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Sample records for acute cadmium chloride

  1. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effect....... Thus, orally administered DDC enhanced cadmium-induced duodenal and ileal tissue damage and inhibition of peristalsis, as indicated by an increased intestinal transit time. At low cadmium doses, the whole-body retention of cadmium was increased by oral DDC administration. Intraperitoneally administered...... DDC increased cadmium-induced acute mortality and testicular necrosis, and it enhanced cadmium-induced reduction of intestinal motility and increased the whole-body retention of cadmium, indicating increased intestinal cadmium absorption. Also, DDC changed the organ distribution of absorbed cadmium...

  2. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effect...

  3. Effect of cadmium chloride on hepatic lipid peroxidation in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H R; Andersen, O

    1988-01-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of cadmium chloride to 8-12 weeks old CBA-mice enhanced hepatic lipid peroxidation. A positive correlation between cadmium chloride dose and level of peroxidation was observed in both male and female mice. A sex-related difference in mortality was not observed....... The mortality after an acute toxic dose of cadmium chloride was the same in the three age groups. Pretreatment of mice with several low intraperitoneal doses of cadmium chloride alleviated cadmium induced mortality and lipid peroxidation. The results demonstrate both age dependency and a protective effect...... of metallothionein induction on cadmium chloride induced hepatic lipid peroxidation....

  4. Effects of diethyldithiocarbamate on the toxicokinetics of cadmium chloride in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B

    1989-01-01

    investigates effects of DDC on the toxicokinetics of cadmium at lower doses of cadmium than those used in previous studies. During single exposure to subtoxic oral doses of cadmium chloride DDC enhanced intestinal cadmium absorption, both after intraperitoneal and oral administration of DDC. In such acute...... exposure experiments orally administered DDC only slightly changed the relative organ distribution of absorbed cadmium, while intraperitoneal administration of DDC induced extensive changes in organ preference of absorbed cadmium. The relative hepatic and testicular deposition was reduced, while......Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) efficiently alleviates the acute toxicity of injected cadmium chloride, but enhances the acute toxicity of orally administered cadmium chloride. Further, DDC induces extensive changes in organ distribution of cadmium, and mobilizes aged cadmium depots. The present study...

  5. Effects of Cadmium Compounds (Cadmium Para Hydroxybenzoate and Cadmium Chloride) on the Liver of Mature Mice

    OpenAIRE

    ERSAN, Yusuf; ARI, İsmail; KOÇ, Evren

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 4 experimental groups and 1 control group containing adult mice (Mus musculus var. albinos) were used to examine the effects of 2 different cadmium compounds, namely cadmium para hydroxybenzoate, which was newly synthesized, and cadmium chloride on the liver of mice. In various test concentrations, both cadmium compounds were intraperitoneally injected into adult mice every day for 15 days. With standard histological techniques samples were obtained from the livers of the mice...

  6. Low levels of cadmium chloride damage the corneal endothelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidner, W.J. [Section of Neurobiology, Physiology and Behavior, Division of Biological Sciences, Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Sillman, A.J. [Section of Neurobiology, Physiology and Behavior, Division of Biological Sciences, Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    The effect of cadmium chloride on the integrity of the endothelium of isolated bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) corneas was examined by spectrophotometric analysis of corneal uptake of the vital stain Janus green and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The uptake of Janus green by the endothelium was dose related between 1.0 and 100.0 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2}. The effect of cadmium was significantly attenuated by the calcium channel blocker SKF 96365 and was augmented by the calcium ionophore A23187, indicating that cadmium influx through calcium channels is an important determinant of its cellular effect. The effect of cadmium was not altered by changes in the external calcium concentration, indicating that the mechanism does not involve competitive inhibition by calcium. SEM demonstrated significant structural damage to the corneal endothelium exposed to cadmium chloride, including focal disruption and denuding of the apical endothelial membrane. (orig.). With 3 figs.

  7. Protective Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8610 against Acute Cadmium Toxicity in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Qixiao; Wang, Gang; Zhao, Jianxin; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Hao

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the protective effects of Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8610, a selected probiotic with good cadmium binding capacity, against acute cadmium toxicity in mice. Ninety mice were divided into prevention and therapy groups. In the prevention groups, CCFM8610 was administered at 109 CFU once daily for 7 days, followed by a single oral dose of cadmium chloride at 1.8 mg cadmium for each mouse. In the therapy groups, the same dose of CCFM8610 was administered for 2 days after an identical single dose of cadmium exposure. Mice that received neither cadmium nor culture or that received cadmium alone served as negative and positive controls, respectively. The effects of both living and dead CCFM8610 on cadmium ion concentrations in feces, liver, and kidney were determined. Moreover, the alterations in reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and histopathology in the liver and kidney were investigated. The results showed that compared to the mice that received cadmium only, CCFM8610 treatment can effectively decrease intestinal cadmium absorption, reduce tissue cadmium accumulation, alleviate renal and hepatic oxidative stress, and ameliorate hepatic histopathological changes. Living CCFM8610 administered after cadmium exposure offered the most significant protection. Our results suggested that CCFM8610 is more effective against acute cadmium toxicity than a simple antioxidant treatment due to its special physiological functions and that it can be considered a new dietary therapeutic strategy against acute cadmium toxicity. PMID:23263961

  8. Absorption and tissue distribution of cadmium in mice after chronic feeding with cadmium chloride and cadmium-methallothionein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherian, M.G.

    1983-01-01

    Mice were fed 20 μg cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) and cadmium-methallothionein (CdMt) once a week for 5 weeks using Cd-109 as a tracer. Body burden measurements suggest that the levels in tissues drop after the third week when CdMt is the source, but continue to increase with CdCl 2 . Tissue distribution is tabulated as % retained cadmium for various organs tested. Major sites of accumulations are the liver, kidneys, pancreas, and gastrointestinal tract

  9. SUBACTUTE HEMATOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF THE YUCATAN SAILFIN MOLLY (POECILIA VELIFERA) EXPOSED TO CADMIUM CHLORIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study focuses on the subacute hematological responses of the Yucatan sailfin molly, Poecilia velifera, exposed to cadmium chloride. Previous studies in other teleosts and mammals have suggested that exposure to cadmium chloride results in a leucocytic response. Fish were exp...

  10. Dynamic of cadmium accumulation in the internal organs of rats after exposure to cadmium chloride and cadmium sulphide nanoparticules of various sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apykhtina O.L.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of study of cadmium accumulation in the internal organs of Wistar rats after prolonged intraperitoneal administration of cadmium chloride and cadmium sulphide nanoparticles of 4-6 nm and 9-11 nm in size in a dose of 0.08 mg /kg/day calculated as cadmium. Toxic effects were evaluated after 30 injections (1.5 months, 60 injections (3 months, and 1.5 months after the exposure has been ceased. The results of the study showed that the most intensive accumulation of cadmium was observed in the kidneys and liver of experimental animals, which is due to the peculiarities of the toxicokinetics and the route of administration of cadmium compounds. In the kidneys, spleen and thymus of animals exposed to cadmium sulphide nanoparticles, a greater concentration of cadmium than in the organs of animals exposed to cadmium chloride was found. Cadmium accumulated more intensively in the spleen after exposure to larger nanoparticles, than in the kidneys and thymus. In the liver, heart, aorta and brain significant accumulation was observed after cadmium chloride exposure.

  11. Potentiating effects of oxygen in lungs damaged by methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl, cadmium chloride, oleic acid, and antitumor drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkinen, P.J.; Morse, C.C.; Martin, F.M.; Dalbey, W.E.; Haschek, W.M.; Witschi, H.R.

    1983-01-01

    The intraperitoneal administration of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) and cyclophosphamide, exposure to an aerosol of cadmium chloride, intravenous administration of oleic acid, and intratracheal instillation of bleomycin to young female BALB/c mice or CD/CR rats result in acute lung injury. Pulmonary morphology and lung collagen content were examined in animals treated with these chemicals alone or in combination with an elevated oxygen concentration (80%) in the inspired air. In mice, the development of fibrosis could be significantly enhanced if animals treated with MMT, cadmium chloride, cyclophosphamide, or bleomycin were exposed to 80% oxygen immediately following exposure to these agents. In rats only cyclophosphamide- and bleomycin-induced acute lung injury was potentiated by hyperoxia, resulting in significant enhancement of lung collagen content. The pathogenesis responsible for this differential species response of pulmonary injury to hyperoxia remains to be investigated.

  12. Stabilize lead and cadmium in contaminated soils using hydroxyapatite and potassium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Li, Yonghua; Li, Hairong; Liao, Xiaoyong; Wei, Binggan; Ye, Bixiong; Zhang, Fengying; Yang, Linsheng; Wang, Wuyi; Krafft, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Combination of hydroxyapatite (HAP) and potassium chloride (KCl) was used to stabilize lead and cadmium in contaminated mining soils. Pot experiments of chilli (Capsicum annuum) and rape (Brassica rapachinensis) were used to evaluate the stabilization efficiency. The results were the following: (1) the optimal combination decreased the leachable lead by 83.3 and 97.27 %, and decreased leachable cadmium by 57.82 and 35.96% for soil HF1 and soil HF2, respectively; (2) the total lead and cadmium concentrations in both plants decreased 69 and 44 %, respectively; (3) The total lead and cadmium concentrations in the edible parts of both vegetables also decreased significantly. This study reflected that potassium chloride can improve the stabilization efficiency of hydroxyapatite, and the combination of hydroxyapatite and potassium chloride can be effectively used to remediate lead and cadmium contaminated mining soil.

  13. Interaction between lactose and cadmium chloride in aqueous solutions as seen by diffusion coefficients measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verissimo, Luis M.P.; Gomes, Joselaine C.S.; Romero, Carmen; Esteso, Miguel A.; Sobral, Abilio J.F.N.; Ribeiro, Ana C.F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Diffusion coefficients of aqueous systems containing lactose and cadmium chloride. ► Influence of the lactose on the diffusion of cadmium chloride. ► Interactions between Cd 2+ and lactose. -- Abstract: Diffusion coefficients of an aqueous system containing cadmium chloride 0.100 mol · dm −3 and lactose at different concentrations at 25 °C have been measured, using a conductimetric cell and an automatic apparatus to follow diffusion. The cell relies on an open-ended capillary method and a conductimetric technique is used to follow the diffusion process by measuring the resistance of a solution inside the capillaries, at recorded times. From these results and by ab initio calculations, it was possible to obtain a better understanding of the effect of lactose on transport of cadmium chloride in aqueous solutions

  14. Interaction of Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation, Potassium Dichromate and Cadmium Chloride in Artemia franciscana Biotest

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    K. Beňová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cadmium chloride (at concentrations of 100 and 200 mg l-1 and potassium dichromate (at a concentration of 50 mg l-1 along with the effect of gamma radiation 60Co (at a dose of 10 and 50 Gy on lethality to Artemia franciscana was investigated. Four different interactions were studied, namely, those of potassium dichromate and gamma radiation, cadmium chloride and gamma radiation, and combinations of potassium dichromate and cadmium chloride in interaction with gamma radiation. A significant (α = 0.05 decrease was observed in lethality due to exposure to radiation (10 Gy in comparison with action of only potassium dichromate and cadmium chloride or their combination without exposure to gamma rays. These results support the theory of hormesis.

  15. Cadmium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbelt, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Together with zinc and mercury, cadmium belongs to group IIb of the periodic table. It can be found in rocks, soil, water, coal, zinc ore, lead ore, and copper ore. In the environment, cadmium is present predominantly as the oxide or as the chloride, sulfide, or sulfate salt. It has no recognizable

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF CADMIUM CHLORIDE ON FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF HIGH AQUATIC PLANTS FROM ANGARA RIVER

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    Kirichenko K.A.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of the fatty acid content in Myriophyllum spicatum L. and Elodea canadensis Michx. has been carried out during 24 hours of the treatment with 0,05 M cadmium chloride. Changes in a fatty acids composition in response to toxic influence have been shown. The differences in change dynamics of the fatty acids content under the treatment with cadmium chloride have been detected in investigated species.

  17. Cadmium Chloride Induces DNA Damage and Apoptosis of Human Liver Carcinoma Cells via Oxidative Stress

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    Anthony Skipper

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a heavy metal that has been shown to cause its toxicity in humans and animals. Many documented studies have shown that cadmium produces various genotoxic effects such as DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations. Ailments such as bone disease, renal damage, and several forms of cancer are attributed to overexposure to cadmium.  Although there have been numerous studies examining the effects of cadmium in animal models and a few case studies involving communities where cadmium contamination has occurred, its molecular mechanisms of action are not fully elucidated. In this research, we hypothesized that oxidative stress plays a key role in cadmium chloride-induced toxicity, DNA damage, and apoptosis of human liver carcinoma (HepG2 cells. To test our hypothesis, cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Lipid hydroperoxide content stress was estimated by lipid peroxidation assay. Genotoxic damage was tested by the means of alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay. Cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry assessment (Annexin-V/PI assay. The result of MTT assay indicated that cadmium chloride induces toxicity to HepG2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, showing a 48 hr-LD50 of 3.6 µg/mL. Data generated from lipid peroxidation assay resulted in a significant (p < 0.05 increase of hydroperoxide production, specifically at the highest concentration tested. Data obtained from the Comet assay indicated that cadmium chloride causes DNA damage in HepG2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. A strong concentration-response relationship (p < 0.05 was recorded between annexin V positive cells and cadmium chloride exposure. In summary, these in vitro studies provide clear evidence that cadmium chloride induces oxidative stress, DNA damage, and programmed cell death in human liver carcinoma (HepG2 cells.

  18. Optical, thermal and magnetic studies of pure and cobalt chloride doped L-alanine cadmium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benila, B.S., E-mail: benjane.benila@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Research Centre, Scott Christian College (Autonomous), Nagercoil 629 003 (India); Bright, K.C. [Department of Physics, St. John' s College, Anchal, Kollam 691 306 (India); Delphine, S. Mary [Department of Physics, Holy Cross College (Autonomous), Nagercoil 629 004 (India); Shabu, R. [Department of Physics and Research Centre, Scott Christian College (Autonomous), Nagercoil 629 003 (India)

    2017-03-15

    Single crystals of L-alanine cadmium chloride (LACC) and cobalt chloride (Co{sup 2+}) doped LACC have been grown by the slow evaporation solution growth technique. The grown crystals were subjected to various characterizations such as powder XRD, SXRD, FTIR, UV–vis, EDAX, TG/DTA, VSM, Dielectric and Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) measurements. The lattice parameters of the grown crystals were determined by single crystal X-ray analysis. EDAX analysis confirms the presence of Co{sup 2+} ion in the host material. The functional group and optical behavior of the crystals were identified from FTIR and UV-vis spectrum analysis. Electrical parameters such as dielectric constant, dielectric loss have been studied. The thermal stability of the compound was found out using TGA/DTA analysis. Second Harmonic Generation of the samples was confirmed by Kurtz-Perry powder technique. Magnetic properties of the crystals studied by VSM were also reported. The encouraging results show that the cobalt chloride doped LACC crystals have greater potential applications in optical devices. - Graphical abstract: Fig (a) and (b) shows the transparent, stable single crystals of pure and doped crystals were obtained using slow evaporation technique. The sizes of pure and doped crystals are 20×9×2 mm{sup 3} and 18×15×1 mm{sup 3} respectively. Fig (c) is the Hysteresis loop traced at room temperature for the pure and doped crystals explains the soft ferromagnetic nature of the doped crystal. The provision for changing the value of coercivity can be used for security, switching and sensing applications. - Highlights: • Defect free crystals of pure and Co{sup 2+} ion doped L-alanine cadmium chloride were grown. • The optical, dielectric and magnetic properties of pure crystals were enhanced by adding Co{sup 2+} ion. • High optical transmittance was obtained in the entire visible and IR region. • Addition of dopant to the pure crystal altered the coercivity. • Low dielectric

  19. Cadmium accumulation and subcellular distribution in relation to cadmium chloride induced cytotoxicity in vitro

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    Bracken, W.M.; Sharma, R.P.; Kleinschuster, S.J. (Utah State Univ. Logan (USA). Dept. of Veterinary Sciences)

    1984-11-01

    A bovine kidney cell culture system was used to assess what relationship cadmium (Cd) uptake and subcellular distribution had to cadmium chloride induced cytotoxicity. Twenty-four hour incubation with 0.1-10 ..mu..M Cd elicited 0-90% cytotoxicity. Fifty percent cytotoxicity was estimated to result from 0.8 ..mu..M Cd. A concentration-related Cd accumulation paralleled the cytotoxicity profile. The time-course for Cd accumulation was linear for the first 6 h of exposure and plateaued by 18 h post-exposure. When the degree of cytotoxicity was compared with the cellular Cd burden at 24 h post-treatment a least-squares linear regression analysis (r=0.93) indicated a direct relationship. Subcellular distribution studies indicated greater than 90% Cd recovery from the soluble supernatant (105,000 g) at all levels of cytotoxicity studied. Metallothionein sequestered less than 25% of the cellular Cd. As a result of the correlation of the degree of cytotoxicity with the cellular Cd burden and the independence of subcellular distribution from cytotoxicity, a cumulative mechanism of toxicity for Cd in MDBK cells was suggested.

  20. Effect of nickel and cadmium chloride on autonomic and behavioral thermoregulation in mice

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    Gordon, C.J.; Stead, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    Male BALB/c mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with nickel chloride (0, 5, 10, and 15 mg/kg) or cadmium chloride (0, 2, 4, and 6 mg/kg) while preferred ambient temperature (Ta) and activity were measured. Both metals caused drastic reductions in preferred Ta and activity within 30-min postinjection. Preferred Ta and activity were depressed for up to 90 min following nickel and cadmium injection. In a second experiment, body temperature was measured 60 min following the injection of nickel or cadmium chloride at a Ta of 20, 30, or 35 C. Nickel and cadmium caused a drastic reduction in body temperature when injected at a Ta of 20 and 30 C but produced either no effect or only a slight elevation in body temperature at a Ta of 35 C. In a third experiment, metabolic rate was measured continuously for 60 min following the i.p. injection of a relatively large dose of nickel (15 mg/kg) or cadmium chloride (6 mg/kg) at a Ta of 20, 30, and 35 C. Both metals caused significant reductions in metabolic rate at Ta's of 20 and 30 C.

  1. Ameliorating potential of Ashwagandha on cadmium chloride induced changes in weights of visceral organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K.

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of Ashwagandha on Cadmium chloride induced changes in weights of visceral organs of male rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided equally into three groups. Group I was fed on balanced diet of rat pellets for a period of sixty days. The rats in group II were given freshly prepared cadmium chloride solution in the deionised drinking water @200 ppm daily for 60 days. The rats in Group III were fed on Ashwagandha plant powder thoroughly mixed in rat feed at the concentration of 0.5g/Kg (w/w corresponding to 500 ppm level. Simultaneously the rats were given cadmium-chloride @200 ppm in deionised drinking water throughout the experimental period. It is concluded that oral administration of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera plant powder for 60 days significantly improved the weights of testes, accessory sex organs, liver and kidney in male rats. Simultaneous medication of Ashwagandha (500 ppm in feed reduced the severity of cadmium chloride toxicity in male Wistar rats. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(11.000: 343-345

  2. Di-thiourea cadmium chloride crystals synthesis under UV radiation influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, L. E.; Chávez-Urbiola, E. A.; Legorreta, F.; Chávez-Urbiola, I. R.; Willars-Rodriguez, F. J.; Ramírez-Bon, R.; Ramírez-Cardona, M.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, the effect of ultraviolet radiation (λ = 367 nm) on the synthesis of di-thiourea cadmium chloride crystals by the chemical bath technique was studied. The results were analyzed and characterized by different techniques: X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman scattering, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). It was found that the effect of ultraviolet radiation (UV) on the crystals causes a preferential growth in the (0 0 1) and (0 2 0) planes due to an increase in the formation of the Cdsbnd Cl and CS bonds caused by UV radiation. A morphological change was observed in the crystals assisted by UV radiation, and finally, it was found that the decomposition of the crystals starts from 497 K thus transforming the di-thiourea cadmium chloride into cadmium sulfide. Also, the growth rate is increased by incorporating ultraviolet radiation into the reaction.

  3. Low levels of cadmium chloride after the immunoprecipitation of corneal cadherin-complex proteins

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    Weidner, W.J.; Waddell, D.S.; Sillman, A.J. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Div. of Biological Sciences

    2000-12-01

    The effect of cadmium chloride on the immunoprecipitation of cadherin and the associated adherens junctional proteins, {alpha}- and {beta}-catenin, was examined in isolated bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) corneas utilizing Western blot and enhanced chemoluminescent techniques. Application of either 1.0 {mu}M or 75.0 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2} to the corneal endothelium for 2 h markedly decreased the immunoprecipitation of cadherins as compared to paired control corneas. Immunoprecipitation of {alpha}-catenin was increased in response to both doses of CdCl{sub 2}, while the immunoprecipitation of {beta}-catenin was little changed by either cadmium dose. There is accumulating evidence that cadmium may increase epithelial paracellular permeability by interfering with cadherin complex activity at intercellular junctions. The present study suggests that inorganic cadmium in low micromolar concentrations may decrease the integrity of the corneal endothelium, at least in part through a similar mechanism involving disruption of junctional cadherin complex function. (orig.)

  4. Mutual effect of zinc (2) and cadmium (2) during extraction with tributil phosphate from lithium chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokuev, V.A.; Belousov, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    Mutual effect of zinc and cadmium chlorides during extraction with tributyl phosphate at 5, 25 and 45 deg C from LiCl solutions is studied. The conclusion about the suppression of zinc and cadmium extraction by extracting macroelement (cadmium and zinc correspondingly) as the result of manifestation of general ion effect (lithium ion) in the extraction systems is made. It is established that the suppression of zink and cadmium extraction increases with the temperature decrease. On the base of the obtained experimental data the different type of extraction element distribution curves at the extraction from the muriatic solutions and lithium chloride solutions with tributyl phosphate is discussed

  5. The protective role of honey against cytotoxicity of cadmium chloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study aimed to investigate the honey (HY) protective role in opposition to cadmium (Cd) induced chromosomal aberrations of bone marrow and sperm abnormalities. Forty five (45) adult male albino mice were caged into six groups. Mice were injected, i.p, 300 mg HY/kg and/or 0.67 mg CdCl2/kg b.w for 96 h, ...

  6. Effect of some addition agents on the electrodeposition of cadmium from acidic chloride baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Halim, A.M.; Baghlaf, A.O.; Sobahi, M.I.

    1984-01-01

    A further development of a chloride-based cadmium plating bath containing 0.3 M CdCl 2 .(5/2)H 2 O, 0.1 M HCl, 0.4 M H 3 BO 3 and 2.0 M NH 4 Cl (bath I) is described. The influences of the individual addition agents thiourea, coumarin Ni 2+ ions and I - ions on the characteristics of cadmium electrodeposition from acidic chloride electrolytes containing 0.3 M CdCl 2 .(5/2)H 2 O, 0.1 M HCl, 0.4 M H 3 BO 3 , 2.0 M NH 4 Cl, 0.5 M sodium potassium tartrate and 5 g gelatin l -1 (bath II) were studied. Bath II including a combination of the four above-mentioned additives was denoted bath III. The additive-containing bath III produced a brighter but less hard cadmium deposit than the additive-free bath II. The individual effects of melamine, 3-methyl-4-p-methoxyphenylazopyrazol-5-one, dimethylformamide (DMF) and DMF with biacetyl-bis-(benzoylhydrazone) on the cathodic polarization and current efficiency of cadmium electrodeposition from baths II and III, as well as on the morphology and microhardness of the as-plated cadmium deposits, were investigated and discussed. (Auth.)

