WorldWideScience

Sample records for acute cardiovascular disease

  1. Study of plasma neuropeptide levels in patients with acute cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Youfen; Lan Suixin; Chen Yu; He Ling; Huang Yuan; Ma Yaling

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between the dynamic changes of plasma neuropeptide (β-EP, NT, NPY) levels and the pathogenesis as well as clinical outcomes of acute cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Methods: The concentrations of serum neuropeptides (β-EP, NT, NPY) were measured on the 1 st, 3 rd, 7 th, 14 th day after the onset of disease with RIA in 103 patients with acute cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases (38 cases of acute cerebral infarction, 32 cases of cerebral hemorrhage, 33 cases of acute myocardial infarction and acute heart failure) and 66 controls. Results: 1. NPY, NT and β-EP levels in patients with acute cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease were significantly higher than those in controls (p<0.01). (F=39.54, p<0.01; F=33.38, p<0.01; F=8.38, p<0.01 For β-EP, NPY and NT respectively). 2. The plasma neuropeptide levels were highest at onset and gradually lowered till to normal levels on the 14 th day. Conclusion: Plasma neuropeptide levels were closely related to the pathogenesis and clinical outcome of acute cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, study of which might be useful in the clinical management of the diseases

  2. Association between triglyceride levels and cardiovascular disease in patients with acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Laurel A; Swendsen, C Scott; Sears, Dawn M; MacCarthy, Andrea A; McNeal, Catherine J

    2018-01-01

    Conventional wisdom supports prescribing "fibrates before statins", that is, prioritizing treatment of hypertriglyceridemia (hTG) to prevent pancreatitis ahead of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to prevent coronary heart disease. The relationship between hTG and acute pancreatitis, however, may not support this approach to clinical management. This study analyzed administrative data from the Veterans Health Administration for evidence of (1) temporal association between assessed triglycerides level and days to acute pancreatitis admission; (2) association between hTG and outcomes in the year after hospitalization for acute pancreatitis; (3) relative rates of prescription of fibrates vs statins in patients with acute pancreatitis; (4) association of prescription of fibrates alone versus fibrates with statins or statins alone with rates of adverse outcomes after hospitalization for acute pancreatitis. Only modest association was found between above-normal or extremely high triglycerides and time until acute pancreatitis. CHD/MI/stroke occurred in 23% in the year following AP, supporting cardiovascular risk management. Fibrates were prescribed less often than statins, defying conventional wisdom, but the high rates of cardiovascular events in the year following AP support a clinical focus on reducing cardiovascular risk factors.

  3. The prevalence of natural health product use in patients with acute cardiovascular disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aws Alherbish

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Natural health products (NHP use may have implications with respect to adverse effects, drug interactions and adherence yet the prevalence of NHP use by patients with acute cardiovascular disease and the best method to ascertain this information is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To identify the best method to ascertain information on NHP, and the prevalence of use in a population with acute cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of consecutive patients admitted with acute cardiovascular disease to the University of Alberta Hospital during January 2009. NHP use was explored using structured and open-ended questions based on Health Canada's definition of NHP. The medical record was reviewed, and documentation of NHP use by physicians, nurses, and pharmacists, compared against the gold-standard structured interview. RESULTS: 88 patients were interviewed (mean age 62 years, standard deviation [SD 14]; 80% male; 41% admitted for acute coronary syndromes. Common co-morbidities included hypertension (59%, diabetes (26% and renal impairment (19%. NHP use was common (78% of patients and 75% of NHP users reported daily use. The category of NHP most commonly used was vitamins and minerals (73% followed by herbal products (20%, traditional medicines including Chinese medicines (9%, homeopathic preparations (1% and other products including amino acids, essential fatty acids and probiotics (35%. In a multivariable model, only older age was associated with increased NHP use (OR 1.5 per age decile [95%CI 1.03 to 2.2]. When compared to the interview, the highest rate of NHP documentation was the pharmacist history (41%. NHP were documented in 22% of patients by the physician and 19% by the nurse. CONCLUSIONS: NHP use is common in patients admitted with acute cardiovascular disease. However, health professionals do not commonly identify NHP as part of the medication profile despite its potential importance

  4. [Clinical characteristic of patients with acute kidney injury complicated severe cardio-vascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, Paweł; Wyrwicz-Zielińska, Grażyna; Krzysztonek-Weber, Izabela; Sułowicz, Władysław

    2016-01-01

    Patients with cardiovascular diseases are a group of increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI). Mortality in this group of patients with AKI, especially treated in intensive care units, is very high. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristic of patients with AKI complicated severe cardiovascular diseases. Retrospective evaluation of 246 questionnaire of patients with AKI in the course of severe cardiovascular diseases treated in the wards of nephrological profile from the malopolska and podkarpackie voivodships in the years 2000-2011 was performed. The group of patients consisted of 157 men and 89 women, with mean age 67.9 ± 14.8 years. The most common cause of AKI were: acute decompensated heart failure--24 (9.8%), chronic decompensated heart failure--94 (38.2%), cardiac arrest--29 (11.8%), myocardial infarction--48 (19.5%), CABG--12 (4.9%), cardiac valve implantation--14 (5.7), heart transplantation--4 (1.6%) and aortic aneurysm--21 (8.5%). Age distribution of patients with AKI revealed that most numerous group had 71-80 years. The most of patients (95.9%) with AKI were treated with hemodialysis. The mortality rate in the study group was very high (69.5%). Recovery of renal function was observed in 39 (27.3%) of patients. Signs of kidney disease before AKI was noted in 116 (47.2%) of patients. Patients with severe cardiovascular complications and AKI had high mortality rate instead of performed hemodialysis treatment.

  5. Cardiovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Kazunori

    1992-01-01

    This paper is aimed to discuss the involvement of delayed radiation effects of A-bomb exposure in cardiovascular diseases. First, the relationship between radiation and cardiovascular diseases is reviewed in the literature. Animal experiments have confirmed the relationship between ionizing radiation and vascular lesions. There are many reports which describe ischemic heart disease, cervical and cerebrovascular diseases, and peripheral disease occurring after radiation therapy. The previous A-bomb survivor cohort studies, i.e., the RERF Life Span Study and Adult Health Study, have dealt with the mortality rate from cardiovascular diseases, the prevalence or incidence of cardiovascular diseases, pathological findings, clinical observation of arteriosclerosis, ECG abnormality, blood pressure abnormality, and cardiac function. The following findings have been suggested: (1) A-bomb exposure is likely to be involved in the mortality rate and incidence of ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular diseases; (2) similarly, the involvement of A-bomb exposure is considered in the prevalence of the arch of aorta; (3) ECG abnormality corresponding to ischemic heart disease may reflect the involvement of A-bomb exposure. To confirm the above findings, further studies are required on the basis of more accurate information and the appropriate number of cohort samples. Little evidence has been presented for the correlation between A-bomb exposure and both rheumatic heart disease and congenital heart disease. (N.K.) 88 refs

  6. Outcomes of patients calling emergency medical services for suspected acute cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Mikkel Malby; Sejersten, Maria Sejersten; Baber, Usman

    2015-01-01

    Adequate health care is increasingly dependent on prehospital systems and cardiovascular (CV) disease remains the most common cause for hospital admission. However the prevalence of CV dispatches of emergency medical services (EMS) is not well reported and survival data described in clinical trials......, this study emphasizes the need for an efficient prehospital phase with focus on CV disease and proper triage of patients suitable for invasive evaluation if the outcomes of acute heart disease are to be improved further in the current international context of hospitals merging into highly specialized...

  7. Particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response may be the causal link between particle inhalation and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saber, Anne T.; Jacobsen, Nicklas R.; Jackson, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Inhalation of ambient and workplace particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. One proposed mechanism for this association is that pulmonary inflammation induces a hepatic acute phase response, which increases risk of cardiovascular disease. Induction...... epidemiological studies. In this review, we present and review emerging evidence that inhalation of particles (e.g., air diesel exhaust particles and nanoparticles) induces a pulmonary acute phase response, and propose that this induction constitutes the causal link between particle inhalation and risk...

  8. Clinical and pathological manifestations of cardiovascular disease in rat models: the influence of acute ozone exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper shows that rat models of cardiovascular diseases have differential degrees of underlying pathologies at a young age. Rodent models of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and metabolic disorders are used for examining susceptibility variations to environmental exposures. How...

  9. Triglycerides and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Varbo, Anette

    2014-01-01

    cholesterol might not cause cardiovascular disease as originally thought has now generated renewed interest in raised concentrations of triglycerides. This renewed interest has also been driven by epidemiological and genetic evidence supporting raised triglycerides, remnant cholesterol, or triglyceride......-rich lipoproteins as an additional cause of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Triglycerides can be measured in the non-fasting or fasting states, with concentrations of 2-10 mmol/L conferring increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and concentrations greater than 10 mmol/L conferring increased risk...... of acute pancreatitis and possibly cardiovascular disease. Although randomised trials showing cardiovascular benefit of triglyceride reduction are scarce, new triglyceride-lowering drugs are being developed, and large-scale trials have been initiated that will hopefully provide conclusive evidence...

  10. HIV and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 652 HIV and Cardiovascular Disease HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE WHY SHOULD PEOPLE WITH HIV CARE ABOUT CVD? ... OF CVD? WHAT ABOUT CHANGING MEDICATIONS? HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes a group of problems ...

  11. Acute exacerbations and deaths in the group of respiratory diseases and cardiovascular diseases in the city of Lodzin relation to atmospheric pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiatczak, J; Olejnik, A

    1974-01-01

    The effect of air pollution episodes (sulfur dioxide and dust) on the morbidity and mortality of a group of people suffering from upper respiratory disease and cardiovascular disease was studied by examining air monitoring data and health statistics (ambulance service records and death certificates) for the city of Lodz. During the month of January in 1971, when the atmospheric pollution reached a 7-year peak, ambulance station statistics revealed the incidnce of acute cardiovascular and respiratory diseases to be at a maximum. The number of deaths from these diseases reached a maximum of 18 on the first day of the episode; on subsequent days, however, the mortalities returned to average.

  12. Understanding cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000759.htm Understanding cardiovascular disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... lead to heart attack or stroke. Types of Cardiovascular Disease Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common ...

  13. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Jan 29,2018 The following ... clear that there is a strong correlation between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. At least 68 percent ...

  14. APOE Genotyping, Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search APOE Genotyping, Cardiovascular Disease Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At a ... help understand the role of genetic factors in cardiovascular disease . However, the testing is sometimes used in clinical ...

  15. Cardiovascular events in acute coronary syndrome patients with peripheral arterial disease treated with ticagrelor compared to clopidogrel: Data from the PLATO trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patel, Manesh R.; Becker, Richard C.; Wojdyla, Daniel M.

    Abstract 14299: Cardiovascular Events in Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease Treated With Ticagrelor Compared to Clopidogrel: Data From the PLATO Trial Manesh R Patel1; Richard C Becker1; Daniel M Wojdyla2; Håkan Emanuelsson3; William Hiatt4; Jay Horrow5; Steen Husted6...... Uppsala, Sweden 10 Cardiology, Uppsala Clinical Rsch center, 75185 Uppsala, Sweden Background: Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are at high risk for clinical events and are often difficult to manage. We evaluated cardiovascular outcomes of ACS patients...

  16. Association between Floods and Acute Cardiovascular Diseases: A Population-Based Cohort Study Using a Geographic Information System Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanasse, Alain; Cohen, Alan; Courteau, Josiane; Bergeron, Patrick; Dault, Roxanne; Gosselin, Pierre; Blais, Claudia; Bélanger, Diane; Rochette, Louis; Chebana, Fateh

    2016-01-28

    Floods represent a serious threat to human health beyond the immediate risk of drowning. There is few data on the potential link between floods and direct consequences on health such as on cardiovascular health. This study aimed to explore the impact of one of the worst floods in the history of Quebec, Canada on acute cardiovascular diseases (CVD). A cohort study with a time series design with multiple control groups was built with the adult population identified in the Quebec Integrated Chronic Disease Surveillance System. A geographic information system approach was used to define the study areas. Logistic regressions were performed to compare the occurrence of CVD between groups. The results showed a 25%-27% increase in the odds in the flooded population in spring 2011 when compared with the population in the same area in springs 2010 and 2012. Besides, an increase up to 69% was observed in individuals with a medical history of CVD. Despite interesting results, the association was not statistically significant. A possible explanation to this result can be that the population affected by the flood was probably too small to provide the statistical power to answer the question, and leaves open a substantial possibility for a real and large effect.

  17. Cardiovascular disease incidence and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Agyemang, Charles; Zwisler, Ann Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Studies on cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and survival show varying results between different ethnic groups. Our aim was to add a new dimension by exploring the role of migrant status in combination with ethnic background on incidence of-and survival from-CVD and more specifically acute...... of some types of cardiovascular disease compared to Danish-born. Family-reunified migrants on the other hand had lower rates of CVD. All migrants had better survival than Danish-born indicating that migrants may not always be disadvantaged in health....

  18. Lifestyle in Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.O. Younge (John)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Globally, the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still increasing. However, in recent decades, better treatment modalities have led to less cardiovascular related deaths. After years of research, we now generally accept that lifestyle factors are the most

  19. Effect of physical training on the recovery of acute exercise, among patients with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Saldivia, Marianna; Ilarraza-Lomelí, Hermes; Myers, Jonathan; Lara, Jorge; Bueno, Leopoldo

    Physical training programs (PTP) have shown several beneficial effects for patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD), particularly by increasing survival and quality of life. Physiological response during the effort and recovery phases of an exercise testing, is one of the strongest prognostic markers among patients with CVD. A reasonable mechanism that explains those training effects on survival is through the adaptations seen on heart rate recovery (HRR) and oxygen uptake kinetics at the post-exertional phase (RVO 2 ). Compare the HRR and RVO 2 values before and after a PTP in patients with CVD. We studied a cohort of patients included in a cardiac rehabilitation program, whom performed a cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX). Then, risk stratification and an individualized exercise training program were performed. The exercise training program included 20 sessions of aerobic exercise, 30min a day, five times a week, at moderate intensity. Finally, a second CPX was performed. A total of 215 patients were included. Peak oxygen uptake values rose 2.2±5.2ml/kg/min (p<0.001), HRR increased 1.6±10bpm (p<0.05) and RVO 2 improved -21±98s (p<0.001). A post-hoc analysis show that the percentage of maximum heart rate remained statistically associated with HRR increment. Furthermore, diabetes and sedentarism were strongly related to RVO 2 improvement. No correlation between HRR and RVO 2 was found (R 2 =0.002). Physical exercise was associated with a beneficial effect on HRR and RVO 2 . Nevertheless, both variables were statistically unrelated. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. All rights reserved.

  20. Gender and Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Ruijter, Hester M.; Pasterkamp, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    More women than men die of cardiovascular disease (CVD) each year in every major developed country and most emerging economies. Nonetheless, CVD has often been considered as men’s disease due to the higher rates of coronary artery disease (CAD) of men at younger age. This has led to the

  1. Epigenetics and cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite advances in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), this group of multifactorial disorders remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. CVD is associated with multiple genetic and modifiable risk factors; however, known environmental and genetic influences can only...

  2. Cardiovascular diseases and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, A.; Sortso, C.; Jensen, Peter Bjødstrup

    2016-01-01

    We present an investigation of the occurrence of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes in Denmark 2000 through 2011. The Diabetes Impact Study 2013 is based on all registrants in the Danish National Diabetes Register as of July 3rd 2013 (n=497,232). Record linkage with the Danish...... National Patient Register was used to defining the first date of experiencing a cardiovascular event by means of a discharge diagnosis and/or having performed a coronary bypass operation or revascularization of the coronary arteries. The proportion of patients with already established CVD at the diagnosis...

  3. Tea and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Apranta; Vita, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for a protective effect of tea consumption against cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the available epidemiological data providing evidence for and against such an effect. We also review observational and intervention studies that investigated an effect of tea and tea extracts on cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pressure, serum lipids, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. Finally, we review potential mechanisms of benefit, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-proliferative effects, as well as favorable effects on endothelial function. Overall, the observational data suggest a benefit, but results are mixed and likely confounded by lifestyle and background dietary factors. The weight of evidence indicates favorable effects on risk factors and a number of plausible mechanisms have been elucidated in experimental and translational human studies. Despite the growing body evidence, it remains uncertain whether tea consumption should be recommended to the general population or to patients as a strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:21477653

  4. Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease Updated:Sep 16,2015 Th is winter ... and procedures related to heart disease and stroke. Cardiovascular Conditions • Conditions Home • Arrhythmia and Atrial Fibrillation • Cardiac ...

  5. Cardiovascular diseases in dental practice : Practical considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Margaix Muñoz, María; Jiménez Soriano, Yolanda; Poveda Roda, Rafael; Sarrión Pérez, María Gracia

    2008-01-01

    Coronary heart disease is the principal cause of death in the industrialized world. Its most serious expression, acute myocardial infarction, causes 7.2 million deaths each year worldwide, and it is estimated that 20% of all people will suffer heart failure in the course of their lifetime. The control of risk cardiovascular factors, including arterial hypertension, obesity and diabetes mellitus is the best way to prevent such diseases. The most frequent and serious cardiovascular emergenc...

  6. Relationship between Inflammation and Cardiovascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Riddhi Patel; Henish Patel; Rachana Sarawade

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation is a part of complex biological response of vascular tissue to harmful stimuli such as pathogens, damaged cells or irritants. Recent advance in basic science have established a fundamental role for inflammation immediating all stages of cardiovascular diseases from initiation, progression and complications. Inflammation is thread linking to cardiovascular diseases. Clinical studies have shown that this emerging biology of inflammation play important role in pathogenesis of acute ...

  7. Role of Cardiovascular Disease-associated iron overload in Libby amphibole-induced acute pulmonary injury and inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary toxicity induced by asbestos is thought to be mediated through redox-cycling of fiber-bound and bioavailable iron (Fe). We hypothesized that Libby amphibole (LA)-induced cute lung injury will be exacerbated in rat models of cardiovascular disease (CVD)-associated Fe-ove...

  8. Cardiovascular diseases and periodontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, R A; Preshaw, P M; Thomason, J M; Ellis, J S; Steele, J G

    2003-04-01

    Cardiovascular diseases represent a widespread heterogeneous group of conditions that have significant morbidity and mortality. The various diseases and their treatments can have an impact upon the periodontium and the delivery of periodontal care. In this paper we consider three main topics and explore their relationship to the periodontist and the provision of periodontal treatment. The areas reviewed include the effect of cardiovascular drugs on the periodontium and management of patients with periodontal diseases; the risk of infective endocarditis arising from periodontal procedures; the inter-relationship between periodontal disease and coronary artery disease. Calcium-channel blockers and beta-adrenoceptor blockers cause gingival overgrowth and tooth demineralisation, respectively. Evidence suggests that stopping anticoagulant therapy prior to periodontal procedures is putting patients at a greater risk of thromboembolic disorders compared to the risk of prolonged bleeding. The relationship between dentistry and infective endocarditis remains a controversial issue. It would appear that spontaneous bacteraemia arising from a patient's oral hygiene practices is more likely to be the cause of endocarditis than one-off periodontal procedures. The efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis is uncertain (and unlikely to be proven), and the risk of death from penicillin appears to be greater than the risk of death arising from infective endocarditis. Finally, the association between periodontal disease and coronary artery disease has been explored and there seem to be many issues with respect to data handling interpretation. Many putative mechanisms have been suggested; however, these only further highlight the need for intervention studies.

  9. Nutritional habits & cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sampaio, Hélia; Capitão, Sandra; Ferro-Lebres, Vera

    2010-01-01

    An elevated predominance of the risk factors associated to the illnesses of the circulatory system, particurily hypercholesterolemia and arterial hypertension aim for a special attention to its prevention. This way, the composition of the digested food daily can influence the sprouting of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD), which has shown association between the risk factors and the things we consume. The present study had an objective to identify the influential factors of social economics...

  10. Asian & Pacific Islanders and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact Sheet 2016 Update Asian & Pacific Islanders and Cardiovascular Diseases Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) (ICD 10 codes I00-I99, Q20- ... of na- tive Hawaiians or oth- A indicates cardiovascular disease plus congenital cardiovascular disease (ICD-10 I00- ...

  11. Nonfasting hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, B G; Langsted, A; Freiberg, J J

    2009-01-01

    , total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 all associate with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. These new data open the possibility that nonfasting rather than fasting lipid profiles can be used for cardiovascular risk prediction. If implemented, this would...... of cardiovascular disease and early death....

  12. Risk of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Michael; Starup-Linde, Jakob; Scheel-Thomsen, Jan

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Type 2 diabetes (DM) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of antidiabetic drugs on the composite endpoint (CE) of ischemic heart disease, heart failure or stroke in DM patients. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study. Cases were DM patients who......% CI: 16.88-24.12), neuropathy (OR=1.39, 95% CI: 1.05-1.85) and peripheral artery disease (OR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.02-1.69) increased the risk of CE. Biguanides (OR=0.62 95% CI; 0.54-0.71) and liraglutide (OR=0.48 95% CI; 0.38-0.62) significantly decreased the risk of CE as did statin treatment (OR=0.63, 95...

  13. United States stock market performance and acute myocardial infarction rates in 2008-2009 (from the Duke Databank for Cardiovascular Disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiuzat, Mona; Shaw, Linda K; Thomas, Laine; Felker, G Michael; O'Connor, Christopher M

    2010-12-01

    We sought to examine the relation between the United States economic decrease in 2008 and cardiovascular events as measured by local acute myocardial infarction (AMI) rates. Mental stress and traumatic events have been shown to be associated with increased risk of MI in patients with ischemic heart disease. This was an observational study of data from the Duke Databank for Cardiovascular Disease and includes patients undergoing angiography for evaluation of ischemic heart disease from January 2006 to July 2009. Patients with AMI occurring within 3 days before catheterization were used to calculate AMI rates. Stock market values were examined to determine the period of severe economic decrease, and time trends in AMI rates were examined over the same period. Time series models were used to assess the relation between United States stock market National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation (NASDAQ) and rates of AMI. Of 11,590 patients included in the study cohort, 2,465 patients had an AMI during this period. Time series analysis showed a significant increase in AMI rates during a period of stock market decrease from October 2008 to April 2009 (p = 0.003), which remained statistically significant when adjusted for seasons (p = 0.02). In conclusion, unadjusted and adjusted analyses of patients in the Duke Databank for Cardiovascular Disease indicated a significant correlation between a period of stock market decrease and increased AMI rates in our local cohort. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Slow breathing and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Chaddha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women worldwide. Much emphasis has been placed on the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. While depression and anxiety increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease also increases the risk of developing anxiety and depression. Thus, promoting optimal mental health may be important for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Like lowering blood pressure, lipids, and body weight, lowering anger and hostility and improving depression and anxiety may also be an important intervention in preventive cardiology. As we strive to further improve cardiovascular outcomes, the next bridge to cross may be one of offering patients nonpharmacologic means for combating daily mental stress and promoting mental health, such as yoga and pranayama. Indeed, the best preventive cardiovascular medicine may be a blend of both Western and Eastern medicine.

  15. RIA in cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourani, M.H.

    1983-01-01

    When one discusses the management of chronic cardiac diseases, and in particular congestive heart failure (CHF), one cannot but think of digitalis and the important role it plays in the management of CHF. One also has to think about digitalis toxicity and the narrow margin between the therapeutic and toxic doses of digitalis and the important role that monitoring the serum level of the drug play in preventing and/or recognizing its toxic effects. Again, RIA has something to offer the clinician in this area. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the radioassays for CPK-MB and digoxin mainly, as well as touch upon other assays of use in evaluating patients with cardiovascular disease

  16. Acute lung injury induces cardiovascular dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suda, Koichi; Tsuruta, Masashi; Eom, Jihyoun

    2011-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is associated with systemic inflammation and cardiovascular dysfunction. IL-6 is a biomarker of this systemic response and a predictor of cardiovascular events, but its possible causal role is uncertain. Inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β2 agonists (ICS/LABA) down-r...

  17. Educational inequality in cardiovascular diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Grethe; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: Educational inequality in diseases in the circulatory system (here termed cardiovascular disease) is well documented but may be confounded by early life factors. The aim of this observational study was to examine whether the associations between education and all cardiovascular diseases...... educational status was associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, ischaemic heart disease and stroke. All associations attenuated in the within-sibship analyses, in particular in the analyses on ischaemic heart disease before age 45 years. For instance, in the cohort analyses, the hazard rate...... factors shared by siblings explained the associations between education and the cardiovascular disease outcomes but to varying degrees. This should be taken into account when planning interventions aimed at reducing educational inequalities in the development of cardiovascular disease, ischaemic heart...

  18. Precision Medicine in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Since President Obama announced the Precision Medicine Initiative in the United States, more and more attention has been paid to precision medicine. However, clinicians have already used it to treat conditions such as cancer. Many cardiovascular diseases have a familial presentation, and genetic variants are associated with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, which are the basis for providing precise care to patients with cardiovascular diseases. Large-scale cohorts and multiomics are critical components of precision medicine. Here we summarize the application of precision medicine to cardiovascular diseases based on cohort and omic studies, and hope to elicit discussion about future health care.

  19. Urban and Rural Differences of Acute Cardiovascular Disease Events: A Study from the Population-Based Real-Time Surveillance System in Zhejiang, China in 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Gong

    Full Text Available Zhejiang province, China, has implemented a population based, real-time surveillance system that tracks acute cardiovascular diseases (CVDs events since 2001. This study aimed to describe the system and report CVD incidence, mortality and case-fatality between urban and rural areas in Zhejiang in 2012. The surveillance system employs a stratified random sampling method covering all permanent residents of 30 counties/districts in Zhejiang. Acute CVD events such as coronary heart disease (CHD and stroke were defined, registered and reviewed based on the adapted MONICA (Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease definitions. Data were collected from health facilities, vital registries, supplementary surveys, and additional investigations, and were checked for data quality before input in the system. We calculated the rates and compared them by gender, age and region. In 2012, the incidence, mortality and case-fatality of total acute CVD events were 367.0 (CHD 59.1, stroke 307.9, 127.1 (CHD 43.3, stroke 83.8 per 100,000 and 34.6% (CHD 73.2%, stroke 27.2%, respectively. Compared with rural areas, urban areas reported higher incidence and mortality but lower case-fatality rates for CHD (P<0.001, while lower incidence but higher mortality and case-fatality rates for stroke (P<0.001. We found significant differences on CHD and stroke epidemics between urban and rural areas in Zhejiang. Special attentions need to be given to stroke control, especially in rural areas.

  20. [Strategies for cardiovascular disease prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabus, Vincent; Wuerzner, Grégoire; Saubade, Mathieu; Favre, Lucie; Jacot Sadowski, Isabelle; Nanchen, David

    2018-02-28

    Atherosclerosis is a disease which develops very gradually over decades. Under the influence of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, such as blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol level, smoking or lifestyle, clinical symptoms of atherosclerosis manifest more or less early in life. When cardiovascular risk factors accumulate, the risk of having a cardiovascular event increases and the benefits of prevention measures are greater. This article summarizes existing strategies for controlling modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in primary prevention. The physician can rely on an interprofessional network of cardiovascular prevention. Managing risk factors while respecting the autonomy and priorities of the patient will bring the greatest benefit.

  1. Depression and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elderon, Larkin; Whooley, Mary A

    2013-01-01

    Approximately one out of every five patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) suffers from major depressive disorder (MDD). Both MDD and depressive symptoms are risk factors for CVD incidence, severity and outcomes. Great progress has been made in understanding potential mediators between MDD and CVD, particularly focusing on health behaviors. Investigators have also made considerable strides in the diagnosis and treatment of depression among patients with CVD. At the same time, many research questions remain. In what settings is depression screening most effective for patients with CVD? What is the optimal screening frequency? Which therapies are safe and effective? How can we better integrate the care of mental health conditions with that of CVD? How do we motivate depressed patients to change health behaviors? What technological tools can we use to improve care for depression? Gaining a more thorough understanding of the links between MDD and heart disease, and how best to diagnose and treat depression among these patients, has the potential to substantially reduce morbidity and mortality from CVD. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis and acute phase response link pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes to risk of cardiovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, Sarah S., E-mail: spo@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Saber, Anne T., E-mail: ats@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Mortensen, Alicja, E-mail: almo@food.dtu.dk [National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Søborg (Denmark); Szarek, Józef, E-mail: szarek@uwm.edu.pl [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 10-719 Olsztyn (Poland); Wu, Dongmei, E-mail: dongmei.wu@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Williams, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.williams@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Andersen, Ole, E-mail: oa@ruc.dk [Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Jacobsen, Nicklas R., E-mail: nrj@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Yauk, Carole L., E-mail: carole.yauk@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Wallin, Håkan, E-mail: hwa@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, DK-1014 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Halappanavar, Sabina, E-mail: sabina.halappanavar@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Vogel, Ulla, E-mail: ubv@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-03-15

    Adverse lung effects following pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are well documented in rodents. However, systemic effects are less understood. Epidemiological studies have shown increased cardiovascular disease risk after pulmonary exposure to airborne particles, which has led to concerns that inhalation exposure to MWCNTs might pose similar risks. We analyzed parameters related to cardiovascular disease, including plasma acute phase response (APR) proteins and plasma lipids, in female C57BL/6 mice exposed to a single intratracheal instillation of 0, 18, 54 or 162 μg/mouse of small, entangled (CNT{sub Small}, 0.8 ± 0.1 μm long) or large, thick MWCNTs (CNT{sub Large}, 4 ± 0.4 μm long). Liver tissues and plasma were harvested 1, 3 and 28 days post-exposure. In addition, global hepatic gene expression, hepatic cholesterol content and liver histology were used to assess hepatic effects. The two MWCNTs induced similar systemic responses despite their different physicochemical properties. APR proteins SAA3 and haptoglobin, plasma total cholesterol and low-density/very low-density lipoprotein were significantly increased following exposure to either MWCNTs. Plasma SAA3 levels correlated strongly with pulmonary Saa3 levels. Analysis of global gene expression revealed perturbation of the same biological processes and pathways in liver, including the HMG-CoA reductase pathway. Both MWCNTs induced similar histological hepatic changes, with a tendency towards greater response following CNT{sub Large} exposure. Overall, we show that pulmonary exposure to two different MWCNTs induces similar systemic and hepatic responses, including changes in plasma APR, lipid composition, hepatic gene expression and liver morphology. The results link pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs with risk of cardiovascular disease. - Highlights: • Systemic and hepatic alterations were evaluated in female mice following MWCNT instillation. • Despite being physicochemically

  3. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in carotid atherosclerotic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Huijun

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atherosclerosis is a chronic, progressive, inflammatory disease affecting many vascular beds. Disease progression leads to acute cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction, stroke and death. The diseased carotid alone is responsible for one third of the 700,000 new or recurrent strokes occurring yearly in the United States. Imaging plays an important role in the management of atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR of the carotid vessel wall is one promising modality in the evaluation of patients with carotid atherosclerotic disease. Advances in carotid vessel wall CMR allow comprehensive assessment of morphology inside the wall, contributing substantial disease-specific information beyond luminal stenosis. Although carotid vessel wall CMR has not been widely used to screen for carotid atherosclerotic disease, many trials support its potential for this indication. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding carotid vessel wall CMR and its potential clinical application for management of carotid atherosclerotic disease.

  4. Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Francisco B; Lavie, Carl J; Blair, Steven N

    2016-05-27

    The prevalence of obesity has increased worldwide over the past few decades. In 2013, the prevalence of obesity exceeded the 50% of the adult population in some countries from Oceania, North Africa, and Middle East. Lower but still alarmingly high prevalence was observed in North America (≈30%) and in Western Europe (≈20%). These figures are of serious concern because of the strong link between obesity and disease. In the present review, we summarize the current evidence on the relationship of obesity with cardiovascular disease (CVD), discussing how both the degree and the duration of obesity affect CVD. Although in the general population, obesity and, especially, severe obesity are consistently and strongly related with higher risk of CVD incidence and mortality, the one-size-fits-all approach should not be used with obesity. There are relevant factors largely affecting the CVD prognosis of obese individuals. In this context, we thoroughly discuss important concepts such as the fat-but-fit paradigm, the metabolically healthy but obese (MHO) phenotype and the obesity paradox in patients with CVD. About the MHO phenotype and its CVD prognosis, available data have provided mixed findings, what could be partially because of the adjustment or not for key confounders such as cardiorespiratory fitness, and to the lack of consensus on the MHO definition. In the present review, we propose a scientifically based harmonized definition of MHO, which will hopefully contribute to more comparable data in the future and a better understanding on the MHO subgroup and its CVD prognosis. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Matters of the heart: cardiovascular disease in U.S. women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Kevin A; Stevens, Tracy L

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in United States women and accounts for approximately 500,000 deaths annually. Over half of cardiovascular disease-related deaths in women result from coronary artery disease including acute coronary syndromes. This paper reviews gender specific issues in women as they relate to current cardiovascular disease epidemiology, trends in cardiovascular disease epidemiology, coronary artery disease detection, risk factor modification, and prevention of cardiovascular disease-related events.

  6. Cheese and cardiovascular disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Currently, the effect of dairy products on cardiovascular risk is a topic with much debate and conflicting results. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the existing literature regarding the effect of cheese intake and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies included...

  7. Cardiovascular Disease in Acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Morali D; Nguyen, Anh V; Brown, Spandana; Robbins, Richard J

    2017-01-01

    In patients with acromegaly, chronic excess of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) leads to the development of acromegalic cardiomyopathy. Its main features are biventricular hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction, and in later stages, systolic dysfunction and congestive heart failure. Surgical and/or pharmacological treatment of acromegaly and control of cardiovascular risk factors help reverse some of these pathophysiologic changes and decrease the high risk of cardiovascular complications.

  8. Ceruloplasmin and cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, P. L.; Mazumder, B.; Ehrenwald, E.; Mukhopadhyay, C. K.

    2000-01-01

    Transition metal ion-mediated oxidation is a commonly used model system for studies of the chemical, structural, and functional modifications of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The physiological relevance of studies using free metal ions is unclear and has led to an exploration of free metal ion-independent mechanisms of oxidation. We and others have investigated the role of human ceruloplasmin (Cp) in oxidative processes because it the principal copper-containing protein in serum. There is an abundance of epidemiological data that suggests that serum Cp may be an important risk factor predicting myocardial infarction and cardiovascular disease. Biochemical studies have shown that Cp is a potent catalyst of LDL oxidation in vitro. The pro-oxidant activity of Cp requires an intact structure, and a single copper atom at the surface of the protein, near His(426), is required for LDL oxidation. Under conditions where inhibitory protein (such as albumin) is present, LDL oxidation by Cp is optimal in the presence of superoxide, which reduces the surface copper atom of Cp. Cultured vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells also oxidize LDL in the presence of Cp. Superoxide release by these cells is a critical factor regulating the rate of oxidation. Cultured monocytic cells, when activated by zymosan, can oxidize LDL, but these cells are unique in their secretion of Cp. Inhibitor studies using Cp-specific antibodies and antisense oligonucleotides show that Cp is a major contributor to LDL oxidation by these cells. The role of Cp in lipoprotein oxidation and atherosclerotic lesion progression in vivo has not been directly assessed and is an important area for future studies.

  9. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis and acute phase response link pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes to risk of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sarah S.; Saber, Anne T.; Mortensen, Alicja

    2015-01-01

    has led to concerns that inhalation exposure to MWCNTs might pose similar risks. We analyzed parameters related to cardiovascular disease, including plasma acute phase response (APR) proteins and plasma lipids, in female C57BL/6 mice exposed to a single intratracheal instillation of 0, 18,54 or 162 mu...... levels correlated strongly with pulmonary Saa3 levels. Analysis of global gene expression revealed perturbation of the same biological processes and pathways in liver, including the HMG-CoA reductase pathway. Both MWCNTs induced similar histological hepatic changes, with a tendency towards greater...... response following CNTLarge exposure. Overall, we show that pulmonary exposure to two different MWCNTs induces similar systemic and hepatic responses, including changes in plasma APR, lipid composition, hepatic gene expression and liver morphology. The results link pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs with risk...

  10. The use of echocardiography in acute cardiovascular care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lancellotti, Patrizio; Price, Susanna; Edvardsen, Thor

    2014-01-01

    Echocardiography is one of the most powerful diagnostic and monitoring tools available to the modern emergency/critical care practitioner. Currently, there is a lack of specific European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging/Acute Cardiovascular Care Association recommendations for the use...... of echocardiography in acute cardiovascular care. In this document, we describe the practical applications of echocardiography in patients with acute cardiac conditions, in particular with acute chest pain, acute heart failure, suspected cardiac tamponade, complications of myocardial infarction, acute valvular heart...

  11. The use of echocardiography in acute cardiovascular care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lancellotti, Patrizio; Price, Susanna; Edvardsen, Thor

    2015-01-01

    Echocardiography is one of the most powerful diagnostic and monitoring tools available to the modern emergency/ critical care practitioner. Currently, there is a lack of specific European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging/Acute Cardiovascular Care Association recommendations for the use...... of echocardiography in acute cardiovascular care. In this document, we describe the practical applications of echocardiography in patients with acute cardiac conditions, in particular with acute chest pain, acute heart failure, suspected cardiac tamponade, complications of myocardial infarction, acute valvular heart...

  12. The use of echocardiography in acute cardiovascular care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lancellotti, Patrizio; Price, Susanna; Edvardsen, Thor

    2015-01-01

    Echocardiography is one of the most powerful diagnostic and monitoring tools available to the modern emergency/critical care practitioner. Currently, there is a lack of specific European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging/Acute Cardiovascular Care Association recommendations for the use...... of echocardiography in acute cardiovascular care. In this document, we describe the practical applications of echocardiography in patients with acute cardiac conditions, in particular with acute chest pain, acute heart failure, suspected cardiac tamponade, complications of myocardial infarction, acute valvular heart...

  13. Trace Elements in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masironi, R. [Cardiovascular Diseases Unit, World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1970-07-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in industrialized countries. Their incidence increases, apparently, as a, function of technological progress so that in the future they may become a major public health problem in developing countries too. Early diagnosis and prevention are the tools best suited to curb such an alarming trend, but our knowledge of these topics is unsatisfactory, Valuable information would be obtained through a systematic investigation of trace elements in relation to cardiovascular function and to various types of cardiovascular diseases. Such studies would provide clues to the following questions: 1. Why does the incidence and type of cardiovascular disease differ from one country to another? May this be related to differences in tissue mineral concentrations among various population groups? 2. Which trace elements if any are beneficial to cardiovascular health, and which are harmful ones that may act as aetiological agents for some cardiovascular diseases? 3. Is it possible to utilize measurements of mineral element concentration for diagnostic purposes in cardiovascular disease? (author)

  14. Genetic risks for cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zafarmand, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), which involves the heart, brain, and peripheral circulation, is a major health problem world-wide. The development of atherosclerosis is a complex process, and several established risk factors are involved. Nevertheless, these established risk factors

  15. Environmental Factors and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Faruk Tekbas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical observations have led to the hypothesis that the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases is influenced not only by genetic, lifestyle and major risk factors, but also by environmental factors. Environmental factors are considered key determinants of cardiovascular diseases. Although lifestyle choices such as smoking, diet, and exercise are viewed as major environmental influences, the contribution of pollutants and environmental chemicals is less clear. Accumulating evidence suggests that exposure to physically and chemical pollutants could elevate the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Many epidemiological studies report that exposure to physically, biologically and socio-cultural environmental factors are associated with an increase in cardiovascular mortality. Relationships between environmental factors and coronary arter disease, arhythmias, and cardiomyopathies have been reported. Exposures to arsenic, lead, cadmium, pollutant gases, solvents, and pesticides have also been linked to increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. In this paper, I review that relationships between exposure to physically, chemical, biologically and socio-cultural environmental factors and cardiovascular diseases. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(5.000: 435-444

  16. Psychosocial perspectives in cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedersen, S.S.; von Kaenel, R.; Tully, P.J.; Denollet, J.

    Adaptation to living with cardiovascular disease may differ from patient to patient and is influenced not only by disease severity and limitations incurred by the disease but also by socioeconomic factors (e.g. health literacy), the patients’ psychological make-up and susceptibility to distress.

  17. Pharmacogenomics and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weeke, Peter; Roden, Dan M

    2013-01-01

    Variability in drug responsiveness is a sine qua non of modern therapeutics, and the contribution of genomic variation is increasingly recognized. Investigating the genomic basis for variable responses to cardiovascular therapies has been a model for pharmacogenomics in general and has established...... resulted in changes to the product labels but also have led to development of initial clinical guidelines that consider how to facilitate incorporating genetic information to the bedside. This review summarizes the state of knowledge in cardiovascular pharmacogenomics and considers how variants described...

  18. Psychosocial perspectives in cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; von Känel, Roland; Tully, Phillip J

    2017-01-01

    Adaptation to living with cardiovascular disease may differ from patient to patient and is influenced not only by disease severity and limitations incurred by the disease but also by socioeconomic factors (e.g. health literacy), the patients' psychological make-up and susceptibility to distress. Co......-morbid depression and/or anxiety is prevalent in 20% of patients with cardiovascular disease, which may be either transient or chronic. Distress, such as depression, reduces adherence, serves as a barrier to behaviour change and the adoption of a healthy lifestyle, and increases the risk that patients drop out...

  19. Cardiovascular Disease in Relation to Placental Abruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ananth, Cande V.; Hansen, Anne Vinkel; Williams, Michelle A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular (CVD) complications stemming from vascular dysfunction have been widely explored in the setting of preeclampsia. However, the impact of abruption, a strong indicator of microvascular disturbance, on the risk of CVD mortality and morbidity remains poorly characterised...... person-years, respectively (HR 1.5, 95% CI 1.4, 1.8). The increased risks were evident for ischaemic heart disease, acute myocardial infarction, hypertensive heart disease, non-rheumatic valvular disease, and congestive heart failure. Conclusions: This study shows increased hazards of CVD morbidity...

  20. Optimal healing environments for chronic cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Debra A; Walizer, Elaine; Vernalis, Marina N

    2004-01-01

    A substantial increase in chronic cardiovascular disease is projected for the next several decades. This is attributable to an aging population and accelerated rates of obesity and diabetes. Despite technological advances that have improved survival for acute events, there is suboptimal translation of research knowledge for prevention and treatment of chronic cardiovascular illness. Beginning with a brief review of the demographics and pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, this paper discusses the obstacles and approaches to optimal care of patients with chronic cardiovascular disease. The novel concept of an optimal healing environment (OHE) is defined and explored as a model for integrative cardiac health care. Aspects generally underexamined in cardiac care such as intrapersonal/interpersonal characteristics of the health care provider and patient, mind/body/spirit wholeness and healing versus curing are discussed, as is the impact psychosocial factors may have on atherosclerosis and cardiovascular health. Information from research on the impact of an OHE might renew the healing mission in medicine, reveal new approaches for healing the heart and establish the importance of a heart-mind-body connection.

  1. Register-based studies of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildstrøm, Steen Z; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Madsen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The use of the unique personal identification number in the Nordic database systems enables the researchers to link the registers at the individual level. The registers can be used for both defining specific patient populations and to identify later events during follow-up. This rev...... the hospitalisation rate and treatment of cardiovascular disease. The risk of unmeasured factors affecting the results calls for cautious interpretation of the results.......-up. This review gives three examples within cardiovascular epidemiology to illustrate the use of the national administrative registers available to all researchers upon request. Research topics: The hospitalisation rate of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was expected to be increased and case-fatality rate......-based treatment increased significantly over time and adherence to treatment was high. Finally, use of specific nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs by healthy subjects was associated with a dose-dependent increase in cardiovascular risk. CONCLUSION: The nationwide registers have proven very useful in monitoring...

  2. Lower-limb hot-water immersion acutely induces beneficial hemodynamic and cardiovascular responses in peripheral arterial disease and healthy, elderly controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kate N; van Rij, André M; Lucas, Samuel J E; Cotter, James D

    2017-03-01

    Passive heat induces beneficial perfusion profiles, provides substantive cardiovascular strain, and reduces blood pressure, thereby holding potential for healthy and cardiovascular disease populations. The aim of this study was to assess acute responses to passive heat via lower-limb, hot-water immersion in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and healthy, elderly controls. Eleven patients with PAD (age 71 ± 6 yr, 7 male, 4 female) and 10 controls (age 72 ± 7 yr, 8 male, 2 female) underwent hot-water immersion (30-min waist-level immersion in 42.1 ± 0.6°C water). Before, during, and following immersion, brachial and popliteal artery diameter, blood flow, and shear stress were assessed using duplex ultrasound. Lower-limb perfusion was measured also using venous occlusion plethysmography and near-infrared spectroscopy. During immersion, shear rate increased ( P Lower-limb blood flow increased significantly in both groups, as measured from duplex ultrasound (>200%), plethysmography (>100%), and spectroscopy, while central and peripheral pulse-wave velocity decreased in both groups. Mean arterial blood pressure was reduced by 22 ± 9 mmHg (main effect P lower 3 h afterward. In PAD, popliteal shear profiles and claudication both compared favorably with those measured immediately following symptom-limited walking. A 30-min hot-water immersion is a practical means of delivering heat therapy to PAD patients and healthy, elderly individuals to induce appreciable systemic (chronotropic and blood pressure lowering) and hemodynamic (upper and lower-limb perfusion and shear rate increases) responses. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Animal Models of Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Zaragoza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are the first leading cause of death and morbidity in developed countries. The use of animal models have contributed to increase our knowledge, providing new approaches focused to improve the diagnostic and the treatment of these pathologies. Several models have been developed to address cardiovascular complications, including atherothrombotic and cardiac diseases, and the same pathology have been successfully recreated in different species, including small and big animal models of disease. However, genetic and environmental factors play a significant role in cardiovascular pathophysiology, making difficult to match a particular disease, with a single experimental model. Therefore, no exclusive method perfectly recreates the human complication, and depending on the model, additional considerations of cost, infrastructure, and the requirement for specialized personnel, should also have in mind. Considering all these facts, and depending on the budgets available, models should be selected that best reproduce the disease being investigated. Here we will describe models of atherothrombotic diseases, including expanding and occlusive animal models, as well as models of heart failure. Given the wide range of models available, today it is possible to devise the best strategy, which may help us to find more efficient and reliable solutions against human cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Animal models of cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza, Carlos; Gomez-Guerrero, Carmen; Martin-Ventura, Jose Luis; Blanco-Colio, Luis; Lavin, Begoña; Mallavia, Beñat; Tarin, Carlos; Mas, Sebastian; Ortiz, Alberto; Egido, Jesus

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the first leading cause of death and morbidity in developed countries. The use of animal models have contributed to increase our knowledge, providing new approaches focused to improve the diagnostic and the treatment of these pathologies. Several models have been developed to address cardiovascular complications, including atherothrombotic and cardiac diseases, and the same pathology have been successfully recreated in different species, including small and big animal models of disease. However, genetic and environmental factors play a significant role in cardiovascular pathophysiology, making difficult to match a particular disease, with a single experimental model. Therefore, no exclusive method perfectly recreates the human complication, and depending on the model, additional considerations of cost, infrastructure, and the requirement for specialized personnel, should also have in mind. Considering all these facts, and depending on the budgets available, models should be selected that best reproduce the disease being investigated. Here we will describe models of atherothrombotic diseases, including expanding and occlusive animal models, as well as models of heart failure. Given the wide range of models available, today it is possible to devise the best strategy, which may help us to find more efficient and reliable solutions against human cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Acute, subacute and subchronic toxicological studies of carissa carandas leaves (ethanol extract): a plant active against cardiovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamim, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Purpose of this research study was to examine the toxicological effects of aqueous: ethanol (1:1) extract of Carissa carandas leaves extracts in rats. Methodolgy: Acute toxicity studies were conducted to check the LD50 values in experimental animals. Autopsy after acute toxicity revealed that no gross changes were observed in organs like liver, spleen, heart and kidney among the animals of group N (control) and S (treated). The appearance of organs of Group S animals was comparable with that of Group N animals. Results: No signs of toxicity and mortality were observed in treated group after sub acute toxicity as compared to the control group. The histopathological studies after subchronic toxicity in doses of 1750 mg/kg (p.o.) and 5000 mg/kg (p.o) showed no toxic effects on organs like liver, heart, kidney and spleen. While chronic toxicity in dose 5000 mg/kg (p.o.) showed some histological changes. (author)

  6. Cardiovascular calcification. An inflammatory disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New, S.E.P.; Aikawa, E.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular calcification is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This disease of dysregulated metabolism is no longer viewed as a passive degenerative disease, but instead as an active process triggered by pro-inflammatory cues. Furthermore, a positive feedback loop of calcification and inflammation is hypothesized to drive disease progression in arterial calcification. Both calcific aortic valve disease and atherosclerotic arterial calcification may possess similar underlying mechanisms. Early histopathological studies first highlighted the contribution of inflammation to cardiovascular calcification by demonstrating the accumulation of macrophages and T lymphocytes in 'early' lesions within the aortic valves and arteries. A series of in vitro work followed, which gave a mechanistic insight into the stimulation of smooth muscle cells to undergo osteogenic differentiation and mineralization. The emergence of novel technology, in the form of animal models and more recently molecular imaging, has enabled accelerated progression of this field, by providing strong evidence regarding the concept of this disorder as an inflammatory disease. Although there are still gaps in our knowledge of the mechanisms behind this disorder, this review discusses the various studies that have helped form the concept of the inflammation-dependent cardiovascular calcification paradigm. (author)

  7. Laser therapy in cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindge, David

    2009-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death worldwide. It is broadly defined to include anything which adversely affects the heart or blood vessels. One-third of Americans have one or more forms of it. By one estimate, average human life expectancy would increase by seven years if it were eliminated. The mainstream medical model seeks mostly to "manage" cardiovascular disease with pharmaceuticals or to surgically bypass or reopen blocked vessels via angioplasty. These methods have proven highly useful and saved countless lives. Yet drug therapy may be costly and ongoing, and it carries the risk of side effects while often doing little or nothing to improve underlying health concerns. Similarly, angioplasty or surgery are invasive methods which entail risk. Laser therapy1 regenerates tissue, stimulates biological function, reduces inflammation and alleviates pain. Its efficacy and safety have been increasingly well documented in cardiovascular disease of many kinds. In this article we will explore the effects of laser therapy in angina, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, myocardial infarction, stroke and other conditions. The clinical application of various methods of laser therapy, including laserpuncture and transcutaneous, supravascular and intravenous irradiation of blood will be discussed. Implementing laser therapy in the treatment of cardiovascular disease offers the possibility of increasing the health and wellbeing of patients while reducing the costs and enhancing safety of medical care.

  8. Vitamin E and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.; Knipschild, P.; ter Riet, G.

    1989-01-01

    Randomized clinical trials of the effects of Vitamin E on complaints of intermittent claudication and angina pectoris are reviewed, and their methodological shortcomings are considered. Mechanisms by which Vitamin E might act in cardiovascular disease are discussed. The evidence about the possible

  9. NKT cells in cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puijvelde, van G.H.M.; Kuiper, J.

    2017-01-01

    Despite life-style advice and the prescription of cholesterol-lowering and anti-thrombotic drugs, cardiovascular diseases are still the leading cause of death worldwide. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new therapeutic strategies focussing on atherosclerosis, the major underlying pathology of

  10. NKT cells in cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Puijvelde, Gijs H M; Kuiper, Johan

    2017-12-05

    Despite life-style advice and the prescription of cholesterol-lowering and anti-thrombotic drugs, cardiovascular diseases are still the leading cause of death worldwide. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new therapeutic strategies focussing on atherosclerosis, the major underlying pathology of cardiovascular diseases characterized by an accumulation of lipids in an inflamed arterial/vessel wall. CD1d-restricted lipid-sensing natural killer T (NKT) cells, bridging the innate and adaptive immunity, and CD1d-expressing antigen-presenting cells are detected in atherosclerotic lesions of mice and humans. In this review we will summarize studies that point to a critical role for NKT cells in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases by the secretion of pro-atherogenic cytokines and cytotoxins. These pro-atherogenic NKT cells are potential targets for new therapeutic strategies in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Additionally, proteins transferring lipids during atherosclerosis, which are also important in the loading of lipids onto CD1d and possible endogenous ligands responsible for the activation of NKT cells during atherosclerosis will be discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Contraception and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos-Hesselink, JolienW.; Cornette, Jerome; Sliwa, Karen; Pieper, Petronella G.; Veldtman, Gruschen R.; Johnson, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Contraceptive counselling should begin early in females with heart disease, preferably directly after the start of menstruation. In coming to a decision about the method of contraception, the following issues should be considered: (i) the risk of pregnancy for the mother and the consequences of an

  12. Cardiovascular disease after cancer therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aleman, Berthe M P; Moser, Elizabeth C; Nuver, Janine

    2014-01-01

    Improvements in treatment and earlier diagnosis have both contributed to increased survival for many cancer patients. Unfortunately, many treatments carry a risk of late effects including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), possibly leading to significant morbidity and mortality. In this paper we......, and the mechanisms involved, as well as the extent to which treatments may increase CVD indirectly by increasing cardiovascular risk factors is also important. Systematic collection of data relating treatment details to late effects is needed, and great care is needed to obtain valid and generalisable results...

  13. Sex steroids and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Beng Yeap

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As men grow older, testosterone (T levels decline and the significance of this change is debated. The evidence supporting a causal role for lower circulating T, or its metabolites dihydrotestosterone (DHT and estradiol, in the genesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD in men is limited. Observational studies associate low baseline T levels with carotid atherosclerosis, aortic and peripheral vascular disease, and with the incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality. Studies using mass spectrometry suggest that when total T is assayed optimally, calculation of free T might not necessarily improve risk stratification. There is limited evidence to support an association of estradiol with CVD. Interventional studies of T therapy in men with coronary artery disease have shown beneficial effects on exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. However, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials (RCTs of T therapy in men with the prespecified outcomes of cardiovascular events or deaths are lacking. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of T published up to 2010 found no increase in cardiovascular events, mortality, or prostate cancer with therapy. Recently, in a trial of older men with mobility limitations, men randomized to receive a substantial dose of T reported cardiovascular adverse effects. This phenomenon was not reported from a comparable trial where men received a more conservative dose of T, suggesting a prudent approach should be adopted when considering therapy in frail older men with existing CVD. Adequately powered RCTs of T in middle-aged and older men are needed to clarify whether or not hormonal intervention would reduce the incidence of CVD.

