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Sample records for acute cardioprotective effect

  1. SIRT1-mediated acute cardioprotection

    OpenAIRE

    Nadtochiy, Sergiy M; Yao, Hongwei; McBurney, Michael W.; Gu, Wei; Guarente, Leonard; Rahman, Irfan; Paul S. Brookes

    2011-01-01

    Overexpression studies have revealed a role for silent information regulator of transcription 1 (SIRT1) lysine deacetylase in cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury via long-term transcriptional effects. However, short-term SIRT1-mediated lysine deacetylation, within the context of acute cardioprotection, is poorly understood. In this study, the role of SIRT1 in the acute cardioprotective paradigm of first window ischemic preconditioning (IPC) was studied using SIRT1-deficient (...

  2. [Cardioprotective effect of drugs with antioxidant activity in acute cerebral ischemia].

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    Stoliarova, V V

    2001-01-01

    The bioelectric cardiac activity was studied in the experiments on white mice with an acute cerebral blood circulation disorder. It was found that he resulting EEG changes possess a specific character, with the sympathoadrenal system stimulation playing an important role in the acute cerebrocardiac syndrome development. The antioxidant-type agents such as emoxypine (50 mg/kg), mexidol (50 mg/kg), and cytochrome C (10 mg/kg) produce a significant cardioprotective effect in the test animals with experimental cerebral ischemia, which was comparable with the effect of propranolol (obsidane) (0.1 mg/kg).

  3. Cardioprotective Effect of the Compound Yangshen Granule in Rat Models with Acute Myocardial Infarction

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    Xie Ming

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective effect of Compound Yangshen Granules was observed in myocardial infarction rat model. Rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: the model group, the control group (sham operated, the positive drug group, and small, medium, and large dosage of the Yangshen granule groups, respectively. The rats in the 3 Yangshen granule groups were orally administrated with 0.7 g/kg, 1.4 g/kg, and 2.8 g/kg for 7 consecutive days, whereas the rats of the positive drug group treated with 0.14 g/kg of Danshen Dropping Pills, and rats in the control and model groups orally administrated with saline. The rat model of acute myocardial infarction was established with ligation of coronary artery. Electrocardiograms at different time points, the blood rheology, myocardial enzymes, infarct size, and myocardial morphologic changes were measured. The results demonstrated that the granules could improve blood rheology, decrease st-segment of electrocardiograms and the activities of LDH and CK in serum, reduce myocardial infarction size, and alleviate myocardial histopathologic changes. In addition, the effect of the granules depended on the dose administrated orally. The results suggest that the Yangshen granules could produce cardioprotection effect and have potential benefits in the prevention of ischemic heart disease.

  4. Macrophages mediate cardioprotective cellular postconditioning in acute myocardial infarction.

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    de Couto, Geoffrey; Liu, Weixin; Tseliou, Eleni; Sun, Baiming; Makkar, Nupur; Kanazawa, Hideaki; Arditi, Moshe; Marbán, Eduardo

    2015-08-03

    Ischemic injury in the heart induces an inflammatory cascade that both repairs damage and exacerbates scar tissue formation. Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) are a stem-like population that is derived ex vivo from cardiac biopsies; they confer both cardioprotection and regeneration in acute myocardial infarction (MI). While the regenerative effects of CDCs in chronic settings have been studied extensively, little is known about how CDCs confer the cardioprotective process known as cellular postconditioning. Here, we used an in vivo rat model of ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury-induced MI and in vitro coculture assays to investigate how CDCs protect stressed cardiomyocytes. Compared with control animals, animals that received CDCs 20 minutes after IR had reduced infarct size when measured at 48 hours. CDCs modified the myocardial leukocyte population after ischemic injury. Specifically, introduction of CDCs reduced the number of CD68+ macrophages, and these CDCs secreted factors that polarized macrophages toward a distinctive cardioprotective phenotype that was not M1 or M2. Systemic depletion of macrophages with clodronate abolished CDC-mediated cardioprotection. Using both in vitro coculture assays and a rat model of adoptive transfer after IR, we determined that CDC-conditioned macrophages attenuated cardiomyocyte apoptosis and reduced infarct size, thereby recapitulating the beneficial effects of CDC therapy. Together, our data indicate that CDCs limit acute injury by polarizing an effector macrophage population within the heart.

  5. CARDIOPROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF PHYTOSTEROLS

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    Jyotika Dhankhar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Foods and nutrients play a vital role in normal functioning of the body. They are helpful in maintaining the health of the individual and in reducing the risk of various diseases. Worldwide acceptance of this fact formed a recognition link between "nutrition" and "health" and the concept of "nutraceuticals" has evolved. More than any other disease, the etiology of cardiovascular disease reveals many risk factors that are amenable to nutraceutical intervention. The scientific literature shows that there are several bioactive ingredients that are present in small amounts in plants that can affect mammalian biological processes relevant to cardiovascular disease and other common human diseases. The ability of bioactive ingredients to positively influence cardiovascular risk factors should be recognized as an enormous opportunity in the treatment of a highly prevalent disease. Nutraceuticals hold promise in clinical therapy as they have the potential to significantly reduce the risk of side effects associated with drugs and pills along with reducing the global health care cost. Common ingredients that have been studied include soluble fiber (from oats and psyllium; long-chain omega-3 fatty acids; plant sterols or phytosterols; polyphenols (from dark chocolate, red wine, green tea, or extravirgin olive oil; isoflavones from soy; Chinese red-yeast rice; and probiotics from dairy products. Amongst this vast array of bioactives, there is emerging evidence indicating role of phytosterols in mitigating risk of cardiovascular disease and promoting general health and well-being. Phytosterols are cholesterol-like molecules found in all plant foods. They are absorbed only in trace amounts but inhibit the absorption of intestinal cholesterol including recirculating endogenous biliary cholesterol, a key step in cholesterol elimination. In this review, an attempt has been made to summarize some of the recent research findings on phytosterols that have beneficial

  6. Long-term benefit of early pre-reperfusion metoprolol administration in patients with acute myocardial infarction: Results from the Metocard-CNIC trial (Effect of Metoprolol in Cardioprotection during an Acute Myocardial Infarction)

    OpenAIRE

    Pizarro, Gonzalo; García Lunar, Inés; Martínez de Vega, Vicente; Cabrera Rodríguez, José Ángel

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this trial was to study the long-term effects of intravenous (IV) metoprolol administration before reperfusion on left ventricular (LV) function and clinical events. Early IV metoprolol during ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has been shown to reduce infarct size when used in conjunction with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). The METOCARD-CNIC (Effect of Metoprolol in Cardioprotection During an Acute Myocardial Infarction) trial recruited 270 pat...

  7. Cardioprotective effect of methanolic extract of Marrubium vulgare L. on isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction in rats.

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    Yousefi, Keyvan; Soraya, Hamid; Fathiazad, Fatemeh; Khorrami, Arash; Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz; Maleki-Dizaji, Nasrin; Garjani, Alireza

    2013-08-01

    Isoproterenol injection (100 mg/kg; sc) produced changes in ECG pattern including ST-segment elevation and suppressed R-amplitude. The methanolic extract of M. vulgare at doses of 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg significantly amended the ECG changes. A severe myocardial necrosis and edematous along with a sharp reduction in the arterial blood pressure, left ventricular contractility (LVdP/dt(max or min)), but a marked increase in the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) were seen in the isoproterenol group. All parameters were significantly improved by the extract treatment. The extract (10 mg/kg) strongly increased LVdP/dt(max). Similarly, treatment with 40 mg/kg of M. vulgare lowered the elevated LVEDP and the heart to body weight ratio. In addition to in vitro antioxidant activity, the extract suppressed markedly the elevation of malondialdehyde levels both in serum and in myocardium. The results demonstrate that M. vulgare protects myocardium against isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction and suggest that the effects could be related to antioxidant activities.

  8. The cardioprotective effects of metformin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Messaoudi, Saloua; Rongen, Gerard A.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Riksen, Niels P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of review In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, treatment with metformin is associated with a lower cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, compared with alternative glucose-lowering drugs. It has been suggested that metformin might exert direct protective effects on the heart. Recent f

  9. The cardioprotective effects of metformin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Messaoudi, S.; Rongen, G.A.P.J.M.; Boer, R.A. de; Riksen, N.P.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, treatment with metformin is associated with a lower cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, compared with alternative glucose-lowering drugs. It has been suggested that metformin might exert direct protective effects on the heart. RECENT

  10. Cardioprotective Effects of Total Flavonoids Extracted from Xinjiang Sprig Rosa rugosa against Acute Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Myocardial Injury in Isolated Rat Heart.

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    Hou, Xuejiao; Han, Jichun; Yuan, Changsheng; Ren, Huanhuan; Zhang, Ya; Zhang, Tao; Xu, Lixia; Zheng, Qiusheng; Chen, Wen

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the antioxidative and cardioprotective effects of total flavonoids extracted from Xinjiang sprig Rosa rugosa on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury using an isolated Langendorff rat heart model. The possible mechanism of Xinjiang sprig rose total flavonoid (XSRTF) against I/R injury was also studied. XSRTF (5, 10, and 20 µg/mL) dissolved in Krebs-Henseleit buffer was administered to isolated rat heart. The XSRTF showed remarkable scavenging effects against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, and superoxide anion radicals in vitro. XSRTF pretreatment improved the heart rate, increased LVDP, and decreased CK and LDH levels in coronary flow. This pretreatment also increased SOD activity and GSH/GSSG ratio but decreased MDA, TNF-α, and CRP levels and IL-8 and IL-6 activities. The infarct size and cell apoptosis in the hearts from the XSRTF-treated group were lower than those in the hearts from the I/R group. Therefore, the cardioprotective effects of XSRTF may be attributed to its antioxidant, antiapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory activities.

  11. CARDIOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF IVABRADINE VERSUS CARVEDILOL IN RATS

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    El sayed A. Osman MD, Nasr N. Zaki MD, Samia M. M. Elshiaty MD, Hanan T. Emam MD and Fatma F. Hendawi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the f-channel and its role in regulating pacemaker activity lead to the development of new pharmacological agents such as ivabradine, which target these f-channels causing a reduction in heart rate by inhibiting the /fcurrent. The aim of the present work was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of ivabradine on experimentally- induced myocardial infarction and adrenaline-induced arrhythmia in rats. In addition, the present work studied the effect of ivabradine on isolated rabbit's aortic spiral strip and isolated rabbit's heart. Acute myocardial infarction in rats was induced by isoperameline (150mg/kg subcutenous injection, once 24 rats were divided into the following groups: group (1 control normal rats, group (II myocardial infarction – induced rats with no previous treatment, group (III myocardial infarction – induced rats pretreated with ivabradine (10mg/kg/day for one week and group (IV myocardial infarction – induced rats pretreated with carvedilol (1mg/kg/day for one week. Electrophysiological, biochemical and histopathological parameters were estimated. pretreatment with either ivabradine or carvedilol show significant improvement in all these parameters with insignificant difference between them. In the current work 20 rats were used to investigate the protective effects of ivabradine (10mg/kg and carvedilol (1mg/kg on adrenaline- induced arrhythmia in anaesthetized rats and the results revealed that both drugs had a prophylactive effect. Also data obtained in the present work pointed out that ivabradine in gradually increasing doses produce no significant effect on the isolated rabbit's aortic strip and basal myocardial contractility of isolated rabbit's heart. Both ivabradine and carvedilol have cardioprotective effect against acute MI as well as adrenaline- induced arrhythmia with no significant difference between them, also ivabradine has no effect on contractility of the heart. So, the choice of

  12. Antioxidative and cardioprotective effects of total flavonoids extracted from Dracocephalum moldavica L. against acute ischemia/reperfusion-induced myocardial injury in isolated rat heart.

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    Jiang, Jiangtao; Yuan, Xuan; Wang, Ting; Chen, Hongmei; Zhao, Hong; Yan, Xinyan; Wang, Zhiping; Sun, Xiling; Zheng, Qiusheng

    2014-03-01

    This study evaluates antioxidative and cardioprotective effects of total flavonoids extracted from Dracocephalum moldavica L. (DML). The total flavonoids showed remarkable scavenging effects against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals in vitro. Compared with the ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) group as demonstrated by the use of improved Langendorff retrograde perfusion technology, the total flavonoids (5 μg/mL) pretreatment improved the heart rate and coronary flow, rised left ventricular developed pressure and decreased creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase levels in coronary flow. The infarct size/ischemic area at risk of DML-treated hearts was smaller than that of I/R group; the superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione/glutathione disulfide ratio increased and malondialdehyde content reduced obviously (P total flavonoids treatment groups. In conclusion, the total flavonoids possess obvious protective effects on myocardial I/R injury, which may be related to the improvement of myocardial oxidative stress states.

  13. Effect of pioglitazone on the abrogated cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning in hyperlipidemic rat heart

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    Dhiraj Mittal

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Cardioprotective effect of IPC gets lost in hyperlipidemic rat heart. The results suggest that perfusion of pioglitazone restored the cardioprotective effect of IPC in hyperlipidemic rat heart, an effect that may be via PI3K and mTOR.

  14. Cardioprotective effect of pioglitazone in diabetic and non-diabetic rats subjected to acute myocardial infarction involves suppression of AGE-RAGE axis and inhibition of apoptosis.

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    Khodeer, Dina M; Zaitone, Sawsan A; Farag, Noha E; Moustafa, Yasser M

    2016-05-01

    Insulin resistance increases risk of cardiovascular diseases. This work investigated the protective effect of pioglitazone on myocardial infarction (MI) in non-diabetic and diabetic rats, focusing on its role on advanced glycated endproducts (AGEs) and cardiac apoptotic machinery. Male rats were divided into 2 experiments: experiment I and II (non-diabetic and diabetic rats) were assigned as saline, MI (isoproterenol, 85 mg/kg, daily), and MI+pioglitazone (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg). Injection of isoproterenol in diabetic rats produced greater ECG disturbances compared to non-diabetic rats. Treatment with pioglitazone (5 mg/kg) reduced the infarct size and improved some ECG findings. Pioglitazone (10 mg/kg) enhanced ECG findings, improved the histopathological picture and downregulated apoptosis in cardiac tissues. Whereas the higher dose of pioglitazone (20 mg/kg) did not improve most of the measured parameters but rather worsened some of them, such as proapoptotic markers. Importantly, a positive correlation was found between serum AGEs and cardiac AGE receptors (RAGEs) versus caspase 3 expression in the two experiments. Therefore, the current effect of pioglitazone was, at least in part, mediated through downregulation of AGE-RAGE axis and inhibition of apoptosis. Consequently, these data suggest that pioglitazone, at optimized doses, may have utility in protection from acute MI.

  15. Virgin coconut oil and its potential cardioprotective effects.

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    Babu, Abraham Samuel; Veluswamy, Sundar Kumar; Arena, Ross; Guazzi, Marco; Lavie, Carl J

    2014-11-01

    Emphasis on diet to improve the cardiovascular (CV) risk profile has been the focus of many studies. Recently, virgin coconut oil (VCO) has been growing in popularity due to its potential CV benefits. The chemical properties and the manufacturing process of VCO make this oil healthier than its copra-derived counterpart. This review highlights the mechanism through which saturated fatty acids contribute to CV disease (CVD), how oils and fats contribute to the risk of CVD, and the existing views on VCO and how its cardioprotective effects may make this a possible dietary intervention in isolation or in combination with exercise to help reduce the burden of CVDs.

  16. Pleiotropic effects of statins: A boulevard to cardioprotection

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    Ankur Rohilla

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, referred to as “statins” have been extensively reported to possess lipid lowering effects by inhibiting the synthesis of cholesterol by liver and thereby increasing hepatic cholesterol uptake and reducing circulating lipid levels. Growing body of evidences have shown that apart from lipid lowering effects, statins possess various pleiotropic effects that include improvement in endothelial dysfunction, increased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, enhanced bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO, potent antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory properties. In relation to cardiovascular pathologies, statins have been shown to inhibit atrial myocardial remodeling, prevent atrial fibrillation, conserve NO production in heart failure, reduce activity of small G-proteins in cardiac hypertrophy and protect the myocardium from lethal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. The mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective potential include phosphatidyl inositol (PI3-kinase/Akt/eNOS pathway, subsequent activation of ATP sensitive potassium (KATP channels by NO resulting in improved myocardial metabolism, release of endogenous adenosine by increasing the activity of adenosine forming enzyme ecto-5V-nucleotidase, inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS production, decrease in oxidative stress and attenuation of apoptosis. The present review article demonstrates the pleiotropic effects of statins beyond their lipid lowering effects. Moreover, the underlying mechanisms involved in stain-induced cardioprotection have been delineated.

  17. Cardioprotective Effects of ω-3 PUFAs in Chronic Kidney Disease

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    Su Mi Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence rate of chronic kidney disease (CKD is increasing worldwide, and cardiovascular disease (CVD is a main cause of death in patients with CKD. The high incidence of CVD in CKD patients is related to chronic inflammation, dyslipidemia, malnutrition, atherosclerosis, and vascular calcification. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs have been shown to reduce the risk of CVD. In this paper, we review the beneficial effects of ω-3 PUFAs on CVD and the possible cardioprotective mechanisms of ω-3 PUFAs in CKD patients by determining the effect of ω-3 PUFAs in the general population. ω-3 PUFAs have several cardioprotective benefits, such as reducing inflammation, decreasing oxidative stress, inhibiting platelet activity, exerting antiarrhythmic effects, and improving triglyceride levels, in the general population and patients with CKD. Modifications of erythrocyte membrane fatty acid content, including an increased ω-3 index and decreased oleic acid, after ω-3 PUFAs supplementation are important changes related to CVD risk reduction in the general population and patients with CKD. Further basic and clinical studies are essential to confirm the effects of ω-3 PUFAs on vitamin D activation, vascular calcification prevention, cardiovascular events, and mortality in CKD patients.

  18. Cardioprotective Effect of Sodium Ferulate in Diabetic Rats

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    Xiaohong Xu, Haijuan Xiao, Jiangpei Zhao, Tongfeng Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS play important roles in the occurrence and development in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC. Ferulic acid is one of the ubiquitous compounds in diet. Sodium ferulate (SF is its sodium salt. SF has potent free radical scavenging activity and can effectively scavenge ROS. The study investigated the effect of SF on cardioprotection in diabetic rats. The diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin (STZ were treated with SF (110mg/kg by gavage per day for 12 weeks. Results showed that the levels of nitric oxide (NO and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in plasma and myocardium in SF-treated group were significantly higher than those in diabetic control group. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA in plasma and myocardium in SF-treated group were significantly lower than those in diabetic control group. Expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF in myocardium in SF-treated group was apparently lower than that in diabetic control group. Compared with normal control group, electron micrographs of myocardium in diabetic control group showed apparently abnormality, while that was significantly ameliorated in SF-treated group. The study demonstrated that SF has a cardioprotective effect via increasing SOD activity and NO levels in plasma and myocardium, inhibiting oxidative stress in plasma and myocardium, and inhibiting the expression of CTGF in myocardium in diabetes rats.

  19. CARDIOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF NATIVE ANTIHYPOXANTS IN EXPERIMENTAL COBALT CARDIOMYOPATHY

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    I. V. Zadnipryany

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of research – the study of cardioprotective properties of antioxidants in terms of histotoxic hypoxia under experimental conditions.Materials and methods. The study was conducted on 20 adult male Wistar rats divided into 3 experimental groups, which for 7 days were intraperitoneally injected aqueous CoCl2 solution at a dose of 60 mg/kg. Rats of the first experimental group (n = 6 had no administered drug correction, a the second group of animals (n = 7 after the cobalt chloride daily injections was administered intragastrically Enoant Premium aqueous solution at a dose of 2.5 ml / kg, along with 0.05 ml of water, the rats the third test group (n = 7 after the administration of cobalt chloride were exposed to cytoflavin correction concentrate and grape polyphenols administered simultaneously. Studies of myocardium were conducted using light and electron microscopy.Results of the research. The result of the cobalt toxic effect on the heart of animals in experiments lead to the development of cardiomyopathy, which required timely cardioprotection. Morphological changes in the second group of rats, despite a slight improvement compared with the group without correction,were characterized, above all, by uneven from mild to severe edema of the myocardium. Structure of myocardium observed in the third group of male rats after cobalt intoxication, generally reflected a tendency to minimization of the extent of the damage, which was manifested in the form of normalization of cell structures and muscle fibers.Conclusion. The administration of succinic acid derivatives combined with the grape polyphenols demonstrated vivid cytoprotective properties evidenced by mostly preserved myocardium structure in rats exposed to histotoxic hypoxia in comparison to only administration of plant polyphenols group. 

  20. Cardioprotective effects of morphine on rat heart suffering from ischemia and reperfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师恩祎; 江晓菁; 白菡; 谷天祥; 常业恬; 王俊科

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the cardioprotective effects of morphine on ischemic reperfused rat heart in vitro and its mechanism.Methods The isolated rat heart was perfused in a Langendorff apparatus. Infarct myocardium was determined by TTC. Coronary flow (CF), heart rate (HR), left ventricular pressure (LVP), the first derivative of ventricular pressure (LVP/dtmax) and infarct size after ischemia and reperfusion in rat heart given 0.3 μmol/L morphine were observed. The effects of naloxone and glibenclamide on the cardioprotection of morphine were also measured.Results After ischemia and reperfusion, CF, HR, LVP and LVP/dtmax of isolated rat hearts decreased significantly (P0.05). The cardioprotective effects of morphine were abolished by naloxone or glibenclamide completely.Conclusions Morphine can reduce ischemia-reperfusion injuries in isolated rat heart. The cardioprotective effects of morphine are mediated by a local opioid receptor-KATP channel linked mechanism in rat hearts.

  1. Cardioprotective effects of adipokine apelin on myocardial infarction.

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    Zhang, Bao-Hai; Guo, Cai-Xia; Wang, Hong-Xia; Lu, Ling-Qiao; Wang, Ya-Jie; Zhang, Li-Ke; Du, Feng-He; Zeng, Xiang-Jun

    2014-09-01

    Angiogenesis plays an important role in myocardial infarction. Apelin and its natural receptor (angiotensin II receptor-like 1, AGTRL-1 or APLNR) induce sprouting of endothelial cells in an autocrine or paracrine manner. The aim of this study is to investigate whether apelin can improve the cardiac function after myocardial infarction by increasing angiogenesis in infarcted myocardium. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), left ventricular end systolic pressure (LVESP), left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), maximal left ventricular pressure development (±LVdp/dtmax), infarct size, and angiogenesis were evaluated to analyze the cardioprotective effects of apelin on ischemic myocardium. Assays of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation, wound healing, transwells, and tube formation were used to detect the effects of apelin on proliferation, migration, and chemotaxis of cardiac microvascular endothelial cells. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled bovine serum albumin penetrating through monolayered cardiac microvascular endothelial cells was measured to evaluate the effects of apelin on permeability of microvascular endothelial cells. In vivo results showed that apelin increased ±LV dp/dtmax and LVESP values, decreased LVEDP values (all p myocardial infarction through promoting angiogenesis and decreasing permeability of microvascular endothelial cells via upregulating the expression of VEGFR2 and Tie-2 in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells.

  2. Modulation of the cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning in hyperlipidaemic rat heart.

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    Yadav, Harlokesh Narayan; Singh, Manjeet; Sharma, Pyare Lal

    2010-09-15

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) produces cardioprotection by phosphorylation of glycogen synthaes kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) that inhibits the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP), and this cardioprotective action of IPC is attenuated by hyperlipidaemia. The present study investigated the role of GSK-3beta in attenuation of cardioprotective effect of IPC, by hyperlipidaemia in the rat heart. Hyperlipidaemia was produced in rat by feeding high fat diet for six weeks. Isolated perfused rat heart was subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion. Myocardial infarct size was estimated by triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) was analyzed from coronary effluent. IPC significantly decreased the myocardial infarct size and the release of LDH and CK-MB from normal rat heart. IPC induced myocardial protection was attenuated in hyperlipidaemic rat heart. However, cardioprotective effect of pharmacological preconditioning with GSK-3beta inhibitors i.e. Lithium Chloride (LiCl) (20mM), Indirubin - 3 Monooxime (1 microM) and 3-(2, 4-dichlorophenyl)-4-(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-1H-pyrrole-2, 5-dione (SB216763) (3 microM), was not attenuated. This differential attenuation by hyperlipidaemia, of IPC and pharmacological preconditioning induced cardioprotection is a new finding in our study. GSK-3beta inhibition is reported to increase the threshold of opening for MPTP during reperfusion. Administration of atractyloside (20 microM), an opener of MPTP, significantly attenuated the cardioprotective effect of IPC in normal heart, and pharmacological preconditioning in the hyperlipidaemic rat heart. Thus, the attenuation of cardioprotective effect of IPC in hyperlipidaemic heart may be due to inhibition of protective signaling pathways upstream of GSK-3beta and inhibition of opening of MPTP.

  3. Effect of zinc supplements in the attenuated cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning in hyperlipidemic rat heart.

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    Kansal, Sunil Kumar; Jyoti, Uma; Sharma, Samridhi; Kaura, Arun; Deshmukh, Rahul; Goyal, Sandeep

    2015-06-01

    Hyperlipidemia is regarded as independent risk factor in the development of ischemic heart disease, and it can increase the myocardial susceptibility to ischemia-/reperfusion (I/R)-induced injury. Hyperlipidemia attenuates the cardioprotective response of ischemic preconditioning (IPC). The present study investigated the effect of zinc supplements in the attenuated cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning in hyperlipidemic rat hearts. Hyperlipidemia was induced in rat by feeding high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 weeks then the serum lipid profile was observed. In experiment, the isolated Langendorff rat heart preparation was subjected to 4 cycles of ischemic preconditioning (IPC), then 30 min of ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion. Myocardial infarct size was elaborated morphologically by triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and biochemically by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) release from coronary effluent and left ventricular collagen content. However, the effect of zinc supplement, i.e., zinc pyrithione (10 μM) perfused during reperfusion for 120 min, significantly abrogated the attenuated cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning in hyperlipidemic rat heart whereas administration of chelator of this zinc ionophore, i.e., N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylene diamine (TPEN; 10 μM), perfused during reperfusion 2 min before the perfusion of zinc pyrithione abrogated the cardioprotective effect of zinc supplement during experiment in hyperlipidemic rat heart. Thus, the administration of zinc supplements limits the infarct size, LDH, and CK-MB and enhanced the collagen level which suggests that the attenuated cardioprotective effect of IPC in hyperlipidemic rat is due to zinc loss during reperfusion caused by ischemia/reperfusion.

  4. Cardioprotective effects of mitochondrial KATP channels activated at different time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏珂; 闵苏; 龙村

    2004-01-01

    Backgroud Recent studies in adult hearts have indicated that KATP channels in the inner mitochondrial membrance are responsible for the protection. And we investigated whether opening of mitochondrial KATP channels (mKATP) could provide myocardial protection for immature rabbits and determined its role in cardioprotection.Methods Thirty-four 3-4-week-old rabbits, weighing 300-350 g, were divided randomly into five groups: Group Ⅰ (control group, n=8); Group Ⅱ [diazoxide preconditioning group; n=8; the hearts were pretreated with 100 μmol/L diazoxide for 5 minutes followed by 10-minute wash out with Krebs-Henseleit buffer (KHB)]; Group Ⅲ [diazoxide+5-hydroxydeconate (5-HD) preconditioning group; n=5; the hearts were pretreated with 100 μmol/L diazoxide and 100 μmol/L 5-HD); Group Ⅳ (diazoxide+cardioplegia group; n=8; cardioplegia containing 100 μmol/L diazoxide perfused the hearts for 5 minutes before ischemia); Group Ⅴ (diazoxide+5-HD+cardioplegia group; n=5; the cardioplegia contained 100 μmol/L diazoxide and 100 μmol/L 5-HD). All hearts were excised and connected to langend ?Zrff perfusion system and passively perfused with KHB at 38℃ under a pressure of 70 cmH2O. After reperfusion, the recovery rate of left ventricular diastolic pressure (LVDP), ±dp/dtmax, coronary flow (CF), the creatinine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in coronary sinus venous effluent and the tissue ATP were measured. Mitochondria were evaluated semiquantitatively by morphology.Results After ischemia and reperfusion (I/R), the two groups that were treated by diazoxide only (Groups Ⅱ and Ⅳ) had a significant improvement in LVDP, ±dp/dtmax, and CF recovery. AST, LDH, and CK were decreased, and the levels of tissue ATP in the two groups were higher. Mitochondria was protected better in Group Ⅳ than in other groups. Conclusions Activating mKATP channels before and during ischemia can similarly protect immature rabbit hearts

  5. Renal and cardio-protective effects of direct renin inhibition : a systematic literature review

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    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.; Perkovic, Vlado; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2009-01-01

    Background Blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) at its rate-limiting step by means of renin inhibition has led to the development of direct renin inhibitors (DRIs). Given the renal and cardioprotective effects of RAAS blockade by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and an

  6. Cardioprotective effects of anesthetic preconditioning in rats with ischemia-reperfusion injury: propofol versus isoflurane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing TAO; Ling-qiao LU; Qing XU; Shu-ren LI; Mao-tsun LIN

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We compare the cardioprotective effects of anesthetic preconditioning by propofol and/or isoflurane in rats with ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods: Male adult Wistar rats were subjected to 60 min of anterior descending coronary artery occlusion followed by 120 min of reperfusion. Before the long ischemia, anesthetics were administered twice for 10 min followed by 5 min washout. Isoflurane was inhaled at I MAC (0.016) in I group, whereas propofol was inhaled intravenously at 37.5 mg/(kg.h) in P group. A combination ofisoflurane and propofol was administered simultaneously in I+P group. Results: In control (without anesthetic preconditioning, C group), remarkable myocardial infarction and apoptosis accompanied by an increased level of cardiac troponin T were noted 120 rain after ischemia-reperfusion. As compared to those of control group, I and P groups had comparable cardioprotection. In addition, I+P group shares with I and P groups the comparable cardioprotective effects in terms of myocardial infarction and cardiac troponin T elevation. Conclusion: A combination of isoflurane and propofol produced no ad-ditional cardioprotection.

  7. Mechanism of cardioprotective effect of erythropoietin-induced preconditioning in rat heart

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    Garg Kavita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The cardioprotective potential of human recombinant erythropoietin (alpha (Epo against ischemia-reperfusion-induced injury is well known. But, the underlying mechanisms are not well elucidated. The aim of this study was to characterize the mechanism involved in the cardioprotective effect of Epo-induced preconditioning in isolated rat heart. Materials and Methods : The heart was mounted on a Langendorff apparatus. After 10 min of stabilization, four cycles of ischemic preconditioning (IPC were given followed by 30 min of global ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. Epo preconditioning was induced by four cycles of 5-min perfusion of K-H solution containing Epo (1.0 U/ml followed by 5 min perfusion with K-H solution. Myocardial infarct size was estimated macroscopically using the triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining technique. The extent of myocardial injury was measured by release of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase-MB in the coronary effluent. Results : The present study demonstrates that Epo preconditioning was almost as effective as IPC. Administration of Wortmannin (100 nM, a PI-3K inhibitor, or Chelerythrine (1 μM, a protein kinase-C (PKC inhibitor, or AG490 (5 μM, a JAK-2 inhibitor, significantly attenuated the cardioprotective effects of Epo-induced preconditioning. Conclusion : Our result suggest that the cardioprotective potential of Epo-induced preconditioning in isolated rat heart was due to an interplay of the JAK-2, PI-3K and PKC pathways. Inhibition of any one of the three pathways was sufficient to block the cardioprotective effect of Epo-induced preconditioning in isolated rat heart.

  8. Cardioprotective effects of fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB694, in a rodent model of trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevali, Luca; Vacondio, Federica; Rossi, Stefano; Macchi, Emilio; Spadoni, Gilberto; Bedini, Annalida; Neumann, Inga D; Rivara, Silvia; Mor, Marco; Sgoifo, Andrea

    2015-12-14

    In humans, chronic anxiety represents an independent risk factor for cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death. Here we evaluate in male Wistar rats bred for high (HAB) and low (LAB) anxiety-related behavior, as well as non-selected (NAB) animals, the relationship between trait anxiety and cardiac electrical instability and investigate whether pharmacological augmentation of endocannabinoid anandamide-mediated signaling exerts anxiolytic-like and cardioprotective effects. HAB rats displayed (i) a higher incidence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias induced by isoproterenol, and (ii) a larger spatial dispersion of ventricular refractoriness assessed by means of an epicardial mapping protocol. In HAB rats, acute pharmacological inhibition of the anandamide-degrading enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), with URB694 (0.3 mg/kg), (i) decreased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze, (ii) increased anandamide levels in the heart, (iii) reduced isoproterenol-induced occurrence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias, and (iv) corrected alterations of ventricular refractoriness. The anti-arrhythmic effect of URB694 was prevented by pharmacological blockade of the cannabinoid type 1 (CB1), but not of the CB2, receptor. These findings suggest that URB694 exerts anxiolytic-like and cardioprotective effects in HAB rats, the latter via anandamide-mediated activation of CB1 receptors. Thus, pharmacological inhibition of FAAH might be a viable pharmacological strategy for the treatment of anxiety-related cardiac dysfunction.

  9. The cardioprotective actions of hydrogen sulfide in acute myocardial infarction and heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polhemus, David J; Calvert, John W; Butler, Javed; Lefer, David J

    2014-01-01

    It has now become universally accepted that hydrogen sulfide (H2S), previously considered only as a lethal toxin, has robust cytoprotective actions in multiple organ systems. The diverse signaling profile of H2S impacts multiple pathways to exert cytoprotective actions in a number of pathological states. This paper will review the recently described cardioprotective actions of hydrogen sulfide in both myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and congestive heart failure.

  10. The Cardioprotective Actions of Hydrogen Sulfide in Acute Myocardial Infarction and Heart Failure

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    David J. Polhemus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has now become universally accepted that hydrogen sulfide (H2S, previously considered only as a lethal toxin, has robust cytoprotective actions in multiple organ systems. The diverse signaling profile of H2S impacts multiple pathways to exert cytoprotective actions in a number of pathological states. This paper will review the recently described cardioprotective actions of hydrogen sulfide in both myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and congestive heart failure.

  11. The Cardioprotective Actions of Hydrogen Sulfide in Acute Myocardial Infarction and Heart Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Polhemus, David J.; Calvert, John W.; Javed Butler; Lefer, David J.

    2014-01-01

    It has now become universally accepted that hydrogen sulfide (H2S), previously considered only as a lethal toxin, has robust cytoprotective actions in multiple organ systems. The diverse signaling profile of H2S impacts multiple pathways to exert cytoprotective actions in a number of pathological states. This paper will review the recently described cardioprotective actions of hydrogen sulfide in both myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and congestive heart failure.

  12. Cardioprotective effect of Volvariella volvacea in streptozotocin administered rats

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    Soosaimanickam Carmel Punitha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the cardioprotective role of methanol extract of the edible mushroom Volvariella volvacea against oxidative stress in hyperglycemic rats. Rats divided into 6 groups were administered with nicotinamide and streptozotocin intraperitoneally, except Group I (control. Group II served as diabetic control. Group III was given glibenclamide. Two groups (IV and V of rats received (200 and 400 mg/kg mushroom extracts orally for 30 days and Group VI received vitamin E (40 mg/kg. After the treatment period, lipid peroxides, carbonyl end products, advanced glycation end products, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S transferase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and non-enzymatic anti-oxidants (vitamin C and E were assessed in the heart tissues of experimental animals. Glycosylated hemoglobin was estimated in blood. Electrocardiography recordings of the treated groups were also done. The results showed that mushroom extract treatment reduced the lipid peroxides, advanced glycation end products and protein carbonyls significantly and reversed the altered anti-oxidant enzymes, and the vitamins.

  13. CARDIOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF MORUS ALBA L. LEAVES IN ISOPRENALINE INDUCED RATS

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    S. Madhumitha and A. Indhuleka*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of methanolic extract of Morus alba L. leaves against isoprenaline- induced myocardial infarction and was investigated by an in vivo method in rats. Male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups (n=6. Group I rats served as normal control. Group II rats served as isoprenaline induced toxic control (110 mg/kg body weight which was injected intraperitoneally (i.p. for two consecutive days (14th and 15th days. Group III rats were given Morus alba intragastric intubation (500 mg/kg body weight for 15 days. Group IV rats were also given Morus alba as in Group III and additionally isoprenaline was given for two consecutive days (14th and 15th days.The results described the cardioprotective effect that was observed in Group IV which showed a significant (P< 0.05 decreased levels of TBARS and enhanced the activities of both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH in myocardial infarcted rats when compared to Groups II and III. In serum, the biomarkers (LDH, CK activities were significantly (P< 0.05 increased in Group II compared to pretreated Group IV. Histopathological studies were also co-relating with the above biochemical parameters. These findings concluded the cardioprotective effect of Morus alba on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system during isoprenaline -induced myocardial infarction in rats.

  14. Endogenous Cardioprotective Agents: Role in Pre and Postconditioning.

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    Penna, Claudia; Granata, Riccarda; Tocchetti, Carlo Gabriele; Gallo, Maria Pia; Alloatti, Giuseppe; Pagliaro, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death, chronic illness and disability in Western countries. The most common cause of CVD derives from the harmful effects of acute myocardial ischemia and subsequent reperfusion injury. Cardioprotection against acute ischemia/ reperfusion injury is made possible by the "conditioning protocols." Conditioning is obtained by applying a few periods of brief ischemia and reperfusion in the event of prolonged (index) ischemia that may cause myocardial infarction. Whilst the conditioning stimulus is applied before the index ischemia in ischemic pre-conditioning, it is applied after the event in post-conditioning. Pre and post- conditioning stimuli can be applied in a different/remote organ (remote pre- and post-conditioning); in this case conditioning stimulus can also be applied during the index event, in the so called remote per-conditioning. All these endogenous cardioprotective strategies recruit endogenous cytoprotective agents and factors that elicit specific cardioprotective pathways. Here, we discuss many of these cardioprotective factors compared to literature and highlight their main characteristics and mechanisms of action. Enphasis is given to endogenous cardioprotective agents acting or not on surface receptors, including chromogranin A derivatives, ghrelin-associated peptides, growth factors and cytokines, and to microvesicles and exosomes. Moreover the cardioprotective effects of gasotransmitters nitric oxide, hydrogen sulphide and carbon monoxide are reviewed. The possible clinical translation of these knowledge for future successful therapies is briefly and critically discussed.

  15. Effects of Brazilian Cardioprotective Diet Program on risk factors in patients with coronary heart disease: a Brazilian Cardioprotective Diet randomized pilot trial

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    Bernardete Weber

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Brazilian Cardioprotective Diet Program in reducing blood pressures, fasting glucose levels and body mass indices in patients with established atherothrombotic disease. METHOD: This randomized controlled pilot trial included outpatients who were over 45 years of age with atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease. Group A, who received the Brazilian Cardioprotective Diet Program, had weekly sessions with dietitians. Groups B and C received the usual dietary therapy that is given to patients with cardiovascular diseases as proposed by the Brazilian guidelines. This diet had the same nutrient profile as that given to Group A, but it was customized by the integration of typical Mediterranean foods. The difference between Groups B and C was the number of sessions with the dietitian. Group B received weekly sessions, while group C only had monthly sessions. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT 01453166. RESULTS: There was a greater reduction in systolic (7.8% and diastolic (10.8% blood pressures in Group A compared with Group B (2.3% and 7.3%, and Group C (3.9% and 4.9%, respectively. Fasting glucose decreased by 5.3% and 2% in Groups A and B, respectively. Fasting glucose increased by 3.7% in Group C. The BMIs decreased by 3.5% and 3.3% in Groups A and B, respectively. Group C did not present with any changes in BMI. However, none of these data showed statistical differences between the groups, which is methodologically acceptable in pilot trials. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian Cardioprotective Diet Program seems to be more effective in reducing blood pressures, fasting glucose levels, weights and BMIs in patients with previous cardiovascular disease compared with the diet that has been proposed by the Brazilian guidelines.

  16. Cardioprotective effects of exercise training on myofilament calcium activation in ovariectomized rats.

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    Bupha-Intr, Tepmanas; Wattanapermpool, Jonggonnee

    2004-05-01

    The risks associated with hormone replacement therapy, especially cardiac diseases in postmenopausal women, have prompted extensive studies for other preventive or therapeutic alternatives. We investigated the cardioprotective effects of exercise training on the changes in cardiac myofilament Ca2+ activation in 10-wk-old ovariectomized rats. The exercise groups were subjected to a 9-wk running program on a motor-driven treadmill 1 wk after surgery. The relationship between pCa (-log molar free Ca2+ concentration) and myofibrillar MgATPase activity of exercise-sham myofibrils or exercise-ovariectomized myofibrils was the same and could not be distinguished from that of sedentary-sham control hearts. In contrast, a significant suppression in maximum MgATPase activity and a leftward shift of pCa50 (half-maximally activating pCa) in the pCa-ATPase activity relationship were detected in sedentary-ovariectomized rats. Exercise training also prevented the shift in myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms toward beta-MHC in ovariectomized hearts. The upregulation of beta1-adrenergic receptors in the left ventricular membranes of ovariectomized rat hearts, as measured by receptor binding and immunoblot analyses, was no longer observed in exercise-ovariectomized hearts. Immunoblot analyses of heat shock protein (HSP) 72, an inducible form of HSP70, demonstrated a significant downregulation in ovariectomized hearts. Exercise training in ovariectomized rats completely reversed the expression of HSP72 to the same level as sham controls. Our results clearly indicate the cardioprotective effects of exercise training on changes in cardiac myofilament Ca2+ activation in ovariectomized rats. Alterations in expression of beta1-adrenergic receptors and HSP72 may, in part, play a mechanistic role in the cardioprotective effects.

  17. Cardioprotection and pharmacological therapies in acute myocardial infarction: Challenges in the current era.

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    Dominguez-Rodriguez, Alberto; Abreu-Gonzalez, Pedro; Reiter, Russel J

    2014-03-26

    In patients with an acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, timely myocardial reperfusion using primary percutaneous coronary intervention is the most effective therapy for limiting myocardial infarct size, preserving left-ventricular systolic function and reducing the onset of heart failure. Within minutes after the restoration of blood flow, however, reperfusion itself results in additional damage, also known as myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. An improved understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying reperfusion injury has resulted in the identification of several promising pharmacological (cyclosporin-A, exenatide, glucose-insulin-potassium, atrial natriuretic peptide, adenosine, abciximab, erythropoietin, metoprolol and melatonin) therapeutic strategies for reducing the severity of myocardial reperfusion injury. Many of these agents have shown promise in initial proof-of-principle clinical studies. In this article, we review the pathophysiology underlying myocardial reperfusion injury and highlight the potential pharmacological interventions which could be used in the future to prevent reperfusion injury and improve clinical outcomes in patients with coronary heart disease.

  18. Cardioprotective effect of cannabidiol in rats exposed to doxorubicin toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Amr A; Albuali, Waleed H; Al-Mulhim, Abdulruhman S; Jresat, Iyad

    2013-09-01

    The potential protective effect of cannabidiol, the major non-psychotropic Cannabis constituent, was investigated against doxorubicin cardiotoxicity in rats. Cardiotoxicity was induced by six equal doses of doxorubicin (2.5mgkg(-1) i.p., each) given at 48h intervals over two weeks to achieve a total dose of 15mgkg(-1). Cannabidiol treatment (5mgkg(-1)/day, i.p.) was started on the same day of doxorubicin administration and continued for four weeks. Cannabidiol significantly reduced the elevations of serum creatine kinase-MB and troponin T, and cardiac malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor-α, nitric oxide and calcium ion levels, and attenuated the decreases in cardiac reduced glutathione, selenium and zinc ions. Histopathological examination showed that cannabidiol ameliorated doxorubicin-induced cardiac injury. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that cannabidiol significantly reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor-κB, Fas ligand and caspase-3, and increased the expression of survivin in cardiac tissue of doxorubicin-treated rats. These results indicate that cannabidiol represents a potential protective agent against doxorubicin cardiac injury.

  19. Cardioprotective Effects of Tualang Honey: Amelioration of Cholesterol and Cardiac Enzymes Levels

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    Md. Ibrahim Khalil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Malaysian Tualang honey against isoproterenol- (ISO- induced myocardial infarction (MI in rats by investigating changes in the levels of cardiac marker enzymes, cardiac troponin I (cTnI, triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, lipid peroxidation (LPO products, and antioxidant defense system combined with histopathological examination. Male albino Wistar rats (n = 40 were pretreated orally with Tualang honey (3 g/kg/day for 45 days. Subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg in saline for two consecutive days caused a significant increase in serum cardiac marker enzymes (creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and aspartate transaminase (AST, cTnI, serum TC, and TG levels. In addition, ISO-induced myocardial injury was confirmed by a significant increase in heart lipid peroxidation (LPO products (TBARS and a significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx, GRx, and GST. Pretreatment of ischemic rats with Tualang honey conferred significant protective effects on all of the investigated biochemical parameters. The biochemical findings were further confirmed by histopathological examination in both Tualang-honey-pretreated and ISO-treated hearts. The present study demonstrates that Tualang honey confers cardioprotective effects on ISO-induced oxidative stress by contributing to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity via inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

  20. Cardioprotective effect of Sida rhomboidea. Roxb extract against isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Ansarullah; Karn, Sanjay S; Shah, Jigar D; Patel, Dipak K; Salunke, Sunita P; Padate, Geeta S; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2011-05-01

    The present study investigates cardioprotective effect of Sida rhomboidea. Roxb (SR) extract on heart weight, plasma lipid profile, plasma marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation, endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and membrane bound ATPases against isoproterenol (IP) induced myocardial necrosis (MN) in rats. Rats treated with IP (85 mg/kg, s.c.) recorded significant (p<0.05) increment in heart weight, plasma lipid profile, plasma marker enzymes of cardiac damage, cardiac lipid peroxidation (LPO) and activity levels of Ca(+2) ATPase whereas there was significant (p<0.05) decrease in plasma HDL, cardiac endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, Na(+)-K(+) ATPase and Mg(+2) ATPase. Pre-treatment with SR extract (400 mg/kg per day, p.o.) for 30 consecutive days followed by IP injections on days 29th and 30th, showed significant (p<0.05) decrease in heart weight, plasma lipid profile, plasma marker enzymes of cardiac damage, cardiac lipid peroxidation, Ca(+2) ATPase and significant increase in plasma HDL, cardiac endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, Na(+)-K(+) ATPase and Mg(+2) ATPase compared to IP treated group. Hence, this study is the first scientific report on cardioprotective effect of SR against IP induced MN in rats.

  1. Cardioprotective Effects of Melatonin on Recovery of Rat Donor Hearts after 12-Hour Preservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高思海; 李平; 潘铁成; 杨辰垣

    2003-01-01

    The cardioprotective effects of melatonin on recovery of rat donor hearts after 12 h of preservation were investigated. Wistar rats weighing 200 to 250 g (n= 24) were randomly divided into 3 groups. In the non-storage group (n= 8), donor hearts were not stored. In the melatonin group (n=8), donor hearts were stored in 4 ℃ St. Thomas solution with melatonin (0. 1 mmol/L). In the control group (n=8), donor hearts were stored in 4 C St. Thomas solution only. The coronary flow (CF), cardiac function, coronary vasodilatory response, creatine kinase (CK) and high energy phosphate levels were measured after the hearts had been preserved for 12 h. Transmission electron microscopy was used to examine the microstructural changes after 12 h of preservation. The recovery of cardiac function and coronary vasodilatory response were significantly improved in the melatonin group (P<0.01). CK release decreased greatly in the melatonin group (P<0.01). High energy phosphate levels were significantly better preserved in the melatonin group (P<0. 01). Histological findings were much better in the melatonin group than in the control group. These results suggest that melatonin has cardioprotective effects on the recovery of rat donor hearts after 12 h of preservation.

  2. Cardioprotective effects of Guanxinshutong (GXST) against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuo Liang; Li-Feng Liu; Tian-Ming Yao; Yu Huo; Ya-Ling Han

    2012-01-01

    Background The protective effects against reperfusion injury of cardioprotective drugs have recently been evaluated and found to be inadequate. Guanxinshutong (GXST), a combination of the traditional herb and Mongolian medicine, is effective and safe in treating angina pectoris in clinical trials. We assess the cardioprotective effects of GXST against myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (MI/R) injury in rats and explore its possible mechanism. Methods Forty-five male Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into three groups: non-MI/R group (Sham, n = 15), MI/R group treated with vehicle (Control, n = 15) and MI/R group treated with GXST (Drug, n = 15). MI/R was induced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) for 30 minutes, followed by 2/24 hour reperfusion in the Control and Drug groups. In the Sham group, the LAD was exposed without occlusion. GXST powder (in the Drug group) or saline (in the Control and Sham groups) were administered via direct gastric gavage from 7 day prior to surgery. Blood samples were collected from the carotid artery (10 rats each group) after 2 hours of reperfusion, to determine the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The animals were then sacrificed and the hearts were harvested for histopathology and western blot analysis. Infarct size was measured in the remaining five rats in each group after 24 hours reperfusion. Results GXST significantly decreased levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, ICAM-1, apoptosis index (AI) and infarct size. GXST also obviously inhibited nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity when compared with the Control group (all P < 0.05). Conclusions GXST is effective in protecting the myocardium against MI/R injury in rats. Its possible cardioprotective mechanism involves inhibition of the inflammatory response and apoptosis following MI/R injury.

  3. Potent cardioprotective effect of the 4-anilinoquinazoline derivative PD153035: involvement of mitochondrial K(ATP channel activation.

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    Renata A Cavalheiro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of the 4-anilinoquinazoline derivative PD153035 on cardiac ischemia/reperfusion and mitochondrial function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Perfused rat hearts and cardiac HL-1 cells were used to determine cardioprotective effects of PD153035. Isolated rat heart mitochondria were studied to uncover mechanisms of cardioprotection. Nanomolar doses of PD153035 strongly protect against heart and cardiomyocyte damage induced by ischemia/reperfusion and cyanide/aglycemia. PD153035 did not alter oxidative phosphorylation, nor directly prevent Ca(2+ induced mitochondrial membrane permeability transition. The protective effect of PD153035 on HL-1 cells was also independent of AKT phosphorylation state. Interestingly, PD153035 activated K(+ transport in isolated mitochondria, in a manner prevented by ATP and 5-hydroxydecanoate, inhibitors of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+ channels (mitoK(ATP. 5-Hydroxydecanoate also inhibited the cardioprotective effect of PD153035 in cardiac HL-1 cells, demonstrating that this protection is dependent on mitoK(ATP activation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that PD153035 is a potent cardioprotective compound and acts in a mechanism involving mitoK(ATP activation.

  4. Antioxidant Activity and Cardioprotective Effect of a Nonalcoholic Extract of Vaccinium meridionale Swartz during Ischemia-Reperfusion in Rats

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    Yasmin E. Lopera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to assess the antioxidant properties and the effects against the reperfusion injury of a nonalcoholic extract obtained by fermentation from the Colombian blueberry, mortiño (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz, Ericaceae. Antioxidant properties were assessed by in vitro systems. To examine the postischemic myocardial function, isolated rat hearts were treated 10 min before ischemia and during the first 10 min of reperfusion with the extract. To analyze the participation of nitric oxide (NO, other experiments were performed in the presence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibition with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME. In cardiac tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS concentration, reduced glutathione (GSH content, endothelial NOS (eNOS, and Akt expression were also measured. The blueberry extract showed higher total phenols and anthocyanins contents, scavenging activity of superoxide radical and systolic and diastolic function was improved, TBARS diminished, GSH was partially preserved, and both NOS and Akt expression increased in hearts treated with the extract. These beneficial effects were lost when eNOS was inhibited. In resume, these data show that the increase of eNOS expression via Akt and the scavenging activity contribute to the cardioprotection afforded by acute treatment with Colombian blueberry extract against ischemia and reperfusion injury.

  5. Hyperglycemia-Induced Inhibition of DJ-1 Expression Compromised the Effectiveness of Ischemic Postconditioning Cardioprotection in Rats

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    Min Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia postconditioning (IpostC is an effective way to alleviate ischemia and reperfusion injury; however, the protective effects seem to be impaired in candidates with diabetes mellitus. To gain deep insight into this phenomenon, we explored the role of DJ-1, a novel oncogene, that may exhibit powerful antioxidant capacity in postconditioning cardioprotection in a rat model of myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury. Compared with normal group, cardiac DJ-1 was downregulated in diabetes. Larger postischemic infarct size as well as exaggeration of oxidative stress was observed, while IpostC reversed the above changes in normal but not in diabetic rats. DJ-1 was increased after ischemia and postconditioning contributed to a further elevation; however, no alteration of DJ-1 was documented in all subgroups of diabetic rats. Alteration of the cardioprotective PI3K/Akt signaling proteins may be responsible for the ineffectiveness of postconditioning in diabetes. There is a positive correlation relationship between p-Akt and DJ-1 but a negative correlation between infarct size and DJ-1, which may partially explain the interaction of DJ-1 and IpostC cardioprotection. Our result indicates a beneficial role of DJ-1 in myocardial ischemia reperfusion. Downregulation of cardiac DJ-1 may be responsible for the compromised diabetic heart responsiveness to IpostC cardioprotection.

  6. Cardioprotective Effect of Saffron Extract and Safranal in Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Wistar Rats

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    Roya Mehdizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:This study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of Crocus sativus L. (saffronaqueous extract and safranal, the major constituent of the essential oil of saffron, on lipid peroxidation, biochemical parameters and histopathological findings in isoproterenol (ISO-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods:The saffron extract (20, 40, 80 and 160 mg/kg/day IP or control were administered for 9 days along with ISO (85 mg/kg, SC, at 24 hr interval on 8th and 9th day in rats. Activities of creatine kinase-muscle, brain (CK-MB and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were measured using standard commercial kits. The level of malondialdehyde in heart tissue was estimated with thiobarbituric acid reactive species test. For histopathological examination, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining was used. Results:ISO administration induced a statistically significant increase          (P

  7. A New Therapeutic Modality for Acute Myocardial Infarction: Nanoparticle-Mediated Delivery of Pitavastatin Induces Cardioprotection from Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury via Activation of PI3K/Akt Pathway and Anti-Inflammation in a Rat Model.

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    Kazuhiro Nagaoka

    Full Text Available There is an unmet need to develop an innovative cardioprotective modality for acute myocardial infarction (AMI, for which the effectiveness of interventional reperfusion therapy is hampered by myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury. Pretreatment with statins before ischemia is shown to reduce MI size in animals. However, no benefit was found in animals and patients with AMI when administered at the time of reperfusion, suggesting insufficient drug targeting into the IR myocardium. Here we tested the hypothesis that nanoparticle-mediated targeting of pitavastatin protects the heart from IR injury.In a rat IR model, poly(lactic acid/glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticle incorporating FITC accumulated in the IR myocardium through enhanced vascular permeability, and in CD11b-positive leukocytes in the IR myocardium and peripheral blood after intravenous treatment. Intravenous treatment with PLGA nanoparticle containing pitavastatin (Pitavastatin-NP, 1 mg/kg at reperfusion reduced MI size after 24 hours and ameliorated left ventricular dysfunction 4-week after reperfusion; by contrast, pitavastatin alone (as high as 10 mg/kg showed no therapeutic effects. The therapeutic effects of Pitavastatin-NP were blunted by a PI3K inhibitor wortmannin, but not by a mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitor cyclosporine A. Pitavastatin-NP induced phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3β, and inhibited inflammation and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in the IR myocardium.Nanoparticle-mediated targeting of pitavastatin induced cardioprotection from IR injury by activation of PI3K/Akt pathway and inhibition of inflammation and cardiomyocyte death in this model. This strategy can be developed as an innovative cardioprotective modality that may advance currently unsatisfactory reperfusion therapy for AMI.

  8. Is ADH1C genotype relevant for the cardioprotective effect of alcohol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høiseth, Gudrun; Magnus, Per; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Jansen, Mona Dverdal; Næss, Oyvind; Tambs, Kristian; Mørland, Jørg

    2013-03-01

    The cardioprotective effect of ethanol has been suggested to be linked to one of the ethanol metabolizing enzymes (ADH1C), which constitutes a high V(max) and a low V(max) variant. This has been demonstrated in some studies, while others have not been able to replicate the findings. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between the different ADH1C genotypes, death from coronary heart disease (CHD) and alcohol in a material larger than the previously published studies. Eight hundred CHD deaths as well as 1303 controls were genotyped for the high V(max) (γ1) and the low V(max) (γ2) ADH1C variant. Information of alcohol use was available for all subjects. Multiple logistic regression analyses was used to study if the decreased risk of death from CHD in alcohol consuming subjects was more pronounced in subjects homozygous for the γ2 allele (γ2γ2 subjects) compared to γ1γ1 and γ1γ2 subjects. The odds ratio (OR) for death from CHD in alcohol consumers compared to abstainers was similar in the genotype groups, i.e., 0.62 (95% CI: 0.43-0.88) in γ1γ1 subjects and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.42-0.91) in γ2γ2 subjects. Also when stratifying the results by gender and when dividing alcohol consumers into different alcohol consumption groups, there was no difference in the OR between the different genotype groups. This study, which included the largest study group published so far, failed to find any link between the ADH1C genotype and the cardioprotective effects of alcohol.

  9. Attenuation of oxidative stress and cardioprotective effects of zinc supplementation in experimental diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Susmita; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2017-03-01

    Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, which further exacerbates damage of cardiac, hepatic and other tissues. We have recently reported that Zn supplementation beneficially modulates hyperglycaemia and hypoinsulinaemia, with attendant reduction of associated metabolic abnormalities in diabetic rats. The present study assessed the potential of Zn supplementation in modulating oxidative stress and cardioprotective effects in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats with streptozotocin, and groups of diabetic rats were treated with 5- and 10-fold dietary Zn interventions (0·19 and 0·38 g Zn/kg diet) for 6 weeks. The markers of oxidative stress, antioxidant enzyme activities and concentrations of antioxidant molecules, lipid profile, and expressions of fibrosis and pro-apoptotic factors in the cardiac tissue were particularly assessed. Supplemental Zn showed significant attenuation of diabetes-induced oxidative stress in terms of altered antioxidant enzyme activities and increased the concentrations of antioxidant molecules. Hypercholesterolaemia and hyperlipidaemia were also significantly countered by Zn supplementation. Along with attenuated oxidative stress, Zn supplementation also showed significant cardioprotective effects by altering the mRNA expressions of fibrosis and pro-apoptotic factors (by >50 %). The expression of lipid oxidative marker 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) protein in cardiac tissue of diabetic animals was rectified (68 %) by Zn supplementation. Elevated cardiac and hepatic markers in circulation and pathological abnormalities in cardiac and hepatic tissue architecture of diabetic animals were ameliorated by dietary Zn intervention. The present study indicates that Zn supplementation can attenuate diabetes-induced oxidative stress in circulation as well as in cardiac and hepatic tissues.

  10. Mast cells, peptides and cardioprotection - an unlikely marriage?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, S K

    2012-01-31

    1 Mast cells have classically been regarded as the \\'bad guys\\' in the setting of acute myocardial ischaemia, where their released contents are believed to contribute both to tissue injury and electrical disturbances resulting from ischaemia. Recent evidence suggests, however, that if mast cell degranulation occurs in advance of ischaemia onset, this may be cardioprotective by virtue of the depletion of mast cell contents that can no longer act as instruments of injury when the tissue becomes ischaemic. 2 Many peptides, such as ET-1, adrenomedullin, relaxin and atrial natriuretic peptide, have been demonstrated to be cardioprotective when given prior to the onset of myocardial ischaemia, although their physiological functions are varied and the mechanisms of their cardioprotective actions appear to be diverse and often ill defined. However, one common denominator that is emerging is the ability of these peptides to modulate mast cell degranulation, raising the possibility that peptide-induced mast cell degranulation or stabilization may hold the key to a common mechanism of their cardioprotection. 3 The aim of this review was to consolidate the evidence implying that mast cell degranulation could play both a detrimental and protective role in myocardial ischaemia, depending upon when it occurs, and that this may underlie the cardioprotective effects of a range of diverse peptides that exerts physiological effects within the cardiovascular system.

  11. A novel cardioprotective agent in cardiac transplantation: metformin activation of AMP-activated protein kinase decreases acute ischemia-reperfusion injury and chronic rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jocelyn T; Troke, Joshua J; Kimura, Naoyuki; Itoh, Satoshi; Wang, Xi; Palmer, Owen P; Robbins, Robert C; Fischbein, Michael P

    2011-12-01

    The main cause of mortality after the first year from cardiac transplantation is cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV), which leads to chronic rejection of the heart. To improve long-term outcomes in cardiac transplantation, treatments to prevent or diminish CAV are actively being researched. Ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury has been shown to be the strongest alloantigen-independent factor in the development of CAV. Here, we investigate the use of metformin in murine cardiac transplantation models as a novel cardioprotective agent to limit acute I-R injury and subsequent chronic rejection. We show that metformin treatment activates AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) in vitro and in vivo. In the acute transplantation model, metformin activation of AMPK resulted in significantly decreased apoptosis in cardiac allografts on postoperative day (POD) 1 and 8. In the chronic transplantation model, metformin pretreatment of allografts led to significantly improved graft function and significantly decreased CAV, as measured on POD 52. Taken together, our results in the acute and chronic rejection studies suggest a potential cardioprotective mechanism for metformin; we demonstrate a correlation between metformin-induced decrease in acute I-R injury and metformin-related decrease in chronic rejection. Thus, one of the ways by which metformin and AMPK activation may protect the transplanted heart from chronic rejection is by decreasing initial I-R injury inherent in donor organ preservation and implantation. Our findings suggest novel therapeutic strategies for minimizing chronic cardiac rejection via the use of metformin- and AMPK-mediated pathways to suppress acute I-R injury.

  12. Delayed cardioprotection is mediated via a non-peptide delta opioid agonist, SNC-121, independent of opioid receptor stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hemal H; Hsu, Anna; Gross, Garrett J

    2004-01-01

    Acute cardioprotection is mediated primarily through delta opioid receptor stimulation independent of micro or kappa opioid receptor stimulation. Delayed cardioprotection is mediated by delta opioid receptor agonists but ambiguity remains about direct receptor involvement. Therefore, we investigated the potential of SNC-121, a non-peptide delta opioid agonist, to produce delayed cardioprotection and characterized the role of opioid receptors in this delayed response. All rats underwent 30 minutes of ischemia followed by 2 hours of reperfusion. SNC-121 induced a significant delayed cardioprotective effect. To determine the nature of this SNC-121-induced delayed cardioprotection, rats were treated with specific opioids receptor antagonists and underwent pertussis toxin (PT) treatment prior to opioid agonist stimulation. Control rats were injected with saline and allowed to recover for 24 hours. Pretreatment and early treatment with opioid receptor antagonists failed to inhibit the delayed protective effects of SNC-121, as did pretreatment with PT. Treatment with a free radical scavenger, 2-mercaptopropionyl glycine, at the time of opioid stimulation attenuated the delayed cardioprotective effects of SNC-121. These data suggest that delayed cardioprotection is stimulated via non-peptide delta opioid agonists by a mechanism unrelated to opioid receptor activation. The mechanism appears to be a non-opioid receptor mediated production of reactive oxygen species that triggers the signaling cascade leading to delayed cardioprotection.

  13. Natural polyphenols and cardioprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecour, S; Lamont, K T

    2011-12-01

    With more than 8000 polyphenols found in food (mainly, wine, tea, coffee, cocoa, vegetables and cereals), many epidemiological studies suggest that the intake of polyphenol-rich foods has a beneficial effect on a large number of cardiovascular risk factors, such as high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, obesity, diabetes and smoking. The mechanisms involved in the cardioprotective effects of polyphenols are numerous and include antioxidant, vasodilator, anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic, antiapoptotic and metabolic. Most importantly, recent experimental data demonstrate that polyphenols can exert its cardioprotective effect via the activation of several powerful prosurvival cellular pathways that involve metabolic intermediates, microRNAs, sirtuins and mediators of the recently described reperfusion injury salvage kinases (RISK) and survivor activating factor enhancement (SAFE) pathways.

  14. Cardiac Sirt1 mediates the cardioprotective effect of caloric restriction by suppressing local complement system activation after ischemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tsunehisa; Tamaki, Kayoko; Shirakawa, Kohsuke; Ito, Kentaro; Yan, Xiaoxiang; Katsumata, Yoshinori; Anzai, Atsushi; Matsuhashi, Tomohiro; Endo, Jin; Inaba, Takaaki; Tsubota, Kazuo; Sano, Motoaki; Fukuda, Keiichi; Shinmura, Ken

    2016-04-15

    Caloric restriction (CR) confers cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. We previously found the essential roles of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the development of CR-induced cardioprotection and Sirt1 activation during CR (Shinmura K, Tamaki K, Ito K, Yan X, Yamamoto T, Katsumata Y, Matsuhashi T, Sano M, Fukuda K, Suematsu M, Ishii I. Indispensable role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in caloric restriction-induced cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury.Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 308: H894-H903, 2015). However, the exact mechanism by which Sirt1 in cardiomyocytes mediates the cardioprotective effect of CR remains undetermined. We subjected cardiomyocyte-specific Sirt1 knockout (CM-Sirt1(-/-)) mice and the corresponding control mice to either 3-mo ad libitum feeding or CR (-40%). Isolated perfused hearts were subjected to 25-min global ischemia, followed by 60-min reperfusion. The recovery of left ventricle function after I/R was improved, and total lactate dehydrogenase release into the perfusate during reperfusion was attenuated in the control mice treated with CR, but a similar cardioprotective effect of CR was not observed in the CM-Sirt1(-/-)mice. The expression levels of cardiac complement component 3 (C3) at baseline and the accumulation of C3 and its fragments in the ischemia-reperfused myocardium were attenuated by CR in the control mice, but not in the CM-Sirt1(-/-)mice. Resveratrol treatment also attenuated the expression levels of C3 protein in cultured neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. Moreover, the degree of myocardial I/R injury in conventional C3 knockout (C3(-/-)) mice treated with CR was similar to that in the ad libitum-fed C3(-/-)mice, although the expression levels of Sirt1 were enhanced by CR. These results demonstrate that cardiac Sirt1 plays an essential role in CR-induced cardioprotection against I/R injury by suppressing cardiac C3 expression. This is the first report suggesting

  15. Cardioprotective activity of placental growth factor combined with oral supplementation of L-arginine in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo L

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Liyun Luo,1,* Bairong Chen,1,* Yin Huang,1 Zibin Liang,2 Songbiao Li,1 Yuelan Yin,1 Jian Chen,1 Wei Wu1 1Department of Cardiology, 2Department of Oncological Radiotherapy, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Zhuhai, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workObjective: Exogenous administration of placental growth factor (PlGF stimulates angiogenesis and improves ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction (AMI, and supplementation with L-arginine ameliorates endothelial function. The objective of the present study was to compare the cardioprotective effects of combination therapy of PlGF and L-arginine with those of direct administration of PlGF alone in a rat model of AMI.Materials and methods: Fifty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: sham group, normal saline group, L-arginine group, PlGF group, and combination group (PlGF + L-arginine. An AMI rat model was established by ligation of the left anterior descending of coronary arteries. After 4 weeks of postligation treatment, cardiac function, scar area, angiogenesis and arteriogenesis, myocardial endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and collagen I protein content, and plasma concentration of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP were studied. Echocardiography, Masson’s staining, immunohistochemical analyses, Western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were performed.Results: Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, left ventricular fraction shortening (LVFS, and capillary and arteriole densities were higher in the PlGF group than in the normal saline group (P<0.01. Scar area, collagen I protein content, and plasma concentration of BNP were decreased in the PlGF group (P<0.01. Myocardial eNOS protein level was elevated in the L-arginine group and PlGF + L-arginine group (P<0.01. Compared with the PlGF group, LVEF, LVFS, myocardial eNOS, and capillary and arteriole densities were

  16. Protocatechuic acid exerts a cardioprotective effect in type 1 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaming, Yoswaris; Kumfu, Sirinart; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2014-10-01

    Oxidative stress has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction. Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is a phenolic compound, a main metabolite of anthocyanin, which has been reported to display various pharmacological properties. We proposed the hypothesis that PCA exerts cardioprotection in type 1 diabetic (T1DM) rats. T1DM was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by a single i.p. injection of 50 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) and groups of these animals received the following treatments for 12 weeks: i) oral administration of vehicle, ii) oral administration of PCA at a dose of 50  mg/kg per day, iii) oral administration of PCA at a dose of 100 mg/kg per day, iv) s.c. injection of insulin at a dose of 4 U/kg per day, and v) a combination of PCA, 100 mg/kg per day and insulin, 4 U/kg per day. Metabolic parameters, results from echocardiography, and heart rate variability were monitored every 4 weeks, and the HbA1c, cardiac malondialdehyde (MDA), cardiac mitochondrial function, and cardiac BAX/BCL2 expression were evaluated at the end of treatment. PCA, insulin, and combined drug treatments significantly improved metabolic parameters and cardiac function as shown by increased percentage fractional shortening and percentage left ventricular ejection fraction and decreased low-frequency:high-frequency ratio in T1DM rats. Moreover, all treatments significantly decreased plasma HbA1c and cardiac MDA levels, improved cardiac mitochondrial function, and increased BCL2 expression. Our results demonstrated for the first time, to our knowledge, the efficacy of PCA in improving cardiac function and cardiac autonomic balance, preventing cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction, and increasing anti-apoptotic protein in STZ-induced T1DM rats. Thus, PCA possesses a potential cardioprotective effect and could restore cardiac function when combined with insulin treatment. These findings indicated that supplementation with PCA might be

  17. Cardioprotective Effects of Quercetin in Cardiomyocyte under Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Wen Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quercetin, a polyphenolic compound existing in many vegetables, fruits, has antiinflammatory, antiproliferation, and antioxidant effect on mammalian cells. Quercetin was evaluated for protecting cardiomyocytes from ischemia/reperfusion injury, but its protective mechanism remains unclear in the current study. The cardioprotective effects of quercetin are achieved by reducing the activity of Src kinase, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3, caspase 9, Bax, intracellular reactive oxygen species production, and inflammatory factor and inducible MnSOD expression. Fluorescence two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS can reveal the differentially expressed proteins of H9C2 cells treated with H2O2 or quercetin. Although 17 identified proteins were altered in H2O2-induced cells, these proteins such as alpha-soluble NSF attachment protein (α-SNAP, Ena/VASP-like protein (Evl, and isopentenyl-diphosphate delta-isomerase 1 (Idi-1 were reverted by pretreatment with quercetin, which correlates with kinase activation, DNA repair, lipid, and protein metabolism. Quercetin dephosphorylates Src kinase in H2O2-induced H9C2 cells and likely blocks the H2O2-induced inflammatory response through STAT3 kinase modulation. This probably contributes to prevent ischemia/reperfusion injury in cardiomyocytes.

