexachlorinated hexanes), polybrominated diphenylethers, alkylphenols and bisphenol A, at concentrations from sub ng g–1 to µg g–1. Some of these compounds are added during plastics manufacture, while others adsorb from the surrounding seawater. Concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants adsorbed on plastics showed distinct spatial variations reflecting global pollution patterns. Model calculations and experimental observations consistently show that polyethylene accumulates more organic contaminants than other plastics such as polypropylene and polyvinyl chloride. Both a mathematical model using equilibrium partitioning and experimental data have demonstrated the transfer of contaminants from plastic to organisms. A feeding experiment indicated that PCBs could transfer from contaminated plastics to streaked shearwater chicks. Plasticizers, other plastics additives and constitutional monomers also present potential threats in terrestrial environments because they can leach from waste disposal sites into groundwater and/or surface waters. Leaching and degradation of plasticizers and polymers are complex phenomena dependent on environmental conditions in the landfill and the chemical properties of each additive. Bisphenol A concentrations in leachates from municipal waste disposal sites in tropical Asia ranged from sub µg l–1 to mg l–1 and were correlated with the level of economic development. PMID:19528054

  1. Prediction of pesticide acute toxicity using two-dimensional chemical descriptors and target species classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T M; Lilavois, C R; Barron, M G

    2017-06-01

    Previous modelling of the median lethal dose (oral rat LD 50 ) has indicated that local class-based models yield better correlations than global models. We evaluated the hypothesis that dividing the dataset by pesticidal mechanisms would improve prediction accuracy. A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) based-approach was utilized to assign indicators such as the pesticide target species, mode of action, or target species - mode of action combination. LDA models were able to predict these indicators with about 87% accuracy. Toxicity is predicted utilizing the QSAR model fit to chemicals with that indicator. Toxicity was also predicted using a global hierarchical clustering (HC) approach which divides data set into clusters based on molecular similarity. At a comparable prediction coverage (~94%), the global HC method yielded slightly higher prediction accuracy (r 2 = 0.50) than the LDA method (r 2 ~ 0.47). A single model fit to the entire training set yielded the poorest results (r 2 = 0.38), indicating that there is an advantage to clustering the dataset to predict acute toxicity. Finally, this study shows that whilst dividing the training set into subsets (i.e. clusters) improves prediction accuracy, it may not matter which method (expert based or purely machine learning) is used to divide the dataset into subsets.

  2. Accurate prediction of acute fish toxicity of fragrance chemicals with the RTgill-W1 cell assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsch, Andreas; Laue, Heike; Haupt, Tina; von Niederhäusern, Valentin; Sanders, Gordon

    2018-03-01

    Testing for acute fish toxicity is an integral part of the environmental safety assessment of chemicals. A true replacement of primary fish tissue was recently proposed using cell viability in a fish gill cell line (RTgill-W1) as a means of predicting acute toxicity, showing good predictivity on 35 chemicals. To promote regulatory acceptance, the predictivity and applicability domain of novel tests need to be carefully evaluated on chemicals with existing high-quality in vivo data. We applied the RTgill-W1 cell assay to 38 fragrance chemicals with a wide range of both physicochemical properties and median lethal concentration (LC50) values and representing a diverse range of chemistries. A strong correlation (R 2  = 0.90-0.94) between the logarithmic in vivo LC50 values, based on fish mortality, and the logarithmic in vitro median effect concentration (EC50) values based on cell viability was observed. A leave-one-out analysis illustrates a median under-/overprediction from in vitro EC50 values to in vivo LC50 values by a factor of 1.5. This assay offers a simple, accurate, and reliable alternative to in vivo acute fish toxicity testing for chemicals, presumably acting mainly by a narcotic mode of action. Furthermore, the present study provides validation of the predictivity of the RTgill-W1 assay on a completely independent set of chemicals that had not been previously tested and indicates that fragrance chemicals are clearly within the applicability domain. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:931-941. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  3. Numerical analysis of the chemical kinetic mechanisms of ozone depletion and halogen release in the polar troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, L.; Sihler, H.; Platt, U.; Gutheil, E.

    2014-04-01

    The role of halogen species (e.g., Br, Cl) in the troposphere of polar regions has been investigated since the discovery of their importance for boundary layer ozone destruction in the polar spring about 25 years ago. Halogen species take part in an auto-catalytic chemical reaction cycle, which releases Br2 and BrCl from the sea salt aerosols, fresh sea ice or snowpack, leading to ozone depletion. In this study, three different chemical reaction schemes are investigated: a bromine-only reaction scheme, which then is subsequently extended to include nitrogen-containing compounds and chlorine species and corresponding chemical reactions. The importance of specific reactions and their rate constants is identified by a sensitivity analysis. The heterogeneous reaction rates are parameterized by considering the aerodynamic resistance, a reactive surface ratio, β, i.e., the ratio of reactive surface area to total ground surface area, and the boundary layer height, Lmix. It is found that for β = 1, a substantial ozone decrease occurs after five days and ozone depletion lasts for 40 h for Lmix = 200 m. For about β ≥ 20, the time required for major ozone depletion ([O3] layer, and for β = 100 it approaches two days, 28 h of which are attributable to the induction and 20 h to the depletion time. In polar regions, a small amount of NOx may exist, which stems from nitrate contained in the snow, and may have a strong impact on the ozone depletion. Therefore, the role of nitrogen-containing species on the ozone depletion rate is studied. The results show that the NOx concentrations are influenced by different chemical reactions over different time periods. During ozone depletion, the reaction cycle involving the BrONO2 hydrolysis is dominant. A critical value of 0.0004 of the uptake coefficient of the BrONO2 hydrolysis reaction at the aerosol and saline surfaces is identified, beyond which the existence of NOx species accelerates the ozone depletion event, whereas for lower

  4. In silico assessment of the acute toxicity of chemicals: recent advances and new model for multitasking prediction of toxic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleandrova, Valeria V; Luan, Feng; Speck-Planche, Alejandro; Cordeiro, M Natália D S

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of acute toxicity is one of the most important stages to ensure the safety of chemicals with potential applications in pharmaceutical sciences, biomedical research, or any other industrial branch. A huge and indiscriminate number of toxicity assays have been carried out on laboratory animals. In this sense, computational approaches involving models based on quantitative-structure activity/toxicity relationships (QSAR/QSTR) can help to rationalize time and financial costs. Here, we discuss the most significant advances in the last 6 years focused on the use of QSAR/QSTR models to predict acute toxicity of drugs/chemicals in laboratory animals, employing large and heterogeneous datasets. The advantages and drawbacks of the different QSAR/QSTR models are analyzed. As a contribution to the field, we introduce the first multitasking (mtk) QSTR model for simultaneous prediction of acute toxicity of compounds by considering different routes of administration, diverse breeds of laboratory animals, and the reliability of the experimental conditions. The mtk-QSTR model was based on artificial neural networks (ANN), allowing the classification of compounds as toxic or non-toxic. This model correctly classified more than 94% of the 1646 cases present in the whole dataset, and its applicability was demonstrated by performing predictions of different chemicals such as drugs, dietary supplements, and molecules which could serve as nanocarriers for drug delivery. The predictions given by the mtk-QSTR model are in very good agreement with the experimental results.

  5. 1998 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marjorie B. Stockton

    1999-11-01

    The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) of 1986 [also known as the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA), Title III], as modified by Executive Order 12856, requires that all federal facilities evaluate the need to submit an annual Toxic Chemical Release Inventory report as prescribed in Title III, Section 313 of this Act. This annual report is due every July for the preceding calendar year. Owners and operators who manufacture, process, or otherwise use certain toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities are required to report their toxic chemical releases to all environmental mediums (air, water, soil, etc.). At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), no EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 1998 above the reportable threshold limits of 10,000 lb or 25,000 lb. Therefore LANL was not required to submit any Toxic Chemical Release Inventory reports (Form Rs) for 1998. This document was prepared to provide a detailed description of the evaluation on chemical usage and EPCRA Section 313 threshold determinations for LANL for 1998.

  6. 1998 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockton, Marjorie B.

    1999-01-01

    The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) of 1986 [also known as the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA), Title III], as modified by Executive Order 12856, requires that all federal facilities evaluate the need to submit an annual Toxic Chemical Release Inventory report as prescribed in Title III, Section 313 of this Act. This annual report is due every July for the preceding calendar year. Owners and operators who manufacture, process, or otherwise use certain toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities are required to report their toxic chemical releases to all environmental mediums (air, water, soil, etc.). At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), no EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 1998 above the reportable threshold limits of 10,000 lb or 25,000 lb. Therefore LANL was not required to submit any Toxic Chemical Release Inventory reports (Form Rs) for 1998. This document was prepared to provide a detailed description of the evaluation on chemical usage and EPCRA Section 313 threshold determinations for LANL for 1998

  7. Acute sensitivity of a broad range of freshwater mussels to chemicals with different modes of toxic action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Ivey, Chris D.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Alvarez, David; Hammer, Edward J.; Bauer, Candice R.; Augspurger, Tom; Raimondo, Sandy; Barnhart, M.Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Freshwater mussels, one of the most imperiled groups of animals in the world, are generally underrepresented in toxicity databases used for the development of ambient water quality criteria and other environmental guidance values. Acute 96-h toxicity tests were conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of 5 species of juvenile mussels from 2 families and 4 tribes to 10 chemicals (ammonia, metals, major ions, and organic compounds) and to screen 10 additional chemicals (mainly organic compounds) with a commonly tested mussel species, fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea). In the multi-species study, median effect concentrations (EC50s) among the 5 species differed by a factor of ≤2 for chloride, potassium, sulfate, and zinc; a factor of ≤5 for ammonia, chromium, copper, and nickel; and factors of 6 and 12 for metolachlor and alachlor, respectively, indicating that mussels representing different families or tribes had similar sensitivity to most of the tested chemicals, regardless of modes of action. There was a strong linear relationship between EC50s for fatmucket and the other 4 mussel species across the 10 chemicals (r2 = 0.97, slope close to 1.0), indicating that fatmucket was similar to other mussel species; thus, this commonly tested species can be a good surrogate for protecting other mussels in acute exposures. The sensitivity of juvenile fatmucket among different populations or cultured from larvae of wild adults and captive-cultured adults was also similar in acute exposures to copper or chloride, indicating captive-cultured adult mussels can reliably be used to reproduce juveniles for toxicity testing. In compiled databases for all freshwater species, 1 or more mussel species were among the 4 most sensitive species for alachlor, ammonia, chloride, potassium, sulfate, copper, nickel, and zinc; therefore, the development of water quality criteria and other environmental guidance values for these chemicals should reflect the sensitivity of mussels. In

  8. An overview of chemical additives present in plastics: Migration, release, fate and environmental impact during their use, disposal and recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahladakis, John N; Velis, Costas A; Weber, Roland; Iacovidou, Eleni; Purnell, Phil

    2018-02-15

    Over the last 60 years plastics production has increased manifold, owing to their inexpensive, multipurpose, durable and lightweight nature. These characteristics have raised the demand for plastic materials that will continue to grow over the coming years. However, with increased plastic materials production, comes increased plastic material wastage creating a number of challenges, as well as opportunities to the waste management industry. The present overview highlights the waste management and pollution challenges, emphasising on the various chemical substances (known as "additives") contained in all plastic products for enhancing polymer properties and prolonging their life. Despite how useful these additives are in the functionality of polymer products, their potential to contaminate soil, air, water and food is widely documented in literature and described herein. These additives can potentially migrate and undesirably lead to human exposure via e.g. food contact materials, such as packaging. They can, also, be released from plastics during the various recycling and recovery processes and from the products produced from recyclates. Thus, sound recycling has to be performed in such a way as to ensure that emission of substances of high concern and contamination of recycled products is avoided, ensuring environmental and human health protection, at all times. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Initial substrate moisture content and storage temperature affects chemical properties of bagged substrates containing controlled release fertilizer at two different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagged potting mixes can be stored for weeks or months before being used by consumers. Some bagged potting mixes are amended with controlled release fertilizers (CRF). The objective of this research was to observe how initial substrate moisture content and storage temperature affect the chemical p...

  10. Noninvasive Biomonitoring Approaches to Determine Dosimetry and Risk Following Acute Chemical Exposure: Analysis of Lead or Organophosphate Insecticide in Saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timchalk, Chuck; Poet, Torka S.; Kousba, Ahmed A.; Campbell, James A.; Lin, Yuehe

    2004-01-01

    There is a need to develop approaches for assessing risk associated with acute exposures to a broad-range of chemical agents and to rapidly determine the potential implications to human health. Non-invasive biomonitoring approaches are being developed using reliable portable analytical systems to quantitate dosimetry utilizing readily obtainable body fluids, such as saliva. Saliva has been used to evaluate a broad range of biomarkers, drugs, and environmental contaminants including heavy metals and pesticides. To advance the application of non-invasive biomonitoring a microfluidic/ electrochemical device has also been developed for the analysis of lead (Pb), using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The system demonstrates a linear response over a broad concentration range (1 2000 ppb) and is capable of quantitating saliva Pb in rats orally administered acute doses of Pb-acetate. Appropriate pharmacokinetic analyses have been used to quantitate systemic dosimetry based on determination of saliva Pb concentrations. In addition, saliva has recently been used to quantitate dosimetry following exposure to the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos in a rodent model system by measuring the major metabolite, trichloropyridinol, and saliva cholinesterase inhibition following acute exposures. These results suggest that technology developed for non-invasive biomonitoring can provide a sensitive, and portable analytical tool capable of assessing exposure and risk in real-time. By coupling these non-invasive technologies with pharmacokinetic modeling it is feasible to rapidly quantitate acute exposure to a broad range of chemical agents. In summary, it is envisioned that once fully developed, these monitoring and modeling approaches will be useful for accessing acute exposure and health risk

  11. Mitochondrial DNA is Released in Urine of SIRS Patients With Acute Kidney Injury and Correlates With Severity of Renal Dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Marcel P. B.; Pulskens, Wilco P.; Butter, Loes M.; Florquin, Sandrine; Juffermans, Nicole P.; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; Leemans, Jaklien C.

    2018-01-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is characterized by the activation of the innate immune system resulting in stimulation of inflammatory responses, coagulation, and platelet activation that may contribute to complication such as the development of acute kidney injury (AKI). AKI

  12. Estimation of the acute inhalation hazards of chemicals based on route-to-route and local endpoint extrapolation: Experience from Bulk Maritime Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Höfer, T.; James, D.; Syversen, T.; Bowmer, T.

    2011-01-01

    Data on acute lethal inhalation toxicity from animal studies are commonly required for assessing the hazards to human health of volatile, gaseous and dusty chemicals or their mixtures. The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) made the provision of acute inhalation toxicity data a mandatory

  13. Inventory of chemical releases of nuclear installations in the North-Cotentin; Inventaire des rejets chimiques des installations nucleaires du Nord-Cotentin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-15

    The nuclear installations concerned by this study are Cogema La Hague, the Flamanville nuclear power plant, the Manche plant and the National Navy of Cherbourg.The objective followed by the ' source term ' work group has consisted in counting and examining the whole of existing measures relative to the releases of chemical substances in the liquid and gaseous effluents. Then because of the lack of measures for the operation first years of installations, the work group has estimated the order of magnitude of these chemical releases (essentially for Cogema La Hague). This report presents a review of the literature looking at the background levels of chemicals in different environmental compartments: air, soil, plants and animals products. these values have been summarized here to be available for comparisons with concentrations input by the North Cotentin nuclear installations, calculated by the G.R.N.C. (radioecology group of Nord Cotentin)

  14. A proposal for a test method for assessment of hazard property HP 12 (“Release of an acute toxic gas”) in hazardous waste classification - Experience from 49 waste

    OpenAIRE

    Hennebert , Pierre; Samaali , Ismahen; Molina , Pauline

    2016-01-01

    International audience; A stepwise method for assessment of the HP 12 is proposed and tested with 49 waste samples. The hazard property HP 12 is defined as “Release of an acute toxic gas”: waste which releases acute toxic gases (Acute Tox. 1, 2 or 3) in contact with water or an acid. When a waste contains a substance assigned to one of the following supplemental hazards EUH029, EUH031 and EUH032, it shall be classified as hazardous by HP 12 according to test methods or guidelines (EC, 2014a, ...

  15. Acute environmental toxicity and persistence of DEM, a chemical agent simulant: Diethyl malonate. [Diethyl malonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, D.A.; Ligotke, M.W.; Harvey, S.D.; Fellows, R.J.; Li, Shu-mei W.; Van Voris, P.; Wentsel, R.S.

    1990-05-01

    The purpose of the following chemical simulant studies is to assess the potential acute environmental effects and persistence of diethyl malonate (DEM). Deposition velocities for DEM to soil surfaces ranged from 0.04 to 0.2 cm/sec. For foliar surfaces, deposition velocities ranged from 0.0002 cm/sec at low air concentrations to 0.05 cm/sec for high dose levels. The residence times or half-lives of DEM deposited to soils was 2 h for the fast component and 5 to 16 h for the residual material. DEM deposited to foliar surfaces also exhibited biphasic depuration. The half-life of the short residence time component ranged from 1 to 3 h, while the longer time component had half-times of 16 to 242 h. Volatilization and other depuration mechanisms reduce surface contaminant levels in both soils and foliage to less than 1% of initial dose within 96 h. DEM is not phytotoxic at foliar mass loading levels of less than 10 {mu}m/cm{sup 2}. However, severe damage is evident at mass loading levels in excess of 17 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}. Tall fescue and sagebrush were more affected than was short-needle pine, however, mass loading levels were markedly different. Regrowth of tall fescue indicated that the effects of DEM are residual, and growth rates are affected only at higher mass loadings through the second harvest. Results from in vitro testing of DEM indicated concentrations below 500 {mu}g/g dry soil generally did not negatively impact soil microbial activity. Short-term effects of DEM were more profound on soil dehydrogenase activity than on soil phosphatase activity. No enzyme inhibition or enhancement was observed after 28 days in incubation. Results of the earthworm bioassay indicate survival to be 86 and 66% at soil doses of 107 and 204 {mu}g DEM/cm{sup 2}, respectively. At higher dose level, activity or mobility was judged to be affected in over 50% of the individuals. 21 refs., 10 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. The potential of computer-based quantitative structure activity approaches for predicting acute toxicity of chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zvinavashe, E.

    2008-01-01

    Within the EU, the management of the risks of chemicals currently falls under a new legislation called Registration, Evaluation, and Authorization of Chemicals (REACH). Within the next 10 years, existing (eco)toxicological data gaps for the more than
    100 000 chemicals on the European Inventory

  17. Interspecies Chemical Signals Released into the Environment May Create Xenohormetic, Hormetic and Cytostatic Selective Forces that Drive the Ecosystemic Evolution of Longevity Regulation Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Michelle T; Beach, Adam; Richard, Vincent R; Koupaki, Olivia; Gomez-Perez, Alejandra; Goldberg, Alexander A; Kyryakov, Pavlo; Bourque, Simon D; Glebov, Anastasia; Titorenko, Vladimir I

    2012-01-01

    Various organisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, plants and animals) within an ecosystem can synthesize and release into the environment certain longevity-extending small molecules. Here we hypothesize that these interspecies chemical signals can create xenohormetic, hormetic and cytostatic selective forces driving the ecosystemic evolution of longevity regulation mechanisms. In our hypothesis, following their release into the environment by one species of the organisms composing an ecosystem, such small molecules can activate anti-aging processes and/or inhibit pro-aging processes in other species within the ecosystem. The organisms that possess the most effective (as compared to their counterparts of the same species) mechanisms for sensing the chemical signals produced and released by other species and for responding to such signals by undergoing certain hormetic and/or cytostatic life-extending changes to their metabolism and physiology are expected to live longer then their counterparts within the ecosystem. Thus, the ability of a species of the organisms composing an ecosystem to undergo life-extending metabolic or physiological changes in response to hormetic or cytostatic chemical compounds released to the ecosystem by other species: 1) increases its chances of survival; 2) creates selective forces aimed at maintaining such ability; and 3) enables the evolution of longevity regulation mechanisms.

  18. Effects of Sediment Chemical Properties on Phosphorus Release Rates in the Sediment-Water Interface of the Steppe Wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Jing He; Derong Su; Shihai Lv; Zhaoyan Diao; Jingjie Xie; Yan Luo

    2017-01-01

    Rising temperature causes a process of phosphorus release, which can be characterized well using phosphorus release rates (VP). The objective of the present study was to investigate the major factors affecting sediment phosphorus release rates through a wetland habitat simulation experiment. The results showed that the VP of different wetland sediments were different and changed with the order of W–R (river wetland) > W–L (lake wetland) > W–M (grassy marsh wetland) > W–A (reservoir w...

  19. Comparison of Amniotic Membrane Transplantation and Umbilical Cord Serum in Acute Ocular Chemical Burns: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Namrata; Singh, Divya; Maharana, Prafulla K; Kriplani, Alka; Velpandian, Thirumurthy; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Vajpayee, Rasik B

    2016-08-01

    To compare the efficacy of topical umbilical cord serum drops (UCS) and amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) in acute ocular chemical burns. Randomized controlled trial. setting: Tertiary care hospital. Forty-five eyes with acute chemical burns of grade III, IV, and V (Dua's classification) presenting within the first week of injury were randomized into 3 groups (15 each). Patients with perforation/impending corneal perforation were excluded from the study. Groups 1, 2, and 3 received UCS with medical therapy (MT), AMT with MT, and MT alone, respectively. Time to complete epithelialization. The mean time to complete epithelialization was 56.7 ± 14.9, 22.0 ± 10.2, and 22.9 ± 10.1 days in MT, AMT, and UCS groups, respectively, with a significant difference between MT and AMT (P = .001) and between MT and UCS (P = .001), but not between UCS and AMT (P = .9). Improvement in pain score was better with UCS than AMT (P value: .012, .002, and .012 on days 7, 14, and 21, respectively). Corneal clarity was better in the UCS group at 21 (P = .008) and 30 days (P = .002), but not at 3 months (P = .9). By month 3, visual outcome, symblepharon, tear film status, and lid abnormalities were comparable between the 3 groups. UCS and AMT, as an adjuvant to standard medical therapy in acute chemical injury, are equally efficacious. UCS has the advantage of faster improvement in corneal clarity, better pain control, and avoidance of surgery in an inflamed eye. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Modern MRI tools for the characterization of acute demyelinating lesions: value of chemical shift and diffusion-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueker, W.; Mehnert, F.; Mader, I.; Naegele, T. [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Tuebingen Medical School, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, 72076, Tuebingen (Germany); Ruff, J. [Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen (Germany); Gaertner, S. [Department of Neurology, University of Tuebingen Medical School, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2004-06-01

    Acute demyelinating lesions occur in various inflammatory disorders of the CNS. Apart from multiple sclerosis, most cases can be attributed to an overshooting immunological response to infectious agents called acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). ADEM, which is mostly characterized by a monophasic course, has a multiphasic variant (MDEM). The early application of corticosteroids has been shown to be beneficial for the outcome; thus, an early diagnosis is highly desirable. Furthermore, the differential diagnosis ruling out neoplastic disorders may be difficult using conventional MRI alone. The potential diagnostic value of advanced MR techniques such as chemical shift imaging (CSI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was investigated in a patient with MDEM, who had a new lesion in continuity with the initial disease manifestation. CSI was performed at 1.5 T with a long echo time of 135 ms for the evaluation of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) and choline (Cho) and with short TE of 30 ms for macromolecules (mm) and myo-Inositol (mI). DWI was performed using a single-shot isotropic EPI sequence. Whereas acute and chronic areas of demyelination were neither distinguishable on T2- nor on contrast-enhanced T1-weigted images, CSI and DWI revealed different metabolite concentrations and diffusion characteristics within the composite lesion, clearly separating acute from chronic areas of demyelination. In conclusion, the addition of CSI and DWI may add to the diagnostic power of MRI in the setting of demyelinating disorders by identifying areas of acute and chronic demyelination, even in the absence of contrast enhancement. (orig.)

  1. Modern MRI tools for the characterization of acute demyelinating lesions: value of chemical shift and diffusion-weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueker, W.; Mehnert, F.; Mader, I.; Naegele, T.; Ruff, J.; Gaertner, S.

    2004-01-01

    Acute demyelinating lesions occur in various inflammatory disorders of the CNS. Apart from multiple sclerosis, most cases can be attributed to an overshooting immunological response to infectious agents called acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). ADEM, which is mostly characterized by a monophasic course, has a multiphasic variant (MDEM). The early application of corticosteroids has been shown to be beneficial for the outcome; thus, an early diagnosis is highly desirable. Furthermore, the differential diagnosis ruling out neoplastic disorders may be difficult using conventional MRI alone. The potential diagnostic value of advanced MR techniques such as chemical shift imaging (CSI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was investigated in a patient with MDEM, who had a new lesion in continuity with the initial disease manifestation. CSI was performed at 1.5 T with a long echo time of 135 ms for the evaluation of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) and choline (Cho) and with short TE of 30 ms for macromolecules (mm) and myo-Inositol (mI). DWI was performed using a single-shot isotropic EPI sequence. Whereas acute and chronic areas of demyelination were neither distinguishable on T2- nor on contrast-enhanced T1-weigted images, CSI and DWI revealed different metabolite concentrations and diffusion characteristics within the composite lesion, clearly separating acute from chronic areas of demyelination. In conclusion, the addition of CSI and DWI may add to the diagnostic power of MRI in the setting of demyelinating disorders by identifying areas of acute and chronic demyelination, even in the absence of contrast enhancement. (orig.)

  2. Acute toxicity and chemical evaluation of coking wastewater under biological and advanced physicochemical treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehua, Ma; Cong, Liu; Xiaobiao, Zhu; Rui, Liu; Lujun, Chen

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the changes of toxic compounds in coking wastewater with biological treatment (anaerobic reactor, anoxic reactor and aerobic-membrane bioreactor, A1/A2/O-MBR) and advanced physicochemical treatment (Fenton oxidation and activated carbon adsorption) stages. As the biological treatment stages preceding, the inhibition effect of coking wastewater on the luminescence of Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Nov. Q67 decreased. Toxic units (TU) of coking wastewater were removed by A1/A2/O-MBR treatment process, however approximately 30 % TU remained in the biologically treated effluent. There is a tendency that fewer and fewer residual organic compounds could exert equal acute toxicity during the biological treatment stages. Activated carbon adsorption further removed toxic pollutants of biologically treated effluent but the Fenton effluent increased acute toxicity. The composition of coking wastewater during the treatment was evaluated using the three-dimensional fluorescence spectra, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The organic compounds with high polarity were the main cause of acute toxicity in the coking wastewater. Aromatic protein-like matters in the coking wastewater with low biodegradability and high toxicity contributed mostly to the remaining acute toxicity of the biologically treated effluents. Chlorine generated from the oxidation process was responsible for the acute toxicity increase after Fenton oxidation. Therefore, the incorporation of appropriate advanced physicochemical treatment process, e.g., activated carbon adsorption, should be implemented following biological treatment processes to meet the stricter discharge standards and be safer to the environment.

  3. In vivo effect of the D-(-) isomer or natural form of 3-hydroxybutyrate on initial release of lactate dehydrogenase from the acutely ischaemic myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammerant, J; Huynh-Thu, T; Kolanowski, J

    1986-07-01

    D-(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate, the isomer found in the circulation and in the urine of diabetic patients, generally is believed to be the physiologically important form of 3-hydroxybutyrate [10]. Little is known concerning the effects of an elevated plasma level of the D-(-) isomer of 3-hydroxybutyrate upon the acutely ischaemic heart. Using anaesthetized intact dogs with a balloon catheter inserted into the proximal part of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), we have recently demonstrated that a 1 mM ketonaemia induced with the arginine salt of D-(-)-3-hydroxybutyric acid reduces the uptake of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in the myocardial area distal to the inflated balloon [4]. The question arises as to whether the concomitant increase in ketone uptake in this area could be detrimental to the acutely ischaemic myocardium. Indeed, a previous study on isolated coronary ligated hearts from normal rats has shown that the rate of release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) during the first 90 min of ischaemia can be enhanced by replacing glucose (11 mM) in the perfusion fluid with either albumin-bound palmitate (0.9 mM) or sodium DL-3-hydroxybutyrate (10 mM) as the sole energy substrate [11]. This would suggest that the ketone might be as deleterious as its metabolic precursors for membrane integrity in the acutely ischaemic myocardium. In the present report, we examine the effect of arginine D-(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate on LDH release from ischaemic myocardium in our in vivo preparation. The dogs were treated with lidocaine in order to minimize the frequency and, hence, the adverse metabolic effects of ectopic beats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. 2002 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockton, M.

    2003-01-01

    For reporting year 2002, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) submitted Form R reports for lead compounds and mercury as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), Section 313. No other EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 2002 above the reportable thresholds. This document was prepared to provide a description of the evaluation of EPCRA Section 313 chemical usage and threshold determinations for LANL for calendar year 2002 as well as provide background information about the data included on the Form R reports. Section 313 of EPCRA specifically requires facilities to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory report (Form R) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies if the owners and operators manufacture, process, or otherwise use any of the listed toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities. EPA compiles this data in the Toxic Release Inventory database. Form R reports for each chemical over threshold quantities must be submitted on or before July 1 each year and must cover activities that occurred at the facility during the previous year. In 1999 EPA promulgated a final rule on Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxics (PBTs). This rule added several chemicals to the EPCRA Section 313 list of toxic chemicals and established lower reporting thresholds for these and other PBT chemicals that were already reportable under EPCRA Section 313. These lower thresholds became applicable in reporting year 2000. In 2001, EPA expanded the PBT rule to include a lower reporting threshold for lead and lead compounds. Facilities that manufacture, process, or otherwise use more than 100 lb of lead or lead compounds must submit a Form R

  5. 2006 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecology and Air Quality Group (ENV-EAQ)

    2007-12-12

    For reporting year 2006, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) submitted Form R reports for lead as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) Section 313. No other EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 2006 above the reportable thresholds. This document was prepared to provide a description of the evaluation of EPCRA Section 313 chemical use and threshold determinations for LANL for calendar year 2006, as well as to provide background information about data included on the Form R reports. Section 313 of EPCRA specifically requires facilities to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report (Form R) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies if the owners and operators manufacture, process, or otherwise use any of the listed toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities. EPA compiles this data in the Toxic Release Inventory database. Form R reports for each chemical over threshold quantities must be submitted on or before July 1 each year and must cover activities that occurred at the facility during the previous year. In 1999, EPA promulgated a final rule on persistent bioaccumulative toxics (PBTs). This rule added several chemicals to the EPCRA Section 313 list of toxic chemicals and established lower reporting thresholds for these and other PBT chemicals that were already reportable. These lower thresholds became applicable in reporting year 2000. In 2001, EPA expanded the PBT rule to include a lower reporting threshold for lead and lead compounds. Facilities that manufacture, process, or otherwise use more than 100 lb of lead or lead compounds must submit a Form R.

  6. 2002 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Stockton

    2003-11-01

    For reporting year 2002, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) submitted Form R reports for lead compounds and mercury as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), Section 313. No other EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 2002 above the reportable thresholds. This document was prepared to provide a description of the evaluation of EPCRA Section 313 chemical usage and threshold determinations for LANL for calendar year 2002 as well as provide background information about the data included on the Form R reports. Section 313 of EPCRA specifically requires facilities to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory report (Form R) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies if the owners and operators manufacture, process, or otherwise use any of the listed toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities. EPA compiles this data in the Toxic Release Inventory database. Form R reports for each chemical over threshold quantities must be submitted on or before July 1 each year and must cover activities that occurred at the facility during the previous year. In 1999 EPA promulgated a final rule on Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxics (PBTs). This rule added several chemicals to the EPCRA Section 313 list of toxic chemicals and established lower reporting thresholds for these and other PBT chemicals that were already reportable under EPCRA Section 313. These lower thresholds became applicable in reporting year 2000. In 2001, EPA expanded the PBT rule to include a lower reporting threshold for lead and lead compounds. Facilities that manufacture, process, or otherwise use more than 100 lb of lead or lead compounds must submit a Form R.

  7. 2004 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Stockton

    2006-01-15

    Section 313 of Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) specifically requires facilities to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report (Form R) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies if the owners and operators manufacture, process, or otherwise use any of the listed toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities. EPA compiles this data in the Toxic Release Inventory database. Form R reports for each chemical over threshold quantities must be submitted on or before July 1 each year and must cover activities that occurred at the facility during the previous year. For reporting year 2004, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) submitted Form R reports for lead compounds, nitric acid, and nitrate compounds as required under the EPCRA Section 313. No other EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 2004 above the reportable thresholds. This document provides a description of the evaluation of EPCRA Section 313 chemical use and threshold determinations for LANL for calendar year 2004, as well as background information about data included on the Form R reports.

  8. Effect of chemical structure of S-nitrosothiols on nitric oxide release mediated by the copper sites of a metal organic framework based environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Edinbyrd, Kiara; Li, Tanping; Kumar, Revati

    2017-05-17

    The effect of chemical structure of different biologically compatible S-nitrosothiols on the solvation environment at catalytic copper sites in a metal organic framework (MOF) suspended in a solution of ethanol is probed using computational methods. The use of a copper based MOF as a storage vehicle and catalyst (copper sites of the MOF) in the controlled and sustained release of chemically stored nitric oxide (NO) from S-nitrosocysteine has been shown to occur both experimentally and computationally [J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2012, 134, 3330-3333; Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2015, 17, 23403]. Previous studies on a copper based MOF, namely HKUST-1, concluded that modifications in the R-group of s-nitrosothiols and/or organic linkers of MOFs led to a method capable of modulating NO release. In order to test the hypothesis that larger R-groups slow down NO release, four different RSNOs (R = cysteine, N-acetylcysteine, N-acetyl-d,l-penicillamine or glutathione) of varying size were investigated, which in turn required the use of a larger copper based MOF. Due to its desirable copper centers and more extensive framework, MOF-143, an analog of HKUST-1 was chosen to further explore both the effect of different RSNOs as well as MOF environments on NO release. Condensed phase classical molecular dynamics simulations are utilized to study the effect of the complex MOF environment as well as the chemical structure and size of the RSNO on the species on the catalytic reaction. The results indicate that in addition to the size of the RSNO species and the organic linkers within the MOF, the reaction rates can be modulated by the molecular structure of the RSNO and furthermore combining different RSNO species can also be used to tune the rate of NO release.

  9. Impact of Chemical Proportions on the Acute Neurotoxicity of a Mixture of Seven Carbamates in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental exposures generally involve multiple chemicals and pathways, and statistical methodologies now exist to evaluate interactions among any number of chemicals in defined mixtures. N-methyl carbamate pesticides are presumed to act through a common mode of action, that i...

  10. Acute toxicity of sea-dumped chemical munitions: Luminating the environmental toxicity of legacy compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammed Abdullah Christensen, Ilias; Sanderson, Hans; Baatrup, Erik

    2016-01-01

    As a result of the disarmament of Germany after the Second World War, 65,000 tons of chemical munitions were dumped in the Baltic Sea. Approximately 13,000 tons containing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) of which 11,000 tons were dumped in the Bornholm Basin east of Bornholm. This paper addresses...

  11. Fate of Organohalogens in U.S. Wastewater Treatment Plants and Estimated Chemical Releases to Soils Nationwide from Biosolids Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidler, Jochen; Halden, Rolf U.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the occurrence in wastewater of 11 aromatic biocides, pesticides and degradates, and their fate during passage through U.S. treatment plants, as well as the chemical mass contained in sewage sludge (biosolids) destined for land application. Analyte concentrations in wastewater influent, effluent and sludge from 25 facilities in 18 U.S. states were determined by liquid chromatography electrospray (tandem) mass spectrometry. Dichlorocarbanilide, fipronil, triclocarban, and triclosan were found consistently in all sample types. Dichlorophene, hexachlorophene, and tetrachlorocarbanilide were detected infrequently only, and concentrations of the phenyl urea pesticides diflubenzuron, hexaflumuron, and linuron were below the limit of detection in all matrixes. Median concentrations (± 95% confidence interval) of quantifiable compounds in influent ranged from 4.2 ± 0.8 µg L−1 for triclocarban to 0.03 ± 0.01 µg L−1 for fipronil. Median concentrations in effluent were highest for triclocarban and triclosan (0.23 ± 0.08 and 0.07 ± 0.04 µg L−1, respectively). Median aqueous-phase removal efficiencies (± 95% CI) of activated sludge treatment plants decreased in the order of: triclosan (96 ± 2%) > triclocarban (87 ± 7%) > dichlorocarbanilide (55 ± 20%) > fipronil (18 ± 22%). Median concentrations of organohalogens were typically higher in anaerobically than in aerobically digested sludges, and peaked at 27,600 ± 9,600 and 15,800 ± 8,200 µg kg−1 for triclocarban and triclosan, respectively. Mass balances obtained for three primary pesticides in six activated sludge treatment plants employing anaerobic digestion suggested a decreasing overall persistence from fipronil (97 ± 70%) to triclocarban (87 ± 29%) to triclosan (28 ± 30%). Nationwide release of the investigated organohalogens to agricultural land via municipal sludge recycling and into surface waters is estimated to total 258,000 ± 110,00 kg yr−1 (mean ± 95% confidence

  12. Acute effect of intermittent and continuous aerobic exercise on release of cardiac troponin T in sedentary men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjbar, Rouhollah; Ahmadi, Mohammad Amin; Zar, Abdossaleh

    2017-01-01

    -blinded randomised crossover trial performed on two distinct experimental days separated by a 1-week washout period. Each session consisted of 40min of aerobic exercise, either IE or CE, on a treadmill. Blood samples were taken before (PRE), immediately after (POST) and 1h after (POST-1) each exercise session......BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that acute exercise can increase serum concentrations of cardiac biomarkers, including cardiac troponin T (cTnT). We investigated the acute effects of intermittent (IE) and continuous (CE) exercise at the same cardiac workload on myocardial necrosis biomarkers....... RESULTS: hs-cTnT significantly increased immediately after exercise in both protocols and remained elevated at POST-1 (P0.05). Neither CE nor IE caused any significant change in CK-MB (P>0.05). The results also showed that HR...

  13. Parenteral versus early intrajejunal nutrition: effect on pancreatitic natural course, entero-hormones release and its efficacy on dogs with acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Huan-Long; Su, Zhen-Dong; Hu, Lei-Guang; Ding, Zai-Xian; Lin, Qing-Tian

    2003-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of early intrajejunal nutrition (EIN) on the natural course, entero-hormone secretion and its efficacy on dogs with acute pancreatitis. An acute pancreatitis model was induced by injecting 1 ml/kg of combined solution (2.5% sodium taurocholate and 8,000-10,000 BAEE units trypsin/ml) into the pancreas via pancreatic duct. Fifteen dogs were divided into parenteral nutrition (PN) group and EIN group. Two groups were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. EIN was used at postoperative 24 h. Serum glucose, calcium, amylase and lysosomal enzymes were determined before and 1, 4, 7 d after acute pancreatitis was induced. All the dogs were injected 50 uCi 125I-BSA 4 h before sacrificed on the 7th day. The 125I -BSA index of the pancreas/muscle, pancreas/blood, and pancreas pathology score (PPS) were determined. The peripheral plasma cholecystokinin (CCK), secretin (SEC) and gastrin were measured by ELISA and RIA, and was quantitative analysis of pancreatic juice and amylase, pancreatolipase and HCO3-, Cl-, Na+ and K+ performed by an autochemical analyzer at 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after beginning PN or EIN on the first day. There was no difference between two groups in the contents of serum calcium, amylase and lysosomal enzymes, 125I-BSA index of pancreas/muscle and pancreas/blood and PPS. The contents of CCK and gastrin in EIN were higher than those in PN group at 60 and 120 min (Ppancreatic juice, amylase, pancreatolipase and HCO3-, Cl-, Na+ and K+ between two groups did not reach significantly statistical difference (P>0.05). EIN does not stimulate entero-hormone and pancreatic juice secretion, and enzyme-protein synthesis and release. EIN has no effect on the natural course of acute pancreatitis.

  14. Comparative analysis of pharmaceuticals versus industrial chemicals acute aquatic toxicity classification according to the United Nations classification system for chemicals. Assessment of the (Q)SAR predictability of pharmaceuticals acute aquatic toxicity and their predominant acute toxic mode-of-action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans; Thomsen, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    data. Pharmaceuticals were found to be more frequent than industrial chemicals in GHS category III. Acute toxicity was predictable (>92%) using a generic (Q)SAR ((Quantitative) Structure Activity Relationship) suggesting a narcotic MOA. Analysis of model prediction error suggests that 68...