  14. Sex steroids and cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeap, Bu Beng

    2014-01-01

    As men grow older, testosterone (T) levels decline and the significance of this change is debated. The evidence supporting a causal role for lower circulating T, or its metabolites dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and estradiol, in the genesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in men is limited. Observational studies associate low baseline T levels with carotid atherosclerosis, aortic and peripheral vascular disease, and with the incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality. Studies using mass spectrometry suggest that when total T is assayed optimally, calculation of free T might not necessarily improve risk stratification. There is limited evidence to support an association of estradiol with CVD. Interventional studies of T therapy in men with coronary artery disease have shown beneficial effects on exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. However, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of T therapy in men with the prespecified outcomes of cardiovascular events or deaths are lacking. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of T published up to 2010 found no increase in cardiovascular events, mortality, or prostate cancer with therapy. Recently, in a trial of older men with mobility limitations, men randomized to receive a substantial dose of T reported cardiovascular adverse effects. This phenomenon was not reported from a comparable trial where men received a more conservative dose of T, suggesting a prudent approach should be adopted when considering therapy in frail older men with existing CVD. Adequately powered RCTs of T in middle-aged and older men are needed to clarify whether or not hormonal intervention would reduce the incidence of CVD. PMID:24407188

  15. Trends in Hospitalization and Mortality Rates Due to Acute Cardiovascular Disease in Castile and León, 2001 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Messa, Juan B; Andrés-de Llano, Jesús M; López-Fernández, Laura; García-Cruces, Jesús; García-Crespo, Julio; Prieto González, Miryam

    2018-02-01

    To analyze hospitalization and mortality rates due to acute cardiovascular disease (ACVD). We conducted a cross-sectional study of the hospital discharge database of Castile and León from 2001 to 2015, selecting patients with a principal discharge diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), unstable angina, heart failure, or acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Trends in the rates of hospitalization/100 000 inhabitants/y and hospital mortality/1000 hospitalizations/y, overall and by sex, were studied by joinpoint regression analysis. A total of 239 586 ACVD cases (AMI 55 004; unstable angina 15 406; heart failure 111 647; AIS 57 529) were studied. The following statistically significant trends were observed: hospitalization: ACVD, upward from 2001 to 2007 (5.14; 95%CI, 3.5-6.8; P < .005), downward from 2011 to 2015 (3.7; 95%CI, 1.0-6.4; P < .05); unstable angina, downward from 2001 to 2010 (-12.73; 95%CI, -14.8 to -10.6; P < .05); AMI, upward from 2001 to 2003 (15.6; 95%CI, 3.8-28.9; P < .05), downward from 2003 to 2015 (-1.20; 95%CI, -1.8 to -0.6; P < .05); heart failure, upward from 2001 to 2007 (10.70; 95%CI, 8.7-12.8; P < .05), upward from 2007 to 2015 (1.10; 95%CI, 0.1-2.1; P < .05); AIS, upward from 2001 to 2007 (4.44; 95%CI, 2.9-6.0; P < .05). Mortality rates: downward from 2001 to 2015 in ACVD (-1.16; 95%CI, -2.1 to -0.2; P < .05), AMI (-3.37, 95%CI, -4.4 to -2, 3, P < .05), heart failure (-1.25; 95%CI, -2.3 to -0.1; P < .05) and AIS (-1.78; 95%CI, -2.9 to -0.6; P < .05); unstable angina, upward from 2001 to 2007 (24.73; 95%CI, 14.2-36.2; P < .05). The ACVD analyzed showed a rising trend in hospitalization rates from 2001 to 2015, which was especially marked for heart failure, and a decreasing trend in hospital mortality rates, which were similar in men and women. These data point to a stabilization and a decline in hospital mortality, attributable to established prevention measures. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by

  16. Heart Disease, Stroke, or Other Cardiovascular Disease and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adult Diseases Resources Heart Disease, Stroke, or Other Cardiovascular Disease and Adult Vaccination Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... important step in staying healthy. If you have cardiovascular disease, talk with your doctor about getting your vaccinations ...

  17. Cocoa, chocolate, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galleano, Monica; Oteiza, Patricia I; Fraga, Cesar G

    2009-12-01

    A significant body of evidence demonstrates that diets rich in fruits and vegetables promote health and attenuate, or delay, the onset of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, certain cancers, and several other age-related degenerative disorders. The concept that moderate chocolate consumption could be part of a healthy diet has gained acceptance in past years based on the health benefits ascribed to selected cocoa components. Specifically, cocoa as a plant and chocolate as food contain a series of chemicals that can interact with cell and tissue components, providing protection against the development and amelioration of pathological conditions. The most relevant effects of cocoa and chocolate have been related to cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms behind these effects are still under investigation. However, the maintenance or restoration of vascular NO production and bioavailability and the antioxidant effects are the mechanisms most consistently supported by experimental data. This review will summarize the most recent research on the cardiovascular effects of cocoa flavanols and related compounds.

  18. Cell Therapy in Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Madani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Recently, cell therapy has sparked a revolution in ischemic heart disease that will in the future help clinicians to cure patients. Earlier investigations in animal models and clinical trials have suggested that positive paracrine effects such as neoangiogenesis and anti-apoptotic can improve myocardial function. In this regard the Royan cell therapy center designed a few trials in collaboration with multi hospitals such as Baqiyatallah, Shahid Lavasani, Tehran Heart Center, Shahid rajaee, Masih daneshvari, Imam Reza, Razavi and Sasan from 2006. Their results were interesting. However, cardiac stem cell therapy still faces great challenges in optimizing the treatment of patients. Keyword: Cardiovascular disease, Cell therapy.  

  19. Editor's Choice - Acute Cardiovascular Care Association Position Paper on Intensive Cardiovascular Care Units: An update on their definition, structure, organisation and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefoy-Cudraz, Eric; Bueno, Hector; Casella, Gianni; De Maria, Elia; Fitzsimons, Donna; Halvorsen, Sigrun; Hassager, Christian; Iakobishvili, Zaza; Magdy, Ahmed; Marandi, Toomas; Mimoso, Jorge; Parkhomenko, Alexander; Price, Susana; Rokyta, Richard; Roubille, Francois; Serpytis, Pranas; Shimony, Avi; Stepinska, Janina; Tint, Diana; Trendafilova, Elina; Tubaro, Marco; Vrints, Christiaan; Walker, David; Zahger, Doron; Zima, Endre; Zukermann, Robert; Lettino, Maddalena

    2018-02-01

    Acute cardiovascular care has progressed considerably since the last position paper was published 10 years ago. It is now a well-defined, complex field with demanding multidisciplinary teamworking. The Acute Cardiovascular Care Association has provided this update of the 2005 position paper on acute cardiovascular care organisation, using a multinational working group. The patient population has changed, and intensive cardiovascular care units now manage a large range of conditions from those simply requiring specialised monitoring, to critical cardiovascular diseases with associated multi-organ failure. To describe better intensive cardiovascular care units case mix, acuity of care has been divided into three levels, and then defining intensive cardiovascular care unit functional organisation. For each level of intensive cardiovascular care unit, this document presents the aims of the units, the recommended management structure, the optimal number of staff, the need for specially trained cardiologists and cardiovascular nurses, the desired equipment and architecture, and the interaction with other departments in the hospital and other intensive cardiovascular care units in the region/area. This update emphasises cardiologist training, referring to the recently updated Acute Cardiovascular Care Association core curriculum on acute cardiovascular care. The training of nurses in acute cardiovascular care is additionally addressed. Intensive cardiovascular care unit expertise is not limited to within the unit's geographical boundaries, extending to different specialties and subspecialties of cardiology and other specialties in order to optimally manage the wide scope of acute cardiovascular conditions in frequently highly complex patients. This position paper therefore addresses the need for the inclusion of acute cardiac care and intensive cardiovascular care units within a hospital network, linking university medical centres, large community hospitals, and smaller

  20. Apolipoprotein E and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Moreno Valladares

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein E is a polymorphic glycoprotein who interacts with the lipoprotein receptors (LRP-Receptor Related Protein and the receptors for low density lipoproteins of (LDL receptors. When lipoproteins bring up the receptors begins lipids captation and degradation which allows cholesterol utilization, taking place an intracellular auto regulation. The three isoforms of greater importance: Apo E2, E3 and E4 are product of three alleles e2, e3, e4 of one only gene. This factor is related with the amount of lipoproteins that contains ApoE for E/B receptors. A low concentration of lipoproteins with ApoE can increase the activity of LDL receptors and consequently downward the circulating LDL. In the other hand particles with Apo E3 or Apo E4, can cause a downward regulation of LDL and in this way produces a LDL plasma elevation. Many studies in human populations have concluded that this polymorphism of apoE and the plasma variation of lipoproteins are associated with cardiovascular risk. Cardiovascular disease is the result of different interaction between factors which are genetic factor specially ApoE polymorphism e4 allelic of ApoE can explain, in some degree, the greater frequency of cardiovascular disease in those who carries it.

  1. Risk Factors in the Initial Presentation of Specific Cardiovascular Disease Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-03

    Heart Diseases; Cardiovascular Diseases; Acute Myocardial Infarction; Unstable Angina; Chronic Stable Angina; Ischemic Stroke; Cerebrovascular Accident; Subarachnoid Hemorrhage; Transient Ischemic Attack; Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm; Peripheral Arterial Disease; Sudden Coronary Death; Ventricular Arrhythmia; Sudden Death; Cardiac Arrest; Heart Failure

  2. Educational inequality in cardiovascular disease depends on diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne V; Koch, Mette B; Davidsen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Social inequality is present in the morbidity as well as the mortality of cardiovascular diseases. This paper aims to quantify and compare the level of educational inequality across different cardiovascular diagnoses. DESIGN: Register based study. METHODS: Comparison of the extent...... index of inequality: -29 (-35.1; -21.9) to -1 (-4.8; -3.8)). CONCLUSION: The degree of educational inequality in cardiovascular diseases depends on the diagnosis, with the highest inequality in ischaemic heart disease, acute myocardial infarction, heart failure and stroke. Small differences were found...... of inequality across different cardiovascular diagnoses requires a measure of inequality which is comparable across subgroups with different educational distributions. The slope index of inequality and the relative index of inequality were applied for measuring inequalities in incidence of six cardiovascular...

  3. Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny J. Eapen, MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death worldwide. This article focuses on current guidelines for the primary prevention of CVD and addresses management of key risk factors. Dietary modification, weight loss, exercise, and tobacco use cessation are specific areas where focused efforts can successfully reduce CVD risk on both an individual and a societal level. Specific areas requiring management include dyslipidemia, hypertension, physical activity, diabetes, aspirin use, and alcohol intake. These preventive efforts have major public health implications. As the global population continues to grow, health care expenditures will also rise, with the potential to eventually overwhelm the health care system. Therefore it is imperative to apply our collective efforts on CVD prevention to improve the cardiovascular health of individuals, communities, and nations.

  4. Oxidative stress in cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamal K Goswami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress caused by various oxygen containing free radicals and reactive species (collectively called "Reactive Oxygen Species" or ROS has long been attributed to cardiovascular diseases. In human body, major oxidizing species are super oxide, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, peroxy nitrite etc. ROS are produced from distinct cellular sources, enzymatic and non-enzymatic; have specific physicochemical properties and often have specific cellular targets. Although early studies in nineteen sixties and seventies highlighted the deleterious effects of these species, later it was established that they also act as physiological modulators of cellular functions and diseases occur only when ROS production is deregulated. One of the major sources of cellular ROS is Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases (Noxes that are expressed in almost all cell types. Superoxide and hydrogen peroxide generated from them under various conditions act as signal transducers. Due to their immense importance in cellular physiology, various Nox inhibitors are now being developed as therapeutics. Another free radical of importance in cardiovascular system is nitric oxide (a reactive nitrogen species generated from nitric oxide synthase(s. It plays a critical role in cardiac function and its dysregulated generation along with superoxide leads to the formation of peroxynitrite a highly deleterious agent. Despite overwhelming evidences of association between increased level of ROS and cardiovascular diseases, antioxidant therapies using vitamins and omega 3 fatty acids have largely been unsuccessful till date. Also, there are major discrepancies between studies with laboratory animals and human trials. It thus appears that the biology of ROS is far complex than anticipated before. A comprehensive understanding of the redox biology of diseases is thus needed for developing targeted therapeutics.

  5. Association between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, M.M.; Salama, R.P.

    2004-01-01

    Studies have supported the notion that subjects with periodontitis and patients with multiple tooth extractions as a result of chronic advanced periodontal disease (PDD) have a greater risk of developing Cardiovascular disease (CVD) than those who had little or no periodontal infection. Periodontitis may predispose affected patients to CVD by elevating systemic C-reactive protein level and pro-inflammatory activity in atherosclerotic lesions and accelerate development of cardiovascular diseases, Oral health variables including loss of teeth, positive plaque Benzoyl-D-L-Arginine- Naphthyl Amide test (BANA) scores, and compliant of xerostomia may by considered as risk indicators for CVD. Exact mechanism which links PDD and CVD has not been firmly established. The link between PDD and CVD may be attributed to bacteria entering blood stream and attaching to the fatty plaque in coronary artery and contributing to clot formation which can lead to heart attack. Inflammation caused by PDD increases the plaque build up. The association between the two disease entities is cause for concern. However, dental and medical practitioners should be aware of these findings to move intelligently to interact with inquiring patients with periodontitis. They should be urged to maintain medical surveillance of their cardiovascular status, and work on controlling or reducing all known risk factors associated with CVD, including periodontal infection. (author)

  6. Association between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehman, M M; Salama, R P [Ajman Univ. of Science and Technology Network, Abu-Dhabi Campus (United Arab Emirates)

    2004-06-01

    Studies have supported the notion that subjects with periodontitis and patients with multiple tooth extractions as a result of chronic advanced periodontal disease (PDD) have a greater risk of developing Cardiovascular disease (CVD) than those who had little or no periodontal infection. Periodontitis may predispose affected patients to CVD by elevating systemic C-reactive protein level and pro-inflammatory activity in atherosclerotic lesions and accelerate development of cardiovascular diseases, Oral health variables including loss of teeth, positive plaque Benzoyl-D-L-Arginine- Naphthyl Amide test (BANA) scores, and compliant of xerostomia may by considered as risk indicators for CVD. Exact mechanism which links PDD and CVD has not been firmly established. The link between PDD and CVD may be attributed to bacteria entering blood stream and attaching to the fatty plaque in coronary artery and contributing to clot formation which can lead to heart attack. Inflammation caused by PDD increases the plaque build up. The association between the two disease entities is cause for concern. However, dental and medical practitioners should be aware of these findings to move intelligently to interact with inquiring patients with periodontitis. They should be urged to maintain medical surveillance of their cardiovascular status, and work on controlling or reducing all known risk factors associated with CVD, including periodontal infection. (author)

  7. Lipid measures and cardiovascular disease prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, D.F.; Stroes, E.S.G.; Kastelein, J.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Traditional lipid measures are the cornerstone of risk assessment and treatment goals in cardiovascular prevention. Whereas the association between total, LDL-, HDL-cholesterol and cardiovascular disease risk has been generally acknowledged, the rather poor capacity to distinguish between patients

  8. Top 10 Myths about Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Top 10 Myths about Cardiovascular Disease Updated:Mar 16,2018 How much do ... Healthy This content was last reviewed July 2015. Cardiovascular Conditions • Conditions Home • Arrhythmia and Atrial Fibrillation • Cardiac ...

  9. Plausible mechanisms explaining the association of periodontitis with cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, B.G.; Teeuw, W.J.; Nicu, E.A.; Lynge Petersen, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The association between periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases is now well established. Cardiovascular diseases include atherosclerosis, coronary heart (artery) disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral artery disease. Atherosclerosis is the underlying pathology of cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Hormone Therapy and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Ping Chen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available As in other Western countries, cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death among women in Taiwan, exceeding the mortality from cervical or breast cancer. Women generally present with CVD after menopause and later than men, since menopause-related estrogen deficiency has been considered to be associated with an increased risk for CVD. Thus, coronary artery diseases and stroke are the two main contributors of mortality among postmenopausal women. Observational studies have reported a reduction in coronary artery disease risk after hormone therapy (HT ranging from 31-44%. However, recent randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effect of HT on primary and secondary CVD prevention have questioned the efficacy of HT, despite confirming the lipid-lowering effect of estrogen. However, a cluster of factors are responsible for the genesis and progression of CVD. Until we further evaluate their specific actions and how these different factors interact, the issue related to HT and cardiovascular risk will remain unsettled. Since these studies have contributed to our understanding of the benefits and risks associated with HT, HT use should be individualized after consideration of the condition of each postmenopausal patient. Ideally, the efficacy of different preparations and dosages of HT in postmenopausal women who are at risk of CVD, before atheromatous lesions have developed, should be investigated.

  11. Marijuana Use and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Christopher A; Frishman, William H

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is currently the most used illicit substance in the world. With the current trend of decriminalization and legalization of marijuana in the US, physicians in the US will encounter more patients using marijuana recreationally over a diverse range of ages and health states. Therefore, it is relevant to review marijuana's effects on human cardiovascular physiology and disease. Compared with placebo, marijuana cigarettes cause increases in heart rate, supine systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and forearm blood flow via increased sympathetic nervous system activity. These actions increase myocardial oxygen demand to a degree that they can decrease the time to exercise-induced angina in patients with a history of stable angina. In addition, marijuana has been associated with triggering myocardial infarctions (MIs) in young male patients. Smoking marijuana has been shown to increase the risk of MI onset by a factor of 4.8 for the 60 minutes after marijuana consumption, and to increase the annual risk of MI in the daily cannabis user from 1.5% to 3% per year. Human and animal models suggest that this effect may be due to coronary arterial vasospasm. However, longitudinal studies have indicated that marijuana use may not have a significant effect on long-term mortality. While further research is required to definitively determine the impact of marijuana on cardiovascular disease, it is reasonable to recommend against recreational marijuana use, especially in individuals with a history of coronary artery disorders.

  12. Chronic Inflammatory Diseases and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Riis

    2018-01-01

    Inflammation plays a significant role in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Patients with chronic inflammatory diseases are at increased risk of CVD, but it is debated whether this association is causal or dependent on shared risk factors, other exposures, genes, and/or inflammatory...... pathways. The current review summarizes epidemiological, clinical, and experimental data supporting the role of shared inflammatory mechanisms between atherosclerotic CVD and rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, and periodontitis, respectively, and provides insights to future...... prospects in this area of research. Awareness of the role of inflammation in CVD in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases and the potential for anti-inflammatory therapy, e.g., with tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors, to also reduce atherosclerotic CVD has evolved into guideline- based recommendations...

  13. Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer: Student Awareness Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, James H., Comp.

    Awareness activities pertaining to cancer and cardiovascular disease are presented as a supplement for high school science classes. The exercises can be used to enrich units of study dealing with the circulatory system, the cell, or human diseases. Eight activities deal with the following topics: (1) cardiovascular disease risk factors; (2)…

  14. Risk of bleeding related to antithrombotic treatment in cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke; Olesen, Jonas B; Charlot, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Antithrombotic therapy is a cornerstone of treatment in patients with cardiovascular disease with bleeding being the most feared complication. This review describes the risk of bleeding related to different combinations of antithrombotic drugs used for cardiovascular disease: acute coronary...... syndrome (ACS), atrial fibrillation (AF), cerebrovascular (CVD) and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Different risk assessment schemes and bleeding definitions are compared. The HAS-BLED risk score is recommended in patients with AF and in ACS patients with AF. In patients with ACS with or without...

  15. Cardiovascular disease after cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Berthe M.P.; Moser, Elizabeth C.; Nuver, Janine; Suter, Thomas M.; Maraldo, Maja V.; Specht, Lena; Vrieling, Conny; Darby, Sarah C.

    2014-01-01

    Improvements in treatment and earlier diagnosis have both contributed to increased survival for many cancer patients. Unfortunately, many treatments carry a risk of late effects including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), possibly leading to significant morbidity and mortality. In this paper we describe current knowledge of the cardiotoxicity arising from cancer treatments, outline gaps in knowledge, and indicate directions for future research and guideline development, as discussed during the 2014 Cancer Survivorship Summit organised by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC). Better knowledge is needed of the late effects of modern systemic treatments and of radiotherapy to critical structures of the heart, including the effect of both radiation dose and volume of the heart exposed. Research elucidating the extent to which treatments interact in causing CVD, and the mechanisms involved, as well as the extent to which treatments may increase CVD indirectly by increasing cardiovascular risk factors is also important. Systematic collection of data relating treatment details to late effects is needed, and great care is needed to obtain valid and generalisable results. Better knowledge of these cardiac effects will contribute to both primary and secondary prevention of late complications where exposure to cardiotoxic treatment is unavoidable. Also surrogate markers would help to identify patients at increased risk of cardiotoxicity. Evidence-based screening guidelines for CVD following cancer are also needed. Finally, risk prediction models should be developed to guide primary treatment choice and appropriate follow up after cancer treatment. PMID:26217163

  16. Dietary fat and cardiovascular disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie T. Merijanti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary saturated fat (SF intake has been shown to increase low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol and therefore has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. This evidence coupled with inferences from epidemiologic studies and clinical trials, had led to longstanding public health recommendations for limiting SF intake as a means of preventing CVD. However the relationship between SF and CVD risk remains controversial, due at least in part to the intrinsic limitations of clinical studies that have evaluated this relationship. A recent meta analysis showed that current evidence does not clearly support cardiovascular guidelines that encourage high consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and low consumption of total SF. They found weak positive associations between circulating palmitic and stearic acids (found largely in palm oil and animal fats, respectively and CVD, whereas circulating margaric acid (a dairy fat significantly reduced the risk of CVD.(2,3 Saturated fat are not associated with all cause mortality, CVD, CHD, ischemic stroke or type 2 diabetes, but the evidence is heterogenous with methodological limitations.

  17. Cardiovascular Disease and Chronic Inflammation in End Stage Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Zyga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD is one of the most severe diseases worldwide. In patients affected by CKD, a progressive destruction of the nephrons is observed not only in structuralbut also in functional level. Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease of large and medium-sized arteries. It is characterized by the deposition of lipids and fibrous elements and is a common complication of the uremic syndrome because of the coexistence of a wide range of risk factors. High blood pressure, anaemia, insulin resistance, inflammation, high oxidative stress are some of the most common factors that cause cardiovascular disease and atherogenesis in patients suffering from End Stage Kidney Disease (ESRD. At the same time, the inflammatory process constitutes a common element in the apparition and development of CKD. A wide range of possible causes can justify the development of inflammation under uremic conditions. Such causes are oxidative stress, oxidation, coexistentpathological conditions as well as factors that are due to renal clearance techniques. Patients in ESRD and coronary disease usually show increased acute phase products. Pre-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and TNF-a, and acute phase reactants, such as CRP and fibrinogen, are closely related. The treatment of chronic inflammation in CKD is of high importance for the development ofthe disease as well as for the treatment of cardiovascular morbidity.Conclusions: The treatment factors focus on the use of renin-angiotensic system inhibitors, acetylsalicylic acid, statins and anti-oxidant treatment in order to prevent the action of inflammatorycytokines that have the ability to activate the mechanisms of inflammation.

  18. Vitamin D, cardiovascular disease and risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Thuesen, Betina H.; Linneberg, Allan

    2017-01-01

    of vitamin D effects from a cardiovascular health perspective. It focuses on vitamin D in relation to cardiovascular disease, i.e. ischemic heart disease, and stroke; the traditional cardiovascular risk factors hypertension, abnormal blood lipids, obesity; and the emerging risk factors hyperparathyroidism......, microalbuminuria, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Meta-analyses of observational studies have largely found vitamin D levels to be inversely associated with cardiovascular risk and disease. However, Mendelian randomization studies and randomized, controlled trials...... (RCTs) have not been able to consistently replicate the observational findings. Several RCTs are ongoing, and the results from these are needed to clarify whether vitamin D deficiency is a causal and reversible factor to prevent cardiovascular disease....

  19. Ethnic differences in the occurrence of acute coronary syndrome: results of the Malaysian National Cardiovascular Disease (NCVD) Database Registry (March 2006 - February 2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hou Tee; Nordin, Rusli Bin

    2013-11-06

    The National Cardiovascular Disease (NCVD) Database Registry represents one of the first prospective, multi-center registries to treat and prevent coronary artery disease (CAD) in Malaysia. Since ethnicity is an important consideration in the occurrence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) globally, therefore, we aimed to identify the role of ethnicity in the occurrence of ACS among high-risk groups in the Malaysian population. The NCVD involves more than 15 Ministry of Health (MOH) hospitals nationwide, universities and the National Heart Institute and enrolls patients presenting with ACS [ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and unstable angina (UA)]. We analyzed ethnic differences across socio-demographic characteristics, hospital medications and invasive therapeutic procedures, treatment of STEMI and in-hospital clinical outcomes. We enrolled 13,591 patients. The distribution of the NCVD population was as follows: 49.0% Malays, 22.5% Chinese, 23.1% Indians and 5.3% Others (representing other indigenous groups and non-Malaysian nationals). The mean age (SD) of ACS patients at presentation was 59.1 (12.0) years. More than 70% were males. A higher proportion of patients within each ethnic group had more than two coronary risk factors. Malays had higher body mass index (BMI). Chinese had highest rate of hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Indians had higher rate of diabetes mellitus (DM) and family history of premature CAD. Overall, more patients had STEMI than NSTEMI or UA among all ethnic groups. The use of aspirin was more than 94% among all ethnic groups. Utilization rates for elective and emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) were low among all ethnic groups. In STEMI, fibrinolysis (streptokinase) appeared to be the dominant treatment options (>70%) for all ethnic groups. In-hospital mortality rates for STEMI across ethnicity ranges from 8.1% to 10.1% (p = 0

  20. Depression: risk factor for cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuehl, L.K.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Otte, C.

    2012-01-01

    Major depression is an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. In patients with existing cardiovascular disease, major depression has a large impact on the quality of life and is associated with a poor course and prognosis. Potential mechanisms responsible for this

  1. The gut microbiome in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jie, Zhuye; Xia, Huihua; Zhong, Shi-Long

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiota has been linked to cardiovascular diseases. However, the composition and functional capacity of the gut microbiome in relation to cardiovascular diseases have not been systematically examined. Here, we perform a metagenome-wide association study on stools from 218 individuals...... with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD) and 187 healthy controls. The ACVD gut microbiome deviates from the healthy status by increased abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Streptococcus spp. and, functionally, in the potential for metabolism or transport of several molecules important for cardiovascular......), with liver cirrhosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Our data represent a comprehensive resource for further investigations on the role of the gut microbiome in promoting or preventing ACVD as well as other related diseases.The gut microbiota may play a role in cardiovascular diseases. Here, the authors perform...

  2. The Impact of Educational Status on 10-Year (2004-2014 Cardiovascular Disease Prognosis and All-cause Mortality Among Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients in the Greek Acute Coronary Syndrome (GREECS Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venetia Notara

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The association between educational status and 10-year risk for acute coronary syndrome (ACS and all-cause mortality was evaluated. Methods: From October 2003 to September 2004, 2172 consecutive ACS patients from six Greek hospitals were enrolled. In 2013 to 2014, a 10-year follow-up (2004-2014 assessment was performed for 1918 participants (participation rate, 88%. Each patient’s educational status was classified as low (14 years. Results: Overall all-cause mortality was almost twofold higher in the low-education group than in the intermediate-education and high-education groups (40% vs. 22% and 19%, respectively, p<0.001. Additionally, 10-year recurrent ACS events (fatal and non-fatal were more common in the low-education group than in the intermediate-education and high-education groups (42% vs. 30% and 35%, p<0.001, and no interactions between sex and education on the investigated outcomes were observed. Moreover, patients in the high-education group were more physically active, had a better financial status, and were less likely to have hypertension, diabetes, or ACS than the participants with the least education (p<0.001; however, when those characteristics and lifestyle habits were accounted for, no moderating effects regarding the relationship of educational status with all-cause mortality and ACS events were observed. Conclusions: A U-shaped association may be proposed for the relationship between ACS prognosis and educational status, with participants in the low-education and high-education groups being negatively affected by other factors (e.g., job stress, depression, or loneliness. Public health policies should be aimed at specific social groups to reduce the overall burden of cardiovascular disease morbidity.

  3. Cardiovascular Disease, Mitochondria, and Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrated that mitochondria play an important role in the cardiovascular system and mutations of mitochondrial DNA affect coronary artery disease, resulting in hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cardiomyopathy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has been used for thousands of years to treat cardiovascular disease, but it is not yet clear how TCM affects mitochondrial function. By reviewing the interactions between the cardiovascular system, mitochondrial DNA, and TCM, we show that cardiovascular disease is negatively affected by mutations in mitochondrial DNA and that TCM can be used to treat cardiovascular disease by regulating the structure and function of mitochondria via increases in mitochondrial electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation, modulation of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, and decreases in mitochondrial ROS. However further research is still required to identify the mechanism by which TCM affects CVD and modifies mitochondrial DNA.

  4. Cardiovascular Complications of Acute Amphetamine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazmi, Elham; Mousavi, Farinaz; Giahchin, Leila; Mokhtari, Tahmineh; Behnoush, Behnam

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate cardiovascular complications among patients who abuse amphetamines. Methods This cross-sectional study took place between April 2014 and April 2015 among 3,870 patients referred to the Toxicology Emergency Department of Baharlou Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Those with clinical signs of drug abuse and positive urine screening tests were included in the study, while cases of chronic abuse were excluded. Cardiac complications were evaluated via electrocardiography (ECG) and transthoracic echocardiography. Results A total of 230 patients (5.9%) had a history of acute amphetamine abuse and positive urine tests. Of these, 32 patients (13.9%) were <20 years old and 196 (85.2%) were male. In total, 119 (51.7%) used amphetamine and methamphetamine compounds while 111 (48.3%) used amphetamines with morphine or benzodiazepines. The most common ECG finding was sinus tachycardia (43.0%), followed by sinus tachycardia plus a prolonged QT interval (34.3%). Mean creatine kinase-MB and troponin I levels were 35.9 ± 4.3 U/mL and 0.6 ± 0.2 ng/mL, respectively. A total of 60 patients (26.1%) were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit. The majority (83.3%) of these patients had normal echocardiography results. The mean aortic root diameter (ARD) was 27.2 ± 2.8 mm. Abnormalities related to the ARD were found in 10 patients (16.7%), three of whom subsequently died. Conclusion According to these findings, cardiac complications were common among Iranian patients who abuse amphetamines, although the majority of patients had normal echocardiography and ECG findings. PMID:28417026

  5. Is tree loss associated with cardiovascular-disease risk in the Women's Health Initiative? A natural experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; Yvonne L. Michael; Demetrios Gatziolis; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Eric A. Whitsel

    2015-01-01

    Data from the Women's Health Initiative were used to quantify the relationship between the loss of trees to an invasive forest pest—the emerald ash borer—and cardiovascular disease. We estimated semi- parametric Cox proportional hazards model of time to cardiovascular disease, adjusting for confounders. We defined the incidence of cardiovascular disease as acute...

  6. Molecular imaging in cardiovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botnar, R.M.; Ebersberger, H.; Noerenberg, D.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized and developing countries. In clinical practice, the in-vivo identification of atherosclerotic lesions, which can lead to complications such as heart attack or stroke, remains difficult. Imaging techniques provide the reference standard for the detection of clinically significant atherosclerotic changes in the coronary and carotid arteries. The assessment of the luminal narrowing is feasible, while the differentiation of stable and potentially unstable or vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is currently not possible using non-invasive imaging. With high spatial resolution and high soft tissue contrast, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a suitable method for the evaluation of the thin arterial wall. In clinical practice, native MRI of the vessel wall already allows the differentiation and characterization of components of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid arteries and the aorta. Additional diagnostic information can be gained by the use of non-specific MRI contrast agents. With the development of targeted molecular probes, that highlight specific molecules or cells, pathological processes can be visualized at a molecular level with high spatial resolution. In this review article, the development of pathophysiological changes leading to the development of the arterial wall are introduced and discussed. Additionally, principles of contrast enhanced imaging with non-specific contrast agents and molecular probes will be discussed and latest developments in the field of molecular imaging of the vascular wall will be introduced.

  7. Globalization, Work, and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Peter L; Dobson, Marnie; Landsbergis, Paul

    2016-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), a global epidemic, is responsible for about 30% of all deaths worldwide. While mortality rates from CVD have been mostly declining in the advanced industrialized nations, CVD risk factors, including hypertension, obesity, and diabetes, have been on the increase everywhere. Researchers investigating the social causes of CVD have produced a robust body of evidence documenting the relationships between the work environment and CVD, including through the mechanisms of psychosocial work stressors. We review the empirical evidence linking work, psychosocial stressors, and CVD. These work stressors can produce chronic biologic arousal and promote unhealthy behaviors and thus, increased CVD risk. We offer a theoretical model that illustrates how economic globalization influences the labor market and work organization in high-income countries, which, in turn, exacerbates job characteristics, such as demands, low job control, effort-reward imbalance, job insecurity, and long work hours. There is also a growing interest in "upstream" factors among work stress researchers, including precarious employment, downsizing/restructuring, privatization, and lean production. We conclude with suggestions for future epidemiologic research on the role of work in the development of CVD, as well as policy recommendations for prevention of work-related CVD. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Influenza vaccines for preventing cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Clar,Christine; Oseni,Zainab; Flowers,Nadine; Keshtkar-Jahromi,Maryam; Rees,Karen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: This is an update of the original review published in 2008. The risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes is increased with influenza-like infection, and vaccination against influenza may improve cardiovascular outcomes.OBJECTIVES: To assess the potential benefits of influenza vaccination for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.METHODS:Search methods:We searched the following electronic databases on 18 October 2013: The Cochrane Library (including Coch...

  9. Allopurinol use and the risk of acute cardiovascular events in patients with gout and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jasvinder A; Ramachandaran, Rekha; Yu, Shaohua; Curtis, Jeffrey R

    2017-03-14

    Few studies, if any, have examined cardiovascular outcomes in patients with diabetes and gout. Both diabetes and gout are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of allopurinol on the risk of incident acute cardiovascular events in patients with gout and diabetes. We used the 2007-2010 Multi-Payer Claims Database (MPCD) that linked health plan data from national commercial and governmental insurances, representing beneficiaries with United Healthcare, Medicare, or Medicaid coverage. In patients with gout and diabetes, we assessed the current allopurinol use, defined as a new filled prescription for allopurinol, as the main predictor of interest. Our outcome of interest was the occurrence of the first Incident hospitalized myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke (composite acute cardiovascular event), after which observations were censored. We employed multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models that simultaneously adjusted for patient demographics, cardiovascular risk factors and other medical comorbidities. We calculated hazard ratios [HR] (95% confidence intervals [CI]) for incident composite (MI or stroke) acute cardiovascular events. We performed sensitivity analyses that additionally adjusted for the presence of immune diseases and colchicine use, as potential confounders. There were 2,053,185 person days (5621.3 person years) of current allopurinol use and 1,671,583 person days (4576.5 person years) of prior allopurinol use. There were 158 incident MIs or strokes in current and 151 in prior allopurinol users, respectively. Compared to previous allopurinol users, current allopurinol users had significantly lower adjusted hazard of incident acute cardiovascular events (incident stroke or MI), with an HR of 0.67 (95% CI, 0.53, 0.84). Sensitivity analyses, additionally adjusted for immune diseases or colchicine use, confirmed this association. Current allopurinol use protected against the occurrence

  10. MicroRNAs Expression Profiles in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Bronze-da-Rocha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current search for new markers of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs is explained by the high morbidity and mortality still observed in developed and developing countries due to cardiovascular events. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs have emerged as potential new biomarkers and are small sequences of RNAs that regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level by inhibiting translation or inducing degradation of the target mRNAs. Circulating miRNAs are involved in the regulation of signaling pathways associated to aging and can be used as novel diagnostic markers for acute and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular pathologies. This review summarizes the biogenesis, maturation, and stability of miRNAs and their use as potential biomarkers for coronary artery disease (CAD, myocardial infarction (MI, and heart failure (HF.

  11. Cardiovascular disease in autoimmune rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollan, Ivana; Meroni, Pier Luigi; Ahearn, Joseph M; Cohen Tervaert, J W; Curran, Sam; Goodyear, Carl S; Hestad, Knut A; Kahaleh, Bashar; Riggio, Marcello; Shields, Kelly; Wasko, Mary C

    2013-08-01

    Various autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs), including rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis, vasculitis and systemic lupus erythematosus, are associated with premature atherosclerosis. However, premature atherosclerosis has not been uniformly observed in systemic sclerosis. Furthermore, although experimental models of atherosclerosis support the role of antiphospholipid antibodies in atherosclerosis, there is no clear evidence of premature atherosclerosis in antiphospholipid syndrome (APA). Ischemic events in APA are more likely to be caused by pro-thrombotic state than by enhanced atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in ARDs is caused by traditional and non-traditional risk factors. Besides other factors, inflammation and immunologic abnormalities, the quantity and quality of lipoproteins, hypertension, insulin resistance/hyperglycemia, obesity and underweight, presence of platelets bearing complement protein C4d, reduced number and function of endothelial progenitor cells, apoptosis of endothelial cells, epigenetic mechanisms, renal disease, periodontal disease, depression, hyperuricemia, hypothyroidism, sleep apnea and vitamin D deficiency may contribute to the premature CVD. Although most research has focused on systemic inflammation, vascular inflammation may play a crucial role in the premature CVD in ARDs. It may be involved in the development and destabilization of both atherosclerotic lesions and of aortic aneurysms (a known complication of ARDs). Inflammation in subintimal vascular and perivascular layers appears to frequently occur in CVD, with a higher frequency in ARD than in non-ARD patients. It is possible that this inflammation is caused by infections and/or autoimmunity, which might have consequences for treatment. Importantly, drugs targeting immunologic factors participating in the subintimal inflammation (e.g., T- and B-cells) might have a protective effect on CVD. Interestingly, vasa vasorum and cardiovascular adipose tissue may

  12. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazacu, A.; Ciubotaru, A.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of congenital heart disease can be attributed to major improvements in diagnosis and treatment. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging plays an important role in the clinical management strategy of patients with congenital heart disease. The development of new cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) techniques allows comprehensive assessment of complex cardiac anatomy and function and provides information about the long-term residual post-operative lesions and complications of surgery. It overcomes many of the limitations of echocardiography and cardiac catheterization. This review evaluates the role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging modality in the management of subject with congenital heart disease (CHD). (authors)

  13. Thyroid disease and the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzi, Sara; Klein, Irwin

    2014-06-01

    Thyroid hormones, specifically triiodothyronine (T3), have significant effects on the heart and cardiovascular system. Hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, subclinical thyroid disease, and low T3 syndrome each cause cardiac and cardiovascular abnormalities through both genomic and nongenomic effects on cardiac myocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. In compromised health, such as occurs in heart disease, alterations in thyroid hormone metabolism may further impair cardiac and cardiovascular function. Diagnosis and treatment of cardiac disease may benefit from including analysis of thyroid hormone status, including serum total T3 levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Diabetes propels the risk for cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepen, van Janna A.; Thiem, Kathrin; Stienstra, Rinke; Riksen, Niels P.; Tack, Cees J.; Netea, Mihai G.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes strongly predisposes to cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of mortality in these patients, as well as in the entire population. Hyperglycemia is an important cardiovascular risk factor as shown by the observation that even transient periods of hyperglycemia, despite return

  15. Preeclampsia: at risk for remote cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harskamp, Ralf E.; Zeeman, Gerda G.

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological data indicate that women with preeclampsia are more likely to develop cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. Population-based studies relate preeclampsia to an increased risk of later chronic hypertension (RR, 2.00 to 8.00) and cardiovascular morbidity/mortality (RR, 1.3 to

  16. Preeclampsia : At risk for remote cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harskamp, Ralf E.; Zeeman, Gerda G.

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological data indicate that women with preeclampsia are more likely to develop cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. Population-based studies relate preeclampsia to an increased risk of later chronic hypertension (RR, 2.00 to 8.00) and cardiovascular morbidity/mortality (RR, 1.3 to

  17. Coffee intake, cardiovascular disease and allcause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Ask Tybjærg; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2016-01-01

    Background: Coffee has been associated with modestly lower risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in meta-analyses; however, it is unclear whether these are causal associations. We tested first whether coffee intake is associated with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality...... observationally; second, whether genetic variations previously associated with caffeine intake are associated with coffee intake; and third, whether the genetic variations are associated with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Methods: First, we used multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazard......- and age adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression models to examine genetic associations with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in 112 509 Danes. Finally, we used sex and age-adjusted logistic regression models to examine genetic associations with ischaemic heart disease including...

  18. Screen-detected gallstone disease and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Skaaby, Tea; Sørensen, Lars Tue

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge about temporal associations for screen-detected gallstone disease and cardiovascular disease is limited. The objective of this study was to determine if screen-detected gallstones or cholecystectomy was associated with development of cardiovascular disease. A cohort study of three...... of cardiovascular disease through nationwide registers until December 2014. Multivariable Cox regression analyses were performed including traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors and apolipoprotein E genotype. Gallstone disease was identified in 10% (591/5928) of participants at baseline of whom 6.8% had...... gallstones and 3.2% had cholecystectomy. The study population was followed for a period of 32 years with only 1% lost to follow-up. Gallstone disease was associated with all cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio (HR) 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.17;1.59]) and to the subgroups coronary artery (HR 1...

  19. Disease Human - MDC_CardiovascularMortality2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Polygon feature class based on Zip Code boundaries showing the rate of deaths due to major cardiovascular diseases per 1000 residents of Miami-Dade County in 2006.

  20. The gut microbiome in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jie, Zhuye; Xia, Huihua; Zhong, Shi-Long

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiota has been linked to cardiovascular diseases. However, the composition and functional capacity of the gut microbiome in relation to cardiovascular diseases have not been systematically examined. Here, we perform a metagenome-wide association study on stools from 218 individuals...... with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD) and 187 healthy controls. The ACVD gut microbiome deviates from the healthy status by increased abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Streptococcus spp. and, functionally, in the potential for metabolism or transport of several molecules important for cardiovascular...... health. Although drug treatment represents a confounding factor, ACVD status, and not current drug use, is the major distinguishing feature in this cohort. We identify common themes by comparison with gut microbiome data associated with other cardiometabolic diseases (obesity and type 2 diabetes...

  1. Air pollution as noxious environmental factor in the development of cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassing, H. C.; Twickler, Th B.; Kastelein, J. J. P.; Cramer, M. J. M.; Cassee, F. R.

    2009-01-01

    A strong epidemiological association has been revealed between air pollution and the occurrence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Deleterious consequences of such pollution, including myocardial infarction and coronary ischaemia, have occurred after both acute as well as chronic exposure to air

  2. Chromogranin A as a biomarker in cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens P; Alehagen, Urban; Flyvbjerg, Allan

    2014-01-01

    with acute coronary syndromes or chronic heart failure. In this article, we summarize the current clinical data on chromogranin A as a biomarker in cardiovascular disease from high-risk conditions; for example, obesity, hypertension and diabetes, to overt heart failure. Biological activity of the various......Chromogranin A is known as an important marker of neuroendocrine tumors. In cardiovascular medicine, however, chromogranin A measurement has only recently gained interest, since increased concentrations in the circulation are associated with risk of clinical worsening and death in patients...

  3. Cardiovascular risk and subclinical cardiovascular disease in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajuk Studen, Katica; Jensterle Sever, Mojca; Pfeifer, Marija

    2013-01-01

    In addition to its effects on reproductive health, it is now well recognized that polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a metabolic disorder, characterized by decreased insulin sensitivity which leads to an excess lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PCOS patients are often obese, hypertensive, dyslipidemic and insulin resistant; they have obstructive sleep apnea and have been reported to have higher aldosterone levels in comparison to normal healthy controls. These are all components of an adverse cardiovascular risk profile. Many studies exploring subclinical atherosclerosis using different methods (flow-mediated dilatation, intima media thickness, arterial stiffness, coronary artery calcification) as well as assessing circulating cardiovascular risk markers, point toward an increased cardiovascular risk and early atherogenesis in PCOS. The risk and early features of subclinical atherosclerosis can be reversed by non-medical (normalization of weight, healthy lifestyle) and medical (metformin, thiazolidinediones, spironolactone, and statins) interventions. However, the long-term risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as well as the clinical significance of different interventions still need to be properly addressed in a large prospective study. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. The Role of Alcohol Consumption in the Aetiology of Different Cardiovascular Disease Phenotypes: a CALIBER Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    Chronic Stable Angina; Unstable Angina; Coronary Heart Disease Not Otherwise Specified; Acute Myocardial Infarction; Heart Failure; Ventricular Arrhythmias; Cardiac Arrest; Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm; Peripheral Arterial Disease; Ischaemic Stroke; Subarachnoid Haemorrhagic Stroke; Intracerebral Haemorrhagic Stroke; Stroke Not Otherwise Specified; Sudden Cardiac Death; Unheralded Coronary Death; Mortality; Coronary Heart Disease (CHD); Cardiovascular Disease (CVD); Fatal Cardiovascular Disease (Fatal CVD); ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI); Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (nSTEMI); Myocardial Infarction Not Otherwise Specified (MI NOS)

  5. Cardiovascular Disease and Thyroid Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Jens; Selmer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid function has a profound effect on the heart, and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates are increased in hyperthyroidism. New-onset atrial fibrillation carries a prolonged risk for the development of hyperthyroidism, suggesting altered availability of thyroid hormones at the ce......Thyroid function has a profound effect on the heart, and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates are increased in hyperthyroidism. New-onset atrial fibrillation carries a prolonged risk for the development of hyperthyroidism, suggesting altered availability of thyroid hormones...... at the cellular level. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with increased left ventricular mass of the heart, which reverts after obtaining euthyroidism. Mortality and risk of major cardiovascular events are increased. Subclinical hypothyroidism is also associated with subtle changes in the heart, e.g. its...

  6. [Cooperative Cardiovascular Disease Research Network (RECAVA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Dorado, David; Castro-Beiras, Alfonso; Díez, Javier; Gabriel, Rafael; Gimeno-Blanes, Juan R; Ortiz de Landázuri, Manuel; Sánchez, Pedro L; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Today, cardiovascular disease is the principal cause of death and hospitalization in Spain, and accounts for an annual healthcare budget of more than 4000 million euros. Consequently, early diagnosis, effective prevention, and the optimum treatment of cardiovascular disease present a significant social and healthcare challenge for the country. In this context, combining all available resources to increase the efficacy and healthcare benefits of scientific research is a priority. This rationale prompted the establishment of the Spanish Cooperative Cardiovascular Disease Research Network, or RECAVA (Red Temática de Investigación Cooperativa en Enfermedades Cardiovasculares), 5 years ago. Since its foundation, RECAVA's activities have focused on achieving four objectives: a) to facilitate contacts between basic, clinical and epidemiological researchers; b) to promote the shared use of advanced technological facilities; c) to apply research results to clinical practice, and d) to train a new generation of translational cardiovascular researchers in Spain. At present, RECAVA consists of 41 research groups and seven shared technological facilities. RECAVA's research strategy is based on a scientific design matrix centered on the most important cardiovascular processes. The level of RECAVA's research activity is reflected in the fact that 28 co-authored articles were published in international journals during the first six months of 2007, with each involving contributions from at least two groups in the network. Finally, RECAVA also participates in the work of the Spanish National Center for Cardiovascular Research, or CNIC (Centro Nacional de Investigación Cardiovascular), and some established Biomedical Research Network Centers, or CIBER (Centros de Investigación Biomédica en RED), with the aim of consolidating the development of a dynamic multidisciplinary research framework that is capable of meeting the growing challenge that cardiovascular disease will present

  7. Risk of cardiovascular disease following radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.; Vlahovich, S.; Cornett, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Excess radiation-induced cardiac mortalities have been reported among radiotherapy patients. Many case reports describe the occurrence of atherosclerosis following radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease and breast cancer. Some case reports describe the cerebral infarction following radiotherapy to neck region, and of peripheral vascular disease of the lower extremities following radiotherapy to the pelvic region. The association of atomic bomb radiation and cardiovascular disease has been examined recently by incidence studies and prevalence studies of various endpoints of atherosclerosis; all endpoints indicated an increase of cardiovascular disease in the exposed group. It is almost certain that the cardiovascular disease is higher among atomic bomb survivors. However, since a heavy exposure of 10-40 Gy is delivered in radiotherapy and the bomb survivors were exposed to radiation at high dose and dose-rate, the question is whether the results can be extrapolated to individuals exposed to lower levels of radiation. Some recent epidemiological studies on occupationally exposed workers and population living near Chernobyl have provided the evidence for cardiovascular disease being a significant late effect at relatively low doses of radiation. However, the issue of non-cancer mortality from radiation is complicated by lack of adequate information on doses, and many other confounding factors (e.g., smoking habits or socio-economic status). This presentation will evaluate possible radiobiological mechanisms for radiation-induced cardiovascular disease, and will address its relevance to radiation protection management at low doses and what the impact might be on future radiation risk assessments. (authors)

  8. Racism and cardiovascular disease: implications for nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jennifer; McGibbon, Elizabeth; Waldron, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    The social determinants of health (SDH) are recognized as a prominent influence on health outcomes across the lifespan. Racism is identified as a key SDH. In this article, the authors describe the concept of racism as an SDH, its impact in discriminatory actions and inactions, and the implications for cardiovascular nurses. Although research in Canada on the links among racism, stress, and cardiovascular disease is limited, there is growing evidence about the stress of racism and its long-term impact on cardiovascular health. The authors discuss how cardiovascular nursing could be enhanced through an understanding of racism-related stress, and race-based differences in cardiovascular care. The authors conclude with strategies for action to address this nursing concern.

  9. Oral health and cardiovascular care: Perceptions of people with cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamonson, Yenna; Ajwani, Shilpi; Bhole, Sameer; Bishop, Joshua; Lintern, Karen; Nolan, Samantha; Rajaratnam, Rohan; Redfern, Julie; Sheehan, Maria; Skarligos, Fiona; Spencer, Lissa; Srinivas, Ravi

    2017-01-01

    Main objective The aim of this study was to explore the perception of patients with cardiovascular disease towards oral health and the potential for cardiac care clinicians to promote oral health. Method A needs assessment was undertaken with twelve patients with cardiovascular disease attending cardiac rehabilitation between 2015 and 2016, in three metropolitan hospitals in Sydney, Australia. These patients participated in face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Data was analysed using thematic analysis. Results Results suggested that while oral health was considered relevant there was high prevalence of poor oral health among participants, especially those from socioeconomic disadvantaged background. Awareness regarding the importance of oral health care its impact on cardiovascular outcomes was poor among participants. Oral health issues were rarely discussed in the cardiac setting. Main barriers deterring participants from seeking oral health care included lack of awareness, high cost of dental care and difficulties in accessing the public dental service. Findings also revealed that participants were interested in receiving further information about oral health and suggested various mediums for information delivery. The concept of cardiac care clinicians, especially nurses providing education, assessment and referrals to ongoing dental care was well received by participants who felt the post-acute period was the most appropriate time to receive oral health care advice. The issues of oral health training for non-dental clinicians and how to address existing barriers were highlighted by participants. Relevance to clinical practice The lack of oral health education being provided to patients with cardiovascular disease offers an opportunity to improve care and potentially, outcomes. In view of the evidence linking poor oral health with cardiovascular disease, cardiac care clinicians, especially nurses, should be appropriately trained to promote oral health in

  10. Oral health and cardiovascular care: Perceptions of people with cardiovascular disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Sanchez

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the perception of patients with cardiovascular disease towards oral health and the potential for cardiac care clinicians to promote oral health.A needs assessment was undertaken with twelve patients with cardiovascular disease attending cardiac rehabilitation between 2015 and 2016, in three metropolitan hospitals in Sydney, Australia. These patients participated in face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Data was analysed using thematic analysis.Results suggested that while oral health was considered relevant there was high prevalence of poor oral health among participants, especially those from socioeconomic disadvantaged background. Awareness regarding the importance of oral health care its impact on cardiovascular outcomes was poor among participants. Oral health issues were rarely discussed in the cardiac setting. Main barriers deterring participants from seeking oral health care included lack of awareness, high cost of dental care and difficulties in accessing the public dental service. Findings also revealed that participants were interested in receiving further information about oral health and suggested various mediums for information delivery. The concept of cardiac care clinicians, especially nurses providing education, assessment and referrals to ongoing dental care was well received by participants who felt the post-acute period was the most appropriate time to receive oral health care advice. The issues of oral health training for non-dental clinicians and how to address existing barriers were highlighted by participants.The lack of oral health education being provided to patients with cardiovascular disease offers an opportunity to improve care and potentially, outcomes. In view of the evidence linking poor oral health with cardiovascular disease, cardiac care clinicians, especially nurses, should be appropriately trained to promote oral health in their practice. Affordable and accessible

  11. The inflammatory protein Pentraxin 3 in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornai, Francesco; Carrizzo, Albino; Forte, Maurizio; Ambrosio, Mariateresa; Damato, Antonio; Ferrucci, Michela; Biagioni, Francesca; Busceti, Carla; Puca, Annibale A; Vecchione, Carmine

    2016-01-01

    The acute phase protein Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) plays a non-redundant role as a soluble pattern recognition receptor for selected pathogens and it represents a rapid biomarker for primary local activation of innate immunity and inflammation. Recent evidence indicates that PTX3 exerts an important role in modulating the cardiovascular system in humans and experimental models. In particular, there are conflicting points concerning the effects of PTX3 in cardiovascular diseases (CVD) since several observations indicate a cardiovascular protective effect of PTX3 while others speculate that the increased plasma levels of PTX3 in subjects with CVD correlate with disease severity and with poor prognosis in elderly patients. In the present review, we discuss the multifaceted effects of PTX3 on the cardiovascular system focusing on its involvement in atherosclerosis, endothelial function, hypertension, myocardial infarction and angiogenesis. This may help to explain how the specific modulation of PTX3 such as the use of different dosing, time, and target organs could help to contain different vascular diseases. These opposite actions of PTX3 will be emphasized concerning the modulation of cardiovascular system where potential therapeutic implications of PTX3 in humans are discussed.

  12. Effect of environmental air pollution on cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, S A; Suraya, F

    2015-12-01

    Environmental air pollution has become a leading health concern especially in the developing countries with more urbanization, industrialization and rapidly growing population. Prolonged exposure to air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of environmental air pollution on progression of cardiovascular problems. In this study, we identified 6880 published articles through a systematic database including ISI-Web of Science, PubMed and EMBASE. The allied literature was searched by using the key words such as environmental pollution, air pollution, particulate matter pollutants PM 2.5 μm-PM 10 μm. Literature in which environmental air pollution and cardiac diseases were discussed was included. Descriptive information was retrieved from the selected literature. Finally, we included 67 publications and remaining studies were excluded. Environmental pollution can cause high blood pressure, arrhythmias, enhanced coagulation, thrombosis, acute arterial vasoconstriction, atherosclerosis, ischemic heart diseases, myocardial infarction and even heart failure. Environmental air pollution is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Environmental pollution exerts its detrimental effects on the heart by developing pulmonary inflammation, systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and prothrombotic changes. Environmental protection officials must take high priority steps to minimize the air pollution to decrease the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Association between alcohol and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, Michael V; Dale, Caroline E; Zuccolo, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To use the rs1229984 variant in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B gene (ADH1B) as an instrument to investigate the causal role of alcohol in cardiovascular disease. DESIGN: Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis of 56 epidemiological studies. PARTICIPANTS: 261 991 individuals of European...... descent, including 20 259 coronary heart disease cases and 10 164 stroke events. Data were available on ADH1B rs1229984 variant, alcohol phenotypes, and cardiovascular biomarkers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Odds ratio for coronary heart disease and stroke associated with the ADH1B variant in all individuals...... disease than those without the genetic variant. This suggests that reduction of alcohol consumption, even for light to moderate drinkers, is beneficial for cardiovascular health....