  18. Cardioprotective effects of early and late aerobic exercise training in experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Gonçalves, Daniel; Ferreira, Rita; Fonseca, Hélder; Padrão, Ana Isabel; Moreno, Nuno; Silva, Ana Filipa; Vasques-Nóvoa, Francisco; Gonçalves, Nádia; Vieira, Sara; Santos, Mário; Amado, Francisco; Duarte, José Alberto; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F; Henriques-Coelho, Tiago

    2015-11-01

    Clinical studies suggest that aerobic exercise can exert beneficial effects in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We compared the impact of early or late aerobic exercise training on right ventricular function, remodeling and survival in experimental PAH. Male Wistar rats were submitted to normal cage activity (SED), exercise training in early (EarlyEX) and in late stage (LateEX) of PAH induced by monocrotaline (MCT, 60 mg/kg). Both exercise interventions resulted in improved cardiac function despite persistent right pressure-overload, increased exercise tolerance and survival, with greater benefits in EarlyEX+MCT. This was accompanied by improvements in the markers of cardiac remodeling (SERCA2a), neurohumoral activation (lower endothelin-1, brain natriuretic peptide and preserved vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA), metabolism and mitochondrial oxidative stress in both exercise interventions. EarlyEX+MCT provided additional improvements in fibrosis, tumor necrosis factor-alpha/interleukin-10 and brain natriuretic peptide mRNA, and beta/alpha myosin heavy chain protein expression. The present study demonstrates important cardioprotective effects of aerobic exercise in experimental PAH, with greater benefits obtained when exercise training is initiated at an early stage of the disease.

  19. [Role of restricted nitric oxide overproduction in the cardioprotective effect of adaptation to intermittent hypoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    goriacheva, A V; Belkina, L M; Terekhina, O L; Dawney, H F; Mallet, R T; Smirin, B V; Smirnova, E A; Mashina, S Iu; Manukhina, E B

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation to intermittent normobaric hypoxia is cardioprotective and can stimulate nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. However the role of nitric oxide (NO) in prevention of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury of myocardium is controversial. This study was focused on evaluating the effect of adaptation to hypoxia and IR on NO production and development of nitrative stress in the myocardium. Adaptation to hypoxia tended to increase NO production, which was determined by the total level of plasma nitrite and nitrate, and prevented IR-induced NO overproduction. The IR-induced NO overproduction was associated with significant 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) accumulation in the left ventricle but not in septum or aorta. In hypoxia-adapted rats, 3-NT after IR was similar to that of control rats without IR. IHC induced marked accumulation of HIF-1alpha in the left ventricle. We suggest that HIF-1alpha contributes to NO-synthase expression during adaptation to hypoxia and thereby facilitates the increase in NO production. NO, in turn, may subsequently prevent NO overproduction during IR by a negative feedback mechanism.

  20. Cardioprotective effect of Kolaviron (Garcinia kola seed extract in cholesterol-fed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NWANERI-CHIDOZIE V. O.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids – a group of polyphenolic substances are naturally present in vegetables, fruits, seeds and beverages such as tea and wine. Studies have shown that flavonoid intake is inversely correlated with mortality from coronary heart diseases and myocardial infarction. The effect of kolaviron (a flavonoid complex extracted from Garcinia kola seeds on the organ weights (lungs, kidneys, heart, spleen and liver of rats administered with cholesterol, five times a week, for eight consecutive weeks was investigated. The results revealed that cholesterol administration at a dose of 30mg/day for eight consecutive weeks caused a significant increase (p<0.001 in relative heart weights of the cholesterol-fed rats when compared with the control. However, co-treatment with kolaviron at doses 100 and 200mg/kg significantly (p<0.001 reduced the cholesterol induced enlargement of the heart. This is a pointer to the cardioprotective potential of kolaviron; and thus suggests a possible use as a dietary supplement for the prevention and management of coronary heart diseases.

  1. Cardioprotective effect of L-glutamate in obese type 2 diabetic Zucker fatty rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Jonas Agerlund; Løfgren, Bo; Rasmussen, Lars Ege;

    2009-01-01

    1. Because diabetic hearts have an increased threshold for cardioprotection by ischaemic preconditioning (IPC), we hypothesized that protection by L-glutamate during reperfusion is restricted in Type 2 diabetic hearts. Previously, we found that L-glutamate-mediated postischaemic cardioprotection...... mimics IPC. 2. Rat hearts were studied in a Langendorff preparation perfused with Krebs'-Henseleit solution and subjected to 40 min global no-flow ischaemia, followed by 120 min reperfusion. L-Glutamate (0, 15 and 30 mmol/L) was added to the perfusate during reperfusion of hearts from non...

  2. CARDIOPROTECTION WITH SIMVASTATIN: AN APPRAISAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohilla Ankur

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Statins, commonly known as 3-hydroxymethyl-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are recognized as the foremost drug therapy to show cardioprotection in pathological conditions like dyslipidemia and hyperlipidemia by significantly reducing blood cholesterol levels. Additionally, a number of beneficial effects have been shown by statins apart from lipid lowering that are referred to as their pleiotropic effects. Simvastatin, a potent member of statins class, has been widely used for lowering blood cholesterol levels by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase both experimentally and clinically. Simvastatin has been well documented to be an effective drug therapy for the treatment of dyslipidemias. In addition, simvastatin has been shown to possess a variety of other pleiotropic effects in way of its potentiality as a cardioprotective agent. The present review critically discusses about the various pleiotropic effects possessed by simvastatin in affording cardioprotection.

  3. Human thioredoxin exerts cardioprotective effect and attenuates reperfusion injury in rats partially via inhibiting apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiao-wei; TENG Zong-yan; JIANG Li-hong; FAN Ying; ZHANG Yu-hua; LI Xiu-rong; ZHANG Yi-na

    2008-01-01

    Background Thioredoxin is one of the most important redox regulating proteins. Although thioredoxin has been shown to protect cells against different kinds of oxidative stress, the role of thioredoxin in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury has not been fully understood. This study was conducted to explore the protective role of human thioredoxin on myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury and its potential mechanisms.Methods Purified human thioredoxin was injected into adult Wister rats, which were subjected to 30 minutes of myocardial ischemia followed by 2 or 24 hours of reperfusion. We detected 1) the infarct size; 2) the level of malondisldehyde (MDA) in serum; 3) the expression of caspase-9, and cytochrome c in/out of mitochondia by Western blotting; 4) apoptosis by terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling ('rUNEL) assay and caspase-3 and its protein by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting; 5) the expression of bcl-2 and bax in cardium by immunohistochemical (IHC) assay.Results Human thioredoxin reduced myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury as evidenced by significant decrease of myocardial infarct size (P<0.01), notable reduction of myocyte apoptosis (P <0.01), lower systemic oxidative stress level (P <0.01) after reperfusion for 2 hours, and few inflammatory cell infiltration after reperfusion for 24 hours in rats. Furthermore, treatment with human thioredoxin significantly reduced the release of mitochondrial cytochrome C (P<0.05),and inhibited the activity of caspase-9 (P <0.05) and caspase-3 (P <0.01 in mRNA and P <0.05 at protein level).Meanwhile, human thioredoxin markedly increased bcl-2 expression (P <0.05).Conclusions These results strongly suggest that human thioredoxin has cardioprotective effects on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion and its anti-apoptotic role may be mediated by modulating bcl-2 and the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic signaling pathway.

  4. Comparison of cardioprotective effects of mibefradil and ramipril in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin-gui XIA; Thomas UNGER; Alexander REINECKE; Marc DORENKAMP; Christain STORZ; Havvo BITTERLING; Susanne PENZ; Jack CLEUTJENS; Mat JAP DAEMEN; Reichiger SIMON

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the cardioprotective effects of T-type calcium channel blocker mibefradil and compare with that of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor ramipril in a stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) model of congestive heart failure (CHF) after myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: SHR-SP rats were subjected to permanent ligation of the left anterior decending coronary artery. Treatment with mibefradil (10after induction of MI. Sham-operated rats served as controls. RESULTS: In placebo-treated MI rats, six weeks after MI, left ventricular circumference, inner diameter, and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) were increased, whereas mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and maximum rate of rise of left ventricular pressure (dp/dtmax) were decreased compared with sham-operated controls (P<0.01). In ramipril-treated MI rats, heart weight,heart weight to body weight ratio and interstitial collagen content were reduced (P<0.05, P<0.01), LVEDP was slightly decreased (P>0.05), and dp/dtmax was improved (P<0.01) compared with placebo-treated MI rats. In contrast, in mibefradil-treated MI rats, heart weight, heart weight to body weight ratio were slightly but not significantly reduced, LVEDP was slightly elevated compared with placebo-treated MI rats, and was elevated (P<0.05)compared with ramipril-treated MI rats, although interstitial collagen content were reduced (P<0.01) compared with placebo-treated MI rats. CONCLUSION: Chronic treatment with ramipril diminishes cardiac remodeling of heart failure after MI to a greater extent than mibefradil. Moreover, 6 weeks after MI, mibefradil treatment results in a slight rise in LVEDP compared with placebo-treated rats. Therefore, treatment with mibefradil might be deleterious rather than beneficial compared with ramipril or even placebo treatment in experimental MI.

  5. Cardioprotective effect of sevoflurane in patients with coronary artery disease undergoing vascular surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S Bassuoni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was conducted to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of sevoflurane compared with propofol in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD undergoing peripheral vascular surgery; and to address the question whether a volatile anesthetic might improve cardiac outcome in these patients. Methods: One hundred twenty-six patients scheduled for elective peripheral vascular surgery were prospectively randomized to receive either sevoflurane inhalation anesthesia or total intravenous anesthesia. ST-segment monitoring was performed continuously during intra- and post-operative 48 h periods. The number of ischemic events and the cumulative duration of ischemia in each patient were recorded. Blood was sampled in all patients for the determination of cTnI. Samples were obtained before the induction of anesthesia, on admission to the ICU, and at 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after admission to the intensive care unit (ICU. Patients were followed-up during their hospital stay for any adverse cardiac events. Results: The incidence of ischemia were comparable among the groups [16 (25% patients in sevoflurane group vs 24 (39% patients in propofol group; P=0.126]. Duration, cumulative duration, and magnitude of ST-segment depression of ischemic events in each patient were significantly less in sevoflurane group (P=0.008, 0.048, 0.038, respectively. cTnI levels of the overall population were significantly less in sevoflurane group vs propofol group (P values <0.0001 from 6 h postoperative and onward. Meanwhile, cTnI levels at 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after admission to the ICU in patients who presented with ischemic electrocardiographic (ECG changes were significantly lower in sevoflurane group than in the propofol group (P<0.0001, <0.0001, <0.0001, 0.0003. None of the patients presented with unstable angina, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, or serious arrhythmia either during ICU or hospital stay. Conclusion: Patients with CAD

  6. [Approaches potentiating cardioprotective effect of ambulatory physical training in patients with ischemic heart disease and multivessel coronary artery involvement after coronary stenting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liamina, N P; Kotel'nikova, E V; Biziaeva, E A; Karpova, É S

    2014-01-01

    Cardiorehabilitation of patients with multivessel coronary lesions is an obligatory component of ambulatory stage of care. With the aim of potentiating cardioprotective and antiischemic impact of rehabilitative preventive measures in 36 patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and multivessel coronary artery involvement who had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention we studied cardioprotective and antiischemic effect of long-term (24 weeks) administration of 70 mg/day trimetazidine in combination with moderate intensity physical training with the use of distance surveillance by a physician. The chosen therapeutic approach in patients with residual ischemia after incomplete anatomical revascularization provided early persistent formation of cardioprotective and antiischemic effect proven by increase of tolerance to physical exercise, improvement of diastolic function, and positive dynamics of both ECG parameters and biochemical markers of myocardial ischemia.

  7. Cardioprotective Effect of Licochalcone D against Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Langendorff-Perfused Rat Hearts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Yuan

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are important components of 'functional foods', with beneficial effects on cardiovascular function. The present study was designed to investigate whether licochalcone D (LD could be a cardioprotective agent in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury and to shed light on its possible mechanism. Compared with the I/R group, LD treatment enhanced myocardial function (increased LVDP, dp/dtmax, dp/dtmin, HR and CR and suppressed cardiac injury (decreased LDH, CK and myocardial infarct size. Moreover, LD treatment reversed the I/R-induced cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP, resulting in a significant decrease in proinflammatory factors and an increase in antioxidant capacity in I/R myocardial tissue. The mechanisms underlying the antiapoptosis, antiinflammation and antioxidant effects were related to the activation of the AKT pathway and to the blockage of the NF-κB/p65 and p38 MAPK pathways in the I/R-injured heart. Additionally, LD treatment markedly activated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and reduced nitric oxide (NO production. The findings indicated that LD had real cardioprotective potential and provided support for the use of LD in myocardial I/R injury.

  8. Cardioprotective Effects of Salvianolic Acid A on Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury In Vivo and In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaying Fan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Salvianolic acid A (SAA, one of the major active components of Danshen that is a traditional Chinese medicine, has been reported to possess protective effect in cardiac diseases and antioxidative activity. This study aims to investigate the cardioprotection of SAA in vivo and in vitro using the model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion in rat and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts apoptosis. It was found that SAA significantly limited infarct size of ischemic myocardium when given immediately prior to reperfusion. SAA also significantly suppressed cellular injury and apoptotic cell death. Additionally, the results of western blot and phospho-specific antibody microarray analysis showed that SAA could up-regulate Bcl-2 expression and increase the phosphorylation of proteins such as Akt, p42/p44 extracellular signal-related kinases (Erk1/2, and their related effectors. The phosphorylation of those points was related to suppress apoptosis. In summary, SAA possesses marked protective effect on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, which is related to its ability to reduce myocardial cell apoptosis and damage induced by oxidative stress. The protection is achieved via up-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and affecting protein phosphorylation. These findings indicate that SAA may be of value in cardioprotection during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, which provide pharmacological evidence for clinical application.

  9. Cardioprotective Effects of Salvianolic Acid A on Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury In Vivo and In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Huaying; Yang, Liu; Fu, Fenghua; Xu, Hui; Meng, Qinggang; Zhu, Haibo; Teng, Lirong; Yang, Mingyan; Zhang, Leiming; Zhang, Ziliang; Liu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    Salvianolic acid A (SAA), one of the major active components of Danshen that is a traditional Chinese medicine, has been reported to possess protective effect in cardiac diseases and antioxidative activity. This study aims to investigate the cardioprotection of SAA in vivo and in vitro using the model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion in rat and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts apoptosis. It was found that SAA significantly limited infarct size of ischemic myocardium when given immediately prior to reperfusion. SAA also significantly suppressed cellular injury and apoptotic cell death. Additionally, the results of western blot and phospho-specific antibody microarray analysis showed that SAA could up-regulate Bcl-2 expression and increase the phosphorylation of proteins such as Akt, p42/p44 extracellular signal-related kinases (Erk1/2), and their related effectors. The phosphorylation of those points was related to suppress apoptosis. In summary, SAA possesses marked protective effect on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, which is related to its ability to reduce myocardial cell apoptosis and damage induced by oxidative stress. The protection is achieved via up-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and affecting protein phosphorylation. These findings indicate that SAA may be of value in cardioprotection during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, which provide pharmacological evidence for clinical application. PMID:21789047

  10. The cardioprotective and inotropic components of the postconditioning effects of GLP-1 and GLP-1(9-36)a in an isolated rat heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ossum, Alvilde; van Deurs, Ulla; Engstrøm, Thomas;

    2009-01-01

    GLP-1 and its metabolite GLP-1(9-36)a have been shown to exert cardiotropic effects, and were demonstrated to be cardioprotective agents in isolated, postischemic rat or mouse hearts. An agent's total effect on myocardial performance in a postconditioning paradigm is a sum of its myocyte-preservi...

  11. Progress of cardioprotective effects of high density lipoprotein: function and mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-ge SUN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The high density lipoprotein (HDL in human plasma is a heterogeneous lipoprotein consisting of roughly equal contents of lipid and protein in roughly equal content, and it consists of several subtypes. HDL possesses several well-documented functions, including anti-atherosclerosis by promoting reverse cholesterol transport, inhibiting the oxidative modification of low density lipoproteins (LDLs, inhibiting vascular inflammation, preventing thrombosis and apoptosis, and promoting endothelial repair. Recently, more cardiovascular protective functions of HDL have been found, mainly including the ability of suppressing immune inflammatory reaction, inhibiting the proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells, and regulating the plasma glucose level. It is of great importance to understand how different HDL subtypes contribute to the potentially cardioprotective functions. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.11.13

  12. Cardioprotective effects of simvastatin on reversing electrical remodeling induced by myocardial ischemia-reperfusion in normocholesterolemic rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Chao; FU Xiang-hua; HE Zhen-shan; CHEN Hui-xiao; XUE Ling; LI Jun-xia

    2008-01-01

    Background Recent studies have revealed that pretreatment with statin is effective in preventing armythmia,but its electrophysiological mechanism is unclear.This study was conducted to investigate the cardioprotective effects of simvastatin on reversing electrical remodeling in left ventricular myocytes of rabbit heart undergoing ischemia-reperfusion.so as to explore the ionic mechanism responsible for the anti-arrhythmic effect of statin.Methods Forty-five rabbits were randomly divided into three groups:ischemic-reperfusion group(I-R),simvastatin intervention group (Statin) and sham-operated control group(CON).Anesthetized rabbits were subjected to 30-minute ischemia by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery and a 60-minute reperfusion after a 3-day administration of oral simvastatin of 5 mg·kg-1·d-1 in the Statin group or a placebo in the I-R group.Single ventricular myocytes were isolated enzymatically from the epicardial zone of the infracted region derived from the hearts in the I-R and Statin group and the same anatomical region in the CON animals.The whole cell patch-clamp technique was used to record membrane ionic currents,including sodium current(Ina),L-type calcium current(Ica-L)and transient outward potassium current(Ito).Simultaneously,the level of serum cholesterol was examined.Results There was no significant difference in the serum cholesterol concentration among the three groups.The peak Ina current density(at-30 mV)was significantly decreased in I-R((-22.46±5.32)pA/pF,n=12)compared with CON ((-42.78±5.48)pA/pF,n=16,P<0.01)and Statin((-40.66±5.89)pA/pF,n=15,P<0.01),while the peak Ina current density in the Statin group was not different from CON(P>0.05).The peak Ica-L current density(at 0 mV)was significantly increased in I-R((-4.34±0.92)pA/pF,n=15)compared with CON((-3.13±1.22)pA/pF,n=13,P<0.05)and Statin ((-3.46±0.85)pA/pF,n=16,P<0.05),while the Peak Ica-L current density in Statin was not different from CON

  13. Cardioprotective Effect of Extended Remote Ischemic Preconditioning in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting : A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Ali; Khosravi, Mohamad Bagher; Shafa, Masih; Azemati, Simin; Khademi, Saeed; Akhlagh, Seyed Hedayatalla; Maghsodi, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    Background: The cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning has been known for many years. Since the temporary ischemia in the heart may cause lethal cardiac effects, the idea of creating ischemia in organs far from the heart such as limbs was raised as remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC). We hypothesized that the extension of RIPC has more cardioprotective effect in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgeries. Methods: In this triple-blind randomized clinical trial study, 96 patients were randomly divided into 3 groups and two blood pressure cuffs were placed on both upper and lower extremities. In group A, only upper extremity cuff and in group B upper limb and lower limb cuff was inflated intermittently and group C was the control group. RIPC was induced with three 5-min cycles of cuff inflation about 100 mmHg over the initial systolic blood pressure before starting cardiopulmonary bypass. The primary endpoints were troponin I and creatine phosphokinase-myoglobin isoenzyme (CK-MB). Results: Six hours after the termination of CPB, there was a peak release of the troponin I level in all groups (group A=4.90 ng/ml, group B=4.40 ng/ml, and group C=4.50 ng/ml). There was a rise in plasma CK-MB in all groups postoperatively and there were not any significant differences in troponin I and CK-MB release between the three groups. Conclusion: RIPC induced by upper and lower limb ischemia does not reduce postoperative myocardial enzyme elevation in adult patients undergoing CABG. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2012071710311N1 PMID:27365547

  14. Cardioprotective Effect of Modified Peroxiredoxins in Retrograde Perfusion of Isolated Rat Heart under Conditions of Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaduleva, E V; Mubarakshina, E K; Sharapov, M G; Volkova, A E; Pimenov, O Yu; Ravin, V K; Kokoz, Yu M; Novoselov, V I

    2016-03-01

    Antioxidant properties of recombinant peroxiredoxin-6 and chimeric protein PSH combining peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities were studied on the model of retrograde perfusion of isolated rat heart under conditions of H2O2-induced oxidative stress. The exogenous antioxidant proteins exhibited cardioprotective properties manifested in heart rate normalization, maintenance of contractile activity of the myocardium, and prevention of H2O2-induced LPO in oxidative stress. Localization of peroxiredoxin-6 and PSH in the cardiac tissue was determined and myocardial structures most effectively protected by the antioxidant enzymes from ischemia/reperfusion-induced damages were identified. The results suggest that modified peroxiredoxins are promising components of perfusion media for preservation of isolated organs.

  15. Myocardial infarction : early diagnosis and cardioprotective strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, M.I.F.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, we have investigated novel diagnostic and cardioprotective strategies to limit myocardial cell death and improve cardiac function after myocardial infarction. We demonstrated a new way to speed up the diagnosis of acute MI by using very small pieces of RNA (microRNAs). Using these mi

  16. Cardioprotective Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Lavender Flower against Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the cardioprotective property of the aqueous extract of lavender flower (LFAE. The myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury of rat was prepared by Langendorff retrograde perfusion technology. The heart was preperfused with K-H solution containing LFAE for 10 min before 20 minutes global ischemia, and then the reperfusion with K-H solution was conducted for 45 min. The left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP and the maximum up/downrate of left ventricular pressure (±dp/dtmax were recorded by physiological recorder as the myocardial function and the myocardial infarct size was detected by TTC staining. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and creatine kinase (CK activities in the effluent were measured to determine the myocardial injury degree. The superoxide anion dismutase (SOD and malondialdehyde (MDA in myocardial tissue were detected to determine the oxidative stress degree. The results showed that the pretreatment with LFAE significantly decreased the myocardial infarct size and also decreased the LDH, CK activities, and MDA level, while it increased the LVDP, ±dp/dtmax, SOD activities, and the coronary artery flow. Our findings indicated that LFAE could provide protection for heart against the I/R injury which may be related to the improvement of myocardial oxidative stress states.

  17. Erythropoietin: from erythropoiesis to cardioprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liermis Michael Dita Salabert

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Many of the drugs that has shown promise in the treatment of hematologic malignancies and solid tumors, associated with a high potential cardiotoxic. Within this group stand anthracyclines, identified as the type of chemotherapy most likely to cause heart damage, short or long term. With the improvement achieved in the survival of patients with these diseases, this adverse event has become a major concern for the scientific community. Although many agents have been evaluated as potential cardioprotective therapeutic, clinical data are limited and does not suggest that the use of these agents promotes the survival of patients undergoing cardiotoxic treatments. The identification of erythropoietin receptor in hematopoietic tissues, including the heart, as well as its marked cardioprotective effect during ischemia have led to the hypothesis that erythropoietin may be able to prevent anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy. Addressing this hypothesis is the objective of this work.

  18. Preclinical and Clinical Studies on Antioxidative, Antihypertensive and Cardioprotective Effect of Marine Proteins and Peptides—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida-Johanne Jensen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available High seafood consumption has traditionally been linked to a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases, mainly due to the lipid lowering effects of the long chained omega 3 fatty acids. However, fish and seafood are also excellent sources of good quality proteins and emerging documentation show that, upon digestion, these proteins are sources for bioactive peptides with documented favorable physiological effects such as antioxidative, antihypertensive and other cardioprotective effects. This documentation is mainly from in vitro studies, but also animal studies are arising. Evidence from human studies evaluating the positive health effects of marine proteins and peptides are scarce. In one study, a reduction in oxidative stress after intake of cod has been documented and a few human clinical trials have been performed evaluating the effect on blood pressure. The results are, however, inconclusive. The majority of the human clinical trials performed to investigate positive health effects of marine protein and lean fish intake, has focused on blood lipids. While some studies have documented a reduction in triglycerides after intake of lean fish, others have documented no effects.

  19. Cardioprotective Effects of Lagenaria siceraria Fruit Juice on Isoproterenol-induced Myocardial Infarction in Wistar Rats: A Biochemical and Histoarchitecture Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upaganlawar, A; Balaraman, R

    2011-10-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of Lagenaria siceraria fruit juice in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction. Rats injected with isoproterenol (200 mg/kg, s.c.) showed a significant increase in the levels of serum uric acid, tissue Na(++) and Ca(++) ions and membrane-bound Ca(+2)-ATPase activity. A significant decrease in the levels of serum protein, tissue K(+) ion, vitamin E level, and the activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and mg(+2)-ATPase was observed. Isoproterenol injected rats also showed a significant increase in the intensity of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme and histopathologic alterations in the heart. Treatment with L. siceraria fruit juice (400 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 30 days and administration of isoproterenol on 29(th) and 30(th) days showed a protective effect on altered biochemical and histopathologic changes. These findings indicate the cardioprotective effect of L. siceraria fruit juice in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats.

  20. Cardioprotective effect of liposomal prostaglandin E1 on a porcine model of myocardial infarction reperfusion no-reflow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-hui LI; Peng YANG; Ai-li LI; Yong WANG; Yuan-nan KE; Xian-lun LI

    2011-01-01

    Abstract:Objective:To evaluate whether liposomal prostaglandin E1 (lipo-PGE1) can decrease reperfusion no-reflow in a catheter-based porcine model of acute myocardial infarction (AMI).Methods:Twenty-two male Chinese mini-swines were randomized into three groups:six in a sham-operation group,and eight each in the control and lipo-PGE1 groups.The distal part of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) in the latter two groups was completely occluded for 2 h,and then reperfused for 3 h.Lipo-PGE1 (1 pg/kg) was injected 10 min before LAD occlusion until reperfusion for 1 h in the lipo-PGE1 group.Hemodynamic data and proinflammatory cytokines were examined before AMI,2 h after occlusion,and 1,2,and 3 h after reperfusion.Myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) and double staining were performed to evaluate the myocardial no-reflow area (NRA).Results:Left ventricular systolic pressure and end-diastolic pressure significantly improved in the lipo-PGE1 group after reperfusion compared with the control group and also 2 h after AMI (P<0.05 for both).MCE and double staining both showed that lipo-PGE1 decreased reperfusion NRA after AMI (P<0.05,P<0.01).Lipo-PGE1 decreased serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) after myocardial infarction reperfusion (P<0.05 for both).Conclusions:Lipo-PGE1 is cardioprotective in our porcine model of myocardial infarction reperfusion no-reflow,decreasing NRA and attenuating the inflammatory response.

  1. Differentiation of embryonic stem cells into cardiomyocytes used to investigate the cardioprotective effect of salvianolic acid B through BNIP3 involved pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Yang; Chen, Shao-Yu; Fu, Ru-Huei; Huang, Yu-Chuen; Chen, Shih-Yin; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Liu, Shih-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are related to many risk factors, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, smoking, and obesity. Myocardial infarction (MI), a cardiovascular disease, is the most common cause of cardiomyocyte death. In MI, hypoxia induces cardiomyocyte apoptosis; in particular, diabetes combined with MI has a synergistic effect that exacerbates cardiomyocyte death. The hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1α) transcriptional factor and a BH-3 only protein, Bcl-2 adenovirus E1B 19-kDa interacting protein 3 (BNIP3), are known to play fundamental roles in both adaptive and cell death processes in response to hypoxia. In addition, most cardioprotective studies used H9c2 cells that were not beating, so H9c2 cells may not be the best model for testing cardioprotective effects. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are pluripotent stem cells that are able to differentiate into several types of cells, including cardiomyocytes. In this study, we reveal a simple method to differentiate ESCs into cardiomyocytes by using poly-d-lysine-coated plates combined with ITS and N2-containing medium and characterized the ESC-derived cardiomyocytes by cardiomyocyte marker staining. The ESC-derived cardiomyocytes were used to investigate the protective effect of salvianolic acid B (Sal-B) in high glucose combined with hypoxic conditions to mimic diabetes patients with ischemia. The results of MTT and TUNEL assays indicate that Sal-B suppresses the apoptotic effect of treatment with high glucose combined with hypoxia in ESC-derived cardiomyocytes. In particular, Sal-B inhibited HIF1α, BNIP3, and cleavage caspase 3 expression levels, thereby suppressing apoptosis. This is the first study to mention the correlation between BNIP3 and Sal-B for cardioprotective effects. In conclusion, we suggest that Sal-B may be suitable for use as a future cardioprotective medicine.

  2. Cardioprotective and renoprotective effects ofCocos nucifera water in offspring of high fat diet fed Wistar rat dams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Opeyemi Oreofe Akindele; Yinusa Raji

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effects ofCocos nucifera (C. nucifera) water on the cardiovascular and renal functions of offspring from rat dams fed high fat diet during gestation. Methods: Four groups of pregnant Wistar rats were treated from gestation day 1 to 21; namely, control (1 mL/100 g distilled water),C. nuciferawater (1 mL/100 gC. nuciferawater), high fat diet (1 mL/100 g distilled water + 30% butter: 70% standard rodent diet) and high fat diet +C. nuciferawater (1 mL/100 gC. nuciferawater + 30% butter: 70% standard rodent diet). All dams received standard rodent diet from gestation day 22, and offspring were weaned to standard rodent diet on postnatal day 28. On postnatal day 120, serum and cardiac levels of malondialdehyde, interleukin-1β and high sensitivity C-reactive protein were determined in offspring. Serum creatinine and urea levels as well as histology of heart and kidney tissue were assessed. Data were analyzed using One-wayANOVA andP Results: Male high fat diet offspring showed significantly increased (P Conclusions:C. nucifera water exerts cardioprotective and renoprotective effects on offspring of rat dams fed high fat diet during gestation via an anti-inflammatory mechanism.

  3. Cardioprotective Effect of Propofol against Oxygen Glucose Deprivation and Reperfusion Injury in H9c2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The intravenous anesthetic propofol is reported to be a cardioprotective agent against ischemic-reperfusion injury in the heart. However, the regulatory mechanism still remains unclear. Methods. In this study, we used H9c2 cell line under condition of oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD followed by reperfusion (OGD/R to induce in vitro cardiomyocytes ischemia-reperfusion injury. Propofol (5, 10, and 20 μM was added to the cell cultures before and during the OGD/R phases to investigate the underlying mechanism. Results. Our data showed that OGD/R decreased cell viability, and increased lactate dehydrogenase leakage, and reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde production in H9c2 cells, all of which were significantly reversed by propofol. Moreover, we found that propofol increased both the activities and protein expressions of superoxide dismutase and catalase. In addition, propofol increased FoxO1 expression in a dose-dependent manner and inhibited p-AMPK formation significantly. Conclusions. These results indicate that the propofol might exert its antioxidative effect through FoxO1 in H9c2 cells, and it has a potential therapeutic effect on cardiac disorders involved in oxidative stress.

  4. Cardio-protection by Ginkgo biloba extract 50 in rats with acute myocardial infarction is related to Na⁺-Ca²⁺ exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ai-Hua; Bao, Yi-Min; Wang, Xing-Yu; Zhang, Zhi-Xiong

    2013-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba has been used for medical purposes for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine. Ginkgo biloba extract 50 (GBE50) is a new standardized GBE product that matches the standardized German product as EGb761. This paper is aimed at studying the cardio-protection effects of GBE50 Salvia miltiorrhiza on myocardial function, area at risk, myocardial ultra-structure, and expression of calcium handling proteins in rat ischemic myocardium. Myocardium ischemia was induced by the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery occlusion and myocardial function was recorded by a transducer advanced into the left ventricle on a computer system. In vitro myocardial infarction was measured by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) and Evans blue staining of heart sections. Morphological change was evaluated by electric microscopy and Western blotting was used for protein expression. Hemodynamic experiments in vivo showed that postischemic cardiac contractile function was reduced in ischemic rats. Salvia miltiorrhiza (7.5 g/kg/d×7) and Ginkgo biloba extract 50 (GBE50) (100 mg/kg/d×7) improved post-schemic cardiac diastolic dysfunction while not affecting the systolic function. In hearts of GBE50 group and Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) group, the area at risk was significantly reduced and myocardial structure was better-preserved. Moreover, Na⁺-Ca²⁺ exchanger (NCX) expression increase and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺-ATPase 2 (SERCA2), LTCC, and ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) expression decreases were smaller than those in ischemia group. There was a significant difference between the GBE50 and ischemia group in NCX expression. GBE50 could improve recovery in contractile function and prevent myocardium from ischemia damage, which may be caused by attenuating the abnormal expression of NCX.

  5. [Biochemical mechanisms of the cardioprotective effect of the K(ATP) channels opener flocalin (medicinal form) in ischemia-reperfusion of myocardium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strutyns'kyĭ, R B; Kotsiuruba, A V; Rovenets', R A; Strutyns'ka, N A; Iagupols'kyĭ, Iu L; Sagach, V F; Moĭbenko, O O

    2013-01-01

    In experiments on the anaesthetized dogs with modeling of experimental ischemia (90 min) and reperfusion (180 min) of myocardium it was investigated changes of biochemical processes in arterial blood at intragastric introduction of medicinal form (tablets) of flocalin (the fluorine-containing opener of ATP-sensitive potassium channels) in a dose 2,2 mg/kg. The data analysis allowed to define a few possible mechanisms of cardioprotective action offlocalin, which prevented the opening of a mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) and inhibition of apoptosis induced by it. They consist, from one side, in activating of the constitutive de novo biosynthesis of nitric oxide by cNOS, from other side, in suppression of inducible nitric oxide de novo synthesis by iNOS in such way to prevent the formation of toxic peroxynitrite by co-operation of surplus nitric oxide with superoxide anion, thereby limits the generation of toxic active forms of nitrogen (*NO2) and oxygen (*OH). The first effect of flocalin takes place due to limitation the degradation of L-arginine by arginase which keeps substrat for cNOS, second--due to the inhibition of superoxide generation, in particular, by xanthine oxidase (marker uric acid), lipoxigenase (marker LTC4) and cyclooxygenase (marker TxB2). Because LTC4 have coronaroconstrictory, arrhythmogenic and chemoattractory properties in the conditions of myocardial ischemia, inhibition of its production both with superoxide generation (markers H2O2 and diene conjugates) may be the another mechanisms of flocalin's cardioprotection. Powerful antiischemic action of flocalin (marker nitrite anion) as the mechanisms of cardioprotection is possible as well as inhibition of ATP and GTP degradation (marker hypoxanthine+xanthine+inosine levels in the blood) and, possibly, stimulation ofhaem degradation by haem oxygenase (markers total bilirubin and Fe in the blood). Diminishing content of free arachidonic acid in arterial blood can testify

  6. Cardioprotective effect of resveratrol analogue isorhapontigenin versus omega-3 fatty acids in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Amr M

    2016-09-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is a common cause of mortality worldwide. Isorhapontigenin is a derivative of stilbene with chemical structure similar to resveratrol. The omega-3 fatty acids (FA) have beneficial effects on neurodegenerative, inflammatory, and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pretreatment with isorhapontigenin and omega-3 FA on rat model of isoproterenol-induced MI. Fifty-six rats were divided into seven groups: normal, normal + isorhapontigenin, normal + omega-3 FA, MI, MI + isorhapontigenin, MI + omega-3 FA, and MI + isorhapontigenin + omega-3 FA. Serum levels of cardiac marker enzymes [lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB)], cardiac troponin I (cTnI), inflammatory markers [tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6], and lipid profile [triglycerides, total cholesterol (T.Ch), high and low density lipoproteins (HDL, LDL), and phospholipids] as well as cardiac levels of malondialdehyde and anti-oxidants [reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase)] were measured in all rats. ECG and histopathological examination were performed. Isoproterenol caused a significant elevation of ST segment, decreased R wave amplitude, HDL, and anti-oxidants, and increased LDH, CK-MB, cTnI, TNF-α, interleukin-6, malondialdehyde, triglycerides, T.Ch, LDL, and phospholipids. Omega-3 FA or isorhapontigenin significantly decreased the ST segment elevation, LDH, CK-MB, cTnI, TNF-α, interleukin-6, malondialdehyde, and phospholipids and increased R wave amplitude and anti-oxidants. The effects of combined omega-3 FA and isorhapontigenin were more significant than either of them alone. Therefore, we conclude that omega-3 FA and isorhapontigenin have a cardioprotective effect on rats with isoproterenol-induced MI through their anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory actions.

  7. Pharmacological inhibition of GSK-3β produces late phase of cardioprotection in hyperlipidemic rat: possible involvement of HSP 72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Harlokesh Narayan; Singh, Manjeet; Sharma, Pyare Lal

    2012-10-01

    The acute, as well as late, phase of cardioprotection induced by ischemic preconditioning is abolished in hyperlipidemic (HL) rat heart. The pharmacological inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), has earlier been reported to restore this attenuated acute cardioprotective effect. However, it not known whether GSK-3β inhibitors administered 24 h before the ischemic injury would restore the late cardioprotective in HL rat and, if yes, the role of heat shock protein 72 (HSP 72) in its modulation. Hyperlipidemia was produced in rat by feeding high-fat diet for 6 weeks. Isolated perfused rat heart was subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion (I/R). Myocardial infarct size was estimated by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining, while lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) levels were analyzed from coronary effluent. GSK-3β inhibitors, SB 216763 (SB, 0.6 mg/kg, i.p.), and indirubin-3 monoxime (IND, 0.4 mg/kg, i.p.), administered 24 h before the isolation of heart, significantly decreased the I/R-induced myocardial infarct size and the release of LDH and CK-MB. The cardioprotective effect of GSK-3β inhibitors was significantly attenuated by quercetin (4 mg/kg, i.p.), a HSP 72 inhibitor, administered 1 h before the administration of SB or IND. That the late phase of cardioprotection induced by pretreatment with GSK-3β inhibitors is not attenuated/lost in HL rat heart is a new finding in our study. Our results indicate that HSP 72 acts on pathway of GSK-3β and plays a significant role in cardioprotection.

  8. [Cardioprotective effects of glutamine in patients with ischemic heart disease operated under conditions of extracorporeal blood circulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomivorotov, V V; Efremov, S M; Shmyrev, V A; Ponomarev, D N; Sviatchenko, A V; Kniaz'kova, L G

    2012-01-01

    It was conducted a study of glutamine cardioptotective effects during perioperative use in patients with ischemic heart disease, operated under CB. Exclusion criteria were: left ventricular ejection fraction less than 50%, diabetes melitus, myocardial infarction less than 3 months ago, Patients of the study group (n=25) had glutamine (20% solution N(2)-L-alanine-L-glutamine ("Dipeptiven" Fresenius Kabi, Germany); 0.4 g/kg/day. Patients of control group (n=25) received placebo (0.9% NaCl solution). The main indicators were the dynamics of troponin I, as well as central hemodynamics parameters. On the 1-st day after operation the concentration of troponin I was significantly lower in the glutamine-group compared placebo-group (1.280 (0.840-2.230) 2.410 (1.060-6.600) ng/ml; p=0.035). 4 hours after CB in a glutamine-group also had significantly large indicators of cardiac index (2.58 (2.34-2.91) l/min/m2 vs 2.03 (1.76-2.32)) l/min/m2; p=0,002) and stroke index (32.8 (27.8-36.0.) ml/m2 vs 26.1 (22.6-31.8) ml/m2; p=0.023). Systemic vascular resistance index was significantly lower in glutamine-group (1942 (1828-2209) dyn x s/cm(-5)/m2 vs 2456 (2400-3265) dyn x s/cm(-5)/m2; p=0.001). Conclusion. Perioperative use of N(2)-L-alanine-L-glutamine during the first 24 hours ofperioperative period gives cardioprotective effect in patients with ischemic heart disease operated under CB.

  9. Cardioprotective and renoprotective effects of Cocos nucifera water in offspring of high fat diet fed Wistar rat dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufadekemi Tolulope Kunle-Alabi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of Cocos nucifera (C. nucifera water on the cardiovascular and renal functions of offspring from rat dams fed high fat diet during gestation. Methods: Four groups of pregnant Wistar rats were treated from gestation day 1 to 21; namely, control (1 mL/100 g distilled water, C. nucifera water (1 mL/100 g C. nucifera water, high fat diet (1 mL/100 g distilled water + 30% butter: 70% standard rodent diet and high fat diet + C. nucifera water (1 mL/100 g C. nucifera water + 30% butter: 70% standard rodent diet. All dams received standard rodent diet from gestation day 22, and offspring were weaned to standard rodent diet on postnatal day 28. On postnatal day 120, serum and cardiac levels of malondialdehyde, interleukin-1β and high sensitivity C-reactive protein were determined in offspring. Serum creatinine and urea levels as well as histology of heart and kidney tissue were assessed. Data were analyzed using One-way ANOVA and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Male high fat diet offspring showed significantly increased (P < 0.05 serum interleukin-1β compared with C. nucifera water offspring. The increase in serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein observed in female high fat diet offspring was not present in high fat diet + C. nucifera water offspring.Heart tissues from high fat diet offspring showed scanty fibers and congested myocardium with mild fibrosis. Male high fat diet offspring kidneys showed mesangial cell hyperplasia, fat infiltration and mild tubular necrosis. These were accompanied with alterations in serum urea and creatinine levels in high fat diet + C. nucifera water offspring. Conclusions: C. nucifera water exerts cardioprotective and renoprotective effects on offspring of rat dams fed high fat diet during gestation via an anti-inflammatory mechanism.

  10. 高迁移率族蛋白B1对心肌缺血再灌注损伤保护作用的初步临床研究%Cardioprotective effect of high mobility group protein B1 against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in acute myocardial infarction patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇; 曹清心; 张燕; 赵仙先

    2012-01-01

    目的 随着急性心肌梗死(acute myocardial infarction,AMI)发病率的不断增加,以及再灌注治疗的广泛开展,缺血再灌注损伤(ischemical reperfusion injury,IRI)已经引起了广泛关注,但尚未找到一种能有效减轻IRI的治疗方法.近年来,国内外基于动物模型的研究发现:高迁移率族蛋白B1(high mobility group box 1 protein,HMGB1)可能在IRI过程中发挥着中枢作用,并且目前有关AMI患者经经皮冠状动脉内介入术(percutaneous coronary intervention,PCI)血浆中HMGB1浓度变化及其机制的研究还鲜见报道.文中初步探讨HMGB1是否参与AMI患者PCI中心肌IRI过程,及其在此过程中产生的心肌保护作用和可能机制.方法 采用酶联免疫吸附法,分别测定17例经冠状动脉造影术(coronary arteriography,CAG)检查正常的健康志愿者(对照组),41例AMI经急诊PCI治疗患者(AMI手术组)术前即刻、术后24h和48h血浆中HMGB1和血管内皮生长因子(vascular endothelial growth factor,VEGF)变化水平,并记录AMI手术组梗死相关血管(infarction related artery,IRA)开通即刻出现的再灌注心律失常(reperfusion arrhythmia,RA)类型、术后24h脑钠肽(brain natriuretic peptide,BNP)水平、住院期间不良临床事件(心力衰竭、心源性猝死)及其他基本临床数据.结果 AMI手术组患者在IRA开通即刻均观察到RA;术后24h HMGB1水平明显高于术前即刻及术后48h(P<0.05),并且各时间点HMGB1水平与VEGF水平呈正相关(P<0.05);AMI手术组院内出现不良临床事件与无不良事件的患者相比较,各时间点HMGB1水平明显降低(P<0.05).结论 HMGB1参与了AMI患者行PCI手术中IRI的过程;HMGB1水平对于AMI患者的远期预后有一定预测作用;HMGB1可能通过促进VEGF的分泌而参与梗死后心肌的修复过程,并可能通过此作用对改善心功能、保护心肌细胞产生一定作用.%Objective With the increasing incidence of acute myocardial infarction

  11. Cardioprotective effect of the PPAR ligand tetradecylthioacetic acid in type 2 diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Ahmed M; Hafstad, Anne Dragøy; Larsen, Terje S; Severson, David L; Boardman, Neoma; Hagve, Martin; Berge, Rolf K; Aasum, Ellen

    2011-06-01

    Tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) is a novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ligand with marked hypolipidemic and insulin-sensitizing effects in obese models. TTA has recently been shown to attenuate dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes, corroborating the potential for TTA in antidiabetic therapy. In a recent study on normal mice, we showed that TTA increased myocardial fatty acid (FA) oxidation, which was associated with decreased cardiac efficiency and impaired postischemic functional recovery. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to elucidate the effects of TTA treatment (0.5%, 8 days) on cardiac metabolism and function in a hyperlipidemic type 2 diabetic model. We found that TTA treatment increased myocardial FA oxidation, not only in nondiabetic (db/+) mice but also in diabetic (db/db) mice, despite a clear lipid-lowering effect. Although TTA had deleterious effects in hearts from nondiabetic mice (decreased efficiency and impaired mitochondrial respiratory capacity), these effects were not observed in db/db hearts. In db/db hearts, TTA improved ischemic tolerance, an effect that is most likely related to the antioxidant property of TTA. The present study strongly advocates the need for investigation of the cardiac effects of PPAR ligands used in antidiabetic/hypolipidemic therapy, because of their pleiotropic properties.

  12. Gene expression profile of rat left ventricles reveals persisting changes following chronic mild exercise protocol: implications for cardioprotection

    OpenAIRE

    Giusti B; Marini M; Rossi L; Lapini I; Magi A; Capalbo A; Lapalombella R; di Tullio S; Samaja M; Esposito F; Margonato V; Boddi M; Abbate R; Velcsteinas A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Epidemiological studies showed that physical exercise, specifically moderate lifelong training, is protective against cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Most experimental work has focused into the effects and molecular mechanisms underlying intense, rather than mild exercise, by exploring the acute effect of training. Our study aims at investigating the cardioprotective effect of mild chronic exercise training and the gene expression profile changes at 48 hrs after ...

  13. Gene expression profile of rat left ventricles reveals persisting changes following chronic mild exercise protocol: implications for cardioprotection

    OpenAIRE

    Esposito Fabio; Samaja Michele; di Tullio Simona; Lapalombella Rosa; Capalbo Andrea; Magi Alberto; Lapini Ilaria; Rossi Luciana; Marini Marina; Giusti Betti; Margonato Vittoria; Boddi Maria; Abbate Rosanna; Veicsteinas Arsenio

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Epidemiological studies showed that physical exercise, specifically moderate lifelong training, is protective against cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Most experimental work has focused into the effects and molecular mechanisms underlying intense, rather than mild exercise, by exploring the acute effect of training. Our study aims at investigating the cardioprotective effect of mild chronic exercise training and the gene expression profile changes at 48 hrs after th...

  14. Evaluation of cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Allium cepa Linn. bulb on isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharadi, Geeta B; Patel, Kaksha J; Purohit, Bhargav M; Baxi, Seema N; Tripathi, C B

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the cardioprotective potential of the aqueous extract of Allium cepa Linn. bulb in isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats. In vitro total phenolic, total flavonoid content and 2, 2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate radical scavenging activity was measured. Isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury model was used to evaluate in vivo effect of aqueous extract of A. cepa in Wistar albino rats. Seventy two rats were randomly divided in 6 groups. Rats were treated with A. cepa 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg doses for 30 days and myocardial injury was produced by subcutaneous injection of isoprenaline (ISO) 85 mg/kg on day 28 and 29. Carvedilol 1 mg/kg for 30 days served as active control. Electrocardiogram parameters, cardiac injury markers, oxidative stress markers and histopathological changes were evaluated in each group and compared using appropriate statistical tests. In vitro evaluation of aqueous extract of A. cepa showed significant antioxidant property. ISO produced significant myocardial injury as compared to normal control group (P cepa in the dose of 400 mg/kg significantly recovered the altered parameters (Troponin-I, Creatine kinase-MB, glutamate-pyruvate transaminase, HR, R-R interval, and oxidative stress markers) compared to disease control group (P cepa in the dose 800 mg/kg recovered the altered parameters (HR, heart weight/body weight ratio, and superoxide dismutase level) compared to disease control group. Histopathological parameters did not recover in the doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg (P > 0.05). The aqueous extract of A. cepa 400 mg/kg was found to be cardioprotective against myocardial injury while A. cepa 800 mg/kg did not show significant cardioprotective activity. So, we presume that A. cepa might be effective within certain dose range only.

  15. Cardioprotective Effect of Angiotensin Ⅱ Receptor Antagonist on Perfused Ischemic Reper-fusion Injury of Whole Isolated Rat Hearts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐延敏; 黄体钢; 陈元禄; 李广平

    2003-01-01

    Objectives Investigated the cardioprotective and mechanisms of losartan onwhole isolated ischemic reperfused rat heart. Meth-ods Langendorff perfused systems was used to in-vestigate losartan effect on whole isolated rat hearts inCPK, LDH, MDA, SOD, ang Ⅱ and arrhythmia. Re-sults Losartan decreased incidence of arrhythmia,improved atrial ventricular block recovery in reperfu-sion period, during ischemic period, CPK and LDH inI/R group increased significantly compared with con-trol group, 51.33±27.02 vs 22.42±13.33, 31.80±4.56 vs 22.28 ± 15.96, respectively, but greatlydecreased in losartan group compared with I/R group,23.90±21.74 vs 51.33±27.02 and 11.50±13.20vs 31.80 ± 4. 56, respectively. During reperfusion pe-riod CPK, LDH increased significantly in I/R groupcompared with control group, 49.11 ± 20.63 vs 12.14±5.92 and 28.70±4.69 vs 23.10±21.38, re-spectively, but decreased greatly in losartan groupcompared with I/R group, 39.40 ± 9.60 vs 49.11 ±20.63 and 14.50±13.75 vs 28.70±4.69. Thecontent of MDA, ang Ⅱ in I/R group myocytes ishigher than control group's , 26. ±9. 25 vs 17.2 ±3.37 and 8.43±3.81 vs 4. 80±0.20. However thecontent of SOD in two groups has no significantlychange, 148. 20 ± 8. 72 vs 145.08±6.82. the con-tent of MDA in losartan group myocardial tissue ismuch lower than control group, 15.92±4.05 vs26.80± 9.25 and the content of ang Ⅱ in losartangroup myocardial tissue is much higher than I/Rgroup, 12.44 ± 6.09 vs 8.43 ± 3.21. The departmentof cardiology of second hospital of Tianjin medical u-niversity Tianjin 300211 However, SOD has nosignificant change in two groups, 143.47 ±7.91 vs145.08 ± 6.82. Conclusions Losartan against is-chemic-reperfusion injury of whole isolated rathearts, those beneficial effects are mediate primarily bythe inhibited of angiotensin Ⅱ binding with its receptorand inhibited oxygen free radical scavenging potential.

  16. Impact effect of lycopene and tomato-based products network on cardioprotective biomarkers in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin N. El-Nashar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary intake plays an important role as nutritional supplements are known to provide potential health benefits in cardiovascular disease. Recent studies suggest that the dietary intake of tomatoes and tomato products containing lycopene are associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. In order to substantiate these facts, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of lycopene from tomato products on the potential effects of oxidative stress and atherosclerosis in vivo, focusing on early atherosclerotic events.Methods: Thirty male albino rats were assigned randomly into 5 groups; group C was the negative control group fed a basal diet, group H was the positive control fed a high-fat diet(HFD, group TS (HFD was fed a 8% lyophilized tomato paste, group TW (HFD was fed a24% lyophilized raw tomato, and group L (HFD was fed 0.1% mg pure lycopene. The level of serum; total cholesterol (TC, total triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c was measured after 8 weeks of experimental treatment. Malondialdehyde (MDH plasma levels were measured in heart tissue homogenate. Furthermore, pathologic changes of the heart and aorta were also assessed.Results: We found that TC, TG, LDL-c and MDH, levels were significantly increased in group H (P < 0.05 compared to the negative control group. Administration of TS, TW and L demonstrated significant changes in these parameters (P < 0.05. The TW group (fed 24% oflyophilized raw tomato components had more positive effects than the TS & L groups. Furthermore, morphologic changes of heart and aorta revealed that TW and TS had a similar preventive effect against the development of atherosclerosis.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(5:151-165Conclusion: Our study indicated that raw tomatoes have a higher potential effect when compared to tomato paste or lycopene alone. This potential effect

  17. Cardioprotective Effect of Grape Seed Extract on Chronic Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiac Toxicity in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Razmaraii

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the present study was to determine the ability of grape seed extract (GSE as a powerful antioxidant in preventing adverse effect of doxorubicin (DOX on heart function. Methods: Male rats were divided into three groups: control, DOX (2 mg/kg/48h, for 12 days and GSE (100 mg/kg/24h, for 16 days plus DOX. Left ventricular (LV function and hemodynamic parameters were assessed using echocardiography, electrocardiography and a Millar pressure catheter. Histopathological analysis and in vitro antitumor activity were also evaluated. Results: DOX induced heart damage in rats through decreasing the left ventricular systolic and diastolic pressures, rate of rise/decrease of LV pressure, ejection fraction, fractional shortening and contractility index as demonstrated by echocardiography, electrocardiography and hemodynamic parameters relative to control group. Our data demonstrated that GSE treatment markedly attenuated DOX-induced toxicity, structural changes in myocardium and improved ventricular function. Additionally, GSE did not intervene with the antitumor effect of DOX. Conclusion: Collectively, the results suggest that GSE is potentially protective against DOX-induced toxicity in rat heart and maybe increase therapeutic index of DOX in human cancer treatment.

  18. Antiatherosclerotic and Cardioprotective Effects of Time-Released Garlic Powder Pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagodin, Vasily P; Sobenin, Igor A; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    Garlic is believed to produce beneficial changes in different cardiovascular risk factors, thus possessing antiatherosclerotic properties. The hypotensive and cholesterol-lowering effects were investigated in two studies in men with mild arterial hypertension and in men with mild hypercholesterolemia. Eight-week treatment resulted in the reduction of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 5.2% (P=0.008) and 4.0% (P=0.014), respectively. In hypolipidemic study, the 12-week treatment resulted in a decrease in LDL cholesterol by 11.8% (P=0.002), while HDL cholesterol increased by 11.5% (P=0.013). In men with cerebral atherosclerosis it has been demonstrated that 14-days treatment inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation by 25.4% (Pgarlic powder pills on the progression of carotid atherosclerosis in asymptomatic men. A significant correlation has been revealed between the changes in blood serum atherogenicity and the changes in carotid intima-media thickness (r=0.144, P=0.045). Evidence obtained from these studies as well as series of double-blinded placebo-controlled clinical trials indicates that garlic powder pills are effective for prevention of cardiovascular disorders.

  19. Cardioprotective Effect of High Intensity Interval Training and Nitric Oxide Metabolites (NO2-, NO3-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasghar FALLAHI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT on nitric oxide metabolites (NO2-, NO3- and myocardial infarct size after Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R injury in healthy male rats.Methods: A total of 44 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups including HIIT (n=8, HIIT + IR protocol (n=14, control (n=8, and control + IR (n=14. Each training session of HIIT consisted of 1 hour of exercise in three stages: 6-minute running at 50-60% VO2max for warm-up; 7 intervals of 7-minute running on treadmill with a slope of 50 to 20° (4 minutes with an intensity of 80-100% VO2max and 3 minutes at 50-60% VO2max; and 5-minute running at 50-60% VO2max for cool-down. The control group did not participate in any exercise program. Nitric Oxide (NO and its metabolites were measured by using Griess reaction test.  Results: The results showed that eight weeks of exercise training exerted a significantly increasing effect on nitrite (8.55 µmol per liter, equivalent to 34.79%, nitrate (62.02 µmol per liter, equivalent to 149.48%, and NOx (66 µmol per liter, equivalent to 98.11% in the HIIT group compared with the control group. The results showed myocardial infract size (IS was significantly smaller (23.2%, P<0.001 in the exercise training group compared with the control group.Conclusion: Incremental changes in NO-NO3-, NO2- axis are one of mechanisms through which HIIT program can protect the heart from I/R injury and decrease myocardial infarction.   

  20. Cardioprotective and hepatoprotective effects ofCitrus hystrix peels extract on rats model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Herwandhani Putri; Standie Nagadi; Yonika Arum Larasati; Nindi Wulandari; Adam Hermawan

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To observe the combination effect of doxorubicin andCitrus hystrix(kaffir lime’s) peel ethanolic extract(ChEE) on blood serum alanine aminotransferase(ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase(AST) activity and cardio-hepato-histopathology of femaleSpragueDawley rats. Methods:Doxorubicin andChEE(5 rats per group) were administered in five groups of3 rats each for11 d.GroupI: doxorubicin(dox)4.67 mg/kg body weight;GroupII: dox+ChEE500 mg/kg body weight;GroupIII: dox+ChEE1000 mg/kg body weight;GroupIV:ChEE1000 mg/kg body weight;GroupV: untreated(control).Results:ChEE repaired cardiohistopathology profile of doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity rats, but did not repair neither hepatohistopathology profile nor reduce serum activity ofALT andAST.Conclusion:ChEE has potency to be developed as cardioprotector agent in chemotherapy.

  1. Sildenafil citrate (viagra) induces cardioprotective effects after ischemia/reperfusion injury in infant rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Yvonne A; Salloum, Fadi; Ockaili, Ramzi; Chou, Eric; Moskowitz, William B; Kukreja, Rakesh C

    2005-01-01

    Infants undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease are at risk for myocardial ischemia during cardiopulmonary bypass, circulatory arrest, or low-flow states. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effects of sildenafil, a selective phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor on myocardial functional improvement and infarct size reduction during ischemia/reperfusion injury in infant rabbits. Infant rabbits (aged 8 wk) were treated with sildenafil citrate (0.7 mg/kg i.v.) or normal saline 30 min before sustained ischemia for 30 min and reperfusion for 3 h. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) was used to assess left ventricular cardiac output (LVCO) and aortic velocity time integral (VTI). After ischemia/reperfusion, risk area was demarcated by Evan's blue dye and infarct size determined by computer morphometry of triphenyltetrazolium chloride-stained sections. The sildenafil-treated group had preservation and elevation in LVCO (143% of baseline, p sildenafil group compared with controls (n = 6/group, p sildenafil-treated group had significant reduction in infarct size (15.5 +/- 1.2 versus 33 +/- 2.3 in the saline group, % risk area, mean +/- SEM, n = 10-15/group, p sildenafil citrate promotes myocardial protection in infant rabbits as evidenced by postischemic preservation and elevation in LVCO and aortic VTI and reduction in infarct size.

  2. Novel targets and future strategies for acute cardioprotection: Position Paper of the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cellular Biology of the Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausenloy, Derek J; Garcia-Dorado, David; Erik Bøtker, Hans; Davidson, Sean M; Downey, James; Engel, Felix B; Jennings, Robert; Lecour, Sandrine; Leor, Jonathan; Madonna, Rosalinda; Ovize, Michel; Perrino, Cinzia; Prunier, Fabrice; Schulz, Rainer; Sluijter, Joost P G; Van Laake, Linda W; Vinten-Johansen, Jakob; Yellon, Derek M; Ytrehus, Kirsti; Heusch, Gerd; Ferdinandy, Péter

    2017-03-17

    Ischaemic heart disease and the heart failure that often results, remain the leading causes of death and disability in Europe and worldwide. As such, in order to prevent heart failure and improve clinical outcomes in patients presenting with an acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery, novel therapies are required to protect the heart against the detrimental effects of acute ischaemia/reperfusion injury. During the last three decades, a wide variety of ischaemic conditioning strategies and pharmacological treatments have been tested in the clinic - however, their translation from experimental to clinical studies for improving patient outcomes has been both challenging and disappointing. Therefore, in this Position Paper of the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cellular Biology of the Heart, we critically analyse the current state of ischaemic conditioning in both the experimental and clinical settings, provide recommendations for improving its translation into the clinical setting, and highlight novel therapeutic targets and new treatment strategies for reducing acute myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury.

  3. CARDIOPROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF PHYTOSTEROLS

    OpenAIRE

    Jyotika Dhankhar

    2013-01-01

    Foods and nutrients play a vital role in normal functioning of the body. They are helpful in maintaining the health of the individual and in reducing the risk of various diseases. Worldwide acceptance of this fact formed a recognition link between "nutrition" and "health" and the concept of "nutraceuticals" has evolved. More than any other disease, the etiology of cardiovascular disease reveals many risk factors that are amenable to nutraceutical intervention. The scientific literature shows ...

  4. Mechanisms Involved in Exercise-Induced Cardioprotection: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Pereira Borges

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute myocardial infarction is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Furthermore, research has shown that exercise, in addition to reducing cardiovascular risk factors, can also protect the heart against injury due to ischemia and reperfusion through a direct effect on the myocardium. However, the specific mechanism involved in exerciseinduced cardiac preconditioning is still under debate. Objective: To perform a systematic review of the studies that have addressed the mechanisms by which aerobic exercise promotes direct cardioprotection against ischemia and reperfusion injury. Methods: A search was conducted using MEDLINE, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe de Informação em Ciências da Saúde, and Scientific Electronic Library Online databases. Data were extracted in a standardized manner by two independent researchers, who were responsible for assessing the methodological quality of the studies. Results: The search retrieved 78 studies; after evaluating the abstracts, 30 studies were excluded. The manuscripts of the remaining 48 studies were completely read and, of these, 20 were excluded. Finally, 28 studies were included in this systematic review. Conclusion: On the basis of the selected studies, the following are potentially involved in the cardioprotective response to exercise: increased heat shock protein production, nitric oxide pathway involvement, increased cardiac antioxidant capacity, improvement in ATP-dependent potassium channel function, and opioid system activation. Despite all the previous investigations, further research is still necessary to obtain more consistent conclusions.

  5. Discovery and cardioprotective effects of the first non-Peptide agonists of the G protein-coupled prokineticin receptor-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline Gasser

    Full Text Available Prokineticins are angiogenic hormones that activate two G protein-coupled receptors: PKR1 and PKR2. PKR1 has emerged as a critical mediator of cardiovascular homeostasis and cardioprotection. Identification of non-peptide PKR1 agonists that contribute to myocardial repair and collateral vessel growth hold promises for treatment of heart diseases. Through a combination of in silico studies, medicinal chemistry, and pharmacological profiling approaches, we designed, synthesized, and characterized the first PKR1 agonists, demonstrating their cardioprotective activity against myocardial infarction (MI in mice. Based on high throughput docking protocol, 250,000 compounds were computationally screened for putative PKR1 agonistic activity, using a homology model, and 10 virtual hits were pharmacologically evaluated. One hit internalizes PKR1, increases calcium release and activates ERK and Akt kinases. Among the 30 derivatives of the hit compound, the most potent derivative, IS20, was confirmed for its selectivity and specificity through genetic gain- and loss-of-function of PKR1. Importantly, IS20 prevented cardiac lesion formation and improved cardiac function after MI in mice, promoting proliferation of cardiac progenitor cells and neovasculogenesis. The preclinical investigation of the first PKR1 agonists provides a novel approach to promote cardiac neovasculogenesis after MI.

  6. Lack of acute cardioprotective effect from preischaemic erythropoietin administration in a porcine coronary occlusion model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jens; Mæng, Michael; Rehling, Michael;

    2005-01-01

    by myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and postmortem by a histochemical procedure (at 150 min of reperfusion). RESULTS: IS/AAR did not differ significantly between control (C), EPO1 and EPO2 groups, neither measured by MPI (mean+/-SD for C: 0.87+/-0.13; EPO1: 0.92+/-0.08; EPO2: 0.87+/-0.11), nor histochemically...... of reperfusion in our porcine model....

  7. KR-31762, a novel KATP channel opener, exerts cardioprotective effects by opening SarcKATP channels in rat models of ischemia/reperfusion-induced heart injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Hun; Yang, Min-Kyu; Lim, Jong-Hyun; Seo, Ho-Won; Yi, Kyu-Yang; Yoo, Sung-Eun; Lee, Byung-Ho; Won, Hyung-Sik; Lee, Chang-Soo; Choi, Wahn-Soo; Shin, Hwa-Sup

    2008-04-01

    The cardioprotective effects of KR-31762, a newly synthesized K+(ATP) opener, were evaluated in rat models of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) heart injury. In isolated rat hearts subjected to 30-min global ischemia followed by 30-min reperfusion, KR-31762 (3 and 10 microM) significantly increased the left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and double product (heart rate x LVDP) after 30-min reperfusion in a concentration-dependent manner, while decreasing the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP). KR-31762 also significantly increased the time to contracture (TTC) during ischemic period (20.0, 22.4 and 26.4 min for control, 3 and 10 microM, respectively), while decreasing the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from the heart during 30 min reperfusion (30.4, 14.3 and 19.7 U/g heart weight, respectively). All these parameters except LDH release were reversed by glyburide (1 microM), a nonselective blocker of K+(ATP) channel, but not by 5-hydroxydecanoate, a selective blocker of mitoK+(ATP) channel. In anesthetized rats subjected to 45-min occlusion of left anterior descending coronary artery followed by 90-min reperfusion, KR-31762 significantly decreased the infarct size (60.8, 40.5 and 37.8% for control, 0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg, iv, respectively). KR-31762 slightly relaxed the isolated rat aorta precontracted with methoxamine (IC(50): 23.5 microM). These results suggest that KR-31762 exerts potent cardioprotective effects through the opening of sarcolemmal K(ATP) channel in rat hearts with the minimal vasorelaxant effects.

  8. Enhanced cardioprotective effects mediated by plasmid containing the short-hairpin RNA of angiotensin converting enzyme with a biodegradable hydrogel after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Wei-Guo; Jiang, Xue-Jun; Li, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Cui; Yi, Xin; Ren, Shan; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

    2014-10-01

    The expression of foreign gene was enhanced and prolonged by sustained releasing a target gene to cells from biodegradable dextran-poly(e-caprolactone)-2-hydroxylethylmethacrylate-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (Dex-PCL-HEMA/PNIPAAm) hydrogel in vitro. Moreover, we have demonstrated that injection of the same hydrogel improved post-infarct ventricular remodeling. Therefore, we hypothesized that intramyocardial injection of plasmid containing the short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) with the same hydrogel enhances the cardioprotective effects superior to either alone or after rat myocardial infarction (MI). In this study, equal volume of phosphate-buffered solution (PBS), 10 μg ACE-shRNA plasmids, hydrogel containing 10 μg negative control ACE-shRNA plasmids and hydrogel containing 10 μg ACE-shRNA plasmids were shortly injected into the infarct area of rats after MI, respectively. We found that ACE-shRNA plasmid-loaded hydrogel extended the duration of gene expression in vivo. Moreover, it was shown that direct intramyocardial injection of ACE-shRNA plasmid-loaded hydrogel significantly decreased the expression of local ACE expression, inhibited cell apoptosis, reduced infarct size, and improved cardiac function compared with the injection of either alone 30 days after MI in rats. These results suggest that injection of ACE-shRNA plasmid-loaded hydrogel into impaired myocardium obtains more cardioprotective effects than either alone in rat with MI by prolonging the gene silencing of ACE. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 102A: 3452-3458, 2014.

  9. Cardioprotection by gene therapy: A review paper on behalf of the Working Group on Drug Cardiotoxicity and Cardioprotection of the Italian Society of Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madonna, Rosalinda; Cadeddu, Christian; Deidda, Martino; Giricz, Zoltán; Madeddu, Clelia; Mele, Donato; Monte, Ines; Novo, Giuseppina; Pagliaro, Pasquale; Pepe, Alessia; Spallarossa, Paolo; Tocchetti, Carlo Gabriele; Varga, Zoltán V; Zito, Concetta; Geng, Yong-Jian; Mercuro, Giuseppe; Ferdinandy, Peter

    2015-07-15

    Ischemic heart disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide. Ischemic pre-, post-, and remote conditionings trigger endogenous cardioprotection that renders the heart resistant to ischemic-reperfusion injury (IRI). Mimicking endogenous cardioprotection by modulating genes involved in cardioprotective signal transduction provides an opportunity to reproduce endogenous cardioprotection with better possibilities of translation into the clinical setting. Genes and signaling pathways by which conditioning maneuvers exert their effects on the heart are partially understood. This is due to the targeted approach that allowed identifying one or a few genes associated with IRI and cardioprotection. Genes critical for signaling pathways in cardioprotection include protectomiRs (e.g., microRNA 125b*), ZAC1 transcription factor, pro-inflammatory genes such as cycloxygenase (COX)-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), antioxidant enzymes such as hemoxygenase (HO)-1, extracellular and manganese superoxidase dismutases (ec-SOD and Mg-SOD), heat shock proteins (HSPs), growth factors such as insulin like growth factor (IGF)-1 and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), antiapoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, pro-apoptotic proteins such as FasL, Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3 and p53, and proangiogenic genes such as TGFbeta, sphingosine kinase 1 (SPK1), and PI3K-Akt. By identifying the gene expression profiles of IRI and ischemic conditioning, one may reveal potential gene targets responsible for cardioprotection. In this manuscript, we review the current state of the art of gene therapy in cardioprotection and propose that gene expression analysis facilitates the identification of individual genes associated with cardioprotection. We discuss signaling pathways associated with cardioprotection that can be targeted by gene therapy to achieve cardioprotection.

  10. Does white wine qualify for French paradox? Comparison of the cardioprotective effects of red and white wines and their constituents: resveratrol, tyrosol, and hydroxytyrosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Jocelyn I; Lekli, Istvan; Mukherjee, Subhendu; Das, Manika; Bertelli, Alberto A A; Das, Dipak K

    2008-10-22

    It is generally believed that the French paradox is related to the consumption of red wine and not other varieties of wine, including white wine or champagne. Some recent studies have indicated that white wine could also be as cardioprotective as red wine. The present investigation compares the cardioprotective abilities of red wine, white wine, and their principal cardioprotective constituents. Different groups of rats were gavaged with red wine, white wine, resveratrol, tyrosol, and hydroxytyrosol. Red wine and its constituent resveratrol and white wine and its constituents tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol all showed different degrees of cardioprotection as evidenced by their abilities to improve postischemic ventricular performance, reduce myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and reduce peroxide formation. It was discovered in this study that although each of the wines and their components increased the enzymatic activities of the mitochondrial complex (I-IV) and citrate synthase, which play very important roles in oxidative phosphorylation and ATP synthesis, some of the groups were more complex-specific in inducing the activity compared to the other groups. Cardioprotective ability was further confirmed by increased expression of phospho-Akt, Bcl-2, eNOS, iNOS, COX-1, COX-2, Trx-1, Trx-2, and HO-1. The results of this study suggest that white wine can provide cardioprotection similar to red wine if it is rich in tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol.