  15. Development and Application of Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for Chemical Warfare Nerve and Sulfur Mustard Agents.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Opresko, Dennis M [ORNL; Young, Robert A [ORNL; Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    2006-01-01

    Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) have been developed for the chemical warfare agents GB, GA, GD, GF, VX, and sulfur mustard. These AEGLs were approved by the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances after Federal Register publication and comment, and judged as scientifically valid by the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology Subcommittee on AEGLs. AEGLs represent general public exposure limits for durations ranging from 10 min to 8 h, and for three levels of severity (AEGL-1, AEGL-2, AEGL-3). Mild effects are possible at concentrations greater than AEGL-1, while life-threatening effects are expected at concentrations greater than AEGL-3. AEGLs can be applied to various civilian and national defense purposes, including evacuation and shelter-in-place protocols, reentry levels, protective clothing specifications, and analytical monitoring requirements. This report documents development and derivation of AEGL values for six key chemical warfare agents, and makes recommendations for their application to various potential exposure scenarios.

  16. Chemical composition, acute toxicity, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Moroccan Tetraclinis articulata L.

    OpenAIRE

    El Jemli, Meryem; Kamal, Rabie; Marmouzi, Ilias; Doukkali, Zouhra; Bouidida, El Houcine; Touati, Driss; Nejjari, Rachid; El Guessabi, Lahcen; Cherrah, Yahia; Alaoui, Katim

    2016-01-01

    Hydro-distilled essential oil (EO) from the leaves of the western Mediterranean and Moroccan endemic plant Tetraclinis articulata was analyzed by GC/MS and examined for its acute toxicity on mice, in order to establish the safe doses. Furthermore, the anti-Inflammatory activity was evaluated based on carrageenan and trauma induced rats paw edema and the antioxidant potential has been investigated using different methods including DPPH radical-scavenging assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant ca...

  17. Role of p38 MAPK in the selective release of IL-8 induced by chemical allergen in naive THp-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitjans, Montserrat; Viviani, Barbara; Lucchi, Laura; Galli, Corrado L; Marinovich, Marina; Corsini, Emanuela

    2008-03-01

    At present, the assessment of the allergenic potential of chemicals is carried out using animal models. Over the last decade, several in vitro methods mainly using primary dendritic cells have been proposed to identify the potential of chemicals to induce skin sensitization to meet current animal welfare and public opinions. The major limitations of such tests are the donor-to-donor variability, the low levels in the source, and a possible shortage of human sources. The aim of the present investigation was to establish an in vitro test to identify chemical allergens using the human promyelocytic cell line THP-1 in order to avoid some of these difficulties. We investigated whether the chemokine interleukin-8 or CXCL8 (IL-8) production could provide a methodology for the detection of both respiratory and contact allergens. THP-1 cells were exposed to contact allergens (cinnamaldehyde, dinitrochlorobenzene, nickel sulfate, penicillin G, p-phenylenediamine, tetramethylthiuram disulfide), to respiratory allergens (ammonium hexachloroplatinate, diphenylmethane diisocyanate, trimellitic anhydride) and to irritants (salicylic acid, phenol, sodium lauryl sulphate). Following 48 h of incubation, the release of IL-8 was evaluated by sandwich ELISA. IL-8 production was significantly increased after stimulation with all allergens tested, with the exception of trimellitic anhydride, whereas irritants exposure failed to induce IL-8 release. The lack of IL-8 production by trimellitic anhydride can be explained by the rapid hydrolysis of this chemical in water to trimellitic acid, which is not an allergen. In contrast to IL-8 release, CD54 and CD86 expression did not provide a sensitive method failing to correctly identify approximately 30% of the tested compounds. Although CD86 appears to be a more sensitive marker than CD54 when discriminating allergens from irritants neither of these markers provided robust methodology. We also investigated if a common activation pathway in

  18. The bile acid-sequestering resin sevelamer eliminates the acute GLP-1 stimulatory effect of endogenously released bile acids in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønden, Andreas; Albér, Anders; Rohde, Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    of the present study was to assess the GLP-1 secretory and gluco-metabolic effects of endogenously released bile, with and without concomitant administration of the bile acid-sequestering resin, sevelamer, in patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a randomized, placebo......-controlled, and double-blinded cross-over study including 15 metformin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes. Four experimental study days in randomized order with administration of either sevelamer 3,200 mg or placebo in combination with intravenous infusion of cholecystokinin (CCK) (0.4 pmol sulfated CCK-8/kg...... was shown to eliminate the acute bile acid-induced increase in plasma GLP-1 excursions. CONCLUSIONS: Single-dose administration of sevelamer eliminated bile acid-mediated GLP-1 secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes, which could be explained by reduced bile acid stimulation of the basolaterally...

  19. Inhibitory effect of various Tunisian olive oils on chemical mediator release and cytokine production by basophilic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, P; Zarrouk, M; Kawasaki, K; Isoda, H

    2008-03-05

    Tunisian olive oils have been traditionally used as a medicinal food for chronic inflammation. To investigate the antiallergic effect of virgin olive oil samples from five principal olive varieties grown in various regions of Tunisia, we used the type I allergy reaction model using rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells and different dilutions of olive oil samples to determine beta-hexosaminidase release inhibition at two different response stages. Results showed that the Sayali olive oil significantly inhibited beta-hexosaminidase release by the IgE antibody-sensitized, BSA antigen-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells at the antibody-antigen binding stage. The result of our experiment shows that the anti-allergic effect of olive oil at this binding stage may be dependent on their flavone content. The Zarrazi olive oil significantly inhibited beta-hexosaminidase release at the antigen-receptor binding stage. Moreover, we investigated the effect of olive oil samples on histamine release and production of cytokines by activated human basophilic (KU812) cells. Different dilutions of Sayali olive oil dose-dependently inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-4 (IL-4), and different dilutions of Zarrazi olive oil dose-dependently inhibited histamine release and IL-4 production by calcium ionophore A23187 plus phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-stimulated KU812 cells.

  20. 78 FR 15913 - Addition of ortho-Nitrotoluene; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... 212221, 212222, 212231, 212234, 212299 (correspond to SIC 10, Metal Mining (except 1011, 1081, and 1094... can reasonably be anticipated to cause significant adverse acute human health effects at concentration... nitrenium ions) that can covalently bind to DNA or to proteins (Chism and Rickert 1985, NTP 2002, 2008...

  1. REHABILITATION OF PATIENTS WITH ENCEPHALOPATHY CAUSED BY ACUTE CHEMICAL AGENTS POISONING. P300 OF AUDITORY EVENT RELATED POTENTIALS AND ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. U. Berezina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available RELEVANCE. Patients with encephalopathy due to acute chemical agents poisoning have some brain functioning changes and a cognitive impairment during the rehabilitation program. These changes require correction of appropriate diagnostic protocol and treatment.AIM. The aim of this study was to estimate changes of electroencephalography (EEG and the P3 component of the event related potential (P300 ERP that are observed in patients with encephalopathy due to acute chemical agents poisoning during stage of rehabilitation.MATERIAL AND METHODS. The study was included 25 patients (age 37 (32; 51 poisoned different kind of neurotoxic substances (drugs, ethanol and complicated by toxic and hypoxic encephalopathy. They have got the treatment of encephalopathy by mexidol intravenously, mesodiencephalic modulation (MDM and hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT. All patients were recoded EEG (electroencephalograph of “MBN” company, Russia and P300 ERP (“Neuron-Spectrum-5/EP” of “Neurosoft”, Russia according to the international recommendations of clinical neurophysiologists. Neuropsychological testing was used for the assessment of cognitive functions.RESULTS. There were some disturbances in primary electroencephalograms of all subjects. The follow-up EEG recording showed the main group of patients who had got the treatment (mexidol, MDM, HBOT had more often (11 patients the EEG improvements compared to the controls (1 patient. The main group had more rarely the EEG impairments compared to the control group. 6 patients of main group and 3 patients of controls did not have EEG changes during the follow-up EEG recordings. All controls and 17 patients of the main group patients had different cognitive disturbances. After the treatment 15 patients of the main group had improved on neuropsychological tests (MMSE, Munsterberg test, Schulte table, Number Connecting Test. They also had a decrease in the N200, P300 peak latency and an increase in the N200, P300

  2. Chemical composition of sex pheromone of oriental fruit moth and rates of release by individual female moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, M J; Sanders, C J

    1992-08-01

    The sex pheromone emitted by individual calling females of the oriental fruit moth,Grapholita molesta, was trapped within glass capillaries, and the composition and release rates were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Aerial release of (Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate ranged up to 25.3 ng/hr, while the mean release rate was 8.48 ± 7.26 ng/hr (±SD). The proportion of (E)-8-dodecenyl acetate to (Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate was remarkably constant (4.20 ± 0.60%). Significant amounts of dodecyl acetate were also recovered but, contrary to previous reports, only trace quantities of (Z)-8-dodecenol were detected in the effluvium.

  3. Volatile Organic Compound Gamma-Butyrolactone Released upon Herpes Simplex Virus Type -1 Acute Infection Modulated Membrane Potential and Repressed Viral Infection in Human Neuron-Like Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochford, Kevin; Chen, Feng; Waguespack, Yan; Figliozzi, Robert W; Kharel, Madan K; Zhang, Qiaojuan; Martin-Caraballo, Miguel; Hsia, S Victor

    2016-01-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus Type -1 (HSV-1) infections can cause serious complications such as keratitis and encephalitis. The goal of this study was to identify any changes in the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during HSV-1 infection of epithelial cells that could potentially be used as an indicator of a response to stress. An additional objective was to study if any VOCs released from acute epithelial infection may influence subsequent neuronal infection to facilitate latency. To investigate these hypotheses, Vero cells were infected with HSV-1 and the emission of VOCs was analyzed using two-dimensional gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (2D GC/MS). It was observed that the concentrations of gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) in particular changed significantly after a 24-hour infection. Since HSV-1 may establish latency in neurons after the acute infection, GBL was tested to determine if it exerts neuronal regulation of infection. The results indicated that GBL altered the resting membrane potential of differentiated LNCaP cells and promoted a non-permissive state of HSV-1 infection by repressing viral replication. These observations may provide useful clues towards understanding the complex signaling pathways that occur during the HSV-1 primary infection and establishment of viral latency.

  4. Effects of acute treadmill running at different intensities on activities of serotonin and corticotropin-releasing factor neurons, and anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Tomomi; Nishii, Ayu; Amemiya, Seiichiro; Kubota, Natsuko; Nishijima, Takeshi; Kita, Ichiro

    2016-02-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that physical exercise can reduce and prevent the incidence of stress-related psychiatric disorders, including depression and anxiety. Activation of serotonin (5-HT) neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) is implicated in antidepressant/anxiolytic properties. In addition, the incidence and symptoms of these disorders may involve dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis that is initiated by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Thus, it is possible that physical exercise produces its antidepressant/anxiolytic effects by affecting these neuronal activities. However, the effects of acute physical exercise at different intensities on these neuronal activation and behavioral changes are still unclear. Here, we examined the activities of 5-HT neurons in the DRN and CRF neurons in the PVN during 30 min of treadmill running at different speeds (high speed, 25 m/min; low speed, 15m/min; control, only sitting on the treadmill) in male Wistar rats, using c-Fos/5-HT or CRF immunohistochemistry. We also performed the elevated plus maze test and the forced swim test to assess anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, respectively. Acute treadmill running at low speed, but not high speed, significantly increased c-Fos expression in 5-HT neurons in the DRN compared to the control, whereas high-speed running significantly enhanced c-Fos expression in CRF neurons in the PVN compared with the control and low-speed running. Furthermore, low-speed running resulted in decreased anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors compared with high-speed running. These results suggest that acute physical exercise with mild and low stress can efficiently induce optimal neuronal activation that is involved in the antidepressant/anxiolytic effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of semi-generic PBTK modeling for emergency risk assessment after acute inhalation exposure to volatile hazardous chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olie, J Daniël N; Bessems, Jos G; Clewell, Harvey J; Meulenbelt, Jan; Hunault, Claudine C

    2015-08-01

    Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic Models (PBTK) may facilitate emergency risk assessment after chemical incidents with inhalation exposure, but they are rarely used due to their relative complexity and skill requirements. We aimed to tackle this problem by evaluating a semi-generic PBTK model built in MS Excel for nine chemicals that are widely-used and often released in a chemical incident. The semi-generic PBTK model was used to predict blood concentration-time curves using inhalation exposure scenarios from human volunteer studies, case reports and hypothetical exposures at Emergency Response Planning Guideline, Level 3 (ERPG-3) levels.(2) Predictions using this model were compared with measured blood concentrations from volunteer studies or case reports, as well as blood concentrations predicted by chemical-specific models. The performances of the semi-generic model were evaluated on biological rationale, accuracy, and ease of use and range of application. Our results indicate that the semi-generic model can be easily used to predict blood levels for eight out of nine parent chemicals (dichloromethane, benzene, xylene, styrene, toluene, isopropanol trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene). However, for methanol, 2-propanol and dichloromethane the semi-generic model could not cope with the endogenous production of methanol and of acetone (being a metabolite of 2-propanol) nor could it simulate the formation of HbCO, which is one of the toxic end-points of dichloromethane. The model is easy and intuitive to use by people who are not so familiar with toxicokinetic models. A semi-generic PBTK modeling approach can be used as a 'quick-and-dirty' method to get a crude estimate of the exposure dose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Differential effects of 18- and 24-Gy cranial irradiation on growth rate and growth hormone release in children with prolonged survival after acute lymphocytic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicognani, A.; Cacciari, E.; Vecchi, V.; Cau, M.; Balsamo, A.; Pirazzoli, P.; Tosi, M.T.; Rosito, P.; Paolucci, G.

    1988-11-01

    To evaluate the effects of two different doses of cranial irradiation on growth and growth hormone (GH) release, we studied 61 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia who had survived at least five years in continuous complete remission. Forty-three children received 24 Gy (group 1) and 18 children received 18 Gy (group 2). Height was evaluated at diagnosis, at the end of treatment, and 6, 12, and 24 months later. Growth hormone release was evaluated by arginine and levodopa tests after the end of treatment. After diagnosis, the height SD score decreased significantly in both groups; two years after the end of treatment, only group 1 showed an SD score for height that was still significantly lower than at diagnosis. Group 1 showed impaired GH responses to the tests and, compared with controls, group 1 in fact included a percentage of subjects with a normal response to levodopa (ie, greater than 8 micrograms/L) that was significantly lower (56.4% vs 83.3%) and a percentage of nonresponders to both tests that was significantly higher (21.6% vs 0%). These data indicate that only patients treated with lower cranial irradiation dosage (18 Gy) had complete growth recovery and normal GH responses to pharmacologic tests.

  7. Development of a QSAR for worst case estimates of acute toxicity of chemically reactive compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freidig, A.P.; Dekkers, S.; Verwei, M.; Zvinavashe, E.; Bessems, J.G.M.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de

    2007-01-01

    Future EU legislations enforce a fast hazard and risk assessment of thousands of existing chemicals. If conducted by means of present data requirements, this assessment will use a huge number of test animals and will be neither cost nor time effective. The purpose of the current research was to

  8. Pattern of acute food, drug, and chemical poisoning in Sari City, Northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Amirhossein; Pakravan, Nasrin; Ghazizadeh, Zeynab

    2010-09-01

    This descriptive and retrospective study was conducted at the poisoning ward of Imam teaching hospital, Sari, Iran, with the aim of evaluating the pattern of poisoning. Hence, the medical profiles of 2057 patients, who were admitted, were carefully reviewed during the period from April 2006 to March 2008 for 2 years. During this period, 2057 cases, 53.9% female and 46.1% male, were admitted with the indication of acute poisoning. The greatest proportion of poisoning occurred between the ages of 18 and 29 years, with suicidal intentions. Most cases of poisoning were intentional (85%). The most common agents involved in acute poisoning were drugs (77.7%), especially sedatives/hypnotics such as benzodiazepines, followed by opioid analgesics. Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides were the third major agent that induced poisoning. Twenty-seven patients (1.3%) who were mostly females and young adults died. Death mostly occurred due to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides (19 cases) poisoning, followed by sedatives/hypnotics like benzodiazepines (3 cases). High prevalence of intentional overdose and mortality among young adults requires considerable attention and further studies to find out the underlying causes. In addition, strict rules must be followed regarding the sale of central nervous system drugs and pesticides, particularly organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. Establishing poison information centers in different parts of the country, preparing national treatment guidelines, training healthcare providers, and ensuring easy availability of the antidotes are also recommended.

  9. Chemical composition, acute toxicity, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of Thymus fontanesii essential oil from Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamia Sidali

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the chemical composition and to evaluate the acute toxicity, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of Thymus fontanesii essential oils (TFEO. The oils were obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of T. fontanesii at yield of 2.4±0.2%. Using GC and GC/MS techniques, 24 compounds were identified representing more than 98% of the oil composition. The main constituents were carvacrol (54.7±1.2%, p-cymene (17.5±0.3% and ɣ-terpinene (8.8±0.6%. Using the disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods against six microbial strains, the antimicrobial evaluation showed that TFEO exhibited good antibacterial activity against all the strains tested except Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The acute toxicity test of TFEO was conducted in mice by gavage in single doses of 100-3000 mg/kg. However, the mortality rate as well as the acute toxicity of the oral administered oil increased progressively with increasing dose (LD50=875mg/kg. Anti-inflammatory activity of TFEO was evaluated using carrageenaninduced paw edema in mice. The paw edema was reduced by the TFEO at doses of 50 mg/kg (22.8% and 100 mg/kg (62.2%. The TFEO was found to possess potent anti-inflammatory activity.Results of the present study indicate that TFEO has a noteworthy potential for the use in pharmaceutical formulations.

  10. Differing chemical compositions of three teas may explain their different effects on acute blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shan-Bing; Li, Yi-Fang; Mao, Zhong-Fu; Hu, Hui-Hua; Ouyang, Shu-Hua; Wu, Yan-Ping; Tsoi, Bun; Gong, Pin; Kurihara, Hiroshi; He, Rong-Rong

    2015-04-01

    Heavy tea consumption is suggested to be unsuitable for hypertensive people. However, the bioactive substances in different varieties of tea leaves are very different. This study compares the effects of three Chinese teas - C. sinensis, C. ptilophylla and C. assamica var. kucha - on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Intragastric administration of C. sinensis extract led to an acute increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate in SHRs. However, C. ptilophylla and C. assamica var. kucha exerted no obvious influences on SBP, DBP or heart rate. Similar to the extract of C. sinensis, intragastric administration of caffeine also led to an acute increase in BP and heart rate in SHRs. In contrast, theobromine and theacrine - purine alkaloids predominantly contained in C. ptilophylla and C. assamica var. kucha, respectively - had no pressor effects. The effect of caffeine on BP was related to the regulation of plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine levels in SHRs. The different effects of C. sinensis, C. ptilophylla and C. assamica var. kucha on BP might be explained, at least partially, by the differences in the varieties and contents of purine alkaloids. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Novel Fabrication of Biodegradable Superabsorbent Microspheres with Diffusion Barrier through Thermo-Chemical Modification and Their Potential Agriculture Applications for Water Holding and Sustained Release of Fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Diejing; Bai, Bo; Wang, Honglun; Suo, Yourui

    2017-07-26

    Synergistic utilization of water and fertilizer has vital contribution to the modern production of agriculture. This work reports on a simple and facile strategy to prepare biodegradable yeast/sodium alginate/poly(vinyl alcohol) superabsorbent microspheres with a diffusion barrier merit by thermo-chemical modification route. The integrated performances, including water absorbency, water retention, water evaporation ratio, leaching loss control, sustained-release behaviors, and degradation in soil, were systematically investigated. The results revealed that the modified microspheres were a triumphant water and fertilizer manager to effectively hold water and control the unexpected leakage of fertilizer for sustained release. Therefore, this work provides a promising approach to ameliorate the utilization efficiency of water and fertilizer in potential agriculture applications.

  12. Comparative analysis of pharmaceuticals versus industrial chemicals acute aquatic toxicity classification according to the United Nations classification system for chemicals. Assessment of the (Q)SAR predictability of pharmaceuticals acute aquatic toxicity and their predominant acute toxic mode-of-action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Hans; Thomsen, Marianne

    2009-06-01

    Pharmaceuticals have been reported to be ubiquitously present in surface waters prompting concerns of effects of these bioactive substances. Meanwhile, there is a general scarcity of publicly available ecotoxicological data concerning pharmaceuticals. The aim of this paper was to compile a comprehensive database based on OECD's standardized measured ecotoxicological data and to evaluate if there is generally cause of greater concern with regards to pharmaceutical aquatic toxicological profiles relative to industrial chemicals. Comparisons were based upon aquatic ecotoxicity classification under the United Nations Global Harmonized System for classification and labeling of chemicals (GHS). Moreover, we statistically explored whether the predominant mode-of-action (MOA) for pharmaceuticals is narcosis. We found 275 pharmaceuticals with 569 acute aquatic effect data; 23 pharmaceuticals had chronic data. Pharmaceuticals were found to be more frequent than industrial chemicals in GHS category III. Acute toxicity was predictable (>92%) using a generic (Q)SAR ((Quantitative) Structure Activity Relationship) suggesting a narcotic MOA. Analysis of model prediction error suggests that 68% of the pharmaceuticals have a non-specific MOA. Additionally, the acute-to-chronic ratio (ACR) for 70% of the analyzed pharmaceuticals was below 25 further suggesting a non-specific MOA. Sub-lethal receptor-mediated effects may however have a more specific MOA.

  13. Acute intraperitoneal injection of caffeine improves endurance exercise performance in association with increasing brain dopamine release during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinyan; Takatsu, Satomi; Wang, Hongli; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine changes of thermoregulation, neurotransmitters in the preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus (PO/AH), which is the thermoregulatory center, and endurance exercise performance after the intraperitoneal injection of caffeine in rats. Core body temperature (Tcore), oxygen consumption (VO₂) and tail skin temperature (Ttail) were measured. A microdialysis probe was inserted in the PO/AH, and samples for the measurements of extracellular dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels were collected. During the rest experiment, 1 h after baseline collections in the chamber (23 °C), the rats were intraperitoneally injected with saline, or 3 mg kg(-1) or 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine. The duration of the test was 4 h. During the exercise experiment, baseline collections on the treadmill were obtained for 1 h. One hour before the start of exercise, rats were intraperitoneally injected with either 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine (CAF) or saline (SAL). Animals ran until fatigue at a speed of 18 m min(-1), at a 5% grade, on the treadmill in a normal environment (23 °C). At rest, 3 mg kg(-1) caffeine did not influence Tcore, Ttail, VO₂, extracellular DA, NA and 5-HT. 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine caused significant increases in Tcore, VO₂, Ttail and extracellular DA in the PO/AH. In addition, 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine increased the run time to fatigue (SAL: 104.4 ± 30.9 min, CAF: 134.0 ± 31.1 min, pcaffeine and exercise increased Tcore, VO₂, Ttail and extracellular DA in the PO/AH. NA increased during exercise, while neither caffeine nor exercise changed 5-HT. These results indicate that caffeine has ergogenic and hyperthermic effects, and these effects may be related to changes of DA release in the brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of acute gamma-irradiation on the aquatic microbial microcosm in comparison with chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuma, Shoichi, E-mail: fuma@nirs.go.j [Environmental Radiation Effects Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Kiriko; Yanagisawa, Kei [Environmental Radiation Effects Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Doi, Kazutaka; Kawaguchi, Isao [Regulatory Sciences Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Tanaka, Nobuyuki [Environmental Chemistry Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Inamori, Yuhei [Faculty of Symbiotic Systems Science, Fukushima University, 1 Kanayagawa, Fukushima 960-1296 (Japan); Polikarpov, Gennady G. [The A.O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of Southern Seas, Sevastopol 99011 (Ukraine)

    2009-12-15

    Effects of acute gamma-irradiation were investigated in the aquatic microcosm consisting of green algae (Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp.) and a blue-green alga (Tolypothrix sp.) as producers; an oligochaete (Aeolosoma hemprichi), rotifers (Lecane sp. and Philodina sp.) and a ciliate protozoan (Cyclidium glaucoma) as consumers; and more than four species of bacteria as decomposers. At 100 Gy, populations were not affected in any taxa. At 500-5000 Gy, one or three taxa died out and populations of two or three taxa decreased over time, while that of Tolypothrix sp. increased. This Tolypothrix sp. increase was likely an indirect effect due to interspecies interactions. The principal response curve analysis revealed that the main trend of the effects was a dose-dependent population decrease. For a better understanding of radiation risks in aquatic microbial communities, effect doses of gamma-rays compared with copper, herbicides and detergents were evaluated using the radiochemoecological conceptual model and the effect index for microcosm.

  15. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  16. Selected chemical characteristics and acute toxicity of urban stormwater, streamflow, and bed material, Maricopa County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, T.J.; Fossum, K.D.

    1995-01-01

    Statistical analyses indicated that urban stormwater could degrade the quality of streamflow because of oil and grease, pesticides, dissolved trace metals, and ammonia in stormwater. Ammonia, lead, cadmium, and zinc are released by urban activities and accumulate in bed material. Ammonia could be from fertilizers, fecal matter, and other sources. Lead is probably from vehicles that use leaded gasoline. Cadmium and zinc could be from particulate metal in oil, brake pads, and other sources. Samples of the initial runoff from urban drainage basins appeared to be more toxic than flow-weighted composite samples, and stormwater was more harmful to fathead minnows than to Ceriodaphnia dubia. Streamflow samples from the Salt River were not toxic to either species. The sensitivity of fathead minnows to urban stormwater from most urban drainage basins indicated that the toxicants were detrimental to fish and could be present in stormwater throughout Phoenix. Results of toxicity identification evaluations indicated the toxicity was mostly due to organic constituents. Mortality, however, did not correlate with organophosphate pesticide concentrations. Surfactants and (or) other constituents leached from asphalt could be toxic. The most toxic bed-material samples were collected from an undeveloped drainage basin. Within urban-drainage basins, bed-material samples collected where stormwater accumulates appeared to be more toxic than samples collected from areas unaffected by stormwater. Mortality rates correlated with recoverable concentrations of zinc, copper, and cadmium; however these rates correlated poorly with pesticide concentrations. The bioavailability of trace metals appeared to be controlled by the adsorption properties of bed material.

  17. Antinociceptive effects, acute toxicity and chemical composition of Vitex agnus-castus essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Khalilzadeh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Vitex agnus-castus (VAC and its essential oil have been traditionally used to treat many conditions and symptoms such as premenstrual problems, mastalgia, inflammation, sexual dysfunction, and pain. In this study, the effects of essential oil extracted from Vitex agnus-castus (EOVAC leaves were investigated in three behavioral models of nociception in adult male Wistar rats. Materials and methods: Chemical composition of EOVAC was analyzed using gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS and also its possible toxicity was determined in mice. Analgesic effect of EOVAC was determined using tail immersion test, formalin test, and acetic acid-induced visceral pain in rats. Results: EOVAC (s.c. and morphine (i.p. significantly (p

  18. Antinociceptive effects, acute toxicity and chemical composition of Vitex agnus-castus essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalilzadeh, Emad; Vafaei Saiah, Gholamreza; Hasannejad, Hamideh; Ghaderi, Adel; Ghaderi, Shahla; Hamidian, Gholamreza; Mahmoudi, Razzagh; Eshgi, Davoud; Zangisheh, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    Vitex agnus-castus (VAC) and its essential oil have been traditionally used to treat many conditions and symptoms such as premenstrual problems, mastalgia, inflammation, sexual dysfunction, and pain. In this study, the effects of essential oil extracted from Vitex agnus-castus (EOVAC) leaves were investigated in three behavioral models of nociception in adult male Wistar rats. Chemical composition of EOVAC was analyzed using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also its possible toxicity was determined in mice. Analgesic effect of EOVAC was determined using tail immersion test, formalin test, and acetic acid-induced visceral pain in rats. EOVAC (s.c.) and morphine (i.p.) significantly (pVitex agnus-castus essential oil in these models of pain in rats.

  19. Effects of immediate-release niacin and dietary fatty acids on acute insulin and lipid status in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Lopez, Sergio; Bermudez, Beatriz; Guerrero, Juan M; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco Jg

    2018-04-01

    The nature of dietary fats profoundly affects postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and glucose homeostasis. Niacin is a potent lipid-lowering agent. However, limited data exist on postprandial triglycerides and glycemic control following co-administration of high-fat meals with a single dose of niacin in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of the study was to explore whether a fat challenge containing predominantly saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or MUFAs plus omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated (LCPUFAs) fatty acids together with a single dose of immediate-release niacin have a relevant role in postprandial insulin and lipid status in subjects with MetS. In a randomized crossover within-subject design, 16 men with MetS were given a single dose of immediate-release niacin (2 g) and ∼15 cal kg -1 body weight meals containing either SFAs, MUFAs, MUFAs plus omega-3 LCPUFAs or no fat. At baseline and hourly over 6 h, plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, triglycerides, free fatty acids (FFAs), total cholesterol, and both high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were assessed. Co-administered with niacin, high-fat meals significantly increased the postprandial concentrations of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, triglycerides, FFAs and postprandial indices of β-cell function. However, postprandial indices of insulin sensitivity were significantly decreased. These effects were significantly attenuated with MUFAs or MUFAs plus omega-3 LCPUFAs when compared with SFAs. In the setting of niacin co-administration and compared to dietary SFAs, MUFAs limit the postprandial insulin, triglyceride and FFA excursions, and improve postprandial glucose homeostasis in MetS. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Angiotensin II receptor blockers suppress the release of stromal cell-derived factor-1α from infarcted myocardium in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizaki, Toru; Uematsu, Manabu; Obata, Jun-Ei; Nakamura, Takamitsu; Fujioka, Daisuke; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Kazuto; Kugiyama, Kiyotaka

    2018-04-01

    Although angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) have been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects on infarcted myocardium in experimental models, little is known in humans. Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α), a pro-inflammatory chemokine, is released from infarcted tissue in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study examined whether ARBs suppress SDF-1α production in the infarcted lesion in patients with AMI. SDF-1α levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in plasma obtained from the aortic root (AO) and the anterior interventricular vein (AIV) in 50 patients with an anterior AMI. Measurement of SDF-1α levels and left ventriculography were repeated at discharge and 6 months after AMI. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to treatment with ARBs, which were administered at the discretion of the attending physician after admission. The AIV-AO gradient of SDF-1α, reflecting SDF-1α release from the infarcted myocardial region, decreased between the time of discharge and 6 months after AMI in patients taking an ARB. In contrast, the SDF-1α transcardiac gradient did not change in patients not taking an ARB. Among the clinical parameters tested, only the use of ARBs was significantly associated with percent changes in the SDF-1α transcardiac gradient from the time of discharge to 6 months after AMI in a linear regression analysis (r=-0.31, p=0.03). The SDF-1α transcardiac gradient 6 months after AMI was inversely correlated with the percent change in left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (r=-0.52, pinfarcted myocardial region, which was associated with improvement in LV dysfunction and adverse remodeling in AMI survivors. Copyright © 2017 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Acute opioid withdrawal precipitated by ingestion of crushed embeda (morphine extended release with sequestered naltrexone): case report and the focused review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Xiulu; Chen, Tao; Gudin, Jeff; Couch, John Patrick; Chiravuri, Srinivas

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of newly formulated extended release (ER) morphine with sequestered naltrexone (Embeda) has provided another treatment option for moderate to severe persistent pain. Embeda was designed to be an abuse-deterrent opioid formulation. Naltrexone is a centrally acting opioid receptor antagonist that blocks the action of opioid. When taken as directed, insignificant amount of sequestered naltrexone would reach systemic circulation, but upon tampering, the released naltrexone may blunt the euphoria of opioids, and possibly precipitate opioid withdrawal in opioid-dependent patient. To describe a case report ofa 50-year-old opioid-dependent male who developed acute opioid withdrawal after taking crushed Embeda. A 50-year-old male with severe, chronic low back pain due to degenerative disc disease was referred to our clinic for pain management. He was taking ER oxycodone 80 mg tid and Roxicodone 30 mg qid prn, with inadequate pain relief A trial of ER oxymorphone was decided, at 40 mg 1-2 doses bid. The patient returned to the clinic 1 week early, out of his ER oxymorphone. At this time, the decision to switch him to Embeda was made, at 80 mg/3.2 mg, 1-2 doses bid. The patient and his family members were counseled about risk involved with tampering with Embeda. A few hours later, our clinic was informed that the patient was brought to emergency room by ambulance, in severe opioid withdrawal. He was treated with IV fluid, antiemetics, clonidine, and IV hydromorphone. His condition improved and he was discharged home the next morning. Later on, the patient admitted that he took two prescribed Embeda within half an hour, the 1st one whole and the 2nd one crushed. He further admitted that he did so against our medical advice. CONCLUSION. Taking tampered Embeda may precipitate opioid withdrawal in opioid-tolerant patient. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of induced opioid withdrawal following consumption of crushed Embeda.

  2. Synthesis and chemical and biological comparison of nitroxyl- and nitric oxide-releasing diazeniumdiolate-based aspirin derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basudhar, Debashree; Bharadwaj, Gaurav; Cheng, Robert Y; Jain, Sarthak; Shi, Sa; Heinecke, Julie L; Holland, Ryan J; Ridnour, Lisa A; Caceres, Viviane M; Spadari-Bratfisch, Regina C; Paolocci, Nazareno; Velázquez-Martínez, Carlos A; Wink, David A; Miranda, Katrina M

    2013-10-24

    Structural modifications of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have successfully reduced the side effect of gastrointestinal ulceration without affecting anti-inflammatory activity, but they may increase the risk of myocardial infarction with chronic use. The fact that nitroxyl (HNO) reduces platelet aggregation, preconditions against myocardial infarction, and enhances contractility led us to synthesize a diazeniumdiolate-based HNO-releasing aspirin and to compare it to an NO-releasing analogue. Here, the decomposition mechanisms are described for these compounds. In addition to protection against stomach ulceration, these prodrugs exhibited significantly enhanced cytotoxcity compared to either aspirin or the parent diazeniumdiolate toward nonsmall cell lung carcinoma cells (A549), but they were not appreciably toxic toward endothelial cells (HUVECs). The HNO-NSAID prodrug inhibited cylcooxgenase-2 and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and triggered significant sarcomere shortening on murine ventricular myocytes compared to control. Together, these anti-inflammatory, antineoplasic, and contractile properties suggest the potential of HNO-NSAIDs in the treatment of inflammation, cancer, or heart failure.

  3. Synthesis and Chemical and Biological Comparison of Nitroxyl and Nitric Oxide Releasing Diazeniumdiolate-based Aspirin Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basudhar, Debashree; Bharadwaj, Gaurav; Cheng, Robert Y.; Jain, Sarthak; Shi, Sa; Heinecke, Julie L.; Holland, Ryan J.; Ridnour, Lisa A.; Caceres, Viviane M.; Spadari-Bratfisch, Regina C.; Paolocci, Nazareno; Velázquez-Martínez, Carlos A.; Wink, David A.; Miranda, Katrina M.

    2013-01-01

    Structural modifications of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have successfully reduced the side effect of gastrointestinal ulceration without affecting anti-inflammatory activity, but may increase risk of myocardial infarction with chronic use. That nitroxyl (HNO) reduces platelet aggregation, preconditions against myocardial infarction and enhances contractility led us to synthesize a diazeniumdiolate-based HNO releasing aspirin and to compare it to an NO-releasing analogue. Here, the decomposition mechanisms are described for these compounds. In addition to protection against stomach ulceration, these prodrugs also exhibited significantly enhanced cytotoxcity compared to either aspirin or the parent diazeniumdiolate toward non-small cell lung carcinoma cells (A549) but were not appreciably toxic toward endothelial cells (HUVECs). The HNO-NSAID prodrug inhibited cylcooxgenase-2 and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and triggered significant sarcomere shortening compared to control on murine ventricular myocytes. Together, these anti-inflammatory, anti-neoplasic and contractile properties suggest the potential of HNO-NSAIDs in the treatment of inflammation, cancer or heart failure. PMID:24102516

  4. Association of the physical and chemical properties and the cytotoxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles: metal ion release, adsorption ability and specific surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Masanori; Fujita, Katsuhide; Kato, Haruhisa; Endoh, Shigehisa; Nishio, Keiko; Komaba, Lilian Kaede; Nakamura, Ayako; Miyauchi, Arisa; Kinugasa, Shinichi; Hagihara, Yoshihisa; Niki, Etsuo; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Iwahashi, Hitoshi

    2012-04-01

    Association of cellular influences and physical and chemical properties were examined for 24 kinds of industrial metal oxide nanoparticles: ZnO, CuO, NiO, Sb(2)O(3), CoO, MoO(3), Y(2)O(3), MgO, Gd(2)O(3), SnO(2), WO(3), ZrO(2), Fe(2)O(3), TiO(2), CeO(2), Al(2)O(3), Bi(2)O(3), La(2)O(3), ITO, and cobalt blue pigments. We prepared a stable medium dispersion for each nanoparticle and examined the influence on cell viability and oxidative stress together with physical and chemical characterizations. ZnO, CuO, NiO, MgO, and WO(3) showed a large amount of metal ion release in the culture medium. The cellular influences of these soluble nanoparticles were larger than insoluble nanoparticles. TiO(2), SnO(2), and CeO(2) nanoparticles showed strong protein adsorption ability; however, cellular influences of these nanoparticles were small. The primary particle size and the specific surface area seemed unrelated to cellular influences. Cellular influences of metal oxide nanoparticles depended on the kind and concentrations of released metals in the solution. For insoluble nanoparticles, the adsorption property was involved in cellular influences. The primary particle size and specific surface area of metal oxide nanoparticles did not affect directly cellular influences. In conclusion the most important cytotoxic factor of metal oxide nanoparticles was metal ion release. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  5. Tapentadol immediate-release for acute postbunionectomy pain: a phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yeung-Jen; Chiang, Chao-Ching; Huang, Peng-Ju; Huang, Jason; Karcher, Keith; Li, Honglan

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of tapentadol immediate-release (IR) for treating acute pain following orthopedic bunionectomy surgery in a Taiwanese population. This was a phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group bridging study in which Taiwanese patients (N = 60) with moderate-to-severe pain following bunionectomy were randomized (1:1:1) to receive tapentadol IR 50 or 75 mg or placebo orally every 4-6 hours over a 72 hour period. The primary endpoint was the sum of pain intensity difference over 48 hours (SPID48), analyzed using analysis of variance. Out of 60 patients randomized (mainly women [96.7%]; median age 44 years), 41 (68.3%) completed the treatment. Mean SPID48 values were significantly higher for tapentadol IR (p ≤ 0.006: 50 mg, p ≤ 0.004: 75 mg) compared with placebo. Between-group differences in LS means of SPID48 (vs. placebo) were tapentadol IR 50 mg: 105.6 (95% CI: 32.0; 179.2); tapentadol IR 75 mg: 126.6 (95% CI: 49.5; 203.7). Secondary endpoints including SPID at 12, 24, and 72 hours, time to first use of rescue medication, cumulative distribution of responder rates, total pain relief and sum of total pain relief and sum of pain intensity difference at 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours, and patient global impression of change showed numerically better results supporting that tapentadol IR (50 and 75 mg) was more efficacious than placebo in relieving acute pain. The most frequent treatment emergent adverse events reported in ≥ 10% patients in either group were dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. A limitation of this study may possibly include more controlled patient monitoring through 4-6 hour dosing intervals, which reflects optimal conditions and thus may not approximate real-world clinical practice. However, all treatment groups would be equally affected by such bias of frequent monitoring, if any, since it was a randomized and double-blind study. Tapentadol IR treatment significantly relieved acute postoperative

  6. Activation of Soil and Chemical Reagents Exposed to the Neutrons Released by the JCO Criticality Accident in Tokai-mura

    OpenAIRE

    YOSHIMASA, MURATA; TOSHIHARU, MUROYAMA; YOSHIKO, KAWABATA; MASAYOSHI, YAMAMOTO; KAZUHISA, KOMURA; Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory, Kanazawa University; Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory, Kanazawa University; Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory, Kanazawa University; Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory, Kanazawa University; Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory, Kanazawa University

    2001-01-01

    Specific activities (Bq/g-element) of residual neutron-induced radionuclides by the JCO criticality accident were measured for soil, concrete block and chemical reagent samples collected in the JCO campus. Induced radionuclides such as ^Na, ^Sc, ^Mn, ^Fe, ^Co, ^Zn, ^Br, ^Sb, ^Cs and ^La were detected in the samples, depending on the ground distance from the accident point and the sampling date. Apparent thermal, epi-thermal and fast neutron fluences, which reached the sample at each point, we...

  7. Review of analytical techniques to determine the chemical forms of vapours and aerosols released from overheated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowsher, B.R.; Nichols, A.L.