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging in cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckel, C.G.; Mettler, F.A. Jr.; Wicks, J.D.; Stevens, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    How does magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) currently contribute in the evaluation of patients with suspected heart disease? What role will MRI play in the future in evaluation of cardiovascular disease? To understand better where MRI fits into the diagnostic algorithm of cardiovascular disease the authors first consider the characteristics that they would like to see in the ideal diagnostic test and then survey the available cardiac diagnostic tests to note the characteristics that limit or recommend a test. In the final analysis, the justification for expensive diagnostic tests such as MRI must be an overall improvement in survival or quality of life in those patients treated after diagnosis

  15. The influence of depression on risk development of acute cardiovascular diseases in the female population aged 25–64 in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery V. Gafarov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent studies showed that depression was an independent predictor of mortality from cardio-vascular disease in healthy women. Objective. To explore the effect of depression (D on relative risk (RR of myocardial infarction (MI and stroke for 16 years (1995–2010 in the female population aged 25–64 years from Novosibirsk, Russia. Materials and methods. Under the third screening of the WHO “MONICA-psychosocial” (MOPSY programme, a cohort of women aged 25–64 years (N=560 was surveyed. Women were followed for 16 years for the incidence of MI and stroke (1995–2010. D was measured at the baseline examination by means of test “MOPSY”. Participants having stroke, MI, arterial hypertension, coronary artery diseases and diabetes in their medical history at the baseline were excluded from this analysis. Results. The prevalence of D in women aged 25–64 years was 55.2%. With the growth of D levels, positive self-rated health reduced and almost 100% of those women have complaints about their health, but considered the care of their health insufficient. Women with major D significantly extended negative behavioural habits: smoking and unsuccessful attempts to give up, low physical activity, and less likely to follow a diet (healthy food. Major D associated with high job strain and family stress. Relative risk (RR of MI development in women with D during 16 years of study was higher in 2.53 cases (p<0.05 and risk of stroke was higher in 4.63 cases (p<0.05. Conclusions. The prevalence of D in women aged 25–64 years was >50%. Women with D had a 2.53-fold risk of MI and 4.63-fold risk of stroke during the 16 years of follow-up.

  16. Acute myocardial infarction and combined oral contraceptives: results of an international multicentre case-control study. WHO Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Disease and Steroid Hormone Contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-26

    The association between oral contraceptive (OC) use and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was established in studies from northern Europe and the USA, which took place during the 1960s and 1970s. Few data are available to quantify the risk worldwide of AMI associated with use of OCs introduced since those early studies. This hospital-based case-control study examined the association between a first AMI and current OC use in women from Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America (21 centres). Cases were women aged 20-44 years who had definite or possible AMI (classified by history, electrocardiographic, and cardiac-enzyme criteria), who were admitted to hospital, and who survived for at least 24 h. Up to three hospital controls matched by 5-year age-band were recruited for each of the 368 cases (941 controls). All participants were interviewed while in hospital with the same questionnaire, which included information on medical and personal history, lifetime contraceptive use, and blood-pressure screening before the most recent episode of OC use. Odds ratios compared the risk of AMI in current OC users and in non-users (past users and never-users combined). The overall odds ratio for AMI was 5.01 (95% CI 2.54-9.90) in Europe and 4.78 (2.52-9.07) in the non-European (developing) countries; however, these risk estimates reflect the frequent coexistence of other risk factors among OC users who have AMI. Very few AMIs were identified among women who had no cardiovascular risk factors and who reported that their blood pressure had been checked before OC use; odds ratios associated with OC use in such women were not increased in either Europe or the developing countries. Among OC users who smoked ten or more cigarettes per day, the odds ratios in Europe and in the developing countries were over 20. Similarly, among OC users with a history of hypertension (during pregnancy or at any other time), odds ratios were at least ten in both groups of countries. No consistent

  17. Erythropoietin in cardiovascular diseases : exploring new avenues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Meer, Peter; Veldhuisen, Dirk J. N.; Januzzi, James L.

    Cardiovascular disease is an important burden in the Western world, with a prevalence that is increasing exponentially. Indeed, the lifetime risk of coronary artery disease at 40 years of age is I in 2 for men and I in 3 for women, and it is estimated that one-third of the population worldwide will

  18. [Air pollution and cardiovascular disease in Trondheim].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannsåker, Bård; Vikan, Torkel; Holme, Jonas

    2004-05-20

    There is some evidence linking air pollution to cardiovascular morbidity. Our aim was to examine whether there is a correlation between air pollution and cardiovascular morbidity in the city of Trondheim, Norway. We compared the mean daily number of admissions for cardiovascular disease to the St. Olav University hospital on days with relatively low and high levels of PM10 (1993-2001), PM2,5, NO, NO2, SO2, O3, toluene and paraxylene (1998-2001). A time series analysis was carried out to see how day-to-day variations in concentrations of air pollutants correlated with the number of hospitalizations for cardiovascular disease. In the bivariate analysis, the mean daily number of hospitalizations was found to be significantly higher (p < 0.05) on days with NO and NO2 levels above the 80 th percentile (57.6 microg/m3 and 43.1 microg/m3, respectively) than on days with pollutant levels below the 20th percentile (11.3 microg/m3 and 16.9 microg/m3, respectively). Time series analysis did not show any statistically significant correlation between day-to-day variations in air pollution and hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease. The findings regarding NO2 and NO indicate that exposure to gases and/or ultra-small particles from diesel exhaust may influence cardiovascular morbidity.

  19. Cardiovascular disease risk factors and cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, David T; Fillit, Howard

    2006-04-15

    The role of cardiovascular disease risk factors in the occurrence and progression of cognitive impairment has been the subject of a significant number of publications but has not achieved widespread recognition among many physicians and educated laymen. It is apparent that the active treatment of certain of these cardiovascular disease risk factors is accompanied by a reduced risk for cognitive impairment. Patients with hypertension who are treated experience fewer cardiovascular disease events as well as less cognitive impairment than similar untreated patients. Patients who exercise may present with less cognitive impairment, and obesity may increase the risk for cognitive impairment. Lipid abnormalities and genetic markers are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and cognitive impairment. Autopsy studies have demonstrated a correlation between elevated levels of cholesterol and amyloid deposition in the brain. Research has demonstrated a relation between atherosclerotic obstruction lesions in the circle of Willis and dementia. Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and cognitive impairment. A number of nonpharmacologic factors have a role in reducing the risk for cognitive impairment. Antioxidants, fatty acids, and micronutrients may have a role, and diets rich in fruits and vegetables and other dietary approaches may improve the outlook for patients considered at risk for cognitive impairment.

  20. Influenza vaccines for preventing cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Clar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: This is an update of the original review published in 2008. The risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes is increased with influenza-like infection, and vaccination against influenza may improve cardiovascular outcomes.OBJECTIVES: To assess the potential benefits of influenza vaccination for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.METHODS:Search methods:We searched the following electronic databases on 18 October 2013: The Cochrane Library (including Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE, Economic Evaluation Database (EED and Health Technology Assessment database (HTA, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science and ongoing trials registers (www.controlled-trials.com/ and www.clinicaltrials.gov. We examined reference lists of relevant primary studies and systematic reviews. We performed a limited PubMed search on 20 February 2015, just before publication.Selection criteria:Randomised controlled trials (RCTs of influenza vaccination compared with placebo or no treatment in participants with or without cardiovascular disease, assessing cardiovascular death or non-fatal cardiovascular events.Data collection and analysis:We used standard methodological procedures as expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We carried out meta-analyses only for cardiovascular death, as other outcomes were reported too infrequently. We expressed effect sizes as risk ratios (RRs, and we used random-effects models.MAIN RESULTS: We included eight trials of influenza vaccination compared with placebo or no vaccination, with 12,029 participants receiving at least one vaccination or control treatment. We included six new studies (n = 11,251, in addition to the two included in the previous version of the review. Four of these trials (n = 10,347 focused on prevention of influenza in the general or elderly population

  1. Influenza vaccines for preventing cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clar, Christine; Oseni, Zainab; Flowers, Nadine; Keshtkar-Jahromi, Maryam; Rees, Karen

    2015-05-05

    This is an update of the original review published in 2008. The risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes is increased with influenza-like infection, and vaccination against influenza may improve cardiovascular outcomes. To assess the potential benefits of influenza vaccination for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. We searched the following electronic databases on 18 October 2013: The Cochrane Library (including Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), Economic Evaluation Database (EED) and Health Technology Assessment database (HTA)), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science and ongoing trials registers (www.controlled-trials.com/ and www.clinicaltrials.gov). We examined reference lists of relevant primary studies and systematic reviews. We performed a limited PubMed search on 20 February 2015, just before publication. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of influenza vaccination compared with placebo or no treatment in participants with or without cardiovascular disease, assessing cardiovascular death or non-fatal cardiovascular events. We used standard methodological procedures as expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We carried out meta-analyses only for cardiovascular death, as other outcomes were reported too infrequently. We expressed effect sizes as risk ratios (RRs), and we used random-effects models. We included eight trials of influenza vaccination compared with placebo or no vaccination, with 12,029 participants receiving at least one vaccination or control treatment. We included six new studies (n = 11,251), in addition to the two included in the previous version of the review. Four of these trials (n = 10,347) focused on prevention of influenza in the general or elderly population and reported cardiovascular outcomes among their safety analyses; four trials (n = 1682) focused on prevention of

  2. Risk of bleeding related to antithrombotic treatment in cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke; Olesen, Jonas B; Charlot, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Antithrombotic therapy is a cornerstone of treatment in patients with cardiovascular disease with bleeding being the most feared complication. This review describes the risk of bleeding related to different combinations of antithrombotic drugs used for cardiovascular disease: acute coronary...... syndrome (ACS), atrial fibrillation (AF), cerebrovascular (CVD) and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Different risk assessment schemes and bleeding definitions are compared. The HAS-BLED risk score is recommended in patients with AF and in ACS patients with AF. In patients with ACS with or without...... a stent dual antiplatelet therapy with a P2Y12 receptor antagonist and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is recommended for 12 months, preferable with prasugrel or ticagrelor unless there is an additional indication of warfarin or increased risk of bleeding. In patients with AF, warfarin is recommended...

  3. LOCAL ANESTHETICS IN PATIENTS WITH CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    risto Daskalov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A significant problem in the dental medicine is pain alleviation. Many studies in the dental anesthesiology result in the production of new agents for locoregional anesthesia. Objective: This article aim to present the results of the last studies on the effect of the local anesthetics used in the oral surgery on patients with cardiovascular diseases. Material: A general review of the existing literature on the effect of the adrenaline, included as vasoconstrictor in the local anesthetics, used in patients with cardiovascular diseases is made. The benefits of vasoconstrictors for the quality of the anesthetic effect are proven. Conclusion: A small amount of adrenaline in the anesthetic solution does not result in complications development in patients with controlled cardiovascular diseases. Articaine is recommended agent of first choice for local anesthesia in the oral surgery.

  4. Microparticles as Potential Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    França, Carolina Nunes; Izar, Maria Cristina de Oliveira; Amaral, Jônatas Bussador do; Tegani, Daniela Melo; Fonseca, Francisco Antonio Helfenstein

    2015-01-01

    Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease is a choice of great relevance because of its impact on health. Some biomarkers, such as microparticles derived from different cell populations, have been considered useful in the assessment of cardiovascular disease. Microparticles are released by the membrane structures of different cell types upon activation or apoptosis, and are present in the plasma of healthy individuals (in levels considered physiological) and in patients with different pathologies. Many studies have suggested an association between microparticles and different pathological conditions, mainly the relationship with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, the effects of different lipid-lowering therapies have been described in regard to measurement of microparticles. The studies are still controversial regarding the levels of microparticles that can be considered pathological. In addition, the methodologies used still vary, suggesting the need for standardization of the different protocols applied, aiming at using microparticles as biomarkers in clinical practice

  5. Social networks in cardiovascular disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaya, Fadia T; Yan, Xia; Farshid, Maryam; Barakat, Samer; Jung, Miah; Low, Sara; Fedder, Donald

    2010-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in the USA. Social networks have a positive association with obesity, smoking cessation and weight loss. This article summarizes studies evaluating the impact of social networks on the management of cardiovascular disease. The 35 studies included in the article describe the impact of social networks on a decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease, depression and mortality. In addition, having a large-sized social network is also associated with better outcomes and improved health. The role of pharmacists is beginning to play an important role in the patient-centered medical home, which needs to be incorporated into social networks. The patient-centered medical home can serve as an adaptive source for social network evolvement.

  6. Microparticles as Potential Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    França, Carolina Nunes, E-mail: carolufscar24@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de São Paulo - UNIFESP - UNISA, SP, São Paulo (Brazil); Universidade de Santo Amaro - UNISA, SP, São Paulo (Brazil); Izar, Maria Cristina de Oliveira; Amaral, Jônatas Bussador do; Tegani, Daniela Melo; Fonseca, Francisco Antonio Helfenstein [Universidade Federal de São Paulo - UNIFESP - UNISA, SP, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-02-15

    Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease is a choice of great relevance because of its impact on health. Some biomarkers, such as microparticles derived from different cell populations, have been considered useful in the assessment of cardiovascular disease. Microparticles are released by the membrane structures of different cell types upon activation or apoptosis, and are present in the plasma of healthy individuals (in levels considered physiological) and in patients with different pathologies. Many studies have suggested an association between microparticles and different pathological conditions, mainly the relationship with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, the effects of different lipid-lowering therapies have been described in regard to measurement of microparticles. The studies are still controversial regarding the levels of microparticles that can be considered pathological. In addition, the methodologies used still vary, suggesting the need for standardization of the different protocols applied, aiming at using microparticles as biomarkers in clinical practice.

  7. Acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease--priorities in prevention, diagnosis and management. A report of the CSANZ Indigenous Cardiovascular Health Conference, Alice Springs 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémond, M G W; Wheaton, G R; Walsh, W F; Prior, D L; Maguire, G P

    2012-10-01

    Three priority areas in the prevention, diagnosis and management of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) were identified and discussed in detail: 1. Echocardiography and screening/diagnosis of RHD – Given the existing uncertainty it remains premature to advocate for or to incorporate echocardiographic screening for RHD into Australian clinical practice. Further research is currently being undertaken to evaluate the potential for echocardiography screening. 2. Secondary prophylaxis – Secondary prophylaxis (long acting benzathine penicillin injections) must be seen as a priority. Systems-based approaches are necessary with a focus on the development and evaluation of primary health care-based or led strategies incorporating effective health information management systems. Better/novel systems of delivery of prophylactic medications should be investigated. 3. Management of advanced RHD – National centres of excellence for the diagnosis, assessment and surgical management of RHD are required. Early referral for surgical input is necessary with multidisciplinary care and team-based decision making that includes patient, family, and local health providers. There is a need for a national RHD surgical register and research strategy for the assessment, intervention and long-term outcome of surgery and other interventions for RHD. Copyright © 2012 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of obesity on cardiovascular disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zalesin, Kerstyn C

    2012-02-01

    Obesity promotes a cascade of secondary pathologies including diabetes, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation, thrombosis, hypertension, the metabolic syndrome, and OSA, which collectively heighten the risk for cardiovascular disease. Obesity may also be an independent moderator of cardiac risk apart from these comorbid conditions. Rates of obesity and cardiac disease continue to rise in a parallel and exponential manner. Because obesity is potentially one of the most modifiable mediators of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, effective treatment and prevention interventions should have a profound and favorable impact on public health.

  9. Cardiovascular risk factors and disease in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Sharon K

    2015-05-01

    Coronary artery disease and stroke predominantly affect older women as opposed to younger women, but the risk factors that contribute to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk often start in young women. Young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), with migraine, and who use oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) have short-term increases in thrombotic complications that can result in coronary events or stroke. Attention should be focused on risk reduction in women of all ages. Screening for and discussing diabetes, hypertension, obesity, smoking, migraine, PCOS, and pregnancy complication history and discussing the pros and cons of hormone and statin medications are part of reducing cardiovascular risk for women. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Cardiovascular reactivity to acute psychological stress following sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Peter L; Gianaros, Peter J; Marsland, Anna L; Hall, Martica H; Siegle, Greg J; Dahl, Ronald E; Buysse, Daniel J

    2011-10-01

    Psychological stress and sleep disturbances are highly prevalent and are both implicated in the etiology of cardiovascular diseases. Given the common co-occurrence of psychological distress and sleep disturbances including short sleep duration, this study examined the combined effects of these two factors on blood pressure reactivity to immediate mental challenge tasks after well-rested and sleep-deprived experimental conditions. Participants (n = 20) were healthy young adults free from current or past sleep, psychiatric, or major medical disorders. Using a within-subjects crossover design, we examined acute stress reactivity under two experimental conditions: after a night of normal sleep in the laboratory and after a night of total sleep deprivation. Two standardized psychological stress tasks were administered, a Stroop color-word naming interference task and a speech task, which were preceded by a prestress baseline period and followed by a poststress recovery period. Each period was 10 minutes in duration, and blood pressure recordings were collected every 2.5 minutes throughout each period. Mean blood pressure responses during stress and recovery periods were examined with a mixed-effects analysis of covariance, controlling for baseline blood pressure. There was a significant interaction between sleep deprivation and stress on systolic blood pressure (F(2,82.7) = 4.05, p = .02). Systolic blood pressure was higher in the sleep deprivation condition compared with the normal sleep condition during the speech task and during the two baseline periods. Sleep deprivation amplified systolic blood pressure increases to psychological stress. Sleep loss may increase cardiovascular risk by dysregulating stress physiology.

  11. Wireless Monitoring for Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases and Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefaliakos, Antonios; Pliakos, Ioannis; Charalampidou, Martha; Diomidous, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    The use of applications for mobile devices and wireless sensors is common for the sector of telemedicine. Recently various studies and systems were developed in order to help patients suffering from severe diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and Parkinson's disease. They present a challenge for the sector because such systems demand the flow of accurate data in real time and the use of specialized sensors. In this review will be presented some very interesting applications developed for patients with cardiovascular diseases and Parkinson's disease.

  12. Preventing Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors through Aerobic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focused on the reduction of cardiovascular disease risk factors, through aerobic exercises. The central argument here is that through exercise there is the tendency for increased strength of the heart muscles. When this is the case, what follows is a reduction in body weight and ultimately less risk on the ...

  13. Total cardiovascular disease risk assessment: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2011-09-01

    The high risk strategy for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) requires an assessment of an individual\\'s total CVD risk so that the most intensive risk factor management can be directed towards those at highest risk. Here we review developments in the assessment and estimation of total CVD risk.

  14. HIV infection, aging and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petoumenos, Kathy; Worm, Signe W

    2011-01-01

    , including cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is suggested that CVD occurs earlier among HIV-positive patients compared with HIV-negative patients, and at a higher rate. Several factors have been proposed to contribute to this. First, the traditional CVD risk factors are highly prevalent in this population...

  15. Trace elements in relation to cardiovascular diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masironi, R [World Health Organization, Cardiovascular Diseases Unit, Geneva (Switzerland); Parr, R M [International Atomic Energy Agency, Medical Applications Section, Vienna (Austria)

    1973-07-01

    For the past four years the World Health Organization and the International Atomic Energy-Agency have been jointly coordinating investigations at an international level on the role possibly played by stable trace elements in the aetiology of cardiovascular diseases, and the use of nuclear techniques in studying these elements. (author)

  16. Saturated fat, carbohydrates and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, R. S.; de Graaf, D. J.; Luxwolda, M. F.; Muskiet, M. H. A.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. J.; Muskiet, F. A. J.

    The dietary intake of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) is associated with a modest increase in serum total cholesterol, but not with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Replacing dietary SAFA with carbohydrates (CHO), notably those with a high glycaemic index, is associated with an increase in CVD risk in

  17. Positron Emission Tomography in inflammatory cardiovascular diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Renata Christian Martins; Gouvea, Clecio Maria, E-mail: renatafelix@cardiol.br, E-mail: renata.felix@inc.saude.gov.br [Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Carneiro, Michel Pontes [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mesquita, Claudio Tinoco [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-10-15

    Many articles have demonstrated the role of PET-CT in the evaluation of inflammatory and infectious diseases of the cardiovascular system. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the literature on this topic to identify clinical situations in which there is evidence of the usefulness of PET-CT in diagnostic and therapeutic evaluation.

  18. Association between alcohol and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, Michael V; Dale, Caroline E; Zuccolo, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To use the rs1229984 variant in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B gene (ADH1B) as an instrument to investigate the causal role of alcohol in cardiovascular disease. DESIGN: Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis of 56 epidemiological studies. PARTICIPANTS: 261 991 individuals of European des...

  19. Lifestyle factors and risk of cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaar-Blom, M.P.

    2013-01-01

    Background

    Evidence is accumulating that lifestyle factors influence the incidence of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular diseases (CVD). A healthy diet, being physically active, moderate alcohol consumption and not smoking are associated with a lower CVD risk. In

  20. Analysis of Medical Tourism for Cardiovascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei, Catalina Liliana; Tigu, Gabriela; Dragoescu, Raluca Mariana; Sinescu, Crina Julieta

    2014-01-01

    Increasing costs of treatments have led to the apparition of the medical tourism. Patients in high-income countries seek to solve their health problems in developing countries where the cost of medical treatment is much lower. This cost difference has led to the medical tourism industry that is currently estimated with an annual growth rate of about 20%. Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of death worldwide. The high cost of treating these diseases cause many patients to seek treatme...

  1. Physical activity, obesity and cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakka, T A; Bouchard, C

    2005-01-01

    Sedentary lifestyle and overweight are major public health, clinical, and economical problems in modern societies. The worldwide epidemic of excess weight is due to imbalance between physical activity and dietary energy intake. Sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy diet, and consequent overweight and obesity markedly increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Regular physical activity 45-60 min per day prevents unhealthy weight gain and obesity, whereas sedentary behaviors such as watching television promote them. Regular exercise can markedly reduce body weight and fat mass without dietary caloric restriction in overweight individuals. An increase in total energy expenditure appears to be the most important determinant of successful exercise-induced weight loss. The best long-term results may be achieved when physical activity produces an energy expenditure of at least 2,500 kcal/week. Yet, the optimal approach in weight reduction programs appears to be a combination of regular physical activity and caloric restriction. A minimum of 60 min, but most likely 80-90 min of moderate-intensity physical activity per day may be needed to avoid or limit weight regain in formerly overweight or obese individuals. Regular moderate intensity physical activity, a healthy diet, and avoiding unhealthy weight gain are effective and safe ways to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases and to reduce premature mortality in all population groups. Although the efforts to promote cardiovascular health concern the whole population, particular attention should be paid to individuals who are physically inactive, have unhealthy diets or are prone to weight gain. They have the highest risk for worsening of the cardiovascular risk factor profile and for cardiovascular disease. To combat the epidemic of overweight and to improve cardiovascular health at a population level, it is important to develop strategies to increase habitual physical activity and to prevent overweight and obesity in

  2. Tai Chi Chuan Exercise for Patients with Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Lan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training is the cornerstone of rehabilitation for patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD. Although high-intensity exercise has significant cardiovascular benefits, light-to-moderate intensity aerobic exercise also offers health benefits. With lower-intensity workouts, patients may be able to exercise for longer periods of time and increase the acceptance of exercise, particularly in unfit and elderly patients. Tai Chi Chuan (Tai Chi is a traditional Chinese mind-body exercise. The exercise intensity of Tai Chi is light to moderate, depending on its training style, posture, and duration. Previous research has shown that Tai Chi enhances aerobic capacity, muscular strength, balance, and psychological well-being. Additionally, Tai Chi training has significant benefits for common cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, poor exercise capacity, endothelial dysfunction, and depression. Tai Chi is safe and effective in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG surgery, congestive heart failure (HF, and stroke. In conclusion, Tai Chi has significant benefits to patients with cardiovascular disease, and it may be prescribed as an alternative exercise program for selected patients with CVD.

  3. Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mellova Amir Masrizal

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is performed by genetic, environmental, and complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Fatness levels in obese children are indicative of increased risk for elevated blood pressure, cholesterol, and lipoprotein ratios children and adolescents. Serum cholesterol and blood pressure are related to raise atherosclerotic lesion. Certain cardiovascular disease risk factors in obese children are related to the earliest stages of atherosclerosis disease. Obese children have the high risk factors of certain cardiovascular disease. Genetic factors affecting metabolic rate can be successfully managed by the introduction of environmental factors such as decrease caloric intake and increase physical activity. The treatment of obesity and of atherosclerotic patients should include dietary restriction (protein sparing modified fast and hypocaloric balanced diet, nutrition education, increased physical activity, behavior modification, and familial support. Success fully management of obesity can improve the quality of life and reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality associated with obesity.

  4. Sexual Health Concerns in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Page Sexual Health Concerns in Patients With Cardiovascular Disease Lindsey Rosman , John M. Cahill , Susan L. McCammon , ... and difficulty achieving and maintaining an erection. 2 Cardiovascular disease and its treatment may also affect a man’s ...

  5. Iron status and cardiovascular disease risk in black South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-03-29

    Mar 29, 2011 ... Keywords: iron status, cardiovascular disease, African women, PURE study. Iron status and .... sponsored Arlie Conference.20 Body circumferences of participants ...... cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice.

  6. Premature cardiovascular disease in young women with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, Anouk; Hutten, Barbara A.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Vissers, Maud N.

    2006-01-01

    Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia is associated with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and the development of premature cardiovascular disease. Despite this general statement, data regarding the incidence of cardiovascular disease in young women with familial

  7. Cardiovascular disease mortality in Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Powell O; Frank, Ariel T H; Kapphahn, Kristopher I; Goldstein, Benjamin A; Eggleston, Karen; Hastings, Katherine G; Cullen, Mark R; Palaniappan, Latha P

    2014-12-16

    Asian Americans are a rapidly growing racial/ethnic group in the United States. Our current understanding of Asian-American cardiovascular disease mortality patterns is distorted by the aggregation of distinct subgroups. The purpose of the study was to examine heart disease and stroke mortality rates in Asian-American subgroups to determine racial/ethnic differences in cardiovascular disease mortality within the United States. We examined heart disease and stroke mortality rates for the 6 largest Asian-American subgroups (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese) from 2003 to 2010. U.S. death records were used to identify race/ethnicity and cause of death by International Classification of Diseases-10th revision coding. Using both U.S. Census data and death record data, standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), relative SMRs (rSMRs), and proportional mortality ratios were calculated for each sex and ethnic group relative to non-Hispanic whites (NHWs). In this study, 10,442,034 death records were examined. Whereas NHW men and women had the highest overall mortality rates, Asian Indian men and women and Filipino men had greater proportionate mortality burden from ischemic heart disease. The proportionate mortality burden of hypertensive heart disease and cerebrovascular disease, especially hemorrhagic stroke, was higher in every Asian-American subgroup compared with NHWs. The heterogeneity in cardiovascular disease mortality patterns among diverse Asian-American subgroups calls attention to the need for more research to help direct more specific treatment and prevention efforts, in particular with hypertension and stroke, to reduce health disparities for this growing population. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Garlic for Cardiovascular Disease: Prevention or Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alali, Feras Q; El-Elimat, Tamam; Khalid, Lila; Hudaib, Reema; Al-Shehabi, Tuqa Saleh; Eid, Ali H

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of global mortality with a substantial economic impact. The annual deaths are expected to increase in the next decade. An array of dietary supplements is being used by people worldwide to ameliorate cardiovascular risk factors. Garlic (Allium sativum L.), a top-selling herbal dietary supplement, is renowned for its wide range beneficial effects, particularly in the treatment and prevention of CVD. This review aims to present a thorough discussion of the available evidence-based data which support the use of garlic in the treatment or prevention of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. The molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are dissected as well. This review supports the notion that garlic has the potential to treat mild hypertension, to decrease hypercholesterolemia, and to prevent atherosclerosis. More clinical studies are essential to unequivocally understand the mechanisms underlying treatment or prevention of these cardiovascular conditions. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Perceptions of risk: understanding cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Webster

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Ruth Webster1, Emma Heeley21Cardiovascular Division, 2Neurological and Mental Health Division, The George Institute for International Health, Camperdown, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is still the leading cause of death and disability worldwide despite the availability of well-established and effective preventive options. Accurate perception of a patient’s risk by both the patient and the doctors is important as this is one of the components that determine health-related behavior. Doctors tend to not use cardiovascular (CV risk calculators and underestimate the absolute CV risk of their patients. Patients show optimistic bias when considering their own risk and consistently underestimate it. Poor patient health literacy and numeracy must be considered when thinking about this problem. Patients must possess a reasonably high level of understanding of numerical processes when doctors discuss risk, a level that is not possessed by large numbers of the population. In order to overcome this barrier, doctors need to utilize various tools including the appropriate use of visual aids to accurately communicate risk with their patients. Any intervention has been shown to be better than nothing in improving health understanding. The simple process of repeatedly conveying risk information to a patient has been shown to improve accuracy of risk perception. Doctors need to take responsibility for the accurate assessment and effective communication of CV risk in their patients in order to improve patient uptake of cardioprotective lifestyle choices and preventive medications.Keywords: risk perception, cardiovascular disease, cardioprotective lifestyle

  10. [Gender issues in the epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtel, Ursula

    2007-06-01

    In the last decade our knowledge about sex differences in the epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases has substantially increased. However; most information relates to coronary heart disease, and relatively little information is available on other forms of heart disease or cerebrovascular diseases. In the present paper, first, the age-adjusted mortality and morbidity rates of men and women across different European countries will be described as well as differences in case-fatality after myocardial infarction. Second, gender differences regarding the impact of traditional and novel risk factors on the development of coronary heart disease will be addressed, together with recent evidence from cardiac rehabilitation research. In general, we can say that significant sex differences exist at each stage of coronary heart disease, which need to be taken into account in primary prevention, acute therapy, and long-term rehabilitation. Further research is required on other forms of cardiovascular diseases, which are more prevalent among women than among men, especially in higher age groups.

  11. Invasive Management Strategies and Antithrombotic Treatments in Patients With Non-ST-Segment-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome in China: Findings From the Improving CCC Project (Care for Cardiovascular Disease in China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing; Wang, Ying; Liu, Jing; Liu, Jun; Hao, Yongchen; Smith, Sidney C; Huo, Yong; Fonarow, Gregg C; Ma, Changsheng; Ge, Junbo; Taubert, Kathryn A; Morgan, Louise; Guo, Yang; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Yujie; Zhao, Dong

    2017-06-01

    Early invasive strategies and antithrombotic treatments are key treatments of non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). Few studies have examined the use of these strategies in patients with NSTE-ACS in China. This study aimed to assess the applications of invasive strategies and antithrombotic treatments in patients with NSTE-ACS and compare their outcomes. A nationwide registry study, Improving CCC (Care for Cardiovascular Disease in China) ACS project, was launched in 2014 as a collaborative study of the American Heart Association and Chinese Society of Cardiology (CSC), with 142 participating hospitals reporting details of clinical management and outcomes of patients with NSTE-ACS. The use of invasive strategies and antithrombotic treatments was examined based on updated guidelines. Major adverse cardiovascular events were analyzed. A total of 9953 patients with NSTE-ACS were enrolled. Angiography was performed in 63.1% of these patients, and 58.2% underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, 40.6% of patients did not undergo early risk assessment, and very-high-risk patients had the lowest proportion of PCI (41.7%). PCI was performed within recommended times in 11.1% of very-high-risk patients and 26.3% of high risk patients. Those who underwent PCI within 2 hours had higher mortality in high-risk and very-high-risk patients who received PCI. Early dual antiplatelet treatment was given in 88.3% of patients. There are notable differences between guideline recommendations and the clinical management of patients with NSTE-ACS in China. The reasons for very-high-risk NSTE-ACS patients not undergoing PCI, and the optimal timing of PCI, require further clarification. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02306616. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. The link between chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Sarmad; Hernandez, German T

    2014-07-01

    It is well known that patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a strong risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the excess risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with CKD is only partially explained by the presence of traditional risk factors, such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, PubMed, EBSCO and Web of Science has been searched. Chronic kidney disease even in its early stages can cause hypertension and potentiate the risk for cardiovascular disease. However, the practice of intensive blood pressure lowering was criticized in recent systematic reviews. Available evidence is inconclusive but does not prove that a blood pressure target of less than 130/80 mmHg as recommended in the guidelines improves clinical outcomes more than a target of less than 140/90 mmHg in adults with CKD. The association between CKD and CVD has been extensively documented in the literature. Both CKD and CVD share common traditional risk factors, such as smoking, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. However, cardiovascular disease remains often underdiagnosed und undertreated in patients with CKD. It is imperative that as clinicians, we recognize that patients with CKD are a group at high risk for developing CVD and cardiovascular events. Additional studies devoted to further understand the risk factors for CVD in patients with CKD are necessary to develop and institute preventative and treatment strategies to reduce the high morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD.

  13. Cardiovascular disease: primary prevention, disease modulation and regenerative therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sultan, Sherif

    2012-10-01

    Cardiovascular primary prevention and regeneration programs are the contemporary frontiers in functional metabolic vascular medicine. This novel science perspective harnesses our inherent ability to modulate the interface between specialized gene receptors and bioavailable nutrients in what is labeled as the nutrient-gene interaction. By mimicking a natural process through the conveyance of highly absorbable receptor specific nutrients, it is feasible to accelerate cell repair and optimize mitochondrial function, thereby achieving cardiovascular cure. We performed a comprehensive review of PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Review databases for articles relating to cardiovascular regenerative medicine, nutrigenomics and primary prevention, with the aim of harmonizing their roles within contemporary clinical practice. We searched in particular for large-scale randomized controlled trials on contemporary cardiovascular pharmacotherapies and their specific adverse effects on metabolic pathways which feature prominently in cardiovascular regenerative programs, such as nitric oxide and glucose metabolism. Scientific research on \\'cardiovascular-free\\' centenarians delineated that low sugar and low insulin are consistent findings. As we age, our insulin level increases. Those who can decelerate the rapidity of this process are prompting their cardiovascular rejuvenation. It is beginning to dawn on some clinicians that contemporary treatments are not only failing to impact on our most prevalent diseases, but they may be causing more damage than good. Primary prevention programs are crucial elements for a better outcome. Cardiovascular primary prevention and regeneration programs have enhanced clinical efficacy and quality of life and complement our conventional endovascular practice.

  14. Noninvasive Test Detects Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    At NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), NASA-developed Video Imaging Communication and Retrieval (VICAR) software laid the groundwork for analyzing images of all kinds. A project seeking to use imaging technology for health care diagnosis began when the imaging team considered using the VICAR software to analyze X-ray images of soft tissue. With marginal success using X-rays, the team applied the same methodology to ultrasound imagery, which was already digitally formatted. The new approach proved successful for assessing amounts of plaque build-up and arterial wall thickness, direct predictors of heart disease, and the result was a noninvasive diagnostic system with the ability to accurately predict heart health. Medical Technologies International Inc. (MTI) further developed and then submitted the technology to a vigorous review process at the FDA, which cleared the software for public use. The software, patented under the name Prowin, is being used in MTI's patented ArterioVision, a carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) test that uses ultrasound image-capturing and analysis software to noninvasively identify the risk for the major cause of heart attack and strokes: atherosclerosis. ArterioVision provides a direct measurement of atherosclerosis by safely and painlessly measuring the thickness of the first two layers of the carotid artery wall using an ultrasound procedure and advanced image-analysis software. The technology is now in use in all 50 states and in many countries throughout the world.

  15. Association of Relationship between Periodontal Disease and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johar, N; Dhodapkar, S V; Kumar, R; Verma, T; Jajoo, A

    2017-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the relationship between periodontal and cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have shown some co-relation between the two conditions. We included 186 patients divided into four groups. First two Groups (A1 & A2) were the patients with cardiac disease (100 in numbers) whilst Groups (B1 & B2) (86 in numbers) were treated as controls (without cardiac disease). Following markers of periodontal disease were assessed - plaque index, calculus index, gingival and periodontal index. Markers of cardiovascular disease included were LDL, HDL, total cholesterol and CRP. Ramfjords periodontal index was used to assess the extent of periodontal disease. In the present study there was a significant increase in CRP levels in Group A1 (CVD + PD) compared to controls and overall the two cardiac groups showed a significant increase in CRP compared to controls. There was a non-significant change in lipid profile markers (LDL, HDL and total cholesterol). Periodontal Disease Index (PDI) was also increased in Group A1 compared to other groups except Group B1 and overall in cardiac groups compared to non-cardiac (PD) groups. In this study no correlation between periodontal and cardiovascular disease was found. This may be due intake of statins by few patients in Group A with a confirmed diagnosis of cardiovascular disease.

  16. Mannan-Binding Lectin in Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Pągowska-Klimek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide so research continues into underlying mechanisms. Since innate immunity and its potent component mannan-binding lectin have been proven to play an important role in the inflammatory response during infection and ischaemia-reperfusion injury, attention has been paid to its role in the development of cardiovascular complications as well. This review provides a general outline of the structure and genetic polymorphism of MBL and its role in inflammation/tissue injury with emphasis on associations with cardiovascular disease. MBL appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and, in consequence, coronary artery disease and also inflammation and tissue injury after myocardial infarction and heart transplantation. The relationship between MBL and disease is rather complex and depends on different genetic and environmental factors. That could be why the data obtained from animal and clinical studies are sometimes contradictory proving not for the first time that innate immunity is a “double-edge sword,” sometimes beneficial and, at other times disastrous for the host.

  17. Cardiovascular disease among atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozasa, Kotaro; Takahashi, Ikuno; Grant, Eric J; Kodama, Kazunori

    2017-10-01

    The profile of cardiovascular disease in Japan has been different from that in Western countries. Hypertension was the major cause not only for hemorrhagic stroke but also for ischemic stroke and heart disease in the past, and the influence of hypertension has decreased with calendar years because of reduced salt intake and westernization of lifestyle, and also improved medical care. The health status of atomic bomb survivors has reflected this profile as well as radiation effects. It is also likely that this cohort has been affected by the difficult conditions experienced in the aftermath of the war and atomic bombings. In this article, we tried to make a consistent interpretation of epidemiological findings of atomic bomb radiation effects on cardiovascular disease. Among the atomic bomb survivors, radiation exposure was associated with some cardiovascular diseases that are often associated with hypertension, and dose response appeared to be primarily non-linear among those who were exposed at younger ages. These effects are thought to reflect the nature of whole body irradiation. But, some findings remain inconsistent, possibly because of possible misclassification in death certificate diagnoses in the Life Span Study as well as selected information from the Adult Health Study which was limited to participants, focused on specific outcomes, and gathered in selected periods of follow-up. Therefore, a comprehensive and balanced interpretation of the results from both groups is necessary.

  18. Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes Among the NASA Astronaut Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvat, Jacqueline M.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Wear, Mary L.; Stenger, Michael B.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute effects of spaceflight on the cardiovascular system have been studied extensively, but the combined chronic effects of spaceflight and aging are not well understood. Preparation for and participation in spaceflight activities are associated with changes in the cardiovascular system such as decreased carotid artery distensibility and decreased ventricular mass which may lead to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Additionally, astronauts who travel into space multiple times or for longer durations may be at an increased risk across their lifespan. To that end, the purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of common cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes among the NASA astronaut corps during their active career and through retirement. METHODS: Cardiovascular disease outcomes were defined as reports of any of the following: myocardial infarction (MI), revascularization procedures (coronary artery bypass graft surgery [CABG] or percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI]), hypertension, stroke or transient ischemic attack [TIA], heart failure, or total CVD (as defined by the AHA - combined outcome of MI, Angina Pectoris, heart failure, stroke, and hypertension). Each outcome was identified individually from review of NASA's Electronic Medical Record (EMR), EKG reports, and death certificates using ICD-9 codes as well as string searches of physician notes of astronaut exams that occurred between 1959 and 2016. RESULTS: Of 338 NASA astronauts selected as of 2016, 9 reported an MI, 12 reported a revascularization procedure, (7 PCI and 5 CABG), 4 reported Angina (without MI), 5 reported heart failure, 9 reported stroke/TIA, and 96 reported hypertension. Total CVD was reported in 105 astronauts. No astronaut who had an MI or revascularization procedure flew a spaceflight mission following the event. All MI, revascularization, and stroke events occurred in male astronauts. When reviewing astronaut ECG reports, abnormal ECG reports were found

  19. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Matthew M; Soufer, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling condition that develops consequent to trauma exposure such as natural disasters, sexual assault, automobile accidents, and combat that independently increases risk for early incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular (CV) mortality by over 50 % and incident hypertension risk by over 30 %. While the majority of research on PTSD and CVD has concerned initially healthy civilian and military veteran samples, emerging research is also demonstrating that PTSD consequent to the trauma of an acute cardiac event significantly increases risk for early recurrence and mortality and that patient experiences in the clinical pathway that are related to the emergency department environment may provide an opportunity to prevent PTSD onset and thus improve outcomes. Future directions for clinical and implementation science concern broad PTSD and trauma screening in the context of primary care medical environments and the testing of PTSD treatments with CVD-related surrogates and endpoints.

  20. 42 CFR 410.17 - Cardiovascular disease screening tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cardiovascular disease screening tests. 410.17... § 410.17 Cardiovascular disease screening tests. (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, the... Part B covers cardiovascular disease screening tests when ordered by the physician who is treating the...

  1. Acute respiratory and cardiovascular admissions after a public smoking ban in Geneva, Switzerland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Humair

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many countries have introduced legislations for public smoking bans to reduce the harmful effects of exposure to tobacco smoke. Smoking bans cause significant reductions in admissions for acute coronary syndromes but their impact on respiratory diseases is unclear. In Geneva, Switzerland, two popular votes led to a stepwise implementation of a state smoking ban in public places, with a temporary suspension. This study evaluated the effect of this smoking ban on hospitalisations for acute respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: This before and after intervention study was conducted at the University Hospitals of Geneva, Switzerland, across 4 periods with different smoking legislations. It included 5,345 patients with a first hospitalisation for acute coronary syndrome, ischemic stroke, acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia and acute asthma. The main outcomes were the incidence rate ratios (IRR of admissions for each diagnosis after the final ban compared to the pre-ban period and adjusted for age, gender, season, influenza epidemic and secular trend. RESULTS: Hospitalisations for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease significantly decreased over the 4 periods and were lowest after the final ban (IRR=0.54 [95%CI: 0.42-0.68]. We observed a trend in reduced admissions for acute coronary syndromes (IRR=0.90 [95%CI: 0.80-1.00]. Admissions for ischemic stroke, asthma and pneumonia did not significantly change. CONCLUSIONS: A legislative smoking ban was followed by a strong decrease in hospitalisations for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a trend for reduced admissions for acute coronary syndrome. Smoking bans are likely to be very beneficial for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  2. Zonography in acute respiratory diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druzhinina, V.S.; Fetisova, V.M.; Kozorez, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Radiography was performed in 94 patients whose initial condition was assessed as acute respiratory disease. Radioscopy with x-ray image amplifier, roentgenography and zonography were used. Pulmonary changes were found in 61 persons. In 45 of them acute pneumonia was revealed, in 16 changes in the pulmonary pattern assessed as residual manifestations of pneumonia. Changes in 30 patients with pneumonia and 16 patients with residual manifestations were detected by zonography only

  3. Cardiovascular system and physical working capacity in patients who had acute radiation syndrome as the result of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyi, D.; Gergel, O.; Kovalenko, A.

    1996-01-01

    The functional state of cardiovascular system has been studied since 1986 in 168 patients who had acute radiation syndrome as the result of Chernobyl accident. There was revealed a progressive increase of cardiovascular system pathology. The number of patients with pathological signs at ECG increased from 4.8 % in 1987 to 11.3 % in 1994 and with myocardial hypertrophy from 1.2 % to 22.6 %. The number of patients with coronary heart disease increased on 17.2% and with essential hypertension on 15.5%. The physical working capacity reduced to 50-60 % of a due level for healthy persons. Two patients suffered from acute myocardial infarction during this period of observation. Thirteenth patients died from 1987 to 1995. Among them 4 patient died in a result of acute cardiac failure. The development of cardiovascular pathology has no any correlation with a dose of exposure. Three factors of cardiovascular pathology growth are supposed

  4. Stressing on the nucleolus in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, Nirmala; Sussman, Mark A

    2014-06-01

    The nucleolus is a multifunctional organelle with multiple roles involving cell proliferation, growth, survival, ribosome biogenesis and stress response signaling. Alteration of nucleolar morphology and architecture signifies an early response to increased cellular stress. This review briefly summarizes nucleolar response to cardiac stress signals and details the role played by nucleolar proteins in cardiovascular pathophysiology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Role of the Nucleolus in Human Disease. © 2013.

  5. Platelet-Derived Microvesicles in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T. K. Zaldivia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Microvesicles (MVs circulating in the blood are small vesicles (100–1,000 nm in diameter derived from membrane blebs of cells such as activated platelets, endothelial cells, and leukocytes. A growing body of evidence now supports the concept that platelet-derived microvesicles (PMVs, the most abundant MVs in the circulation, are important regulators of hemostasis, inflammation, and angiogenesis. Compared with healthy individuals, a large increase of circulating PMVs has been observed, particularly in patients with cardiovascular diseases. As observed in MVs from other parent cells, PMVs exert their biological effects in multiple ways, such as triggering various intercellular signaling cascades and by participating in transcellular communication by the transfer of their “cargo” of cytoplasmic components and surface receptors to other cell types. This review describes our current understanding of the potential role of PMVs in mediating hemostasis, inflammation, and angiogenesis and their consequences on the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and venous thrombosis. Furthermore, new developments of the therapeutic potential of PMVs for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases will be discussed.

  6. American Indian Women and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struthers, Roxanne; Savik, Kay; Hodge, Felicia Schanche

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is currently the number one killer of American women. Consequently, CVD is a concern for all women, including ethnic women. However, little is known about CVD behaviors and responses to CVD symptomology among minority women, especially American Indian women. Response behaviors to chest pain require important actions. This article examines response behaviors to chest pain in a group of American Indian women participants of the Inter-Tribal Heart Project. In 1992 to 1994, 866 American Indian women, aged 22 years and older, participated in face-to-face interviews to answer survey questions on multiple areas related to cardiovascular disease on 3 rural reservations in Minnesota and Wisconsin. A secondary data analysis was conducted on selected variables including demographic characteristics, healthcare access, rating of health status, personal and family history of cardiovascular disease, and action in response to crushing chest pain that lasted longer than 15 minutes. Research findings report that 68% of women would actively seek healthcare immediately if experiencing crushing chest pain that lasted longer than 15 minutes. However, 264 women (32%) would take a passive action to crushing chest pain, with 23% reporting they would sit down and wait until it passed. Analysis revealed women reporting a passive response were younger in age (under age 45) and had less education (less than a high school education). These findings have implications for nurses and other healthcare providers working in rural, geographically isolated Indian reservations. How to present CVD education in a culturally appropriate manner remains a challenge. PMID:15191257

  7. Alterations in the expression of the NF-κB family member RelB as a novel marker of cardiovascular outcomes during acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Labonté

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD exacerbations are acute events of worsened respiratory symptoms and enhanced inflammation partly mediated by NF-κB activation. RelB, an NF-κB family member, suppresses cigarette smoke-induced inflammation but its expression in COPD is unknown. Moreover, there is no information on its association with clinical features of COPD. The objectives of this study were to assess RelB expression relative to markers of inflammation as well as its association with cardiovascular and pulmonary features of COPD patients at stable-state and exacerbation.Data from 48 COPD patients were analyzed. Blood samples were collected from stable-state and exacerbating patients. After RNA isolation, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR was performed to assess RelB, Cox-2, IL-8 and IL-1β mRNA expression and their associations with measured clinical variables.Of the 48 COPD subjects, 18 were in stable-state and 30 were in exacerbation. RelB mRNA expression was lower than that of Cox-2, IL-8, and IL-1β in all cases (all p<0.001, except for IL-8 at exacerbation (p = 0.22. Cox-2, IL-8 and IL-1β were significantly associated with clinical features of patients in both stable-state and at exacerbation. There was no association with RelB expression and any clinical features in COPD subjects at stable-state. RelB mRNA levels were significantly associated with cardiovascular events such as systolic blood pressure during exacerbation.RelB mRNA expression is lower than that of the other inflammatory mediators. Expression of Cox-2, IL-8 and IL-1β were related to clinical features in both stable-state and at exacerbation. However, RelB expression was associated with clinical features of patients only during exacerbation, suggesting that RelB may represent a novel marker of health outcomes, in particular cardiovascular, during exacerbation in COPD.

  8. Long Pentraxin 3: Experimental and Clinical Relevance in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizia Bonacina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pentraxin 3 (PTX3 is an essential component of the humoral arm of innate immunity and belongs, together with the C-reactive protein (CRP and other acute phase proteins, to the pentraxins' superfamily: soluble, multifunctional, pattern recognition proteins. Pentraxins share a common C-terminal pentraxin domain, which in the case of PTX3 is coupled to an unrelated long N-terminal domain. PTX3 in humans, like CRP, correlates with surrogate markers of atherosclerosis and is independently associated with the risk of developing vascular events. Studies addressing the potential physiopathological role of CRP in the cardiovascular system were so far inconclusive and have been limited by the fact that the sequence and regulation have not been conserved during evolution between mouse and man. On the contrary, the conservation of sequence, gene organization, and regulation of PTX3 supports the translation of animal model findings in humans. While PTX3 deficiency is associated with increased inflammation, cardiac damage, and atherosclerosis, the overexpression limits carotid restenosis after angioplasty. These observations point to a cardiovascular protective effect of PTX3 potentially associated with the ability of tuning inflammation and favor the hypothesis that the increased levels of PTX3 in subjects with cardiovascular diseases may reflect a protective physiological mechanism, which correlates with the immunoinflammatory response observed in several cardiovascular disorders.

  9. Family aggregation of cardiovascular disease mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Möller, Sören

    2017-01-01

    Background: Familial factors play an important role in the variation of risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but less is known about how they affect the risk of death from CVD. We estimated familial aggregation of CVD mortality for twins offering the maximum level of risk due to genetic...... and other familial factors. Methods: Altogether, 132 771 twin individuals, including 65 196 complete pairs from Denmark, Finland and Sweden born in 1958 or earlier, participated in this study. During the register-based follow-up, 11 641 deaths occurred from coronary heart disease (CHD), including 6280...

  10. Heavy Metal Poisoning and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman M. Alissa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is an increasing world health problem. Traditional risk factors fail to account for all deaths from CVD. It is mainly the environmental, dietary and lifestyle behavioral factors that are the control keys in the progress of this disease. The potential association between chronic heavy metal exposure, like arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, and CVD has been less well defined. The mechanism through which heavy metals act to increase cardiovascular risk factors may act still remains unknown, although impaired antioxidants metabolism and oxidative stress may play a role. However, the exact mechanism of CVD induced by heavy metals deserves further investigation either through animal experiments or through molecular and cellular studies. Furthermore, large-scale prospective studies with follow up on general populations using appropriate biomarkers and cardiovascular endpoints might be recommended to identify the factors that predispose to heavy metals toxicity in CVD. In this review, we will give a brief summary of heavy metals homeostasis, followed by a description of the available evidence for their link with CVD and the proposed mechanisms of action by which their toxic effects might be explained. Finally, suspected interactions between genetic, nutritional and environmental factors are discussed.

  11. Carbon dioxide balneotherapy and cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagourelias, Efstathios D.; Zorou, Paraskevi G.; Tsaligopoulos, Miltiadis; Athyros, Vasilis G.; Karagiannis, Asterios; Efthimiadis, Georgios K.

    2011-09-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) balneotherapy is a kind of remedy with a wide spectrum of applications which have been used since the Middle Ages. However, its potential use as an adjuvant therapeutic option in patients with cardiovascular disease is not yet fully clarified. We performed a thorough review of MEDLINE Database, EMBASE, ISI WEB of Knowledge, COCHRANE database and sites funded by balneotherapy centers across Europe in order to recognize relevant studies and aggregate evidence supporting the use of CO2 baths in various cardiovascular diseases. The three main effects of CO2 hydrotherapy during whole body or partial immersion, including decline in core temperature, an increase in cutaneous blood flow, and an elevation of the score on thermal sensation, are analyzed on a pathophysiology basis. Additionally, the indications and contra-indications of the method are presented in an evidence-based way, while the need for new methodologically sufficient studies examining the use of CO2 baths in other cardiovascular substrates is discussed.

  12. Social determinants of cardiovascular disease outcomes in Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Reddy, K S

    2010-11-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death and disability in both developed and developing countries. In developed countries socio-economic mortality differentials have been studied extensively showing that the low socio-economic group suffers the highest mortality. As the epidemiological transition is taking place against a background of economic globalization, CVD risk factors among the urban poor and middle class are rapidly increasing in India. Recent evidences from India also suggest reversal of social gradient with excess burden of CVD morbidity in the low socio-economic group. Understanding the social determinants of environmental and behavioural exposures, in determining the risk factors for cardiovascular disease is an important challenge for public health professionals as well as communities. Socio-economic disadvantage is not simply a proxy for poor cardiovascular risk factor status, but also an indication of the likely trajectory that an individual or a community may follow in the course of their life. The paucity of intervention research seeking to address the role of social determinants in shaping lifestyle practices among individuals in culturally and socially diverse population groups within India is definitely a measure of inadequacy in public health research. This review article provides an overview of the role of social determinants of CVD and its possible conceptual pathways with special focus on acute coronary syndrome (ACS) outcomes among Indians.

  13. Cardiovascular disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naranjo, Antonio; Sokka, Tuulikki; Descalzo, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: We analyzed the prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and its association with traditional CV risk factors, clinical features of RA, and the use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in a multinational cross...... by patients. The clinical assessment included a review of clinical features of RA and exposure to DMARDs over the course of RA. Comorbidities were recorded; CV morbidity included myocardial infarction, angina, coronary disease, coronary bypass surgery, and stroke. Traditional risk factors recorded were...... any CV event and age and male gender and between extra-articular disease and myocardial infarction. Prolonged exposure to methotrexate (HR 0.85; 95% CI 0.81 to 0.89), leflunomide (HR 0.59; 95% CI 0.43 to 0.79), sulfasalazine (HR 0.92; 95% CI 0.87 to 0.98), glucocorticoids (HR 0.95; 95% CI 0.92 to 0...

  14. Physiological Changes to the Cardiovascular System at High Altitude and Its Effects on Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Callum James; Gavin, Matthew

    2017-06-01

    Riley, Callum James, and Matthew Gavin. Physiological changes to the cardiovascular system at high altitude and its effects on cardiovascular disease. High Alt Med Biol. 18:102-113, 2017.-The physiological changes to the cardiovascular system in response to the high altitude environment are well understood. More recently, we have begun to understand how these changes may affect and cause detriment to cardiovascular disease. In addition to this, the increasing availability of altitude simulation has dramatically improved our understanding of the physiology of high altitude. This has allowed further study on the effect of altitude in those with cardiovascular disease in a safe and controlled environment as well as in healthy individuals. Using a thorough PubMed search, this review aims to integrate recent advances in cardiovascular physiology at altitude with previous understanding, as well as its potential implications on cardiovascular disease. Altogether, it was found that the changes at altitude to cardiovascular physiology are profound enough to have a noteworthy effect on many forms of cardiovascular disease. While often asymptomatic, there is some risk in high altitude exposure for individuals with certain cardiovascular diseases. Although controlled research in patients with cardiovascular disease was largely lacking, meaning firm conclusions cannot be drawn, these risks should be a consideration to both the individual and their physician.

  15. Diabetic Cardiovascular Disease Induced by Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Kayama

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM. DM can lead to multiple cardiovascular complications, including coronary artery disease (CAD, cardiac hypertrophy, and heart failure (HF. HF represents one of the most common causes of death in patients with DM and results from DM-induced CAD and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Oxidative stress is closely associated with the pathogenesis of DM and results from overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS. ROS overproduction is associated with hyperglycemia and metabolic disorders, such as impaired antioxidant function in conjunction with impaired antioxidant activity. Long-term exposure to oxidative stress in DM induces chronic inflammation and fibrosis in a range of tissues, leading to formation and progression of disease states in these tissues. Indeed, markers for oxidative stress are overexpressed in patients with DM, suggesting that increased ROS may be primarily responsible for the development of diabetic complications. Therefore, an understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms mediated by oxidative stress is crucial to the prevention and treatment of diabetes-induced CVD. The current review focuses on the relationship between diabetes-induced CVD and oxidative stress, while highlighting the latest insights into this relationship from findings on diabetic heart and vascular disease.