  7. Gene networks and toxicity pathways induced by acute cadmium exposure in adult largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehinto, Alvine C., E-mail: alvinam@sccwrp.org [Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, Costa Mesa, CA 92626 (United States); Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Prucha, Melinda S. [Department of Human Genetics, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Colli-Dula, Reyna C.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Lavelle, Candice M.; Barber, David S. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Vulpe, Christopher D. [Department of Nutritional Sciences and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Denslow, Nancy D. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Low-level acute cadmium exposure elicited tissue-specific gene expression changes. • Molecular initiating events included oxidative stress and disruption of DNA repair. • Metallothionein, a marker of metal exposure, was not significantly affected. • We report effects of cadmium on cholesterol metabolism and steroid synthesis. • Diabetic complications and impaired reproduction are potential adverse outcomes. - Abstract: Cadmium is a heavy metal that can accumulate to toxic levels in the environment leading to detrimental effects in animals and humans including kidney, liver and lung injuries. Using a transcriptomics approach, genes and cellular pathways affected by a low dose of cadmium were investigated. Adult largemouth bass were intraperitoneally injected with 20 μg/kg of cadmium chloride (mean exposure level – 2.6 μg of cadmium per fish) and microarray analyses were conducted in the liver and testis 48 h after injection. Transcriptomic profiles identified in response to cadmium exposure were tissue-specific with the most differential expression changes found in the liver tissues, which also contained much higher levels of cadmium than the testis. Acute exposure to a low dose of cadmium induced oxidative stress response and oxidative damage pathways in the liver. The mRNA levels of antioxidants such as catalase increased and numerous transcripts related to DNA damage and DNA repair were significantly altered. Hepatic mRNA levels of metallothionein, a molecular marker of metal exposure, did not increase significantly after 48 h exposure. Carbohydrate metabolic pathways were also disrupted with hepatic transcripts such as UDP-glucose, pyrophosphorylase 2, and sorbitol dehydrogenase highly induced. Both tissues exhibited a disruption of steroid signaling pathways. In the testis, estrogen receptor beta and transcripts linked to cholesterol metabolism were suppressed. On the contrary, genes involved in cholesterol metabolism were highly

  8. Sodium chloride enhances cadmium tolerance through reducing cadmium accumulation and increasing anti-oxidative enzyme activity in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing-Lin; Shang, Sheng-Hua; Zhang, Hai-Tao; Jabeen, Zahra; Zhang, Guo-Ping

    2013-06-01

    The effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) on cadmium (Cd) uptake, translocation, and oxidative stress was investigated using 2 tobacco cultivars differing in Cd tolerance. The growth inhibition of the tobacco plants exposed to Cd toxicity was in part alleviated by moderate addition of NaCl in the culture solution. Cadmium concentration of shoots and roots in the 2 cultivars increased with increasing Cd levels in the solution and decreased with the addition of NaCl. The addition of NaCl could alleviate the oxidative stress caused by Cd toxicity, as reflected by reduced production of malondialdehyde and recovered or enhanced activities of antioxidative enzymes catalase and glutathione peroxidase. The results also showed that the enhancement of antioxidative enzyme activity by NaCl for the tobacco plants exposed to Cd stress is related to induced Ca signaling. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  9. Effect of complexing on character of change of partial molar volumes of cadmium chloride and cadmium bromide in aqueous solutions with pressure increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churagulov, B.R.; Monyakina, L.A.; Kalashnikov, Ya.A.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of pressures up to 10 kbar at 25 deg C on the e.m.f. of the electrochemical chains: Cd/CdCl 2 (0.5 mol CdCl 2 in 5 m NaCl), Hg 2 Cl 2 /Hg and Cd/CdBr 2 (0.5 mol CdBr 2 ) in 5 m NaBr), Hg 2 Br 2 /Hg was studied. At atmospheric pressure the partial molal volumes of cadmium chloride and bromide in solutions, where practically all the cadmium is in the form of complex anions of cadmium tetrachloride and tetrabromide, were calculated. The essentially different nature of the changes in these values with increasing pressure is due to the difference in the structure of cadmium tetrabromide [Cd(H 2 O) 2 Cl 4 ] 2- , which has a Tsub(d) symmetry and contains no water molecules in the internal coordination sphere, and cadmium tetrachloride [Cd(H 2 O) 2 Cl 4 ] 2- , which retains two water molecules in the internal coordination sphere. This difference is also confirmed by the fact that at atmospheric pressure the volume effect of complexing ΔVsub(c) of cadmium tetrabromide from cadmium aquo-ions and hydrated bromide ions exceeds by approximately 2 times the ΔVsub(c) of cadmium tetrachloride from the cadmium aquo-ion and the hydrated chloride ions

  10. Histopathological alterations of white seabass, Lates calcarifer, in acute and subchronic cadmium exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thophon, S.; Kruatrachue, M.; Upatham, E.S.; Pokethitiyook, P.; Sahaphong, S.; Jaritkhuan, S.

    2003-01-01

    White seabass responded differently to cadmium at chronic and subchronic levels. - Histopathological alterations to white seabass, Lates calcarifer aged 3 months in acute and subchronic cadmium exposure were studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. The 96-h LC 50 values of cadmium to L. calcarifer was found to be 20.12±0.61 mg/l and the maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) was 7.79 mg/l. Fish were exposed to 10 and 0.8 mg/l of Cd (as CdCl 2 H 2 O) for 96 h and 90 days, respectively. The study showed that gill lamellae and kidney tubules were the primary target organs for the acute toxic effect of cadmium while in the subchronic exposure, the toxic effect to gills was less than that of kidney and liver. Gill alterations included edema of the epithelial cells with the breakdown of pillar cell system, aneurisms with some ruptures, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of epithelial and chloride cells. The liver showed blood congestion in sinusoids and hydropic swelling of hepatocytes, vacuolation and dark granule accumulation. Lipid droplets and glycogen content were observed in hepatocytes at the second and third month of subchronic exposure. The kidney showed hydropic swelling of tubular cell vacuolation and numerous dark granule accumulation in many tubules. Tubular degeneration and necrosis were seen in some areas

  11. Ameliorative Effect of Vitamin E on Electrocardiogram of Rabbits Exposed to Cadmium Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baraa Najim Al-Okaily

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to study the effect of cadmium as an oxidant agent on electrocardiogram(ECG component and the possible preventive role of vitamin E on deleterious effects of cadmium in adult male rabbits. Twenty adult male rabbits were divided randomly into 4 equal groups (5 animals /group and treated daily for 84 days. The first group were received ordinary tap water and serve as control (C; the second group (T1 received ad libitum supply of drinking water containing (50ppb cadmium chloride; the third group T2 received (50ppb of cadmium chloride in drinking water, in addition to intubation of vitamin E (40mg/Kg B.W. orally, while the fourth group (T3 were intubated daily with 40mg/Kg B.W of vitamin E. Fasting blood samples were collected at 0, 21, 42, 63 and 84 days of the experiment to determine serum calcium concentration . The ECG was also recorded in all groups at the same interval of the experiment. The results revealed that administration of 50 ppb CdCl2 in drinking water (T1 group for 84 days caused a significant decrease(p0.05 differences in this parameter as compared to control and other groups. Analysis of ECG in Cadmium treated group (T1 showed significant (p0.05 differences in ECG waves analysis. In conclusion, Cadmium effect on electrical conduction of heart was represented by abnormality in some of ECG component as well as the protective role of vitamin E as antioxidant in the cardiovascular system was also confirmed.

  12. Interaction of co-insult treatments wth cadmium chloride and gamma irradiation on lethality and blood indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    The main objectives of this study were (1) to gain insight into sensitivities of vital organs systems after treatments with cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ), gamma ( 60 Co) radiation, and combined CdCl 2 -gamma radiation; (2) to determine physiological and cellular/molecular changes after these same treatments; and (3) to develop a summary of biochemical/hematological indicators for each insult individually, as well as for the co-insult treatment. Three lethality studies, Acute CdCl 2 , Chronic CdCl 2 , and Acute Radiation, wwere used to determine sublethal doses for the fourth study (Co-insult), which utilized various combinations of CdCl 2 and gamma radiation and from which the hematological and biochemical data were derived. Radiation groups exhibited statistically significant decreases in the total number of leukocytes, lymphocytes, and polyneutrophils. Significant increases were seen in serum iron, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase, and triglycerides. Cadmium groups had increased total numbers of leukocytes, polyneutrophils, and serum glutamic oxaloacetate transminase (SGOT). Decreases were seen in lymphocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, total red blood cell counts, and total protein. When co-insult treatments were used, significant decreases were seen in the total number of leukocytes, polyneutrophils, lymphocytes, hemoglobin, total red blood cells, and serum iron

  13. Short Communication Acute toxicity of cadmium against catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The upper and lower confidence limits and slope functions were calculated. The LC50 values for Cadmium Chloride at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h are 620.34, 414.59, 384.88 and 360.50 mg/l, respectively. The upper confidence limits were 645.59, 433.27, 394.72 and 380.32 mg/l for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h and lower confidence limits ...

  14. The effects of cadmium chloride on secondary metabolite production in Vitis vinifera cv. cell suspension cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Emine Sema; Babalik, Zehra; Hallac-Turk, Filiz; Gokturk-Baydar, Nilgun

    2014-09-23

    Plant secondary metabolites are possess several biological activities such as anti-mutagenic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-aging, etc. Cell suspension culture is one of the most effective systems to produce secondary metabolites. It is possible to increase the phenolic compounds and tocopherols by using cell suspensions. Studies on tocopherols production by cell suspension cultures are seldom and generally focused on seed oil plants. Although fresh grape, grape seed, pomace and grape seed oil had tocopherols, with our best knowledge, there is no research on tocopherol accumulation in the grape cell suspension cultures. In this study, it was aimed to determine the effects of cadmium chloride treatments on secondary metabolite production in cell suspension cultures of grapevine. Cell suspensions initiated from callus belonging to petiole tissue was used as a plant material. Cadmium chloride was applied to cell suspension cultures in different concentration (1.0 mM and 1.5 mM) to enhance secondary metabolite (total phenolics, total flavanols, total flavonols, trans-resveratrol, and α-, β-, γ- δ-tocopherols) production. Cells were harvested at two days intervals until the 6th day of cultures. Amounts of total phenolics, total flavanols and total flavonols; trans-resveratrol and tocopherols (α-, β-, γ- and δ-tocopherols) and dry cell weights were determined in the harvested cells. Phenolic contents were significantly affected by the sampling time and cadmium concentrations. The highest values of total phenolic (168.82 mg/100 g), total flavanol (15.94 mg/100 g), total flavonol (14.73 mg/100 g) and trans-resveratrol (490.76 μg/100 g) were found in cells treated with 1.0 mM CdCl2 and harvested at day 2. Contents of tocopherols in the cells cultured in the presence of 1.0 mM CdCl2 gradually increased during the culture period and the highest values of α, β and γ tocopherols (145.61, 25.52 and 18.56 μg/100 g) were detected in the cell cultures collected at day 6

  15. The effects of cadmium chloride on secondary metabolite production in Vitis vinifera cv. cell suspension cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Sema Cetin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plant secondary metabolites are possess several biological activities such as anti-mutagenic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-aging, etc. Cell suspension culture is one of the most effective systems to produce secondary metabolites. It is possible to increase the phenolic compounds and tocopherols by using cell suspensions. Studies on tocopherols production by cell suspension cultures are seldom and generally focused on seed oil plants. Although fresh grape, grape seed, pomace and grape seed oil had tocopherols, with our best knowledge, there is no research on tocopherol accumulation in the grape cell suspension cultures. In this study, it was aimed to determine the effects of cadmium chloride treatments on secondary metabolite production in cell suspension cultures of grapevine. Cell suspensions initiated from callus belonging to petiole tissue was used as a plant material. Cadmium chloride was applied to cell suspension cultures in different concentration (1.0 mM and 1.5 mM to enhance secondary metabolite (total phenolics, total flavanols, total flavonols, trans-resveratrol, and α-, β-, γ- δ-tocopherols production. Cells were harvested at two days intervals until the 6th day of cultures. Amounts of total phenolics, total flavanols and total flavonols; trans-resveratrol and tocopherols (α-, β-, γ- and δ-tocopherols and dry cell weights were determined in the harvested cells. RESULTS: Phenolic contents were significantly affected by the sampling time and cadmium concentrations. The highest values of total phenolic (168.82 mg/100 g, total flavanol (15.94 mg/100 g, total flavonol (14.73 mg/100 g and trans-resveratrol (490.76 µg/100 g were found in cells treated with 1.0 mM CdCl2 and harvested at day 2. Contents of tocopherols in the cells cultured in the presence of 1.0 mM CdCl2 gradually increased during the culture period and the highest values of α, β and γ tocopherols (145.61, 25.52 and 18.56 µg/100 g were detected in the cell

  16. Effect of Calcium chloride and Cadmium chloride on the enthalpy of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Enthalpy of mixing of methanol + benzene + mercuric chloride at 303.15 K, Journal of Chemical Engineering Data, Vol.44, pp248- 250. Dharmendira Kumar. M. and Rajendran. M. 1999. Salt effect on enthalpy of mixing of water + methanol at 303.15 K, Fluid Phase. Equilibria, Vol.164, pp. 217-224. Furter.W.F. and Cook.

  17. Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced acute liver injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kai C. [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Liu, Jie J. [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: cklaasse@kumc.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in cadmium-induced liver injury. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that up-regulates cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. To investigate the role of Nrf2 in cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity, Nrf2-null mice, wild-type mice, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-knockdown (Keap1-KD) mice with enhanced Nrf2, and Keap1-hepatocyte knockout (Keap1-HKO) mice with maximum Nrf2 activation were treated with cadmium chloride (3.5 mg Cd/kg, i.p.). Blood and liver samples were collected 8 h thereafter. Cadmium increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, and caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in the Nrf2-null mice. In contrast, Nrf2-enhanced mice had lower serum ALT and LDH activities and less morphological alternations in the livers than wild-type mice. H{sub 2}DCFDA (2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluoresein diacetate) staining of primary hepatocytes isolated from the four genotypes of mice indicated that oxidative stress was higher in Nrf2-null cells, and lower in Nrf2-enhanced cells than in wild-type cells. To further investigate the mechanism of the protective effect of Nrf2, mRNA of metallothionein (MT) and other cytoprotective genes were determined. Cadmium markedly induced MT-1 and MT-2 in livers of all four genotypes of mice. In contrast, genes involved in glutathione synthesis and reducing reactive oxygen species, including glutamate-cysteine ligase (Gclc), glutathione peroxidase-2 (Gpx2), and sulfiredoxin-1 (Srxn-1) were only induced in Nrf2-enhanced mice, but not in Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, the present study shows that Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced oxidative stress and liver injury through induction of genes involved in antioxidant defense rather than genes that scavenge Cd. -- Highlights: ► Cadmium caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in Nrf2-null mice. ► Keap1-KD and Keap1-HKO mice

  18. Murine strain differences and the effects of zinc on cadmium concentrations in tissues after acute cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, L.M. [ARS USDA, Germplasm and Gamete Physiology Lab., Beltsville, MD (United States); Anderson, M.B. [Dept. of Anatomy, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); Sikka, S.C. [Dept. of Urology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); George, W.J. [Dept. of Pharmacology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1998-10-01

    The role of strain differences in cadmium tissue distribution was studied using sensitive (129/J) and resistant (A/J) mice. These murine strains have previously been shown to differ in their susceptibility to cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. Cadmium concentration was measured in testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, liver, and kidney at 24 h after cadmium chloride exposure (4, 10, and 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2}). The 129/J mice exhibited a significant increase in cadmium concentration in testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle at all cadmium doses used, compared to A/J mice. However, cadmium concentrations in liver and kidney were not different between the strains, at any dose, indicating that cadmium uptake is similar in these organs at 24 h. These murine strains demonstrate similar hepatic and renal cadmium uptake but significantly different cadmium accumulation in the reproductive organs at 24 h. The mechanism of the protective effect of zinc on cadmium toxicity was studied by assessing the impact of zinc acetate (ZnAc) treatment on cadmium concentrations in 129/J mice after 24 h. Zinc pretreatment (250 {mu}mol/kg ZnAc), given 24 h prior to 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2} administration, significantly decreased the amount of cadmium in the testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle of 129/J mice, and significantly increased the cadmium content of the liver after 24 h. Cadmium levels in the kidney were unaffected at this time. Zinc pretreatment also prevented the cadmium-induced decrease in testicular sperm concentration and epididymal sperm motility seen in 129/J mice. These findings suggest that the differences in the two murine strains may be attributed partly to the differential accumulation of cadmium in murine gonads. This may be caused by strain differences in the specificity of cadmium transport mechanisms. The protective role of zinc in cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in the sensitive strain may be due to an interference in the cadmium uptake by susceptible

  19. Mitigation by Aloe Vera of cadmium chloride and radiation induced biochemical changes in the brain of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrawarti, Aruna; Kanwar, Om; Nayak, Kamal Kumar; Ranga, Deepti; Jangir, Ashok; Ram, Purkha

    2013-01-01

    Whole body exposure to ionizing radiation provokes oxidative damage, organ dysfunction and metabolic disturbance. Herbal drugs offer an alternative to the synthetic radioprotective compounds which are either non-toxic or less toxic. Aloe vera rich in polyphenolic compound is known to possess antioxidant properties. In the context, the present study, effect of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced changes in the brain of Swiss albino mice. For the purpose, six to eight weeks old male Swiss albino mice were selected and divided into seven groups:- Group I (Sham-irradiated), Group II (treated with cadmium chloride 20 ppm), Group III (Irradiated with 7.0 Gy gamma rays), Group IV (Both irradiated and treated with cadmium chloride solution), Group V (Cadmium and Aloe vera treated), Group VI (radiation and Aloe vera treated), Group VII (radiation, and cadmium chloride and Aloe vera treated). The animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at each post-treatment intervals of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days. The brain (cerebral cortex) was taken out and quantitatively analyzed for different biochemical parameters such as total proteins, glycogen, cholesterol, acid phosphatase activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, DNA and RNA. The value of cholesterol, glycogen, RNA, acid phosphatase activity, and alkaline phosphatase activity increased up to day-14 in non drug-treated groups and day-7 in Aloe vera treated groups and thereafter decreased up to day-28. The value of total proteins and DNA decreased up to day-14 in non drug-treated groups and day-7 in the drug treated groups then increased in all groups. In only cadmium chloride (Without and with drug) treated animals (Groups II and V) the value of cholesterol decreased during early intervals (days-14 and 7 respectively) and increased thereafter. Severe changes were observed after combined exposure to radiation and cadmium chloride showing synergistic effect. Aloe vera reduced the severity of damage and made the

  20. Effect of alkaline earth metal and magnesium cations on cadmium extraction from chloride solutions by tributyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokuev, V.A.; Belousov, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    At 298 K thermodynamic constants of cadmium (2) extraction from chloride solutions of magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium by tributyl phosphate are calculated. It is established, that logarithm of the thermodynamic extraction constant is in a linear dependence from the change in the cation hydration enthalpy in agqueous solution. It is shown, that activity coefficient of neutral complex CdVCl 2 differs from one, and it is the higher the more stable the complex is in alkaline earth metal chloride solutions

  1. Comparison of the sensitivity of different toxicological endpoints in Caco-2 cells after cadmium chloride treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boveri, M.; Pazos, P.; Gennari, A.; Casado, J.; Hartung, T.; Prieto, P. [ECVAM, Inst. for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Ispra (Italy)

    2004-04-01

    The human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2 is a widely used in vitro model of the intestinal barrier. Cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) is a highly toxic metal compound, ubiquitous in the biosphere, able to enter the food chain and to reach the intestinal epithelium, causing structural and functional damages. The aim of this work was to characterise cadmium toxicity in Caco-2 cells and, in particular, to compare the sensitivity of different endpoints revealing damage both on the epithelial barrier and at the cellular or molecular level. After 24-h exposure of the cells to CdCl{sub 2}, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage showed cadmium-induced cell toxicity, significant from 25 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2} and above, and analysis of different cell death pathways indicated the presence of necrosis after treatment with 50 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2}. At the molecular level, we observed an increase in the protective protein heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), starting at 10 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2}. At the barrier level, transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) decreased while paracellular permeability (PCP) significantly increased after the treatment, showing an EC{sub 50} of 6 and 16 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2}, respectively, and indicating the loss of barrier integrity. In conclusion, our data reveal that CdCl{sub 2} toxicity in Caco-2 cells can be detected at the barrier level at very low concentrations; also, HSP70 was shown to be a sensitive marker for detecting in vitro cadmium-induced toxicity. (orig.)

  2. Comparative studies of in vivo genotoxic effects of cadmium chloride in rat brain, kidney and liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latinwo, L M; Ikediobi, C O; Singh, N P; Sponholtz, G; Fasanya, C; Riley, L

    1997-03-01

    Cadmium chloride-induced DNA damage was investigated in individual brain, kidney and liver cells isolated from rats gavaged 14 mg/kg/day cadmium chloride. Animals were sacrificed on days 2, 4, 8, 16, and 33, and DNA damage was determined using the recently developed alkaline microgel electrophoresis technique. Data for DNA migration from 50 randomly selected cells clearly show significant increases in DNA damage in cells from three different organs of cadmium chloride gavaged animals compared to saline treated control animals (33 day control, brain 64.7 +/- 5.3, kidney 75.5 +/- 9.4, liver 67.9 +/- 5.7 microm; 33 days experimental, brain 284.3 +/- 16.9, kidney 397.9 +/- 11.3, liver 315 +/- 22.5 microm; these values represent length of exposure in days and length of DNA migration in micron). There was an increase in DNA damage for all three cell types, with increasing duration of treatment. Cadmium (CdCl2) induced levels of DNA single strand breaks were more pronounced in kidney cells than in cells from the other two organs. Body and organ weights decreased of treated animals were decreased as compared to control. Results of this study indicate a potential of cadmium to be a genotoxic compound.

  3. Growth and characterization of organometallic L-alanine cadmium chloride single crystal by slow evaporation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bright, K.C.; Freeda, T.H.

    2010-01-01

    Single crystals of L-alanine cadmium chloride (LACC), an organometallic nonlinear optical material, have been grown by the slow evaporation technique. The grown crystals were subjected to various characterization techniques, such as single crystal and powder XRD, FTIR, UV-vis and TGA-DTA. The mechanical properties of the crystals show that this material belongs to the category of hard materials. Second harmonic generation was confirmed by the Kurtz and Perry powder technique. Electrical parameters, such as dielectric constant, dielectric loss, ac and dc conductivity and their corresponding activation energies have been studied. The low dielectric constant and dielectric loss suggest that this material is a good candidate for micro-electronic applications.

  4. Reproductive and endocrinological features of male rats after treatment with cadmium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saksena, S.K.; Dahlgren, L.; Lau, I.F.; Chang, M.C.

    1977-06-01

    Single subcutaneous injection of 1 or 5 mg cadmium chloride (CdCl/sub 2/) to adult male rats resulted in a significant reduction in the weights of the testis, epididymidis, vas deferens, ventral prostate and seminal vesicles. Sperm population in the vas deferens, caput and cauda epididymidis was severely reduced. Sexual drive and fertility were not changed 7 or 15 days after treatment with 1 mg CdCl/sub 2/; however, a loss of libido to total sterility were encountered in animals receiving 5 mg CdCl/sub 2/. The circulating testosterone and 5..cap alpha..-dihydrotestosterone were suppressed whereas androstenedione concentration remained unaltered. It appears that CdCl/sub 2/ not only affects spermatogenesis but also inhibits androgen production.

  5. Nucleation and growth phenomena of cadmium at tungsten in basic aluminum chloride/1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, G.M.; Wilkes, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a study to investigate the mechanism of the electrodeposition of cadmium in a basic melt using cyclic voltammetric chronoamperometric and chronopotention metric methods at tungsten electrode. In addition, proton nuclear magnetic resonance data are presented

  6. Cadmium chloride strongly enhances cyclophosphamide-induced chromosome aberrations in mouse bone marrow cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandurangarao, V.L.; Blazina, S.; Bherje, R. [Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo, MI (United States)] [and others

    1997-10-01

    Earlier we reported that a single 5 mg cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2})/kg ip dose enhanced chromosome aberrations (ca) with 50 mg/kg cyclophosphamide (CP) in mouse bone marrow cells. In this report groups of 4 mice were injected ip with saline, 0.31, 0.62, 1.25, 2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg CdCl{sub 2}, followed by saline injections at 24 h. Other mice similarly uninjected at 0 h were injected with 50 mg/kg CP at 24 h. All the mice were injected ip with 4 mg colchicine/kg at 44 h. At 48 h the bone marrow cells were processed for chromosome spreads. After dissection, visual examination revealed obvious internal hemorrhaging of the testes at 1.25 CdCl{sub 2} mg/kg and higher doses. This effect was not further increased by CP treatment. The lowest ca enhancing dose of CdCl{sub 2} on CP was 0.625 mg/kg. Our hypothesis is that Cd replaces zinc presents in numerous DNA repair enzymes and proteins resulting in diminished repair. Subsequently, the excess of unrepaired DNA damage is seen as chromatid breaks, deletions, fragments and exchanges.

  7. Optical, electrical, thermal properties of cadmium chloride doped PVA – PVP blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baraker, Basavarajeshwari M.; Hammannavar, Preeti B.; Lobo, Blaise, E-mail: blaise.lobo@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Karnatak Science College, Karnatak University, Dharwad-580001 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Films of polyvinylalcohol (PVA) – polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) blend doped with Cadmium Chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) in the doping range 1 wt% to 40 wt% were prepared by solution casting technique. These films were characterized using optical/UV-Vis- NIR spectroscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and DC electrical measurements. The UV-Visible spectra were quantitatively analyzed to yield the optical parameters. The UV-Visible Spectra show intermediate absorption bands (before the final absorption edge) due to formation of energy bands in the forbidden gap of PVA-PVP. There is a prominent absorption band at 2.9 eV, from 0.5 wt% up to 1.8 wt% doping level (DL) caused by the dopant (CdCl{sub 2}). The DC electrical studies showed an increase in activation energy from 2.8 eV at 0.5 wt% DL up to 3.5 eV at 4.4 wt% DL, reaching a low of 2.4 eV at 11.2 wt% DL. DSC scans show evidence of formation of chain fragments, at doping levels beyond 8 wt%.