    1989-12-01

    A comprehensive review has been undertaken of appropriate analytical techniques to monitor and measure the chemical effects that occur in large-scale tests designed to study severe reactor accidents. Various methods have been developed to determine the chemical forms of the vapours, aerosols and deposits generated during and after such integral experiments. Other specific techniques have the long-term potential to provide some of the desired data in greater detail, although considerable efforts are still required to apply these techniques to the study of radioactive debris. Such in-situ and post-test methods of analysis have been also assessed in terms of their applicability to the analysis of samples from the Phebus-FP tests. The recommended in-situ methods of analysis are gamma-ray spectroscopy, potentiometry, mass spectrometry, and Raman/UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. Vapour/aerosol and deposition samples should also be obtained at well-defined time intervals during each experiment for subsequent post-test analysis. No single technique can provide all the necessary chemical data from these samples, and the most appropriate method of analysis involves a complementary combination of autoradiography, AES, IR, MRS, SEMS/EDS, SIMS/LMIS, XPS and XRD

  8. Estimation of the acute inhalation hazards of chemicals based on route-to-route and local endpoint extrapolation: experience from bulk maritime transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfer, Thomas; James, Derek; Syversen, Tore; Bowmer, Tim

    2011-12-01

    Data on acute lethal inhalation toxicity from animal studies are commonly required for assessing the hazards to human health of volatile, gaseous and dusty chemicals or their mixtures. The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) made the provision of acute inhalation toxicity data a mandatory requirement for the carriage of bulk liquid chemicals transported by sea in tank ships, thereby creating the need for inhalation data on many hundreds of chemicals in bulk maritime transport. Taking note of previously published proposals for estimating acute inhalation toxicity hazards for chemicals, and the paucity of measured experimental data, an extrapolation method has been developed by the Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection (GESAMP) to partly fulfil this need. This method should be seen as a pragmatic approach to the challenge of missing measured experimental test data, with the added benefit of reducing tests in experimental animals. The method is based on a route-to-route (i.e. between-route) extrapolation of information on acute oral and/or dermal toxicity, in combination with data on the potential for irritation and/or corrosion to skin and eyes. The validation of this method was based on the individual evaluation of inhalation toxicity studies for 330 chemicals, including mixtures and many important chemical groups, for which the IMO holds public and industry-confidential data. The authors contend that this extrapolation method offers a reliable basis for hazard evaluation in the context of bulk maritime transport, and the 'GESAMP inhalation toxicity extrapolation method' has become part of the IMO regulatory system for the carriage of bulk liquids (i.e. noxious liquid substances) on board tank ships.

  9. Study of physico-chemical release of uranium and plutonium oxides during the combustion of polycarbonate and of ruthenium during the combustion of solvents used in the reprocessing of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouilloux, L.

    1998-01-01

    The level of consequences concerning a fire in a nuclear facility is in part estimated by the quantities and the physico-chemical forms of radioactive compounds that may be emitted out of the facility. It is therefore necessary to study the contaminant release from the fire. Because of the multiplicity of the scenarios, two research subjects were retained. The first one concerns the study of the uranium or plutonium oxides chemical release during the combustion of the polycarbonate glove box sides. The second one is about the physico chemical characterisation of the ruthenium release during the combustion of an organic solvent mixture (tributyl phosphate-dodecane) used for the nuclear fuel reprocessing. Concerning the two research subjects, the chemical release, i.e. means the generation of contaminant compounds gaseous in the fire, was modelled using thermodynamical simulations. Experiments were done in order to determine the ruthenium release factor during solvent combustion. A cone calorimeter was used for small scale experiments. These results were then validated by large scale tests under conditions close to the industrial process. Thermodynamical simulations, for the two scenarios studied. Furthermore, the experiments on solvent combustion allowed the determination of a suitable ruthenium release factor. Finally, the mechanism responsible of the ruthenium release has been found. (author)

  10. Interaction mechanisms of radioactive, chemical and thermal releases from the nuclear industry: Methodology for considering co-operative effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streffer, C.

    1975-01-01

    A number of chemicals are known which can modify radiation effects on cell killing, carcinogenesis and mutagenesis. In this paper data are reported for radiosensitizing agents. In order to discuss the interaction mechanisms of these synergistic effects, the action of radiation on DNA, on its biological functions and on its metabolism are explained briefly. Also it is indicated that part of the radiation effects in the DNA can be 'repaired' and that living cells can recover from radiation damage. One group of radiosensitizers interacts with cellular DNA or with the DNP-complex. These reactions change the configurational structure or metabolism of DNA and DNP. In this connection the action of antibiotics such as actinomycin D, and the action of SH-blocking agents such as iodoacetamide and NEM, as well as the action of alkylating agents, are discussed. A second group of radiosensitizers, especially with hypoxic cells, are the electron affinic chemicals like nitro-compounds, ketones and others. Data are also given on the modification of radiation effects by changes in temperature. Further, the problem of whether synergistic effects are to be expected arising from the chemicals and radiation originating in the nuclear industry is considered. Data show that repair and recovery processes especially are modified by radiosensitizers. The implications of this fact on sensitization at low radiation doses and at low dose rates, as well as the effect of high LET radiation, are considered. It is of interest that the dose modifying factor of some sensitizers can reach a magnitude of a factor of two to three. (author)

  11. The Effects of Diesel Exhaust and Stress on the Acute Phase Response and Symptoms in the Chemically Intolerant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fiedler, Nancy L; Laumbach, Robert; Kipen, Howard; Lioy, Paul; Zhang, Lunfeng

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The proposed study is designed to test a model of Gulf War Illness, in which simultaneous acute exposures to DE and psychological stress cause increased symptoms via the acute phase response (APR...

  12. Deep Learning Based Regression and Multiclass Models for Acute Oral Toxicity Prediction with Automatic Chemical Feature Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Youjun; Pei, Jianfeng; Lai, Luhua

    2017-11-27

    Median lethal death, LD 50 , is a general indicator of compound acute oral toxicity (AOT). Various in silico methods were developed for AOT prediction to reduce costs and time. In this study, we developed an improved molecular graph encoding convolutional neural networks (MGE-CNN) architecture to construct three types of high-quality AOT models: regression model (deepAOT-R), multiclassification model (deepAOT-C), and multitask model (deepAOT-CR). These predictive models highly outperformed previously reported models. For the two external data sets containing 1673 (test set I) and 375 (test set II) compounds, the R 2 and mean absolute errors (MAEs) of deepAOT-R on the test set I were 0.864 and 0.195, and the prediction accuracies of deepAOT-C were 95.5% and 96.3% on test sets I and II, respectively. The two external prediction accuracies of deepAOT-CR are 95.0% and 94.1%, while the R 2 and MAE are 0.861 and 0.204 for test set I, respectively. We then performed forward and backward exploration of deepAOT models for deep fingerprints, which could support shallow machine learning methods more efficiently than traditional fingerprints or descriptors. We further performed automatic feature learning, a key essence of deep learning, to map the corresponding activation values into fragment space and derive AOT-related chemical substructures by reverse mining of the features. Our deep learning architecture for AOT is generally applicable in predicting and exploring other toxicity or property end points of chemical compounds. The two deepAOT models are freely available at http://repharma.pku.edu.cn/DLAOT/DLAOThome.php or http://www.pkumdl.cn/DLAOT/DLAOThome.php .

  13. Escherichia coli Behavior in the Presence of Organic Matter Released by Algae Exposed to Water Treatment Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouteleux, C.; Saby, S.; Tozza, D.; Cavard, J.; Lahoussine, V.; Hartemann, P.; Mathieu, L.

    2005-01-01

    When exposed to oxidation, algae release dissolved organic matter with significant carbohydrate (52%) and biodegradable (55 to 74%) fractions. This study examined whether algal organic matter (AOM) added in drinking water can compromise water biological stability by supporting bacterial survival. Escherichia coli (1.3 × 105 cells ml−1) was inoculated in sterile dechlorinated tap water supplemented with various qualities of organic substrate, such as the organic matter coming from chlorinated algae, ozonated algae, and acetate (model molecule) to add 0.2 ± 0.1 mg of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) liter−1. Despite equivalent levels of BDOC, E. coli behavior depended on the source of the added organic matter. The addition of AOM from chlorinated algae led to an E. coli growth equivalent to that in nonsupplemented tap water; the addition of AOM from ozonated algae allowed a 4- to 12-fold increase in E. coli proliferation compared to nonsupplemented tap water. Under our experimental conditions, 0.1 mg of algal BDOC was sufficient to support E. coli growth, whereas the 0.7 mg of BDOC liter−1 initially present in drinking water and an additional 0.2 mg of BDOC acetate liter−1 were not sufficient. Better maintenance of E. coli cultivability was also observed when AOM was added; cultivability was even increased after addition of AOM from ozonated algae. AOM, likely to be present in treatment plants during algal blooms, and thus potentially in the treated water may compromise water biological stability. PMID:15691924

  14. Acute sensitivity of the vernal pool fairy shrimp, Branchinecta lynchi (Anostraca; Branchinectidae), and surrogate species to 10 chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Chris D.; Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Wang, Ning; Rogers, Christopher; Raimondo, Sandy; Bauer, Candice R.; Hammer, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    Vernal pool fairy shrimp, Branchinecta lynchi, (Branchiopoda; Anostraca) and other fairy shrimp species have been listed as threatened or endangered under the US Endangered Species Act. Because few data exist about the sensitivity of Branchinecta spp. to toxic effects of contaminants, it is difficult to determine whether they are adequately protected by water quality criteria. A series of acute (24-h) lethality/immobilization tests was conducted with 3 species of fairy shrimp (B. lynchi, Branchinecta lindahli, and Thamnocephalus platyurus) and 10 chemicals with varying modes of toxic action: ammonia, potassium, chloride, sulfate, chromium(VI), copper, nickel, zinc, alachlor, and metolachlor. The same chemicals were tested in 48-h tests with other branchiopods (the cladocerans Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia) and an amphipod (Hyalella azteca), and in 96-h tests with snails (Physa gyrina and Lymnaea stagnalis). Median effect concentrations (EC50s) for B. lynchi were strongly correlated (r2 = 0.975) with EC50s for the commercially available fairy shrimp species T. platyurus for most chemicals tested. Comparison of EC50s for fairy shrimp and EC50s for invertebrate taxa tested concurrently and with other published toxicity data indicated that fairy shrimp were relatively sensitive to potassium and several trace metals compared with other invertebrate taxa, although cladocerans, amphipods, and mussels had similar broad toxicant sensitivity. Interspecies correlation estimation models for predicting toxicity to fairy shrimp from surrogate species indicated that models with cladocerans and freshwater mussels as surrogates produced the best predictions of the sensitivity of fairy shrimp to contaminants. The results of these studies indicate that fairy shrimp are relatively sensitive to a range of toxicants, but Endangered Species Act-listed fairy shrimp of the genus Branchinecta were not consistently more sensitive than other fairy shrimp taxa. Environ Toxicol Chem

  15. Post-synthesis amine borane functionalization of metal-organic framework and its unusual chemical hydrogen release phenomenon

    KAUST Repository

    Berke, Heinz

    2017-05-11

    We report a novel strategy for post-synthesis amine borane functionalization of MOFs under gas-solid phase transformation utilizing gaseous diborane. The covalently confined amine borane derivative decorated on the framework backbone is stable when preserved at low temperature, but spontaneously liberates soft chemical hydrogen at room temperature leading to the development of an unusual borenium type species (-NH=BH2+) ion-paired with hydroborate anion. Furthermore, the unsaturated amino borane (-NH=BH2) and the -iminodiborane ((--NHB2H5) were detected as final products. A combination of DFT based molecular dynamics simulations and solid state NMR spectroscopy, utilizing isotopically enriched materials, were undertaken to unequivocally elucidate the mechanistic pathways for H2 liberation.

  16. Uranium Chemical and Radiological Risk Assessment for Freshwater Ecosystems Receiving Ore Mining Releases: Principles, Equations and Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Garnier-Laplace, J.; Gilbin, R.; Adam, C.

    2008-01-01

    Uranium is an element that has the solely characteristic to behave as significant hazard both from a chemical and radiological point of view. Exclusively of natural occurrence, its distribution into the environment may be influenced by human activities, such as nuclear fuel cycle, military use of depleted uranium, or coal and phosphate fertilizer use, which finally may impact freshwater ecosystems. Until now, the associated environmental impact and risk assessments were conducted separately. We propose here to apply the same methodology to evaluate the ecological risk due to potential chemotoxicity and radiotoxicity of uranium. This methodology is articulated into the classical four steps (EC, 2003: problem formulation, effect and exposure analysis, risk characterisation). The problem formulation dealt both with uranium viewed as a chemical element and as the three isotopes 234, 235 and 238 of uranium and their main daughters. Then, the exposure analysis of non-human species was led on the basis of a common conceptual model of the fluxes occurring in freshwater ecosystems. No-effect values for the ecosystem were derived using the same effect data treatment in parallel. A Species Sensitivity Distribution was fitted: (1) to the ecotoxicity data sets illustrating uranium chemotoxicity and allowing the estimation of a Predicted-No-Effect-Concentration for uranium in water expressed in μg/L; (2) to radiotoxicity effect data as it was done within the ERICA project, allowing the estimation of a Predicted No-Effect-Dose-Rate (in μGy·h -1 ). Two methods were then applied to characterize the risk to the ecosystem: a screening method using the risk quotient approach, involving for the radiological aspect back calculation of the water limiting concentration from the PNEDR for each isotope taken into account and a probabilistic risk assessment. A former uranium ore mining case-study will help in demonstrating the application of the whole methodology

  17. Uranium Chemical and Radiological Risk Assessment for Freshwater Ecosystems Receiving Ore Mining Releases: Principles, Equations and Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Garnier-Laplace, J.; Gilbin, R.; Adam, C.

    2008-08-01

    Uranium is an element that has the solely characteristic to behave as significant hazard both from a chemical and radiological point of view. Exclusively of natural occurrence, its distribution into the environment may be influenced by human activities, such as nuclear fuel cycle, military use of depleted uranium, or coal and phosphate fertilizer use, which finally may impact freshwater ecosystems. Until now, the associated environmental impact and risk assessments were conducted separately. We propose here to apply the same methodology to evaluate the ecological risk due to potential chemotoxicity and radiotoxicity of uranium. This methodology is articulated into the classical four steps (EC, 2003: problem formulation, effect and exposure analysis, risk characterisation). The problem formulation dealt both with uranium viewed as a chemical element and as the three isotopes 234, 235 and 238 of uranium and their main daughters. Then, the exposure analysis of non-human species was led on the basis of a common conceptual model of the fluxes occurring in freshwater ecosystems. No-effect values for the ecosystem were derived using the same effect data treatment in parallel. A Species Sensitivity Distribution was fitted : (1) to the ecotoxicity data sets illustrating uranium chemotoxicity and allowing the estimation of a Predicted-No-Effect-Concentration for uranium in water expressed in μg/L; (2) to radiotoxicity effect data as it was done within the ERICA project, allowing the estimation of a Predicted No-Effect-Dose-Rate (in μGyṡh-1). Two methods were then applied to characterize the risk to the ecosystem: a screening method using the risk quotient approach, involving for the radiological aspect back calculation of the water limiting concentration from the PNEDR for each isotope taken into account and a probabilistic risk assessment. A former uranium ore mining case-study will help in demonstrating the application of the whole methodology.

  18. Effect of temperature on the release of intentionally and non-intentionally added substances from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into water: chemical analysis and potential toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Cristina; Dauchy, Xavier; Severin, Isabelle; Munoz, Jean-François; Etienne, Serge; Chagnon, Marie-Christine

    2013-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of temperature on the release of PET-bottle constituents into water and to assess the potential health hazard using in vitro bioassays with bacteria and human cell lines. Aldehydes, trace metals and other compounds found in plastic packaging were analysed in PET-bottled water stored at different temperatures: 40, 50, and 60°C. In this study, temperature and the presence of CO2 increased the release of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and antimony (Sb). In parallel, genotoxicity assays (Ames and micronucleus assays) and transcriptional-reporter gene assays for estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity were performed on bottled water extracts at relevant consumer exposure levels. As expected, and in accordance with the chemical formulations specified for PET bottles, neither phthalates nor UV stabilisers were present in the water extracts. However, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, a degradation compound of phenolic antioxidants, was detected. In addition, an intermediary monomer, bis(2-hydroxyethyl)terephthalate, was found but only in PET-bottled waters. None of the compounds are on the positive list of EU Regulation No. 10/2011. However, the PET-bottled water extracts did not induce any cytotoxic, genotoxic or endocrine-disruption activity in the bioassays after exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. In Situ Disinfection through Photoinspired Radical Oxygen Species Storage and Thermal-Triggered Release from Black Phosphorous with Strengthened Chemical Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lei; Li, Jun; Liu, Xiangmei; Cui, Zhenduo; Yang, Xianjin; Yeung, Kelvin Wai Kwok; Pan, Haobo; Zheng, Yufeng; Wang, Xianbao; Wu, Shuilin

    2018-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) utilizing light-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a promising alternative to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria and biofilm. However, the photosensitizer (PS)-modified surface only exhibits antibacterial properties in the presence of light. It is known that extended photoirradiation may lead to phototoxicity and tissue hypoxia, which greatly limits PDT efficiency, while ambient pathogens also have the opportunity to attach to biorelevant surfaces in medical facilities without light. Here, an antimicrobial film composed of black phosphorus nanosheets (BPSs) and poly (4-pyridonemethylstyrene) endoperoxide (PPMS-EPO) to control the storage and release of ROS reversibly is introduced. BPS, as a biocompatible PS, can produce high singlet oxygen under the irradiation of visible light of 660 nm, which can be stably stored in PPMS-EPO. The ROS can be gradually thermally released in the dark. In vitro antibacterial studies demonstrate that the PPMS-EPO/BPS film exhibits a rapid disinfection ability with antibacterial rate of 99.3% against Escherichia coli and 99.2% against Staphylococcus aureus after 10 min of irradiation. Even without light, the corresponding antibacterial rate reaches 76.5% and 69.7%, respectively. In addition, incorporating PPMS significantly improves the chemical stability of the BPS. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Technical support for recovery phase decision-making in the event of a chemical warfare agent release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.; Kistner, S.; Halbrook, R. [and others

    1995-12-31

    In late 1985, Congress mandated that the U.S. stockpile of lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions be destroyed by the Department of the Army in a manner that provides maximum protection to the environment, the general public and personnel involved in the disposal program (Public Law 99-1, Section 1412, Title 14, Part b). These unitary munitions were last manufactured in the late 1960`s. The stockpiled inventory is estimated to approximate 25,000-30,000 tons, an includes organophosphate ({open_quotes}nerves{close_quotes}) agents such as VX [O-ethylester of S-(diisopropyl aminoethyl) methyl phosphonothiolate, C{sub 11}H{sub 26}NO{sub 2}PS] and vesicant ({open_quotes}blister{close_quotes}) agents such as Hd [sulfur mustard; bis (2-chloroethyl sulfide), C{sub 4}H{sub 8}Cl{sub 2}S]. The method of agent destruction selected by the Department of the Army is combined high-temperature and high-residence time incineration at secured military installations where munitions are currently stockpiled. This program supports the research program to address: the biomonitoring of nerve agent exposure; agent detection limits in foods and milk; and permeation of agents through porous construction materials.

  1. Caffeine protects against experimental acute pancreatitis by inhibition of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-mediated Ca2+ release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Cane, Matthew C; Mukherjee, Rajarshi; Szatmary, Peter; Zhang, Xiaoying; Elliott, Victoria; Ouyang, Yulin; Chvanov, Michael; Latawiec, Diane; Wen, Li; Booth, David M; Haynes, Andrea C; Petersen, Ole H; Tepikin, Alexei V; Criddle, David N

    2017-01-01

    Objective Caffeine reduces toxic Ca2+ signals in pancreatic acinar cells via inhibition of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R)-mediated signalling, but effects of other xanthines have not been evaluated, nor effects of xanthines on experimental acute pancreatitis (AP). We have determined effects of caffeine and its xanthine metabolites on pancreatic acinar IP3R-mediated Ca2+ signalling and experimental AP. Design Isolated pancreatic acinar cells were exposed to secretagogues, uncaged IP3 or toxins that induce AP and effects of xanthines, non-xanthine phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors and cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cAMP/cGMP) determined. The intracellular cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]C), mitochondrial depolarisation and necrosis were assessed by confocal microscopy. Effects of xanthines were evaluated in caerulein-induced AP (CER-AP), taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate-induced AP (TLCS-AP) or palmitoleic acid plus ethanol-induced AP (fatty acid ethyl ester AP (FAEE-AP)). Serum xanthines were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results Caffeine, dimethylxanthines and non-xanthine PDE inhibitors blocked IP3-mediated Ca2+ oscillations, while monomethylxanthines had little effect. Caffeine and dimethylxanthines inhibited uncaged IP3-induced Ca2+ rises, toxin-induced Ca2+ release, mitochondrial depolarisation and necrotic cell death pathway activation; cAMP/cGMP did not inhibit toxin-induced Ca2+ rises. Caffeine significantly ameliorated CER-AP with most effect at 25 mg/kg (seven injections hourly); paraxanthine or theophylline did not. Caffeine at 25 mg/kg significantly ameliorated TLCS-AP and FAEE-AP. Mean total serum levels of dimethylxanthines and trimethylxanthines peaked at >2 mM with 25 mg/kg caffeine but at Caffeine and its dimethylxanthine metabolites reduced pathological IP3R-mediated pancreatic acinar Ca2+ signals but only caffeine ameliorated experimental AP. Caffeine is a

  2. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Odom, Susan A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Sottos, Nancy R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; White, Scott R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Moore, Jeffrey S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  3. P2X3 receptors mediate visceral hypersensitivity during acute chemically-induced colitis and in the post-inflammatory phase via different mechanisms of sensitization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemie Deiteren

    Full Text Available Experiments using P2X3 knock-out mice or more general P2X receptor antagonists suggest that P2X3 receptors contribute to visceral hypersensitivity. We aimed to investigate the effect of the selective P2X3 antagonist A-317491 on visceral sensitivity under physiological conditions, during acute colitis and in the post-inflammatory phase of colitis.Trinitrobenzene sulphonic-acid colitis was monitored by colonoscopy: on day 3 to confirm the presence of colitis and then every 4 days, starting from day 10, to monitor convalescence and determine the exact timepoint of endoscopic healing in each rat. Visceral sensitivity was assessed by quantifying visceromotor responses to colorectal distension in controls, rats with acute colitis and post-colitis rats. A-317491 was administered 30 min prior to visceral sensitivity testing. Expression of P2X3 receptors (RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry and the intracellular signalling molecules cdk5, csk and CASK (RT-PCR were quantified in colonic tissue and dorsal root ganglia. ATP release in response to colorectal distension was measured by luminiscence.Rats with acute TNBS-colitis displayed significant visceral hypersensitivity that was dose-dependently, but not fully, reversed by A-317491. Hypersenstivity was accompanied by an increased colonic release of ATP. Post-colitis rats also displayed visceral hypersensitivity that was dose-dependently reduced and fully normalized by A-317491 without increased release of ATP. A-317491 did not modify visceral sensitivity in controls. P2X3 mRNA and protein expression in the colon and dorsal root ganglia were similar in control, acute colitis and post-colitis groups, while colonic mRNA expression of cdk5, csk and CASK was increased in the post-colitis group only.These findings indicate that P2X3 receptors are not involved in sensory signaling under physiological conditions whereas they modulate visceral hypersensitivity during acute TNBS-colitis and even more so in the post

  4. Methods of acute biological assays in guinea-pigs for the study of toxicity and innocuity of drugs and chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui Mi Ko

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 602 samples were tested by the following assays performed at the animal facilities (Cedeme of the Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP: 385 for dermal irritability, 90 for ocular irritability (discontinued in 1995, 31 for systemic toxicity by injection, 26 for oral acute toxicity, 15 for toxicity by intracutaneous injection, 15 for skin sensitization, 15 for toxicity of serum and vaccines for human use, 14 for toxicity by intramuscular implantation, 7 for pyrogens, 2 for acute dermal toxicity, and 2 for irritation of mucous membrane. The following agents were tested: cosmetics and related substances (42.0%, chemicals used in industry (32.9%, plastics, rubber, and other polymers (15.9%, agrotoxics (4.0%, medicines (2.7%, and vaccines (2.5%. In the present description, emphasis was given to tests of dermal irritability and sensitization. This work was conducted entirely in animal facilities, according to our general belief that animal facilities at universities, while considering ethic principles and sanitary, genetic, nutritional, and pathophysiological controls, also require laboratories specialized in areas such as transgenics, cryopreservation, ambiental physiology, functional genomics, alternative models, and mainly activities and research on methods in toxicology, as focused in this study.Descrevemos os testes usados em ensaios biológicos de curta duração para estudo de toxicidade e inocuidade de cosméticos, fármacos e outras substâncias químicas, feitos no Biotério Central/Cedeme da Unifesp, de 1986 a 2000. Testamos 602 amostras nos seguintes ensaios: 385 de irritação cutânea, 90 de irritação ocular (até 1995, 31 de toxicidade sistêmica por injeção, 26 de toxicidade oral aguda, 15 de toxicidade por aplicação intracutânea, 15 de sensibilização da pele, 15 de toxicidade de soros e vacinas de uso humano, 14 de toxicidade por implantação intramuscular, 7 de pirogênio, 2 de toxicidade dérmica aguda e

  5. Cannabinoid agonist WIN55,212 in vitro inhibits interleukin-6 (IL-6) and monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1) release by rat pancreatic acini and in vivo induces dual effects on the course of acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrella, C; Agostini, S; Alema', G S; Casolini, P; Carpino, F; Giuli, C; Improta, G; Linari, G; Petrozza, V; Broccardo, M

    2010-11-01

    Cannabinoids (CBs) evoke their effects by activating the cannabinoid receptor subtypes CB1-r and CB2-r and exert anti-inflammatory effects altering chemokine and cytokine expression. Various cytokines and chemokines are produced and released by rodent pancreatic acini in acute pancreatitis. Although CB1-r and CB2-r expressed in rat exocrine pancreatic acinar cells do not modulate digestive enzyme release, whether they modulate inflammatory mediators remains unclear. We investigated the CB-r system role on exocrine pancreas in unstimulated conditions and during acute pancreatitis. We evaluated in vitro and in vivo changes induced by WIN55,212 on the inflammatory variables amylasemia, pancreatic edema and morphology, and on acinar release and content of the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) and chemokine monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in untreated rats and rats with caerulein (CK)-induced pancreatitis. In the in vitro experiments, WIN55,212 (10(-6) mol L(-1)) inhibited IL-6 and MCP-1 release from acinar cells of unstimulated rats and after CK-induced pancreatitis. In vivo, when rats were pretreated with WIN55,212 (2 mg kg(-1), intraperitoneally) before experimentally-induced pancreatitis, serum amylase, pancreatic edema and IL-6 and MCP-1 acinar content diminished and pancreatic morphology improved. Conversely, when rats with experimentally-induced pancreatitis were post-treated with WIN55,212, pancreatitis worsened. These findings provide new evidence showing that the pancreatic CB1-r/CB2-r system modulates pro-inflammatory factor levels in rat exocrine pancreatic acinar cells. The dual, time-dependent WIN55,212-induced changes in the development and course of acute pancreatitis support the idea that the role of the endogenous CB receptor system differs according to the local inflammatory status. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Applicability of the fish embryo acute toxicity (FET) test (OECD 236) in the regulatory context of Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation, and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobanska, Marta; Scholz, Stefan; Nyman, Anna-Maija; Cesnaitis, Romanas; Gutierrez Alonso, Simon; Klüver, Nils; Kühne, Ralph; Tyle, Henrik; de Knecht, Joop; Dang, Zhichao; Lundbergh, Ivar; Carlon, Claudio; De Coen, Wim

    2018-03-01

    In 2013 the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline (236) for fish embryo acute toxicity (FET) was adopted. It determines the acute toxicity of chemicals to embryonic fish. Previous studies show a good correlation of FET with the standard acute fish toxicity (AFT) test; however, the potential of the FET test to predict AFT, which is required by the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation, and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) regulation (EC 1907/2006) and the Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) Regulation (EC 1272/2008), has not yet been fully clarified. In 2015 the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) requested that a consultant perform a scientific analysis of the applicability of FET to predict AFT. The purpose was to compare the toxicity of substances to fish embryos and to adult fish, and to investigate whether certain factors (e.g., physicochemical properties, modes of action, or chemical structures) could be used to define the applicability boundaries of the FET test. Given the limited data availability, the analysis focused on organic substances. The present critical review summarizes the main findings and discusses regulatory application of the FET test under REACH. Given some limitations (e.g., neurotoxic mode of action) and/or remaining uncertainties (e.g., deviation of some narcotic substances), it has been found that the FET test alone is currently not sufficient to meet the essential information on AFT as required by the REACH regulation. However, the test may be used within weight-of-evidence approaches together with other independent, relevant, and reliable sources of information. The present review also discusses further research needs that may overcome the remaining uncertainties and help to increase acceptance of FET as a replacement for AFT in the future. For example, an increase in the availability of data generated according to OECD test guideline 236 may provide evidence of a higher predictive power

  7. Quantitation of fluoride ion released sarin in red blood cell samples by gas chromatography-chemical ionization mass spectrometry using isotope dilution and large-volume injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, E M; McGuire, J M; Evans, R A; Edwards, J L; Hulet, S W; Benton, B J; Forster, J S; Burnett, D C; Muse, W T; Matson, K; Crouse, C L; Mioduszewski, R J; Thomson, S A

    2004-01-01

    A new method for measuring fluoride ion released isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate (sarin, GB) in the red blood cell fraction was developed that utilizes an autoinjector, a large-volume injector port (LVI), positive ion ammonia chemical ionization detection in the SIM mode, and a deuterated stable isotope internal standard. This method was applied to red blood cell (RBC) and plasma ethyl acetate extracts from spiked human and animal whole blood samples and from whole blood of minipigs, guinea pigs, and rats exposed by whole-body sarin inhalation. Evidence of nerve agent exposure was detected in plasma and red blood cells at low levels of exposure. The linear method range of quantitation was 10-1000 pg on-column with a detection limit of approximately 2-pg on-column. In the course of method development, several conditions were optimized for the LVI, including type of injector insert, injection volume, initial temperature, pressure, and flow rate. RBC fractions had advantages over the plasma with respect to assessing nerve agent exposure using the fluoride ion method especially in samples with low serum butyrylcholinesterase activity.

  8. Arrhythmogenic effect of sympathetic histamine in mouse hearts subjected to acute ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gonghao; Hu, Jing; Li, Teng; Ma, Xue; Meng, Jingru; Jia, Min; Lu, Jun; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Chen, Zhong; Luo, Xiaoxing

    2012-02-10

    The role of histamine as a newly recognized sympathetic neurotransmitter has been presented previously, and its postsynaptic effects greatly depended on the activities of sympathetic nerves. Cardiac sympathetic nerves become overactivated under acute myocardial ischemic conditions and release neurotransmitters in large amounts, inducing ventricular arrhythmia. Therefore, it is proposed that cardiac sympathetic histamine, in addition to norepinephrine, may have a significant arrhythmogenic effect. To test this hypothesis, we observed the release of cardiac sympathetic histamine and associated ventricular arrhythmogenesis that was induced by acute ischemia in isolated mouse hearts. Mast cell-deficient mice (MCDM) and histidine decarboxylase knockout (HDC(-/-)) mice were used to exclude the potential involvement of mast cells. Electrical field stimulation and acute ischemia-reperfusion evoked chemical sympathectomy-sensitive histamine release from the hearts of both MCDM and wild-type (WT) mice but not from HDC(-/-) mice. The release of histamine from the hearts of MCDM and WT mice was associated with the development of acute ischemia-induced ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. The incidence and duration of induced ventricular arrhythmias were found to decrease in the presence of the selective histamine H(2) receptor antagonist famotidine. Additionally, the released histamine facilitated the arrhythmogenic effect of simultaneously released norepinephrine. We conclude that, under acute ischemic conditions, cardiac sympathetic histamine released by overactive sympathetic nerve terminals plays a certain arrhythmogenic role via H(2) receptors. These findings provided novel insight into the pathophysiological roles of sympathetic histamine, which may be a new therapeutic target for acute ischemia-induced arrhythmias.

  9. Comparing the potency of chemicals with multiple modes of action in aquatic toxicology: Acute toxicity due to narcosis versus reactive toxicity of acrylic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freidig, A.P.; Verhaar, H.J.M.; Hermens, J.L.M. [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Research Inst. of Toxicology

    1999-09-01

    A series of acrylates and methacrylates was used to illustrate a strategy to compare the importance of two modes of action (MOA) and thereby identify the predominant cause of acute fish toxicity. Acrylic compounds are known to be Michael acceptors and may therefore react with glutathione (GSH), causing GSH-depletion in vivo (reactive mechanism). On the other hand, acrylates may also act by a nonspecific mechanism (narcosis). The following two, physiologically meaningful parameters were calculated in order to estimate the contribution of these two mechanisms to the overall acute toxicity: (i) a lipid normalized body burden for narcosis and (ii) the potential degree of GSH depletion by chemical reactivity. The degree of GSH depletion was found to be related to the product of the reactivity toward GSH and the exposure concentration. This model was validated with four model compounds and an in vivo study. For both MOA, toxic ratios were calculated and compared for all chemicals in the series. The approach enables the comparison of the contribution to toxicity of chemicals with more than on MOA.

  10. Handbook of acute toxicity of chemicals to fish and aquatic invertebrates : summaries of toxicity tests conducted at Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory, 1965-78

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. Waynon; Finley, Mack T.

    1980-01-01

    Acute toxicity is a major subject of research at Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory for evaluating the impact of toxic chemicals on fishery resources. The Laboratory has played a leading role in developing research technology for toxicity testing and data interpretation. In 1965-78, more than 400 chemicals were tested against a variety of invertebrates and fish species representative of both cold- and warm-water climates.The use of acute toxicity tests for assessing the potential hazard of chemical contaminants to aquatic organisms is well documented (Boyd 1957; Henderson et al. 1960; Sanders and Cope 1966; Macek and McAllister 1970). Static acute toxicity tests provide rapid and (within limits) reproducible concentration-response curves for estimating toxic effects of chemicals on aquatic organisms. These tests provide a database for determining relative toxicity of a large number of chemicals to a variety of species and for estimating acute effects of chemical spills on natural aquatic systems; they also assist in determining priority and design of additional toxicity studies.Acute toxicity tests usually provide estimates of the exposure concentration causing 50% mortality (LC50) to test organisms during a specified period of time. For certain invertebrates, the effective concentration is based on immobilization, or some other identifiable endpoint, rather than on lethality. The application of the LC50 has gained acceptance among toxicologists and is generally the most highly rated test for assessing potential adverse effects of chemical contaminants to aquatic life (Brungs and Mount 1978; American Institute for Biological Sciences 1978a).The literature contains numerous papers dealing with the acute toxicity of chemicals to freshwater organisms. However, there is a tremendous need for a concise compendium of toxicity data covering a large variety of chemicals and test species. This Handbook is a compilation of a large volume of acute toxicity data

  11. Chemical pneumonitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chemical pneumonitis. Symptoms Acute symptoms may include: Air hunger (feeling that you cannot get enough air) Breathing ... must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get ...

  12. The ECVAM international validation study on in vitro tests for acute skin irritation: selection of test chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskes, Chantra; Cole, Thomas; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Worth, Andrew; Cockshott, Amanda; Gerner, Ingrid; Zuang, Valérie

    2007-12-01

    The ECVAM-funded skin irritation validation study (SIVS) was initiated in 2003, with the aim to evaluate whether the EpiDerm, EPISKIN and the SIFT alternative methods were able to reliably identify skin irritant and non-irritant chemicals, and could therefore be candidates for replacing the rabbit Draize test for skin irritation. The primary goal of the study was to evaluate the predictive capacity of the assays with regard to the EU classification system, which employs the risk phrases, "R38", for skin irritants, and "no label" for non-irritants. A secondary objective was the retrospective analysis of the data, to assess whether the in vitro tests would be able to discriminate between strong irritants (category 2), mild irritants (category 3) and non-irritants (no category), as defined by the OECD and United Nations proposal for a Globally Harmonised System (GHS) for the classification and labelling of dermal irritancy. A Chemicals Selection Sub-Committee (CSSC) was appointed to identify test chemicals to be used in the SIVS, for which existing, high quality in vivo data were available, with which to correlate the in vitro measurements. Since chemicals from the European Centre for the Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) database of reference chemicals for skin irritation/skin corrosion had been extensively used in preceding studies, the CSSC made use of novel sources for potential test chemicals. The first source of chemicals screened was the New Chemicals Database (NCD), which is the central archive within the EU notification scheme for 'new' commercial chemicals. Data registered in the NCD originate from standard assays, submitted in compliance with the legislation which regulates the marketing of industrial chemicals, and are subject to quality assurance by the competent authorities of the EU Member States. In addition, to obtain 'existing' chemicals which were readily available from major manufacturing and/or distribution sources, additional

  13. Evaluation of acute cardiovascular effects of immediate-release methylphenidate in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamberti M

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Marco Lamberti,1,2 Domenico Italiano,2 Laura Guerriero,1 Gessica D’Amico,3 Rosamaria Siracusano,1,4 Massimo Ingrassia,5 Eva Germanò,1 Maria Pia Calabrò,3 Edoardo Spina,2 Antonella Gagliano1 1Division of Child Neurology and Psychiatry, Department of Pediatrics, 2Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 3Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Messina, Messina, Italy; 4Institution of Clinical Physiology, CNR, Pisa, 5Division of Psychology, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Messina, Messina, Italy Abstract: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is a frequent condition in children and often extends into adulthood. Use of immediate-release methylphenidate (MPH has raised concerns about potential cardiovascular adverse effects within a few hours after administration. This study was carried out to investigate acute effects of MPH on electrocardiogram (ECG in a pediatric population. A total of 54 consecutive patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (51 males and 3 females; mean age =12.14±2.6 years, range 6–19 years, receiving a new prescription of MPH, underwent a standard ECG 2 hours before and after the administration of MPH 10 mg per os. Basal and posttreatment ECG parameters, including mean QT (QT interval when corrected for heart rate [QTc], QTc dispersion (QTd interval duration, T-peak to T-end (TpTe intervals, and TpTe/QT ratio were compared. Significant modifications of both QTc and QTd values were not found after drug administration. QTd fluctuated slightly from 25.7±9.3 milliseconds to 25.1±8.4 milliseconds; QTc varied from 407.6±12.4 milliseconds to 409.8±12.7 milliseconds. A significant variation in blood pressure (systolic blood pressure 105.4±10.3 vs 109.6±11.5; P<0.05; diastolic blood pressure 59.2±7.1 vs 63.1±7.9; P<0.05 was observed, but all the data were within normal range. Heart rate moved from 80.5±15.5 bpm to 87.7±18.8

  14. Acute toxicity of six freshwater mussel species (Glochidia) to six chemicals: Implications for daphnids and Utterbackia imbecillis as surrogates for protection of freshwater mussels (Unionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milam, C.D.; Farris, J.L.; Dwyer, F.J.; Hardesty, D.K.

    2005-01-01

    Acute (24-h) toxicity tests were used in this study to compare lethality responses in early life stages (glochidia) of six freshwater mussel species, Leptodea fragilis, U. imbecillis, Lampsilis cardium, Lampsilis siliquoidea, Megalonaias nervosa, and Ligumia subrostrata, and two standard test organisms, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Daphnia magna. Concentrations of carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, permethrin, and 2,4-D were used in acute exposures to represent different chemical classes and modes of action. The relative sensitivities of species were evaluated by ranking their LC 50 values for each chemical. We used these ranks to determine the extent to which U. imbecillis (one of the most commonly used unionids in toxicity tests) was representative of the tolerances of other mussels. We also calculated geometric mean LC50s for the families Unionidae and Daphnidae. Rankings of these data were used to assess the extent to which Daphnidae can be used as surrogates for freshwater mussels relative to chemical sensitivity. While no single chemical elicited consistently high or low toxicity estimates, carbaryl and 2,4-D were generally the least toxic to all species tested. No species was always the most sensitive, and Daphnidae were generally protective of Unionidae. Utterbackia imbecillis, while often proposed as a standard unionid mussel test species, did not always qualify as a sufficient surrogate (i.e., a substitute organism that often elicits similar sensitivity responses to the same contaminant exposure) for other species of mussels, since it was usually one of the more tolerant species in our rankings. U. imbecillis should be used as a surrogate species only with this caution on its relative insensitivity. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  15. Developmental programming: Impact of fetal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals on gonadotropin-releasing hormone and estrogen receptor mRNA in sheep hypothalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, Megan M.; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2010-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) and methoxychlor (MXC), two endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects, disrupt the reproductive system. BPA has profound effects on luteinizing hormone (LH) surge amplitude, and MXC has profound effects on on LH surge timing in sheep. The neural mechanisms involved in the differential disruption of the LH surge by these two EDCs remain to be elucidated. We tested the hypothesis that the differential effects of BPA and MXC on LH surge system involved changes in hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and estrogen receptors (ESR), ESR1 and ESR2, mRNA expression. Pregnant sheep were given daily injections of cottonseed oil (controls), MXC, or BPA (5 mg/kg/day) from day 30 to 90 of gestation (term 147 d). Offspring from these animals were euthanized as adults, during the late follicular phase following synchronization of estrus with prostaglandin F 2α , just before the expected onset of preovulatory LH surge and changes in mRNA expression of hypothalamic GnRH, ESR1, and ESR2 quantified following in situ hybridization. GnRH mRNA expression was significantly lower in both groups of EDC-treated females compared to controls. ESR1 expression was increased in prenatal BPA- but not MXC-treated females in medial preoptic area relative to controls. In contrast, ESR2 expression was reduced in the medial preoptic area of both EDC-treated groups. Differences in expression of ESR1/ESR2 receptors may contribute to the differential effects of BPA and MXC on the LH surge system. These findings provide support that prenatal exposure to EDCs alters the neural developmental trajectory leading to long-term reproductive consequences in the adult female.