  16. Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Force Recommendations Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults ... on Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) ...

  17. Knowledge of cardiovascular disease in Turkish undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badir, Aysel; Tekkas, Kader; Topcu, Serpil

    2015-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death worldwide. However, there is not enough data exploring student nurses' understanding, knowledge, and awareness of cardiovascular disease. To investigate knowledge of cardiovascular disease and its risk factors among undergraduate nursing students, with an emphasis on understanding of cardiovascular disease as the primary cause of mortality and morbidity, both in Turkey and worldwide. This cross-sectional survey assessed 1138 nursing students enrolled in nursing schools in Istanbul, Turkey. Data were collected using the Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Knowledge Level (CARRF-KL) scale and questions from the Individual Characteristics Form about students' gender, age, level of education, and family cardiovascular health history, as well as smoking and exercise habits. Respondents demonstrated a high level of knowledge about cardiovascular disease, with years of education (p healthy, they could improve their practice of health-promoting behaviors. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  18. Comprehensive metabolomic profiling and incident cardiovascular disease: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Metabolomics is a promising tool of cardiovascular biomarker discovery. We systematically reviewed the literature on comprehensive metabolomic profiling in association with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods and Results: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE from inception to Janua...

  19. 'Awareness and attitudes towards total cardiovascular disease risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microsoft account

    Corresponding author: Dr S Ofori, Department of Internal Medicine, ... regarding total CVD risk assessment in clinical practice among physicians in Port ..... cardiovascular risk for prevention and control of cardiovascular disease in low and.

  20. Impact of tornadoes on hospital admissions for acute cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Palacios, Federico; Casanegra, Ana Isabel; Shapiro, Alan; Phan, Minh; Hawkins, Beau; Li, Ji; Stoner, Julie; Tafur, Alfonso

    2015-11-01

    There is a paucity of data describing cardiovascular events after tornado outbreaks. We proposed to study the effects of tornadoes on the incidence of cardiovascular events at a tertiary care institution. Hospital admission records from a single center situated in a tornado-prone area three months before and after a 2013 tornado outbreak were abstracted. To control for seasonal variation, we also abstracted data from the same period of the prior year (control). Hospital admissions for cardiovascular events (CVEs) including acute myocardial infarction, stroke and venous thromboembolism (VTE) were summated by zip codes, and compared by time period. There were 22,607 admissions analyzed, of which 6,705 (30%), 7,980 (35%), and 7,922 (35%) were during the pre-tornado, post-tornado, and control time frames, respectively. There were 344 CVE in the controls, 317 CVE in pre-tornado and 364 CVEs in post tornado periods. There was no difference in the prevalence of CVE during the post-tornado season compared with the control (PPR=1.05 95% CI: 0.91 to 1.21, p=0.50) or the pre-tornado season (PPR=0.96, 95% CI: 0.83 to 1.21, p=0.63). In conclusion, tornado outbreaks did not increase the prevalence of cardiovascular events. In contrast to the effect of hurricanes, implementation of a healthcare policy change directed toward the early treatment and prevention of cardiovascular events after tornadoes does not seem warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Plasma proteomics to identify biomarkers - Application to cardiovascular diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Hans Christian; Overgaard, Martin; Melholt Rasmussen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    There is an unmet need for new cardiovascular biomarkers. Despite this only few biomarkers for the diagnosis or screening of cardiovascular diseases have been implemented in the clinic. Thousands of proteins can be analysed in plasma by mass spectrometry-based proteomics technologies. Therefore......, this technology may therefore identify new biomarkers that previously have not been associated with cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we summarize the key challenges and considerations, including strategies, recent discoveries and clinical applications in cardiovascular proteomics that may lead...

  2. [Cardiovascular disease prevention and life style modifications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudet, M; Daugareil, C; Ferrieres, J

    2012-04-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are mainly caused by atherosclerosis, the development of which is highly dependent on our Western lifestyle. Slowing this pathology depends on the reduction of risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, high blood pressure, smoking, lack of physical activity, excess weight and diabetes. Drug treatment exists and is very effective, but too often they treat the immediate abnormality such as diabetes, high blood pressure and hypercholesterolemia and not the underlying causes: poor eating habits, lack of physical activity and excess weight. These have a negative impact on endothelial function, oxidative stress, and can trigger inflammation, arrythmias and thrombosis. Cardiovascular prevention must therefore target sedentary lifestyle, excess weight, and favor low-calorie, low-salt food and Mediterranean diet. The way this diet works begins to be understood and goes beyond simple cardiovascular prevention. Therapeutic education holds a growing and complementary role in the Public Health system which should call upon the strengths of all healthcare professionals. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  3. Menopause and cardiovascular disease: the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosano, G M C; Vitale, C; Marazzi, G; Volterrani, M

    2007-02-01

    Menopause is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) because estrogen withdrawal has a detrimental effect on cardiovascular function and metabolism. The menopause compounds many traditional CVD risk factors, including changes in body fat distribution from a gynoid to an android pattern, reduced glucose tolerance, abnormal plasma lipids, increased blood pressure, increased sympathetic tone, endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation. Many CVD risk factors have different impacts in men and women. In postmenopausal women, treatment of arterial hypertension and glucose intolerance should be priorities. Observational studies and randomized clinical trials suggest that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) started soon after the menopause may confer cardiovascular benefit. In contrast to other synthetic progestogens used in continuous combined HRTs, the unique progestogen drospirenone has antialdosterone properties. Drospirenone can therefore counteract the water- and sodium-retaining effects of the estrogen component of HRT via the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which may otherwise result in weight gain and raised blood pressure. As a continuous combined HRT with 17beta-estradiol, drospirenone has been shown to significantly reduce blood pressure in postmenopausal women with elevated blood pressure, but not in normotensive women. Therefore, in addition to relieving climacteric symptoms, drospirenone/17beta-estradiol may offer further benefits in postmenopausal women, such as improved CVD risk profile.

  4. Targeting the aldosterone pathway in cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Finn; Azizi, Michel; Bauersachs, Johann

    2012-01-01

    Accumulated evidence has demonstrated that aldosterone is a key player in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Multiple clinical trials have documented that intervention in the aldosterone pathway can reduce blood pressure and lower albuminuria and improve outcome in patients with heart...... failure or myocardial infarction. Recent studies have unraveled details about the role of aldosterone at the cellular level in CV disease. The relative importance of glucocorticoids and aldosterone in terms of mineralocorticoid receptor activation is currently being debated. Also, studies are addressing...... which aldosterone modulator to use, which timing of treatment to aim for, and in which population to intervene. This review provides an overview of recent developments in the understanding of the role of aldosterone in CV disease, with particular reference to mechanisms and potential targets...

  5. Gut Microbiota in Cardiovascular Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, W.H. Wilson; Kitai, Takeshi; Hazen, Stanley L

    2017-01-01

    Significant interest in recent years has focused on gut microbiota-host interaction because accumulating evidence has revealed that intestinal microbiota play an important role in human health and disease, including cardiovascular diseases. Changes in the composition of gut microbiota associated with disease, referred to as dysbiosis, have been linked to pathologies such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition to alterations in gut microbiota composition, the metabolic potential of gut microbiota has been identified as a contributing factor in the development of diseases. Recent studies revealed that gut microbiota can elicit a variety of effects on the host. Indeed, the gut microbiome functions like an endocrine organ, generating bioactive metabolites, that can impact host physiology. Microbiota interact with the host through a number of pathways, including the trimethylamine (TMA)/ trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) pathway, short-chain fatty acids pathway, and primary and secondary bile acids pathways. In addition to these “metabolism dependent” pathways, metabolism independent processes are suggested to also potentially contribute to CVD pathogenesis. For example, heart failure associated splanchnic circulation congestion, bowel wall edema and impaired intestinal barrier function are thought to result in bacterial translocation, the presence of bacterial products in the systemic circulation and heightened inflammatory state. These are believed to also contribute to further progression of heart failure and atherosclerosis. The purpose of the current review is to highlight the complex interplay between microbiota, their metabolites and the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. We will also discuss the roles of gut microbiota in normal physiology and the potential of modulating intestinal microbial inhabitants as novel therapeutic targets. PMID:28360349

  6. Proteomic and genomic analysis of cardiovascular disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Eyk, Jennifer; Dunn, M. J

    2003-01-01

    ... to cardiovascular disease. By exploring the various strategies and technical aspects of both, using examples from cardiac or vascular biology, the limitations and the potential of these methods can be clearly seen. The book is divided into three sections: the first focuses on genomics, the second on proteomics, and the third provides an overview of the importance of these two scientific disciplines in drug and diagnostic discovery. The goal of this book is the transfer of their hard-earned lessons to the growing num...

  7. Multifactorial Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Hypertension : the Cardiovascular Polypill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafeber, M; Spiering, W; Visseren, F L J; Grobbee, D E

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major, if not the most important, contributor to the disease burden and premature death globally which is largely related to cardiovascular disease. In both the primary and the secondary preventions of cardiovascular disease, blood pressure (BP) targets are often not achieved which

  8. Melatonin modulates the fetal cardiovascular defense response to acute hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakor, Avnesh S; Allison, Beth J; Niu, Youguo; Botting, Kimberley J; Serón-Ferré, Maria; Herrera, Emilio A; Giussani, Dino A

    2015-08-01

    Experimental studies in animal models supporting protective effects on the fetus of melatonin in adverse pregnancy have prompted clinical trials in human pregnancy complicated by fetal growth restriction. However, the effects of melatonin on the fetal defense to acute hypoxia, such as that which may occur during labor, remain unknown. This translational study tested the hypothesis, in vivo, that melatonin modulates the fetal cardiometabolic defense responses to acute hypoxia in chronically instrumented late gestation fetal sheep via alterations in fetal nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Under anesthesia, 6 fetal sheep at 0.85 gestation were instrumented with vascular catheters and a Transonic flow probe around a femoral artery. Five days later, fetuses were exposed to acute hypoxia with or without melatonin treatment. Fetal blood was taken to determine blood gas and metabolic status and plasma catecholamine concentrations. Hypoxia during melatonin treatment was repeated during in vivo NO blockade with the NO clamp. This technique permits blockade of de novo synthesis of NO while compensating for the tonic production of the gas, thereby maintaining basal cardiovascular function. Melatonin suppressed the redistribution of blood flow away from peripheral circulations and the glycemic and plasma catecholamine responses to acute hypoxia. These are important components of the fetal brain sparing response to acute hypoxia. The effects of melatonin involved NO-dependent mechanisms as the responses were reverted by fetal treatment with the NO clamp. Melatonin modulates the in vivo fetal cardiometabolic responses to acute hypoxia by increasing NO bioavailability. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The Vitamin D Assessment (ViDA) Study: design of a randomized controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, acute respiratory infection, falls and non-vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scragg, Robert; Waayer, Debbie; Stewart, Alistair W; Lawes, Carlene M M; Toop, Les; Murphy, Judy; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Camargo, Carlos A

    2016-11-01

    Observational studies have shown that low vitamin D status is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, acute respiratory infection, falls and non-vertebral fractures. We recruited 5110 Auckland adults, aged 50-84 years, into a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to test whether vitamin D supplementation protects against these four major outcomes. The intervention is a monthly cholecalciferol dose of 100,000IU (2.5mg) for an estimated median 3.3 years (range 2.5-4.2) during 2011-2015. Participants were recruited primarily from family practices, plus community groups with a high proportion of Maori, Pacific, or South Asian individuals. The baseline evaluation included medical history, lifestyle, physical measurements (e.g. blood pressure, arterial waveform, lung function, muscle function), and a blood sample (stored at -80°C for later testing). Capsules are being mailed to home addresses with a questionnaire to collect data on non-hospitalized outcomes and to monitor adherence and potential adverse effects. Other data sources include New Zealand Ministry of Health data on mortality, hospitalization, cancer registrations and dispensed pharmaceuticals. A random sample of 438 participants returned for annual collection of blood samples to monitor adherence and safety (hypercalcemia), including repeat physical measurements at 12 months follow-up. The trial will allow testing of a priori hypotheses on several other endpoints including: weight, blood pressure, arterial waveform parameters, heart rate variability, lung function, muscle strength, gait and balance, mood, psoriasis, bone density, and chronic pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Is smog innocuous? Air pollution and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundeep Mishra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a significant environmental and health hazard. Earlier studies had examined the adverse health effects associated with short- and long-term exposure to particulate matter on respiratory disease. However, later studies demonstrated that was actually cardiovascular disease that accounted for majority of mortality. Furthermore, it was not gaseous pollutants like oxides of nitrate, sulfur, carbon mono-oxide or ozone but the particulate matter or PM, of fine or coarse size (PM2.5 and PM10 which was linearly associated with mortality; PM2.5 with long term and PM10 with short term. Several cardiovascular diseases are associated with pollution; acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias, atherosclerosis and cardiac arrest. The ideal way to address this problem is by adhering to stringent environmental standards of pollutants but some individual steps like choosing to stay indoors (on high pollution days, reducing outdoor air permeation to inside, purifying indoor air using air filters, and also limiting outdoor physical activity near source of air pollution can help. Nutritional anti-oxidants like statins or Mediterranean diet, and aspirin have not been associated with reduced risk but specific nutritional agents like broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower or brussels sprouts, fish oil supplement may help. Use of face-mask has been controversial but may be useful if particulate matter load is higher.

  11. Is smog innocuous? Air pollution and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sundeep

    Air pollution is a significant environmental and health hazard. Earlier studies had examined the adverse health effects associated with short- and long-term exposure to particulate matter on respiratory disease. However, later studies demonstrated that was actually cardiovascular disease that accounted for majority of mortality. Furthermore, it was not gaseous pollutants like oxides of nitrate, sulfur, carbon mono-oxide or ozone but the particulate matter or PM, of fine or coarse size (PM 2.5 and PM 10 ) which was linearly associated with mortality; PM 2.5 with long term and PM 10 with short term. Several cardiovascular diseases are associated with pollution; acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias, atherosclerosis and cardiac arrest. The ideal way to address this problem is by adhering to stringent environmental standards of pollutants but some individual steps like choosing to stay indoors (on high pollution days), reducing outdoor air permeation to inside, purifying indoor air using air filters, and also limiting outdoor physical activity near source of air pollution can help. Nutritional anti-oxidants like statins or Mediterranean diet, and aspirin have not been associated with reduced risk but specific nutritional agents like broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower or brussels sprouts, fish oil supplement may help. Use of face-mask has been controversial but may be useful if particulate matter load is higher. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Lycopene Deficiency in Ageing and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petyaev, Ivan M.

    2016-01-01

    Lycopene is a hydrocarbon phytochemical belonging to the tetraterpene carotenoid family and is found in red fruit and vegetables. Eleven conjugated double bonds predetermine the antioxidant properties of lycopene and its ability to scavenge lipid peroxyl radicals, reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide. Lycopene has a low bioavailability rate and appears in the blood circulation incorporated into chylomicrons and other apo-B containing lipoproteins. The recent body of evidence suggests that plasma concentration of lycopene is not only a function of intestinal absorption rate but also lycopene breakdown via enzymatic and oxidative pathways in blood and tissues. Oxidative stress and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide may represent a major cause of lycopene depletion in ageing, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has been shown recently that low carotenoid levels, and especially decreased serum lycopene levels, are strongly predictive of all-cause mortality and poor outcomes of cardiovascular disease. However, there is a poor statistical association between dietary and serum lycopene levels which occurs due to limited bioavailability of lycopene from dietary sources. Hence, it is very unlikely that nutritional intervention alone could be instrumental in the correction of lycopene and carotenoid deficiency. Therefore, new nutraceutical formulations of carotenoids with enhanced bioavailability are urgently needed. PMID:26881023

  13. Lifestyle Decreases Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavíček, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E.; Medová, Eva; Konečná, Jana; Žižka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimír

    2009-01-01

    Summary The morbidity and mortality of the cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1,349 volunteers, 320 men, 1,029 woman, mean age 51±14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999–2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1,223 measured persons from 71.2±14.38 (SD) to 70.6±14.02 kg (pSeventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19256282

  14. Sortilin and the risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Maria Francisca; Bourbon, Mafalda; Prata, Maria João; Alves, Sandra

    2013-10-01

    Plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are a key determinant of the risk of cardiovascular disease, which is why many studies have attempted to elucidate the pathways that regulate its metabolism. Novel latest-generation sequencing techniques have identified a strong association between the 1p13 locus and the risk of cardiovascular disease caused by changes in plasma LDL-C levels. As expected for a complex phenotype, the effects of variation in this locus are only moderate. Even so, knowledge of the association is of major importance, since it has unveiled a new metabolic pathway regulating plasma cholesterol levels. Crucial to this discovery was the work of three independent teams seeking to clarify the biological basis of this association, who succeeded in proving that SORT1, encoding sortilin, was the gene in the 1p13 locus involved in LDL metabolism. SORT1 was the first gene identified as determining plasma LDL levels to be mechanistically evaluated and, although the three teams used different, though appropriate, experimental methods, their results were in some ways contradictory. Here we review all the experiments that led to the identification of the new pathway connecting sortilin with plasma LDL levels and risk of myocardial infarction. The regulatory mechanism underlying this association remains unclear, but its discovery has paved the way for considering previously unsuspected therapeutic targets and approaches. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. Precision Medicine, Cardiovascular Disease and Hunting Elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Precision medicine postulates improved prediction, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease based on patient specific factors especially DNA sequence (i.e., gene) variants. Ideas related to precision medicine stem from the much anticipated "genetic revolution in medicine" arising seamlessly from the human genome project (HGP). In this essay I deconstruct the concept of precision medicine and raise questions about the validity of the paradigm in general and its application to cardiovascular disease. Thus far precision medicine has underperformed based on the vision promulgated by enthusiasts. While niche successes for precision medicine are likely, the promises of broad based transformation should be viewed with skepticism. Open discussion and debate related to precision medicine are urgently needed to avoid misapplication of resources, hype, iatrogenic interventions, and distraction from established approaches with ongoing utility. Failure to engage in such debate will lead to negative unintended consequences from a revolution that might never come. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cardiovascular disease risk factors: a childhood perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Pradeep A; Roy, Ambuj; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2013-03-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide including in developing countries like India. Indians are known to be predisposed to CVD, which occur almost a decade earlier in them. Though these diseases manifest in the middle age and beyond, it is now clear that the roots of CVD lie in childhood and adolescence. Many of the conventional risk factors of CVD such as high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, tobacco use, unhealthy diet and obesity have their beginnings in childhood and then track overtime. It is thus important to screen and identify these risk factors early and treat them to prevent onset of CVD. Similarly community based strategies to prevent onset of these risk factors is imperative to tackle this burgeoning public health crisis especially in countries like ours with limited resources.

  17. Effects of Vegetables on Cardiovascular Diseases and Related Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Yi Tang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have shown that vegetable consumption is inversely related to the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, research has indicated that many vegetables like potatoes, soybeans, sesame, tomatoes, dioscorea, onions, celery, broccoli, lettuce and asparagus showed great potential in preventing and treating cardiovascular diseases, and vitamins, essential elements, dietary fibers, botanic proteins and phytochemicals were bioactive components. The cardioprotective effects of vegetables might involve antioxidation; anti-inflammation; anti-platelet; regulating blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipid profile; attenuating myocardial damage; and modulating relevant enzyme activities, gene expression, and signaling pathways as well as some other biomarkers associated to cardiovascular diseases. In addition, several vegetables and their bioactive components have been proven to protect against cardiovascular diseases in clinical trials. In this review, we analyze and summarize the effects of vegetables on cardiovascular diseases based on epidemiological studies, experimental research, and clinical trials, which are significant to the application of vegetables in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Analysis of Medical Tourism for Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Liliana Andrei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing costs of treatments have led to the apparition of the medical tourism. Patients in high-income countries seek to solve their health problems in developing countries where the cost of medical treatment is much lower. This cost difference has led to the medical tourism industry that is currently estimated with an annual growth rate of about 20%. Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of death worldwide. The high cost of treating these diseases cause many patients to seek treatment options abroad. This paper presents an analysis of the medical tourism industry highlighting the factors that led to its development, barriers to medical tourism, and the economic impact of this industry. Although Romania has highly appreciated doctors it hasn’t achieved yet the high level of other developing countries where medical tourism is more intense. Spa tourism is still far from Romania’s potential in this area due to the very small investments and the lack of necessary infrastructure. Using statistical and econometric techniques we examined key health indicators in Romania showing the lack of correlation between the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, the development of the endowment of the health system in Romania, expenditures on health care and evolution of the number of foreign tourists coming to Romania to treat these diseases. We used statistical data series provided by N.S.I. that were processed using Eviews. We also tested whether there is a causal relationship in the Granger sense between the percentage of GDP allocated to the health care system and the number of nights spent by foreign tourists in resorts in Romania or the number of arrivals of foreign tourists.

  19. Cardiovascular Disease After Aromatase Inhibitor Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Reina; Shi, Jiaxiao; Schottinger, Joanne E; Chung, Joanie; Avila, Chantal; Amundsen, Britta; Xu, Xiaoqing; Barac, Ana; Chlebowski, Rowan T

    2016-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an important cause of death in older patients with breast cancer. However, limited information exists on the long-term effect of aromatase inhibitor (AI) use on CVD risk in breast cancer survivors. To this point, no other population-based studies have been able to adjust for CVD risk factors or cardiovascular medications. To determine the long-term influence of adjuvant endocrine therapies on CVD in a cohort of postmenopausal breast cancer survivors in analyses that accounted for major CVD risk factors, medication use, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. A retrospective cohort of postmenopausal women with breast cancer diagnosed from January 1, 1991, to December 31, 2010, and followed up through December 31, 2011 (maximum, 21 years [72 886 person-years]), was evaluated using records from a managed care organization with nearly 20 community hospitals in California. A total of 13 273 postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer without prior CVD were included. Cardiovascular disease incidence was compared across endocrine therapy categories. Information on demographics, comorbidity, medication, use, and CVD risk was captured from electronic health records. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models using time-dependent endocrine drug use variables and propensity scores were conducted. Data analysis was conducted from September 15, 2014, to February 1, 2016. Women were grouped by endocrine therapy status (tamoxifen citrate only, AI only, both, or neither). Person-year rates of CVD for each therapy group. During 72 886 person-years in 13 273 women (mean [SD] age, 66.8 [8.1] years) with follow-up through 2011, we observed 3711 CVD events. In multivariable analyses (reported as hazard ratio [95% CI]), AI-only users had a similar risk of cardiac ischemia (myocardial infarction and angina) (adjusted, 0.97 [0.78-1.22]) and stroke (adjusted, 0.97 [0.70-1.33]) as tamoxifen-only users (reference). However, we found an

  20. Patients with psoriasis have an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlehoff, Ole; Gislason, Gunnar; Lindhardsen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic immunoinflammatory disease that affects 2-3% of the population and shares pathophysiologic mechanisms and risk factors with cardiovascular diseases. Studies have suggested psoriasis as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and Danish guidelines...... on cardiovascular risk factor modification in patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis have recently been published. We provide a short review of the current evidence and the Danish guidelines....

  1. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in pericardial diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francone Marco

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The pericardium and pericardial diseases in particular have received, in contrast to other topics in the field of cardiology, relatively limited interest. Today, despite improved knowledge of pathophysiology of pericardial diseases and the availability of a wide spectrum of diagnostic tools, the diagnostic challenge remains. Not only the clinical presentation may be atypical, mimicking other cardiac, pulmonary or pleural diseases; in developed countries a shift for instance in the epidemiology of constrictive pericarditis has been noted. Accurate decision making is crucial taking into account the significant morbidity and mortality caused by complicated pericardial diseases, and the potential benefit of therapeutic interventions. Imaging herein has an important role, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR is definitely one of the most versatile modalities to study the pericardium. It fuses excellent anatomic detail and tissue characterization with accurate evaluation of cardiac function and assessment of the haemodynamic consequences of pericardial constraint on cardiac filling. This review focuses on the current state of knowledge how CMR can be used to study the most common pericardial diseases.

  2. Cardiovascular Diseases in HIV-infected Subjects (HIV-HEART Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    Detection of Frequency, Severity and Progression of Cardiovascular Diseases in Patients With HIV-infection.; Effect on Cardiovascular Risk and Life Quality by Age, Gender, Classic Cardiovascular Risk Factors,; HIV-specific Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Cardiovascular Medication, Antiretroviral Medication

  3. Knowledge and awareness of risk factors for cardiovascular disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardiovascular disease causes 30% of deaths globally. By comparison, infectious disease accounts for 10% of global mortality. As these statistics indicate, cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in the world. In South Africa, through urbanisation and changes in lifestyle and dietary habits, the prevalence ...

  4. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reddy, K.S.; Katan, M.B.

    2004-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are growing contributors to global disease burdens, with epidemics of CVD advancing across many regions of the world which are experiencing a rapid health transition. Diet and nutrition have been extensively investigated as risk factors for major cardiovascular diseases

  5. Sleep: important considerations for the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandner, Michael A; Alfonso-Miller, Pamela; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Shetty, Safal; Shenoy, Sundeep; Combs, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    Sleep plays many roles in maintenance of cardiovascular health. This review summarizes the literature across several areas of sleep and sleep disorders in relation to cardiometabolic disease risk factors. Insufficient sleep duration is prevalent in the population and is associated with weight gain and obesity, inflammation, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and mortality. Insomnia is also highly present and represents an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, especially when accompanied by short sleep duration. Sleep apnea is a well-characterized risk factor for cardiometabolic disease and cardiovascular mortality. Other issues are relevant as well. For example, sleep disorders in pediatric populations may convey cardiovascular risks. Also, sleep may play an important role in cardiovascular health disparities. Sleep and sleep disorders are implicated in cardiometabolic disease risk. This review addresses these and other issues, concluding with recommendations for research and clinical practice.

  6. Intermittent hypoxia, cardiovascular disease and obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Chris D

    2018-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a common disorder and is associated with cardiovascular disease. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), whilst reducing blood pressure, has not been shown to reduce cardiovascular events when used as a treatment solely for this purpose in patients with previous cardiovascular disease. Developing a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying cardiovascular disease in OSA is important to develop new treatments. Potential causative mechanisms for cardiovascular disease in OSA include arousal induced sympathetic activation, large intrathoracic pressure swings leading to shear stress on the heart and great vessels, and intermittent hypoxia (IH). This review discusses the role of IH, as a major physiological consequence of OSA, in the development of cardiovascular disease.

  7. Alcohol, red wine and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollin, S D; Jones, P J

    2001-05-01

    The objective of this article is to review the existing literature concerning the effects and mechanisms of action of red wine consumption vs. other alcoholic beverages on the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Of particular interest is the form and quantity of alcohol consumed. This relationship between alcohol consumption and mortality is well supported by epidemiologic studies, which have suggested that different forms of alcohol alter the relative risk values for mortality from CVD. Although not without exception, current evidence from epidemiologic and experimental studies suggests a protective effect against the development of CVD with moderate consumption of red wine. The exact nature of the protective effect remains to be established. However, mechanisms including LDL oxidation and alterations in hemostatic variables are being increasingly recognized as contributory. Key components of red wine thought to be responsible for the protective effects include phenolic compounds and alcohol content. Despite the research presented, some questions relating to the current recommendations regarding moderate alcohol consumption and cardiovascular health remain. However, collectively, the literature aids in understanding some of the ways in which alcoholic beverages and their components affect the health of our population.

  8. Cardio-Vascular Disease and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mitchell-Fearon DrPh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report the level of utilization of clinical preventive services by older adults in Jamaica and to identify independent factors associated with utilization. Method: A nationally representative, community-based survey of 2,943 older adults was undertaken. Utilization frequency for six preventive, cardiovascular or cancer-related services was calculated. Logistic regression models were used to determine the independent factors associated with each service. Results: A dichotomy in annual utilization rates exists with cardiovascular services having much higher uptake than those for cancer (83.1% for blood pressure, 76.7% blood glucose, 68.1% cholesterol, 35.1% prostate, 11.3% mammograms, and 9.6% papanicolaou smears. Age, source of routine care, and having a chronic disease were most frequently associated with uptake. Discussion: Education of providers and patients on the need for utilizing preventive services in older adults is important. Improved access to services in the public sector may also help increase uptake of services.

  9. Roles of STATs signaling in cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Raj; Verma, Suresh K

    2012-04-01

    In cardiac and many other systems, chronic stress activates avfamily of structurally and functionally conserved receptors and their downstream signaling molecules that entail tyrosine, serine or threonine phosphorylation to transfer the messages to the genetic machinery. However, the activation of the Janus kinases (JAKs) and their downstream signal transducer and activator of transcription (STATs) proteins is both characteristic of and unique to cytokine and growth factor signaling which plays a central role in heart physiology. Dysregulation of JAK-STAT signaling is associated with various cardiovascular diseases. The molecular signaling and specificity of the JAK-STAT pathway are modulated at many levels by distinct regulatory proteins. Here, we review recent studies on the regulation of the STAT signaling pathway that will enhance our ability to design rational therapeutic strategies for stress-induced heart failure.

  10. Nutritional recommendations for cardiovascular disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilat-Adar, Sigal; Sinai, Tali; Yosefy, Chaim; Henkin, Yaakov

    2013-09-17

    Lifestyle factors, including nutrition, play an important role in the etiology of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). This position paper, written by collaboration between the Israel Heart Association and the Israel Dietetic Association, summarizes the current, preferably latest, literature on the association of nutrition and CVD with emphasis on the level of evidence and practical recommendations. The nutritional information is divided into three main sections: dietary patterns, individual food items, and nutritional supplements. The dietary patterns reviewed include low carbohydrate diet, low-fat diet, Mediterranean diet, and the DASH diet. Foods reviewed in the second section include: whole grains and dietary fiber, vegetables and fruits, nuts, soy, dairy products, alcoholic drinks, coffee and caffeine, tea, chocolate, garlic, and eggs. Supplements reviewed in the third section include salt and sodium, omega-3 and fish oil, phytosterols, antioxidants, vitamin D, magnesium, homocysteine-reducing agents, and coenzyme Q10.

  11. Nutritional Recommendations for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaakov Henkin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Lifestyle factors, including nutrition, play an important role in the etiology of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD. This position paper, written by collaboration between the Israel Heart Association and the Israel Dietetic Association, summarizes the current, preferably latest, literature on the association of nutrition and CVD with emphasis on the level of evidence and practical recommendations. The nutritional information is divided into three main sections: dietary patterns, individual food items, and nutritional supplements. The dietary patterns reviewed include low carbohydrate diet, low-fat diet, Mediterranean diet, and the DASH diet. Foods reviewed in the second section include: whole grains and dietary fiber, vegetables and fruits, nuts, soy, dairy products, alcoholic drinks, coffee and caffeine, tea, chocolate, garlic, and eggs. Supplements reviewed in the third section include salt and sodium, omega-3 and fish oil, phytosterols, antioxidants, vitamin D, magnesium, homocysteine-reducing agents, and coenzyme Q10.

  12. Nutritional Recommendations for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilat-Adar, Sigal; Sinai, Tali; Yosefy, Chaim; Henkin, Yaakov

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyle factors, including nutrition, play an important role in the etiology of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). This position paper, written by collaboration between the Israel Heart Association and the Israel Dietetic Association, summarizes the current, preferably latest, literature on the association of nutrition and CVD with emphasis on the level of evidence and practical recommendations. The nutritional information is divided into three main sections: dietary patterns, individual food items, and nutritional supplements. The dietary patterns reviewed include low carbohydrate diet, low-fat diet, Mediterranean diet, and the DASH diet. Foods reviewed in the second section include: whole grains and dietary fiber, vegetables and fruits, nuts, soy, dairy products, alcoholic drinks, coffee and caffeine, tea, chocolate, garlic, and eggs. Supplements reviewed in the third section include salt and sodium, omega-3 and fish oil, phytosterols, antioxidants, vitamin D, magnesium, homocysteine-reducing agents, and coenzyme Q10. PMID:24067391

  13. [Psychopharmacotherapy in patients with cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, J; Lange-Asschenfeldt, C; Hiemke, C; Kahl, K G

    2012-11-01

    Increased cardiometabolic morbidity and increased overall mortality has been observed in patients with severe mental disorders. Therefore, cardiometabolic safety is an important issue in the treatment of patients with psychiatric disorders, in particular in patients with comorbid cardiometabolic diseases. Frequent adverse side effects include disturbances of lipid and glucose metabolism, body weight changes and alterations of the QTc interval. Dependent on the particular substance used and on factors concerning individual vulnerability, these side effects vary in relative frequency. Therefore, regular monitoring is recommended including ECG. Furthermore, interactions between different medicaments may occur, either leading to enhanced or decreased drug concentrations. Prior to psychopharmacological treatment, proper cardiological treatment is recommended. The management of cardiovascular risks under psychopharmacology requires interdisciplinary cooperation between the cardiologist, general practitioner and psychiatrist.

  14. Aggressive and acute periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albandar, Jasim M

    2014-06-01

    Inflammatory periodontal diseases are highly prevalent, although most of these diseases develop and progress slowly, often unnoticed by the affected individual. However, a subgroup of these diseases include aggressive and acute forms that have a relatively low prevalence but show a rapid-course, high rate of progression leading to severe destruction of the periodontal tissues, or cause systemic symptoms that often require urgent attention from healthcare providers. Aggressive periodontitis is an early-onset, destructive disease that shows a high rate of periodontal progression and distinctive clinical features. A contemporary case definition of this disease is presented. Population studies show that the disease is more prevalent in certain geographic regions and ethnic groups. Aggressive periodontitis is an infectious disease, and recent data show that in affected subjects the subgingival microbiota is composed of a mixed microbial infection, with a wide heterogeneity in the types and proportions of microorganisms recovered. Furthermore, there are significant differences in the microbiota of the disease among different geographic regions and ethnicities. There is also evidence that the Aggregatibacter actinomycetemycomitans-JP2 clone may play an important role in the development of the disease in certain populations. The host response plays an important role in the susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis, where the immune response may be complex and involve multiple mechanisms. Also, genetic factors seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease, but the mechanisms of increased susceptibility are complex and not yet fully understood. The available data suggest that aggressive periodontitis is caused by mutations either in a few major genes or in multiple small-effect genes, and there is also evidence of gene-gene and gene-environment interaction effects. Diagnostic methods for this disease, based on a specific microbiologic, immunologic or

  15. The Various Applications of 3D Printing in Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sabbagh, Abdallah; Eleid, Mackram F; Al-Hijji, Mohammed; Anavekar, Nandan S; Holmes, David R; Nkomo, Vuyisile T; Oderich, Gustavo S; Cassivi, Stephen D; Said, Sameh M; Rihal, Charanjit S; Matsumoto, Jane M; Foley, Thomas A

    2018-05-10

    To highlight the various applications of 3D printing in cardiovascular disease and discuss its limitations and future direction. Use of handheld 3D printed models of cardiovascular structures has emerged as a facile modality in procedural and surgical planning as well as education and communication. Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a novel imaging modality which involves creating patient-specific models of cardiovascular structures. As percutaneous and surgical therapies evolve, spatial recognition of complex cardiovascular anatomic relationships by cardiologists and cardiovascular surgeons is imperative. Handheld 3D printed models of cardiovascular structures provide a facile and intuitive road map for procedural and surgical planning, complementing conventional imaging modalities. Moreover, 3D printed models are efficacious educational and communication tools. This review highlights the various applications of 3D printing in cardiovascular diseases and discusses its limitations and future directions.

  16. Aldosterone Does Not Predict Cardiovascular Events Following Acute Coronary Syndrome in Patients Initially Without Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Reynaria; Gunzburger, Elise; Ballantyne, Christie M; Barter, Philip J; Kallend, David; Leiter, Lawrence A; Leitersdorf, Eran; Nicholls, Stephen J; Shah, Prediman K; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Olsson, Anders G; McMurray, John J V; Kittelson, John; Schwartz, Gregory G

    2017-01-10

    Aldosterone may have adverse effects in the myocardium and vasculature. Treatment with an aldosterone antagonist reduces cardiovascular risk in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by heart failure (HF) and left ventricular systolic dysfunction. However, most patients with acute coronary syndrome do not have advanced HF. Among such patients, it is unknown whether aldosterone predicts cardiovascular risk. To address this question, we examined data from the dal-OUTCOMES trial that compared the cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor dalcetrapib with placebo, beginning 4 to 12 weeks after an index acute coronary syndrome. Patients with New York Heart Association class II (with LVEF coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, hospitalization for unstable angina, or resuscitated cardiac arrest. Hospitalization for HF was a secondary endpoint. Over a median follow-up of 37 months, the primary outcome occurred in 366 patients (9.0%), and hospitalization for HF occurred in 72 patients (1.8%). There was no association between aldosterone and either the time to first occurrence of a primary outcome (hazard ratio for doubling of aldosterone 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.78-1.09, P=0.34) or hospitalization for HF (hazard ratio 1.38, 95% CI 0.96-1.99, P=0.08) in Cox regression models adjusted for covariates. In patients with recent acute coronary syndrome but without advanced HF, aldosterone does not predict major cardiovascular events. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00658515. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  17. The Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease in the Lagos State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analysis, which examines the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (ICD 9: 390-459) in Lagos State of Nigeria, was based on records obtained from the register of deaths in four Local Government Areas of the State. The result shows that there is general increase in death rates due to cardiovascular diseases over the ...

  18. Marital History and the Burden of Cardiovascular Disease in Midlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenmei

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effects of marital history on the burden of cardiovascular disease in midlife. With use of data from the 1992 Health and Retirement Study, a series of nested logistic regression models was used to estimate the association between marital history and the likelihood of cardiovascular disease. Results suggest that, in midlife,…

  19. Secretory Phospholipase A2-IIA and Cardiovascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, Michael V; Simon, Tabassome; Exeter, Holly J

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the role of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-IIA in cardiovascular disease.......This study sought to investigate the role of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-IIA in cardiovascular disease....

  20. Hispanics/Latinos & Cardiovascular Disease: Statistical Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statistical Fact Sheet 2013 Update Hispanics/Latinos & Cardiovascular Diseases Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) (ICD/10 codes I00-I99, Q20-Q28) (ICD/9 codes 390-459, 745-747)  Among Mexican-American adults age 20 ...

  1. New approaches to the implementation of cardiovascular disease prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jørstad, H.T.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the biggest contemporary health problems worldwide. To aid preventive measures, risk calculators have been developed to estimate the risk of dying of cardiovascular disease within 10 years, for use in healthy individuals. Decisions to initiate preventive measures are

  2. Cardiovascular disease in persons with depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelzangs, Nicole; Seldenrijk, Adrie; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; van Hout, Hein P. J.; de Jonge, Peter; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Background: Associations between depression, and possibly anxiety, with cardiovascular disease have been established in the general population and among heart patients. This study examined whether cardiovascular disease was more prevalent among a large cohort of depressed and/or anxious persons. In

  3. Clopidogrel plus aspirin versus aspirin alone for preventing cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Squizzato, Alessandro; Keller, Tymen; Romualdi, Erica; Middeldorp, Saskia

    2011-01-01

    Aspirin is the prophylactic antiplatelet drug of choice for people with cardiovascular disease. Adding a second antiplatelet drug to aspirin may produce additional benefit for those at high risk and those with established cardiovascular disease. To quantify the benefit and harm of adding clopidogrel

  4. Circulating microRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers for cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijsen, Anke J.; Pinto, Yigal M.; Creemers, Esther E.

    2012-01-01

    Tijsen AJ, Pinto YM, Creemers EE. Circulating microRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers for cardiovascular diseases. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 303: H1085-H1095, 2012. First published August 31, 2012; doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00191.2012.-One of the major challenges in cardiovascular disease is the

  5. Effects of physical activity on life expectancy with cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.H. Franco (Oscar); C.E.D. de Laet (Chris); A. Peeters (Andrea); J. Jonker (Joost); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); W.J. Nusselder (Wilma)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about the effects of physical activity on life expectancy with and without cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to calculate the consequences of different physical

  6. Cardiovascular disease and cognitive function in maintenance hemodialysis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cognitive impairment are common in dialysis patients. Given the proposed role of microvascular disease on cognitive function, particularly cognitive domains that incorporate executive functions, we hypothesized that prevalent systemic CVD would be associated with wor...

  7. Sortilin and Its Multiple Roles in Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goettsch, Claudia; Kjølby, Mads Fuglsang; Aikawa, Elena

    2018-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the Western world. Studies of sortilin's influence on cardiovascular and metabolic diseases goes far beyond the genome-wide association studies that have revealed an association between cardiovascular diseases and the 1p13...... locus that encodes sortilin. Emerging evidence suggests a significant role of sortilin in the pathogenesis of vascular and metabolic diseases; this includes type II diabetes mellitus via regulation of insulin resistance, atherosclerosis through arterial wall inflammation and calcification...... of sortilin's contributions to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases but focuses particularly on atherosclerosis. We summarize recent clinical findings that suggest that sortilin may be a cardiovascular risk biomarker and also discuss sortilin as a potential drug target....

  8. YKL-40: a new biomarker in cardiovascular disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Anders Bruun; Henningsen, Kristoffer Mads Aaris; Harutyunyan, Marina Jurjevna

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease in the form of coronary artery disease is the most common cause of death in western countries. Early treatment with stabilizing drugs and mechanical revascularization by percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary bypass surgery has reduced the mortality significantly....... But in spite of improved treatments, many patients are still plagued by a high frequency of angina symptoms, hospitalizations and a poor prognosis. There is a need for new independent or supplementary biomarkers that can help to predict cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular events earlier and more...... precisely, and thus accompany existing biomarkers in both primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention. One such potential new biomarker is the protein YKL-40. As an independent biomarker in both cardiovascular diseases and noncardiovascular diseases, current evidence suggests YKL-40 to be most useful...

  9. The efficacy of edaravone (radicut), a free radical scavenger, for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Tancharoen, Salunya; Takeshige, Nobuyuki; Yoshitomi, Munetake; Morioka, Motohiro; Murai, Yoshinaka; Tanaka, Eiichiro

    2013-07-04

    Edaravone was originally developed as a potent free radical scavenger, and has been widely used to treat acute ischemic stroke in Japan since 2001. Free radicals play an important role in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Therefore, free radicals may be targets for therapeutic intervention in these diseases. Edaravone shows protective effects on ischemic insults and inflammation in the heart, vessel, and brain in experimental studies. As well as scavenging free radicals, edaravone has anti-apoptotic, anti-necrotic, and anti-cytokine effects in cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Edaravone has preventive effects on myocardial injury following ischemia and reperfusion in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Edaravone may represent a new therapeutic intervention for endothelial dysfunction in the setting of atherosclerosis, heart failure, diabetes, or hypertension, because these diseases result from oxidative stress and/or cytokine-induced apoptosis. This review evaluates the potential of edaravone for treatment of cardiovascular disease, and covers clinical and experimental studies conducted between 1984 and 2013. We propose that edaravone, which scavenges free radicals, may offer a novel option for treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, additional clinical studies are necessary to verify the efficacy of edaravone.

  10. The Efficacy of Edaravone (Radicut, a Free Radical Scavenger, for Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichiro Tanaka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Edaravone was originally developed as a potent free radical scavenger, and has been widely used to treat acute ischemic stroke in Japan since 2001. Free radicals play an important role in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Therefore, free radicals may be targets for therapeutic intervention in these diseases. Edaravone shows protective effects on ischemic insults and inflammation in the heart, vessel, and brain in experimental studies. As well as scavenging free radicals, edaravone has anti-apoptotic, anti-necrotic, and anti-cytokine effects in cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Edaravone has preventive effects on myocardial injury following ischemia and reperfusion in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Edaravone may represent a new therapeutic intervention for endothelial dysfunction in the setting of atherosclerosis, heart failure, diabetes, or hypertension, because these diseases result from oxidative stress and/or cytokine-induced apoptosis. This review evaluates the potential of edaravone for treatment of cardiovascular disease, and covers clinical and experimental studies conducted between 1984 and 2013. We propose that edaravone, which scavenges free radicals, may offer a novel option for treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, additional clinical studies are necessary to verify the efficacy of edaravone.

  11. Impact of chronic kidney disease and stress myocardial perfusion imaging as a predictor of cardiovascular events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuhashi, Tatsuhiko; Joki, Nobuhiko; Hase, Hiroki; Masai, Hirofumi; Kunimasa, Taeko; Nakazato, Ryo; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Sugi, Kaoru; Moroi, Masao

    2011-01-01

    Stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is an established means of predicting cardiovascular events and is suitable in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of CKD parameters and an abnormal stress MPI for cardiovascular events. A total of 495 patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) or history of CAD including 130 CKD patients not undergoing hemodialysis, underwent stress MPI (313 males, mean age 70 years) and were followed up for 14 months (mean period). CKD was defined as an estimated GFR of 2 and/or persistent proteinuria. Cardiovascular events were defined as sudden cardiac death, acute coronary syndrome and congestive heart failure requiring hospitalization. Cardiovascular events occurred in 41 (8.3%) patients. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that CKD [hazard ratio (HR) =3.76, p<0.001] and a stress MPI summed difference score (SDS) of ≥2 (HR=3.78, p<0.001) were independent predictors of cardiovascular events; CKD plus abnormal stress MPI was also a strong predictor of cardiovascular events (non-CKD and SDS <2 vs. CKD and SDS ≥2, HR=15.9, p<0.001). Both CKD and myocardial ischemia detected by stress MPI are independent predictors for cardiovascular events. Coexistence of CKD and myocardial ischemia detected by stress MPI is more useful for short-term risk stratification of cardiovascular events. (author)

  12. Lipoprotein(a in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Malaguarnera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipoprotein(a (Lp(a is an LDL-like molecule consisting of an apolipoprotein B-100 (apo(B-100 particle attached by a disulphide bridge to apo(a. Many observations have pointed out that Lp(a levels may be a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Lp(a inhibits the activation of transforming growth factor (TGF and contributes to the growth of arterial atherosclerotic lesions by promoting the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and the migration of smooth muscle cells to endothelial cells. Moreover Lp(a inhibits plasminogen binding to the surfaces of endothelial cells and decreases the activity of fibrin-dependent tissue-type plasminogen activator. Lp(a may act as a proinflammatory mediator that augments the lesion formation in atherosclerotic plaques. Elevated serum Lp(a is an independent predictor of coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction. Furthermore, Lp(a levels should be a marker of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, saphenous vein bypass graft atherosclerosis, and accelerated coronary atherosclerosis of cardiac transplantation. Finally, the possibility that Lp(a may be a risk factor for ischemic stroke has been assessed in several studies. Recent findings suggest that Lp(a-lowering therapy might be beneficial in patients with high Lp(a levels. A future therapeutic approach could include apheresis in high-risk patients in order to reduce major coronary events.

  13. Acute effects on cardiovascular oscillations during controlled slow yogic breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Lata Bhagat

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Significant increase in cardiovascular oscillations and baroreflex recruitments during-ANB suggested a dynamic interaction between respiratory and cardiovascular system. Enhanced phasic relationship with some delay indicated the complexity of the system. It indicated that respiratory and cardiovascular oscillations were coupled through multiple regulatory mechanisms, such as mechanical coupling, baroreflex and central cardiovascular control.

  14. The Mediterranean diet, its components, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, R Jay; Flammer, Andreas J; Lerman, Lilach O; Lerman, Amir

    2015-03-01

    One of the best-studied diets for cardiovascular health is the Mediterranean diet. This consists of fish, monounsaturated fats from olive oil, fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes/nuts, and moderate alcohol consumption. The Mediterranean diet has been shown to reduce the burden, or even prevent the development, of cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, depression, colorectal cancer, diabetes, obesity, asthma, erectile dysfunction, and cognitive decline. This diet is also known to improve surrogates of cardiovascular disease, such as waist-to-hip ratio, lipids, and markers of inflammation, as well as primary cardiovascular disease outcomes such as death and events in both observational and randomized controlled trial data. These enhancements easily rival those seen with more established tools used to fight cardiovascular disease such as aspirin, beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and exercise. However, it is unclear if the Mediterranean diet offers cardiovascular disease benefit from its individual constituents or in aggregate. Furthermore, the potential benefit of the Mediterranean diet or its components is not yet validated by concrete cardiovascular disease endpoints in randomized trials or observational studies. This review will focus on the effects of the whole and parts of the Mediterranean diet with regard to both population-based and experimental data highlighting cardiovascular disease morbidity or mortality and cardiovascular disease surrogates when hard outcomes are not available. Our synthesis will highlight the potential for the Mediterranean diet to act as a key player in cardiovascular disease prevention, and attempt to identify certain aspects of the diet that are particularly beneficial for cardioprotection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Improving risk stratification for cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, Diederik F.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation of: Heslop CL, Frohlich JJ, Hill JS. Myeloperoxidase and C-reactive protein have combined utility for long-term prediction of cardiovascular mortality after coronary angiography. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 55(11), 1102-1109 (2010). Identifying people at high risk of cardiovascular events is

  16. Fine Particulate Matter and Cardiovascular Disease ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Adverse cardiovascular events have been linked with PM2.5 exposure obtained primarily from air quality monitors, which rarely co-locate with participant residences. Modeled PM2.5 predictions at finer resolution may more accurately predict residential exposure; however few studies have compared results across different exposure assessment methods. Methods We utilized a cohort of 5679 patients who had undergone a cardiac catheterization between 2002–2009 and resided in NC. Exposure to PM2.5 for the year prior to catheterization was estimated using data from air quality monitors (AQS), Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) fused models at the census tract and 12 km spatial resolutions, and satellite-based models at 10 km and 1 km resolutions. Case status was either a coronary artery disease (CAD) index >23 or a recent myocardial infarction (MI). Logistic regression was used to model odds of having CAD or an MI with each 1-unit (μg/m3) increase in PM2.5, adjusting for sex, race, smoking status, socioeconomic status, and urban/rural status. Results We found that the elevated odds for CAD>23 and MI were nearly equivalent for all exposure assessment methods. One difference was that data from AQS and the census tract CMAQ showed a rural/urban difference in relative risk, which was not apparent with the satellite or 12 km-CMAQ models. Conclusions

  17. Sexual counseling and cardiovascular disease: practical approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine E Steinke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Patients with cardiovascular disease and their partners expect health care providers to provide sexual counseling to assist them in maintaining sexual quality of life. Evidence suggests however, that there is a gap in integrating evidence into practice and that relatively few cardiac patients receive sexual counseling. This can result in negative psychological, physical, and quality of life outcomes for couples who may needlessly decide sexual activity is too risky and cease all sexual activity. Two scientific statements now exist that provide ample guidance to health care providers in discussing this important topic. Using a team approach that includes physicians, nurses, physical therapists, rehabilitation staff, and others is important to ensure that sexual counseling occurs throughout recovery. In addition, several trials using interventional approaches for sexual counseling provide insight into successful approaches for sexual counseling in practice. This article provides practical strategies and evidence-based approaches for assessment and sexual counseling for all cardiac patients and their partners, and specific counseling for those with ischemic conditions, heart failure, and implanted devices.

  18. MAGNESIUM, DRINKING WATER HARDNESS AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Nikic

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many different countries suggest and justify an integrated laboratory and epidemiological research program with an aim to reject or accept the magnesium – CVD (cardiovascular disease hypothesis. The studies shown in this paper that have investigated the relationship between water hardness, especially magnesium and CVD indicate that, even though there has been an ongoing research for nearly half a century (1957-2004, it has not been completed yet. Different study designs (obductional, clinical, ecological, case-control and cohort restrict an adequate comparison of their results as well as the deduction of results applicable on each territorial level.The majority of researchers around the world, using populational and individual studies, have found an inverse (protective association between mortality and morbidity from CVD and the increase in water hardness, especially the increase in the concentration of magnesium. The most frequent benefit of the water with an optimal mineral composition is the reduction of mortality from ischemic heart disease.It was suggested that Mg from water is a supplementary source of Mg of high biological value, because magnesium from water is absorbed around 30% better than Mg in a diet. The vast majority of studies consider lower concentrations of Mg in the water, in the range of 10% of the total daily intake of Mg.Future research efforts must give better answers to low Mg concentrations in the drinking water, before any concrete recommendations are given to the public. Moreover, the researchers must also determine which chemical form of Mg is most easily absorbed and has the greatest impact.Additional research is necessary in order to further investigate the interrelation between different water and food components as well as individual risk factors in the pathogenesis of CVD.

  19. Antistress activation therapy for cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroshnik E.V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The cohort pilot study had been done. Aim: to study the effectiveness of an antistress activation therapy on the functional state of human with the purpose of formation of adaptive reactions of activation and training high levels of reactivity among the two groups of patients with cardiovascular problems, ranks first among causes of death population: arterial hypertension (AH and coronary heart disease (CHD. Material and methods. From the sub-sample of the Moscow population (396 were allocated to 2 groups of patients of 30 people in each (a control group and a group for anti-stress therapy for persons with hypertension and coronary artery disease that within 1 month took adaptogens (tincture of ginseng, Eleutherococcus, etc. is minimized by a specially developed algorithm. For stress diagnosis international integrated questionnaire Perceived Stress (PSS; as well as Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS were used. Blood pressure, heart rate, body mass index, waist circumference were measured. In addition we used new methods "Antistress activation health improvement". Results. The average age in the intervention group was 59.4 years, and in the control group was 58.3 years, p>0.05. In compliance with results of the study has been marked that persons who were treated by methods "Antistress activation health improvement" sensed general and "internal" dumping, improving of duration and quality of sleeping. Irritability, level of stress, depression, and fatigability became rather less. Dynamics of emotions locked in psychometric scales showed distinct improvement of mood, decrease of fear, sorrow, anxiety, anger, emotional instability, increase of self-reliance, activity. Conclusion. The treatment of stress, anxiety, and depression must be complexes based on biological and psychological approaches.