  11. Omega-3 fatty acids, inflammation and angiogenesis: basic mechanisms behind the cardioprotective effects of fish and fish oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, M; Scoditti, E; Carluccio, M A; Campana, M C; De Caterina, R

    2010-02-25

    Atherosclerosis is now widely accepted to be an inflammatory disease, characterized by degenerative as well as proliferative changes and extracellular accumulation of lipid and cholesterol, in which an ongoing inflammatory reaction plays an important role both in initiation and progression/destabilization, converting a chronic process into an acute disorder. Neovascularization has also been recognized as an important process for the progression/destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques. In fact, vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques prone to rupture are characterized by an enlarged necrotic core, containing an increased number of vasa vasorum, apoptotic macrophages, and more frequent intraplaque haemorrhage. Various functional roles have been assigned to intimal microvessels, however the relationship between the process of angiogenesis and its causal association with the progression and complications of atherosclerosis are still challenging and controversial. In the past 30 years, the dietary intake of omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids--mainly derived from fish--has emerged as an important way to modify cardiovascular risk through beneficial effects on all stages of atherosclerosis, including plaque angiogenesis. This review specifically focuses on the modulating effects of n-3 fatty acids on molecular events involved in early and late atherogenesis, including effects on endothelial expression of adhesion molecules, as well as pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic enzymes. By accumulating in endothelial membrane phospholipids, omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to decrease the transcriptional activation of several genes through an attenuation of activation of the nuclear factor-kappaB system of transcription factors. This occurs secondary to decreased generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species. This series of investigations configures a clear example of nutrigenomics--i.e., how nutrients may affect gene expression, ultimately affecting a wide spectrum

  12. Weight losing, antihyperlipidemic and cardioprotective effects of the alkaloid fraction of Hunteria umbellata seed extract on normal and triton-induced hyperlipidemic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adejuwon; Adewale; Adeneye; Peter; Anthony; Crooks

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the weight losing, antihyperlipidemic and cardioprotective effects of the alkaloid fraction of Hunteria umbellata(H. umbellata) seed.Methods: Adult female Wistar rats(weight range: 120-150 g) were randomly divided into 4 and 5 treatment groups in the normal and triton-induced hyperlipidemic models, respectively. and were daily treated for 14 d before they were humanely sacrificed under inhaled diethyl ether anesthesia. About 5 mL of whole blood was obtained by cardiac puncture from each treated rat, from which serum for lipids assay was subsequently separated. Tissue samples of livers of treated rats were harvested and processed for histopathological analysis.Results: Repeated daily oral treatments of normal rats with 25 and 50 mg/kg/day of alkaloid fraction of H. umbellata resulted in significant(P<0.05 and P<0.001) and dose-dependent weight loss, and decreases in the serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, while significantly(P<0.001) increased the serum levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol fraction. Similarly, oral pre-treatments with 25 and 50 mg/kg/day of alkaloid fraction of H. umbellata for 14 d before induction of hyperlipidemia with triton WR-1339 significantly(P<0.01, P<0.001) and dose-dependently attenuated increases in the average body weights, serum levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol while also significantly(P<0.01, P<0.001) and dose-dependently attenuated significant(P<0.001) decrease in the serum high-density lipoproteincholesterol levels when compared to the untreated control values. However, the results obtained for 50 mg/kg of alkaloid fraction of H. umbellata in both normal and triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemic rats were comparable to that recorded for 20 mg/kg of simvastatin. Similarly, oral pretreatments with 25 and 50 mg/kg/day of alkaloid fraction of H. umbellata significantly improved the histological lesions of fatty

  13. Cardioprotective Effects of Genistin in Rat Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Studies by Regulation of P2X7/NF-κB Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Gu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess the effects and mechanisms of genistin in the rat model of myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury. The rat hearts were exposed to the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD ligation for 30 min followed by 1 h of reperfusion. In the rat of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R, it was found that genistin pretreatment reduced myocardial infarct size, improved the heart rate, and decreased creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels in coronary flow. This pretreatment also increased catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD activities but decreased glutathione (GSH, malondialdehyde (MDA levels. Furthermore, we determined that genistin can ameliorate the impaired mitochondrial morphology and oxidation system; interleukin-6 (IL-6, interleukin-8 (IL-8, interleukin-10 (IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α levels were also recovered. Besides, related-proteins of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB signal pathway activated by P2X7 were investigated to determine the molecular mechanism of genistin and their expressions were measured by western blot. These results presented here demonstrated that genistin enhanced the protective effect on the rats with myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury. Therefore, the cardioprotective effects of genistin may rely on its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities via suppression of P2X7/NF-κB pathways.

  14. Cardioprotective effect of metformin in lipopolysaccharide-induced sepsis via suppression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaez, Haleh; Rameshrad, Maryam; Najafi, Moslem; Barar, Jaleh; Barzegari, Abolfazl; Garjani, Alireza

    2016-02-05

    Sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction is a serious organ complication. In the present study, we investigated the effect of metformin on myocardial dysfunction and TLR4 activity in LPS-induced sepsis. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=6): control received normal saline (0.5ml), LPS group received lipopolysaccharide (0.5mg/kg; i.p), and metformin treated group received LPS (0.5mg/kg)+metformin (100mg/kg; i.p). 9h later the hemodynamic parameters were recorded, blood samples were collected, and the hearts were removed and weighted. The concentration of TNF-α, content of MYD88, the phosphorylation of AMPK, and the rate of TLR4 expression in the heart were assessed. In the animals treated with metformin, the preservation of left ventricular function was associated with the reduction of myeloperoxidase activity (31%, Pmetformin group while the content of TLRs adapter protein of MyD88 was reduced by 45% (Pmetformin on TLR4 expression and MYD88 protein level. These results suggest that metformin exhibits cardioprotective effects in sepsis by suppression of TLR4 activity, at least in part through pathways involving AMPK activation.

  15. Hypertrophied hearts: what of sevoflurane cardioprotection?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jens Kjærgaard Rolighed; Smerup, Morten Holdgaard; Hasenkam, John Michael

    2009-01-01

    cardioprotection and more susceptible to ischaemic injury. We investigated whether hypertrophy blocks sevoflurane cardioprotection, and whether tolerance to ischaemia is altered by left ventricular hypertrophy, in an established experimental animal model of ischaemia-reperfusion. METHODS: Anaesthetized juvenile...... in left ventricular hypertrophy development in two further groups and these animals underwent identical ischaemia-reperfusion protocols, with or without sevoflurane cardioprotection. Myocardial infarct sizes were compared post-mortem. RESULTS: The mean myocardial infarct size (% of area...

  16. Cardioprotective and neuroprotective roles of oleuropein in olive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Syed Haris

    2010-07-01

    Traditional diets of people living in the Mediterranean basin are, among other components, very rich in extra-virgin olive oil, the most typical source of visible fat. Olive is a priceless source of monounsaturated and di-unsaturated fatty acids, polyphenolic antioxidants and vitamins. Oleuropein is the main glycoside in olives and is responsible for the bitter taste of immature and unprocessed olives. Chemically, oleuropein is the ester of elenolic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl ethanol, which possesses beneficial effects on human health, such as antioxidant, antiatherogenic, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. The phenolic fraction extracted from the leaves of the olive tree, which contains significant amounts of oleuropein, prevents lipoprotein oxidation. In addition, oleuropein has shown cardioprotective effect against acute adriamycin cardiotoxicity and an anti-ischemic and hypolipidemic activities. Recently, oleuropein has shown neuroprotection by forming a non-covalent complex with the Aβ peptide, which is a key hallmark of several degenerative diseases like Alzheimer and Parkinson. Thus, a large mass of research has been accumulating in the area of olive oil, in the attempt to provide evidence for the health benefits of olive oil consumption and to scientifically support the widespread adoption of traditional Mediterranean diet as a model of healthy eating. These results provide a molecular basis for some of the benefits potentially coming from oleuropein consumption and pave the way to further studies on the possible pharmacological use of oleuropein to prevent or to slow down the cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. Sarcoplasmic phospholamban protein is involved in the mechanisms of postresuscitation myocardial dysfunction and the cardioprotective effect of nitrite during resuscitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Huang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR Ca(2+-handling proteins play an important role in myocardial dysfunction after acute ischemia/reperfusion injury. We hypothesized that nitrite would improve postresuscitation myocardial dysfunction by increasing nitric oxide (NO generation and that the mechanism of this protection is related to the modulation of SR Ca(2+-handling proteins. METHODS: We conducted a randomized prospective animal study using male Sprague-Dawley rats. Cardiac arrest was induced by intravenous bolus of potassium chloride (40 µg/g. Nitrite (1.2 nmol/g or placebo was administered when chest compression was started. No cardiac arrest was induced in the sham group. Hemodynamic parameters were monitored invasively for 90 minutes after the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC. Echocardiogram was performed to evaluate cardiac function. Myocardial samples were harvested 5 minutes and 1 hour after ROSC. RESULTS: Myocardial function was significantly impaired in the nitrite and placebo groups after resuscitation, whereas cardiac function (i.e., ejection fraction and fractional shortening was significantly greater in the nitrite group than in the placebo group. Nitrite administration increased the level of nitric oxide in the myocardium 5 min after resuscitation compared to the other two groups. The levels of phosphorylated phospholamban (PLB were decreased after resuscitation, and nitrite increased the phosphorylation of phospholamban compared to the placebo. No significant differences were found in the expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+ ATPase (SERCA2a and ryanodine receptors (RyRs. CONCLUSIONS: postresuscitation myocardial dysfunction is associated with the impairment of PLB phosphorylation. Nitrite administered during resuscitation improves postresuscitation myocardial dysfunction by preserving phosphorylated PLB protein during resuscitation.

  18. The novel H2S-donor 4-carboxyphenyl isothiocyanate promotes cardioprotective effects against ischemia/reperfusion injury through activation of mitoKATP channels and reduction of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testai, Lara; Marino, Alice; Piano, Ilaria; Brancaleone, Vincenzo; Tomita, Kengo; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Martelli, Alma; Citi, Valentina; Breschi, Maria C; Levi, Roberto; Gargini, Claudia; Bucci, Mariarosaria; Cirino, Giuseppe; Ghelardini, Carla; Calderone, Vincenzo

    2016-11-01

    The endogenous gasotransmitter hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is an important regulator of the cardiovascular system, particularly of myocardial function. Moreover, H2S exhibits cardioprotective activity against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) or hypoxic injury, and is considered an important mediator of "ischemic preconditioning", through activation of mitochondrial potassium channels, reduction of oxidative stress, activation of the endogenous "anti-oxidant machinery" and limitation of inflammatory responses. Accordingly, H2S-donors, i.e. pro-drugs able to generate exogenous H2S, are viewed as promising therapeutic agents for a number of cardiovascular diseases. The novel H2S-donor 4-carboxy phenyl-isothiocyanate (4CPI), whose vasorelaxing effects were recently reported, was tested here in different experimental models of myocardial I/R. In Langendorff-perfused rat hearts subjected to I/R, 4CPI significantly improved the post-ischemic recovery of myocardial functional parameters and limited tissue injury. These effects were antagonized by 5-hydroxydecanoic acid (a blocker of mitoKATP channels). Moreover, 4CPI inhibited the formation of reactive oxygen species. We found the whole battery of H2S-producing enzymes to be present in myocardial tissue: cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MPST). Notably, 4CPI down-regulated the post-ischemic expression of CSE. In Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts, 4CPI reduced the post-ischemic release of norepinephrine and the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias. In both rat and mouse hearts, 4CPI did not affect the degranulation of resident mast cells. In isolated rat cardiac mitochondria, 4CPI partially depolarized the mitochondrial membrane potential; this effect was antagonized by ATP (i.e., the physiological inhibitor of KATP channels). Moreover, 4CPI abrogated calcium uptake in the mitochondrial matrix. Finally, in an in vivo model of acute myocardial infarction in rats, 4

  19. EETs mediate cardioprotection of salvianolic acids through MAPK signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoubao Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Salvianolic acids, including salvianolic acid A (SAA and salvianolic acid B (SAB, are the main water-soluble bioactive compounds isolated from the Chinese medicinal herb Danshen and have been shown to exert in vitro and in vivo cardiovascular protection. Recent studies suggest that epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs, the primary cytochrome P450 2J (CYP2J epoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid, are involved in the progression of ischemic injury in diverse organs. Here, we investigated the relation between the protective effects of salvianolic acids and EETs/sEH as well as MAPK signaling pathway. In the present study, the rat acute myocardial infarction (AMI model was established by the left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion. Our results showed that salvianolic acids significantly reduced ST-segment elevation and serum levels of CK-MB, LDH, and ALT in AMI rats, and significantly attenuated the caspase 3 expression and reduced the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. ELISA measurement showed that salvianolic acids significantly increased the 14,15-EET levels in blood and heart, and attenuated hydrolase activity of sEH in heart of AMI rat. Western blotting analysis suggested that salvianolic acids significantly attenuated the phosphorylation of JNK and p38, and increased phosphorylation of ERK in heart. In conclusion, these results indicate that EETs/sEH and MAPK signaling pathways are important processes in cardioprotection of salvianolic acids.

  20. Hemodynamic and neurohumoral effects of various grades of selective adenosine transport inhibition in humans. Implications for its future role in cardioprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongen, G A; Smits, P; Ver Donck, K; Willemsen, J J; De Abreu, R A; Van Belle, H; Thien, T

    1995-02-01

    augments the forearm vasodilator response to adenosine without significant systemic effects. These results suggest that draflazine is a feasible tool to potentiate adenosine-mediated cardioprotection in man.

  1. Paracrine systems in the cardioprotective effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y H; Yang, X P; Sharov, V G; Sigmon, D H; Sabbath, H N; Carretero, O A

    1996-01-01

    After transient episodes of ischemia, benefits of thrombolytic or angioplastic therapy may be limited by reperfusion injury. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors protect the heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury, an effect mediated by kinins. We examined whether the protective effect of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor ramiprilat on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion is due to kinin stimulation of prostaglandin and/or nitric oxide release. The left anterior descending coronary artery of Lewis inbred rats was occluded for 30 minutes, followed by 120 minutes of reperfusion. Immediately before reperfusion rats were treated with vehicle, ramiprilat, or the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist losartan. We tested whether pretreatment with the kinin receptor antagonist Hoe 140, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, or the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin blocked the effect of ramiprilat on infarct size and reperfusion arrhythmias. In controls, infarct size as a percentage of the area at risk was 79 +/- 3%; ramiprilat reduced this to 49 +/- 4% (P < .001), but losartan had little effect (74 +/- 6%, P = NS). Pretreatment with Hoe 140, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, or indomethacin abolished the beneficial effect of ramiprilat. Compared with the 30-minute ischemia/120-minute reperfusion group, nonreperfused hearts with 30 minutes of ischemia had significantly smaller infarct size as a percentage of the area at risk, whereas in the 150-minute ischemia group it was significantly larger. This suggests that reperfusion caused a significant part of the myocardial injury, but it also suggests that compared with prolonged ischemia, reperfusion salvaged some of the myocardium. Ventricular arrhythmias mirrored the changes in infarct size. Thus, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors protect the myocardium against ischemia/reperfusion injury and arrhythmias; these beneficial effects are mediated primarily by a kinin

  2. Physical Training and Cardioprotection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Zhang; Keith L. March; Dongming Hou

    2003-01-01

    Experimental, clinical and epidemiologic studies have provided strong evidence that physical training has beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. Numerous investigations have demonstrated that exercise increases coronary blood flow and myocardial perfusion. Importantly, training also can stimulate angiogenesis and accelerate collateral vessel growth in animal models with coronary artery occlusion. Cardiac adaptation such as increased vascularity or capillary density has been evidenced after regular endurance exercises. More recently, several studies indicate that physical training induces high levels of myocardial heat shock protein and antioxidant protein expression, which may play an important role in myocardial protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  3. Cardioprotective effects of the novel Na+/H+ exchanger-1 inhibitor KR-32560 in a perfused rat heart model of global ischemia and reperfusion: Involvement of the Akt-GSK-3beta cell survival pathway and antioxidant enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, In-Sang; Lee, Sung-Hun; Yang, Min-Kyu; Park, Jung-Woo; Yi, Kyu-Yang; Yoo, Sung-Eun; Kwon, Suk-Hyung; Chung, Hun-Jong; Choi, Wahn-Soo; Shin, Hwa-Sup

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the cardioprotective effects and mechanism of action of KR-32560 {[5-(2-methoxy-5-fluorophenyl)furan-2-ylcarbonyl]guanidine}, a newly synthesized NHE-1 inhibitor, we evaluated the effects of KR-32560 on cardiac function in a rat model of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced heart injury as well as the role antioxidant enzymes and pro-survival proteins play these observed effects. In isolated rat hearts subjected to 25 min of global ischemia followed by 30 min of reperfusion, KR-32560 (3 and 10 microM) significantly reversed the I/Rinduced decrease in left ventricular developed pressure and increase in left ventricular enddiastolic pressure. In rat hearts reperfused for 30 min, KR-32560 (10 microM) significantly decreased the malondialdehyde content while increasing the activities of both glutathione peroxidase and catalase, two important antioxidant enzymes. Western blotting analysis of left ventricles subjected to I/R showed that KR-32560 significantly increased phosphorylation of both Akt and GSK-3beta in a dose-dependent manner, with no effect on the phosphorylation of eNOS. These results suggest that KR-32560 exerts potent cardioprotective effects against I/Rinduced rat heart injury and that its mechanism involves antioxidant enzymes and the Akt-GSK-3beta cell survival pathway.

  4. Additional Effects of Back-Shu Electroacupuncture and Moxibustion in Cardioprotection of Rat Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Min Kathy Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many preclinical studies show that electroacupuncture (EA on PC6 and ST36 can reduce infarct size after ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury. Yet studies to enhance the treatment effect size are limited. The purpose of this study was to explore whether EA has additional myocardial protective effects on an ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury rat model when back-shu EA and moxibustion are added. SD rats were divided into several groups and treated with either EA only, EA + back-shu EA (B, or EA + B + moxibustion (M for 5 consecutive days. Transthoracic echocardiography and molecular and immunohistochemical evaluations were performed. It was found that although myocardial infarct areas were significantly lower and cardiac function was also significantly preserved in the three treatment groups compared to the placebo group, there were no additional differences between the three treatment groups. In addition, HSP20 and HSP27 were expressed significantly more in the treatment groups. The results suggest that adding several treatments does not necessarily increase protection. Our study corroborates previous findings that more treatment, such as prolonging EA duration or increasing EA intensity, does not always lead to better results. Other methods of increasing treatment effect size should be explored.

  5. Intermittent fasting combined with calorie restriction is effective for weight loss and cardio-protection in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klempel Monica C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent fasting (IF; severe restriction 1 d/week facilitates weight loss and improves coronary heart disease (CHD risk indicators. The degree to which weight loss can be enhanced if IF is combined with calorie restriction (CR and liquid meals, remains unknown. Objective This study examined the effects of IF plus CR (with or without a liquid diet on body weight, body composition, and CHD risk. Methods Obese women (n = 54 were randomized to either the IFCR-liquid (IFCR-L or IFCR-food based (IFCR-F diet. The trial had two phases: 1 2-week weight maintenance period, and 2 8-week weight loss period. Results Body weight decreased more (P = 0.04 in the IFCR-L group (3.9 ± 1.4 kg versus the IFCR-F group (2.5 ± 0.6 kg. Fat mass decreased similarly (P P = 0.04 in the IFCR-L (19 ± 10%; 20 ± 9%, respectively versus the IFCR-F group (8 ± 3%; 7 ± 4%, respectively. LDL peak particle size increased (P Conclusion These findings suggest that IF combined with CR and liquid meals is an effective strategy to help obese women lose weight and lower CHD risk.

  6. Cardioprotective Activity of Ganoderma lucidum Extract during Total Ischemia and Reperfusion of Isolated Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasukova, T V; Maslov, L N; Arbuzov, A G; Burkova, V N; Inisheva, L I

    2015-04-01

    The cardioprotective effects of Ganoderma lucidum extract were examined in experiments with global ischemia (45 min) and reperfusion (30 min) of isolated and perfused rat heart. The course of preventive administration of the extract in a dose of 400 mg/kg for 15 days diminished necrotic death of cardiomyocytes and reduced reperfusion contracture. Ganoderma lucidum extract demonstrated antioxidant properties. The authors believe that the cardioprotective properties of Ganoderma lucidum extract are largely determined by its antioxidant properties.

  7. Freshly Crushed Garlic is a Superior Cardioprotective Agent than Processed Garlic

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we compared the cardioprotective effects of freshly crushed garlic vis-à-vis that of processed garlic. Two groups of rats were gavaged with respective garlic preparations while the control group received vehicle only. After 30 days, all the rats were sacrificed and isolated hearts were subjected to 30 min ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Both the garlic preparations provided cardioprotection, but superior cardiac performance was noticed for those fed with freshly crushe...

  8. Cardiac Connexin 43 and Ischemic Cardioprotection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-yi LI; Guo-qiang ZHONG; Yan HE; Yun LING

    2009-01-01

    The connexin 43 (Cx43) proteins, which is the predominant protein that can form gap junctions and non-junctional hemichannels in ventricular myocardium, are central to the cardioprotection afforded by ischemic precondi-tioning (IP) and maybe ischemic postconditioning (PC) too. Recent studies showed that recruitment of Cx43 to the mitochondria in IP might play a role in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that mediates IP. The localiza-tion of Cx43 at mitochondria appears to be important for the achieved cardioprotection and opens a new door for us to reveal the exact mechanisms of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and cardioprotection, and it might be new targets of pharmacological modulator to achieved cardioprotection.

  9. Cardioprotection and lifespan extension by the natural polyamine spermidine

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Tobias; Abdellatif, Mahmoud; Schroeder, Sabrina; Primessnig, Uwe; Stekovic, Slaven; Pendl, Tobias; Harger, Alexandra; Schipke, Julia; Zimmermann, Andreas; SCHMIDT, Albrecht; Tong, Mingming; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph; Dammbrueck, Christopher; Gross, Angelina S; Herbst, Viktoria

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death. Here we show that oral supplementation of the natural polyamine spermidine extends the lifespan of mice and exerts cardioprotective effects, reducing cardiac hypertrophy and preserving diastolic function in old mice. Spermidine feeding enhanced cardiac autophagy, mitophagy and mitochondrial respiration, and it also improved the mechano-elastical properties of cardiomyocytes in vivo, coinciding with increased titin...

  10. CARDIOPROTECTION BY VOLATILE ANESTHETICS: FROM BENCH TO BEDSIDE AND BACK

    OpenAIRE

    Sedlić, Filip; Šepac, A; Muravyeva, M; Bošnjak, Željko

    2011-01-01

    Ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury of the heart can be ameliorated by volatile anesthetics (VAs). Application of VAs prior to the ischemic event triggers endogenous cardioprotective program that persists even after anesthetic removal, and it is called anesthetic-induced preconditioning (APC) (1). VAs can also reduce infarct size if applied during the reperfusion period (anesthetic postconditioning), where they can also exert protection by the direct effects on cardiac cel...

  11. Is delayed ischemic preconditioning as effective on running performance during a 5km time trial as acute IPC?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Joost P H; Timmers, Silvie; Ploegmakers, Danique J M; Cable, N Timothy; Hopman, Maria T E; Thijssen, Dick H J

    2017-02-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) may enhance exercise performance. Cardioprotective effects of IPC are known to re-occur 24h after the stimulus. Whether the delayed effect of IPC has similar effects as IPC on exercise performance is unknown.

  12. Isoflurane preconditioning confers cardioprotection by activation of ALDH2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-E Lang

    Full Text Available The volatile anesthetic, isoflurane, protects the heart from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2 is thought to be an endogenous mechanism against ischemia-reperfusion injury possibly through detoxification of toxic aldehydes. We investigated whether cardioprotection by isoflurane depends on activation of ALDH2.Anesthetized rats underwent 40 min of coronary artery occlusion followed by 120 min of reperfusion and were randomly assigned to the following groups: untreated controls, isoflurane preconditioning with and without an ALDH2 inhibitor, the direct activator of ALDH2 or a protein kinase C (PKCε inhibitor. Pretreatment with isoflurane prior to ischemia reduced LDH and CK-MB levels and infarct size, while it increased phosphorylation of ALDH2, which could be blocked by the ALDH2 inhibitor, cyanamide. Isolated neonatal cardiomyocytes were treated with hypoxia followed by reoxygenation. Hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis and injury which were attenuated by isoflurane and forced the activation of ALDH2. In contrast, the effect of isoflurane-induced protection was almost abolished by knockdown of ALDH2. Activation of ALDH2 and cardioprotection by isoflurane were substantially blocked by the PKCε inhibitor. Activation of ALDH2 by mitochondrial PKCε plays an important role in the cardioprotection of isoflurane in myocardium I/R injury.

  13. Gene expression profile of rat left ventricles reveals persisting changes following chronic mild exercise protocol: implications for cardioprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito Fabio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies showed that physical exercise, specifically moderate lifelong training, is protective against cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Most experimental work has focused into the effects and molecular mechanisms underlying intense, rather than mild exercise, by exploring the acute effect of training. Our study aims at investigating the cardioprotective effect of mild chronic exercise training and the gene expression profile changes at 48 hrs after the exercise cessation. Rats were trained at mild intensity on a treadmill: 25 m/min, 10%incline, 1 h/day, 3 days/week, 10 weeks; about 60% of the maximum aerobic power. By Affymetrix technology, we investigated the gene expression profile induced by exercise training in the left ventricle (LV of trained (n = 10 and control (n = 10 rats. Cardioprotection was investigated by ischemia/reperfusion experiments (n = 10 trained vs. n = 10 control rats. Results Mild exercise did not induce cardiac hypertrophy and was cardioprotective as demonstrated by the decreased infarct size (p = 0.02 after ischemia/reperfusion experiments in trained with respect to control rats. Ten genes and 2 gene sets (two pathways resulted altered in LV of exercised animals with respect to controls. We validated by real-time PCR the increased expression of four genes: similar to C11orf17 protein (RGD1306959, caveolin 3, enolase 3, and hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha. Moreover, caveolin 3 protein levels were higher in exercised than control rats by immunohistochemistry and Western Blot analysis. Interestingly, the predicted gene similar to C11orf17 protein (RGD1306959 was significantly increased by exercise. This gene has a high homology with the human C11orf17 (alias: protein kinase-A interacting protein 1 or breast cancer associated gene 3. This is the first evidence that this gene is involved in the response to the exercise training. Conclusion Our data indicated that few, but significant

  14. Cardioprotective proteins upregulated in the liver in response to experimental myocardial ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu Q; Tefft, Brandon J; Roberts, Derek T; Zhang, Li-Qun; Ren, Yupeng; Li, Yan Chun; Huang, Yong; Zhang, Di; Phillips, Harry R; Wu, Yu H

    2012-12-15

    Myocardial ischemia (MI) activates innate cardioprotective mechanisms, enhancing cardiomyocyte tolerance to ischemia. Here, we report a MI-activated liver-dependent mechanism for myocardial protection. In response to MI in the mouse, hepatocytes exhibited 6- to 19-fold upregulation of genes encoding secretory proteins, including α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP)2, bone morphogenetic protein-binding endothelial regulator (BMPER), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 13, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)21, neuregulin (NRG)4, proteoglycan 4, and trefoil factor (TFF)3. Five of these proteins, including AGP2, BMPER, FGF21, NRG4, and TFF3, were identified as cardioprotective proteins since administration of each protein significantly reduced the fraction of myocardial infarcts (37 ± 9%, 34 ± 7%, 32 ± 8%, 39 ± 6%, and 31 ± 7%, respectively, vs. 48 ± 7% for PBS at 24 h post-MI). The serum level of the five proteins elevated significantly in association with protein upregulation in hepatocytes post-MI. Suppression of a cardioprotective protein by small interfering (si)RNA-mediated gene silencing resulted in a significant increase in the fraction of myocardial infarcts, and suppression of all five cardioprotective proteins with siRNAs further intensified myocardial infarction. While administration of a single cardioprotective protein mitigated myocardial infarction, administration of all five proteins furthered the beneficial effect, reducing myocardial infarct fractions from PBS control values from 46 ± 6% (5 days), 41 ± 5% (10 days), and 34 ± 4% (30 days) to 35 ± 5%, 28 ± 5%, and 24 ± 4%, respectively. These observations suggest that the liver contributes to cardioprotection in MI by upregulating and releasing protective secretory proteins. These proteins may be used for the development of cardioprotective agents.

  15. KR-31761, a novel K+(ATP)-channel opener, exerts cardioprotective effects by opening both mitochondrial K+(ATP) and Sarcolemmal K+(ATP) channels in rat models of ischemia/reperfusion-induced heart injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min-Kyu; Lee, Sung-Hun; Seo, Ho-Won; Yi, Kyu-Yang; Yoo, Sung-Eun; Lee, Byung-Ho; Chung, Hun-Jong; Won, Hyung-Sik; Lee, Chang-Soo; Kwon, Suk-Hyung; Choi, Wahn-Soo; Shin, Hwa-Sup

    2009-02-01

    The cardioprotective effects of KR-31761, a newly synthesized K+(ATP) opener, were evaluated in rat models of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) heart injury. In isolated rat hearts subjected to 30-min global ischemia/30-min reperfusion, KR-31761 perfused prior to ischemia significantly increased both the left ventricular developed pressure (% of predrug LVDP: 17.8, 45.1, 54.2, and 62.6 for the control, 1 microM, 3 microM, and 10 microM, respectively) and double product (DP: heart rate x LVDP; % of predrug DP: 17.5, 44.9, 56.2, and 64.5 for the control, 1 microM, 3 microM, and 10 microM, respectively) at 30-min reperfusion while decreasing the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP). KR-31761 (10 microM) significantly increased the time to contracture during the ischemic period, whereas it concentration-dependently decreased the lactate dehydrogenase release during reperfusion. All these parameters were significantly reversed by 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD, 100 microM) and glyburide (1 microM), selective and nonselective blockers of the mitochondrial K+(ATP) (mitoK+(ATP)) channel and K+(ATP) channel, respectively. In anesthetized rats subjected to 30-min occlusion of left anterior descending coronary artery/2.5-h reperfusion, KR-31761 administered 15 min before the onset of ischemia significantly decreased the infarct size (72.2%, 55.1%, and 47.1% for the control, 0.3 mg/kg, i.v., and 1.0 mg/kg, i.v., respectively); and these effects were completely and almost completely abolished by 5-HD (10 mg/kg, i.v.) and HMR-1098, a selective blocker of sarcolemmal K+(ATP) (sarcK+(ATP)) channel (6 mg/kg, i.v.) administered 5 min prior to KR-31761 (72.3% and 67.9%, respectively). KR-31761 only slightly relaxed methoxamine-precontracted rat aorta (IC50: > 30.0 microM). These results suggest that KR-31761 exerts potent cardioprotective effects through the opening of both mitoK+(ATP) and sarcK+(ATP) channels in rat hearts with a minimal vasorelaxant effect.

  16. Key role of endothelium in the eNOS-dependent cardioprotection with exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, C; Nascimento, A; Bolea, G; Meyer, G; Gayrard, S; Lacampagne, A; Cazorla, O; Reboul, C

    2017-01-01

    Modulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation is recognized as a main trigger of the cardioprotective effects of exercise training on heart vulnerability to ischemia-reperfusion (IR). However, this enzyme is expressed both in coronary endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes and the contribution of each one to such cardioprotection has never been challenged. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of eNOS from the cardiomyocytes vs. the endothelium in the exercise cardioprotection. Male Wistar rats were assigned to a chronic aerobic training (Ex) (vs. sedentary group; Sed) and we investigated the role of eNOS in the effects of exercise on sensitivity to IR or anoxia-reoxygenation (A/R) at whole heart, isolated cardiomyocytes and left coronary artery (LCA) levels. We observed that exercise increased eNOS activation (Ser1177 phosphorylation) and protein S-nitrosylation in whole heart but not at cardiomyocyte level, suggesting the specific target of endothelial cells by exercise. Consistently, in isolated cardiomyocytes submitted to the A/R procedure, exercise reduced cell death and improved cells contractility, but independently of the eNOS pathway. Next, to evaluate the contribution of endothelial cells in exercise cardioprotection, LCA were isolated before and after an IR procedure performed on Langendorff hearts. Exercise improved basal relaxation sensitivity to acetylcholine and markedly reduced the alteration of endothelium-dependent coronary relaxation induced by IR. Furthermore, inactivation of coronary endothelial cells activity just before IR, obtained with a bolus of Triton X-100, totally suppressed cardioprotective effects of exercise on both left ventricular functional recovery after IR and infarct size, whereas no effect of Triton X-100 was observed in Sed group. In conclusion, these results show that coronary endothelial cells rather than cardiomyocytes play a key role in the eNOS-dependent cardioprotection of exercise.

  17. The Anti-Apoptotic and Cardioprotective Effects of Salvianolic Acid A on Rat Cardiomyocytes following Ischemia/Reperfusion by DUSP-Mediated Regulation of the ERK1/2/JNK Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiuping; Zhu, Shasha; Liu, Yang; Pan, Defeng; Chen, Xiaohu; Li, Dongye

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of salvianolic acid A (SAA) pretreatment on the myocardium during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and to illuminate the interrelationships among dual specificity protein phosphatase (DUSP) 2/4/16, ERK1/2 and JNK pathways during myocardial I/R, with the ultimate goal of elucidating how SAA exerts cardioprotection against I/R injury (IRI). Wistar rats were divided into the following six groups: control group (CON), I/R group, SAA+I/R group, ERK1/2 inhibitor PD098059+I/R group (PD+I/R), PD+SAA+I/R group, and JNK inhibitor SP600125+I/R group (SP+I/R). The cardioprotective effects of SAA on the myocardium during I/R were investigated with a Langendorff device. Heart rate (HR), left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), maximum rate of ventricular pressure rise and fall (±dp/dtmax), myocardial infarction areas (MIA), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and cardiomyocytes apoptosis were monitored. To determine the crosstalk betwee JNK and ERK1/2 via DUSP2/4/16 with SAA pretreatment, siRNA-DUSP2/4/16 were performed. The expression levels of Bcl-2, Bax, caspase 3, p-JNK, p-ERK1/2 and DUSP2/4/16 in cardiomyocytes were assayed by Western blot. Our results showed that LDH, MIA and cell apoptosis were decreased, and various parameters of heart function were improved by SAA pretreatment and SP application. In the I/R group, the expression levels of p-ERK1/2 and DUSP4/16 were not significantly different compared with the CON group, however, the protein expression levels of p-ERK1/2, Bcl-2 and DUSP4/16 were higher, while p-JNK, Bax, caspase 3 and DUSP2 levels were reduced among the SAA+I/R, PD+SAA+I/R and SP+I/R groups. The above indices were not significantly different between the SAA+I/R and SP+I/R groups. Compared with the SAA+I/R group, p-ERK1/2 was increased and p-JNK was decreased in the SAA+si-DUSP2+I/R, however, p-ERK was downregulated and p-JNK was upregulated in SAA+si-DUSP4+I

  18. The anti-apoptotic and cardioprotective effects of salvianolic acid a on rat cardiomyocytes following ischemia/reperfusion by DUSP-mediated regulation of the ERK1/2/JNK pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongda Xu

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of salvianolic acid A (SAA pretreatment on the myocardium during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R and to illuminate the interrelationships among dual specificity protein phosphatase (DUSP 2/4/16, ERK1/2 and JNK pathways during myocardial I/R, with the ultimate goal of elucidating how SAA exerts cardioprotection against I/R injury (IRI. Wistar rats were divided into the following six groups: control group (CON, I/R group, SAA+I/R group, ERK1/2 inhibitor PD098059+I/R group (PD+I/R, PD+SAA+I/R group, and JNK inhibitor SP600125+I/R group (SP+I/R. The cardioprotective effects of SAA on the myocardium during I/R were investigated with a Langendorff device. Heart rate (HR, left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP, maximum rate of ventricular pressure rise and fall (±dp/dtmax, myocardial infarction areas (MIA, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and cardiomyocytes apoptosis were monitored. To determine the crosstalk betwee JNK and ERK1/2 via DUSP2/4/16 with SAA pretreatment, siRNA-DUSP2/4/16 were performed. The expression levels of Bcl-2, Bax, caspase 3, p-JNK, p-ERK1/2 and DUSP2/4/16 in cardiomyocytes were assayed by Western blot. Our results showed that LDH, MIA and cell apoptosis were decreased, and various parameters of heart function were improved by SAA pretreatment and SP application. In the I/R group, the expression levels of p-ERK1/2 and DUSP4/16 were not significantly different compared with the CON group, however, the protein expression levels of p-ERK1/2, Bcl-2 and DUSP4/16 were higher, while p-JNK, Bax, caspase 3 and DUSP2 levels were reduced among the SAA+I/R, PD+SAA+I/R and SP+I/R groups. The above indices were not significantly different between the SAA+I/R and SP+I/R groups. Compared with the SAA+I/R group, p-ERK1/2 was increased and p-JNK was decreased in the SAA+si-DUSP2+I/R, however, p-ERK was downregulated and p-JNK was upregulated in SAA+si-DUSP4

  19. Identifying the Source of a Humoral Factor of Remote (PreConditioning Cardioprotection.

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    Svetlana Mastitskaya

    Full Text Available Signalling pathways underlying the phenomenon of remote ischaemic preconditioning (RPc cardioprotection are not completely understood. The existing evidence agrees that intact sensory innervation of the remote tissue/organ is required for the release into the systemic circulation of preconditioning factor(s capable of protecting a transplanted or isolated heart. However, the source and molecular identities of these factors remain unknown. Since the efficacy of RPc cardioprotection is critically dependent upon vagal activity and muscarinic mechanisms, we hypothesized that the humoral RPc factor is produced by the internal organ(s, which receive rich parasympathetic innervation. In a rat model of myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury we determined the efficacy of limb RPc in establishing cardioprotection after denervation of various visceral organs by sectioning celiac, hepatic, anterior and posterior gastric branches of the vagus nerve. Electrical stimulation was applied to individually sectioned branches to determine whether enhanced vagal input to a particular target area is sufficient to establish cardioprotection. It was found that RPc cardioprotection is abolished in conditions of either total subdiaphragmatic vagotomy, gastric vagotomy or sectioning of the posterior gastric branch. The efficacy of RPc cardioprotection was preserved when hepatic, celiac or anterior gastric vagal branches were cut. In the absence of remote ischaemia/reperfusion, electrical stimulation of the posterior gastric branch reduced infarct size, mimicking the effect of RPc. These data suggest that the circulating factor (or factors of RPc are produced and released into the systemic circulation by the visceral organ(s innervated by the posterior gastric branch of the vagus nerve.

  20. Cardioprotective mechanism of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Jin; Arita, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, are widely regarded as cardioprotective. Several large-scale, randomized clinical trials have shown that dietary intake of omega-3 PUFAs improves the prognosis of patients with symptomatic heart failure or recent myocardial infarction. Therefore, dietary consumption of omega-3 PUFA is recommended in international guidelines for the general population to prevent the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, the precise mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective effects of omega-3 PUFAs are not fully understood. Omega-3 PUFAs can be incorporated into the phospholipid bilayer of cell membranes and can affect membrane fluidity, lipid microdomain formation, and signaling across membranes. Omega-3 PUFAs also modulate the function of membrane ion channels, such as Na and L-type Ca channels, to prevent lethal arrhythmias. Moreover, omega-3 PUFAs also prevent the conversion of arachidonic acid into pro-inflammatory eicosanoids by serving as an alternative substrate for cyclooxygenase or lipoxygenase, resulting in the production of less potent products. In addition, a number of enzymatically oxygenated metabolites derived from omega-3 PUFAs were recently identified as anti-inflammatory mediators. These omega-3 metabolites may contribute to the beneficial effects against CVDs that are attributed to omega-3 PUFAs.

  1. Antioxidative and Cardioprotective Properties of Anthocyanins from Defatted Dabai Extracts

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    Hock Eng Khoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine anthocyanins and their antioxidative and cardioprotective properties in defatted dabai parts. Anthocyanins in crude extracts and extract fractions of defatted dabai peel and pericarp were quantified using UHPLC, while their antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress inhibition ability were evaluated by using DPPH and CUPRAC assays as well as linoleic acid oxidation system, hemoglobin oxidation, and PARP-1 inhibition ELISA. Cardioprotective effect of the defatted dabai peel extract was evaluated using hypercholesterolemic-induced New Zealand white rabbits. Six anthocyanins were detected in the defatted dabai peel, with the highest antioxidant capacities and oxidative stress inhibition effect compared to the other part. The defatted dabai peel extract has also inhibited lipid peroxidation (plasma MDA and elevated cellular antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GPx in the tested animal model. Major anthocyanin (cyanidin-3-glucoside and other anthocyanins (pelargonidin-3-glucoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-galactoside, cyanidin-3-arabinoside, and peonidin-3-glucoside detected in the defatted dabai peel are potential future nutraceuticals with promising medicinal properties.

  2. Antioxidant Properties and Cardioprotective Mechanism of Malaysian Propolis in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Romana; Hossen, Md. Sakib; Ahmmed, Istiyak; Rumpa, Nur-E-Noushin; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah

    2017-01-01

    Propolis contains high concentrations of polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins, ascorbic acid, and reducing sugars and proteins. Malaysian Propolis (MP) has been reported to exhibit high 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values. Herein, we report the antioxidant properties and cardioprotective properties of MP in isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction in rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 32) were pretreated orally with an ethanol extract of MP (100 mg/kg/day) for 30 consecutive days. Subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg in saline) for two consecutive days caused a significant increase in serum cardiac marker enzymes and cardiac troponin I levels and altered serum lipid profiles. In addition significantly increased lipid peroxides and decreased activities of cellular antioxidant defense enzymes were observed in the myocardium. However, pretreatment of ischemic rats with MP ameliorated the biochemical parameters, indicating the protective effect of MP against ISO-induced ischemia in rats. Histopathological findings obtained for the myocardium further confirmed the biochemical findings. It is concluded that MP exhibits cardioprotective activity against ISO-induced oxidative stress through its direct cytotoxic radical-scavenging activities. It is also plausible that MP contributed to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity via inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

  3. Albuminuria and blood pressure, independent targets for cardioprotective therapy in patients with diabetes and nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtkamp, Frank A; de Zeeuw, Dick; de Graeff, Pieter A

    2011-01-01

    The long-term cardioprotective effect of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) is associated with the short-term lowering of its primary target blood pressure, but also with the lowering of albuminuria. Since the individual blood pressure and albuminuria response to an ARB varies between and withi...

  4. Cardio-Protection of Salvianolic Acid B through Inhibition of Apoptosis Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lingling; Deng, Yanping; Feng, Lixin; Li, Defang; Chen, Xiaoyan; Ma, Chao; Liu, Xuan; Yin, Jun; Yang, Min; Teng, Fukang; Wu, Wanying; Guan, Shuhong; Jiang, Baohong; Guo, Dean

    2011-01-01

    Targeting cellular function as a system rather than on the level of the single target significantly increases therapeutic potency. In the present study, we detect the target pathway of salvianolic acid B (SalB) in vivo. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was induced in rats followed by the treatment with 10 mg/kg SalB. Hemodynamic detection and pathological stain, 2-dimensional electrophoresis, MALDI-TOF MS/MS, Western blot, pathway identification, apoptosis assay and transmission electron microscope were used to elucidate the effects and mechanism of SalB on cardioprotection. Higher SalB concentration was found in ischemic area compared to no-ischemic area of heart, correlating with improved heart function and histological structure. Thirty-three proteins regulated by SalB in AMI rats were identified by biochemical analysis and were classified as the components of metabolism and apoptosis networks. SalB protected cardiomyocytes from apoptosis, inhibited poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 pathway, and improved the integrity of mitochondrial and nucleus of heart tissue during AMI. Furthermore, the protective effects of SalB against apoptosis were verified in H9c2 cells. Our results provide evidence that SalB regulates multi-targets involved in the apoptosis pathway during AMI and therefore may be a candidate for novel therapeutics of heart diseases. PMID:21915278

  5. Cardio-protection of salvianolic acid B through inhibition of apoptosis network.

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    Lingling Xu

    Full Text Available Targeting cellular function as a system rather than on the level of the single target significantly increases therapeutic potency. In the present study, we detect the target pathway of salvianolic acid B (SalB in vivo. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI was induced in rats followed by the treatment with 10 mg/kg SalB. Hemodynamic detection and pathological stain, 2-dimensional electrophoresis, MALDI-TOF MS/MS, Western blot, pathway identification, apoptosis assay and transmission electron microscope were used to elucidate the effects and mechanism of SalB on cardioprotection. Higher SalB concentration was found in ischemic area compared to no-ischemic area of heart, correlating with improved heart function and histological structure. Thirty-three proteins regulated by SalB in AMI rats were identified by biochemical analysis and were classified as the components of metabolism and apoptosis networks. SalB protected cardiomyocytes from apoptosis, inhibited poly (ADP-ribose polymerase-1 pathway, and improved the integrity of mitochondrial and nucleus of heart tissue during AMI. Furthermore, the protective effects of SalB against apoptosis were verified in H9c2 cells. Our results provide evidence that SalB regulates multi-targets involved in the apoptosis pathway during AMI and therefore may be a candidate for novel therapeutics of heart diseases.

  6. Cardioprotective Potentials of Plant-Derived Small Molecules against Doxorubicin Associated Cardiotoxicity

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    Shreesh Ojha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin (DOX is a potent and widely used anthracycline antibiotic for the treatment of several malignancies. Unfortunately, the clinical utility of DOX is often restricted due to the elicitation of organ toxicity. Particularly, the increased risk for the development of dilated cardiomyopathy by DOX among the cancer survivors warrants major attention from the physicians as well as researchers to develop adjuvant agents to neutralize the noxious effects of DOX on the healthy myocardium. Despite these pitfalls, the use of traditional cytotoxic drugs continues to be the mainstay treatment for several types of cancer. Recently, phytochemicals have gained attention for their anticancer, chemopreventive, and cardioprotective activities. The ideal cardioprotective agents should not compromise the clinical efficacy of DOX and should be devoid of cumulative or irreversible toxicity on the naïve tissues. Furthermore, adjuvants possessing synergistic anticancer activity and quelling of chemoresistance would significantly enhance the clinical utility in combating DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. The present review renders an overview of cardioprotective effects of plant-derived small molecules and their purported mechanisms against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Phytochemicals serve as the reservoirs of pharmacophore which can be utilized as templates for developing safe and potential novel cardioprotective agents in combating DOX-induced cardiotoxicity.

  7. Acute marijuana effects on social conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, S T; Stitzer, M L

    1986-01-01

    The present study assessed the acute effects of smoked marijuana on social conversation. Speech quantity was recorded continuously in seven moderate marijuana users during separate 1 h experimental sessions following the paced smoking of 0, 1.01, 1.84, and 2.84% THC marijuana cigarettes. Subjects engaged in conversation with undrugged partners who smoked placebo marijuana cigarettes. The active marijuana produced significant decreases in speech quantity, increases in heart rate, and increases in self-reports of "high" and sedation. Partners showed no effects in speech quantity or self-reports of drug effects that were systematically related to the doses administered to the subject pair members. The effects on speech quantity observed in the present study after acute dosing are similar to the effects on social conversation reported previously during chronic marijuana dosing. Marijuana appears to be an exception to the general rule that drugs of abuse increase verbal interaction.

  8. Statin and Resveratrol in Combination induces Cardioprotection against Myocardial Infarction in Hypercholesterolemic Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penumathsa, Suresh Varma; Thirunavukkarasu, Mahesh; Koneru, Srikanth; Juhasz, Bela; Zhan, Lijun; Pant, Rima; Menon, Venugopal P; Otani, Hajime; Maulik, Nilanjana

    2007-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia (HC) is a common health problem that significantly increases risk of cardiovascular disease. Both statin (S) and resveratrol (R) demonstrated cardioprotection through nitric oxide dependent mechanism. Therefore the present study was undertaken to determine whether combination therapy with statin and resveratrol are more cardioprotective than individual treatment groups in ischemic rat heart model. The rats were fed rats with 2% high cholesterol diet and after 8 weeks of high cholesterol diet the animals were treated with statin (1mg/kg bw/day) and resveratrol (20mg/kg bw/day) for 2 weeks. The rats were assigned to: 1) Control (C) 2) HC 3) HCR 4) HCS and 5) HCRS. The hearts, subjected to 30 min global ischemia followed by 120 min reperfusion were used as experimental model. The left ventricular functional recovery (+dp/dt) was found to be significantly better in the HCRS (1926±43), HCR (1556±65) and HCS (1635±40) compared to HC group (1127±16). The infarct size in the HCRS, HCS and HCR groups were 37±3.6, 43±3.3 and 44±4.2 respectively compared to 53±4.6 in HC. The lipid level was found to be decreased in all the treatment groups when compared to HC more significantly in HCS and HCRS groups when compared to HCR. Increased phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS was also observed in all the treatment groups resulting in decreased extent of cardiomyocyte apoptosis but the extent of reduction in apoptosis was more significant in HCRS group compared to all other groups. In-vivo rat myocardial infarction (MI) model subjected to one week of permanent left descending coronary artery (LAD) occlusion documented increased capillary density in HCR and HCRS treated group when compared to HCS treatment group. We also documented increased β-catenin translocation and increased VEGF mRNA expression in all treatment groups. Thus, we conclude that the acute as well as chronic protection afforded by combination treatment with statin and resveratrol may be due to

  9. Citric acid cycle intermediates in cardioprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czibik, Gabor; Steeples, Violetta; Yavari, Arash; Ashrafian, Houman

    2014-10-01

    Over the last decade, there has been a concerted clinical effort to deliver on the laboratory promise that a variety of maneuvers can profoundly increase cardiac tolerance to ischemia and/or reduce additional damage consequent upon reperfusion. Here we will review the proximity of the metabolic approach to clinical practice. Specifically, we will focus on how the citric acid cycle is involved in cardioprotection. Inspired by cross-fertilization between fundamental cancer biology and cardiovascular medicine, a set of metabolic observations have identified novel metabolic pathways, easily manipulable in man, which can harness metabolism to robustly combat ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  10. Freshly crushed garlic is a superior cardioprotective agent than processed garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Subhendu; Lekli, Istvan; Goswami, Shyamal; Das, Dipak K

    2009-08-12

    In this study, we compared the cardioprotective effects of freshly crushed garlic vis-a-vis that of processed garlic. Two groups of rats were gavaged with respective garlic preparations while the control group received vehicle only. After 30 days, all of the rats were sacrificed and isolated the hearts were subjected to 30 min ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Both of the garlic preparations provided cardioprotection, but superior cardiac performance was noticed for those fed with freshly crushed garlic. Consistent with these results, the freshly crushed garlic group displayed significantly greater phosphorylation of antiapoptotic ERK1/2 proteins, reduced Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and reduced phosphorylation of proapoptotic p-38MAPK and JNK. Moreover, the survival signaling network consisting of Akt-FoxO1 was increased in the freshly crushed garlic treated hearts. Freshly crushed garlic, but not the processed garlic, showed enhanced redox signaling as evident by increased level of p65 subunit of NFkappaB, Nrf2, and enhanced GLUT 4, PPARalpha, and PPARdelta. The results thus show that although both freshly crushed garlic and processed garlic provide cardioprotection, the former has additional cardioprotective properties presumably due to the presence of H2S.

  11. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca.

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    Eduardo Ekman Schenberg

    Full Text Available Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8-13 Hz after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30-50 and 50-100 Hz, respectively between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca's chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT, harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered.

  12. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenberg, Eduardo Ekman; Alexandre, João Felipe Morel; Filev, Renato; Cravo, Andre Mascioli; Sato, João Ricardo; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D.; Yonamine, Maurício; Waguespack, Marian; Lomnicka, Izabela; Barker, Steven A.; da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8–13 Hz) after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30–50 and 50–100 Hz, respectively) between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca’s chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered. PMID:26421727

  13. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenberg, Eduardo Ekman; Alexandre, João Felipe Morel; Filev, Renato; Cravo, Andre Mascioli; Sato, João Ricardo; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D; Yonamine, Maurício; Waguespack, Marian; Lomnicka, Izabela; Barker, Steven A; da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8-13 Hz) after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30-50 and 50-100 Hz, respectively) between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca's chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered.

  14. Emerging Roles of Propolis: Antioxidant, Cardioprotective, and Antiangiogenic Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daleprane, Julio Beltrame; Abdalla, Dulcinéia Saes

    2013-01-01

    Propolis has attracted attention in recent years due to its beneficial effects, which make it a potential preventive and therapeutic agent as well as a useful additive in food and cosmetics. The aim of this review is to discuss the growing evidence that propolis may, via a diverse array of biological actions, assist in the prevention of some inflammation-mediated pathologies including cardiovascular disease. The active components of propolis that have been identified so far include polyphenols and flavonoids. These compounds have cardioprotective, vasoprotective, antioxidant, antiatherosclerotic, anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic actions. Many studies have been undertaken to elucidate the mechanism(s) by which propolis acts, which involve cellular signaling targets and interactions at the genomic level. This review will highlight the effects of propolis that may assist in the prevention of chronic degenerative diseases, such as cardiovascular disease. PMID:23662115

  15. Emerging Roles of Propolis: Antioxidant, Cardioprotective, and Antiangiogenic Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Beltrame Daleprane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis has attracted attention in recent years due to its beneficial effects, which make it a potential preventive and therapeutic agent as well as a useful additive in food and cosmetics. The aim of this review is to discuss the growing evidence that propolis may, via a diverse array of biological actions, assist in the prevention of some inflammation-mediated pathologies including cardiovascular disease. The active components of propolis that have been identified so far include polyphenols and flavonoids. These compounds have cardioprotective, vasoprotective, antioxidant, antiatherosclerotic, anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic actions. Many studies have been undertaken to elucidate the mechanism(s by which propolis acts, which involve cellular signaling targets and interactions at the genomic level. This review will highlight the effects of propolis that may assist in the prevention of chronic degenerative diseases, such as cardiovascular disease.

  16. Exercise-induced cardioprotection: a role for eNOS uncoupling and NO metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, C; Kleindienst, A; Bolea, G; Meyer, G; Gayrard, S; Geny, B; Obert, P; Cazorla, O; Tanguy, S; Reboul, Cyril

    2013-11-01

    Exercise is an efficient strategy for myocardial protection against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Although endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is phosphorylated and activated during exercise, its role in exercise-induced cardioprotection remains unknown. This study investigated whether modulation of eNOS activation during IR could participate in the exercise-induced cardioprotection against IR injury. Hearts isolated from sedentary or exercised rats (5 weeks training) were perfused with a Langendorff apparatus and IR performed in the presence or absence of NOS inhibitors [N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, L-NAME or N5-(1-iminoethyl)-L-ornithine, L-NIO] or tetrahydrobiopterin (BH₄). Exercise training protected hearts against IR injury and this effect was abolished by L-NAME or by L-NIO treatment, indicating that exercise-induced cardioprotection is eNOS dependent. However, a strong reduction of eNOS phosphorylation at Ser1177 (eNOS-PSer1177) and of eNOS coupling during early reperfusion was observed in hearts from exercised rats (which showed higher eNOS-PSer1177 and eNOS dimerization at baseline) in comparison to sedentary rats. Despite eNOS uncoupling, exercised hearts had more S-nitrosylated proteins after early reperfusion and also less nitro-oxidative stress, indexed by lower malondialdehyde content and protein nitrotyrosination compared to sedentary hearts. Moreover, in exercised hearts, stabilization of eNOS dimers by BH4 treatment increased nitro-oxidative stress and then abolished the exercise-induced cardioprotection, indicating that eNOS uncoupling during IR is required for exercise-induced myocardial cardioprotection. Based on these results, we hypothesize that in the hearts of exercised animals, eNOS uncoupling associated with the improved myocardial antioxidant capacity prevents excessive NO synthesis and limits the reaction between NO and O₂·- to form peroxynitrite (ONOO⁻), which is cytotoxic.

  17. Metformin induces cardioprotection against ischaemia/reperfusion injury in the rat heart 24 hours after administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solskov, Lasse; Løfgren, Bo; Kristiansen, Steen B; Jessen, Niels; Pold, Rasmus; Nielsen, Torsten T; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Schmitz, Ole; Lund, Sten

    2008-07-01

    The UK Prospective Diabetes Study demonstrated that the hypoglycaemic drug metformin is associated with a reduction in cardiovascular events in a group of obese type 2 diabetes patients. The energy sensing enzyme AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been indicated to play an important protective role in the ischaemic heart and is activated by metformin. The aim of this study was to determine whether a single dose of metformin protects the myocardium against experimentally induced ischaemia 24 hr after the administration, and furthermore to determine whether a single dose of metformin results in an acute increase in myocardial AMPK activity. Wistar rats were given either a single oral dose of metformin (250 mg/kg body weight), or a single oral dose of saline. After 24 hr, the hearts were Langendorff-perfused and subjected to 45 min. of coronary artery occlusion. Infarct size was determined by staining with triphenyltetrazoliumchloride (TTC) and Evans Blue and expressed as a percentage of the risk zone (IS/AAR %). Isoform specific AMPK activity was measured 2 hr after administration of metformin or saline. Infarct size was significantly reduced in the metformin treated (I/R: 19.9 +/- 3.9%versus 36.7 +/- 3.6%, P < 0.01, n = 8-14) compared to the control group. A single oral dose of metformin resulted in an approximately ~2-fold increase in AMPK-alpha2 activity 2 hr after administration (P < 0.015, n = 10). In conclusion, a single dose of metformin results in an acute increase in myocardial AMPK activity measured 2 hr after administration and induces a significant reduction in myocardial infarct size 24 hr after metformin administration. Increased AMPK activity may be an important signal mediator involved in the mechanisms behind the cardioprotective effects afforded by metformin.

  18. Acute lorazepam effects on neurocognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, David W; Marino, Susan E; Parfitt, David; Finney, Glen R; Meador, Kimford J

    2012-11-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design was employed to determine whether acute lorazepam (2 mg orally) cognitive side effects would emerge in a differential age-dependent fashion in 15 young (mean age=22 years) and 12 older (mean age=64 years) subjects. Acute use of lorazepam is frequently the initial treatment choice for convulsive status epilepticus or repetitive seizure clusters. Cognitive assessment was performed during drug and placebo conditions using a computerized battery of cognitive tests. With the exception of performance on the reasoning composite score, significant drug effects were present on all primary cognitive domain measures. However, the only significant drug-by-age interaction effect was seen for dual-task performance. The relationship between test performance and plasma lorazepam concentrations was generally modest and non-significant, suggesting that individual differences in pharmacokinetics are not a major factor contributing to the emergence of cognitive side effects. Despite robust lorazepam effects on multiple measures of neurocognitive function, differential age effects are largely restricted to dual-task performance. These results indicate that with the exception of dual-task performance, older individuals in the age range of this study do not appear to be at increased risk for the emergence of cognitive side effects following a single 2-mg dose of lorazepam.

  19. Cardioprotective Signature of Short-Term Caloric Restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Noyan

    Full Text Available To understand the molecular pathways underlying the cardiac preconditioning effect of short-term caloric restriction (CR.Lifelong CR has been suggested to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease through a variety of mechanisms. However, prolonged adherence to a CR life-style is difficult. Here we reveal the pathways that are modulated by short-term CR, which are associated with protection of the mouse heart from ischemia.Male 10-12 wk old C57bl/6 mice were randomly assigned to an ad libitum (AL diet with free access to regular chow, or CR, receiving 30% less food for 7 days (d, prior to myocardial infarction (MI via permanent coronary ligation. At d8, the left ventricles (LV of AL and CR mice were collected for Western blot, mRNA and microRNA (miR analyses to identify cardioprotective gene expression signatures. In separate groups, infarct size, cardiac hemodynamics and protein abundance of caspase 3 was measured at d2 post-MI.This short-term model of CR was associated with cardio-protection, as evidenced by decreased infarct size (18.5±2.4% vs. 26.6±1.7%, N=10/group; P=0.01. mRNA and miR profiles pre-MI (N=5/group identified genes modulated by short-term CR to be associated with circadian clock, oxidative stress, immune function, apoptosis, metabolism, angiogenesis, cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM. Western blots pre-MI revealed CR-associated increases in phosphorylated Akt and GSK3ß, reduced levels of phosphorylated AMPK and mitochondrial related proteins PGC-1α, cytochrome C and cyclooxygenase (COX IV, with no differences in the levels of phosphorylated eNOS or MAPK (ERK1/2; p38. CR regimen was also associated with reduced protein abundance of cleaved caspase 3 in the infarcted heart and improved cardiac function.

  20. Acute marijuana effects on human risk taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Scott D; Cherek, Don R; Tcheremissine, Oleg V; Lieving, Lori M; Pietras, Cythia J

    2005-04-01

    Previous studies have established a relationship between marijuana use and risky behavior in natural settings. A limited number of laboratory investigations of marijuana effects on human risk taking have been conducted. The present study was designed to examine the acute effects of smoked marijuana on human risk taking, and to identify behavioral mechanisms that may be involved in drug-induced changes in the probability of risky behavior. Using a laboratory measure of risk taking designed to address acute drug effects, 10 adults were administered placebo cigarettes and three doses of active marijuana cigarettes (half placebo and half 1.77%; 1.77%; and 3.58% Delta9-THC) in a within-subject repeated-measures experimental design. The risk-taking task presented subjects with a choice between two response options operationally defined as risky and nonrisky. Data analyses examined cardiovascular and subjective effects, response rates, distribution of choices between the risky and nonrisky option, and first-order transition probabilities of trial-by-trial data. The 3.58% THC dose increased selection of the risky response option, and uniquely shifted response probabilities following both winning and losing outcomes following selection of the risky option. Acute marijuana administration thereby produced measurable changes in risky decision making under laboratory conditions. Consistent with previous risk-taking studies, shifts in trial-by-trial response probabilities at the highest dose suggested a change in sensitivity to both reinforced and losing risky outcomes. Altered sensitivity to consequences may be a mechanism in drug-induced changes in risk taking. Possible neurobiological sites of action related to THC are discussed.

  1. A Comparative Study of Cardioprotective Effect of Three Anesthetic Agents by Measuring Serum Level of Troponin-T after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

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    Vali Imantalab

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiac surgery is associated with some degree of myocardial injury. Preconditioning first described in 1986 was pharmacologic and non- pharmacologic. Among the long list of anesthetic drugs, isoflurane as an inhaling agent along with midazolam and propofol as injectable substances have been documented to confer some preconditioning effects on myocardium. Objectives: In this study cardiac Troponin T (cTnT ,as a reliable marker, was used for evaluating myocardial injury. Methods: This prospective double blind study was comprised of 60 patients scheduled for CABG and were randomly assigned into three groups who received infusion of propofol or midazolam or isoflorane. Surgical procedures and anesthetics were similar for 3 groups. cTnT measured preoperatively and at 12, 24 and 36hr after arrival in ICU. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in mean cTnT levels between three groups in the preoperative period and 12-24 hours after arrival in ICU. However, mean cTnT in 3 groups at 36 hours after arrival in ICU were different (P< 0.013 and cTnT level was significantly higher in midazolam group (P<0.001 and lowest in isoflurane group (P=0.002. Conclusion: There were significant differences on cTnT levels between anesthetic groups of isofluran, midazolam and propofol at 36 hr after surgery. Preconditioning effect of isoflurane was higher than the other two groups.

  2. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CARDIOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF VARIOUS DIAMETER AND COMPOSITION LIPOSOMES DURING REPERFUSION OF THE ISOLATED RAT HEARTS AFTER NORMOTHERMIC ISCHEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. G. Toropova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide application of cardiac surgery using the aorto-pulmonary bypass technique needs the development of new drugs, capable to minimize the heart damaging during ischemia and reperfusion. But the direct delivery of drugs into the damaged tissues and cells is a big problem. The liposomes as unique transport system can be used to solve this problem.The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of "empty" liposomes of various diameter and the liposomes of different composition on the myocardium contractile function which has underwent the ischemia and the subsequent reperfusion. The obtained results allowed us to make the conclusion that liposomes of 50 nanometers in diameter are most effective to cardiac protection versus liposomes of 100 nanometers.Inclusion the emoxipine into the composition of liposomes provide the best results on contractile function of an ischemic myocardium.

  3. Molecular and biochemical evidence on the protective effects of quercetin in isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Kasala, Eshvendar Reddy; Bodduluru, Lakshmi Narendra; Kumar, Vikas; Lahkar, Mangala

    2017-01-01

    Cardioprotection represents one of the most important and realistic aspects of preventive therapy today. Quercetin, a naturally occurring dietary flavone, has been studied extensively for its antioxidant properties. The objective of present study is to find out the cardioprotective activity and to explore the underlying mechanisms of quercetin pretreatment (50 mg/kg body weight, orally) for 14 days against isoproterenol (ISO; 100 mg/kg body weight, subcutaneously) induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats. Cardiac diagnostic markers, oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines, histopathology along with gene expression analysis of calpain 1 and 2 were carried out in experimental rats. Quercetin pretreatment showed protective effects on heart by significantly attenuating the ISO-induced oxidative stress, inflammation, protecting heart architecture, and by downregulation of the expression of calpain. Overall, these findings revealed the cardio-protective potential of quercetin and its mechanism of action against ISO-induced MI in rats.

  4. Estrogen replacement therapy and cardioprotection: mechanisms and controversies

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    M.T.R. Subbiah

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and case-controlled studies suggest that estrogen replacement therapy might be beneficial in terms of primary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD. This beneficial effect of estrogens was initially considered to be due to the reduction of low density lipoproteins (LDL and to increases in high density lipoproteins (HDL. Recent studies have shown that estrogens protect against oxidative stress and decrease LDL oxidation. Estrogens have direct effects on the arterial tissue and modulate vascular reactivity through nitric oxide and prostaglandin synthesis. While many of the effects of estrogen on vascular tissue are believed to be mediated by estrogen receptors alpha and ß, there is evidence for `immediate non-genomic' effects. The role of HDL in interacting with 17ß-estradiol including its esterification and transfer of esterified estrogens to LDL is beginning to be elucidated. Despite the suggested positive effects of estrogens, two recent placebo-controlled clinical trials in women with CHD did not detect any beneficial effects on overall coronary events with estrogen therapy. In fact, there was an increase in CHD events in some women. Mutations in thrombogenic genes (factor V Leiden, prothrombin mutation, etc. in a subset of women may play a role in this unexpected finding. Thus, the cardioprotective effect of estrogens appears to be more complicated than originally thought and requires more research.

  5. Oleanolic acid: a novel cardioprotective agent that blunts hyperglycemia-induced contractile dysfunction.

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    Rudo F Mapanga

    Full Text Available Diabetes constitutes a major health challenge. Since cardiovascular complications are common in diabetic patients this will further increase the overall burden of disease. Furthermore, stress-induced hyperglycemia in non-diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction is associated with higher in-hospital mortality. Previous studies implicate oxidative stress, excessive flux through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP and a dysfunctional ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS as potential mediators of this process. Since oleanolic acid (OA; a clove extract possesses antioxidant properties, we hypothesized that it attenuates acute and chronic hyperglycemia-mediated pathophysiologic molecular events (oxidative stress, apoptosis, HBP, UPS and thereby improves contractile function in response to ischemia-reperfusion. We employed several experimental systems: 1 H9c2 cardiac myoblasts were exposed to 33 mM glucose for 48 hr vs. controls (5 mM glucose; and subsequently treated with two OA doses (20 and 50 µM for 6 and 24 hr, respectively; 2 Isolated rat hearts were perfused ex vivo with Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing 33 mM glucose vs. controls (11 mM glucose for 60 min, followed by 20 min global ischemia and 60 min reperfusion ± OA treatment; 3 In vivo coronary ligations were performed on streptozotocin treated rats ± OA administration during reperfusion; and 4 Effects of long-term OA treatment (2 weeks on heart function was assessed in streptozotocin-treated rats. Our data demonstrate that OA treatment blunted high glucose-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in heart cells. OA therapy also resulted in cardioprotection, i.e. for ex vivo and in vivo rat hearts exposed to ischemia-reperfusion under hyperglycemic conditions. In parallel, we found decreased oxidative stress, apoptosis, HBP flux and proteasomal activity following ischemia-reperfusion. Long-term OA treatment also improved heart function in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. These

  6. High plasma concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine inhibit ischemic cardioprotection in hypercholesterolemic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landim, M.B.P.; Dourado, P.M.M.; Casella-Filho, A.; Chagas, A.C.P.; Luz, P.L. da [Unidade de Aterosclerose, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-05-10

    A low concentration of nitric oxide associated with a high concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) can explain the lack of ischemic cardioprotection observed in the presence of hypercholesterolemia. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of hypercholesterolemia on ischemic pre- and postconditioning and its correlation with plasma concentrations of ADMA. Male Wistar rats (6-8 weeks old) fed a 2% cholesterol diet (n = 21) for 8 weeks were compared to controls (n = 25) and were subjected to experimental myocardial infarction and reperfusion, with ischemic pre- and postconditioning. Total cholesterol and ADMA were measured in plasma before the experimental infarct and the infarct area was quantified. Weight, total cholesterol and plasma ADMA (means ± SE; 1.20 ± 0.06, 1.27 ± 0.08 and 1.20 ± 0.08 vs 0.97 ± 0.04, 0.93 ± 0.05 and 0.97 ± 0.04 µM) were higher in animals on the hypercholesterolemic diet than in controls, respectively. Cardioprotection did not reduce infarct size in the hypercholesterolemic animals (pre: 13.55% and post: 8% compared to 7.95% observed in the group subjected only to ischemia and reperfusion), whereas infarct size was reduced in the animals on a normocholesterolemic diet (pre: 8.25% and post: 6.10% compared to 12.31%). Hypercholesterolemia elevated ADMA and eliminated the cardioprotective effects of ischemic pre- and postconditioning in rats.