  16. Developmental programming: impact of fetal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals on gonadotropin-releasing hormone and estrogen receptor mRNA in sheep hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Megan M; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2010-09-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) and methoxychlor (MXC), two endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects, disrupt the reproductive system. BPA has profound effects on luteinizing hormone (LH) surge amplitude, and MXC has profound effects on on LH surge timing in sheep. The neural mechanisms involved in the differential disruption of the LH surge by these two EDCs remain to be elucidated. We tested the hypothesis that the differential effects of BPA and MXC on LH surge system involved changes in hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and estrogen receptors (ESR), ESR1 and ESR2, mRNA expression. Pregnant sheep were given daily injections of cottonseed oil (controls), MXC, or BPA (5mg/kg/day) from day 30 to 90 of gestation (term 147d). Offspring from these animals were euthanized as adults, during the late follicular phase following synchronization of estrus with prostaglandin F(2alpha), just before the expected onset of preovulatory LH surge and changes in mRNA expression of hypothalamic GnRH, ESR1, and ESR2 quantified following in situ hybridization. GnRH mRNA expression was significantly lower in both groups of EDC-treated females compared to controls. ESR1 expression was increased in prenatal BPA- but not MXC-treated females in medial preoptic area relative to controls. In contrast, ESR2 expression was reduced in the medial preoptic area of both EDC-treated groups. Differences in expression of ESR1/ESR2 receptors may contribute to the differential effects of BPA and MXC on the LH surge system. These findings provide support that prenatal exposure to EDCs alters the neural developmental trajectory leading to long-term reproductive consequences in the adult female. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthetic surfactant containing SP-B and SP-C mimics is superior to single-peptide formulations in rabbits with chemical acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans J. Walther

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chemical spills are on the rise and inhalation of toxic chemicals may induce chemical acute lung injury (ALI/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Although the pathophysiology of ALI/ARDS is well understood, the absence of specific antidotes has limited the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions.Objectives. Surfactant inactivation and formation of free radicals are important pathways in (chemical ALI. We tested the potential of lipid mixtures with advanced surfactant protein B and C (SP-B and C mimics to improve oxygenation and lung compliance in rabbits with lavage- and chemical-induced ALI/ARDS.Methods. Ventilated young adult rabbits underwent repeated saline lung lavages or underwent intratracheal instillation of hydrochloric acid to induce ALI/ARDS. After establishment of respiratory failure rabbits were treated with a single intratracheal dose of 100 mg/kg of synthetic surfactant composed of 3% Super Mini-B (S-MB, a SP-B mimic, and/or SP-C33 UCLA, a SP-C mimic, in a lipid mixture (DPPC:POPC:POPG 5:3:2 by weight, the clinical surfactant Infasurf®, a bovine lung lavage extract with SP-B and C, or synthetic lipids alone. End-points consisted of arterial oxygenation, dynamic lung compliance, and protein and lipid content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Potential mechanism of surfactant action for S-MB and SP-C33 UCLA were investigated with captive bubble surfactometry (CBS assays.Results. All three surfactant peptide/lipid mixtures and Infasurf equally lowered the minimum surface tension on CBS, and also improved oxygenation and lung compliance. In both animal models, the two-peptide synthetic surfactant with S-MB and SP-C33 UCLA led to better arterial oxygenation and lung compliance than single peptide synthetic surfactants and Infasurf. Synthetic surfactants and Infasurf improved lung function further in lavage- than in chemical-induced respiratory failure, with the difference probably due to greater capillary

  18. Methodology for national risk analysis and prioritization of toxic industrial chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxell, Piia; Engström, Kerstin; Tuovila, Juha; Söderström, Martin; Kiljunen, Harri; Vanninen, Paula; Santonen, Tiina

    2013-01-01

    The identification of chemicals that pose the greatest threat to human health from incidental releases is a cornerstone in public health preparedness for chemical threats. The present study developed and applied a methodology for the risk analysis and prioritization of industrial chemicals to identify the most significant chemicals that pose a threat to public health in Finland. The prioritization criteria included acute and chronic health hazards, physicochemical and environmental hazards, national production and use quantities, the physicochemical properties of the substances, and the history of substance-related incidents. The presented methodology enabled a systematic review and prioritization of industrial chemicals for the purpose of national public health preparedness for chemical incidents.

  19. Experimental determination of the speciation, partitioning, and release of perrhenate as a chemical surrogate for pertechnetate from a sodalite-bearing multiphase ceramic waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, E.M.; Lukens, W.W.; Fitts, J.P.; Jantzen, C.M.; Tang, G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Multiphase ceramic waste form is composed of primarily of nepheline, nosean, and sodalite. • Rhenium is in the 7+ oxidation state and has partitioned to a mixed Re-bearing sodalite phase. • Mechanism of corrosion for the multiphase matrix is similar to other silicate minerals. • A mixed-anion sodalite phases controls Re release in the multiphase waste forms. - Abstract: A key component to closing the nuclear fuel cycle is the storage and disposition of nuclear waste in geologic systems. Multiphase ceramic waste forms have been studied extensively as a potential host matrix for nuclear waste. Understanding the speciation, partitioning, and release behavior of radionuclides immobilized in multiphase ceramic waste forms is a critical aspect of developing the scientific and technical basis for nuclear waste management. In this study, we evaluated a sodalite-bearing multiphase ceramic waste form (i.e., fluidized-bed steam reform sodium aluminosilicate [FBSR NAS] product) as a potential host matrix for long-lived radionuclides, such as technetium ( 99 Tc). The FBSR NAS material consists primarily of nepheline (ideally NaAlSiO 4 ), anion-bearing sodalites (ideally M 8 [Al 6 Si 6 O 24 ]X 2 , where M refers to alkali and alkaline earth cations and X refers to monovalent anions), and nosean (ideally Na 8 [AlSiO 4 ] 6 SO 4 ). Bulk X-ray absorption fine structure analysis of the multiphase ceramic waste form, suggest rhenium (Re) is in the Re(VII) oxidation state and has partitioned to a Re-bearing sodalite phase (most likely a perrhenate sodalite Na 8 [Al 6 Si 6 O 24 ](ReO 4 ) 2 ). Rhenium was added as a chemical surrogate for 99 Tc during the FBSR NAS synthesis process. The weathering behavior of the FBSR NAS material was evaluated under hydraulically unsaturated conditions with deionized water at 90 °C. The steady-state Al, Na, and Si concentrations suggests the weathering mechanisms are consistent with what has been observed for other aluminosilicate

  20. Experimental determination of the speciation, partitioning, and release of perrhenate as a chemical surrogate for pertechnetate from a sodalite-bearing multiphase ceramic waste form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Fitts, Jeff. P.; Jantzen, Carol. M.; Tang, G.

    2013-12-01

    A key component to closing the nuclear fuel cycle is the storage and disposition of nuclear waste in geologic systems. Multiphase ceramic waste forms have been studied extensively as a potential host matrix for nuclear waste. Understanding the speciation, partitioning, and release behavior of radionuclides immobilized in multiphase ceramic waste forms is a critical aspect of developing the scientific and technical basis for nuclear waste management. In this study, we evaluated a sodalite-bearing multiphase ceramic waste form (i.e., fluidized-bed steam reform sodium aluminosilicate [FBSR NAS] product) as a potential host matrix for long-lived radionuclides, such as technetium (99Tc). The FBSR NAS material consists primarily of nepheline (ideally NaAlSiO4), anion-bearing sodalites (ideally M8[Al6Si6O24]X2, where M refers to alkali and alkaline earth cations and X refers to monovalent anions), and nosean (ideally Na8[AlSiO4]6SO4). Bulk X-ray absorption fine structure analysis of the multiphase ceramic waste form, suggest rhenium (Re) is in the Re(VII) oxidation state and has partitioned to a Re-bearing sodalite phase (most likely a perrhenate sodalite Na8[Al6Si6O24](ReO4)2). Rhenium was added as a chemical surrogate for 99Tc during the FBSR NAS synthesis process. The weathering behavior of the FBSR NAS material was evaluated under hydraulically unsaturated conditions with deionized water at 90 ?C. The steady-state Al, Na, and Si concentrations suggests the weathering mechanisms are consistent with what has been observed for other aluminosilicate minerals and include a combination of ion exchange, network hydrolysis, and the formation of an enriched-silica surface layer or phase. The steady-state S and Re concentrations are within an order of magnitude of the nosean and perrhenate sodalite solubility, respectively. The order of magnitude difference between the observed and predicted concentration for Re and S may be associated with the fact that the anion

  1. Two-Year Epidemiologic Pattern of Acute Pharmaceutical and Chemical Poisoning Cases Admitted to Adama Hospital Medical College, Adama, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesemma Sileshi Chala

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research on poisoning epidemiology in different regions is highly important for evidence-informed health planning. The present study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the two-year epidemiologic pattern of acute poisoning cases treated at Adama Hospital Medical College (AHMC in Adama, Ethiopia. Methods: In this retrospective descriptive study, medical records of emergency department patients with diagnosis of acute poisoning from the beginning of April 2013 to the beginning of April 2015 were reviewed. Result: Data of 292 patients with acute poisoning were retrieved, of which 50.3% were women. The majority of the patients (83.6% were below 30 years of age. There most common affected patients were in the 21-30 year age-group (39.5%. The highest number of patients were farmers (18.8% followed closely by unemployed individuals (18.2%. Considering the location of residence, the majority of the patients lived in rural areas (68.8%. Organophosphates were the most commonly used toxic agents (52.1%, followed by household cleaning products (12.7% and alcohols (10.3%. Four patients died (case fatality rate = 1.37 % and all of them were due to complications of OP poisoning. Data analyses showed significant correlations between age-groups and intention of poisoning (P < 0.001, poison types and patients’ gender (P = 0.011, and poison types and place of residence (P = 0.010. Conclusion: In Adama, poisonings are more common in rural residents and young adults, and organophosphates are the leading cause of poisoning. These findings warrant social empowerment actions as well as educational programs on poisonings and their outcomes, which should be especially targeted on this stratum of the society (young adult rural residents.

  2. Effect of thermal and chemical modifications on the mechanical and release properties of paracetamol tablet formulations containing corn, cassava and sweet potato starches as filler-binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Vbamiunomhene Lawal

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: Modification of the experimental starches improved the mechanical and release properties of directly compressed paracetamol tablet formulations. Thus, they can be developed for use as pharmaceutical excipients in specific formulations.

  3. Impact of Chemical Proportions on the Acute Neurotoxicity of a Mixture of Seven Carbamates in Preweanling and Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statistical design and environmental relevance are important aspects of studies of chemical mixtures, such as pesticides. We used a dose-additivity model to test experimentally the default assumptions of dose-additivity for two mixtures of seven N-methylcarbamates (carbaryl, carb...

  4. Acute sensitivity of freshwater mollusks and commonly tested invertebrates to select chemicals with different toxic models of action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies indicate that freshwater mollusks are more sensitive than commonly tested organisms to some chemicals, such as copper and ammonia. Nevertheless, mollusks are generally under-represented in toxicity databases. Studies are needed to generate data with which to comp...

  5. Evaluation of semi-generic PBTK modeling for emergency risk assessment after acute inhalation exposure to volatile hazardous chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olie, J. Daniël N; Bessems, Jos G.; Clewell, Harvey J.; Meulenbelt, Jan; Hunault, Claudine C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/297757849

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic Models (PBTK) may facilitate emergency risk assessment after chemical incidents with inhalation exposure, but they are rarely used due to their relative complexity and skill requirements. We aimed to tackle this problem by evaluating a semi-generic

  6. Evaluation of semi-generic PBTK modeling for emergency risk assessment after acute inhalation exposure to volatile hazardous chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olie, J Daniël N; Bessems, Jos G; Clewell, Harvey J; Meulenbelt, Jan; Hunault, Claudine C

    BACKGROUND: Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic Models (PBTK) may facilitate emergency risk assessment after chemical incidents with inhalation exposure, but they are rarely used due to their relative complexity and skill requirements. We aimed to tackle this problem by evaluating a semi-generic

  7. Chemical Emergencies Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact Sheet: Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance System Hazardous Substances in the Environment Medical Management Guidelines for Acute Chemical Exposures ToxFAQs American Association ...

  8. A candidate type 2 diabetes polymorphism near the HHEX locus affects acute glucose-stimulated insulin release in European populations: results from the EUGENE2 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staiger, Harald; Stancáková, Alena; Zilinskaite, Jone

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In recent genome-wide association studies, two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near the HHEX locus were shown to be more frequent in type 2 diabetic patients than in control subjects. Based on HHEX's function during embryonic development of the ventral pancreas in mice, we....... By contrast, the minor A-allele of HHEX SNP rs7923837 was significantly associated with higher IVGTT-derived first-phase insulin release before and after appropriate adjustment (P = 0.013 and P = 0.014, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: A common genetic variation in the 3'-flanking region of the HHEX locus, i...

  9. Mechanisms of the hepatoprotective effects of tamoxifen against drug-induced and chemical-induced acute liver injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Yukitaka; Miyashita, Taishi; Higuchi, Satonori [Drug Metabolism and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920‐1192 (Japan); Tsuneyama, Koichi [Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Science for Research, University of Toyama, Sugitani, Toyama 930‐0194 (Japan); Endo, Shinya [Drug Metabolism and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920‐1192 (Japan); Tsukui, Tohru [Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Yamane, Hidaka 350‐1241 (Japan); Toyoda, Yasuyuki; Fukami, Tatsuki; Nakajima, Miki [Drug Metabolism and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920‐1192 (Japan); Yokoi, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: tyokoi@p.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Drug Metabolism and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920‐1192 (Japan)

    2012-10-01

    Although estrogen receptor (ER)α agonists, such as estradiol and ethinylestradiol (EE2), cause cholestasis in mice, they also reduce the degree of liver injury caused by hepatotoxicants as well as ischemia–reperfusion. The functional mechanisms of ERα have yet to be elucidated in drug-induced or chemical-induced liver injury. The present study investigated the effects of an ERα agonist, selective ER modulators (SERMs) and an ER antagonist on drug-induced and chemical-induced liver injuries caused by acetaminophen, bromobenzene, diclofenac, and thioacetamide (TA). We observed hepatoprotective effects of EE2, tamoxifen (TAM) and raloxifene pretreatment in female mice that were exposed to a variety of hepatotoxic compounds. In contrast, the ER antagonist did not show any hepatoprotective effects. DNA microarray analyses suggested that monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated 2 (Mmd2) protein, which has an unknown function, is commonly increased by TAM and RAL pretreatment, but not by pretreatment with the ER antagonist. In ERα-knockout mice, the hepatoprotective effects of TAM and the increased expression of Mmd2 mRNA were not observed in TA-induced liver injury. To investigate the function of Mmd2, the expression level of Mmd2 mRNA was significantly knocked down to approximately 30% in mice by injection of siRNA for Mmd2 (siMmd2). Mmd2 knockdown resulted in a reduction of the protective effects of TAM on TA-induced liver injury in mice. This is the first report of the involvement of ERα in drug-induced or chemical-induced liver injury. Upregulation of Mmd2 protein in the liver was suggested as the mechanism of the hepatoprotective effects of EE2 and SERMs. -- Highlights: ► Liver injury induced by drugs or chemicals was investigated in mice. ► Liver injury was suppressed by pretreatment with tamoxifen in female mice. ► Mmd2, whose function was unknown, could be a candidate gene for liver protection. ► Tamoxifen up-regulated Mmd2 mRNA expression

  10. Mechanisms of the hepatoprotective effects of tamoxifen against drug-induced and chemical-induced acute liver injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Yukitaka; Miyashita, Taishi; Higuchi, Satonori; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Endo, Shinya; Tsukui, Tohru; Toyoda, Yasuyuki; Fukami, Tatsuki; Nakajima, Miki; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Although estrogen receptor (ER)α agonists, such as estradiol and ethinylestradiol (EE2), cause cholestasis in mice, they also reduce the degree of liver injury caused by hepatotoxicants as well as ischemia–reperfusion. The functional mechanisms of ERα have yet to be elucidated in drug-induced or chemical-induced liver injury. The present study investigated the effects of an ERα agonist, selective ER modulators (SERMs) and an ER antagonist on drug-induced and chemical-induced liver injuries caused by acetaminophen, bromobenzene, diclofenac, and thioacetamide (TA). We observed hepatoprotective effects of EE2, tamoxifen (TAM) and raloxifene pretreatment in female mice that were exposed to a variety of hepatotoxic compounds. In contrast, the ER antagonist did not show any hepatoprotective effects. DNA microarray analyses suggested that monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated 2 (Mmd2) protein, which has an unknown function, is commonly increased by TAM and RAL pretreatment, but not by pretreatment with the ER antagonist. In ERα-knockout mice, the hepatoprotective effects of TAM and the increased expression of Mmd2 mRNA were not observed in TA-induced liver injury. To investigate the function of Mmd2, the expression level of Mmd2 mRNA was significantly knocked down to approximately 30% in mice by injection of siRNA for Mmd2 (siMmd2). Mmd2 knockdown resulted in a reduction of the protective effects of TAM on TA-induced liver injury in mice. This is the first report of the involvement of ERα in drug-induced or chemical-induced liver injury. Upregulation of Mmd2 protein in the liver was suggested as the mechanism of the hepatoprotective effects of EE2 and SERMs. -- Highlights: ► Liver injury induced by drugs or chemicals was investigated in mice. ► Liver injury was suppressed by pretreatment with tamoxifen in female mice. ► Mmd2, whose function was unknown, could be a candidate gene for liver protection. ► Tamoxifen up-regulated Mmd2 mRNA expression

  11. Hurricane Harvey, Houston's Petrochemical Industry, and US Chemical Safety Policy: Impacts to Environmental Justice Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, G. T.; Johnson, C.; Gutierrez, A.; Declet-Barreto, J.; Berman, E.; Bergman, A.

    2017-12-01

    When Hurricane Harvey made landfall outside Houston, Texas, the storm's wind speeds and unprecedented precipitation caused significant damage to the region's petrochemical infrastructure. Most notably, the company Arkema's Crosby facility suffered a power failure that led to explosions and incineration of six of its peroxide tanks. Chemicals released into the air from the explosions sent 15 emergency responders to the hospital with severe respiratory conditions and led to the evacuation of hundreds of surrounding households. Other petrochemical facilities faced other damages that resulted in unsafe and acute chemical releases into the air and water. What impacts did such chemical disasters have on the surrounding communities and emergency responders during Harvey's aftermath? What steps might companies have taken to prevent such chemical releases? And what chemical safety policies might have ensured that such disaster risks were mitigated? In this talk we will report on a survey of the extent of damage to Houston's oil and gas infrastructure and related chemical releases and discuss the role of federal chemical safety policy in preventing and mitigating the potential for such risks for future storms and other extreme weather and climate events. We will also discuss how these chemical disasters created acute toxics exposures on environmental justice communities already overburdened with chronic exposures from the petrochemical industry.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Chemically Cross-Linked Acrylic Acid/Gelatin Hydrogels: Effect of pH and Composition on Swelling and Drug Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Majid Hanif Bukhari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This present work was aimed at synthesizing pH-sensitive cross-linked AA/Gelatin hydrogels by free radical polymerization. Ammonium persulfate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA were used as initiator and as cross-linking agent, respectively. Different feed ratios of acrylic acid, gelatin, and EGDMA were used to investigate the effect of monomer, polymer, and degree of cross-linking on swelling and release pattern of the model drug. The swelling behavior of the hydrogel samples was studied in 0.05 M USP phosphate buffer solutions of various pH values pH 1.2, pH 5.5, pH 6.5, and pH 7.5. The prepared samples were evaluated for porosity and sol-gel fraction analysis. Pheniramine maleate used for allergy treatment was loaded as model drug in selected samples. The release study of the drug was investigated in 0.05 M USP phosphate buffer of varying pH values (1.2, 5.5, and 7.5 for 12 hrs. The release data was fitted to various kinetic models to study the release mechanism. Hydrogels were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR spectroscopy which confirmed formation of structure. Surface morphology of unloaded and loaded samples was studied by surface electron microscopy (SEM, which confirmed the distribution of model drug in the gel network.

  13. A study of correlations between the release of drugs from petrolatum-based gels containing nonionic surfactants and some physical and physico-chemical characteristics of the gel systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colo, G D; Nannipieri, E; Serafini, M F; Vitale, D

    1986-06-01

    Synopsis The in vitro release of benzocaine and 2-ethyIhexyl p-di-methylaminobenzoate (EH-PABA) from petrolatum-based gels either containing two nonionic surfactants, or not, was compared with some physical and/or physico-chemical characteristics of the drugs, the gels and the drug-gel systems. The surfactants had no effect on the release of EH-PABA, the less polar drug, whereas they decreased the release of benzocaine. Moreover, the release data show a complex dependence of diffusive properties of ben-zocaine on drug and surfactant concentration. Benzocaine appears to form mixed micelles with each of the two surfactants and/or undergoes self-aggregation phenomena within surfactant micelles. The results indicate that drug diffusion is influenced by gel porosity, drug molecular size and polarity and molecular interactions. Etude des corrélations entre la disponibilité des medicaments dans les gels a base de vaseline contenant des surfactifs non ioniques et quelques propriétés physiques et physicochimiques des gels.

  14. Chemically modified tetracycline prevents the development of septic shock and acute respiratory distress syndrome in a clinically applicable porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Jay; Halter, Jeffrey; Schiller, Henry; Gatto, Louis; Carney, David; Lee, Hsi-Ming; Golub, Lorne; Nieman, Gary

    2005-10-01

    Sepsis causes more than with 215,000 deaths per year in the United States alone. Death can be caused by multiple system organ failure, with the lung, in the form of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), often being the first organ to fail. We developed a chronic porcine model of septic shock and ARDS and hypothesized that blocking the proteases neutrophil elastase (NE) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) with the modified tetracycline, COL-3, would significantly improve morbidity in this model. Pigs were anesthetized and instrumented for hemodynamic monitoring and were then randomized to one of three groups: control (n = 3), laparotomy only; superior mesenteric artery occlusion (SMA) + fecal blood clot (FC; n = 7), with intraperitoneal placement of a FC; and SMA + FC + COL (n = 5), ingestion of COL-3 12 h before injury. Animals emerged from anesthesia and were monitored and treated with fluids and antibiotics in an animal intensive care unit continuously for 48 h. Serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were sampled and bacterial cultures, MMP-2, MMP-9, NE, and multiple cytokine concentrations were measured. Pigs were reanesthetized and placed on a ventilator when significant lung impairment occurred (PaO2/FiO2 < 250). At necropsy, lung water and histology were assessed. All animals in the SMA + FC group developed septic shock evidenced by a significant fall in arterial blood pressure that was not responsive to fluids. Lung injury typical of ARDS (i.e., a fall in lung compliance and PaO2/FiO2 ratio and a significant increase in lung water) developed in this group. Additionally, there was a significant increase in plasma IL-1 and IL-6 and in BALF IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, NE, and protein concentration in the SMA + FC group. COL-3 treatment prevented septic shock and ARDS and significantly decreased cytokine levels in plasma and BALF. COL-3 treatment also significantly reduced NE activity (P < 0.05) and reduced MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in BALF by

  15. 2009 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Environmental Stewardship Group (ENV-ES)

    2010-11-01

    For reporting year 2009, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) submitted a Form R report for lead as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (EPCRA) Section 313. No other EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 2009 above the reportable thresholds. This document was prepared to provide a description of the evaluation of EPCRA Section 313 chemical use and threshold determinations for LANL for calendar year 2009, as well as to provide background information about data included on the Form R reports.

  16. Cholinesterase modulations in patients with acute bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Ronan M G; Ofek, Keren; Qvist, Tavs

    2011-01-01

    The circulating cholinesterases acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase may be suppressed and subsequently released from the brain in acute bacterial meningitis.......The circulating cholinesterases acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase may be suppressed and subsequently released from the brain in acute bacterial meningitis....

  17. Preparation of five 3-MCPD fatty acid esters, and the effects of their chemical structures on acute oral toxicity in Swiss mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Man; Liu, Jie; Wu, Yizhen; Gao, Boyan; Wu, Pingping; Shi, Haiming; Sun, Xiangjun; Huang, Haiqiu; Wang, Thomas Ty; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2017-02-01

    3-monochloro-1, 2-propanediol fatty acid esters (3-MCPDEs) comprise a group of food toxicants formed during food processing. 3-MCPDEs have received increasing attention concerning their potential negative effects on human health. However, reports on the toxicity of 3-MCPD esters are still limited. To determine the effects of fatty acid substitutions on the toxicity of their esters, 1-stearic, 1-oleic, 1-linoleic, 1-linoleic-2-palmitic and 1-palmitic-2-linoleic acid esters of 3-MCPD were synthesized and evaluated with respect to their acute oral toxicities in Swiss mice. 3-MCPDEs were obtained through the reaction of 3-MCPD and fatty acid chlorides, and their purities and structures were characterized by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS), infrared, 1 H and 13 C spectroscopic analyses. Medial lethal doses of 1-stearic, 1-oleic, 1-linoleic, 1-linoleic-2-palmitic and 1-palmitic-2-linoleic acid esters were 2973.8, 2081.4, 2016.3, 5000 and > 5000 mg kg -1 body weight. For the first time, 3-MCPDEs were observed for their toxic effects in the thymus and lung. In addition, major histopathological changes, as well as blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, were examined for mice fed the five 3-MCPDEs. The results from the present study suggest that the degree of unsaturation, chain length, number of substitution and relative substitution locations of fatty acids might alter the toxicity of 3-MCPDEs. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. A tutorial for analysing the cost-effectiveness of alternative methods for assessing chemical toxicity: the case of acute oral toxicity prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlen, Hedvig; Worth, Andrew P; Gabbert, Silke

    2014-05-01

    Compared with traditional animal methods for toxicity testing, in vitro and in silico methods are widely considered to permit a more cost-effective assessment of chemicals. However, how to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative methods has remained unclear. This paper offers a user-oriented tutorial for applying cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) to alternative (non-animal) methods. The purpose is to illustrate how CEA facilitates the identification of the alternative method, or the combination of methods, that offers the highest information gain per unit of cost. We illustrate how information gains and costs of single methods and method combinations can be assessed. By using acute oral toxicity as an example, we apply CEA to a set of four in silico methods (ToxSuite, TOPKAT, TEST, ADMET Predictor), one in vitro method (the 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake cytotoxicity assay), and various combinations of these methods. Our results underline that in silico tools are more cost-effective than the in vitro test. Battery combinations of alternative methods, however, do not necessarily outperform single methods, because additional information gains from the battery are easily outweighed by additional costs. 2014 FRAME.

  19. Priority screening of toxic chemicals and industry sectors in the U.S. toxics release inventory: a comparison of the life cycle impact-based and risk-based assessment tools developed by U.S. EPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Lam, Carl W; Schoenung, Julie M

    2011-09-01

    Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) and Risk Assessment (RA) employ different approaches to evaluate toxic impact potential for their own general applications. LCIA is often used to evaluate toxicity potentials for corporate environmental management and RA is often used to evaluate a risk score for environmental policy in government. This study evaluates the cancer, non-cancer, and ecotoxicity potentials and risk scores of chemicals and industry sectors in the United States on the basis of the LCIA- and RA-based tools developed by U.S. EPA, and compares the priority screening of toxic chemicals and industry sectors identified with each method to examine whether the LCIA- and RA-based results lead to the same prioritization schemes. The Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts (TRACI) is applied as an LCIA-based screening approach with a focus on air and water emissions, and the Risk-Screening Environmental Indicator (RSEI) is applied in equivalent fashion as an RA-based screening approach. The U.S. Toxic Release Inventory is used as the dataset for this analysis, because of its general applicability to a comprehensive list of chemical substances and industry sectors. Overall, the TRACI and RSEI results do not agree with each other in part due to the unavailability of characterization factors and toxic scores for select substances, but primarily because of their different evaluation approaches. Therefore, TRACI and RSEI should be used together both to support a more comprehensive and robust approach to screening of chemicals for environmental management and policy and to highlight substances that are found to be of concern from both perspectives. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  1. Dow's chemical exposure index guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, J.T.; Mundt, A.

    1995-01-01

    A number of events in the 1970's and 1980's impacted the course of process safety. Incidents such as Flixborough, Seveso, Three-Mile Island, and Bhopal are well known throughout industry and are recognized as examples of major disasters. Even though events leading up to these disasters were completely different they had one common element between them: a substance was released from a manufacturing unit, became airborne and presented a hazard of such magnitude as to place the safety of both employees and the surrounding public in jeopardy. As a result, industry became increasingly concerned regarding potential loss, in human and economic terms, as plants and equipment grew in size. The Flixborough incident raised the level of concern for process safety, particularly in terms of the hazards presented by fire and explosion. Seveso and Three-Mile Island emphasized the need to consider far-field exposure. The Bhopal incident created an urgent need to recognize and understand the expected downwind impact of potential releases of acutely toxic substances to the air. In order to meet this need, the Dow Chemical Company, a recognized leader in the area of safety and loss prevention, presented a Chemical Exposure Index in 1986. AIChE has recently published an updated version entitled Dow's Chemical Exposure Index Guide. 7 refs., 5 figs

  2. Synergic chemical analysis - the coupling of TG with FTIR, MS and GC-MS; 1. The determination of the gases released during the thermal oxidation of a printed circuit board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, M.; Last, P.M.; Breen, C.

    1999-01-01

    This contribution reports the coupling of TG with FTIR, MS and GC-MS (Synergic chemical analysis). During thermogravimetric analysis the gases evolved are analysed using 'real-time' FTIR and MS. Simultaneously the gases are collected on an absorbent trap (organic trap module, OTM) for subsequent analysis using GC-MS. As an example the technique has been used to identify the products evolved from a printed circuit board during thermal oxidation. The use of TG-FTIR-MS-OTM-GC-MS provided information that could not be available through single techniques alone. For example, it was possible to ascertain the temperature range over which bromophenol was released. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  3. Contribution to the study of TRH (thyrotropin-releasing hormone) conformation using circular dichroism. Physico-chemical studies, radioactive labelling and biological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradelles, Philippe.

    1977-01-01

    In an attempt to reach a better understanding at the molecular level of phenomena connected with the action of TRF the conformation and radioactive labelling of this hormone were investigated. The specific detection of a hormone at its action site is only possible if labelled substances of very high specific activity are used. TRF was tritium labelled by three methods: direct catalytic exchange; catalytic dehalogenation of mono- and di-iodo TRF; catalytic denitrogenation of mono-azo-TRF. Whatever the method used the tritiated TRF has a very high specific activity and keeps all its biological properties. Biological activity measurements carried out on labelled TRF, in vivo in rats and in vitro on a TRF-sensitive prolactine cell clone, are described. TRF tritiated by the above methods is shown to have the same biological activity as standard TRF. Some results are given concerning the application of labelled TRF to research on the hormone action mechanism. The tritiated TRF distribution kinetics were examined in vivo and in vitro. The kinetics of hormone fixation on the antehypophysary tissue match those of in vivo release of the plasma thyreotropic hormone, confirming the relationships between the hormone fixation on its target tissue and its biological effect. Finally an outline is given of work on the interaction of tritiated TRF with prolactine cell receptors and on the penetration of intact tritiated TRF into these cells. In addition the radioimmunological analysis of TRF was developed by the use of 125 I-mono-iodo-TRF at high specific activity (above 2000 Ci/mmole) [fr

  4. Sustained-release, extended-release, and other time-release formulations in neuropsychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2015-08-01

    Pills and capsules may release their contents within minutes of ingestion; these are immediate-release formulations. Pills and capsules may also release their contents after a time lag, or a little at a time, or in some other predetermined way; these are time-release formulations. Many drugs in psychiatry have been time-release formulated to reduce their local adverse effects in the gastrointestinal tract, to reduce adverse effects associated with peak blood levels, or to artificially extend their half-life. Time-release formulations are associated with the added advantages of convenience of dosing, improved compliance, and less fluctuation in blood levels across the course of the day. A disadvantage of time-release formulations is that they may be incompletely absorbed; this is a serious issue in patients with acute or chronic intestinal hurry disorders, such as gastroenteritis or irritable bowel syndrome. Time-release formulations may also be more expensive than immediate-release formulations. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  5. Investigations of the uptake of transuranic radionuclides by humic and fulvic acids chemically immobilized on silica gel and their competitive release by complexing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulman, R.A.; Szabo, G.; Clayton, R.F.; Clayton, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    The chemistry of the interactions of transuranic elements (TUs) with humic substances needs to be understood so that humate-mediated movement of transuranic radionuclides through the environment can be predicted. This paper reports the chemical immobilization on silica gel of humic and fulvic acids and evaluates the potential of these new materials for the retention of Pu and Am. In addition to the preparation of the foregoing immobilized humic substances, other low molecular weight metal-binding ligands have also been immobilized on silica gel to investigate the binding sites for transuranic elements (TUs) in humic substances. The X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) of Th(IV) complexed by humic acid and the immobilized humic acid are similar thus it appears that immobilization of humic acid does not generate any configurational changes in the Th(IV)-binding sites of the macromolecule. A variety of chelating agents partly mobilize these TUs sorbed on the solid phases. A batch method was used to determine the distribution coefficients (R d ) of Pu and Am between the silica gels and aqueous solutions of phosphate and citrate. The effects of the immobilized ligands, the anions and pH in the solution on sorption were assessed. Distributed coefficients (R d ) for the uptake of Pu and Am by these prepared solid phases are, in some cases, of a similar order of magnitude as those determined for soil and particles suspended in terrestrial surface waters

  6. Estrogen receptor beta and 2-arachydonoylglycerol mediate the suppressive effects of estradiol on frequency of postsynaptic currents in gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons of metestrous mice: an acute slice electrophysiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flóra eBálint

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons are controlled by 17β-estradiol (E2 contributing to the steroid feedback regulation of the reproductive axis. In rodents, E2 exerts a negative feedback effect upon GnRH neurons throughout the estrus-diestrus phase of the ovarian cycle. The present study was undertaken to reveal the role of estrogen receptor subtypes in the mediation of the E2 signal and elucidate the downstream molecular machinery of suppression. The effect of E2 administration at low physiological concentration (10 pM on GnRH neurons in acute brain slices obtained from metestrous GnRH-GFP mice was studied under paradigms of blocking or activating estrogen receptor subtypes and interfering with retrograde 2-arachydonoylglycerol (2-AG signaling. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings revealed that E2 significantly diminished the frequency of spontaneous postsynaptic currents (sPSCs in GnRH neurons (49. 62±7.6% which effect was abolished by application of the ERα/β blocker Faslodex (1 µM. Pretreatment of the brain slices with cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 inverse agonist AM251 (1 µM and intracellularly applied endocannabinoid synthesis blocker THL (10 µM significantly attenuated the effect of E2 on the sPSCs. E2 remained effective in the presence of TTX indicating a direct action of E2 on GnRH cells. The ERβ specific agonist DPN (10 pM also significantly decreased the frequency of miniature postsynaptic currents (mPSCs in GnRH neurons. In addition, the suppressive effect of E2 was completely blocked by the selective ERβ antagonist PHTPP (1 µM indicating that ERβ is required for the observed rapid effect of the E2. In contrast, the ERα agonist PPT (10 pM or the membrane-associated G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPR30 agonist G1 (10 pM had no significant effect on the frequency of mPSCs in these neurons. AM251 and THL significantly abolished the effect of E2 whereas AM251 eliminated the action of DPN on the mPSCs. These

  7. Effect of different chemical bonds in pegylation of zinc protoporphyrin that affects drug release, intracellular uptake, and therapeutic effect in the tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukigawa, Kenji; Nakamura, Hideaki; Fang, Jun; Otagiri, Masaki; Maeda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Pegylated zinc protoporphyrin (PEG-ZnPP) is a water-soluble inhibitor of heme oxygenase-1. In this study, we prepared two types of PEG-ZnPP conjugates with different chemical bonds between PEG and ZnPP, i.e., ester bonds and ether bonds, where both conjugates also contain amide bonds. Cleavability of these bonds in vitro and in vivo, especially cancer tissue, and upon intracellular uptake, was investigated in parallel with biological activities of the conjugates. Each conjugate showed different cleavability by plasma esterases and tumor proteases, as revealed by HPLC analyses. PEG-ZnPP with ester bond (esPEG-ZnPP) was more sensitive than PEG-ZnPP with ether bond (etPEG-ZnPP) for cleavage of PEG chains. etPEG-ZnPP showed no cleavage of PEG chains and had lower intracellular uptake and antitumor activity than did esPEG-ZnPP. The degradation of esPEG-ZnPP appeared to be facilitated by both serine and cysteine proteases in tumor tissues, whereas it was significantly slower in normal organs except the liver. Depegylated products such as free ZnPP had higher intracellular uptake than did intact PEG-ZnPP. We also studied hydrolytic cleavage by blood plasma of different animal species; mouse plasma showed the fastest cleavage whereas human plasma showed the slowest. These results suggest that ester-linked conjugates manifest more efficient cleavage of PEG, and greater yield of the active principle from the conjugates in tumor tissues than in normal tissues. More efficient intracellular uptake and thus an improved therapeutic effect with ester-linked conjugates are thus anticipated with fain stability, particularly in human blood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Toxic chemical hazard classification and risk acceptance guidelines for use in DOE facilities. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, D.K.; Davis, J.S.; Prowse, J.; Hoffman, P.W.

    1995-01-01

    The concentration-limit guidelines presented in this document apply to airborne releases of chemicals evaluated with respect to human health effects for the purposes of hazard classification and categorization, risk assessment and safety analysis. They apply to all DOE facilities and operations involving the use of potentially hazardous chemicals. The guidelines do not address other nonradiological hazards such as fire, pressure releases (including explosions), and chemical reactivity, but the guidelines are applicable to hazardous chemical releases resulting from these events. This report presents the subcommittee's evaluation and recommendations regarding analyses of accidentally released toxic chemicals. The premise upon which these recommendations are based is that the mechanism of action of toxic chemicals is fundamentally different from that associated with radionuclides, with the exception of carcinogens. The recommendations reported herein are restricted to the airborne pathway because in an accident scenario this typically represents the most immediately significant route of public exposure. However, the subcommittee recognizes that exposure to chemicals through other pathways, in particular waterborne, can have significant impacts on human health and the environment. Although there are a number of chemicals for which absorption through the skin can contribute measurably to the total dose in chronic (e.g., occupational) exposure situations, this pathway has not been considered for the acute exposure scenarios considered in this report. Later studies. will address these issues if it appears desirable

  9. Acute pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... its blood vessels. This problem is called acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis affects men more often than women. Certain ... well it can be treated. Complications of acute pancreatitis may include: Acute kidney failure Long-term lung damage (ARDS) Buildup ...

  10. Implication of global environmental changes on chemical toxicity-effect of water temperature, pH, and ultraviolet B irradiation on acute toxicity of several pharmaceuticals in Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungkon; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Pan-Gyi; Lee, Chulwoo; Choi, Kyunghee; Choi, Kyungho

    2010-04-01

    Global environmental change poses emerging environmental health challenges throughout the world. One of such threats could be found in chemical safety in aquatic ecosystem. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of several environmental factors, such as water pH, temperature and ultraviolet light on the toxicity of pharmaceutical compounds in water, using freshwater invertebrate Daphnia magna. Seven pharmaceuticals including ibuprofen, acetaminophen, lincomycin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, chlortetracycline and sulfathiazole were chosen as test compounds based on their frequent detection in water. The experimental conditions of environmental parameters were selected within the ranges that could be encountered in temperate environment, i.e., water temperature (15, 21, and 25 degrees C), pH (7.4, 8.3, and 9.2), and UV-B light intensity (continuous irradiation of 15.0 microW/cm(2)). For acetaminophen, enrofloxacin and sulfathiazole, decrease in water pH generally led to increase of acute lethal toxicity, which could be explained by the unionized fraction of pharmaceuticals. Increase of water temperature enhanced the acute toxicity of the acetaminophen, enrofloxacin and chlortetracycline, potentially due to alteration in toxicokinetics of chemicals as well as impact on physiological mechanisms of the test organism. The presence of UV-B light significantly increased the toxicity of sulfathiazole, which could be explained by photo-modification of this chemical that lead to oxidative stress. Under the UV light, however, acute toxicity of enrofloxacin decreased, which might be due to photo-degradation. Since changing environmental conditions could affect exposure and concentration-response profile of environmental contaminants, such conditions should be identified and evaluated in order to better manage ecosystem health under changing global environment.