  20. Behavior of the Cardiovascular Diseases in Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineda Tovar, M. A.; Ortega Ramirez, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) remains the leading cause of death in Mexico and Western world. Symptoms in women are more subtle. Women usually feel general tiredness and lack of energy, in contrast to men having chest pain. This implies that women do not receive a timely and early diagnosis. According to the National Health Information System, 20 of 100 Mexican women die of cardiovascular disease, 68.5% of Mexicans have problems of obesity, overweight, diabetes, high blood pressure, conditions that increase the risk of CAD. SPECT myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) is currently appropriate for diagnosis, risk assessment, stratification, myocardial viability, evaluation of left ventricular function. The Objective of this investigation is to show that SPECT MPS is a noninvasive diagnostic test that identify women with increased CAD risk. Method: A 60 years old female patient with diabetes, high blood pressure and overweight was referred for a cardiac scan, for suspicion of ischemia. Her symptoms were general tiredness, lack of energy and occasionally light chest pain. A SPECT-gated myocardial perfusion test was done. The images where acquired with a gamma camera after the injection of 10 mCi (stress) and 20 mCi (Rest) of "9"9mTc-Tetrofosmin. Images were reconstructed using Emory toolbox. Results: The images showed light hypoperfusion septal and inferior walls, and a small left ventricular chamber size with thickened walls. Angiography showed significant diffuse coronary stenosis in the three vessels. Conclusion: Women suffering CAD constitute a high-risk group that potentially poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Cardiac SPECT MPS is a noninvasive diagnostic and prognostic test that identify women with high CAD risk and establish timely and early the therapeutic interventions. (author)

  1. Post-traumatic stress disorder and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Donald; von Känel, Roland

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a first in a Series of two, we look at the evidence for an association of post-traumatic stress disorder with incident cardiovascular disease risk and the mechanisms that might cause this association, as well as the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder due to cardiovascular disease events and its associated prognostic risk. We discuss research done after the publication of previous relevant systematic reviews, and survey currently funded research from the two most active funders in the field: the National Institutes of Health and the US Veterans Administration. We conclude that post-traumatic stress disorder is a risk factor for incident cardiovascular disease, and a common psychiatric consequence of cardiovascular disease events that might worsen the prognosis of the cardiovascular disease. There are many candidate mechanisms for the link between post-traumatic stress disorder and cardiovascular disease, and several ongoing studies could soon point to the most important behavioural and physiological mechanisms to target in early phase intervention development. Similarly, targets are emerging for individual and environmental interventions that might offset the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder after cardiovascular disease events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute-phase reactants in periodontal disease: current concepts and future implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana, Vilasan; Ambili, Ranjith; Nisha, Krishnavilasam Jayakumary; Seba, Abraham; Preeja, Chandran

    2015-05-01

    Periodontal disease has been linked to adverse cardiovascular events by unknown mechanisms. C-reactive protein is a systemic marker released during the acute phase of an inflammatory response and is a prognostic marker for cardiovascular disease, with elevated serum levels being reported during periodontal disease. Studies also reported elevated levels of various other acute-phase reactants in periodontal disease. It has been reported extensively in the literature that treatment of periodontal infections can significantly lower serum levels of C-reactive protein. Therefore, an understanding of the relationship between acute-phase response and the progression of periodontal disease and other systemic health complications would have a profound effect on the periodontal treatment strategies. In view of this fact, the present review highlights an overview of acute-phase reactants and their role in periodontal disease. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Secretory Phospholipase A(2)-IIA and Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmes, Michael V.; Simon, Tabassome; Exeter, Holly J.; Folkersen, Lasse; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Guardiola, Montse; Cooper, Jackie A.; Palmen, Jutta; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Carruthers, Kathryn F.; Horne, Benjamin D.; Brunisholz, Kimberly D.; Mega, Jessica L.; Van Iperen, Erik P. A.; Li, Mingyao; Leusink, Maarten; Trompet, Stella; Verschuren, Jeffrey J. W.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Dehghan, Abbas; Nelson, Christopher P.; Kotti, Salma; Danchin, Nicolas; Scholz, Markus; Haase, Christiane L.; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Swerdlow, Daniel I.; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Staines-Urias, Eleonora; Goel, Anuj; van 't Hooft, Ferdinand; Gertow, Karl; de Faire, Ulf; Panayiotou, Andrie G.; Tremoli, Elena; Baldassarre, Damiano; Veglia, Fabrizio; Holdt, Lesca M.; Beutner, Frank; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Navis, Gerjan J.; Mateo Leach, Irene; Breitling, Lutz P.; Brenner, Hermann; Thiery, Joachim; Dallmeier, Dhayana; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Stephens, Jeffrey W.; Hofker, Marten H.; Tedgui, Alain; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Adamkova, Vera; Pitha, Jan; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Cramer, Maarten J.; Nathoe, Hendrik M.; Spiering, Wilko; Klungel, Olaf H.; Kumari, Meena; Whincup, Peter H.; Morrow, David A.; Braund, Peter S.; Hall, Alistair S.; Olsson, Anders G.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Trip, Mieke D.; Tobin, Martin D.; Hamsten, Anders; Watkins, Hugh; Koenig, Wolfgang; Nicolaides, Andrew N.; Teupser, Daniel; Day, Ian N. M.; Carlquist, John F.; Gaunt, Tom R.; Ford, Ian; Sattar, Naveed; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Schwartz, Gregory G.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Morris, Richard W.; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Poledne, Rudolf; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Keating, Brendan J.; van der Harst, Pim; Price, Jackie F.; Mehta, Shamir R.; Yusuf, Salim; Witteman, Jaqueline C. M.; Franco, Oscar H.; Jukema, J. Wouter; de Knijff, Peter; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Rader, Daniel J.; Farrall, Martin; Samani, Nilesh J.; Kivimaki, Mika; Fox, Keith A. A.; Humphries, Steve E.; Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Palmer, Tom M.; Eriksson, Per; Pare, Guillaume; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Sabatine, Marc S.; Mallat, Ziad; Casas, Juan P.; Talmud, Philippa J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to investigate the role of secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2))-IIA in cardiovascular disease. Background Higher circulating levels of sPLA(2)-IIA mass or sPLA(2) enzyme activity have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. However, it is not

  4. [Drug treatment of erection disorders in patients with cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuleman, E.J.H.; Kingma, J.H.

    2001-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a frequent condition in cardiovascular patients. Since the arrival of oral erection-supporting medication, patients want to know how safe sexual activity is in cardiovascular disease in general and during use of erection-supporting medication in particular. Sexual intercourse

  5. Depression and cardiovascular disease : the end of simple models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, Peter; Roest, Annelieke M.

    In this editorial, we propose that the association between depression and cardiovascular disease may be conceptualised as a continuous, bidirectional process that originates in youth. The paper by Aberg and colleagues in this issue adds to this literature showing that low cardiovascular fitness at

  6. Influence of Acute Multispecies and Multistrain Probiotic Supplementation on Cardiovascular Function and Reactivity to Psychological Stress in Young Adults: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Clara M; Olsa, Eamon J A; Ginty, Annie T; Rapelje, Alyssa L; Tindall, Christina L; Holesh, Laura A; Petersen, Karen L; Conklin, Sarah M

    2017-10-01

    The potential influence of probiotic supplementation on cardiovascular health and stress responsivity remains largely unexplored. Some evidence suggests the possibility that probiotics may influence blood pressure. A separate body of research suggests that exaggerated cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress in the laboratory predict cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The current investigation explored the effect of acute probiotic use on (1) resting cardiovascular measures in healthy young adults and (2) cardiovascular and psychological reactions to an acute psychological stressor in the laboratory. Participants (N = 105, M [SD] age = 20.17 [1.26], 84.8% white) completed a 2-week, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial of a multispecies and multistrain probiotic. Exclusion criteria included previous probiotic use, diagnosed gastrointestinal disorder, and/or current antibiotic use. At visits 1 and 2, participants completed the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test, a widely used psychological stress task. Participants were randomly assigned to a probiotic blend or matched placebo. Compared with placebo, 2-week probiotic supplementation did not affect resting measures of cardiovascular function, cardiovascular responses during or recovery from stress, or psychological reactions to acute psychological stress. Contrary to expectations, short-term use of a probiotic supplement in healthy participants did not influence measures of cardiovascular function or responsivity to psychological stress. Future research is needed to determine species- and strain-specific effects of probiotics in healthy participants with various degrees of stress responsiveness, as well as in diseased populations.

  7. The behavioural, cognitive, and neural corollaries of blunted cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carroll, Douglas; Ginty, Annie T; Whittaker, Anna C; Lovallo, William R; de Rooij, Susanne R

    Recent research shows that blunted cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress are associated with adverse behavioural and health outcomes: depression, obesity, bulimia, and addictions. These outcomes may reflect suboptimal functioning of the brain's fronto-limbic systems

  8. 459 Preventing Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... injury. Risk factors may be considered as characteristic indicators ... by examining the cardiovascular risk factors that are related to various forms .... Cross country race, Handball, Jogging, Rope jumping, Running Soccer,.

  9. Effect of calcifediol treatment on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome and percutaneous revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Valverde, Cristina; Quesada-Gómez, Jose M; Pérez-Cano, Ramón; Fernández-Palacín, Ana; Pastor-Torres, Luis F

    2018-01-03

    Vitamin D deficiency has been consistently linked with cardiovascular diseases. However, results of intervention studies are contradictory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of treatment with calcifediol (25(OH)D 3 ) on the cardiovascular system of patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome after percutaneous coronary intervention. A prospective study assessing≥60-year-old patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome, coronary artery disease and percutaneous revascularisation. We randomly assigned 41 patients (70.6±6.3 years) into 2 groups: Standard treatment+25(OH)D 3 supplementation or standard treatment alone. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were evaluated at the conclusion of the 3-month follow-up period. 25(OH)D levels were analysed with regard to other relevant analytical variables and coronary disease extent. Basal levels of 25(OH)D≤50nmol/L were associated with multivessel coronary artery disease (RR: 2.6 [CI 95%:1.1-7.1], P=.027) and 25(OH)D≤50nmol/L+parathormone ≥65pg/mL levels correlated with increased risk for MACE (RR: 4 [CI 95%: 1.1-21.8], P=.04]. One MACE was detected in the supplemented group versus five in the control group (P=.66). Among patients with 25(OH)D levels≤50nmol/L at the end of the study, 28.6% had MACE versus 0% among patients with 25(OH)D>50nmol/L (RR: 1,4; P=.037). Vitamin D deficiency plus secondary hyperparathyroidism may be an effective predictor of MACE. A trend throughout the follow up period towards a reduction in MACE among patients supplemented with 25(OH)D 3 was detected. 25(OH)D levels≤50nmol/L at the end of the intervention period were significantly associated with an increased number of MACE, hence, 25(OH)D level normalisation could improve cardiovascular health in addition to bone health. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  10. Intensive glycemic control and cardiovascular disease: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Aparna; Reynolds, L Raymond; Bruemmer, Dennis

    2010-07-01

    Cardiovascular complications constitute the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) and the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) provided consistent evidence that intensive glycemic control prevents the development and progression of microvascular complications in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. However, whether intensive glucose lowering also prevents macrovascular disease and major cardiovascular events remains unclear. Extended follow-up of participants in these studies demonstrated that intensive glycemic control reduced the long-term incidence of myocardial infarction and death from cardiovascular disease. By contrast, the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial, Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) trial, and Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial (VADT) results suggested that intensive glycemic control to near normoglycemia had either no, or potentially even a detrimental, effect on cardiovascular outcomes. This article discusses the effects of intensive glycemic control on cardiovascular disease, and examines key differences in the design of these trials that might have contributed to their disparate findings. Recommendations from the current joint ADA, AHA, and ACCF position statement on intensive glycemic control and prevention of cardiovascular disease are highlighted.

  11. Riesgo cardiovascular, una herramienta útil para la prevención de las enfermedades cardiovasculares Cardiovascular risk, a useful tool for prevention of cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Vega Abascal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available El riesgo cardiovascular se define como la probabilidad de padecer un evento cardiovascular en un determinado período. Mejorar la exactitud en la predicción del riesgo requiere la evaluación y el tratamiento de múltiples factores de riesgo cardiovascular, los que tienen un efecto sinérgico, más que aditivo, sobre el riesgo cardiovascular total. El cálculo utilizando métodos cuantitativos es más preciso que el obtenido con métodos cualitativos. La predicción del riesgo cardiovascular ha constituido, en los últimos años, la piedra angular en las guías clínicas de prevención cardiovascular, y deviene una herramienta útil del Médico de Familia para establecer prioridades en la atención primaria, mejorando la atención a los pacientes y eligiendo más eficazmente la terapéutica a seguir, con el objetivo de acercarnos más a la realidad multifactorial de las enfermedades cardiovasculares y a su prevención.The cardiovascular risk is defined like a probability of suffering a cardiovascular event in a determined period. To improve the accuracy in risk prediction requires the assessment and treatment of different cardiovascular risk factors, which have a synergistic effect more than additive on the total cardiovascular risk. The calculus using quantitative methods is more accurate than that obtained with qualitative methods. The prediction of cardiovascular risk has been in past years the cornerstone in clinical guidances of cardiovascular prevention and becomes an useful tool for Family Physician to establish priorities in the primary care, improving the patients care and selecting in a more effective way the therapy to be followed to bring closer more to multifactor reality of cardiovascular diseases and its prevention.

  12. CYP2C19 activity and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with an acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Rodríguez-González, Fayna; Medina-Gil, José María; Garay-Sánchez, Paloma; Tugores, Antonio

    2017-09-20

    CYP2C19 is a major isoform of cytochrome P450 that metabolizes a number of drugs and is involved in the glucocorticoids synthesis. CYP2C19 polymorphisms have been associated with the genetic risk for type 2 diabetes. Five hundred and three patients with an acute coronary event were studied to assess the association between the CYP2C19 activity (CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3 and CYP2C19*17 variants) and the type of acute coronary syndrome, cardiovascular risk factors (arterial systemic hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and smoking), analytical parameters and the extent and severity of coronary atherosclerosis. Genotype distribution in our series was similar to that expected in the Caucasian population. Among the traditional cardiovascular risk factors, very poor metabolizer patients (*2/*2, *3/*3 or *2/*3) had a greater tendency to present diabetes mellitus needing insuline (P=.067). Conversely, when we compared very poor, poor and normal metabolizers vs. rapid and ultrarapid metabolizers we found significant differences in those diabetic patients under insulin treatment (64 patients [18%] vs. 17 patients [11%]; P=.032). On the contrary, analytical parameters, systemic arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking or the personal/family history of coronary artery disease did not reach statistical significance regardless of CYP2C19 activity. Similarly, the number and the type of coronary disease (thrombotic, fibrotic or both) did not differ between patients with different CYP2C19 enzyme activity. Patients with an acute coronary event and a very poor, poor and normal CYP2C19 metabolizer genotype have a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus needing insuline than patients with the rapid and ultrarapid metabolizers CPY2C19 genotype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Mediterranean lifestyle and cardiovascular disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgousopoulou, Ekavi N; Mellor, Duane D; Naumovski, Nenad; Polychronopoulos, Evangelos; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Piscopo, Suzanne; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Anastasiou, Foteini; Zeimbekis, Akis; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Gotsis, Efthimios; Metallinos, George; Tyrovola, Dimitra; Foscolou, Alexandra; Tur, Josep-Antoni; Matalas, Antonia-Leda; Lionis, Christos; Sidossis, Labros; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes

    2017-04-01

    Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern is a well-established protective factor against cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, diet quality is only one aspect of the overall healthy lifestyle adopted by Mediterranean populations. The latter has never been evaluated as a multi-factorial composite lifestyle. Thus, the aim of the present study was to provide a broader picture of the Mediterranean lifestyle and its effects on CVD risk, among elderly individuals. During 2005-2015, 2,749 older (aged 65-100 years) from 21 Mediterranean islands (MEDIS) and the rural Mani region (Peloponnesus) of Greece were voluntarily enrolled onto the study. Dietary habits, physical activity status, socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle parameters (sleep, smoking habits, social life and educational status) and clinical profile aspects were derived through standard procedures. The overall prevalence of the traditional CVD risk factors were 62.3% for hypertension, 22.3% for diabetes mellitus (type 2) and 47.7% for hypercholesterolemia. The presence of diabetes mellitus was positively predicted by the geriatric depression scale (GDS) [odds ratio (OR) =1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.25] and by an urban residential environment (OR =2.57, 95% CI: 1.10-6.06) after adjusting for several confounders. Presence of hypertension was predicted by increasing age (OR =1.07, 95% CI: 1.02-1.12), increasing body mass index (BMI) (OR =1.12, 95% CI: 1.04-1.21), the habit of midday sleep (OR =2.07, 95% CI: 1.07-4.02) and inversely predicted by the frequency of socializing with friends (OR =0.767, 95% CI: 0.616-0.955). The estimated score in the GDS was the only independent positive predictor for the presence of hypercholesterolemia (OR =1.10, 95% CI: 1.01-1.21). Lifestyle parameters such as social life, midday sleep (siesta) and residential environment are strongly associated with the presence of CVD risk factors in elderly and should be part of broader CVD prevention strategies to

  14. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierbeck, L

    2015-01-01

    Many peri- and postmenopausal women suffer from a reduced quality of life due to menopausal symptoms and preventable diseases. The importance of cardiovascular disease in women must be emphasized, as it is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in women. It is well known that female hormones...... contribute to the later onset of cardiovascular disease in women. The effect of estrogens has for decades been understood from observational studies of postmenopausal women treated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Later, treatment with HRT was disregarded due to the fear of side......-effects and an ambiguity of the cardiovascular advantages. Accumulating knowledge from the large number of trials and studies has elucidated the cause for the disparity in results. In this paper, the beneficial effects of HRT, with emphasis on cardiovascular disease are explained, and the relative and absolute risks...

  15. Cardiovascular Disease in Survivors of Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugbjerg, Kathrine; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Boice, John D

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease has emerged as a serious late effect in survivors of adolescent and young adult cancer, but risk has not been quantified comprehensively in a population-based setting. METHODS: In the Danish Cancer Registry, we identified 43153 1-year survivors of cancer diagnosed...... at ages 15 to 39 years (1943-2009) and alive in 1977; from the Danish Civil Registration System, we randomly selected a comparison cohort of the same age and sex. Subjects were linked to the Danish Patient Register, and observed numbers of first hospitalizations for cardiovascular disease (International......-sided. RESULTS: During follow-up, 10591 survivors (24.5%) were discharged from the hospital with cardiovascular disease, whereas 8124 were expected (RR = 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI)] = 1.28 to 1.33; P cardiovascular disease per 100000...

  16. Reproductive health experiences of women with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chor, Julie; Oswald, Lora; Briller, Joan; Cowett, Allison; Peacock, Nadine; Harwood, Bryna

    2012-11-01

    Limited research exists exploring contraceptive and pregnancy experiences of women with cardiovascular diseases. We conducted semistructured interviews with reproductive-age women with chronic hypertension or peripartum cardiomyopathy exploring thoughts and behaviors regarding future fertility. Transcribed interviews were coded and analyzed identifying salient themes. We interviewed 20 women with chronic hypertension and 10 women with peripartum cardiomyopathy. Women described a spectrum of perspectives regarding the relationship between disease and fertility: from complete disconnect to full integration of diagnosis and future fertility plans. Integration of reproductive and cardiovascular health was influenced by and reflected in circumstances of diagnosis, pregnancy-related experiences, contraception-related experiences and conceptualization of disease risk related to reproductive health. Providers must better understand how women perceive and consider their reproductive and cardiovascular health in order to optimize contraceptive care of women with cardiovascular disease and help them make safe, informed decisions about future fertility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Can Patients with Cardiovascular Disease Take Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Can Patients With Cardiovascular Disease Take Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs? ... It also does not upset the gastrointestinal tract. Can People With CVD Take an NSAID? If you ...

  18. Free Radicals and Antioxidants in Cardiovascular Health and Disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Free radicals can be overproduced or the natural antioxidant system defenses weakened, first resulting in oxidative stress, and then leading to oxidative injury ... Keywords: Oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, inflammation, cell signaling and transduction mechanisms, antioxidants, dietary phenolics.

  19. Study of cardiovascular diseases in hospitalized AECOPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El-Shabrawy

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD in patients hospitalized for COPD in Zagazig University Hospital was high. Age, sex and CVD trends, as well as life style changes, should be considered when prevention and control strategies are formulated.

  20. Depression, anxiety and 6-year risk of cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldenrijk, Adrie; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Batelaan, Neeltje M.; Wieman, Iris; van Schaik, Digna J. F.; Penninx, Brenda J. W. H.

    Objective: Depression and anxiety are considered etiological factors in cardiovascular disease (ND), though their relative contribution and differentiation by clinical characteristics have not been studied intensively. We examined 6-year associations between depressive and anxiety disorders,

  1. Association between self-reported health and sociodemographic characteristics with cardiovascular diseases in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Oliveira de Arruda

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To assess the association of sociodemographic and self-rated health in the presence of cardiovascular diseases and the association of this perception with the type of disease. METHODS A cross-sectional population survey study carried out with 1,232 individuals aged between 20 and 59 years of both genders living in the metropolitan region of Maringá-PR. Data were analyzed using multiple and simple logistic regression. RESULTS In multivariate analysis, the age range and self-rated health were associated with cardiovascular disease, and in the univariate analysis self-rated regular health was associated with arterial hypertension, while self-rated poor health was associated to heart failure, stroke, and to acute myocardial infarction (heart attack. CONCLUSION The differences in association of self-rated health with these diseases can indicate how individuals with certain characteristics cope with the disease, allowing for more individualized and specific health care.

  2. Lipoprotein (a) as a cause of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Langsted, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Human epidemiologic and genetic evidence using the Mendelian randomization approach in large-scale studies now strongly supports that elevated lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is a causal risk factor for cardiovascular disease, that is, for myocardial infarction, atherosclerotic stenosis, and aortic valve...... with very high concentrations to reduce cardiovascular disease are awaited. Recent genetic evidence documents elevated Lp(a) as a cause of myocardial infarction, atherosclerotic stenosis, and aortic valve stenosis....

  3. Clinical Syndromes Associated with Cardiovascular Diseases: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Sheng Yang, MD, PhD, FACC, FAHA

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In clinical practice, a variety of syndromes are associated with cardiovascular disease and have characteristic findings. Most of them are an autosomal dominant genetic disorder and have different types of cardiovascular abnormalities, including electrocardiographic conduction defects, arrhythmias, cardiomyopathy, vascular and valvular diseases, cardiac septal defects, and pulmonary problems. There is a growing need for physicians to pay more attention to these syndromes.

  4. The role of nutraceuticals in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnowska, Bozena; Penson, Peter; Banach, Maciej

    2017-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) ranks among the most common health-related and economic issues worldwide. Dietary factors are important contributors to cardiovascular risk, either directly, or through their effects on other cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus. Nutraceuticals are natural nutritional compounds, which have been shown to be efficacious in preventative medicine or in the treatment of disease. Several foods and dietary supplements have been shown to protect against the development of CVD. The aim of this review is to present an update on the most recent evidence relating to the use of nutraceuticals in the context of the prevention and treatment of CVD.

  5. Barriers to lifestyle changes for prevention of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Leppin, Anja; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elimination of modifiable risk factors including unhealthy lifestyle has the potential for prevention of 80% of cardiovascular disease cases. The present study focuses on disclosing barriers for maintaining specific lifestyle changes by exploring associations between perceiving...... inequality even in populations with equal and cost-free access to health care. Our study suggests supplementing traditional public campaigns to counter cardiovascular disease by using individualized and targeted initiatives....... these barriers and various sociodemographic and health-related characteristics. METHODS: Data were collected through a web-based questionnaire survey and included 962 respondents who initially accepted treatment for a hypothetical cardiovascular risk, and who subsequently stated that they preferred lifestyle...

  6. Cardiovascular disease among people with drug use disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thylstrup, Birgitte; Clausen, Thomas; Hesse, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To present the prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a national cohort of patients seeking treatment for drug use disorders (DUD). Methods This is a longitudinal record linkage study of consecutive DUD treatment admissions between 2000 and 2006 from Denmark. Results...... treatment (SHR = 1.15, p = 0.022). The use of amphetamines was negatively associated with the risk of CVD within this cohort (SHR = 0.75, p = 0.001). Conclusions Patients injecting drugs using prescribed methadone were at elevated risk for cardiovascular disease and should be monitored for CVD. Opioid...... medications should be evaluated in terms of their cardiovascular sequelae....

  7. Sleep Deficiency and Deprivation Leading to Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Kohansieh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep plays a vital role in an individual’s mental, emotional, and physiological well-being. Not only does sleep deficiency lead to neurological and psychological disorders, but also the literature has explored the adverse effects of sleep deficiency on the cardiovascular system. Decreased quantity and quality of sleep have been linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, such as hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. We explore the literature correlating primary sleep deficiency and deprivation as a cause for cardiovascular disease and cite endothelial dysfunction as a common underlying mechanism.

  8. Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease and Heart Failure in Type 2 Diabetes – Mechanisms, Management, and Clinical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low Wang, Cecilia C.; Hess, Connie N.; Hiatt, William R.; Goldfine, Allison B.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the principal cause of death and disability among patients with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes exacerbates mechanisms underlying atherosclerosis and heart failure. Unfortunately, these mechanisms are not adequately modulated by therapeutic strategies focusing solely on optimal glycemic control with currently available drugs or approaches. In the setting of multi-factorial risk reduction with statins and other lipid lowering agents, anti-hypertensive therapies, and anti-hyperglycemic treatment strategies, cardiovascular complication rates are falling, yet remain higher for patients with diabetes than for those without. This review considers the mechanisms, history, controversies, new pharmacologic agents, and recent evidence for current guidelines for cardiovascular management in the patient with diabetes mellitus to support evidence-based care in the patient with diabetes and heart disease outside of the acute care setting. PMID:27297342

  9. Caring for Others, but Not Themselves: Implications for Health Care Interventions in Women with Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle DiGiacomo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the largest killer of women internationally and women often suffer inferior outcomes following an acute cardiac event as compared to men. A gendered approach to investigating cardiovascular disease in women incorporates the unique social, cultural, and economic circumstances that being a woman brings to the health encounter. The multiple roles enacted by many women may be important factors in this health discrepancy. In order to more fully understand the impact of the roles of women on health, a questionnaire was administered to participants of the Heart Awareness for Women group cardiac rehabilitation program which assessed women's role perceptions followed by discussions. We found that caregiving can be both positive and negative. It gives a sense of purpose, meaning, and community connection as well as burden and conflict. Emphasis must be placed on promoting strategies in women to achieve a balance between caregiving responsibilities and prioritisation of cardiovascular health.

  10. Cardiovascular Complications of Acute Amphetamine Abuse; Cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Bazmi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate cardiovascular complications among patients who abuse amphetamines. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between April 2014 and April 2015 among 3,870 patients referred to the Toxicology Emergency Department of Baharlou Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Those with clinical signs of drug abuse and positive urine screening tests were included in the study, while cases of chronic abuse were excluded. Cardiac complications were evaluated via electrocardiography (ECG and transthoracic echocardiography. Results: A total of 230 patients (5.9% had a history of acute amphetamine abuse and positive urine tests. Of these, 32 patients (13.9% were <20 years old and 196 (85.2% were male. In total, 119 (51.7% used amphetamine and methamphetamine compounds while 111 (48.3% used amphetamines with morphine or benzodiazepines. The most common ECG finding was sinus tachycardia (43.0%, followed by sinus tachycardia plus a prolonged QT interval (34.3%. Mean creatine kinase-MB and troponin I levels were 35.9 ± 4.3 U/mL and 0.6 ± 0.2 ng/mL, respectively. A total of 60 patients (26.1% were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit. The majority (83.3% of these patients had normal echocardiography results. The mean aortic root diameter (ARD was 27.2 ± 2.8 mm. Abnormalities related to the ARD were found in 10 patients (16.7%, three of whom subsequently died. Conclusion: According to these findings, cardiac complications were common among Iranian patients who abuse amphetamines, although the majority of patients had normal echocardiography and ECG findings.

  11. Flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease mortality in a prospective cohort of US adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Flavonoids are plant-based phytochemicals with cardiovascular protective properties. Few studies have comprehensively examined flavonoid classes in relation to cardiovascular disease mortality. We examined the association between flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortalit...

  12. Increased Prevalence of Cardiovascular and Autoimmune Diseases in Periodontitis Patients : A Cross-Sectional Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nesse, Willem; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Abbas, Frank; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.; Stijger, Astrid; Tromp, Jan A. H.; van Dijk, Johan L.; Vissink, Arjan

    Background: Associations between periodontitis and cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases are most often assessed in patients with a particular cardiovascular or autoimmune disease. To prevent selection bias, this study assesses the existence of associations between periodontitis and cardiovascular

  13. Increased Prevalence of Cardiovascular and Autoimmune Diseases in Periodontitis Patients : A Cross-Sectional Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nesse, Willem; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Abbas, Frank; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.; Stijger, Astrid; Tromp, Jan A. H.; van Dijk, Johan L.; Vissink, Arjan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Associations between periodontitis and cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases are most often assessed in patients with a particular cardiovascular or autoimmune disease. To prevent selection bias, this study assesses the existence of associations between periodontitis and cardiovascular

  14. Twitter as a Potential Data Source for Cardiovascular Disease Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnenberg, Lauren; DiSilvestro, Christie L; Mancheno, Christina; Dailey, Karl; Tufts, Christopher; Buttenheim, Alison M; Barg, Fran; Ungar, Lyle; Schwartz, H; Brown, Dana; Asch, David A; Merchant, Raina M

    2016-12-01

    As society is increasingly becoming more networked, researchers are beginning to explore how social media can be used to study person-to-person communication about health and health care use. Twitter is an online messaging platform used by more than 300 million people who have generated several billion Tweets, yet little work has focused on the potential applications of these data for studying public attitudes and behaviors associated with cardiovascular health. To describe the volume and content of Tweets associated with cardiovascular disease as well as the characteristics of Twitter users. We used Twitter to access a random sample of approximately 10 billion English-language Tweets originating from US counties from July 23, 2009, to February 5, 2015, associated with cardiovascular disease. We characterized each Tweet relative to estimated user demographics. A random subset of 2500 Tweets was hand-coded for content and modifiers. The volume of Tweets about cardiovascular disease and the content of these Tweets. Of 550 338 Tweets associated with cardiovascular disease, the terms diabetes (n = 239 989) and myocardial infarction (n = 269 907) were used more frequently than heart failure (n = 9414). Users who Tweeted about cardiovascular disease were more likely to be older than the general population of Twitter users (mean age, 28.7 vs 25.4 years; P < .01) and less likely to be male (59 082 of 124 896 [47.3%] vs 8433 of 17 270 [48.8%]; P < .01). Most Tweets (2338 of 2500 [93.5%]) were associated with a health topic; common themes of Tweets included risk factors (1048 of 2500 [41.9%]), awareness (585 of 2500 [23.4%]), and management (541 of 2500 [21.6%]) of cardiovascular disease. Twitter offers promise for studying public communication about cardiovascular disease.

  15. [Cardiovascular disease prevention in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus according to the recent statement from the American Heart Association/American Diabetes Association].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avogaro, Angelo

    2016-03-01

    There is a clear epidemiologic association between glycemic control and cardiovascular disease. There is strong evidence of a microvascular benefit by lowering glycated hemoglobin diabetic patients, to control all major cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. These risk factors, easily measurable, account for 90% of acute myocardial infarction. In this review, the update on prevention of cardiovascular disease in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus from the American Heart Association and the American Diabetes Association is discussed and commented.

  16. Cardiovascular disease and use of contemporary protease inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryom, Lene; Lundgren, Jens D; El-Sadr, Wafaa

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although earlier protease inhibitors have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, whether this increased risk also applies to more contemporary protease inhibitors is unknown. We aimed to assess whether cumulative use of ritonavir-boosted atazanavir and ritonavir......-boosted darunavir were associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease in people living with HIV. METHODS: The prospective Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study consists of people living with HIV-1 from 11 cohorts in Australia, Europe, and the USA. Participants were...... monitored from Jan 1, 2009, until the earliest of a cardiovascular event, 6 months after the last visit, or until Feb 1, 2016. The outcome of interest was the incidence of cardiovascular disease in adults (aged ≥16 years) living with HIV who were being treated with contemporary treatments. We defined...

  17. Burn mortality in patients with preexisting cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlin, Laquanda; Reid, Trista; Williams, Felicia; Cairns, Bruce; Charles, Anthony

    2017-08-01

    Burn shock, a complex process, which develops following burn leads to severe and unique derangement of cardiovascular function. Patients with preexisting comorbidities such as cardiovascular diseases may be more susceptible. We therefore sought to examine the impact of preexisting cardiovascular disease on burn outcomes. A retrospective analysis of patients admitted to a regional burn center from 2002 to 2012. Independent variables analyzed included basic demographics, burn mechanism, presence of inhalation injury, TBSA, pre-existing comorbidities, and length of ICU/hospital stay. Bivariate analysis was performed and Poisson regression modeling was utilized to estimate the incidence of being in the ICU and mortality. There were a total of 5332 adult patients admitted over the study period. 6% (n=428) had a preexisting cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular disease patients had a higher mortality rate (16%) compared to those without cardiovascular disease (3%, pwill likely be a greater number of individuals at risk for worse outcomes following burn. This knowledge can help with burn prognostication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. Openness to experience and adapting to change: Cardiovascular stress habituation to change in acute stress exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ó Súilleabháin, Páraic S; Howard, Siobhán; Hughes, Brian M

    2018-05-01

    Underlying psychophysiological mechanisms of effect linking openness to experience to health outcomes, and particularly cardiovascular well-being, are unknown. This study examined the role of openness in the context of cardiovascular responsivity to acute psychological stress. Continuous cardiovascular response data were collected for 74 healthy young female adults across an experimental protocol, including differing counterbalanced acute stressors. Openness was measured via self-report questionnaire. Analysis of covariance revealed openness was associated with systolic blood pressure (SBP; p = .016), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP; p = .036) responsivity across the protocol. Openness was also associated with heart rate (HR) responding to the initial stress exposure (p = .044). Examination of cardiovascular adaptation revealed that higher openness was associated with significant SBP (p = .001), DBP (p = .009), and HR (p = .002) habituation in response to the second differing acute stress exposure. Taken together, the findings suggest persons higher in openness are characterized by an adaptive cardiovascular stress response profile within the context of changing acute stress exposures. This study is also the first to demonstrate individual differences in cardiovascular adaptation across a protocol consisting of differing stress exposures. More broadly, this research also suggests that future research may benefit from conceptualizing an adaptive fitness of openness within the context of change. In summary, the present study provides evidence that higher openness stimulates short-term stress responsivity, while ensuring cardiovascular habituation to change in stress across time. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  19. Does a causal relation between cardiovascular disease and periodontitis exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Damgaard, Christian; Nielsen, Claus H

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation is believed to play a central part in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and much attention has been paid to the possible association between atherosclerosis and other inflammatory diseases. Periodontal disease is a common inflammatory disease affecting up to 50% of the adult...... population, and during the past two decades much research has focused on a possible association between periodontitis and cardiovascular disease. Here, we review the existing literature on the association between the two diseases....

  20. Alcohol intake and cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann

    with increasing HDL cholesterol and non-fasting triglycerides, higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure and decreasing fibrinogen. In contrast, ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes were not associated with risk of CHD or with any of the cardiovascular biomarkers, and there was no indication that associations between...

  1. After the triumph of cardiovascular medicine over acute myocardial infarction at the end of the 20th century. Can we predict the onset of acute coronary syndrome? (Con)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kihara, Yasuki

    2011-01-01

    Predicting acute cardiovascular ischemic events is a crucial and urgent issue in the current cardiovascular field. An enormous effort to develop methodologies to achieve this purpose is being undertaken in cardiovascular institutes worldwide. However, currently, there is no established method of determining acute cardiovascular ischemic events in advance. This article reviews the latest progress on understanding how these events occur and how they can be detected. This goal represents a great dream that has realistic expectations. (author)

  2. Association between cardiovascular disease and socioeconomic level in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Sónia; Furtado, Cláudia; Pereira, João

    2013-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity, mortality and disability in Portugal. Socioeconomic level is known to influence health status but there is scant evidence on socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular disease in Portugal. To analyze the distribution of cardiovascular disease in the Portuguese population according to socioeconomic status. We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from the fourth National Health Survey on a representative sample of the Portuguese population. Socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular disease, risk factors and number of medical visits were analyzed using odds ratios according to socioeconomic status (household equivalent income) in the adult population (35-74 years). Comparisons focused on the top and bottom 50% and 10% of household income distribution. Of the 21 807 individuals included, 53.3% were female, and mean age was 54 ± 11 years. Cardiovascular disease, stroke, ischemic heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, obesity and physical inactivity were associated with lower socioeconomic status, while smoking was associated with higher status; number of medical visits and psychological distress showed no association. When present, inequality was greater at the extremes of income distribution. The results reveal an association between morbidity, lifestyle and socioeconomic status. They also suggest that besides improved access to effective medical intervention, there is a need for a comprehensive strategy for health promotion and disease prevention that takes account of individual, cultural and socioeconomic characteristics. Copyright © 2012 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Preparing nurses for leadership roles in cardiovascular disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanuza, Dorothy M; Davidson, Patricia M; Dunbar, Sandra B; Hughes, Suzanne; De Geest, Sabina

    2011-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a critical global health issue, and cardiovascular nurses play a vital role in decreasing the global burden and contributing to improving outcomes in individuals and communities. Cardiovascular nurses require the knowledge, skills, and resources that will enable them to function as leaders in CVD. This article addresses the education, training, and strategies that are needed to prepare nurses for leadership roles in preventing and managing CVD. Building on the World Health Organization core competencies for 21st-century health care workers, the specific competencies of cardiovascular nurses working in prevention are outlined. These can be further strengthened by investing in the development of cultural, system change and leadership competencies. Mentorship is proposed as a powerful strategy for promoting the cardiovascular nursing role and equipping individual nurses to contribute meaningfully to health system reform and community engagement in CVD risk reduction. Copyright © 2011 European Society of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Obstructive Sleep Apnea during REM Sleep and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurora, R Nisha; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Gottlieb, Daniel J; Kim, Ji Soo; Punjabi, Naresh M

    2018-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during REM sleep is a common disorder. Data on whether OSA that occurs predominantly during REM sleep is associated with health outcomes are limited. The present study examined the association between OSA during REM sleep and a composite cardiovascular endpoint in a community sample with and without prevalent cardiovascular disease. Full-montage home polysomnography was conducted as part of the Sleep Heart Health Study. The study cohort was followed for an average of 9.5 years, during which time cardiovascular events were assessed. Only participants with a non-REM apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of less than 5 events/h were included. A composite cardiovascular endpoint was determined as the occurrence of nonfatal or fatal events, including myocardial infarction, coronary artery revascularization, congestive heart failure, and stroke. Proportional hazards regression was used to derive the adjusted hazards ratios for the composite cardiovascular endpoint. The sample consisted of 3,265 subjects with a non-REM AHI of less than 5.0 events/h. Using a REM AHI of less than 5.0 events/h as the reference group (n = 1,758), the adjusted hazards ratios for the composite cardiovascular endpoint in those with severe REM OSA (≥30 events/h; n = 180) was 1.35 (95% confidence interval, 0.98-1.85). Stratified analyses demonstrated that the association was most notable in those with prevalent cardiovascular disease and severe OSA during REM sleep with an adjusted hazards ratio of 2.56 (95% confidence interval, 1.46-4.47). Severe OSA that occurs primarily during REM sleep is associated with higher incidence of a composite cardiovascular endpoint, but in only those with prevalent cardiovascular disease.

  5. Exposure to Agrochemicals and Cardiovascular Disease: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhotha, Matome M; Monyeki, Kotsedi D; Sibuyi, Masezi E

    2016-02-18

    In the agricultural world there is a continuous loss of food, fiber and other commodities due to pests, disease and weeds before harvesting time. These losses had create lots of financial burden to the farm owners that might lead to shutting down of their daily business. Worldwide, there is an overall very high loss of agricultural products due to weeds growth alone. To counteract this problem most farmers resort to the use of agrochemicals to increase their production but compromising the health of their farmworkers. The purpose of the study will be to assess the relationship between the agrochemical particles and cardiovascular diseases among farmworkers. Non-systematic review was used to collect data. The following database were use: Medline, EBSCO, and Science Direct to search for the existing journal articles. This study addresses the relationship between agrochemicals particles and cardiovascular diseases in the farming industries using literature review. Other researchers had already done an extensive research on the pathway of potential mechanisms linking the ultrafine particulate matter to cardiovascular diseases. The outcomes of those investigations were the clinical results of events that might lead to the development of myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure (CHF), stroke, arrhythmia and sudden death. Xenobiotic compounds that maybe implicated in the pathophysiology of human cardiovascular diseases, will be examined and included in this study. There is compelling evidence suggesting that toxic free radicals of pesticides play an important role in human health. There is a close relationship between agrochemicals particle and cardiovascular diseases.

  6. Adipose tissue, the skeleton and cardiovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiklund, Peder

    2011-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Western World, although the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) has declined over the last decades. However, obesity, which is one of the most important risk factors for CVD, is increasingly common. Osteoporosis is also on the rise because of an aging population. Based on considerable overlap in the prevalence of CVD and osteoporosis, a shared etiology has been proposed. Furthermore, the possibility of interplay between the skeleton and adipose tissue has received increasing attention the last few years with the discovery that leptin can influence bone metabolism and that osteocalcin can influence adipose tissue. A main aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of fat mass distribution and bone mineral density on the risk of MI. Using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) we measured 592 men and women for regional fat mass in study I. In study II this was expanded to include 3258 men and women. In study III 6872 men and women had their bone mineral density measured in the total hip and femoral neck using DEXA. We found that a fat mass distribution with a higher proportion of abdominal fat mass was associated with both an adverse risk factor profile and an increased risk of MI. In contrast, a higher gynoid fat mass distribution was associated with a more favorable risk factor profile and a decreased risk of MI, highlighting the different properties of abdominal and gynoid fat depots (study I-II). In study III, we investigated the association of bone mineral density and risk factors shared between CVD and osteoporosis, and risk of MI. We found that lower bone mineral density was associated with hypertension, and also tended to be associated to other CVD risk factors. Low bone mineral density was associated with an increased risk of MI in both men and women, apparently independently of the risk factors studied (study III). In study IV, we investigated 50 healthy, young men to determine if

  7. Adipose tissue, the skeleton and cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiklund, Peder

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Western World, although the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) has declined over the last decades. However, obesity, which is one of the most important risk factors for CVD, is increasingly common. Osteoporosis is also on the rise because of an aging population. Based on considerable overlap in the prevalence of CVD and osteoporosis, a shared etiology has been proposed. Furthermore, the possibility of interplay between the skeleton and adipose tissue has received increasing attention the last few years with the discovery that leptin can influence bone metabolism and that osteocalcin can influence adipose tissue. A main aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of fat mass distribution and bone mineral density on the risk of MI. Using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) we measured 592 men and women for regional fat mass in study I. In study II this was expanded to include 3258 men and women. In study III 6872 men and women had their bone mineral density measured in the total hip and femoral neck using DEXA. We found that a fat mass distribution with a higher proportion of abdominal fat mass was associated with both an adverse risk factor profile and an increased risk of MI. In contrast, a higher gynoid fat mass distribution was associated with a more favorable risk factor profile and a decreased risk of MI, highlighting the different properties of abdominal and gynoid fat depots (study I-II). In study III, we investigated the association of bone mineral density and risk factors shared between CVD and osteoporosis, and risk of MI. We found that lower bone mineral density was associated with hypertension, and also tended to be associated to other CVD risk factors. Low bone mineral density was associated with an increased risk of MI in both men and women, apparently independently of the risk factors studied (study III). In study IV, we investigated 50 healthy, young men to determine if

  8. Mitochondrial Dynamics in Cardiovascular Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Sang-Bing; Hall, Andrew R.; Hausenloy, Derek J.

    2013-01-01

    Significance: Mitochondria are dynamic organelles capable of changing their shape and distribution by undergoing either fission or fusion. Changes in mitochondrial dynamics, which is under the control of specific mitochondrial fission and fusion proteins, have been implicated in cell division, embryonic development, apoptosis, autophagy, and metabolism. Although the machinery for modulating mitochondrial dynamics is present in the cardiovascular system, its function there has only recently be...

  9. Cardio-Vascular Disease and Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    K. Mitchell-Fearon DrPh; D. Willie-Tyndale MSc; N. Waldron MPH; D. Holder-Nevins PhD; K. James MPH; H. Laws MPH; D. Eldemire-Shearer PhD

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To report the level of utilization of clinical preventive services by older adults in Jamaica and to identify independent factors associated with utilization. Method: A nationally representative, community-based survey of 2,943 older adults was undertaken. Utilization frequency for six preventive, cardiovascular or cancer-related services was calculated. Logistic regression models were used to determine the independent factors associated with each service. Results: A dichotomy in a...

  10. Sugary drinks in the pathogenesis of obesity and cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C M; Dulloo, A G; Montani, J-P

    2008-12-01

    Soft drink overconsumption is now considered to be a major public health concern with implications for cardiovascular diseases. This follows a number of studies performed in animals suggesting that chronic consumption of refined sugars can contribute to metabolic and cardiovascular dysregulation. In particular, the monosaccharide fructose has been attracting increasing attention as the more harmful sugar component in terms of weight gain and metabolic disturbances. High-fructose corn syrup is gradually replacing sucrose as the main sweetener in soft drinks and has been blamed as a potential contributor to the current high prevalence of obesity. There is also considerable evidence that fructose, rather than glucose, is the more damaging sugar component in terms of cardiovascular risk. This review focuses on the potential role of sugar drinks, particularly the fructose component, in the pathogenesis of obesity and cardiovascular diseases.

  11. The Role of Aspirin in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittaman, Sunitha V.; VanWormer, Jeffrey J.; Rezkalla, Shereif H.

    2014-01-01

    Aspirin therapy is well-accepted as an agent for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events and current guidelines also define a role for aspirin in primary prevention. In this review, we describe the seminal trials of aspirin use in the context of current guidelines, discuss factors that may influence the effectiveness of aspirin therapy for cardiovascular disease prevention, and briefly examine patterns of use. The body of evidence supports a role for aspirin in both secondary and primary prevention of cardiovascular events in selected population groups, but practice patterns may be suboptimal. As a simple and inexpensive prophylactic measure for cardiovascular disease, aspirin use should be carefully considered in all at-risk adult patients, and further measures, including patient education, are necessary to ensure its proper use. PMID:24573704

  12. The Acute Risks of Exercise in Apparently Healthy Adults and Relevance for Prevention of Cardiovascular Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jack M; Burr, Jamie F; Banks, Laura; Thomas, Scott G

    2016-04-01

    Increased physical activity (PA) is associated with improved quality of life and reductions in cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and all-cause mortality in the general population in a dose-response manner. However, PA acutely increases the risk of adverse CV event or sudden cardiac death (SCD) above levels expected at rest. We review the likelihood of adverse CV events related to exercise in apparently healthy adults and strategies for prevention, and contextualize our understanding of the long-term risk reduction conferred from PA. A systematic review of the literature was performed using electronic databases; additional hand-picked relevant articles from reference lists and additional sources were included after the search. The incidence of adverse CV events in adults is extremely low during and immediately after PA of varying types and intensities and is significantly lower in those with long-standing PA experience. The risk of SCD and nonfatal events during and immediately after PA remains extremely low (well below 0.01 per 10,000 participant hours); increasing age and PA intensity are associated with greater risk. In most cases of exercise-related SCD, occult CV disease is present and SCD is typically the first clinical event. Exercise acutely increases the risk of adverse CV events, with greater risk associated with vigorous intensity. The risks of an adverse CV event during and immediately after exercise are outweighed by the health benefits of vigorous exercise performed regularly. A key challenge remains the identification of occult structural heart disease and inheritable conditions that increase the chances of lethal arrhythmias during exercise. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Quality indicators for acute myocardial infarction: A position paper of the Acute Cardiovascular Care Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, Francois; Gale, Chris P; Bonnefoy, Eric; Capuano, Frederic; Claeys, Marc J; Danchin, Nicolas; Fox, Keith Aa; Huber, Kurt; Iakobishvili, Zaza; Lettino, Maddalena; Quinn, Tom; Rubini Gimenez, Maria; Bøtker, Hans E; Swahn, Eva; Timmis, Adam; Tubaro, Marco; Vrints, Christiaan; Walker, David; Zahger, Doron; Zeymer, Uwe; Bueno, Hector

    2017-02-01

    Evaluation of quality of care is an integral part of modern healthcare, and has become an indispensable tool for health authorities, the public, the press and patients. However, measuring quality of care is difficult, because it is a multifactorial and multidimensional concept that cannot be estimated solely on the basis of patients' clinical outcomes. Thus, measuring the process of care through quality indicators (QIs) has become a widely used practice in this context. Other professional societies have published QIs for the evaluation of quality of care in the context of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but no such indicators exist in Europe. In this context, the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Acute Cardiovascular Care Association (ACCA) has reflected on the measurement of quality of care in the context of AMI (ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)) and created a set of QIs, with a view to developing programmes to improve quality of care for the management of AMI across Europe. We present here the list of QIs defined by the ACCA, with explanations of the methodology used, scientific justification and reasons for the choice for each measure.

  14. Cocoa Polyphenols and Inflammatory Markers of Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nasiruddin; Khymenets, Olha; Urpí-Sardà, Mireia; Tulipani, Sara; Garcia-Aloy, Mar; Monagas, María; Mora-Cubillos, Ximena; Llorach, Rafael; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of plant-derived food intake in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The potential bioactivity of cocoa and its polyphenolic components in modulating cardiovascular health is now being studied worldwide and continues to grow at a rapid pace. In fact, the high polyphenol content of cocoa is of particular interest from the nutritional and pharmacological viewpoints. Cocoa polyphenols are shown to possess a range of cardiovascular-protective properties, and can play a meaningful role through modulating different inflammatory markers involved in atherosclerosis. Accumulated evidence on related anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa polyphenols is summarized in the present review. PMID:24566441

  15. Acute meningococcal disease in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ulrikka; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Steensen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Meningococcal disease is a rapidly progressing infection, which continues to cause deaths among children and adolescents. In this review, clinical signs and initial treatment of acute childhood meningococcal disease is described. Operational flow charts have been developed for assessment of non......-blanching rash and initial treatment of meningococcal disease....

  16. Chocolate and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Eric L; Hutfless, Susan M; Ding, Xin; Girotra, Saket

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Consumption of chocolate has been often hypothesized to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to chocolate's high levels of stearic acid and antioxidant flavonoids. However, debate still lingers regarding the true long term beneficial cardiovascular effects of chocolate overall. Methods We reviewed English-language MEDLINE publications from 1966 through January 2005 for experimental, observational, and clinical studies of relations between cocoa, cacao, choco...

  17. Factors influencing the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbaek, Morten

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Light-to-moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties in some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Several large American studies have shown...... to a binge - intake of alcohol have benefits with regard to cardiovascular disease. Prospective studies from the UK, Sweden and Denmark have further suggested that wine drinkers have a lower mortality than beer and spirits drinkers. SUMMARY: The J-shaped relation between alcohol intake and cardiovascular...... that the J-shaped relation is influenced by age and coronary heart disease risk-factor status since only middle-aged and elderly and those already at risk of developing coronary heart disease seem protected by drinking alcohol. It has also been suggested that only those who have a steady - in contrast...

  18. Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer EMMPRIN (CD147 in Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia N. I. von Ungern-Sternberg

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The receptor EMMPRIN is involved in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases and in the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction. There are several binding partners of EMMPRIN mediating the effects of EMMPRIN in cardiovascular diseases. EMMPRIN interaction with most binding partners leads to disease progression by mediating cytokine or chemokine release, the activation of platelets and monocytes, as well as the formation of monocyte-platelet aggregates (MPAs. EMMPRIN is also involved in atherosclerosis by mediating the infiltration of pro-inflammatory cells. There is also evidence that EMMPRIN controls energy metabolism of cells and that EMMPRIN binding partners modulate intracellular glycosylation and trafficking of EMMPRIN towards the cell membrane. In this review, we systematically discuss these multifaceted roles of EMMPRIN and its interaction partners, such as Cyclophilins, in cardiovascular disease.

  19. Interventional radiology in congenital and acquired cardiovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanitskij, A.V.

    2000-01-01

    Interventional cardiology is a part of interventional radiology applying in urology, neurology, gynecology and other branches of medicine. The present-day achievements in interventional radiology in cardiovascular diseases: balloon valvuloplasty in cardiac diseases (isolated pulmonary arterial stenosis, aortic and mitral stenosis), balloon vasodilatation (peripheral pulmonary arterial stenosis, aortic coarctation), embolization of the vessels and pathological communications, atrioseptostomy, transcatheter closure of atrial septal defects are presented. It is shown that the achievements in interventional radiology in cardiovascular diseases are intimately associated with the progress in cannulation of heart and angiography [ru

  20. Management of Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardsen, Jesper; Kristensen, Søren Lund; Ahlehoff, Ole

    2016-01-01

    An increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been observed in a range of chronic inflammatory diseases (CID), including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriasis, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The increased risk of CVDs and reduced life expectancy...... considerable interest in recent years. We briefly summarize the current level of evidence of the association between CIDs and CVD and cardiovascular risk management recommendations. Perspectives of ongoing and planned trials are discussed in consideration of potential ways to improve primary and secondary CVD...

  1. Pattern of cardiovascular disease admissions in the medical wards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akubudike Alikor

    Background: Cardiovascular disease as a leading contributor to global disease burden has shown an increase in its prevalence since the 19th century and was responsible for the global mortality of 17.5 million individuals in the year 2005. This has been linked to increasing urbanization and westernization of life style ...

  2. a potential cause of cardiovascular diseases in chronic kidney ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) has been identified as one of the risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Although FGF-23 is necessary for the maintenance of phosphate balance, it has been implicated in the pathogenesis of left ventricular ...

  3. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Older People with Intellectual Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.F. de Winter (Channa)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Chapter 1 General introduction There is an increasing group of older people with intellectual disability in The Netherlands, reaching almost the same life expectancy as the general population. Age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and dementia

  4. Cardiovascular disease risk among professionals: A survey of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Teachers are often faced with repetitive work related stress, which has been associated with chronic diseases among professionals. Those living in the urban community may be at more risk due to unhealthy lifestyle exposure, but there is little information about their cardiovascular disease profile. Such data ...

  5. Role of quercetin in cardiovascular diseases | Lakhanpal | Internet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardiovascular disease constitutes a major public health concern in industrialized nations. Over recent decades, a large body of evidence has accumulated indicating that oxidative stress induced free radicals play a critical role in cellular processes implicated in atherosclerosis and many other heart diseases. However a ...

  6. Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2014-12-02

    Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ∼45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (∼22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions.

  7. Educational inequality in cardiovascular diseases: a sibling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Grethe; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Osler, Merete

    2018-02-01

    Educational inequality in diseases in the circulatory system (here termed cardiovascular disease) is well documented but may be confounded by early life factors. The aim of this observational study was to examine whether the associations between education and all cardiovascular diseases, ischaemic heart disease and stroke, respectively, were explained by family factors shared by siblings. The study population included all individuals born in Denmark between 1950 and 1979 who had at least one full sibling born in the same period. Using Cox regression, data were analysed in conventional cohort and within-sibship analyses in which the association was examined within siblings discordant on education. Assuming that attenuation of associations in the within-sibship as compared with the cohort analyses would indicate confounding from factors shared within families. A lower educational status was associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, ischaemic heart disease and stroke. All associations attenuated in the within-sibship analyses, in particular in the analyses on ischaemic heart disease before age 45 years. For instance, in the cohort analyses, the hazard rate of ischaemic heart disease among women less than 45 years who had a primary school education was 94% (hazard ratio 1.94 (1.78-2.12) higher than among those with a vocational education, while it attenuated to 51% (hazard ratio 1.51 (1.34-1.71)) in the within-sibship analysis. Confounding from factors shared by siblings explained the associations between education and the cardiovascular disease outcomes but to varying degrees. This should be taken into account when planning interventions aimed at reducing educational inequalities in the development of cardiovascular disease, ischaemic heart disease and stroke.