  7. Mitochondrial involvement in propofol-induced cardioprotection: An in vitro study in human myocardium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lan; Gress, Steeve; Gérard, Jean-Louis; Allouche, Stéphane; Hanouz, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Propofol has been shown to exert cardioprotection, but the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. We examined: (1) whether propofol-induced cardioprotection depended on the time and the dose of administration; (2) the role of mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels, nitric oxide synthase, and mitochondrial respiratory chain activity in propofol-induced cardioprotection. Human right atrial trabeculae were obtained during cardiopulmonary bypass for coronary artery bypass and aortic valve replacement. Isometric force of contraction of human right atrial trabeculae hanged in an oxygenated Tyrode’s solution was recorded during 30-min hypoxia and 60-min reoxygenation (Control). Propofol 0.1, 1, and 10 µM was administered: (1) 5 min before hypoxia until the end of the experiment; (2) 5 min followed by 5-min washout before hypoxia; (3) during the reoxygenation period, propofol 10 µM was administered in presence of 5-hydroxydecanoate (antagonist of mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels), and NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase). In addition, mitochondria were isolated from human right atrial at 15 min of reoxygenation. The effect of propofol on activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes was evaluated by spectrophotometry. The force of contraction (% of baseline) and the complex activity between the different groups were compared with an analysis of variance and post hoc test. Propofol 10 µM administered during the reoxygenation period significantly improved the recovery of force of contraction at the end of reoxygenation (82 ± 6% of baseline value vs. 49 ± 6% in Control; P mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, in reoxygenation period, compared to their respective untreated controls. In conclusion, in human myocardium, propofol-induced cardioprotection was mediated by mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium

  8. Metabolites derived from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are important for cardioprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Kim; Malick, Mandy; Madingou, Ness; Touchette, Charles; Bourque-Riel, Valérie; Tomaro, Leandro; Rousseau, Guy

    2015-12-15

    Although controversial, some data suggest that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are beneficial to cardiovascular diseases, and could reduce infarct size. In parallel, we have reported that the administration of Resolvin D1 (RvD1), a metabolite of docosahexaenoic acid, an omega-3 PUFA, can reduce infarct size. The present study was designed to determine if the inhibition of two important enzymes involved in the formation of RvD1 from omega-3 PUFA could reduce the cardioprotective effect of omega-3 PUFA. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with a diet rich in omega-3 PUFA during 10 days before myocardial infarction (MI). Two days before MI, rats received a daily dose of Meloxicam, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, PD146176, an inhibitor of 15-lipoxygenase, both inhibitors or vehicle. MI was induced by the occlusion of the left coronary artery for 40min followed by reperfusion. Infarct size and neutrophil accumulation were evaluated after 24h of reperfusion while caspase-3, -8 and Akt activities were assessed at 30min of reperfusion. Rats receiving inhibitors, alone or in combination, showed a larger infarct size than those receiving omega-3 PUFA alone. Caspase-3 and -8 activities are higher in ischemic areas with inhibitors while Akt activity is diminished in groups treated with inhibitors. Moreover, the study showed that RvD1 restores cardioprotection when added to the inhibitors. Results from this study indicate that the inhibition of the metabolism of Omega-3 PUFA attenuate their cardioprotective properties. Then, resolvins seem to be an important mediator in the cardioprotection conferred by omega-3 PUFA in our experimental model of MI.

  9. Efficacy of amifostine in protection against doxorubicin-induced acute cardiotoxic effects in rats

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    Dragojević-Simić Viktorija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Amifostine (AMI is a broad-spectrum cytoprotector which protects against variety of radio- and chemotherapy-related toxicities without decreasing their antitumor action. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential protective effects of AMI against acute cardiotoxic effects of doxorubicin (DOX in male Wistar rats. Methods. AMI (300 mg/kg ip was given 30 min before DOX (6 mg/kg and 10mg/kg b.w., iv. The evaluation of DOXinduced cardiotoxic effects, as well as cardioprotective efficacy of AMI was performed 48 h after their administration by determining serum activities of enzymes known to be markers of cardiac damage (creatine kinase - CK, aspartate aminotransferase - AST, lactate dehydrogenase - LDH, and its isoenzyme α-hydroxybutirate dehydrogenase - α- HBDH, as well as the histopathological and ultrastructural analysis of the heart tissue. Results. AMI successfully prevented a significant increase in serum activity of CK, AST, LDH and α-HBDH in animals treated with DOX in the dose of 6 mg/kg (121.14 ± 18.37 vs 167.70 ± 44.24; 771.42 ± 161.99 vs 1057.00 ± 300.00; 3230.00 ± 1031.73 vs 4243.10 ± 904.06; 202.57 ± 42.46 vs 294.90 ± 80.20 UI/l, respectively, and ameliorated DOX-induced structural damage of the rat myocardium. Pretreatment with AMI in rats given 10 mg/kg DOX reduced the cardiac damage score (CDS from 2.62 ± 0.51 to 1.62 ± 0.51, i.e. to the CDS value obtained with the lower dose of DOX (6 mg/kg. The ultrastructural analysis of the rat myocardium showed that AMI successfully protected the sarcolemma of cardiomyocytes and reduced mitochondria damage induced by DOX given in the dose of 6 mg/kg. Besides, capillaries were less morphologically changed and apoptosis of endothelial cells was extremely rare in AMI-protected animals. AMI itself did not cause any prominent changes in the examined parameters in comparison with the control rats. Conclusion. AMI provided a significant protection against DOX

  10. Cardioprotection of ischemic preconditioning in rats involves upregulating adiponectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Wu, Wenjing; Duan, Jun; Ma, Ming; Kong, Wei; Ke, Yuannan; Li, Gang; Zheng, Jingang

    2017-02-20

    It has been reported that ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and adiponectin (APN) are cardioprotective in many cardiovascular disorders. However, whether APN mediates the effect of IPC on myocardial injury has not been elucidated. This study was conducted to investigate whether IPC affects myocardial ischemic injury by increasing APN expression. Male adult rats with cardiac knockdowns of APN and its receptors via intramyocardial small-interfering RNA injection were subjected to IPC and then myocardial infarction (MI) at 24 h post-IPC. Globular APN (gAd) was injected at 10 min before MI. APN mRNA and protein levels in myocardium as well as the plasma APN concentration were markedly high at 6 and 12 h after IPC. IPC ameliorated myocardial injury as evidenced by improved cardiac functions and a reduced infarct size. Compared with the control MI group, rats in the IPC + MI group had elevated levels of left ventricular ejection fraction and fractional shortening, and a smaller MI size (PIPC are partially due to upregulation of APN, and provide a further insight into IPC-mediated signaling effects.

  11. Bmx, a member of the Tec family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases, is a novel participant in pharmacological cardioprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Ping, Peipei; Wang, Guang-Wu; Lu, Ming; Pantaleon, Dawn; Tang, Xian-Liang; Bolli, Roberto; Vondriska, Thomas M

    2004-11-01

    Previous studies have indicated that PKC-epsilon is a central regulator of protective signal transduction in the heart. However, the signaling modules through which PKC-epsilon exerts its protective effects have only begun to be understood. We have identified a novel participant in the PKC-epsilon signaling system in cardioprotection, the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Bmx. Functional proteomic analyses of PKC-epsilon signaling complexes identified Bmx as a member of these complexes. Subsequent studies in rabbits have indicated that Bmx is activated by nitric oxide (NO) in the heart, concomitant with the late phase of NO donor-induced protection, and provide the first analysis of Bmx expression/distribution in the setting of cardioprotection. In addition, increased expression of Bmx induced by NO donors was blocked by the same mechanism that blocked cardioprotection: inhibition of PKC with chelerythrine. These findings indicate that a novel type of PKC-tyrosine kinase module (involving Bmx) is formed in the heart and may be involved in pharmacological cardioprotection by NO donors.

  12. Efficacy and safety of out-of-hospital intravenous metoprolol administration in anterior ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction: insights from the METOCARD-CNIC trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mateos, Alonso; García Lunar, Inés; García Ruiz, José María; Pizarro, Gonzalo; Fernández Jiménez, Rodrigo; Huertas, Pilar; García Álvarez, Ana; Fernández-Friera, Leticia; Bravo, Jesús; Flores Arias, José; Barreiro, María V.; Chayán Zas, Luisa; Corral, Ervigio; Fuster, Valentín; Sánchez Brunete, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    We seek to examine the efficacy and safety of prereperfusion emergency medical services (EMS)–administered intravenous metoprolol in anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing eventual primary angioplasty. This is a prespecified subgroup analysis of the Effect of Metoprolol in Cardioprotection During an Acute Myocardial Infarction trial population, who all eventually received oral metoprolol within 12 to 24 hours. We studied patients receiving intravenous metoprol...

  13. Acute effects of solar particle event radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann R.; Weissman, Drew; Sanzari, Jenine K.; Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Wan, X. Steven; Romero-Weaver, Ana L.; Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Lin, L.; Cengel, K.

    2014-01-01

    A major solar particle event (SPE) may place astronauts at significant risk for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which may be exacerbated when combined with other space flight stressors, such that the mission or crew health may be compromised. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) Center of Acute Radiation Research (CARR) is focused on the assessment of risks of adverse biological effects related to the ARS in animals exposed to space flight stressors combined with the types of radiation expected during an SPE. The CARR studies are focused on the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to the types of radiation, at the appropriate energies, doses and dose-rates, present during an SPE (and standard reference radiations: gamma rays or electrons). All animal studies described have been approved by the University of PA IACUC. Some conclusions from recent CARR investigations are as follows: (i) the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for SPE-like protons compared with standard reference radiations (gammas or electrons) for white blood cells (WBCs) vary greatly between mice, ferrets and pigs, with the RBE values being greater in ferrets than those in mice, and considerably greater in pigs compared with those in ferrets or mice [1, 2]. This trend for the data suggests that the RBE values for WBCs in humans could be considerably greater than those observed in small mammals, and SPE proton radiation may be far more hazardous to humans than previously estimated from small animal studies. (ii) Very low doses of SPE proton radiation (25 cGy) increase blood clotting times in ferrets, and the low SPE-like dose rate has more severe effects than high dose rate radiation [3]. (iii) Results from pig and ferret studies suggest that disseminated intravascular coagulation is a major cause of death at doses near the LD50 level for SPE-like proton and gamma radiation. (iv) Exposure to SPE-like proton or gamma radiation, in combination with

  14. Correlation between Platelet Gelsolin and Platelet Activation Level in Acute Myocardial Infarction Rats and Intervention Effect of Effective Components of Chuanxiong Rhizome and Red Peony Root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological role of platelet gelsolin in platelet activation of acute myocardial infarction is not defined. In order to provide a potential new antiplatelet target for Chinese medicine and to elucidate the contribution of Xiongshao capsule, the effective components of Chuanxiong rhizome and red peony root, in this study, we randomly allocated Sprague Dawley rats to left anterior descending coronary artery ligation or sham surgery and different drug prophylaxis as control. We found that gelsolin is highly expressed in platelet rich plasma and lowly expressed in platelet poor plasma, accompanied by the high platelet activation level in model rats; plasma actin filaments and mean fluorescence intensity (MFI of platelet calcium ion increased and plasma vitamin D binding protein decreased in model rats. Xiongshao capsule could inhibit the gelsolin expression in platelet rich plasma and ischemic heart tissue simultaneously and reduce the level of plasma F-actin and MFI of platelet calcium ion. Our study concludes that platelet gelsolin is an important contributor to platelet activation, and platelet gelsolin inhibition may form a novel target for antiplatelet therapy. Xiongshao capsule may be a promising Chinese medicine drug for antiplatelet and aspirin-like cardioprotection effect.

  15. Erythropoietin: ready for prime-time cardioprotection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riksen, N.P.; Hausenloy, D.J.; Yellon, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    To improve clinical outcomes in patients presenting with an acute myocardial infarction, new strategies to limit infarct size and postinfarct remodelling are warranted. Recent animal studies have revealed that erythropoietin has the potential to achieve both these goals. Even more intriguing is the

  16. Cardioprotection of Electroacupuncture for Enhanced Recovery after Surgery on Patients Undergoing Heart Valve Replacement with Cardiopulmonary Bypass: A Randomized Control Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangxiang Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We attempted to investigate cardioprotection of electroacupuncture (EA for enhanced recovery after surgery on patients undergoing heart valve replacement with cardiopulmonary bypass. Forty-four patients with acquired heart valve replacement were randomly allocated to the EA group or the control group. Patients in the EA group received EA stimulus at bilateral Neiguan (PC6, Ximen (PC4, Shenting (GV24, and Baihui (GV20 acupoints twenty minutes before anesthesia induction to the end of surgery. The primary end point was cardioprotection effect of electroacupuncture postoperatively and the secondary endpoints were quality of recovery and cognitive functioning postoperatively. The present study demonstrated that electroacupuncture reduced the occurrence of complications and played a role of cardioprotective effect on patients after heart valve replacement surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, and it benefits patients more comfortable and contributes to recovery after surgery. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-IOC-16009123.

  17. Hemodynamic effects of acute digitalization several months after acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ressl, J; Jandová, R; Jebavý, P; Kasalický, J; Widimský, J

    1975-01-01

    Left ventricular function was investigated at rest and during exercise by heart catheterization in 15 patients 3-5 months after acute myocardial infarction. The effect of 1 mg digoxin i.v. in ten patients was correlated to placebo (saline solution) in five patients. A significant decrease of the left ventricular enddiastolic pressure, increase of left ventricular systolic ejection fraction and a shift of the left ventricular function curve to left upwards was found after digoxin with no changes in the placebo group. This beneficial effect of acute digitalization in patients convalescing from uncomplicated myocardial infarction without clinical signs of manifest heart failure could have therapeutic implication.

  18. Cardioprotection by H2S engages a cGMP-dependent protein kinase G/phospholamban pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibli, Sofia-Iris; Andreadou, Ioanna; Chatzianastasiou, Athanasia; Tzimas, Christos; Sanoudou, Despina; Kranias, Evangelia; Brouckaert, Peter; Coletta, Ciro; Szabo, Csaba; Kremastinos, Dimitrios Th.; Iliodromitis, Efstathios K.; Papapetropoulos, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Aims H2S is known to confer cardioprotection; however, the pathways mediating its effects in vivo remain incompletely understood. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the contribution of cGMP-regulated pathways in the infarct-limiting effect of H2S in vivo. Methods and results Anaesthetized rabbits were subjected to myocardial ischaemia (I)/reperfusion (R), and infarct size was determined in control or H2S-exposed groups. The H2S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, an agent that generates H2S) increased cardiac cGMP and reduced the infarct size. The cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG)-I inhibitor DT2 abrogated the protective effect of NaHS, whereas the control peptide TAT or l-nitroarginine methyl ester (l-NAME) did not alter the effect of NaHS. Moreover, the KATP channel inhibitor, glibenclamide, partially reversed the effects of NaHS, whereas inhibition of mitochondrial KATP did not modify the NaHS response. NaHS enhanced phosphorylation of phospholamban (PLN), in a PKG-dependent manner. To further investigate the role of PLN in H2S-mediated cardioprotection, wild-type and PLN KO mice underwent I/R. NaHS did not exert cardioprotection in PLN KO mice. Unlike what was observed in rabbits, genetic or pharmacological inhibition of eNOS abolished the infarct-limiting effect of NaHS in mice. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate (i) that administration of NaHS induces cardioprotection via a cGMP/PKG/PLN pathway and (ii) contribution of nitric oxide to the H2S response is species-specific. PMID:25870184

  19. Cardioprotective actions of Notch1 against myocardial infarction via LKB1-dependent AMPK signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Sun, Wanqing; Quan, Nanhu; Wang, Lin; Chu, Dongyang; Cates, Courtney; Liu, Quan; Zheng, Yang; Li, Ji

    2016-05-15

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in intracellular adaptation to energy stress during myocardial ischemia. Notch1 signaling in the adult myocardium is also activated in response to ischemic stress. However, the relationship between Notch1 and AMPK signaling pathways during ischemia remains unclear. We hypothesize that Notch1 as an adaptive signaling pathway protects the heart from ischemic injury via modulating the cardioprotective AMPK signaling pathway. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to an in vivo ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery and the hearts from C57BL/6J mice were subjected to an ex vivo globe ischemia and reperfusion in the Langendorff perfusion system. The Notch1 signaling was activated during myocardial ischemia. A Notch1 γ-secretase inhibitor, dibenzazepine (DBZ), was intraperitoneally injected into mice to inhibit Notch1 signaling pathway by ischemia. The inhibition of Notch1 signaling by DBZ significantly augmented cardiac dysfunctions caused by myocardial infarction. Intriguingly, DBZ treatment also significantly blunted the activation of AMPK signaling pathway. The immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that an interaction between Notch1 and liver kinase beta1 (LKB1) modulated AMPK activation during myocardial ischemia. Furthermore, a ligand of Notch1 Jagged1 can significantly reduce cardiac damage caused by ischemia via activation of AMPK signaling pathway and modulation of glucose oxidation and fatty acid oxidation during ischemia and reperfusion. But Jagged1 did not have any cardioprotections on AMPK kinase dead transgenic hearts. Taken together, the results indicate that the cardioprotective effect of Notch1 against ischemic damage is mediated by AMPK signaling via an interaction with upstream LKB1.

  20. Ω3 Supplementation and Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia Induce Cardioprotection Enhancing Antioxidant Mechanisms in Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio A. Herrera

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IH is linked with oxidative stress, impairing cardiac function. However, early IH also activate cardio-protective mechanisms. Omega 3 fatty acids (Ω3 induce cardioprotection by reducing infarct size and reinforcing antioxidant defenses. The aim of this work was to determine the combined effects of IH and Ω3 on cardiac function; oxidative balance and inflammatory state. Twenty-eight rats were randomly divided into four groups: normobaric normoxia (N; N + Ω3 (0.3 g·kg−1·day−1; IH; and IH + Ω3. IH was induced by 4 intercalate periods of hypoxia (4 days—normoxia (4 days in a hypobaric chamber during 32 days. At the end of the exposure, hearts were mounted in a Langendorff system and subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion. In addition, we determined HIF-1α and ATP levels, as well as oxidative stress by malondialdehyde and nitrotyrosine quantification. Further, the expression of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase was determined. NF-kappaB and myeloperoxidase levels were assessed in the hearts. Relative to N hearts, IH improved left ventricular function (Left ventricular developed pressure: N; 21.8 ± 3.4 vs. IH; 42.8 ± 7.1 mmHg; p < 0.05; reduced oxidative stress (Malondialdehyde: N; 14.4 ± 1.8 vs. IH; 7.3 ± 2.1 μmol/mg prot.; p < 0.05; and increased antioxidant enzymes expression. Supplementation with Ω3 induces similar responses as IH group. Our findings suggest that both, IH and Ω3 in an independent manner, induce functional improvement by antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms, establishing cardio-protection.

  1. Influence of cardiac decentralization on cardioprotection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G Kingma

    Full Text Available The role of cardiac nerves on development of myocardial tissue injury after acute coronary occlusion remains controversial. We investigated whether acute cardiac decentralization (surgical modulates coronary flow reserve and myocardial protection in preconditioned dogs subject to ischemia-reperfusion. Experiments were conducted on four groups of anesthetised, open-chest dogs (n = 32: 1- controls (CTR, intact cardiac nerves, 2- ischemic preconditioning (PC; 4 cycles of 5-min IR, 3- cardiac decentralization (CD and 4- CD+PC; all dogs underwent 60-min coronary occlusion and 180-min reperfusion. Coronary blood flow and reactive hyperemic responses were assessed using a blood volume flow probe. Infarct size (tetrazolium staining was related to anatomic area at risk and coronary collateral blood flow (microspheres in the anatomic area at risk. Post-ischemic reactive hyperemia and repayment-to-debt ratio responses were significantly reduced for all experimental groups; however, arterial perfusion pressure was not affected. Infarct size was reduced in CD dogs (18.6 ± 4.3; p = 0.001, data are mean ± 1 SD compared to 25.2 ± 5.5% in CTR dogs and was less in PC dogs as expected (13.5 ± 3.2 vs. 25.2 ± 5.5%; p = 0.001; after acute CD, PC protection was conserved (11.6 ± 3.4 vs. 18.6 ± 4.3%; p = 0.02. In conclusion, our findings provide strong evidence that myocardial protection against ischemic injury can be preserved independent of extrinsic cardiac nerve inputs.

  2. Long-term insulin treatment restores cardioprotection induced by sufentanil postconditioning in diabetic rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuwen; Zhang, Lei; Gu, Erwei; Zhu, Bingqing; Zhao, Xianya; Chen, Jingjing

    2016-03-01

    Sufentanil, a commonly used opioid analgesic, could mimic ischemia postconditioning to attenuate ischemia reperfusion injury, but this effect might be hindered in diabetic animals by inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β phosphorylation. Also, diabetes can abrogate the cardioprotection of sevoflurane (an inhaled anesthetic) against ischemia reperfusion injury, and short-term insulin treatment does not restore protection by sevoflurane postconditioning. We hypothesized that long-term insulin treatment might restore the cardioprotective effect of sufentanil postconditioning in diabetic rats via phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β. Streptozotocin (55 mg/kg)-induced diabetic rats received insulin (Novolin N, 6-8 u/d) for two days or two weeks, then were exposed to 30-min ischemia and 120-min reperfusion. Sufentanil postconditioning was performed 5 min before the onset of reperfusion. Controls included non-diabetic rats, sham surgery for ischemia/reperfusion, and sufentanil vehicle. Infarct size, cardiac troponin I, and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3β were examined. Sufentanil postconditioning reduced infarct size by 46% in non-diabetic rats (P insulin treatment was not effective, but two-week treatment reduced infarct size by 45% (P insulin treatment. The underlying mechanism may be increased phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β.

  3. A critical appraisal of antihyperglycemic and cardioprotective activities of liraglutide: A glucagon-like peptide-1 analog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Aliul Hasan Abdi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is leading cause for cardiovascular complication, drugs having cardioprotective and antihyperglycemic actions are constantly in search. Oral glucose elicits a three to four times higher peak insulin response compared with an equivalent dose of glucose, if infused intravenously. This is due to the reasons behind, the oral glucose causes a secretion of gut hormones, mainly the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP which enhance the glucose-induced insulin release. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM, glucose-induced insulin release is unsatisfactory or absent. Because of this type 2 DM patients are unable to adjust their insulin secretion as per the need exist. GLP-1 secretion (but not GIP secretion is diminished in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, when the GLP-1 and GIP agonist are administered in patients with type 2 diabetes, they elicit insulin secretion resulting in lowering of blood glucose level. In addition to its insulin stimulatory effect, GLP-1 agonist also induces cardioprotective effects. It increases nuclear respiratory factor-2 (Nrf2 and heamoxigenase-1(Ho-1 in cell which have antioxidant and cardioprotective property. GLP-1 maintains islets integrity and reduces apoptotic cell death of human islet cells in culture. Improved understanding of the mechanism of action and clinical effects of incretin-based therapies would be useful in advancement of its appropriate use in clinical practices.

  4. Roles of mitochondrial Src tyrosine kinase and zinc in nitric oxide-induced cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Xing, F; Zheng, H; Xi, J; Cui, X; Xu, Z

    2013-07-01

    While nitric oxide (NO) induces cardioprotection by targeting the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), the precise mitochondrial signaling events that mediate the action of NO remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test whether NO induces cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion by inhibiting oxidative stress through mitochondrial zinc and Src tyrosine kinase. The NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP) given before the onset of ischemia reduced cell death in rat cardiomyocytes subjected to simulated ischemia/reperfusion, and this was abolished by the zinc chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) and the Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor PP2. SNAP also prevented loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) at reperfusion, an effect that was blocked by TPEN and PP2. SNAP increased mitochondrion-free zinc upon reperfusion and enhanced mitochondrial Src phosphorylation in a zinc-dependent manner. SNAP inhibited both mitochondrial complex I activity and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation at reperfusion through zinc and Src tyrosine kinase. Finally, the anti-infarct effect of SNAP was abrogated by TPEN and PP2 applied at reperfusion in isolated rat hearts. In conclusion, NO induces cardioprotection at reperfusion by targeting mitochondria through attenuation of oxidative stress resulted from the inhibition of complex I at reperfusion. Activation of mitochondrial Src tyrosine kinase by zinc may account for the inhibition of complex I.

  5. Intravenous glutamine enhances COX-2 activity giving cardioprotection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGuinness, Jonathan

    2009-03-01

    Preconditioning, a highly evolutionary conserved endogenous protective response, provides the most powerful form of anti-infarct protection known. We investigated whether acute intravenous glutamine, through an effect on cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and heat shock protein (HSP) 72, might induce preconditioning.

  6. Mitochondria as Key Targets of Cardioprotection in Cardiac Ischemic Disease: Role of Thyroid Hormone Triiodothyronine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Forini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic heart disease is the major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Early reperfusion after acute myocardial ischemia has reduced short-term mortality, but it is also responsible for additional myocardial damage, which in the long run favors adverse cardiac remodeling and heart failure evolution. A growing body of experimental and clinical evidence show that the mitochondrion is an essential end effector of ischemia/ reperfusion injury and a major trigger of cell death in the acute ischemic phase (up to 48–72 h after the insult, the subacute phase (from 72 h to 7–10 days and chronic stage (from 10–14 days to one month after the insult. As such, in recent years scientific efforts have focused on mitochondria as a target for cardioprotective strategies in ischemic heart disease and cardiomyopathy. The present review discusses recent advances in this field, with special emphasis on the emerging role of the biologically active thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3.

  7. Effects of Acute Exercise on Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labban, Jeffrey D.; Etnier, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we tested the effect of acute exercise on long-term memory, specifically the timing of exercise relative to the memory challenge. We assessed memory via paragraph recall, in which participants listened to two paragraphs (exposure) and recounted them following a 35-min delay. Participants (n = 48) were randomly assigned to one of…

  8. The effects of acute exercise bouts on hepcidin in women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newlin, M.K.; Williams, S.; McNamara, T.; Tjalsma, H.; Swinkels, D.W.; Haymes, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of acute exercise on serum hepcidin and iron (sFe) in active women. Changes in interleukin-6 (IL-6), hepcidin, ferritin, and sFe in response to 2 different exercise durations were compared. METHODS: Twelve women age 19-32 yr performed 2 treadmill runs (60 and 120

  9. Acute effects of winter air pollution on respiratory health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der S.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis, acute respiratory health effects of exposure to winter air pollution are investigated in panels of children (7-11 yr) and adults (50-70 yr) with and without chronic respiratory symptoms, living in urban and non-urban areas in the Netherlands. The study was performed during three cons

  10. Acute Stressor Effects on Goal-Directed Action in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Stephanie; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Here we examined effects of acute stressors that involve either systemic coadministration of corticosterone/yohimbine (3 mg/kg each) to increase glucocorticoid/noradrenaline activity (denoted as "pharmacological" stressor) or one or several distinct restraint stressors (denoted as "single" vs. "multiple" stressor) on…

  11. The effects of citicoline on acute ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    therapy. Also there is no established effective acute treatment of spontaneous intracerebral bleeding. Therefore, an effective therapy applicable to all stroke victims is needed. The neuroprotective drug citicoline has been extensively studied in clinical trials with volunteers and more than 11......,000 patients with various neurologic disorders, including acute ischemic stroke (AIS). The conclusion is that citicoline is safe to use and may have a beneficial effect in AIS patients and most beneficial in less severe stroke in older patients not treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator....... No other neuroprotective agent had any beneficial effect in confirmative clinical trials or had any positive effect in the subgroup analysis. Citicoline is the only drug that in a number of different clinical stroke trials continuously had some neuroprotective benefit....

  12. The Brazilian Cardioprotective Nutritional Program to reduce events and risk factors in secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease: study protocol (The BALANCE Program Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Bernardete; Bersch-Ferreira, Ângela Cristine; Torreglosa, Camila Ragne; Ross-Fernandes, Maria Beatriz; da Silva, Jacqueline Tereza; Galante, Andrea Polo; Lara, Enilda de Sousa; Costa, Rosana Perim; Soares, Rafael Marques; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; Moriguchi, Emilio H; Bruscato, Neide M; Kesties; Vivian, Lilian; Schumacher, Marina; de Carli, Waldemar; Backes, Luciano M; Reolão, Bruna R; Rodrigues, Milena P; Baldissera, Dúnnia M B; Tres, Glaucia S; Lisbôa, Hugo R K; Bem, João B J; Reolão, Jose B C; Deucher, Keyla L A L; Cantarelli, Maiara; Lucion, Aline; Rampazzo, Daniela; Bertoni, Vanessa; Torres, Rosileide S; Verríssimo, Adriana O L; Guterres, Aldair S; Cardos, Andrea F R; Coutinho, Dalva B S; Negrão, Mayara G; Alencar, Mônica F A; Pinho, Priscila M; Barbosa, Socorro N A A; Carvalho, Ana P P F; Taboada, Maria I S; Pereira, Sheila A; Heyde, Raul V; Nagano, Francisca E Z; Baumgartner, Rebecca; Resende, Fernanda P; Tabalipa, Ranata; Zanini, Ana C; Machado, Michael J R; Araujo, Hevila; Teixeira, Maria L V; Souza, Gabriela C; Zuchinali, Priccila; Fracasso, Bianca M; Ulliam, Karen; Schumacher, Marina; Pierotto, Moara; Hilário, Thamires; Carlos, Daniele M O; Cordeiro, Cintia G N C; Carvalho, Daniele A; Gonçalves, Marília S; Vasconcelos, Valdiana B; Bosquetti, Rosa; Pagano, Raira; Romano, Marcelo L P; Jardim, César A; de Abreu, Bernardo N A; Marcadenti, Aline; Schmitt, Alessandra R; Tavares, Angela M V; Faria, Christiane C; Silva, Flávia M; Fink, Jaqueline S; El Kik, Raquel M; Prates, Clarice F; Vieira, Cristiane S; Adorne, Elaine F; Magedanz, Ellen H; Chieza, Fernanda L; Silva, Ingrid S; Teixeira, Joise M; Trescastro, Eduardo P; Pellegrini, Lívia A; Pinto, Jéssika C; Telles, Cristina T; Sousa, Antonio C S; Almeida, Andreza S; Costa, Ariane A; Carmo, José A C; Silva, Juliana T; Alves, Luciana V S; Sales, Saulo O C; Ramos, Maria E M; Lucas, Marilia C S; Damiani, Monica; Cardoso, Patricia C; Ramos, Salvador S; Dantas, Clenise F; Lopes, Amanda G; Cabral, Ana M P; Lucena, Ana C A; Medeiros, Auriene L; Terceiro, Bernardino B; Leda, Neuma M F S; Baía, Sandra R D; Pinheiro, Josilene M F; Cassiano, Alexandra N; Melo, Andressa N L; Cavalcanti, Anny K O; Souza, Camila V S; Queiroz, Dayanna J M; Farias, Hercilla N C F; Souza, Larissa C F; Santos, Letícia S; Lima, Luana R M; Hoffmann, Meg S; Ribeiro, Átala S Silva; Vasconcelos, Daniel F; Dutra, Eliane S; Ito, Marina K; Neto, José A F; Santos, Alexsandro F; Sousa, Rosângela M L; Dias, Luciana Pereira P; Lima, Maria T M A; Modanesi, Victor G; Teixeira, Adriana F; Estrada, Luciana C N C D; Modanesi, Paulo V G; Gomes, Adriana B L; Rocha, Bárbara R S; Teti, Cristina; David, Marta M; Palácio, Bruna M; Junior, Délcio G S; Faria, Érica H S; Oliveira, Michelle C F; Uehara, Rose M; Sasso, Sandramara; Moreira, Annie S B; Cadinha, Ana C A H; Pinto, Carla W M; Castilhos, Mariana P; Costa, Mariana; Kovacs, Cristiane; Magnoni, Daniel; Silva, Quênia; Germini, Michele F C A; da Silva, Renata A; Monteiro, Aline S; dos Santos, Karina G; Moreira, Priscila; Amparo, Fernanda C; Paiva, Catharina C J; Poloni, Soraia; Russo, Diana S; Silveira, Izabele V; Moraes, Maria A; Boklis, Mirena; Cardoso, Quinto I; Moreira, Annie S B; Damaceno, Aline M S; Santos, Elisa M; Dias, Glauber M; Pinho, Cláudia P S; Cavalcanti, Adrilene C; Bezerra, Amanda S; Queiroga, Andrey V; Rodrigues, Isa G; Leal, Tallita V; Sahade, Viviane; Amaral, Daniele A; Souza, Diana S; Araújo, Givaldo A; Curvello, Karine; Heine, Manuella; Barretto, Marília M S; Reis, Nailson A; Vasconcelos, Sandra M L; Vieira, Danielly C; Costa, Francisco A; Fontes, Jessica M S; Neto, Juvenal G C; Navarro, Laís N P; Ferreira, Raphaela C; Marinho, Patrícia M; Abib, Renata Torres; Longo, Aline; Bertoldi, Eduardo G; Ferreira, Lauren S; Borges, Lúcia R; Azevedo, Norlai A; Martins, Celma M; Kato, Juliana T; Izar, Maria C O; Asoo, Marina T; de Capitani, Mariana D; Machado, Valéria A; Fonzar, Waléria T; Pinto, Sônia L; Silva, Kellen C; Gratão, Lúcia H A; Machado, Sheila D; de Oliveira, Susane R U; Bressan, Josefina; Caldas, Ana P S; Lima, Hatanne C F M; Hermsdorff, Helen H M; Saldanha, Tânia M; Priore, Sílvia E; Feres, Naoel H; Neves, Adila de Queiroz; Cheim, Loanda M G; Silva, Nilma F; Reis, Silvia R L; Penafort, Andreza M; de Queirós, Ana Paula O; Farias, Geysa M N; de los Santos, Mônica L P; Ambrozio, Cíntia L; Camejo, Cirília N; dos Santos, Cristiano P; Schirmann, Gabriela S; Boemo, Jorge L; Oliveira, Rosane E C; Lima, Súsi M B; Bortolini, Vera M S

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the rationale for the Brazilian Cardioprotective Nutritional Program (BALANCE Program) Trial. This pragmatic, multicenter, nationwide, randomized, concealed, controlled trial was designed to investigate the effects of the BALANCE Program in reducing cardiovascular events. The BALANCE Program consists of a prescribed diet guided by nutritional content recommendations from Brazilian national guidelines using a unique nutritional education strategy, which includes suggestions of affordable foods. In addition, the Program focuses on intensive follow-up through one-on-one visits, group sessions, and phone calls. In this trial, participants 45 years or older with any evidence of established cardiovascular disease will be randomized to the BALANCE or control groups. Those in the BALANCE group will receive the afore mentioned program interventions, while controls will be given generic advice on how to follow a low-fat, low-energy, low-sodium, and low-cholesterol diet, with a view to achieving Brazilian nutritional guideline recommendations. The primary outcome is a composite of death (any cause), cardiac arrest, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, myocardial revascularization, amputation for peripheral arterial disease, or hospitalization for unstable angina. A total of 2468 patients will be enrolled in 34 sites and followed up for up to 48 months. If the BALANCE Program is found to decrease cardiovascular events and reduce risk factors, this may represent an advance in the care of patients with cardiovascular disease.

  13. Berberine attenuates adverse left ventricular remodeling and cardiac dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction in rats: role of autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao-Jun; Yang, Shao-Hua; Li, Ming-Hui; Iqbal, Javaid; Bourantas, Christos V; Mi, Qiong-Yu; Yu, Yi-Hui; Li, Jing-Jing; Zhao, Shu-Li; Tian, Nai-Liang; Chen, Shao-Liang

    2014-12-01

    The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that berberine, a plant-derived anti-oxidant, attenuates adverse left ventricular remodelling and improves cardiac function in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI). Furthermore, the potential mechanisms that mediated the cardioprotective actions of berberine, in particular the effect on autophagy, were also investigated. Acute MI was induced by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery of Sprague-Dawley rats. Cardiac function was assessed by transthoracic echocardiography. The protein activity/levels of autophagy related to signalling pathways (e.g. LC-3B, Beclin-1) were measured in myocardial tissue by immunohistochemical staining and western blot. Four weeks after MI, berberine significantly prevented cardiac dysfunction and adverse cardiac remodelling. MI rats treated with low dose berberine (10 mg/kg per day) showed higher left ventricular ejection fraction and fractional shortening than those treated with high-dose berberine (50 mg/kg per day). Both doses reduced interstitial fibrosis and post-MI adverse cardiac remodelling. The cardioprotective action of berberine was associated with increased LC-3B II and Beclin-1 expressions. Furthermore, cardioprotection with berberine was potentially related to p38 MAPK inhibition and phospho-Akt activation. The present in vivo study showed that berberine is effective in promoting autophagy, and subsequently attenuating left ventricular remodelling and cardiac dysfunction after MI. The potential underlying mechanism is augmentation of autophagy through inhibition of p38 MAPK and activation of phospho-Akt signalling pathways.

  14. Cardiovascular Effects of Acute Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Laudari

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion:Cardiac effects of OP poisoning can be life-threatening. Prompt diagnosis, early supportive and definitive therapies with atropine and oximes along with vigilant monitoring of the patients for prominent cardiac effects such as QT prolongation, VT or VF during hospital stay can definitely save lives of the victims.

  15. Delayed IPC exerts cardioprotective effect through neovascularization in a rodent permanent occlusive coronary rat model%延迟缺血预处理对急性心肌梗死大鼠梗死边缘区中小动脉再生及梗死面积的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程劲松; 柯元南; 王慧; 吴文静; 孔炜; 郑金刚

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether delayed ischemic preconditioning (IPC) exerts a cardioprotective effect through arteriogenesis in a rodent permanent occlusive coronary rat model. METHODS: Fifty four rats were randomly divided into four groups. In IPC +acute myocardial infarction (AMI) group (n =24),rat left anterior descending coronary arteries were ligated 24 h after IPC. In AMI group (n =24), rat left anterior descending coronary arteries were ligated without IPC. In IPC group ( n = 3 ), rats were subjected to IPC procedure and in sham group (n = 3 ), rats were not subjected to either IPC or ligation. At 3, 7,and 14 days, the heart sections of IPC + AMI group and AMI group rats were obtained to detect the capillary density and arteriole density by immunostaining. Heart function and infarct size were measured by Masson's trichrome staining and echocardiography in 14-day subgroup. At 24 h, the heart sections of IPC group and sham group were obtained to detect the capillary density and VEGF and PDGF-B expression.RESULTS: Neovascularization was seen in rat heart section 24 h after IPC. Compared with sham group,the expression of VEGF, PDGF-B in heart section in rats of IPC group increased significantly (P <0. 05). Compared with those in AMI group, capillary density and arteriole density in heart sections in rats of IPC +AMI group increased in 3-, 7- and 14-day subgroups (P <0. 05). Infarct size was reduced and heart function improved in 14-day subgroup (P < 0. 05 ). CONCLUSION: Delayed IPC reduces infarct size and improves heart function in a permanent occlusive rat model. This may result from increased functional arteriogenesis, whereas increased expression of VEGF, PDGF-B in heart section in rats of IPC group may contribute to proliferative arteriole.%目的:探讨延迟缺血预处理(delayed ischemic preconditioning,DIPC)对急性心肌梗死(AMI)大鼠远期的心肌保护及其促进小动脉再生的作用.方法:将54只SD大鼠随机分为4组,即

  16. Acute effects of tea consumption on attention and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einöther, Suzanne J; Martens, Vanessa E

    2013-12-01

    Tea has historically been associated with mood and performance benefits, such as relaxation and concentration. This review summarizes the research on the acute effects of tea, and its ingredients theanine and caffeine, on attention and mood. Consistent with abundant research on the benefits of caffeine, the performance benefits of tea were identified in a number of studies, with particularly consistent evidence for improved attention. Tea consumption also consistently improved self-reported alertness and arousal, whereas effects on pleasure or relaxation were less consistent. In addition to the research on caffeine in real-life performance, 2 recent studies have provided a broader perspective on tea's effects on psychological function in that they showed beneficial effects in related areas such as work performance and creativity. These studies showed the validity of laboratory findings by supporting the idea that tea consumption has acute benefits on both mood and performance in real-life situations.

  17. The effects of citicoline on acute ischemic stroke: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaard, Karsten

    2014-08-01

    Early reopening of the occluded artery is, thus, important in ischemic stroke, and it has been calculated that 2 million neurons die every minute in an ischemic stroke if no effective therapy is given; therefore, "Time is Brain." In massive hemispheric infarction and edema, surgical decompression lowers the risk of death or severe disability defined as a modified Rankin Scale score greater than 4 in selected patients. The majority, around 80%-85% of all ischemic stroke victims, does not fulfill the criteria for revascularization therapy, and also for these patients, there is no effective acute therapy. Also there is no established effective acute treatment of spontaneous intracerebral bleeding. Therefore, an effective therapy applicable to all stroke victims is needed. The neuroprotective drug citicoline has been extensively studied in clinical trials with volunteers and more than 11,000 patients with various neurologic disorders, including acute ischemic stroke (AIS). The conclusion is that citicoline is safe to use and may have a beneficial effect in AIS patients and most beneficial in less severe stroke in older patients not treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. No other neuroprotective agent had any beneficial effect in confirmative clinical trials or had any positive effect in the subgroup analysis. Citicoline is the only drug that in a number of different clinical stroke trials continuously had some neuroprotective benefit.

  18. [Acute and long-term effects of ecstasy

    OpenAIRE

    Salzmann, Julie; Marie-Claire, Cynthia; Noble, Florence

    2004-01-01

    International audience; Side effects in the short term Recreational use of Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine or MDMA), a synthetic drug, has considerably increased over the last decade. Since its appearance it is associated with the rave culture, but its use has spread to other social settings. The drug produces euphoria and empathy, but can lead to side effects, notably acute, potentially lethal, toxicity (malignant hyperthermia and/or hepatitis). Neurotoxicity in the long-term More...

  19. Smad3 inactivation and MiR-29b upregulation mediate the effect of carvedilol on attenuating the acute myocardium infarction-induced myocardial fibrosis in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie-Ning; Chen, Ren; Fu, Yong-Heng; Lin, Qiu-Xiong; Huang, Shuai; Guo, Lin-Lin; Zhang, Meng-Zhen; Deng, Chun-Yu; Zou, Xiao; Zhong, Shi-Long; Yang, Min; Zhuang, Jian; Yu, Xi-Yong; Shan, Zhi-Xin

    2013-01-01

    Carvedilol, a nonselective β-adrenoreceptor antagonist, protects against myocardial injury induced by acute myocardium infarction (AMI). The mechanisms underlying the anti-fibrotic effects of carvedilol are unknown. Recent studies have revealed the critical role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in a variety of cardiovascular diseases. This study investigated whether miR-29b is involved in the cardioprotective effect of carvedilol against AMI-induced myocardial fibrosis. Male SD rats were randomized into several groups: the sham surgery control, left anterior descending (LAD) surgery-AMI model, AMI plus low-dose carvedilol treatment (1 mg/kg per day, CAR-L), AMI plus medium-dose carvedilol treatment (5 mg/kg per day, CAR-M) and AMI plus high-dose carvedilol treatment (10 mg/kg per day, CAR-H). Cardiac remodeling and impaired heart function were observed 4 weeks after LAD surgery treatment; the observed cardiac remodeling, decreased ejection fraction, and fractional shortening were rescued in the CAR-M and CAR-H groups. The upregulated expression of Col1a1, Col3a1, and α-SMA mRNA was significantly reduced in the CAR-M and CAR-H groups. Moreover, the downregulated miR-29b was elevated in the CAR-M and CAR-H groups. The in vitro study showed that Col1a1, Col3a1, and α-SMA were downregulated and miR-29b was upregulated by carvedilol in a dose-dependent manner in rat cardiac fibroblasts. Inhibition of ROS-induced Smad3 activation by carvedilol resulted in downregulation of Col1a1, Col3a1, and α-SMA and upregulation of miR-29b derived from the miR-29b-2 precursor. Enforced expression of miR-29b significantly suppressed Col1a1, Col3a1, and α-SMA expression. Taken together, we found that smad3 inactivation and miR-29b upregulation contributed to the cardioprotective activity of carvedilol against AMI-induced myocardial fibrosis.

  20. Effect of riluzole on acute pain and hyperalgesia in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, N A; Lillesø, J; Pedersen, J L;

    1999-01-01

    Riluzole modulates several transmitter systems which may be involved in nociception. Antinociceptive effects have been shown in animal studies, but there are no human data. Therefore, we have examined the acute analgesic effect of riluzole in a human model of inflammatory pain induced by a thermal...... injury on the distal leg (47 degrees C, 7 min, 12.5 cm2) in 20 healthy volunteers. Hyperalgesia to mechanical and heat stimuli were examined by von Frey hairs and thermodes. We used a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, and subjects received riluzole 100 mg or placebo for 2 days...... with a 14-day interval. The burns produced significant hyperalgesia, but riluzole had no acute analgesic effects in normal or hyperalgesic skin....

  1. Neuromuscular Effects of Acute Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylan Pekoz

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: There is no evoked potential studies performed in organophosphate poisoning althoung electroneurography repetitive and P300 studies exist in literature. More further studies are needed to evaluate the cardiac and neuromuscular effects of organophosphate poisoning. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 795-800

  2. Lack of cardioprotection from metabolic support with glutamine or glutamate in a porcine coronary occlusion model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jens; Mæng, Michael; Mortensen, Ulrik;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Previous experimental studies indicate that glutamine or glutamate may provide cardioprotection by improving the oxidative metabolism in myocardial ischemia. We investigated the effect of glutamine or glutamate, given during reperfusion, on resulting infarct size and hemodynamic recovery...... vascular resistance, while glutamate preserved cardiac output during infusion. CONCLUSION: Substrate supplementation with the anaplerotic precursors glutamine and glutamate is ineffective as adjunctive therapy for severe myocardial ischemia. Beneficial effects documented in less complex experimental....... DESIGN: A porcine coronary occlusion model was applied. Infusions were initiated 15 min before reperfusion and supplemented with intracoronary bolus doses at reperfusion. The primary outcome measure was infarct size in relation to area at risk determined by a standard tissue staining procedure. Secondary...

  3. The role of gasotransmitters NO, H2S and CO in myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury and cardioprotection by preconditioning, postconditioning and remote conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreadou, Ioanna; Iliodromitis, Efstathios K; Rassaf, Tienush; Schulz, Rainer; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Ferdinandy, Péter

    2015-03-01

    Ischaemic heart disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The development of cardioprotective therapeutic agents remains a partly unmet need and a challenge for both medicine and industry, with significant financial and social implications. Protection of the myocardium can be achieved by mechanical vascular occlusions such as preconditioning (PC), when brief episodes of ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) are experienced prior to ischaemia; postconditioning (PostC), when the brief episodes are experienced at the immediate onset of reperfusion; and remote conditioning (RC), when the brief episodes are experienced in another vascular territory. The elucidation of the signalling pathways, which underlie the protective effects of PC, PostC and RC, would be expected to reveal novel molecular targets for cardioprotection that could be modulated by pharmacological agents to prevent reperfusion injury. Gasotransmitters including NO, hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and carbon monoxide (CO) are a growing family of regulatory molecules that affect physiological and pathological functions. NO, H2S and CO share several common properties; they are beneficial at low concentrations but hazardous in higher amounts; they relax smooth muscle cells, inhibit apoptosis and exert anti-inflammatory effects. In the cardiovascular system, NO, H2S and CO induce vasorelaxation and promote cardioprotection. In this review article, we summarize current knowledge on the role of the gasotransmitters NO, H2S and CO in myocardial I/R injury and cardioprotection provided by conditioning strategies and highlight future perspectives in cardioprotection by NO, H2S, CO, as well as their donor molecules.

  4. Effect of Acute and Fractionated Irradiation on Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Kyu Kim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation has become an inevitable health concern emanating from natural sources like space travel and from artificial sources like medical therapies. In general, exposure to ionizing radiation such as γ-rays is one of the methods currently used to stress specific model systems. In this study, we elucidated the long-term effect of acute and fractionated irradiation on DCX-positive cells in hippocampal neurogenesis. Groups of two-month-old C57BL/6 female mice were exposed to whole-body irradiation at acute dose (5 Gy or fractional doses (1 Gy × 5 times and 0.5 Gy × 10 times. Six months after exposure to γ-irradiation, the hippocampus was analyzed. Doublecortin (DCX immunohistochemistry was used to measure changes of neurogenesis in the subgranular zone (SGZ of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG. The number of DCX-positive cells was significantly decreased in all acute and fractionally irradiation groups. The long-term changes in DCX-positive cells triggered by radiation exposure showed a very different pattern to the short-term changes which tended to return to the control level in previous studies. Furthermore, the number of DCX-positive cells was relatively lower in the acute irradiation group than the fractional irradiation groups (approximately 3.6-fold, suggesting the biological change on hippocampal neurogenesis was more susceptible to being damaged by acute than fractional irradiation. These results suggest that the exposure to γ-irradiation as a long-term effect can trigger biological responses resulting in the inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis.

  5. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning

    OpenAIRE

    Renza Perini; Marta Bortoletto; Michela Capogrosso; Anna Fertonani; Carlo Miniussi

    2016-01-01

    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cor...

  6. Effect of solcoseryl on antitumour action and acute toxicity of some antineoplastic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danysz, A; Sołtysiak-Pawluczuk, D; Czyzewska-Szafran, H; Jedrych, A; Jastrzebski, Z

    1991-01-01

    The in vivo effect of Solcoseryl on the antitumour activity and acute toxicity of some antineoplastic drugs was examined. It was found that Solcoseryl does not inhibit the antineoplastic effectiveness of the drugs against transplantable P 388 leukaemia in mice. Studies of the effect of Solcoseryl on acute toxicity of selected antineoplastic drugs in mice revealed that the biostimulator could exert a modifying influence. The prior administration of Solcoseryl significantly decreases the acute toxicity of methotrexate but has no effect on acute toxicity of 5-fluorouracil, increases the acute toxicity of bleomycin and vinblastine and has no effect on acute toxicity of methotrexate and mitoxantron. On the other hand, Solcoseryl administered simultaneously with the antineoplastic drugs increases acute toxicity of 5-fluorouracil, bleomycin and mitoxantron. The protective effect of the biostimulator noted exclusively against acute toxicity of 5-fluorouracil was also observed after multiple administration of this anticancer drug.

  7. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, Renza; Bortoletto, Marta; Capogrosso, Michela; Fertonani, Anna; Miniussi, Carlo

    2016-05-05

    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cortex, and the second was a simple thumb abduction motor task that relies on the primary motor cortex. Forty-four and forty volunteers participated in the first and second experiments, respectively. We found that a single bout of aerobic exercise can significantly facilitate learning mechanisms within visual and motor domains and that these positive effects can persist for at least 30 minutes following exercise. This finding suggests that physical activity, at least of moderate intensity, might promote brain plasticity. By combining physical activity-induced plasticity with specific cognitive training-induced plasticity, we favour a gradual up-regulation of a functional network due to a steady increase in synaptic strength, promoting associative Hebbian-like plasticity.

  8. The Protective Effects of Buzui on Acute Alcoholism in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Da-Chao; Gao, Shu-di; Hu, Xiao-yu; Yi, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of a traditional buzui recipe in anti-inebriation treatment. Buzui consists of Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis, Fructus Chebulae, Fructus Mume, Fructus Crataegi, Endothelium Corneum Gigeriae Galli, and Excrementum Bombycis. The buzui mixture was delivered by gavage, and ethanol was delivered subsequent to the final treatment. The effects of buzui on the righting reflex, inebriation rates, and the survival curve are depicted. Blood alcohol concentrations, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were recorded. The activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as malonaldehyde (MDA) levels, were also measured. Our results demonstrated that a traditional buzui recipe showed significant effects on promoting wakefulness and the prevention of acute alcohol intoxication, accelerating the metabolism of alcohol in the liver and reducing the oxidative damage caused by acute alcoholism. PMID:26884793

  9. Effects of gabapentin in acute inflammatory pain in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, M U; Perkins, F M; Holte, Kathrine;

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine the analgesic effects of the anticonvulsant, gabapentin, in a validated model of acute inflammatory pain. METHODS: Twenty-two volunteers were investigated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Gabapentin 1...... not significantly changed by gabapentin (P study indicates that gabapentin has no analgesic effect in normal skin, but may reduce primary mechanical allodynia in acute......,200 mg or placebo was given on 2 separate study days. Three hours after drug administration, a first-degree burn injury was produced on the medial aspect of the nondominant calf (12.5 cm(2), 47 degrees C for 7 minutes). Quantitative sensory testing (QST) included pain ratings to thermal and mechanical...

  10. A labdane diterpene exerts ex vivo and in vivo cardioprotection against post-ischemic injury: involvement of AKT-dependent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado-Berrocal, Irene; Gómez-Gaviro, María V; Benito, Yolanda; Barrio, Alicia; Bermejo, Javier; Fernández-Santos, María Eugenia; Sánchez, Pedro L; Desco, Manuel; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco; Fernández-Velasco, María; Boscá, Lisardo; de Las Heras, Beatriz

    2015-02-15

    Therapeutic approaches to protect the heart from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury are an area of intense research, as myocardial infarction is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Diterpenes are bioactive natural products with great therapeutic potential. In the present study, we have investigated the in vivo cardioprotective effects of a labdane diterpene (DT1) against cardiac I/R injury and the molecular mechanisms involved. DT1 attenuates post-ischemic injury via an AKT-dependent activation of HIF-1α, survival pathways and inhibition of NF-κB signaling. Myocardial infarction (MI) was induced in Wistar rats occluding the left coronary artery (LCA) for 30min followed by 72h reperfusion. DT1 (5mg/kg) was intravenously administered at reperfusion. In addition, we investigated the mechanisms of cardioprotection in the Langendorff-perfused model. Cardioprotection was observed when DT1 was administered after myocardial injury. The molecular mechanisms involved the activation of the survival pathway PDK-1, AKT and AMPK, a reduced phosphorylation of PKD1/2 and sustained HIF-1α activity, leading to increased expression of anti-apoptotic proteins and decreased caspase-3 activation. Pharmacological inhibition of AKT following MI and prior to DT1 challenge significantly decreased the cardioprotection afforded by DT1 therapy at reperfusion. Cardiac function after MI was significantly improved after DT1-treatment, as evidenced by hemodynamic recovery and decreased myocardial infarct size. These findings demonstrate an efficient in vivo cardioprotection by diterpene DT1 against I/R when administered at reperfusion, opening new therapeutic strategies as adjunctive therapy for the pharmacological management of I/R injury.

  11. Effect of carbon dioxide in acute mountain sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, T C; Raichle, M E; Winterborn, M H

    1988-01-01

    The effect of adding CO2 to inhaled air in six subjects with acute mountain sickness was investigated during a medical expedition to 5400 m.3% CO2 in ambient air increased ventilation and resulted in a rise in PaO2 of between 24% and 40%. There was a 9-28% increase in PaCO2 and a reduction of the...

  12. Acute effect of different stretching methods on isometric muscle strength

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Vasconcellos de Lima Costa e Silva; Anderson Luiz Bezerra da Silveira; Fabrízio Di Masi; Cláudio Melibeu Bentes; Maria do Socorro Cirilo de Sousa; Jefferson da Silva Novaes

    2014-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4025/actascihealthsci.v36i1.15581 This study investigated the acute effect of static stretching methods (SS) and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) on the static muscle strength (SMS). Eleven young male subjects with strength training experience, performed 3 tests with a 48h interval between them, randomly selected, where each one subject carried out all procedures: a) hand grip without stretching; b) hand grip preceded by static stretching of wrist flexor...

  13. Glucocorticoid therapy-induced memory deficits: acute versus chronic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluccia, Daniel; Wolf, Oliver T; Kollias, Spyros; Roozendaal, Benno; Forster, Adrian; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2008-03-26

    Conditions with chronically elevated glucocorticoid levels are usually associated with declarative memory deficits. Considerable evidence suggests that long-term glucocorticoid exposure may cause cognitive impairment via cumulative and long-lasting influences on hippocampal function and morphology. However, because elevated glucocorticoid levels at the time of retention testing are also known to have direct impairing effects on memory retrieval, it is possible that such acute hormonal influences on retrieval processes contribute to the memory deficits found with chronic glucocorticoid exposure. To investigate this issue, we examined memory functions and hippocampal volume in 24 patients with rheumatoid arthritis who were treated either chronically (5.3 +/- 1.0 years, mean +/- SE) with low to moderate doses of prednisone (7.5 +/- 0.8 mg, mean +/- SE) or without glucocorticoids. In both groups, delayed recall of words learned 24 h earlier was assessed under conditions of either elevated or basal glucocorticoid levels in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. Although the findings in this patient population did not provide evidence for harmful effects of a history of chronic prednisone treatment on memory performance or hippocampal volume per se, acute prednisone administration 1 h before retention testing to either the steroid or nonsteroid group impaired word recall. Thus, these findings indicate that memory deficits observed under chronically elevated glucocorticoid levels result, at least in part, from acute and reversible glucocorticoid effects on memory retrieval.

  14. Cardioprotective effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors%GLP-1受体激动剂和DPP-4抑制剂对心血管系统的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪松; 秦明照

    2013-01-01

      胰高糖素样肽1(GLP-1)受体激动剂和二肽基肽酶-4( DPP-4)抑制剂是近年上市的治疗2型糖尿病的新型药物。GLP-1主要通过抑制心肌细胞凋亡、改善内皮细胞功能、减轻体重、降低血糖、降低血压、改善心肌收缩力、舒张血管等直接或间接发挥其心脏保护作用,GLP-1受体激动剂和DPP-4抑制剂对体重、血压和血脂等心血管危险因素有改善作用。GLP-1受体激动剂和DPP-4抑制剂作用于新靶点,具有其独特的优点,将会是一类抗糖尿病新药。%Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are new kinds of drugs to treat type 2 diabetes mel itus. It was demonstrated that GLP-1 has an obvious cardioprotective effect mainly achieved by relaxing vascular vessels, improving endothelial function, improving endothelial function and promoting the functional recovery of pathological ventricle, which can directly or indirectly protect the heart. GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP4 inhibitors also showed important effects on the body weight, blood pressure, lipids, and other cardiovascular risk factors. GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP4 inhibitors have more advantages than other anti-diabetes drugs because they act on a new target. They wil be a useful new class of anti-diabetes drugs.

  15. Effects of octreotide on acute necrotizing pancreatitis in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    László Czakó; Péter Hegyi; Tamás Takács; Csaba Góg; András Farkas; Yvette Mándy; Ilona Sz. Varga; László Tiszlavicz; János Lonovics

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To assess the role of oxygen-derived free radicals and cytokines in the pathogenesis of taurocholic acid-induced acute pancreatitiS, and to evaluate the preventive effects of octreotide towards the development of acute pancreatitis.METHODS: Acute pancreatitis was induced in male New Zealand 50 g/L sodium taurocholate (NaTC) in the pancreatic duct. Shamwas administered subcutaneously before the induction of pancreatitis. Blood was taken from the jugular vein before and at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h after pancreatitis induction.Serum activities of amylase, IL-6 and TNF-α and levels of malonyl dialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase and superoxide dismutase (Mn-,Cu-, and Zn-SOD) in pancreatic tissue were measured.RESULTS: Serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels increased significantly 3 h after the onset of pancreatitis, and then returned to control level. The tissue concentration of MDA was significantly elevated at 24 h, while the GSH level and GP-x, catalase, Mn-SOD, Cu-, Zn-SOD activities were all significantly decreased in animals with pancreatitis as compared to the control. Octreotide pretreatment significantly reversed the changes in cytokines and reactive oxygen metabolites. Octreotide treatment did not alter the serum amylase activity and did not have any beneficial effects on the development of histopathological changes.CONCLUSION: Oxygen-derived free radicals and proinflammatory cytokines are generated at an early stage of NaTc-induced acute pancreatitis in rabbits. Prophylactic octreotide treatment can prevent release of cytokines and generation of reactive oxygen metabolites, but does not have any beneficial effects on the development of necrotizing pancreatitis.

  16. Cardioprotective role of tadalafil against cisplatin-induced cardiovascular damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Rasha M; Awadin, Walaa F; El-Shafei, Reham A; Elseady, Yousef Y; Wehaish, Faheim E; Elshal, Mohamed F

    2015-10-15

    The present study investigated the possible cardioprotective effect of tadalafil (Tad) on cisplatin (CDDP)-induced cardiac and vascular damages in rats. A total number of seventy two healthy male albino rats initially weighting between 200 and 220 g were used and randomly divided into four groups,18 rats in each. The control group received no treatment; CDDP group received a single dose of CDDP (4 mg/kg) intraperitoneal (i.p.) per week for 4 weeks the duration of the experiment; Tad group received 0.4 mg/kg BW Tad i.p. daily and Tad +CDDP group received 0.4 mg/kg BW Tad i.p. +4 mg/kg BW CDDP i.p. The results showed that Tad was able to decrease blood pressure, heart rate, levels of serum cardiac troponin (cTn-I), malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO) in the heart homogenate sample from CDDP treated rats. Semi-quantitative analysis showed that Tad was able to decrease the histopathological scores of cardiac muscular hyalinzation and fibrosis in three sacrifices in CDDP treated rats. CDDP treated rats showed significantly increased thickening in wall of aorta with an irregular luminal layer of endothelial cell linings in three sacrifices when it was compared to other groups. Moreover, immunohistochemical labeling of α- smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in aorta revealed significant lower scores in Tad +CDDP group when they were compared to CDDP group. In conclusion, Tad alone did not induce any harmful effects on blood pressure, selective antioxidant, peroxidation markers or cardiac histology, in addition, Tad has a cardio-protective role against CDDP.

  17. Effect of acute exercise on prostate cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundqvist, Helene; Augsten, Martin; Strömberg, Anna; Rullman, Eric; Mijwel, Sara; Kharaziha, Pedram; Panaretakis, Theocharis; Gustafsson, Thomas; Östman, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is associated with reduced risk of several cancers, including aggressive prostate cancer. The mechanisms mediating the effects are not yet understood; among the candidates are modifications of endogenous hormone levels. Long-term exercise is known to reduce serum levels of growth stimulating hormones. In contrast, the endocrine effects of acute endurance exercise include increased levels of mitogenic factors such as GH and IGF-1. It can be speculated that the elevation of serum growth factors may be detrimental to prostate cancer progression into malignancy. The incentive of the current study is to evaluate the effect of acute exercise serum on prostate cancer cell growth. We designed an exercise intervention where 10 male individuals performed 60 minutes of bicycle exercise at increasing intensity. Serum samples were obtained before (rest serum) and after completed exercise (exercise serum). The established prostate cancer cell line LNCaP was exposed to exercise or rest serum. Exercise serum from 9 out of 10 individuals had a growth inhibitory effect on LNCaP cells. Incubation with pooled exercise serum resulted in a 31% inhibition of LNCaP growth and pre-incubation before subcutaneous injection into SCID mice caused a delay in tumor formation. Serum analyses indicated two possible candidates for the effect; increased levels of IGFBP-1 and reduced levels of EGF. In conclusion, despite the fear of possible detrimental effects of acute exercise serum on tumor cell growth, we show that even the short-term effects seem to add to the overall beneficial influence of exercise on neoplasia.

  18. Effect of acute exercise on prostate cancer cell growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Rundqvist

    Full Text Available Physical activity is associated with reduced risk of several cancers, including aggressive prostate cancer. The mechanisms mediating the effects are not yet understood; among the candidates are modifications of endogenous hormone levels. Long-term exercise is known to reduce serum levels of growth stimulating hormones. In contrast, the endocrine effects of acute endurance exercise include increased levels of mitogenic factors such as GH and IGF-1. It can be speculated that the elevation of serum growth factors may be detrimental to prostate cancer progression into malignancy. The incentive of the current study is to evaluate the effect of acute exercise serum on prostate cancer cell growth. We designed an exercise intervention where 10 male individuals performed 60 minutes of bicycle exercise at increasing intensity. Serum samples were obtained before (rest serum and after completed exercise (exercise serum. The established prostate cancer cell line LNCaP was exposed to exercise or rest serum. Exercise serum from 9 out of 10 individuals had a growth inhibitory effect on LNCaP cells. Incubation with pooled exercise serum resulted in a 31% inhibition of LNCaP growth and pre-incubation before subcutaneous injection into SCID mice caused a delay in tumor formation. Serum analyses indicated two possible candidates for the effect; increased levels of IGFBP-1 and reduced levels of EGF. In conclusion, despite the fear of possible detrimental effects of acute exercise serum on tumor cell growth, we show that even the short-term effects seem to add to the overall beneficial influence of exercise on neoplasia.

  19. Effect of Taurine on Febrile Episodes in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Islambulchilar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of oral taurine on the incidence of febrile episodes during chemotherapy in young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods: Forty young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, at the beginning of maintenance course of their chemotherapy, were eligible for this study. The study population was randomized in a double blind manner to receive either taurine or placebo (2 gram per day orally. Life quality and side effects including febrile episodes were assessed using questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s Chi square test. Results: Of total forty participants, 43.8% were female and 56.3 % were male. The mean age was 19.16±1.95 years (ranges: 16-23 years. The results indicated that the levels of white blood cells are significantly (P<0.05 increased in taurine treated group. There was no elevation in blasts count. A total of 70 febrile episodes were observed during study, febrile episodes were significantly (P<0.05 lower in taurine patients in comparison to the control ones. Conclusion: The overall incidence of febrile episodes and infectious complications in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients receiving taurine was lower than placebo group. Taurine’s ability to increase leukocyte count may result in lower febrile episodes.

  20. Characterization of a critical role for CFTR chloride channels in cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunny Yang XIANG; Linda L YE; LI-lu Marie DUAN; Li-hui LIU; Zhi-dong GE; John A AUCHAMPACH; Garrett J GROSS; Dayue Darrel DUAN

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To further characterize the functional role of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in early and late (second window) ischemic preconditioning (IPC)- and postcondtioning (POC)-mediated cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury.Methods: CFTR knockout (CFTR-/-) mice and age- and gender-matched wild-type (CFTR+/+) and heterozygous (CFTR+/-) mice were used.In in vivo studies, the animals were subjected to a 30-min coronary occlusion followed by a 40-min reperfusion. In ex vivo (isolate heart) studies, a 45-min global ischemia was applied. To evaluate apoptosis, the level of activated caspase 3 and TdT-mediated dUTP-X nick end labeling (TUNEL) were examined.Results: In the in vivo I/R models, early IPC significantly reduced the myocardial infarct size in wild-type (CFTR+/+) (from 40.4%±5.3% to 10.4%±2.0%, n=8, P<0.001) and heterozygous (CFTR+/-) littermates (from 39.4%±2.4% to 15.4%±5.1%, n=6, P<0.001) but failed to protect CFTR knockout (CFTR-/-) mice from I/R induced myocardial infarction (46.9%±6.2% vs 55.5%±7.8%, n=6, P>0.5). Similar results were observed in the in vivo late IPC experiments. Furthermore, in both in vivo and ex vivo I/R models, POC significantly reduced myocardial infarction in wild-type mice, but not in CFTR knockout mice. In ex vivo I/R models, targeted inactivation of CFTRgene abolished the protective effects of IPC against I/R-induced apoptosis.Conclusion: These results provide compelling evidence for a critical role for CFTR Cl- channels in IPC- and POC-mediated cardioprotection against I/R-induced myocardial injury.

  1. Effects of acute bouts of exercise on cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomporowski, Phillip D

    2003-03-01

    A review was conducted of studies that assessed the effects of acute bouts of physical activity on adults' cognitive performance. Three groups of studies were constituted on the basis of the type of exercise protocol employed. Each group was then evaluated in terms of information-processing theory. It was concluded that submaximal aerobic exercise performed for periods up to 60 min facilitate specific aspects of information processing; however, extended exercise that leads to dehydration compromises both information processing and memory functions. The selective effects of exercise on cognitive performance are explained in terms of Sanders' [Acta Psychol. 53 (1983) 61] cognitive-energetic model.

  2. Evaluation of the antidepressant-like effects of acute and sub-acute administration of crocin and crocetin in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Amin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the putative antidepressant effects of crocin and crocetin, two major active ingredients of Crocus sativus L. (saffron using mice in two different regimens of acute and sub-acute administration. Material and Methods: In acute treatment, antidepressant-like activities of crocin and crocetin (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg, i.p. were evaluated using forced swim test (FST. In sub-acute study (21 times with 24-h intervals, antidepressant-like effects of oral administration of drugs were examined using FST and tail suspension test (TST. Locomotor activity and motor coordination were studied using open field and rotarod tests, respectively. Results: Acute treatment with crocin (40 mg/kg and crocetin (20 and 40 mg/kg produced antidepressant-like effect in FST without affecting the baseline locomotion in mice. Sub-acute oral administration of crocin significantly decreased immobility time only at the highest dose (100 mg/kg. Crocetin (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg was able to decrease immobility time in FST and TST. Locomotor activity and coordination of mice were not affected by crocin or crocetin. Conclusion: Since higher doses of crocin was required to show antidepressant effects, more efficacy of crocetin may be concluded. This observation provides further support for metabolism of crocin to crocetin following oral administration.

  3. Effects of nicorandil on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity after reperfusion therapy in patients with first anterior acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasama, Shu; Toyama, Takuji; Suzuki, Tadashi; Kurabayashi, Masahiko [Gunma University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Maebashi (Japan); Kumakura, Hisao; Takayama, Yoshiaki; Ichikawa, Shuichi [Cardiovascular Hospital of Central Japan, Gunma (Japan)

    2005-03-01

    Ischaemic preconditioning (PC) is a cardioprotective phenomenon in which short periods of myocardial ischaemia result in resistance to decreased contractile dysfunction during a subsequent period of sustained ischaemia. Nicorandil, an ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener, can induce PC effects on sympathetic nerves during myocardial ischaemia. However, its effects on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (CSNA) and left ventricular remodelling have not been determined. In this study, we sought to determine whether nicorandil administration improves CSNA in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We studied 58 patients with first anterior AMI, who were randomly assigned to receive nicorandil (group A) or isosorbide dinitrate (group B) after primary coronary angioplasty. The nicorandil or isosorbide dinitrate was continuously infused for >48 h. The extent score (ES) was determined from {sup 99m}Tc-pyrophosphate scintigraphy, and the total defect score (TDS) was determined from {sup 201}Tl scintigraphy 3-5 days after primary angioplasty. The left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were determined by left ventriculography 2 weeks later. The delayed heart/mediastinum count (H/M) ratio, delayed TDS and washout rate (WR) were determined from {sup 123}I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) images 3 weeks later. The left ventriculography results were re-examined 6 months after treatment. Fifty patients originally enrolled in the trial completed the entire protocol. After treatment, no significant differences were observed in ES or left ventricular parameters between the two groups. However, in group A (n=25), the TDSs determined from {sup 201}Tl and {sup 123}I-MIBG were significantly lower (26{+-}6 vs 30{+-}5, P<0.01, and 32{+-}8 vs 40{+-}6, P<0.0001, respectively), the H/M ratio significantly higher (1.99{+-}0.16 vs 1.77{+-}0.30, P<0.005) and the WR significantly lower (36%{+-}8% vs 44%{+-}12%, P<0.005) than in group B

  4. Cardioprotection by remote ischemic conditioning: Mechanisms and clinical evidences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alberto; Aimo; Chiara; Borrelli; Alberto; Giannoni; Luigi; Emilio; Pastormerlo; Andrea; Barison; Gianluca; Mirizzi; Michele; Emdin; Claudio; Passino

    2015-01-01

    In remote ischemic conditioning(RIC), several cycles of ischemia and reperfusion render distant organ and tissues more resistant to the ischemia-reperfusion injury. The intermittent ischemia can be applied before the ischemic insult in the target site(remote ischemic preconditioning), during the ischemic insult(remote ischemic perconditioning) or at the onset of reperfusion(remote ischemic postconditioning). The mechanisms of RIC have not been completely defined yet; however, these mechanisms must be represented by the release of humoral mediators and/or the activation of a neural reflex. RIC has been discovered in the heart, and has been arising great enthusiasm in the cardiovascular field. Its efficacy has been evaluated in many clinical trials, which provided controversial results. Our incomplete comprehension of the mechanisms underlying the RIC could be impairing the design of clinical trials and the interpretation of their results. In the present review we summarize current knowledge about RIC pathophysiology and the data about its cardioprotective efficacy.