  11. Predicting hydrocarbon release from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppendieck, D.; Loehr, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' The remediation of hazardous chemicals from soils can be a lengthy and costly process. As a result, recent regulatory initiatives have focused on risk-based corrective action (RBCA) approaches. Such approaches attempt to identify the amount of chemical that can be left at a site with contaminated soil and still be protective of human health and the environment. For hydrocarbons in soils to pose risk to human heath and the environment, the hydrocarbons must be released from the soil and accessible to microorganisms, earthworms, or other higher level organisms. The sorption of hydrocarbons to soil can reduce the availability of the hydrocarbon to receptors. Typically in soils and sediments, there is an initial fast release of a hydrocarbon from the soil to the aqueous phase followed by a slower release of the remaining hydrocarbon to the aqueous phase. The rate and extent of slow release can influence aqueous hydrocarbon concentrations and the fate and transport of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. Once the fast fraction of the chemical has been removed from the soil, the remaining fraction of a chemical may desorb at a rate that natural mechanisms can attenuate the released hydrocarbon. Hence, active remediation may be needed only until the fast fraction has been removed. However, the fast fraction is a soil and chemical specific parameter. This presentation will present a tier I type protocol that has been developed to quickly estimate the fraction of hydrocarbons that are readily released from the soil matrix to the aqueous phase. Previous research in our laboratory and elsewhere has used long-term desorption (four months) studies to determine the readily released fraction. This research shows that a single short-term (less than two weeks) batch extraction procedure provides a good estimate of the fast released fraction derived from long-term experiments. This procedure can be used as a tool to rapidly evaluate the release and bioavailability of

  12. Intraosseous Hydroxocobalamin in the Treatment of Acute, Severe Cyanide Induced Cardiotoxicity in a Swine (Sus Scrofa) Model - An Alternate Administration Route for Chemical Mass Casualties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    Ut:IVI:I... I 11:111VI:> Hydroxocobalamin, hypotension, cyanide , poisoning , intraosseous, Vitamin B 12a, Vitamin B 12 I 1:). :>CI...U I111 T L.L~:>:>II...Il l Ll:. ~IIIU :>Utili I Ll: :>a. I...UIIIII1~1... I IIIVIVItll:l1 lntraosseous hydroxocobalamin in the treatment of acute, severe cyanide induced...between 2 groups of swine in acute cyanide toxicity and treated with IV HOC or 10 HOC. We also compared blood cyanide , lactate, pH, nitrotyrosine levels

  13. Capacitive chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P; Moorman, Matthew W; Wheeler, David R

    2014-05-27

    A microfabricated capacitive chemical sensor can be used as an autonomous chemical sensor or as an analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator in a larger microanalytical system. The capacitive chemical sensor detects changes in sensing film dielectric properties, such as the dielectric constant, conductivity, or dimensionality. These changes result from the interaction of a target analyte with the sensing film. This capability provides a low-power, self-heating chemical sensor suitable for remote and unattended sensing applications. The capacitive chemical sensor also enables a smart, analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator. After sorption of the sample by the sensing film, the film can be rapidly heated to release the sample for further analysis. Therefore, the capacitive chemical sensor can optimize the sample collection time prior to release to enable the rapid and accurate analysis of analytes by a microanalytical system.

  14. Surveillance of hazardous substances releases due to system interruptions, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Maureen F; Ruckart, Perri Zeitz

    2007-04-11

    The Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system collected information on 9014 acute hazardous substance releases in 15 participating states in 2002. There were 3749 fixed-facility manufacturing events, of which 2100 involved "interruptions" to normal processing and 1649 "comparisons" that did not involve interruption. Equipment failure (69%) or intentional acts (20%) were the main root factor. Many events occurred in October and November in three states (Texas, Louisiana, and New Jersey), in three manufacturing industries (industrial and miscellaneous chemicals; petroleum refining; and plastics, synthetics, and resins). In interruption events, the substance categories most often released were mixtures, other inorganic substances, and volatile organic compounds and those most often causing injury were acids, chlorine, bases, and ammonia. Comparison events resulted in more acutely injured persons (408 versus 59) and more evacuees (11,318 versus 335) than interruption events and therefore may receive more public health attention. Because of the large number of interruption events, targeted prevention activities, including management of change procedures, lessons-learned implementation, process hazards analysis, and appropriate protection for workers could be economically advantageous and improve environmental quality. Efforts should focus on the identified areas of greater occurrence. The relationship of weather and equipment failure with interruption events needs further investigation.

  15. Assessing variability in chemical acute toxicity of unionid mussels: Influence of intra- and inter-laboratory testing, life stage, and species - SETAC Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed a toxicity database for unionid mussels to examine the extent of intra- and inter-laboratory variability in acute toxicity tests with mussel larvae (glochidia) and juveniles; the extent of differential sensitivity of the two life stages; and the variation in sensitiv...

  16. Assessing variability in chemical acute toxicity of unionid mussels: Influence of intra- and inter-laboratory testing, life stage, and species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The authors developed a toxicity database for unionid mussels to examine the extent of intra- and interlaboratory variability in acute toxicity tests with mussel larvae (glochidia) and juveniles; the extent of differential sensitivity of the 2 life stages; and the variation in se...

  17. PCDD/PCDF release inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, H. [UNEP Chemicals, Chatelaine (Switzerland)

    2004-09-15

    The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) entered into force on 17 May 2004 with 50 Parties. In May 2004, 59 countries had ratified or acceded the Convention. The objective of the Convention is ''to protect human health and the environment from persistent organic pollutants''. For intentionally produced POPs, e.g., pesticides and industrial chemicals such as hexachlorobenzene and polychlorinated biphenyls, this will be achieved by stop of production and use. For unintentionally generated POPs, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-pdioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), measures have to be taken to ''reduce the total releases derived from anthropogenic sources''; the final goal is ultimate elimination, where feasible. Under the Convention, Parties have to establish and maintain release inventories to prove the continuous release reduction. Since many countries do not have the technical and financial capacity to measure all releases from all potential PCDD/PCDF sources, UNEP Chemicals has developed the ''Standardized Toolkit for the Identification of Quantification of Dioxin and Furan Releases'' (''Toolkit'' for short), a methodology to estimate annual releases from a number of sources. With this methodology, annual releases can be estimated by multiplying process-specific default emission factors provided in the Toolkit with national activity data. At the seventh session of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee, the Toolkit was recommended to be used by countries when reporting national release data to the Conference of the Parties. The Toolkit is especially used by developing countries and countries with economies in transition where no measured data are available. Results from Uruguay, Thailand, Jordan, Philippines, and Brunei Darussalam have been published.

  18. Study of physico-chemical release of uranium and plutonium oxides during the combustion of polycarbonate and of ruthenium during the combustion of solvents used in the reprocessing of nuclear fuel; Etude de la mise en suspension physico-chimique des oxydes de plutonium et d'uranium lors de la combustion de polycarbonate et de ruthenium lors de la combustion des solvants de retraitement du combustible irradie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouilloux, L

    1998-07-01

    The level of consequences concerning a fire in a nuclear facility is in part estimated by the quantities and the physico-chemical forms of radioactive compounds that may be emitted out of the facility. It is therefore necessary to study the contaminant release from the fire. Because of the multiplicity of the scenarios, two research subjects were retained. The first one concerns the study of the uranium or plutonium oxides chemical release during the combustion of the polycarbonate glove box sides. The second one is about the physico chemical characterisation of the ruthenium release during the combustion of an organic solvent mixture (tributyl phosphate-dodecane) used for the nuclear fuel reprocessing. Concerning the two research subjects, the chemical release, i.e. means the generation of contaminant compounds gaseous in the fire, was modelled using thermodynamical simulations. Experiments were done in order to determine the ruthenium release factor during solvent combustion. A cone calorimeter was used for small scale experiments. These results were then validated by large scale tests under conditions close to the industrial process. Thermodynamical simulations, for the two scenarios studied. Furthermore, the experiments on solvent combustion allowed the determination of a suitable ruthenium release factor. Finally, the mechanism responsible of the ruthenium release has been found. (author)

  19. Acute Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Table of Contents1. Overview2. Symptoms3. Diagnosis4. Prevention5. Treatment6. Everyday Life7. Questions8. Resources What is acute bronchitis? Acute ... heartburn, you can get acute bronchitis when stomach acid gets into the bronchial tree. How is acute ...

  20. Hazardous chemical incidents in schools--United States, 2002-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-07

    Chemicals that can cause adverse health effects are used in many elementary and secondary schools (e.g., in chemistry laboratories, art classrooms, automotive repair areas, printing and other vocational shops, and facility maintenance areas). Every year, unintentional and intentional releases of these chemicals, or related fires or explosions, occur in schools, causing injuries, costly cleanups, and lost school days. The federal Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) conducts national public health surveillance of chemical incidents through its Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system. To identify school-related incidents and elucidate their causes and consequences to highlight the need for intervention, ATSDR conducted an analysis of HSEES data for 2002-2007. During that period, 423 chemical incidents in elementary and secondary schools were reported by 15 participating states. Mercury was the most common chemical released. The analysis found that 62% of reported chemical incidents at elementary and secondary schools resulted from human error (i.e., mistakes in the use or handling of a substance), and 30% of incidents resulted in at least one acute injury. Proper chemical use and management (e.g., keeping an inventory and properly storing, labeling, and disposing of chemicals) is essential to protect school building occupants. Additional education directed at raising awareness of the problem and providing resources to reduce the risk is needed to ensure that schools are safe from unnecessary dangers posed by hazardous chemicals.

  1. A Novel Two-Step Hierarchial Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Modeling Workflow for Predicting Acute Toxicity of Chemicals in Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Accurate prediction of in vivo toxicity from in vitro testing is a challenging problem. Large public–private consortia have been formed with the goal of improving chemical safety assessment by the means of high-throughput screening. Methods and results: A database co...

  2. A Tutorial for Analysing the Cost-effectiveness of Alternative Methods for Assessing Chemical Toxicology: The Case of Acute Oral Toxicity Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norlen, H.; Worth, A.P.; Gabbert, S.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Compared with traditional animal methods for toxicity testing, in vitro and in silico methods are widely considered to permit a more cost-effective assessment of chemicals. However, how to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative methods has remained unclear. This paper offers a user-oriented

  3. Acute toxicity of chemical pesticides and plant-derived essential oil on the behavior and development of earthworms, Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg) and Eisenia fetida (Savigny).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Chellappandian, Muthiah; Edwin, Edward-Sam; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Hunter, Wayne B; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2017-06-17

    Comparative toxicity of two chemical pesticides (temephos and monocrotophos) versus a plant-derived betel leaf oil Piper betle (L.) to earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg) and redworm Eisenia fetida Savigny, historically: Eisenia foetida (Savigny 1826), was evaluated. Mortality rate was more prominent in temephos at 100 μg concentration to both the earthworms in filter paper test (FPT) as well as 10 mg concentration in artificial soil test (AST). In contrast, P. betle does not display much mortality rate to both the earthworms even at 1000 mg of treatment concentrations. The lethal concentration (LC 50 ) value was observed at 3.89 and 5.26 mg/kg for temephos and monocrotophos against E. eugeniae and 3.81 and 5.25 mg/kg to E. fetida, respectively. Whereas, LC 50 value of betel leaf oil was only observed at 3149 and 4081 mg/kg to E. eugeniae and E. fetida, respectively. Correspondingly, the avoidance or attraction assay also displayed that earthworms were more sensitive to the soil containing chemical pesticides. Whereas, the avoidance percentage was decreased in the P. betle oil. Similarly, sublethal concentration of chemical pesticides (5 and 6.5 mg) significantly reduced the earthworm weight and growth rate. However, P. betle oil did not change the developmental rate in the duration of the assay (2, 7 and 14 days) even at 4000 mg treatment concentration. The enzyme ratio of CAT and SOD was also affected significantly after exposure to the chemical pesticides (6.5 mg/kg). Hence, our study implied the risk assessment associated with the chemical pesticides and also recommends plant-derived harmless P. betle oil against beneficial species as an alternative pest control agent.

  4. News/Press Releases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — A press release, news release, media release, press statement is written communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing programs...

  5. Controlled Release from Recombinant Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Robert; Poursaid, Azadeh; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant polymers provide a high degree of molecular definition for correlating structure with function in controlled release. The wide array of amino acids available as building blocks for these materials lend many advantages including biorecognition, biodegradability, potential biocompatibility, and control over mechanical properties among other attributes. Genetic engineering and DNA manipulation techniques enable the optimization of structure for precise control over spatial and temporal release. Unlike the majority of chemical synthetic strategies used, recombinant DNA technology has allowed for the production of monodisperse polymers with specifically defined sequences. Several classes of recombinant polymers have been used for controlled drug delivery. These include, but are not limited to, elastin-like, silk-like, and silk-elastinlike proteins, as well as emerging cationic polymers for gene delivery. In this article, progress and prospects of recombinant polymers used in controlled release will be reviewed. PMID:24956486

  6. Acute effects of chemically dispersed crude oil on gill ion regulation, plasma ion levels and haematological parameters in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Rafael Mendonça; Honda, Rubens Tomio; Val, Adalberto Luis

    2010-04-15

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the toxicological effects of the chemical dispersant Corexit 9500, crude oil and the combination of the two components in the form of chemically dispersed crude oil (CO+DIS) on the ion regulation of the tropical fish tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). Gill ion regulation was evaluated on the basis of unidirectional flux measurements (influx-J(in), efflux-J(out) and net flux-J(net)) of Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+). Plasma ion composition, haematocrit, haemoglobin and glucose concentrations in the blood of tambaqui were determined by classical methods. The exposure of fish to chemically dispersed crude oil promoted a significant increase in J(out) Na(+) across the gills, which, together with the inability of fish to stimulate Na(+) uptake to compensate for these losses resulted in significantly higher J(net) Na(+) outward, particularly within the first 3h of exposure. Increased outward J(net) Cl(-) was also seen in fish that were exposed to dispersed crude oil, whereas outward J(net) K(+) was only increased at crude oil dispersed in higher concentration of Corexit 9500. Plasma Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations decreased between 6 and 12h of exposure, whereas Ca(2+) concentrations remained significantly lower than those of the control group over the entire experimental period. There were significant increases in plasma K(+) concentrations and in the haematocrit after 6 and 24h of exposure to dispersed crude oil, suggesting significant changes in the permeability of the erythrocytic membrane. Collectively, our results suggest that chemically dispersed crude oil promotes a more extensive impairment of gill ion regulation, in addition to changes in plasma ion levels and blood parameters, in tambaqui compared with exposure to Urucu crude oil or Corexit 9500 alone. Thus, in the event of an oil spill in Amazonian waters, the chemical dispersion of Urucu crude oil could represent a great risk to tambaqui, challenging their ability to

  7. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Acute Pancreatitis Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is ... of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for ...

  8. Acute intoxications during work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kort, W L; Sangster, B

    1988-02-01

    Information on acute intoxications during work in the Netherlands has been gathered from 4 sources during a 1-year period: 1. The registration of occupational accidents of the Directorate-General of Labour, by reviewing reports on accidents involving chemicals; 2. The Netherlands Poison Control Centre of the National Institute for Public Health and Environmental Hygiene, by tracing back consulting physicians; 3. The Dutch Centre for Health Care Information, by searching their data base for hospital admissions with relevant admission diagnoses and 4. A large Occupational Health Service, which for this purpose recorded incident cases in the population under care. During the period of investigation 5 deaths were reported: 1 case of hydrogen cyanide intoxication, 1 case of carbon dioxide intoxication, and 3 cases of hydrogen sulfide intoxication in combination with oxygen deficiency (nearby a liquid manure tank). At least 690 (supposed) acute intoxications during work occurred, which in 84 cases resulted in hospital admission. The total number of hospital admissions for supposed unintentional acute intoxications by chemicals, usually encountered in workplaces, in the Netherlands in 1984 was at least 477. Substances most often involved belonged to the groups of pesticides, lung and/or skin irritant liquids/vapors/gases and asphyxiants. The working branches most often involved were agriculture and market gardening sectors, (chemical) industries, repair and retail trade and some governmental services (police, fire brigade, defense personnel). The results show considerable underreporting in official statistics on acute intoxications during work.

  9. 40 CFR 721.90 - Release to water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release to water. 721.90 Section 721... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Certain Significant New Uses § 721.90 Release to water. Whenever a... predict the surface water concentration which will result from the intended release of the substance, if...

  10. MR findings of acute rhabdomyolysis: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kum Chae; Kwon, Soon Tae; Cho, Kang Hee; Kang, San Kyong; Kim, Jin Man [Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-08-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is an acute disorder resulting from skeletal muscle injury in which intracellular contents are released into extracellular space and plasma. The condition may result from drug or alcohol overdose, infection, crush injuries, collagen disease, or intensive exercise. We report two cases of acute rhabdomyolysis resulting from CO poisoning and alcohol overdose, and discuss the MRI and ultrasonographic findings.

  11. MR findings of acute rhabdomyolysis: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kum Chae; Kwon, Soon Tae; Cho, Kang Hee; Kang, San Kyong; Kim, Jin Man

    2003-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is an acute disorder resulting from skeletal muscle injury in which intracellular contents are released into extracellular space and plasma. The condition may result from drug or alcohol overdose, infection, crush injuries, collagen disease, or intensive exercise. We report two cases of acute rhabdomyolysis resulting from CO poisoning and alcohol overdose, and discuss the MRI and ultrasonographic findings

  12. Rapid-releasing of HI-6 via brain-targeted mesoporous silica nanoparticles for nerve agent detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Fan, Lixue; Wang, Feijian; Luo, Yuan; Sui, Xin; Li, Wanhua; Zhang, Xiaohong; Wang, Yongan

    2016-05-01

    The toxic nerve agent (NA) soman is the most toxic artificially synthesized compound that can rapidly penetrate into the brain and irreversibly inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, leading to immediate death. However, there are currently few brain-targeted nanodrugs that can treat acute chemical brain poisoning owing to the limited drug-releasing speed. The present study investigated the effectiveness of a nanodrug against NA toxicity that has high blood-brain barrier penetration and is capable of rapid drug release. Transferrin-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles (TF-MSNs) were conjugated with the known AChE reactivator HI-6. This nanodrug rapidly penetrated the blood-brain barrier in zebrafish and mice and restored cerebral AChE activity via the released HI-6, preventing the brain damage caused by soman poisoning and increasing the survival rate in mice. Furthermore, there was no toxicity associated with the MSNs in mice or rats. These results demonstrate that TF-MSNs loaded with HI-6 represent the most effective antidote against NA poisoning by soman reported to date, and suggest that MSNs are a safe alternative to conventional drugs and an optimal nanocarrier for treating brain poisoning, which requires acute pulse cerebral administration.The toxic nerve agent (NA) soman is the most toxic artificially synthesized compound that can rapidly penetrate into the brain and irreversibly inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, leading to immediate death. However, there are currently few brain-targeted nanodrugs that can treat acute chemical brain poisoning owing to the limited drug-releasing speed. The present study investigated the effectiveness of a nanodrug against NA toxicity that has high blood-brain barrier penetration and is capable of rapid drug release. Transferrin-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles (TF-MSNs) were conjugated with the known AChE reactivator HI-6. This nanodrug rapidly penetrated the blood-brain barrier in zebrafish and

  13. Extended-Release Guaifenesin/Pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride for Symptom Relief in Support of a Wait-and-See Approach for the Treatment of Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Infections: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Septimus, MD, FIDSA, FACP, FSHEA

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The study found that a wait and see approach was associated with decreased antibiotic use. In addition, the use of a guaifenesin pseudoephedrine combination product provided an effective symptom control compared to a placebo and a well-tolerated first-line strategy for the management of URTIs. This study was not designed to assess the effects of guaifenesin or pseudoephedrine individually. Other limitations include the need for better clinical methods to assess the effectiveness of treatments for acute symptoms of patients with URTIs. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01202279.

  14. Comparative performance of descriptors in a multiple linear and Kriging models: a case study on the acute toxicity of organic chemicals to algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugcu, Gulcin; Yilmaz, H Birkan; Saçan, Melek Türker

    2014-10-01

    This study presents quantitative structure-toxicity relationship (QSTR) models on the toxicity of 91 organic compounds to Chlorella vulgaris using multiple linear regression (MLR) and Kriging techniques. The molecular descriptors were calculated using SPARTAN and DRAGON programs, and descriptor selection was made by "all subset" method available in the QSARINS software. MLR and Kriging models developed with the same descriptors were compared. In addition to these models, Kriging method was used for descriptor selection, and model development. The selected descriptors showed the importance of hydrophobicity, molecular weight and atomic ionization state in describing the toxicity of a diverse set of chemicals to C. vulgaris. A QSTR model should be associated with appropriate measures of goodness-of-fit, robustness, and predictivity in order to be used for regulatory purpose. Therefore, while the internal performances (goodness-of-fit and robustness) of the models were determined by using a training set, the predictive abilities of the models were determined by using a test set. The results of the study showed that while MLR method is easier to apply, the Kriging method was more successful in predicting toxicity.

  15. Assessing Chemical Process Sustainability with GREENSCOPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    GREENSCOPE is a sustainability assessment tool used to evaluate and assist in the design of chemical processes. The goal is to minimize resource use, prevent or reduce releases, and increase the economic feasibility of a chemical process.

  16. Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) is a dataset compiled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It contains information on the release and waste...

  17. What is the best treatment to decrease pro-inflammatory cytokine release in acute skeletal muscle injury induced by trauma in rats: low-level laser therapy, diclofenac, or cryotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Patrícia; Tomazoni, Shaiane Silva; Frigo, Lucio; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camillo; Vanin, Adriane Aver; Santos, Larissa Aline; Albuquerque-Pontes, Gianna Móes; De Marchi, Thiago; Tairova, Olga; Marcos, Rodrigo Labat; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Álvaro Brandão; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto

    2014-03-01

    Currently, treatment of muscle injuries represents a challenge in clinical practice. In acute phase, the most employed therapies are cryotherapy and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In the last years, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has becoming a promising therapeutic agent; however, its effects are not fully known. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of sodium diclofenac (topical application), cryotherapy, and LLLT on pro-inflammatory cytokine levels after a controlled model of muscle injury. For such, we performed a single trauma in tibialis anterior muscle of rats. After 1 h, animals were treated with sodium diclofenac (11.6 mg/g of solution), cryotherapy (20 min), or LLLT (904 nm; superpulsed; 700 Hz; 60 mW mean output power; 1.67 W/cm(2); 1, 3, 6 or 9 J; 17, 50, 100 or 150 s). Assessment of interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 (IL-1β and IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels was performed at 6 h after trauma employing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. LLLT with 1 J dose significantly decreased (p cryotherapy groups. On the other hand, treatment with diclofenac and cryotherapy does not decrease pro-inflammatory cytokine levels compared to the non-treated injured group. Therefore, we can conclude that 904 nm LLLT with 1 J dose has better effects than topical application of diclofenac or cryotherapy in acute inflammatory phase after muscle trauma.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging for acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bo; Zhang, Xiao-Ming

    2010-08-28

    Acute pancreatitis is characterized by acute chemical injury of the pancreatic parenchyma and peripancreatic tissue. The increased frequency of death in acute pancreatitis is directly correlated with the degree and progress of pancreatic necrosis. Moreover, the occurrence of some local complications in acute pancreatitis, such as pancreatic hemorrhage, peripancreatic abscess or large pseudocyst, and pseudoaneurysm, could influence the choice of treatment for these patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to help evaluate the presence and degree of pancreatic necrosis, and is crucial for identifying complications of acute pancreatitis and predicting prognosis. The purpose of this article is to describe MRI techniques for acute pancreatitis, to review the spectrum of pancreatic and peripancreatic patterns, as well as to survey various complications secondary to acute pancreatitis on MRI. The role of MRI in the initial evaluation and staging of acute pancreatitis is emphasized.

  19. Chemical forms of radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachikawa, Enzo

    1979-01-01

    Release of radioiodine built-up during reactor operations presents a potential problem from the standpoint of environmental safety. Among the chemical forms of radioiodine, depending upon the circumstances, organic iodides cast a most serious problem because of its difficulties in the trapping and because of its stability compared to other chemical forms. Furthermore, pellet-cladding interaction (PCl) fuel failures in LWR fuel rods are believed to be stress corrosion cracks caused by embrittling fission product species, radioiodine. To deal with these problems, knowledge is required on the chemical behaviors of radioiodine in and out of fuels, as well as the release behaviors from fuels. Here a brief review is given of these respects, in aiming at clearing-up the questions still remaining unknown. The data seem to indicate that radioiodine exists as a combined form in fuels. upon heating slightly irradiated fuels, the iodine atoms are released in a chemical form associated with uranium atoms. Experiments, however, as needed with specimen of higher burnup, where the interactions of radioiodine with metallic fission products could be favored. The dominant release mechanism of radioiodine under normal operating temperatures will be diffusion to grain boundaries leading to open surfaces. Radiation-induced internal traps, however, after the rate of diffusion significantly. The carbon sources of organic iodides formed under various conditions and its formation mechanisms have also been considered. (author)

  20. Comportamento quimiometabólico do músculo sóleo na fase aguda da imobilização articular Chemical metabolic behaviour of the soleus muscle during the acute phase of joint immobilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Júlio Chingui

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar o perfil fisiológico do músculo sóleo na fase aguda da imobilização articular na posição de 90o. Ratos Wistar foram divididos em 4 grupos (n=6 cada: controle (C, imobilizado por 1 (Im1, 2 (Im2 e 3 dias (Im3. Após o período experimental, o músculo sóleo foi retirado e foram mensurados: o peso muscular, o índice de hidratação, a concentração de glicogênio e a concentração de DNA/proteínas totais. Os dados foram submetidos a análise estatística, com nível de significância fixado em pThe purpose of this study was to outline a physiological profile of the soleus muscle during the acute phase of joint immobilization at a 90º position. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n=6: Control (C, immobilised for 1 (Im1, 2 (Im2, and 3 (Im3 days. After the experimental period, the soleus muscle was obtained in order to assess: glycogen content, muscle weight, hydration index, and protein-DNA interactions. Data were statistically analysed and significance level set at p<0.05. On the first day, no changes were observed on glycogen content, but progressive reduction was witnessed along the following days -53% on the second day and 65% on the third day of immobilization. Muscle weight suffered a reduction of 28.57% only on the third day, while hydration index increased 6.44% on the second day and 8.58% on the third day. Concentrations of DNA raised 43.18% on the first day, 59.09% on the second, and 75% on the third day. Protein concentrations also increased, reaching values of 45.9% on the first day, 32.25% on the second day, and 58.95% on the third day. These results suggest that muscular hypotrophy is an early-developing process, involving chemical-physiological alterations that are launched during the acute phase of immobilization.

  1. Development of an operational waterborne weaponized chemical agent transport modeling capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, M.C.; Cragan, J.A.; Mueller, C.

    2009-01-01

    The fate of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in aqueous environments is not well characterized. Limited physical and kinetic data are available for these chemicals in the open literature, partly due to their inherent lethality. As a result, the development of methods for determining the persistence and extent of impact for waterborne chemical agent releases is a significant challenge. In this study, a hydrolysis model was developed to track the fate of several critical CWAs. VX, sarin, soman, tabun, and cyclosarin modeling capabilities were developed for an instantaneous point source aqueous release. Hydrolysis products were tracked and the resulting change in pH was calculated for the local dispersive environment. Using this data, instantaneous hydrolysis rates were calculated. This framework was applied to assess the persistence and fate of the CWAs in different turbulent environments. From this hydrolysis model, estimates of the time and extent of lethality from an aqueous release can be made. Refinement to these estimates requires further investigation into the impact of potential catalysts on these chemicals. Enhanced understanding of equivalent acute percutaneous toxicity for solutions requires changes to current testing and estimation methods.(author)

  2. An acute injection of corticosterone increases thyrotrophin-releasing hormone expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus but interferes with the rapid hypothalamus pituitary thyroid axis response to cold in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo-Rivera, I; Jaimes-Hoy, L; Cote-Vélez, A; Espinoza-Ayala, C; Charli, J-L; Joseph-Bravo, P

    2014-12-01

    The activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis is rapidly adjusted by energy balance alterations. Glucocorticoids can interfere with this activity, although the timing of this interaction is unknown. In vitro studies indicate that, albeit incubation with either glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonists or protein kinase A (PKA) activators enhances pro-thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (pro-TRH) transcription, co-incubation with both stimuli reduces this enhancement. In the present study, we used primary cultures of hypothalamic cells to test whether the order of these stimuli alters the cross-talk. We observed that a simultaneous or 1-h prior (but not later) activation of GR is necessary to inhibit the stimulatory effect of PKA activation on pro-TRH expression. We tested these in vitro results in the context of a physiological stimulus on the HPT axis in adult male rats. Cold exposure for 1 h enhanced pro-TRH mRNA expression in neurones of the hypophysiotrophic and rostral subdivisions of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, thyrotrophin (TSH) serum levels and deiodinase 2 (D2) activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT). An i.p. injection of corticosterone stimulated pro-TRH expression in the PVN of rats kept at ambient temperature, more pronouncedly in hypophysiotrophic neurones that no longer responded to cold exposure. In corticosterone-pretreated rats, the cold-induced increase in pro-TRH expression was detected only in the rostral PVN. Corticosterone blunted the increase in serum TSH levels and D2 activity in BAT produced by cold in vehicle-injected animals. Thus, increased serum corticosterone levels rapidly restrain cold stress-induced activation of TRH hypophysiotrophic neurones, which may contribute to changing energy expenditure. Interestingly, TRH neurones of the rostral PVN responded to both corticosterone and cold exposure with an amplified expression of pro-TRH mRNA, suggesting that these neurones integrate stress and temperature

  3. Fluoroelastomer Fouling Release Coating

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malik, Aslam

    1998-01-01

    Our goal is to develop novel fluoroelastomers that exhibit fouling release capabilities and to understand the polymer characteristics that influence the adhesion of biofouling organisms to polymeric substrates...

  4. Compassionate release in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, J

    1997-01-01

    Several States have instituted compassionate release programs to allow terminally ill inmates to be released early. The programs are politically sensitive, and the California program is highlighted. Early release, called recall of sentence under the State penal code, is a lengthy and cumbersome process that has resulted in early release of nearly 100 prisoners in the past 5 years. Guidelines for community activists who are trying to establish similar programs are provided. The guidelines include contact and discussion with prisoners, outside support through influential organizations, support of State legislators and policy makers, and media involvement in building support for the initiative.

  5. Health effects assessment of chemical exposures: ARIES methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, L; Montero, M.; Rabago, I.; Vidania, R.

    1995-07-01

    In this work, we present ARIES* update: a system designed in order to facilitate the human health effects assessment produced by accidental release of toxic chemicals. The first version of ARIES was developed in relation to 82/501/EEC Directive about mayor accidents in the chemical industry. So, the first aim was the support of the effects assessment derived for the chemicals included into this directive. From this establishment, it was considered acute exposures for high concentrations. In this report, we present the actual methodology for considering other type of exposures, such as environmental and occupational. Likewise other versions, the methodology comprises two approaches: quantitative and qualitative assessments. Quantitative assessment incorporates the mathematical algorithms useful to evaluate the effects produced by the most important routes of exposure: inhalation, ingestion, eye contact and skin absorption, in a short, medium and long term. It has been included models that realizes an accurate quantification of doses, effects,... and so on, such as simple approaches when the available information is not enough. Qualitative assessment, designed in order to complement or replace the previous one, is incorporated into an informatics system, developed in Clipper. It executes and displays outstanding and important toxicological information of about 100 chemicals. This information comes from ECDIN (Environmental Chemicals Data and Information Network) database through a collaboration with JRC-ISPRA working group. (Author) 24 refs.

  6. Health effects assessment of chemical exposures: ARIES methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra, L; Montero, M.; Rabago, I.; Vidania, R.

    1995-01-01

    In this work, we present ARIES* update: a system designed in order to facilitate the human health effects assessment produced by accidental release of toxic chemicals. The first version of ARIES was developed in relation to 82/501/EEC Directive about mayor accidents in the chemical industry. So, the first aim was the support of the effects assessment derived for the chemicals included into this directive. From this establishment, it was considered acute exposures for high concentrations. In this report, we present the actual methodology for considering other type of exposures, such as environmental and occupational. Likewise other versions, the methodology comprises two approaches: quantitative and qualitative assessments. Quantitative assessment incorporates the mathematical algorithms useful to evaluate the effects produced by the most important routes of exposure: inhalation, ingestion, eye contact and skin absorption, in a short, medium and long term. It has been included models that realizes an accurate quantification of doses, effects,... and so on, such as simple approaches when the available information is not enough. Qualitative assessment, designed in order to complement or replace the previous one, is incorporated into an informatics system, developed in Clipper. It executes and displays outstanding and important toxicological information of about 100 chemicals. This information comes from ECDIN (Environmental Chemicals Data and Information Network) database through a collaboration with JRC-ISPRA working group. (Author) 24 refs

  7. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 5. Accidental Releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S

    2007-08-15

    Over the course of fifty-three years, LLNL had six acute releases of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) and one acute release of tritiated water vapor (HTO) that were too large relative to the annual releases to be included as part of the annual releases from normal operations detailed in Parts 3 and 4 of the Tritium Dose Reconstruction (TDR). Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) had one such release of HT and one of HTO. Doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) for these accidents have been modeled using an equation derived from the time-dependent tritium model, UFOTRI, and parameter values based on expert judgment. All of these acute releases are described in this report. Doses that could not have been exceeded from the large HT releases of 1965 and 1970 were calculated to be 43 {micro}Sv (4.3 mrem) and 120 {micro}Sv (12 mrem) to an adult, respectively. Two published sets of dose predictions for the accidental HT release in 1970 are compared with the dose predictions of this TDR. The highest predicted dose was for an acute release of HTO in 1954. For this release, the dose that could not have been exceeded was estimated to have been 2 mSv (200 mrem), although, because of the high uncertainty about the predictions, the likely dose may have been as low as 360 {micro}Sv (36 mrem) or less. The estimated maximum exposures from the accidental releases were such that no adverse health effects would be expected. Appendix A lists all accidents and large routine puff releases that have occurred at LLNL and SNL/CA between 1953 and 2005. Appendix B describes the processes unique to tritium that must be modeled after an acute release, some of the time-dependent tritium models being used today, and the results of tests of these models.

  8. Release the Body, Release the Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Martha Goff

    1998-01-01

    A college English teacher describes the anxiety and resentment of students during in-class writing assignments and the successful classroom use of meditation and body movement. Movement seemed to relax the students, change their attitudes, and release their creative impulses to write. Implications related to the body-mind connection are pondered.…

  9. Acute dyspnea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhter, A.I.

    1991-01-01

    Radiodiagnosis is applied to determine the causes of acute dyspnea. Acute dyspnea is shown to aggravate the course of pulmonary diseases (bronchial asthma, obstructive bronchitis, pulmonary edema, throboembolism of pulmonary arteries etc) and cardiovascular diseases (desiseas of myocardium). The main tasks of radiodiagnosis are to determine volume and state of the lungs, localization and type of pulmonary injuries, to verify heart disease and to reveal concomitant complications

  10. Induction of micronuclei by X radiation and various chemical agents in red blood cells of Pleurodeles waltl. Uptake, release and excretion of one of them: benzo(a)pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinfeld, S.

    1983-11-01

    The first part of the study is concerned with the effects of X radiation and of various substances dissolved in the breeding water (carbaryl, N-nitrosocarbaryl, benzo(a)pyrene, formol, cafeine, colchicine...) on the formation of micronuclei in red blood cells of Pleurodele larvae. The curves of the dose-effect relationships and of the kinetics of micronuclei formation are established for X radiation and benzo(a)pyrene. In the second part, a scintigraphic study concerning benzo(a)pyrene uptake, release and excretion by larvae, is presented. This study enables the dose-effect curve and the kinetics of micronuclei formation for this substance, to be interpreted. This study must allow the development of a cytogenetic test for the detection of radiomimetic substances in aqueous medium. Pleurodele is proposed as a new animal for the study of genetic toxicology [fr

  11. Large scientific releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongratz, M.B.

    1981-01-01

    The motivation for active experiments in space is considered, taking into account the use of active techniques to obtain a better understanding of the natural space environment, the utilization of the advantages of space as a laboratory to study fundamental plasma physics, and the employment of active techniques to determine the magnitude, degree, and consequences of artificial modification of the space environment. It is pointed out that mass-injection experiments in space plasmas began about twenty years ago with the Project Firefly releases. Attention is given to mass-release techniques and diagnostics, operational aspects of mass release active experiments, the active observation of mass release experiments, active perturbation mass release experiments, simulating an artificial modification of the space environment, and active experiments to study fundamental plasma physics

  12. [Coffee enema induced acute colitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Jung; Song, Seung Kyun; Jeon, Jin Ho; Sung, Mi Kyung; Cheung, Dae Young; Kim, Jin Il; Kim, Jae Kwang; Lee, Youn Soo

    2008-10-01

    Rectal enema used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes infrequently causes colitis. In medical practice, enemas are known to incidentally bring about colitis by mechanical, thermal, or direct chemical injuries. Coffee enema is told to ameliorate the constipation in alternative medicine. We hereby report a case of acute colitis resulting from coffee enema, which was presented with severe abdominal pain and hematochezia.

  13. Formulation of Sustained-Release Matrix Tablets Using Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    pharmacotechnical properties and in vitro release, including release kinetics. The optimized formulation was compared ... thermogram studies confirmed that there was no chemical interaction between the drug and the polymers in MK formulation. ... and has an elimination half-life of 3.5 h. Therefore, DTZ requires multiple ...

  14. Formaldehyde-releasers : relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Contact allergy to formaldehyde and inventory of formaldehyde-releasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Anton C.; Flyvholm, Mari-ann; Lensen, Gerda; Menne, Torkil; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    2009-01-01

    This is one of series of review articles on formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers (others: formaldehyde in cosmetics, in clothes and in metalworking fluids and miscellaneous). Thirty-five chemicals were identified as being formaldehyde-releasers. Although a further seven are listed in the

  15. Bacteria‐Triggered Release of Antimicrobial Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komnatnyy, Vitaly V.; Chiang, Wen‐Chi; Tolker‐Nielsen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Medical devices employed in healthcare practice are often susceptible to microbial contamination. Pathogenic bacteria may attach themselves to device surfaces of catheters or implants by formation of chemically complex biofilms, which may be the direct cause of device failure. Extracellular...... material is demonstrated by the bacteria‐triggered release of antibiotics to control bacterial populations and signaling molecules to modulate quorum sensing. The self‐regulating system provides the basis for the development of device‐relevant polymeric materials, which only release antibiotics...... in dependency of the titer of bacteria surrounding the medical device....

  16. Bacteria-Triggered Release of Antimicrobial Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komnatnyy, Vitaly V.; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Medical devices employed in healthcare practice are often susceptible to microbial contamination. Pathogenic bacteria may attach themselves to device surfaces of catheters or implants by formation of chemically complex biofilms, which may be the direct cause of device failure. Extracellular...... material is demonstrated by the bacteria‐triggered release of antibiotics to control bacterial populations and signaling molecules to modulate quorum sensing. The self‐regulating system provides the basis for the development of device‐relevant polymeric materials, which only release antibiotics...... in dependency of the titer of bacteria surrounding the medical device....

  17. Miniature Release Mechanism Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective is to design, build and functionally test a miniature release mechanism for CubeSats and other small satellites. The WFF 6U satellite structure will be...

  18. EIA new releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This report is a compliation of news releases from the Energy Information Administration. The september-october report includes articles on energy conservation, energy consumption in commercial buildings, and a short term energy model for a personal computer

  19. Controlled release of biologically active silver from nanosilver surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingyu; Sonshine, David A; Shervani, Saira; Hurt, Robert H

    2010-11-23

    Major pathways in the antibacterial activity and eukaryotic toxicity of nanosilver involve the silver cation and its soluble complexes, which are well established thiol toxicants. Through these pathways, nanosilver behaves in analogy to a drug delivery system, in which the particle contains a concentrated inventory of an active species, the ion, which is transported to and released near biological target sites. Although the importance of silver ion in the biological response to nanosilver is widely recognized, the drug delivery paradigm has not been well developed for this system, and there is significant potential to improve nanosilver technologies through controlled release formulations. This article applies elements of the drug delivery paradigm to nanosilver dissolution and presents a systematic study of chemical concepts for controlled release. After presenting thermodynamic calculations of silver species partitioning in biological media, the rates of oxidative silver dissolution are measured for nanoparticles and macroscopic foils and used to derive unified area-based release kinetics. A variety of competing chemical approaches are demonstrated for controlling the ion release rate over 4 orders of magnitude. Release can be systematically slowed by thiol and citrate ligand binding, formation of sulfidic coatings, or the scavenging of peroxy-intermediates. Release can be accelerated by preoxidation or particle size reduction, while polymer coatings with complexation sites alter the release profile by storing and releasing inventories of surface-bound silver. Finally, the ability to tune biological activity is demonstrated through a bacterial inhibition zone assay carried out on selected formulations of controlled release nanosilver.