  8. Comparative efficacy of two microdoses of a potentized homoeopathic drug, Cadmium Sulphoricum, in reducing genotoxic effects produced by cadmium chloride in mice: a time course study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh Anisur AR

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cadmium poisoning in the environment has assumed an alarming problem in recent years. Effective antimutagenic agents which can reverse or combat cadmium induced genotoxicity in mice have not yet been reported. Therefore, in the present study, following the homeopathic principle of "like cures like", we tested the efficacy of two potencies of a homeopathic drug, Cadmium Sulphoricum (Cad Sulph, in reducing the genotoxic effects of Cadmium chloride in mice. Another objective was to determine the relative efficacy of three administrative modes, i.e. pre-, post- and combined pre and post-feeding of the homeopathic drugs. For this, healthy mice, Mus musculus, were intraperitoneally injected with 0.008% solution of CdCl2 @ 1 ml/100 gm of body wt (i.e. 0.8 mcg/gm of bw, and assessed for the genotoxic effects through such studies as chromosome aberrations (CA, micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE, mitotic index (MI and sperm head anomaly (SHA, keeping suitable succussed alcohol fed (positive and CdCl2 untreated normal (negative controls. The CdCl2 treated mice were divided into 3 subgroups, which were orally administered with the drug prior to, after and both prior to and after injection of CdCl2 at specific fixation intervals and their genotoxic effects were analyzed. Results While the CA, MNE and SHA were reduced in the drug fed series as compared to their respective controls, the MI showed an apparent increase. The combined pre- and post-feeding of Cad Sulph showed maximum reduction of the genotoxic effects. Conclusions Both Cad Sulph-30 and 200 were able to combat cadmium induced genotoxic effects in mice and that combined pre- and post-feeding mode of administration was found to be most effective in reducing the genotoxic effect of CdCl2 followed by the post-feeding mode.

  9. Comparing the Efficacy Rates of Lime and Poly Aluminum Chloride Coagulants in Cadmium Removal from the Landfill Leachate by Chemical Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafaii Gh. PhD,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims Chemical precipitation is a simple, efficient, and cost-effective method for eliminating heavy metals found in landfill leachate. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy rates of cadmium removal with the coagulants like poly aluminum chloride and lime using chemical precipitation method. Materials & Methods In this experimental study, the raw studied samples were collected from the landfill located in Kahrizak, Iran, in May 2014. The elimination rates of cadmium at 1000, 1500 and 2000mg/l concentrations of lime; at 100, 150 200mg/l concentrations of poly aluminum chloride; at 7, 9, 11 pH levels; and during 20, 40 and 60min of the reaction time were studied. Data were analyzed in SPSS 16 software using ANOVA, independent T and repeated measurement tests. Findings The maximum elimination rate of cadmium in both lime and poly aluminum chloride were seen at pH=11. The maximum rates of cadmium removal occurred at minute 40 in 2000mg/l concentration of lime (99.4% and 200mg/l concentration of poly aluminum chloride (98%. Conclusion Both lime and poly aluminum chloride have the best cadmium removal rate from leachate at pH=11 after 40 minutes of precipitation process. Being more inexpensive and easily available than poly aluminum chloride, lime is considered as an appropriate coagulant.

  10. Cadmium chloride inhibits lactate gluconeogenesis in mouse renal proximal tubules: An in vitro metabolomic approach with (13)C NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiz, Hassan; Boghossian, Michelle; Martin, Guy; Baverel, Gabriel; Ferrier, Bernard; Conjard-Duplany, Agnès

    2015-11-04

    Using isolated mouse renal proximal tubules incubated with lactate as substrate, we have found that the addition of 1-50 μM cadmium chloride (CdCl2) caused a concentration-dependent decrease in lactate utilization, in glucose production and in the cellular level of ATP, coenzyme A, acetyl-coenzyme A and glutathione (reduced and oxidized forms). Combining enzymatic and (13)C NMR measurements in a cellular metabolomic approach, we have shown that, in the presence of 10 μM CdCl2, fluxes through the key-enzymes of gluconeogenesis, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase were greatly depressed by cadmium. This was accompanied by a reduction in fluxes through the enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Comparing the mouse and human renal metabolic responses to cadmium, it is interesting to observe that the mouse renal proximal tubule was much more sensitive than the human renal proximal tubule to the adverse effects of CdCl2. As far as renal gluconeogenesis is concerned, the mouse seems to be an appropriate and convenient animal model to study the mechanism of cadmium nephrotoxicity. However, the data obtained in the mouse should be extrapolated to humans with caution because the inhibition of fluxes through the enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in mouse tubules were not observed in human tubules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Remediation of cadmium- and lead-contaminated agricultural soil by composite washing with chlorides and citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-jiao; Hu, Peng-jie; Zhao, Jie; Dong, Chang-xun

    2015-04-01

    Composite washing of cadmium (Cd)- and lead (Pb)-contaminated agricultural soil from Hunan province in China using mixtures of chlorides (FeCl3, CaCl2) and citric acid (CA) was investigated. The concentrations of composite washing agents for metal removal were optimized. Sequential extraction was conducted to study the changes in metal fractions after soil washing. The removal of two metals at optimum concentration was reached. Using FeCl3 mixed with CA, 44% of Cd and 23% of Pb were removed, and 49 and 32% by CaCl2 mixed with CA, respectively. The mechanism of composite washing was postulated. A mixture of chlorides and CA enhanced metal extraction from soil through the formation of metal-chloride and metal-citrate complexes. CA in extract solutions promoted the formation of metal-chloride complexes and reduced the solution pH. Composite washing reduced Cd and Pb in Fe-Mn oxide forms significantly. Chlorides and CA exerted a synergistic effect on metal extraction during composite washing.

  12. Effects of Spirulina platensis on DNA damage and chromosomal aberration against cadmium chloride-induced genotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Fayza M; Kotb, Ahmed M; Hammad, Seddik

    2018-02-03

    Todays, bioactive compounds extracted from Spirulina platensis have been intensively studied for their therapeutical values. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of S. platensis extract on DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations induced by cadmium in rats. Four groups of male albino rats (n = 7 rats) were used. The first group served as a control group and received distilled water. The second group was exposed intraperitoneally to cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) (3.5 mg/kg body weight dissolved in 2 ml distilled water). The third group included the rats that were orally treated with S. platensis extract (1 g/kg dissolved in 5 ml distilled water, every other day for 30 days). The fourth group included the rats that were intraperitoneally and orally exposed to cadmium chloride and S. platensis, respectively. The experiment in all groups was extended for 60 days. The results of cadmium-mediated toxicity revealed significant genetic effects (DNA fragmentation, deletion or disappearance of some base pairs of DNA, and appearance of few base pairs according to ISSR-PCR analysis). Moreover, chromosomes showed structural aberrations such as reduction of chromosomal number, chromosomal ring, chromatid deletions, chromosomal fragmentations, and dicentric chromosomes. Surprisingly, S. platensis extract plus CdCl 2 -treated group showed less genetic effects compared with CdCl 2 alone. Further, S. platensis extract upon CdCl 2 toxicity was associated with less chromosomal aberration number and nearly normal appearance of DNA fragments as indicated by the bone marrow and ISSR-PCR analysis, respectively. In conclusion, the present novel study showed that co-treatment with S. platensis extract could reduce the genotoxic effects of CdCl 2 in rats.

  13. Studies on the Genotoxicity Behavior of Silver Nanoparticles in the Presence of Heavy Metal Cadmium Chloride in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Hanan Ramadan Hamad

    2016-01-01

    Incredible rapid growth in the nanoparticles applications and development increases the daily human exposure to them but humans are exposed to many other pollutants in addition to nanoparticles that forced us to evaluate the effect of heavy metal cadmium chloride (CdCl2) coinjection on silver nanoparticles induced genotoxic risk in this study. Mice were injected into the abdominal cavity with single dose of Ag nanoparticles (20, 41, and 82 mg/kg) or CdCl2 (1.5 mg/kg) either separately or toge...

  14. Cadmium chloride inhibits lactate gluconeogenesis in isolated human renal proximal tubules: a cellular metabolomic approach with 13C-NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiz, Hassan; Conjard-Duplany, Agnès; Boghossian, Michelle; Martin, Guy; Baverel, Gabriel; Ferrier, Bernard

    2011-09-01

    As part of a study on cadmium nephrotoxicity, we studied the effect of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) in isolated human renal proximal tubules metabolizing the physiological substrate lactate. Dose-effect experiments showed that 10-500 μM CdCl2 reduced lactate removal, glucose production and the cellular levels of ATP, coenzyme A, acetyl-coenzyme A and of reduced glutathione in a dose-dependent manner. After incubation with 5 mM L: -[1-(13)C]-, or L: -[2-(13)C]-, or L: -[3-(13)C] lactate or 5 mM L: -lactate plus 25 mM NaH(13)CO3 as substrates, substrate utilization and product formation were measured by both enzymatic and carbon 13 NMR methods. Combination of enzymatic and NMR measurements with a mathematical model of lactate metabolism previously validated showed that 100 μM CdCl2 caused an inhibition of flux through lactate dehydrogenase and alanine aminotransferase and through the entire gluconeogenic pathway; fluxes were diminished by 19% (lactate dehydrogenase), 28% (alanine aminotransferase), 28% (pyruvate carboxylase), 42% (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), and 52% (glucose-6-phosphatase). Such effects occurred without altering the oxidation of the lactate carbons or fluxes through enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle despite a large fall of the cellular ATP level, a marker of the energy status and of the viability of the renal cells. These results that were observed at clinically relevant tissue concentrations of cadmium provide a biochemical basis for a better understanding of the cellular mechanism of cadmium-induced renal proximal tubulopathy in humans chronically exposed to cadmium.

  15. Comparative transcriptomic characterization of aluminum, sodium chloride, cadmium and copper rhizotoxicities in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakurai Nozomu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhizotoxic ions in problem soils inhibit nutrient and water acquisition by roots, which in turn leads to reduced crop yields. Previous studies on the effects of rhizotoxic ions on root growth and physiological functions suggested that some mechanisms were common to all rhizotoxins, while others were more specific. To understand this complex system, we performed comparative transcriptomic analysis with various rhizotoxic ions, followed by bioinformatics analysis, in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Roots of Arabidopsis were treated with the major rhizotoxic stressors, aluminum (Al ions, cadmium (Cd ions, copper (Cu ions and sodium (NaCl chloride, and the gene expression responses were analyzed by DNA array technology. The top 2.5% of genes whose expression was most increased by each stressor were compared with identify common and specific gene expression responses induced by these stressors. A number of genes encoding glutathione-S-transferases, peroxidases, Ca-binding proteins and a trehalose-synthesizing enzyme were induced by all stressors. In contrast, gene ontological categorization identified sets of genes uniquely induced by each stressor, with distinct patterns of biological processes and molecular function. These contained known resistance genes for each stressor, such as AtALMT1 (encoding Al-activated malate transporter in the Al-specific group and DREB (encoding dehydration responsive element binding protein in the NaCl-specific group. These gene groups are likely to reflect the common and differential cellular responses and the induction of defense systems in response to each ion. We also identified co-expressed gene groups specific to rhizotoxic ions, which might aid further detailed investigation of the response mechanisms. Conclusion In order to understand the complex responses of roots to rhizotoxic ions, we performed comparative transcriptomic analysis followed by bioinformatics characterization

  16. Coselection of Cadmium and Benzalkonium Chloride Resistance in Conjugative Transfers from Nonpathogenic Listeria spp. to Other Listeriae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katharios-Lanwermeyer, S.; Rakic-Martinez, M.; Elhanafi, D.; Ratani, S.; Tiedje, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Resistance to the quaternary ammonium disinfectant benzalkonium chloride (BC) may be an important contributor to the ability of Listeria spp. to persist in the processing plant environment. Although a plasmid-borne disinfectant resistance cassette (bcrABC) has been identified in Listeria monocytogenes, horizontal transfer of these genes has not been characterized. Nonpathogenic Listeria spp. such as L. innocua and L. welshimeri are more common than L. monocytogenes in food processing environments and may contribute to the dissemination of disinfectant resistance genes in listeriae, including L. monocytogenes. In this study, we investigated conjugative transfer of resistance to BC and to cadmium from nonpathogenic Listeria spp. to other nonpathogenic listeriae, as well as to L. monocytogenes. BC-resistant L. welshimeri and L. innocua harboring bcrABC, along with the cadmium resistance determinant cadA2, were able to transfer resistance to other nonpathogenic listeriae as well as to L. monocytogenes of diverse serotypes, including strains from the 2011 cantaloupe outbreak. Transfer among nonpathogenic Listeria spp. was noticeably higher at 25°C than at 37°C, whereas acquisition of resistance by L. monocytogenes was equally efficient at 25 and 37°C. When the nonpathogenic donors were resistant to both BC and cadmium, acquisition of cadmium resistance was an effective surrogate for transfer of resistance to BC, suggesting coselection between these resistance attributes. The results suggest that nonpathogenic Listeria spp. may behave as reservoirs for disinfectant and heavy metal resistance genes for other listeriae, including the pathogenic species L. monocytogenes. PMID:22904051

  17. Coselection of cadmium and benzalkonium chloride resistance in conjugative transfers from nonpathogenic Listeria spp. to other Listeriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katharios-Lanwermeyer, S; Rakic-Martinez, M; Elhanafi, D; Ratani, S; Tiedje, J M; Kathariou, S

    2012-11-01

    Resistance to the quaternary ammonium disinfectant benzalkonium chloride (BC) may be an important contributor to the ability of Listeria spp. to persist in the processing plant environment. Although a plasmid-borne disinfectant resistance cassette (bcrABC) has been identified in Listeria monocytogenes, horizontal transfer of these genes has not been characterized. Nonpathogenic Listeria spp. such as L. innocua and L. welshimeri are more common than L. monocytogenes in food processing environments and may contribute to the dissemination of disinfectant resistance genes in listeriae, including L. monocytogenes. In this study, we investigated conjugative transfer of resistance to BC and to cadmium from nonpathogenic Listeria spp. to other nonpathogenic listeriae, as well as to L. monocytogenes. BC-resistant L. welshimeri and L. innocua harboring bcrABC, along with the cadmium resistance determinant cadA2, were able to transfer resistance to other nonpathogenic listeriae as well as to L. monocytogenes of diverse serotypes, including strains from the 2011 cantaloupe outbreak. Transfer among nonpathogenic Listeria spp. was noticeably higher at 25°C than at 37°C, whereas acquisition of resistance by L. monocytogenes was equally efficient at 25 and 37°C. When the nonpathogenic donors were resistant to both BC and cadmium, acquisition of cadmium resistance was an effective surrogate for transfer of resistance to BC, suggesting coselection between these resistance attributes. The results suggest that nonpathogenic Listeria spp. may behave as reservoirs for disinfectant and heavy metal resistance genes for other listeriae, including the pathogenic species L. monocytogenes.

  18. EPR of Cu(II) in sarcosine cadmium chloride: probe into dopant site - symmetry and copper-sarcosine interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Pathinettam-Padiyan, D; Murugesan, R

    2000-01-01

    The electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of Cu(II) doped sarcosine cadmium chloride single crystals have been investigated at room temperature. Experimental results reveal that the Cu(II) ion enters the lattice interstitially. The observed superhyperfine lines indicate the superposition of two sets of quintet structure with interaction of nitrogen atoms and the two isotopes of copper. The spin Hamiltonian parameters are evaluated by Schonland method and the electric field symmetry around the copper ion is rhombic. An admixture of d sub z sup 2 orbital with the d sub x sub sup 2 sub - sub y sub sup 2 ground state is observed. Evaluation of MO coefficients reveals that the in-plane interaction between copper and nitrogen is strong in this lattice.

  19. The assessment of maize plants (Zea mays L.) adaptation to the cadmium chloride influence using the radiocapacity factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pchelovs'ka, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    The radiocapacity factor concentration dependence and dependencies under adaptive and stress influences to plants was obtained. The dependence of adaptation on the time interval between the test and adapting concentrations of cadmium chloride was revealed. And the effect of sensibilization on the growth and absorbing characteristics of plants of salt CdCl 2 when the test concentration 25 μM/L entered at 4 hours after adaptive concentrations (1μM/L and 25μM/L) application was observed. It is shown that the radiocapacity factor is adequate, sensitive and efficient indicator manifesting the response of plants to stress influence in the conditions of adaptive schemes of influence using

  20. Growth, optical, electrical and photoconductivity studies of a novel nonlinear optical single crystal: Mercury cadmium chloride thiocyanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S. M. Ravi; Selvakumar, S.; Sagayaraj, P.; Anbarasi, A.

    2015-02-01

    SCN- ligand based organometallic non-linear optical mercury cadmium chloride thiocyanate (MCCTC) crystals are grown from water plus methanol mixed solvent by slow evaporation technique. The grown crystals are confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis which reveals that the MCCTC belongs to rhombohedral system with R3c space group. MCCTC exhibits a SHG efficiency which is nearly 17 times more than that of KDP. The dielectric constant, dielectric loss measurements of the sample have been carried out for different frequencies (100 Hz to 5 MHz) and, temperatures (308 to 388 K) and the results are discussed. Photoconductivity study confirms that the title compound possesses negative photoconducting nature. The surface morphology of MCCTC was also investigated

  1. Low Doses of Cadmium Chloride and Methallothionein-1-Bound Cadmium Display Different Accumulation Kinetics and Induce Different Genes in Cells of the Human Nephron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Cucu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The present study was conducted to investigate the renal tubular handling of inorganic cadmium (Cd2+ by exposing primary human tubular cell cultures to physiologically relevant doses of cadmium chloride (CdCl2. Furthermore, the cellular accumulation of Cd2+ was compared to that of metallothionein-1-bound Cd (Cd7MT-1. Finally, this study aimed to investigate the effect of the accumulation of Cd (both Cd2+ and Cd7MT-1 in renal cells on the expression of genes relevant to nephrotoxic processes. Methods: Cd concentration was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. mRNA expression was evaluated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Results: Cd2+ accumulated into human tubular cells in a concentration- and time-dependent way. Furthermore, cellular accumulation of Cd2+ was different from the cellular accumulation of Cd7MT-1, indicative for different uptake routes. Finally, mRNA expression of the genes encoding the anti-oxidative proteins metallothionein-1 (MT-1 and heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1 as well as the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax were upregulated by CdCl2 and not by Cd7MT1. Conclusion: In the presence of physiologically relevant Cd concentrations, tubular accumulation of the element in its inorganic form is different from that of Cd7MT-1. Furthermore, the tubular accumulation of inorganic Cd induces mRNA expression of genes of which the protein products may play a role in Cd-associated renal toxicity.

  2. Genotoxicity of cadmium chloride in the marine gastropod Nerita chamaeleon using comet assay and alkaline unwinding assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Anupam; Bhagat, Jacky; Ingole, Baban S; Rao, Durga P; Markad, Vijaykumar L

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the genotoxic effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl2 ) on marine gastropod, Nerita chamaeleon following the technique of comet assay and the DNA alkaline unwinding assay (DAUA). In this study, the extent of DNA damage in gill cells of N. chamaeleon was measured after in vivo exposure to four different concentrations (10, 25, 50, and 75 µg/L) of CdCl2 . In vitro exposure of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ; 1, 10, 25, and 50 µM) of the gill cells showed a significant increase in the percentage tail DNA, Olive tail moment, and tail length (TL). Significant changes in percentage tail DNA by CdCl2 exposure were observed in all exposed groups of snails with respect to those in control. Exposure to 75 µg/L of CdCl2 produced significant decrease in DNA integrity as measured by DAUA at all duration with respect to control. In vivo exposure to different concentrations of CdCl2 (10, 25, 50, and 75 µg/L) to N. chamaeleon showed considerable increase in DNA damage as observed by both alkaline comet assay and the DAUA. The extent of DNA damage in marine gastropods determined by the application of alkaline comet assay and DAUA clearly indicated the genotoxic responses of marine gastropod, N. chamaeleon to a wide range of cadmium concentration in the marine environment. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Studies on the Genotoxicity Behavior of Silver Nanoparticles in the Presence of Heavy Metal Cadmium Chloride in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Ramadan Hamad Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Incredible rapid growth in the nanoparticles applications and development increases the daily human exposure to them but humans are exposed to many other pollutants in addition to nanoparticles that forced us to evaluate the effect of heavy metal cadmium chloride (CdCl2 coinjection on silver nanoparticles induced genotoxic risk in this study. Mice were injected into the abdominal cavity with single dose of Ag nanoparticles (20, 41, and 82 mg/kg or CdCl2 (1.5 mg/kg either separately or together simultaneously and sacrificed 24 hours later. CdCl2 cotreatment enhanced the induced dose-dependent sperm abnormality by Ag nanoparticles different doses as shown by the statistical significant decreases in both sperm concentration and motility and increases in the frequency of abnormal sperms and also potentiated the Ag nanoparticles induced chromosomal and DNA damage indicated by the statistical significant elevations in the frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs and DNA damage levels. Moreover, statistical elevations in malondialdehyde level and reductions in catalase activity were observed after CdCl2 coinjection with Ag nanoparticles compared with Ag nanoparticles treated groups’ values. Ag nanoparticles induced sperm abnormality, clastogenicity, and genotoxicity were potentiated by heavy metal cadmium coinjection that threatens the human life and increases silver nanoparticles genotoxic risks.

  4. Effect of cobalt chloride on soybean seedlings subjected to cadmium stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagna Chmielowska-Bąk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of the environment with heavy metals such as Cd is a serious problem of modern world. Exposure of plants to Cd leads to oxidative stress, inhibition of respiration and photosynthesis, increased rate of mutation and, as a consequence, stunted growth and yield decrease. One of the common reactions of plants to cadmium stress is over-production of ethylene, however the exact role of this hormone in plants response to Cd is still unrecognized. The aim of the present study is evaluation of the impact of an ethylene synthesis inhibitor, Co, on the response of soybean seedlings to cadmium stress. The experiments included measurements of growth, cell viability, ethylene production and expression of genes associated with cellular signaling in soybean seedlings exposed to CdCl2 (with Cd in a concentration of 223 μM and/or CoCl2 (with Co in concentration of 4.6 μM. Surprisingly, the results show that Co has no effect on ethylene biosynthesis, however, it affects cell viability and expression of Cd-induced genes associated with plant signaling pathways. The affected genes encode mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase2 (MAPKK2, nitrate reductase and DOF1 and bZIP2 transcription factors. The role of Co in plants response to cadmium stress and its potential use as an ethylene inhibitor is discussed.

  5. Histopathological alterations in the edible snail, Babylonia areolata (spotted babylon), in acute and subchronic cadmium poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanhan, P; Sretarugsa, P; Pokethitiyook, P; Kruatrachue, M; Upatham, E S

    2005-04-01

    Histopathological alterations in 6- to 8-month-old juvenile spotted babylon, Babylonia areolata, from acute and subchronic cadmium exposure were studied by light microscopy. The 96-h LC(50) value of cadmium for B. areolata was found to be 3.35 mg/L, and the maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) was 1.6 mg/L. Snails were exposed to 3.35 and 0.08 mg/L (5% of MATC) of cadmium for 96 h and 90 days, respectively. After exposure the gill, the organs of the digestive system (proboscis, esophagus, stomach, digestive gland, and rectum), and the foot were analyzed for cadmium accumulation. The results showed that most digestive organs had a high affinity for cadmium. The main target organ was the stomach, which could accumulate on average 1192.18 microg/g dry weight of cadmium. Cadmium was shown to accumulate to a lesser extent in the digestive gland, gill, rectum, esophagus, proboscis, and foot. Histopathological alterations were observed in the gill and digestive organs (proboscis, esophagus, stomach, and rectum). The study showed that the stomach and gill were the primary target organs of both acute and subchronic exposure. Gill alterations included increased size of mucous vacuoles, reduced length of cilia, dilation and pyknosis of nuclei, thickening of basal lamina, and accumulation of hemocytes. The epithelial lining of the digestive tract showed similar alterations such as increased size of mucous vacuoles, reduced length of cilia, and dilation of nuclei. In addition, fragmentation of the muscle sheath was observed.

  6. The protective effect of omega-3 oil against the hepatotoxicity of cadmium chloride in adult and weanling rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Treefa F.; Aziz, Falah M.

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective role of omega-3 oil against the toxic effect of cadmium as cadmium chloride (CdCl2) on the liver of male, dams and weanling rats from the histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical points of view. Thirty adult male and thirty adult female rats (dams) were used in the present work, divided randomly into five groups, six rats for each group and ten weanling male rats were chosen from each dam group. First group was considered as control group and given only standard diet and drinking water, second group was given (40 mg/ L) of CdCl2 in drinking water. The third group was given (60 mg/ L) of CdCl2 in drinking water. The fourth group was given (40 mg/L) of CdCl2 in drinking water plus omega-3 oil (4 gm/ kg diet) and the fifth group was given (60 mg/L) of CdCl2 in drinking water plus omega-3 oil (4 gm/ kg diet). All the above groups were left for 30 days for males and 42 days for the females) i.e. at the 21th day of the weanling rats birth). Both doses of CdCl2 have caused a lot of histological and ultrastructural alterations in the liver including high degeneration of hepatocytes. Electron microscope images showed thickening of mitochondrial membrane, variation in the size and shape of the mitochondria of the above cells and deposition of Cd particles in the lining of blood sinusoids. The hepatocytes of the weanling rats showed more ultrastructural changes especially the accumulation of lipid droplets. The immunohistochemical images of the mother liver showed a positive P53 reaction in the cells of the liver of CdCl2 treated rats especially those around the portal area. These reactions disappeared in the omega-3 plus CdCl2 groups. The present results suggested a protective role of omega-3 against the cadmium induced hepatotoxicity.

  7. Comparing the Efficacy Rates of Lime and Poly Aluminum Chloride Coagulants in Cadmium Removal from the Landfill Leachate by Chemical Precipitation

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafaii Gh. PhD,; Mazaheri Tehrani A.* MSc,; Salem A. BSc,; Tootooni Mofrad F. BSc,; Yazdankhah M. BSc,; Mosayebi M. MSc

    2015-01-01

    Aims Chemical precipitation is a simple, efficient, and cost-effective method for eliminating heavy metals found in landfill leachate. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy rates of cadmium removal with the coagulants like poly aluminum chloride and lime using chemical precipitation method. Materials & Methods In this experimental study, the raw studied samples were collected from the landfill located in Kahrizak, Iran, in May 2014. The elimination rates of c...