  5. G-CSF therapy with mobilization of bone marrow stem cells for myocardial recovery after acute myocardial infarction - a relevant treatment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ripa, R.S.; Kastrup, J.

    2008-01-01

    -CSF treatment. Current controversies in interpretation of the results include 1) importance of direct cardiac effect of G-CSF vs indirect through bone marrow stem and progenitor cell mobilization, 2) importance of timing of G-CSF therapy, 3) importance of G-CSF dose, and 4) importance of cell types mobilized......This review of adjunctive therapy with subcutaneous granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) to patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) focus on the cardioprotective effects and potential mechanisms of G-CSF and discuss the therapeutic potential of G-CSF. All clinical trials published...

  6. Opioid receptors and cardioprotection - 'opioidergic conditioning' of the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headrick, John P; See Hoe, Louise E; Du Toit, Eugene F; Peart, Jason N

    2015-04-01

    Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) remains a major cause of morbidity/mortality globally, firmly established in Westernized or 'developed' countries and rising in prevalence in developing nations. Thus, cardioprotective therapies to limit myocardial damage with associated ischaemia-reperfusion (I-R), during infarction or surgical ischaemia, is a very important, although still elusive, clinical goal. The opioid receptor system, encompassing the δ (vas deferens), κ (ketocyclazocine) and μ (morphine) opioid receptors and their endogenous opioid ligands (endorphins, dynorphins, enkephalins), appears as a logical candidate for such exploitation. This regulatory system may orchestrate organism and organ responses to stress, induces mammalian hibernation and associated metabolic protection, triggers powerful adaptive stress resistance in response to ischaemia/hypoxia (preconditioning), and mediates cardiac benefit stemming from physical activity. In addition to direct myocardial actions, central opioid receptor signalling may also enhance the ability of the heart to withstand I-R injury. The δ- and κ-opioid receptors are strongly implicated in cardioprotection across models and species (including anti-infarct and anti-arrhythmic actions), with mixed evidence for μ opioid receptor-dependent protection in animal and human tissues. A small number of clinical trials have provided evidence of cardiac benefit from morphine or remifentanil in cardiopulmonary bypass or coronary angioplasty patients, although further trials of subtype-specific opioid receptor agonists are needed. The precise roles and utility of this GPCR family in healthy and diseased human myocardium, and in mediating central and peripheral survival responses, warrant further investigation, as do the putative negative influences of ageing, IHD co-morbidities, and relevant drugs on opioid receptor signalling and protective responses.

  7. Limitations of spontaneous reperfusion and conventional medical therapy to afford myocardial protection through antecedent angina pectoris in acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Akiyoshi; Nakata, Tomoaki; Wakabayashi, Takeru; Yuda, Satoshi; Eguchi, Mariko; Sasao, Hisataka; Tsuchihashi, Kazufumi; Shimamoto, Kazuaki [Sapporo Medical Univ. (Japan)

    1999-10-01

    Despite the cardioprotective effect of rapid coronary reperfusion, the effects of spontaneous recanalization on myocardial viability and metabolism are unknown. We studied whether preinfarction angina affords cardioprotection when spontaneous coronary reperfusion occurred in acute infarct patients. Myocardial tomographies with thallium and I-123-labeled-{beta}-methyl-p-iodophenyl penta-decanoic acid (BMIPP) were performed in 27 acute myocardial infarct patients treated medically: 15 patients had preexisting angina before infarction (group A) and 12 did not (group B). Thallium and BMIPP abnormalities and regional function were quantified by a polar map and contrast ventriculography, respectively. There was no significant difference between thallium and BMIPP in the severity index in groups A and B (89{+-}97 vs. 85{+-}68, 97{+-}28 vs. 95{+-}27, respectively), and no significant difference between the groups in the thallium or BMIPP severity index. The ratio of the thallium severity index to that of BMIPP and the regional wall-motion abnormality index were identical in groups A and B. Both patient groups were divided into 2 subgroups based on the presence or absence of spontaneous coronary reperfusion: subgroups A1 and A2, and subgroups B1 and B2, respectively. There were no significant differences among the 4 subgroups in severity indexes for both tracers, the thallium/BMIPP ratio, or the asynergy score. The BMIPP severity index correlated significantly with that of thallium in all subgroups, but no significant difference between the regression lines was found. It is therefore unlikely that spontaneous coronary recanalization affords beneficial effects through preservation of myocardial viability in an ischemia-related zone, suggesting that the cardioprotective effect of preinfarction angina is a limited phenomenon in patients undergoing rapid coronary reperfusion. (author)

  8. Effect of Probiotic Administration on Acute Inflammatory Pain

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    Shadnoush

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Acute inflammatory pain causes by direct stimulation of nociceptors and release of inflammatory mediators and cytokines. Probiotics are capable to modulate the immune system, down regulate the inflammatory mediators, and increase regulatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the effect of oral administration of probiotics on behavioral, cellular and molecular aspects of acute inflammatory pain in male rats. Methods Adult male Wistar rats (200 - 220 g were selected and randomly divided into 7 experimental groups (CFA, CFA control, CFA + vehicle (distilled water, CFA + 3 doses of probiotics, CFA + indomethacin and each group was divided into 3 subgroups based on different time points (days 0, 3, and 7 (n = 6 rats, each group. Complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA-induced arthritis (AA was caused by a single subcutaneous injection of CFA into the rats’ left hind paw on day 0. Different doses of probiotics (1/250, 1/500 and 1/1000 (109 CFU/g was administered daily (gavage after the CFA injection. Blood samples were taken from the vessel retro-orbital corners of rat’s eyes. After behavioral and inflammatory tests, the lumbar segments of rat’s spinal cord (L1 - L5 were removed. Hyperalgesia, edema, serum TNF-α and IL-1β levels and NF-κB expression were assessed on days 0, 3, and 7 of the study. Results The results of this study showed the role of effective dose of probiotics (1/500 in reducing edema (P = 0.0009, hyperalgesia (P = 0.0002, serum levels of TNF-α (P = 0.0004 and IL-1β (P = 0.0004 and NF-κB expression (P = 0.0007 during the acute phase of inflammatory pain caused by CFA. Conclusions It seems that an effective dose of probiotics due to its direct effects on inhibition of intracellular signaling pathways and pro-inflammatory cytokines can alleviate inflammatory symptoms and pain in the acute phase.

  9. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1 activation mediates sildenafil induced delayed cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Shalwala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been well documented that phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, sildenafil (SIL protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I-R injury. SIRT1 is part of the class III Sirtuin family of histone deacetylases that deacetylates proteins involved in cellular stress response including those related to I-R injury. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We tested the hypothesis that SIL-induced cardioprotection may be mediated through activation of SIRT1. METHODS: Adult male ICR mice were treated with SIL (0.7 mg/kg, i.p., Resveratrol (RSV, 5 mg/kg, a putative activator of SIRT1 used as the positive control, or saline (0.2 mL. The hearts were harvested 24 hours later and homogenized for SIRT1 activity analysis. RESULTS: Both SIL- and RSV-treated mice had increased cardiac SIRT1 activity (P<0.001 as compared to the saline-treated controls 24 hours after drug treatment. In isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes, pretreatment with SIL (1 µM or RSV (1 µM for one hour in vitro also upregulated SIRT1 activity (P<0.05. We further examined the causative relationship between SIRT1 activation and SIL-induced late cardioprotection. Pretreatment with SIL (or RSV 24 hours prior to 30 min ischemia and 24 hours of reperfusion significantly reduced infarct size, which was associated with a significant increase in SIRT1 activity (P<0.05. Moreover, sirtinol (a SIRT1 inhibitor, 5 mg/kg, i.p. given 30 min before I-R blunted the infarct-limiting effect of SIL and RSV (P<0.001. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that activation of SIRT1 following SIL treatment plays an essential role in mediating the SIL-induced cardioprotection against I-R injury. This newly identified SIRT1-activating property of SIL may have enormous therapeutic implications.

  10. The effects of acute nicotine on contextual safety discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Munir G; Oliver, Chicora; Gould, Thomas J

    2014-11-01

    Anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), may be related to an inability to distinguish safe versus threatening environments and to extinguish fear memories. Given the high rate of cigarette smoking in patients with PTSD, as well as the recent finding that an acute dose of nicotine impairs extinction of contextual fear memory, we conducted a series of experiments to investigate the effect of acute nicotine in an animal model of contextual safety discrimination. Following saline or nicotine (at 0.0275, 0.045, 0.09 and 0.18 mg/kg) administration, C57BL/6J mice were trained in a contextual discrimination paradigm, in which the subjects received presentations of conditioned stimuli (CS) that co-terminated with a foot-shock in one context (context A (CXA)) and only CS presentations without foot-shock in a different context (context B (CXB)). Therefore, CXA was designated as the 'dangerous context', whereas CXB was designated as the 'safe context'. Our results suggested that saline-treated animals showed a strong discrimination between dangerous and safe contexts, while acute nicotine dose-dependently impaired contextual safety discrimination (Experiment 1). Furthermore, our results demonstrate that nicotine-induced impairment of contextual safety discrimination learning was not a result of increased generalized freezing (Experiment 2) or contingent on the common CS presentations in both contexts (Experiment 3). Finally, our results show that increasing the temporal gap between CXA and CXB during training abolished the impairing effects of nicotine (Experiment 4). The findings of this study may help link nicotine exposure to the safety learning deficits seen in anxiety disorder and PTSD patients.

  11. Hydrosulfide attenuates acute myocardial ischemic injury through the glycogen synthase kinase-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ning; Liu, Chao; Li, Guofeng; Xie, Lijun; Zhang, Qinzeng; Li, Liping; Hao, Na; Zhang, Jianxin

    2016-05-01

    The endogenous signaling gasotransmitter, hydrosulfide (H2S), has been shown to exert cardioprotective effects against acute myocardial infarction (AMI) due to ischemic injury. However, the mechanisms responsible for these effects are not yet fully understood. In this study, we investigated whether sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS), an H2S donor, attenuates acute myocardial ischemic injury through glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β)/β-catenin signaling. For this purpose, we utilized an in vivo rat model of AMI by occluding the left anterior descending coronary artery. NaHS (0.39, 0.78 or 1.56 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), the GSK-3β inhibitor, SB216763 (0.6 mg/kg, intravenously), or 1% dimethylsulfoxide (2 ml/kg, intravenously) were administered to the rats. The results demonstrated that the administration of medium- and high-dose NaHS and SB216763 significantly improved rat cardiac function, as evidenced by an increase in the mean arterial pressure, left ventricular developed pressure, contraction and relaxation rates, as well as a decrease in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. In addition, the administration of NaHS and SB216763 attenuated myocardial injury as reflected by a decrease in apoptotic cell death and in the serum lactate dehydrogenase concentrations, and prevented myocardial structural changes. The administration of NaHS and SB216763 increased the concentrations of phosphorylated (p-)GSK-3β, the p-GSK-3β/t-GSK-3β ratio and downstream protein β-catenin. Moreover, western blot and immunohistochemical analyses of apoptotic signaling pathway proteins further established the cardioprotective potential of NaHS, as reflected by the upregulation of Bcl-2 expression, the downregulation of Bax expression, and a decrease in the number of TUNEL-positive stained cells. These findings suggest that hydrosulfide exerts cardioprotective effects against AMI-induced apoptosis through the GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  12. [Acute and long-term effects of ecstasy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzmann, Julie; Marie-Claire, Cynthia; Noble, Florence

    2004-10-23

    Side effects in the short term Recreational use of Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine or MDMA), a synthetic drug, has considerably increased over the last decade. Since its appearance it is associated with the rave culture, but its use has spread to other social settings. The drug produces euphoria and empathy, but can lead to side effects, notably acute, potentially lethal, toxicity (malignant hyperthermia and/or hepatitis). Neurotoxicity in the long-term Moreover, MDMA has been shown to induce long-term deleterious effects and provoke neurotoxic affecting the serotoninergic system. However, the psychopathological consequences of such neurotoxicity are still controversial, particularly since many ecstasy consumers are multi-drug users. A complex pharmacological profile The mechanism of action of MDMA involves various neurobiological systems (serotonin, dopamine, noradrenalin), that may all interact.

  13. Effects of antiarrhythmic peptide 10 on acute ventricular arrhythmia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Sun; Jin-Fa Jiang; Cui-Mei Zhao; Chao-Hui Hu

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effects antiarrhythmic peptide 10 (AAP10) aon acute ventricular arrhythmia and the phosphorylation state of ischemic myocardium connexin.Methods:Acute total ischemia and partial ischemia models were established by ceasing perfusion and ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery in SD rats. The effects of AAP10 (1 mg/L) on the incidence rate of ischemia-induced ventricular arrhythmia were observed. The ischemic myocardium was sampled to detect total-Cx43 and NP-Cx43 by immunofluorescent staining and western blotting. the total-Cx43 expression was detected through image analysis system by semi-quantitative analysis.Results: AAP10 could significantly decrease the incidence of ischemia-induced ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. During ischemic stage, total ischemia (TI) and AAP10 total ischemia (ATI) groups were compared with partial ischemia (PI) and AAP10 partial ischemia (API) groups. The rates of incidence for arrhythmia in the ATI and API groups (10% and 0%) were lower than those in the TI and PI groups (60% and 45%). The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P=0.019, P=0.020). The semi-quantitative analysis results of the ischemic myocardium showed that the total-Cx43 protein expression distribution areas for TI, ATI, PI and API groups were significantly decreased compared with the control group. On the other hand, the NP-Cx43 distribution areas of TI, ATI, PI and API groups were significantly increased compared with the control group (P>0.05). AAP10 could increase the total-Cx43 expression in the ischemic area and decrease the NP-Cx43 expression. Western blot results were consistent with the results of immunofluorescence staining.Conclusions:AAP10 can significantly decrease the rate of incidence of acute ischemia-induced ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. Acute ischemic ventricular arrhythmias may have a relationship with the decreased phosphorylation of Cx43

  14. EFFECTS OF ACUTE HYPOGLYCEMIA ON THE OREXIN SYSTEM IN RAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-yan Zhao; Lei Guo; Jian Du; Guo-liang Liu

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of acute glucose level changes on expression of prepro-orexin, orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) and orexin 2 receptor (OX2R) mRNA in rat hypothalamus tissue and pancreatic islets cells.Methods Thirty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three equal groups (n= 10). The acute hypoglycemia rat model was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of insulin. Twenty acute hypoglycemia rats were divided into group B and group C. Group B was allowed to eat freely, while group C was food-deprived. Control rats were injected the same volume of saline. The effect of glucose levels (2.8 mmol/L and 8.3 mmol/L) on pancreatic islet cell orexin system was detected in pancreas islet cell cultured in vitro. The expression of prepro-orexin and OXR mRNA was examined in rat hypothalamus tissue and pancreatic islets cell cultured in vitro using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR).Results Expression of orexin mRNA increased about 150% for the food-deprived hypoglycemia rats in comparison with control group (P < 0.01), whereas expression of OX1R mRNA decreased up to 30% (P < 0.01). However, expression of OX2R mRNA was unchanged in comparison with control group. In vitro, after incubation with 2.8 mmol/L glucose for 6hours, the expression of prepro-orexin mRNA increased 2 times in rat pancreas islet cells in comparison with 8.3 mmol/Lglucose group (P < 0.01). But the expression of OX1R mRNA was not sensitive to acute glucose fluctuation.Conclusions Orexin in rat hypothalamus is stimulated by decline in blood glucose and inhibited by signals related to feeding. Moreover, glucose plays a role in modulating the gene expression of prepro-orexin in rat pancreatic islet cells.

  15. Mustard gas toxicity: the acute and chronic pathological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabili, Kamyar; Agutter, Paul S; Ghanei, Mostafa; Ansarin, Khalil; Shoja, Mohammadali M

    2010-10-01

    Ever since it was first used in armed conflict, mustard gas (sulfur mustard, MG) has been known to cause a wide range of acute and chronic injuries to exposure victims. The earliest descriptions of these injuries were published during and in the immediate aftermath of the First World War, and a further series of accounts followed the Second World War. More recently, MG has been deployed in warfare in the Middle East and this resulted in large numbers of victims, whose conditions have been studied in detail at hospitals in the region. In this review, we bring together the older and more recent clinical studies on MG toxicity and summarize what is now known about the acute and chronic effects of the agent on the eyes, skin, respiratory tract and other physiological systems. In the majority of patients, the most clinically serious long-term consequences of MG poisoning are on the respiratory system, but the effects on the skin and other systems also have a significant impact on quality of life. Aspects of the management of these patients are discussed.

  16. Side effects of using nitrates to treat heart failure and the acute coronary syndromes, unstable angina and acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thadani, Udho; Ripley, Toni L

    2007-07-01

    Nitrates are potent venous dilators and anti-ischemic agents. They are widely used for the relief of chest pain and pulmonary congestion in patients with acute coronary syndromes and heart failure. Nitrates, however, do not reduce mortality in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Combination of nitrates and hydralazine when given in addition to beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors reduce mortality and heart failure hospitalizations in patients with heart failure due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction who are of African-American origin. Side effects during nitrate therapy are common but are less well described in the literature compared with the reported side effects in patients with stable angina pectoris. The reported incidence of side effects varies highly among different studies and among various disease states. Headache is the most commonly reported side effect with an incidence of 12% in acute heart failure, 41-73% in chronic heart failure, 3-19% in unstable angina and 2-26% in acute myocardial infarction. The reported incidence of hypotension also differs: 5-10% in acute heart failure, 20% in chronic heart failure, 9% in unstable angina and < 1-48% in acute myocardial infarction, with the incidence being much higher with concomitant nitrate therapy plus angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Reported incidence of dizziness is as low as 1% in patients with acute myocardial infarction to as high as 29% in patients with heart failure. Severe headaches and/or symptomatic hypotension may necessitate discontinuation of nitrate therapy. Severe life threatening hypotension or even death may occur when nitrates are used in patients with acute inferior myocardial infarction associated with right ventricular dysfunction or infarction, or with concomitant use of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors or N-acetylcysteine. Despite the disturbing observational reports in the literature that continuous and prolonged use of nitrates may lead to

  17. The effects of specific preconditioning activities on acute sprint performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenheimer, Joshua D; Dickin, D Clark; Reyes, Gabriel F; Dolny, Dennis G

    2009-07-01

    Previous research suggests that specific preconditioning activities such as whole-body vibration (WBV) and resistance training may play an important role in ensuing dynamic activities. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 2 preconditioning activities, WBV and power cleans (PC), on acute sprint performance. Two studies were conducted in which 14 (WBV) and 9 (PC) male track and field athletes were subjects. The WBV treatment consisted of 4 bouts of 5 seconds of high-knee running on a vibrating platform at 0, 30, 40, or 50 Hz. The PC treatment consisted of 3 PC reps at 90% 1RM. In both cases, acute sprint performance was the dependent variable of interest. For WBV, split times were recorded at 10, 20, and 40 m. Reaction times (RXN) as well as 5-, 10-, and 40-m split times were recorded for the PC study. Results indicated no significant differences between treatment and nontreatment groups for both studies. However, significant correlations were present between RXN and 5-m splits (r = 0.65) and RXN and 10-m splits (r = 0.63), although they decreased as a function of sprint distance to r = 0.43 at 40 m. These results suggest little efficacy for the use of WBV and PC as a means of augmenting acute sprint performance. However, a trend within the 30-Hz protocol may suggest that WBV as part of a warm-up for sprinting activities greater than 40 m (i.e., 100 m) could potentially result in a decreased sprint time of nearly 1/10th of a second, which is worth future consideration.

  18. Acute and neuropathic orofacial antinociceptive effect of eucalyptol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo Júnior, José de Maria de Albuquerque de; Damasceno, Marina de Barros Mamede Vidal; Santos, Sacha Aubrey Alves Rodrigues; Barbosa, Talita Matias; Araújo, João Ronielly Campêlo; Vieira-Neto, Antonio Eufrásio; Wong, Deysi Viviana Tenazoa; Lima-Júnior, Roberto César Pereira; Campos, Adriana Rolim

    2017-02-16

    Terpenes have a wide range of pharmacological properties, including antinociceptive action. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of eucalyptol are well established. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of eucalyptol on acute and neuropathic orofacial pain in rodent models. Acute orofacial and corneal nociception was induced with formalin, capsaicin, glutamate and hypertonic saline in mice. In another series, animals were pretreated with capsazepine or ruthenium red to evaluate the involvement of TRPV1 receptors in the effect of eucalyptol. In a separate experiment, perinasal tissue levels of IL-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ were measured. Rats were pretreated with eucalyptol before induction of temporomandibular joint pain with formalin or mustard oil. In another experiment, rats were submitted to infraorbital nerve transection (IONX) to induce chronic pain, followed by induction of mechanical hypersensitivity using Von Frey hairs. Locomotor performance was evaluated with the open-field test, and molecular docking was conducted on the TRPV1 channel. Pretreatment with eucalyptol significantly reduced formalin-induced nociceptive behaviors in all mouse strains, but response was more homogenous in the Swiss strain. Eucalyptol produced antinociceptive effects in all tests. The effect was sensitive to capsazepine but not to ruthenium red. Moreover, eucalyptol significantly reduced IFN-γ levels. Matching the results of the experiment in vivo, the docking study indicated an interaction between eucalyptol and TRPV1. No locomotor activity changes were observed. Our study shows that eucalyptol may be a clinically relevant aid in the treatment of orofacial pain, possibly by acting as a TRPV1 channel antagonist.

  19. Acute effect of different stretching methods on isometric muscle strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Vasconcellos de Lima Costa e Silva

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the acute effect of static stretching methods (SS and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF on the static muscle strength (SMS. Eleven young male subjects with strength training experience, performed 3 tests with a 48h interval between them, randomly selected, where each one subject carried out all procedures: a hand grip without stretching; b hand grip preceded by static stretching of wrist flexors muscles; c hand grip preceded by PNF stretching of wrist flexors muscles. The Shapiro-Wilk test verified the normality of data, and a one-way ANOVA with repeated measures, followed by Tukey’s post hoc test, evaluated the differences between the groups. The significance was set at p 0.05. In conclusion, both stretching methods had caused negative effects on isometric strength, reducing its levels.

  20. Acute effect of smoking on plasma Obestatin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroglou Maria

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking and smoking cessation are considered to be associated with weight changes. We have recently shown that smoking acutely increases plasma levels of ghrelin, a known orexigenic hormone. Obestatin is a peptide encoded by the ghrelin gene, which opposes ghrelin effects on food intake. We conducted a study in adult volunteers measuring plasma levels of obestatin immediately after initiation of smoking. Methods 31 volunteers (mean age 32.2 ± 9.2 years and mean BMI 25.7 ± 4.1, 17 smokers and 14 non-smokers, were enrolled in our study. The 2 groups were matched in age and BMI. Plasma obestatin concentrations were determined at baseline (T0, 2 (T2, 5 (T5, 15 (T15, and 60 (T60 minutes after the initiation of smoking. Results In all 31 subjects, no significant difference in the mean values of plasma obestatin levels was observed from baseline at T2, T5, T15 and T60 after initiation of smoking (overall p = 0.15. However, a trend for higher obestatin levels was noted in smokers vs non-smokers (overall p = 0.069, which was not related to the pack-years. Conclusion On the contrary with ghrelin's response after smoking initiation, there is no such an acute response of plasma obestatin levels.

  1. Protective effects of erythropoietin against acute lung injury in a rat model of acute necrotizing pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of exogenous erythropoietin (EPO) administration on acute lung injury (ALI) in an experimental model of sodium taurodeoxycholateinduced acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP).METHODS: Forty-seven male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into 7 groups: sham group (n = 5),3 ANP groups (n = 7 each) and 3 EPO groups (n = 7each). ANP was induced by retrograde infusion of 5% sodium taurodeoxycholate into the common bile duct.Rats in EPO groups received 1000 U/kg intramuscular EPO immediately after induction of ANP. Rats in ANP groups were given 1 mL normal saline instead. All animals were sacrificed at postoperative 24 h, 48 h and 72 h. Serum amilase, IL-2, IL-6 and lung tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. Pleural effusion volume and lung/body weight (LW/BW) ratios were calculated. Tissue levels of TNF-α, IL-2 and IL-6 were screened immunohistochemically. Additionally, ox-LDL accumulation was assessed with immune-fluorescent staining. Histopathological alterations in the lungs were also scored.RESULTS: The mean pleural effusion volume, calculated LW/BW ratio, serum IL-6 and lung tissue MDA levels were significantly lower in EPO groups than in ANP groups. No statistically significant difference was observed in either serum or tissue values of IL-2 among the groups. The level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)and IL-6 and accumulation of ox-LDL were evident in the lung tissues of ANP groups when compared to EPO groups, particularly at 72 h. Histopathological evaluation confirmed the improvement in lung injury parameters after exogenous EPO administration, particularly at 48 h and 72 h.CONCLUSION: EPO administration leads to a significant decrease in ALI parameters by inhibiting polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) accumulation,decreasing the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in circulation, preserving microvascular endothelial cell integrity and reducing oxidative stress-associated lipid peroxidation and therefore, can be

  2. Acute Kidney Injury Induced by Herbal Products: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan TATAR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, consumption of herbal products has become widespread both in Turkey and worldwide. However, the safety of these products is substantially controversial. We here present a case of acute kidney injury in a patient with excessive use of herbal products for cardio-protective purposes.

  3. Protective effects of rhubarb on experimental severe acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Qing Zhao; Xiao-Hong Liu; Tetsuhide Ito; Jia-Ming Qian

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of rhubarb on severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in rats.METHODS: Severe acute pancreatitis was induced by two intraperitoneal injections of cerulein (40 μg/kg body weight) plus 5-h restraint water-immersion stress. Rhubarb (75-150 mg/kg) was orally fed before the first cerulein injection.The degree of pancreatic edema, serum amylase level,local pancreatic blood flow (PBF), and histological alterations were investigated. The effects of rhubarb on pancreatic exocrine secretion in this model were evaluated by comparing with those of somatostatin.RESULTS: In the Cerulein+Stress group, severe edema and diffuse hemorrhage in the pancreas were observed,the pancreatic wet weight (11.60±0.61 g/Kg) and serum amylase (458 490±43 100 U/L) were markedly increased (P<0.01 vs control). In the rhubarb (150 mg/kg) treated rats, necrosis and polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) infiltration in the pancreas were significantly reduced (P<0.01), and a marked decrease (50%) in serum amylase levels was also observed (P<0.01). PBF dropped to 38%(93±5 Ml/min per 100 g) of the control in the Cerulein+Stressgroup and partly recovered in the Cerulein+Stress+Rhubarb 150 mg group (135±12 Ml/min per 100 g) (P<0.01). The pancreatic exocrine function was impaired in the SAP rats.The amylase levels of pancreatic juice were reduced in the rats treated with rhubarb or somatostatin, comparing with that of untreated SAP group. The bicarbonate concentration of pancreatic juice was markedly elevated only in the rhubarb treated group (P<0.01).CONCLUSION: Rhubarb can exert protective effects on SAP, probably by inhibiting the inflammation of pancreas,improving pancreatic microcirculation, and altering exocrine secretion.

  4. Effect of Antiepileptic Drugs for Acute and Chronic Seizures in Children with Encephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kuang-Lin Lin; Jainn-Jim Lin; Shao-Hsuan Hsia; Min-Liang Chou; Po-Cheng Hung; Huei-Shyong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Background Encephalitis presents with seizures in the acute phase and increases the risk of late unprovoked seizures and epilepsy. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of antiepileptic drugs in pediatric patients with acute seizures due to encephalitis and epilepsy. Patients and Methods Cases of acute pediatric encephalitis between January 2000 and December 2010 were reviewed. Clinical data, including onset at age, seizure type, seizure frequency, effects of antiepileptic drugs, and progno...

  5. A novel cardioprotective p38-MAPK/mTOR pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Gonzalo; Lal, Hind; Fidalgo, Miguel; Guerrero, Ana; Zalvide, Juan; Force, Thomas; Pombo, Celia M

    2011-12-10

    Despite intensive study, the mechanisms regulating activation of mTOR and the consequences of that activation in the ischemic heart remain unclear. This is particularly true for the setting of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. In a mouse model of I/R injury, we observed robust mTOR activation, and its inhibition by rapamycin increased injury. Consistent with the in-vivo findings, mTOR activation was also protective in isolated cardiomyocytes exposed to two models of I/R. Moreover, we identify a novel oxidant stress-activated pathway regulating mTOR that is critically dependent on p38-MAPK and Akt. This novel p38-regulated pathway signals downstream through REDD1, Tsc2, and 14-3-3 proteins to activate mTOR and is independent of AMPK. The protective role of p38/Akt and mTOR following oxidant stress is a general phenomenon since we observed it in a wide variety of cell types. Thus we have identified a novel protective pathway in the cardiomyocyte involving p38-mediated mTOR activation. Furthermore, the p38-dependent protective pathway might be able to be selectively modulated to enhance cardio-protection while not interfering with the inhibition of the better-known detrimental p38-dependent pathways.

  6. Schisandrin B-induced glutathione antioxidant response and cardioprotection are mediated by reactive oxidant species production in rat hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Na; Ko, Ming

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the involvement of reactive oxidant species (ROS), presumably arising from cytochrome P-450 (CYP)-catalyzed metabolism of schisandrin B (Sch B), in triggering glutathione antioxidant response, Sch B induced reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent and CYP-catalyzed reaction and associated ROS production were examined in rat heart microsomes. Sch B analogs were also studied for comparison. Using rat heart microsomes as a source of CYP, Sch B and schisandrin C (Sch C), but not schisandrin A and dimethyl diphenyl bicarboxylate (an intermediate compound derived from the synthesis of Sch C), were found to serve as co-substrate for the CYP-catalyzed NADPH oxidation reaction, with concomitant production of ROS. The stimulation of CYP-catalyzed NADPH oxidation reaction and/or ROS production by Sch B or Sch C correlated with the increase in mitochondrial reduced glutathione level and protection against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rat hearts. The involvement of ROS in Sch B-induced cardioprotection was further confirmed by the suppressive effect produced by N-acetylcysteine or alpha-tocopherol pretreatment. Taken together, these results suggest that Sch B-induced glutathione antioxidant response and cardioprotection may be mediated by ROS arising from CYP-catalyzed reaction.

  7. [Modulation of the beta-adrenergic system during acute myocardial infarction: rationale for a new clinical trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Borja; Fuster, Valentín; Macaya, Carlos; Jiménez-Borreguero, Jesús; Iñiguez, Andrés; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Sanz, Ginés; Sánchez-Brunete, Vicente

    2011-07-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is caused by sudden coronary artery occlusion. Persistent ischemia results in necrosis of the myocardial tissue supplied by the occluded vessel. It has recently been shown that the final size of the infarct is a major predictor of future clinical events, and is, therefore, used as a surrogate outcome in clinical trials. Moreover, it has become clear that the duration of ischemia in the main determinant of the success of myocardial salvage (i.e. of non-necrotic at-risk myocardium). In addition to minimizing the time between symptom onset and reperfusion, there is considerable interest in finding therapies that can further limit the size of the infarction (i.e. cardioprotective therapies) and they are the focus of numerous clinical studies. Oral β-blockade within the first few hours of an AMI is a class-IA indication in clinical practice guidelines. However, early intravenous β-blockade, even before coronary artery reperfusion, is not routinely recommended. Preclinical research has demonstrated that the selectiveβ1-blocker metoprolol is able to reduce the infarct size only when administered before coronary artery reperfusion, which indicates that its cardioprotective properties are secondary to its ability to reduce reperfusion injury. In addition, retrospective studies of AMI suggest that starting intravenous β-blockade early has clinical benefits (i.e. lower mortality and better recovery of left ventricular contractility) in patients without contraindications. Our general hypothesis is that early administration of metoprolol (i.e. intravenously before reperfusion) results in smaller infarcts than administering the drug orally after reperfusion. The Effect of METOprolol in CARDioproteCtioN during an acute myocardial InfarCtion (METOCARD-CNIC) trial will test this hypothesis in patients with ST-segment elevation AMI.

  8. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay B. Baker

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1–2 h. Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1 potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2 the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3 what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports. Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30–60 g/h in the form of a 6%–7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before

  9. The potential benefits of a garlic and hydrochlorothiazide combination as antihypertensive and cardioprotective in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asdaq, Syed Mohammed Basheeruddin; Inamdar, Mohammed Naseeruddin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of combined therapy of garlic homogenate and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in animals with hypertension and myocardial damage. Three weeks of high fructose (10% w/v) in fluid to albino rats resulted in hypertension. They were subsequently administered garlic (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg, 3 weeks in separate groups) and HCTZ (10 mg/kg, 6th week) once daily in their respective groups. At the end of 6 weeks, myocardial damage was induced by subcutaneous administration of isoproterenol (175 mg/kg) for 2 consecutive days. The results showed that garlic and HCTZ increase the lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine phosphokinase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in heart homogenate when used concurrently or separately. Further, restoration of normal values in fluid/food intake, body weight, systolic blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose and histopathological scores were observed in all treated groups. Furthermore, histological disturbances and hypertension were significantly ameliorated in treated animals. Moreover, moderate dose of garlic was more effective than low dose, while a high dose of garlic was least effective in correcting electrocardiographic changes. Thus it is concluded that garlic in moderate dose (250 mg/kg) with added HCTZ possesses synergistic cardioprotective and antihypertensive properties against fructose- and isoproterenol-induced toxicities.

  10. Effects of acute restraint stress on set-shifting and reversal learning in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Chester A; Zhang, Ying; Howland, John G

    2013-03-01

    Exposure to acute stress alters cognition; however, few studies have examined the effects of acute stress on executive functions such as behavioral flexibility. The goal of the present experiments was to determine the effects of acute periods of stress on two distinct forms of behavioral flexibility: set-shifting and reversal learning. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained and tested in an operant-chamber-based task. Some of the rats were exposed to acute restraint stress (30 min) immediately before either the set-shifting test day or the reversal learning test day. Acute stress had no effect on set-shifting, but it significantly facilitated reversal learning, as assessed by both trials to criterion and total errors. In a second experiment, the roles of glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) in the acute-stress-induced facilitation of reversal learning were examined. Systemic administration of the GR-selective antagonist RU38486 (10 mg/kg) or the MR-selective antagonist spironolactone (50 mg/kg) 30 min prior to acute stress failed to block the facilitation on reversal learning. The present results demonstrate a dissociable effect of acute stress on set-shifting and reversal learning and suggest that the facilitation of reversal learning by acute stress may be mediated by factors other than corticosterone.

  11. Erythropoietin: from erythropoiesis to cardioprotection La eritropoyetina: de la eritropoyesis a la cardioprotección

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aramis Núñez Quintana

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Many of the drugs that has shown promise in the treatment of hematologic malignancies and solid tumors, associated with a high potential cardiotoxic. Within this group stand anthracyclines, identified as the type of chemotherapy most likely to cause heart damage, short or long term. With the improvement achieved in the survival of patients with these diseases, this adverse event has become a major concern for the scientific community. Although many agents have been evaluated as potential cardioprotective therapeutic, clinical data are limited and does not suggest that the use of these agents promotes the survival of patients undergoing cardiotoxic treatments. The identification of erythropoietin receptor in hematopoietic tissues, including the heart, as well as its marked cardioprotective effect during ischemia have led to the hypothesis that erythropoietin may be able to prevent anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy. Addressing this hypothesis is the objective of this work.Muchas de las drogas que han mostrado resultados alentadores en el tratamiento de las enfermedades hematológicas y los tumores sólidos, asocian un elevado potencial cardiotóxico. Dentro de este grupo sobresalen las antraciclinas, identificadas como el tipo de quimioterapia que con mayor probabilidad puede causar daño cardiaco, a corto o largo plazo. Con la mejoría alcanzada en la supervivencia de los pacientes portadores de estas enfermedades, este evento adverso se ha convertido en una de las principales preocupaciones para la comunidad científica. Aun cuando han sido muchos los agentes terapéuticos evaluados como posibles cardioprotectores, los datos clínicos disponibles son limitados y no permiten afirmar que el uso de estos agentes favorezca la supervivencia de los pacientes sometidos a tratamientos cardiotóxicos. La identificación del receptor para la eritropoyetina en tejidos no hematopoyéticos, incluyendo el corazón, así como su marcado efecto

  12. Intracerebroventricular administration of morphine confers remote cardioprotection--role of opioid receptors and calmodulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Irwin, Michael G; Lu, Yao; Mei, Bin; Zuo, You-Mei; Chen, Zhi-Wu; Wong, Tak-Ming

    2011-04-10

    The current study aimed to delineate the mechanism of remote preconditioning by intracerebroventricular morphine (RMPC) against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given an intracerebroventricular morphine injection before myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury. Ischemia-reperfusion injury was achieved by 30min of left coronary artery occlusion followed by 120min of reperfusion. The effects of remote preconditioning by intracerebroventricular morphine preconditioning were also determined upon selective blockade of the δ, κ or μ-opioid receptors, or calmodulin (CaM). The infarct size, as a percentage of the area at risk, was determined by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium staining. Remote preconditioning by intracerebroventricular morphine reduced infarct size in the ischemic/reperfused myocardium, and the effect was abolished by the selective blockade of any one of the three δ, κ and μ opioid receptors or CaM. Furthermore, remote preconditioning by intracerebroventricular morphine increased the expression of CaM in the hippocampus and the plasma level of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). The results of the present study provide evidence that the cardioprotection of remote preconditioning by intracerebroventricular morphine involves not only all three types of opioid receptors in the central nervous system, but also CaM, which releases CGRP, one of the mediators of remote preconditioning.

  13. Minimal effects of acute liver injury/acute liver failure on hemostasis as assessed by thromboelastography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stravitz, R. Todd; Lisman, Ton; Luketic, Velimir A.; Sterling, Richard K.; Puri, Puneet; Fuchs, Michael; Ibrahim, Ashraf; Lee, William M.; Sanyal, Arun J.

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims: Patients with acute liver injury/failure (ALI/ALF) are assumed to have a bleeding diathesis on the basis of elevated INR; however, clinically significant bleeding is rare. We hypothesized that patients with ALI/ALF have normal hemostasis despite elevated INR. Methods: Fifty-one pa

  14. A Translational Study of a New Therapeutic Approach for Acute Myocardial Infarction: Nanoparticle-Mediated Delivery of Pitavastatin into Reperfused Myocardium Reduces Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in a Preclinical Porcine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimura, Kenzo; Matoba, Tetsuya; Nakano, Kaku; Tokutome, Masaki; Honda, Katsuya; Koga, Jun-ichiro; Egashira, Kensuke

    2016-01-01

    Background There is an unmet need to develop an innovative cardioprotective modality for acute myocardial infarction, for which interventional reperfusion therapy is hampered by ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. We recently reported that bioabsorbable poly(lactic acid/glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticle-mediated treatment with pitavastatin (pitavastatin-NP) exerts a cardioprotective effect in a rat IR injury model by activating the PI3K-Akt pathway and inhibiting inflammation. To obtain preclinical proof-of-concept evidence, in this study, we examined the effect of pitavastatin-NP on myocardial IR injury in conscious and anesthetized pig models. Methods and Results Eighty-four Bama mini-pigs were surgically implanted with a pneumatic cuff occluder at the left circumflex coronary artery (LCx) and telemetry transmitters to continuously monitor electrocardiogram as well as to monitor arterial blood pressure and heart rate. The LCx was occluded for 60 minutes, followed by 24 hours of reperfusion under conscious conditions. Intravenous administration of pitavastatin-NP containing ≥ 8 mg/body of pitavastatin 5 minutes before reperfusion significantly reduced infarct size; by contrast, pitavastatin alone (8 mg/body) showed no therapeutic effects. Pitavastatin-NP produced anti-apoptotic effects on cultured cardiomyocytes in vitro. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging performed 4 weeks after IR injury revealed that pitavastatin-NP reduced the extent of left ventricle remodeling. Importantly, pitavastatin-NP exerted no significant effects on blood pressure, heart rate, or serum biochemistry. Exploratory examinations in anesthetized pigs showed pharmacokinetic analysis and the effects of pitavastatin-NP on no-reflow phenomenon. Conclusions NP-mediated delivery of pitavastatin to IR-injured myocardium exerts cardioprotective effects on IR injury without apparent adverse side effects in a preclinical conscious pig model. Thus, pitavastatin-NP represents a novel therapeutic

  15. Novel, selective EPO receptor ligands lacking erythropoietic activity reduce infarct size in acute myocardial infarction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Krisztina; Csonka, Csaba; Pálóczi, János; Pipis, Judit; Görbe, Anikó; Kocsis, Gabriella F; Murlasits, Zsolt; Sárközy, Márta; Szűcs, Gergő; Holmes, Christopher P; Pan, Yijun; Bhandari, Ashok; Csont, Tamás; Shamloo, Mehrdad; Woodburn, Kathryn W; Ferdinandy, Péter; Bencsik, Péter

    2016-11-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) has been shown to protect the heart against acute myocardial infarction in pre-clinical studies, however, EPO failed to reduce infarct size in clinical trials and showed significant safety problems. Here, we investigated cardioprotective effects of two selective non-erythropoietic EPO receptor ligand dimeric peptides (AF41676 and AF43136) lacking erythropoietic activity, EPO, and the prolonged half-life EPO analogue, darbepoetin in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in rats. In a pilot study, EPO at 100U/mL significantly decreased cell death compared to vehicle (33.8±2.3% vs. 40.3±1.5%, pEPO reduced infarct size significantly compared to vehicle (45.3±4.8% vs. 59.8±4.5%, pEPO receptor ligand dimeric peptides AF41676 and AF43136 administered before reperfusion are able to reduce infarct size in a rat model of AMI. Therefore, non-erythropoietic EPO receptor peptide ligands may be promising cardioprotective agents.

  16. Inhibitory effect of Patrinia scabiosaefolia on acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sang-Wan Seo; Hyung-Min Kim; Sung-Joo Park; Cheung-Seog Park; Seung-Heon Hong; Kang-Beom Kwon; Hyoung-Chul Moon; Bong-keun Song; Kyung-Yo Kim; Young-Min Park; Ho-Joon Song

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of Patrinia scabiosaefolia (PS) on the cholecystokinin (CCK) octapeptide- induced acute pancreatitis (AP) in rats.METHODS: Wistar rats weighing 240-260 g were divided into three groups: (1) Normal saline-treated group;(2) treatment with PS at 100 mg/kg group, in which PS was administered orally, followed by subcutaneous administration of 75 μg/kg CCK octapeptide three times after 1, 3 and 5 h, and this whole procedure was repeated for 5 d; (3) treatment with saline group,in which the protocols were the same as in treatment group with PS. We determined the pancreatic weight/body weight ratio, the levels of pancreatic HSP60,HSP72 and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines.Repeated CCK octapeptide treatment resulted in the typical laboratory findings of experimentally induced pancreatitis.RESULTS: PS reduced the pancreatic weight/body weight ratio, the levels of serum amylase and lipase,and inhibited expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the CCK octapeptide-induced AP. Furthermore, PS pretreatment increased the pancreatic levels of HSP60and HSP72.CONCLUSION: Pretreatment with PS has an antiinflammatory effect on CCK octapeptide-induced AP.

  17. Neurological Effects of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coskun YARAR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning (COP is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity due to poisoning in all over the world. Although the incidence of COP has not been known exactly in the childhood, almost one-third of CO exposures occurred in children. The data regarding COP in children are inconclusive. Children may be more vulnerable to CO exposure than adults as a result of their high respiration and metabolic rates, high oxygen metabolism, and immature central nervous system. Recent researches proposed new theories about neurological effects of CO toxicity. The clinical presentations associated acute COP may be various and nonspecific. Unrecognized CO exposure may lead to significant morbidity and mortality. CO exposed children often become symptomatic earlier, and recover more rapidly, than similarly CO exposed adults. Mild clinical signs and symptoms associated with COP are headache, dizziness, weakness, lethargy, and myalgia; however, severe signs and symptoms such as blurred vision, syncope, convulsion, coma, cardiopulmonary arrest and death can also accompany with COP. Neurologic manifestations can include altered mental status at different degrees, neck stiffness, tremor, ataxia, and positive Babinski's sign. Delayed neurologic sequels (DNS of COP might be seen in children like adults. DNS symptoms and signs in children include memory problems, mental retardation, mutism, fecal and urinary incontinence, motor deficits, facial palsy, psychosis, chronic headache, seizures, and epilepsy. After CO exposure children must be cared to detect and treat DNS. Although hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT is reported to prevent development of DNS, its indications, application duration and procedures are controversial in both of the children and adults. Although their predictive values are limited, exposing to CO more than eight hours and suffering from CO-induced coma, cardiac arrest, lactic acidosis, high COHb levels, and pathologic findings

  18. Strain-dependent Effects of Acute, Chronic, and Withdrawal from Chronic Nicotine on Fear Conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Portugal, George S.; Wilkinson, Derek S.; Kenney, Justin W.; Sullivan, Colleen; Gould, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of nicotine on cognitive processes such as learning and memory may play an important role in the addictive liability of tobacco. However, it remains unknown whether genetic variability modulates the effects of nicotine on learning and memory. The present study characterized the effects of acute, chronic, and withdrawal from chronic nicotine administration on fear conditioning, somatic signs, and the elevated plus maze in 8 strains of inbred mice. Strain-dependent effects of acute ...

  19. Effects of chronic kidney disease on platelet response to antiplatelet therapy in acute myocardial infarction patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓捷

    2012-01-01

    Objective To elucidate the effects of dual antiplatelet therapy on platelet response in acute myocardial infarction patients with chronic kidney disease. Methods From September 2011 to June 2012,a total of 195 acute myocardial infarction patients with drug eluting stent implanting were enrolled. Among them,133 cases had normal

  20. Acute effects of ambient air pollution episodes on respiratory health of children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, G.

    1992-01-01

    In this thesis the acute effects of air pollution episodes on respiratory health of seven to eleven year old children living in non-urban communities in the Netherlands are discussed. Repeated measurements of pulmonary function (spirometry) and the occurrence of acute respiratory symptoms using a da

  1. Effect of age and body weight on toxicity and survival in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løhmann, Ditte J A; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Ha, Shau-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Treatment for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia is very toxic and the association between outcome and age and Body Mass Index is unclear. We investigated effect of age and Body Mass Index on toxicity and survival in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. We studied all patients who completed first indu...

  2. Hepatic effect of NAC on sevear acute pancteatise of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Chen; Ye-Jiang Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the hepatic protection of n-acetyl cysteine(NAC) on severe acute pancreatitis(SAP).Methods:SD rats were randomly divided into control group,SAP group and NAC group.SAPAHO method was adopted to establish the model,2 h after modeling, rats inNAC group had intraperitoneal injection ofNAC(200 mg/kg).Ten rats from each group were sacrificed in every6 and12 h at different time points respectively.Liver damage, liver function and serum amylase,AST,ALT and malondialdehyde(MDA) were determined.Results:Serum amylase,AST, ALT andMDA content inSAP,NAC group at each time point were significantly higher in the control group(P<0.05), serum amylase,AST,ALT andMDA content inNAC group rats were lower in theSAP group significantly(P<0.05);Microscopic examination showed that the liver injury in rats and theNAC group significantly reduced in theSAP group.Conclusions:NAC provides effective protection against liver damage toSAP, protective fromSAP liver injury.

  3. Effects of lysine-induced acute renal failure in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanuma, Kentaro; Adachi, Kenji; Sugimoto, Tetsuro; Chiba, Shuichi

    2006-05-01

    This study investigates the effects of lysine-induced acute renal failure. Female dogs received a lysine hydrochloride (lysine) of 4500 mg/kg/day (3.75 ml/kg/hr) for 3 consecutive days. The dogs were observed for clinical signs. Body weights were recorded, food consumption and water consumption calculated, and urinalysis and blood biochemistry were performed daily. Plasma samples for amino acid determinations were obtained from all dogs, which were necropsied on Day 3. Histopathological examinations were done on all test animals. Compound-related findings include the following. Blood biochemistry results showed increases in ammonia, blood urea nitrogen, blood urea nitrogen/creatinine ratio, and creatinine. Urinary changes consisted of increases in urine volume, total protein, albumin, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase. In addition, macroscopic findings consisted of pale, congested capsule; microscopic findings consisted of hypertrophy of proximal convoluted tubule (mainly S1 segment), and degeneration/desquamation of urinary tubule (mainly S3 segment with hyaline casts) in the kidney. From these findings, it can be concluded that lysine is nephrotoxic in dogs. Nephrotoxicity of lysine may relate to direct tubular toxicity and to tubular obstruction.

  4. Acute effects of cigarette smoking on pattern electroretinogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogan, Fatih C; Durukan, A Hakan; Mumcuoglu, Tarkan; Sobaci, Gungor; Bayraktar, M Zeki

    2006-09-01

    In this study, acute effects of cigarette smoking on the pattern electroretinogram (PERG) were investigated. First, variability of the PERG was studied in a group of young male smokers (26 right eyes of 26 subjects). Then PERGs were investigated in a group of habitual smokers (17 right eyes of 17 subjects) in separate real smoking and sham smoking sessions. On each session PERGs were recorded pre-smoking (PS), immediately after smoking (IAS) and 5 min after smoking (5th) conditions. Real smoking significantly increased P50 amplitudes and decreased N95 latencies. Regarding P50 amplitudes in the real smoking sessions, the differences were significant between PS and IAS (PS: 3.3 +/- 0.5 muV, IAS: 3.7 +/- 0.7microV, P = 0.015) and between PS-5th (PS: 3.3 +/- 0.5microV, 5th: 4.1 +/- 0.9microV, P = 0.039). There was significant difference (P = 0.024) between N95 latencies of PS (98.5 +/- 6.9 ms) and IAS (94.7 +/- 5.1 ms) in the real smoking sessions. No statistically significant difference was observed in sham smoking sessions. Our results indicated, for the first time, that cigarette smoking may influence PERG amplitude and latency significantly in habitual smokers.

  5. Protective Effects of Hydrogen Gas on Experimental Acute Pancreatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Xin Zhou

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis (AP is an inflammatory disease mediated by damage to acinar cells and pancreatic inflammation. In patients with AP, subsequent systemic inflammatory responses and multiple organs dysfunction commonly occur. Interactions between cytokines and oxidative stress greatly contribute to the amplification of uncontrolled inflammatory responses. Molecular hydrogen (H2 is a potent free radical scavenger that not only ameliorates oxidative stress but also lowers cytokine levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of H2 gas on AP both in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro assessment, AR42J cells were treated with cerulein and then incubated in H2-rich or normal medium for 24 h, and for the in vivo experiment, AP was induced through a retrograde infusion of 5% sodium taurocholate into the pancreatobiliary duct (0.1 mL/100 g body weight. Wistar rats were treated with inhaled air or 2% H2 gas and sacrificed 12 h following the induction of pancreatitis. Specimens were collected and processed to measure the amylase and lipase activity levels; the myeloperoxidase activity and production levels; the cytokine mRNA expression levels; the 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, malondialdehyde, and glutathione levels; and the cell survival rate. Histological examinations and immunohistochemical analyses were then conducted. The results revealed significant reductions in inflammation and oxidative stress both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of H2 gas were associated with reductions in AR42J cell and pancreatic tissue damage. In conclusion, our results suggest that H2 gas is capable of ameliorating damage to the pancreas and AR42J cells and that H2 exerts protective effects both in vitro and in vivo on subjects with AP. Thus, the results obtained indicate that this gas may represent a novel therapy agent in the management of AP.

  6. 线粒体乙醛脱氢酶2突变型基因的心肌保护作用%Effect of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 genotype on cardio-protection in patients with ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张裕坚; 金周晟; 陈鸿飞; 吴一泉; 徐旭仲

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the protection of human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrognase 2 gene mutations for patients undergone cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).Methods: A prospective cohort of TOF pa-tients (n=71) was recruited to investigate the inlfuence of the ALDH2*2 allele on cardio-protection after surgical repair. The patients were divided into 2 groups: ALDH2*2 (n=45) and ALDH2*1 (n=26). The right atrial append-age was harvested. ALDH2 activity, MDA and GSH were analysed. The cTnI was tested 20 hours later after the surgery. The time in hospital were recorded.Results: ALDH2*2 carriers showed highter GSH. ALDH2*2 car-riers showed lower MDA, cTnI, and shorter postoperative length of hospital stay.Conclusion: ALDH2*2 allele has a myocardial protection effect after ischemic reperfusion injury, it may associated with greater expression of GSH level.%目的:观察施行心脏手术的患者,携带线粒体乙醛脱氢酶2(ALDH2)突变型基因对心肌缺血再灌注损伤的保护作用。方法:将北京阜外医院小儿心脏外科71例施行法洛四联症根治术的患者根据ALDH2基因型检测结果分成2组:突变型组(携带ALDH2*2突变型基因)和野生型组(携带ALDH2*1野生型基因)。收集术中切除的右心室流出道心肌组织,采用分光光度计法检测ALDH2酶活性,丙二醛(MDA)和还原型谷胱甘肽(GSH)含量。体外循环升主动脉开放后20 h取血检测心肌肌钙蛋白值(cTnI)。结果:突变型组患者术中缺血心肌组织毒性醛类MDA含量更低(P=0.013),心肌保护物质GSH含量更高(P=0.011),并且突变型组患者术后有更低的cTnI值(P=0.015),更短的术后住院时间(P=0.017)。结论:携带ALDH2突变型基因可以明显降低术中缺血心肌组织毒性醛类物质的堆积,提高心肌组织GSH含量,并且具有更好的临床预后,对心肌缺血再灌注损伤具有保护作用。

  7. Cardioprotective effects of hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide and their interactions during the process of myocardial ischemia in rats%硫化氢和一氧化氮对心梗大鼠的心脏保护作用及相互关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈长青; 辛宏; 朱依纯; 朱依谆

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nitric oxide (NO) in myocardial infarction (MI) has not been previously reported. In the current investigation, we sought to determine the roles of both H2S and NO in MI in rats. Animals were randomly divided into 5 groups and treated with L-NG-nitro arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), sildenafil, saline, propargylglycine (PAG) and L-cysteine, respectively, for 1 week prior to performing MI surgery or sham operation. The mortality rates were lower in sildenafil and L-cysteine treated rats in the MI group. The infarct area was significantly reduced in sildenafil and L-cysteine treated rats. Moreover, plasma H2S measurements revealed that the level in the sildenafil treated group was lower than in the L-NAME treated MI group, which was consistent with an observed decrease in cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE) enzyme activity. CSE protein expression level in the L-NAME treated MI group was significantly higher than in sildenafil treated MI group. eNOS protein content in the L-cysteine treated MI group was lower than in the PAG treated MI group and eNOS gene expression is significantly decreased in the L-cysteine treated rats. We demonstrated that endogenous H2S and NO are cardioprotective in the rat model of MI. Indeed, both the H2S-CSE and NO-NOS system appear to have a mutual down-regulation effect in MI process in our experimental rat model.%本研究旨在探索在大鼠心肌梗死过程中内源性硫化氢(HS)与一氧化氮(NO)对心肌组织的保护作用和两种气体分子之间的相互作用关系.将试验动物随机分成五组,分别给予HS合成酶胱硫醚-γ-裂解酶(CSE)的抑制剂炔丙基甘氨酸(PAG)和CSE内源性底物左旋半胱氨酸(L-Cysteine),以及NO的合成酶(eNOS)的抑制剂L-NAME和激活剂西地那非(sildenafil),同时设置生理盐水组为对照.给药第七天,建立大鼠心肌梗死动物模型,存活大鼠继续观察48小时.通过对五组试验动物死亡率和心

  8. Moringa oleifera leaf extract prevents isoproterenol-induced myocardial damage in rats: evidence for an antioxidant, antiperoxidative, and cardioprotective intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandave, Mukesh; Ojha, Shreesh Kumar; Joshi, Sujata; Kumari, Santosh; Arya, Dharamvir Singh

    2009-02-01

    The present study evaluated cardioprotective effect of lyophilized hydroalcoholic extract of Moringa oleifera in the isoproterenol (ISP)-induced model of myocardial infarction. Wistar albino male rats were divided into three groups and orally fed saline once daily alone (sham) or with ISP (ISP control) or ISP with M. oleifera (200 mg/kg), respectively, for 1 month. On days 29 and 30 of administration, rats of the ISP control and M. oleifera-ISP groups were administered ISP (85 mg/kg, s.c.) at an interval of 24 hours. On day 31, hemodynamic parameters (mean arterial pressure [MAP], heart rate [HR], left ventricular end-diastolic pressure [LVEDP], and left ventricular peak positive [(+) LV dP/dt] and negative [(-) LV dP/dt] pressures were recorded. At the end of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed, and hearts were excised and processed for biochemical, histopathological, and ultrastructural studies. Chronic treatment with M. oleifera demonstrated mitigating effects on ISP-induced hemodynamic [HR, (+) LV dP/dt, (-) LV dP/dt, and LVEDP] perturbations. Chronic M. oleifera treatment resulted in significant favorable modulation of the biochemical enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase-MB) but failed to demonstrate any significant effect on reduced glutathione compared to the ISP control group. Moringa treatment significantly prevented the rise in lipid peroxidation in myocardial tissue. Furthermore, M. oleifera also prevented the deleterious histopathological and ultrastructural perturbations caused by ISP. Based on the results of the present study, it can be concluded that M. oleifera extract possesses significant cardioprotective effect, which may be attributed to its antioxidant, antiperoxidative, and myocardial preservative properties.

  9. Effect of fluid ingestion on orthostatic responses following acute exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. E.; Fortney, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    Orthostatic tolerance is impaired following an acute bout of exercise. This study examined the effect of fluid ingestion following treadmill exercise in restoring the cardiovascular responses to an orthostatic stress. Five men (age, 29.6 +/- 3.4 yrs) were exposed to a graded lower body negative (LBNP) pressure protocol (0 to -50 mmHg) during euhydration without exercise (C), 20 minutes after exercise dehydration (D), 20 minutes after exercise and fluid ingestion (FI20), and 60 minutes after exercise and fluid ingestion (FI60). Fluid ingestion (mean +/- SE) consisted of water-ingestion equivalent to 50% of the body weight lost during exercise (520 +/- 15 ml). Exercise dehydration resulted in significantly higher heart rates (119 +/- 8 vs 82 +/- 7 bpm), lower systolic blood pressures (95 +/- 1.7 vs 108 +/- 2.3 mmHg), a smaller increase in leg circumference (3.7 +/- 4 vs 6.9 +/- 1.0 mm), and an attenuated increase in total peripheral resistance (2.58 +/- 1.2 vs 4.28 +/- 0.9 mmHg/L/min) at -50 mmHg LBNP compared to the C condition. Fluid ingestion (both 20 and 60), partially restored the heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and total peripheral resistance responses to LBNP, but did not influence the change in leg circumference during LBNP (4 +/- 0.3 for R20 and 2.8 +/- 0.4 mm for R60). These data illustrate the effectiveness of fluid ingestion on improving orthostatic responses following exercise, and suggest that dehydration is a contributing factor to orthostatic intolerance following exercise.

  10. Effects of acute hypercapnia with and without acidosis on lung inflammation and apoptosis in experimental acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardelli, L M; Rzezinski, A; Silva, J D; Maron-Gutierrez, T; Ornellas, D S; Henriques, I; Capelozzi, V L; Teodoro, W; Morales, M M; Silva, P L; Pelosi, P; Garcia, C S N B; Rocco, P R M

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of acute hypercapnic acidosis and buffered hypercapnia on lung inflammation and apoptosis in experimental acute lung injury (ALI). Twenty-four hours after paraquat injection, 28 Wistar rats were randomized into four groups (n=7/group): (1) normocapnia (NC, PaCO2=35-45 mmHg), ventilated with 0.03%CO2+21%O2+balancedN2; (2) hypercapnic acidosis (HC, PaCO2=60-70 mmHg), ventilated with 5%CO2+21%O2+balancedN2; and (3) buffered hypercapnic acidosis (BHC), ventilated with 5%CO2+21%O2+balancedN2 and treated with sodium bicarbonate (8.4%). The remaining seven animals were not mechanically ventilated (NV). The mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-6 (p=0.003), IL-1β (pacidosis, reduced lung inflammation and lung and kidney cell apoptosis.

  11. 腺病毒介导线粒体融合蛋白2基因转染对糖尿病大鼠七氟醚后处理心肌保护作用的影响%Effect of adenovirus-mediated mitofusin-2 gene transfection on sevoflurane postconditioning-induced cardioprotection in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王祥; 王晓鹏; 韩冲芳; 方爱莉; 杨文曲; 贺建东; 师高翔; 段应磊

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of adenovirus-mediated mitofusin-2 (Adv-Mfn2) gene transfection on sevoflurane postconditioning-induced cardioprotection in diabetic rats.Methods Healthy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats,weighing 210-260 g,aged 3-4 months,in which diabetes mellitus was induced by intraperitoneal streptozotocin 60 mg/kg and confirmed by blood glucose level > 16.7 mmol/L,were used in this study.Fifty rats with diabetes mellitus were randomly divided into 5 groups (n =10 each) using a random number table:sham operation group (S group),ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) group,sevoflurane postconditioning group (SP group),Adv-Mfn2 plus I/R group (M+I/R group),and Adv-Mfn2 plus sevoflurane postconditioning group (M+SP group).Myocardial ischemia was induced by 30 min occlusion of the left anterior descending branch of the coronary artery followed by 120 min reperfusion.In SP and M+SP groups,sevoflurane was inhaled for 5 min with the end-tidal concentration of 2.5% starting from 1 min before reperfusion.Adv-Mfn2 2× 1010pfu/kg was injected via the sublingual vein at 1 min after streptozotocin injection in M+I/R group and M+SP group.The blood samples were collected from the abdominal artery at 120 min of reperfusion for determination of the creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) activity and cardiac troponin Ⅰ (cTnI) concentration in serum.The rats were then sacrificed,and their hearts were removed.Myocardial specimens were obtained for determination of cell apoptosis,and the apoptosis index (AI) was calculated.Myocardial specimens were obtained from the apex for determination of Mfn2 expression (by Western blot) and for examination of the pathological changes which were scored.Results Compared with S group,the CK-MB activity and cTnI concentration in serum,AI and pathological scores were significantly increased,and Mfn2 expression was significantly down-regulated in I/R,SP,M+I/R and M+ SP groups (P<0.05).Compared with I/R group,the CK-MB activity and c

  12. Acute stress does not affect the impairing effect of chronic stress on memory retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamile Ozbaki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Due to the prevalence and pervasiveness of stress in modern life and exposure to both chronic and acute stresses, it is not clear whether prior exposure to chronic stress can influence the impairing effects of acute stress on memory retrieval. This issue was tested in this study. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: control, acute, chronic, and chronic + acute stress groups. The rats were trained with six trials per day for 6 consecutive days in the water maze. Following training, the rats were either kept in control conditions or exposed to chronic stress in a restrainer 6 hr/day for 21 days. On day 22, a probe test was done to measure memory retention. Time spent in target and opposite areas, platform location latency, and proximity were used as indices of memory retention. To induce acute stress, 30 min before the probe test, animals received a mild footshock. Results: Stressed animals spent significantly less time in the target quadrant and more time in the opposite quadrant than control animals. Moreover, the stressed animals showed significantly increased platform location latency and proximity as compared with control animals. No significant differences were found in these measures among stress exposure groups. Finally, both chronic and acute stress significantly increased corticosterone levels. Conclusion: Our results indicate that both chronic and acute stress impair memory retrieval similarly. Additionally, the impairing effects of chronic stress on memory retrieval were not influenced by acute stress.

  13. Inhibition factors of arsenic trioxide therapeutic effects in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sui Meijuan; Zhang Zhuo; Zhou Jin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To summarize limitations involved in arsenic trioxide therapeutic effects in acute promyelocytic leukemia,because current studies show that some individuals of acute promyelocytic leukemia have relatively poor outcomes during treatment with arsenic trioxide.Data sources Most relevant articles were included in the PubMed database between 2000 and 2013 with the keywords "acute promyelocytic leukemia","arsenic trioxide","thiol" or "methylation".In addition,a few older articles were also reviewed.Study selection Data and articles related to arsenic trioxide effect in acute promyelocytic leukemia treatment were selected and reviewed.We developed an overview of limitations associated with arsenic trioxide therapeutic effect.Results This review focuses on the researches about the arsenic trioxide therapeutic effect in acute promyelocytic leukemia and summarizes three mainly limitations which can influence the arsenic trioxide therapeutic effect to different degrees.First,with the combination of arsenic and glutathione the therapeutic effect and cytotoxicity decrease when glutathione concentration increases; second,arsenic methylation,stable arsenic methylation products weaken the apoptosis effect of arsenic trioxide in leukemia cells; third,gene mutations affect the sensitivity of tumor cells to arsenic trioxide and increase the resistance of leukemia cells to arsenic trioxide.Conclusions The chief limitations are listed in the review.If we can exclude all of them,we can obtain a better therapeutic effect of arsenic trioxide in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia.

  14. Adaptive changes in the acute haemodynamic effects of cilazapril during chronic treatment. Comparison with long-term clinical effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J; Sykulski, R; Jensen, G;

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the adaptive changes in the acute haemodynamic response to ACE inhibition during chronic treatment in CHF. METHODS: The acute and chronic effects of oral cilazapril (CLZ) treatment, an ACE-inhibitor with prolonged duration on haemodynamic measures (PCWP, PAP, RAP, CI and SVR) ...

  15. Consensus definitions of 14 severe acute toxic effects for childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Barzilai, Shlomit

    2016-01-01

    Although there are high survival rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, their outcome is often counterbalanced by the burden of toxic effects. This is because reported frequencies vary widely across studies, partly because of diverse definitions of toxic effects. Using the Delphi...... method, 15 international childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia study groups assessed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia protocols to address toxic effects that were to be considered by the Ponte di Legno working group. 14 acute toxic effects (hypersensitivity to asparaginase, hyperlipidaemia, osteonecrosis......, thromboembolism, and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia) that are serious but too rare to be addressed comprehensively within any single group, or are deemed to need consensus definitions for reliable incidence comparisons, were selected for assessment. Our results showed that none of the protocols addressed all 14...

  16. Acute toxicity and effect of some petroleum hydrocarbon on the metabolic index in Etroplus suratensis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Farshchi, P.

    Acute toxicity (LC sub(50)) and effect of some petroleum hydrocarbons (Toluene, Quinoline, Pyridine and Naphthalene) on the metabolic index (oxygen consumption rate) of an estuarine fish. Etroplus suratensis is reported. The LC sub(50) values were...

  17. Acute Effects of Fine Particulate Air Pollution on ST Segment Height: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The mechanisms for the relationship between particulate air pollution and cardiac disease are not fully understood. Air pollution-induced myocardial ischemia is one of the potentially important mechanisms. Methods: We investigate the acute effects and the time cours...

  18. Effects of Losartan on acute atrial electrical remodeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李悦; 李为民; 薛竟宜; 韩薇; 杨树森; 谷宏越

    2004-01-01

    Background Atrial electrical remodeling (AER) contributes to the maintainance of atrial fibrillation (AF). This study was to compare the effects of Losartan with those of Diltiazem on tachycardia-induced acute AER in rabbits.Methods Twenty-one rabbits paced with maximal atrial capture rate for 3 hours in the right atrium (RA) were randomly divided into saline group, Diltiazem group and Losartan group. After autonomic blockage, we measured atrial effective refractory period (AERP), AERP rate adapting feature, AERP dispersion and RA conduction time at basic cycle lengths (BCLs) of 200 ms and 150 ms at baseline, 0.5 hour, 1 hour, 2 and 3 hours after rapid atrial pacing. Results In the saline group, there was a prompt decrease in AERP as a result of rapid atrial pacing, and AERP200 and AERP150 were shortened sharply within 0.5 hour of pacing (30.2±10.5 ms and 24.1±9.1 ms, respectively). The AERP did not change dramatically in the Diltiazem and Losartan groups. In the saline group, the value of (AERP200-AERP150)/50 ms in high RA was 0.17±0.08 at baseline and became significantly smaller at 0.5 hour (0.08±0.06), 1 hour (0.09±0.06), 2 hours (0.08±0.04) and 3 hours (0.09±0.05) (all P<0.05), suggesting a reduction of rate adaptation of AERP. The value of (AERP200-AERP150)/50 ms in high RA did not change during the 3 hours of pacing in both Diltiazem and Losartan groups. In the saline group, AERP dispersion increased significantly at 2 and 3 hours (P<0.05). However, Diltiazem could not prevent the increase of AERP dispersion at 3 hours (P<0.05). During Losartan infusion, the AERP dispersion was no longer increased after rapid atrial pacing. There was no significant difference in RA conduction time among the three groups.Conclusion Like calcium antagonist Diltiazem, Losartan could prevent AERP shortening and preserve rate adaptation of AERP after rapid atrial pacing. Losartan is more effective than Diltiazem in inhibiting the increase of AERP dispersion.

  19. Effect of metoprolol on chest pain in acute myocardial infarction.

    OpenAIRE

    Herlitz, J; Hjalmarson, A.; Holmberg, S.; Pennert, K; Swedberg, K; Vedin, A; Waagstein, F; Waldenström, A; Wedel, H.; Wilhelmsen, L

    1984-01-01

    A total of 1395 patients aged 40 to 74 years were included in a double blind trial with the beta 1 selective blocker metoprolol in suspected acute myocardial infarction. Metoprolol was given intravenously (15 mg) as soon as possible after admission to hospital followed by 200 mg daily for three months. A placebo was given in the same manner. The severity of chest pain in the acute phase was calculated by recording the number of injections of analgesics given and the time from the start of bli...