  20. Safeguarding National Security Through Public Release of Environmental Information: Moving the Debate to the Next Level

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacobson, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    ..., and the Chemical Safety Information, Site Security and Fuels Regulatory Relief Act The article then focuses on the current state of the law regarding release or withholding of chemical-hazard information...

  1. Tritium release from neutron irradiated beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reactortechnik

    1998-01-01

    One of the most important open issues related to beryllium for fusion applications refers to the kinetics of the tritium release as a function of neutron fluence and temperature. The EXOTIC-7 as well as the `Beryllium` experiments carried out in the HFR reactor in Petten are considered as the most detailed and significant tests for investigating the beryllium response under neutron irradiation. This paper reviews the present status of beryllium post-irradiation examinations performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe with samples from the above mentioned irradiation experiments, trying to elucidate the tritium release controlling processes. In agreement with previous studies it has been found that release starts at about 500-550degC and achieves a maximum at about 700-750degC. The observed release at about 500-550degC is probably due to tritium escaping from chemical traps, while the maximum release at about 700-750degC is due to tritium escaping from physical traps. The consequences of a direct contact between beryllium and ceramics during irradiation, causing tritium implanting in a surface layer of beryllium up to a depth of about 40 mm and leading to an additional inventory which is usually several times larger than the neutron-produced one, are also presented and the effects on the tritium release are discussed. (author)

  2. Facilitation, augmentation, and potentiation of transmitter release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magleby, K. L. [Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States)

    2008-06-02

    This chapter discusses facilitation, augmentation, and potentiation of transmitter release. The effect of repetitive stimulation on transmitter release has been studied to look for and characterize the processes in the nerve terminal that affect the transmitter release. During repetitive stimulation of a neuromuscular junction under conditions of low quantal content, end-plate potentials progressively increase in amplitude. This increase is due to an increase in the number of quanta of transmitter released by each nerve impulse. A kinetic analysis of the changes in transmitter release during and following repetitive stimulation suggests that, there are four processes that act to increase transmitter release: first and second components of facilitation that decay with time constants of about 50 and 30 msec, augmentation that decays with a time constant of about 7s, and potentiation that decays with a time constant, which ranges from about 30s to min. These processes are separable on the basis of their kinetic and pharmacological properties. As a result, the mechanisms of these processes are not yet known, but some possibilities are briefly discussed in terms of structural, chemical, and statistical factors.

  3. Stereoselectivity of presynaptic autoreceptors modulating dopamine release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbilla, S.; Langer, S.Z.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of the (R)- and (S)-enantiomers of sulpiride and butaclamol were studied on the spontaneous and field stimulation-evoked release of total radioactivity from slices of rabbit caudate nucleus prelabelled with [ 3 H]dopamine. (S)-Sulpiride in concentrations ranging from 0.01-1μM enhanced the electrically evoked release of [ 3 H]dopamine while (R)-sulpiride was 10 times less potent than (S)-sulpiride. Exposure to (S)-butaclamol (0.1-1 μM) but not to (R)-butaclamol (0.1-10μM) enhanced the field-stimulated release of [ 3 H]dopamine. The facilitatory effects of (S)- and (R)-sulpiride and (S)-butaclamol on the stimulated release of the labelled neurotransmitter were observed under conditions in which these drugs did not modify the spontaneous outflow of radioactivity. Only the active enantiomers of sulpiride and butaclamol antagonized the inhibition by apomorphine (1μM) of the stimulated release of [ 3 H]dopamine. Our results indicate that the presynaptic inhibitory dopamine autoreceptors modulating the stimulation-evoked release of [ 3 H]dopamine in the caudate nucleus are, like the classical postsynaptic dopamine receptors, chemically stereoselective. (Auth.)

  4. Acute pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.S.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown, that in the detailed study of various types of acute pneumonia s the roentgenologic method plays a great role. The most characteristic roentge nological signs of primary (bacterial, viral, rickettsial, parasitogenic and fun gous) and secondary pneumonias (in the case of lessions in lesser circulation, changes in bronchi, aspirational and other diseases of organism) are presented

  5. Severe acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by unintentional sewing machine lubricant ingestion: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Sunil; Chandelia, Sudha; Patharia, Neha; Swarnim

    2016-11-01

    Sewing machine oil ingestion is rare but is possible due to its availability at home. Chemically, it belongs to hydrocarbon family which is toxic if aspirated, owing to their physical properties such as high volatility and low viscosity. On the contrary, sewing machine lubricant has high viscosity and low volatility which makes it aspiration less likely. The main danger of hydrocarbon ingestion is chemical pneumonitis which may be as severe as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We report a case of a 5-year-old girl with accidental ingestion of sewing machine lubricant oil, who subsequently developed ARDS refractory to mechanical ventilation. There was much improvement with airway pressure release ventilation mode of ventilation, but the child succumbed to death due to pulmonary hemorrhage.

  6. Why do cells release vesicles?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwland, Rienk; Sturk, Augueste

    2010-01-01

    Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells release vesicles into their environment. To answer the question why eukaryotic cells release vesicles, we may learn from prokaryotes. Bacteria release outer membrane vesicles, resembling microparticles, which act as "multi-purpose carriers". They contain signalling

  7. 75 FR 8575 - Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Third Group of Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... Test Requirements Testing Category and References Special Conditions Physical/chemical properties Water... chemical properties of the test substance, including its water solubility. An additional document, ISO... physical/chemical properties and biodegradation), ecotoxicity (in fish, Daphnia, and algae), acute toxicity...

  8. Gastrin release: Antrum microdialysis reveals a complex neural control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ericsson, P; Håkanson, R; Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2010-01-01

    that the vagus has not only a prompt stimulatory but also a slow inhibitory effect on gastrin release. 2) Although vagal denervation did not affect the gastrin response to anacidity, the TTX experiments revealed that both food-evoked and anacidity-evoked gastrin release depends on neural input.......We used microdialysis to monitor local gastrin release in response to food, acid blockade and acute vagal excitation. For the first time, gastrin release has been monitored continuously in intact conscious rats in a physiologically relevant experimental setting in a fashion that minimizes...... in both serum and microdialysate. Food intake induced a 2- to 3-fold increase in serum gastrin, while gastrin in antral microdialysate increased 10- to 15-fold. In unilaterally vagotomized rats (fasted, 3 days post-op.), food evoked a prompt peak gastrin release followed by a gradual decline on the intact...

  9. Chemical and natural stressors combined:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gergs, André; Zenker, Armin; Grimm, Volker

    2013-01-01

    In addition to natural stressors, populations are increasingly exposed to chemical pollutants released into the environment. We experimentally demonstrate the loss of resilience for Daphnia magna populations that are exposed to a combination of natural and chemical stressors even though effects...... vulnerability to the toxicant which acts in a size selective manner. Moreover, population vulnerability to the toxicant increases with predator size and predation intensity whereas indirect trait-mediated interactions via predator kairomones may buffer chemical effects to a certain extent. Our study...... demonstrates that population size can be a poor endpoint for risk assessments of chemicals and that ignoring disturbance interactions can lead to severe underestimation of extinction risk...

  10. Nanotechnologies for noninvasive measurement of drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas; Chen, Hongyu; Morrison, Rachel; Wang, Fenglin; Anker, Jeffrey N; Alexis, Frank

    2014-01-06

    A wide variety of chemotherapy and radiotherapy agents are available for treating cancer, but a critical challenge is to deliver these agents locally to cancer cells and tumors while minimizing side effects from systemic delivery. Nanomedicine uses nanoparticles with diameters in the range of ∼1-100 nm to encapsulate drugs and target them to tumors. The nanoparticle enhances local drug delivery efficiency to the tumors via entrapment in leaky tumor vasculature, molecular targeting to cells expressing cancer biomarkers, and/or magnetic targeting. In addition, the localization can be enhanced using triggered release in tumors via chemical, thermal, or optical signals. In order to optimize these nanoparticle drug delivery strategies, it is important to be able to image where the nanoparticles distribute and how rapidly they release their drug payloads. This Review aims to evaluate the current state of nanotechnology platforms for cancer theranostics (therapeutic and diagnostic particles) that are capable of noninvasive measurement of release kinetics.

  11. RAVEN Beta Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabiti, Cristian; Alfonsi, Andrea; Cogliati, Joshua Joseph; Mandelli, Diego; Kinoshita, Robert Arthur; Wang, Congjian; Maljovec, Daniel Patrick; Talbot, Paul William

    2016-01-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  12. RAVEN Beta Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert Arthur [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Congjian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maljovec, Daniel Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Talbot, Paul William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  13. Acute abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wig J

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available 550 cases of acute abdomen have been analysed in detail includ-ing their clinical presentation and operative findings. Males are more frequently affected than females in a ratio of 3: 1. More than 45% of patients presented after 48 hours of onset of symptoms. Intestinal obstruction was the commonest cause of acute abdomen (47.6%. External hernia was responsible for 26% of cases of intestinal obstruction. Perforated peptic ulcer was the commonest cause of peritonitis in the present series (31.7% while incidence of biliary peritonitis was only 2.4%.. The clinical accuracy rate was 87%. The mortality in operated cases was high (10% while the over-all mortality rate was 7.5%.

  14. The effects of acute self myofascial release (MFR) and stretching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Baseline measurements were taken initially and then participants were randomly divided into four groups (control [n=10, static stretching [n=10], dynamic stretching [n=10] and self MFR [n=10]). Each group performed a 60-minute intervention. During the intervention programme the various groups took part in prescribed ...

  15. Troponin I degradation in serum of patients with acute ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper K; Hallén, Jonas; Lund, Terje

    2011-01-01

    Although troponin is a cornerstone biomarker in the assessment and management of patients with acute coronary syndrome, much remains to be learned about the biology of this widely used biomarker, including its post-release modification. Degradation of troponin following release in patients with a...... with acute coronary syndrome has been described; however whether such post-release modification occurs in other non-acute coronary syndrome states remains unknown. The aim of this study was to define troponin degradation in patients with acute ischemic stroke....

  16. Acute ileus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhter, A.I.

    1991-01-01

    Acute ileus backgrounds are multiple. Dynamic ileus may take place during peritonitis, some nervous diseases, parathyroid diseases, hysteria. Mechanical ileus is connected with some obstacle in intestines. Small intestines ileus is rarely seen and may be caused by a tumor gall stones, invagination, swallowed foreign bodies. For exclusion of abdominal organs injury and gall stone ileus, if the roentgenological picture isn't clear enough, ultrasonography or computerized tomography of the abdomen are carried out

  17. Acute epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvi, Aijaz; Joyner-Triplett, Nedra

    1996-05-01

    Preview Acute anterior nosebleeds are frightening because bleeding is often so copious and seemingly unstoppable. But, ironically, this type is usually less severe than posterior epistaxis, in which blood may run briskly but unseen down the throat. The choice among the many treatment methods available depends on the source and cause of epistaxis. The authors present a methodical approach to patient evaluation and describe the best therapy for various situations.

  18. Interactive Chemical Safety for Sustainablity Toxicity Forecaster Dashboard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA researchers have been using advances in computational toxicology to address lack of data on the thousands of chemicals. EPA released chemical data on 1,800...

  19. CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS USING 'GREENER' ALTERNATIVE REACTION CONDITIONS AND MEDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical research during the last decade has witnessed a paradigm shift towards "environmentally-friendly chemistry" more popularly known as "green chemistry" due to the increasing environmental concerns and legislative requirements to curb the release of chemical waste into ...

  20. Hydraulic release oil tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mims, M.G.; Mueller, M.D.; Ehlinger, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a hydraulic release tool. It comprises a setting assembly; a coupling member for coupling to drill string or petroleum production components, the coupling member being a plurality of sockets for receiving the dogs in the extended position and attaching the coupling member the setting assembly; whereby the setting assembly couples to the coupling member by engagement of the dogs in the sockets of releases from and disengages the coupling member in movement of the piston from its setting to its reposition in response to a pressure in the body in exceeding the predetermined pressure; and a relief port from outside the body into its bore and means to prevent communication between the relief port and the bore of the body axially of the piston when the piston is in the setting position and to establish such communication upon movement of the piston from the setting position to the release position and reduce the pressure in the body bore axially of the piston, whereby the reduction of the pressure signals that the tool has released the coupling member

  1. NASTRAN: April 1982 Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugh, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    Latest public release of NASTRAN, April 1982 most efficient and versatile to date. Intended range of applications of NASTRAN includes almost every kind of structure and construction. Users may develop their own analysis capabilities by using Direct Matrix Abstraction Programming (DMAP) language to direct NASTRAN in solution of general matrix problems.

  2. Release the Prisoners Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the mathematical approach of the optimal strategy to win the "Release the prisoners" game and the integration of this analysis in a math class. Outline lesson plans at three different levels are given, where simulations are suggested as well as theoretical findings about the probability distribution function and its mean…

  3. Chemical process hazards analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  4. Manipulation of nitric oxide in an animal model of acute liver injury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We evaluated the impact of altering nitric oxide release on acute liver injury, the associated gut injury and bacterial translocation, at different time intervals. Methods: An acute rat liver injury model induced by D-galactosamine was used. Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four main groups: normal control, acute liver ...

  5. Chemical Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Chemical Peels Uses for Chemical Peels Learn more ...

  6. Chemical Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, C. N.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a course, including content, reading list, and presentation on chemical reactors at Cambridge University, England. A brief comparison of chemical engineering education between the United States and England is also given. (JN)

  7. Lack of stimulation of 24-hour growth hormone release by hypocaloric diet in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M H; Juul, A; Kjems, L L

    1995-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a marked reduction in the spontaneous secretion of GH. To investigate the effect of acute alterations in calorie intake on GH release, 24-hr spontaneous GH release was measured during habitual calorie intake as well as during a short term, very low calorie diet (VLCD...

  8. Toluene-induced, Ca2+-dependent vesicular catecholamine release in rat PC12 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerink, R.H.S.; Vijverberg, H.P.M.

    2002-01-01

    Acute effects of toluene on vesicular catecholamine release from intact PC12 phaeochromocytoma cells have been investigated using carbon fiber microelectrode amperometry. The frequency of vesicles released is low under basal conditions and is enhanced by depolarization. Toluene causes an increase in

  9. Characterization of Chemical Suicides in the United States and Its Adverse Impact on Responders and Bystanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ayana R

    2016-11-01

    A suicide trend that involves mixing household chemicals to produce hydrogen sulfide or hydrogen cyanide, commonly referred to as a detergent, hydrogen sulfide, or chemical suicide is a continuing problem in the United States (U.S.). Because there is not one database responsible for tracking chemical suicides, the actual number of incidents in the U.S. is unknown. To prevent morbidity and mortality associated with chemical suicides, it is important to characterize the incidents that have occurred in the U.S. The author analyzed data from 2011-2013 from state health departments participating in the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's National Toxic Substance Incidents Program (NTSIP). NTSIP is a web-based chemical incident surveillance system that tracks the public health consequences (e.g., morbidity, mortality) from acute chemical releases. Reporting sources for NTSIP incidents typically include first responders, hospitals, state environmental agencies, and media outlets. To find chemical suicide incidents in NTSIP's database, the author queried open text fields in the comment, synopsis, and contributing factors variables for potential incidents. Five of the nine states participating in NTSIP reported a total of 22 chemical suicide incidents or attempted suicides during 2011-2013. These states reported a total of 43 victims: 15 suicide victims who died, seven people who attempted suicide but survived, eight responders, and four employees working at a coroner's office; the remainder were members of the general public. None of the injured responders reported receiving HazMat technician-level training, and none had documented appropriate personal protective equipment. Chemical suicides produce lethal gases that can pose a threat to responders and bystanders. Describing the characteristics of these incidents can help raise awareness among responders and the public about the dangers of chemical suicides. Along with increased awareness, education is also

  10. Characterization of Chemical Suicides in the United States and Its Adverse Impact on Responders and Bystanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayana R. Anderson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A suicide trend that involves mixing household chemicals to produce hydrogen sulfide or hydrogen cyanide, commonly referred to as a detergent, hydrogen sulfide, or chemical suicide is a continuing problem in the United States (U.S.. Because there is not one database responsible for tracking chemical suicides, the actual number of incidents in the U.S. is unknown. To prevent morbidity and mortality associated with chemical suicides, it is important to characterize the incidents that have occurred in the U.S. Methods: The author analyzed data from 2011-2013 from state health departments participating in the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry’s National Toxic Substance Incidents Program (NTSIP. NTSIP is a web-based chemical incident surveillance system that tracks the public health consequences (e.g., morbidity, mortality from acute chemical releases. Reporting sources for NTSIP incidents typically include first responders, hospitals, state environmental agencies, and media outlets. To find chemical suicide incidents in NTSIP’s database, the author queried open text fields in the comment, synopsis, and contributing factors variables for potential incidents. Results: Five of the nine states participating in NTSIP reported a total of 22 chemical suicide incidents or attempted suicides during 2011-2013. These states reported a total of 43 victims: 15 suicide victims who died, seven people who attempted suicide but survived, eight responders, and four employees working at a coroner’s office; the remainder were members of the general public. None of the injured responders reported receiving HazMat technician-level training, and none had documented appropriate personal protective equipment. Conclusion: Chemical suicides produce lethal gases that can pose a threat to responders and bystanders. Describing the characteristics of these incidents can help raise awareness among responders and the public about the dangers of

  11. Runaway chemical reaction exposes community to highly toxic chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaszniak, Mark; Vorderbrueggen, John

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) conducted a comprehensive investigation of a runaway chemical reaction at MFG Chemical (MFG) in Dalton, Georgia on April 12, 2004 that resulted in the uncontrolled release of a large quantity of highly toxic and flammable allyl alcohol and allyl chloride into the community. Five people were hospitalized and 154 people required decontamination and treatment for exposure to the chemicals. This included police officers attempting to evacuate the community and ambulance personnel who responded to 911 calls from residents exposed to the chemicals. This paper presents the findings of the CSB report (U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB), Investigation Report: Toxic Chemical Vapor Cloud Release, Report No. 2004-09-I-GA, Washington DC, April 2006) including a discussion on tolling practices; scale-up of batch reaction processes; Process Safety Management (PSM) and Risk Management Plan (RMP) implementation; emergency planning by the company, county and the city; and emergency response and mitigation actions taken during the incident. The reactive chemical testing and atmospheric dispersion modeling conducted by CSB after the incident and recommendations adopted by the Board are also discussed

  12. Activated human neutrophils release hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCourt, M

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Hepatocyte growth factor or scatter factor (HGF\\/SF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has potent angiogenic properties. We have previously demonstrated that neutrophils (PMN) are directly angiogenic by releasing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We hypothesized that the acute inflammatory response can stimulate PMN to release HGF. AIMS: To examine the effects of inflammatory mediators on PMN HGF release and the effect of recombinant human HGF (rhHGF) on PMN adhesion receptor expression and PMN VEGF release. METHODS: In the first experiment, PMN were isolated from healthy volunteers and stimulated with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP). Culture supernatants were assayed for HGF using ELISA. In the second experiment, PMN were lysed to measure total HGF release and HGF expression in the PMN was detected by Western immunoblotting. Finally, PMN were stimulated with rhHGF. PMN CD 11a, CD 11b, and CD 18 receptor expression and VEGF release was measured using flow cytometry and ELISA respectively. RESULTS: TNF-alpha, LPS and fMLP stimulation resulted in significantly increased release of PMN HGF (755+\\/-216, 484+\\/-221 and 565+\\/-278 pg\\/ml, respectively) compared to controls (118+\\/-42 pg\\/ml). IL-8 had no effect. Total HGF release following cell lysis and Western blot suggests that HGF is released from intracellular stores. Recombinant human HGF did not alter PMN adhesion receptor expression and had no effect on PMN VEGF release. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that pro-inflammatory mediators can stimulate HGF release from a PMN intracellular store and that activated PMN in addition to secreting VEGF have further angiogenic potential by releasing HGF.

  13. The influence of source term release parameters on health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Ha, Jae Joo

    1998-08-01

    In this study, the influence of source term release parameters on the health effects was examined. This is very useful in identifying the relative importance of release parameters and can be an important factor in developing a strategy for reducing offsite risks. The release parameters investigated in this study are release height, heat content, fuel burnup, release time, release duration, and warning time. The health effects affected by the change of release parameters are early fatalities, cancer fatalities, early injuries, cancer injuries, early fatality risk, population weighted early fatality risk, population weighted cancer fatality risk, effective whole body population dose, population exceeding an early acute red bone marrow dose of 1.5 Sv, and distance at which early fatalities are expected to occur. As release height increases, the values of early health effects such as early fatalities and injuries decrease. However, the release height dose not have significant influences on late health effects. The values of both early and late health effects decrease as heat content increases. The increase fuel burnup, i.e., the increase of core inventories increases the late health effects, however, has small influence on the early health effects. But, the number of early injuries increases as the fuel burnup increases. The effects of release time increase shows very similar influence on both the early and late health effects. As the release time increases to 2 hours, the values of health effects increase and then decrease rapidly. As release duration increases, the values of late health effects increase slightly, however, the values of early health effects decrease. As warning time increases to 2 hours, the values of late health effects decrease and then shows no variation. The number of early injuries decreases rapidly as the warning time increases to 2 hours. However, the number of early fatalities and the early fatality risk increase as the warning time increases

  14. Mutagenicity of chemicals in genetically modified animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems MI; van Benthem J; LEO

    2001-01-01

    The strategy for assessing human health risks of chemicals consists of a large number of tests in different research disciplines. Tests include acute and chronic toxicity, genotoxicity, reproduction toxicity and carcinogenicity. Genotoxic properties of chemicals are assessed in short-term in vitro

  15. Energy released in fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, M.F.

    1969-05-01

    The effective energy released in and following the fission of U-235, Pu-239 and Pu-241 by thermal neutrons, and of U-238 by fission spectrum neutrons, is discussed. The recommended values are: U-235 ... 192.9 ± 0.5 MeV/fission; U-238 ... 193.9 ± 0.8 MeV/fission; Pu-239 ... 198.5 ± 0.8 MeV/fission; Pu-241 ... 200.3 ± 0.8 MeV/fission. These values include all contributions except from antineutrinos and very long-lived fission products. The detailed contributions are discussed, and inconsistencies in the experimental data are pointed out. In Appendix A, the contribution to the total useful energy release in a reactor from reactions other than fission are discussed briefly, and in Appendix B there is a discussion of the variations in effective energy from fission with incident neutron energy. (author)

  16. Border cell release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mravec, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Plant border cells are specialised cells derived from the root cap with roles in the biomechanics of root growth and in forming a barrier against pathogens. The mechanism of highly localised cell separation which is essential for their release to the environment is little understood. Here I present...... in situ analysis of Brachypodium distachyon, a model organism for grasses which possess type II primary cell walls poor in pectin content. Results suggest similarity in spatial dynamics of pectic homogalacturonan during dicot and monocot border cell release. Integration of observations from different...... species leads to the hypothesis that this process most likely does not involve degradation of cell wall material but rather employs unique cell wall structural and compositional means enabling both the rigidity of the root cap as well as detachability of given cells on its surface....

  17. Carpal tunnel release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Bo; Sørensen, A I; Crone, K L

    2013-01-01

    A single-blind, randomized, controlled trial was done to compare the results of carpal tunnel release using classic incision, short incision, or endoscopic technique. In total, 90 consecutive cases were included. Follow-up was 24 weeks. We found a significantly shorter sick leave in the endoscopi...... incision could be found. There were no serious complications in either group. The results indicate that the endoscopic procedure is safe and has the benefit of faster rehabilitation and return to work....

  18. Hydra Code Release

    OpenAIRE

    Couchman, H. M. P.; Pearce, F. R.; Thomas, P. A.

    1996-01-01

    Comment: A new version of the AP3M-SPH code, Hydra, is now available as a tar file from the following sites; http://coho.astro.uwo.ca/pub/hydra/hydra.html , http://star-www.maps.susx.ac.uk/~pat/hydra/hydra.html . The release now also contains a cosmological initial conditions generator, documentation, an installation guide and installation tests. A LaTex version of the documentation is included here

  19. EIA new releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration. It contains news releases on items of interest to the petroleum, coal, nuclear, electric and alternate fuels industries ranging from economic outlooks to environmental concerns. There is also a listing of reports by industry and an energy education resource listing containing sources for free or low-cost energy-related educational materials for educators and primary and secondary students

  20. Sudden releases of gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaloupecká Hana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Conurbations all over the world have enlarged for numberless years. The accidental or intentional releases of gases become more frequent. Therefore, these crises situations have to be studied. The aim of this paper is to describe experiments examining these processes that were carried out in the laboratory of Environmental Aerodynamics of the Institute of Thermomechanics AS CR in Nový Knín. Results show huge puff variability from replica to replica.

  1. Slow-release fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Douglas W. (Inventor); Golden, Dadigamuwage C. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A synthetic apatite containing agronutrients and a method for making the apatite are disclosed. The apatite comprises crystalline calcium phosphate having agronutrients dispersed in the crystalline structure. The agronutrients can comprise potassium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chlorine, boron, copper and zinc in amounts suited for plant growth. The apatite can optionally comprise a carbonate and/or silicon solubility control agent. The agronutrients are released slowly as the apatite dissolves.

  2. Contact: Releasing the news

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinotti, Roberto

    The problem of mass behavior after man's future contacts with other intelligences in the universe is not only a challenge for social scientists and political leaders all over the world, but also a cultural time bomb as well. In fact, since the impact of CETI (Contact with Extraterrestrial Intelligence) on human civilization, with its different cultures, might cause a serious socio-anthropological shock, a common and predetermined worldwide strategy is necessary in releasing the news after the contact, in order to keep possible manifestations of fear, panic and hysteria under control. An analysis of past studies in this field and of parallel historical situations as analogs suggests a definite "authority crisis" in the public as a direct consequence of an unexpected release of the news, involving a devastating "chain reaction" process (from both the psychological and sociological viewpoints) of anomie and maybe the collapse of today's society. The only way to prevent all this is to prepare the world's public opinion concerning contact before releasing the news, and to develop a long-term strategy through the combined efforts of scientists, political leaders, intelligence agencies and the mass media, in order to create the cultural conditions in which a confrontation with ETI won't affect mankind in a traumatic way. Definite roles and tasks in this multi-level model are suggested.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Stimuli-Responsive Poly(2-dimethylamino-ethylmethacrylate-Grafted Chitosan Microcapsule for Controlled Pyraclostrobin Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunli Xu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Controllable pesticide release in response to environmental stimuli is highly desirable for better efficacy and fewer adverse effects. Combining the merits of natural and synthetic polymers, pH and temperature dual-responsive chitosan copolymer (CS-g-PDMAEMA was facilely prepared through free radical graft copolymerization with 2-(dimethylamino ethyl 2-methacrylate (DMAEMA as the vinyl monomer. An emulsion chemical cross-linking method was used to expediently fabricate pyraclostrobin microcapsules in situ entrapping the pesticide. The loading content and encapsulation efficiency were 18.79% and 64.51%, respectively. The pyraclostrobin-loaded microcapsules showed pH-and thermo responsive release. Microcapsulation can address the inherent limitation of pyraclostrobin that is photo unstable and highly toxic on aquatic organisms. Compared to free pyraclostrobin, microcapsulation could dramatically improve its photostability under ultraviolet light irradiation. Lower acute toxicity against zebra fish on the first day and gradually similar toxicity over time with that of pyraclostrobin technical concentrate were in accordance with the release profiles of pyraclostrobin microcapsules. This stimuli-responsive pesticide delivery system may find promising application potential in sustainable plant protection.

  4. Quantification of the release of inorganic elements from biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Flemming; van Lith, Simone Cornelia; Korbee, Rob

    2007-01-01

    elements are thermodynamically stable as a function of temperature. This information is needed for the interpretation of the lab-scale release data. Thus, for the purpose of modeling ash or aerosol formation, fuel characterization methods should be combined with lab-scale release measurements. Pilot...... reactor. The fuels were characterized by use of wet chemical analysis, and also by advanced techniques: chemical fractionation analysis (of the raw fuels) and simultaneous thermal analysis (of ash samples derived from the fuels at 550 degrees C). In parallel to the experimental release investigation...... and fuel characterization, global equilibrium analysis, simulating the experimental combustion conditions, was performed. The objective of this work was to compare the lab-scale release data with the results from the fuel characterization techniques and from the equilibrium calculations. Furthermore...

  5. Gastrin release: Antrum microdialysis reveals a complex neural control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ericsson, P; Håkanson, R; Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2010-01-01

    We used microdialysis to monitor local gastrin release in response to food, acid blockade and acute vagal excitation. For the first time, gastrin release has been monitored continuously in intact conscious rats in a physiologically relevant experimental setting in a fashion that minimizes...... the gastrin concentration in blood as well as microdialysate. The high gastrin concentration following omeprazole treatment was not affected by vagotomy. Vagal excitation stimulated the G cells: electrical vagal stimulation and pylorus ligation (fasted rats) raised the gastrin concentration transiently...... that the vagus has not only a prompt stimulatory but also a slow inhibitory effect on gastrin release. 2) Although vagal denervation did not affect the gastrin response to anacidity, the TTX experiments revealed that both food-evoked and anacidity-evoked gastrin release depends on neural input....

  6. Redox signaling in acute pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Salvador; Pereda, Javier; Sabater, Luis; Sastre, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process of the pancreatic gland that eventually may lead to a severe systemic inflammatory response. A key event in pancreatic damage is the intracellular activation of NF-κB and zymogens, involving also calcium, cathepsins, pH disorders, autophagy, and cell death, particularly necrosis. This review focuses on the new role of redox signaling in acute pancreatitis. Oxidative stress and redox status are involved in the onset of acute pancreatitis and also in the development of the systemic inflammatory response, being glutathione depletion, xanthine oxidase activation, and thiol oxidation in proteins critical features of the disease in the pancreas. On the other hand, the release of extracellular hemoglobin into the circulation from the ascitic fluid in severe necrotizing pancreatitis enhances lipid peroxidation in plasma and the inflammatory infiltrate into the lung and up-regulates the HIF–VEGF pathway, contributing to the systemic inflammatory response. Therefore, redox signaling and oxidative stress contribute to the local and systemic inflammatory response during acute pancreatitis. PMID:25778551

  7. Acute kidney failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney failure; Renal failure; Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute ... Symptoms of acute kidney failure may include any of the following: Bloody stools Breath odor and metallic taste in the mouth Bruising easily Changes in ...

  8. Acute cerebellar ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerebellar ataxia; Ataxia - acute cerebellar; Cerebellitis; Post-varicella acute cerebellar ataxia; PVACA ... Acute cerebellar ataxia in children, particularly younger than age 3, may occur several weeks after an illness caused by a virus. ...

  9. Protecting privacy in data release

    CERN Document Server

    Livraga, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive approach to protecting sensitive information when large data collections are released by their owners. It addresses three key requirements of data privacy: the protection of data explicitly released, the protection of information not explicitly released but potentially vulnerable due to a release of other data, and the enforcement of owner-defined access restrictions to the released data. It is also the first book with a complete examination of how to enforce dynamic read and write access authorizations on released data, applicable to the emerging data outsou

  10. Chemical Characterization of Compounds Released by Marine Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    330, 1980 47. Robertson, IS, Wilson, JC and Morris, PGD , Growth in Castrated Cattle, The Vet Rec, vol 81(4), p 88-103, 22 Jul 1967 48. Banerjee, AK and...laboratory for sample collection. This approach would save the effort needed in confirming that all solvents including the water were organic free

  11. Active Chemical Sampling System for Underwater Chemical Source Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Takemura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of active water sampling to enhance chemical reception for small underwater robots. The search for a chemical source in a stagnant water environment is not an easy task because the chemical solution released from the source stays in the close vicinity of the source. No signal is obtained even if a robot with chemical sensors is placed a few centimeters from the chemical source. In the system under study, four electrochemical sensors are aligned in front of a suction pipe that draws water samples from the surroundings. Owing to the smooth laminar flow converging to the suction port, the streak of the chemical solution drawn to the sensors is shaped into a thin filamentous form. To prevent the chemical solution from passing between the sensors without touching their surfaces, slits are placed in front of the sensors to guide the incoming chemical solution from different directions to the corresponding sensors. A chemical source can be located by moving the system in the direction of the sensor showing the largest response. It is also shown that the chemical reception at the sensors can be significantly enhanced when the system is wobbled to introduce disturbances.

  12. [Chemical weapons and chemical terrorism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Katsumi

    2005-10-01

    Chemical Weapons are kind of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). They were used large quantities in WWI. Historically, large quantities usage like WWI was not recorded, but small usage has appeared now and then. Chemical weapons are so called "Nuclear weapon for poor countrys" because it's very easy to produce/possession being possible. They are categorized (1) Nerve Agents, (2) Blister Agents, (3) Cyanide (blood) Agents, (4) Pulmonary Agents, (5) Incapacitating Agents (6) Tear Agents from the viewpoint of human body interaction. In 1997 the Chemical Weapons Convention has taken effect. It prohibits chemical weapons development/production, and Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) verification regime contributes to the chemical weapons disposal. But possibility of possession/use of weapons of mass destruction by terrorist group represented in one by Matsumoto and Tokyo Subway Sarin Attack, So new chemical terrorism countermeasures are necessary.

  13. SRNL EMERGENCY RESPONSE CAPABILITY FOR ATMOSPHERIC CONTAMINANT RELEASES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koffman, L; Chuck Hunter, C; Robert Buckley, R; Robert Addis, R

    2006-01-01

    Emergency response to an atmospheric release of chemical or radiological contamination is enhanced when plume predictions, field measurements, and real-time weather information are integrated into a geospatial framework. The Weather Information and Display (WIND) System at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) utilizes such an integrated framework. The rapid availability of predictions from a suite of atmospheric transport models within this geospatial framework has proven to be of great value to decision makers during an emergency involving an atmospheric contaminant release

  14. Influence of target thickness on the release of radioactive atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillot, Julien, E-mail: guillotjulien@ipno.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucléaire CNRS/IN2P3 UMR 8608 – Université Paris Sud – Université Paris Saclay, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Roussière, Brigitte [Institut de Physique Nucléaire CNRS/IN2P3 UMR 8608 – Université Paris Sud – Université Paris Saclay, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Tusseau-Nenez, Sandrine [Physique de la Matière Condensée Ecole Polytechnique/CNRS UMR 7643 – Université Paris Saclay, F-91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Barré-Boscher, Nicole; Borg, Elie; Martin, Julien [Institut de Physique Nucléaire CNRS/IN2P3 UMR 8608 – Université Paris Sud – Université Paris Saclay, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays, intense exotic beams are needed in order to study nuclei with very short half-life. To increase the release efficiency of the fission products, all the target characteristics involved must be improved (e.g. chemical composition, dimensions, physicochemical properties such as grain size, porosity, density…). In this article, we study the impact of the target thickness. Released fractions measured from graphite and uranium carbide pellets are presented as well as Monte-Carlo simulations of the Brownian motion.

  15. Acute and Chronic Paronychia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggit, Jeff C

    2017-07-01

    Paronychia is inflammation of the fingers or toes in one or more of the three nail folds. Acute paronychia is caused by polymicrobial infections after the protective nail barrier has been breached. Treatment consists of warm soaks with or without Burow solution or 1% acetic acid. Topical antibiotics should be used with or without topical steroids when simple soaks do not relieve the inflammation. The presence of an abscess should be determined, which mandates drainage. There are a variety of options for drainage, ranging from instrumentation with a hypodermic needle to a wide incision with a scalpel. Oral antibiotics are usually not needed if adequate drainage is achieved unless the patient is immunocompromised or a severe infection is present. Therapy is based on the most likely pathogens and local resistance patterns. Chronic paronychia is characterized by symptoms of at least six weeks' duration and represents an irritant dermatitis to the breached nail barrier. Common irritants include acids, alkalis, and other chemicals used by housekeepers, dishwashers, bartenders, florists, bakers, and swimmers. Treatment is aimed at stopping the source of irritation while treating the inflammation with topical steroids or calcineurin inhibitors. More aggressive techniques may be required to restore the protective nail barrier. Treatment may take weeks to months. Patient education is paramount to reduce the recurrence of acute and chronic paronychia.

  16. Acute Appendicitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tind, Sofie; Qvist, Niels

    2017-01-01

    and treatment of AA it is important that the classifications are consistent. Furthermore, in the clinical settings, incorrect classification might lead to over diagnosing and a prolonged antibiotic treatment. The aim of our study was to investigate the concordance between perioperative diagnosis made......BACKGROUND: The classification of acute appendicitis (AA) into various grades is not consistent, partly because it is not clear whether the perioperative or the histological findings should be the foundation of the classification. When comparing results from the literature on the frequency...... patients were included. In 116 (89 %) of these cases, appendicitis was confirmed histological. There was low concordance between the perioperative and histological diagnoses, varying from 16 to 76 % depending on grade of AA. Only 44 % of the patients receiving antibiotics postoperatively had a positive...

  17. Chemical oceanography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Millero, F.J

    1996-01-01

    Chemical Oceanography presents a comprehensive examination of the chemistry of oceans through discussions of such topics as descriptive physical oceanography, the composition of seawater and the major...

  18. Riola release report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, E.C.

    1983-08-04

    Eleven hours after execution of the Riola Event (at 0826 PDT on 25 September 1980) in hole U2eq of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), a release of radioactivity began. When the seepage stopped at about noon the following day, up to some 3200 Ci of activity had been dispersed by light variable winds. On 26 September, examination of the geophone records showed six hours of low-level, but fairly continuous, activity before the release. Electrical measurements indicated that most cables were still intact to a depth below the stemming platform. A survey of the ground zero area showed that the seepage came through cracks between the surface conductor and the pad, through cracks in the pad, and through a crack adjacent to the pad around the mousehole (a small hole adjacent to the emplacement hole). To preclude undue radiation exposure or injury from a surprise subsidence, safety measures were instituted. Tritium seepage was suffucient to postpone site activities until a box and pipeline were emplaced to contain and remove the gas. Radiation release modeling and calculations were generally consistent with observations. Plug-hole interaction calculations showed that the alluvium near the bottom of the plug may have been overstressed and that improvements in the design of the plug-medium interface can be made. Experimental studies verified that the surface appearance of the plug core was caused by erosion, but, assuming a normal strength for the plug material, that erosion alone could not account for the disappearance of such a large portion of the stemming platform. Samples from downhole plug experiments show that the plug may have been considerably weaker than had been indicted by quality assurance (QA) samples. 19 references, 32 figures, 10 tables.

  19. Allegheny County Toxics Release Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data provides information about toxic substances released into the environment or managed through recycling, energy recovery, and...

  20. Stapes Release in Tympanosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedri, Es-Hak; Teferi, Nebiat; Redleaf, Miriam

    2018-02-01

    : Tympanosclerosis in the middle ear space is common in Ethiopia and often involves the ossicles and particularly the stapes. Ear operations in Ethiopia are relatively expensive in this country of limited medical resources and a low average living wage. In this setting, 2-stage operations using prostheses become prohibitively expensive. Therefore, the recommended 2-stage approach for tympanic membrane perforation with tympanosclerosis and stapes fixation is impractical for Ethiopia.We present a series of 67 patients who had a single stage tympanoplasty, removal of tympanosclerosis from the stapes suprastructure, and ossicular chain reconstruction using ossicular interposition. Crucial is the surgical technique employed for peeling the mound of tympanosclerotic plaque off of the stapes, which we term the stapes release. Controls were 67 patients with similar perforations and air-bone gap, but no tympanosclerosis. Most controls had ossciular discontinuity and were reconstructed with type III tympanoplasty.Air-bone gap improved in both groups: 18 dB (11 dB standard deviation) in the stapes release group, and 23 dB (11 dB standard deviation) in the control group. Paired t test found these improvements in each group significant at p < 0.001. Among the preoperative subjects there were 40 with air-bone gap greater than 45 dB, and none less than 20 dB. Among the postoperative subjects, none had air-bone gap worse than 45 dB, while 25/67 (37%) stapes release and 44/67 (66%) controls had air-bone gap better than 20 dB. Three patients in each group failed to close their perforations completely (96% closure rate).The only complications were two early cases of transient facial nerve weakness, which was avoided in subsequent cases by an alteration in technique. There was no deterioration of sensorineural hearing levels in either group's subjects postoperatively.In conclusion, stapes release with ossicular interposition can be performed at the same time as

  1. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains the Executive summary; Introduction; Summary of vulnerabilities; Management systems weaknesses; Commendable practices; Summary of management response plan; Conclusions; and a Glossary of chemical terms

  2. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains the Executive summary; Introduction; Summary of vulnerabilities; Management systems weaknesses; Commendable practices; Summary of management response plan; Conclusions; and a Glossary of chemical terms.