  8. Effects of cadmium chloride as inhibitor on stability and kinetics of immobilized Lactoperoxidase(LPO on silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles versus free LPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Babadaie Samani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Enzyme immobilization via nanoparticles is perfectly compatible against the other chemical or biological approximate to improve enzyme functions and stability. In this study lactoperoxidase was immobilized onto silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles to improve enzyme properties in the presence of cadmium chloride as an inhibitor. Materials and Methods:  The process consists of the following steps: (1 preparing magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles using the co-precipitation method, (2 coating NP with silica (SiO2 by sol–gel reaction, (3 characterizations of NPs were examined by FT-IR, XRD, AGFM and TEM. (4 Immobilization of LPO on the magnetite NPs, (5 Study kinetic and stability of both free and immobilized LPO in the presence of various concentrations of cadmium chloride. Results:  The size of the Fe3O4 and silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles were about 9 nm and 12 nm, respectively. The results showed that the highest immobilization yield, nearly 90 %, was attained at 240 to 300 µg of LPO at 15h. It was found that the concentration of cadmium chloride directly affects the LPO activity and changes the kinetic parameters of it. Also, the results showed that immobilized LPO has better tolerance than the free LPO, so that after immobilization, Vmax of immobilized LPO was increased and Km of immobilized LPO was decreased. Conclusion: The results demonstrating that the effect of immobilized lactoperoxidase on silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles increases the stability of the LPO in the presence of cadmium chloride as inhibitor. Michaelis–Menten parameters (Km and Vmax also revealed the considerable improvement of immobilized.

  9. Mathematical modeling of cadmium(II) solvent extraction from neutral and acidic chloride media using Cyanex 923 extractant as a metal carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, A A; Coll, M T; Fortuny, A; Rathore, N S; Sastre, A M

    2010-10-15

    This paper describes experimental work and the mathematical modeling of solvent extraction of cadmium(II) from neutral and acidic aqueous chloride media with a Cyanex 923 extractant in Exxol D-100. Solvent extraction experiments were carried out to analyze the influence of variations in the composition of the aqueous and organic phases on the efficiency of cadmium(II) extraction. In neutral and acidic chloride conditions, the extraction of cadmium(II) by the organophosphorous extractant Cyanex 923 (L) is based on the solvation mechanism of neutral H(n)CdCl((2+n)) species and the formation of H(n)CdCl((2+n))L(q) complexes in the organic phase, where n=0, 1, 2 and q=1, 2. The mathematical model of cadmium(II) extraction was derived from the mass balances and chemical equilibria involved in the separation system. The model was computed with the Matlab software. The equilibrium parameters for metal extraction, i.e. the stability constants of the aqueous Cd-Cl complexes, the formation constants of the acidic Cd-Cl species and the metal equilibrium extraction constants, were proposed. The optimized constants were appropriate, as there was good agreement when the model was fitted to the experimental data for each of the experiments. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Test for Acute Toxicity of Copper, Cadmium, and Mercury in Five Marine Species

    OpenAIRE

    PRATO, Ermelinda; BIANDOLINO, Francesca; SCARDICCHIO, Christian

    2006-01-01

    : The acute toxicity of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg) to the marine invertebrates Gammarus aequicauda, Corophium insidiosum, Idotea baltica, Sphaeroma serratum, and Mytilus galloprovincialis were evaluated by static bioassays and calculation of the LC50 (lethality concentration for 50%). Hg was more toxic to Gammarus aequicauda, Corophium insidiosum, Idotea baltica, Sphaeroma serratum, and Mytilus galloprovincialis than Cu and Cd. Cu was the least toxic of the metals tested.

  11. Effect of Acute Toxicity of Cadmium in Mice Kidney Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Masoomi Karimi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cadmium is one of the most toxic heavy metals in our environment having a very strong ability to accumulate in body organs, especially in kidney. The present study was done to determine the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in kidneys of rats exposed to cadmium. Methods: Male rats (n=30, kept in standard conditions were used in this study. The animals were randomly divided into 2 groups (control and treatment. The treatment group was intraperitoneally injected with Cd (300µm/kg at hours 0, 6, 12, 24, 48. Twenty four hours after the last injection, the rats were sacrificed and their kidneys were obtained. Then oxidative stress markers, malondialdehide (MDA, glutathione (GSH, and superoxide dismutase (SOD, were assayed in homogenized kidney for studying their cytotoxicity. For genotoxicity and DNA damage studies, Comet assay was run on isolated kidney cells. Data analysis was done by t-test and ANOVA using SPSS software version 15. Results: MDA and GSH concentrations in normal and Cd exposed kidney cells were 287.01±37.30nmol/g.pr and 15.61±3.89µmol/g.pr and 609.24±87.87nmol/g.pr and 28.52±5.22µmol/g.pr, respectively. In addition, SOD activity in normal and Cd exposed kidney cells were 77.75±4.12 and 218.91±5.40 U/mg.pr, respectively. Comet assay results (content comet length, tail length, and head diameter showed DNA breakage in the treatment group that was stimulated by Cd which was not seen in the control group. Conclusion: The results demonstrated the genotoxicity effect of Cd on kidney cells as well as the ability of Cd to producing cytotoxicity.

  12. The hepatoprotective effect of putrescine against cadmium-induced acute liver injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzirogiannis, Konstantinos N.; Panoutsopoulos, Georgios I.; Papadimas, George K.; Kondyli, Vasiliki G.; Kourentzi, Kalliopi T.; Hereti, Rosa I.; Mykoniatis, Michael G. [Department of Experimental Pharmacology, Medical School, Athens University, 75 Mikras Asias St., 115 27, Athens (Greece); Demonakou, Maria D. [Histopathology Laboratory, Sismanoglion G.D. Hospital, Sismanogliou 1, Marousi 151 27, Attiki (Greece)

    2004-06-01

    The hepatoprotective effect of putrescine against cadmium liver injury was investigated. Male Wistar rats were injected with a dose of cadmium (6.5 mg CdCl{sub 2}/kg bodyweight, intraperitoneally). Normal saline (group I) or putrescine (300 {mu}mol/kg bodyweight; group II) were injected 2, 5 and 8 h later. A number of animals of both groups were killed 0, 12, 16, 24, 48 or 60 h after cadmium intoxication. Liver tissue was histologically assessed for necrosis, apoptosis, peliosis, mitoses, and inflammatory infiltration. Apoptosis was also quantified by the TUNEL assay for hepatocytes and nonparenchymal liver cells. The discrimination between hepatic cell subpopulations was achieved histochemically. The mitotic index in hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections and by the immunochemical detection of Ki67 nuclear antigen, {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation into hepatic DNA, and hepatic thymidine kinase activity were all used as indices of liver regeneration. Both hepatocyte apoptosis and liver necrosis evolved in a biphasic temporal pattern. Nonparenchymal cell apoptosis and peliosis hepatis evolved in a monophasic pattern and were correlated closely. Putrescine administration totally reversed liver necrosis and hepatocyte apoptosis. The time profile of nonparenchymal apoptosis was altered and peliosis hepatis was also totally attenuated. In conclusion, putrescine protected hepatocytes and modulated the mechanism of cadmium-induced acute hepatotoxicity. (orig.)

  13. Effect of sodium chloride and cadmium on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunsheng; Xu, Ying; Jiang, Wei; Lv, Xin; Dong, Xiaoyan

    2014-06-01

    Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is a salt-tolerant yeast species capable of removing cadmium (Cd) pollutant from aqueous solution. Presently, the physiological characteristics of Z. rouxii under the stress of sodium chloride (NaCl) and Cd are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of NaCl and Cd on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii after stress treatment for 24 h. Results showed that NaCl or Cd alone negatively affected the growth of Z. rouxii, but the growth-inhibiting effect of Cd on Z. rouxii was reduced in the presence of NaCl. Flow cytometry assay showed that under Cd stress, NaCl significantly reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death of Z. rouxii compared with those in the absence of NaCl. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) of Z. rouxii were significantly enhanced by 2%-6% NaCl, which likely contributed to the high salt tolerance of Z. rouxii. The POD activity was inhibited by 20 mg L-1 Cd while the SOD and CAT activities were enhanced by 8 mg L-1 Cd and inhibited by 20 mg L-1 or 50 mg L-1 Cd. The inhibitory effect of high-level Cd on the antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii was counteracted by the combined use of NaCl, especially at 6%. This probably accounted for the decrease in Cd-induced ROS production and cell death of Z. rouxii after incubation with NaCl and Cd. Our work provided physiological clues as to the use of Z. rouxii as a biosorbent for Cd removal from seawater and liquid highly salty food.

  14. Estimating the modulatory effect of cadmium chloride on the genotoxicity and mutagenicity of silver nanoparticles in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, H R H

    2017-09-30

    Silver (Ag) nanoparticles (nano-Ag) are widely used because of their distinctive antimicrobial properties, but this widespread use increases Ag release into the environment along with many other pollutants such as heavy metals. Therefore, this study was undertaken to study the modulatory effect of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) on the genotoxicity and mutagenicity of nano-Ag in mice liver, kidney and brain tissues. Co-injections of CdCl2 (1.5 mg/kg) with nano-Ag (20, 41, or 82 mg/kg) resulted in significant elevations in both single and double DNA strand breaks that triggered higher apoptotic DNA damage, as revealed by the more fragmented appearance of genomic DNA and the significant increase in apoptotic fractions. Concurrent higher mutation incidence in the presenilin-1 and p53 genes was observed after CdCl2 co-treatment than in nano-Ag-treated groups. Immuno-histochemical localization of p53 protein revealed the overexpression of the p53 gene and the histological examination showed diffusely degenerated, congested blood vessels and the infiltration of leukocytes in the liver, kidney, and brain tissues of the groups co-treated with nano-Ag and CdCl2. Moreover, CdCl2 co-injection with nano-Ag increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, as revealed by increased malondialdehyde levels, decreased glutathione levels, and decreased superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity, compared with those induced by nano-Ag particles alone. We concluded that CdCl2 enhanced the nano-Ag-induced genotoxicity via increasing mutation incidence in p53 and presenilin-1 gene.

  15. Role of nitric oxide synthase inhibition in the acute hypertensive response to intracerebroventricular cadmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demontis, Maria Piera; Varoni, Maria Vittoria; Volpe, Anna Rita; Emanueli, Costanza; Madeddu, Paolo

    1998-01-01

    In the rat, intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of cadmium, a pollutant with long biological half-life, causes a sustained increase in blood pressure at doses that are ineffective by peripheral route. Since cadmium inhibits calcium-calmodulin constitutive nitric oxide (NO) synthase in cytosolic preparations of rat brain, this mechanism may be responsible for the acute pressor action of this heavy metal.To test this possibility, we evaluated the effect of i.c.v. injection of 88 nmol cadmium in normotensive unanaesthetized Wistar rats, which were i.c.v. pre-treated with: (1) saline (control), (2) L-arginine (L-Arg), to increase the availability of substrate for NO biosynthesis, (3) D-arginine (D-Arg), (4) 3-[4-morpholinyl]-sydnonimine-hydrochloride (SIN-1), an NO donor, or (5) CaCl2, a cofactor of brain calcium-calmodulin-dependent cNOSI. In additional experiments, the levels of L-citrulline (the stable equimolar product derived from enzymatic cleavage of L-Arg by NO synthase) were determined in the brain of vehicle- or cadmium-treated rats.The pressor response to cadmium reached its nadir at 5 min (43±4 mmHg) and lasted over 20 min in controls. L-Citrulline/protein content was reduced from 35 up to 50% in the cerebral cortex, pons, hippocampus, striatus, hypothalamus (P<0.01) of cadmium-treated rats compared with controls. Central injection of NG nitro-L-arginine-methylester (L-NAME) also reduced the levels of L-citrulline in the brain.Both the magnitude and duration of the response were attenuated by 1.21 and 2.42 μmol SIN-1 (32±3 and 15±4 mmHg, P<0.05), or 1 μmol CaCl2 (6±4 mmHg, P<0.05). Selectivity of action exerted by SIN-1 was confirmed by the use of another NO donor, S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP). Both L-Arg and D-Arg caused a mild but significant attenuation in the main phase of the pressor response evoked by cadmium. However, only L-Arg reduced the magnitude of the delayed, pressor response. Despite their similarity in

  16. Protective effects of synbiotic diets of Bacillus coagulans, Lactobacillus plantarum and inulin against acute cadmium toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarpour, Dornoush; Shekarforoush, Seyed Shahram; Ghaisari, Hamid Reza; Nazifi, Saeed; Sajedianfard, Javad; Eskandari, Mohammad Hadi

    2017-06-05

    Cadmium is a heavy metal that causes oxidative stress and has toxic effects in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of two probiotics along with a prebiotic in preventing the toxic effects of cadmium in rats. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups namely control, cadmium only, cadmium along with Lactobacillus plantarum (1 × 109 CFU/day) and inulin (5% of feedstuff) and cadmium along with Bacillus coagulans (1 × 109 spore/day) and inulin (5% of feedstuff). Cadmium treated groups received 200 μg/rat/day CdCl2 administered by gavage. During the 42-day experimental period, they were weighed weekly. For evaluation of changes in oxidative stress, the levels of some biochemicals and enzymes of serum including SOD, GPX, MDA, AST, ALT, total bilirubin, BUN and creatinine, and also SOD level of livers were measured at day 21 and 42 of treatment. The cadmium content of kidney and liver was determined by using atomic absorption mass spectrophotometry. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan's post hoc test. Treatment of cadmium induced rats with synbiotic diets significantly improved the liver enzymes and biochemical parameters that decreased AST, ALT, total bilirubin, BUN and metal accumulation in the liver and kidney and increased body weight, serum and liver SOD values in comparison with the cadmium-treated group. No significant differences were observed with MDA and GP X values between all groups (p > 0.05). This study showed that synbiotic diets containing probiotics (L. plantarum and B. coagulans) in combination with the prebiotic (inulin) can reduce the level of cadmium in the liver and kidney, preventing their damage and recover antioxidant enzymes in acute cadmium poisoning in rat.

  17. Quercetin exerts preventive, ameliorative and prophylactic effects on cadmium chloride - induced oxidative stress in the uterus and ovaries of female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nna, Victor Udo; Usman, Umar Zayyanu; Ofutet, Emmanuel Oleba; Owu, Daniel Udofia

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the possible protective effect of quercetin(QE) on cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) - induced reproductive toxicity in female rats. Cadmium (Cd) accumulated in the uterus and ovaries of rats, decreased antioxidants [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione (GSH)], and raised the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) in the uterus and ovaries of rats. Serum concentrations of estradiol, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone decreased significantly after CdCl 2 administration. Caspase-3 activity significantly increased in the ovaries, with an increase in Bax and a decrease in Bcl-2 protein expressions after CdCl 2 treatment. Histopathology of the ovaries revealed significant decrease in follicle number, while the uterus showed cyst-like endometrial glands. All three models of QE treatment [pre-treatment (QE + CdCl 2 ), post-treatment (CdCl 2 +QE), simultaneous treatment (CdCl 2 /QE)] decreased Cd accumulation, MDA, H 2 O 2 , and increased SOD, CAT and GPx activities in the uterus and ovaries, decreased apoptosis of follicular cells, and increased serum reproductive hormones. However, the QE pre-treated model offered better protection against CdCl 2 relative to the other two models. These results suggest that, QE exerts multi-mechanistic protective effects against cadmium toxicity attributable to its antioxidant and anti-apoptotic actions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Aquatic Life Criteria - Cadmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertaining to 2016 Acute and Chronic Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Cadmium (Freshwater, Estuarine/marine). These documents contain the safe levels of Cadmium in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  19. Modulation of vasodilator response via the nitric oxide pathway after acute methyl mercury chloride exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omanwar, S; Saidullah, B; Ravi, K; Fahim, M

    2013-01-01

    Mercury exposure induces endothelial dysfunction leading to loss of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation due to decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability via increased oxidative stress. Our aim was to investigate whether acute treatment with methyl mercury chloride changes the endothelium-dependent vasodilator response and to explore the possible mechanisms behind the observed effects. Wistar rats were treated with methyl mercury chloride (5 mg/kg, po.). The methyl mercury chloride treatment resulted in an increased aortic vasorelaxant response to acetylcholine (ACh). In methyl-mercury-chloride-exposed rats, the % change in vasorelaxant response of ACh in presence of Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME; 10(-4) M) was significantly increased, and in presence of glybenclamide (10(-5) M), the response was similar to that of untreated rats, indicating the involvement of NO and not of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). In addition, superoxide dismutase (SOD) + catalase treatment increased the NO modulation of vasodilator response in methyl-mercury-chloride-exposed rats. Our results demonstrate an increase in the vascular reactivity to ACh in aorta of rats acutely exposed to methyl mercury chloride. Methyl mercury chloride induces nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and increases the NO production along with inducing oxidative stress without affecting the EDHF pathway.

  20. Modulation of Vasodilator Response via the Nitric Oxide Pathway after Acute Methyl Mercury Chloride Exposure in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Omanwar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury exposure induces endothelial dysfunction leading to loss of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation due to decreased nitric oxide (NO bioavailability via increased oxidative stress. Our aim was to investigate whether acute treatment with methyl mercury chloride changes the endothelium-dependent vasodilator response and to explore the possible mechanisms behind the observed effects. Wistar rats were treated with methyl mercury chloride (5 mg/kg, po.. The methyl mercury chloride treatment resulted in an increased aortic vasorelaxant response to acetylcholine (ACh. In methyl-mercury-chloride-exposed rats, the % change in vasorelaxant response of ACh in presence of Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME; 10-4 M was significantly increased, and in presence of glybenclamide (10-5 M, the response was similar to that of untreated rats, indicating the involvement of NO and not of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF. In addition, superoxide dismutase (SOD + catalase treatment increased the NO modulation of vasodilator response in methyl-mercury-chloride-exposed rats. Our results demonstrate an increase in the vascular reactivity to ACh in aorta of rats acutely exposed to methyl mercury chloride. Methyl mercury chloride induces nitric oxide synthase (NOS and increases the NO production along with inducing oxidative stress without affecting the EDHF pathway.

  1. Assessment of renal toxicity by analysis of regeneration of tubular epithelium in rats given low-dose cadmium chloride or cadmium-polluted rice for 22 months

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibutani, M.; Mitsumori, K.; Niho, N. [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan). Div. of Pathology; Satoh, S.; Satoh, M. [Ina Research Inc., Nagano (Japan). Second Lab.; Hiratsuka, H. [Mitsubishi Chemical Safety Inst. Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan); Sumiyoshi, M. [Japan Food Research Lab., Tokyo (Japan). Div. of Food Sanitation; Nishijima, M.; Katsuki, Y.; Suzuki, J.; Nakagawa, J. [Tokyo Metropolitan Research Lab. of Public Health (Japan). Div. of Food Sanitation; Ando, M. [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan). Div. of Environmental Chemistry

    2000-12-01

    To determine whether low-dose oral administration of cadmium (Cd) induces renal toxicity, six groups of female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet containing low amounts of CdCl{sub 2} or Cd-polluted rice at concentrations up to 40 ppm, and were killed after 12, 18, and 22 months (experiment 1). In addition to the determination of cortical Cd levels and histopathological assessment of kidneys, labeling indices (LIs) for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the renal cortical tubular epithelium of Cd-treated rats were determined as a measure of regenerative activity. For comparison, the kidneys of rats given diets containing small to large amounts of CdCl{sub 2} up to 600 ppm for 4 months were similarly examined (experiment 2). Animals in experiment 1 demonstrated spontaneous chronic nephropathy and fluctuation in the tubular PCNA LI, but these findings were not correlated with renal Cd levels at 22 months. PCNA LI on the other hand, appeared to be linked to the severity of chronic nephropathy. In experiment 2, levels of CdCl{sub 2} of 200 ppm or more clearly induced degeneration and apoptosis of proximal tubules with high correlations between renal Cd levels, PCNA LI, and the severity of tubular degeneration. The results demonstrated that, in contrast to high-dose Cd administration, treatment with 40 ppm or less for 22 months did not influence tubular regeneration as a component of nonspecific chronic nephropathy, suggesting that long-term oral administration of low levels of Cd does not injure renal tubules in female rats. (orig.)

  2. Chloride-liberal fluids are associated with acute kidney injury after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Ashraf; Salahuddin, Nawal; El Hazmi, Alyaa; Joseph, Mini; Bohlega, Balsam; Sallam, Hend; Sheikh, Yasser; Broering, Dieter

    2014-11-19

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs frequently after liver transplantation and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence has linked the predominant usage of 'chloride-liberal' intravenous fluids, such as 0.9% saline to the development of renal dysfunction in general critically ill patients. We compared the effects of perioperative fluid types on AKI in liver transplant recipients. An observational analysis of liver transplant recipients over a 33-month period, between January 2010 and September 2013, was performed. Intensive care unit database and patient records were analyzed for determinants of early postoperative AKI. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis was carried out using a two-tailed P value less than 0.05 to establish significance. The institutional Research Ethics Committee approved the study methodology (RAC no. 2131 073). One hundred and fifty-eight liver transplants were performed, AKI developed in 57 (36.1%) patients: 39 (68.4%) fully recovered, 13 (22.8%) developed chronic renal failure and 10 (17.5%) required long-term hemodialysis. On univariate regression analysis, AKI was significantly associated with greater than 3,200 ml of chloride-liberal fluids infused within the first postoperative day (HR 5.9, 95% CI 2.64, 13.2, P liberal fluids (HR 6.25, 95% CI 2.69, 14.5, P liberal fluids and preoperative status was associated with an increased risk for postoperative AKI.

  3. Abnormal chloride homeostasis in the substancia nigra pars reticulata contributes to locomotor deficiency in a model of acute liver injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ling Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Altered chloride homeostasis has been thought to be a risk factor for several brain disorders, while less attention has been paid to its role in liver disease. We aimed to analyze the involvement and possible mechanisms of altered chloride homeostasis of GABAergic neurons within the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr in the motor deficit observed in a model of encephalopathy caused by acute liver failure, by using glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 - green fluorescent protein knock-in transgenic mice. METHODS: Alterations in intracellular chloride concentration in GABAergic neurons within the SNr and changes in the expression of two dominant chloride homeostasis-regulating genes, KCC2 and NKCC1, were evaluated in mice with hypolocomotion due to hepatic encephalopathy (HE. The effects of pharmacological blockade and/or activation of KCC2 and NKCC1 functions with their specific inhibitors and/or activators on the motor activity were assessed. RESULTS: In our mouse model of acute liver injury, chloride imaging indicated an increase in local intracellular chloride concentration in SNr GABAergic neurons. In addition, the mRNA and protein levels of KCC2 were reduced, particularly on neuronal cell membranes; in contrast, NKCC1 expression remained unaffected. Furthermore, blockage of KCC2 reduced motor activity in the normal mice and led to a further deteriorated hypolocomotion in HE mice. Blockade of NKCC1 was not able to normalize motor activity in mice with liver failure. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that altered chloride homeostasis is likely involved in the pathophysiology of hypolocomotion following HE. Drugs aimed at restoring normal chloride homeostasis would be a potential treatment for hepatic failure.

  4. Hyperchloremia and moderate increase in serum chloride are associated with acute kidney injury in severe sepsis and septic shock patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetrong, Bandarn; Pisitsak, Chawika; Boyd, John H; Russell, James A; Walley, Keith R

    2016-10-06

    Acute kidney injury and hyperchloremia are commonly present in critically ill septic patients. Our study goal was to evaluate the association of hyperchloremia and acute kidney injury in severe sepsis and septic shock patients. In this retrospective cohort study in a provincial tertiary care hospital, adult patients with severe sepsis or septic shock and serum chloride measurements were included. Serum chloride was measured on a daily basis for 48 hours. Primary outcome was development of acute kidney injury (AKI) and association of AKI and serum chloride parameters was analyzed. A total of 240 patients were included in the study, 98 patients (40.8 %) had hyperchloremia. The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) was significantly higher in the hyperchloremia group (85.7 % vs 47.9 %; p septic shock and independently associated with AKI. A moderate increase in serum chloride (Δ[Cl - ] ≥5 mmol/L) is associated with AKI even in patients without hyperchloremia.

  5. Effects of Nano-zinc on Biochemical Parameters in Cadmium-Exposed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazy, Marzie; Koohi, Mohammad Kazem

    2017-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic environmental and occupational pollutant with reported toxic effects on the kidneys, liver, lungs, bones, and the immunity system. Based on its physicochemical similarity to cadmium, zinc (Zn) shows protective effects against cadmium toxicity and cadmium accumulation in the body. Nano-zinc and nano-zinc oxide (ZnO), recently used in foods and pharmaceutical products, can release a great amount of Zn 2+ in their environment. This research was carried out to investigate the more potent properties of the metal zinc among sub-acute cadmium intoxicated rats. Seventy-five male Wistar rats were caged in 15 groups. Cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) was used in drinking water to induce cadmium toxicity. Different sizes (15, 20, and 30 nm) and doses of nano-zinc particles (3, 10, 100 mg/kg body weight [bw]) were administered solely and simultaneously with CdCl 2 (2-5 mg/kg bw) for 28 days. The experimental animals were decapitated, and the biochemical biomarkers (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) were determined in their serum after oral exposure to nano-zinc and cadmium. Statistical analysis was carried out with a one-way ANOVA and t test. P cadmium- and nano-zinc-treated rats compared with the controls. However, albumin, total protein, and HDLc significantly decreased in the cadmium- and nano-zinc-treated rats compared with the controls (P cadmium intoxication.