  8. Cardiovascular disease risk and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease among patients with low health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, T M; Jørstad, H T; Twickler, T B; Peters, R J G; Tijssen, J P G; Essink-Bot, M L; Fransen, M P

    2017-07-01

    To explore the association between health literacy and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and to assess the differential effects by health literacy level of a nurse-coordinated secondary prevention program (NCPP) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Data were collected in two medical centres participating in the RESPONSE trial (Randomised Evaluation of Secondary Prevention by Outpatient Nurse SpEcialists). CVD risk profiles were assessed at baseline and 12-month follow-up using the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE). Health literacy was assessed by the short Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM-D) and the Newest Vital Sign (NVS-D); self-reported health literacy was evaluated by the Set of Brief Screening Questions (SBSQ-D). Among 201 CAD patients, 18% exhibited reading difficulties, 52% had difficulty understanding and applying written information, and 5% scored low on self-reported health literacy. Patients with low NVS-D scores had a higher CVD risk [mean SCORE 5.2 (SD 4.8) versus 3.3 (SD 4.1), p literacy levels without significant differences. Inadequate health literacy is prevalent in CAD patients in the Netherlands, and is associated with less favourable CVD risk profiles. Where many other forms of CVD prevention fail, nurse-coordinated care seems to be effective among patients with inadequate health literacy.

  9. Geochemistry of water in relation to cardiovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Relations between trace and major element chemistry of drinking water and cardiovascular diseases are reviewed and documented. Several aspects of the problem, related both to the pathway that drinking water takes to man and to its transit through man, are reviewed. Several steps in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease that could be affected by water factors were explored. There is little evidence bearing on the contribution from drinking water to human tissue levels of cadmium, chromium, or zinc. Copper and magnesium levels of tissues may be related to drinking water, but confirmatory evidence is needed. Lead levels in blood and other tissues are most certainly affected by lead levels in drinking water in areas where these levels are unusually elevated. There is little evidence that relatively low levels of lead are toxic to the cardiovascular system, except for the causation of cardiomyopathy. The protective action of selenium and zinc applies mainly to cadmium toxicity. The mode of the protective action of silicon, if any, is unclear at present. Some epidemiological associations between the cadmium level or cadmium:zinc ratio and cardiovascular disease have been reported, but are contradictory. Some epidemiological support exists for a protective effect by selenium; results for zinc are equivocal. Interactions within the human system involving calcium and selected trace elements might be very important for the cardiovascular system. Review of the epidemiological literature indicates that there may be a water factor associated with cardiovascular disease. Its effects, if any, must be very weak in comparison with the effects of known risk factors. The reported inverse relationship between mortality from cardiovascular diseases and hardness of local drinking water supplies appears to be considerably less distinctive in small regional studies. (ERB)

  10. Acute Cardiovascular Care Association Position Paper on Intensive Cardiovascular Care Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnefoy-Cudraz, Eric; Bueno, Hector; Casella, Gianni

    2018-01-01

    , the recommended management structure, the optimal number of staff, the need for specially trained cardiologists and cardiovascular nurses, the desired equipment and architecture, and the interaction with other departments in the hospital and other intensive cardiovascular care units in the region...

  11. Effects of tea and coffee on cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøhn, Siv K; Ward, Natalie C; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Croft, Kevin D

    2012-06-01

    Tea and coffee have been associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), both positively and negatively. Epidemiological data suggest that black and green tea may reduce the risk of both coronary heart disease and stroke by between 10 and 20%. Experimental and clinical trial data generally indicate either neutral or beneficial effects on risk factors and pathways linked to the development of CVD. Controversy still exists regarding the effects of coffee, where there have been concerns regarding associations with hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension and myocardial infarction. However, long term moderate intake of coffee is not associated with detrimental effects in healthy individuals and may even protect against the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The detrimental effects of coffee may be associated with the acute pressor effects, most likely due to caffeine at high daily intakes, and lipids from boiled coffee can contribute to raised serum cholesterol. Genetic polymorphisms in enzymes involved in uptake, metabolism and excretion of tea and coffee compounds are also associated with differential biological effects. Potential mechanisms by which tea and coffee phytochemicals can exert effects for CVD protection include the regulation of vascular tone through effects on endothelial function, improved glucose metabolism, increased reverse cholesterol transport and inhibition of foam cell formation, inhibition of oxidative stress, immunomodulation and effects on platelet function (adhesion and activation, aggregation and clotting). The phytochemical compounds in tea and coffee and their metabolites are suggested to influence protective endogenous pathways by modulation of gene-expression. It is not known exactly which compounds are responsible for the suggestive protective effects of tea and coffee. Although many biologically active compounds have been identified with known biological effects, tea and coffee contain many unidentified compounds with potential

  12. Heart failure in women and men during acute coronary syndrome and long-term cardiovascular mortality (the ABC-3* Study on Heart Disease) (*Adria, Bassano, Conegliano, and Padova Hospitals).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Giuseppe; Cordiano, Rocco; Cavuto, Fiorella; Bagato, Francesco; Pellegrinet, Marco; Cati, Arianna

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the gender-based differences in the association between heart failure (HF) during acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and post-discharge, long-term cardiovascular (CV) mortality. The present study included 557 patients enrolled in three intensive coronary care units and discharged alive. HF during ACS was evaluated by Killip class and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Interaction between gender and HF after 15years of follow up was studied using Cox models including a formal interaction term. Median age was 67 (interquartile range [IQR], 59-75) years, 29% were females, 37% had non-ST elevation myocardial infarction and 32% Killip class>1, and median LVEF was 53% (IQR 46-61). All but five patients were followed up to 15years, representing 5332 person-years. Of these, 40.2% died of CV-related causes. Crude CV mortality rate was higher among women (52.2%) than men (35.3%; Pcoronary reperfusion, the interaction was significant across all models [HR=0.63 (0.42-0.95), P=0.02 in the fully adjusted model]. LVEF showed no significant hazard associated with female gender on univariable analysis [HR=1.4 (0.9-0.2.0), P=0.11] but did so in all adjusted models [HR=1.7 (1.2-2.5), P=0.005 in the fully adjusted model]. Gender is a consistent, independent effect modifier in the association between HF and long-term CV mortality after ACS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Estrogen in cardiovascular disease during systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Emily L; Ryan, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease that disproportionately affects women during their childbearing years. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in this patient population at an age when women often have low cardiovascular risk. Hypertension is a major cardiovascular disease risk factor, and its prevalence is markedly increased in women with SLE. Estrogen has traditionally been implicated in SLE disease progression because of the prevalence of the disease in women; however, its role in cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension is unclear. The objective of this review is to discuss evidence for the role of estrogen in both human and murine SLE with emphasis on the effect of estrogen on cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension. PubMed was used to search for articles with terms related to estradiol and SLE. The references of retrieved publications were also reviewed. The potential permissive role of estrogen in SLE development is supported by studies from experimental animal models of lupus in which early removal of estrogen or its effects leads to attenuation of SLE disease parameters, including autoantibody production and renal injury. However, data about the role of estrogens in human SLE are much less clear, with most studies not reaching firm conclusions about positive or negative outcomes after hormonal manipulations involving estrogen during SLE (ie, oral contraceptives, hormone therapy). Significant gaps in knowledge remain about the effect of estrogen on cardiovascular risk factors during SLE. Studies in women with SLE were not designed to determine the effect of estrogen or hormone therapy on blood pressure even though hypertension is highly prevalent, and risk of premature ovarian failure could necessitate use of hormone therapy in women with SLE. Recent evidence from an experimental animal model of lupus found that estrogen may protect against cardiovascular risk factors in

  14. Estrogen in Cardiovascular Disease during Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Emily L.; Ryan, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease that disproportionately affects women during their childbearing years. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in this patient population at an age when women often have low cardiovascular risk. Hypertension is a major cardiovascular disease risk factor, and its prevalence is markedly increased in women with SLE. Estrogen has traditionally been implicated in SLE disease progression because of the prevalence of the disease in women; however, its role in cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension is unclear. The objective of this review is to discuss evidence for the role of estrogen in both human and murine SLE with emphasis on the effect of estrogen on cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension. Methods PubMed was used to search for articles with terms related to estradiol and SLE. The references of retrieved publications were also reviewed. Findings The potential permissive role of estrogen in SLE development is supported by studies from experimental animal models of lupus in which early removal of estrogen or its effects leads to attenuation of SLE disease parameters, including autoantibody production and renal injury. However, data about the role of estrogens in human SLE are much less clear, with most studies not reaching firm conclusions about positive or negative outcomes after hormonal manipulations involving estrogen during SLE (ie, oral contraceptives, hormone therapy). Significant gaps in knowledge remain about the effect of estrogen on cardiovascular risk factors during SLE. Studies in women with SLE were not designed to determine the effect of estrogen or hormone therapy on blood pressure even though hypertension is highly prevalent, and risk of premature ovarian failure could necessitate use of hormone therapy in women with SLE. Recent evidence from an experimental animal model of lupus found that estrogen may protect against

  15. Acrolein Can Cause Cardiovascular Disease: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Robert J; Johnson, Giffe T; Coyle, Jayme P; Harbison, Raymond D

    2017-07-01

    Acrolein is a highly reactive unsaturated aldehyde that is formed during the burning of gasoline and diesel fuels, cigarettes, woods and plastics. In addition, acrolein is generated during the cooking or frying of food with fats or oils. Acrolein is also used in the synthesis of many organic chemicals and as a biocide in agricultural and industrial water supply systems. The total emissions of acrolein in the United States from all sources are estimated to be 62,660 tons/year. Acrolein is classified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a high-priority air and water toxicant. Acrolein can exert toxic effects following inhalation, ingestion, and dermal exposures that are dose dependent. Cardiovascular tissues are particularly sensitive to the toxic effects of acrolein based primarily on in vitro and in vivo studies. Acrolein can generate free oxygen radical stress in the heart, decrease endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation and nitric oxide formation, form cytoplasmic and nuclear protein adducts with myocyte and vascular endothelial cell proteins and cause vasospasm. In this manner, chronic exposure to acrolein can cause myocyte dysfunction, myocyte necrosis and apoptosis and ultimately lead to cardiomyopathy and cardiac failure. Epidemiological studies of acrolein exposure and toxicity should be developed and treatment strategies devised that prevent or significantly limit acrolein cardiovascular toxicity.

  16. Dietary fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Eccel Prates

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids (FAs can be classified into saturated (SFA, unsaturated (poly- or monounsaturated and trans FA. Recent studies have found that both the quantity and quality of dietary FAs may influence their role in metabolic pathways. Due to their chemical composition, some FAs play a major role in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. This is especially true for SFA and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which include marine eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. The proinflammatory effects of high SFA intake may increase the risk of atherosclerosis. On the other hand, dietary n-3 intake may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease by decreasing atherosclerosis, inflammation, and thrombotic processes. The goal of this study was to review the current literature on the role of FA intake in the prevention and risk of cardiovascular disease.

  17. Current European guidelines for management of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Johan L; Jacobsen, Rikke K; Jørgensen, Torben

    2018-01-01

    Background Health checks of the general population are widely used to prevent cardiovascular diseases, but are the current clinical guidelines from the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) suitable for screening the general population? Design A cross-sectional, population-based study of 978 men...... and women aged 40-65 years examined in 2010-2011 was used to estimate the proportion of the general Danish population fulfilling the criteria from the clinical guidelines from the ESC on medical treatment and lifestyle intervention to prevent cardiovascular disease. Methods The ESC criteria for medical...... treatment and lifestyle intervention were applied to a general population using information on previous cardiovascular diseases, known diabetes, urinalbumin, smoking, total cholesterol, systolic and diabolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and a multifactor risk score (SCORE). Results...

  18. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease: Potential Role in Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaza, Jorge N.; Contreras, Sandra; Garcia, Leah A.; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Gibbons, Gary; Shohet, Ralph; Martins, David; Norris, Keith C.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), which includes coronary artery disease and stroke, is the leading cause of mortality in the nation. Excess CVD morbidity and premature mortality in the African American community is one of the most striking examples of racial/ethnic disparities in health outcomes. African Americans also suffer from increased rates of hypovitaminosis D, which has emerged as an independent risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. This overview examines the potential role of hypovitaminosis D as a contributor to racial and ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD). We review the epidemiology of vitamin D and CVD in African Americans and the emerging biological roles of vitamin D in key CVD signaling pathways that may contribute to the epidemiological findings and provide the foundation for future therapeutic strategies for reducing health disparities. PMID:22102304

  19. YKL-40--an emerging biomarker in cardiovascular disease and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathcke, Camilla N; Vestergaard, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Several inflammatory cytokines are involved in vascular inflammation resulting in endothelial dysfunction which is the earliest event in the atherosclerotic process leading to manifest cardiovascular disease. YKL-40 is an inflammatory glycoprotein involved in endothelial dysfunction by promoting....... Several studies demonstrate, that elevated serum YKL-levels are independently associated with the presence and extent of coronary artery disease and even higher YKL-40 levels are documented in patients with myocardial infarction. Moreover, elevated serum YKL-40 levels have also been found to be associated...... with all-cause as well as cardiovascular mortality. Finally, YKL-40 levels are elevated both in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, known to be at high risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases, when compared to non-diabetic persons. A positive association between elevated circulating YKL...

  20. Acute cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in patients with hyperthyroidism: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers, Olaf M; Horváth-Puhó, Erzsébet; Cannegieter, Suzanne C; Vandenbroucke, Jan P; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Jørgensen, Jens Otto L

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have shown an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in hyperthyroidism, but most studies have been too small to address the effect of hyperthyroidism on individual cardiovascular endpoints. Our main aim was to assess the association among hyperthyroidism, acute cardiovascular events and mortality. It is a nationwide population-based cohort study. Data were obtained from the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish National Patient Registry, which covers all Danish hospitals. We compared the rate of all-cause mortality as well as venous thromboembolism (VTE), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), ischemic and non-ischemic stroke, arterial embolism, atrial fibrillation (AF) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the two cohorts. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated. The study included 85 856 hyperthyroid patients and 847 057 matched population-based controls. Mean follow-up time was 9.2 years. The HR for mortality was highest in the first 3 months after diagnosis of hyperthyroidism: 4.62, 95% CI: 4.40-4.85, and remained elevated during long-term follow-up (>3 years) (HR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.33-1.37). The risk for all examined cardiovascular events was increased, with the highest risk in the first 3 months after hyperthyroidism diagnosis. The 3-month post-diagnosis risk was highest for atrial fibrillation (HR: 7.32, 95% CI: 6.58-8.14) and arterial embolism (HR: 6.08, 95% CI: 4.30-8.61), but the risks of VTE, AMI, ischemic and non-ischemic stroke and PCI were increased also 2- to 3-fold. We found an increased risk for all-cause mortality and acute cardiovascular events in patients with hyperthyroidism. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  1. Cardiovascular Risks Associated with Incident and Prevalent Periodontal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yau-Hua; Chasman, Daniel I; Buring, Julie E; Rose, Lynda; Ridker, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    Aim While prevalent periodontal disease associates with cardiovascular risk, little is known about how incident periodontal disease influences future vascular risk. We compared effects of incident versus prevalent periodontal disease in developing major cardiovascular diseases (CVD), myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic stroke and total CVD. Material and Methods In a prospective cohort of 39863 predominantly white women, age ≥ 45 years and free of cardiovascular disease at baseline were followed for an average of 15.7 years. Cox proportional hazard models with time-varying periodontal status (prevalent [18%], incident [7.3%] vs. never [74.7%]) were used to assess future cardiovascular risks. Results Incidence rates of all CVD outcomes were higher in women with prevalent or incident periodontal disease. For women with incident periodontal disease, risk factor adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.42 (95% CI, 1.14–1.77) for major CVD, 1.72 (1.25–2.38) for MI, 1.41(1.02–1.95) for ischemic stroke, and 1.27(1.06–1.52) for total CVD. For women with prevalent periodontal disease, adjusted HRs were 1.14 (1.00–1.31) for major CVD, 1.27 (1.04–1.56) for MI, 1.12(0.91–1.37) for ischemic stroke, and 1.15(1.03–1.28) for total CVD. Conclusion New cases of periodontal disease, not just those that are pre-existing, place women at significantly elevated risks for future cardiovascular events. PMID:25385537

  2. Adipokines and the cardiovascular system: mechanisms mediating health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northcott, Josette M; Yeganeh, Azadeh; Taylor, Carla G; Zahradka, Peter; Wigle, Jeffrey T

    2012-08-01

    This review focuses on the role of adipokines in the maintenance of a healthy cardiovascular system, and the mechanisms by which these factors mediate the development of cardiovascular disease in obesity. Adipocytes are the major cell type comprising the adipose tissue. These cells secrete numerous factors, termed adipokines, into the blood, including adiponectin, leptin, resistin, chemerin, omentin, vaspin, and visfatin. Adipose tissue is a highly vascularised endocrine organ, and different adipose depots have distinct adipokine secretion profiles, which are altered with obesity. The ability of many adipokines to stimulate angiogenesis is crucial for adipose tissue expansion; however, excessive blood vessel growth is deleterious. As well, some adipokines induce inflammation, which promotes cardiovascular disease progression. We discuss how these 7 aforementioned adipokines act upon the various cardiovascular cell types (endothelial progenitor cells, endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, pericytes, cardiomyocytes, and cardiac fibroblasts), the direct effects of these actions, and their overall impact on the cardiovascular system. These were chosen, as these adipokines are secreted predominantly from adipocytes and have known effects on cardiovascular cells.

  3. Remodelling of the microarchitecture of resistance arteries in cardiovascular diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Maria; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Leurgans, Thomas

    Small resistance artery structure is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in essential hypertension [1, 2] and diabetes (types I and II) [3, 4]. In particular, the media-to-lumen ratio (M:L) is predictive of cardiovascular events. The exact nature of this resistance artery remodeling...... in comparison to other well-studied microvascular beds (e.g. rat mesentery). In the future we aim to compare the microarchitecture of small resistance arteries from parietal pericardial biopsies between patients with and without (treated) hypertension, diabetes and/or ischemic heart disease. 1. Buus, N.H., et...... al., Small artery structure during antihypertensive therapy is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in essential hypertension. J Hypertens, 2013. 31(4): p. 791-7. 2. Mathiassen, O.N., et al., Small artery structure is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in essential...

  4. Primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases: a cost study in family practices.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker-Grob, E.W. de; Dulmen, S. van; Berg, M. van den; Verheij, R.A.; Slobbe, L.C.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Considering the scarcity of health care resources and the high costs associated with cardiovascular diseases, we investigated the spending on cardiovascular primary preventive activities and the prescribing behaviour of primary preventive cardiovascular medication (PPCM) in Dutch family

  5. Primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases: A cost study in family practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.W. de Bekker-Grob (Esther); S. van Dulmen (Sandra); M. van den Berg (Martha); R.A. Verheij (Robert A.); L.C. Slobbe (Laurentius C.)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Considering the scarcity of health care resources and the high costs associated with cardiovascular diseases, we investigated the spending on cardiovascular primary preventive activities and the prescribing behaviour of primary preventive cardiovascular medication (PPCM) in

  6. Social identity influences stress appraisals and cardiovascular reactions to acute stress exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Stephen; Meaney, Sarah; Muldoon, Orla T

    2014-09-01

    This study tested a recent theoretical development in stress research to see whether group membership influenced cardiovascular reactions following exposure to acute stress. Participants (N = 104) were exposed to a message in which a maths test was described as stressful or challenging by an ingroup member (a student) or outgroup member (a stress disorder sufferer). Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure(DBP) and heart rate (HR) were monitored throughout a standard reactivity study. As expected, a significant interaction was found; relative to those who were told that the task was challenging, ingroup members reported more stress and had higher DBP and HR reactivity when told by an ingroup member that the maths task was stressful; task information did not have the same effect for outgroup members. These results indicate that informational support is not constant but varies as a function of group membership. Finally, this recent development in stress research may prove useful for those interested in investigating the interactions between social, psychological and physiological processes underlying health disparities. What is already known on this subject? Stress is a common risk factor for hypertension and coronary heart disease. Social support has been found to reduce cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress. The influence of social support on stress varies as a consequence of social identity. What does this study add? The social group that one belongs to influences how one appraises and responds to stress. Social identity provides a useful framework for understanding how social processes are associated with health disparities. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Insulin Resistance and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Michelle D; Hedlin, Haley; Stefanick, Marcia L

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance is associated with diabetes mellitus, but it is uncertain whether it improves cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction beyond traditional cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified 15,288 women from the Women's Health Initiative Biomarkers....../HDL-C, or impaired fasting glucose (serum glucose ≥110 mg/dL) to traditional risk factors in separate Cox multivariable analyses and assessed risk discrimination and reclassification. The study end point was major CVD events (nonfatal and fatal coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke) within 10 years, which...

  8. Vitamin K for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Louise; Clar, Christine; Ghannam, Obadah; Flowers, Nadine; Stranges, Saverio; Rees, Karen

    2015-09-21

    A deficiency in vitamin K has been associated with increased calcium deposition and coronary artery calcification, which may lead to cardiovascular disease. To determine the effectiveness of vitamin K supplementation as a single nutrient supplement for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 8 of 12, 2014); MEDLINE (Ovid, 1946 to September week 2 2014); EMBASE Classic + EMBASE (Ovid, 1947 to September 18 2014); Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED) and Conference Proceedings Citation Index, Science (CPCI-S) (both 1990 to 17 September 2014) on Web of Science (Thomson Reuters); Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE); Health Technology Assessment Database and Health Economics Evaluations Database (Issue 3 of 4, 2014). We searched trial registers and reference lists of reviews for further studies. We applied no language restrictions. We included randomised controlled trials of vitamin K supplementation as a single nutrient supplement, lasting at least three months, and involving healthy adults or adults at high risk of cardiovascular disease. The comparison group was no intervention or placebo. The outcomes of interest were cardiovascular disease clinical events and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, abstracted the data and assessed the risk of bias. We included only one small trial (60 participants randomised) which overall was judged to be at low risk of bias. The study examined two doses of menaquinone (vitamin K2) over 3 months in healthy participants aged 40 to 65 years. The primary focus of the trial was to examine the effects of menaquinone (subtype MK7) on different matrix Gla proteins (MGP - vitamin K dependent proteins in the vessel wall) at different doses, but the authors also reported blood pressure and lipid levels. The trial did not report on our

  9. Trends and disparities in coronary heart disease, stroke, and other cardiovascular diseases in the United States: findings of the national conference on cardiovascular disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R; Cutler, J; Desvigne-Nickens, P; Fortmann, S P; Friedman, L; Havlik, R; Hogelin, G; Marler, J; McGovern, P; Morosco, G; Mosca, L; Pearson, T; Stamler, J; Stryer, D; Thom, T

    2000-12-19

    A workshop was held September 27 through 29, 1999, to address issues relating to national trends in mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular diseases; the apparent slowing of declines in mortality from cardiovascular diseases; levels and trends in risk factors for cardiovascular diseases; disparities in cardiovascular diseases by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and geography; trends in cardiovascular disease preventive and treatment services; and strategies for efforts to reduce cardiovascular diseases overall and to reduce disparities among subpopulations. The conference concluded that coronary heart disease mortality is still declining in the United States as a whole, although perhaps at a slower rate than in the 1980s; that stroke mortality rates have declined little, if at all, since 1990; and that there are striking differences in cardiovascular death rates by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and geography. Trends in risk factors are consistent with a slowing of the decline in mortality; there has been little recent progress in risk factors such as smoking, physical inactivity, and hypertension control. There are increasing levels of obesity and type 2 diabetes, with major differences among subpopulations. There is considerable activity in population-wide prevention, primary prevention for higher risk people, and secondary prevention, but wide disparities exist among groups on the basis of socioeconomic status and geography, pointing to major gaps in efforts to use available, proven approaches to control cardiovascular diseases. Recommendations for strategies to attain the year 2010 health objectives were made.

  10. Acute meningococcal disease in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ulrikka; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Steensen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Meningococcal disease is a rapidly progressing infection, which continues to cause deaths among children and adolescents. In this review, clinical signs and initial treatment of acute childhood meningococcal disease is described. Operational flow charts have been developed for assessment of non...

  11. Impact of partner bereavement on quality of cardiovascular disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sunil M; Carey, Iain M; Harris, Tess; Dewilde, Stephen; Victor, Christina R; Cook, Derek G

    2013-12-24

    Bereavement is a period of increased risk of cardiovascular death. There is limited understanding of the potential contribution of quality of cardiovascular disease management to this increased risk. In a UK primary-care database, 12 722 older individuals with preexisting cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, stroke) and a partner bereavement were matched with a non-bereaved control group (n=33 911). We examined key routine annual process measures of care in the year before and after bereavement and cardiovascular medication prescribing (lipid-lowering, antiplatelet, renin-angiotensin system drugs). Odds ratios for change after bereavement compared with the change in non-bereaved matched controls are presented. In the bereaved, uptake of all annual measures was lower in the year before bereavement, with improvement in the year after, whereas in the controls, uptake was relatively stable. The odds ratio for change was 1.30 (95% confidence interval, 1.15-1.46) for cholesterol measurement and 1.40 (95% confidence interval, 1.22-1.61) for blood pressure measurement. For all medication, there was a transient fall in prescribing in the peri-bereavement period lasting until about 3 months after bereavement. The odds ratio for at least 80% prescription coverage in the 30 days after bereavement was 0.80 (95% confidence interval, 0.73-0.88) for lipid-lowering medication and 0.82 (95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.91) for antiplatelet medication compared with the change in non-bereaved individuals. Lower uptake of key cardiovascular care measures in the year before bereavement and reduced medication coverage after bereavement may contribute to increased cardiovascular risk. Clinicians need to ensure that quality of cardiovascular care is maintained in the pre- and post-bereavement periods.

  12. Reduced or modified dietary fat for preventing cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Hooper

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Reduction and modification of dietary fats have differing effects on cardiovascular risk factors (such as serum cholesterol, but their effects on important health outcomes are less clear. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of reduction and/or modification of dietary fats on mortality, cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular morbidity and individual outcomes including myocardial infarction, stroke and cancer diagnoses in randomised clinical trials of at least 6 months duration. METHODS: Search methods: For this review update, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Medline and Embase, were searched through to June 2010. References of Included studies and reviews were also checked. Selection criteria: Trials fulfilled the following criteria: 1 randomized with appropriate control group, 2 intention to reduce or modify fat or cholesterol intake (excluding exclusively omega-3 fat interventions, 3 not multi factorial, 4 adult humans with or without cardiovascular disease, 5 intervention at least six months, 6 mortality or cardiovascular morbidity data available. Data collection and analysis: Participant numbers experiencing health outcomes in each arm were extracted independently in duplicate and random effects meta-analyses, meta-regression, sub-grouping, sensitivity analyses and funnel plots were performed. MAIN RESULTS: This updated review suggested that reducing saturated fat by reducing and/or modifying dietary fat reduced the risk of cardiovascular events by 14% (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.96, 24 comparisons, 65,508 participants of whom 7% had a cardiovascular event, I2 50%. Subgrouping suggested that this reduction in cardiovascular events was seen in studies of fat modification (not reduction - which related directly to the degree of effect on serum total and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, of at least two years duration and in studies of men (not of women. There were no clear effects of dietary fat

  13. Reduced or modified dietary fat for preventing cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Lee; Summerbell, Carolyn D; Thompson, Rachel; Sills, Deirdre; Roberts, Felicia G; Moore, Helen; Smith, George Davey

    2014-01-01

    Background Reduction and modification of dietary fats have differing effects on cardiovascular risk factors (such as serum cholesterol), but their effects on important health outcomes are less clear. Objectives To assess the effect of reduction and/or modification of dietary fats on mortality, cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular morbidity and individual outcomes including myocardial infarction, stroke and cancer diagnoses in randomised clinical trials of at least 6 months duration. Search methods For this review update, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE, were searched through to June 2010. References of Included studies and reviews were also checked. Selection criteria Trials fulfilled the following criteria: 1) randomised with appropriate control group, 2) intention to reduce or modify fat or cholesterol intake (excluding exclusively omega-3 fat interventions), 3) not multi factorial, 4) adult humans with or without cardiovascular disease, 5) intervention at least six months, 6) mortality or cardiovascular morbidity data available. Data collection and analysis Participant numbers experiencing health outcomes in each arm were extracted independently in duplicate and random effects meta-analyses, meta-regression, sub-grouping, sensitivity analyses and funnel plots were performed. Main results This updated review suggested that reducing saturated fat by reducing and/or modifying dietary fat reduced the risk of cardiovascular events by 14% (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.96, 24 comparisons, 65,508 participants of whom 7% had a cardiovascular event, I2 50%). Subgrouping suggested that this reduction in cardiovascular events was seen in studies of fat modification (not reduction - which related directly to the degree of effect on serum total and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides), of at least two years duration and in studies of men (not of women). There were no clear effects of dietary fat changes on total mortality (RR 0

  14. YKL-40 - an emerging biomarker in cardiovascular disease and diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathcke Camilla

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several inflammatory cytokines are involved in vascular inflammation resulting in endothelial dysfunction which is the earliest event in the atherosclerotic process leading to manifest cardiovascular disease. YKL-40 is an inflammatory glycoprotein involved in endothelial dysfunction by promoting chemotaxis, cell attachment and migration, reorganization and tissue remodelling as a response to endothelial damage. YKL-40 protein expression is seen in macrophages and smooth muscle cells in atherosclerotic plaques with the highest expression seen in macrophages in the early lesion of atherosclerosis. Several studies demonstrate, that elevated serum YKL-levels are independently associated with the presence and extent of coronary artery disease and even higher YKL-40 levels are documented in patients with myocardial infarction. Moreover, elevated serum YKL-40 levels have also been found to be associated with all-cause as well as cardiovascular mortality. Finally, YKL-40 levels are elevated both in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, known to be at high risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases, when compared to non-diabetic persons. A positive association between elevated circulating YKL-40 levels and increasing levels of albuminuria have been described in patients with type 1 diabetes indicating a role of YKL-40 in the progressing vascular damage resulting in microvascular disease. This review describes the present knowledge about YKL-40 and discusses its relation to endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and diabetes and look ahead on future perspectives of YKL-40 research.

  15. Added Sugars and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Miriam B.; Kaar, Jill L.; Welsh, Jean A.; Van Horn, Linda V.; Feig, Daniel I.; Anderson, Cheryl A.M.; Patel, Mahesh J.; Munos, Jessica Cruz; Krebs, Nancy F.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.; Johnson, Rachel K.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Poor lifestyle behaviors are leading causes of preventable diseases globally. Added sugars contribute to a diet that is energy dense but nutrient poor and increase risk of developing obesity, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, obesity-related cancers, and dental caries. METHODS AND RESULTS For this American Heart Association scientific statement, the writing group reviewed and graded the current scientific evidence for studies examining the cardiovascular health effects of added sugars on children. The available literature was subdivided into 5 broad subareas: effects on blood pressure, lipids, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and obesity. CONCLUSIONS Associations between added sugars and increased cardiovascular disease risk factors among US children are present at levels far below current consumption levels. Strong evidence supports the association of added sugars with increased cardiovascular disease risk in children through increased energy intake, increased adiposity, and dyslipidemia. The committee found that it is reasonable to recommend that children consume ≤25 g (100 cal or ≈6 teaspoons) of added sugars per day and to avoid added sugars for children added sugars most likely can be safely consumed in low amounts as part of a healthy diet, few children achieve such levels, making this an important public health target. PMID:27550974

  16. Polyphenols as potential therapeutical agents against cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curin, Yann; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson

    2005-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that polyphenols from fruits, vegetables and beverages such as wine and tea may exert protective effects on the cardiovascular system. Indeed, research in the field of polyphenols points out their antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties, leading to lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and platelet aggregation. These compounds are also able to modulate the generation of nitric oxide (NO) from vascular endothelium and to interfere with the mechanisms leading to inflammation and endothelial apoptosis, contributing to the prevention of the endothelial dysfunction, known to play a central role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. This article reviews the potential targets of polyphenols involved in the complex pathophysiological events occurring in cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, atherosclerosis and stroke.

  17. Cardiovascular disease in persons with depressive and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelzangs, Nicole; Seldenrijk, Adrie; Beekman, Aartjan T F; van Hout, Hein P J; de Jonge, Peter; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2010-09-01

    Associations between depression, and possibly anxiety, with cardiovascular disease have been established in the general population and among heart patients. This study examined whether cardiovascular disease was more prevalent among a large cohort of depressed and/or anxious persons. In addition, the role of specific clinical characteristics of depressive and anxiety disorders in the association with cardiovascular disease was explored. Baseline data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety were used, including persons with a current (i.e. past year) or remitted DSM-IV depressive or anxiety disorder (N=2315) and healthy controls (N=492). Additional clinical characteristics (subtype, duration, severity, and psychoactive medication) were assessed. Cardiovascular disease (stroke and coronary heart disease) was assessed using algorithms based on self-report and medication use. Persons with current anxiety disorders showed an about three-fold increased prevalence of coronary heart disease (OR anxiety only=2.70, 95%CI=1.31-5.56; OR comorbid anxiety/depression=3.54, 95%CI=1.79-6.98). No associations were found for persons with depressive disorders only or remitted disorders, nor for stroke. Severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms--but no other clinical characteristics--most strongly indicated increased prevalence of coronary heart disease. Cross-sectional design. Within this large psychopathology-based cohort study, prevalence of coronary heart disease was especially increased among persons with anxiety disorders. Increased prevalence of coronary heart disease among depressed persons was largely owing to comorbid anxiety. Anxiety-alone as well as comorbid to depressive disorders-as risk indicator of coronary heart disease deserves more attention in both research and clinical practice. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cardiovascular disease in patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila S. V. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of death among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD. The present study was undertaken to identify the main cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors in 160 patients with ESRD on hemodialysis (HD in Brazil. Their mean age was 47 ± 39 years. The main risk factors for cardiovascular diseases were arterial hypertension (89.4%, dyslipidemia (78.3%, low high-density lipoprotein levels (84.2% and low physical activity (64.1%. Family history of coronary insufficiency and high low-density lipoprotein levels were significantly associated with coronary artery disease (P = 0.005 and P = 0.029, respectively. Sedentary life style, diabetes mellitus, secondary hyperparathyroidism and hyperglycemia also showed a significant association with the underlying vascular disease (P = 0.017, P = 0.039, P = 0.037 and P = 0.030, respectively. Hypercalcemia, hypertension and black race were factors significantly associated with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (P = 0.01, P = 0.0013 and P = 0.024, respectively. Our study shows that the most prevalent cardiovascular diseases in patients with ESRD were left ventricular hypertrophy, atherosclerotic disease, valvular disease and coronary artery disease. Hypertension and dyslipidemia were the common risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases. The present study was undertaken to identify the main cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors in 160 patients with ESRD on HD in a single center in Brazil.

  19. South American Guidelines for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Herdy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this document, the Inter-American Committee of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, together with the South American Society of Cardiology, aimed to formulate strategies, measures, and actions for cardiovascular disease prevention and rehabilitation (CVDPR. In the context of the implementation of a regional and national health policy in Latin American countries, the goal is to promote cardiovascular health and thereby decrease morbidity and mortality. The study group on Cardiopulmonary and Metabolic Rehabilitation from the Department of Exercise, Ergometry, and Cardiovascular Rehabilitation of the Brazilian Society of Cardiology has created a committee of experts to review the Portuguese version of the guideline and adapt it to the national reality. The mission of this document is to help health professionals to adopt effective measures of CVDPR in the routine clinical practice. The publication of this document and its broad implementation will contribute to the goal of the World Health Organization (WHO, which is the reduction of worldwide cardiovascular mortality by 25% until 2025. The study group's priorities are the following: • Emphasize the important role of CVDPR as an instrument of secondary prevention with significant impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality; • Join efforts for the knowledge on CVDPR, its dissemination, and adoption in most cardiovascular centers and institutes in South America, prioritizing the adoption of cardiovascular prevention methods that are comprehensive, practical, simple and which have a good cost/benefit ratio; • Improve the education of health professionals and patients with education programs on the importance of CVDPR services, which are directly targeted at the health system, clinical staff, patients, and community leaders, with the aim of decreasing the barriers to CVDPR implementation.

  20. Acute renal dysfunction in liver diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Betrosian, Alex P; Agarwal, Banwari; Douzinas, Emmanuel E

    2007-01-01

    Renal dysfunction is common in liver diseases, either as part of multiorgan involvement in acute illness or secondary to advanced liver disease. The presence of renal impairment in both groups is a poor prognostic indicator. Renal failure is often multifactorial and can present as pre-renal or intrinsic renal dysfunction. Obstructive or post renal dysfunction only rarely complicates liver disease. Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a unique form of renal failure associated with advanced liver dise...

  1. Lipoprotein Apheresis for Lipoprotein(a)-Associated Cardiovascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roeseler, Eberhard; Julius, Ulrich; Heigl, Franz

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lipoprotein(a)-hyperlipoproteinemia (Lp(a)-HLP) along with progressive cardiovascular disease has been approved as indication for regular lipoprotein apheresis (LA) in Germany since 2008. We aimed to study the long-term preventive effect of LA and to assess hypothetical clinical correl...

  2. Cardiovascular disease: A Global Epidemic extending into Sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cardiovascular disease is a global epidemic; the prevalence is currently stable in the developed world but is on a rapid rise in the developing world particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is the commonest cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Its victims are older in the developed world but younger in Africa ...

  3. Cardiometabolic markers to identify cardiovascular disease risk in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The prevalence of HIV is the highest in sub-Saharan Africa; South Africa (SA) is one of the most affected countries with the highest number of adults living with HIV infection in the world. Besides the traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population, in people living with HIV there ...

  4. Associations between Eating Competence and Cardiovascular Disease Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psota, Tricia L.; Lohse, Barbara; West, Sheila G.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Explore the relationship between eating competence (EC) and biomarkers of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Design: Secondary analysis of data collected for a larger, 2-way crossover clinical trial. Setting: Outpatient clinical research center. Participants: Forty-eight hypercholesterolemic (LDL cholesterol [greater than or equal]…

  5. Reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease in older women | Davey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in women older than 50 years. Risk factors for CVD differ in some aspects from those in men. The prevention of CVD in women has undergone a reappraisal with the publication of studies looking at the use of menopausal hormone therapy for both primary and ...

  6. Physical activity and cardiovascular disease risk factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors are increasing at an unprecedented rate in developing countries. However, fewer studies have evaluated the role of physical activity in preventing CVD in these countries. We assessed level physical activity and its relationship with CVD risk factors among young and ...

  7. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Emerging Adults in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, Demetrius Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to examine factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among emerging adults in college aged 18-25 years. CVD risks that develop during this period often persist into adulthood making it an ideal time to target CVD prevention. The specific aims of this dissertation were to 1) explore perceptions…

  8. Effect of cinacalcet on cardiovascular disease in patients undergoing dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chertow, Glenn M; Block, Geoffrey A; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Disorders of mineral metabolism, including secondary hyperparathyroidism, are thought to contribute to extraskeletal (including vascular) calcification among patients with chronic kidney disease. It has been hypothesized that treatment with the calcimimetic agent cinacalcet might reduce the risk...... of death or nonfatal cardiovascular events in such patients....

  9. Education and cardiovascular disease incidence in Danish men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mia

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Social inequality in cardiovascular disease (CVD) is well-established. However, the causal paths driving this association are unclear. To disentangle the effect of education from underlying background factors we investigated the association between education and the risk of CVD using...

  10. Phytosterols and blood lipid risk factors for cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ras, R.T.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Lifestyle improvements including dietary changes are important for CVD prevention. This thesis aimed to advance insights in the role of phytosterols, lipid-like compounds present in foods or plant origin, in

  11. Towards personalized treatment in cardiovascular disease : a molecular epidemiological approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regieli, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Patients who have experienced cardiovascular disease each differ in terms of their future risk, yet currently we have no ways to predict individual prognosis. Mass preventive treatment is therefore currently recommended for the group as a whole whereas in fact this group is highly heterogeneous and

  12. Emerging Role of Interleukin-1 in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vicenová, B.; Vopálenský, D.; Burýšek, L.; Pospíšek, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 4 (2009), s. 481-498 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Keywords : interleukin-1 * interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein * signal pathways * cardiovascular diseases Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.430, year: 2009 http://www.biomed.cas.cz/physiolres/pdf/58/58_481.pdf

  13. RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN PRISON POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Soares de OliveiraI

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to make a reflection about the risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease in the prison population, as well as the performance of the health care team in these spaces. It is a reflective approach, literature that included e-journal articles, published in the year 2003 to 2011, indexed at LILACS, Scielo, MEDLINE, and available in full. Textbooks were also consulted and ordinances of Ministry of health and Justice of Brazil. Used the descriptors "risk factors," "cardiovascular disease" and "Prisoners". It was noted that the current situation of overcrowding in prisons is, with unhealthy environment, which imposes risks the health of prisoners. The living habits, such as use of alcohol and drugs (cocaine, marijuana, tranquillizers and tobacco, increases the risk for cardiovascular disease. In addition, the authors emphasize, a priori, the low level of schooling of the detainees. The performance of the health care team must be based on educational practices for promoting and monitoring the health, with multidisciplinary support. Further studies need to be done in order to investigate the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, as well as evidence of the effectiveness of health care for this population.

  14. Prescribing Errors in Cardiovascular Diseases in a Tertiary Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prescription errors are now known to be contributing to a large number of deaths during the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, there is paucity of information about these errors occurring in health facilities in Nigeria. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of prescribing errors in ...

  15. Periodontitis, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease : A Bermuda Triangle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teeuw, W.J.

    2017-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis contributes to the understanding of the complex relationship between periodontitis and diabetes mellitus (DM), and periodontitis and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD). It was observed that a substantial number of suspected new DM patients could be

  16. Predictive genetic testing for cardiovascular diseases: Impact on carrier children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenkamp, Tineke M.; Tibben, Aad; Mollema, Eline D.; Van Langen, Irene M.; Wiegman, Albert; De Wert, Guido M.; De Beaufort, Inez D.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Smets, Ellen M. A.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the experiences of children identified by family screening who were found to be a mutation carrier for a genetic cardiovascular disease (Long QT Syndrome (LQTS), Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM), Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH)). We addressed the (a) manner in which they perceive

  17. Rivaroxaban with or without Aspirin in Stable Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikelboom, John W.; Connolly, Stuart J.; Bosch, Jackie; Dagenais, Gilles R.; Hart, Robert G.; Shestakovska, Olga; Diaz, Rafael; Alings, Marco; Lonn, Eva M.; Anand, Sonia S.; Widimsky, Petr; Hori, Masatsugu; Avezum, Alvaro; Piegas, Leopoldo S.; Branch, Kelley R. H.; Probstfield, Jeffrey; Bhatt, Deepak L.; Zhu, Jun; Liang, Yan; Maggioni, Aldo P.; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; O'Donnell, Martin; Kakkar, Ajay K.; Fox, Keith A. A.; Parkhomenko, Alexander N.; Ertl, Georg; Störk, Stefan; Keltai, Matyas; Ryden, Lars; Pogosova, Nana; Dans, Antonio L.; Lanas, Fernando; Commerford, Patrick J.; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Guzik, Tomek J.; Verhamme, Peter B.; Vinereanu, Dragos; Kim, Jae-Hyung; Tonkin, Andrew M.; Lewis, Basil S.; Felix, Camilo; Yusoff, Khalid; Steg, P. Gabriel; Metsarinne, Kaj P.; Cook Bruns, Nancy; Misselwitz, Frank; Chen, Edmond; Leong, Darryl; Hashimoto, S.; Maas, M.

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated whether rivaroxaban alone or in combination with aspirin would be more effective than aspirin alone for secondary cardiovascular prevention. In this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 27,395 participants with stable atherosclerotic vascular disease to receive rivaroxaban (2.5 mg

  18. Dietary epicatechnin and quercetin in cardiovascular health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dower, J.I.

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies showed that the consumption of flavonoid-rich foods such as cocoa and tea is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) showed that cocoa and tea improved markers of cardiometabolic health including blood pressure,

  19. Sensitivity to depression or anxiety and subclinical cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldenrijk, Adrie; van Hout, Hein P. J.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; de Groot, Eric; Gort, Johan; Rustemeijer, Cees; Diamant, Michaela; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Depressive and anxiety disorders are highly overlapping, heterogeneous conditions that both have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Cognitive vulnerability traits for these disorders could help to specify what exactly drives CVD risk in depressed and anxious

  20. Sensitivity to depression or anxiety and subclinical cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldenrijk, Adrie; van Hout, Hein P. J.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; de Groot, Eric; Gort, Johan; Rustemeijer, Cees; Diamant, Michaela; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Depressive and anxiety disorders are highly overlapping, heterogeneous conditions that both have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Cognitive vulnerability traits for these disorders could help to specify what exactly drives CVD risk in depressed and

  1. Prevention of cardiovascular disease in a rural general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Tomiak

    2016-09-01

    The higher number of preventive consultations had an impact on a statistically significant decrease in mean blood pressure and mean SCORE value. The year-long cardiovascular disease prophylaxis programme proved less effective than expected, and neither a decrease in body weight nor an improvement in lipid metabolism was achieved in any of the groups.

  2. Inflammation, coagulation and cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duprez, Daniel A; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Kuller, Lewis H

    2012-01-01

    The SMART study was a trial of intermittent use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) (drug conservation [DC]) versus continuous use of ART (viral suppression [VS]) as a strategy to reduce toxicities, including cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We studied the predictive value of high sensitivity C-rea...

  3. New cardiovascular targets to prevent late onset Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Jurgen A H R

    2015-09-15

    The prevalence of dementia rises to between 20% and 40% with advancing age. The dominant cause of dementia in approximately 70% of these patients is Alzheimer disease. There is no effective disease-modifying pharmaceutical treatment for this neurodegenerative disease. A wide range of Alzheimer drugs that appeared effective in animal models have recently failed to show clinical benefit in patients. However, hopeful news has emerged from recent studies that suggest that therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing cardiovascular disease may also reduce the prevalence of dementia due to Alzheimer disease. This review summarizes the evidence for this link between cardiovascular disease and late onset Alzheimer dementia. Only evidence from human research is considered here. Longitudinal studies show an association between high blood pressure and pathological accumulation of the protein amyloid-beta42, and an even stronger association between vascular stiffness and amyloid accumulation, in elderly subjects. Amyloid-beta42 accumulation is considered to be an early marker of Alzheimer disease, and increases the risk of subsequent cognitive decline and development of dementia. These observations could provide an explanation for recent observations of reduced dementia prevalence associated with improved cardiovascular care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Family history of premature death and risk of early onset cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranthe, Mattis Flyvholm; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Oyen, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a family history of premature death, cardiovascular death in particular, on the risk of early cardiovascular disease.......The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a family history of premature death, cardiovascular death in particular, on the risk of early cardiovascular disease....

  5. IgG4-related cardiovascular disease. The emerging role of cardiovascular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogeni, Sophie; Markousis-Mavrogenis, George; Kolovou, Genovefa

    2017-01-01

    Immunoglobulin 4-related disease (IgG4-related disease) is a systemic inflammatory disease that presents with increases of serum IgG4. It may affect various systems, including the cardiovascular (CV) system. Assessment of serum IgG4 levels and involved organ biopsy are necessary for diagnosis. IgG4-related disease is characterized by fibrosclerosis, lymphocytic infiltration and presence of IgG4-positive plasma cells. The disease usually responds to treatment with corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressive medication. CV involvement may manifest as cardiac pseudotumors, inflammatory periaortitis, coronary arteritis and/or pericarditis. IgG4-related cardiovascular disorders can severely affect patient prognosis. Various imaging techniques, including echocardiography, Computed Tomography (CT), 18FDG-PET, Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) and cardiac catheterisation, have been successfully used for early disease detection and follow-up. Echocardiography and vascular ultrasound are the most commonly used non-invasive, non-radiating imaging techniques for the evaluation of IgG4-related CV disease. Periaortitis/periarteritis can be also assessed by CT, showing a soft tissue thickening around arteries. Coronary artery aneurysms can be easily diagnosed by coronary CT. In case of active periarterial or coronary artery inflammation, 18FDG-PET will show FDG uptake at the area of the lesion. CMR, due to its capability to perform function and tissue characterisation, can offer an integrated imaging of aorta, coronary arteries and the heart, assessment of disease acuity, extent of fibrosis and guide further treatment. However, multimodality imaging may be necessary for assessment of disease activity and fibrosis extent in those cases with multifocal CV involvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cardiovascular Disease Susceptibility and Resistance in Circumpolar Inuit Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvermosegaard, Maria; Dahl-Petersen, Inger K; Nielsen, Nina Odgaard

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major public health issue in indigenous populations in the Arctic. These diseases have emerged concomitantly with profound social changes over the past 60 years. The aim of this study was to summarize the literature on CVD risk among Arctic Inuit. Literature...... on prevalence, incidence, and time trends for CVD and its risk factors in Arctic Inuit populations was reviewed. Most evidence supports a similar incidence of coronary heart disease and a higher incidence of cerebrovascular disease among Arctic Inuit than seen in western populations. Factors that may increase...... intake (at least documented in Greenland), and contaminant levels are declining. Although there have been marked socioeconomic and dietary changes, it remains unsolved and to some extent controversial how this may have influenced cardiovascular risk among Arctic Inuit. The increase in life expectancy...

  7. Tracking of stem cells for treatment in cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Won Jun

    2005-01-01

    Various stem cells or progenitor cells are being used to treat cardiovascular disease. In ischemic heart disease, stem cell therapy is expected to regenerate damaged myocardium. To evaluate effects of stem cell treatment, the method to image stem cell location, distribution and differentiation is necessary. Optical imaging, MRI, nuclear imaging methods have been used for tracking stem cells. The methods and problems of each imaging technique are reviewed

  8. Finding Cardiovascular Disease Genes in the Dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Heidi G.; Meurs, Kathryn M.; Ostrander, Elaine A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in canine genomics are changing the landscape of veterinary biology, and by default, veterinary medicine. No longer are clinicians locked into traditional methods of diagnoses and therapy. Rather major advances in canine genetics and genomics from the past five years are now changing the way the veterinarian of the 21st century practices medicine. First, the availability of a dense genome map gives canine genetics a much needed foothold in comparative medicine, allowing advances made in human and mouse genetics to be applied to companion animals. Second, the recently released 7.5x whole genome sequence of the dog is facilitating the identification of hereditary disease genes. Finally, development of genetic tools for rapid screening of families and populations at risk for inherited disease means that the cost of identifying and testing for disease loci will significantly decrease in coming years. Out of these advances will come major changes in companion animal diagnostics and therapy. Clinicians will be able to offer their clients genetic testing and counseling for a myriad of disorders. Such advances are certain to generate healthier and more long lived dogs, improving quality of life for owner and pet alike. The clinician of the 21st century, therefore, faces incredible opportunities as well as challenges in the management of genetic disease. In this review we summarize recent findings in canine genomics and discuss their application to the study of canine cardiac health. PMID:19083345

  9. CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. D. Bazdyrev

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to detect previously undiagnosed arterial hypertension in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality.Materials and methods. 43 patients with stage I–II of COPD and the absence of clinical signs of cardiovascular diseases were examined. Spirometry, body plethysmography and diffusing lung capacity (DLCO were included in the respiratory system assessment. The cardiovascular system was assessed with echocardiography and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM.Results. Despite the absence of obvious signs of cardiovascular lesions (an increase of office blood pressure, intracardiac hemodynamic changes, the following cardiovascular risk factors were identified: age (58.2 ± 2.0 years, male gender, smoking, hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia (total cholesterol 5.9 ± 0.9 mmol / l, low density lipoproteins 3.8 ± 0.5 mmol / l, triglycerides 1.8 ± 0.2 mmol / l. Correlation analysis has revealed the relation between several respiratory parameters and the severity of dyspnea and quality of life in patients with COPD, as well as its relation with lipid levels.Conclusion. The patients with COPD have a large number of risk factors for CVD. According to ABPM data, arterial hypertension was verified in 18 (41.9 % of 43 patients with COPD at normal level of office blood pressure; moreover, 51.2 % of patients demonstrated low reduction of blood pressure during the night-time that nowadays, is considered to be a predictor of cardiovascular disease and sudden death.

  10. Chocolate and prevention of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Eric L; Hutfless, Susan M; Ding, Xin; Girotra, Saket

    2006-01-03

    Consumption of chocolate has been often hypothesized to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to chocolate's high levels of stearic acid and antioxidant flavonoids. However, debate still lingers regarding the true long term beneficial cardiovascular effects of chocolate overall. We reviewed English-language MEDLINE publications from 1966 through January 2005 for experimental, observational, and clinical studies of relations between cocoa, cacao, chocolate, stearic acid, flavonoids (including flavonols, flavanols, catechins, epicatechins, and procynadins) and the risk of cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke). A total of 136 publications were selected based on relevance, and quality of design and methods. An updated meta-analysis of flavonoid intake and CHD mortality was also conducted. The body of short-term randomized feeding trials suggests cocoa and chocolate may exert beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk via effects on lowering blood pressure, anti-inflammation, anti-platelet function, higher HDL, decreased LDL oxidation. Additionally, a large body of trials of stearic acid suggests it is indeed cholesterol-neutral. However, epidemiologic studies of serum and dietary stearic acid are inconclusive due to many methodologic limitations. Meanwhile, the large body of prospective studies of flavonoids suggests the flavonoid content of chocolate may reduce risk of cardiovascular mortality. Our updated meta-analysis indicates that intake of flavonoids may lower risk of CHD mortality, RR = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.71-0.92) comparing highest and lowest tertiles. Multiple lines of evidence from laboratory experiments and randomized trials suggest stearic acid may be neutral, while flavonoids are likely protective against CHD mortality. The highest priority now is to conduct larger randomized trials to definitively investigate the impact of chocolate consumption on long-term cardiovascular outcomes.

  11. Chocolate and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Xin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of chocolate has been often hypothesized to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD due to chocolate's high levels of stearic acid and antioxidant flavonoids. However, debate still lingers regarding the true long term beneficial cardiovascular effects of chocolate overall. Methods We reviewed English-language MEDLINE publications from 1966 through January 2005 for experimental, observational, and clinical studies of relations between cocoa, cacao, chocolate, stearic acid, flavonoids (including flavonols, flavanols, catechins, epicatechins, and procynadins and the risk of cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease (CHD, stroke. A total of 136 publications were selected based on relevance, and quality of design and methods. An updated meta-analysis of flavonoid intake and CHD mortality was also conducted. Results The body of short-term randomized feeding trials suggests cocoa and chocolate may exert beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk via effects on lowering blood pressure, anti-inflammation, anti-platelet function, higher HDL, decreased LDL oxidation. Additionally, a large body of trials of stearic acid suggests it is indeed cholesterol-neutral. However, epidemiologic studies of serum and dietary stearic acid are inconclusive due to many methodologic limitations. Meanwhile, the large body of prospective studies of flavonoids suggests the flavonoid content of chocolate may reduce risk of cardiovascular mortality. Our updated meta-analysis indicates that intake of flavonoids may lower risk of CHD mortality, RR = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.71–0.92 comparing highest and lowest tertiles. Conclusion Multiple lines of evidence from laboratory experiments and randomized trials suggest stearic acid may be neutral, while flavonoids are likely protective against CHD mortality. The highest priority now is to conduct larger randomized trials to definitively investigate the impact of chocolate consumption on long

  12. A clinical perspective of obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease

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    Thang S Han

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome is a condition characterized by a special constellation of reversible major risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The main, diagnostic, components are reduced HDL-cholesterol, raised triglycerides, blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose, all of which are related to weight gain, specifically intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation and a large waist circumference. Using internationally adopted arbitrary cut-off values for waist circumference, having metabolic syndrome doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease, but offers an effective treatment approach through weight management. Metabolic syndrome now affects 30–40% of people by age 65, driven mainly by adult weight gain, and by a genetic or epigenetic predisposition to intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation related to poor intra-uterine growth. Metabolic syndrome is also promoted by a lack of subcutaneous adipose tissue, low skeletal muscle mass and anti-retroviral drugs. Reducing weight by 5–10%, by diet and exercise, with or without, anti-obesity drugs, substantially lowers all metabolic syndrome components, and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Other cardiovascular disease risk factors such as smoking should be corrected as a priority. Anti-diabetic agents which improve insulin resistance and reduce blood pressure, lipids and weight should be preferred for diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome. Bariatric surgery offers an alternative treatment for those with BMI ≥ 40 or 35–40 kg/m 2 with other significant co-morbidity. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease is expected to rise along with the global obesity epidemic: greater emphasis should be given to effective early weight-management to reduce risk in pre-symptomatic individuals with large waists.