  3. HABIT, Toxic and Radioactive Release Hazards in Reactor Control Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stage, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: HABIT is a package of computer codes designed to be used for the evaluation of control room habitability in the event of an accidental release of toxic chemicals or radioactive materials. 2 - Methods: Given information about the design of a nuclear power plant, a scenario for the release of toxic or radionuclides, and information about the air flows and protection systems of the control room, HABIT can be used to estimate the chemical exposure or radiological dose to control room personnel

  4. Measurement and characterization of fission products released from LWR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, M.F.; Collins, J.L.; Lorenz, R.A.; Norwood, K.S.; Strain, R.V.

    1984-01-01

    Samples of commercial LWR fuel have been heated under simulated accident conditions to determine the extent and the chemical forms of fission product release. Of the five tests discussed, the fractional releases of Kr, I, and Cs varied from proportional 2% at 1400 0 C to >50% at 2000 0 C; much smaller fractions of Ru, Ag, Sb, and Te were measured in some tests. The major chemical forms in the effluent appeared to include CsI, CsOH, Sb, Te, and Ag. (orig./HP)

  5. Release of Chlorine and Sulfur during Biomass Torrefaction and Pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleh, Suriyati Binti; Flensborg, Julie Pauline; Shoulaifar, Tooran Khazraie

    2014-01-01

    The release of chlorine (Cl) and sulfur (S) during biomass torrefaction and pyrolysis has been investigated via experiments in two laboratory-scale reactors: a rotating reactor and a fixed bed reactor. Six biomasses with different chemical compositions covering a wide range of ash content and ash...... reporting that biomasses with a lower chlorine content release a higher fraction of chlorine during the pyrolysis process. A significant sulfur release (about 60%) was observed from the six biomasses investigated at 350 degrees C. The initial sulfur content in the biomass did not influence the fraction...

  6. Nanoporous Silicified Phospholipids and Application to Controlled Glycolic Acid Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang SangHwa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This work demonstrates the synthesis and characterization of novel nanoporous silicified phospholipid bilayers assembled inorganic powders. The materials are obtained by silicification process with silica precursor at the hydrophilic region of phospholipid bilayers. This process involves the co-assembly of a chemically active phospholipids bilayer within the ordered porosity of a silica matrix and holds promise as a novel application for controlled drug release or drug containers with a high level of specificity and throughput. The controlled release application of the synthesized materials was achieved to glycolic acid, and obtained a zero-order release pattern due to the nanoporosity.

  7. Multivesicular release underlies short term synaptic potentiation independent of release probability change in the supraoptic nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle E Quinlan

    Full Text Available Magnocellular neurons of the supraoptic nucleus receive glutamatergic excitatory inputs that regulate the firing activity and hormone release from these neurons. A strong, brief activation of these excitatory inputs induces a lingering barrage of tetrodotoxin-resistant miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs that lasts for tens of minutes. This is known to accompany an immediate increase in large amplitude mEPSCs. However, it remains unknown how long this amplitude increase can last and whether it is simply a byproduct of greater release probability. Using in vitro patch clamp recording on acute rat brain slices, we found that a brief, high frequency stimulation (HFS of afferents induced a potentiation of mEPSC amplitude lasting up to 20 min. This amplitude potentiation did not correlate with changes in mEPSC frequency, suggesting that it does not reflect changes in presynaptic release probability. Nonetheless, neither postsynaptic calcium chelator nor the NMDA receptor antagonist blocked the potentiation. Together with the known calcium dependency of HFS-induced potentiation of mEPSCs, our results imply that mEPSC amplitude increase requires presynaptic calcium. Further analysis showed multimodal distribution of mEPSC amplitude, suggesting that large mEPSCs were due to multivesicular glutamate release, even at late post-HFS when the frequency is no longer elevated. In conclusion, high frequency activation of excitatory synapses induces lasting multivesicular release in the SON, which is independent of changes in release probability. This represents a novel form of synaptic plasticity that may contribute to prolonged excitatory tone necessary for generation of burst firing of magnocellular neurons.

  8. Superoxide generated at mitochondrial complex III triggers acute responses to hypoxia in the pulmonary circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waypa, Gregory B; Marks, Jeremy D; Guzy, Robert D; Mungai, Paul T; Schriewer, Jacqueline M; Dokic, Danijela; Ball, Molly K; Schumacker, Paul T

    2013-02-15

    The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling in the O(2) sensing mechanism underlying acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) has been controversial. Although mitochondria are important sources of ROS, studies using chemical inhibitors have yielded conflicting results, whereas cellular models using genetic suppression have precluded in vivo confirmation. Hence, genetic animal models are required to test mechanistic hypotheses. We tested whether mitochondrial Complex III is required for the ROS signaling and vasoconstriction responses to acute hypoxia in pulmonary arteries (PA). A mouse permitting Cre-mediated conditional deletion of the Rieske iron-sulfur protein (RISP) of Complex III was generated. Adenoviral Cre recombinase was used to delete RISP from isolated PA vessels or smooth muscle cells (PASMC). In PASMC, RISP depletion abolished hypoxia-induced increases in ROS signaling in the mitochondrial intermembrane space and cytosol, and it abrogated hypoxia-induced increases in [Ca(2+)](i). In isolated PA vessels, RISP depletion abolished hypoxia-induced ROS signaling in the cytosol. Breeding the RISP mice with transgenic mice expressing tamoxifen-activated Cre in smooth muscle permitted the depletion of RISP in PASMC in vivo. Precision-cut lung slices from those mice revealed that RISP depletion abolished hypoxia-induced increases in [Ca(2+)](i) of the PA. In vivo RISP depletion in smooth muscle attenuated the acute hypoxia-induced increase in right ventricular systolic pressure in anesthetized mice. Acute hypoxia induces superoxide release from Complex III of smooth muscle cells. These oxidant signals diffuse into the cytosol and trigger increases in [Ca(2+)](i) that cause acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.

  9. FACILITATED CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS UNDER ALTERNATE REACTION CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical research in the late 1990's witnessed a paradigm shift towards "environmentally-friendly chemistry" more popularly known as "green chemistry" due to the increasing environmental concerns and legislative requirements to curb the release of chemical waste into the atmo...

  10. Chemical Safety Alert: Safe Storage and Handling of Swimming Pool Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazards of pool water treatment and maintenance chemicals (e.g., chlorine), and the protective measures pool owners should take to prevent fires, toxic vapor releases, and injuries. Triggered by improper wetting, mixing, or self-reactivity over time.

  11. Chemical agents and chemical terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patocka, J; Fusek, J

    2004-03-01

    Chemical terrorism is a new threat to the security of mankind, which scale essentially exceeds the impact of use of the most modem firearms. At present time all over the world threats from different radical elements to use radioactive materials, potent poisonous substances and pathogenic microorganisms for terrorist purposes became more frequent. High-toxic chemical substances can fall in terrorist hands through wide range of sources. Potentially misused types of chemical compounds are discussed in this article.

  12. Chemical Oscillations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    behaviour of a few complex chemical systems. We observed that these chemical oscillators are basically .... Kutta fourth order integration method to solve the Lotka-. Volterra equation as per the Fortran program given in ... This is known as the phase plane represen- tation. We have obtained these plots using the software.

  13. Acute Oral Toxicity Up-And-Down-Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Up-and-Down Procedure is an alternative acute toxicity test that provides a way to determine the toxicity of chemicals with fewer test animals by using sequential dosing steps. Find out about this test procedure.

  14. Acute Pancreatitis in acute viral hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K.C.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The association of acute viral hepatitis and acute pancreatitis is well described. This study was conducted to find out the frequency of pancreatic involvement in acute viral hepatitis in the Nepalese population. Methods: Consecutive patients of acute viral hepatitis presenting with severe abdominal pain between January 2005 and April 2010 were studied. Patients with history of significant alcohol consumption and gall stones were excluded. Acute viral hepatitis was diagnosed by clinical examination, liver function test, ultrasound examination and confirmed by viral serology. Pancreatitis was diagnosed by clinical presentation, biochemistry, ultrasound examination and CT scan. Results: Severe abdominal pain was present in 38 of 382 serologically-confirmed acute viral hepatitis patients. Twenty five patients were diagnosed to have acute pancreatitis. The pancreatitis was mild in 14 and severe in 11 patients. The etiology of pancreatitis was hepatitis E virus in 18 and hepatitis A virus in 7 patients. Two patients died of complications secondary to shock. The remaining patients recovered from both pancreatitis and hepatitis on conservative treatment. Conclusions: Acute pancreatitis occurred in 6.5 % of patients with acute viral hepatitis. Cholelithiasis and gastric ulcers are the other causes of severe abdominal pain. The majority of the patients recover with conservative management. Keywords: acute viral hepatitis, acute pancreatitis, pain abdomen, hepatitis E, hepatitis A, endemic zone

  15. Flavor release measurement from gum model system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovejero-López, I.; Haahr, Anne-Mette; van den Berg, Frans W.J.

    2004-01-01

    Flavor release from a mint-flavored chewing gum model system was measured by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectroscopy (APCI-MS) and sensory time-intensity (TI). A data analysis method for handling the individual curves from both methods is presented. The APCI-MS data are ratio...... composition can be measured by both instrumental and sensory techniques, providing comparable information. The peppermint oil level (0.5-2% w/w) in the gum influenced both the retronasal concentration and the perceived peppermint flavor. The sweeteners' (sorbitol or xylitol) effect is less apparent. Sensory...

  16. The Industrial Toxics Project: Targeting chemicals for environmental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.M.

    1991-01-01

    In September, 1990, the Administrator of the US Environmental Protection Agency committed the Agency to a program of targeting chemicals for multi-media risk reduction activities through pollution prevention. The Industrial Toxics Project will place emphasis on obtaining voluntary commitments from industry to reduce releases of toxic chemicals to the air, water, and land with a goal of reducing releases nationwide by 33% by 1992 and 50% by 1995. An initial list of 18 chemicals have been selected based on recommendations from each Agency program. The chemicals selected are subject to reporting under the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Program which will provide the basis for tracking progress. The chemicals are characterized by high production volume, toxicity and releases and present the potential for significant risk reduction through pollution prevention. This presentation will discuss the focus and direction of this new initiative

  17. Proton resonance frequency chemical shift thermometry: experimental design and validation toward high-resolution noninvasive temperature monitoring and in vivo experience in a nonhuman primate model of acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehkharghani, S; Mao, H; Howell, L; Zhang, X; Pate, K S; Magrath, P R; Tong, F; Wei, L; Qiu, D; Fleischer, C; Oshinski, J N

    2015-06-01

    Applications for noninvasive biologic temperature monitoring are widespread in biomedicine and of particular interest in the context of brain temperature regulation, where traditionally costly and invasive monitoring schemes limit their applicability in many settings. Brain thermal regulation, therefore, remains controversial, motivating the development of noninvasive approaches such as temperature-sensitive nuclear MR phenomena. The purpose of this work was to compare the utility of competing approaches to MR thermometry by using proton resonance frequency chemical shift. We tested 3 methodologies, hypothesizing the feasibility of a fast and accurate approach to chemical shift thermometry, in a phantom study at 3T. A conventional, paired approach (difference [DIFF]-1), an accelerated single-scan approach (DIFF-2), and a new, further accelerated strategy (DIFF-3) were tested. Phantom temperatures were modulated during real-time fiber optic temperature monitoring, with MR thermometry derived simultaneously from temperature-sensitive changes in the water proton chemical shift (∼0.01 ppm/°C). MR thermometry was subsequently performed in a series of in vivo nonhuman primate experiments under physiologic and ischemic conditions, testing its reproducibility and overall performance. Chemical shift thermometry demonstrated excellent agreement with phantom temperatures for all 3 approaches (DIFF-1: linear regression R(2) = 0.994; P thermometry and present in vivo applications under physiologic and ischemic conditions in a primate stroke model. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  18. Hybridization and Selective Release of DNA Microarrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, N R; Baker, B; Piggott, T; Maberry, S; Hara, C M; DeOtte, J; Benett, W; Mukerjee, E; Dzenitis, J; Wheeler, E K

    2011-11-29

    DNA microarrays contain sequence specific probes arrayed in distinct spots numbering from 10,000 to over 1,000,000, depending on the platform. This tremendous degree of multiplexing gives microarrays great potential for environmental background sampling, broad-spectrum clinical monitoring, and continuous biological threat detection. In practice, their use in these applications is not common due to limited information content, long processing times, and high cost. The work focused on characterizing the phenomena of microarray hybridization and selective release that will allow these limitations to be addressed. This will revolutionize the ways that microarrays can be used for LLNL's Global Security missions. The goals of this project were two-fold: automated faster hybridizations and selective release of hybridized features. The first study area involves hybridization kinetics and mass-transfer effects. the standard hybridization protocol uses an overnight incubation to achieve the best possible signal for any sample type, as well as for convenience in manual processing. There is potential to significantly shorten this time based on better understanding and control of the rate-limiting processes and knowledge of the progress of the hybridization. In the hybridization work, a custom microarray flow cell was used to manipulate the chemical and thermal environment of the array and autonomously image the changes over time during hybridization. The second study area is selective release. Microarrays easily generate hybridization patterns and signatures, but there is still an unmet need for methodologies enabling rapid and selective analysis of these patterns and signatures. Detailed analysis of individual spots by subsequent sequencing could potentially yield significant information for rapidly mutating and emerging (or deliberately engineered) pathogens. In the selective release work, optical energy deposition with coherent light quickly provides the thermal energy

  19. Resveratrol immobilization and release in polymeric hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momesso, Roberta Grazzielli Ramos Alves Passarelli

    2010-01-01

    Resveratrol (3, 4', 5-trihydroxystilbene) is a polyphenolic produced by a wide variety of plants in response to injury and found predominantly in grape skins. This active ingredient has been shown to possess benefits for the health, such as the antioxidant capacity which is related to the prevention of several types of cancer and skin aging. However, the oral bioavailability of resveratrol is poor and makes its topical application interesting. The purpose of this study was to immobilize resveratrol in polymeric hydrogels to obtain a release device for topical use. The polymeric matrices composed of poli(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP), poly(ethyleneglycol) (PEG) and agar or PVP and glycerol irradiated at 20 kGy dose were physical-chemically characterized by gel fraction and swelling tests and its preliminary biocompatibility by in vitro test of cytotoxicity using the technique of neutral red uptake. Due to low solubility of resveratrol in water, the addition of 2% ethanol to the matrices was verified. All matrices showed a high crosslinking degree, capacity of swelling and the preliminary cytotoxicity test showed nontoxicity effect. The devices were obtained by resveratrol immobilization in polymeric matrices, carried out in a one-or-two-steps process, that is, before or after irradiation, respectively. The one step resveratrol devices were characterized by gel fraction, swelling tests and preliminary biocompatibility, and their properties were maintained even after the resveratrol incorporation. The devices containing 0,05% of resveratrol obtained by one-step process and 0,1% of resveratrol obtained by two-steps process were submitted to the release test during 24 h. Resveratrol quantification was done by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results obtained in the kinetics of release showed that only the devices obtained by two-step process release the resveratrol, which demonstrate antioxidant capacity after the release. (author)

  20. Chemical intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz; Andersson, Linus; Nordin, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Chemical intolerance (CI) is a term used to describe a condition in which the sufferer experiences a complex array of recurrent unspecific symptoms attributed to low-level chemical exposure that most people regard as unproblematic. Severe CI constitutes the distinguishing feature of multiple...... chemical sensitivity (MCS). The symptoms reported by CI subjects are manifold, involving symptoms from multiple organs systems. In severe cases of CI, the condition can cause considerable life-style limitations with severe social, occupational and economic consequences. As no diagnostic tools for CI...

  1. Acute otitis externa

    OpenAIRE

    Hui, Charles PS

    2013-01-01

    Acute otitis externa, also known as ‘swimmer’s ear’, is a common disease of children, adolescents and adults. While chronic suppurative otitis media or acute otitis media with tympanostomy tubes or a perforation can cause acute otitis externa, both the infecting organisms and management protocol are different. This practice point focuses solely on managing acute otitis externa, without acute otitis media, tympanostomy tubes or a perforation being present.

  2. Reactive chemicals and process hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surianarayanan, M.

    2016-01-01

    Exothermic chemical reactions are often accompanied by significant heat release, and therefore, need a thorough investigation before they are taken to a plant scale. Sudden thermal energy releases from exothermic decompositions and runaway reactions have contributed to serious fire and explosions in several chemical process plants. Similarly, thermal runaway had also occurred in storage and transportation of reactive chemicals. The secondary events of thermal runaway reactions can be rupture of process vessel, toxic spills and release of explosive vapor clouds or combination of these also. The explosion hazards are governed by the system thermodynamics and kinetics of the thermal process. Theoretical prediction of limiting temperature is difficult due to process complexities. Further, the kinetic data obtained through classical techniques, at conditions far away from runaway situation, is often not valid for assessing the runaway behavior of exothermic processes. The main focus of this lecture is to discuss the causes and several contributing factors for thermal runaway and instability and present analyses of the methodologies of the new instrumental techniques for assessing the thermal hazards of reactive chemicals during processing, storage and transportation. (author)

  3. Chemical Peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... complications in chemical peeling. Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery. 2010;3:186. Langsdon PR, et al. ... Discovery's Edge Magazine Search Publications Training Grant Positions Education Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science Mayo ...

  4. Chemical carcinogens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Searle, Charles E

    1976-01-01

    Cancer causing agents are now known to exist throughout the environment-in polluted air and tobacco smoke, in various plants and foods, and in many chemicals that are used in industry and laboratories...

  5. Comparing rankings of selected TRI organic chemicals for two environments using a level III fugacity model and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, F.G.; Egemen, E.; Nirmalakhandan, N.

    1998-01-01

    The Toxics Release Inventory, TRI (USEPA, 1995) is a comprehensive listing of chemicals, mass released, source of releases, and other related information for chemicals which are released into the environment in the US. These chemicals are then ranked according to the mass released as a indication of their environmental impact. Industries have been encouraged to adopt production methods to decrease the release of chemicals which are ranked highly in the TRI. Clearly, this ranking of the chemicals based upon the mass released fails to take into account very important environmental aspects. The first and most obvious aspect is the wide range of toxicity's of the chemicals released. Numerous researchers have proposed systems to rank chemicals according to their toxicity. The second aspect, which a mass released based ranking does not take into account, is the fate and transport of each chemical within the environment. Cohen and Ryan (1985) and Mackay and Paterson (1991) have proposed models to evaluate the fate and transport of chemicals released into the environment. Some authors have incorporated the mass released and toxicity with some fate and transport aspects to rank the impact of released chemicals. But, due to the complexities of modeling the environment, the lack of published data on properties of chemicals, and the lack of information on the speciation of chemicals in complex systems, modeling the fate and transport of toxic chemicals in the environment remains difficult. To provide an indication of the need to rank chemicals according to their environmental impact instead of the mass released, the authors have utilized a subset of 45 organic chemicals from the TRI, modeled the fate and transport of the chemicals using a Level III fugacity model, and compared those equilibrium concentrations with toxicity data to yield a hazard value for each chemical

  6. RIM genes differentially contribute to organizing presynaptic release sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeser, Pascal S; Deng, Lunbin; Fan, Mingming; Südhof, Thomas C

    2012-07-17

    Tight coupling of Ca(2+) channels to the presynaptic active zone is critical for fast synchronous neurotransmitter release. RIMs are multidomain proteins that tether Ca(2+) channels to active zones, dock and prime synaptic vesicles for release, and mediate presynaptic plasticity. Here, we use conditional knockout mice targeting all RIM isoforms expressed by the Rims1 and Rims2 genes to examine the contributions and mechanism of action of different RIMs in neurotransmitter release. We show that acute single deletions of each Rims gene decreased release and impaired vesicle priming but did not alter the extracellular Ca(2+)-responsiveness of release (which for Rims gene mutants is a measure of presynaptic Ca(2+) influx). Moreover, single deletions did not affect the synchronization of release (which depends on the close proximity of Ca(2+) channels to release sites). In contrast, deletion of both Rims genes severely impaired the Ca(2+) responsiveness and synchronization of release. RIM proteins may act on Ca(2+) channels in two modes: They tether Ca(2+) channels to active zones, and they directly modulate Ca(2+)-channel inactivation. The first mechanism is essential for localizing presynaptic Ca(2+) influx to nerve terminals, but the role of the second mechanism remains unknown. Strikingly, we find that although the RIM2 C(2)B domain by itself significantly decreased Ca(2+)-channel inactivation in transfected HEK293 cells, it did not rescue any aspect of the RIM knockout phenotype in cultured neurons. Thus, RIMs primarily act in release as physical Ca(2+)-channel tethers and not as Ca(2+)-channel modulators. Different RIM proteins compensate for each other in recruiting Ca(2+) channels to active zones, but contribute independently and incrementally to vesicle priming.

  7. Acute Pericarditis Following Acute Pulmonary Thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Akio; Aburadani, Isao; Kontani, Koichirou; Hirota, Satoshi

    2017-12-12

    We describe the case of a 45-year-old Japanese man who developed acute pericarditis following an acute pulmonary thromboembolism. He had developed shortness of breath 7 days prior to hospitalization and was admitted with severe dyspnea. Echocardiography and laboratory results were compatible with acute pulmonary thromboembolism, which was confirmed by contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography. On the third hospital day, he experienced chest pain exacerbated by inspiration. On the fourth hospital day, his body temperature increased to 39°C and echocardiography revealed circumferential pericardial effusion. A diagnosis of acute pericarditis was made and the patient was treated with colchicine and aspirin. On the fifth hospital day, his symptoms largely subsided. Auscultation revealed pericardial friction rub. Electrocardiography demonstrated diffuse ST-segment elevations. Twenty-four days later, computed tomography revealed the disappearance of both the pericardial effusion and pulmonary arterial emboli. This case was thought to be one of acute pericarditis following acute pulmonary thromboembolism.

  8. Proton Resonance Frequency Chemical Shift Thermometry: Experimental Design and Validation Towards High-Resolution Non-Invasive Temperature Monitoring, and in vivo Experience in a Non-human Primate Model of Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehkharghani, Seena; Mao, Hui; Howell, Leonard; Zhang, Xiaodong; Pate, K S; Magrath, P R; Tong, Frank; Wei, L; Qiu, D; Fleischer, C; Oshinski, J N

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Applications for non-invasive biological temperature monitoring are widespread in biomedicine, and of particular interest in the context of brain temperature regulation, where traditionally costly and invasive monitoring schemes limit their applicability in many settings. Brain thermal regulation therefore remains controversial, motivating the development of non-invasive approaches such as temperature-sensitive NMR phenomena. The purpose of this work was to compare the utility of competing approaches to MR thermometry (MRT) employing proton resonance frequency chemical shift. Three methodologies were tested, hypothesizing the feasibility of a fast and accurate approach to chemical shift thermometry, in a phantom study at 3.0 Tesla. MATERIALS AND METHODS A conventional, paired approach (DIFF-1), an accelerated single-scan approach (DIFF-2), and a new, further accelerated strategy (DIFF-3) were tested. Phantom temperatures were modulated during real-time fiber optic temperature monitoring, with MRT derived simultaneously from temperature-sensitive changes in the water proton chemical shift (~0.01 ppm/°C). MRT was subsequently performed in a series of in vivo non-human primate experiments under physiologic and ischemic conditions testing its reproducibility and overall performance. RESULTS Chemical shift thermometry demonstrated excellent agreement with phantom temperatures for all three approaches (DIFF-1 linear regression R2=0.994, p<0.001, acquisition time 4 min 40 s; DIFF-2 R2=0.996, p<0.001, acquisition time 4 min; DIFF-3 R2=0.998, p<0.001, acquisition time 40 s). CONCLUSION These findings confirm the comparability in performance of three competing approaches MRT, and present in vivo applications under physiologic and ischemic conditions in a primate stroke model. PMID:25655874

  9. Modulation of vesicular catecholamine release from rat PC12 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerink, R.H.S.

    2002-01-01

    Intercellular communication is of vital importance for the nervous system, since the nervous system is the main coordinating system in animals. Nerve cell communication is initiated by the release of chemical messengers, neurotransmitters, from the presynaptic nerve cell. The neurotransmitters, such

  10. THE RAVE CATALOG OF STELLAR ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCES: FIRST DATA RELEASE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeche, C.; Williams, M.; De Jong, R. S.; Steinmetz, M.; Siebert, A.; Bienaymé, O.; Fulbright, J. P.; Ruchti, G. R.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Campbell, R.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G. M.

    2011-01-01

    We present chemical elemental abundances for 36,561 stars observed by the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE), an ambitious spectroscopic survey of our Galaxy at Galactic latitudes |b| > 25° and with magnitudes in the range 9 DENIS 2 minimization technique. We plan to extend this pipeline to include estimates for other elements, such as oxygen and sulfur, in future data releases.

  11. Fission product release from fuel under LWR accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, M.F.; Lorenz, R.A.; Norwood, K.S.; Collins, J.L.; Wichner, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    Three tests have provided additional data on fission product release under LWR accident conditions in a temperature range (1400 to 2000 0 C). In the release rate data are compared with curves from a recent NRC-sponsored review of available fission product release data. Although the iodine release in test HI-3 was inexplicably low, the other data points for Kr, I, and Cs fall reasonably close to the corresponding curve, thereby tending to verify the NRC review. The limited data for antimony and silver release fall below the curves. Results of spark source mass spectrometric analyses were in agreement with the gamma spectrometric results. Nonradioactive fission products such as Rb and Br appeared to behave like their chemical analogs Cs and I. Results suggest that Te, Ag, Sn, and Sb are released from the fuel in elemental form. Analysis of the cesium and iodine profiles in the thermal gradient tube indicates that iodine was deposited as CsT along with some other less volatile cesium compound. The cesium profiles and chemical reactivity indicate the presence of more than one cesium species

  12. COMMERCIAL SNF ACCIDENT RELEASE FRACTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.O. Bader

    1999-10-18

    The purpose of this design analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that are released from an accident event at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions will be used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the MGR. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total CSNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. The radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses. This subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Potential accidents may involve waste forms that are characterized as either bare (unconfined) fuel assemblies or confined fuel assemblies. The confined CSNF assemblies at the MGR are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or disposal containers (waste packages). In contrast to the bare fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies has the potential of providing an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. However, this analysis will not take credit for this additional bamer and will establish only the total release fractions for bare unconfined CSNF assemblies, which may however be

  13. Endurance training enhances BDNF release from the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Thomas; Brassard, Patrice; Wissenberg, Mads

    2010-01-01

    The circulating level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is reduced in patients with major depression and type-2 diabetes. Because acute exercise increases BDNF production in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, we hypothesized that endurance training would enhance the release of BDNF from...... the human brain as detected from arterial and internal jugular venous blood samples. In a randomized controlled study, 12 healthy sedentary males carried out 3 mo of endurance training (n = 7) or served as controls (n = 5). Before and after the intervention, blood samples were obtained at rest and during...... exercise. At baseline, the training group (58 + or - 106 ng x 100 g(-1) x min(-1), means + or - SD) and the control group (12 + or - 17 ng x 100 g(-1) x min(-1)) had a similar release of BDNF from the brain at rest. Three months of endurance training enhanced the resting release of BDNF to 206 + or - 108...

  14. Underground water stress release models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Dang, Shenjun; Lü, Shaochuan

    2011-08-01

    The accumulation of tectonic stress may cause earthquakes at some epochs. However, in most cases, it leads to crustal deformations. Underground water level is a sensitive indication of the crustal deformations. We incorporate the information of the underground water level into the stress release models (SRM), and obtain the underground water stress release model (USRM). We apply USRM to the earthquakes occurred at Tangshan region. The analysis shows that the underground water stress release model outperforms both Poisson model and stress release model. Monte Carlo simulation shows that the simulated seismicity by USRM is very close to the real seismicity.

  15. Cobalt release from inexpensive jewellery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Menné, Torkil

    2010-01-01

    . Conclusions: This study showed that only a minority of inexpensive jewellery purchased in Denmark released cobalt when analysed with the cobalt spot test. As fashion trends fluctuate and we found cobalt release from dark appearing jewellery, cobalt release from consumer items should be monitored in the future....... Microstructural characterization was made using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Results: Cobalt release was found in 4 (1.1%) of 354 items. All these had a dark appearance. SEM/EDS was performed on the four dark appearing items which showed tin-cobalt plating on these...

  16. Intramuscular extended-release naltrexone: current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastfriend, David R

    2011-01-01

    Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX; Vivitrol), developed to address poor adherence in addictive disorders, is approved for use in alcohol and opioid-dependence disorders. In alcohol-dependent adults with ≥ 4-day initial abstinence, XR-NTX increased initial and 6-month abstinence. An fMRI study found that XR-NTX attenuated the salience of alcohol visual and olfactory cues in the absence of alcohol, and post hoc analyses demonstrated efficacy even during high cue-exposure holiday periods. Safety and tolerability have generally been good, without adverse hepatic impact or intractable acute pain management. XR-NTX use appears feasible in primary care and public systems, and retrospective claims analyses have found cost savings and decreased intensive service utilization relative to oral agents. In opioid dependence, following detoxification, XR-NTX shows efficacy for maintaining abstinence, improving retention, decreasing craving, and preventing relapse. Trials are also exploring its use for the treatment of stimulant dependence. XR-NTX appears compatible with counseling and self-help attendance. While more research is needed, current findings suggest that a formulation of naltrexone that was sought beginning over three decades ago is fulfilling its promise as an extended-release pharmacotherapeutic. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  17. The Relationship between Toxics Release Inventory Discharges and Mortality Rates in Rural and Urban Areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Potential environmental exposures from chemical manufacturing or industrial sites have not been well studied for rural populations. The current study examines whether chemical releases from facilities monitored through the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) program are associated with population mortality rates for both rural and urban…

  18. Flash release - an alternative for releasing complex mems devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deladi, S.; Svetovoy, Vitaly; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2004-01-01

    A novel time-saving and cost-effective release technique has been developed and is described. The physical nature of the process is explained in combination with experimental observations. The results of the flash release process are compared with those of freeze-drying and supercritical CO2

  19. Flash release an alternative for releasing complex MEMS devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deladi, S.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2004-01-01

    A novel time-saving and cost-effective release technique has been developed and is described. The physical nature of the process is explained in combination with experimental observations. The results of the flash release process are compared with those of freeze-drying and supercritical CO2

  20. Chemical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, C.W.; Gordon, R.L.

    1987-05-01

    The revolution in analytical chemistry promised by recent developments in the field of chemical sensors has potential for significant positive impact on both research and production activities conducted by and for the Department of Energy. Analyses which were, in the past, performed only with a roomful of expensive equipment can now be performed with miniature solid-state electronic devices or small optical probes. Progress in the development of chemical sensors has been rapid, and the field is currently growing at a great rate. In accordance, Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a survey of recent literature so that contributors to active programs in research on analytical methods could be made aware of principles and applications of this new technology. This report presents the results of that survey. The sensors discussed here are divided into three types: micro solid-state devices, optical sensors, and piezoelectric crystal devices. The report is divided into three corresponding sections. The first section, ''Micro Solid-State Devices,'' discusses the design, operation, and application of electronic sensors that are produced in much the same way as standard solid-state electronic devices. The second section, ''Optrodes,'' covers the design and operation of chemical sensors that use fiber optics to detect chemically induced changes in optical properties. The final section, ''Piezoelectric Crystal Detectors,'' discusses two types of chemical sensors that depend on the changes in the properties of an oscillating piezoelectric crystal to detect the presence of certain materials. Advantages and disadvantages of each type of sensor are summarized in each section

  1. Pentoxifylline Treatment in Acute Pancreatitis (AP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-21

    Acute Pancreatitis (AP); Gallstone Pancreatitis; Alcoholic Pancreatitis; Post-ERCP/Post-procedural Pancreatitis; Trauma Acute Pancreatitis; Hypertriglyceridemia Acute Pancreatitis; Idiopathic (Unknown) Acute Pancreatitis; Medication Induced Acute Pancreatitis; Cancer Acute Pancreatitis; Miscellaneous (i.e. Acute on Chronic Pancreatitis)

  2. Development of controlled release spheroids using Buchananiacochinchinesis gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Babulal Gaikwad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Chirauli nut gum was isolated from the bark of Buchanania cochinchinesis (fam. Anacadiacea and was used as a release modifier for the preparation of Diclofenac sodium spheroids using the extrusion spheronization technique. The process was studied for the effects on variables when making spheroids with satisfactory particle shape, size and size distribution. The prepared spheroids were characterized for surface morphology, qualitative surface porosity, friability, bulk density and flow properties. In vitro studies demonstrated that the release exhibited Fickian diffusion kinetics which was confirmed by the Higuchi and the Korsmeyer-Peppas models. The physico-chemical parameters of the gum could be correlated to the in vitro dissolution profile of the spheroids. The spheroids were not able to sustain the drug releases over 12 hours. A greater concentration of Chirauli nut gum and a process that can accommodate such greater concentrations may produce a formulation capable of significant sustained release.

  3. Effects of bleaching on mercury ion release from dental amalgam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salehi, S K

    2009-03-01

    The chemical reactions that take place at the amalgam surface when exposed to bleaching agents are not well-understood. It is known, however, that mercury ions are released from dental amalgam when bleached. We hypothesized that increasing concentrations of hydrogen peroxide are more effective than water at increasing mercury ion release from dental amalgam. We prepared dental amalgam discs (n = 65) by packing amalgam into cylindrical plastic molds and divided them into 13 equal groups of 5 discs each. The discs in each group were individually immersed in either 0%, 3.6%, 6%, or 30% (w/v) hydrogen peroxide at exposure periods of 1, 8, 48, and 168 hrs. Samples were taken for mercury ion release determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. There were significant increases in mercury release between control and all other hydrogen peroxide concentrations at all exposure times (p < 0.05).

  4. Fission product release from fuel of water-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strupczewski, A.; Marks, P.; Klisinska, M.

    1997-01-01

    The report contains a review of theoretical models and experimental works of gaseous and volatile fission products from uranium dioxide fuel. The experimental results of activity release at low burnup and the model of fission gas behaviour at initial stage of fuel operational cycle are presented. Empirical models as well as measured results of transient fission products release rate in the temperature up to UO 2 melting point, with consideration of their chemical reactions with fuel and cladding, are collected. The theoretical and experimental data were used for calculations of gaseous and volatile fission products release, especially iodine and caesium, to the gas volume of WWER-1000 and WWER-440 type fuel rods at low and high burnup and their further release from defected rods at the assumed loss-of-coolant accident. (author)

  5. Chemical activity of cholesterol in membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, A; McConnell, H M

    2000-07-18

    Measurements are reported for the rate constants for the release of cholesterol (and dihydrocholesterol) to beta-cyclodextrin from mixtures with phospholipids in homogeneous monolayers at constant pressure at the air-water interface. In each mixture, it is found that the release rate shows a sharp decrease as the cholesterol concentration in the monolayer decreases through a composition corresponding to the stoichiometry of a cholesterol-phospholipid complex. The stoichiometry of the complex was established previously by the position of a sharp cusp in the thermodynamic phase diagram of each mixture and also by a minimum in average molecular area versus composition measurements. A theoretical model used earlier to account for the phase diagrams predicts the chemical potential and chemical activity of cholesterol in these mixtures. The calculated chemical activity also shows a sharp change at the complex stoichiometry in homogeneous monolayers. The similarities in change of observed release rate and calculated chemical activity are expected from reaction rate theory where the release rate is proportional to the cholesterol chemical activity. The chemical activity of cholesterol as determined by complex formation between some phospholipids and cholesterol in the plasma membrane of cells may serve a regulatory function with respect to intracellular cholesterol transport and biosynthesis.

  6. Shell Chemical LP To Install $10 Million In Pollution Monitoring And Control Equipment At Norco Chemical Facility In Louisiana To Resolve Alleged Federal And State Clean Air Violations

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA News Release: Shell Chemical LP To Install $10 Million In Pollution Monitoring And Control Equipment At Norco Chemical Facility In Louisiana To Resolve Alleged Federal And State Clean Air Violations

  7. Emergency planning and the Control of Major Accident Hazards (COMAH/Seveso II) Directive: An approach to determine the public safety zone for toxic cloud releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Mahony, Mary T.; Doolan, Donal; O'Sullivan, Alice; Hession, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The EU Control of Major Accidents Hazards Directive (Seveso II) requires an external emergency plan for each top tier site. This paper sets out a method to build the protection of public health into emergency planning for Seveso sites in the EU. The method involves the review of Seveso site details prescribed under the directive. The site safety report sets out the potential accident scenarios. The safety report's worst-case scenario, and chemical involved, is used as the basis for the external emergency plan. A decision was needed on the appropriate threshold value to use as the level of concern to protect public health. The definitions of the regulatory standards (air quality standards and occupational standards) in use were studied, how they are derived and for what purpose. The 10 min acute exposure guideline level (AEGL) for a chemical is recommended as the threshold value to inform decisions taken to protect public health from toxic cloud releases. The area delimited by AEGL 1 defines the population who may be concerned about being exposed. They need information based on comprehensive risk assessment. The area delimited by AEGL 2 defines the population for long-term surveillance when indicated and may include first responders. The area delimited by AEGL 3 defines the population who may present acutely to the medical services. It ensures that the emergency responders site themselves safely. A standard methodology facilitates discussions with plant operators and concerned public. Examples show how the methodology can be adapted to suit explosive risk and response to fire

  8. Emergency planning and the Control of Major Accident Hazards (COMAH/Seveso II) Directive: an approach to determine the public safety zone for toxic cloud releases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, Mary T; Doolan, Donal; O'Sullivan, Alice; Hession, Michael

    2008-06-15

    The EU Control of Major Accidents Hazards Directive (Seveso II) requires an external emergency plan for each top tier site. This paper sets out a method to build the protection of public health into emergency planning for Seveso sites in the EU. The method involves the review of Seveso site details prescribed under the directive. The site safety report sets out the potential accident scenarios. The safety report's worst-case scenario, and chemical involved, is used as the basis for the external emergency plan. A decision was needed on the appropriate threshold value to use as the level of concern to protect public health. The definitions of the regulatory standards (air quality standards and occupational standards) in use were studied, how they are derived and for what purpose. The 10 min acute exposure guideline level (AEGL) for a chemical is recommended as the threshold value to inform decisions taken to protect public health from toxic cloud releases. The area delimited by AEGL 1 defines the population who may be concerned about being exposed. They need information based on comprehensive risk assessment. The area delimited by AEGL 2 defines the population for long-term surveillance when indicated and may include first responders. The area delimited by AEGL 3 defines the population who may present acutely to the medical services. It ensures that the emergency responders site themselves safely. A standard methodology facilitates discussions with plant operators and concerned public. Examples show how the methodology can be adapted to suit explosive risk and response to fire.

  9. Acute stress may induce ovulation in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cano Antonio

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to gather information either supporting or rejecting the hypothesis that acute stress may induce ovulation in women. The formulation of this hypothesis is based on 2 facts: 1 estrogen-primed postmenopausal or ovariectomized women display an adrenal-progesterone-induced ovulatory-like luteinizing hormone (LH surge in response to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH administration; and 2 women display multiple follicular waves during an interovulatory interval, and likely during pregnancy and lactation. Thus, acute stress may induce ovulation in women displaying appropriate serum levels of estradiol and one or more follicles large enough to respond to a non-midcycle LH surge. Methods A literature search using the PubMed database was performed to identify articles up to January 2010 focusing mainly on women as well as on rats and rhesus monkeys as animal models of interaction between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axes. Results Whereas the HPA axis exhibits positive responses in practically all phases of the ovarian cycle, acute-stress-induced release of LH is found under relatively high plasma levels of estradiol. However, there are studies suggesting that several types of acute stress may exert different effects on pituitary LH release and the steroid environment may modulate in a different way (inhibiting or stimulating the pattern of response of the HPG axis elicited by acute stressors. Conclusion Women may be induced to ovulate at any point of the menstrual cycle or even during periods of amenorrhea associated with pregnancy and lactation if exposed to an appropriate acute stressor under a right estradiol environment.