  6. The use of mrp1-deficient (Danio rerio) zebrafish embryos to investigate the role of Mrp1 in the toxicity of cadmium chloride and benzo[a]pyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Jingjing [CAS Key Lab of Bio-Medical Diagnostics, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215163 (China); Hu, Jia [School of Biology & Basic Medical Sciences, Medical College, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, Jiangsu (China); Chen, Mingli [CAS Key Lab of Bio-Medical Diagnostics, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215163 (China); Yin, Huancai [CAS Key Lab of Bio-Medical Diagnostics, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215163 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Miao, Peng; Bai, Pengli [CAS Key Lab of Bio-Medical Diagnostics, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215163 (China); Yin, Jian, E-mail: yinj@sibet.ac.cn [CAS Key Lab of Bio-Medical Diagnostics, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215163 (China)

    2017-05-15

    Previous studies in our lab have revealed that both P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multi-resistance associated protein (Mrp) 1 played important roles in the detoxification of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in zebrafish embryos. This paper aims to extend this research by using mrp1-deficient model to illustrate the individual function of Mrp1. In this respect, CRISPR/Cas9 system was employed to generate a frameshift mutation in zebrafish mrp1 causing premature translational stops in Mrp1. Significant reduction on the efflux function of Mrps was found in mutant zebrafish embryos, which correlated well with the significantly enhanced accumulation and toxicity of cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) and benzo[a]pyrene (BαP), indicating the protective role of the corresponding protein. The different alteration on the accumulation and toxicity of Cd{sup 2+} and BαP could be attributed to the fact that Cd{sup 2+} and its metabolites were mainly excreted by Mrp1, while BαP was primarily pumped out by Pgp. More importantly, the compensation mechanism for the absence of Mrp1, including elevated glutathione (GSH) level and up-regulated expression of pgp and mrp2 were also found. Thus, mrp1-deficient zebrafish embryo could be a useful tool in the investigation of Mrp1 functions in the early life stages of aquatic organisms. However, compensation mechanism should be taken into consideration in the interpretation of results obtained with mrp1-deficient fish.

  7. Insight into solvent nature on coordination polymerization: Crystal structures of cadmium(II) chloride containing diallylbis(pyridin-4-yl)silane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Minjoo; Lee, Young-A.; Jung, Ok-Sang

    2017-09-01

    A close insight into a systematic solvent-template effect on self-assembly of cadmium(II) chloride with new diallylbis(pyridin-4-yl)silane ligand (L) has been achieved. Each reaction gives rise to the 1: 2 composition of Cd(II): L, but shows significant solvent template effects on the formation of topology. The reaction in MeOH and in MeCN yields 1D loop chain, [CdCl2L2]·4MeOH and [CdCl2L2]·2MeCN, respectively, containing the solvate molecules whereas the same treatment in the relatively bulky solvents such as EtOH, n-PrOH, and i-PrOH yields interpenetrated 2D sheet, [CdCl2L2]. Their packing structures are also strongly depending on the nature of each solvent. Thus, construction and packing of each structure are determined by solvent templates rather than synthetic methodology. Solvate MeOH molecules of [CdCl2L2]·4MeOH crystals in MeCN media are perfectly exchanged to MeCN molecules and the solvate MeCN molecules of [CdCl2L2]·2MeCN crystals in MeOH media are exchanged into MeOH molecules as solvate, indicating that the solvate molecules do not interact significantly with the skeletal structures.

  8. The use of mrp1-deficient (Danio rerio) zebrafish embryos to investigate the role of Mrp1 in the toxicity of cadmium chloride and benzo[a]pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Jingjing; Hu, Jia; Chen, Mingli; Yin, Huancai; Miao, Peng; Bai, Pengli; Yin, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies in our lab have revealed that both P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multi-resistance associated protein (Mrp) 1 played important roles in the detoxification of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in zebrafish embryos. This paper aims to extend this research by using mrp1-deficient model to illustrate the individual function of Mrp1. In this respect, CRISPR/Cas9 system was employed to generate a frameshift mutation in zebrafish mrp1 causing premature translational stops in Mrp1. Significant reduction on the efflux function of Mrps was found in mutant zebrafish embryos, which correlated well with the significantly enhanced accumulation and toxicity of cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) and benzo[a]pyrene (BαP), indicating the protective role of the corresponding protein. The different alteration on the accumulation and toxicity of Cd 2+ and BαP could be attributed to the fact that Cd 2+ and its metabolites were mainly excreted by Mrp1, while BαP was primarily pumped out by Pgp. More importantly, the compensation mechanism for the absence of Mrp1, including elevated glutathione (GSH) level and up-regulated expression of pgp and mrp2 were also found. Thus, mrp1-deficient zebrafish embryo could be a useful tool in the investigation of Mrp1 functions in the early life stages of aquatic organisms. However, compensation mechanism should be taken into consideration in the interpretation of results obtained with mrp1-deficient fish.

  9. Synthesis, structural characterization, Hirshfeld surface analysis and spectroscopic studies of cadmium (II) chloride complex with 4-hydroxy-1-methylpiperidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soudani, S. [Université de Carthage, Laboratoire de Chimie des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, 7021 Zarzouna (Tunisia); Ferretti, V. [Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Center for Structural Diffractometry, via Fossato di Mortara 17, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); Jelsch, C. [CRM2, CNRS, Institut Jean Barriol, Université de Lorraine, Vandoeuvre les Nancy CEDEX (France); Lefebvre, F. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organométallique de Surface (LCOMS), Ecole Supérieure de Chimie Physique Electronique, 69626 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Nasr, C. Ben, E-mail: cherif_bennasr@yahoo.fr [Université de Carthage, Laboratoire de Chimie des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, 7021 Zarzouna (Tunisia)

    2016-05-15

    The chemical preparation, crystal structure, Hirshfeld surface analysis and spectroscopic characterization of the novel cadmium (II) 4-hydroxy-1-methylpiperidine complex, Cd{sub 4}Cl{sub 10}(C{sub 6}H{sub 14}NO){sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O, have been reported. The atomic arrangement can be described as built up by an anionic framework, formed by edge sharing CdCl{sub 6} and CdCl{sub 5}O octahedral linear chains spreading along the a-axis. These chains are interconnected by water molecules via O–H⋯Cl and O–H⋯O hydrogen bonds to form layers parallel to (011) plane. The organic cations are inserted between layers through C–H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds. Investigation of intermolecular interactions and crystal packing via Hirshfeld surface analysis reveals that the H{sub C}⋯Cl and H{sub C}⋯H{sub C} intermolecular interactions are the most abundant contacts of the organic cation in the crystal packing. The statistical analysis of crystal contacts reveals the driving forces in the packing formation. The {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N CP-MAS NMR spectra are in agreement with the X-ray structure. The vibrational absorption bands were identified by infrared spectroscopy. DFT calculations allowed the attribution of the NMR peaks and of the IR bands.

  10. EFFECT OF DIATOMEAOUS EARTH TREATMENT USING HYDROGEN CHLORIDE AND SULFURIC ACID ON KINETICS OF CADMIUM(II ADSORPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuryono Nuryono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, treatment of diatomaceous earth, Sangiran, Central Java using hydrogen chloride (HCl and sulfuric acid (H2SO4 on kinetics of Cd(II adsorption in aqueous solution has been carried out. The work was conducted by mixing an amount of grounded diatomaceous earth (200 mesh in size with HCl or H2SO4 solution in various concentrations for two hours at temperature range of 100 - 150oC. The mixture was then filtered and washed with water until the filtrate pH is approximately 7 and then the residue was dried for four hours at a temperature of 70oC. The product was used as an adsorbent to adsorb Cd(II in aqueous solution with various concentrations. The Cd(II adsorbed was determined by analyzing the rest of Cd(II in the solution using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The effect of treatment was evaluated from kinetic parameter of adsorption rate constant calculated based on the simple kinetic model. Results showed  that before equilibrium condition reached, adsorpstion of Cd(II occurred through two steps, i.e. a step tends to follow a reaction of irreversible first order  (step I followed by reaction of reversible first order (step II. Treatment with acids, either hydrogen chloride or sulfuric acid, decreased adsorption rate constant for the step I from 15.2/min to a range of 6.4 - 9.4/min.  However, increasing concentration of acid (in a range of concentration investigated did not give significant and constant change of adsorption rate constant. For step II process,  adsorption involved physical interaction with the sufficient low adsorption energy (in a range of 311.3 - 1001 J/mol.     Keywords: adsorption, cdmium, diatomaceous earth, kinetics.

  11. Aquatic Life Criteria - Cadmium Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertaining to 2016 Acute and Chronic Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Cadmium (Freshwater, Estuarine/marine). These documents contain the safe levels of Cadmium in water that should protect the majority of species.

  12. Influence of acclimation and exposure temperature on the acute toxicity of cadmium to the freshwater snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, V.; Forbes, V.E.; Depledge, M.H. (Odense Univ. (Denmark). Ecotoxicology Group)

    1994-09-01

    Forty-eight-hour acute toxicity tests were performed to determine the influence of acclimation temperature (5, 15, and 20 C) and exposure temperature (5, 15, and 20 C) on the toxicity of cadmium to the freshwater gastropod Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Mortality varied with cadmium concentration and treatment conditions, but did not conform to conventional sigmoid concentration-response relationships. Because the shapes of the concentration-response curves were treatment dependent, a nontraditional approach for data analysis was employed. Regardless of acclimation temperature, mortality increased with increasing exposure temperature, and at all exposure temperatures snails acclimated at 15 C were most susceptible to cadmium toxicity. Estimated LC50 values were within 1 to 4 mg Cd/L. Although the shapes of the concentration-response curves were different for each treatment, the slopes were generally quite steep, indicating a uniform response for the whole population. At a given Cd concentration, acclimation temperature and exposure temperature accounted for 57 and 40%, respectively, of the variation in mortality, and LC50s changed by a factor of four. The results indicate that changes in environmental variables can alter both the degree of response and the response distribution of a population, and that past as well as prevailing environmental conditions can influence organismic responses to toxicants.

  13. Time-course of cadmium-induced acute hepatotoxicity in the rat liver: the role of apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzirogiannis, Konstantinos N.; Panoutsopoulos, Georgios I.; Hereti, Rosa I.; Alexandropoulou, Katerina N.; Basayannis, Aristidis C.; Mykoniatis, Michael G. [Department of Experimental Pharmacology, Medical School, Athens University, 75 Mikras Asias St., 115 27, Athens (Greece); Demonakou, Maria D. [Histopathology Laboratory, Sismanoglion G.D. Hospital, Sismanogliou 1, Marousi, Attiki 151 27 (Greece)

    2003-12-01

    Exposure to toxic metals and pollutants is a major environmental problem. Cadmium is a metal causing acute hepatic injury but the mechanism of this phenomenon is poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism and time-course of cadmium-induced liver injury in rats, with emphasis being placed on apoptosis in parenchymal and nonparenchymal liver cells. Cadmium (3.5 mg/kg body weight) was injected intraperitoneally and the rats were killed 0, 9, 12, 16, 24, 48 and 60 h later. The extent of liver injury was evaluated for necrosis, apoptosis, peliosis, mitoses and inflammatory infiltration in hematoxylin-eosin-stained liver sections, and by assaying serum enzyme activities. The number of cells that died via apoptosis was quantified by TUNEL assay. The identification of nonparenchymal liver cells and activated Kupffer cells was performed histochemically. Liver regeneration was evaluated by assaying the activity of liver thymidine kinase and by the rate of {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation into DNA. Both cadmium-induced necrotic cell death and parenchymal cell apoptosis showed a biphasic elevation at 12 and 48 h and peaked at 48 and 12 h, respectively. Nonparenchymal cell apoptosis peaked at 48 h. Peliosis hepatis, another characteristic form of liver injury, was first observed at 16 h and, at all time points, closely correlated with the apoptotic index of nonparenchymal liver cells, where the lesion was also maximial at 48 h. Kupffer cell activation and neutrophil infiltration were minimal for all time points examined. Based on thymidine kinase activity, liver regeneration was found to discern a classic biphasic peak pattern at 12 and 48 h. It was very interesting to observe that cadmium-induced liver injury did not involve inflammation at any time point. Apoptosis seems to be a major mechanism for the removal of damaged cells, and constitutes the major type of cell death in nonparenchymal liver cells. Apoptosis of nonparenchymal cells is the basis

  14. Preliminary Studies of Acute Cadmium Administration Effects on the Calcium-Activated Potassium (SKCa and BKCa) Channels and Na+/K+-ATPase Activity in Isolated Aortic Rings of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassallo, Dalton V; Almenara, Camila C P; Broseghini-Filho, Gilson Brás; Teixeira, Ariane Calazans; da Silva, David Chaves F; Angeli, Jhuli K; Padilha, Alessandra S

    2017-09-13

    Cadmium is an environmental pollutant closely linked with cardiovascular diseases that seems to involve endothelium dysfunction and reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Knowing that NO causes dilatation through the activation of potassium channels and Na + /K + -ATPase, we aimed to determine whether acute cadmium administration (10 μM) alters the participation of K + channels, voltage-activated calcium channel, and Na + /K + -ATPase activity in vascular function of isolated aortic rings of rats. Cadmium did not modify the acetylcholine-induced relaxation. After L-NAME addition, the relaxation induced by acetylcholine was abolished in presence or absence of cadmium, suggesting that acutely, this metal did not change NO release. However, tetraethylammonium (a nonselective K + channels blocker) reduced acetylcholine-induced relaxation but this effect was lower in the preparations with cadmium, suggesting a decrease of K + channels function in acetylcholine response after cadmium incubation. Apamin (a selective blocker of small Ca 2+ -activated K + channels-SK Ca ), iberiotoxin (a selective blocker of large-conductance Ca 2+ -activated K + channels-BK Ca ), and verapamil (a blocker of calcium channel) reduced the endothelium-dependent relaxation only in the absence of cadmium. Finally, cadmium decreases Na + /K + -ATPase activity. Our results provide evidence that the cadmium acute incubation unaffected the calcium-activated potassium channels (SK Ca and BK Ca ) and voltage-calcium channels on the acetylcholine vasodilatation. In addition, acute cadmium incubation seems to reduce the Na + /K + -ATPase activity.

  15. Distribution of cadmium between calcium carbonate and solution, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitano, Yasushi; Kanamori, Nobuko; Fujiyoshi, Ryoko

    1978-01-01

    The distribution coefficient of cadmium between calcite and solution has been measured in the calcium bicarbonate solution containing cadmium and chloride ions, which forms complexes with cadmium ions. It has been confirmed experimentally that cadmium carbonate is present as a solid solution between calcitic calcium carbonate and cadmium carbonate in the carbonate precipitate formed in the solution system. However, the constant value of the thermodynamic distribution coefficient of cadmium between calcite and solution has not been obtained experimentally in the calcium bicarbonate solution containing cadmium and chloride ions. It may have been caused by the very specific behavior of cadmium ions, but the exact reason remains unsolved and must be studied. (Kobatake, H.)

  16. Ecological risk assessment of on-site soil washing with iron(III) chloride in cadmium-contaminated paddy field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Takashi; Horio, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Kamiya, Takashi; Takano, Hiroyuki; Makino, Tomoyuki

    2012-06-01

    On-site soil washing with iron(III) chloride reduces Cd levels in soil, and thus the human health risks caused by Cd in food. However, it may threaten aquatic organisms when soil washing effluent is discharged to open aquatic systems. Therefore, we conducted trial-scale on-site soil washing and ecological risk assessment in Nagano and Niigata prefectures, Japan. The ecological effect of effluent water was investigated by two methods. The first was bioassay using standard aquatic test organisms. Twice-diluted effluent water from the Nagano site and the original effluent water from the Niigata site had no significant effects on green algae, water flea, caddisfly, and fish. The safe dilution rates were estimated as 20 times and 10 times for the Nagano and Niigata sites, respectively, considering an assessment factor of 10. The second method was probabilistic effect analysis using chemical analysis and the species sensitivity distribution concept. The mixture effects of CaCl(2), Al, Zn, and Mn were considered by applying a response additive model. The safe dilution rates, assessed for a potentially affected fraction of species of 5%, were 7.1 times and 23.6 times for the Nagano and Niigata sites, respectively. The actual dilution rates of effluent water by river water at the Nagano and Niigata sites were 2200-67,000 times and 1300-110,000 times, respectively. These are much larger than the safe dilution rates derived from the two approaches. Consequently, the ecological risk to aquatic organisms of soil washing is evaluated as being below the concern level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Phase matching, X-Ray topography, optical and thermal analysis of L-alanine cadmium chloride monohydrate: a nonlinear optical material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, Anuj; Vijayan, N.; Haranath, D.; Bhagavannarayana, G.; Halder, S.K. [CSIR - National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi (India); Riscob, B. [CSIR - National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi (India); Institute of Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India); Gour, B.S. [Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal (India); Philip, J.; Jayalakshmy, M.S. [Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin (India); Verma, S. [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Laser Materials Development and Devices Division, Indore (India)

    2014-03-15

    A potential semiorganic nonlinear optical material, L-alanine cadmium chloride monohydrate has been successfully synthesised and single crystals have been grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique at room temperature by using double distilled water as the solvent. The lattice dimensions of the grown crystal have been analysed by adopting powder X-ray diffraction technique and found that it crystallised in monoclinic system with space group C2. The crystalline perfection of the as-grown crystal has been assessed by high resolution X-ray diffraction and X-ray topography techniques and observed that the quality of the grown specimen is reasonably good. Its optical properties were examined by UV-Vis and photoluminescence techniques and found that there is no absorption in the entire visible range. Its functional groups were identified from FT-Raman and observed that there is no incorporation of other impurities during crystallisation. Its relative second harmonic generation efficiency has been tested with different particle size by Kurtz powder technique and found that within the coherence length the title compound is phase matchable. Its various thermal properties like thermal conductivity, specific heat, thermal effusivity, etc. have been evaluated by photopyroelectric technique and compared with other organic and inorganic materials. To confirm its piezoelectric response, its piezoelectric charge coefficient was measured using piezometer and found low. Its optical homogeneity as well as birefringence measurement of the grown specimen has been carried out by interferometric technique. The surface defects of the grown LACCM single crystal were analysed with etching at room temperature using water as an etchant. (orig.)

  18. Cytochemical study of carp neutrophil granulocytes after acute exposure to cadmium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drastichová, J.; Švestková, E.; Lusková, Věra; Svobodová, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2005), s. 215-219 ISSN 0175-8659 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : peripheral- blood leukocytes * cadmium * common carp Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.563, year: 2005

  19. Studies on acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium to freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata (Lamarck) with special reference to behavioral and hematological changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhara, Kishore; Saha, Nimai Chandra; Maiti, Arpan Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Molluscs have long been regarded as promising bioindicator and biomonitoring subjects for heavy metals as molluscs are highly tolerant to heavy metals and exhibit high accumulation in their body. In spite of several previous studies about the impact of cadmium on molluscs, little information exists in literatures concerning the toxic effects of cadmium on Lymnaea acuminata, especially pertaining to behavioral and hematological changes as these are considered effective bioindicators and biomonitoring variables for detecting heavy metals in polluted water bodies. In the present study, the median lethal concentrations of cadmium chloride to snail, Lymnaea acuminata, were estimated to be 9.66, 7.69, 6.26, and 5.54 mg/L at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h, respectively. For behavioral studies, variable test concentrations of cadmium from 0.00 to 10 mg/L were used. The clumping tendency, crawling activity, and touch reflex in the exposed snails were gradually decreased with higher concentrations at 72 and 96 h. For measuring the hemocyte numbers in the circulating hemolymph of snail during chronic cadmium exposure, two sublethal doses of cadmium (10 and 20% 96-h LC 50 -0.55 and 1.11 mg/L, respectively) were used. A significant variation (p < 0.05) from the control at all exposure times (7, 14, 21, and 28 days) was recorded at 1.11 mg/L concentration. The total count of circulating hemocytes was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) compared to the controls at both concentrations of cadmium exposure at all time periods except 14 and 21 days exposure at 0.55 mg/L where values were non-significantly increased. In comparison between two sublethal doses, blood cells were significantly (p < 0.05) lowered at 1.11 mg/L cadmium treatment. Considering the behavioral and hematological data, it seems possible to forecast the physiological state of snails in cadmium-contaminated water bodies and these findings can be used in determining the safe disposal level of cadmium in aquatic

  20. The effect of cadmium chloride in vitro on sodium-glutamate cotransport in brush border membrane vesicles isolated from rabbit kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinne, R K; Schütz, H; Kinne-Saffran, E

    1995-12-01

    To further elucidate the mechanism of cadmium inhibition of renal amino acid transport, brush border membrane vesicles were isolated from rabbit renal cortex and the effect of cadmium on the uptake of L-glutamate into the vesicles was investigated. Preincubation of the membranes with CdCl2 decreased sodium-dependent L-glutamate uptake at concentrations higher than 10(-6)M. In the presence of 20 mM potassium inside the vesicles a half-maximal inhibition was observed at 0.5 to 1 x 10(-4) M. Kinetic analysis revealed a strong reduction of Vmax by cadmium but only minor changes in Km for glutamate. The inhibition required preincubation of the vesicles with cadmium, was not elicited by cadmium metallothionein, and was not reversed by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. These findings suggest an action of cadmium at the cytoplasmic face of the brush border membrane. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the transport system for cadmium was lower in the absence of potassium. Inhibition increased in a saturable manner when intravesicular potassium was augmented, indicating that the transporter interacts with cadmium most avidly when potassium is bound to the carrier.

  1. The cytochrome P-450 inhibitor cobalt chloride prevents inhibition of renal Na,K-ATPase and redistribution of apical NHE-3 during acute hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y B; Magyar, C E; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1998-01-01

    by cobalt chloride (CoCl2). Four groups of rats (n = 4 to 5) were studied: (1) sham-operated; (2) 50 mg of CoCl2/kg subcutaneously for 2 d; (3) acute hypertension by constricting arteries for 5 min; and (4) acute hypertension after CoCl2 treatment as in group 3. Renal cortex was analyzed after sorbitol...

  2. Cadmium inhibits acid secretion in stimulated frog gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerbino, Andrea; Debellis, Lucantonio; Caroppo, Rosa; Curci, Silvana; Colella, Matilde

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium, a toxic environmental pollutant, affects the function of different organs such as lungs, liver and kidney. Less is known about its toxic effects on the gastric mucosa. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which cadmium impacts on the physiology of gastric mucosa. To this end, intact amphibian mucosae were mounted in Ussing chambers and the rate of acid secretion, short circuit current (I sc ), transepithelial potential (V t ) and resistance (R t ) were recorded in the continuous presence of cadmium. Addition of cadmium (20 μM to 1 mM) on the serosal but not luminal side of the mucosae resulted in inhibition of acid secretion and increase in NPPB-sensitive, chloride-dependent short circuit current. Remarkably, cadmium exerted its effects only on histamine-stimulated tissues. Experiments with TPEN, a cell-permeant chelator for heavy metals, showed that cadmium acts from the intracellular side of the acid secreting cells. Furthermore, cadmium-induced inhibition of acid secretion and increase in I sc cannot be explained by an action on: 1) H 2 histamine receptor, 2) Ca 2+ signalling 3) adenylyl cyclase or 4) carbonic anhydrase. Conversely, cadmium was ineffective in the presence of the H + /K + -ATPase blocker omeprazole suggesting that the two compounds likely act on the same target. Our findings suggest that cadmium affects the functionality of histamine-stimulated gastric mucosa by inhibiting the H + /K + -ATPase from the intracellular side. These data shed new light on the toxic effect of this dangerous environmental pollutant and may result in new avenues for therapeutic intervention in acute and chronic intoxication.

  3. Comparative acute toxicity of gallium(III), antimony(III), indium(III), cadmium(II), and copper(II) on freshwater swamp shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponense).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jen-Lee

    2014-04-01

    Acute toxicity testing were carried out the freshwater swamp shrimp, Macrobrachium nipponense, as the model animal for the semiconductor applied metals (gallium, antimony, indium, cadmium, and copper) to evaluate if the species is an suitable experimental animal of pollution in aquatic ecosystem. The static renewal test method of acute lethal concentrations determination was used, and water temperature was maintained at 24.0 ± 0.5°C. Data of individual metal obtained from acute toxicity tests were determined using probit analysis method. The median lethal concentration (96-h LC50) of gallium, antimony, indium, cadmium, and copper for M. nipponense were estimated as 2.7742, 1.9626, 6.8938, 0.0539, and 0.0313 mg/L, respectively. Comparing the toxicity tolerance of M. nipponense with other species which exposed to these metals, it is obviously that the M. nipponense is more sensitive than that of various other aquatic animals.