  20. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic effects of flumazenil and theophylline application in rats acutely intoxicated by diazepam

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aim. The majority of symptoms and signs of acute diazepam poisoning are the consequence of its sedative effect on the CNS affecting selectively polisynaptic routes by stimulating inhibitory action of GABA. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of combined application of theophylline and flumazenil on sedation and impaired motor function activity in acute diazepam poisoning in rats. Methods. Male Wistar rats were divided in four main groups and treated as follows: ...

  1. Comparison of the effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on metabolic features in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatemeh ROSTAMKHANI; Homeira ZARDOOZ; Saleh ZAHEDIASL; Babak FARROKHI

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed to compare the effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on metabolic factors.Forty-two male Wistar rats were divided into control and stressed groups.Stress was applied by a communication box acutely (1 d) and chronically (15 and 30 d).Blood sampling was carried out by retro-orbital-puncture method.The plasma levels of glucose,cholesterol,triglyceride,insulin,and corticosterone were measured.In addition,feed and water intake,latency to eat and drink,adrenal and body weights were determined.Acute and chronic psychological stress did not significantly change basal plasma corticosterone levels.However,immediately (1 min) after acute exposure to stress,plasma corticosterone level increased compared to that before stress exposure.Acute stress increased plasma insulin levels significantly.Fifteen days of stress exposure resulted in plasma glucose increase.Chronic stress significantly increased feed intake,latency to eat,and adrenal weight compared to acute stress.The body weights of both control and stressed groups increased markedly during the experiment.Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index did not change significantly in the stressed group.In conclusion,application of acute and chronic psychological stress leads to different metabolic and/or behavioral changes but the metabolic changes resulting from acute exposure to stress seem to be more pronounced.

  2. Additive cardioprotection by pharmacological postconditioning with hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide donors in mouse heart: S-sulfhydration vs. S-nitrosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junhui; Aponte, Angel M; Menazza, Sara; Gucek, Marjan; Steenbergen, Charles; Murphy, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), as a gaseous signalling molecule, has been found to play important roles in postconditioning (PostC)-induced cardioprotection. Similar to nitric oxide (NO)-mediated protein S-nitrosylation (SNO), recent studies suggest that H2S could regulate protein function through another redox-based post-translational modification on protein cysteine residue(s), i.e. S-sulfhydration (SSH). In this study, we examined whether there are changes in protein SSH associated with cardioprotection induced by treatment with H2S on reperfusion. In addition, we also examined whether there is cross talk between H2S and NO. Compared with control, treatment on reperfusion with NaHS (H2S donor, 100 µmol/L) significantly reduced post-ischaemic contractile dysfunction and infarct size. A comparable cardioprotective effect could be also achieved by reperfusion treatment with SNAP (NO donor, 10 µmol/L). Interestingly, simultaneous reperfusion with both donors had an additive protective effect. In addition, C-PTIO (NO scavenger, 20 µmol/L) eliminated the protection induced by NaHS and also the additive protection by SNAP + NaHS together. Using a modified biotin switch method, we observed a small increase in SSH following NaHS treatment on reperfusion. We also found that NaHS treatment on reperfusion increases SNO to a level comparable to that with SNAP treatment. In addition, there was an additive increase in SNO but not SSH when SNAP and NaHS were added together at reperfusion. Thus, part of the benefit of NaHS is an increase in SNO, and the magnitude of the protective effect is related to the magnitude of the increase in SNO.

  3. PROCOAGULANT EFFECTS OF THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY IN ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕妮; 刘茜茜; 祝家庆; 袁祖贻; 马西

    2002-01-01

    Objective.To examine the procoagulant effects of thrombolytic agent on hemostasis and study the role of hemostatic markers as predictors of clinical outcomes.Methods.In the present study,eighteen patients with acute myocardial infarction(AMI) received 1.5 or 2.0 million U nonspecific urokinase(UK),or 70~80 mg fibrin specific recombinant tissue plasminogen activator(rt PA)and did not use heparin until 8 hours after intravenous injection of the above agents.Eight patients with AMI and without thrombolytic therapy were enrolled as controls.Coagulant and thrombolytic activity markers included thrombin antithrombin Ⅲ complex (TAT),D dimer,fibrinogen (Fg),FMPV/Amax.All markers were determined before,immediately,1,2,4 and 8 hours after the administration of thrombolytic agents respectively. Results.Molecular marker of thrombin generation- - TAT showed an activated coagulant state immediately after thrombolytic therapy.Level of TAT showed no significant changes between every two observed phases in controls.However,level of TAT increased significantly from 4.95± 1.75μ g/L ( 4.63± 1.37μ g/L) to 14.71± 3.31μ g/L ( 14.25± 2.53μ g/L) before and immediately after administration of thrombolytic agents UK(or rt PA).There was significant difference between level of serum TAT of patients with and without thrombolytic therapy (P< 0.05).Patients achieving clinical reperfusion had lower TAT level than those failing in thrombolytic therapy,and higher FMPV/Amax level than controls.D dimer,a surrogate of thrombolytic activity increased markedly and Fg significantly declined after thrombolytic therapy(P< 0.05). Conclusions.Thrombin generation occurred in plasma in response to excess fibrinolysis induced by thrombolytic therapy.Both urokinase and rt PA had procoagulant action.This transient activation of the coagulant system might contribute to early reocclusion.These data provided the theoretical support for simultaneous administration of anticoagulant therapy with thrombolytic

  4. Mild hypoxia in vivo regulates cardioprotective SUR2A: A role for Akt and LDH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed Abdul, Khaja Shameem; Jovanović, Sofija; Du, Qingyou; Sukhodub, Andriy; Jovanović, Aleksandar

    2015-05-01

    High-altitude residents have lower mortality rates for ischaemic heart disease and this is ascribed to cardiac gene remodelling by chronic hypoxia. SUR2A is a cardioprotective ABC protein serving as a subunit of sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive K(+) channels. The purpose of this study was to determine whether SUR2A is regulated by mild hypoxia in vivo and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Mice were exposed to either 21% (control) or 18% (mild hypoxia) oxygen for 24h. Exposure to 18% oxygen did not affect partial pressure of O(2) (PO(2)) and CO(2) (PCO(2)) in the blood, haematocrit or level of ATP in the heart. However, hypoxia increased myocardial lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and lactate as well as NAD(+) without affecting total NAD. SUR2A levels were significantly increased as well as myocardial resistance to ischaemia-reperfusion. Exposure to 18% oxygen did not phosphorylate extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERK1/2) or AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK), but it phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt). An inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K), LY294002 (0.2mg/mouse), abolished all observed effects of hypoxia. LDH inhibitors, galloflavin (50 μM) and sodium oxamate (80 mM) significantly decreased levels of SUR2A in heart embryonic H9c2 cells, while inactive mutant LDH form, gly193-M-LDH increased cellular sensitivity towards stress induced by 2,4-dinitrophenol (10mM). Treatment of H9c2 cells with sodium lactate (30 mM) increased intracellular lactate, but did not affect LDH activity or SUR2A levels. We conclude that PI3K/Akt signalling pathway and LDH play a crucial role in increase of cardiac SUR2A induced by in vivo exposure to 18% oxygen.

  5. The Effects of Inhaled Steroids on Recurrent Wheeze After Acute Bronchiolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Green MD

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute bronchiolitis infection during infancy is associated with an increased risk of asthma later in life. The objective of this study was to determine if inhaled steroids are effective in preventing the development of recurrent wheeze or asthma following acute bronchiolitis. Methods. Multiple databases and bibliographies of selected references were searched. Inclusion required (a a randomized controlled trial of inhaled steroids and control group, (b at least 2 weeks duration of therapy started during the acute phase of disease, and (c identification of the rate of recurrent wheeze or asthma at least 6 months after therapy. Results. Of 1410 studies reviewed, 8 reports were included in this meta-analysis (748 patients. The overall odds ratio for developing recurrent wheeze or asthma with treatment versus without treatment was 1.02 (95% confidence interval = 0.58-1.81. Conclusions. A course of inhaled steroids after acute bronchiolitis is not effective in preventing recurrent wheeze or asthma.

  6. Effect of gomisin A in an immunologically-induced acute hepatic failure model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Y; Shin, T; Kobayashi, K; Morisawa, S

    1991-02-01

    Guinea pigs were sensitized with trinitrophenylated liver macromolecular protein fraction (TNP-LP1) prepared by using sodium trinitrobenzenesulfonate of strong immunogenicity as the hapten and LP1 as the carrier protein. The administration of trinitrophenylated hepatocytes and lipopolysaccharide to these TNP-LP1-sensitized guinea pigs through the mesenteric vein 2 weeks later resulted in the induction of acute hepatic failure accompanied by massive hepatic cell necrosis in almost all of the guinea pigs. Using this experimental model, the effect of Gomisin A on the induction of immunological acute hepatic failure was examined. As a result, the administration of gomisin A remarkably improved the survival rate and serum transaminase levels of the immunologically-induced acute hepatic failure guinea pigs. Gomisin A also improved the histological changes of the liver in these guinea pigs. These results suggested that gomisin A is effective for the improvement of immunologically-induced acute hepatic failure in our experimental model.

  7. Paradoxical Effect of Hyperoncotic Albumin in Acutely Burned Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    lob (gnil respiratory acidosis : but within a few hours, she suffered a I 12 2.880 1,8) 1(0.0 cardiac arrest and (tied. Acute tubular necrosis and...only minimally, and the acidosis er- stitial pulmonary edema were found at autopsy. sisted. Thirty-six hours postburn, the patient suffered the first...urea fluids and protein as fluid infusion proceeds (1). .4 nitrogen 48 mg/di. The hyperkalemia was treated with glucose, Certainly, the most

  8. Is management of acute traumatic brain injury effective?

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Jin; Gao, Guo-Yi; Jiang, Ji-Yao

    2012-01-01

    【Abstract】 Objective: To evaluate all the possible therapeutic measures concerning the acute management of traumatic brain injury (TBI) mentioned in Cochrane System-atic Reviews published in the Cochrane Database of Sys-tematic Reviews (CDSR). Methods: An exhausted literature search for all pub-lished Cochrane Systematic Reviews discussing therapeu-tic rather than prevention or rehabilitative interventions of TBI was conducted. We retrieved such databases as CDSR and Coch...

  9. Effects of Acute Tryptophan Depletion on Three Different Types of Behavioral Impulsivity

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: While central nervous system serotonin has been implicated in a variety of problematic impulsive behaviors, biological manipulation of brain serotonin using acute tryptophan depletion for studying changes in impulsive behavior has received little attention. Methods: Using identical treatment conditions, we examined the effects of reduced serotonin synthesis for each of three matched groups using acute tryptophan depletion. Thirty healthy men and women (ages 18–45) were assigned ...

  10. THE EFFECT OF ACUTE MYOCARDIUM ISCHEMIC ON HEART FUNCTION OF PREGNANCY RAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Xiaopu; Ma Aiqun; Niu Changmin; Dong Anping; Han Ke; Liu Yu; Zhang Wei; Geng Tao

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of acute myocardium ischemic on heart function of pregnancy rat.Methods 13 female SD rats and 6 early pregnancy rats were divided into normal group, unpregnant group with acute myocardial infarction and early pregnant group with acute myocardial infarction. The anterior branch of the left coronary artery was ligated. 3 weeks later, Image 1.31 software was used to measure areas of myocardial infarction,and to evaluate hemodynamics of heart with powerLAB4.12, and cardiac tissues were stained with Massion. Results Compared with unpregnant group with acute myocardial infarction , the early pregnant group with acute myocardial infarction had less myocardial infarction area (28. 86% vs. 36. 8%), and had a higher left ventricle end systolic pressure, ±dp/dt max, and lower left ventricle end diastolic pressure. Massion stain showed the amount of collagen of the lesion was less in the early pregnant group with acute myocardial infarction than that in unpregnant group.Conclusion The early pregnant group with acute myocardial infarction had better heart contractive and diastolic function.

  11. Cardioprotection by remote ischemic preconditioning of the rat heart is mediated by extracellular vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giricz, Zoltán; Varga, Zoltán V; Baranyai, Tamás; Sipos, Péter; Pálóczi, Krisztina; Kittel, Ágnes; Buzás, Edit I; Ferdinandy, Péter

    2014-03-01

    Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) of the heart is exerted by brief ischemic insults affected on a remote organ or a remote area of the heart before a sustained cardiac ischemia. To date, little is known about the inter-organ transfer mechanisms of cardioprotection by RIPC. Exosomes and microvesicles/microparticles are vesicles of 30-100 nm and 100-1000 nm in diameter, respectively (collectively termed extracellular vesicles [EVs]). Their content of proteins, mRNAs and microRNAs, renders EV ideal conveyors of inter-organ communication. However, whether EVs are involved in RIPC, is unknown. Therefore, here we investigated whether (1) IPC induces release of EVs from the heart, and (2) EVs are necessary for cardioprotection by RIPC. Hearts of male Wistar rats were isolated and perfused in Langendorff mode. A group of donor hearts was exposed to 3 × 5-5 min global ischemia and reperfusion (IPC) or 30 min aerobic perfusion, while coronary perfusates were collected. Coronary perfusates of these hearts were given to another set of recipient isolated hearts. A group of recipient hearts received IPC effluent depleted of EVs by differential ultracentrifugation. Infarct size was determined after 30 min global ischemia and 120 min reperfusion. The presence or absence of EVs in perfusates was confirmed by dynamic light scattering, the EV marker HSP60 Western blot, and electron microscopy. IPC markedly increased EV release from the heart as assessed by HSP60. Administration of coronary perfusate from IPC donor hearts attenuated infarct size in non-preconditioned recipient hearts (12.9 ± 1.6% vs. 25.0 ± 2.7%), similarly to cardioprotection afforded by IPC (7.3 ± 2.7% vs. 22.1 ± 2.9%) on the donor hearts. Perfusates of IPC hearts depleted of EVs failed to exert cardioprotection in recipient hearts (22.0 ± 2.3%). This is the first demonstration that EVs released from the heart after IPC are necessary for cardioprotection by RIPC, evidencing the importance of vesicular

  12. Effects of Acute Exposures to Carbon Dioxide upon Cognitive Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, V. E.; Scully, R. R.; Alexander, D. J.; Lam, C. W.; Young, M.; Satish, U.; Basner, M.

    2017-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) originates from human metabolism and typically remains about 10-fold higher in concentration on the International Space Station (ISS) than at the earth's surface. There have been recurring complaints by crew members of episodes of "mental viscosity" adversely affecting their performance, and there is evidence from the ISS that associates CO2 levels with reports of headaches by crewmembers. Consequently, flight rules have been employed to control CO2 below 3 mm Hg, which is well below the existing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentration (SMAC) of 10 mm Hg for 24-hour exposures, and 5.3 mm Hg for exposures of 7 to 180 days. Headaches, while sometime debilitating themselves, are also symptoms that can provide evidence that physiological defense mechanisms have been breached, and there is evidence that CO2 has effects at levels below the threshold for headaches. This concern appears to be substantiated in reports that CO2 at concentrations below 2 mm Hg substantially reduced some cognitive functions that are associated with the ability to make complex decisions in conditions that are characterized by volatility, uncertainty, complexity, ambiguity, and delayed feedback. These are conditions that could be encountered by crews in off-nominal situations or during the first missions beyond low earth orbit. Therefore, we set out to determine if decision-making under volatile, uncertain, confusing and ambiguous circumstances, where feedback is delayed or absent, is correlated with low levels of CO2 during acute exposures (several hours) in crew-like subjects and to determine if additional cognitive domains are sensitive to concentrations of CO2 at, or below, current ISS levels by using a test battery that is currently available onboard ISS. We enrolled 22 volunteers (8 females, 14 males) between the ages of 30-55 (38.8 +/- 7.0) years whose training and professional experience reflect that of the astronaut corps. Subjects were divided among 4 study

  13. Therapeutic effect of ghrelin in the course of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzecha, Z; Ceranowicz, P; Dembinski, A; Cieszkowski, J; Kusnierz-Cabala, B; Tomaszewska, R; Kuwahara, A; Kato, I

    2010-08-01

    Recent studies have shown that pretreatment with ghrelin exhibits protective effect in the gut. Administration of ghrelin reduces gastric mucosal damage, as well as inhibits the development of experimental pancreatitis. However, this protective effect requires administration of ghrelin before gastric or pancreatic damage and thus has a limited clinical value. The aim of present study was to assess the influence of ghrelin administered after development of acute pancreatitis on the course of this disease. Acute pancreatitis was induced by cerulein. Ghrelin was administered twice a day for 1, 2, 4, 6 or 9 days at the dose of 4, 8 or 16 nmol/kg/dose. The first dose of ghrelin was given 24 hours after last injection of cerulein. The severity of acute pancreatitis was assessed between 0 h and 10 days after cessation of cerulein administration. Administration of caerulein led to the development of acute edematous pancreatitis and maximal severity of this disease was observed 24 hours after induction of pancreatitis. Treatment with ghrelin reduced morphological signs of pancreatic damage such as pancreatic edema, leukocyte infiltration and vacuolization of acinar cells, and led to earlier regeneration of the pancreas. Also biochemical indexes of the severity of acute pancreatitis, serum activity of lipase and amylase were significantly reduced in animals treated with ghrelin. These effects were accompanied by an increase in the pancreatic DNA synthesis and a decrease in serum level of pro-inflammatory interleukin-1b. Administration of ghrelin improved pancreatic blood flow in rats with acute pancreatitis. We conclude that: (1) treatment with ghrelin exhibits therapeutic effect in caerulein-induced experimental acute pancreatitis; (2) this effect is related, at least in part, to the improvement of pancreatic blood flow, reduction in proinflammatory interleukin-1beta and stimulation of pancreatic cell proliferation.

  14. Antiarrhythmic and electrophysiologic effects of flecainide on acutely induced atrial fibrillation in healthy horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Maria Mathilde; Pehrson, S.; Carstensen, Helena

    2015-01-01

    understood. OBJECTIVES: To study the potential of flecainide to terminate acutely induced AF of short duration (≥ 15 minutes), to examine flecainide-induced changes in AF duration and AF vulnerability, and to investigate the in vivo effects of flecainide on right atrial effective refractory period, AF cycle...... parameters: ability to terminate acute pacing-induced AF (≥ 15 minutes), and drug-induced changes in atrial effective refractory period, AF duration, AF vulnerability, and ventricular depolarization and repolarization times. Parameters were assessed at baseline and after flecainide by programmed electrical...

  15. Cardioprotection by polysaccharide sulfate against ischemia/reperfusion injury in isolated rat hearts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying YANG; Shen-jiang HU; Liang LI; Guo-ping CHEN

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Polysaccharide sulfate (PSS) is a new type of heparinoid synthesized with alginic acid as the basic material and then by chemical introduction of effective groups. Although PSS is successfully applied in ischemic cardio-cerebrovascular dis-ease, its effect on cardiac function after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury has previously not been investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether PSS can protect the heart from I/R injury and the underlying mechanism of protection. Methods: Isolated rat hearts were perfused (Langendorff) and subjected to 20 min global ischemia followed by 60 min rep-effusion with Kreb's Henseleit solution or PSS (0.3-100 mg/L). Myocardial contractile function was continuously recorded. Creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage were measured. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expres-sion in cardiomyocytes was investigated. Western blot analysis for extracellular regulated kinases (ERKs), c-jun amino-terminal kinase (INKs) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity was performed. Results: After I/R, cardiac contractility decreased, CK and LDH levels increased in the coronary effluent, and TNF-α expression increased in cardiomyocytes. PSS administration at concentrations of 1-30 mg/L improved cardiac contractility, reduced CK and LDH release and inhibited TNF-α production. Phosphorylated-p38MAPK (p-p38MAPK) and p-p54/p46-JNK increased in I/R rat hearts but diminished in PSS (1-30 mg/L) treated hearts. P-p44/p42-ERK levels were unchanged. In contrast, high concentrations of PSS (100 mg/L) had adverse effects that caused a worsening of heart function. Conclusion: PSS has dose-dependent cardioprotective effects on the rat heart after I/R injury. The beneficial effects may be mediated through normalization of the activity of p38 MAPK and JNK pathways as well as controlling the level of TNF-α expression.

  16. Human Motor Cortex Functional Changes in Acute Stroke: Gender Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo eDi Lazzaro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute phase of stroke is accompanied by functional changes in the activity and interplay of both hemispheres. In healthy subjects, gender is known to impact the functional brain organization.We investigated whether gender influences also acute stroke functional changes. In thirty-five ischemic stroke patients, we evaluated the excitability of the affected (AH and unaffected hemisphere (UH by measuring resting and active motor threshold and motor-evoked potential amplitude under baseline conditions and after intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS of AH. We also computed an index of the excitability balance between the hemispheres, laterality indexes (LI, to evidence hemispheric asymmetry. Active motor threshold differed significantly between AH and UH only in the male group (p=0.004, not in females (p>0.200, and both LIAMT and LIRMT were significantly higher in males than in females (respectively p=0.033 and p=0.042. LTP-like activity induced by iTBS in AH was more frequent in females. Gender influences the functional excitability changes that take place after human stroke and the level of LTP that can be induced by repetitive stimulation. This knowledge is of high value in the attempt of individualizing to different genders any non-invasive stimulation strategy designed to foster stroke recovery.

  17. The acute effect of vibration applications on jumping performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat Yıldız

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, vibration has become very popular as a method of exercise and training and drawn attention of researchers. The aim of this study was to analyses the acute affect of vibration applications as a method of exercise and training on jumping performance.In this study experimental group consists of 25 subjects who are studying at Physical Education and Sports Department of Sakarya University (age 22.2±1.7 years, height 179.2±4.8 cm. body weight 71.5±9.0 kg. This study included a vibration at density of 35 Hz (3x30 sec. frequency that result from aerobic exercise that has low density and b just methods of aerobic exercise (without any vibration that has low density. Subjects have taken the tests of countermovement and squat jumping after 2 minutes of each application. All applications and tests have been done in nonconsecutive days in a random scheme. In statistical analysis Wilcoxon has been applied in nonparametric scheme.For counter movement jumping; height of jumping, the difference between before and after the application of vibration related to the point of peak power and average power has been found significiant (respectively, p0.05; p>0.05; p>0.05.As a result, it is concluded that vibration that is applied at the range of 35 Hz frequency could increase the performance of acute countermovement jumping.

  18. A non-cardiomyocyte autonomous mechanism of cardioprotection involving the SLO1 BK channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Wojtovich

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Opening of BK-type Ca2+ activated K+ channels protects the heart against ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury. However, the location of BK channels responsible for cardioprotection is debated. Herein we confirmed that openers of the SLO1 BK channel, NS1619 and NS11021, were protective in a mouse perfused heart model of IR injury. As anticipated, deletion of the Slo1 gene blocked this protection. However, in an isolated cardiomyocyte model of IR injury, protection by NS1619 and NS11021 was insensitive to Slo1 deletion. These data suggest that protection in intact hearts occurs by a non-cardiomyocyte autonomous, SLO1-dependent, mechanism. In this regard, an in-situ assay of intrinsic cardiac neuronal function (tachycardic response to nicotine revealed that NS1619 preserved cardiac neurons following IR injury. Furthermore, blockade of synaptic transmission by hexamethonium suppressed cardioprotection by NS1619 in intact hearts. These results suggest that opening SLO1 protects the heart during IR injury, via a mechanism that involves intrinsic cardiac neurons. Cardiac neuronal ion channels may be useful therapeutic targets for eliciting cardioprotection.

  19. Renal Protective Effects of 17β-Estradiol on Mice with Acute Aristolochic Acid Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Min; Ma, Liang; Zhou, Li; Fu, Ping

    2016-10-18

    Aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) is a progressive kidney disease caused by a Chinese herb containing aristolochic acid. Excessive death of renal tubular epithelial cells (RTECs) characterized the acute phase of AAN. Therapies for acute AAN were limited, such as steroids and angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs)/angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs). It was interesting that, in acute AAN, female patients showed relative slower progression to renal failure than males. In a previous study, female hormone 17β-estradiol (E2) was found to attenuate renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential protective role of E2 in acute AAN. Compared with male C57BL/6 mice of acute AAN, lower serum creatinine (SCr) and less renal injury, together with RTEC apoptosis in females, were found. Treatment with E2 in male AAN mice reduced SCr levels and attenuated renal tubular injury and RTEC apoptosis. In the mice kidney tissue and human renal proximal tubule cells (HK-2 cells), E2 both attenuated AA-induced cell apoptosis and downregulated the expression of phosphor-p53 (Ser15), p53, and cleaved-caspase-3. This study highlights that E2 exhibited protective effects on the renal injury of acute AAN in male mice by reducing RTEC apoptosis, which might be related to inhibiting the p53 signaling pathway.

  20. Central effect of histamine in a rat model of acute trigeminal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Khalilzadeh, Emad; Hamzeh-Gooshchi, Nasrin; Seiednejhad-Yamchi, Sona

    2008-01-01

    In conscious rats implanted with an intracerebroventricular (icv) cannula, effect of icv injections of histamine, chlorpheniramine (H(1)-receptor antagonist) and ranitidine (H(2)-receptor blocker) was investigated in a rat model of acute trigeminal pain. Acute trigeminal pain was induced by putting a drop of 5 M NaCl solution on the corneal surface of the eye and the numbers of eye wipes were counted during the first 30 s. Histamine (20, 40 microg) and chlorpheniramine (80 microg) significantly decreased the numbers of eye wipes. Ranitidine alone had no effect. Pretreatment with chlorpheniramine did not change the histamine-induced analgesia, whereas the histamine effect on pain was inhibited with ranitidine pretreatment. These results indicate that the brain histamine, through central H(2) receptors, may be involved in the modulation of the acute trigeminal pain in rats.

  1. Protective effects of imipramine in murine endotoxin-induced acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Qu, Jie-ming; Summah, Hanssa; Zhang, Jin; Zhu, Ying-gang; Jiang, Hong-ni

    2010-07-25

    The tricyclic antidepressant imipramine has recently emerged as a cytoprotective agent, exerting beneficial effects in inflammatory tissue injury. The present study aimed to investigate therapeutic effects of imipramine in murine model of endotoxin-induced acute lung injury. Mice were administrated intraperitoneally with LPS (lipopolysaccharide) from Escherichia coli or vehicle. Imipramine was administrated intraperitoneally 30 min before LPS challenge. Pretreatment of mice with imipramine reduced lethality. Impramine also significantly attenuated lung inflammation, lung edema, MPO (myeloperoxidase) activity, lung tissue pathological changes and nuclear factor-kappaB DNA binding activity. The results of this study suggest that imipramine can exert protective effects in endotoxin-induced acute lung injury by suppressing nuclear factor-kappaB-mediated expression of inflammatory genes. Thus, imipramine could be a potential novel therapeutic agent for the treatment for acute lung injury.

  2. Acute Effect of Decaffeinated Coffee on Heart Rate, Blood Pressure, and Exercise Performance in Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ravi; Kaushik, Vidya S.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of decaffeinated coffee on the cardiovascular exercise performance in nine healthy volunteers was evaluated in a double-blind randomized fashion. The heart rate, blood pressure, and duration of exercise were unchanged, and no arrhythmias or ischemic changes were seen on the electrocardiogram after drinking decaffeinated coffee. It was concluded that decaffeinated coffee has no discernible, acute, adverse cardiovascular effects. PMID:3339645

  3. Acute endolymphatic hydrops has no direct effect on the vestibular evoked potential in the guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, C. M.; Wit, H. P.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effect of an acute endolymphatic hydrops on the functioning of the vestibular system a hydrops was created by microinjection of artificial endolymph through the basilar membrane into scala media in 10 guinea pigs. To control for the effect of perforation of the basilar membrane, t

  4. Cardiac progenitor-derived exosomes protect ischemic myocardium from acute ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lijuan [Department of Cardiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Cardiovascular Disease, Internal Medicine, University of Cincinnati, 231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Wang, Yingjie [Cardiovascular Disease, Internal Medicine, University of Cincinnati, 231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Internal Medicine of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shuguang Hospital of Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203 (China); Pan, Yaohua; Zhang, Lan [Cardiovascular Disease, Internal Medicine, University of Cincinnati, 231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Shen, Chengxing [Department of Cardiology, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Qin, Gangjian [Feinberg Cardiovascular Research Institute, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Ashraf, Muhammad [Pathology and Lab Med, University of Cincinnati, 231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Weintraub, Neal [Cardiovascular Disease, Internal Medicine, University of Cincinnati, 231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Ma, Genshan, E-mail: magenshan@hotmail.com [Department of Cardiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Tang, Yaoliang, E-mail: tangyg@ucmail.uc.edu [Cardiovascular Disease, Internal Medicine, University of Cincinnati, 231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► Cardiac progenitor-derived (CPC) Exosomes protect H9C2 from apoptosis in vitro. ► CPC-exosomes protect cardiomyoyctes from MI/R induced apoptosis in vivo. ► CPC-exosomes were taken up by H9C2 with high efficiency using PKH26 labeling. ► miR-451, one of GATA4-responsive miRNA cluster, is enriched in CPC-exosomes. -- Abstract: Background: Cardiac progenitors (CPC) mediate cardioprotection via paracrine effects. To date, most of studies focused on secreted paracrine proteins. Here we investigated the CPC-derived-exosomes on protecting myocardium from acute ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Methods and results: CPC were isolated from mouse heart using two-step protocol. Exosomes were purified from conditional medium, and confirmed by electron micrograph and Western blot using CD63 as a marker. qRT-PCR shows that CPC-exosomes have high level expression of GATA4-responsive-miR-451. Exosomes were ex vivo labeled with PKH26, We observed exosomes can be uptaken by H9C2 cardiomyoblasts with high efficiency after 12 h incubation. CPC-exosomes protect H9C2 from oxidative stress by inhibiting caspase 3/7 activation invitro. In vivo delivery of CPC-exosomes in an acute mouse myocardial ischemia/reperfusion model inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis by about 53% in comparison with PBS control (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our results suggest, for the first time, the CPC-exosomes can be used as a therapeutic vehicle for cardioprotection, and highlights a new perspective for using non-cell exosomes for cardiac disease.

  5. Reversible effects of acute hypertension on proximal tubule sodium transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y; Magyar, C E; Norian, J M

    1998-01-01

    Acute hypertension provokes a rapid decrease in proximal tubule sodium reabsorption with a decrease in basolateral membrane sodium-potassium-ATPase activity and an increase in the density of membranes containing apical membrane sodium/hydrogen exchangers (NHE3) [Y. Zhang, A. K. Mircheff, C. B....... Renal cortex lysate was fractionated on sorbitol gradients. Basolateral membrane sodium-potassium-ATPase activity (but not subunit immunoreactivity) decreased one-third to one-half after BP was elevated and recovered after BP was normalized. After BP was elevated, 55% of the apical NHE3 immunoreactivity......, smaller fractions of sodium-phosphate cotransporter immunoreactivity, and apical alkaline phosphatase and dipeptidyl-peptidase redistributed to membranes of higher density enriched in markers of the intermicrovillar cleft (megalin) and endosomes (Rab 4 and Rab 5), whereas density distributions...

  6. Prooxidant effects of nitrofurantoin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, O O; Pokrovskii, M V; Konovalenko, A B

    2002-08-01

    We studied the possibility of using prooxidant effects of nitrofurantoin (furadonin) for stimulation of the natural antioxidant systems for preventing myocardial damage after coronary occlusion. A pronounced cardioprotective effect of the drug was observed.

  7. Thalidomide effect in endothelial cell of acute radiation proctitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ki-Tae Kim; Hiun-Suk Chae; Jin-Soo Kim; Hyung-Keun Kim; Young-Seok Cho; Whang Choi; Kyu-Yong Choi; Sang-Young Rho; Suk-Jin Kang

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether thalidomide prevents microvascular injury in acute radiation proctitis in white rats. METHODS: Fourteen female Wistar rats were used:six in the radiation group,six in the thalidomide group,and two in normal controls.The radiation and thalidomide groups were irradiated at the pelvic area using a single 30 Gy exposure.The thalidomide (150 mg/kg) was injected into the peritoneum for 7 d from the day of irradiation.All animals were sacrificed and the rectums were removed on day 8 after irradiation.The microvessels of resected specimens were immunohistochemically stained with thrombomodulin (TM),yon Willebrand Factor (vWF),and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).RESULTS: The microscopic scores did not differ significantly between the radiation and thalidomide groups,but both were higher than in the control group.Expression of TM was significantly lower in the endothelial cells (EC) of the radiation group than in the control and thalidomide groups (P < 0.001).The number of capillaries expressing vWF in the EC was higher in the radiation group (15.3 ± 6.8) than in the control group (3.7 ± 1.7),and the number of capillaries expressing vWF was attenuated by thalidomide (10.8 ± 3.5,P < 0.001).The intensity of VEGF expression in capillaries was greater in the radiation group than in the control group and was also attenuated by thalidomide (P = 0.003).CONCLUSION: The mechanisms of acute radiationinduced proctitis in the rats are related to endothelial cell injury of microvessel,which may be attenuated with thalidomide.

  8. The acute effect of vibration applications on jumping performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şener Soylu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, vibration has become very popular as a method of exercise and training and drawn attention of researchers. The aim of this study was to analyses the acute affect of vibration applications as a method of exercise and training on jumping performance. In this study experimental group consists of 25 subjects who are studying at Physical Education and Sports Department of Sakarya University (age 22.2±1.7 years, height 179.2±4.8 cm. body weight 71.5±9.0 kg. This study included a vibration at density of 35 Hz (3x30 sec. frequency  that result from  aerobic exercise that has low density and b just  methods of aerobic exercise (without any vibration that has  low density. Subjects have taken the tests of countermovement and squat jumping after 2 minutes of each application. All applications and tests have been done in nonconsecutive days in a random scheme. In statistical analysis Wilcoxon has been applied in nonparametric scheme. For counter movement jumping; height of jumping,  the difference between before and after  the application of vibration related to the point of peak power and average power has been found significiant (respectively, p<0.05; p<0.05; p<0.01. In addition to this, no statistical difference was found for squat vertical jumping before and after the application of vibration related to the point of peak power and average power (respectively, p>0.05; p>0.05; p>0.05. As a result, it is concluded that vibration that is applied at the range of 35 Hz frequency could increase the performance of acute countermovement jumping. 

  9. Role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases in cardioprotection of morphine preconditioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ye; GU Er-wei; ZHANG Jian; CHEN Zhi-wu

    2007-01-01

    Background p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) in ischemic preconditioning (IPG) may be essential to cardioprotection. We assessed whether protective effect of morphine-induced preconditioning (MPC) on myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury in rat hearts involved p38 MAPK activation.Methods Male Spargue-Dawley rats (weighing 300-350 g) were randomly assigned to 1 of the following 8 groups:control (CON, saline vehicle, n=9), SB 203580 (SB, a p38 MAPK inhibitor, n=-6), MPC (n=-6), IPC (n=-9), SB+MPC,SB+IPC, MPC+SB, and IPC+SB (n=6). Infarct sizes (IS), a percentage of the area at risk (AAR), were determined by triphenyltetrazolium (TTC) staining. Tissue samples were processed from the entire AAR of left ventricle for the determination of p38 MAPK protein expression (5 hearts/group). The bands representing the proteins were visualized using an enhanced chemiluminescence detection system.Results The IS/AAR was significantly reduced by IPC (12.9±1.6)% or MPC (25.3±2.9)% compared to the control (52.7±5.5)%. SB 203580 administered prior to preconditioning abolished the effect of IPC (SB+IPC: (43.8±2.6)%,P>0.05 vs CON, P<0.01 vs IPC), but not MPC (SB+MPC: (30.7±0.9)%, P<0.01 vs CON, P>0.05 vs MPC). Treatment with SB 203580 prior to sustained ischemia diminished the protective effect of both MPC (MPC+SB: (42.4±2.9)%,P>0.05 vs CON) and IPC (IPC+SB: (52.0±2.5)%, P>0.05 vs CON) on IS/AAR. In the IPC group, phospho-p38 MAPK protein increased significantly within 5 minutes into ischemia and remained elevated at 30 minutes into reperfusion,while phospho-p38 MAPK protein in the MPC group only increased significantly at 30 minutes into reperfusion.Conclusion The activation of p38 MAPK just acts as a mediator of MPC,whereas it acts as both a trigger and a mediator in IPC.

  10. Distinct effects of acute pretreatment with lipophilic and hydrophilic statins on myocardial stunning, arrhythmias and lethal injury in the rat heart subjected to ischemia/reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čarnická, S; Adameová, A; Nemčeková, M; Matejíková, J; Pancza, D; Ravingerová, T

    2011-01-01

    Although both lipophilic and more hydrophilic statins share the same pathway of the inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase, their pleiotropic cardioprotective effects associated with the ability to cross cellular membranes, including membranes of heart cells, may differ. To test this hypothesis, isolated rat hearts were Langendorff-perfused either with simvastatin (S, 10 micromol/l) or pravastatin (P, 30 micromol/l), 15 min prior to ischemia. Control untreated hearts (C) were perfused with perfusion medium only. Postischemic contractile dysfunction, reperfusion-induced ventricular arrhythmias and infarct size were investigated after exposure of the hearts to 30-min global ischemia and 2-h reperfusion. Both lipophilic S and hydrophilic P reduced the severity of ventricular arrhythmias (arrhythmia score) from 4.3 +/- 0.2 in C to 3.0 +/- 0 and 2.7 +/- 0.2 in S and P, respectively, (both P statins indicating a different ability to cross cardiac membranes may underlie their distinct cardioprotective effects on myocardial stunning and lethal injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion.

  11. Serum resistin in acute myocardial infarction patients with and without diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham H. Ibrahim

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: Serum resistin levels are elevated in patients with acute STEMI. This increase is more evident in patients with T2DM than those without T2DM, denoting higher degrees of inflammation. However, serum resistin is not correlated with age, gender, BMI, and insulin resistance. These data denote that serum resistin concentration might be used as a diagnostic biomarker for acute STEMI. In addition, optimization of the treatment of T2DM could improve cardioprotection.

  12. [Effect of acute alcohol intoxication on lipid peroxidation in testis and adrenal glands of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokha, A M; Kashko, M F; Antsulevich, S N; Doroshkevich, N A; Voronov, P P

    1993-01-01

    Hormones level and lipid peroxidation processes under influence of acute alcohol intoxication are tested in testes and adrenals of rats. Ethanol marker effects--the rise of corticosterone biosynthesis and depression of testosterone concentration--were reproduced in the experiment. At the moment of maximal changes in steroid levels indices characterising lipid peroxidation didn't differ from the control. At the early stage of the experiment transient shifts in malonic dialdehyde and dienic conjugates levels were noted. The data obtained does not agree with the hypothesis of acute ethanol effects in testes and adrenals being mediated through the changes of lipid peroxidation rate.

  13. Cardioprotective Effect and Its Mechanism of Exercise Training Up-Regulating the Expression of M3 Receptor on Myocardial Infarction in Rats%运动锻炼上调 M3 R对 MI大鼠心脏产生保护效应及其机制探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田振军; 张可; 陈婷

    2015-01-01

    objective :Cardioprotective effect and mechanism of exercise training up-regulating the expression of M3 receptor on myocardial infarction .Methods :48 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four groups (n=12 ,per group):control group (C) ,myocardial in-farction group (MI ) ,moderate-intensity aerobic exercise with myocardial infarction group (ME1) and high-intensity aerobic interval exercise with myocardial infarction group (ME2) , Rats in C group are breed normally .MI was induced by ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery in MI group .Rats in ME1 and ME2 group take treadmill exercise for 8wk after 1wk post-operation .ME1 group running began at the speed of 10m/min for 5min , then accelerate from 3m/min to 16m/min .ME2 group running began at the speed of 10m/min for 10min ,then the speed increases to 25 m/min ,after 7min ,slow down at the speed of 15m/min for 3min .Take the process alternatively .The total exercise time of ME1 and ME2 are both 60min ,5d/1wk × 8wk .LVSP ,LVEDP ,± dp/dtmax and the cardiac function changes are measured after training .Myocardial collagen fibers were observed by histological section and Masson staining .The expression of myocardial M3 R was observed and analyzed by immun-oflourecence .The myocardial protein content of M3 R ,MEK1/2 ,P-ERK1/2 ,ERK1/2 and apoptosis related Bcl-2 and Bax were assayed by Western Blot .Results :MI increased CVF and LV-EDP (P< 0 .01) ,but decreased LVSP and -dp/dtmax (P<0 .01) .After MI myocardial M3 positive staining ,after MI M3 protein expression significantly higher (P< 0 .01) ,MEK1/2 ,P-ERK1/2/ERK1/2 protein expression were significantly increased ( P< 0 .01 ,P< 0 .01 ) ,after the MI the Bcl-2/Bax expression significantly reduced ( P< 0 .01 ) .ME1 and ME2 group CVF% ,LVEDP significantly reduced (P<0 .01) ,ME1-dp/dtmax significantly increased (P<0 .01) ,ME2 LVSP increased significantly (P< 0 .01) .ME1 and ME2 groups were identified myocardial M3 ,ME

  14. Reducing the oxidative stress mediates the cardioprotection of bicyclol against ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie CUI; Zhi LI; Ling-bo QIAN; Qin GAO; Jue WANG; Meng XUE; Xiao-e LOU

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the beneficial effect of bicyclol on rat hearts subjected to ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injuries and its possible mechanism.Methods:Male Sprague-Dawley rats were intragastrically administered with bicyclol (25,50 or 100 mg/(kg·d)) for 3 d.Myocardial IR was produced by occlusion of the coronary artery for 1 h and reperfusion for 3 h.Left ventricular hemodynamics was continuously monitored.At the end of reperfusion,myocardial infarct was measured by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining,and serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level and myocardial superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were determined by spectrophotometry.Isolated ventricular myocytes from adult rats were exposed to 60 min anoxia and 30 min reoxygenation to simulate IR injuries.After reperfusion,cell viability was determined with trypan blue; reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential of the cardiomyocytes were measured with the fluorescent probe.The mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening induced by Ca2+ (200 μmol/L) was measured with the absorbance at 520 nm in the isolated myocardial mitochondria.Results:Low dose of bicyclol (25 mg/(kg·d)) had no significant improving effect on all cardiac parameters,whereas pretreatment with high bicyclol markedly reduced the myocardial infarct and improved the left ventricular contractility in the myocardium exposed to IR (P<0.05).Medium dose of bicyclol (50 mg/(kg·d))markedly improved the myocardial contractility,left ventricular myocyte viability,and SOD activity,as well decreased infarct size,serum LDH level,ROS production,and mitochondrial membrane potential in rat myocardium exposed to IR.The reduction of ventricular myocyte viability in IR group was inhibited by pretreatment with 50 and 100 mg/(kg.d) bicyclol (P<0.05 vs.IR),but not by 25 mg/(kg·d) bicyclol.The opening of mPTP evoked by Ca2+ was significantly inhibited by medium bicyclol.Conclusions:Bicyclol exerts

  15. Cardioprotection Afforded by Norepinephrine-mediated Postconditioning in Isolated Rat Hearts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinhua Huang; Dai Li; Yishuai Zhang; Nianshen Li; Benmei Chen; Jun Peng; Yuanjian Li

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Previous studies have demonstrated that endogenous norepinephrine (NE) plays an important role in the mediation of ischemic preconditioning. The present study is designed to determine whether NE is also involved in medi-ation of the protective effects of postconditioning. Methods The rat hearts were rapidly excised under anesthesia and attached to a Langendorff apparatus via the aorta for retrograde perfusion with Krebs-Henseleit buffer solution. All hearts were subjected to 30 min of left coronary artery occlusion followed by 60 rain of reperfusion, except the control group. Animals were randomly divided into 5 groups as follows: ① control group, the hearts were underwent same procedures without ischemic insult; ② ischemia reperfusion group, the left coronary artery was occluded for 30 min and followed by 60 min of reperfusion;③ ischemic postconditioning (Ipost) group, immediately at the onset of reperfusion, the heart was initiated with 1 min of full coronary flow, followed by 1 min of re-occlusion, repeated for a total of three cycles; ④ Ipost plus prazosin group, the heart was perfused with prazosin for 10 min before ischemia; ⑤ Ipost plus reserpine group, a single dose of reserpine was administered by I.m. Injection, 24 hours before the experiment. Coronary flow was measured by timed collection of coronary effluent and sample of coronary effluent at 5 rain of reperfusion were collected for the measurement of ereatine kinase (CK). Infarct size and risk area were determined at the end of experiments. Results 30 rain of ischemia and followed by 60 min of reperfusion caused a significant decrease in cardiac function and a significant increase in CK release and infarct size. Postconditioning with three cycles of 1-min ischemia and 1-min reperfusion markedly improved cardiac function and reduced CK release and infarct size. However,the cardioprotection afforded by postconditioning was abolished by prazosin (10-6M), a selective α1 adrenergic

  16. Acute effects of massage or active exercise in relieving muscle soreness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Jay, Kenneth; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2013-01-01

    Massage is commonly believed to be the best modality for relieving muscle soreness. However, actively warming up the muscles with exercise may be an effective alternative. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effect of massage with active exercise for relieving muscle soreness. Twenty...... healthy female volunteers (mean age 32 years) participated in this examiner-blind randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01478451). The participants performed eccentric contractions for the upper trapezius muscle on a Biodex dynamometer. Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) presented 48 hours...... on PPT peaked 20 minutes after treatment. In conclusion, active exercise using elastic resistance provides similar acute relief of muscle soreness as compared with that using massage. Coaches, therapists, and athletes can use either active warm-up or massage to reduce DOMS acutely, for example...

  17. The effect of streptokinase on chest pain in acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J H; Sørensen, H T; Rasmussen, S E;

    1991-01-01

    Treatment with intravenous streptokinase is known to restore blood flow to the ischaemic myocardium in patients with acute myocardial infarction. However, little is known about its effect on chest pain. In a retrospective cohort study, 76 patients treated with streptokinase were compared to 76...... patients not treated with streptokinase. All patients had acute myocardial infarction and less than 6 h of cardiac symptoms. Patients treated with streptokinase had a significantly lower need for nicomorphine (median 20 mg) than patients not treated with streptokinase (median 41 mg). Correspondingly......, the median duration (3.5 h) of pain was reduced significantly in patients treated with streptokinase compared to patients not treated (24 h). We conclude that intravenous streptokinase given in the acute phase of myocardial infarction is effective in reducing the duration of cardiac chest pain....

  18. Effect of moderate- and high-intensity acute exercise on appetite in obese individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Catia; Stensvold, Dorthe; Finlayson, Graham

    2015-01-01

    cycling (MICC) or short-duration HIIC (S-HIIC) (125 kcal) and a resting control condition on the appetite hormone responses, subjective feelings of appetite, energy intake (EI), and food reward in overweight/obese individuals. METHODS: This study is a randomized crossover study on 12 overweight/obese......, hunger or fullness ratings, EI, or food reward. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that, in overweight/obese individuals, isocaloric bouts of moderate- or high-intensity exercise lead to a similar appetite response. This strengthens previous findings in normal-weight individuals that acute exercise, even......PURPOSE: The effect of acute exercise, and exercise intensity, on appetite control in obese individuals requires further study. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute isocaloric bouts (250 kcal) of high-intensity intermittent cycling (HIIC) and moderate-intensity continuous...

  19. Cardioprotective potential of hydro-alcoholic fruit extract ofAnanas comosus against isoproterenol induced myocardial infraction in Wistar Albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Priya Saxena; Dharamveer Panjwani

    2014-01-01

    Objectives:To evaluate the cardioprotective effects of hydro alcoholic extract ofAnanas comosus (A. comosus)(HEAC), onIsoproterenol(ISO) induced myocardial infarction inAlbinoWistar rats. Methods:Myocardial infarction was induced byIsoproterenol(85 mg/kg,s.c.) for two consecutive days at an interval of24 h.Rats were pretreated withHEAC(200-400 mg/kg/day, oral) for a period of30 days andIsoproterenol(ISO) was injected on31st and32nd day and after24 h blood was collected through retro-orbital plexus for the estimation of biochemical parameters and histopathological studies were also performed.Results:In the present study,ISO administration significantly elevated the cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels while it decreases high density lipoprotein and total protein in plasma and administration ofHEAC decreases the level of cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels while it increases high density lipoprotein and total protein levels.Pretreatment with theHEAC protected the cardiotoxicity induced by Isoproterenol.The histopathological findings of theISO-induced myocardium showed infracted zone with inflammatory cells, lipid droplets, myocardial necrosis and vacuolization of myofibrils which were reduced by the pretreatment ofHEAC.Conclusion:It can be concluded thatHEAC possess cardioprotective activity againstIsoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats.

  20. Effect of Danshu capsules combined with Xiyanping on acute cholecystitis treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Liang Wang; Lv-Rong Yuan; Ya-Ming Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of Danshu capsules combined with Xiyanping on acute cholecystitis treatment and offer help to acute cholecystitis treatment.Methods: A total of 180 patients with acute cholecystitis were selected and randomly divided into groups: the observation group (90 people) and the control group (90 people). The patients in the control group were treated with conventional therapy and the patients in the observation group were treated with Danshu capsules combined with Xiyanping on the basis of conventional therapy. Immunological cell, cholecystitis related factors, inflammatory factors, and the coagulation function related factors were detected and analyzed before and after treatment.Results:Coagulation function related factors (PT and APTT), CD8+, cholecystitis related factors (total bilirubin, amylase and PCT), inflammatory factor (hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10) in both groups after treatment significantly decreased. PA, immunological cell (CD3+, CD4+ and CD4+/CD8+) significantly increased compared with that before treatment (P0.05). Coagulation function related factors (PT and APTT), CD8+, cholecystitis related factors (total bilirubin, amylase and PCT), and inflammatory factor (hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10) in observation group after treatment decreased more significantly than that in control group (P<0.05).Conclusions: Danshu capsules combined with Xiyanping can perfect effectively immunological cell, cholecystitis related factors, inflammatory factors and coagulation function related factors on patients with acute cholecystitis, and it has important clinical significance for acute cholecystitis.

  1. Acute effects of aerobic stretching, health and happiness improving movement exercise on cortical activity of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyungsoo; Park, Sangjun; Kim, Kyekyoon Kevin; Lee, Kwanghee; Rhyu, Hyun-Seung

    2016-08-01

    Acute high-intensity physical exercise is known to improve cognitive performance of children, including those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this work, we investigated the acute effect of an aerobic stretching and moderate-intensity, health and happiness improving movement (HHIM) exercise on the cortical activity of children with and without ADHD using electroencephalography (EEG). Children aged 12 to 14 yr with combined-type ADHD and age-matched healthy controls participated in the study, performing two individual movements (n=79, 35 controls) and a single exercise bout (n=45, 18 controls). electroencephalographic signals were recorded before and immediately after each movement, and before and after acute exercise under resting conditions, to obtain absolute and relative power estimates for the theta (3.5-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), sensory motor rhythm (12-16 Hz), and beta (16-25 Hz) bands. After acute HHIM exercise, all children showed significant changes in their relative EEG, mainly in the theta and alpha bands. Individual movements were found to influence relative theta, alpha and beta, and theta-to-beta ratios. He presents aerobic stretching HHIM exercise has demonstrated acute effect on the cortical activity of children.

  2. Exercise training provides cardioprotection via a reduction in reactive oxygen species in rats submitted to myocardial infarction induced by isoproterenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederico, Marisa J S; Justo, Simoni L; Da Luz, Gabrielle; Da Silva, Sabrina; Medeiros, Cleber; Barbosa, Viviane A; Silva, Luciano A; Boeck, Carina R; De Pinho, Ricardo A; De Souza, Claudio T

    2009-10-01

    Exercise training has demonstrated cardioprotection effects. However, the exact mechanism behind this effect is not is clear. The present study evaluated the effects of 12 weeks of previous treadmill training on the levels of oxidative damage, antioxidant enzyme activity and injury in the myocardium of rats submitted to infarction induced by isoproterenol (ISO). Isoproterenol treatment (80 mg/kg given over 2 days in two equal doses) caused arrhythmias and 60% mortality within 24 h of the last injection in the control group (C + ISO) group when compared with the saline control group (saline). Creatine Kinase--MB levels were markedly increased in hearts from ISO-treated animals in the C + ISO group. Twelve weeks of treadmill training reduced superoxide production, lipid peroxidation levels and protein carbonylation in these animals, as well as increasing the activities and expressions of SOD and CAT. Previous training also reduced CK-MB levels and numbers of deaths by 40%, preventing the deleterious effects of ISO. Based on the data obtained in this study, it is suggested that 12-week treadmill training increases antioxidant enzymes, decreases oxidative damage and reduces the degree of infarction induced by ISO in the hearts of male rats.

  3. Side effects induced by the acute levodopa challenge in Parkinson’s Disease and atypical parkinsonisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostile, Giovanni; Dibilio, Valeria; Sciacca, Giorgia; Contrafatto, Donatella; Cicero, Calogero Edoardo; Raciti, Loredana; Luca, Antonina; Zappia, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Acute levodopa challenge may be performed to predict levodopa chronic responsiveness. The aim of the study was to investigate frequency of side effects during the acute levodopa challenge in PD and atypical parkinsonisms. Methods We enrolled 34 de novo PD patients and 29 patients affected by atypical parkinsonisms (Multiple System Atrophy, MSA, n = 10; Progressive Supranuclear Palsy, PSP, n = 12 and Corticobasal Degeneration, CBD, n = 7) who underwent an acute levodopa challenge. Side effects occurring during test were recorded. Results Side effects were more frequent among atypical parkinsonisms as unique group when compared to PD patients (64.3% versus 23.5%; p-value 0.002) with an adjusted OR of 4.36 (95%CI 1.40–13.5). Each atypical parkinsonisms showed almost double occurrence of side effects (MSA 90%, PSP 41.7% and CBD 57%). Conclusions Side effects during acute levodopa challenge may be frequent in atypical parkinsonisms. This information could be useful in order to better prepare the patient for the test. Furthermore, it could represent a useful cue in differential diagnosis with PD. PMID:28207803

  4. Evaluation the protective effect of diphenhydramine against acute toxicity induced by levamisole in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Y. Matti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of different doses of diphenhydramine against acute toxicosis with Levamisole. The Mechanism of levamisole induced acute toxicity and that of protective effect of diphenhydramine against Levamisole toxicosis also examined on the level of cholinesterase (ChE activity. Subcutanous injection of 100mg/kg levamisole in male mice with induced cholinergic over stimulation and death in 100% of animals. The Toxicosis was not related to the significantly decreased in plasma, red blood cells and brain ChE activity. Injection low dose of diphenhydramin 2.5mg/kg S.C. 15 min before levamisole produced protective effect against acute toxicity with levamisole. Significantly decreased the severity of toxicosis and increased survival rates to 100%. Diphenhydramine at low dose alone or with acute dose of levamisole did not Produced Significantly inhibition in ChE activity.The data suggested that the toxic effect of Levamisole was not related to inhibition of ChE. The low dose of diphenhydramine protected mice from Levamisole toxicity. The antidoatal effect of diphenhydramine not at the level of protection from ChE inhibition. There was no adverse interaction between two drugs.

  5. Cognitive and physiological effects of an acute physical activity intervention in elementary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja eJäger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of an acute physical activity intervention including cognitive engagement on executive functions and on cortisol level in young elementary school children. Half of the 104 participating children (6 to 8 years old attended a 20-minute sport sequence, which included cognitively engaging and playful forms of physical activity. The other half was assigned to a resting control condition. Individual differences in children`s updating, inhibition, and shifting performance as well as salivary cortisol were assessed before (pre-test, immediately after (post-test, and 40 minutes after (follow-up the intervention or control condition respectively. Results revealed a significantly stronger improvement in inhibition in the experimental group compared to the control group, while it appeared that acute physical activity had no specific effect on updating and shifting. The intervention effect on inhibition levelled out 40 minutes after physical activity. Salivary cortisol increased significantly more in the experimental compared to the control group between post-test and follow-up and results support partly the assumed inverted U-shaped relationship between cortisol level and cognitive performance. In conclusion, results indicate that acute physical activity including cognitive engagement may have immediate positive effects on inhibition, but not necessarily on updating and shifting in elementary school children. This positive effect may partly be explained trough cortisol elevation after acute physical activity.

  6. Effect of acute ethanol ingestion on fat absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boquillon, M

    1976-12-01

    A test meal (300 mg casein, 600 mg sucrose, 100 mg corn oil, tracer dose of 9.10(3)H oleic acid) was given to fasting adult rats with intestinal lymph fistulas. One group received an acute oral dose of ethanol (3.2 g/kg body weight) simultaneously with the test meal. Controls received 2.5 ml of water instead of ethanol. Ingestion of ethanol temporarily delayed the removal of lipid radioactivity from the stomachs. More than 25% of radioactivity fed remained 8 hr after feeding whereas with control rats less than 10% of lipid radioactivity fed remained 6 hr after feeding. In controls and ethanol-treated rats, the amounts of exogenous lipids in the intestinal lumen and mucosa were low and similar enough. Quantities of endogenous and exogenous lipids found in the lymph collected during 24 hr after feeding were similar in the two groups, but the fat absorption peak was found after 6 hr in alcoholic rats and before 6 hr in controls. This delay was probably due to the retention of lipids in the stomach. More of the exogenous lipid was always transported by small particles moving in the region of alpha1 globulins in cellulose acetate electrophoresis than by larger particles remaining at the origin. This proportion was enhanced in the ethanol-treated animals. The larger fat particles were richer in endogenous fatty acids in alcohol-treated rats than in controls.

  7. Effect of Vagotomy on Acute Pancreatitis in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    One hundred and eighty-two SD rats were randomly divided into the normal control group, fast operating group and food-intake operating group. The experimental model of acute pancreatitis (AP) in rats was established by injecting 5 % sodium taurocholate into the pancreatic duct of rat according to Aho's method. The sandostatin was used for positive contrast. The concentrations of serum amylase, calcium, C reaction protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were assayed respectively at different time points. The pathological sections were observed. Each operating group contained 10 rats. The mortality of the operating groups was observed during the 24 h. The serum amylase level in the AP rats was reduced after receiving vagotomy (VG, P<0.05). Although the serum calcium level in most groups was decreased, the reduction in the group with VG plus sandostatin was not obvious (P>0.05). The increase of CRP and IL-6 was not obvious after VG (P>0.05). The change of mortality was not significant (P>0.05). The pathological sections showed that the AP pathological change was mild after VG. The disease condition of food-intake operating group was more serious than that of fast operating group. It was suggested that VG had some influence on the prognosis of AP in rats.

  8. Chronic hyperleptinemia induces resistance to acute natriuretic and NO-mimetic effects of leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełtowski, Jerzy; Wójcicka, Grazyna; Jamroz-Wiśniewska, Anna; Wojtak, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    Apart from controlling energy balance, leptin, secreted by adipose tissue, is also involved in the regulation of cardiovascular function. Previous studies have demonstrated that acutely administered leptin stimulates natriuresis and vascular nitric oxide (NO) production and that these effects are impaired in obese animals. However, the mechanism of resistance to leptin is not clear. Because obesity is associated with chronically elevated leptin, we examined if long-term hyperleptinemia impairs acute effects of leptin on sodium excretion and NO production in the absence of obesity. Hyperleptinemia was induced in lean rats by administration of exogenous leptin at a dose of 0.5mg/kg/day for 7 days, and then acute effect of leptin (1mg/kg i.v.) was studied under general anesthesia. Leptin increased fractional sodium excretion and decreased Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity in the renal medulla. In addition, leptin increased the level of NO metabolites and cyclic GMP in plasma and aortic wall. These acute effects of leptin were impaired in hyperleptinemic animals. In both control and hyperleptinemic groups the effect of leptin on Na(+) excretion and renal Na(+),K(+)-ATPase was abolished by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, wortmannin, but not by protein kinase B/Akt inhibitor, triciribine,. In contrast, acute effect of leptin on NO metabolites and cGMP was abolished by triciribine but not by wortmannin. Leptin stimulated Akt phosphorylation at Ser(473) in aortic tissue but not in the kidney, and this effect was comparable in control and hyperleptinemic groups. These results suggest that hyperleptinemia may mediate "renal" and "vascular" leptin resistance observed in obesity.

  9. Comparison Between the Acute Pulmonary Vascular Effects of Oxygen with Nitric Oxide and Sildenafil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald W. Day

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Right heart catheterization is performed in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension to determine the severity of disease and their pulmonary vascular reactivity. The acute pulmonary vascular effect of inhaled nitric oxide is frequently used to identify patients who will respond favorably to vasodilator therapy. This study sought to determine whether the acute pulmonary vascular effects of oxygen with nitric oxide and intravenous sildenafil are similar. Methods. A retrospective, descriptive study of 13 individuals with pulmonary hypertension who underwent heart catheterization and acute vasodilator testing was performed. The hemodynamic measurements during five phases (21% to 53% oxygen, 100% oxygen, 100% oxygen with 20 ppm nitric oxide, 21% to 51% oxygen, and 21% to 51% oxygen with 0.05 mg/kg to 0.29 mg/kg intravenous sildenafil of the procedures were compared.Results. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance acutely decreased with 100% oxygen with nitric oxide, and 21% to 51% oxygen with sildenafil. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mm Hg, mean ± standard error of the mean was 38 ± 4 during 21% to 53% oxygen, 32 ± 3 during 100% oxygen, 29 ± 2 during 100% oxygen with nitric oxide, 37 ± 3 during 21% to 51% oxygen, and 32 ± 2 during 21% to 51% oxygen with sildenafil. There was not a significant correlation between the percent change in pulmonary vascular resistance from baseline with oxygen and nitric oxide, and from baseline with sildenafil (r2 = 0.011, p = 0.738. Conclusions. Oxygen with nitric oxide and sildenafil decreased pulmonary vascular resistance. However, the pulmonary vascular effects of oxygen and nitric oxide cannot be used to predict the acute response to sildenafil. Additional studies are needed to determine whether the acute response to sildenafil can be used to predict the long-term response to treatment with an oral phosphodiesterase V inhibitor.

  10. Acute effects of alcohol on feedback processing and outcome evaluation during risky decision-making: an ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Euser (Anja); C.S. Meel (Catharine); M. Snelleman (Michelle); I.H.A. Franken (Ingmar)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractRationale: Although risky decision-making is one of the hallmarks of alcohol use disorders, relatively little is known about the acute psychopharmacological effects of alcohol on decision-making processes. Objective: The present study investigated the acute effects of alcohol on neural m

  11. EFFECTS OF GLUTAMATE ON SODIUM CHANNEL IN ACUTELY DISSOCIATED HIPPOCAMPAL CA1 PYRAMIDAL NEURONS OF RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高宾丽; 伍国锋; 杨艳; 刘智飞; 曾晓荣

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of glutamate on sodium channel in acutely dissociated hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons of rats.Methods Voltage-dependent sodium currents (INa) in acutely dissociated hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons of neonate rats were recorded by whole-cell patchclamp of the brain slice technique when a series of doses of glutamate (100-1000μmol/L) were applied.Results Different concentrations of glutamate could inhibit INa,and higher concentration of glutamate affected greater inhibitio...

  12. THE EFFECT OF ANISODAMINE ON CEREBRAL RESUSCITATION OF RATS IN ACUTE CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA FROM CARDIAC ARREST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭新琦; 曹苏谊; 可君

    1995-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanisms of acute cerebral ischemia,and to look for effective drugs on cerebral resuscitation,we made a model of acute complete global brain ischemia,reperfusion and resuscita-tion on rats according to Garavilla's method.Our results showed that the event of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury could result in the in-crease of total brain calcium content,and anisodamine has the same reducing brain calcium contents as dil-tiazem's,while improving neurological outcome and alleviating injury to neurons.

  13. Acute exposure to silica nanoparticles aggravate airway inflammation: different effects according to surface characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hye Jung; Sohn, Jung-Ho; Kim, Yoon-Ju; Park, Yoon Hee; Han, Heejae; Park, Kyung Hee; Lee, Kangtaek; Choi, Hoon; Um, Kiju; Choi,In-Hong; Park, Jung-Won; Lee, Jae-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Silica nanoparticles (SNPs) are widely used in many scientific and industrial fields despite the lack of proper evaluation of their potential toxicity. This study examined the effects of acute exposure to SNPs, either alone or in conjunction with ovalbumin (OVA), by studying the respiratory systems in exposed mouse models. Three types of SNPs were used: spherical SNPs (S-SNPs), mesoporous SNPs (M-SNPs), and PEGylated SNPs (P-SNPs). In the acute SNP exposure model performed, 6-week-old BALB/c ...

  14. Effects of hyperflexion on acute stress responses in ridden dressage horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, J.W.; Beekmans, M; van Dalum, M; van Dierendonck, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of hyperflexion on the welfare of dressage horses have been debated. This study aimed to investigate acute stress responses of dressage horses ridden in three different Head-and-Neck-positions (HNPs). Fifteen dressage horses were ridden by their usual rider in a standardised 10-min dress

  15. Acute and chronic effects of dinner with alcoholic beverages on nitric oxide metabolites in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, A.; Gaag, M.S. van der; Grobbee, D.E.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2003-01-01

    1. The present study investigated the acute and chronic effect of dinner with alcoholic beverages on serum nitric oxide (NO) metabolites, namely nitrate and nitrite (NOx), in 11 healthy, non-smoking middle-aged men. 2. In a randomized, diet-controlled, cross-over trial, subjects consumed dinner with

  16. Neurobehavorial effects of acute exposure to four solvents: meta-abalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meta-and re-analyses of the available data for the neurobehavioral effects of acute inhalation exposure to toluene were reported by Benignus et al. (2007). The present study was designed to test the generality of the toluene results in as many other solvents as possible by furthe...

  17. The Effects of the Acute Hypoxia to the Fundamental Frequency of the Speech Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILIVOJEVIC, Z. N.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available When people that live at the small altitudes (up to 400 m above the sea level climb on the mountain, they are exposed to the effects of an acute hypoxia. As a consequence, theirs oxygen concentration decreases in the tissue. This paper presents the analysis of the acute hypoxia effects to the speech signal at the altitudes up to 2600 m above the sea level. For the experiment, the articulation of vowels (A, E, I, O, U from the test group of persons was recorded at different altitudes, which creates the speech signal database. The speech signal from database is processed by the original algorithm. As the results, the fundamental frequency and the energy of dissonant intervals of speech signal are obtained. Furthermore, the acute hypoxia effect to the energy distribution in the dissonant intervals of the speech signal is analyzed. At the end, the comparative analysis of the acute hypoxia effects shows that the level of the hypoxia can be determined by the change of the fundamental frequency and the energy of the dissonant intervals of speech signal. Hence, it is possible to bring conclusions about the degree of hypoxia, which in many situations can be of importance for avoiding catastrophic consequences.

  18. Acute cognitive effects of MRI related magnetic fields: the role of vestibular sensitivity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nierop, Lotte; Slottje, Pauline; van Zandvoort, Matine; Kingma, Herman; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Movement in the magnetic fields around MRI systems showed acute negative effects on concentration, memory, visuo-spatial orientation and postural body sway. A crucial role of the vestibular system has been hypothesised. We aimed to gain more insight whether subjects with a relatively (un

  19. Acute and long-term cardiovascular effects of coffee: implications for coronary heart disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riksen, N.P.; Rongen, G.A.P.J.M.; Smits, P.

    2009-01-01

    Despite decades of research, the question as to whether coffee intake increases the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) remains controversial. In the current paper, we discuss the acute and long-term cardiovascular effects of coffee, and its major constituents, which could underlie such an associat

  20. Acute Alcohol Effects on Repetition Priming and Word Recognition Memory with Equivalent Memory Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Suchismita; Bates, Marsha E.

    2006-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication effects on memory were examined using a recollection-based word recognition memory task and a repetition priming task of memory for the same information without explicit reference to the study context. Memory cues were equivalent across tasks; encoding was manipulated by varying the frequency of occurrence (FOC) of words…

  1. Acute and phase-shifting effects of ocular and extraocular light in human circadian physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruger, M; Gordijn, MCM; Beersma, DGM; de Vries, B; Daan, S

    2003-01-01

    Light can influence physiology and performance of humans in two distinct ways. It can acutely change the level of physiological and behavioral parameters, and it can induce a phase shift in the circadian oscillators underlying variations in these levels. Until recently, both effects were thought to

  2. [Renoprotective effects of statins under the conditions of acute renal failure, caused by rhabdomyolysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorskiĭ, I I; Zeleniuk, V G

    2014-01-01

    The experiment on white rats was targeted at the examination of influence of statins (atorvastatin, lovastatin, simvastatin) under the conditions of acute renal failure, caused by rhabdomyolysis. Renoprotective effects of statins were demonstrated by reduction of hyperazotemia and proteinuria and improvement of renal excretory function, which correlated with antioxidant properties of drugs.

  3. Effects of energy restriction on acute adrenoceptor and metabolic responses to exercise in obese subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, K.P.G.; Saris, W.H.M.; Senden, J.M.G.; Menheere, P.P.C.A.; Blaak, E.E.; van Baak, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of energy restriction on acute adrenoceptor and metabolic responses to exercise in obese subjects. Kempen KP, Saris WH, Senden JM, Menheere PP, Blaak EE, van Baak MA. Department of Human Biology, University of Limburg, Maastricht, The Netherlands. This study was intended to investigate the e

  4. Effects of losartan and captopril on left ventricular systolic and diastolic function after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob E; Dahlström, Ulf; Gøtzsche, Ole

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have been shown to attenuate adverse remodeling after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and the same has been suggested for angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists in animal models. Therefore the aim of the study was to compare the effects...