  13. EDTA chelation therapy for cardiovascular disease: a systematic review

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    Wu Ping

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous practitioners of both conventional and complementary and alternative medicine throughout North America and Europe claim that chelation therapy with EDTA is an effective means to both control and treat cardiovascular disease. These claims are controversial, and several randomized controlled trials have been completed dealing with this topic. To address this issue we conducted a systematic review to evaluate the best available evidence for the use of EDTA chelation therapy in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Methods We conducted a systematic review of 7 databases from inception to May 2005. Hand searches were conducted in review articles and in any of the trials found. Experts in the field were contacted and registries of clinical trials were searched for unpublished data. To be included in the final systematic review, the studies had to be randomized controlled clinical trials. Results A total of seven articles were found assessing EDTA chelation for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Two of these articles were subgroup analyses of one RCT that looked at different clinical outcomes. Of the remaining five studies, two smaller studies found a beneficial effect whereas the other three exhibited no benefit for cardiovascular disease from the use of EDTA chelation therapy. Adverse effects were rare but those of note included a few cases of hypocalcemia and a single case of increased creatinine in a patient on the EDTA intervention. Conclusion The best available evidence does not support the therapeutic use of EDTA chelation therapy in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Although not considered to be a highly invasive or harmful therapy, it is possible that the use of EDTA chelation therapy in lieu of proven therapy may result in causing indirect harm to the patient.

  14. ECG gated magnetic resonance imaging in cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Im, Chung Kie; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan

    1985-01-01

    Using KAIS 0.15 Tesla resistive magnetic imaging system, ECG gated magnetic resonance (MR) image of various cardiovascular disease was obtained in 10 patients. The findings of MR image of the cardiovascular disease were analysed and the results were as follows: 1. In 6 cases of acquired and congenital cardiac diseases, there were 2 cases of myocardial infarction, 1 case of mitral stenosis and 3 cases of corrected transportation of great vessels. The others were 3 cases of aortic disease and 1 case of pericardial effusion with lymphoma. 2. Myocardial thinning and left ventricular aneurysm were detected in MR images of myocardial infarction. The left atrium was well delineated and enlarged in the case of mitral stenosis. And segmental analysis was possible in the cases of corrected transposition since all cardiac structures were well delineated anatomically. 3. In aortic diseases, the findings of MR image were enlarged lumen, compressed cardiac chambers in ascending aortic aneurysm, intimal flap, enhanced false lumen in dissecting aneurysm and irregular narrowing of aorta with arterial obstruction in Takayasu's arteritis. 4. Pericardial effusion revealed a conspicuous contrast with neighboring mediastinal fat and cardiac wall due to it low signal encircling cardiac wall. 5. ECG gated MR image is an accurate non-invasive imaging modality for the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease and better results of its clinical application are expected in the future with further development in the imaging system and more clinical experiences

  15. Abnormalities in Alternative Splicing of Apoptotic Genes and Cardiovascular Diseases

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    Zodwa Dlamini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is required for normal heart development in the embryo, but has also been shown to be an important factor in the occurrence of heart disease. Alternative splicing of apoptotic genes is currently emerging as a diagnostic and therapeutic target for heart disease. This review addresses the involvement of abnormalities in alternative splicing of apoptotic genes in cardiac disorders including cardiomyopathy, myocardial ischemia and heart failure. Many pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family have alternatively spliced isoforms that lack important active domains. These isoforms can play a negative regulatory role by binding to and inhibiting the pro-apoptotic forms. Alternative splicing is observed to be increased in various cardiovascular diseases with the level of alternate transcripts increasing elevated in diseased hearts compared to healthy subjects. In many cases these isoforms appear to be the underlying cause of the disease, while in others they may be induced in response to cardiovascular pathologies. Regardless of this, the detection of alternate splicing events in the heart can serve as useful diagnostic or prognostic tools, while those splicing events that seem to play a causative role in cardiovascular disease make attractive future drug targets.

  16. Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in an Aging HIV Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Iguacel, R; Llibre, J M; Friis-Moller, N

    2015-01-01

    With more effective and widespread antiretroviral treatment, the overall incidence of AIDS- or HIV-related death has decreased dramatically. Consequently, as patients are aging, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the HIV population....... The incidence of CVD overall in HIV is relatively low, but it is approximately 1.5-2-fold higher than that seen in age-matched HIV-uninfected individuals. Multiple factors are believed to explain this excess in risk such as overrepresentation of traditional cardiovascular risk factors (particularly smoking...

  17. Nanoimaging in cardiovascular diseases: Current state of the art

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    Suryyani Deb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has been integrated into healthcare system in terms of diagnosis as well as therapy. The massive impact of imaging nanotechnology has a deeper intervention in cardiology i.e. as contrast agents , to target vulnerable plaques with site specificity and in a theranostic approach to treat these plaques, stem cell delivery in necrotic myocardium, etc. Thus cardiovascular nanoimaging is not limited to simple diagnosis but also can help real time tracking during therapy as well as surgery. The present review provides a comprehensive description of the molecular imaging techniques for cardiovascular diseases with the help of nanotechnology and the potential clinical implications of nanotechnology for future applications.

  18. Renal Impairment and Cardiovascular Disease in HIV-Positive Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Ryom; Lundgren, Jens D; Ross, Mike

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While the association between renal impairment and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is well established in the general population, the association remains poorly understood in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals. METHODS: Individuals with ≥2 estimated glomerular...... filtration rate (eGFR) measurements after 1 February 2004 were followed until CVD, death, last visit plus 6 months, or 1 February 2015. CVD was defined as the occurrence of centrally validated myocardial infarction, stroke, invasive cardiovascular procedures, or sudden cardiac death. RESULTS: During a median...

  19. Microalbuminuria and obesity: impact on cardiovascular disease and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Klaus Peder; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Scharling, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    P>Objective Microalbuminuria and obesity are both associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to determine the association between obesity (measured by body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, waist circumference) and different levels of microalbuminuria. We also aimed...... to determine the risk of death and CVD at different levels of microalbuminuria and obesity. Design Population-based observational study based on 2696 men and women, 30-70 years of age. Urinary albumin excretion (UAE), body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, waist circumference and other cardiovascular risk...

  20. Epidemiology and the physiopathological link between depression and cardiovascular disease

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    Carmine Pizzi

    2014-11-01

    The defined pathophysiological pathways which link depression and cardiovascular outcomes are not well recognized although various mechanisms have been proposed to explain this association. Beyond traditional cardiovascular risk factors, autonomic nervous system, low grade of inflammation, platelet function, abnormal function of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and genetic factors can adversely impact the endothelium and arterial walls. Consequently, these mechanisms might be crucial factors in promoting and accelerating atherosclerosis and its complications due to plaque rupture and thrombosis. For these reasons, depression symptoms should be considered as a new cardiac risk factor in the general population and in patients with coronary artery disease.

  1. Surgical Robotics Research in Cardiovascular Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohost, Gerald M; Guthrie, Barton L; Steiner, Charles

    2008-02-29

    This grant is to support a research in robotics at three major medical centers: the University of Southern California-USC- (Project 1); the University of Alabama at Birmingham-UAB-(Project 2); and the Cleveland Clinic Foundation-CCF-(Project 3). Project 1 is oriented toward cardiovascular applications, while projects 2 and 3 are oriented toward neurosurgical applications. The main objective of Project 1 is to develop an approach to assist patients in maintaining a constant level of stress while undergoing magnetic resonance imaging or spectroscopy. The specific project is to use handgrip to detect the changes in high energy phosphate metabolism between rest and stress. The high energy phosphates, ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr) are responsible for the energy of the heart muscle (myocardium) responsible for its contractile function. If the blood supply to the myocardium in insufficient to support metabolism and contractility during stress, the high energy phosphates, particularly PCr, will decrease in concentration. The high energy phosphates can be tracked using phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 31}P MRS). In Project 2 the UAB Surgical Robotics project focuses on the use of virtual presence to assist with remote surgery and surgical training. The goal of this proposal was to assemble a pilot system for proof of concept. The pilot project was completed successfully and was judged to demonstrate that the concept of remote surgical assistance as applied to surgery and surgical training was feasible and warranted further development. The main objective of Project 3 is to develop a system to allow for the tele-robotic delivery of instrumentation during a functional neurosurgical procedure (Figure 3). Instrumentation such as micro-electrical recording probes or deep brain stimulation leads. Current methods for the delivery of these instruments involve the integration of linear actuators to stereotactic navigation systems. The control of these delivery

  2. Surgical Robotics Research in Cardiovascular Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohost, Gerald M; Guthrie, Barton L; Steiner, Charles

    2008-01-01

    This grant is to support a research in robotics at three major medical centers: the University of Southern California-USC- (Project 1); the University of Alabama at Birmingham-UAB-(Project 2); and the Cleveland Clinic Foundation-CCF-(Project 3). Project 1 is oriented toward cardiovascular applications, while projects 2 and 3 are oriented toward neurosurgical applications. The main objective of Project 1 is to develop an approach to assist patients in maintaining a constant level of stress while undergoing magnetic resonance imaging or spectroscopy. The specific project is to use handgrip to detect the changes in high energy phosphate metabolism between rest and stress. The high energy phosphates, ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr) are responsible for the energy of the heart muscle (myocardium) responsible for its contractile function. If the blood supply to the myocardium in insufficient to support metabolism and contractility during stress, the high energy phosphates, particularly PCr, will decrease in concentration. The high energy phosphates can be tracked using phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 31 P MRS). In Project 2 the UAB Surgical Robotics project focuses on the use of virtual presence to assist with remote surgery and surgical training. The goal of this proposal was to assemble a pilot system for proof of concept. The pilot project was completed successfully and was judged to demonstrate that the concept of remote surgical assistance as applied to surgery and surgical training was feasible and warranted further development. The main objective of Project 3 is to develop a system to allow for the tele-robotic delivery of instrumentation during a functional neurosurgical procedure (Figure 3). Instrumentation such as micro-electrical recording probes or deep brain stimulation leads. Current methods for the delivery of these instruments involve the integration of linear actuators to stereotactic navigation systems. The control of these delivery devices

  3. Development of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy for the Treatment for Ischemic Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    Cardiovascular diseases, such as coronary artery disease and peripheral artery disease, are the major causes of death in developed countries, and the number of elderly patients has been rapidly increasing worldwide. Thus, it is crucial to develop new non-invasive therapeutic strategies for these patients. We found that a low-energy shock wave (SW) (about 10% of the energy density that is used for urolithiasis) effectively increases the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in cultured endothelial cells. Subsequently, we demonstrated that extracorporeal cardiac SW therapy with low-energy SW up-regulates the expression of VEGF, enhances angiogenesis, and improves myocardial ischemia in a pig model of chronic myocardial ischemia without any adverse effects in vivo. Based on these promising results in animal studies, we have subsequently developed a new, non-invasive angiogenic therapy with low-energy SW for cardiovascular diseases. Our extracorporeal cardiac SW therapy improved symptoms and myocardial perfusion evaluated with stress-scintigraphy in patients with severe coronary artery disease without indication of percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass surgery. Importantly, no procedural complications or adverse effects were noted. The SW therapy was also effective in ameliorating left ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction in pigs and in enhancing angiogenesis in hindlimb ischemia in animals and patients with coronary artery disease. Furthermore, our recent experimental studies suggest that the SW therapy is also effective for indications other than cardiovascular diseases. Thus, our extracorporeal cardiac SW therapy is an effective, safe, and non-invasive angiogenic strategy for cardiovascular medicine.

  4. Depression And The Link With Cardiovascular Disease

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    Arup Kumar Dhar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an outline of the association between major depressive disorder (MDD and coronary heart disease (CHD. Much is known about the two individual clinical conditions; however it is not until recently, that biological mechanisms have been uncovered that link both MDD and CHD. The activation of stress pathways have been implicated as a neurochemical mechanism that links MDD and CHD. Depression is known to be associated with poorer outcomes of CHD. Psychological factors such as major depression and stress are now known as risk factors for developing CHD which is as important and is independent of classic risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and cigarette smoking. Both conditions have great socioeconomic importance given that depression and CHD are likely to be two of the three leading causes of global burden of disease. Better understanding of the common causal pathways will help us delineate more appropriate treatments.

  5. A STUDY ON INCIDENCE OF ACUTE CARDIOVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS DURING MAINTENANCE HAEMODIALYSIS OF END-STAGE RENAL FAILURE PATIENTS

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    Darimireddi Siva Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND To study the incidence of acute cardiovascular complications during haemodialysis in patients with chronic kidney disease with end-stage renal failure on maintenance haemodialysis. METHODS Patients with chronic kidney disease with end-stage renal failure on maintenance haemodialysis at King George Hospital, Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam, India, were studied during the period of June 2015 to August 2016. In our study, all the 100 patients underwent 8510 haemodialysis sessions during 1-year period of study. RESULTS Cardiovascular complications are the most common intradialytic complications occurred during the study. Hypotension is the commonest of all the intradialytic as well as cardiovascular complications with a frequency of 1278, which account for 15.01% of the haemodialysis sessions. This was followed by 879 episodes of hypertension (10.32%, 190 episodes of cardiac arrhythmias (2.23%, which include complex ventricular arrhythmias and supraventricular arrhythmias and 162 episodes of chest pain (1.90%. Of the 100 patients, 37% of patients developed cardiac arrhythmias during haemodialysis. The frequency of arrhythmic episodes was 190 (2.23%. Among these, Supraventricular Arrhythmias (SVA and Complex Ventricular Arrhythmic (CVA episodes account for 159 (83.68% and 31 (16.31%, respectively. CVA and SVA occurred in 29% and 19% of patients in the study group, respectively. Both CVA and SVA occurred in 12% of patients. CONCLUSION Intradialytic hypotension is the most common acute intradialytic complication in patients with chronic kidney disease with endstage renal failure undergoing maintenance haemodialysis. This is followed by intradialytic hypertension. Sudden cardiac arrest is the most common cause of death during haemodialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease on haemodialysis. Mortality is high in patients with end-stage renal failure in maintenance haemodialysis with ischaemic heart disease.

  6. Neuroendocrine and cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress are attenuated in smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginty, Annie T.; Jones, Alexander; Carroll, Douglas; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Phillips, Anna C.; Painter, Rebecca; de Rooij, Susanne R.

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have now examined the association between smoking and the magnitude of physiological reactions to acute psychological stress. However, no large-scale study has demonstrated this association incorporating neuroendocrine in addition to cardiovascular reactions to stress. The

  7. Evaluating the Impact of a Brief Artistic Intervention on Cardiovascular Recovery from Acute Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Katharina; Creaven, Ann-Marie

    2017-01-01

    In this study we tested whether drawing and coloring influence cardiovascular recovery and perceived stress following exposure to a stressor. In a mixed experimental design, participants (N = 62) completed an acute stress task before being randomly assigned to one of three brief activities: free-form drawing (full creative control), coloring…

  8. CT of acute gastrointestinal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittenberg, J.

    1991-01-01

    The application of computerized tomography in gastrointestinal tract diseases are presented, including advantages in surgical belly that are: anatomic clarity, wide survey and rapid performance. (C.G.C.)

  9. Psychocardiology - forgotten science in the service of cardiovascular disease prophylaxis

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    Paula Jankowska

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychocardiology is a science that combines an insight of biomedicine, psychology and sociology sciences. The goal of this discipline is to study the relationship between psychological profile, personality, social functioning and cardiovascular diseases (CVD. Low socio-economic status, deficiency of social support, stress in work environment and in family life, depression, anxiety as well as hostility are partly responsible for risk of developing CVD and a poor prognosis of CVD. In everyday practice of physician clinical interview should be used to identify these psychosocial risk factors. After identification of psychosocial problems multimodal behavioural interventions are recommended to implement in treatment process. They should involve health education, physical activity, psychological and pharmacological therapy and learning of techniques of coping with illness and unfavorable social circumstances. Psychosocial risk factors of cardiovascular diseases are not widely recognized as a cardiovascular risk factor in their own right. However, they contribute to deterioration of treatment adherence and annihilate attempts of lifestyle improving. The pronounced psychosocial aspects of cardiovascular diseases pathogenesis make health promotion in patients and whole population difficult. Thus, considered factors are ponderous public health problem.

  10. Implication of Oxidative Stress in Fetal Programming of Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Pilar; Ramiro-Cortijo, David; Reyes-Hernández, Cynthia G.; López de Pablo, Angel L.; González, M. Carmen; Arribas, Silvia M.

    2018-01-01

    Lifestyle and genetic background are well known risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). A third contributing factor is suboptimal fetal development, due to nutrient or oxygen deprivation, placental insufficiency, or exposure to toxic substances. The fetus adapts to adverse intrauterine conditions to ensure survival; the immediate consequence is low birth weight (LBW) and the long-term effect is an increased susceptibility to develop CVD in adult life. This process is known as Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) or fetal programming of CVD. The influence of fetal life for the future cardiovascular health of the individual has been evidenced by numerous epidemiologic studies in populations suffering from starvation during intrauterine life. Furthermore, experimental animal models have provided support and enabled exploring the underlying mechanisms. Oxidative stress seems to play a central role in fetal programming of CVD, both in the response of the feto-placental unit to the suboptimal intrauterine environment and in the alterations of physiologic systems of cardiovascular control, ultimately leading to disease. This review aims to summarize current knowledge on the alterations in oxidative balance in response to fetal stress factors covering two aspects. Firstly, the evidence from human studies of the implication of oxidative stress in LBW induced by suboptimal conditions during intrauterine life, emphasizing the role of the placenta. In the second part we summarize data on specific redox alterations in key cardiovascular control organs induced by exposure to known stress factors in experimental animals and discuss the emerging role of the mitochondria. PMID:29875698

  11. Impact of Diabetes on Cardiovascular Disease: An Update

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    Alessandra Saldanha de Mattos Matheus

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The proposed mechanisms that can link accelerated atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular risk in this population are poorly understood. It has been suggested that an association between hyperglycemia and intracellular metabolic changes can result in oxidative stress, low-grade inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Recently, epigenetic factors by different types of reactions are known to be responsible for the interaction between genes and environment and for this reason can also account for the association between diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The impact of clinical factors that may coexist with diabetes such as obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension are also discussed. Furthermore, evidence that justify screening for subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic patients is controversial and is also matter of this review. The purpose of this paper is to describe the association between poor glycemic control, oxidative stress, markers of insulin resistance, and of low-grade inflammation that have been suggested as putative factors linking diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  12. Knowledge Translation for Cardiovascular Disease Research and Management in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shommu, Nusrat S; Turin, Tanvir C

    2017-09-01

    Knowledge translation is an essential and emerging arena in healthcare research. It is the process of aiding the application of research knowledge into clinical practice or policymaking. Individuals at all levels of the health care system, including patients, healthcare professionals, and policymakers, are affected by the gaps that exist between research evidence and practice; the process of knowledge translation plays a role in bridging these gaps and incorporating high-quality clinical research into decision-making. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) management is a crucial area of healthcare where information gaps are known to exist. Although Japan has one of the lowest risks and mortality rates from CVDs, an increasing trend of cardiovascular incidence and changes in the risk factor conditions have been observed in recent years. This article provides an overview of knowledge translation and its importance in the cardiovascular health of the Japanese population, and describes the key steps of a typical knowledge translation strategy.

  13. Pharmacogenomics to Revive Drug Development in Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Marie-Pierre; de Denus, Simon; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2016-02-01

    Investment in cardiovascular drug development is on the decline as large cardiovascular outcomes trials require considerable investments in time, efforts and financial resources. Pharmacogenomics has the potential to help revive the cardiovascular drug development pipeline by providing new and better drug targets at an earlier stage and by enabling more efficient outcomes trials. This article will review some of the recent developments highlighting the value of pharmacogenomics for drug development. We discuss how genetic biomarkers can enable the conduct of more efficient clinical outcomes trials by enriching patient populations for good responders to the medication. In addition, we assess past drug development programs which support the added value of selecting drug targets that have established genetic evidence supporting the targeted mechanism of disease. Finally, we discuss how pharmacogenomics can provide valuable evidence linking a drug target to clinically relevant outcomes, enabling novel drug discovery and drug repositioning opportunities.

  14. Osteoprotegerin and mortality in hemodialysis patients with cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Simon; Christensen, Jeppe Hagstrup; Flyvbjerg, Allan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Patients treated with hemodialysis (HD) have an increased mortality, mainly caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD). Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a glycoprotein involved in the regulation of the vascular calcification process. Previous studies have demonstrated that OPG.......08; in the adjusted analyses, the p-value for trend was 0.03. CONCLUSIONS: In a high-risk population of hemodialysis patients with previously documented cardiovascular disease, a high level of OPG was an independent risk marker of all-cause mortality....... is a prognostic marker of mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate if OPG was a prognostic marker of all-cause mortality in high-risk patients with end-stage renal disease and CVD. METHODS: We prospectively followed 206 HD patients with CVD. OPG was measured at baseline and the patients were followed...

  15. Educational Attainment and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in the Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Gavurova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper devotes to the development analysis of cardiovascular disease mortality rate by sex, age, education, and leading causes of deaths during the period of 1996-2014 in the Slovak Republic. Survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard model were conducted to estimate the impact of sex and education level on the probability of death due to cardiovascular diseases at different age. According to our results, standardised mortality rates decreased by an average of 31.5% for both sexes. The leading causes of death were hearth failure and cardiomyopathy for persons under 30 years of age. The myocardial infarction, chronic ischemic heart disease and atherosclerosis were the most common causes of death for adults, as well as seniors. Women represented a lower level of hazard rate than men and primary education group reported the lowest level of hazard rate in comparison to the other education groups.

  16. Autophagy as a Therapeutic Target in Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemchenko, Andriy; Chiong, Mario; Turer, Aslan; Lavandero, Sergio; Hill, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    The epidemic of heart failure continues apace, and development of novel therapies with clinical efficacy has lagged. Now, important insights into the molecular circuitry of cardiovascular autophagy have raised the prospect that this cellular pathway of protein quality control may be a target of clinical relevance. Whereas basal levels of autophagy are required for cell survival, excessive levels – or perhaps distinct forms of autophagic flux – contribute to disease pathogenesis. Our challenge will be to distinguish mechanisms that drive adaptive versus maladaptive autophagy and to manipulate those pathways for therapeutic gain. Recent evidence suggests this may be possible. Here, we review the fundamental biology of autophagy and its role in a variety of forms of cardiovascular disease. We discuss ways in which this evolutionarily conserved catabolic mechanism can be manipulated, discuss studies presently underway in heart disease, and provide our perspective on where this exciting field may lead in the future. PMID:21723289

  17. Marital Status and Outcomes in Patients With Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, William M; Hayek, Salim S; Samman Tahhan, Ayman; Ko, Yi-An; Sandesara, Pratik; Awad, Mosaab; Mohammed, Kareem H; Patel, Keyur; Yuan, Michael; Zheng, Shuai; Topel, Matthew L; Hartsfield, Joy; Bhimani, Ravila; Varghese, Tina; Kim, Jonathan H; Shaw, Leslee; Wilson, Peter; Vaccarino, Viola; Quyyumi, Arshed A

    2017-12-20

    Being unmarried is associated with decreased survival in the general population. Whether married, divorced, separated, widowed, or never-married status affects outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease has not been well characterized. A prospective cohort (inception period 2003-2015) of 6051 patients (mean age 63 years, 64% male, 23% black) undergoing cardiac catheterization for suspected or confirmed coronary artery disease was followed for a median of 3.7 years (interquartile range: 1.7-6.7 years). Marital status was stratified as married (n=4088) versus unmarried (n=1963), which included those who were never married (n=451), divorced or separated (n=842), or widowed (n=670). The relationship between marital status and primary outcome of cardiovascular death and myocardial infarction was examined using Cox regression models adjusted for clinical characteristics. There were 1085 (18%) deaths from all causes, 688 (11%) cardiovascular-related deaths, and 272 (4.5%) incident myocardial infarction events. Compared with married participants, being unmarried was associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.47), cardiovascular death (HR: 1.45; 95% CI, 1.18-1.78), and cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction (HR: 1.52; 95% CI, 1.27-1.83). Compared with married participants, the increase in cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction was similar for the participants who were divorced or separated (HR: 1.41; 95% CI, 1.10-1.81), widowed (HR: 1.71; 95% CI, 1.32-2.20), or never married (HR: 1.40; 95% CI, 0.97-2.03). The findings persisted after adjustment for medications and other socioeconomic factors. Marital status is independently associated with cardiovascular outcomes in patients with or at high risk of cardiovascular disease, with higher mortality in the unmarried population. The mechanisms responsible for this increased risk require further study. © 2017 The Authors. Published on

  18. Vitamin, Mineral, and Multivitamin Supplements for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Multivitamin Supplements for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force ( ... and Multivitamin Supplements for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer. This final recommendation statement applies to ...

  19. On the Possible Link between Vitamin D Deficiency and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Possible Link Between Vitamin D Deficiency and Cardiovascular Disease Should We D-Lighten Our Lives? Pelle G. ... Individuals with heart failure, hypertension, stroke, and other cardiovascular diseases (CVD) tend to have lower vitamin D levels ...

  20. Association between cardiovascular diseases and mobility in persons with lower limb amputation : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, Sara; Geertzen, Jan H B; Dijkstra, Pieter U

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: Persons requiring a lower limb amputation often have cardiovascular diseases that reduce cardiac function, which may complicate recovery and rehabilitation after an amputation. This systematic review analysis the association between cardiovascular diseases and mobility in persons with a

  1. The role of neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) as biological constituent linking depression and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouweleeuw, Leonie; Naudé, Petrus; Rots, Marianne; de Jongste, Michel; Eisel, Ulrich; Schoemaker, Regina

    Depression is more common in patients with cardiovascular disease than in the general population. Conversely, depression is a risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease. Comorbidity of these two pathologies worsens prognosis. Several mechanisms have been indicated in the link between

  2. Cardiovascular parameters to assess the severity of acute pulmonary embolism with computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dian-Jiang Zhao; Da-Qing Ma; Wen He; Jian-Jun Wang; Yan Xu; Chun-Shuang Guan (Dept. of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical Univ., Beijing (China)), e-mail: madaqing@263.net

    2010-05-15

    Background: Computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has been established as a first-line test in the acute pulmonary embolism (APE) diagnostic algorithm, but the assessment of the severity of APE by this method remains to be explored. Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate right ventricular (RV) dysfunction and severity in patients with APE without underlying cardiopulmonary disease using helical computed tomography (CT). Material and Methods: Seventy-three patients (35 men and 38 women) were divided into two groups according to the clinical findings: severe APE (n=22) and non-severe APE (n=51). Pulmonary artery CT obstruction index was calculated according to the location and degree of clots in the pulmonary arteries. Cardiovascular parameters including RV short axis and left ventricular (LV) short axis, RV short axis to LV short axis (RV/LV) ratio, main pulmonary artery, azygous vein, and superior vena cava diameters were measured. Leftward bowing of the interventricular septum, reflux of contrast medium into the inferior vena cava and azygous vein, and bronchial artery dilatation were also recorded. The results were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test, x2 test, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az). Results: CT obstruction index in patients with severe APE (median 43%) was higher than that of patients with non-severe APE (median 20%). Comparison of cardiovascular parameters between patients with severe and non-severe pulmonary embolism showed significant differences in RV short axis, LV short axis, RV/LV ratio, RV wall thickness, main pulmonary artery diameter, azygous vein diameter, leftward bowing of the interventricular septum, and bronchial artery dilatation. The correlation between CT obstruction indexes and cardiovascular parameters was significant. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was highest between RV/LV ratio and CT obstruction index. Az values were

  3. Understanding the application of stem cell therapy in cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma RK

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rakesh K Sharma, Donald J Voelker, Roma Sharma, Hanumanth K ReddyUniversity of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Medical Center of South Arkansas, El Dorado, AR, USAAbstract: Throughout their lifetime, an individual may sustain many injuries and recover spontaneously over a period of time, without even realizing the injury in the first place. Wound healing occurs due to a proliferation of stem cells capable of restoring the injured tissue. The ability of adult stem cells to repair tissue is dependent upon the intrinsic ability of tissues to proliferate. The amazing capacity of embryonic stem cells to give rise to virtually any type of tissue has intensified the search for similar cell lineage in adults to treat various diseases including cardiovascular diseases. The ability to convert adult stem cells into pluripotent cells that resemble embryonic cells, and to transplant those in the desired organ for regenerative therapy is very attractive, and may offer the possibility of treating harmful disease-causing mutations. The race is on to find the best cells for treatment of cardiovascular disease. There is a need for the ideal stem cell, delivery strategies, myocardial retention, and time of administration in the ideal patient population. There are multiple modes of stem cell delivery to the heart with different cell retention rates that vary depending upon method and site of injection, such as intra coronary, intramyocardial or via coronary sinus. While there are crucial issues such as retention of stem cells, microvascular plugging, biodistribution, homing to myocardium, and various proapoptotic factors in the ischemic myocardium, the regenerative potential of stem cells offers an enormous impact on clinical applications in the management of cardiovascular diseases.Keywords: stem cell therapy, stem cell delivery, cardiovascular diseases, myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy

  4. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors in South Asians: A cause of concern for adult cardiovascular disease epidemic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Duggirala Sivaram; Kabir, Zubair; Dash, Ashok Kumar; Das, Bhagabati Charan

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors in children are increasing at an alarming rate in the western world. However, there is limited information regarding these in the South Asian children. This review attempts at summarizing such evidence. South Asians are remarkable for the earlier onset of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) by almost a decade compared to the Caucasians. We identified published literature, mainly on PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library using specific search terms such as lipid abnormalities, high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, tobacco use, obesity, physical inactivity, and unhealthy dietary practices. Atherosclerotic CVD processes begin early in childhood and are influenced over the life course by genetic and potentially modifiable risk factors and environmental exposure. 80% of adult CVD burden will fall on the developing nations by 2020. The concept of primordial prevention is fast emerging as a necessary prevention tool to curb adult CVD epidemic. Established guidelines and proven preventive strategies on cardiovascular health exist; however, are always implemented half-heartedly. Composite screening and prediction tools for adults can be adapted and validated in children tailored to South Asian population. South Asian children could be at a greater risk of developing cardiovascular risk factors at an earlier stage, thus, timely interventions are imperative

  5. Acute irradiation syndrome : radiation disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestries, J.C.; Multon, E.

    1995-01-01

    It is classically assumed that the symptomatology of the acute radiation syndrome is mainly due to stem and progenitor cells death in compartimentalized tissues, particularly in bone marrow and intestine. Our observations on baboons, irradiated with a mixed neutron/gamma or a gamma radiation, showed that the whole organism response plays a major role. There is an inflammatory syndrome, not only during the prodromal phase, but also a second one, that precedes and accompanies the manifest-illness phase. This inflammatory syndrome was associated with coagulation disorders which are largely responsible for bleeding. This syndrome makes the therapeutic approach more complicated since some cytokines, which could be able to improve the hematopoietic cells recovery (e.g. IL-6), exhibit pro-inflammatory activities as well. Regarding radiobiological triage, no biological marker has a prognosis value during the first days following a radiation exposure, for those individuals exposed to around a LD50. On the contrary, some inflammation markers allow to anticipate a fatal issue, without any treatment, as early as the beginning of the manifest-illness phase. (authors). 10 refs., 11 figs

  6. Cardiovascular coupling analysis with high-resolution joint symbolic dynamics in patients suffering from acute schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Steffen; Tupaika, Nadine; Voss, Andreas; Berger, Sandy; Bär, Karl-Jürgen; Haueisen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Besides the well-known cardiac risk factors for schizophrenia, increasing concerns have been raised regarding the cardiac side-effects of antipsychotic medications. A bivariate analysis of autonomic regulation, based on cardiovascular coupling, can provide additional information about heart rate (HR) and blood pressure regulatory patterns within the complex interactions of the cardiovascular system. We introduce a new high-resolution coupling analysis method (HRJSD) based on joint symbolic dynamics (JSD), which is characterized by three symbols, a threshold (individual dynamic variability, physiological) for time series transformation and eight coupling pattern families. This is based on a redundancy reduction strategy used to quantify and characterize cardiovascular couplings. In this study, short-term (30 min) HR and systolic blood pressure (SP) time series of 42 unmedicated (UNMED) and 42 medicated patients (MED) suffering from acute schizophrenia were analysed to establish the suitability of the new method for quantifying the effects of antipsychotics on cardiovascular couplings. We were able to demonstrate that HRJSD, applying the threshold based on spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) estimation, revealed eight significant pattern families that were able to quantify the anti-cholinergic effects of antipsychotics and the related changes of cardiovascular regulation (coupling) in MED in comparison to UNMED. This was in contrast to the simple JSD, BRS (sequence method) and only partly to standard linear HR variability indices. HRJSD provides strong evidence that autonomic regulation in MED seems to be, to some extent, predominated by invariable HR responses in combination with alternating SP values in contrast to UNMED, indicating an impairment of the baroreflex control feedback loop in MED. Surrogate data analysis was applied to test for the significance and nonlinearity of cardiovascular couplings in the original data due to medical treatment with

  7. [The strategy and process of out-hospital emergency care of acute cardiovascular events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gang; Wu, Li-e; Li, Qian-ying; Yang, Ye; Wang, Zi-chao; Zhang, Jing-yin; Li, Shu-jun; Yan, Xu-long; Wang, Ming; Zhang, Wen-xiang; Huang, Guan-hua

    2009-06-01

    To study the strategy and process of out-hospital emergency care of acute cardiovascular events. One hundred and eighty-three patients in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Baotou Medical College were prospectively studied. The patients were divided into two groups according to the different ways of out-hospital care, one group consisted of patients who received first-aid care after calling "120" (94 cases), another was self-aid group consisting of patients sent to hospital by relatives (89 cases). The proportion of persons with higher than high school education and better knowledge for emergency care of patients with heart disease in first-aid group was higher than self-aid group (50.0% vs. 29.2%, 83.0% vs. 60.7%, both Pemergency room, they were all treated according to our standard procedure and then registered. All patients were followed up at the end of first and third month after illness. Cardiovascular events were mainly myocardial infarction (61.7%) among 183 patients. There were statistically significant differences between two groups in self-aid response time, first disposal time and out-hospital rescuing time [(32.3+/-5.6) minutes vs. (89.6+/- 8.4) minutes, (47.3+/-7.3) minutes vs. (149.8+/-13.5) minutes, (61.7+/-8.3) minutes vs. [(149.8+/- 13.5) minutes, all P0.05]. Morbidity rate was lower in first-aid group than self-aid group in 1st and 3rd month, respectively (2.1% vs. 9.0%, 4.2% vs. 12.4%, both Pemergency system and procedure can shorten initial disposal time and out-hospital rescuing time, thus improve patients' prognosis. The education level and health knowledge of patients and their relatives directly affect their mode of arriving hospital and prognosis.

  8. Adipocytokines, C-reactive protein, and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seven, Ekim; Husemoen, Lise L N; Sehested, Thomas S G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Being overweight or obese is associated with a greater risk of coronary heart disease and stroke compared with normal weight. The role of the specific adipose tissue-derived substances, called adipocytokines, in overweight- and obesity-related cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still...... defined a composite outcome comprising of the first event of fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease and fatal and nonfatal stroke. RESULTS: During the follow-up period, 453 composite CV outcomes occurred among participants with complete datasets. In models, including gender, age, smoking status...

  9. Sexual dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases: a systematic review of prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Rodrigues Nascimento

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature regarding the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular diseases. An article search of the ISI Web of Science and PubMed databases using the search terms "sexual dysfunction”, “cardiovascular diseases”, “coronary artery disease", “myocardial infarct" and “prevalence” was performed. In total, 893 references were found. Non-English-language and repeated references were excluded. After an abstract analysis, 91 references were included for full-text reading, and 24 articles that evaluated sexual function using validated instruments were selected for this review. This research was conducted in October 2012, and no time restrictions were placed on any of the database searches. Reviews and theoretical articles were excluded; only clinical trials and epidemiological studies were selected for this review. The studies were mostly cross-sectional, observational and case-control in nature; other studies used prospective cohort or randomized clinical designs. In women, all domains of sexual function (desire, arousal, vaginal lubrication, orgasm, sexual dissatisfaction and pain were affected. The domains prevalent in men included erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation and orgasm. Sexual dysfunction was related to the severity of cardiovascular disease. When they resumed sexual activity, patients with heart disease reported significant difficulty, including a lack of interest in sex, sexual dissatisfaction and a decrease in the frequency of sexual activity.

  10. Emerging issues in radiogenic cataracts and cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Nobuyuki; Fujimichi, Yuki; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Nomura, Takaharu; Fujii, Noriko; Furuhashi, Masato; Kubo, Eri; Minamino, Tohru; Sato, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection issued a statement on tissue reactions (formerly termed non-stochastic or deterministic effects) to recommend lowering the threshold for cataracts and the occupational equivalent dose limit for the crystalline lens of the eye. Furthermore, this statement was the first to list circulatory disease (cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease) as a health hazard of radiation exposure and to assign its threshold for the heart and brain. These changes have stimulated various discussions and may have impacts on some radiation workers, such as those in the medical sector. This paper considers emerging issues associated with cataracts and cardiovascular disease. For cataracts, topics dealt with herein include (1) the progressive nature, stochastic nature, target cells and trigger events of lens opacification, (2) roles of lens protein denaturation, oxidative stress, calcium ions, tumor suppressors and DNA repair factors in cataractogenesis, (3) dose rate effect, radiation weighting factor, and classification systems for cataracts, and (4) estimation of the lens dose in clinical settings. Topics for cardiovascular disease include experimental animal models, relevant surrogate markers, latency period, target tissues, and roles of inflammation and cellular senescence. Future research needs are also discussed. (author)

  11. Modificación de conocimientos en cardiópatas sobre rehabilitación cardiovascular Modification to knowledge of cardiovascular rehabilitation in heart disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arelis Guerra Santana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló una intervención educativa para modificar conocimientos sobre rehabilitación cardiovascular, dada la alta prevalencia de pacientes con enfermedades del corazón: angina de pecho, infarto del miocardio agudo y cardiopatía hipertensiva. El estudio se efectuó en el Policlínico de Especialidades "Saturnino Lora" de Santiago de Cuba desde enero hasta junio de 2010 e incluyó a 20 trabajadores con alguna de las mencionadas cardiopatías. A los efectos se evaluaron las siguientes variables: concepto de rehabilitación cardiovascular, factores de riesgo, afecciones cardiovasculares más frecuentes, influencia del ejercicio físico y tratamiento. La estrategia didáctica aplicada logró modificar positivamente los conocimientos sobre el tema, lo cual fue comprobado 8 semanas después de realizado ese tipo de capacitación sobre una materia de salud tan importante.An educational intervention was performed to modify the knowledge of cardiovascular rehabilitation because of high prevalence of patients with heart diseases: angina pectoris, acute myocardial infarction and hypertensive heart disease. The study was carried out at "Saturnino Lora" Polyclinic of Specialties in Santiago de Cuba from January to June 2010 and included 20 workers with some of the above heart diseases. With this purpose the following variables were evaluated: concept of cardiovascular rehabilitation, risk factors, more frequent cardiovascular diseases, and influence of the physical exercise and treatment. The teaching strategy was able to positively modify the knowledge of the topic, which was checked 8 weeks after having completed this training on a very important health subject.

  12. Cardiovascular disease prediction: do pulmonary disease-related chest CT features have added value?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jairam, Pushpa M.; Jong, Pim A. de; Mali, Willem P.T.M.; Isgum, Ivana; Graaf, Yolanda van der

    2015-01-01

    Certain pulmonary diseases are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore we investigated the incremental predictive value of pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural features over cardiovascular imaging findings. A total of 10,410 patients underwent diagnostic chest CT for non-cardiovascular indications. Using a case-cohort approach, we visually graded CTs from the cases and from an approximately 10 % random sample of the baseline cohort (n = 1,203) for cardiovascular, pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural findings. The incremental value of pulmonary disease-related CT findings above cardiovascular imaging findings in cardiovascular event risk prediction was quantified by comparing discrimination and reclassification. During a mean follow-up of 3.7 years (max. 7.0 years), 1,148 CVD events (cases) were identified. Addition of pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural features to a cardiovascular imaging findings-based prediction model led to marginal improvement of discrimination (increase in c-index from 0.72 (95 % CI 0.71-0.74) to 0.74 (95 % CI 0.72-0.75)) and reclassification measures (net reclassification index 6.5 % (p < 0.01)). Pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural features have limited predictive value in the identification of subjects at high risk of CVD events beyond cardiovascular findings on diagnostic chest CT scans. (orig.)

  13. Cardiovascular disease prediction: do pulmonary disease-related chest CT features have added value?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jairam, Pushpa M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Jong, Pim A. de; Mali, Willem P.T.M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Isgum, Ivana [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands); Graaf, Yolanda van der [University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands); Collaboration: PROVIDI study-group

    2015-06-01

    Certain pulmonary diseases are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore we investigated the incremental predictive value of pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural features over cardiovascular imaging findings. A total of 10,410 patients underwent diagnostic chest CT for non-cardiovascular indications. Using a case-cohort approach, we visually graded CTs from the cases and from an approximately 10 % random sample of the baseline cohort (n = 1,203) for cardiovascular, pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural findings. The incremental value of pulmonary disease-related CT findings above cardiovascular imaging findings in cardiovascular event risk prediction was quantified by comparing discrimination and reclassification. During a mean follow-up of 3.7 years (max. 7.0 years), 1,148 CVD events (cases) were identified. Addition of pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural features to a cardiovascular imaging findings-based prediction model led to marginal improvement of discrimination (increase in c-index from 0.72 (95 % CI 0.71-0.74) to 0.74 (95 % CI 0.72-0.75)) and reclassification measures (net reclassification index 6.5 % (p < 0.01)). Pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural features have limited predictive value in the identification of subjects at high risk of CVD events beyond cardiovascular findings on diagnostic chest CT scans. (orig.)

  14. IgG4-related cardiovascular disease. The emerging role of cardiovascular imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavrogeni, Sophie, E-mail: soma13@otenet.gr; Markousis-Mavrogenis, George; Kolovou, Genovefa

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Assessment of serum IgG4 levels and involved organ biopsy are necessary for diagnosis of IgG4-related disease. • CV involvement may manifest as cardiac pseudotumors, inflammatory periaortitis, coronary arteritis and/or pericarditis. • Echocardiography and vascular ultrasound are the most commonly used non-invasive, non-radiating imaging techniques. • CT can assess periarteritis and coronary artery aneurysms, while 18FDG-PET shows FDG uptake at the area of the lesion. • CMR offers an integrated imaging of CV system, including assessment of disease acuity, extent of fibrosis and can guide further treatment. - Abstract: Immunoglobulin 4-related disease (IgG4-related disease) is a systemic inflammatory disease that presents with increases of serum IgG4. It may affect various systems, including the cardiovascular (CV) system. Assessment of serum IgG4 levels and involved organ biopsy are necessary for diagnosis. IgG4-related disease is characterized by fibrosclerosis, lymphocytic infiltration and presence of IgG4-positive plasma cells. The disease usually responds to treatment with corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressive medication. CV involvement may manifest as cardiac pseudotumors, inflammatory periaortitis, coronary arteritis and/or pericarditis. IgG4-related cardiovascular disorders can severely affect patient prognosis. Various imaging techniques, including echocardiography, Computed Tomography (CT), 18FDG-PET, Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) and cardiac catheterisation, have been successfully used for early disease detection and follow-up. Echocardiography and vascular ultrasound are the most commonly used non-invasive, non-radiating imaging techniques for the evaluation of IgG4-related CV disease. Periaortitis/periarteritis can be also assessed by CT, showing a soft tissue thickening around arteries. Coronary artery aneurysms can be easily diagnosed by coronary CT. In case of active periarterial or coronary artery inflammation, 18

  15. IgG4-related cardiovascular disease. The emerging role of cardiovascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavrogeni, Sophie; Markousis-Mavrogenis, George; Kolovou, Genovefa

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Assessment of serum IgG4 levels and involved organ biopsy are necessary for diagnosis of IgG4-related disease. • CV involvement may manifest as cardiac pseudotumors, inflammatory periaortitis, coronary arteritis and/or pericarditis. • Echocardiography and vascular ultrasound are the most commonly used non-invasive, non-radiating imaging techniques. • CT can assess periarteritis and coronary artery aneurysms, while 18FDG-PET shows FDG uptake at the area of the lesion. • CMR offers an integrated imaging of CV system, including assessment of disease acuity, extent of fibrosis and can guide further treatment. - Abstract: Immunoglobulin 4-related disease (IgG4-related disease) is a systemic inflammatory disease that presents with increases of serum IgG4. It may affect various systems, including the cardiovascular (CV) system. Assessment of serum IgG4 levels and involved organ biopsy are necessary for diagnosis. IgG4-related disease is characterized by fibrosclerosis, lymphocytic infiltration and presence of IgG4-positive plasma cells. The disease usually responds to treatment with corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressive medication. CV involvement may manifest as cardiac pseudotumors, inflammatory periaortitis, coronary arteritis and/or pericarditis. IgG4-related cardiovascular disorders can severely affect patient prognosis. Various imaging techniques, including echocardiography, Computed Tomography (CT), 18FDG-PET, Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) and cardiac catheterisation, have been successfully used for early disease detection and follow-up. Echocardiography and vascular ultrasound are the most commonly used non-invasive, non-radiating imaging techniques for the evaluation of IgG4-related CV disease. Periaortitis/periarteritis can be also assessed by CT, showing a soft tissue thickening around arteries. Coronary artery aneurysms can be easily diagnosed by coronary CT. In case of active periarterial or coronary artery inflammation, 18

  16. Abnormal ankle brachial indices may predict cardiovascular disease among diabetic patients without known heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Jeffrey J; Hopkins, Christie B; Hall, Patrick Ax

    2005-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the primary cause of diabetes-associated morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have failed to provide accurate, inexpensive, screening techniques to detect cardiovascular disease in diabetics. Ankle brachial indices (ABI) testing may be an effective screening technique for diabetics. The aim of this 100-subject clinical study was to determine cardiovascular disease prevalence, via perfusion stress testing, in diabetic patients having abnormal ABI (<0.90) and without known heart disease who were referred to the South Carolina Heart Center, Columbia, SC for nuclear perfusion stress testing. Study data were analyzed using frequency and descriptive statistics and 2-sample T-testing. Mean subject age was 62+/-11 years, ABI 0.76+/-13, and ejection fraction 60+/-12%. Perfusion stress testing detected 49 abnormal electrocardiograms, 36 subjects with coronary ischemia, 20 with diminished left ventricular function, and 26 subjects having significant thinning of the myocardium. There were 71 subjects who tested positive for at least one form of cardiovascular disease. The sole predictive variable reaching significance for the presence of cardiovascular disease was an ABI score <0.90 (p< or =0.0001). Cardiovascular disease may be predicted among diabetic patients via ABI scores and confirmed by nuclear perfusion testing.

  17. ACUTE CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS OF FIREFIGHTING AND ACTIVE COOLING DURING REHABILITATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Jefferey L.; Duncan, Michael D.; Hu, Chengcheng; Littau, Sally R.; Caseman, Delayne; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; Davis-Gorman, Grace; McDonagh, Paul F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the cardiovascular and hemostatic effects of fire suppression and post-exposure active cooling. Methods Forty-four firefighters were evaluated prior to and after a 12 minute live-fire drill. Next, 50 firefighters undergoing the same drill were randomized to post-fire forearm immersion in 10°C water or standard rehabilitation. Results In the first study, heart rate and core body temperature increased and serum C-reactive protein decreased but there were no significant changes in fibrinogen, sE-selectin or sL-selectin. The second study demonstrated an increase in blood coagulability, leukocyte count, factors VIII and X, cortisol and glucose, and a decrease in plasminogen and sP-selectin. Active cooling reduced mean core temperature, heart rate and leukocyte count. Conclusions Live-fire exposure increased core temperature, heart rate, coagulability and leukocyte count; all except coagulability were reduced by active cooling. PMID:23090161

  18. Digital subtraction angiography in the assessment of cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, D.P.; Boxt, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is a new radiographic method for evaluating the cardiovascular system. It represents another in a continuing series of computer-assisted diagnostic imaging modalities. The advantages of this technique are its relatively noninvasive nature combined with diagnostically acceptable angiographic images of a variety of cardiovascular structures. Major clinical applications of DSA include its use in imaging of localized regions of peripheral arterial disease and as a screening procedure in evaluating extracranial carotid and vertebral artery disease and renovascular hypertension. Cardiac applications of DSA include assessment of ventricular function, recognition and quantification of intracardiac shunts, visualization of coronary artery bypass grafts, and the study of complex congenital cardiac malformations. Digital subtraction angiography may also be used to evaluate intracranial aneurysms and vascular tumors

  19. Quantifying cardiovascular disease risk factors in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I M; Skaaby, T; Ellervik, C

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a previous meta-analysis on categorical data we found an association between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the level of cardiovascular disease risk factors in order to provide additional data for the clinical management...... of the increased risk. METHODS: This was a meta-analysis of observational studies with continuous outcome using random-effects statistics. A systematic search of studies published before 25 October 2012 was conducted using the databases Medline, EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, PASCAL and BIOSIS......·65 mmol L(-1) )] and a higher HbA1c [1·09 mmol mol(-1) , 95% CI 0·87-1·31, P controls are significant, and therefore relevant to the clinical management of patients with psoriasis....

  20. Mobile Monitoring and Reasoning Methods to Prevent Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego López-de-Ipiña

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With the recent technological advances, it is possible to monitor vital signs using Bluetooth-enabled biometric mobile devices such as smartphones, tablets or electric wristbands. In this manuscript, we present a system to estimate the risk of cardiovascular diseases in Ambient Assisted Living environments. Cardiovascular disease risk is obtained from the monitoring of the blood pressure by means of mobile devices in combination with other clinical factors, and applying reasoning techniques based on the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation Project charts. We have developed an end-to-end software application for patients and physicians and a rule-based reasoning engine. We have also proposed a conceptual module to integrate recommendations to patients in their daily activities based on information proactively inferred through reasoning techniques and context-awareness. To evaluate the platform, we carried out usability experiments and performance benchmarks.

  1. Big biomedical data and cardiovascular disease research: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denaxas, Spiros C; Morley, Katherine I

    2015-07-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs), data generated and collected during normal clinical care, are increasingly being linked and used for translational cardiovascular disease research. Electronic health record data can be structured (e.g. coded diagnoses) or unstructured (e.g. clinical notes) and increasingly encapsulate medical imaging, genomic and patient-generated information. Large-scale EHR linkages enable researchers to conduct high-resolution observational and interventional clinical research at an unprecedented scale. A significant amount of preparatory work and research, however, is required to identify, obtain, and transform raw EHR data into research-ready variables that can be statistically analysed. This study critically reviews the opportunities and challenges that EHR data present in the field of cardiovascular disease clinical research and provides a series of recommendations for advancing and facilitating EHR research.

  2. Nanotechnology and stem cell therapy for cardiovascular diseases: potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Francesca, Saverio

    2012-01-01

    The use of stem cell therapy for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases has generated significant interest in recent years. Limitations to the clinical application of this therapy center on issues of stem cell delivery, engraftment, and fate. Nanotechnology-based cell labeling and imaging techniques facilitate stem cell tracking and engraftment studies. Nanotechnology also brings exciting new opportunities to translational stem cell research as it enables the controlled engineering of nanoparticles and nanomaterials that can properly relate to the physical scale of cell-cell and cell-niche interactions. This review summarizes the most relevant potential applications of nanoscale technologies to the field of stem cell therapy for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  3. Periodontitis, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease: A Bermuda Triangle

    OpenAIRE

    Teeuw, W.J.

    2017-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis contributes to the understanding of the complex relationship between periodontitis and diabetes mellitus (DM), and periodontitis and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD). It was observed that a substantial number of suspected new DM patients could be found in patients with periodontitis. Furthermore, periodontitis patients showed increased C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and more arterial stiffness compared to controls, reflecting an increased at...

  4. Cardiovascular diseases in Ghana within the context of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofori-Asenso, Richard; Garcia, Daireen

    2016-02-01

    This paper discusses how globalization and its elements are influencing health dynamics and in particular Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in Ghana. It assesses the growing burden of CVDs and its relationship with globalization. It further describes the conceptual framework on which to view the impact of globalization on CVDs in Ghana. It also set out the dimensions of the relationship between CVD risk factors and globalization. The paper concludes with a discussion on strategies for tackling the growing burden of CVDs in Ghana.

  5. Functional Food and Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Treatment: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Sedigheh; Rastqar, Ali; Keshvari, Mahtab

    2018-03-12

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is now the leading cause of death globally and is a growing health concern. Lifestyle factors, including nutrition, play an important role in the etiology and treatment of CVD. Functional foods based on their basic nutritional functions can decrease the risk of many chronic diseases and have some physiological benefits. They contain physiologically active components either from plant or animal sources, marketed with the claim of their ability to reduce heart disease risk, focusing primarily on established risk factors, which are hyperlipidemia, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity/overweight, elevated lipoprotein A level, small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and elevated inflammatory marker levels. Functional foods are suspected to exert their cardioprotective effects mainly through blood lipid profile level and improve hypertension control, endothelial function, platelet aggregation, and antioxidant actions. Clinical and epidemiological observations indicate that vegetable and fruit fiber, nuts and seeds, sea foods, coffee, tea, and dark chocolate have cardioprotective potential in humans, as well whole-grain products containing intact grain kernels rich in fiber and trace nutrients. They are nutritionally more important because they contain phytoprotective substances that might work synergistically to reduce cardiovascular risk. This review will focus on the reciprocal interaction between functional foods and the potential link to cardiovascular health and the possible mechanisms of action.

  6. Nutrition and Cardiovascular Disease: Finding the Perfect Recipe for Cardiovascular Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Ravera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD despite the progress in management entails the need of more effective preventive and curative strategies. As dietary-associated risk is the most important behavioral factor influencing global health, it appears the best target in the challenge against CVD. Although for many years, since the formulation of the cholesterol hypothesis, a nutrient-based approach was attempted for CVD prevention and treatment, in recent years a dietary-based approach resulted more effective in reducing cardiovascular risk worldwide. After the publication of randomized trials on the remarkable effects of the Mediterranean diet and the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH diet on CVD, new efforts were put on research about the effects of complex dietary interventions on CVD. The purpose of this paper is to review the evidence on dietary interventions in the prevention and disease modification of CVD, focusing on coronary artery disease and heart failure, the main disease responsible for the enormous toll taken by CVD worldwide.