  4. Acute toxicity of nitrite on tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) at different external chloride concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanbo, Wang; Wenju, Zhang; Weifen, Li; Zirong, Xu

    2006-03-01

    Tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus) juveniles (total length 4.9 +/- 0.2 cm and weight 1.8 +/- 0.2 g) were exposed to several nitrite concentrations (0, 10, 18, 32, 56 and 100 mg l(-1)) for 96 h, using a semi-static renewal method at chloride levels of 35.0 and 70.0 mg l(-1). At the end of the 96-h period, the median lethal concentration (LC(50)) of nitrite was 28.18 mg l(-1) in water with low chloride content (35.0 mg l(-1)) and 44.67 mg l(-1) with high chloride content (70.0 mg l(-1), respectively). It indicated that high concentrations of chloride ions could reduce the toxicity of nitrite. During the toxicity experiments, the behaviour and clinical signs of tilapias were also observed. Furthermore, the test of toxic mechanism was designed taking five test concentrations, viz., 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg l(-1) and a nitrite-free control. Nitrite exposure produced high levels of methaemoglobin (MHb) but did not seem to cause mortality, as surviving tilapias showed high levels (85.37 +/- 2.23 and 53.82 +/- 3.44 at 35.0 and 70.0 mg l(-1) chloride, respectively). The percentage of MHb exposed to nitrite was significantly higher (P<0.05) than the control (0 mg l(-1) nitrite) and increased with the increasing nitrite concentration. However, the percentage of MHb decreased with the increasing chloride concentration.

  5. Effect of acute exposure to cadmium on the expression of heat-shock and hormone-nuclear receptor genes in the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planello, R.; Martinez-Guitarte, J.L. [Grupo de Biologia y Toxicologia Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, UNED, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Morcillo, G., E-mail: gmorcillo@ccia.uned.es [Grupo de Biologia y Toxicologia Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, UNED, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-03-01

    Cadmium is a widespread and highly toxic pollutant of particular ecotoxicological relevance for aquatic ecosystems where it accumulates. To identify biomarkers for ecotoxicity monitoring, the effect of cadmium on the expression of different genes related to the stress response as well as to the ecdysone hormone-signalling pathway was studied in the aquatic larvae of Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae), a standard test organism in aquatic toxicology testing. Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was used to evaluate the effects of acute and short-term cadmium exposures (10 mM CdCl{sub 2}, 12 h and 24 h) on the expression of hsp70, hsc70, hsp90 and hsp40 genes, as well as on that of the ecdysone hormonal-receptor genes (EcR and usp). A significant 3-fold increase in the level of hsp70 gene transcripts was induced by the treatment, whereas neither the other stress genes tested (hsp90 and hsp40) nor the constitutive form of hsp70, hsc70, was affected in the larvae exposed to cadmium. These results show that hsp70 is differentially activated to other environmentally regulated heat-shock genes, and constitutes a biomarker of exposure to this toxic metal. In addition, we also found that cadmium is able to alter the expression of the ecdysone receptor gene (EcR), whose mRNA level is significantly increased whereas usp levels remained unaltered. This finding, evidenced for the first time in invertebrates, supports the view that cadmium has the ability to mimic the effect of the hormone by the activation of the ecdysone nuclear receptor, which may partly explain the endocrine disruption capability that has been previously suggested for this toxic metal. Our research adds to the growing evidence implicating heavy metals, and cadmium in particular, as potential endocrine disruptive agents and may have significant implications for ecological risk assessment of endocrine-disrupting compounds in invertebrates.

  6. Effect of acute exposure to cadmium on the expression of heat-shock and hormone-nuclear receptor genes in the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planello, R.; Martinez-Guitarte, J.L.; Morcillo, G.

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium is a widespread and highly toxic pollutant of particular ecotoxicological relevance for aquatic ecosystems where it accumulates. To identify biomarkers for ecotoxicity monitoring, the effect of cadmium on the expression of different genes related to the stress response as well as to the ecdysone hormone-signalling pathway was studied in the aquatic larvae of Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae), a standard test organism in aquatic toxicology testing. Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was used to evaluate the effects of acute and short-term cadmium exposures (10 mM CdCl 2 , 12 h and 24 h) on the expression of hsp70, hsc70, hsp90 and hsp40 genes, as well as on that of the ecdysone hormonal-receptor genes (EcR and usp). A significant 3-fold increase in the level of hsp70 gene transcripts was induced by the treatment, whereas neither the other stress genes tested (hsp90 and hsp40) nor the constitutive form of hsp70, hsc70, was affected in the larvae exposed to cadmium. These results show that hsp70 is differentially activated to other environmentally regulated heat-shock genes, and constitutes a biomarker of exposure to this toxic metal. In addition, we also found that cadmium is able to alter the expression of the ecdysone receptor gene (EcR), whose mRNA level is significantly increased whereas usp levels remained unaltered. This finding, evidenced for the first time in invertebrates, supports the view that cadmium has the ability to mimic the effect of the hormone by the activation of the ecdysone nuclear receptor, which may partly explain the endocrine disruption capability that has been previously suggested for this toxic metal. Our research adds to the growing evidence implicating heavy metals, and cadmium in particular, as potential endocrine disruptive agents and may have significant implications for ecological risk assessment of endocrine-disrupting compounds in invertebrates.

  7. Influence of anionic composition during electrodeposition of cadmium from cadmium trilonate electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovyazina, L.I.; Timonyuk, V.M.; Ovchinnikova, T.M.

    1982-01-01

    The studies have been conducted to indicate that out of sulfate, chloride, nitrate and hydroxide trilonate electrolytes of cadmium plating consisting (kg/m 3 ): cadmium salt (in conversion to metal) - 31-35, trilon B-120-130, pH 6.5-7.5, cadmium chloride and cadmium sulfate electrolytes are the best ones. They possess high technological parameters (the quality of cathode deposition, the yield in current, disperbility). Comparison of protective properties of coatings of these electrolytes has shown that coatings of chloride electrolytes are less porous and more corrosion resistant

  8. Nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging with a cadmium-telluride semiconductor detector gamma camera in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Kumita, Shin-ichiro; Kawaguchi, Tsuneaki; Maruyama, Takatoshi; Kawasaki, Yoshiyuki; Shinkai, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Since myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with conventional sodium iodine (NaI) device has low spatial resolution, there have been some cases in which small structures such as non-transmural myocardial infarction could not be properly detected. The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential usefulness of cadmium-telluride (CdTe) semiconductor detector-based high spatial resolution gamma cameras in detecting myocardial infarction sites, especially non-transmural infarction. A total of 38 patients (mean age ± SD: 64 ± 21 year) who were clinically diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction were included. Twenty-eight cases of them were with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and 10 cases with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). In all patients, myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography images were acquired with Infinia (NaI device) and R1-M (CdTe device), and the images were compared concerning the detectability of acute myocardial infarction sites. The detection rates of the myocardial infarction site in cases with STEMI were 100% both by NaI and CdTe images. In cases with NSTEMI, detection rate by NaI images was 50%, while that of CdTe images was 100% (p=0.033). The summed rest score (SRS) value derived from CdTe images was significantly higher than that from NaI images in cases with STEMI [NaI images: 12 (7-18) versus CdTe images: 14 (9-20)] (p < 0.001). SRS derived from CdTe images was significantly higher than that derived from NaI images in cases with NSTEMI [NaI images: 2 (0-5) versus CdTe images: 6 (6-8)] (p=0.006). These results indicate that MPI using CdTe-semiconductor device will provide a much more accurate assessment of acute myocardial infarction in comparison to current methods. (author)

  9. Radionuclide study of the action of cadmium on alveolar macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reulet, Maryse.

    1976-01-01

    The experimental toxicity of cadmium was studied on the lung, using cadmium sulfate, cadmium acetate and the radioactive isotope cadmium 109 in chloride or acetate form. The results are given in the following order: part one is devoted to the results of investigations on chronic cadmium poisoning and the role of alveolar macrophages in this poisoning; in part two the uptake of cadmium on alveolar macrophages is studied with cadmium 109, administered intraperitoneally; in part three the action of cadmium on the phospholipid metabolism of alveolar macrophages is examined. The cadmium, as sulfate or acetate, is administered in several ways: by intraperitoneal injection; or by inhalation of cadmium dusts or aerosols. The effect of cadmium on the oxidative metabolism of alveolar macrophages is studied in part four. This work is carried out 'in vitro' and 'in vivo' after cadmium oxide dusting of the air [fr

  10. Acute toxicities of copper, cadmium and Cu: Cd mixture to larvae of the shrimp Penaeus Penicillatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi, A. B.; Su, Yong-Quan; Li, Shao-Jing

    1996-06-01

    This study showed lethal concentrations (LC) of copper for Peneaus penicillatus at various stages of its life cycle were 1000 μg/L for nauplii, 1000 μg/L for Zoea I, 2000 vg/L for Zoea II, 2500 μg/L for Zoea III, 3000 μg/L for Mysis I, II and III and that for almost 100% mortality for postlarvae was 3000 μg/L. For cadmium LC were 100 μg/L for nauplii, 500 μg/L for Zoea I, 1000 μg/L for Zoea II, 2000 μg/L for Zoea III, 2500 μg/L for Mysis I and 3500 μg/L for Mysis II, III and postlarvae. For mixture of both metals, LC were 400 μg/L for nauplii, 1000 μg/L for Zoea I, 2000 μg/L for Zoea II and 3000 μg/L for Mysis I, II, III and post larvae.

  11. Copper, but not cadmium, is acutely toxic for trout hepatocytes: short-term effects on energetics and ion homeostasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzl, Claudia; Ebner, Hannes; Koeck, Guenter; Dallinger, Reinhard; Krumschnabel, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    The toxic effects of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) on cellular energy metabolism and ion homeostasis were investigated in hepatocytes from the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. The metal content of cells did not increase during incubation with Cu, whereas a dose-dependent increase was seen with Cd. Cell viability was unaffected in the presence of 100 μM Cd and 10 μM Cu but was significantly reduced after 30 min of exposure to 100 μM Cu, both in the presence and absence of extracellular calcium. Oxygen consumption (VO 2 ) was not affected by 100 μM Cd or 10 μM Cu, whereas 100 μM Cu caused a significant and calcium-dependent increase of VO 2 . Lactate production and basal glucose release were not altered by either of the metals. However, the epinephrine-stimulated rate of glucose release was significantly reduced after 2 h of incubation with 100 μM Cu. Hepatocytes exposed to Cd showed only a marginal increase of intracellular free calcium (Ca i 2+ ), whereas with Cu a pronounced and dose-dependent increase of Ca i 2+ was induced after a delay of 10 to 15 min, the calcium being of extracellular origin. Intracellular pH was not altered by Cd but decreased significantly in the presence of Cu. Overall our data demonstrate that Cu, but not Cd, is acutely toxic for trout hepatocytes. Since Cu does not enter the cells in the short term it appears to exert its acutely toxic effects at the cell membrane. Although Cu toxicity is associated with an uptake of calcium from extracellular space, leading to an elevation of cellular respiration, cytotoxicity does not appear to be dependent on the presence of extracellular calcium

  12. Toxicological assessment of combined lead and cadmium: acute and sub-chronic toxicity study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Guiping; Dai, Shujun; Yin, Zhongqiong; Lu, Hongke; Jia, Renyong; Xu, Jiao; Song, Xu; Li, Li; Shu, Yang; Zhao, Xinghong

    2014-03-01

    The exposure to chemical mixtures is a common and important determinant of toxicity and receives concern for their introduction by inhalation and ingestion. However, few in vivo mixture studies have been conducted to understand the health effects of chemical mixtures compared with single chemicals. In this study, the acute and 90day sub-chronic toxicity tests of combined Pb and Cd were conducted. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 value of Pb(NO3)2 and CdCl2 mixture by the oral route was 2696.54mg/kg by Bliss method. The sub-chronic treatment revealed that the low-dose combination of Pb and Cd exposures can significantly change the physiological and biochemical parameters of the blood of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with dose-response relationship and causes microcytic hypochromic anemia and the damages of liver and kidney of the SD rats to various degrees. Histopathological exams showed that the target organs of Pb and Cd were testicle, liver, and kidneys. These observations suggest that Pb and Cd are practically additive-toxic for the SD rats in oral acute toxicity studies. The lowest observed adverse-effect level in rats may be lower than a dose of 29.96mg/(kgbwday) when administered orally for 90 consecutive days. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Utility of 2-Pyridine Aldoxime Methyl Chloride (2-PAM) for Acute Organophosphate Poisoning: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenberg, Adam; Benabbas, Roshanak; deSouza, Ian S; Conigliaro, Alyssa; Paladino, Lorenzo; Warman, Elliot; Sinert, Richard; Wiener, Sage W

    2018-03-01

    Organophosphates (OP) account for the majority of pesticide-related unintentional or intentional poisonings in lower- and middle-income countries. The therapeutic role of atropine is well-established for patients with acute OP poisoning. The benefit of adding 2-pyridine aldoxime methyl chloride (2-PAM), however, is controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials (RCT) to compare 2-PAM plus atropine in comparison to atropine alone for acute OP poisoning. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and SCOPUS up to March 2017. The Cochrane review handbook was used to assess the risk of bias. Data were abstracted and risk ratios (RR) were calculated for mortality, rate of intubation, duration of intubation, intermediate syndrome, and complications such as hospital-acquired infections, dysrhythmias, and pulmonary edema. We found five studies comprising 586 patients with varying risks of bias. The risk of death (RR = 1.5, 95% CI 0.9-2.5); intubation (RR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.6); intermediate syndrome (RR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.6); complications (RR = 1.2, 95% CI 0.8-1.8); and the duration of intubation (mean difference 0.0, 95% CI - 1.6-1.6) were not significantly different between the atropine plus 2-PAM and atropine alone. Based on our meta-analysis of the available RCTs, 2-PAM was not shown to improve outcomes in patients with acute OP poisoning.

  14. Sensitivity of mottled sculpins (Cottus bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) to acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, John M; Mebane, Christopher A; Mount, David R; Ivey, Chris D; Kunz, James L; Greer, I Eugene; May, Thomas W; Ingersoll, Christopher G

    2007-08-01

    Studies of fish communities of streams draining mining areas suggest that sculpins (Cottus spp.) may be more sensitive than salmonids to adverse effects of metals. We compared the toxicity of zinc, copper, and cadmium to mottled sculpin (C. bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) in laboratory toxicity tests. Acute (96-h) and early life-stage chronic (21- or 28-d) toxicity tests were conducted with rainbow trout and with mottled sculpins from populations in Minnesota and Missouri, USA, in diluted well water (hardness = 100 mg/L as CaCO3). Acute and chronic toxicity of metals to newly hatched and swim-up stages of mottled sculpins differed between the two source populations. Differences between populations were greatest for copper, with chronic toxicity values (ChV = geometric mean of lowest-observed-effect concentration and no-observed-effect concentration) of 4.4 microg/L for Missouri sculpins and 37 microg/L for Minnesota sculpins. Cadmium toxicity followed a similar trend, but differences between sculpin populations were less marked, with ChVs of 1.1 microg/L (Missouri) and 1.9 microg/L (Minnesota). Conversely, zinc was more toxic to Minnesota sculpins (ChV = 75 microg/L) than Missouri sculpins (chronic ChV = 219 microg/L). Species-average acute and chronic toxicity values for mottled sculpins were similar to or lower than those for rainbow trout and indicated that mottled sculpins were among the most sensitive aquatic species to toxicity of all three metals. Our results indicate that current acute and chronic water quality criteria for cadmium, copper, and zinc adequately protect rainbow trout but may not adequately protect some populations of mottled sculpins. Proposed water quality criteria for copper based on the biotic ligand model would be protective of both sculpin populations tested.

  15. Liquid-liquid extraction of cadmium(II by TIOACl (tri-iso-octylammonium chloride ionic liquid and its application to a TIOACl impregnated carbon nanotubes system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alguacil, Francisco J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of cadmium(II by the ionic liquid (R3NH+Cl- (R: tri-iso-octyl in Exxsol D100 from hydrochloric acid solution has been investigated. The extraction reaction is exothermic. The numerical analysis of metal distribution data suggests the formation of R3NH+CdCl3− and (R3NH+2CdCl42− species in the organic phase. The results obtained for cadmium(II distribution have been implemented in an impregnated multi-walled carbon nanotubes system. The influence of aqueous solution stirring speed (250–2000 min−1, adsorbent dosage (0.05–0.2 g and temperature (20 °C–60 °C on cadmium adsorption have been investigated.Se ha estudiado la extracción de cadmio(II, de disoluciones en medio HCl, por el líquido iónico (R3NH+Cl- (R: tri-iso-octyl disuelto en Exxsol D100. La reacción de extracción tiene un carácter exotérmico. El análisis numérico de la distribución del metal sugiere la formación de las especies R3NH+CdCl3− y (R3NH+2CdCl42− en la fase orgánica. Estos resultados se han implementado en un sistema que utiliza nanotubos de carbono de pared múltiple impregnados con este líquido iónico. Se han investigado diversas variables experimentales: velocidad de agitación de la disolución acuosa (250–2000 min−1, adición del adsorbente (0,05–0,2 g y temperatura (20–60 °C.

  16. Critical review of animal carcinogenesis by cadmium and its inorganic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximilien, R.; Dero, B.

    1990-01-01

    Animal carcinogenic biassays relative to 6 inorganic cadmium substances (cadmium metal, cadmium oxide, cadmium sulfide, cadmium sulfate, cadmium chloride and cadmium acetate) are reviewed (speciation). Critical evaluation of literature data on carcinogenicity has been performed by making reference to E.C. guidelines of good laboratory practice. There are few data on routes relevant for human risk assessment: experiments on inhalation demonstrate lung carcinogenicity of cadmium oxide, cadmium sulfide, cadmium sulfate and cadmium chloride in rats but not in mice nor in hamsters; no carcinogenic effects of cadmium compounds are observed following oral administration. For routes of less or no relevance for human risk assessment, some results are clearly positive: subcutaneous injection induces cancers in situ (various cadmium compounds), testicular tumours (cadmium sulfate and cadmium chloride) and prostatic tumours (cadmium chloride) but such effects are not observed using relevant malignancies in rats. With respect to other no relevant routes (intraperitoneal, intrarenal...) tumours are incidentally produced in situ, but not in remote organs. Numerous studies fail to demonstrate cadmium carcinogenicity, but methodologically acceptable negative ones are very limited in number. Accordingly strain dependent effects and dose effect relationship could not be thoroughly assessed

  17. Comparative acute toxicity of gallium(III, antimony(III, indium(III, cadmium(II, and copper(II on freshwater swamp shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Lee Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute toxicity testing were carried out the freshwater swamp shrimp, Macrobrachium nipponense, as the model animal for the semiconductor applied metals (gallium, antimony, indium, cadmium, and copper to evaluate if the species is an suitable experimental animal of pollution in aquatic ecosystem. RESULTS: The static renewal test method of acute lethal concentrations determination was used, and water temperature was maintained at 24.0 ± 0.5°C. Data of individual metal obtained from acute toxicity tests were determined using probit analysis method. The median lethal concentration (96-h LC50 of gallium, antimony, indium, cadmium, and copper for M. nipponense were estimated as 2.7742, 1.9626, 6.8938, 0.0539, and 0.0313 mg/L, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Comparing the toxicity tolerance of M. nipponense with other species which exposed to these metals, it is obviously that the M. nipponense is more sensitive than that of various other aquatic animals.

  18. Acute effects of cadmium on osmoregulation of the freshwater teleost Prochilodus lineatus: Enzymes activity and plasma ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Alexandre O.F. da [Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Laboratório de Ecofisiologia Animal, UEL, Londrina (Brazil); Programa Multicêntrico de Pós-graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, UEL, Londrina (Brazil); Centro de Ciências Humanas e da Educação, UENP, Jacarezinho (Brazil); Martinez, Cláudia B.R., E-mail: cbueno@uel.br [Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Laboratório de Ecofisiologia Animal, UEL, Londrina (Brazil); Programa Multicêntrico de Pós-graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, UEL, Londrina (Brazil)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Cd effects were evaluated on plasma ions and ATPases of Prochilodus lineatus. • Fish were exposed to 1 and 10 μg Cd L{sup −1} for 24 and 96 h. • Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase and carbonic anhydrase decreased in gills and kidney after Cd exposure. • Gill Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase and plasma Ca{sup 2+} decreased after Cd exposure. • Cd concentrations set by Brazilian guidelines affect Ca{sup 2+} regulation of P. lineatus. - Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) is a trace element that is very toxic to fish. It is commonly found in surface waters contaminated with industrial effluents. When dissolved in water, Cd can rapidly cause physiological changes in the gills and kidneys of freshwater fish. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute effects of Cd on the osmoregulation of the Neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus. Juvenile fish were exposed to Cd at two concentrations [1 (Cd1) and 10 (Cd10) μg L{sup −1}] for 24 and 96 h. The effects of Cd were evaluated through the analysis of ions (Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, and Cl{sup −}) and plasma osmolality, and by measuring the activities of enzymes involved in osmoregulation obtained from the gills and kidney. Fish exposed to Cd for 24 and 96 h showed a decrease in Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity in the gills and kidney. The activity of carbonic anhydrase decreased in the gills after 24 h and in both tissues after 96 h of Cd exposure. The gill Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activity also decreased with Cd exposure, with a concomitant drop in the plasma concentration of Ca{sup 2+}. Despite the hypocalcemia, there were no changes in the concentration of the ions Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and Cl{sup −} or in plasma osmolality. Among the enzymes involved in ion transport, H{sup +}-ATPase was the only enzyme that showed increased activity in gills, whereas its activity in kidney remained unchanged. The results of this study demonstrate that waterborne Cd at the maximum concentrations set by Brazilian guidelines for

  19. Acute effects of cadmium on osmoregulation of the freshwater teleost Prochilodus lineatus: Enzymes activity and plasma ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Alexandre O.F. da; Martinez, Cláudia B.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Cd effects were evaluated on plasma ions and ATPases of Prochilodus lineatus. • Fish were exposed to 1 and 10 μg Cd L −1 for 24 and 96 h. • Na + /K + -ATPase and carbonic anhydrase decreased in gills and kidney after Cd exposure. • Gill Ca 2+ -ATPase and plasma Ca 2+ decreased after Cd exposure. • Cd concentrations set by Brazilian guidelines affect Ca 2+ regulation of P. lineatus. - Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) is a trace element that is very toxic to fish. It is commonly found in surface waters contaminated with industrial effluents. When dissolved in water, Cd can rapidly cause physiological changes in the gills and kidneys of freshwater fish. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute effects of Cd on the osmoregulation of the Neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus. Juvenile fish were exposed to Cd at two concentrations [1 (Cd1) and 10 (Cd10) μg L −1 ] for 24 and 96 h. The effects of Cd were evaluated through the analysis of ions (Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , and Cl − ) and plasma osmolality, and by measuring the activities of enzymes involved in osmoregulation obtained from the gills and kidney. Fish exposed to Cd for 24 and 96 h showed a decrease in Na + /K + -ATPase activity in the gills and kidney. The activity of carbonic anhydrase decreased in the gills after 24 h and in both tissues after 96 h of Cd exposure. The gill Ca 2+ -ATPase activity also decreased with Cd exposure, with a concomitant drop in the plasma concentration of Ca 2+ . Despite the hypocalcemia, there were no changes in the concentration of the ions Na + , K + , and Cl − or in plasma osmolality. Among the enzymes involved in ion transport, H + -ATPase was the only enzyme that showed increased activity in gills, whereas its activity in kidney remained unchanged. The results of this study demonstrate that waterborne Cd at the maximum concentrations set by Brazilian guidelines for freshwater affects the gills and kidney functions of P. lineatus. Acute exposure to

  20. Polyoxyethylene hydrogenated castor oil modulates benzalkonium chloride toxicity: comparison of acute corneal barrier dysfunction induced by travoprost Z and travoprost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Masafumi; Kumagami, Takeshi; Shimoda, Kenichiro; Kusano, Mao; Teshima, Mugen; To, Hideto; Kitahara, Takashi; Kitaoka, Takashi; Sasaki, Hitoshi

    2011-10-01

    To determine the element that modulates benzalkonium chloride (BAC) toxicity by using a new electrophysiological method to evaluate acute corneal barrier dysfunction induced by travoprost Z with sofZia (Travatan Z(®)), travoprost with 0.015% BAC (Travatan(®)), and its additives. Corneal transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) was measured in live white Japanese rabbits by 2 Ag/AgCl electrodes placed in the anterior aqueous chamber and on the cornea. We evaluated corneal TER changes after a 60-s exposure to travoprost Z, travoprost, and 0.015% BAC. Similarly, TER changes were evaluated after corneas were exposed for 60 s to the travoprost additives ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt, boric acid, mannitol, trometamol, and polyoxyethylene hydrogenated castor oil 40 (HCO-40) with or without BAC. Corneal damage was examined after exposure to BAC with or without travoprost additives using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a cytotoxicity assay. Although no decreases of TER were noted after exposure to travoprost Z with sofZia and travoprost with 0.015% BAC, a significant decrease of corneal TER was observed after 0.015% BAC exposure. With the exception of BAC, no corneal TER decreases were observed for any travoprost additives. After corneal exposure to travoprost additives with BAC, HCO-40 was able to prevent the BAC-induced TER decrease. SEM observations and the cytotoxicity assay confirmed that there was a remarkable improvement of BAC-induced corneal epithelial toxicity after addition of HCO-40 to the BAC. Travoprost Z with sofZia and travoprost with BAC do not induce acute corneal barrier dysfunction. HCO-40 provides protection against BAC-induced corneal toxicity.