  5. Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Rivaroxaban in the Secondary Prevention of Acute Coronary Syndromes in Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Begum, N.; Stephens, S.; Schoeman, O.; Fraschke, A.; Kirsch, B.; Briere, J.B.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Hout, B.A. van

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Worldwide, coronary heart disease accounts for 7 million deaths each year. In Sweden, acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a leading cause of hospitalization and is responsible for 1 in 4 deaths. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this analysis was to assess the cost-effectiveness of rivaroxaban 2.5 mg t

  6. Acute psychomotor effects of MDMA and ethanol (co-) administration over time in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumont, G J H; Schoemaker, R C; Touw, D J; Sweep, F C G J; Buitelaar, J K; van Gerven, J M A; Verkes, R J

    2010-01-01

    In Western societies, a considerable percentage of young people use 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or 'ecstasy'). The use of alcohol (ethanol) in combination with ecstasy is common. The aim of the present study was to assess the acute psychomotor and subjective effects of (co-) administrati

  7. Limited evidence for effects of intranasal corticosteroids on symptom relief for recurrent acute rhinosinusitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, J.W.L.; van Harn, R.P.; Venekamp, R.P.; Kaper, N.M.; Sachs, A.P.E.; van der Heijden, G.J.M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To systematically review the evidence base on the effectiveness of intranasal corticosteroids in adult patients with recurrent acute rhinosinusitis. Data Sources Pubmed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. Review Methods A comprehensive search was performed up to March 20, 2013. Two reviewer

  8. Late cardiac effects of anthracycline containing therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Carlsen, Niels L T; Oxhøj, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    At present about 80% of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) will be cured following treatment with multi-drug chemotherapy. A major concern for this growing number of survivors is the risk of late effects of treatment. The aim of this study was to determine whether signs of cardiomyo...

  9. Effect of glutathione S-transferases on the survival of patients with acute myeloid leukaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Judith; Hokland, Peter; Pedersen, Lars;

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of genetic polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferases (GST) on the survival of acute myeloid leukaemia patients receiving adriamycin induction therapy. A total of 89 patients were included in the study. Patients who carried at least one GSTM...

  10. The effect of chronic ammonia exposure on acute phase proteins, immunoglobulin and cytokines in laying hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia is a potential health hazard to both humans and animals, causing systemic low-grade inflammation based on its levels and durations. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of 45 weeks of exposure to 30 ppm NH3 on the concentrations of acute phase proteins, immunoglobulins and c...

  11. Chemotherapy-Related Side Effects in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Indonesia: Parental Perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitaresmi, M.N.; Mostert, S.; Purwanto, I.; Gundy, C.; Sutaryo, N.N.; Veerman, A.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Noncompliance with prescribed medication has been associated with increased chance of relapse and poor outcome. Side effects may be an important cause of noncompliance. Fifty-one parents of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a tertiary care hospital in Indonesia were interviewed about the

  12. Acute effects of high-dose intragastric nicotine on mucosal defense mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindell, G; Bukhave, Klaus; Lilja, I;

    1997-01-01

    Peptic ulcer disease is overrepresented among smokers; they also heal slowly and relapse frequently. Data are accumulating that smoking is detrimental to gastroduodenal mucosal cytoprotection. This study was designed to assess acute effects of high-dose intragastric nicotine, as it has been shown...

  13. Time to Reperfusion and Treatment Effect for Acute Ischemic Stroke : A Randomized Clinical Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, Puck S S; Berkhemer, Olvert A; Lingsma, Hester F; Beumer, Debbie; van den Berg, Lucie A; Yoo, Albert J; Schonewille, Wouter J; Vos, Jan Albert; Nederkoorn, Paul J; Wermer, Marieke J H; van Walderveen, Marianne A A; Staals, Julie; Hofmeijer, Jeannette; van Oostayen, Jacques A; Lycklama À Nijeholt, Geert J; Boiten, Jelis; Brouwer, Patrick A; Emmer, Bart J; de Bruijn, Sebastiaan F; van Dijk, Lukas C; Kappelle, L Jaap; Lo, Rob H; van Dijk, Ewoud J; de Vries, Joost; de Kort, Paul L M; van den Berg, J S Peter; van Hasselt, Boudewijn A A M; Aerden, Leo A M; Dallinga, René J; Visser, Marieke C; Bot, Joseph C J; Vroomen, Patrick C; Eshghi, Omid; Schreuder, Tobien H C M L; Heijboer, Roel J J; Keizer, Koos; Tielbeek, Alexander V; den Hertog, Heleen M; Gerrits, Dick G; van den Berg-Vos, Renske M; Karas, Giorgos B; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Flach, H Zwenneke; Marquering, Henk A; Sprengers, Marieke E S; Jenniskens, Sjoerd F M; Beenen, Ludo F M; van den Berg, René; Koudstaal, Peter J; van Zwam, Wim H; Roos, Yvo B W E M; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J; Majoie, Charles B L M; van der Lugt, Aad; Dippel, Diederik W J

    2016-01-01

    Importance: Intra-arterial treatment (IAT) for acute ischemic stroke caused by intracranial arterial occlusion leads to improved functional outcome in patients treated within 6 hours after onset. The influence of treatment delay on treatment effect is not yet known. Objective: To evaluate the influe

  14. Time to Reperfusion and Treatment Effect for Acute Ischemic Stroke : A Randomized Clinical Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, Puck S S; Berkhemer, Olvert A; Lingsma, Hester F; Beumer, Debbie; van den Berg, Lucie A; Yoo, Albert J; Schonewille, Wouter J; Vos, Jan Albert; Nederkoorn, Paul J; Wermer, Marieke J H; van Walderveen, Marianne A A; Staals, Julie; Hofmeijer, Jeannette; van Oostayen, Jacques A; Lycklama À Nijeholt, Geert J; Boiten, Jelis; Brouwer, Patrick A; Emmer, Bart J; de Bruijn, Sebastiaan F; van Dijk, Lukas C; Kappelle, L Jaap; Lo, Rob H; van Dijk, Ewoud J; de Vries, Joost; de Kort, Paul L M; van den Berg, J S Peter; van Hasselt, Boudewijn A A M; Aerden, Leo A M; Dallinga, René J; Visser, Marieke C; Bot, Joseph C J; Vroomen, Patrick C; Eshghi, Omid; Schreuder, Tobien H C M L; Heijboer, Roel J J; Keizer, Koos; Tielbeek, Alexander V; den Hertog, Heleen M; Gerrits, Dick G; van den Berg-Vos, Renske M; Karas, Giorgos B; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Flach, H Zwenneke; Marquering, Henk A; Sprengers, Marieke E S; Jenniskens, Sjoerd F M; Beenen, Ludo F M; van den Berg, René; Koudstaal, Peter J; van Zwam, Wim H; Roos, Yvo B W E M; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J; Majoie, Charles B L M; van der Lugt, Aad; Dippel, Diederik W J

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Intra-arterial treatment (IAT) for acute ischemic stroke caused by intracranial arterial occlusion leads to improved functional outcome in patients treated within 6 hours after onset. The influence of treatment delay on treatment effect is not yet known. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influe

  15. Venous thromboembolism in adults treated for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: Effect of fresh frozen plasma supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Lauw (Ivoune); B. van der Holt (Bronno); S. Middeldorp (Saskia); J.C.M. Meijers; J.J. Cornelissen (Jan); B.J. Biemond (Bart)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractTreatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is frequently complicated by venous thromboembolism (VTE). The efficacy and optimal approach of VTE prevention are unclear, particularly in adult patients. We assessed the effect of thromboprophylaxis on symptomatic VTE incidence in cycle

  16. Hemodynamic effects of partial liquid ventilation with perfluorocarbon in acute lung injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.M. Houmes (Robert Jan); S.J.C. Verbrugge (Serge); E. Hendrik (Edwin); B.F. Lachmann (Burkhard)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To assess the effect of partial liquid ventilation with perfluorocarbons on hemodynamics and gas exchange in large pigs with induced acute lung injury (ALI). Design: Randomized, prospective, double-control, experimental study. Setting: Experimental intensive care unit of a uni

  17. Acute effects of high- and low-intensity exercise bouts on leukocyte counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Rogério Da Silva Neves

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: When the same participants were submitted to different exercise intensities, the acute and short-term effects of exercise on white blood cells were intensity-dependent immediately after exercise (i.e., lymphocytosis and monocytosis and 2 hours after passive recovery (i.e., neutrophilia.

  18. Adiponectin potentiates the acute effects of leptin in arcuate Pomc neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Sun

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Our results demonstrate a requirement for PI3K signaling in the acute adiponectin-induced effects on the cellular activity of arcuate melanocortin neurons. Moreover, these data provide evidence for PI3K as a substrate for both leptin and adiponectin to regulate energy balance and glucose metabolism via melanocortin activity.

  19. ACUTE BEHAVORIAL EFFECTS FROM EXPOSURE TO TWO-STROKE ENGINE EXHAUST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefits of changing from two-stroke to four-stroke engines (and other remedial requirements) can be evaluated (monetized) from the standpoint of acute behavioral effects of human exposure to exhaust from these engines. The monetization process depends upon estimates of the magn...

  20. Nephroprotective effect of ethanolic extract of abutilon indicum root in gentamicin induced acute renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Jesurun RS

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The ethanolic extract of abutilon indicum root has nephron protective effect in gentamicin induced acute renal failure. Nephro protective action in this study could be due to the antioxidant and other phytochemical of abutilon indicum root. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 841-845

  1. Hepatoprotective Effect of Opuntia robusta and Opuntia streptacantha Fruits against Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonio Gonzalez-Ponce, Herson; Consolacion Martinez-Saldana, Maria; Rosa Rincon-Sanchez, Ana; Teresa Sumaya-Martinez, Maria; Buist-Homan, Manon; Faber, Klaas Nico; Moshage, Han; Jaramillo-Juarez, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute liver failure (ALF) is a serious health problem in developed countries. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), the current therapy for APAP-induced ALF, is not always effective, and liver transplantation is often needed. Opuntia spp. fruits are an important source of nutrients

  2. No acute effects of grape juice on appetite, implicit memory, and mood

    OpenAIRE

    Richard D Mattes; Hendrickson, Sara J

    2008-01-01

    Background: Animal experiments document effects of grape juice on cognitive performance and motor skills, and observational studies in humans suggest an inverse association between flavonoid intake and cognitive decline. These effects may be related to the antioxidant properties of polyphenols. Juice consumption and flavonoid intake may also affect appetite. Objective: To study the acute effects of grape juice consumption on appetite, mood and implicit memory during a time of increased lethar...

  3. The effect of acute exercise on collagen turnover in human tendons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Pingel, Jessica; Boesen, Mikael;

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical loading of human tendon stimulates collagen synthesis, but the relationship between acute loading responses and training status of the tendon is not clear. We tested the effect of prolonged load deprivation on the acute loading-induced collagen turnover in human tendons, by applying...... and compared to values obtained by 72-h post-exercise. Power Doppler was used to monitor alterations in intratendinous blood flow velocity of the Achilles tendon and MRI used to quantitate changes in tendon cross-section area. Acute loading resulted in an increased collagen synthesis 72 h after the run in both...... the contra-lateral leg was used habitually. Following the procedure both Achilles tendons and calf muscles were loaded with the same absolute load during a 1-h treadmill run. Tissue collagen turnover was measured by microdialysis performed post-immobilization but pre-exercise around both Achilles tendons...

  4. The effect of inhaled nitric oxide in acute respiratory distress syndrome in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karam, O; Gebistorf, F; Wetterslev, J

    2017-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Inhaled nitric oxide has been used to improve oxygenation but its role remains controversial. Our primary objective in this systematic review was to examine the effects of inhaled nitric oxide administration...... on mortality in adults and children with acute respiratory distress syndrome. We included all randomised, controlled trials, irrespective of date of publication, blinding status, outcomes reported or language. Our primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality. We performed several subgroup and sensitivity......% CI) 1.59 (1.17-2.16)) with inhaled nitric oxide. In conclusion, there is insufficient evidence to support inhaled nitric oxide in any category of critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome despite a transient improvement in oxygenation, since mortality is not reduced and it may...

  5. [Effect of somatostatin on the hemodynamic changes induced by acute experimental pancreatitis in the conscious rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ais, G; Novo, C; Ortega, M; González, A; Jiménez, I; López, J; Romeo, J M

    1994-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the hemodynamic effect of somatostatin, either prophylactically or therapeutically, in shock caused by acute necrohemorragic pancreatitis in conscious rats. For this purpose, radioactive microspheres were used in 3 groups (control pancreatitis, therapeutic somatostatin and prophylactic somatostatin), performing a basal and final hemodynamic study. In the control group, acute necrohemorragic pancreatitis resulted in overwhelming shock with decrease of 55% in cardiac output, 58% in renal blood flow, increase in total peripheral resistances of 342%, and death after 70 min. Therapeutic somatostatin decreased cardiac output by 42%, renal blood flow by 47%, and increased total peripheral resistances by 153%. Prophylactic somatostatin decreased cardiac output by 24%, and renal blooded flow by 28%; it increased peripheral resistances by 146%, and improved survival up to 97 min. In conclusion, therapeutic somatostatin, and particularly prophylactic somatostatin, improved hemodynamic shock after acute necrohemorragic pancreatitis in conscious rats.

  6. Serum Fatty Acids, Traditional Risk Factors, and Comorbidity as Related to Myocardial Injury in an Elderly Population with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Laake

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Epidemiological and randomized clinical trials indicate that marine polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs may have cardioprotective effects. Aim. Evaluate the associations between serum fatty acid profile, traditional risk factors, the presence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD, and peak Troponin T (TnT levels in elderly patients with an acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Materials and Methods. Patients (n=299 consecutively included in the ongoing Omega-3 fatty acids in elderly patients with myocardial infarction (OMEMI trial were investigated. Peak TnT was registered during the hospital stay. Serum fatty acid analysis was performed 2–8 weeks later. Results. No significant correlations between peak TnT levels and any of the n-3 PUFAs were observed. However, patients with a history of atrial fibrillation had significantly lower docosahexaenoic acid levels than patients without. Significantly lower peak TnT levels were observed in patients with a history of hyperlipidemia, angina, MI, atrial fibrillation, intermittent claudication, and previous revascularization (all p<0.02. Conclusions. In an elderly population with AMI, no association between individual serum fatty acids and estimated myocardial infarct size could be demonstrated. However, a history of hyperlipidemia and the presence of CVD were associated with lower peak TnT levels, possibly because of treatment with cardioprotective medications.

  7. Combined Salvianolic Acid B and Ginsenoside Rg1 Exerts Cardioprotection against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yanping; Yang, Min; Xu, Feng; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Qun; Yu, Haitao; Li, Defang; Zhang, Ge; Lu, Aiping; Cho, Kenka; Teng, Fukang; Wu, Peng; Wang, Linlin; Wu, Wanying; Liu, Xuan; Guo, De-An; Jiang, Baohong

    2015-01-01

    Lack of pharmacological strategies in clinics restricts the patient prognosis with myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cardioprotection of combined salvianolic acid B (SalB) and ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) against myocardial I/R injury and further investigate the underlying mechanism. I/R injury was induced by coronary artery ligation for Wistar male rats and hypoxia/reoxygenation injury was induced on H9c2 cells. Firstly, the best ratio between SalB and Rg1was set as 2:5 based on their effects on heart function detected by hemodynamic measurement. Then SalB-Rg1 (2:5) was found to maintain mitochondrial membrane potential and resist apoptosis and necrosis in H9c2 cell with hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. Companying with same dose of SalB or Rg1 only, SalB-Rg1 showed more significant effects on down-regulation of myocardial infarct size, maintenance of myocardium structure, improvement on cardiac function, decrease of cytokine secretion including TNF-α, IL-1β, RANTES and sVCAM-1. Finally, the SalB-Rg1 improved the viability of cardiac myocytes other than cardiac fibroblasts in rats with I/R injury using flow cytometry. Our results revealed that SalB-Rg1 was a promising strategy to prevent myocardial I/R injury.

  8. Combined Salvianolic Acid B and Ginsenoside Rg1 Exerts Cardioprotection against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Deng

    Full Text Available Lack of pharmacological strategies in clinics restricts the patient prognosis with myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cardioprotection of combined salvianolic acid B (SalB and ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1 against myocardial I/R injury and further investigate the underlying mechanism. I/R injury was induced by coronary artery ligation for Wistar male rats and hypoxia/reoxygenation injury was induced on H9c2 cells. Firstly, the best ratio between SalB and Rg1was set as 2:5 based on their effects on heart function detected by hemodynamic measurement. Then SalB-Rg1 (2:5 was found to maintain mitochondrial membrane potential and resist apoptosis and necrosis in H9c2 cell with hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. Companying with same dose of SalB or Rg1 only, SalB-Rg1 showed more significant effects on down-regulation of myocardial infarct size, maintenance of myocardium structure, improvement on cardiac function, decrease of cytokine secretion including TNF-α, IL-1β, RANTES and sVCAM-1. Finally, the SalB-Rg1 improved the viability of cardiac myocytes other than cardiac fibroblasts in rats with I/R injury using flow cytometry. Our results revealed that SalB-Rg1 was a promising strategy to prevent myocardial I/R injury.

  9. Acute and sub-acute effects of repetitive kicking on hip adduction torque in injury-free elite youth soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper; Bandholm, Thomas; Hölmich, Per;

    2014-01-01

    Hip adduction strength is important for kicking and acceleration in soccer players. Changes in hip adduction strength may therefore have an effect on soccer players' athletic performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute and sub-acute effects of a kicking drill session on hip...... strength, concerning isometric hip adduction, abduction and flexion torque of the kicking leg and the supporting leg. Ten injury-free male elite soccer players, mean ± s age of 15.8 ± 0.4 years participated. All players underwent a specific 20 min kicking drill session, comprising 45 kicks. The players...

  10. A Rare Side Effect due to TNF-Alpha Blocking Agent: Acute Pleuropericarditis with Adalimumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Ozkan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonism is an important treatment strategy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, vasculitis, and ankylosing spondylitis. Adalimumab is one of the well-known tumor necrosis factor-alpha blocking agents. There are several side effects reported in patients with adalimumab therapy. Cardiac side effects of adalimumab are rare. Only a few cardiac side effects were reported. A 61-year-old man treated with adalimumab for the last 6 months due to psoriatic arthritis presented with typically acute pleuropericarditis. Chest X-ray and echocardiography demonstrated marked pericardial effusion. Patient was successfully evaluated for the etiology of acute pleuro-pericarditis. Every etiology was excluded except the usage of adalimumab. Adalimumab was discontinued, and patient was treated with 1200 mg of ibuprofen daily. Control chest X-ray and echocardiography after three weeks demonstrated complete resolution of both pleural and pericardial effusions. This case clearly demonstrated the acute onset of pericarditis with adalimumab usage. Acute pericarditis and pericardial effusion should be kept in mind in patients with adalimumab treatment.

  11. Acute effects of lysergic acid diethylamide in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    After no research in humans for >40 years, there is renewed interest in using lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in clinical psychiatric research and practice. There are no modern studies on the subjective and autonomic effects of LSD, and its endocrine effects are unknown. In animals, LSD disrupts prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response, and patients with schizophrenia exhibit similar impairments in PPI. However, no data are available on the effects of LSD on PPI in humans.;...

  12. Thyroid receptor β involvement in the effects of acute nicotine on hippocampus-dependent memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Prescott T; Kenney, Justin W; Connor, David A; Gould, Thomas J

    2015-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is common despite adverse health effects. Nicotine's effects on learning may contribute to addiction by enhancing drug-context associations. Effects of nicotine on learning could be direct or could occur by altering systems that modulate cognition. Because thyroid signaling can alter cognition and nicotine/smoking may change thyroid function, nicotine could affect learning through changes in thyroid signaling. These studies investigate the functional contributions of thyroid receptor (TR) subtypes β and α1 to nicotine-enhanced learning and characterize the effects of acute nicotine and learning on thyroid hormone levels. We conducted a high throughput screen of transcription factor activity to identify novel targets that may contribute to the effects of nicotine on learning. Based on these results, which showed that combined nicotine and learning uniquely acted to increase TR activation, we identified TRs as potential targets of nicotine. Further analyses were conducted to determine the individual and combined effects of nicotine and learning on thyroid hormone levels, but no changes were seen. Next, to determine the role of TRβ and TRα1 in the effects of nicotine on learning, mice lacking the TRβ or TRα1 gene and wildtype littermates were administered acute nicotine prior to fear conditioning. Nicotine enhanced contextual fear conditioning in TRα1 knockout mice and wildtypes from both lines but TRβ knockout mice did not show nicotine-enhanced learning. This finding supports involvement of TRβ signaling in the effect of acute nicotine on hippocampus-dependent memory. Acute nicotine enhances learning and these effects may involve processes regulated by the transcription factor TRβ.

  13. The effectiveness of heliox in acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Yilmaz

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study histopathologically indicated the effectiveness of heliox in the decreasing of neutrophil infiltation, interstitial/intraalveolar edema, perivascular and/or intraalveolar hemorrhage and HM formation in ARDS. Besides the known effect of heliox in obstructive lung disease, inhaled heliox therapy could be associated with the improvement of inflamation in ARDS.

  14. Effects of acute and chronic exercise in patients with essential hypertension: benefits and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkaliagkousi, Eugenia; Gavriilaki, Eleni; Douma, Stella

    2015-04-01

    The importance of regular physical activity in essential hypertension has been extensively investigated over the last decades and has emerged as a major modifiable factor contributing to optimal blood pressure control. Aerobic exercise exerts its beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system by promoting traditional cardiovascular risk factor regulation, as well as by favorably regulating sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, molecular effects, cardiac, and vascular function. Benefits of resistance exercise need further validation. On the other hand, acute exercise is now an established trigger of acute cardiac events. A number of possible pathophysiological links have been proposed, including SNS, vascular function, coagulation, fibrinolysis, and platelet function. In order to fully interpret this knowledge into clinical practice, we need to better understand the role of exercise intensity and duration in this pathophysiological cascade and in special populations. Further studies in hypertensive patients are also warranted in order to clarify the possibly favorable effect of antihypertensive treatment on exercise-induced effects.

  15. Chemical toxicity of uranium hexafluoride compared to acute effects of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, S.A.

    1991-02-01

    The chemical effects from acute exposures to uranium hexafluoride are compared to the nonstochastic effects from acute radiation doses of 25 rems to the whole body and 300 rems to the thyroid. The analysis concludes that an intake of about 10 mg of uranium in soluble form is roughly comparable, in terms of early effects, to an acute whole body dose of 25 rems because both are just below the threshold for significant nonstochastic effects. Similarly, an exposure to hydrogen fluoride at a concentration of 25 mg/m{sup 3} for 30 minutes is roughly comparable because there would be no significant nonstochastic effects. For times t other than 30 minutes, the concentration C of hydrogen fluoride considered to have the same effect can be calculated using a quadratic equation: C = 25 mg/m{sup 3} (30 min/t). The purpose of these analyses is to provide information for developing design and siting guideline based on chemical toxicity for enrichment plants using uranium hexafluoride. These guidelines are to be similar, in terms of stochastic health effects, to criteria in NRC regulations of nuclear power plants, which are based on radiation doses. 26 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  16. Are the price patterns of cardioprotective vs. unhealthy foods the same? A report from Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhani, Mohammad Hossein; Larijani, Bagher; Azadbakht, Leila

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although several studies have assessed the price of different food groups in developed countries, there is scarce evidence regarding developing countries. Also, there is no report regarding the price of cardioprotective compared with unhealthy foods. The aim of this study was to determine the trend of food cost across different food groups (cardioprotective vs. unhealthy) and to assess the association between food cost and nutritional quality of foods in Iran. METHODS A list of foods consumed frequently by Iranian population was provided. Nutritional quality of foods was assessed by energy density and nutrient rich foods (NRF) index. Food groups were defined according to the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) MyPlate food groups. The price of food groups was reported as kcal/price and price/serving. RESULTS Although a positive association between different types of nutrient rich foods, nutrient content of foods and food price was observed, there was an inverse relationship between food price and energy density. The kcal/price of "oils" was less than "whole grains" and "refined grains". "Sugar, sweets and beverages" and "beans and legumes" food groups had equal kcal/price media. Among healthy foods for cardiovascular system, nuts had the highest price/serving. On the other hand, among unhealthy foods for cardiovascular system, processed meat had the highest price/serving. The price/serving of healthy oils was similar to saturated and trans fatty acids rich oils. Also, the price/serving of low-fat (healthy) vs. high fat (unhealthy) dairy was not different. Similar finding was observed for white meat vs. red meat. CONCLUSION Our findings revealed that the pattern of food price in Iran is different from developed countries. Also, we found that Iranians can consume a cardioprotective diet without any economic pressure. PMID:28149312

  17. Calcineurin is involved in cardioprotection induced by ischemic postconditioning through attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yi-hong; WU Xu-dong; YAO Shu-tong; SUN Seng; LIU Xiu-hua

    2011-01-01

    Background Ischemic postconditioning (I-postC) is a newly discovered and more amenable cardioprotective strategy capable of protecting the myocardium from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury.Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a principal site for secretary protein synthesis and calcium storage.Myocardial I/R causes ER stress and emerging studies suggest that the cardioprotection has been linked to the modulation of ER stress.The aim of the present study was to determine whether cardioprotection of I-postC involves reduction in ER stress through calcineurin pathway.Methods In the in vivo model of rat myocardial I/R,myocardial infarct size was measured by triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and apoptosis was detected using terminal eoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay.Expression of calreticulin,C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP),caspase-12,and activation of caspase-12 in myocardium were detected by Western blotting.The activity and expression of calcineurin in myocardium were also detected.Results I-postC protected the I/R heart against apoptosis,myocardial infarction,and leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB).I-postC suppressed I/R-induced ER stress,as shown by a decrease in the expression of calreticulin and CHOP,and caspase-12 activation.I-postC downregulated calcineurin activation in myocardium subjected to I/R.Conclusion I-postC protects myocardium from I/R injury by suppressing ER stress and calcineurin pathways are not associated with the I-postC-induced suppression of ER stress-related apoptosis.

  18. Effects of Nesiritide and Predictors of Urine Output in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Results From ASCEND-HF (Acute Study of Clinical Effectiveness of Nesiritide and Decompensated Heart Failure)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottlieb, Stephen S.; Stebbins, Amanda; Voors, Adriaan A.; Hasselblad, Vic; Ezekowitz, Justin A.; Califf, Robert M.; O'Connor, Christopher M.; Starling, Randall C.; Hernandez, Adrian F.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to determine if nesiritide increases diuresis in congestive heart failure patients. Background In the ASCEND-HF (Acute Study of Clinical Effectiveness of Nesiritide and Decompensated Heart Failure), 7,141 patients hospitalized with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF

  19. Amino acid transamination is crucial for ischaemic cardioprotection in normal and preconditioned isolated rat hearts--focus on L-glutamate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løfgren, Bo; Povlsen, Jonas Agerlund; Rasmussen, Lars Ege;

    2010-01-01

    We have found that cardioprotection by l-glutamate mimics protection by classical ischaemic preconditioning (IPC). We investigated whether the effect of IPC involves amino acid transamination and whether IPC modulates myocardial glutamate metabolism. In a glucose-perfused, isolated rat heart model...... subjected to 40 min global no-flow ischaemia and 120 min reperfusion, the effects of IPC (2 cycles of 5 min ischaemia and 5 min reperfusion) and continuous glutamate (20 mm) administration during reperfusion on infarct size and haemodynamic recovery were studied. The effect of inhibiting amino acid...... administration reduced infarct size to the same extent (41 and 40%, respectively; P IPC and glutamate, and increased infarct size in both control and IPC hearts in a dose-dependent manner. Ischaemic...

  20. The effects of acute exercise on executive functioning, mood and attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: It is internationally recognised that exercise is beneficial—both physically and mentally. However, only a minority of published research has explored the unique contribution of the exercise task itself. We tested the effect an ‘acute bout of moderate exercise’ had on selective attention, executive function and mood. We hypothesised that acute exercise would improve mood and cognitive performance compared to the controls. Method: 29 females and 11 males aged between 18-50 (M=26.5, SD=8.8 were administered the Stroop Colour-Interference Test, Erikson Flanker Task and Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS.  Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions (exercise or relaxation. The experimental group (N=20 performed 20 minutes of exercise on a treadmill. The control group (N=20 relaxed for 20 minutes. Measures were taken before and after the intervention. Results: An independent samples t-test compared the differences between post-test and pre-test for the two groups. Results revealed a significant difference between the exercise group and control group on the measures of mood. The exercise group reported increased positive affect (t(38 = 3.10, p = .004, d = .99 and decreased negative affect (t(38 = -3.24, p = .003, d = 1.0 on the post-test. No significant differences between the exercise and control groups were obtained for the two tasks of cognitive performance. Conclusions: A significant difference in the PANAS ratings following exercise offers strong support to earlier research demonstrating that acute exercise improves mood. Although no significant improvement in performance was observed in the two cognitive tasks following acute exercise, it is possible that fitness levels could be the relevant factor, rather than acute exercise as a task. Our findings did not support the hypothesis that acute exercise improves cognitive performance.

  1. Effect of HIV infection on time to recovery from an acute manic episode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Nakimuli-Mpungu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available E Nakimuli-Mpungu1,2,3, B Mutamba2,3, S Nshemerirwe2,3, MS Kiwuwa4, S Musisi21Mental Health Department, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, Makerere College of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Kampala; 3Butabika National Referral Mental Hospital, Ministry of Health, Kampala; 4Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Makerere College of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Kampala, UgandaIntroduction: Understanding factors affecting the time to recovery from acute mania is critical in the management of manic syndromes. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of HIV infection on time to recovery from acute mania.Methods: We performed a retrospective study in which medical charts of individuals who were treated for acute mania were reviewed. Survival analysis with Cox regression models were used to compare time to recovery from an acute manic episode between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive individuals and HIV-negative individuals.Results: Median survival time was one week for HIV-positive individuals and more than four weeks for HIV-negative individuals (Χ2 = 18.4, P value = 0.000. HIV infection was the only marginally significant independent predictor of survival probability on the acute admission ward (hazards ratio 2.87, P = 0.06.Conclusion: Acute mania in HIV-infected persons responds faster to psychotropic drugs compared with that in HIV-negative persons.Keywords: HIV-related mania, bipolar disorder, HIV infection, Uganda, immunodeficiency virus

  2. The Effects of Acute Physical Exercise on Memory, Peripheral BDNF, and Cortisol in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsten Hötting; Nadine Schickert; Jochen Kaiser; Brigitte Röder; Maren Schmidt-Kassow

    2016-01-01

    In animals, physical activity has been shown to induce functional and structural changes especially in the hippocampus and to improve memory, probably by upregulating the release of neurotrophic factors. In humans, results on the effect of acute exercise on memory are inconsistent so far. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of a single bout of physical exercise on memory consolidation and the underlying neuroendocrinological mechanisms in young adults. Participan...

  3. Clinical Effects of Arsenic Trioxide by Slowing-intravenous Infusion on Acute Promyelocyte Leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Zhou; Ran Meng; Bao-feng Yang

    2005-01-01

    @@ Although As2O3 is effective in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), some side effects, such as leukocytosis which can increase the incidence of cerebral hemorrhage and early death rate, often occur during the early stage of As2O3 treatment. In this paper, the advantages of continuously slow intravenous As2O3 infusion on relieving leukocytosis and decreasing the incidence of cerebral hemorrhage and early death rate were observed clinically.

  4. Effect of Electroacupuncture Combined with Tuina on Lumbar Muscle Tone in Patients with Acute Lumbar Sprain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Yuan-zhi; Wu Yao-chi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical effect of electroacupuncture (EA) combined with tuina on acute lumbar sprain and lumbar muscle tone before and after treatment. Methods: A total of 130 acute lumbar sprain cases were randomly allocated into an observation group and a control group, 65 in each group. Cases in the observation group were treated with EA combined with tuina, whereas cases in the control group were treated with Diclofenac Sodium Dual Release Enteric-coated capsules. The muscle tones in two groups were tested before and after treatment. Results: The recovery rate and overall response rate in the observation group were 66.2% and 93.8% respectively, versus 56.9% and 87.7% in the control group, showing no between-group statistical significances (P>0.05). After treatment, the force-displacement area under curve (AUC) in both groups showed a significance difference (P Conclusion: Both EA combined with tuina and aforementioned oral medication have remarkable effects for acute lumbar sprain, and the former can better improve the lumbar muscle tone in patients with acute lumbar sprain.

  5. Effects of acute heat stress on gene expression of brain-gut neuropeptides in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, L; Hepeng, L; Xianlei, L; Hongchao, J; Hai, L; Sheikhahmadi, A; Yufeng, W; Zhigang, S

    2013-11-01

    Heat stress-induced reduction in feed intake is an annoyance of the poultry industry. Feed intake is regulated by complex mechanisms in which brain-gut neuropeptides are involved, but the changes in such neuropeptides in broiler chickens during heat exposure remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of acute heat stress (35°C, 6 h, and 65% relative humidity) on the gene expression of appetite-regulating peptides in the hypothalamus and gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens at 42 d of age. The hypothalamic mRNA levels of neuropeptide Y, agouti-related peptide, pro-opiomelanocortin, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, corticotropin-releasing hormone, melanocortin 4 receptor, melanin-concentrating hormone, prepro-orexin, cholecystokinin (CCK), and ghrelin did not significantly change (P>0.05) in the heat-exposed broiler chickens. However, the mRNA levels of ghrelin in the glandular stomach, duodenum, and jejunum significantly increased and the mRNA level of CCK in the duodenum significantly decreased. The results indicate that acute heat stress had no effect on the gene expression of central appetite-regulating peptides under current experimental conditions; however, some gastrointestinal tract peptides (e.g., ghrelin and CCK) might play a role in the regulation of appetite in acute heat-exposed broiler chickens. Furthermore, ghrelin in the glandular stomach, duodenum, and jejunum might be the main regulative target of acute heat stress induced anorexia.

  6. Effect of Oral Dimenhydrinate in Children with Acute Gastroenteritis: A Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Gheini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: One of the major causes of mortality in children is acute gastroenteritis. Vomiting is common in early stages of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of oral dimenhydrinate (DH in the control of vomiting in cases of acute gastroenteritis in children. Methods: This double-blind, randomized, clinical trial was conducted in a university-affiliated hospital in a western province of Iran. Two hundred children aged one to 12 years old were randomly assigned to either drug or placebo groups. Children in the drug group received oral DH as four doses of 1 mg/kg every six hours (maximum 200 mg, and children in the placebo group received a placebo drug. The patients variables were compared 24 hours after receiving the first dose and at seven and 14 days after discharge. Results: The mean number of episodes of vomiting was 4.4±2.5 in the drug group versus 4.4±2.1 in the placebo group, which was not statistically significant (p0.050. Conclusions: Oral DH in children with acute gastroenteritis does not reduce the number and duration of vomiting. However, our results showed that consumption of DH in acute gastroenteritis patients was effective in reducing the frequency and duration of diarrhea and further investigation into this is warranted.

  7. The effect of food on the acute toxicity of silver nitrate to four freshwater test species and acute-to-chronic ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddy, Rami B; McNerney, Gina R; Gorsuch, Joseph W; Bell, Russell A; Kramer, James R; Wu, Kuen B; Paquin, Paul R

    2011-11-01

    Acute silver toxicity studies were conducted with and without food for four common freshwater test species: Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow-FHM), and Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout-RBT) in order to generate acute-to-chronic ratios (ACR). The studies were conducted similarly (i.e., static-renewal or flow-through) to chronic/early-life stage studies that were previously performed in this laboratory. The acute toxicity (EC/LC50 values) of silver without food ranged from 0.57 μg dissolved Ag/l for C.dubia to 9.15 μg dissolved Ag/l for RBT. The presence of food resulted in an increase in EC/LC50 values from 1.25× for RBT to 22.4× for C. dubia. Invertebrate food type was also shown to effect acute silver toxicity. Food did not affect EC/LC50s or ACRs as greatly in fish studies as in invertebrate studies. ACRs for both invertebrate species were <1.0 when using acute studies without food but were 1.22 and 1.33 when using acute studies with food. ACRs for FHMs ranged from 4.06 to 7.19, while RBT ACRs ranged from 28.6 to 35.8 depending on whether food was present in acute studies. The data generated from this research program should be useful in re-determining a final ACR for silver in freshwater as well as in risk assessments.

  8. Acute effects of cocaine and cannabis on response inhibition in humans: an ERP investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spronk, Desirée B; De Bruijn, Ellen R A; van Wel, Janelle H P; Ramaekers, Johannes G; Verkes, Robbert J

    2016-11-01

    Substance abuse has often been associated with alterations in response inhibition in humans. Not much research has examined how the acute effects of drugs modify the neurophysiological correlates of response inhibition, or how these effects interact with individual variation in trait levels of impulsivity and novelty seeking. This study investigated the effects of cocaine and cannabis on behavioural and event-related potential (ERP) correlates of response inhibition in 38 healthy drug using volunteers. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized three-way crossover design was used. All subjects completed a standard Go/NoGo task after administration of the drugs. Compared with a placebo, cocaine yielded improved accuracy, quicker reaction times and an increased prefrontal NoGo-P3 ERP. Cannabis produced opposing results; slower reaction times, impaired accuracy and a reduction in the amplitude of the prefrontal NoGo-P3. Cannabis in addition decreased the amplitude of the parietally recorded P3, while cocaine did not affect this. Neither drugs specifically affected the N2 component, suggesting that pre-motor response inhibitory processes remain unaffected. Neither trait impulsivity nor novelty seeking interacted with drug-induced effects on measures of response inhibition. We conclude that acute drug effects on response inhibition seem to be specific to the later, evaluative stages of response inhibition. The acute effects of cannabis appeared less specific to response inhibition than those of cocaine. Together, the results show that the behavioural effects on response inhibition are reflected in electrophysiological correlates. This study did not support a substantial role of vulnerability personality traits in the acute intoxication stage.

  9. Acute effects of ghrelin administration on glucose and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Esben Thyssen; Djurhuus, Christian Born; Gjedsted, Jakob;

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: Ghrelin infusion increases plasma glucose and nonesterified fatty acids, but it is uncertain whether this is secondary to the concomitant release of GH. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to study direct effects of ghrelin on substrate metabolism. DESIGN: This was a randomized, single-blind, p......CONTEXT: Ghrelin infusion increases plasma glucose and nonesterified fatty acids, but it is uncertain whether this is secondary to the concomitant release of GH. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to study direct effects of ghrelin on substrate metabolism. DESIGN: This was a randomized, single...

  10. Acute differential effects of milk-derived dietary proteins on postprandial lipaemia in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer-Jensen, J; Hartvigsen, M L; Mortensen, L S

    2012-01-01

    Postprandial lipaemia is an established risk factor for atherosclerosis. To investigate the acute effect of four milk-derived dietary proteins (alpha-lactalbumin, whey isolate, caseinoglycomacropeptide and whey hydrolysate) on postprandial lipaemia, we have conducted a randomized, acute, single-b......-blinded clinical intervention study with crossover design....

  11. Effects of acute aerobic exercise on motor response inhibition: An ERP study using the stop-signal task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Heng Chu

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Acute exercise has a selective and beneficial effect on cognitive function, specifically affecting the motor response inhibition aspect of executive function. Furthermore, acute exercise predominately impacts later stages of information processing during motor response inhibition, which may lead to an increase in attentional resource allocation and confer the ability to successfully withhold a response to achieve motor response inhibition.

  12. Effect of acute ethanol administration on zebrafish tail-beat motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini, Tiziana; Mwaffo, Violet; Butail, Sachit; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-11-01

    Zebrafish is becoming a species of choice in neurobiological and behavioral studies of alcohol-related disorders. In these efforts, the activity of adult zebrafish is typically quantified using indirect activity measures that are either scored manually or identified automatically from the fish trajectory. The analysis of such activity measures has produced important insight into the effect of acute ethanol exposure on individual and social behavior of this vertebrate species. Here, we leverage a recently developed tracking algorithm that reconstructs fish body shape to investigate the effect of acute ethanol administration on zebrafish tail-beat motion in terms of amplitude and frequency. Our results demonstrate a significant effect of ethanol on the tail-beat amplitude as well as the tail-beat frequency, both of which were found to robustly decrease for high ethanol concentrations. Such a direct measurement of zebrafish motor functions is in agreement with evidence based on indirect activity measures, offering a complementary perspective in behavioral screening.

  13. Peripheral analgesic effects of ketamine in acute inflammatory pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J L; Galle, T S; Kehlet, H

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND. This study examined the analgesic effect of local ketamine infiltration, compared with placebo and systemic ketamine, in a human model of inflammatory pain. METHODS: Inflammatory pain was induced by a burn (at 47 degrees C for 7 min; wound size, 2.5 x 5 cm) on the calf in 15 volunteer...

  14. Acute and long-term psychiatric side effects of mefloquine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringqvist, Asa; Bech, Per; Glenthøj, Birte

    2014-01-01

    psychiatric side effects were retrospectively assessed using the SCL-90-R and questions based on Present State Examination (PSE). Subjects reporting suspected psychotic states were contacted for a personal PSE interview. Electronic records of psychiatric hospitalizations and diagnoses were cross-checked. Long...

  15. The acute physiological and mood effects of tea and coffee: the role of caffeine level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, P T; Lane, J; Moore, K L; Aspen, J; Rycroft, J A; O'Brien, D C

    2000-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of caffeine level in tea and coffee on acute physiological responses and mood. Randomised full crossover design in subjects after overnight caffeine abstention was studied. In study 1 (n = 17) the caffeine level was manipulated naturalistically by preparing tea and coffee at different strengths (1 or 2 cups equivalent). Caffeine levels were 37.5 and 75 mg in tea, 75 and 150 mg in coffee, with water and no-drink controls. In study 2 (n = 15) caffeine level alone was manipulated (water, decaffeinated tea, plus 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg caffeine). Beverage volume and temperature (55 degrees C) were constant. SBP, DBP, heart rate, skin temperature, skin conductance, and mood were monitored over each 3-h study session. In study 1, tea and coffee produced mild autonomic stimulation and an elevation in mood. There were no effects of tea vs. coffee or caffeine dose, despite a fourfold variation in the latter. Increasing beverage strength was associated with greater increases in DBP and energetic arousal. In study 2, caffeinated beverages increased SBP, DBP, and skin conductance and lowered heart rate and skin temperature compared to water. Significant dose-response relationships to caffeine were seen only for SBP, heart rate, and skin temperature. There were significant effects of caffeine on energetic arousal but no consistent dose-response effects. Caffeinated beverages acutely stimulate the autonomic nervous system and increase alertness. Although caffeine can exert dose-dependent effects on a number of acute autonomic responses, caffeine level is not an important factor. Factors besides caffeine may contribute to these acute effects.

  16. The acute effect of cigarette smoking on the high-sensitivity CRP and fibrinogen biomarkers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, W.D. van; Akkermans, R.P.; Heijdra, Y.F.; Weel, C. van; Schermer, T.R.J.; Scheepers, P.T.J.; Lenders, J.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The evidence on the acute effects of smoking on biomarkers is limited. Our aim was to study the acute effect of smoking on disease-related biomarkers. Methods: The acute effect of smoking on serum high sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) and plasma fibrinogen and its association with disease severity was

  17. Effect of neonatal handling on adult rat spatial learning and memory following acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatakis, A; Pondiki, S; Kitraki, E; Diamantopoulou, A; Panagiotaropoulos, T; Raftogianni, A; Stylianopoulou, F

    2008-03-01

    Brief neonatal handling permanently alters hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function resulting in increased ability to cope with stress. Since stress is known to affect cognitive abilities, in the present study we investigated the effect of brief (15 min) handling on learning and memory in the Morris water maze, following exposure to an acute restraint stress either before training or recall. Exposure of non-handled rats to the acute stress prior to training resulted in quicker learning of the task, than in the absence of the stressor. When acute stress preceded acquisition, male handled rats showed an overall better learning performance, and both sexes of handled animals were less impaired in the subsequent memory trial, compared to the respective non-handled. In addition, the number of neurons immunoreactive for GR was higher in all areas of Ammon's horn of the handled rats during the recall. In contrast, the number of neurons immunoreactive for MR was higher in the CA1 and CA2 areas of the non-handled males. When the acute restraint stress was applied prior to the memory test, neonatal handling was not effective in preventing mnemonic impairment, as all animal groups showed a similar deficit in recall. In this case, no difference between handled and non-handled rats was observed in the number of GR positive neurons in the CA2 and CA3 hippocampal areas during the memory test. These results indicate that early experience interacts with sex and acute stress exposure in adulthood to affect performance in the water maze. Hippocampal corticosterone receptors may play a role in determining the final outcome.

  18. Inhibitory Effect of Helicteres gardneriana Ethanol Extract on Acute Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Oliveira de Melo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory effect of an ethanol extract of Helicteres gardneriana (Nees Castiglioni was assayed in experimental models of pleurisy and microcirculation in situ. Treatment of animals with 500 mg/kg body weight reduced the exudate volume (35% reduction induced by intrapleural injection of carrageenan and the migration of polymorphonuclear cells into the inflamed pleural cavity of rats (40%. Additionally, rolling and adhesion of leukocytes and the number of leukocytes that migrated toward the perivascular space in response to the carrageenan injection were decreased by the extract (500 mg/kg. These data demonstrate the anti-inflammatory effect of the ethanol extract of Helicteres gardneriana and imply that inhibition of leukocyte-endothelial interactions is important in the extract's mechanism of action.

  19. Acute and Delayed Effects of Melatonin: Operational Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    In mammals its primary sites circadian zeitgeber in humans have been much of production are the pineal gland and the retina, discussed (e.g. 5...proposed as an methoxytryptamine (melatonin). The rhythm of endogenous sleep substance, as an opener of the pineal synthesis is generated in the...8217hypnotic’ effect in both animals (cats, dark onset (the rise) and offset (the decline) and rats , chickens) and humans, reviewed by Cramer in reinforces

  20. Comprehensive Study of Acute Effects and Recovery After Concussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    impact exposure characteristics for different football positions and between games and practices, and highlighted the effects of head impact history on...project, as appropriate and indicated, not necessary waiting until full study completion. 21 • Website(s) or other Internet site(s) Nothing to...disability 2.0% Note. WTAR = Wechsler Test of Adult Reading standard score; ADHD = attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder .

  1. The effect of acute and chronic stress on growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sävendahl, Lars

    2012-10-23

    Impaired bone growth is observed in many children exposed to stress, but whether the underlying cause is psychological or secondary to a variety of chronic disorders is unclear. The growth plate is specifically targeted by stress through many different mechanisms, including increased serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and cortisol, as well as impaired actions of the growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis. Both glucocorticoids, such as cortisol, and proinflammatory cytokines adversely affect several aspects of chondrogenesis in the growth plate, and these effects can be ameliorated by raising local IGF-1 concentrations. However, this intervention does not completely normalize growth. In children with stress related to chronic inflammation, the cornerstone of improving stress-impaired growth remains the judicious use of glucocorticoids while ensuring effective control of the disease process. Specific immunomodulatory therapy that targets the actions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) is at least partially effective at rescuing linear growth in many children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Patients who do not respond to anti-TNF treatment may be candidates for therapeutic agents that target other proinflammatory cytokines and for GH intervention. Although GH treatment rescues linear growth in some patients with JIA, it is unknown whether GH can rescue growth in those patients who do not respond to anticytokine therapy. Further experimental and clinical studies are needed to explore these and other new potential treatment strategies that could improve bone growth in patients who do not respond to conventional therapy.

  2. Rays Sting: The Acute Cellular Effects of Ionizing Radiation Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, A; Ciccarelli, M; Sorriento, D; Napolitano, L; Fiordelisi, A; Trimarco, B; Durante, M; Iaccarino, G

    2016-05-01

    High-precision radiation therapy is a clinical approach that uses the targeted delivery of ionizing radiation, and the subsequent formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in high proliferative, radiation sensitive cancers. In particular, in thoracic cancer ratdiation treatments, can not avoid a certain amount of cardiac toxicity. Given the low proliferative rate of cardiac myocytes, research has looked at the effect of radiation on endothelial cells and consequent coronary heart disease as the mechanism of ratdiation induced cardiotoxicity. In fact, little is known concerning the direct effect of radiation on mitochondria dynamis in cardiomyocyte. The main effect of ionizing radiation is the production of ROS and recent works have uncovered that they directly participates to pivotal cell function like mitochondrial quality control. In particular ROS seems to act as check point within the cell to promote either mitochondrial biogenesis and survival or mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. Thus, it appears evident that the functional state of the cell, as well as the expression patterns of molecules involved in mitochondrial metabolism may differently modulate mitochondrial fate in response to radiation induced ROS responses. Different molecules have been described to localize to mitochondria and regulate ROS production in response to stress, in particular GRK2. In this review we will discuss the evidences on the cardiac toxicity induced by X ray radiation on cardiomyocytes with emphasis on the role played by mitochondria dynamism.

  3. The Effect of an Intraperitoneal Injection of Melatonin on Serum Amylase Levels in Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavit Çöl

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Context Several experimental studies have been carried out to explain the ph ysiopathological mechan isms and to introduce endocrinological, enzymatic, biochemical and histopathol ogical changes in organism s during acute pancreatitis. Objective To evaluate the effect of an intraperitoneal injection of melatonin on serum amylase levels. Design Experimental acut e pancreatitis was experimentally caused through panc reatic duct ligation in 20 Winstar Albino rats . The rats were then divided into two groups: control and melatonin groups. Intervention The serum amylase level was measured on the 7 th day after acute pancreatitis had developed. In the melatonin group, an intraperitoneal injecti on of melatonin (20 mg/kg/day was performed starting from the 2 nd day after pancreatic duct ligation. Main outcome measure The levels of serum amylase were measured with an auto analyzer. Results It was found that the mean (±SD level of serum amylase in th e control group was 947±182 IU/mL wh ile it was 358±177 IU/mL in the experimental group (P<0.001. Conclusions The 20 mg/kg/day intraperitoneal injection of melatonin which was carried out for one week attenuated the serum amylase levels to a statistically si gnificant degree. The researchers believe that intraperitoneal in jections of melatonin decrease the severity of acute pancreatitis.

  4. Effect of acute alcohol use on the lethality of suicide attempts in patients with mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Leo; Oquendo, Maria A; Richardson-Vejlgaard, Randall; Makhija, Nita M; Posner, Kelly; Mann, J John; Stanley, Barbara H

    2009-07-01

    Acute alcohol use is an important risk factor for attempted and completed suicide. We evaluated the effect of acute alcohol intake on the lethality of suicide attempts to test the hypothesis that acute alcohol intoxication is associated with more lethal suicide attempts. This retrospective study included 317 suicide attempters enrolled in mood disorders protocols. Demographic and clinical parameters were assessed. The use of alcohol at the time of the most lethal suicide attempt was determined. On the basis of their responses participants were classified into three groups: participants who reported "Enough alcohol intake to impair judgment, reality testing and diminish responsibility" or "Intentional intake of alcohol in order to facilitate implementation of attempt" were included in the group "Alcohol" (A); participants who reported "Some alcohol intake prior to but not related to attempt, reportedly not enough to impair judgment, reality testing" were included in the group "Some Alcohol" (SA); and participants who reported "No alcohol intake immediately prior to attempt" were included in the group "No Alcohol" (NA). Lethality of the most lethal suicide attempts was higher in the A group compared to the SA and NA groups. Prevalence of patients with alcohol use disorders was higher in the A group compared to the SA and NA groups. SA participants reported more reasons for living and lower suicide intent scores at the time of their most lethal suicide attempt compared to the A and NA groups. Acute alcohol use increases the lethality of suicide attempts in individuals with mood disorders.

  5. Ivabradine: Cardioprotection By and Beyond Heart Rate Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusch, Gerd; Kleinbongard, Petra

    2016-05-01

    Ivabradine inhibits hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels in the sinus node, thereby reducing heart rate, and heart rate reduction improves regional myocardial blood flow and contractile function in ischemic myocardium. Accordingly, ivabradine reduces anginal symptoms in patients with stable coronary artery disease but does not improve their clinical outcome. Heart rate reduction with ivabradine in patients with symptomatic heart failure reduces symptoms, attenuates remodeling, and improves clinical outcome. In pigs and mice, ivabradine reduces infarct size from myocardial ischemia/reperfusion, even when heart rate reduction is abrogated by atrial pacing. Improved viability is also observed in isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes subjected to simulated ischemia/reperfusion. These beneficial effects are attributed to reduced reactive oxygen species formation from the mitochondria. There is also evidence for a heart rate-independent benefit from ivabradine in the vasculature of mice and humans, and in left ventricular contractile function of pigs. Finally, in mice, ivabradine also has anti-aging potential.

  6. Exploring newer cardioprotective strategies: ω-3 fatty acids in perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Tremoli, Elena; Tufano, Antonella; Russolillo, Anna; Lupoli, Roberta; Di Minno, Giovanni

    2010-10-01

    In the 1980s, observational retrospective studies showed an inverse relation between coronary heart disease (CHD) and consumption of fish containing fatty acids that belong to the omega (ω)-3 family. Large case-control studies and prospective intervention trials consistently showed that ω-3 fatty acids supplementation lowers fatal myocardial infarction (MI) and sudden cardiac death. By analysing the strengths of the results of individual studies and how the meta-analyses agree with them, putting together relevant backgrounds, and identifying open questions, the following findings/directions emerge. (i) Dietary and non-dietary intake of ω-3 fatty acids reduces overall mortality, mortality due to MI, and sudden death in patients with CHD; (ii) Fish oil consumption directly or indirectly affects cardiac electrophysiology. Fish oil reduces heart rate, a major risk factor for sudden death; (iii) Among patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators, ω-3 fatty acids do not reduce the risk of ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation and may actually be pro-arrhythmic; (iv) The consumption of ω-3 fatty acids leads to a 10-33% net decrease of triglyceride levels. The effect is dose-dependent, larger in studies with higher mean baseline triglyceride levels, and consistent in different populations (healthy people, people with dyslipidaemia, diabetes, or known cardiovascular risk factors); (v) Outcomes for which a small beneficial effect ω-3 fatty acids is found include blood pressure (about 2 mmHg reduction), re-stenosis rates after coronary angioplasty (14% reduction), and exercise tolerance testing. Major experimental data provide strength (biological plausibility) for these findings, and define directions for newer clinical trials with ω-3 fatty acids.

  7. Acute cognitive effects of high doses of dextromethorphan relative to triazolam in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lawrence P.; Reissig, Chad J.; Johnson, Matthew W.; Klinedinst, Margaret A.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although concerns surrounding high-dose dextromethorphan (DXM) abuse have recently increased, few studies have examined the acute cognitive effects of high doses of DXM. The aim of this study was to compare the cognitive effects of DXM with those of triazolam and placebo. METHODS Single, acute, oral doses of DXM (100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800 mg/70 kg), triazolam (0.25, 0.5 mg /70 kg), and placebo were administered p.o. to twelve healthy volunteers with histories of hallucinogen use, under double-blind conditions, using an ascending dose run-up design. Effects on cognitive performance were examined at baseline and after drug administration for up to 6 hours. RESULTS Both triazolam and DXM produced acute impairments in attention, working memory, episodic memory, and metacognition. Impairments observed following doses of 100-300 mg/70 kg DXM were generally smaller in magnitude than those observed after 0.5 mg/70 kg triazolam. Doses of DXM that impaired performance to the same extent as triazolam were in excess of 10-30 times the therapeutic dose of DXM. CONCLUSION The magnitude of the doses required for these effects and the absence of effects on some tasks within the 100-300 mg/70 kg dose range of DXM, speak to the relatively broad therapeutic window of over-the-counter DXM preparations when used appropriately. However, the administration of supratherapeutic doses of DXM resulted in acute cognitive impairments on all tasks that were examined. These findings are likely relevant to cases of high-dose DXM abuse. PMID:22989498

  8. Acute effects of inhaled urban particles and ozone: lung morphology, macrophage activity, and plasma endothelin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouthillier, L; Vincent, R; Goegan, P; Adamson, I Y; Bjarnason, S; Stewart, M; Guénette, J; Potvin, M; Kumarathasan, P

    1998-12-01

    We studied acute responses of rat lungs to inhalation of urban particulate matter and ozone. Exposure to particles (40 mg/m3 for 4 hours; mass median aerodynamic diameter, 4 to 5 microm; Ottawa urban dust, EHC-93), followed by 20 hours in clean air, did not result in acute lung injury. Nevertheless, inhalation of particles resulted in decreased production of nitric oxide (nitrite) and elevated secretion of macrophage inflammatory protein-2 from lung lavage cells. Inhalation of ozone (0.8 parts per million for 4 hours) resulted in increased neutrophils and protein in lung lavage fluid. Ozone alone also decreased phagocytosis and nitric oxide production and stimulated endothelin-1 secretion by lung lavage cells but did not modify secretion of macrophage inflammatory protein-2. Co-exposure to particles potentiated the ozone-induced septal cellularity in the central acinus but without measurable exacerbation of the ozone-related alveolar neutrophilia and permeability to protein detected by lung lavage. The enhanced septal thickening was associated with elevated production of both macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and endothelin-1 by lung lavage cells. Interestingly, inhalation of urban particulate matter increased the plasma levels of endothelin-1, but this response was not influenced by the synergistic effects of ozone and particles on centriacinar septal tissue changes. This suggests an impact of the distally distributed particulate dose on capillary endothelial production or filtration of the vasoconstrictor. Overall, equivalent patterns of effects were observed after a single exposure or three consecutive daily exposures to the pollutants. The experimental data are consistent with epidemiological evidence for acute pulmonary effects of ozone and respirable particulate matter and suggest a possible mechanism whereby cardiovascular effects may be induced by particle exposure. In a broad sense, acute biological effects of respirable particulate matter from ambient air

  9. Myocardium-protective effect of ticagrelor combined with emergency PCI treatment of acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Jun Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the myocardium-protective effect of ticagrelor combined with emergency PCI treatment of acute myocardial infarction and explore the possible molecular mechanisms. Methods:A total of 84 patients with acute myocardial infarction who received emergency PCI treatment in our hospital from February 2014 to October 2015 were selected for study and randomly divided into and ticagrelor group and clopidogrel group that received different perioperative anti-platelet therapy. Degree of myocardial cell damage, cardiac pump function as well as blood perfusion and platelet aggregation function of two groups were evaluated. Results:Before as well as 10 min and 24 h after PCI, plasma CK-MB and cTnI levels as well as maximum platelet aggregation rate and P2Y12 reaction unit of ticagrelor group were significantly lower than those of clopidogrel group, and ADP-way platelet inhibition rate were higher than those of clopidogrel group; after PCI, TIMI blood flow grade, TMP myocardial perfusion grade and LVEF of ticagrelor group were significantly higher than those of clopidogrel group, LVEDD was significantly lower than that of clopidogrel group and the number of cases with no reflow/slow flow was less than that of clopidogrel group. Conclusions:The myocardium-protective effect of ticagrelor combined with emergency PCI treatment of acute myocardial infarction is better than that of clopidogrel, and ticagrelor can enhance the anti-platelet aggregation effect to exert myocardium-protective effect.

  10. Effect of streptokinase on human neutrophil function in vitro and in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P R; Kharazmi, A

    1994-01-01

    The clinical benefit of streptokinase (SK) in the treatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction may be influenced by effects other than myocardial reperfusion per se. Polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) have been hypothesized to participate in the process of reperfusion injury in the pos......The clinical benefit of streptokinase (SK) in the treatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction may be influenced by effects other than myocardial reperfusion per se. Polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) have been hypothesized to participate in the process of reperfusion injury...... in the postischemic myocardium. The purpose of the present study was therefore to investigate the effect of SK on human PMN function in vitro, and ex vivo in patients with acute myocardial infarction. SK was not in itself chemotactic to PMNs, and preincubation with SK did not alter the chemotactic response of PMNs...... to formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (FMLP) or zymosan-activated serum. However, incubation of fresh citrated plasma with SK resulted in the generation of chemotactic activity, and this effect was dependent on complement activation by SK. In experiments with PMNs from 20 health donors, preincubation of plasma and SK...

  11. Ecological effects of various toxic agents on the aquatic microcosm in comparison with acute ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuma, S. E-mail: fuma@nirs.go.jp; Ishii, N.; Takeda, H.; Miyamoto, K.; Yanagisawa, K.; Ichimasa, Y.; Saito, M.; Kawabata, Z.; Polikarpov, G.G

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this study was an evaluation of the effect levels of various toxic agents compared with acute doses of ionizing radiation for the experimental model ecosystem, i.e., microcosm mimicking aquatic microbial communities. For this purpose, the authors used the microcosm consisting of populations of the flagellate alga Euglena gracilis as a producer, the ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila as a consumer and the bacterium Escherichia coli as a decomposer. Effects of aluminum and copper on the microcosm were investigated in this study, while effects of {gamma}-rays, ultraviolet radiation, acidification, manganese, nickel and gadolinium were reported in previous studies. The microcosm could detect not only the direct effects of these agents but also the community-level effects due to the interspecies interactions or the interactions between organisms and toxic agents. The authors evaluated doses or concentrations of each toxic agent which had the following effects on the microcosm: (1) no effects; (2) recognizable effects, i.e., decrease or increase in the cell densities of at least one species; (3) severe effects, i.e., extinction of one or two species; and (4) destructive effects, i.e., extinction of all species. The resulting effects data will contribute to an ecological risk assessment of the toxic agents compared with acute doses of ionizing radiation.

  12. Cardioprotection: A Review of Current Practice in Global Ischemia and Future Translational Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Habertheuer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of protecting the heart from ischemic insult during heart surgery to allow elective cardiac arrest is as old as the idea of cardiac surgery itself. The current gold standard in clinical routine is a high potassium regimen added either to crystalloid or blood cardioplegic solutions inducing depolarized arrest. Ongoing patient demographic changes with increasingly older, comorbidly ill patients and increasing case complexity with increasingly structurally abnormal hearts as morphological correlate paired with evolutions in pediatric cardiac surgery allowing more complex procedures than ever before redefine requirements for cardioprotection. Many, in part adversarial, regimens to protect the myocardium from ischemic insults have entered clinical routine; however, functional recovery of the heart is still often impaired due to perfusion injury. Myocardial reperfusion damage is a key determinant of postoperative organ functional recovery, morbidity, and mortality in adult and pediatric patients. There is a discrepancy between what current protective strategies are capable of and what they are expected to do in a rapidly changing cardiac surgery community. An increased understanding of the molecular players of ischemia reperfusion injury offers potential seeds for new cardioprotective regimens and may further displace boundaries of what is technically feasible.

  13. Chemical and biochemical mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective roles of dietary organopolysulfides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restituto eTocmo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Foods that are rich in organosulfides are highly regarded for their broad range of functions in disease prevention and health promotion since ancient time yet modern scientific study, particularly clinical studies could not agree with traditional wisdom. One of the complexities is due to the labile nature of organosulfides, which are often transformed to different structures depending on the processing conditions. The recent evidence of polysulfides as H2S donor may open up a new avenue for establishing structure and health promotion activity relationship. To put this development into perspective, we carried out a review on the recent development on the chemistry and biochemistry of organopolysulfides with emphasis on their cardioprotective property. Firstly, we briefly surveyed the foods that are rich in polysulfides and their structural diversity. This is followed by in-depth discussion on the chemical transformations of polysulfides under various processing conditions. We further reviewed the potential action mechanisms of polysulfides in cardioprotection through a hydrogen sulfide releasing activity; b radical scavenging activity; and c activity in enzyme inhibition and intervention of gene regulation pathways. Based on the literature trend, we can conclude that the emerging concept of organopolysulfides as naturally-occurring H2S donors is intriguing and warrants further research to establish the structure and activity relationship of the organopolysulfides as H2S donors.

  14. Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Malignancies and Acute Biological Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann

    The hypothesis being evaluated in this research program is that control of radiation induced oxidative stress will reduce the risk of radiation induced adverse biological effects occurring as a result of exposure to the types of radiation encountered during space travel. As part of this grant work, we have evaluated the protective effects of several antioxidants and dietary supplements and observed that a mixture of antioxidants (AOX), containing L-selenomethionine, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), ascorbic acid, vitamin E succinate, and alpha-lipoic acid, is highly effective at reducing space radiation induced oxidative stress in both in vivo and in vitro systems, space radiation induced cytotoxicity and malignant transformation in vitro [1-7]. In studies designed to determine whether the AOX formulation could affect radiation induced mortality [8], it was observed that the AOX dietary supplement increased the 30-day survival of ICR male mice following exposure to a potentially lethal dose (8 Gy) of X-rays when given prior to or after animal irradiation. Pretreatment of animals with antioxidants resulted in significantly higher total white blood cell and neutrophil counts in peripheral blood at 4 and 24 hours following exposure to doses of 1 Gy and 8 Gy. Antioxidant treatment also resulted in increased bone marrow cell counts following irradiation, and prevented peripheral lymphopenia following 1 Gy irradiation. Supplementation with antioxidants in irradiated animals resulted in several gene expression changes: the antioxidant treatment was associated with increased Bcl-2, and decreased Bax, caspase-9 and TGF-β1 mRNA expression in the bone marrow following irradiation. These results suggest that modulation of apoptosis may be mechanistically involved in hematopoietic system radioprotection by antioxidants. Maintenance of the antioxidant diet was associated with improved recovery of the bone marrow following sub-lethal or potentially lethal irradiation. Taken together

  15. Effects of acute electromagnetic fields exposure on the interhemispheric homotopic functional connectivity during resting state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Bin; Shao, Qing; Chen, Zhiye; Ma, Lin; Wu, Tongning

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we aimed to investigate the possible effects of acute radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the interhemispheric homotopic functional connectivity with resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique. We designed a controllable LTE-related EMF exposure environment at 2.573 GHz and performed the 30 min real/sham exposure experiments on human brain under the safety limits. The resting state fMRI signals were collected before and after EMF exposure. Then voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity method was utilized to evaluate the acute effects of LTE EMF exposure on the homotopic functional connectivity between two human hemispheres. Based on our previous research, we further demonstrated that the 30 min short-term LTE EMF exposure would modulate the interhemispheric homotopic functional connectivity in resting state around the medial frontal gyrus and the paracentral lobule during the real exposure.

  16. Protective effects of C-phycocyanin on alcohol-induced acute liver injury in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dong; Liu, Bing; Luan, Xiying; Sun, Junyan; Liu, Nana; Qin, Song; Du, Zhenning

    2016-03-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption leads to liver disease. Extensive evidence suggests that C-phycocyanin (C-PC), a chromophore phycocyanobilin derived from Spirulina platensis, exerts protective effects against chemical-induced organ damage. In this study, we investigated whether C-PC could protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (CHOL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), liver homogenate malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) content were measured, and pathological examination of liver sections were examined. C-PC showed obvious inhibitory effects on serum ALT, AST, TG, CHOL, LDL and MDA, and SOD content significantly increased in the liver. The structure of hepatic lobules was clear, liver sinus returned to normal, and liver cell cords were arranged in neat rows. Cloudiness, swelling, inflammatory cell infiltration and spotty necrosis of liver cells were significantly reduced. Therefore, C-PC can significantly protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury.

  17. Acute effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive function in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamijo, Keita; Hayashi, Yoichi; Sakai, Tomoaki; Yahiro, Tatsuhisa; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Nishihira, Yoshiaki

    2009-05-01

    The present study investigated the effects of acute aerobic exercise on cognitive brain functions of older adults. Twenty-four males (12 older and 12 younger adults) performed a modified flanker task during a baseline session (no exercise) and after light and moderate cycling exercise in counterbalanced order on different days while measures of task performance and the P3 component of an event-related brain potential were collected. The results indicated that, for both age groups, reaction time following moderate exercise was shorter relative to the other sessions, and P3 latencies following both light and moderate exercise were shorter compared with the baseline session. In contrast, P3 amplitude increased only following moderate exercise in younger adults. These findings suggest that light and moderate exercises improve cognitive function across the adult lifespan, although the mechanisms underlying the effects of observed acute aerobic exercise on cognitive function may be age dependent.

  18. The effect of acute stress on memory depends on word valence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Tom; Jelicic, Marko; Merckelbach, Harald

    2006-10-01

    The present study investigated the effect of acute stress on working memory and memory for neutral, emotionally negative, and emotionally positive words in healthy undergraduates. Participants (N=60) were exposed to either the Trier Social Stress Test (stress group) or a non-stressful task (control group). Analyses of salivary cortisol samples taken throughout the study showed elevated glucocorticoid levels after the experimental manipulation in the stress group, but not in the control group. Recall performance was impaired in the stress group, but only so for neutral words. No differences between the stress and control group were found on working memory measures. For the stress group, digit span forward and digit span total scores were associated with correct recall of neutral words. All in all, this study lends further support to the notion that the memory effects of exposure to acute stress depend on the valence of the memory material.

  19. Acute marijuana effects on response-reinforcer relations under multiple variable-interval schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, S D; Cherek, D R; Pietras, C J; Tcheremissine, O V

    2004-07-01

    Acute marijuana administration may alter response-reinforcer relationships via a change in reinforcer efficacy, but may also impair coordination and motor function. One approach to evaluating drug effects on both motor function and reinforcer efficacy involves fitting the matching law equation to data obtained under multiple variable interval (VI) schedules. The present report describes an experiment that examined the effects of acute marijuana on response properties using this approach. Six human subjects responded under a multiple VI schedule for monetary reinforcers after smoking placebo and two active doses of marijuana. The low marijuana dose produced unsystematic changes in responding. As measured by the matching law equation parameters (k and rB), at the high dose five subjects showed a decrease-motor-related properties of response rate and four subjects' responding indicated a decrease in reinforcer efficacy. These data raise the possibility that, at high doses, marijuana administration alters both motor function and reinforcer efficacy.

  20. Acute hyperinsulinemia decreases plasma osteoprotegerin with diminished effect in type 2 diabetes and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Gitte Maria; Vind, Birgitte; Nybo, Mads;

    2009-01-01

    the acute effects of insulin on plasma OPG concentrations in individuals with type 2 diabetes and obese individuals compared with lean controls. DESIGN: The study population consisted of ten type 2 diabetic, ten obese subjects, and ten lean subjects with no family history of diabetes. METHODS: All subjects...... infusion decreased plasma OPG concentrations in all groups (Pobese and type 2 diabetic individuals (P=0.007). Baseline OPG correlated with fasting insulin, baseline lactate, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the diabetic group, and with baseline FFA...... in the lean group. The relative change of OPG in response to insulin correlated inversely with HbA1c and baseline FFA in the lean group. CONCLUSIONS: Acute hyperinsulinemia decreases plasma OPG, but with diminished effect in individuals with type 2 diabetes and obesity. Increased levels of OPG in arteries...