  10. Noninvasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mas A

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Arantxa Mas, Josep MasipCritical Care Department, Consorci Sanitari Integral (CSI, Hospital Sant Joan Despí Moisès Broggi and Hospital General de l’Hospitalet, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: After the institution of positive-pressure ventilation, the use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV through an interface substantially increased. The first technique was continuous positive airway pressure; but, after the introduction of pressure support ventilation at the end of the 20th century, this became the main modality. Both techniques, and some others that have been recently introduced and which integrate some technological innovations, have extensively demonstrated a faster improvement of acute respiratory failure in different patient populations, avoiding endotracheal intubation and facilitating the release of conventional invasive mechanical ventilation. In acute settings, NIV is currently the first-line treatment for moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation as well as for acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema and should be considered in immunocompromised patients with acute respiratory insufficiency, in difficult weaning, and in the prevention of postextubation failure. Alternatively, it can also be used in the postoperative period and in cases of pneumonia and asthma or as a palliative treatment. NIV is currently used in a wide range of acute settings, such as critical care and emergency departments, hospital wards, palliative or pediatric units, and in pre-hospital care. It is also used as a home care therapy in patients with chronic pulmonary or sleep disorders. The appropriate selection of patients and the adaptation to the technique are the keys to success. This review essentially analyzes the evidence of benefits of NIV in different populations with acute respiratory failure and describes the main modalities, new devices, and some practical aspects of the use of this technique. Keywords

  11. Dry release of suspended nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsén, Esko Sebastian; Davis, Zachary James; Dong, M.

    2004-01-01

    A dry release method for fabrication of suspended nanostructures is presented. The technique has been combined with an anti-stiction treatment for fabrication of nanocantilever based nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). The process combines a dry release method, using a supporting layer of photo...

  12. Press Oil Final Release Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicker, Jeffrey Jay [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ruedig, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-11

    There are forty-eight 55 gallon barrels filled with hydraulic oil that are candidates for release and recycle. This oil needs to be characterized prior to release. Principles of sampling as provided in MARSAME/MARSSIM approaches were used as guidance for sampling.

  13. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) Facility Points, Region 9, 2011, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A federal law called the Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act (EPCRA) gives the public the right to know about toxic chemicals being released into the...

  14. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) Facility Points, Region 9, 2014, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A federal law called the Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act (EPCRA) gives the public the right to know about toxic chemicals being released into the...

  15. Fact Sheet: Clean Air Act Section 112(r): Accidental Release Prevention / Risk Management Plan Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is required to publish regulations and guidance for chemical accident prevention at facilities that pose the greatest risk of harm from accidental releases of regulated flammable and toxic substances above threshold quantities.

  16. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) Facility Points, Region 9, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A federal law called the Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act (EPCRA) gives the public the right to know about toxic chemicals being released into the...

  17. Behavior of fission products released from severely damaged fuel during the PBF severe fuel damage tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osetek, D.J.; Cronenberg, A.W.; Hagrman, D.L.; Broughton, J.M.; Rest, J.

    1984-01-01

    The results of fission product release behavior during the first two Power Burst Facility Severe Fuel Damage tests are presented. Measured fission product release is compared with calculated release using temperature dependent release rate correlations and FASTGRASS analysis. The test results indicate that release from fuel of the high volatility fission products (Xe, Kr, I, Cs, and Te) is strongly influenced by parameters other than fuel temperature; namely fuel/fission product morphology, fuel and cladding oxidation state, extent of fuel liquefaction, and quench induced fuel shattering. Fission product transport from the test fuel through the sample system was strongly influenced by chemical effects. Holdup of I and Cs was affected by fission product chemistry, and transport time while Te release was primarily influenced by the extent of zircaloy oxidation. Analysis demonstrates that such integral test data can be used to confirm physical, chemical, and mechanistic models of fission product behavior for severe accident conditions

  18. The hazard to man of accidental releases of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brearley, I.R.

    1985-03-01

    Some aspects of the atmospheric dispersion of tritium are discussed, followed by consideration of the dosimetric pathways. In order to assess the significance of a tritium release the doses from various pathways are estimated and compared with the doses estimated from a similar release of iodine-131. The major hazard from tritium is the ingestion of contaminated food products. For similar releases of tritium and I 131 the ingestion hazard can be comparable if the release occurs near and before the end of the harvest season. However, in the tritium release case the agricultural season influences the consequences markedly and, at other times during the year, the ingestion hazard from tritium may be approximately 20 times less. The dose from inhalation of tritium is sensitive to its chemical form and for similar releases of tritiated water and tritium gas then the dose from tritiated water is approximately 10 4 greater than the dose from tritium gas. For similar releases of tritiated water and iodine-131 then a comparison of the inhalation shows that the dose from the iodine is approximately 300 times greater. (author)

  19. Stimuli-Responsive Materials for Controlled Release Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Song

    2015-04-01

    The controlled release of therapeutics has been one of the major challenges for scientists and engineers during the past three decades. To address this outstanding problem, the design and fabrication of stimuli-responsive materials are pursued to guarantee the controlled release of cargo at a specific time and with an accurate amount. Upon applying different stimuli such as light, magnetic field, heat, pH change, enzymes or redox, functional materials change their physicochemical properties through physical transformation or chemical reactions, allowing the release of payload agents on demand. This dissertation studied three stimuli-responsive membrane systems for controlled release from films of macro sizes to microcapsules of nano sizes. The first membrane system is a polymeric composite film which can decrease and sustain diffusion upon light irradiation. The photo-response of membranes is based on the photoreaction of cinnamic derivatives. The second one is composite membrane which can improve diffusion upon heating. The thermo-response of membranes comes from the volume phase transition ability of hydrogels. The third one is microcapsule which can release encapsulated agents upon light irradiation. The photo-response of capsules results from the photoreaction of nitrobenzyl derivatives. The study on these membrane systems reveals that stimuli-responsive release can be achieved by utilizing different functional materials on either macro or micro level. Based on the abundant family of smart materials, designing and fabricating stimuli-responsive systems shall lead to various advanced release processes on demand for biomedical applications.

  20. chemical properties.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    been recognised 't still appears to be the cheapest means of land clearing to which an acceptable alternative has not been found. The study looked into burning the bush'at different time alter slashing. The effects of the time difference on the soil chemical properties were then invcstigatcd. Burning the bush increased the soil ...

  1. Chemical Oscillations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The law of mass-action led chemists to the belief that reactions approach equilibrium steadily. So the discovery of chemical oscillations came as a surprise. Now chemists are very familiar with reactions that oscillate in time and/or space. Experimental and theoretical studies of such reac- tions showing temporal and spatial ...

  2. Acute mastoiditis in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthonsen, Kristian; Høstmark, Karianne; Hansen, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Conservative treatment of acute otitis media may lead to more complications. This study evaluates changes in incidence, the clinical and microbiological findings, the complications and the outcome of acute mastoiditis in children in a country employing conservative guidelines in treating acute...

  3. AcuTable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dibbern, Simon; Rasmussen, Kasper Vestergaard; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we describe AcuTable, a new tangible user interface. AcuTable is a shapeable surface that employs capacitive touch sensors. The goal of AcuTable was to enable the exploration of the capabilities of such haptic interface and its applications. We describe its design and implementation...

  4. The Temperature Condition of the Plate with Temperature-Dependent Thermal Conductivity and Energy Release

    OpenAIRE

    V. S. Zarubin; A. V. Kotovich; G. N. Kuvyrkin

    2016-01-01

    The temperature state of a solid body, in addition to the conditions of its heat exchange with the environment, can greatly depend on the heat release (or heat absorption) processes within the body volume. Among the possible causes of these processes should be noted such as a power release in the fuel elements of nuclear reactors, exothermic or endothermic chemical reactions in the solid body material, which respectively involve heat release or absorbtion, heat transfer of a part of the elect...

  5. The Impact of Pollution Prevention on Toxic Environmental Releases from U.S. Manufacturing Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranson, Matthew; Cox, Brendan; Keenan, Cheryl; Teitelbaum, Daniel

    2015-11-03

    Between 1991 and 2012, the facilities that reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) Program conducted 370,000 source reduction projects. We use this data set to conduct the first quasi-experimental retrospective evaluation of how implementing a source reduction (pollution prevention) project affects the quantity of toxic chemicals released to the environment by an average industrial facility. We use a differences-in-differences methodology, which measures how implementing a source reduction project affects a facility's releases of targeted chemicals, relative to releases of (a) other untargeted chemicals from the same facility, or (b) the same chemical from other facilities in the same industry. We find that the average source reduction project causes a 9-16% decrease in releases of targeted chemicals in the year of implementation. Source reduction techniques vary in effectiveness: for example, raw material modification causes a large decrease in releases, while inventory control has no detectable effect. Our analysis suggests that in aggregate, the source reduction projects carried out in the U.S. since 1991 have prevented between 5 and 14 billion pounds of toxic releases.

  6. Structural analysis of N- and O-glycans released from glycoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Hønnerup; Karlsson, Niclas G; Kolarich, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    released by PNGase F, isolated and reduced. Subsequently, O-glycans are chemically released from the same protein spot by reductive β-elimination. After desalting with cation exchange microcolumns, the glycans are separated and analyzed by porous graphitized carbon liquid chromatography...

  7. Controlled Release Formulations of Auxinic Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Witold J.; Siłowiecki, Andrzej.; Romanowska, Iwona; Glazek, Mariola; Bajor, Justyna; Cieciwa, Katarzyna; Rychter, Piotr

    2013-04-01

    Controlled release formulations are applied extensively for the release of active ingredients such as plant protection agents and fertilizers in response to growing concern for ecological problems associated with increased use of plant protection chemicals required for intensive agricultural practices [1]. We synthesized oligomeric mixtures of (R,S)-3-hydroxy butyric acid chemically bonded with 2,4-D, Dicamba and MCPA herbicides (HBA) respectively, and determined their molecular structure and molecular weight dispersion by the size exclusion chromatography, proton magnetic resonance spectrometry and electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry. Further we carried out bioassays of herbicidal effectiveness of the HBA herbicides vs. series of dicotyledonous weeds and crop injury tests [2, 3, 4]. Field bioassays were accomplished according to the EPPO standards [5]. Groups of representative weeds (the development stages in the BCCH scale: 10 - 30) were selected as targets. Statistical variabilities were assessed by the Fisher LSD test for plants treated with the studied herbicides in form of HBA oligomers, the reference herbicides in form of dimethyl ammonium salts (DMA), and untreated plants. No statistically significant differences in the crop injuries caused by the HBA vs. the DMA reference formulation were observed. The effectiveness of the HBA herbicides was lower through the initial period (ca. 2 weeks) relative to the DMA salts, but a significant increase in the effectiveness of the HBA systems followed during the remaining fraction of each assay. After 6 weeks all observed efficiencies approached 100%. The death of weeds treated with the HBA herbicides was delayed when compared with the DMA reference herbicides. The delayed uptake observed for the HBA oligomers relative to the DMA salts was due to controlled release phenomena. In case of the DMA salts the total amount of active ingredients was available at the target site. By contrast, the amount of an active

  8. Differential effects of acute and repeated electrically and chemically induced seizures on ( sup 3 H)Nimodipine and ( sup 125 I)omega-conotoxin GVIA binding in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleiter, C.H.; Cain, C.J.; Weiss, S.R.; Post, R.M.; Marangos, P.J. (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1989-07-01

    ({sup 3}H)Nimodipine and high-affinity ({sup 125}I)omega-conotoxin GVIA (CgTX) binding were investigated in membranes from rat cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and hippocampus after electrically and chemically induced seizures. Animals were decapitated 30 min after a single electroconvulsive shock (ECS) or lidocaine-induced seizure and 24 h after the last of 10 once-daily ECS or six once-daily lidocaine-induced seizures. After a single ECS, ({sup 3}H)nimodipine and ({sup 125}I)CgTX binding sites decreased in cerebral cortex (by 10% and 17%, respectively). A downregulation of ({sup 3}H)nimodipine binding sites in hippocampus occurred after single and repeated lidocaine-induced seizures (by 24% and 11%, respectively), whereas ({sup 125}I)CgTX binding remained unaltered. An earlier report on changes in ({sup 3}H)nitrendipine binding after chronic ECS in cortex and hippocampus was not confirmed.

  9. Environmental effects of acute oil spills. Marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moe, K.A.; Lystad, E.; Nesse, S.; Selvik, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Biological effects as result of acute oil spill pollution may be considered as a product of: the existing biophysical conditions; occurrence and appearance of organisms in time and space; the fate of the oil in time and space; the vulnerability of the various organisms for oil and oil derivatives in a three-dimensional perspective. In general, it seems as every individual oil spill has its own nature and dynamics, inter alia because the physical, chemical and biological conditions never are the same. This means that the properties of the recipients often are more important than the amount of oil that is spilled. This may be exemplified by two oil spills in recent time. Exxon Valdez (1989), where 35000 ton oil were released in a partly closed sea area, caused considerable effects. From Braer (1993) the double amount of oil was spilled, but in an open sea area and at a time where the presence of dense concentrations of environmental components was limited, and the physical conditions favorable with respect to evaporation and dilution. Preliminary results show that the environmental effects were very limited. 311 refs., 32 figs., 10 tabs

  10. Improvement of waste release control in French NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samson, T.; Lucquin, E.; Dupin, M. [EDF/GDL (France); Florence, D. [EDF/GENV (France); Grisot, M. [EDF/CNPE Saint Laurent (France)

    2002-07-01

    The new waste release control in French NPP is more restrictive than the old one and needs heavy investment to bring plants to compliance with it. The great evolutions are a chemical follow up on more chemicals with a higher measurement frequency and with lower maximum concentrations and a specific measurement of carbon 14. Regarding radioactive releases, a new counting has been settled and activity of carbon 14 release is now measured and no longer calculated. The evolution of the French regulation leads to develop specific procedures and analytical techniques in chemistry and in radiochemistry (UV spectrometric methods, carbon 14 measurements,..) EDF NPP operators have launched a voluntarist process to reduce their releases since the beginning and before the evolution of the regulation. EDF priorities in terms of environment care lead henceforth to implement a global optimisation of the impact for a better control of releases. The new regulation will help EDF to reach its goals because it covers all the aspects in one administrative document: it is seen as a real simplification and a clarification towards public. In addition, this new regulation fits in with international practices which will allow an easier comparison of results between EDF and foreign NPP. These big environmental concerns lead EDF to create a national dedicated laboratory (LAMEN) in charge of developing specific measurement procedures to be implemented either by NPP or by sub-contractor laboratories. (authors)

  11. Factors controlling alkali salt deposition in recovery boilers. Release mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeough, P.; Kurkela, M.; Kylloenen, H.; Tapola, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Process Technology Group

    1997-10-01

    The research was part of an ongoing cooperative research effort aimed at developing a model to describe the behaviour of inorganic compounds in kraft recovery boilers. During 1996 experimental investigations of sulphur release were continued. Experiments at elevated pressures and employing larger particle sizes were performed in order to gain information about mass transfer effects. The first experiments yielding data on the rates of the sulphur-release reactions were performed. This data will be used as the basis of a drop model for sulphur release being developed in cooperation with another research group. The other part of the work during 1996 explored the possibility of using chemical equilibrium calculations to predict the release of sodium, potassium and chlorine in the recovery furnace. The approach is essentially different from that employed in earlier studies in that the effects of fume formation are taken into account. So far, the predictions of the chemical equilibrium release model have, in no way, conflicted with field measurements. (orig.)

  12. Imaging of Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoeni, Ruedi F

    2015-11-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammation of the pancreas. Several classification systems have been used in the past but were considered unsatisfactory. A revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis was published that assessed the clinical course and severity of disease; divided acute pancreatitis into interstitial edematous pancreatitis and necrotizing pancreatitis; discerned an early phase (first week) from a late phase (after the first week); and focused on systemic inflammatory response syndrome and organ failure. This article focuses on the revised classification of acute pancreatitis, with emphasis on imaging features, particularly on newly-termed fluid collections and implications for the radiologist. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute cor pulmonale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, François; Vieillard-Baron, Antoine

    2009-02-01

    Acute cor pulmonale is a form of acute right heart failure produced by a sudden increase in resistance to blood flow in the pulmonary circulation, which is now rapidly recognized by bedside echocardiography. In the clinical setting, acute cor pulmonale is mainly observed as a complication of massive pulmonary embolism or acute respiratory distress syndrome. In acute respiratory distress syndrome, the worsening effect of mechanical ventilation has been recently emphasized. As a general rule, the treatment consists in rapidly reducing resistance to blood flow in the pulmonary circulation, obtained by a specific strategy according to etiology.

  14. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  15. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M andO 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  16. Biological treatment options for consolidated tailings release waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunter, C.P.; Nix, P.G.; Sander, B. [EVS Environment Consultants, North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Knezevic, Z.

    1995-12-31

    Suncor Inc., Oil Sands Group, operates a large oil sands mining and extraction operation in northeastern Alberta. The extraction plant produces large volumes of a tailings slurry which resists dewatering and treatment, and is toxic to aquatic organisms. Consolidated tailings (CT) technology is used to treat tailings by either acid/lime or gypsum and enhances the possibility of treating residual fine tails in a ``dry`` land reclamation scenario and treating the release water in a wastewater treatment reclamation scenario. The objective was to assess the treatability of CT release water (i.e., the reduction of acute and chronic toxicities to trout, Ceriodaphnia, and bacteria) in bench-scale biological treatment systems. Microtox{reg_sign} IC20 test showed complete detoxification for the gypsum CT release water within 3 to 5 weeks compared with little reduction in toxicity for dyke drainage. Acute toxicity (fish) and chronic toxicity (Ceriodaphnia, bacterial) was removed from both CT release waters. Phosphate and aeration enhanced detoxification rates. Concentrations of naphthenic acids (an organic toxicant) were not reduced, but levels of dissolved organic compounds decreased faster than was the case for dyke drainage water, indicating that some of the organic compounds in both acid/lime and gypsum CT waters were more biodegradable. There was a pattern of increasing toxicity for dyke drainage water which confirmed observations during field-scale testing in the constructed wetlands and which was not observed for CT release waters. Acid/lime and gypsum CT water can be treated biologically in either an aeration pond, constructed wetlands, or a combination of both thereby avoiding the expense of long-term storage and/or conventional waste treatment systems.

  17. Tritium and helium retention and release from irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, R.A.; Longhurst, G.R.; Oates, M.A.; Pawelko, R.J. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an experimental effort to anneal irradiated beryllium specimens and characterize them for steam-chemical reactivity experiments. Fully-dense, consolidated powder metallurgy Be cylinders, irradiated in the EBR-II to a fast neutron (>0.1 MeV) fluence of {approx}6 x 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}, were annealed at temperatures from 450degC to 1200degC. The releases of tritium and helium were measured during the heat-up phase and during the high-temperature anneals. These experiments revealed that, at 600degC and below, there was insignificant gas release. Tritium release at 700degC exhibited a delayed increase in the release rate, while the specimen was at 700degC. For anneal temperatures of 800degC and higher, tritium and helium release was concurrent and the release behavior was characterized by gas-burst peaks. Essentially all of the tritium and helium was released at temperatures of 1000degC and higher, whereas about 1/10 of the tritium was released during the anneals at 700degC and 800degC. Measurements were made to determine the bulk density, porosity and specific surface area for each specimen before and after annealing. These measurements indicated that annealing caused the irradiated Be to swell, by as much as 14% at 700degC and 56% at 1200degC. Kr gas adsorption measurements for samples annealed at 1000degC and 1200degC determined specific surface areas between 0.04 m{sup 2}/g and 0.1 m{sup 2}/g for these annealed specimens. The tritium and helium gas release measurements and the specific surface area measurements indicated that annealing of irradiated Be caused a porosity network to evolve and become surface-connected to relieve internal gas pressure. (author)

  18. The Acute Red Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Boysen Osborn

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This modified team-based learning (mTBL exercise is appropriate for junior or senior emergency medicine learners. Introduction: The acute red eye is a common chief complaint in the emergency department. It is essential that the emergency physician be knowledgeable about the differential diagnosis for the acute red eye and be able to distinguish between benign and sinister causes of the acute red eye. Objectives: By the end of this educational session, the learner will: 1 list 10 major causes for an acute red eye; 2 describe historical features that help distinguish between benign and serious causes of the acute red eye; 3 describe physical examination features that help distinguish between benign and serious causes of the acute red eye; and 4 use historical and physical examination features to distinguish between the 10 different causes of the acute red eye. Method: This is an mTBL session.

  19. Thrombosis in adult patients with acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Principe, Maria Ilaria; Del Principe, Domenico; Venditti, Adriano

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies indicate that the risk of thrombosis in hematologic patients may be similar or even higher than that found in patients with solid tumors. However, available information about pathogenesis and incidence of thrombosis in acute leukemia is limited. This review focuses on mechanisms underlying thrombosis in acute leukemia and discusses recent literature data. In the last few years, proofs have been provided that leukemic cells release free prothrombotic products, such as micro-vesicles, tissue factors, circulating free DNA and RNA. Furthermore, leukemic blasts can activate the procoagulant population of platelets, which initiate and amplify coagulation, causing thrombosis. In addition to factors produced by acute leukemia itself, others concur to trigger thrombosis. Some drugs, infections and insertion of central venous catheter have been described to increase risk of thrombosis in patients with acute leukemia. Thrombosis represents a serious complication in patients affected by myeloid and lymphoid acute leukemia. A proper knowledge of its pathophysiology and of the predisposing risk factors may allow to implement strategies of prevention. Improving prevention of thrombosis appears a major goal in patients whose frequent conditions of thrombocytopenia impede an adequate delivery of anticoagulant therapy.

  20. Formaldehyde-releasers: relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Contact allergy to formaldehyde and inventory of formaldehyde-releasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Groot, Anton C; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Lensen, Gerda

    2009-01-01

    This is one of series of review articles on formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers (others: formaldehyde in cosmetics, in clothes and in metalworking fluids and miscellaneous). Thirty-five chemicals were identified as being formaldehyde-releasers. Although a further seven are listed in the liter......This is one of series of review articles on formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers (others: formaldehyde in cosmetics, in clothes and in metalworking fluids and miscellaneous). Thirty-five chemicals were identified as being formaldehyde-releasers. Although a further seven are listed...... of sensitization, relevance of positive patch test reactions, clinical pattern of allergic contact dermatitis from formaldehyde, prognosis, threshold for elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis, analytical tests to determine formaldehyde in products and frequency of exposure to formaldehyde and releasers....... The frequency of contact allergy to formaldehyde is consistently higher in the USA (8-9%) than in Europe (2-3%). Patch testing with formaldehyde is problematic; the currently used 1% solution may result in both false-positive and false-negative (up to 40%) reactions. Determining the relevance of patch test...

  1. Influence of dexamethasone and gamithromycin on the acute phase response in LPS-challenged calves

    OpenAIRE

    Plessers, Elke; Watteyn, Anneleen; Wyns, Heidi; Pardon, Bart; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2012-01-01

    Introduction : Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a potent inducer of the bovine acute phase response and has been widely used in research to provoke acute inflammation. An intravenous challenge with LPS elicits the endogenous synthesis and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). These cytokines initiate fever and stimulate the hepatic production of acute phase proteins, such as Serum Amyloid A (SAA). Regarding the fact that immuno...

  2. APP and APLP2 interact with the synaptic release machinery and facilitate transmitter release at hippocampal synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanutza, Tomas; Del Prete, Dolores; Ford, Michael J; Castillo, Pablo E; D’Adamio, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP), whose mutations cause familial Alzheimer’s disease, interacts with the synaptic release machinery, suggesting a role in neurotransmission. Here we mapped this interaction to the NH2-terminal region of the APP intracellular domain. A peptide encompassing this binding domain -named JCasp- is naturally produced by a γ-secretase/caspase double-cut of APP. JCasp interferes with the APP-presynaptic proteins interaction and, if linked to a cell-penetrating peptide, reduces glutamate release in acute hippocampal slices from wild-type but not APP deficient mice, indicating that JCasp inhibits APP function.The APP-like protein-2 (APLP2) also binds the synaptic release machinery. Deletion of APP and APLP2 produces synaptic deficits similar to those caused by JCasp. Our data support the notion that APP and APLP2 facilitate transmitter release, likely through the interaction with the neurotransmitter release machinery. Given the link of APP to Alzheimer’s disease, alterations of this synaptic role of APP could contribute to dementia. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09743.001 PMID:26551565

  3. Reaper Induced Cytochrome C Release

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olson, Michael

    2002-01-01

    .... The interaction of reaper with scythe liberates a soluble factor (SCF) that induces apoptosis by effecting the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, a critical step in activating apoptosis in many systems...

  4. Birth control - slow release methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007555.htm Birth control - slow release methods To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Certain birth control methods contain man-made forms of hormones. ...

  5. Microparticles and acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey, Mark; Tabuchi, Arata; Kuebler, Wolfgang M

    2012-09-01

    The pathophysiology of acute lung injury (ALI) and its most severe form, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), is characterized by increased vascular and epithelial permeability, hypercoagulation and hypofibrinolysis, inflammation, and immune modulation. These detrimental changes are orchestrated by cross talk between a complex network of cells, mediators, and signaling pathways. A rapidly growing number of studies have reported the appearance of distinct populations of microparticles (MPs) in both the vascular and alveolar compartments in animal models of ALI/ARDS or respective patient populations, where they may serve as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. MPs are small cytosolic vesicles with an intact lipid bilayer that can be released by a variety of vascular, parenchymal, or blood cells and that contain membrane and cytosolic proteins, organelles, lipids, and RNA supplied from and characteristic for their respective parental cells. Owing to this endowment, MPs can effectively interact with other cell types via fusion, receptor-mediated interaction, uptake, or mediator release, thereby acting as intrinsic stimulators, modulators, or even attenuators in a variety of disease processes. This review summarizes current knowledge on the formation and potential functional role of different MPs in inflammatory diseases with a specific focus on ALI/ARDS. ALI has been associated with the formation of MPs from such diverse cellular origins as platelets, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, red blood cells, and endothelial and epithelial cells. Because of their considerable heterogeneity in terms of origin and functional properties, MPs may contribute via both harmful and beneficial effects to the characteristic pathological features of ALI/ARDS. A better understanding of the formation, function, and relevance of MPs may give rise to new promising therapeutic strategies to modulate coagulation, inflammation, endothelial function, and permeability either through

  6. Temporal 3D refined simulation of SF6 release in the ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zheng-Wen; Zhao, Hai-Sheng; Wu, Jian; Feng, Jie; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Ya-Bin; Xue, Kun; Ma, Zheng-Zheng

    2017-04-01

    A number of significant studies have been dedicated to SF6 releases. However, given the complicated nature, the simulations provided at the design phases are still not consistent with those diagnosed in experiments. It is mainly because the actual conditions of experiments have not been fully introduced in the state-of-art models. A temporal 3D refined simulation model of SF6 release by a rocket payload is proposed in this paper. It first considers the release status (rocket attitude, velocity, etc.), release process (duration, injection velocity, the flux of the chemical release, etc.) and ambient neutral wind. This model is better than existing ones; the latter can only deal with release from a point source. The time-dependent drift of the released cloud, driven by the velocities of the rocket inertia and neutral wind, are calculated accurately. The non-uniform spherical structure of the electron density hole driven by the lasting release along the trajectory and the injection velocity are also described. The release flow field is calculated by using a new microcell method. The temporal 3D refined model proposed could be useful for improving the diagnosis and also helpful for the theory on chemical releases.

  7. Chemical Safety Board: Recent Organizational Changes and Status of Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    ...), an independent agency. Currently in its third year of operation, the Board's mission is to enhance the health and safety of the public, workers, and the environment by determining the causes of accidental chemical releases...

  8. Controlled release tablet formulation containing natural Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punyamurthula, Nagendra S; Hingorani, Tushar; Adelli, Goutham; Gul, Waseem; ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Repka, Michael A; Majumdar, Soumyajit

    2016-01-01

    Cannabinoids are increasingly being used in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) because of their action on the cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2. The currently marketed capsule formulations (sesame oil based and crystalline powder) are required to be administered frequently to maintain therapeutic levels, which leads to non-compliance. In the present study, oral controlled release tablet formulations of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) were prepared using the lipids Precirol® and Compritol®. Release profiles using THC-lipid matrices and/or with the lipids in the external phase (blend) were evaluated. The effect of directly compressible diluents lactose mixture (Ludipress®), dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (Emcompress®) and microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel® 102) on tablet characteristics and in vitro drug release was also investigated. Further, in vitro THC release in the presence of a lipase inhibitor, Pluronic® F68, was also studied. A 24 h zero-order THC release profile was obtained with a combination of Precirol® and Compritol® in the compression blend. Addition of Pluronic® F68 did not alter THC release in vitro. These optimized tablets were chemically and physically stable for 3 months, the last time point tested, at 25 °C/60% RH. The overall results demonstrate the feasibility of preparing oral THC tablets for once a day administration which can improve CINV management.

  9. Controlled release from stimuli-sensitive microgel capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, Hassan; Alexeev, Alexander

    2011-10-01

    We introduce a mesoscale computational model for responsive gels, i.e. chemically cross-linked polymer networks immersed in Newtonian fluids, and use it to probe the release of nanoparticles from hollow microgel capsules that swell and deswell in response to external stimuli. Our model explicitly describes the transport of nanoparticles in swelling/deswelling polymer networks with complex geometries and associated fluid flows. Our simulations reveal that responsive microcapsules can be effectively utilized for steady and pulsatile release of encapsulated solutes. Steady, diffusive release of nanoparticle takes place from swollen gel capsules, whereas capsule deswelling cause burst-like discharge of solutes driven by a flow from the shrinking capsule interior. We demonstrate that this hydrodynamic release can be regulated by introducing rigid microscopic rods inside the capsule. Our calculations indicate that the rods stretch the deswelling membrane and promote the formation of large pores in the shell, which allow massive flow-driven release of nanoparticles. Thus, our findings unveil a new approach for regulating the release from stimulus responsive micro-carriers that will be especially useful for designing new drug delivery systems.

  10. Savannah River Site radioiodine atmospheric releases and offsite maximum doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marter, W.L.

    1990-01-01

    Radioisotopes of iodine have been released to the atmosphere from the Savannah River Site since 1955. The releases, mostly from the 200-F and 200-H Chemical Separations areas, consist of the isotopes, I-129 and 1-131. Small amounts of 1-131 and 1-133 have also been released from reactor facilities and the Savannah River Laboratory. This reference memorandum was issued to summarize our current knowledge of releases of radioiodines and resultant maximum offsite doses. This memorandum supplements the reference memorandum by providing more detailed supporting technical information. Doses reported in this memorandum from consumption of the milk containing the highest I-131 concentration following the 1961 1-131 release incident are about 1% higher than reported in the reference memorandum. This is the result of using unrounded 1-131 concentrations of I-131 in milk in this memo. It is emphasized here that this technical report does not constitute a dose reconstruction in the same sense as the dose reconstruction effort currently underway at Hanford. This report uses existing published data for radioiodine releases and existing transport and dosimetry models

  11. Savannah River Site radioiodine atmospheric releases and offsite maximum doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marter, W.L.

    1990-11-01

    Radioisotopes of iodine have been released to the atmosphere from the Savannah River Site since 1955. The releases, mostly from the 200-F and 200-H Chemical Separations areas, consist of the isotopes, I-129 and 1-131. Small amounts of 1-131 and 1-133 have also been released from reactor facilities and the Savannah River Laboratory. This reference memorandum was issued to summarize our current knowledge of releases of radioiodines and resultant maximum offsite doses. This memorandum supplements the reference memorandum by providing more detailed supporting technical information. Doses reported in this memorandum from consumption of the milk containing the highest I-131 concentration following the 1961 1-131 release incident are about 1% higher than reported in the reference memorandum. This is the result of using unrounded 1-131 concentrations of I-131 in milk in this memo. It is emphasized here that this technical report does not constitute a dose reconstruction in the same sense as the dose reconstruction effort currently underway at Hanford. This report uses existing published data for radioiodine releases and existing transport and dosimetry models.

  12. Blood monocyte oxidative burst activity in acute P. falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H; Theander, T G

    1989-01-01

    The release of superoxide anion from blood monocytes was studied in eight patients with acute primary attack P. falciparum malaria. Before treatment a significant enhancement of the oxidative burst prevailed, which contrasts with previous findings of a depressed monocyte chemotactic responsiveness...

  13. Chemical carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A. Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of chemical compounds benefits society in a number of ways. Pesticides, for instance, enable foodstuffs to be produced in sufficient quantities to satisfy the needs of millions of people, a condition that has led to an increase in levels of life expectancy. Yet, at times, these benefits are offset by certain disadvantages, notably the toxic side effects of the chemical compounds used. Exposure to these compounds can have varying effects, ranging from instant death to a gradual process of chemical carcinogenesis. There are three stages involved in chemical carcinogenesis. These are defined as initiation, promotion and progression. Each of these stages is characterised by morphological and biochemical modifications and result from genetic and/or epigenetic alterations. These genetic modifications include: mutations in genes that control cell proliferation, cell death and DNA repair - i.e. mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumour suppressing genes. The epigenetic factors, also considered as being non-genetic in character, can also contribute to carcinogenesis via epigenetic mechanisms which silence gene expression. The control of responses to carcinogenesis through the application of several chemical, biochemical and biological techniques facilitates the identification of those basic mechanisms involved in neoplasic development. Experimental assays with laboratory animals, epidemiological studies and quick tests enable the identification of carcinogenic compounds, the dissection of many aspects of carcinogenesis, and the establishment of effective strategies to prevent the cancer which results from exposure to chemicals.A sociedade obtém numerosos benefícios da utilização de compostos químicos. A aplicação dos pesticidas, por exemplo, permitiu obter alimento em quantidade suficiente para satisfazer as necessidades alimentares de milhões de pessoas, condição relacionada com o aumento da esperança de vida. Os benefícios estão, por

  14. Chemical cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Boeyens, Jan CA

    2010-01-01

    The composition of the most remote objects brought into view by the Hubble telescope can no longer be reconciled with the nucleogenesis of standard cosmology and the alternative explanation, in terms of the LAMBDA-Cold-Dark-Matter model, has no recognizable chemical basis. A more rational scheme, based on the chemistry and periodicity of atomic matter, opens up an exciting new interpretation of the cosmos in terms of projective geometry and general relativity. The response of atomic structure to environmental pressure predicts non-Doppler cosmical redshifts and equilibrium nucleogenesis by alp

  15. Arsenic release during managed aquifer recharge (MAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, T.; Lazareva, O.; Druschel, G.

    2013-12-01

    The mobilization and addition of geogenic trace metals to groundwater is typically caused by anthropogenic perturbations of the physicochemical conditions in the aquifer. This can add dangerously high levels of toxins to groundwater, thus compromising its use as a source of drinking water. In several regions world-wide, aquifer storage and recovery (ASR), a form of managed aquifer recharge (MAR), faces the problem of arsenic release due to the injection of oxygenated storage water. To better understand this process we coupled geochemical reactive transport modeling to bench-scale leaching experiments to investigate and verify the mobilization of geogenic arsenic (As) under a range of redox conditions from an arsenic-rich pyrite bearing limestone aquifer in Central Florida. Modeling and experimental observations showed similar results and confirmed the following: (1) native groundwater and aquifer matrix, including pyrite, were in chemical equilibrium, thus preventing the release of As due to pyrite dissolution under ambient conditions; (2) mixing of oxygen-rich surface water with oxygen-depleted native groundwater changed the redox conditions and promoted the dissolution of pyrite, and (3) the behavior of As along a flow path was controlled by a complex series of interconnected reactions. This included the oxidative dissolution of pyrite and simultaneous sorption of As onto neo-formed hydrous ferric oxides (HFO), followed by the reductive dissolution of HFO and secondary release of adsorbed As under reducing conditions. Arsenic contamination of drinking water in these systems is thus controlled by the re-equilibration of the system to more reducing conditions rather than a purely oxidative process.

  16. [Progress of researches on mechanism of acupuncture therapy underlying improvement of acute cerebral hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Wang, Hai-qiao; Dong, Gui-rong

    2011-04-01

    In the present paper, the authors review the progress of researches on the mechanism of acupuncture therapy underlying improvement of acute cerebral hemorrhage from experimental studies and research methods. The effects of acupuncture intervention mainly involve (1) lessening inflammatory reactions, (2) reducing impairment of free radicals and excitatory amino acids on cerebral neurons, (3) balancing release of vascular bioactive substances to increase regional cerebral blood flow, and (4) promoting repair and regeneration of the neural tissue, etc. In regard to the research methods, many new biological techniques such as biological molecular approaches, neuro-cellular chemical methods, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or quantitative real time-PCR, situ hybridization, western blotting, electron microscope, etc., have been extensively applied to researches on the underlying mechanism of acupuncture therapy for cerebral infarction. In addition, the authors also pointed out that in spite of achieving some bigger progresses in experimental studies, most of the results basically reflect static, isolated and regional changes rather than dynamic and whole body changes. For this reason, more vivo research techniques and noninvasive research methods are highly recommended to be used in the future research on the underlying mechanisms of acupuncture therapy for acute cerebral ischemia.

  17. Extended release formulations for local anaesthetic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiniger, C F; Golovanevski, L; Domb, A J; Ickowicz, D

    2012-08-01

    Systemic toxicity through overdose of local anaesthetic agents is a real concern. By encapsulating local anaesthetics in biodegradable carriers to produce a system for prolonged release, their duration of action can be extended. This encapsulation should also improve the safety profile of the local anaesthetic as it is released at a slower rate. Work with naturally occurring local anaestheticss has also shown promise in the area of reducing systemic and neurotoxicity. Extended duration local anaesthetic formulations in current development or clinical use include liposomes, hydrophobic based polymer particles such as Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres, pasty injectable and solid polymers like Poly(sebacic-co-ricinoleic acid) P(SA:RA) and their combination with synthetic and natural local anaesthetic. Their duration of action, rationale and limitations are reviewed. Direct comparison of the different agents is limited by their chemical properties, the drug doses encapsulated and the details of in vivo models described. Anaesthesia © 2012 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  18. Cytotoxicity and ion release of alloy nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Anne [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V (Germany); Fuhlrott, Jutta; Loos, Anneke [Hannover Medical School, Biovertraeglichkeitslabor BioMedimplant (Germany); Barcikowski, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.barcikowski@uni-due.de [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    It is well-known that nanoparticles could cause toxic effects in cells. Alloy nanoparticles with yet unknown health risk may be released from cardiovascular implants made of Nickel-Titanium or Cobalt-Chromium due to abrasion or production failure. We show the bio-response of human primary endothelial and smooth muscle cells exposed to different concentrations of metal and alloy nanoparticles. Nanoparticles having primary particle sizes in the range of 5-250 nm were generated using laser ablation in three different solutions avoiding artificial chemical additives, and giving access to formulations containing nanoparticles only stabilized by biological ligands. Endothelial cells are found to be more sensitive to nanoparticle exposure than smooth muscle cells. Cobalt and Nickel nanoparticles caused the highest cytotoxicity. In contrast, Titanium, Nickel-Iron, and Nickel-Titanium nanoparticles had almost no influence on cells below a nanoparticle concentration of 10 {mu}M. Nanoparticles in cysteine dissolved almost completely, whereas less ions are released when nanoparticles were stabilized in water or citrate solution. Nanoparticles stabilized by cysteine caused less inhibitory effects on cells suggesting cysteine to form metal complexes with bioactive ions in media.

  19. Zebrafish Models for Human Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Melissa; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Padrós, Francesc; Babin, Patrick J; Sebastián, David; Cachot, Jérôme; Prats, Eva; Arick Ii, Mark; Rial, Eduardo; Knoll-Gellida, Anja; Mathieu, Guilaine; Le Bihanic, Florane; Escalon, B Lynn; Zorzano, Antonio; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Raldúa, Demetrio

    2015-10-22

    Terrorist use of organophosphorus-based nerve agents and toxic industrial chemicals against civilian populations constitutes a real threat, as demonstrated by the terrorist attacks in Japan in the 1990 s or, even more recently, in the Syrian civil war. Thus, development of more effective countermeasures against acute organophosphorus poisoning is urgently needed. Here, we have generated and validated zebrafish models for mild, moderate and severe acute organophosphorus poisoning by exposing zebrafish larvae to different concentrations of the prototypic organophosphorus compound chlorpyrifos-oxon. Our results show that zebrafish models mimic most of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this toxidrome in humans, including acetylcholinesterase inhibition, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, and calcium dysregulation as well as inflammatory and immune responses. The suitability of the zebrafish larvae to in vivo high-throughput screenings of small molecule libraries makes these models a valuable tool for identifying new drugs for multifunctional drug therapy against acute organophosphorus poisoning.

  20. Preparation and Characterization of Oxidized Starch Polymer Microgels for Encapsulation and Controlled Release of Functional Ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Yuan; de Vries, Renko; Slaghek, Ted; Timmermans, Johan; Stuart, Martien A. Cohen; Norde, Willem

    A novel biocompatible and biodegradable microgel system has been developed for controlled uptake and release of especially proteins. It contains TEMPO-oxidized potato starch polymers, which are chemically cross-linked by sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP). Physical chemical properties have been