  1. Temporal changes in rat liver gene expression after acute cadmium and chromium exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Madejczyk

    Full Text Available U.S. Service Members and civilians are at risk of exposure to a variety of environmental health hazards throughout their normal duty activities and in industrial occupations. Metals are widely used in large quantities in a number of industrial processes and are a common environmental toxicant, which increases the possibility of being exposed at toxic levels. While metal toxicity has been widely studied, the exact mechanisms of toxicity remain unclear. In order to further elucidate these mechanisms and identify candidate biomarkers, rats were exposed via a single intraperitoneal injection to three concentrations of CdCl2 and Na(2Cr(2O(7, with livers harvested at 1, 3, or 7 days after exposure. Cd and Cr accumulated in the liver at 1 day post exposure. Cd levels remained elevated over the length of the experiment, while Cr levels declined. Metal exposures induced ROS, including hydroxyl radical (•OH, resulting in DNA strand breaks and lipid peroxidation. Interestingly, ROS and cellular damage appeared to increase with time post-exposure in both metals, despite declines in Cr levels. Differentially expressed genes were identified via microarray analysis. Both metals perturbed gene expression in pathways related to oxidative stress, metabolism, DNA damage, cell cycle, and inflammatory response. This work provides insight into the temporal effects and mechanistic pathways involved in acute metal intoxication, leading to the identification of candidate biomarkers.

  2. Temporal Changes in Rat Liver Gene Expression after Acute Cadmium and Chromium Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madejczyk, Michael S.; Baer, Christine E.; Dennis, William E.; Minarchick, Valerie C.; Leonard, Stephen S.; Jackson, David A.; Stallings, Jonathan D.; Lewis, John A.

    2015-01-01

    U.S. Service Members and civilians are at risk of exposure to a variety of environmental health hazards throughout their normal duty activities and in industrial occupations. Metals are widely used in large quantities in a number of industrial processes and are a common environmental toxicant, which increases the possibility of being exposed at toxic levels. While metal toxicity has been widely studied, the exact mechanisms of toxicity remain unclear. In order to further elucidate these mechanisms and identify candidate biomarkers, rats were exposed via a single intraperitoneal injection to three concentrations of CdCl2 and Na2Cr2O7, with livers harvested at 1, 3, or 7 days after exposure. Cd and Cr accumulated in the liver at 1 day post exposure. Cd levels remained elevated over the length of the experiment, while Cr levels declined. Metal exposures induced ROS, including hydroxyl radical (•OH), resulting in DNA strand breaks and lipid peroxidation. Interestingly, ROS and cellular damage appeared to increase with time post-exposure in both metals, despite declines in Cr levels. Differentially expressed genes were identified via microarray analysis. Both metals perturbed gene expression in pathways related to oxidative stress, metabolism, DNA damage, cell cycle, and inflammatory response. This work provides insight into the temporal effects and mechanistic pathways involved in acute metal intoxication, leading to the identification of candidate biomarkers. PMID:25993096

  3. Acute toxicity bioassay of the mercury chloride and copper Sulphate in Rutilus caspicus and Rutilus kutum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Pourkhabbaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the acute toxicity (LC50 of HgCl2 and CuSO4 in Caspian roach (Rutilus caspicus and CuSO4 in Caspian kutum (Rutilus kutum. The Caspian roach LC50 values for HgCl2 at 24, 48, 72, and 96-hrs of exposure, were 0.64, 0.61, 0.42, and 0.28 mg L-1, respectively, and for CuSO4 were 11.55, 5.08, 2.49, and 1.47 mg L-1, respectively. The Caspian roach LC50 values for CuSO4 at 24, 48, 72, and 96-hrs of exposure, were 5.31, 4.17, 3.20, and 2.25 mg L-1, respectively. The results of this study showed that the toxicity of HgCl2 is higher than that of CuSO4 for the studied species. The mortality decreased with time, and most of the deaths were occurred during the first 24 hrs.

  4. Acute toxicity of cadmium, lead, zinc, and their mixtures to stream-resident fish and invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebane, Christopher A.; Dillon, Frank S.; Hennessy, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted 150 tests of the acute toxicity of resident fish and invertebrates to Cd, Pb, and Zn, separately and in mixtures, in waters from the South Fork Coeur d'Alene River watershed, Idaho, USA. Field-collected shorthead sculpin (Cottus confusus), westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi), two mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus and Rhithrogena sp.), a stonefly (Sweltsa sp.), a caddisfly (Arctopsyche sp.), a snail (Gyraulus sp.), and hatchery rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), were tested with all three metals. With Pb, the mayflies (Drunella sp., Epeorus sp., and Leptophlebiidae), a Simuliidae black fly, a Chironomidae midge, a Tipula sp. crane fly, a Dytiscidae beetle, and another snail (Physa sp.), were also tested. Adult westslope cutthroat trout were captured to establish a broodstock to provide fry of known ages for testing. With Cd, the range of 96-h median effect concentrations (EC50s) was 0.4 to >5,329μg/L, and the relative resistances of taxa were westslope cutthroat trout ≈ rainbow trout ≈ sculpin << other taxa; with Pb, EC50s ranged from 47 to 3,323μg/L, with westslope cutthroat trout < rainbow trout < other taxa; and with Zn, EC50s ranged from 21 to 3,704μg/L, with rainbow trout < westslope cutthroat trout ≈ sculpin << other taxa. With swim-up trout fry, a pattern of decreasing resistance with increasing fish size was observed. In metal mixtures, the toxicities of the three metals were less than additive on a concentration-addition basis.

  5. Unusual 4-arsonoanilinium cationic species in the hydrochloride salt of (4-aminophenyl)arsonic acid and formed in the reaction of the acid with copper(II) sulfate, copper(II) chloride and cadmium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Graham; Wermuth, Urs D

    2017-04-01

    Structures having the unusual protonated 4-arsonoanilinium species, namely in the hydrochloride salt, C 6 H 9 AsNO 3 + ·Cl - , (I), and the complex salts formed from the reaction of (4-aminophenyl)arsonic acid (p-arsanilic acid) with copper(II) sulfate, i.e. hexaaquacopper(II) bis(4-arsonoanilinium) disulfate dihydrate, (C 6 H 9 AsNO 3 ) 2 [Cu(H 2 O) 6 ](SO 4 ) 2 ·2H 2 O, (II), with copper(II) chloride, i.e. poly[bis(4-arsonoanilinium) [tetra-μ-chlorido-cuprate(II)

  6. Gadolinium chloride ameliorates acute lung injury associated with severe acute pancreatitis in rats by regulating CYLD/NF-κB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiuhao; Jin, Bei; Yang, Bin; Yan, Wenmao; Wu, Xianjia; Jiang, Cuinan; Cheng, Shi

    2017-10-14

    The present study was embarked on an investigation of the mechanisms behind the effects of Gadolinium chloride (GdCl 3 ) on lung injury associated with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in rats. Rats were randomly distributed into three groups: sham operation group (SO), SAP group and SAP treated with GdCl 3 group (SAP + GdCl 3 ). Retrograde injection of 5% sodium taurocholate into the biliopancreatic duct was adopted to induce SAP. Lung tissue specimens were harvested for histological study, wet-to-dry weight ratio calculation and myeloperoxidase examination. Meanwhile, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was analyzed for TNF-α and IL-1β activity and proteins content. Then the apoptosis ratio of alveolar macrophages (AMs) was detected. NF-κB activation and cylindromatosis (CYLD) expression in AMs were measured respectively. Results showed that GdCl 3 treatment notably ameliorated lung injury induced by SAP, and simultaneously, the apoptosis ratio of AMs was significantly promoted. The NF-κB activation was obviously inhibited when CYLD expression was markedly up-regulated in AMs of SAP + GdCl 3 . Negative correlation was analyzed between CYLD and NF-κB in both SAP and SAP + GdCl 3 . These data demonstrate that GdCl 3 ameliorates lung injury secondary to SAP in rats mainly by up-regulating CYLD expression and inhibiting NF-κB activation in AMs, which may play a vital role in lung injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Biochemical biomarker responses of green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus, to acute and subchronic waterborne cadmium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandurvelan, Rathishri, E-mail: rch118@uclive.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Marsden, Islay D., E-mail: islay.marsden@canterbury.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Gaw, Sally, E-mail: sally.gaw@canterbury.ac.nz [Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Glover, Chris N., E-mail: chris.glover@canterbury.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Biochemical biomarkers were measured to assess effects of Cd on Perna canaliculus. •Biochemical responses varied between acute and subchronic exposure to Cd. •MTLP induction correlated strongly with Cd accumulation. •Alkaline phosphatase and glycogen levels decreased during subchronic Cd exposure. •Duration of Cd exposure influenced biochemical biomarker responses in mussels. -- Abstract: The biochemical responses of the green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus, to waterborne cadmium (Cd) were investigated in order to delineate toxic mechanisms, and the impacts of exposure dose and duration, of this important toxicant in a potential sentinel species. Mussels were exposed for either 96 h (acute: 0, 2000, 4000 μg L{sup −1} Cd) or for 28 d (subchronic: 0, 200, 2000 μg L{sup −1} Cd), and the digestive gland, gill and haemolymph were examined for impacts. Biochemical responses measured included those associated with metal detoxification (metallothionein-like protein; MTLP), oxidative stress (catalase, lipid peroxidation), cellular homeostasis (alkaline phosphatase, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase; NKA), and energy utilisation (glycogen, haemolymph protein). Following acute exposure, digestive gland glycogen and gill NKA activity were significantly altered by Cd exposure relative to levels in mussels exposed to Cd-free seawater. Subchronic Cd exposure resulted in a significant increase in MTLP levels in both the gill and the digestive gland. This increase was correlated strongly with the levels of Cd accumulation measured in these tissues (R = 0.957 for gill, 0.964 for digestive gland). Catalase activity followed a similar pattern, although the correlation with tissue Cd accumulation was not as strong (R = 0.907 for gill, 0.708 for digestive gland) as that for MTLP. Lipid peroxidation increased in the digestive gland at Days 7 and 14 at both subchronic Cd levels tested, but this effect had largely dissipated by Days 21 and 28 (with the exception of

  8. Perturbations in ROS-related processes of the fish Gambusia holbrooki after acute and chronic exposures to the metals copper and cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Bruno; Caldeira, Carina; Pereira, Joana Luísa; Gonçalves, Fernando; Correia, Alberto Teodorico

    2015-03-01

    Metallic contamination is a widespread phenomena, particularly in areas impacted by human activities, and has become a relevant environmental concern. However, the toxicity of metals on fish requires full characterization in terms of short- and long-term effects. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the acute and chronic oxidative stress response in liver and gills of Gambusia holbrooki exposed to copper and cadmium. To assess the effects of these two metals, we adopted a strategy of analyzing the pollution effects caused by salts of the two metallic elements, and we quantified the oxidative stress biomarkers catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferases, and lipid peroxidation after exposure (4 and 28 days) to ecologically relevant concentrations, thus simulating actual conditions of exposure in the wild. Our results showed that copper elicited strong effects in all tested biomarkers for both acute and chronic challenges. Cadmium caused a similar response and was shown to cause significant changes particularly in catalase and glutathione-S-transferases activities. These findings evidence that ecologically relevant concentrations of common anthropogenic contaminants are causative agents of serious imbalances (namely oxidative stress) that are likely to trigger life-threatening events.

  9. The change of increases body weight and weight ratios of rats during prolonged cadmium toxicosis

    OpenAIRE

    GUTYI B.; HUFRIY D.; BINKEVYCH V.; PAVLIV A.; BINKEVYCH O.; VENGRYN A.

    2014-01-01

    The article presents data changes increases body weight and weight ratios of rats in chronic cadmium toxicosis. Found that when asking cadmium chloride in body weight gain in rats and reduced weight change ratios of internal organs.

  10. Circadian time-dependent antioxidant and inflammatory responses to acute cadmium exposure in the brain of zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jia-Lang, E-mail: zhengjialang@aliyun.com; Yuan, Shuang-Shuang; Wu, Chang-Wen; Lv, Zhen-Ming; Zhu, Ai-Yi

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Gene changed at mRNA, protein and activity levels between exposure time points. • ROS mediated antioxidant and inflammatory responses by Nrf2 and NF-κB. • The effect of time of day on Cd-induced toxicity should not be neglected in fish. - Abstract: Up to date, little information is available on effects of circadian rhythm on metal-induced toxicity in fish. In this study, zebrafish were acutely exposed to 0.97 mg L{sup −1} cadmium for 12 h either at ZT0 (the light intensity began to reached maximum) or at ZT12 (light intensity began to reached minimum) to evaluate the temporal sensitivity of oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in the brain of zebrafish. Profiles of responses of some genes at mRNA, protein and activity levels were different between ZT0 and ZT12 in the normal water. Exposure to Cd induced contrary antioxidant responses and similar inflammatory responses between ZT0 and ZT12. However, the number of inflammatory genes which were up-regulated was significantly greater at ZT12 than at ZT0. And, the up-regulated inflammatory genes were more responsive at ZT12 than at ZT0. At ZT12, antioxidant genes were down-regulated at mRNA, protein and activity levels. Contrarily, antioxidant genes were not affected at mRNA levels but activated at the protein and/or activity levels at ZT0. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) sharply increased and remained relatively stable when fish were exposed to Cd at ZT12 and ZT0, respectively. Positive correlations between ROS levels and mRNA levels of nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) and between mRNA levels of NF-κB and its target genes were observed, suggesting that ROS may play an essential role in regulating the magnitude of inflammatory responses. Taken together, oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in the brain were more serious when fish were exposed to Cd in the evening than in the morning, highlighting the importance of circadian rhythm in Cd-induced neurotoxicity in fish.

  11. Experimental studies on the effect of cadmium chloride, zinc acetate, their mixture and the mitigation with vitamin C supplementation on hatchability, size and quality of newly hatched larvae of common carp, Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab A. El-Greisy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present results show that the fertilization and hatching rates, as well as the development of the embryos of common carp are adversely affected by heavy metal pollution. The degree of this effect depends on the duration and the concentration of the heavy metal used. Malformation of the yolk sac and curvature in the abdominal region were also observed throughout this study. No statistical difference was recorded between the polluted group which was supplemented with vitamin C (300 mg/kg of dry feed, and the control group (P < 0.05. The newly hatched larvae showed severe body malformation, and they were not able to swim or feed. Other organs such as the kidneys and livers were also affected. The most important changes in the kidneys of common carp were glomerular expansion and the reduction of Bowman’s space. No abnormalities or alterations were observed in the livers of the control fish. However, the main alterations were observed in the liver of treated fish with cadmium chloride that were either single or mixed with zinc acetate. The most important changes in the livers of common carp were hypertrophy nucleus and vacuolation in cytoplasm. Addition of vitamin C with dry feed showed an improvement in the tissues of livers and kidneys of polluted fish.

  12. Intravenous Infusion of Magnesium Chloride Improves Epicenter Blood Flow during the Acute Stage of Contusive Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradov, Johongir M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Vasospasm, hemorrhage, and loss of microvessels at the site of contusive or compressive spinal cord injury lead to infarction and initiate secondary degeneration. Here, we used intravenous injection of endothelial-binding lectin followed by histology to show that the number of perfused microvessels at the injury site is decreased by 80–90% as early as 20 min following a moderate T9 contusion in adult female rats. Hemorrhage within the spinal cord also was maximal at 20 min, consistent with its vasoconstrictive actions in the central nervous system (CNS). Microvascular blood flow recovered to up to 50% of normal volume in the injury penumbra by 6 h, but not at the epicenter. A comparison with an endothelial cell marker suggested that many microvessels fail to be reperfused up to 48 h post-injury. The ischemia was probably caused by vasospasm of vessels penetrating the parenchyma, because repeated Doppler measurements over the spinal cord showed a doubling of total blood flow over the first 12 h. Moreover, intravenous infusion of magnesium chloride, used clinically to treat CNS vasospasm, greatly improved the number of perfused microvessels at 24 and 48 h. The magnesium treatment seemed safe as it did not increase hemorrhage, despite the improved parenchymal blood flow. However, the treatment did not reduce acute microvessel, motor neuron or oligodendrocyte loss, and when infused for 7 days did not affect functional recovery or spared epicenter white matter over a 4 week period. These data suggest that microvascular blood flow can be restored with a clinically relevant treatment following spinal cord injury. PMID:23302047

  13. Acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium to different life history stages of the freshwater crustacean Asellus aquaticus (L)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.J.; Williams, K.A.; Pascoe, D.

    1986-09-01

    Different life-history stages of the freshwater isopod crustacean Asellus aquaticus were exposed to a range of cadmium concentrations using a semi-static toxicity testing procedure. Median lethal concentrations (96-hr LC50) ranged from 80 ..mu..g Cd/L for juveniles to > 2000 ..mu..g Cd/L for embryos. Pre-treatment of eggs with cadmium did not increase their tolerance to the metal as juveniles. The responses of each stage are discussed in relation to the use of macroinvertebrate toxicity test data in predicting the hazardous effects of pollutants.

  14. Histopathological alterations in the liver and intestine of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus exposed to long-term sublethal concentrations of cadmium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Elsayed; Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab; Al-Asgah, Nasser; Ebaid, Hossam

    2015-07-01

    Fingerlings of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were exposed to 1.68, 3.36, and 5.04 mg/L cadmium (as CdCl2), which represent 10%, 20%, and 30% of their previously determined 96-h LC50. After exposure for 20 days, sections of the liver and intestine of treated fish were examined histologically. Histopathological changes varied from slight to severe structural modification, depending on the exposure concentration. The hepatic tissues of fish exposed to 10% LC50 showed markedly increased vacuolation of the hepatocytes and coarse granulation of their cytoplasm. Abundant erythrocytic infiltration among the hepatocytes was observed in fish exposed to 20% LC50. In the intestinal tissues of fish exposed to all doses, goblet cells proliferated and were greatly increased in size, the longitudinal muscularis mucosa was disturbed and, in the crypts of the sub-mucosal layer, apoptosis increased, indicated by large numbers of degenerated nuclei. Large numbers of inflammatory cells and dilated blood vessels were observed in the intestine of the group treated with 30% LC50.

  15. Sodium Bicarbonate Versus Sodium Chloride for Preventing Contrast-Associated Acute Kidney Injury in Critically Ill Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valette, Xavier; Desmeulles, Isabelle; Savary, Benoit; Masson, Romain; Seguin, Amélie; Sauneuf, Bertrand; Brunet, Jennifer; Verrier, Pierre; Pottier, Véronique; Orabona, Marie; Samba, Désiré; Viquesnel, Gérald; Lermuzeaux, Mathilde; Hazera, Pascal; Dutheil, Jean-Jacques; Hanouz, Jean-Luc; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; du Cheyron, Damien

    2017-04-01

    To test whether hydration with bicarbonate rather than isotonic sodium chloride reduces the risk of contrast-associated acute kidney injury in critically ill patients. Prospective, double-blind, multicenter, randomized controlled study. Three French ICUs. Critically ill patients with stable renal function (n = 307) who received intravascular contrast media. Hydration with 0.9% sodium chloride or 1.4% sodium bicarbonate administered with the same infusion protocol: 3 mL/kg during 1 hour before and 1 mL/kg/hr during 6 hours after contrast medium exposure. The primary endpoint was the development of contrast-associated acute kidney injury, as defined by the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria, 72 hours after contrast exposure. Patients randomized to the bicarbonate group (n = 151) showed a higher urinary pH at the end of the infusion than patients randomized to the saline group (n = 156) (6.7 ± 2.1 vs 6.2 ± 1.8, respectively; p bicarbonate group (absolute risk difference, -1.8%; 95% CI [-12.3% to 8.9%]; p = 0.81). The need for renal replacement therapy (five [3.2%] and six [3.9%] patients; p = 0.77), ICU length of stay (24.7 ± 22.9 and 23 ± 23.8 d; p = 0.52), and mortality (25 [16.0%] and 24 [15.9%] patients; p > 0.99) were also similar between the saline and bicarbonate groups, respectively. Except for urinary pH, none of the outcomes differed between the two groups. Among ICU patients with stable renal function, the benefit of using sodium bicarbonate rather than isotonic sodium chloride for preventing contrast-associated acute kidney injury is marginal, if any.

  16. Acute and chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Contributions by Wang, Ning; Calfee, Robin D.; Beahan, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Kunz, James L.; Little, Edward E.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Puglis, Holly J.

    2014-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are experiencing poor recruitment in the trans boundary reach of the upper Columbia River in eastern Washington State. Limited toxicity data indicated that early life stages of white sturgeon are sensitive to metals. In acute 4-day (d) exposures with larval white sturgeon, previous studies have reported that the 4-day median lethal concentrations (LC50) based on biotic ligand model (BLM) normalization for copper were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national recommended acute water-quality criterion. In previously published chronic 66-d exposures starting with newly fertilized eggs of white sturgeon, 20-percent lethal effect concentrations (LC20s) for copper, cadmium, or zinc generally were within a factor of two of the chronic values of the most sensitive fish species in the databases of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criteria (WQC) for the three metals. However, there were some uncertainties in the chronic exposures previously performed with white sturgeon, including (1) low control survival (37 percent), (2) more control fish tested in each replicate compared to other treatments, (3) limited replication of treatments (n=2), (4) lack of reported growth data (such as dry weight), and (5) wide dilution factors for exposure concentrations (6- to 8-fold dilutions). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency concluded that additional studies are needed to generate more toxicity data to better define lethal and sublethal toxicity thresholds for metals for white sturgeon. The objective of the study was to further evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon in water-only exposures. Toxicity tests also were performed with commonly tested rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under similar test conditions to determine the relative sensitivity between white sturgeon and rainbow trout to these metals. Toxicity data generated from

  17. p53-dependent but ATM-independent inhibition of DNA synthesis and G2 arrest in cadmium-treated human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Feng; Zhou Tong; Simpson, Dennis; Zhou Yingchun; Boyer, Jayne; Chen Bo; Jin Taiyi; Cordeiro-Stone, Marila; Kaufmann, William

    2007-01-01

    This study focused on the activation of cell cycle checkpoint responses in diploid human fibroblasts that were treated with cadmium chloride and the potential roles of ATM and p53 signaling pathways in cadmium-induced responses. The alkaline comet assay indicated that cadmium caused a dose-dependent increase in DNA damage. Cells that were rendered p53-defective by expression of a dominant-negative p53 allele or knockdown of p53 mRNA were more resistant to cadmium-induced inactivation of colony formation than normal and ataxia telangiectasia (AT) cells. Synchronized fibroblasts in S were more sensitive to cadmium toxicity than cells in G1, suggesting that cadmium may target some element of DNA replication. Cadmium produced a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of DNA synthesis. An immediate inhibition was associated with severe delay in progression through S phase and a delayed inhibition seen 24 h after treatment was associated with accumulation of cells in G2. AT and normal cells displayed similar patterns of inhibition of DNA synthesis and G2 delay after treatment with cadmium, while p53-defective cells displayed significantly less of the delayed inhibition of DNA synthesis and accumulation in G2 post-treatment. Total p53 protein and ser15-phosphorylated p53 were induced by cadmium in normal and AT cells. The p53 transactivation target Gadd45α was induced in both p53-effective and p53-defective cells after 4 h cadmium treatment, and this was associated with an acute inhibition of mitosis. Cadmium produced a very unusual pattern of toxicity in human fibroblasts, inhibiting DNA replication and inducing p53-dependent growth arrest but without induction of p21 Cip1/Waf1 or activation of Chk1

  18. Whole-body aerosol exposure of cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) induced hepatic changes in CD-1 male mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuanhong; Hu, Yabing; Liu, Shuyun; Zheng, Huiying; Wu, Xiaojuan; Huang, Zhengyu; Li, Hao; Peng, Baoqi; Long, Jinlie [Institute of Environmental Safety and Human Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Pan, Bishu [Taizhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Taizhou 318000 (China); Huang, Changjiang, E-mail: cjhuang5711@163.com [Institute of Environmental Safety and Human Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Dong, Qiaoxiang, E-mail: dqxdong@163.com [Institute of Environmental Safety and Human Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Hepatotoxicity of TBBPA and Cd aerosol co-exposure was evaluated in CD-1 male mice. • Hepatic changes include focal necrosis, increased organ weight, and elevated enzymes. • TBBPA group exhibited highest hepatic toxicity followed by co-exposure and Cd groups. • We did not observe any synergistic effect of hepatic toxicity between TBBPA and Cd. • TBBPA/Cd suppressed antioxidant defensive mechanisms and increased oxidative stress. - Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) are two prevalent contaminants in e-waste recycling facilities. However, the potential adversely health effect of co-exposure to these two types of pollutants in an occupational setting is unknown. In this study, we investigated co-exposure of these two pollutants on hepatic toxicity in CD-1 male mice through a whole-body aerosol inhalation route. Specifically, mice were exposed to solvent control (5% DMSO), Cd (8 μg/m{sup 3}), TBBPA (16 μg/m{sup 3}) and Cd/TBBPA mixture for 8 h/day and 6 days a week for 60 days. Hepatic changes include increased organ weight, focal necrosis, and elevated levels of liver enzymes in serum. These changes were most severe in mice exposed to TBBPA, followed by Cd/TBBPA mixture and Cd. These chemicals also led to suppressed antioxidant defensive mechanisms and increased oxidative stress. Further, these chemicals induced gene expression of apoptosis-related genes, activated genes encoding for phase I detoxification enzymes and inhibited genes encoding for phase II detoxification enzymes. These findings indicate that the hepatic damages induced by subchronic aerosol exposure of Cd and TBBPA may result from the oxidative damages caused by excessive ROS production when these chemicals were metabolized in the liver.