  1. Cisplatin-induced cardiotoxicity: Mechanisms and cardioprotective strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Awady, El-Sayed E; Moustafa, Yasser M; Abo-Elmatty, Dina M; Radwan, Asmaa

    2011-01-10

    Increased oxidative stress and apoptosis have been implicated in the cardiotoxicity that limits the clinical use of cisplatin as an anti-tumoral drug. Our study was conducted to evaluate the protective potential of acetyl-l-carnitine, DL-α-lipoic acid and silymarin against cisplatin-induced myocardial injury. Eighty male albino rats were divided into eight groups. The first four groups were treated with normal saline, acetyl-l-carnitine (500mg/kg, i.p.), DL-α-lipoic acid (100mg/kg, p.o.) and silymarin (100mg/kg, p.o.) respectively, for 10 successive days. The remaining groups were treated with the same doses of normal saline, acetyl-l-carnitine, DL-α-lipoic acid and silymarin, respectively, for 5 successive days before and after a single dose of cisplatin (10mg/kg, i.p.). Serum activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CK-MB) and plasma cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentration were estimated. Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) contents, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) and protein content in cardiac tissues were measured. Moreover, integrity of both mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA (nDNA) was also examined. Cisplatin-treated rats experienced a significant elevation of serum activities of LDH, CK, CK-MB and cTnI plasma concentration. These effects were accompanied by a significant increase in MDA level. On the other hand, a significant decrease in GSH content, SOD activity and total protein content was observed. In addition, both mtDNA and nDNA were heavily damaged. However, acetyl-l-carnitine, DL-α-lipoic acid and silymarin significantly attenuated the cisplatin-evoked disturbances in the above-mentioned parameters. In conclusion, the former drugs were proven to be potential candidates to ameliorate cisplatin-induced cardiotoxicity.

  2. Gadolinium ring enhancement and mass effect in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyden, C.H. van der (Dept. of Neurology, Univ. of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa)); Villiers, J.F.K. de (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa)); Middlecote, B.D. (Dept. of Anatomical Pathology, Univ. of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa)); Terblanche, J. (Dept. of Neurology, Univ. of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa))

    1994-04-01

    A 9-year-old boy presented with a subacute history of optic neuritis followed by brainstem involvement, with fever and a lymphocytic pleocytosis in the cerebrospinal fluid. Gadolinium-enhancing ring lesions were demonstrated in the white matter of the cerebrum, brainstem and cerebellum on day 17 of the illness, all appearing simultaneously as part of a monophasic illmess. A parietal lesion exerted mass effect. Needling and biopsy yielded no evidence of a pyogenic lesion, tumour or tuberculosis and showed vasculitis. There was insufficient material for myelin staining. Dexamethasone therapy lead to rapid improvement of the radiological lesions: MRI and CT on day 34 of the illness showed complete clearing of the lesions except for residual abnormality at the biopsy site. (orig.)

  3. Effects of Acute Exposures to Carbon Dioxide Upon Cognitive Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, R. R.; Alexander, D. J.; Ryder, V. E.; Lam, C. W.; Statish, U.; Basner, M.

    2016-01-01

    Large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2) originate from human metabolism and typically, within spacecraft, remain about 10-fold higher in concentration than at the earth's surface. There have been recurring complaints by crew members of episodes of "mental viscosity" adversely affecting their performance, and there is evidence from the International Space Station (ISS) that associates CO2 levels with reports of headaches by crewmembers. Additionally, there is concern that CO2 may contribute to vision impairment and intracranial pressure that has been observed in some crewmembers. Consequently, flight rules have been employed to control the level of CO2 below 4 mm Hg, which is well below the existing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentration (SMAC) of 10 mm Hg for 24-hour exposures, and 5.3 mm Hg for exposures of 7 to 180 days. However, the flight rule imposed limit, which places additional demands upon resources and current technology, still exceeds the lower bound of the threshold range for reportable headaches (2 - 5 mm Hg). Headaches, while sometime debilitating themselves, are also symptoms that can provide evidence that physiological defense mechanisms have been breached. The causes of the headaches may elicit other subtle adverse effects that occur at CO2 levels well below that for headaches. The concern that CO2 may have effects at levels below the threshold for headaches appears to be substantiated in unexpected findings that CO2 at concentrations below 2 mm Hg substantially reduced some cognitive functions that are associated with the ability to make complex decisions in conditions that are characterized by volatility, uncertainty, complexity, ambiguity, and delayed feedback. These are conditions that could be encountered by crews in off-nominal situations or during the first missions beyond low earth orbit. If findings of the earlier study are confirmed in crew-like subjects, our findings would provide additional evidence that CO2 may need to be

  4. Effects of gabapentin in acute inflammatory pain in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, M U; Perkins, F M; Holte, Kathrine;

    2001-01-01

    stimuli (visual analog scale [VAS]), assessments of thermal and mechanical detection thresholds, and areas of secondary hyperalgesia. Side effects drowsiness and postural instability were assessed by subjective ratings (VAS). RESULTS: The burn injury induced significant primary and secondary hyperalgesia......,200 mg or placebo was given on 2 separate study days. Three hours after drug administration, a first-degree burn injury was produced on the medial aspect of the nondominant calf (12.5 cm(2), 47 degrees C for 7 minutes). Quantitative sensory testing (QST) included pain ratings to thermal and mechanical...... (P hyperalgesia, but the reduction was not significant (P =.06). Heat pain thresholds, pain during the burn, and mechanical pain in the area of secondary hyperalgesia were...

  5. Effect of acute thioacetamide administration on rat brain phospholipid metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osada, J.; Aylagas, H.; Miro-Obradors, M.J.; Arce, C.; Palacios-Alaiz, E.; Cascales, M. (Tufs Univ., Boston, MA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    Brain phospholipid composition and the ({sup 32}P)orthophosphate incorporation into brain phospholipids of control and rats treated for 3 days with thioacetamide were studied. Brain phospholipid content, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, lysolecithin and phosphatidic acid did not show any significant change by the effect of thioacetamide. In contrast, thioacetamide induced a significant decrease in the levels of phosphatidylserine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylinositol and diphosphatidylglycerol. After 75 minutes of intraperitoneal label injection, specific radioactivity of all the above phospholipids with the exception of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine significantly increased. After 13 hours of isotope administration the specific radioactivity of almost all studied phospholipid classes was elevated, except for phosphatidic acid, the specific radioactivity of which did not change and for diphosphatidylglycerol which showed a decrease in specific radioactivity. These results suggest that under thioacetamide treatment brain phospholipids undergo metabolic transformations that may contribute to the hepatic encephalopathy induced by thioacetamide.

  6. Effects of Shuxuetong injection applied in acute ischemic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of Shuxuetong injection in adjuvant treatment of ischemic stroke on the degree of nerve injury, lipid metabolism and blood coagulation function. Methods: Patients with ischemic stroke admitted in our hospital during the period from May 2012 to May 2015 were selected for retrospective analysis. They were divided into the control group receiving regular treatment and the Shuxuetong group receiving adjuvant treatment with Shuxuetong injection. One and the three months after treatment, serum was collected and nerve injury molecules, indexes of lipid metabolism and blood coagulation function were measured. Results: One month after treatment, the contents of neuron-specific enolase, S100 cal-cium binding protein B, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, oxidized low-density lipoprotein, thromboxane B2, fibrinogen and D-dimer in the serum of patients from Shuxuetong group were significantly lower than those of control group. The con-tents of high-density lipoprotein and 6-keto prostaglandin F1a were significantly higher than those of control group. Three months after treatment, the contents of neuron-specific enolase, S100 calcium binding protein B, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density li-poprotein, oxidized low-density lipoprotein, thromboxane B2, fibrinogen and D-dimer in the serum of patients from Shuxuetong group were significantly lower than those of control group. The contents of high-density lipoprotein and 6-keto prostaglandin F1a were significantly higher than those of control group. Conclusions: Adjuvant treatment with Shuxuetong injection can reduce the injury of nerve function of patients with ischemic stroke and improve blood lipid metabolism and blood coagulation function, which is an effective drug for the treatment of ischemic stroke.

  7. Effects of Shuxuetong injection applied in acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effects of Shuxuetong injection in adjuvant treatment of ischemic stroke on the degree of nerve injury, lipid metabolism and blood coagulation function. Methods: Patients with ischemic stroke admitted in our hospital during the period from May 2012 to May 2015 were selected for retrospective analysis. They were divided into the control group receiving regular treatment and the Shuxuetong group receiving adjuvant treatment with Shuxuetong injection. One and the three months after treatment, serum was collected and nerve injury molecules, indexes of lipid metabolism and blood coagulation function were measured. Results: One month after treatment, the contents of neuron-specific enolase, S100 calcium binding protein B, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, oxidized low-density lipoprotein, thromboxane B2, fibrinogen and D-dimer in the serum of patients from Shuxuetong group were significantly lower than those of control group. The contents of high-density lipoprotein and 6-keto prostaglandin F1a were significantly higher than those of control group. Three months after treatment, the contents of neuron-specific enolase, S100 calcium binding protein B, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, oxidized low-density lipoprotein, thromboxane B2, fibrinogen and D-dimer in the serum of patients from Shuxuetong group were significantly lower than those of control group. The contents of high-density lipoprotein and 6-keto prostaglandin F1a were significantly higher than those of control group. Conclusions: Adjuvant treatment with Shuxuetong injection can reduce the injury of nerve function of patients with ischemic stroke and improve blood lipid metabolism and blood coagulation function, which is an effective drug for the treatment of ischemic stroke.

  8. Effect of Acute Administration of loganin on Spatial Memory in Diabetic Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gisou Mohaddes; Saeideh Hasani Azami; Shirin Babri

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Diabetes is associated with memory and learning disorder. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of acute oral administration of loganin on memory in diabetic male rats. Methods: 42 male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were divided into six groups: Control, Diabetic (1 week), Diabetic (12 weeks), Loganin, Diabetic (1 week) + Loganin, Diabetic (12 weeks) + Loganin. Diabetes was induced by IP injection of Streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). Loganin (40 mg/kg, po) was administrate...

  9. Converging evidence for central 5-HT effects in acute tryptophan depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crockett, Molly; Clark, Luke; Roiser, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Acute tryptophan depletion (ATD), a dietary technique for manipulating brain serotonin (5-HT) function, has advanced our understanding of 5-HT mechanisms in the etiology and treatment of depression and other affective disorders.1 A recent review article in Molecular Psychiatry questioned the vali...... stimulated 5-HT release,3, 4 and converging translational findings support a central role for brain 5-HT in ATD's effects on cognition and behavior....

  10. Acute effects of two different stretching techniques on isokinetic strength and power

    OpenAIRE

    Ayala, F.; De Ste Croix, M; Sainz de Baranda, P.; Santonja, F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To examine and compare the acute effects of short duration static and dynamic lower-limb stretching routines on the knee flexor and extensor peak torque and mean power during maximal concentric and eccentric muscle actions. Method: Forty-nine active adults completed the following intervention protocols on separate days: non-stretching, static stretching and dynamic stretching. After the stretching or control intervention, concentric and eccentric isokinetic peak torque and mean...

  11. An Uncommon Side Effect of Bupropion: A Case of Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Tak; Cengiz Koçak; Gülben Sarıcı; Nazlı Dizen Namdar; Mehtap Kıdır

    2015-01-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a rare inflammatory dermatosis characterized by multiple nonfollicular pustules that occur on erythematous skin. Despite its similarity to pustular psoriasis and association with fever and leukocytosis, AGEP typically heals quickly. Etiologically, drugs and viruses have been suspected in most cases. Here, we present a case of AGEP, in a woman, that developed 1 day after starting bupropion for smoking cessation, as a rare side effect of the ...

  12. Protective effect of ghrelin against paraquatinduced acute lung injury in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑶

    2014-01-01

    Objective To measure the levels of ghrelin-induced expression or activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-re-lated factor 2(Nrf2),heme oxygenase-1(HO-1),and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1(NQO1)in the PQ-injured lungs of mice and to evaluate the protective effect of ghrelin against paraquat(PQ)-induced acute lung injury in mice.Methods According to the random number table method,50 ICR mice of clean grade were

  13. An Uncommon Side Effect of Bupropion: A Case of Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Tak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP is a rare inflammatory dermatosis characterized by multiple nonfollicular pustules that occur on erythematous skin. Despite its similarity to pustular psoriasis and association with fever and leukocytosis, AGEP typically heals quickly. Etiologically, drugs and viruses have been suspected in most cases. Here, we present a case of AGEP, in a woman, that developed 1 day after starting bupropion for smoking cessation, as a rare side effect of the treatment.

  14. Effect of Sodium Alginate Addition to Resveratrol on Acute Gouty Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Resveratrol has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, while sodium alginate is a common pharmaceutic adjuvant with antioxidative and immunomodulatory properties. We performed an animal study to investigate the effect of sodium alginate addition to resveratrol on acute gouty arthritis. Methods: Twenty-four SPF Wistar mice were randomized to four groups receiving the combination of sodium alginate and resveratrol, resveratrol alone, colchicine, and placebo, respectively. Acute gouty arthritis was induced by injection of 0.05 ml monosodium urate (MSU solution (25g/mL into ankle joint cavity. IL-1β, CCR5, and CXCL10 levels in both serum and synovial fluid were measured using ELISA. NLRP3 expression in the synovial tissues was measured using western plot. Results: The combination of sodium alginate and resveratrol significantly reduced synovial levels of IL-1β, CCR5, and CXCL10 when compared with colchicines, and all P values were less than 0.0001. The combination of sodium alginate and resveratrol was also superior to resveratrol in terms of both serum levels and synovial levels of IL-1β, CCR5, and CXCL10. In addition, resveratrol, with or without sodium alginate, could reduce NLRP3 expression obviously in the synovial tissues. Conclusion: The combination of sodium alginate and resveratrol has better effect over colchicines in treating MSU-induced acute gouty arthritis.

  15. Divergent effects of RIP1 or RIP3 blockade in murine models of acute liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, M; Graffeo, C S; Rokosh, R; Pansari, M; Ochi, A; Levie, E M; Van Heerden, E; Tippens, D M; Greco, S; Barilla, R; Tomkötter, L; Zambirinis, C P; Avanzi, N; Gulati, R; Pachter, H L; Torres-Hernandez, A; Eisenthal, A; Daley, D; Miller, G

    2015-05-07

    Necroptosis is a recently described Caspase 8-independent method of cell death that denotes organized cellular necrosis. The roles of RIP1 and RIP3 in mediating hepatocyte death from acute liver injury are incompletely defined. Effects of necroptosis blockade were studied by separately targeting RIP1 and RIP3 in diverse murine models of acute liver injury. Blockade of necroptosis had disparate effects on disease outcome depending on the precise etiology of liver injury and component of the necrosome targeted. In ConA-induced autoimmune hepatitis, RIP3 deletion was protective, whereas RIP1 inhibition exacerbated disease, accelerated animal death, and was associated with increased hepatocyte apoptosis. Conversely, in acetaminophen-mediated liver injury, blockade of either RIP1 or RIP3 was protective and was associated with lower NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Our work highlights the fact that diverse modes of acute liver injury have differing requirements for RIP1 and RIP3; moreover, within a single injury model, RIP1 and RIP3 blockade can have diametrically opposite effects on tissue damage, suggesting that interference with distinct components of the necrosome must be considered separately.

  16. Effect of quinapril or metoprolol on circadian sympathetic and parasympathetic modulation after acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontopoulos, A G; Athyros, V G; Papageorgiou, A A; Boudoulas, H

    1999-11-15

    Abnormal autonomic nervous system impairment in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has a circadian pattern with the greatest manifestation in the morning hours; it probably plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiac arrhythmias and acute ischemic syndromes. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors improve autonomic function in patients with AMI, but the circadian pattern of this effect has not been studied. Heart rate variability-normalized frequency domain indexes were assessed 5 days (baseline) after the onset of uncomplicated AMI and 30 days after therapy with quinapril (n = 30), metoprolol (n = 30), or placebo (n = 30) with a solid-state digital Holter monitor. Normal subjects (n = 30) were used as controls. Quinapril increased parasympathetic and decreased sympathetic modulation, and improved sympathovagal interactions manifested by an increase in normalized high-frequency power (HFP), and a decrease in normalized low-frequency power (LFP), and their ratio (LFP/HFP) during the entire 24-hour period (pMetoprolol increased HFP and decreased LFP and the LFP/HFP ratio mainly between 08.00 A.M. to 12.00 noon, and 19.00 to 22.00 P.M. (delta% ratio -21%, and -12% respectively, pMetoprolol had a similar effect during the late morning and evening hours, but at a lower level. These effects may prove beneficial in reducing cardiac arrhythmias and acute ischemic syndromes in past-AMI patients.

  17. Acute and chronic effects from pulse exposure of D. magna to silver and copper oxide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Rasmussen, Rose

    2016-01-01

    , and afterwards transferred to clean medium and observed for 48 h (post-exposure period) for acute effects and for 21 d for chronic effects. AgNO3 and CuCl2 were used as reference materials for dissolved silver and copper, respectively. For all test materials, a 3 h pulse caused comparable immobility in D. magna...... decreased more with increasing concentrations than for CuCl2 exposures when taking the measured dissolved copper into account. This indicates a nanoparticle-specific effect for CuONPs, possibly related to the CuONPs accumulated in the gut of D. magna during the pulse exposure. Pulse exposure...

  18. Effects of budesonide and N-acetylcysteine on acute lung hyperinflation, inflammation and injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Anne-Helene; Eriksson, Christina; Wang, Xiangdong

    2005-08-01

    Leukocyte activation and production of inflammatory mediators and reactive oxygen species are important in the pathogenesis of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury. The present study investigated acute lung hyperinflation, edema, and lung inflammation 4 h after an intratracheal instillation of LPS (0.5, 2.5, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, 1000, and 5000 microg/ml/kg). Effects of budesonide, an inhaled anti-inflammatory corticosteroids, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, were evaluated in Wistar rats receiving either low (2.5 microg/ml/kg) or high (50 microg/ml/kg) concentrations of LPS. This study demonstrates that LPS in a concentration-dependent pattern induces acute lung hyperinflation measured by excised lung gas volume (25-45% above control), lung injury indicated by increased lung weight (10-60%), and lung inflammation characterized by the infiltration of leukocytes (40-14000%) and neutrophils (80-17000%) and the production of cytokines (up to 2700%) and chemokines (up to 350%) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Pretreatment with NAC partially prevented tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) production induced by the low concentration of LPS, while pretreatment with budesonide totally prevented the increased production of TNFalpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractive protein (MCP)-1 after LPS challenge at both low and high concentrations. Budesonide failed to prevent BALF levels of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 (GRO/CINC-1) as well as lung hyperinflation induced by both low and high concentrations of LPS. Pretreatment with budesonide totally prevented the formation of lung edema at the low concentration of LPS and had partial effects on acute lung injury and leukocyte influx at the high concentrations. Thus, our data indicate that therapeutic effects of budesonide and NAC are dependent upon the severity of the disease.

  19. Effects of Acute and Chronic Cold Stress on Antioxidant Function in Intestinal Tracts of Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Ming; Yu Xian-yi; Li Jin-long; Han Yan-hui; Li Shu; Xu Shi-wen

    2012-01-01

    This study was to investigate the effects of cold stress on the contents of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in duodenum, jejunum and ileum of chickens. A total of 80 15-dayold male chickens were treated by cold stress with the duration of the acute cold stress being 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h, and the chronic cold stress was 5, 10, and 20 days, respectively. Cold stress temperature was (12±1)℃. The chemical colorimetric method was used to detect the changes of the T-AOC, SOD activities and MDA contents. The results showed that compared with the corresponding control group, effects of acute cold stress on the T-AOC in duodenum, jejunum and ileum of chickens significantly (P〈0.05) increased firstly and then decreased. Under chronic cold stress, the T-AOC significantly (P〈0.05) decreased. Under acute cold stress and chronic cold stress, the MDA contents significantly (P〈0.05) increased in duodenum, jejunum and ileum of chickens. The effects of acute cold stress on the SOD activities in duodenum, jejunum and ileum of chickens significantly (P〈0.05) increased firstly and then decreased Under chronic cold stress the SOD activities significantly (P〈0.05) decreased in jejunum and ileum, but significantly (P〈0.05) decreased firstly and then increased in duodenum.

  20. Acute effects of vinegar intake on some biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rohani Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exaggerated postprandial spikes in blood glucose and lipids induce proportional increases in oxidative stress, which acutely trigger impairment endothelial, inflammation and increased risk of future cardiovascular events. In this research, we have investigated acute effects of vinegar intake on some of the biochemical atherosclerosis risk factors in high cholesterol fed rabbits to see if we can find a probable protective value for it. Methods The rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet, high cholesterol diet (%1cholesterol, %1 cholesterol with 5 ml vinegar (low dose, %1 cholesterol with 10 ml vinegar (high dose. After fasting for 12-15 hours, blood samples were taken to determine baseline values. Three hours after feeding, blood samples were collected again to investigate acute effects of vinegar intake on the measured factors. Results Using high-dose vinegar with cholesterolemic diet caused significant reduce in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C, oxidized-LDL (ox-LDL, malondialdehyde (MDA, total cholesterol (TC and apolipoprotein B (ApoB in comparison with hypercholesterolemic diet. Consumption low-dose vinegar with cholesterolemic diet induced a significant decrease in fibrinogen and glucose compared to hypercholesterolemic diet. Level of serum nitrite, nitrate, triacylglycerol (TAG, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, apolipoprotein A (ApoA, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT, serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT and C-reactive protein (CRP were not significantly difference in low and high doses vinegar with cholesterolemic diet compared to hypercholesterolemic diet. A significant difference was observed for LDL-C, ApoB100 and TC between low and high doses vinegar. Conclusion This study suggest that vinegar, might have some acute effects on biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis and a probable protective value can be considered for its postprandial use.

  1. Effects of an acute bout of moderate-intensity exercise on postprandial lipemia and airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ariel M; Kurti, Stephanie P; Smith, Joshua R; Rosenkranz, Sara K; Harms, Craig A

    2016-03-01

    A high-fat meal (HFM) induces an increase in blood lipids (postprandial lipemia; PPL), systemic inflammation, and acute airway inflammation. While acute exercise has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and lipid-lowering effects, it is unknown whether exercise prior to an HFM will translate to reduced airway inflammation post-HFM. Our purpose was to determine the effects of an acute bout of exercise on airway inflammation post-HFM and to identify whether any protective effect of exercise on airway inflammation was associated with a reduction in PPL or systemic inflammation. In a randomized cross-over study, 12 healthy, 18- to 29-year-old men (age, 23.0 ± 3.2 years; height, 178.9 ± 5.5 cm; weight, 78.5 ± 11.7 kg) consumed an HFM (1 g fat/1 kg body weight) 12 h following exercise (EX; 60 min at 60% maximal oxygen uptake) or without exercise (CON). Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO; measure of airway inflammation), triglycerides (TG), and inflammatory markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, tumor-necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-6) were measured while fasted at 2 h and 4 h post-HFM. FENO increased over time (2 h: CON, p = 0.001; EX, p = 0.002, but not by condition (p = 0.991). TG significantly increased 2 and 4 h post-HFM (p 0.05). There were no relationships between FENO and TG or systemic inflammatory markers for any time point or condition (p > 0.05). In summary, an acute bout of moderate-intensity exercise performed 12 h prior to an HFM did not change postprandial airway inflammation or lipemia in healthy, 18- to 29-year-old men.

  2. Acute Effect of High-Intensity Eccentric Exercise on Vascular Endothelial Function in Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youngju; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Zempo-Miyaki, Asako; Ra, Song-Gyu; Shiraki, Hitoshi; Ajisaka, Ryuichi; Maeda, Seiji

    2016-08-01

    Choi, Y, Akazawa, N, Zempo-Miyaki, A, Ra, S-G, Shiraki, H, Ajisaka, R, and Maeda, S. Acute effect of high-intensity eccentric exercise on vascular endothelial function in young men. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2279-2285, 2016-Increased central arterial stiffness is as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Evidence regarding the effects of high-intensity resistance exercise on vascular endothelial function and central arterial stiffness is conflicting. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute high-intensity eccentric exercise on vascular endothelial function and central arterial stiffness. We evaluated the acute changes in endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD), low-flow-mediated constriction (L-FMC), and arterial stiffness after high-intensity eccentric exercise. Seven healthy, sedentary men (age, 24 ± 1 year) performed maximal eccentric elbow flexor exercise using their nondominant arm. Before and 45 minutes after eccentric exercise, carotid arterial compliance and brachial artery FMD and L-FMC in the nonexercised arm were measured. Carotid arterial compliance was significantly decreased, and β-stiffness index significantly increased after eccentric exercise. Brachial FMD was significantly reduced after eccentric exercise, whereas there was no significant difference in brachial L-FMC before and after eccentric exercise. A positive correlation was detected between change in arterial compliance and change in FMD (r = 0.779; p ≤ 0.05), and a negative correlation was detected between change in β-stiffness index and change in FMD (r = -0.891; p eccentric exercise. In this study, acute high-intensity eccentric exercise increased central arterial stiffness; this increase was accompanied by a decrease in endothelial function caused by reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilation but not by a change in endothelium-dependent vasoconstriction.

  3. Hepatoprotective effect of carob against acute ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souli, Abdelaziz; Sebai, Hichem; Chehimi, Latifa; Rtibi, Kaïs; Tounsi, Haifa; Boubaker, Samir; Sakly, Mohsen; El-Benna, Jamel; Amri, Mohamed

    2015-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine whether subacute treatment with aqueous extract of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) pods (AECPs) protects against ethanol (EtOH)-induced oxidative stress in rat liver. Animals were divided into four groups: control, carob, EtOH and EtOH + carob. Wistar rats were intraperitoneally pretreated with AECP (600 mg/kg body weight (bw)) during 7 days and intoxicated for 6 h by acute oral administration of EtOH (6 g/kg bw) 24 h after the last injection. We found that acute administration of EtOH leads to hepatotoxicity as monitored by the increase in the levels of hepatic marker aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase as well as hepatic tissue injury. EtOH also increased the formation of malondialdehyde in the liver, indicating an increase in lipid peroxidation and depletion of antioxidant enzyme activities as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Subacute carob pretreatment prevented all the alterations induced by EtOH and returned their levels to near normal. Importantly, we showed that acute alcohol increased hepatic and plasmatic hydrogen peroxide and free iron levels. The carob pretreatment reversed EtOH effects to near control levels. These data suggest that carob could have a beneficial effect in inhibiting the oxidative damage induced by acute EtOH administration and that its mode of action may involve an opposite effect on plasma and tissue-free iron accumulation. Indeed, carob can be offered as a food additive to protect against EtOH-induced oxidative damage.

  4. Effects of preinfarction angina on no-reflow phenomenon after percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王荣英

    2003-01-01

    Effects of preinfarction angina on no-reflow phenomenon after percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with acute myocardial infarction@王荣英$河北医科大学第二医院!石家庄050000 0311-70469016011

  5. Effects of acut and chronic doses of methoxy acetic acid on hamster sperm fertilising ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. D.C. Peiris; H.D.M. Moore

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effects of acute and chronic doses of methoxy acetic acid (MAA) on in vitro fertilisation by hamster sperm and to correlate the data with the testicular damage. Methods: Adult male hamsters were gavaged with 3 single doses (0, 80, 160 and 650 mg/kg) and 3 chronic doses (0, 8, 32 and 64 mg/kg daily for 5 weeks) of MAA in distilled water. After treatment hamsters were killed at weekly intervals and spermatozoa recovered from the distal cauda epididymides were used to assess the fertilising capacity in vitro. The testes were processed for histological examination. Results: Acute doses showed a significant reduction in sperm fertilising ability from week 3 and 4 after treatment and with the chronic doses, the effects were more extensive and persistent. The results were in correpondence with the testicular damages observed. Conclusion: It is evident that both acute and chronic doses of MAA can impair the sperm function by damaging one or more cell populations in the testis.

  6. Mechanism Underlying Protective Effect of Danbiqing Granule on Experimental Acute Bacterial Cholangitis in Rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINXiu-zhen; GONGYan-ling; WANGHong-bo

    2003-01-01

    Aim To study the mechanism of protective effects of Danbiqing granule (DBQ) on experimental acute bacterial cholangitis in rabbits. Methods The acute bacterial cholangitis was induced by injecting 1 mL of 1 × l03 cuf·mL-1 Escherchia coli suspension into common bile duit. The serum nitrous oxide (NO) levels were measured using nitric acid reductase kit. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity was assayed by a method of acid titration (microassay). Serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), inferleukin-6 (IL-6) and plasma thromboxane B2 ( TXB2 ), 6-keto-platelet growth factor 1(PGF1α) were determined by radioimmunoassay. Results Compared with control group, serum NO, PLA2, TNF-α, IL-6 and plasma TXB2 levels increased significantly in model group ( P < 0.01) while those of DBQ groutm decreased significantly( P < 0.01). Conclusion DBQ dramatically inhibits the overproduction of pro-inflammatory factor PLA2 and inflammatory cytokine. Hence, the mechanism of DBQ underlying anti-inflammatory and protective effect against acute bacterial cholangitis in rabbits has been revealed.

  7. Pronounced effects of acute endurance exercise on gene expression in resting and exercising human skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milène Catoire

    Full Text Available Regular physical activity positively influences whole body energy metabolism and substrate handling in exercising muscle. While it is recognized that the effects of exercise extend beyond exercising muscle, it is unclear to what extent exercise impacts non-exercising muscles. Here we investigated the effects of an acute endurance exercise bouts on gene expression in exercising and non-exercising human muscle. To that end, 12 male subjects aged 44-56 performed one hour of one-legged cycling at 50% W(max. Muscle biopsies were taken from the exercising and non-exercising leg before and immediately after exercise and analyzed by microarray. One-legged cycling raised plasma lactate, free fatty acids, cortisol, noradrenalin, and adrenalin levels. Surprisingly, acute endurance exercise not only caused pronounced gene expression changes in exercising muscle but also in non-exercising muscle. In the exercising leg the three most highly induced genes were all part of the NR4A family. Remarkably, many genes induced in non-exercising muscle were PPAR targets or related to PPAR signalling, including PDK4, ANGPTL4 and SLC22A5. Pathway analysis confirmed this finding. In conclusion, our data indicate that acute endurance exercise elicits pronounced changes in gene expression in non-exercising muscle, which are likely mediated by changes in circulating factors such as free fatty acids. The study points to a major influence of exercise beyond the contracting muscle.

  8. Curative effect of monosialotetrahexosylganglioside combined with Xingnaojing injection on acute cerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-xing SUN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to observe the curative effect of monosialotetrahexosylganglioside combined with Xingnaojing injection on acute cerebral hemorrhage. A total of 120 cases with acute cerebral hemorrhage were treated with Xingnaojing injection monotherapy (control group, N = 60 or monosialotetrahexosylganglioside combined with Xingnaojing injection (combined treatment group, N = 60. Bleeding amount and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS scores of 2 groups were both significantly reduced on the 21th day after treatment (P = 0.000, for all, but bleeding amount and NIHSS scores in combined treatment group were significantly lower than those in control group (P = 0.000, for all. After 21 d treatment, total effective rate of combined treatment group was 86.67% (52/60, which was significantly higher than that of control group [66.67% (40/60; χ2 = 1.493, P = 0.024]. For patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage, monosialotetrahexosylganglioside combined with Xingnaojing injection can significantly improve the neurological function. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.07.014

  9. Effect of hemoperfusion on internal environment of patients with acute poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Li; Wen-Qiang Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of hemoperfusion on the internal environment of patients with acute poisoning.Methods: A total of 36 patients with the acute poisoning who received the hemoperfusion treatment in Department of Emergency Medicine of this hospital were selected as the research subjects and a retrospective study was performed on them. At the beginning, 30 min and 120 min of hemoperfusion treatment, the blood was taken from the blood-collecting point of artery with cardiopulmonary bypass to detect the blood pH, partial pressure of CO2, partial pressure of oxygen, blood lactic acid, potassium, sodium, free calcium, bicarbonate ion and blood glucose level. The above indicators at the different time point were compared. Results:At the beginning, 30 min and 120 min of hemoperfusion, there was no significant difference in the partial pressure of CO2, pH, blood potassium, blood sodium, bicarbonate ion and free calcium between groups. But at the beginning, 30 min and 120 min of hemoperfusion, there was the significant difference in the partial pressure of oxygen, lactic acid and blood glucose between groups.Conclusion:There is no significant effect on the internal environment of patients with acute poisoning who receive the hemoperfusion treatment.

  10. EFFECT OF ACUPUNCTURE ON NEUROLOGICAL DEFECTS AND DAILY LIFE ABILITY IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周爽; 方邦江; 孙国杰

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of acupuncture of Shuigou (GV 26), Neiguan (PC 6), Zusanli (ST36), etc. on neurological defects and daily life ability in patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage. Methods: Fifty-eight cases of acute cerebral hemorrhage patients were randomized into control group (n = 28) and treatment group (n =30). Patients of two groups were both treated with intravenous infusion of Mannitol and other expectant medicines. In addition, patients of treatment group were also treated with acupuncture therapy, once daily and continuously for one month. Before and after treatment, the scores of neurological defects and daily life ability (Barthel Index) were givenfor assessing the therapeutic effect. Results: Following treatment, both scores of neurological defects of two groups decreased significantly (P < 0.05), and the score of treatment group was strikingly lower than that of control group (P<0.05). After treatment, values of Barthel Index (BI) of two groups increased considerably in comparison with pretreatment (P< 0.01 ), and the value of BI of treatment group was bigger than that of control group (P< 0.05). Conclusion: Acupuncture can improve acute cerebral hemorrhage patients' nervous function and daily life ability.

  11. Methadone, monoamine oxidase, and depression: opioid distribution and acute effects on enzyme activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, C.A.; Kreek, M.J.; Raghunath, J.; Arns, P.

    1983-09-01

    Narcotic withdrawal is often accompanied by an atypical depression which responds to resumption of narcotics. It was hypothesized that methadone might exert its antidepressant effects through monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition. The current study examined /sub 3/H-methadone distribution in rat brain and effects on regional MAO activity with acute doses (2.5 mg/kg) which approximate those found during chronic methadone maintenance in man. Limbic areas (amygdala, basomedial hypothalamus, caudate-putamen, hippocampus, preoptic nucleus), as well as pituitary and liver were assayed for MAO activity and methadone concentration. MAO activities did not differ significantly in acute methadone or saline-treated cage-mates at 1 or 24 hr. The concentrations of methadone at 1 hr ranged between 17 and 223 ng/100 mg wet wt tissue in the preoptic nucleus and pituitary, respectively. No significant correlation was found between change in MAO activity (MAO methadone/MAO saline) and methadone concentration in any region at 1 or 24 hr. This study does not support the hypothesis that methadone acts as an antidepressant through MAO inhibition, at least not following acute administration of this exogenous opioid.

  12. Acute and chronic effects of glyceryl trinitrate therapy on insulin and glucose regulation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrzkiewicz, Sean; Parker, John D

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the effect of acute and sustained transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) therapy on insulin and glucose regulation. Totally, 12 males (18-30 years) underwent a glucose tolerance test at baseline (visit 1), 90 minutes after acute transdermal GTN 0.6 mg/h (visit 2), following 7 days of continuous GTN (visit 3), and 2 to 3 days after stopping GTN (visit 4). At each visit, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were measured before and 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after a 75-g oral glucose load. Indices of glucose metabolism that were examined included the insulin sensitivity index, the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and the insulinogenic index. The acute administration of GTN had no effect on glucose and insulin responses (visit 2). However, after 7 days of GTN exposure (visit 3) there was an increase in the mean glucose concentration measured after the oral glucose load. On visit 1, the mean glucose concentration (± standard deviation) following the 75 g oral glucose challenge was 5.7 ± 0.5 µmol/L. On visit 3, after 7 days of transdermal GTN therapy, the mean glucose concentration after the oral glucose was significantly higher; 6.2 ± 0.5 µmol/L (P GTN therapy modifies glucose metabolism causing evidence of increased insulin resistance during sustained therapy in normal humans.

  13. The acute effect of kinesio taping on hamstring extensibility in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MERINO-MARBAN R.,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim and rationale of our study was to determine the acute effect of kinesio taping on theextensibility of the hamstring muscle among university students.Design: An intra-subject experimental design was used to evaluate the possible acute effects of KT using the Xshapedtaping technique in order to affect hamstring muscle extensibility.Method: Forty-three healthy university students (age 21.98 ± 4.68 years, body mass 71.50 ± 13.49 kg, height172.35 ± 8.17 cm were assessed for hamstring flexibility. All participants had both legs tested under threedifferent randomly ordered conditions (kinesio tape, sham tape and control using the Passive Straight Leg RaiseTest. All measurements were made during the same testing session. Participants performed three sets of tests,each set measured twice, to determine hamstring extensibility in both legs. There was a 12 minute rest periodbetween each set and a one minute break between each repetition.Results: An analysis of variance (ANOVA with repeated measurements showed no statistically significantdifferences either in the right (p=0.503 or the left leg (p=0.948 between the three study conditions.Conclusions: The application of kinesio taping does not seem to acutely increase hip flexion range of motion inhealthy subjects.

  14. The acute effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on oxidative stress in rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Oxidative stress and oxygen free radicals are thought to play an important role in acute effects of a number of neurotoxic processes. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy, a ring substituted amphetamine derivate, has attracted a great deal of media attention in recent years due to its widespread abuse as recreational drug by the young generation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on oxidative stress parameters (index of lipid peroxidation - ILP, superoxide radicals O2-, superoxide dismutase - SOD and glutathione - GSH in frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus in Wistar rats. Materials and methods The study included 40 male Wistar rats (200-250 g, housed 4 per cage having free access to food and water. MDMA was dissolved in distillated water and administered peroraly at 5, 10, 20 or 40 mg/kg. 8 hours following MDMA, the rats were killed by decapitation, their brains were rapidly removed and the brain structures were dissected out on ice and analyzed biochemically. Results Acute peroral administration of a single dose (5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg resulted in increase of ILP, O2-, SOD and decrease of GSH. Conclusion The results obtained in the present study suggest that oxidative stress plays a crucial role in MDMA-induced neurotoxicity and that the mechanism of MDMA neurotoxycity may vary between brain regions.

  15. Evaluation of acute toxicity and teratogenic effects of plant growth regulators by Daphnia magna embryo assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai-Sung; Lu, Chi-Yuan; Chang, Shih-Hsien

    2011-06-15

    This study selected common plant growth regulators (Atonik, Cytokinin, Ethephon, Gibberellic acid and Paclobutrazol) to investigate their biological toxicity to the waters of the important biological indicator Daphnia magna. The methods used in this study included traditional neonate acute toxicity test, new Daphnia embryo toxicity test, and teratogenic embryo test. The study concluded that the acute toxicity of the five PGRs to Daphnia neonate had EC(50) value range of 1.9-130.5 mg l(-1), while acute toxicity of PGRs on Daphnia embryo had EC(50) value range of 0.2-125 mg l(-1); the Daphnia embryos' LOEC values (0.05-48 mg l(-1)) for the five PGRs were lower than embryo EC(50) values. The toxic ratios of 48 h EC(50) (neonate)/48 h LOEC (embryo) for 5 PGRs were 19-512 times. The study found that teratogenic effects of Paclobutrazol and Cytokinin induced in embryo were higher than those of most other PGRs. Microscopic observation of the teratogenic effects showed that all 5 PGRs induced malformations of the second antenna, rostrum, Malpighian tube, sensory bristles, and tail spine as well as function loss and death.

  16. Effects of Schizolobium parahyba extract on experimental Bothrops venom-induced acute kidney injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Silva Martines

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Venom-induced acute kidney injury (AKI is a frequent complication of Bothrops snakebite with relevant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Schizolobium parahyba (SP extract, a natural medicine with presumed anti-Bothrops venom effects, in an experimental model of Bothrops jararaca venom (BV-induced AKI. METHODOLOGY: Groups of 8 to 10 rats received infusions of 0.9% saline (control, C, SP 2 mg/kg, BV 0.25 mg/kg and BV immediately followed by SP (treatment, T in the doses already described. After the respective infusions, animals were assessed for their glomerular filtration rate (GFR, inulin clearance, renal blood flow (RBF, Doppler, blood pressure (BP, intra-arterial transducer, renal vascular resistance (RVR, urinary osmolality (UO, freezing point, urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA], lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, kinetic method, hematocrit (Hct, microhematocrit, fibrinogen (Fi, Klauss modified and blinded renal histology (acute tubular necrosis score. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: BV caused significant decreases in GFR, RBF, UO, HcT and Fi; significant increases in RVR, NGAL and LDH; and acute tubular necrosis. SP did not prevent these changes; instead, it caused a significant decrease in GFR when used alone. CONCLUSION: SP administered simultaneously with BV, in an approximate 10∶1 concentration, did not prevent BV-induced AKI, hemolysis and fibrinogen consumption. SP used alone caused a decrease in GFR.

  17. Acute effects of growth hormone on metabolism of pancreatic hormones, glucose and ketone bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Y; Peña, J; Chou, J; Field, J B

    2001-07-01

    Controversy exists as to whether acute administration of growth hormone has insulin-like effects. In conscious dogs, acute effects on plasma flows, plasma glucose, hepatic glucose output, free fatty acids, ketone bodies, insulin, and glucagon were determined following intravenous injection of 1 mg of growth hormone extracted from the canine pituitary gland. The following results were obtained: (1) Plasma flows in the portal vein, hepatic artery and hepatic vein were significantly increased 20 min after growth hormone administration. (2) By 40 min after growth hormone, the glucose concentration in these three vessels was significantly increased. (3) Hepatic glucose output was significantly increased 60 min after growth hormone administration. (4) Free fatty acids levels were significantly but transiently increased at 20 min, while ketone body concentrations were elevated at 120-180 min. (5) The insulin levels in the three vessels demonstrated a biphasic response. In the portal vein, they were significantly higher 20 min after growth hormone and again at 150-180 min. Glucagon concentrations were increased in all three vessels by 20 min and remained elevated for the remainder of the experiment. These results do not support an acute insulin-like action of growth hormone in normal dogs.

  18. Protective effects of simvastatin on coronary artery function in swine with acute infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liuba, Petru; Pesonen, Erkki; Forslid, Anders

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: The risk for coronary events may rise during acute infection. Perturbation in coronary endothelial function emerges as one important link. We investigated whether simvastatin could protect the coronary arterial function from the adverse effects of acute infection in swine. METHODS......:: Coronary endothelium-dependent and -independent vasomotor responses were assessed by Doppler velocimetry in 12 Chlamydia pneumoniae-infected and 6 sham-infected swine 2 weeks after intratracheal inoculation. Half of animals from the infection group were pre-treated with simvastatin (80mg daily), while...... the remaining animals received placebo. The treatment was started 2 weeks prior to inoculation and continued until the end of the study. ANOVA was used for statistical calculations. Data are mean+/-S.D. RESULTS:: All animals inoculated with C. pneumoniae developed IgM antibodies against this organism...

  19. Acute effects of sildenafil and dobutamine in the hypertrophic and failing right heart in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger; Nielsen, Jan M; Rasalingam, Sivagowry;

    2013-01-01

    administration of the PDE-5 inhibitor sildenafil in a single clinically relevant dose did not modulate the in vivo function of the hypertrophic failing right heart of the rat measured by echocardiography and invasive hemodynamics. In the same model, dobutamine acutely improved RV function.......Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate whether acute intravenous administration of the phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitor sildenafil in a single clinically relevant dose improves the in vivo function of the hypertrophic and failing right ventricle (RV). Wistar rats ([Formula......]). Invasive RV pressures were recorded continuously, and transthoracic echocardiography was performed 1, 5, 15, 25, 35, 50, 70, and 90 minutes after injecting the bolus. Cardiac function was compared to baseline measurements to evaluate the in vivo effects of each specific treatment. The PTB procedure caused...

  20. Acute differential effects of dietary protein quality on postprandial lipemia in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Mortensen, Lene S; Astrup, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Non-fasting triglyceridemia is much closer associated to cardiovascular risk compared to fasting triglyceridemia. We hypothesized that there would be acute differential effects of four common dietary proteins (cod protein, whey isolate, gluten, and casein) on postprandial lipemia in obese non......-diabetic subjects. To test the hypothesis we conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study with crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins i.e. cod protein, whey protein, gluten or casein. Eleven obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, body mass index: 30.......3-42.0 kg/m(2)) participated and blood samples were drawn in the 8-h postprandial period. Supplementation of a fat rich mixed meal with whey protein caused lower postprandial lipemia (P = .048) compared to supplementation with cod protein and gluten. This was primarily due to lower triglyceride...

  1. The effect of referral for cardiac rehabilitation on survival following acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewinter, Christian; Bland, John M; Crouch, Simon;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: International guidelines recommend referral for cardiac rehabilitation (CR) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, the impact on long-term survival after CR referral has not been adjusted by time-variance. We compared the effects of CR referral after hospitalization for AMI...... in two consecutive decades. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 2196 and 2055 patients were recruited in the prospective observational studies of the Evaluation of the Methods and Management of Acute Coronary Events (EMMACE) -1 and 2 in 1995 and 2003, (1995: median age 72 years, 39% women, 74% referred vs...... 2003: median age 71 years, 36% women, 64% referred) and followed up through September 2010. Survival functions showed CR referral to be an independent predictor for survival in 2003, but not in 1995 (hazard ratio (HR), 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI]; 0.70 to 1.17, p = 0.44 in 1995 vs HR, 0.80; 95...

  2. Age- and Sex-Associated Effects on Acute-Phase Proteins in Göttingen Minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Berit Ø; Jensen, Søren J.; Ludvigsen, Trine P

    2015-01-01

    Göttingen minipigs are a useful model for diseases having an inflammatory component, and the associated use of acute-phase proteins (APP) as biomarkers of inflammation warrants establishment of their reference ranges. The objective of this study was to establish reference values for selected APP...... in Göttingen minipigs and to investigate the effects of age, sex, and various stimuli on these ranges. Serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin, pig major acute-phase protein (PMAP), albumin, and porcine α-1 acid glycoprotein (PAGP) were evaluated in 4 age groups (6...... in obese pigs without diabetes. In conclusion, reference values for CRP, PMAP, haptoglobin, SAA, PAGP and albumin were established for male and female Göttingen minipigs of different ages. These APP were influenced by age and sex, underlining the importance of considering these factors when designing...

  3. Effectiveness of an Early Versus Conservative Invasive Treatment Strategy in Acute Coronary Syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Wadt; Sorensen, Rikke; Madsen, Mette;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Randomized clinical trials have found that early invasive strategies reduce mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), and rehospitalization compared with a conservative invasive approach in acute coronary syndromes (ACSs), but the effectiveness of such strategies in real-world settings...... is unknown. Objective: To investigate adverse cardiovascular outcomes of an early versus conservative invasive strategy in a national cohort of patients with ACSs. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Administrative health care data on hospitalizations, procedures, and outcomes abstracted from...... the Danish national registries and covering all acute invasive procedures in patients presenting with an ACS. Patients: 19 704 propensity score-matched patients hospitalized with a first ACS between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2011. Measurements: Risk for cardiac death or rehospitalization for MI within...

  4. Chronic testosterone replacement exerts cardioprotection against cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury by attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction in testosterone-deprived rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanpitak Pongkan

    Full Text Available Although testosterone deficiency is associated with increased risks of heart disease, the benefits of testosterone therapy are controversial. Moreover, current understanding on the cardiac effect of testosterone during cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R periods is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that testosterone replacement attenuates the impairment of left ventricular (LV function and heart rate variability (HRV, and reduces the infarct size and arrhythmias caused by I/R injury in orchiectomized (ORX rats.ORX or sham-operated male Wistar rats (n = 24 were randomly divided and received either testosterone (2 mg/kg, subcutaneously administered or the vehicle for 8 weeks. The ejection fraction (EF and HRV were determined at baseline and the 4th and 8th week. I/R was performed by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation for 30 minutes, followed by a 120-minute reperfusion. LV pressure, arrhythmia scores, infarct size and cardiac mitochondrial function were determined.Prior to I/R, EF and HRV were impaired in the ORX group, but were restored in the testosterone-treated group. During I/R, arrhythmia scores and the infarct size were greater, and cardiac mitochondrial function was impaired, whereas the time to 1st VT/VF onset and the LV end-systolic pressure were decreased in the ORX group when compared to the sham group. Testosterone replacement attenuated the impairment of these parameters in ORX rats during I/R injury, but did not show any benefit or adverse effect in non-ORX rats.Testosterone replacement restores cardiac function and autonomic regulation, and exerts cardioprotective effects during the I/R period via mitochondrial protection in ORX rats.

  5. Effect of Eye Mask on Sleep Quality in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Daneshmandi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sleep is one of the basic human needs and sleep deprivation causes nu-merous adverse effects on the human body and mind. Due to reduced sleep quality in patients with acute coronary syndrome, this study was carried out to determine the effect of eye mask on sleep quality in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Methods: In this two-group controlled clinical trial, sixty patients with acute coronary syndrome in the coronary care units of Baqiyatallah Hospital in Tehran in 2010 were selected by pur-poseful sampling method and randomly allocated to two groups of case and control. In the case group, in the second night stay, the intervention of eye mask was done per night and by using the Petersburg's sleep quality index; sleep quality was evaluated during and at the end of hospitalization. Then data were analyzed by paired t-test, independent t-test, Spearman and Pearson's correlation coefficient and SPSS software version 19. Results: Total sleep quality score of the case group was significantly decreased after intervention (4.86 ± 1.88 from before intervention (10.46 ± 4.09 (p < 0.000. In addi-tion, total score of sleep quality after intervention in the case group (4.86 ± 1.88 was significant different from the control group (8.43 ± 1.97 (p < 0.005. Conclusion: Using eye mask, as an economical and uncomplicated method, can improve sleep quality in pa-tients with acute coronary syndrome in the coronary care units and can be used as an alter-native method of treatment instead of drug therapy.

  6. Effects of inhaled L-arginine administration in a murine model of acute asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Arikan-Ayyildiz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Increased arginase activity in the airways decreases L-arginine and causes deficiency of bronchodilating and anti-inflammatory nitric oxide (NO in asthma. As, it is suggested that L-arginine may have therapeutic potential in asthma treatment, we aimed to investigate the effects of inhaled L-arginine on oxygen saturation (SaO₂ and airway histology in a murine model of acute asthma. Twenty eight BALB/c mice were divided into four groups; I, II, III and IV (control. All groups except the control were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. After establishement of acute asthma attack by metacholine administration, the mice were treated with inhaled L-arginine (Group I, saline (Group II and budesonide (Group III, respectively. SaO₂was measured by pulse oximeter just before and 5 min after methacholine. A third measurement of SaO₂was also obtained 15 min after drug administration in these study groups. Inflammation in the lung tissues of the sacrificed animals were scored to determine the effects of the study drugs. The number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL was determined. The results indicated that inflammatory scores significantly improved in groups receiving study drugs when compared with placebo and L-arginine was similar in decreasing scores when compared with budesonide. SaO₂had a tendency to increase after L-arginine administration after acute asthma attack and this increase was statistically significant (p=0.043. Eosinophilia in BAL significantly reduced in group receiving L-arginine when compared with placebo (p<0.05. Thus in this study we demonstrated that L-arginine improved SaO₂and inflammatory scores in an acute model of asthma.

  7. Effects of acute and chronic exercise on the osmotic stability of erythrocyte membrane of competitive swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraiso, Lara Ferreira; Gonçalves-E-Oliveira, Ana Flávia Mayrink; Cunha, Lucas Moreira; de Almeida Neto, Omar Pereira; Pacheco, Adriana Garcia; Araújo, Karinne Beatriz Gonçalves; Garrote-Filho, Mário da Silva; Bernardino Neto, Morun; Penha-Silva, Nilson

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of acute and chronic exercise on erythrocyte membrane stability and various blood indices in a population consisting of five national-level male swimmers, over 18 weeks of training. The evaluations were made at the beginning and end of the 1st, 7th, 13th and 18th weeks, when volume and training intensity have changed. The effects manifested at the beginning of those weeks were considered due to chronic adaptations, while the effects observed at the end of the weeks were considered due to acute manifestations of the exercise load of that week. Acute changes resulting from the exercise comprised increases in creatine kinase activity (CK) and leukocyte count (Leu), and decrease in hematocrit (Ht) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV), at the end of the first week; increase in the activities of CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), in the uric acid (UA) concentration and Leu count, at the end of the seventh week; increases in CK and LDH activities and in the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), at the end of the 13th week; and decrease in the value of the osmotic stability index 1/H50 and increases in the CK activity and platelets (Plt) count, at the end of the 18th week. Chronic changes due to training comprised increase in the values of 1/H50, CK, LDH, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), serum iron (Fe), MCV and Plt. Although acute training has resulted in decrease in the osmotic stability of erythrocytes, possibly associated with exacerbation of the oxidative processes during intense exercise, chronic training over 18 weeks resulted in increased osmotic stability of erythrocytes, possibly by modulation in the membrane cholesterol content by low and high density lipoproteins.

  8. Infection with Mycoplasma gallisepticum buffers the effects of acute stress on innate immunity in house finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratto, Melanie; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Davis, Andrew K

    2014-01-01

    When wild animals become infected, they still must cope with the rigors of daily life, and, thus, they still can be exposed to acute stressors. The suite of physiological responses to acute stress includes modifying the innate immune system, but infections can also cause similar changes. We examined the effects of an acute stressor (capture stress) on leukocyte abundance and bacteria-killing ability (BKA) in wild birds (house finches Haemorhous mexicanus) with and without a naturally occurring infection (Mycoplasma gallisepticum) to determine whether infection alters the typical immune response to stress. Birds were captured and bled within 3 min (baseline sample) and then held in paper bags for 2 h and bled again (stress sample). From blood smears made at both time points, we obtained estimates of total white blood cell (WBC) counts and relative numbers of each cell. We also measured BKA of plasma at both time points. In uninfected birds (n = 26), total WBC count decreased by 30% over time, while in infected birds (n = 9), it decreased by 6%. Relative numbers of heterophils did not change over time in uninfected birds but increased in infected birds. Combined with a reduction in lymphocyte numbers, this led to a threefold increase in heterophil-lymphocyte values in infected birds after the stressor, compared to a twofold increase in uninfected birds. There was a nonsignificant tendency for BKA to decline with stress in uninfected birds but not in diseased birds. Collectively, these results suggest that infections can buffer the negative effects of acute stress on innate immunity.

  9. Effects of acute administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on sympathetic nerve activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiradentes, R.V. [Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Centro Universitário do Espírito Santo, Colatina, ES (Brazil); Pires, J.G.P. [Centro Universitário do Espírito Santo, Colatina, ES (Brazil); Escola de Medicina da Empresa Brasileira de Ensino, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Silva, N.F. [Departamento de Morfologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Ramage, A.G. [Department of Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Santuzzi, C.H. [Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Centro Universitário do Espírito Santo, Colatina, ES (Brazil); Futuro, H.A. Neto [Escola de Medicina da Empresa Brasileira de Ensino, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Departamento de Morfologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Escola Superior de Ciências da Saúde, Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Vitória, Vitória, ES (Brazil)

    2014-05-30

    Serotonergic mechanisms have an important function in the central control of circulation. Here, the acute effects of three selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on autonomic and cardiorespiratory variables were measured in rats. Although SSRIs require 2-3 weeks to achieve their full antidepressant effects, it has been shown that they cause an immediate inhibition of 5-HT reuptake. Seventy male Wistar rats were anesthetized with urethane and instrumented to record blood pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and respiratory frequency. At lower doses, the acute cardiovascular effects of fluoxetine, paroxetine and sertraline administered intravenously were insignificant and variable. At middle and higher doses, a general pattern was observed, with significant reductions in sympathetic nerve activity. At 10 min, fluoxetine (3 and 10 mg/kg) reduced RSNA by -33±4.7 and -31±5.4%, respectively, without changes in blood pressure; 3 and 10 mg/kg paroxetine reduced RSNA by -35±5.4 and -31±5.5%, respectively, with an increase in blood pressure +26.3±2.5; 3 mg/kg sertraline reduced RSNA by -59.4±8.6%, without changes in blood pressure. Sympathoinhibition began 5 min after injection and lasted approximately 30 min. For fluoxetine and sertraline, but not paroxetine, there was a reduction in heart rate that was nearly parallel to the sympathoinhibition. The effect of these drugs on the other variables was insignificant. In conclusion, acute peripheral administration of SSRIs caused early autonomic cardiovascular effects, particularly sympathoinhibition, as measured by RSNA. Although a peripheral action cannot be ruled out, such effects are presumably mostly central.

  10. The effectiveness of manual hyperinflation during the physiotherapy management of acute atelectasis: a case report

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    H. van Aswegen

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Atelectasis is common in intubated and ventilated patients. Thereasons for the atelectasis are multifactorial. Atelectasis, if prolonged, may lead to hypoxaemia, pulmonary infection and fibrosis. The effectiveness of manual hyperinflation as an adjunct to standard respiratory physiotherapy management of patients in the ICU to re-inflate collapsed lung regions, to improve gas exchange and respiratory compliance and to assist with the removal of secretions, have been proclaimed by numerous authors. This case report demonstrates the effectiveness of the addition of manual hyperinflation to the physiotherapy management of an intubated patient with acute atelectasis.

  11. The acute effects of a lunch containing capsaicin on energy and substrate utilisation, hormones, and satiety

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    Smeets, Astrid J.; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Addition of capsaicin to the diet has been shown to increase satiety and thermogenesis. The effects of capsaicin on ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), in relation to changes in hunger and satiety are unknown. Aim To test the acute effects of a lunch containing capsaicin on gut derived hormones (GLP-1, ghrelin, and PYY), energy expenditure (EE), substrate oxidation and satiety at lunch in the postprandial state. Methods Thirty subjects (age: 31 ± 14 years...

  12. Hyperlipidemia does not prevent the cardioprotection by postconditioning against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and the involvement of hypoxia inducible factor-1α upregulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huanxin Zhao; Yehong Wang; Ye Wu; Xiaoyu Li; Guangzhao Yang; Xiurui Ma; gongrui Zhao; Huirong Liu

    2009-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is regarded as an independent risk factor in the development of ischemic heart disease, and it can increase the myocardial susceptibility to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, lschemic postcondi-tioning (Postcon) has been demonstrated to attenuate the myocardial injury induced by I/R in normal con-ditions. But the effect of ischemic Postcon on hyperlipi-demic animals is unknown. Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) has been demonstrated to play a central role in the cardioprotection by preconditioning, which is one of the protective strategies except for Postcon. The aim of this study was to determine whether Postcon could reduce myocardial injury in hyperlipidemic animals and to assess whether HIF-1 was involved in Postcon mechanisms. Male Wistar rats underwent the left anterior descending coronary occlusion for 30 min fol-lowed by 180 min of reperfusion with or without Postcon after fed with high fat diet or normal diet for 8 weeks. The detrimental indices induced by the I/R insult included infarct size, plasma creatine kinase activity and caspase-3 activity. Results showed that hyperlipidemia remarkably enhanced the myocardial injury induced by I/R, while Postcon significantly decreased the myocardial injury in both normolipi-demic and hyperlipidemic rats. Moreover, both hyperli-pidemia and IfR promoted the HIF-1α expression. Most importantly, we have for the first time demon-strated that Postcon further induced a significant increase in HIF-1α protein level not only in normolipi-demic but also in hyperlipidemic conditions. Thus, Postcon reduces the myocardial injury induced by I/R in normal and hyperlipidemic animals, and HIF-1αupregulation may involve in the Postcon-mediated car-dioprotective mechanisms.

  13. Effects of acute and chronic nicotine on elevated plus maze in mice: involvement of calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biala, Grazyna; Budzynska, Barbara

    2006-05-30

    The current experiments examined the anxiety-related effects of acute and repeated nicotine administration using the elevated plus maze test in mice. Nicotine (0.1 mg/kg s.c., 5 and 30 min after injection; 0.5 mg/kg, s.c., 5 min after injection) had an anxiogenic effect, shown by specific decreases in the percentage of time spent on the open arms and in the percentage of open arm entries. Tolerance developed to this anxiogenic action after 6 days of daily nicotine administration (0.1 mg/kg, s.c.). Five minutes after the seventh injection, an anxiolytic effect was observed, i.e., specific increases in the percentage of time spent on the open arms and in the percentage of open arm entries. L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel antagonists nimodipine (5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.), flunarizine (5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.), verapamil (5, 10, 20 mg/kg) and diltiazem (5, 10, 20 mg/kg, i.p.) were also injected prior to an acute low dose of nicotine or to each injection of chronic nicotine. Our results revealed that calcium channel blockers dose-dependently attenuated both an anxiogenic effect of nicotine as well as the development of tolerance to this effect. Our results suggest that neural calcium-dependent mechanisms are involved in the anxiety-related responses to acute and chronic nicotine injection that may ultimately lead to addiction and smoking relapse in human smokers.

  14. Acute exercise improves cognition in the depressed elderly: the effect of dual-tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Vasques

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to assess the acute effect of physical exercise on the cognitive function of depressed elderly patients in a dual-task experiment. INTRODUCTION: Physical exercise has a positive effect on the brain and may even act as a treatment for major depressive disorder. However, the effects of acute cardiovascular exercise on cognitive function during and after one session of aerobic training in elderly depressive patients are not known. METHODS: Ten elderly subjects diagnosed with major depressive disorder performed neuropsychological tests during and after a moderate physical exercise session (65-75%HRmax. A Digit Span Test (Forward and Backward and a Stroop Color-Word Test were used to assess cognitive function. The elderly participants walked on an electric treadmill for 30 minutes and underwent the same cognitive testing before, during, immediately after, and 15 minutes after the exercise session. In the control session, the same cognitive testing was conducted, but without exercise training. RESULTS: The results of the Digit Span Test did not change between the control and the exercise sessions. The results of the Stroop Color-Word Test improved after physical exercise, indicating a positive effect of exercise on cognition. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that the cognitive functions of depressed elderly persons, especially attention and inhibitory control, are not impaired during and after an acute session of physical exercise. In contrast, the effect of dual-tasks showed beneficial results for these subjects, mainly after exercise. The dual-task may be a safe and useful tool for assessing cognitive function.

  15. Acute and long-term in vitro effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annangi, Balasubramanyam; Rubio, Laura; Alaraby, Mohamed; Bach, Jordi; Marcos, Ricard; Hernández, Alba

    2016-09-01

    Since most of the toxic studies of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) focused on acute and high-dose exposure conditions, the aim of the present study was to fill the existing knowledge gap of long-term effects of ZnO NPs at sub-toxic doses. To overcome this point, we have evaluated the toxic, genotoxic, and carcinogenic effects of ZnO NPs under long-term treatments (12 weeks), using a sub-toxic dose (1 µg/mL) according to acute 48-h exposure. Preliminarily, oxidative stress and genotoxic/oxidative DNA damage were determined under acute exposure and high-dose conditions. To determine the role of oxidative DNA damage, a wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF Ogg1 (+/+)) and its isogenic 8-oxo-guanine DNA glycosylase 1 (Ogg1) knockout partner (MEF Ogg1 (-/-)) cell lines were used. Although short-term exposure (24-h) experiments demonstrated that ZnO NPs were able to induce ROS, genotoxicity, and oxidative DNA damage in both cell lines, no effects were obtained under long-term exposure scenario. Thus, 1 µg/mL exposure over 12 weeks was unable to induce genotoxicity as well as cellular transformation in both cell types, as indicated by the lack of observed morphological cell changes, variations in the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases, and anchorage-independent cell growth ability, regarded as cancer-like phenotypic hallmarks. Our results indicate that short-term effects of ZnO NP exposure are not replicated under long-term and sub-toxic dose conditions. All together, the lack of genotoxic/carcinogenic effects after chronic treatments seem to indicate a reduced risk associated with ZnO NP exposure.

  16. Nesiritide, Renal Function, and Associated Outcomes During Hospitalization for Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Results From the Acute Study of Clinical Effectiveness of Nesiritide and Decompensated Heart Failure (ASCEND-HF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Vincent M.; Hernandez, Adrian F.; Stebbins, Amanda; Hasselblad, Vic; Ezekowitz, Justin A.; Califf, Robert M.; Gottlieb, Stephen S.; O'Connor, Christopher M.; Starling, Randall C.; Tang, W. H. Wilson; McMurray, John J.; Dickstein, Kenneth; Voors, Adriaan A.

    2014-01-01

    Background-Contradictory results have been reported on the effects of nesiritide on renal function in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. We studied the effects of nesiritide on renal function during hospitalization for acute decompensated heart failure and associated outcomes. Methods

  17. Inhibitory Effects of Pretreatment with Radon on Acute Alcohol-Induced Hepatopathy in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruaki Toyota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that radon inhalation activates antioxidative functions in the liver and inhibits carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatopathy in mice. In addition, it has been reported that reactive oxygen species contribute to alcohol-induced hepatopathy. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of radon inhalation on acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy in mice. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to intraperitoneal injection of 50% alcohol (5 g/kg bodyweight after inhaling approximately 4000 Bq/m3 radon for 24 h. Alcohol administration significantly increased the activities of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT, glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT in serum, and the levels of triglyceride and lipid peroxide in the liver, suggesting acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy. Radon inhalation activated antioxidative functions in the liver. Furthermore, pretreatment with radon inhibited the depression of hepatic functions and antioxidative functions. These findings suggested that radon inhalation activated antioxidative functions in the liver and inhibited acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy in mice.

  18. Acute effects of exercise and active video games on adults' reaction time and perceived exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, José F; López-García, Jesús

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the acute effects of resting, aerobic exercise practised alone, and aerobic exercise with active video games (AVG), on complex reaction time (CRT) and the post-exercise acute rate of perceived exertion (RPE) in young healthy adults. The experimental group was composed of 92 healthy young adults, 78 males and 13 females (age M = 21.9 ± 2.7 years) who completed two sessions, A and B. In session A, participants rode 30 min on an ergometer, while in session B they exercised for 30 min on an ergometer while playing an AVG on a Wii. The control group was composed of 30 young adults, 26 males and 4 females (age M = 21.4 ± 2.9 years) who rested for 30 min. In each session, a CRT task was performed before and after exercising or resting, and post-exercise global RPE was noted. Repeated measures general linear model (GLM) and Wilcoxon tests were performed. (1) Both aerobic exercise alone and aerobic exercise combined with AVG improved CRT, while resting did not; (2) aerobic exercise combined with AVG did not improve CRT more than aerobic exercise only; and (3) RPE was lower after aerobic exercise combined with AVG compared with aerobic exercise only. In young adults, exercise produces acute benefits on CRT, and practising exercise with AVG helps to decrease RPE.

  19. The effect of acute denervation on the microcirculation of skeletal muscle: rat cremaster model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L E; Seaber, A V; Bossen, E; Urbaniak, J R

    1991-03-01

    Although tissue is denervated during replantation of a severed part, tissue transfer, or muscle transplantation, there are few studies concerning the effects of acute denervation on muscle microcirculation. We have described a surgical procedure that totally denervates the rat cremaster muscle. Histological examination of the denervated tissue has given convincing evidence of nerve degeneration and skeletal muscle atrophy, accompanied by electrophysiological evidence of total denervation. The diameters of each component of the microcirculation were measured before and after denervation. Arterioles and arteries ranging in size from 10 to 70 microns in diameter were found to increase significantly in size immediately after acute denervation. Larger arteries and veins did not undergo significant diametrical increases. These findings suggest that total acute denervation significantly increases the diameter of small arteries and arterioles, thereby decreasing the resistance in the arterial bed and increasing blood flow. Since this phenomenon is of limited duration (20 min), it would appear to be ineffective in enhancing reperfusion and oxygenation at the time of reattachment of amputated parts or during vascularized tissue transfers, until methods of prolonging it for several hours or more are found.

  20. Therapeutic effects of topical netrin-4 in a corneal acute inflammatory model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun; Han; Yi; Shao; Ting-Ting; Liu; Sang-Ming; Li; Wei; Li; Zu-Guo; Liu

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of netrin-4 on the early acute phase of inflammation in the alkali-burned eye.METHODS: Eye drops containing netrin-4 or phosphate buffered saline(PBS) were administered to a alkali-burn-induced corneal acute inflammatory model four times daily. The clinical evaluations, including fluorescein staining and inflammatory index, were performed on day 1, 4 and 7 using slit lamp microscopy.Global specimens were collected on day 7 and processed for immunofluorescent staining. The levels of inflammatory mediators in the corneas were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction(PCR).RESULTS: Exogenous netrin-4 administered on rat ocular surfaces showed more improvements in decreasing fluorescein staining on day 4 and 7, and resolved alkali burn-induced corneal inflammation index on day 7(P <0.01). The levels of IL-1β, IL-6, intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1), monocyte chemotactic protein-1(MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1(MIP-1) in corneas were decreased in netrin-4-treated groups(P <0.05). In addition, netrin-4 significantly reduced the expression of leukocyte common antigen 45(CD45) in the alkali-burn cornea(P <0.001).CONCLUSION: Topical netrin-4 accelerated wound healing and reduced the inflammation on alkali-burn rat model, suggesting a potential as an anti-inflammatory agent in the clinical to treat the acute inflammation.

  1. THE EFFECT OF FLUOROCARBON ARTIFICIAL BLOOD (FC-34 IN ACUTE VASOGENIC BRAIN EDEMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M NEEMATBAKHSH

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Oxygen transport to tissue after an acute ischemia is strongly important. Fluorocarbon liquids are able to facilitated the oxygen transport. An animal experiment was designed to study the effect of FC-34 in acute brain ischemia. Methods. The left common carotid arteries were ligated in three groups of anesthetized animals for 30 minutes to obtain acute brain edema. The animals were subjected to received 15 ml/kg saline (group 1, 10% monitol (group 2 or FC-43 (group 3. All animals were recovered, and they monitored for two weeks. The electrolytes, BUN, and creatinine were measured before (all animals and after two weeks (survived animals. Pathological investigation was obtained by light and electron microscope via pathological process. Findings. The group 1 animals were died during first five days, but one and four animals were survived by two weeks in groups 2 & 3 respectively (P < 0.05. The pathological determinations indicate less cellular damages in group 3. No significant differences were detected in potassium, calcium, BUN, and creatinine before and after the experiment. Conclusion. The particle size and oxygen solubility in FC-43 is the major factors for better oxygen transport in ischem

  2. Effects of Acute Aerobic Exercise on Executive Function in Older Women

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    Roseann Peiffer, Lynn A. Darby, Adam Fullenkamp, Amy L. Morgan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute aerobic exercise may increase cognitive processing speed among tasks demanding a substantial degree of executive function. Few studies have investigated executive function after acute exercise in older adults across various exercise intensities. Healthy females 60-75 years of age (n = 11 who were not on medications completed 20-min exercise sessions at a moderate (50%VO2max exercise intensity and a vigorous (75%VO2max exercise intensity. Modified flanker tasks (reaction times and d2 tests of sustained and selective attention (components of executive function were completed before, immediately after, and 30-min post-exercise. Results indicated that older adult females had improved scores on the modified flanker task reaction times (RTT, RTI, RTC and d2 tests immediately after both moderate and vigorous intensity aerobic exercise. Some of these