  7. Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease: a Risk Factor or a Risk Marker?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandviwala, Taher; Khalid, Umair; Deswal, Anita

    2016-05-01

    In the USA, 69 % of adults are either overweight or obese and 35 % are obese. Obesity is associated with an increased incidence of various cardiovascular disorders. Obesity is a risk marker for cardiovascular disease, in that it is associated with a much higher prevalence of comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome, which then increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. However, in addition, obesity may also be an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, although obesity has been shown to be an independent risk factor for several cardiovascular diseases, it is often associated with improved survival once the diagnosis of the cardiovascular disease has been made, leading to the term "obesity paradox." Several pathways linking obesity and cardiovascular disease have been described. In this review, we attempt to summarize the complex relationship between obesity and cardiovascular disorders, in particular coronary atherosclerosis, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation.

  8. Dysregulation of Histone Acetyltransferases and Deacetylases in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide despite advances in its prevention and management. A comprehensive understanding of factors which contribute to CVD is required in order to develop more effective treatment options. Dysregulation of epigenetic posttranscriptional modifications of histones in chromatin is thought to be associated with the pathology of many disease models, including CVD. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs and deacetylases (HDACs are regulators of histone lysine acetylation. Recent studies have implicated a fundamental role of reversible protein acetylation in the regulation of CVDs such as hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, diabetic cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease, arrhythmia, and heart failure. This reversible acetylation is governed by enzymes that HATs add or HDACs remove acetyl groups respectively. New evidence has revealed that histone acetylation regulators blunt cardiovascular and related disease states in certain cellular processes including myocyte hypertrophy, apoptosis, fibrosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. The accumulating evidence of the detrimental role of histone acetylation in cardiac disease combined with the cardioprotective role of histone acetylation regulators suggests that the use of histone acetylation regulators may serve as a novel approach to treating the millions of patients afflicted by cardiac diseases worldwide.

  9. Estimating cardiovascular disease incidence from prevalence: a spreadsheet based model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Feng Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disease incidence and prevalence are both core indicators of population health. Incidence is generally not as readily accessible as prevalence. Cohort studies and electronic health record systems are two major way to estimate disease incidence. The former is time-consuming and expensive; the latter is not available in most developing countries. Alternatively, mathematical models could be used to estimate disease incidence from prevalence. Methods We proposed and validated a method to estimate the age-standardized incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD, with prevalence data from successive surveys and mortality data from empirical studies. Hallett’s method designed for estimating HIV infections in Africa was modified to estimate the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI in the U.S. population and incidence of heart disease in the Canadian population. Results Model-derived estimates were in close agreement with observed incidence from cohort studies and population surveillance systems. This method correctly captured the trend in incidence given sufficient waves of cross-sectional surveys. The estimated MI declining rate in the U.S. population was in accordance with the literature. This method was superior to closed cohort, in terms of the estimating trend of population cardiovascular disease incidence. Conclusion It is possible to estimate CVD incidence accurately at the population level from cross-sectional prevalence data. This method has the potential to be used for age- and sex- specific incidence estimates, or to be expanded to other chronic conditions.

  10. Validity of coronary heart diseases and heart failure based on hospital discharge and mortality data in the Netherlands using the cardiovascular registry Maastricht cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merry, A.H.; Boer, J.M.; Schouten, L.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Verschuren, W.M.; Gorgels, A.P.; Brandt, van den P.A.

    2009-01-01

    Incidence rates of cardiovascular diseases are often estimated by linkage to hospital discharge and mortality registries. The validity depends on the quality of the registries and the linkage. Therefore, we validated incidence rates of coronary heart disease (CHD), acute myocardial infarction,

  11. An Overview of NASA's Risk of Cardiovascular Disease from Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Zarana S.; Huff, Janice L.; Simonsen, Lisa C.

    2015-01-01

    The association between high doses of radiation exposure and cardiovascular damage is well established. Patients that have undergone radiotherapy for primary cancers of the head and neck and mediastinal regions have shown increased risk of heart and vascular damage and long-term development of radiation-induced heart disease [1]. In addition, recent meta-analyses of epidemiological data from atomic bomb survivors and nuclear industry workers has also shown that acute and chronic radiation exposures is strongly correlated with an increased risk of circulatory disease at doses above 0.5 Sv [2]. However, these analyses are confounded for lower doses by lifestyle factors, such as drinking, smoking, and obesity. The types of radiation found in the space environment are significantly more damaging than those found on Earth and include galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), solar particle events (SPEs), and trapped protons and electrons. In addition to the low-LET data, only a few studies have examined the effects of heavy ion radiation on atherosclerosis, and at lower, space-relevant doses, the association between exposure and cardiovascular pathology is more varied and unclear. Understanding the qualitative differences in biological responses produced by GCR compared to Earth-based radiation is a major focus of space radiation research and is imperative for accurate risk assessment for long duration space missions. Other knowledge gaps for the risk of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease include the existence of a dose threshold, low dose rate effects, and potential synergies with other spaceflight stressors. The Space Radiation Program Element within NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is managing the research and risk mitigation strategies for these knowledge gaps. In this presentation, we will review the evidence and present an overview of the HRP Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Other Degenerative Tissue Effects from Radiation Exposure.

  12. Hospital Admission for Respiratory and Cardiovascular Diseases Due to Particulate Matter in Ilam, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryanoosh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter lower than 10 µm (PM10 has the most undesired adverse effects on human health. Several studies reported a strong correlation between PM levels and hospital admissions owing to chronic and acute respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Objectives The current study aimed to estimate the effect of PM10 as a primary pollutant on respiratory and cardiovascular hospitalizations in Ilam, Iran, in 2013. Methods PM10 data was taken from the Ilam environmental protection agency. The annual morbidity including hospital admission for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases due to PM10 exposure were estimated using relative risk (RR and baseline incidence (BI based on world health organization (WHO databases for AirQ2.2.3 model. Results The results showed that the maximum level of PM10 was obtained in summer with a concentration of 491 μg/m3. The cumulative number of excess cases admitted to the hospital for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases were 216 and 84, respectively. Approximately 3.95% of the cases hospitalized due to PM10 occurred during days with concentration levels lower than 20 μg/m3. The highest rate of person-days related to PM10 that led to heath effect among Ahvaz inhabitants was in concentration levels of 40 - 49 µg/m3. Conclusions To reduce the impacts of particulate matter on health status of people in Ilam, necessary training by health systems should be conducted for people, especially those with chronic lung and heart diseases, the elderly and children to reduce their activities on the dusty days.

  13. Outline of the report on cardiovascular disease in China, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Sheng Shou; Kong, Ling Zhi; Gao, Run Lin; Zhu, Man Lu; Wang, Wen; Wang, Yong Jun; Wu, Zhao Su; Chen, Wei Wei; Liu, Ming Bo

    2012-06-01

    Major and profound changes have taken place in China over the past 30 years. Rapid socioeconomic progress has exerted a great impact on lifestyle, ranging from food, clothing, working and living conditions, and means of transportation to leisure activities and entertainment. At the same time, new health problems have emerged, and health services are facing new challenges. Presently, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are among the top health problems of the Chinese people, and pose a serious challenge to all engaged in the prevention and control of these diseases. An epidemic of CVD in China is emerging as a result of lifestyle changes, urbanization and longevity. Both national policy decision-making and medical practice urgently need an authoritative report which comprehensively reflects the trends in the epidemic of CVD and current preventive measures. Since 2005, guided by the Bureau of Disease Prevention of the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China and the National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases of China, nationwide experts in the fields of epidemiology, clinical medicine and health economics in the realms of CVD, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease, completed the Report on Cardiovascular Diseases in China every year. The report aims to provide a timely review of the trend of the epidemic and to assess the progress of prevention and control of CVD. In addition, as the report is authoritative, representative and readable, it will become an information platform in the CVD field and an important reference book for government, academic institutes, medical organizations and clinical physicians. This publication is expected to play a positive role in the prevention and control of CVD in China. We present an abstract from the Report on Cardiovascular Diseases in China (2010), including trends in CVD, morbidity and mortality of major CVDs, up-to-date assessment of risk factors, as well as health resources for CVD, and a profile of

  14. Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2016-01-01

    Scientific interest in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins has fluctuated over the past many years, ranging from beliefs that these lipoproteins cause atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) to being innocent bystanders. Correspondingly, clinical recommendations have fluctuated from a need.......1-fold for myocardial infarction, 3.2-fold for ischemic heart disease, 3.2-fold for ischemic stroke, and 2.2-fold for all-cause mortality. Also, genetic studies using the Mendelian randomization design, an approach that minimizes problems with confounding and reverse causation, now demonstrate...

  15. Management of cardiovascular disease in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Skov, Lone

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Patients with psoriasis have an increased incidence and prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, and CV undertreatment in these patients is a well-established problem. The link between psoriasis and CV disease is present on a pathogenic level, as well as due to modifiable...... lifestyle factors such as smoking and alcohol abuse. AREAS COVERED: In this manuscript we describe the evidence associating psoriasis with CV disease, as well as the pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of CV risk factors including the CV effects of anti-psoriatic therapy and vice versa. EXPERT...

  16. Fetal growth and later maternal death, cardiovascular disease and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jacob A; Paidas, Michael J; Triche, Elizabeth W

    2012-01-01

    Low birthweight of the offspring has been associated with increased risk of early death and ischemic heart disease in the mother. However, other measurements of fetal growth than the basic birthweight are more accurate. We investigated the relation between the standardized birthweight by gestatio......Low birthweight of the offspring has been associated with increased risk of early death and ischemic heart disease in the mother. However, other measurements of fetal growth than the basic birthweight are more accurate. We investigated the relation between the standardized birthweight...... by gestational age and gender and the ponderal index and the mother's subsequent mortality and cardiovascular morbidity....

  17. [Effect of fats on cardiovascular disease prevention in Denmark].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrup, Arne; Larsen, Mogens Lytken; Stender, Steen; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2014-05-05

    In Denmark death from cardiovascular disease (CVD) has decreased, mainly due to a 72% reduction since 1990 in death from ischaemic heart disease from reduced smoking, elimination of industrial trans fatty acids in the diet, and more effective medical treatment. Replacement of saturated fat by carbohydrate and/or n-6 polyunsaturated fat may increase CVD, but it is reduced by substitution with n-3 fats, monounsaturated fat, or low glycaemic index carbohydrates. Despite a high saturated fat content dark chocolate and cheese may reduce CVD and diabetes risk and eggs may be neutral, and less restrictive dietary recommendations are indicated.

  18. Automatic Heart Sound Analysis for Cardiovascular Disease Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Ciências e Tecnologias da Informação, apresentada ao Departamento de Engenharia Informática da Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the most deadly diseases worldwide leaving behind diabetes and cancer. Being connected to ageing population above 65 years is prone to CVDs; hence a new trend of healthcare is emerging focusing on preventive health care in order to reduce the number of hospital visits and to en...

  19. Improving clinical trials for cardiovascular diseases: a position paper from the Cardiovascular Round Table of the European Society of Cardiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, Neville; Atar, Dan; Borentain, Maria; Breithardt, Günter; van Eickels, Martin; Endres, Matthias; Fraass, Uwe; Friede, Tim; Hannachi, Hakima; Janmohamed, Salim; Kreuzer, Jörg; Landray, Martin; Lautsch, Dominik; Le Floch, Chantal; Mol, Peter; Naci, Huseyin; Samani, Nilesh J.; Svensson, Anders; Thorstensen, Cathrine; Tijssen, Jan; Vandzhura, Victoria; Zalewski, Andrew; Kirchhof, Paulus

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of mortality and morbidity in the world, but the pharmaceutical industry's willingness to invest in this field has declined because of the many challenges involved with bringing new cardiovascular drugs to market, including late-stage failures,

  20. Improving clinical trials for cardiovascular diseases : a position paper from the Cardiovascular Round Table of the European Society of Cardiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, Neville; Atar, Dan; Borentain, Maria; Breithardt, Guenter; van Eickels, Martin; Endres, Matthias; Fraass, Uwe; Friede, Tim; Hannachi, Hakima; Janmohamed, Salim; Kreuzer, Joerg; Landray, Martin; Lautsch, Dominik; Le Floch, Chantal; Mol, Peter; Naci, Huseyin; Samani, Nilesh J.; Svensson, Anders; Thorstensen, Cathrine; Tijssen, Jan; Vandzhura, Victoria; Zalewski, Andrew; Kirchhof, Paulus

    2016-01-01

    Aims Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of mortality and morbidity in the world, but the pharmaceutical industry's willingness to invest in this field has declined because of the many challenges involved with bringing new cardiovascular drugs to market, including late-stage failures,

  1. Two cases of Kawasaki disease presented with acute febrile jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaman, Ayşe; Aydın-Teke, Türkan; Gayretli-Aydın, Zeynep Gökçe; Öz, Fatma Nur; Metin-Akcan, Özge; Eriş, Deniz; Tanır, Gönül

    2017-01-01

    Kawasaki disease is an acute, systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology. Although gastrointestinal involvement does not belong to the classic diagnostic criteria; diarrhea, abdominal pain, hepatic dysfunction, hydrops of gallbladder, and acute febrile cholestatic jaundice are reported in patients with Kawasaki disease. We describe here two cases presented with fever, and acute jaundice as initial features of Kawasaki disease.

  2. Improved Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes in Older Adults [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E. Forman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Longevity is increasing and the population of older adults is growing. The biology of aging is conducive to cardiovascular disease (CVD, such that prevalence of coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease, arrhythmia and other disorders are increasing as more adults survive into old age.  Furthermore, CVD in older adults is distinctive, with management issues predictably complicated by multimorbidity, polypharmacy, frailty and other complexities of care that increase management risks (e.g., bleeding, falls, and rehospitalization and uncertainty of outcomes.  In this review, state-of-the-art advances in heart failure, acute coronary syndromes, transcatheter aortic valve replacement, atrial fibrillation, amyloidosis, and CVD prevention are discussed.  Conceptual benefits of treatments are considered in relation to the challenges and ambiguities inherent in their application to older patients.

  3. Cardiovascular Disease Susceptibility and Resistance in Circumpolar Inuit Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvermosegaard, Maria; Dahl-Petersen, Inger K; Nielsen, Nina Odgaard; Bjerregaard, Peter; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2015-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major public health issue in indigenous populations in the Arctic. These diseases have emerged concomitantly with profound social changes over the past 60 years. The aim of this study was to summarize the literature on CVD risk among Arctic Inuit. Literature on prevalence, incidence, and time trends for CVD and its risk factors in Arctic Inuit populations was reviewed. Most evidence supports a similar incidence of coronary heart disease and a higher incidence of cerebrovascular disease among Arctic Inuit than seen in western populations. Factors that may increase CVD risk include aging of the population, genetic susceptibility, and a rapid increase in obesity, diabetes, and hypertension in parallel with decreasing physical activity and deterioration of the lipid profile. In contrast, and of great importance, there has been a decrease in smoking and alcohol intake (at least documented in Greenland), and contaminant levels are declining. Although there have been marked socioeconomic and dietary changes, it remains unsolved and to some extent controversial how this may have influenced cardiovascular risk among Arctic Inuit. The increase in life expectancy, in combination with improved prognosis for patients with manifest CVD, will inevitably lead to a large increase in absolute numbers of individuals affected by CVD in Arctic Inuit populations, exacerbated by the rise in most CVD risk factors over the past decades. For preventive purposes and for health care planning, it is crucial to carefully monitor disease incidence and trends in risk factors in these vulnerable Arctic populations. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. PHB in Cardiovascular and Other Diseases: Present Knowledge and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Debabrata; Kumar, Dinesh; Sarma, Pranjal; Tangutur, Anjana Devi; Bhadra, Manika Pal

    2017-11-30

    Prohibitin (PHB) is overtly conserved evolutionarily and ubiquitously expressed protein with pleiotropic functions in diverse cellular compartments. However, regulation and function of these proteins in different cells, tissues and in various diseases is different as evidenced by expression of these proteins which is found to be reduced in heart diseases, kidney diseases, lung disease, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis but this protein is highly expressed in diverse cancers. The mechanism by which this protein acts at the molecular level in different subcellular localizations or in different cells or tissues in different conditions (diseases or normal) has remained poorly understood. There are several studies reported to understand and decipher PHB's role in diseases and/or cancers of ovary, lung, stomach, thyroid, liver, blood, prostrate, gastric, esophagus, glioma, breast, bladder etc. where PHB is shown to act through mechanisms by acting as oncogene, tumor suppressor, antioxidant, antiapoptotic, in angiogenesis, autophagy etc. This review specifically gives attention to the functional role and regulatory mechanism of PHB proteins in cardiovascular health and diseases and its associated implications. Various molecular pathways involved in PHB function and its regulation are analyzed. PHB is rapidly emerging as a critical target molecule for cardiovascular signaling. Progress in delineating CVD and mechanisms of PHB in diverse molecular pathways is essential for determining when and how PHB targeted therapy might be feasible. In this regard, new therapies targeting PHB may best be applied in the future together with molecular profiling of CVD for clinical stratification of disease diagnosis and prognosis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Endothelial Progenitor Cells for Diagnosis and Prognosis in Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Oriana Aragona

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify, evaluate, and synthesize evidence on the predictive power of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs in cardiovascular disease, through a systematic review of quantitative studies. Data Sources. MEDLINE was searched using keywords related to “endothelial progenitor cells” and “endothelium” and, for the different categories, respectively, “smoking”; “blood pressure”; “diabetes mellitus” or “insulin resistance”; “dyslipidemia”; “aging” or “elderly”; “angina pectoris” or “myocardial infarction”; “stroke” or “cerebrovascular disease”; “homocysteine”; “C-reactive protein”; “vitamin D”. Study Selection. Database hits were evaluated against explicit inclusion criteria. From 927 database hits, 43 quantitative studies were included. Data Syntheses. EPC count has been suggested for cardiovascular risk estimation in the clinical practice, since it is currently accepted that EPCs can work as proangiogenic support cells, maintaining their importance as regenerative/reparative potential, and also as prognostic markers. Conclusions. EPCs showed an important role in identifying cardiovascular risk conditions, and to suggest their evaluation as predictor of outcomes appears to be reasonable in different defined clinical settings. Due to their capability of proliferation, circulation, and the development of functional progeny, great interest has been directed to therapeutic use of progenitor cells in atherosclerotic diseases. This trial is registered with registration number: Prospero CRD42015023717.

  6. Wine, Beer, Alcohol and Polyphenols on Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Arranz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Since ancient times, people have attributed a variety of health benefits to moderate consumption of fermented beverages such as wine and beer, often without any scientific basis. There is evidence that excessive or binge alcohol consumption is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as well as with work related and traffic accidents. On the contrary, at the moment, several epidemiological studies have suggested that moderate consumption of alcohol reduces overall mortality, mainly from coronary diseases. However, there are discrepancies regarding the specific effects of different types of beverages (wine, beer and spirits on the cardiovascular system and cancer, and also whether the possible protective effects of alcoholic beverages are due to their alcoholic content (ethanol or to their non-alcoholic components (mainly polyphenols. Epidemiological and clinical studies have pointed out that regular and moderate wine consumption (one to two glasses a day is associated with decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD, hypertension, diabetes, and certain types of cancer, including colon, basal cell, ovarian, and prostate carcinoma. Moderate beer consumption has also been associated with these effects, but to a lesser degree, probably because of beer’s lower phenolic content. These health benefits have mainly been attributed to an increase in antioxidant capacity, changes in lipid profiles, and the anti-inflammatory effects produced by these alcoholic beverages. This review summarizes the main protective effects on the cardiovascular system and cancer resulting from moderate wine and beer intake due mainly to their common components, alcohol and polyphenols.

  7. Wine, Beer, Alcohol and Polyphenols on Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arranz, Sara; Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Valderas-Martínez, Palmira; Medina-Remón, Alex; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M.; Estruch, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Since ancient times, people have attributed a variety of health benefits to moderate consumption of fermented beverages such as wine and beer, often without any scientific basis. There is evidence that excessive or binge alcohol consumption is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as well as with work related and traffic accidents. On the contrary, at the moment, several epidemiological studies have suggested that moderate consumption of alcohol reduces overall mortality, mainly from coronary diseases. However, there are discrepancies regarding the specific effects of different types of beverages (wine, beer and spirits) on the cardiovascular system and cancer, and also whether the possible protective effects of alcoholic beverages are due to their alcoholic content (ethanol) or to their non-alcoholic components (mainly polyphenols). Epidemiological and clinical studies have pointed out that regular and moderate wine consumption (one to two glasses a day) is associated with decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension, diabetes, and certain types of cancer, including colon, basal cell, ovarian, and prostate carcinoma. Moderate beer consumption has also been associated with these effects, but to a lesser degree, probably because of beer’s lower phenolic content. These health benefits have mainly been attributed to an increase in antioxidant capacity, changes in lipid profiles, and the anti-inflammatory effects produced by these alcoholic beverages. This review summarizes the main protective effects on the cardiovascular system and cancer resulting from moderate wine and beer intake due mainly to their common components, alcohol and polyphenols. PMID:22852062

  8. Mental Health, Cardiovascular Disease and Declining Economies in British Columbia Mining Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis Shandro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between community-level exposure to changes in economic conditions and the incidence and prevalence of mental disorders and cardiovascular disease in 29 resource-based communities (with a focus on mining communities in British Columbia (BC during a period of time marked by an economic downturn (1991–2002 The investigation relied on Labour Force Survey (LFS and Statistics Canada Census data, and health records from the British Columbia Ministry of Health (MoH. Age and sex adjusted prevalence and incidence rates were calculated for each community from 1991 to 2002 and the development of an economic change indicator defined using Census data and industry/government documents allowed for yearly assessment of community-level exposure to economic conditions. The relationship between exposure to economic change and rates of acute and chronic cardiovascular disease and mental disorders across the 29 study communities was investigated using a generalized linear model (stratified by type of community, and adjusted for the effect of the community. Findings indicate an impact on the prevalence rates for acute cardiovascular disease (CVD during periods of economic decline (rate increased by 13.1 cases per 1,000 population, p < 0.0001 as compared with stable periods and bust conditions (rate increased by 30.1 cases per 1,000 population, p < 0.0001 as compared with stable conditions and mental disorders (rate increased by 13.2 cases per 1,000 population, p = 0.0001 in mining communities during declining economic conditions as compared to steady periods of mining employment. This is not observed in other resource-based communities. The paper concludes by highlighting implications for the mining industry to consider as they begin to recognize and commit to mining community health.

  9. Relationship between occupational stress and cardiovascular diseases risk factors in drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglari, Hamed; Ebrahimi, Mohammad Hossein; Salehi, Maryam; Poursadeghiyan, Mohsen; Ahmadnezhad, Iman; Abbasi, Milad

    2016-11-18

    Of all work stressors, occupational stress is the leading cause of many disorders among workers. Drivers are classified as a high risk group for work related stress. This study set out to determine the relationship between risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and occupational stress among drivers. Two hundred and twenty two Ilam's intercity drivers were selected for the study. For measuring work stress, the Osipow work stress questionnaire was used. After a 10-h fasting period, systolic and diastolic blood pressure was recorded. Intravenous blood samples were taken to determine cholesterol, triglyceride and blood glucose levels. The independent samples t-test and Pearson's correlation test were used to assess the relationship between variables and occupational stress. Seventy-one percent of the intercity drivers suffered from average to acute stress, and 3.1% of them suffered from acute stress. There was no significant relationship between occupational stress and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.254) among the drivers. Nevertheless, the Pearson's correlation test demonstrated a strong relationship between work stress and blood glucose (p stress were observed in the Ilam's intercity drivers. Occupational stress may have effect on blood glucose levels but the results did not suggest a considerable relationship between risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and occupational stress among intercity drivers. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6):895-901. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  10. Rivaroxaban with or without aspirin in stable cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eikelboom, John W; Connolly, Stuart J; Bosch, Jackie

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We evaluated whether rivaroxaban alone or in combination with aspirin would be more effective than aspirin alone for secondary cardiovascular prevention. METHODS: In this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 27,395 participants with stable atherosclerotic vascular disease to receive...... rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) plus aspirin (100 mg once daily), rivaroxaban (5 mg twice daily), or aspirin (100 mg once daily). The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death, stroke, or myocardial infarction. The study was stopped for superiority of the rivaroxaban-plus-aspirin group after...... a mean follow-up of 23 months. RESULTS: The primary outcome occurred in fewer patients in the rivaroxaban-plus-aspirin group than in the aspirin-alone group (379 patients [4.1%] vs. 496 patients [5.4%]; hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 0.86; P

  11. Beta-Adrenergic gene therapy for cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koch Walter J

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gene therapy using in vivo recombinant adenovirus-mediated gene transfer is an effective technique that offers great potential to improve existing drug treatments for the complex cardiovascular diseases of heart failure and vascular smooth muscle intimal hyperplasia. Cardiac-specific adenovirus-mediated transfer of the carboxyl-terminus of the β-adrenergic receptor kinase (βARKct, acting as a Gβγ-β-adrenergic receptor kinase (βARK1 inhibitor, improves basal and agonist-induced cardiac performance in both normal and failing rabbit hearts. In addition, βARKct adenovirus infection of vascular smooth muscle is capable of significantly diminishing neointimal proliferation after angioplasty. Therefore, further investigation is warranted to determine whether inhibition of βARK1 activity and sequestration of Gβγ via an adenovirus that encodes the βARKct transgene might be a useful clinical tool for the treatment of cardiovascular pathologies.

  12. Mediterranean diet recommended not only in cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Chudzińska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet is characterized by high consumption of vegetables, fruits,  cereals, nuts, olive oil (rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, fish (rich in Omega - 3 fatty acids and moderate consumption of dry red wine. The positive impact of the diet on life expectancy and cardiovascular disease has been widely discussed, but further studies prove that it is also beneficial in supporting treatment of other civilization diseases such as diabetes, obesity, cancer, infertility and neurodegenerative or autoimmune diseases. Although certain studies on the effects of the Mediterranean diet still require further action, they undoubtedly give hope that the proper nutrition can have a significant impact on the prevention and treatment of civilization diseases.

  13. Pediatric Blood Pressure and Adult Preclinical Markers of Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnussen, Costan G.; Smith, Kylie J.

    2016-01-01

    A high blood pressure level in adults is considered the single most important modifiable risk factor for global disease burden, especially those of cardiovascular (CV) origin such as stroke and ischemic heart disease. Because blood pressure levels have been shown to persist from childhood to adulthood, elevations in pediatric levels have been hypothesized to lead to increased CV burden in adulthood and, as such, might provide a window in the life course where primordial and primary prevention could be focused. In the absence of substantive data directly linking childhood blood pressure levels to overt adult CV disease, this review outlines the available literature that examines the association between pediatric blood pressure and adult preclinical markers of CV disease. PMID:27168729

  14. Insights into the human gut microbiome and cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumalya Sarkar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbiome comprises all of the genetic materials within a microbiota. This can also be referred to as the metagenome of the microbiota. Dysbiosis, a change in the composition of the gut microbiota, has been associated with pathology, including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs. The recently discovered contribution of gut microbiota-derived molecules in the development of heart disease and its risk factors has significantly increased attention toward the connection between our gut and heart. The gut microbiome is virtually an endocrine organ, capable of contributing to and reacting to circulating signaling molecules within the host. Gut microbiota-host interactions occur through many pathways, including trimethylamine-N-oxide and short-chain fatty acids. These molecules and others have been linked to chronic kidney disease, atherosclerosis, and hypertension. Dysbiosis has been implicated in CVD as well as many aspects of obesity, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes.

  15. Pre-operative Functional Cardiovascular Reserve Is Associated with Acute Kidney Injury after Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saratzis, A; Shakespeare, J; Jones, O; Bown, M J; Mahmood, A; Imray, C H E

    2017-05-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication after endovascular intervention, associated with poor short and long-term outcomes. However, the mechanisms underlying AKI development remain poorly understood. The impact of pre-existing cardiovascular disease and low cardiovascular reserve (CVR) in AKI is unclear; it remains unknown whether AKI is primarily related to pre-existing comorbidity or to procedural parameters. The association between CVR and AKI after EVAR was therefore assessed. This is a case control study. From a database of 484 patients, 292 undergoing elective endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in two tertiary centres were included. Of these, 73 patients who had developed AKI after EVAR were case matched, based on pre-operative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; within 5 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ) and age, with patients who had not developed AKI. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) was used to assess CVR using the anaerobic threshold (AT). Development of AKI was defined using the Kidney Disease Improving Outcomes (KDIGO) guidance. Associations between CVR (based on AT levels) and AKI development were then analysed. Pre-operative AT levels were significantly different between those who did and did not develop AKI (12.1±2.9 SD vs. 14.8±3.0 mL/min/kg, p < .001). In multivariate analysis, a higher level of AT (per 1 mL/min/kg) was associated with a lower odds ratio (OR) of 0.72 (95% CI, 0.63-0.82, p < .001), relative to AKI development. A pre-operative AT level of < 11 mL/min/kg was associated with post-operative AKI development in adjusted analysis, with an OR of 7.8 (95% CI, 3.75-16.51, p < .001). The area under the curve (receiver operating characteristic) for AT as a predictor of post-operative AKI was 0.81 (standard error, 0.06, 95% CI, 0.69-0.93, p < .001). Poor CVR was strongly associated with the development of AKI. This provides pathophysiological insights into the

  16. Effects of Stressor Controllability on Acute Stress Responses: Cardiovascular, Neuroendocrine, and Immune Responses

    OpenAIRE

    磯和, 勅子; Isowa, Tokiko

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the effects of controllability over acute stressors on psychological and physiological responses intermediated by immune, cardiovascular, neuroendocrine systems. The effects of stressor controllability have been examined in animal studies based on the learned helplessness theory. However, there were few studies in human. Especially, there were remarkably few studies that examined the effects of stressor controllability on immunological system. In addition, result...

  17. Geographic and Perceived Healthcare Access Equity among Patients with Acute Cardiovascular Event in China

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Xiaoguang; Tang, Wenxi; Gan, Da; Lin, Jie; Zhang, Lichao; Guo, Huilan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In acute cardiovascular event (ACE) such as stroke and myocardial infarction, access to comprehensive, timely, and quality healthcare services was critical for receiving appropriate treatment and improving prognosis. However, due to significant disparities on distribution of healthcare resources, allocating the limited resources to regions and population in needs was a key challenge for China. This study aimed to evaluate both geographic and perceived healthcare access of ACE pa...

  18. Rivaroxaban with or without Aspirin in Stable Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikelboom, John W; Connolly, Stuart J; Bosch, Jackie; Dagenais, Gilles R; Hart, Robert G; Shestakovska, Olga; Diaz, Rafael; Alings, Marco; Lonn, Eva M; Anand, Sonia S; Widimsky, Petr; Hori, Masatsugu; Avezum, Alvaro; Piegas, Leopoldo S; Branch, Kelley R H; Probstfield, Jeffrey; Bhatt, Deepak L; Zhu, Jun; Liang, Yan; Maggioni, Aldo P; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; O'Donnell, Martin; Kakkar, Ajay K; Fox, Keith A A; Parkhomenko, Alexander N; Ertl, Georg; Störk, Stefan; Keltai, Matyas; Ryden, Lars; Pogosova, Nana; Dans, Antonio L; Lanas, Fernando; Commerford, Patrick J; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Guzik, Tomek J; Verhamme, Peter B; Vinereanu, Dragos; Kim, Jae-Hyung; Tonkin, Andrew M; Lewis, Basil S; Felix, Camilo; Yusoff, Khalid; Steg, P Gabriel; Metsarinne, Kaj P; Cook Bruns, Nancy; Misselwitz, Frank; Chen, Edmond; Leong, Darryl; Yusuf, Salim

    2017-10-05

    We evaluated whether rivaroxaban alone or in combination with aspirin would be more effective than aspirin alone for secondary cardiovascular prevention. In this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 27,395 participants with stable atherosclerotic vascular disease to receive rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) plus aspirin (100 mg once daily), rivaroxaban (5 mg twice daily), or aspirin (100 mg once daily). The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death, stroke, or myocardial infarction. The study was stopped for superiority of the rivaroxaban-plus-aspirin group after a mean follow-up of 23 months. The primary outcome occurred in fewer patients in the rivaroxaban-plus-aspirin group than in the aspirin-alone group (379 patients [4.1%] vs. 496 patients [5.4%]; hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 0.86; Paspirin group (288 patients [3.1%] vs. 170 patients [1.9%]; hazard ratio, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.40 to 2.05; Paspirin group as compared with 378 (4.1%) in the aspirin-alone group (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.96; P=0.01; threshold P value for significance, 0.0025). The primary outcome did not occur in significantly fewer patients in the rivaroxaban-alone group than in the aspirin-alone group, but major bleeding events occurred in more patients in the rivaroxaban-alone group. Among patients with stable atherosclerotic vascular disease, those assigned to rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) plus aspirin had better cardiovascular outcomes and more major bleeding events than those assigned to aspirin alone. Rivaroxaban (5 mg twice daily) alone did not result in better cardiovascular outcomes than aspirin alone and resulted in more major bleeding events. (Funded by Bayer; COMPASS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01776424 .).

  19. Beriberi cardiovascular agudo (Shoshin-Beriberi Acute cardiovascular beriberi (shoshin-beriberi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo D. López Gastón

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available El beriberi, la deficiencia de tiamina (B1, fue referido en el siglo XVII en la literatura asiática, y pue de manifestarse por síntomas neurológicos (beriberi «seco» donde la neuropatía periférica y la debilidad muscular son los más destacados y/o síntomas cardiovasculares (beriberi «húmedo», con una variante «clásica» donde es predominante la insuficiencia cardíaca derecha con índice cardíaco (IC normal o alto y otra aguda o «shoshin-beriberi», caracterizada por insuficiencia biventricular, acidosis láctica e IC variable y que sin tratamiento precoz evoluciona al colapso vascular y la muerte. Se presenta una paciente de 58 años y antecedente de enolismo, con disnea, oliguria, sígnos de fallo cardíaco biventricular con patrón hiperdinámico, acidosis metabólica, disfunción tubular renal y lactacidemia de 5.6 mEq/L. El exámen neurológico mostró una polineuropatía sensitiva, simétrica y distal en MMII y deterioro cognitivo con sígnos frontales. Horas después de la administración de 100 mg de tiamina ev. se observó una manifiesta mejoría de los valores hemodinámicos y el estado ácido-base. Se concluye que si bien el beriberi cardiovascular agudo es de presentación infrecuente hay consenso en que además es subdiagnosticado. La presencia de acidosis láctica o cuadro de insuficiencia cardíaca de alto volumen minuto sin etiología manifiesta, en pacientes con riesgo de deficiencia de B1, es suficiente para hacer la prueba terapéutica.Beriberi (BB, thiamine deficiency, has been described in the Asian literature in the 17th century and is characterized by peripheral neuropathy and muscle weakness, also called «dry» beriberi (BB to differentiate it from «wet» BB, with essentially cardiovascular manifestations. Wet can be either «classic» wet BB in which signs and symptons of right-sided heart failure with normal or high cardiac output are the presenting features or the «shoshin» BB variant with severe

  20. Association of Peripheral Arterial and Cardiovascular Diseases in Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Carolina; Miname, Marcio; Makdisse, Marcia; Kalil, Roberto Filho; Santos, Raul D.

    2014-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by an elevation in the serum levels of total cholesterol and of low-density lipoproteins (LDL- c). Known to be closely related to the atherosclerotic process, FH can determine the development of early obstructive lesions in different arterial beds. In this context, FH has also been proposed to be a risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). This observational cross-sectional study assessed the association of PAD with other manifestations of cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as coronary artery and cerebrovascular disease, in patients with heterozygous FH. The diagnosis of PAD was established by ankle-brachial index (ABI) values ≤ 0.90. This study assessed 202 patients (35% of men) with heterozygous FH (90.6% with LDL receptor mutations), mean age of 51 ± 14 years and total cholesterol levels of 342 ± 86 mg /dL. The prevalences of PAD and previous CVD were 17% and 28.2 %, respectively. On multivariate analysis, an independent association between CVD and the diagnosis of PAD was observed (OR = 2.50; 95% CI: 1.004 - 6.230; p = 0.049). Systematic screening for PAD by use of ABI is feasible to assess patients with FH, and it might indicate an increased risk for CVD. However, further studies are required to determine the role of ABI as a tool to assess the cardiovascular risk of those patients

  1. Association of Peripheral Arterial and Cardiovascular Diseases in Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Pereira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH is an autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by an elevation in the serum levels of total cholesterol and of low-density lipoproteins (LDL- c. Known to be closely related to the atherosclerotic process, FH can determine the development of early obstructive lesions in different arterial beds. In this context, FH has also been proposed to be a risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD. Objective: This observational cross-sectional study assessed the association of PAD with other manifestations of cardiovascular disease (CVD, such as coronary artery and cerebrovascular disease, in patients with heterozygous FH. Methods: The diagnosis of PAD was established by ankle-brachial index (ABI values ≤ 0.90. This study assessed 202 patients (35% of men with heterozygous FH (90.6% with LDL receptor mutations, mean age of 51 ± 14 years and total cholesterol levels of 342 ± 86 mg /dL. Results: The prevalences of PAD and previous CVD were 17% and 28.2 %, respectively. On multivariate analysis, an independent association between CVD and the diagnosis of PAD was observed (OR = 2.50; 95% CI: 1.004 - 6.230; p = 0.049. Conclusion: Systematic screening for PAD by use of ABI is feasible to assess patients with FH, and it might indicate an increased risk for CVD. However, further studies are required to determine the role of ABI as a tool to assess the cardiovascular risk of those patients.

  2. Association of Peripheral Arterial and Cardiovascular Diseases in Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Carolina [Instituto do Coração HCFMUSP, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Miname, Marcio [Instituto do Coração HCFMUSP, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Makdisse, Marcia [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kalil, Roberto Filho [Instituto do Coração HCFMUSP, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santos, Raul D., E-mail: rdsf@cardiol.br [Instituto do Coração HCFMUSP, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by an elevation in the serum levels of total cholesterol and of low-density lipoproteins (LDL- c). Known to be closely related to the atherosclerotic process, FH can determine the development of early obstructive lesions in different arterial beds. In this context, FH has also been proposed to be a risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). This observational cross-sectional study assessed the association of PAD with other manifestations of cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as coronary artery and cerebrovascular disease, in patients with heterozygous FH. The diagnosis of PAD was established by ankle-brachial index (ABI) values ≤ 0.90. This study assessed 202 patients (35% of men) with heterozygous FH (90.6% with LDL receptor mutations), mean age of 51 ± 14 years and total cholesterol levels of 342 ± 86 mg /dL. The prevalences of PAD and previous CVD were 17% and 28.2 %, respectively. On multivariate analysis, an independent association between CVD and the diagnosis of PAD was observed (OR = 2.50; 95% CI: 1.004 - 6.230; p = 0.049). Systematic screening for PAD by use of ABI is feasible to assess patients with FH, and it might indicate an increased risk for CVD. However, further studies are required to determine the role of ABI as a tool to assess the cardiovascular risk of those patients.

  3. Role of Adipokines in Atherosclerosis: Interferences with Cardiovascular Complications in Rheumatic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotece, Morena; Conde, Javier; Gómez, Rodolfo; López, Verónica; Pino, Jesús; González, Antonio; Lago, Francisca; Gómez-Reino, Juan J.; Gualillo, Oreste

    2012-01-01

    Patients with rheumatic diseases have an increased risk of mortality by cardiovascular events. In fact, several rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and ankylosing spondylitis are associated with a higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Although traditional cardiovascular risk factors have been involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases in rheumatic patients, these alterations do not completely explain the enhanced cardiovascular risk in this population. Obesity and its pathologic alteration of fat mass and dysfunction, due to an altered pattern of secretion of proinflammatory adipokines, could be one of the links between cardiovascular and rheumatic diseases. Indeed, the incidence of CVDs is augmented in obese individuals with rheumatic disorders. Thus, in this paper we explore in detail the relationships among adipokines, rheumatic diseases, and cardiovascular complications by giving to the reader a holistic vision and several suggestions for future perspectives and potential clinical implications. PMID:22910888

  4. Acute Myocardial Infarction: The First Manifestation of Ischemic Heart Disease and Relation to Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfroi Waldomiro Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between cardiovascular risk factors and acute myocardial infarction as the first manifestation of ischemic heart disease, correlating them with coronary angiographic findings. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional study of 104 patients with previous acute myocardial infarction, who were divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of angina prior to acute myocardial infarction. We assessed the presence of angina preceding acute myocardial infarction and risk factors, such as age >55 years, male sex, smoking, systemic arterial hypertension, lipid profile, diabetes mellitus, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and familial history of ischemic heart disease. On coronary angiography, the severity of coronary heart disease and presence of left ventricular hypertrophy were assessed. RESULTS: Of the 104 patients studied, 72.1% were males, 90.4% were white, 73.1% were older than 55 years, and 53.8% were hypertensive. Acute myocardial infarction was the first manifestation of ischemic heart disease in 49% of the patients. The associated risk factors were systemic arterial hypertension (RR=0.19; 95% CI=0.06-0.59; P=0.04 and left ventricular hypertrophy (RR=0.27; 95% CI=0,.8-0.88; P=0.03. The remaining risk factors were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of acute myocardial infarction as the first manifestation of ischemic heart disease is high, approximately 50%. Hypertensive individuals more frequently have symptoms preceding acute myocardial infarction, probably due to ventricular hypertrophy associated with high blood pressure levels.

  5. Factors of health in the protection against death and cardiovascular disease among adults with subclinical atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    While cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention traditionally emphasizes risk-factor control, recent evidence also supports the promotion of "health-factors" associated with cardiovascular wellness. However, whether such health-factors exist among adults with advanced subclinical atherosclerosis is un...

  6. Effect of high-intensity training on endothelial function in patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmos, Mia; Krawcyk, Rikke Steen; Kruuse, Christina

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Exercise improves endothelial dysfunction, the key manifestation of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, and is recommended in both cardiovascular and cerebrovascular rehabilitation. Disagreement remains, however, on the role of intensity of exercise. The purpose of this review...

  7. Associations between life stress and subclinical cardiovascular disease are partly mediated by depressive and anxiety symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bomhof-Roordink, Hanna; Seldenrijk, Adrie; van Hout, Hein P. J.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; Diamant, Michaela; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Background: Stress experienced during childhood or adulthood has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but it is not clear whether associations are already prevalent on a subclinical cardiovascular level. This study investigates associations between indicators of life stress and

  8. [Gender and cardiovascular diseases : Why we need gender medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regitz-Zagrosek, V

    2017-04-01

    Gender medicine is concerned with the question of why diseases are expressed differently in the genders. It takes differences between men and women into account, which are often neglected by traditional medicine. Sex differences can also be found in cardiovascular diseases; therefore, risk factors for cardiovascular diseases have a different significance depending on the sex. Diabetic diseases tend to promote the occurrence of coronary heart disease (CHD) more strongly in women than in men. Myocardial infarctions affect women 10 years later than men and young women are often treated too late, possibly because myocardial infarction is consider to be a "male disease". The number of cases of coronary syndrome is significantly increasing, particularly in young women. Some of the diseases which predominantly occur in women are takotsubo cardiomyopathy, microcirculation disorders and spontaneous coronary artery dissection. Pharmacological treatment of CHD is principally the same in men and women but attention must be paid to differences in the pharmacokinetics of important drugs. Coronary dilatation has comparable effects in both men and women but more complications occur in women. Cardiac failure with impaired left ventricular systolic function affects more men than women in the Western world but the opposite is true for cardiac failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. Hypertrophic and dilatative cardiomyopathies are more frequent in men. Many of the drugs used to treat cardiac failure have different actions in men and women. Too little attention is paid to the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in women when testing active agents; however, awareness of the differences that need to be considered is growing.

  9. Cardiovascular risk prediction in chronic kidney disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Cedeño Mora

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: The cardiovascular risk scores (FRS-CVD and ASCVD [AHA/ACC 2013] can estimate the probability of atherosclerotic cardiovascular events in patients with CKD regardless of renal function, albuminuria and previous cardiovascular events.

  10. Exercise for prevention of cardiovascular disease: Evidence-based recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geevar Zachariah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sedentary lifestyle is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD. In India, a large percentage of the people are physically inactive with fewer than 10% engaging in recreational physical activity. Physical activity has many beneficial effects on the risk factors for CVD. Apart from improving fitness level, it decreases myocardial oxygen demand and improves myocardial perfusion. There is an inverse association between physical activity and all-cause mortality. In primary prevention, physical inactivity is associated with a two-fold increase in the risk for coronary events. In secondary prevention, data confirm the existence of an inverse dose–response relationship between cardiovascular fitness and the all-cause mortality in large populations of cardiovascular patients. Guidelines from the American authorities as well as the European Society of Cardiology provide specific recommendations for exercise depending on the clinical setting (primary or secondary prevention of CVD and the patient-specific factors (the patient's physical activity level and the perceived CVD risk. The present review summarizes the clinical evidence regarding the role of exercise in CVD prevention and the exercise recommendations from the leading Cardiac societies.

  11. Effectiveness of Screening Postmenopausal Women for Cardiovascular Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Marie; Søgaard, Rikke; Frost, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effectiveness of systematic screening for multifaceted cardiovascular disease (CVD) in postmenopausal women on all cause mortality and, secondarily, on CVD morbidity. Effectiveness was also evaluated across age strata. Methods: This was a population based, prospective...... were retrieved from national registries for both groups. The screening included examination for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), peripheral arterial disease (PAD), carotid plaque (CP), potential hypertension (HT), atrial fibrillation (AF), diabetes mellitus (DM), and dyslipidaemia. The adjusted Cox.......89 (95% CI 0.71–1.12); myocardial infarction (MI), 1.26 (95% CI 0.52–3.07); ischaemic heart disease (IHD), 0.72 (95% CI 0.49–1.05); PAD, 1.07 (95% CI 0.49–2.31); and ischaemic stroke, 1.20 (95% CI 0.78–1.85). A substantial number of women with AAA, PAD, and/or CP declined prophylactic therapy: 45...

  12. A role for collagen IV in cardiovascular disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Lasse Bach; Rasmussen, Lars M

    2018-01-01

    Over the past decade, studies have repeatedly found single nucleotide polymorphisms located in the COL4A1 and COL4A2 genes to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), and the 13q34 locus harboring these genes is one of approximately 160 genome-wide significant risk loci for coronary artery...... disease. COL4A1 and COL4A2 encode the ⍺1- and ⍺2-chains of collagen IV, a major component of basement membranes in various tissues including arteries. In spite of the growing body of evidence indicating a role for collagen IV in CVD, remarkably few studies aim at directly investigating such a role....... The purpose of this review is to summarize the clinical reports linking 13q34 to coronary artery disease, atherosclerosis and artery stiffening and to assemble the scattered pieces of evidence from experimental studies based on vascular cells and -tissue collectively supporting a role for collagen IV...

  13. Developmental plasticity and epigenetic mechanisms underpinning metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Felicia M; Gluckman, Peter D; Hanson, Mark A

    2011-06-01

    The importance of developmental factors in influencing the risk of later-life disease has a strong evidence base derived from multiple epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies in animals and humans. During early life, an organism is able to adjust its phenotypic development in response to environmental cues. Such developmentally plastic responses evolved as a fitness-maximizing strategy to cope with variable environments. There are now increasing data that these responses are, at least partially, underpinned by epigenetic mechanisms. A mismatch between the early and later-life environments may lead to inappropriate early life-course epigenomic changes that manifest in later life as increased vulnerability to disease. There is also growing evidence for the transgenerational transmission of epigenetic marks. This article reviews the evidence that susceptibility to metabolic and cardiovascular disease in humans is linked to changes in epigenetic marks induced by early-life environmental cues, and discusses the clinical, public health and therapeutic implications that arise.

  14. Natriuretic peptides and integrated risk assessment for cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willeit, Peter; Kaptoge, S; Welsh, P.

    2016-01-01

    samples and collection of data from studies identified through a systematic search of the literature (PubMed, Scientific Citation Index Expanded, and Embase) for articles published up to Sept 4, 2014, using search terms related to natriuretic peptide family members and the primary outcomes......BACKGROUND: Guidelines for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases focus on prediction of coronary heart disease and stroke. We assessed whether or not measurement of N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentration could enable a more integrated approach than at present...... by predicting heart failure and enhancing coronary heart disease and stroke risk assessment. METHODS: In this individual-participant-data meta-analysis, we generated and harmonised individual-participant data from relevant prospective studies via both de-novo NT-proBNP concentration measurement of stored...

  15. Circulating ACE2 activity correlates with cardiovascular disease development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Úri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It was shown recently that angiotensin-converting enzyme activity is limited by endogenous inhibition in vivo, highlighting the importance of angiotensin II (ACE2 elimination. The potential contribution of the ACE2 to cardiovascular disease progression was addressed. Serum ACE2 activities were measured in different clinical states (healthy, n=45; hypertensive, n=239; heart failure (HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF n=141 and HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF n=47. ACE2 activity was significantly higher in hypertensive patients (24.8±0.8 U/ml than that in healthy volunteers (16.2±0.8 U/ml, p=0.01. ACE2 activity further increased in HFrEF patients (43.9±2.1 U/ml, p=0.001 but not in HFpEF patients (24.6±1.9 U/ml when compared with hypertensive patients. Serum ACE2 activity negatively correlated with left ventricular systolic function in HFrEF, but not in hypertensive, HFpEF or healthy populations. Serum ACE2 activity had a fair diagnostic value to differentiate HFpEF from HFrEF patients in this study. Serum ACE2 activity correlates with cardiovascular disease development: it increases when hypertension develops and further increases when the cardiovascular disease further progresses to systolic dysfunction, suggesting that ACE2 metabolism plays a role in these processes. In contrast, serum ACE2 activity does not change when hypertension progresses to HFpEF, suggesting a different pathomechanism for HFpEF, and proposing a biomarker-based identification of these HF forms.

  16. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, association with cardiovascular disease and treatment. (I). Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its association with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brea, Ángel; Pintó, Xavier; Ascaso, Juan F; Blasco, Mariano; Díaz, Ángel; González-Santos, Pedro; Hernández Mijares, Antonio; Mantilla, Teresa; Millán, Jesús; Pedro-Botet, Juan

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprises a series of histologically lesions similar to those induced by alcohol consumption in people with very little or no liver damage. The importance of NAFLD is its high prevalence in the Western world and, from the point of view of the liver, in its gradual progression from steatosis to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. During the last decade it has been observed that NAFLD leads to an increased cardiovascular risk with acceleration of arteriosclerosis and events related to it, being the main cause of its morbidity and mortality. This review, updated to January 2016, consists of two parts, with the first part analysing the association of NAFLD with cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. The impact of cardiovascular disease prevalence on women's enrollment in landmark randomized cardiovascular trials: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Wendy; Alter, David A; Wijeysundera, Harindra C; Zhang, Tony; Ko, Dennis T

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that women are substantially underrepresented in cardiovascular trials, but few have considered that women develop cardiovascular disease at older ages than men. The extent to which observed gender enrollment inequalities persist after accounting for age-gender differences in disease prevalence is unknown. The purpose of the study was to compare observed rates of women participating in cardiovascular clinical trials with expected rates of female participation based on age- and gender-specific population disease prevalence. Publications between 1997 and 2009 in the three leading medical journals were included to calculate observed women's enrollment rates. Population-based data in Canada were used to determine the expected enrollment rates of women. Multicenter, randomized cardiovascular clinical trials that enrolled both men and women were analyzed. Two reviewers independently extracted data on women's enrollment and important clinical trial characteristics. The female enrollment rate was 30% in the included 325 trials, which ranged from 27% in trials of coronary artery disease, 27% in heart failure, 31% in arrhythmia, to 45% in primary prevention. Increased female enrollment correlated strongly with increasing age at recruitment in cardiovascular clinical trials (P disease prevalence, gaps in female enrollment were much lower than the expected enrollment rates estimated by 5% in coronary artery disease, 13% in heart failure, 9% in arrhythmia, and 3% in primary prevention. Only cardiovascular trials were evaluated in our study. Female underrepresentation in cardiovascular clinical trials is smaller than conventionally believed after accounting for age- and gender-specific population disease prevalence. Our findings suggest that greater representation of women in cardiovascular clinical trials can be achieved through the recruitment of older populations.

  18. Therapeutic Effects of Breviscapine in Cardiovascular Diseases: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jialiang; Chen, Guang; He, Haoqiang; Liu, Chao; Xiong, Xingjiang; Li, Jun; Wang, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Breviscapine is a crude extract of several flavonoids of Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand.-Mazz. , containing more than 85% of scutellarin, which has been traditionally used in China as an activating blood circulation medicine to improve cerebral blood supply. Accumulating evidence from various in vivo and in vitro studies has shown that breviscapine exerts a broad range of cardiovascular pharmacological effects, including vasodilation, protection against ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R), anti-inflammation, anticoagulation, antithrombosis, endothelial protection, myocardial protection, reduction of smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, anticardiac remodeling, antiarrhythmia, blood lipid reduction, and improvement of erectile dysfunction. In addition, several clinical studies have reported that breviscapine could be used in conjunction with Western medicine for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) including coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, hyperlipidaemia, viral myocarditis, chronic heart failure, and pulmonary heart disease. However, the protective effects of breviscapine on CVDs based on experimental studies along with its underlying mechanisms have not been reviewed systematically. This paper reviewed the underlying pharmacological mechanisms in the cardioprotective effects of breviscapine and elucidated its clinical applications.

  19. [Sexual life in elderly patients with cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpuz, Hakan

    2017-09-01

    Sexual activity is an important component of patient and partner quality of life for men and women with cardiovascular disease, including many elderly patients. Older adults desire sexual intimacy when there is a partner and a health status that allows sexual relationships. Older individuals desire to love and enjoy sexual activity in relation to personal circumstances, and when health status allows them to experience close relations, most often within marriage especially in our country. Normal changes occur in the phases of sexual cycle with aging, male erectile dysfunction and female sexual dysfunction increase with age. Elderly patients are often affected by multiple organic diseases which can interfere with sexual function especially cardiovascular disease. Treating those disorders or modifying lifestyle-related risk factors may help prevent sexual dysfunction in the elderly. Sexuality is important for older adults and physicians should give their patient's opportunity to voice their concerns with sexual function and offer them alternatives for evaluation and treatment. Asking about sexual health remains difficult or embarrassing for many physicians; in addition, many patients find it difficult to raise sexual issues with their doctor.

  20. Therapeutic Effects of Breviscapine in Cardiovascular Diseases: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialiang Gao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Breviscapine is a crude extract of several flavonoids of Erigeron breviscapus (Vant. Hand.-Mazz., containing more than 85% of scutellarin, which has been traditionally used in China as an activating blood circulation medicine to improve cerebral blood supply. Accumulating evidence from various in vivo and in vitro studies has shown that breviscapine exerts a broad range of cardiovascular pharmacological effects, including vasodilation, protection against ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R, anti-inflammation, anticoagulation, antithrombosis, endothelial protection, myocardial protection, reduction of smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, anticardiac remodeling, antiarrhythmia, blood lipid reduction, and improvement of erectile dysfunction. In addition, several clinical studies have reported that breviscapine could be used in conjunction with Western medicine for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs including coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, hyperlipidaemia, viral myocarditis, chronic heart failure, and pulmonary heart disease. However, the protective effects of breviscapine on CVDs based on experimental studies along with its underlying mechanisms have not been reviewed systematically. This paper reviewed the underlying pharmacological mechanisms in the cardioprotective effects of breviscapine and elucidated its clinical applications.