  19. Stability evaluation of reference genes for real-time PCR in zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to cadmium chloride and subsequently infected by bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Xingping; Wang, Lan, E-mail: lanwang@sxu.edu.cn; Zhang, Zuobing, E-mail: zbzhang@sxu.edu.cn

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Cd exposure affects the stability of reference genes for real-time PCR in zebrafish. • Reference genes present different stability in the five tissues (spleen, kidney, liver, gills and intestine) of zebrafish after Cd exposure. • Bacterial infection further affects the stability of reference genes in Cd-treated zebrafish. - Abstract: Environmental and occupational cadmium (Cd) toxicity is a global concern, and the model organism zebrafish is an ideal species to investigate Cd toxicity. Among various detecting techniques, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a sensitive and efficient tool. Stable reference genes are critical for relative qPCR analysis. However, accumulated evidence shows that conventional reference genes can vary significantly under different experimental setups. Here we evaluated the stability of eight candidate reference genes of zebrafish with or without exposure to different concentrations of Cd. The results showed that the best four suitable reference genes in the five selected organs were: (1) spleen: β-actin > gapdh > ef1α > rpl13α; (2) kidney: rplp2 > rpl7 > β-actin > ef1α; (3) liver: rpl7 > rpl13α > β-actin > ef1α; (4) gills: rplp2 > gapdh > rnf7 > ef1α; (5) intestine: ef1α > rnf7 > rplp2 > rpl13α. Moreover, we further assessed the expression stability of the four reference genes for Cd immunotoxicology studies in zebrafish. The expression profiles showed that ef1α in spleen and kidney, rpl13a in liver and rplp2 in intestine were the most suitable reference genes at 12 h and 9 days after the injection with Aeromonas hydrophila following Cd exposure. In gills, the expression of gapdh was more stable than ef1α after 9 days of bacteria challenge while ef1α showed a higher stability than gapdh at 12 h after bacteria injection. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that different tissues of zebrafish have different suitable reference genes after Cd exposure and the subsequently pathogenic insults for q

  20. Toxicity and Bioconcentration of Cadmium and Copper in Artemia Urmiana Nauplii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohiseni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Artemia urmiana are small crustaceans that because of its non-selective filter feeder pattern potentially may absorb high level of heavy metals through their living environment. In this study, the effects of different levels of cadmium and copper on survival, catalase activity and metals bioconcentration rates in A. urmiana nauplii have been investigated. Methods: The research was carried out in February 2012 at University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. First experiment was conducted in nine concentrations with six replication, then LC50 and probable interactions between experimental metals were evaluated. In the second experiment, concentrations of metals absorbed by Artemia and catalase activity were measured based on the acute toxicity indices, including NOEC, LOEC and LC50 at individual and mixed concentrations. Results: The toxicity of copper sulphate (LC50= 29.87 was 2.5 times greater than cadmium chloride (LC50=79.08 and the toxicity interaction between cadmium and copper was synergistic. The rate of copper uptake in Artemia was higher than cadmium and increased concentration of heavy metals significantly decreased the bioconcentration factor. Comparison of mixed and individual concentrations showed that cadmium significantly decreased copper uptake, while it seems that cadmium bioconcentration was improved consequently. Biochemical analysis showed that the catalase activity was affected undesirably in different individual and mixed concentrations; however, these changes were not significant. Conclusion: A. urmiana nauplia seems to be highly resistant toward cadmium and copper in their culture medium and demonstrated excessive potential for uptake of heavy metals from their rearing environment.

  1. Cadmium-mediated disruption of cortisol biosynthesis involves suppression of corticosteroidogenic genes in rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandhu, Navdeep; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2011-01-01

    Cadmium is widely distributed in the aquatic environment and is toxic to fish even at sublethal concentrations. This metal is an endocrine disruptor, and one well established role in teleosts is the suppression of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-stimulated cortisol biosynthesis by the interrenal tissue. However the mechanism(s) leading to this steroid suppression is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that cadmium targets genes encoding proteins critical for corticosteroid biosynthesis, including melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To test this, head kidney slices (containing the interrenal tissues) were incubated in vitro with cadmium chloride (0, 10, 100 and 1000 nM) for 4 h either in the presence or absence of ACTH (0.5 IU/mL). In the unstimulated head kidney slices, cadmium exposure did not affect basal cortisol secretion and the mRNA levels of MC2R and P450scc, while StAR gene expression was significantly reduced. Cadmium exposure significantly suppressed ACTH-stimulated cortisol production in a dose-related fashion. This cadmium-mediated suppression in corticosteroidogenesis corresponded with a significant reduction in MC2R, StAR and P450scc mRNA levels in trout head kidney slices. The inhibition of ACTH-stimulated cortisol production and suppression of genes involved in corticosteroidogenesis by cadmium were completely abolished in the presence of 8-Bromo-cAMP (a cAMP analog). Overall, cadmium disrupts the expression of genes critical for corticosteroid biosynthesis in rainbow trout head kidney slices. However, the rescue of cortisol production as well as StAR and P450scc gene expressions by cAMP analog suggests that cadmium impact occurs upstream of cAMP production. We propose that MC2R signaling, the primary step in ACTH-induced cortocosteroidogenesis, is a key target for cadmium-mediated disruption of

  2. Cadmium-mediated disruption of cortisol biosynthesis involves suppression of corticosteroidogenic genes in rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, Navdeep [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Vijayan, Mathilakath M., E-mail: mvijayan@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2011-05-15

    Cadmium is widely distributed in the aquatic environment and is toxic to fish even at sublethal concentrations. This metal is an endocrine disruptor, and one well established role in teleosts is the suppression of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-stimulated cortisol biosynthesis by the interrenal tissue. However the mechanism(s) leading to this steroid suppression is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that cadmium targets genes encoding proteins critical for corticosteroid biosynthesis, including melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To test this, head kidney slices (containing the interrenal tissues) were incubated in vitro with cadmium chloride (0, 10, 100 and 1000 nM) for 4 h either in the presence or absence of ACTH (0.5 IU/mL). In the unstimulated head kidney slices, cadmium exposure did not affect basal cortisol secretion and the mRNA levels of MC2R and P450scc, while StAR gene expression was significantly reduced. Cadmium exposure significantly suppressed ACTH-stimulated cortisol production in a dose-related fashion. This cadmium-mediated suppression in corticosteroidogenesis corresponded with a significant reduction in MC2R, StAR and P450scc mRNA levels in trout head kidney slices. The inhibition of ACTH-stimulated cortisol production and suppression of genes involved in corticosteroidogenesis by cadmium were completely abolished in the presence of 8-Bromo-cAMP (a cAMP analog). Overall, cadmium disrupts the expression of genes critical for corticosteroid biosynthesis in rainbow trout head kidney slices. However, the rescue of cortisol production as well as StAR and P450scc gene expressions by cAMP analog suggests that cadmium impact occurs upstream of cAMP production. We propose that MC2R signaling, the primary step in ACTH-induced cortocosteroidogenesis, is a key target for cadmium-mediated disruption of

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Mercaptoacetic Acid Capped Cadmium Sulphide Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wageh, S; Maize, Mai; Donia, A M; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A; Umar, Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the facile synthesis and detailed characterization of mercaptoacetic acid capped cadmium sulphide (CdS) quantum dots using various cadmium precursors. The mercaptoacetic acid capped CdS quantum dots were prepared by facile and simple wet chemical method and characterized by several techniques such as energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, UV-vis. spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission microscopy (HRTEM) and thremogravimetric analysis. The EDS studies revealed that the prepared quantum dots possess higher atomic percentage of sulfur compared to cadmium due to the coordination of thiolate to the quantum dots surfaces. The X-ray and absorption analyses exhibited that the size of quantum dots prepared by cadmium acetate is larger than the quantum dots prepared by cadmium chloride and cadmium nitrate. The increase in size can be attributed to the low stability constant of cadmium acetate in comparison with cadmium chloride and cadmium nitrate. The FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis showed that the nature of capping molecule on the surface of quantum dots are different depending on the cadmium precursors which affect the emission from CdS quantum dots. Photoemission spectroscopy revealed that the emission of quantum dots prepared by cadmium acetate has high intensity band edge emission along with low intensity trapping state emission. However the CdS quantum dots prepared by cadmium chloride and cadmium nitrate produced only trapping state emissions.

  4. Cadmium-induced IL-6 and IL-8 expression and release from astrocytes are mediated by MAPK and NF-κB pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuagkhaopong, Suttinee; Ospondpant, Dusadee; Kasemsuk, Thitima; Sibmooh, Nathawut; Soodvilai, Sunhapas; Power, Christopher; Vivithanaporn, Pornpun

    2017-05-01

    Chronic exposure to cadmium has been linked to brain cancers, learning disabilities and memory deficits. Previous studies of cadmium toxicity in the central nervous system report cadmium induces oxidative stress in neurons and astrocytes. In the peripheral system, cadmium promotes interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 production and release. Elevation of IL-6 expression is linked to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases and astrogliosis. IL-8 plays a role in angiogenesis of gliomas and neurodegenerative diseases. Herein, the effects of non-toxic concentrations of cadmium on the production of IL-6 and IL-8 and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. U-87 MG human astrocytoma cells and primary human astrocytes were exposed to cadmium chloride. At 24h post-exposure to 1 and 10μM, levels of intracellular cadmium in U-87 MG cells were 11.89±3.59 and 53.08±7.59μg/g wet weight, respectively. These concentrations had minimal effects on cell morphology and viability. IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA levels and secretion increased in dose- and time-dependent manners post cadmium exposure. Acute exposure to cadmium increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and p65 NF-κB. Pretreatment with U0126-an inhibitor of MEK1 and MEK2 kinases-SB203580-a p38 MAPK inhibitor-and SC-514-an IKKβ inhibitor-suppressed cadmium-induced IL-8 expression and release. Upregulation of cadmium-induced IL-6 was inhibited by U0126 and SC-514, but not SB203580. On the other hand, SP600125-a JNK inhibitor-and celecoxib-a selective COX-2 inhibitor-had no effect on production of both cytokines. In conclusion, non-toxic concentrations of cadmium can stimulate IL-6 and IL-8 release through MAPK phosphorylation and NF-κB activation. Suppressing IL-6 and IL-8 production could be novel approaches to prevent cadmium-induced angiogenesis in gliomas and inflammation in the brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Acute intraperitoneal mercury chloride contamination and distribution in liver, muscle and gill of a neotropical fish Hoplias malabaricus (BLOCK, 1794

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taise Bomfim de Jesus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated with the distribution of mercury chloride in muscle, liver and gills of Hoplias malabaricus contaminated through intraperitoneal injection (6 µg in 0.1mL of PBS for a period of 24, 48, 72 and 96h. The liver, gill and muscle were analyzed for mercury content in an ICP/AES (Varian Liberty II with vapor generating accessory (VGA 77. The muscle and liver tissues presented the same contamination pattern increasing concentrations in 24 h of exposure with a decrease in Hg concentration with 72 h and a new increase in Hg concentrations with 96 h of exposure. The Hg concentrations in contaminated organisms were always higher than the control although only for liver samples the difference was statistically significant. Liver samples always presented higher Hg contents when compared with gill and muscle samples.

  6. Reviews of the environmental effects of pollutants: IV. Cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammons, A.S.; Huff, J.E.; Braunstein, H.M.; Drury, J.S.; Shriner, C.R.; Lewis, E.B.; Whitfield, B.L.; Towill, L.E.

    1978-06-01

    This report is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary review of the health and environmental effects of cadmium and specific cadmium derivatives. More than 500 references are cited. The cadmium body burden in animals and humans results mainly from the diet. In the United States, the normal intake of cadmium for adult humans is estimated at about 50 ..mu..g per day. Tobacco smoke is a significant additional source of cadmium exposure. The kidneys and liver together contain about 50% of the total cadmium body burden. Acute cadmium poisoning is primarily an occupational problem, generally from inhalation of cadmium fumes or dusts. In the general population, incidents of acute poisoning by inhaled or ingested cadmium or its compounds are relatively rare. The kidney is the primary target organ for toxicity from prolonged low-level exposure to cadmium. No causal relationship has been established between cadmium exposure and human cancer, although a possible link between cadmium and prostate cancer has been indicated. Cadmium has been shown to be teratogenic in rats, hamsters, and mice, but no such effects have been proven in humans. Cadmium has been reported to increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells and in human peripheral leukocytes. The major concern about environmental cadmium is the potential effects on the general population. There is no substantial evidence of hazard from current levels of cadmium in air, water, or food. However, because cadmium is a cumulative poison and because present intake provides a relatively small safety margin, there are adequate reasons for concern over possible future increases in background levels.

  7. Reviews of the environmental effects of pollutants: IV. Cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammons, A.S.; Huff, J.E.; Braunstein, H.M.; Drury, J.S.; Shriner, C.R.; Lewis, E.B.; Whitfield, B.L.; Towill, L.E.

    1978-06-01

    This report is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary review of the health and environmental effects of cadmium and specific cadmium derivatives. More than 500 references are cited. The cadmium body burden in animals and humans results mainly from the diet. In the United States, the normal intake of cadmium for adult humans is estimated at about 50 μg per day. Tobacco smoke is a significant additional source of cadmium exposure. The kidneys and liver together contain about 50% of the total cadmium body burden. Acute cadmium poisoning is primarily an occupational problem, generally from inhalation of cadmium fumes or dusts. In the general population, incidents of acute poisoning by inhaled or ingested cadmium or its compounds are relatively rare. The kidney is the primary target organ for toxicity from prolonged low-level exposure to cadmium. No causal relationship has been established between cadmium exposure and human cancer, although a possible link between cadmium and prostate cancer has been indicated. Cadmium has been shown to be teratogenic in rats, hamsters, and mice, but no such effects have been proven in humans. Cadmium has been reported to increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells and in human peripheral leukocytes. The major concern about environmental cadmium is the potential effects on the general population. There is no substantial evidence of hazard from current levels of cadmium in air, water, or food. However, because cadmium is a cumulative poison and because present intake provides a relatively small safety margin, there are adequate reasons for concern over possible future increases in background levels

  8. Acute sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to copper, cadmium, or zinc in water-only laboratory exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, Robin D; Little, Edward E; Puglis, Holly J; Scott, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G; Mebane, Christopher A

    2014-10-01

    The acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were determined for 7 developmental life stages in flow-through water-only exposures. Metal toxicity varied by species and by life stage. Rainbow trout were more sensitive to cadmium than white sturgeon across all life stages, with median effect concentrations (hardness-normalized EC50s) ranging from 1.47 µg Cd/L to 2.62 µg Cd/L with sensitivity remaining consistent during later stages of development. Rainbow trout at 46 d posthatch (dph) ranked at the 2nd percentile of a compiled database for Cd species sensitivity distribution with an EC50 of 1.46 µg Cd/L and 72 dph sturgeon ranked at the 19th percentile (EC50 of 3.02 µg Cd/L). White sturgeon were more sensitive to copper than rainbow trout in 5 of the 7 life stages tested with biotic ligand model (BLM)-normalized EC50s ranging from 1.51 µg Cu/L to 21.9 µg Cu/L. In turn, rainbow trout at 74 dph and 95 dph were more sensitive to copper than white sturgeon at 72 dph and 89 dph, indicating sturgeon become more tolerant in older life stages, whereas older trout become more sensitive to copper exposure. White sturgeon at 2 dph, 16 dph, and 30 dph ranked in the lower percentiles of a compiled database for copper species sensitivity distribution, ranking at the 3rd (2 dph), 5th (16 dph), and 10th (30 dph) percentiles. White sturgeon were more sensitive to zinc than rainbow trout for 1 out of 7 life stages tested (2 dph with an biotic ligand model-normalized EC50 of 209 µg Zn/L) and ranked in the 1st percentile of a compiled database for zinc species sensitivity distribution. © 2014 The Authors. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  9. Prediction of acute toxicity of cadmium and lead to zebrafish larvae by using a refined toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yongfei; Feng, Jianfeng; Zhu, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed a BLM-aided TK-TD model that considers the effects of H + . • The time-course metal concentration in larvae was well described by the TK model. • The time-course survival of zebrafish larvae was well simulated by the TD model. - Abstract: The biotic ligand model (BLM) and the toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TK-TD) model are essential in predicting the acute toxicity of metals in various species and exposure conditions; however, these models are usually separately utilized. In this study, a mechanistic TK-TD model was developed to predict the acute toxicity of 10 −6 M Cd and 10 −6 M Pb to zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. The novel approach links the BLM with relevant TK processes to simulate the bioaccumulation processes of Cd or Pb as a function of the maximum uptake rate of each metal, the affinity constants, and the concentrations of free metal ions and H + in test solutions. Results showed that the refined TK-TD model can accurately predict the accumulation and acute toxicity of Cd and Pb to zebrafish larvae at pH 5.5, 6.5, and 7.0.

  10. Prediction of acute toxicity of cadmium and lead to zebrafish larvae by using a refined toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yongfei; Feng, Jianfeng, E-mail: fengjf@nankai.edu.cn; Zhu, Lin, E-mail: zhulin@nankai.edu.cn

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • We developed a BLM-aided TK-TD model that considers the effects of H{sup +}. • The time-course metal concentration in larvae was well described by the TK model. • The time-course survival of zebrafish larvae was well simulated by the TD model. - Abstract: The biotic ligand model (BLM) and the toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TK-TD) model are essential in predicting the acute toxicity of metals in various species and exposure conditions; however, these models are usually separately utilized. In this study, a mechanistic TK-TD model was developed to predict the acute toxicity of 10{sup −6} M Cd and 10{sup −6} M Pb to zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. The novel approach links the BLM with relevant TK processes to simulate the bioaccumulation processes of Cd or Pb as a function of the maximum uptake rate of each metal, the affinity constants, and the concentrations of free metal ions and H{sup +} in test solutions. Results showed that the refined TK-TD model can accurately predict the accumulation and acute toxicity of Cd and Pb to zebrafish larvae at pH 5.5, 6.5, and 7.0.

  11. Acute exposure to waterborne cadmium induced oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in the brain, ovary and liver of zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jia-Lang, E-mail: zhengjialang@aliyun.com; Yuan, Shuang-Shuang; Wu, Chang-Wen; Lv, Zhen-Ming

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Cd induced oxidative stress and immunotoxicity by the generation of ROS. • The toxic effects depended on exposure time and different tissues. • Nrf2 and NF-κB mediated antioxidant and inflammatory responses. • Gene changed at transcriptional, translational, post-translational levels. - Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental contaminant that poses serious risks to aquatic organisms and their associated ecosystem. The mechanisms underlying Cd-induced oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in fish remain largely unknown. In this study, adult female zebrafish were exposed to 0 (control), 1 mg L{sup −1} Cd for 24 h and 96 h, and the oxidative stress and inflammatory responses induced by Cd were evaluated in the brain, liver and ovary. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA) increased in a time-dependent manner after treatment with Cd in the brain and liver. The increase may result from the disturbance of genes including copper and zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and ciclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) at mRNA, protein and activity levels. Although ROS, NO and MDA were not significantly affected by Cd in the ovary, the up-regulation of Cu/Zn-SOD, CAT, iNOS, and COX-2 was observed. Exposure to Cd induced a sharp increase in the protein levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the brain, liver and ovary, possibly contributing to activate inflammatory responses. Furthermore, we also found a dramatic increase in mRNA levels of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) at 24 h in the liver and ovary. The corresponding changes in the mRNA levels of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1a and Keap1b) and the inhibitor of κBα (IκBαa and IκBαb) may contribute to regulate the transcriptional activity of Nrf2 and NF-κB, respectively. Contrarily, mRNA levels of Nrf2, NF-κB, Keap1, Keap1b, IκBαa and IκBαb remained

  12. Acute exposure to waterborne cadmium induced oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in the brain, ovary and liver of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jia-Lang; Yuan, Shuang-Shuang; Wu, Chang-Wen; Lv, Zhen-Ming

    2016-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental contaminant that poses serious risks to aquatic organisms and their associated ecosystem. The mechanisms underlying Cd-induced oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in fish remain largely unknown. In this study, adult female zebrafish were exposed to 0 (control), 1mgL -1 Cd for 24h and 96h, and the oxidative stress and inflammatory responses induced by Cd were evaluated in the brain, liver and ovary. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA) increased in a time-dependent manner after treatment with Cd in the brain and liver. The increase may result from the disturbance of genes including copper and zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and ciclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) at mRNA, protein and activity levels. Although ROS, NO and MDA were not significantly affected by Cd in the ovary, the up-regulation of Cu/Zn-SOD, CAT, iNOS, and COX-2 was observed. Exposure to Cd induced a sharp increase in the protein levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the brain, liver and ovary, possibly contributing to activate inflammatory responses. Furthermore, we also found a dramatic increase in mRNA levels of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) at 24h in the liver and ovary. The corresponding changes in the mRNA levels of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1a and Keap1b) and the inhibitor of κBα (IκBαa and IκBαb) may contribute to regulate the transcriptional activity of Nrf2 and NF-κB, respectively. Contrarily, mRNA levels of Nrf2, NF-κB, Keap1, Keap1b, IκBαa and IκBαb remained stable at 24 and 96h in the brain. Taken together, we demonstrated Cd-induced oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in fish, possibly through transcriptional regulation of Nrf2 and NF-κB and gene modifications at transcriptional, translational, post-translational levels, which would greatly extend our understanding on the Cd

  13. Acute exposure to waterborne cadmium induced oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in the brain, ovary and liver of zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Jia-Lang; Yuan, Shuang-Shuang; Wu, Chang-Wen; Lv, Zhen-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Cd induced oxidative stress and immunotoxicity by the generation of ROS. • The toxic effects depended on exposure time and different tissues. • Nrf2 and NF-κB mediated antioxidant and inflammatory responses. • Gene changed at transcriptional, translational, post-translational levels. - Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental contaminant that poses serious risks to aquatic organisms and their associated ecosystem. The mechanisms underlying Cd-induced oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in fish remain largely unknown. In this study, adult female zebrafish were exposed to 0 (control), 1 mg L −1 Cd for 24 h and 96 h, and the oxidative stress and inflammatory responses induced by Cd were evaluated in the brain, liver and ovary. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA) increased in a time-dependent manner after treatment with Cd in the brain and liver. The increase may result from the disturbance of genes including copper and zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and ciclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) at mRNA, protein and activity levels. Although ROS, NO and MDA were not significantly affected by Cd in the ovary, the up-regulation of Cu/Zn-SOD, CAT, iNOS, and COX-2 was observed. Exposure to Cd induced a sharp increase in the protein levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the brain, liver and ovary, possibly contributing to activate inflammatory responses. Furthermore, we also found a dramatic increase in mRNA levels of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) at 24 h in the liver and ovary. The corresponding changes in the mRNA levels of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1a and Keap1b) and the inhibitor of κBα (IκBαa and IκBαb) may contribute to regulate the transcriptional activity of Nrf2 and NF-κB, respectively. Contrarily, mRNA levels of Nrf2, NF-κB, Keap1, Keap1b, IκBαa and IκBαb remained

  14. Solvent extraction studies on cadmium Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alian, A.; El-Kot, A.; Badran, A.; El-Bassiouny, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    An extraction study was performed on tracer concentrations of cadmium halides in absence and presence of sulphuric acid. Inert solvents, nitrobenzene, a long chain amine (Amberlite LA-2) and organophosphorus solvents (TBP and HDEHP) have been investigated. The comparative stability of cadmium chloride and bromide TBP solvates were determined. The presence of sulphuric acid was found to enhance considerably the extraction of cadmium halides by nitrobenzene, Amberlite LA-2 and TBP. The mechanism of extraction has been discussed in light of the obtained results. The systems studied involved halide ions (Cl, Br and I), sulphuric and phosphoric acids. In these systems extraction was negligible for all nonpolar solvents, considerable for nitrobenzene and very high for Amberlite LA-2 and TBP. Work has been carried out for both micro and macro scales in case of sulphuric acid system, and only for the microscale in case of phosphoric acid system, because of the limited solubility of cadmium phosphate in aqueous solutions. (T.G.)

  15. Acute pulmonary toxicity and inflammation induced by combined exposure to didecyldimethylammonium chloride and ethylene glycol in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Do Young; Kim, Hyun-Mi; Kim, Eunji; Lim, Yeon-Mi; Kim, Pilje; Choi, Kyunghee; Kwon, Jung-Taek

    2016-02-01

    Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC), an antimicrobial agent, has been reported to induce pulmonary toxicity in animal studies. DDAC is frequently used in spray-form household products in combination with ethylene glycol (EG). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the toxic interaction between DDAC and EG in the lung. DDAC at a sub-toxic dose (100 μg/kg body weight) was mixed with a non-toxic dose of EG (100 or 200 μg/kg body weight), and was administrated to rats via intratracheal instillation. Lactate dehydrogenase activity and total protein content in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were not changed by singly treated DDAC or EG, but significantly enhanced at 1 d after treatment with the mixture, with the effect dependent on the dose of EG. Total cell count in BALF was largely increased and polymorphonuclear leukocytes were predominantly recruited to the lung in rats administrated with the mixture. Inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 also appeared to be increased by the mixture of DDAC and EG (200 μg/kg body weight) at 1 d post-exposure, which might be associated with the increase in inflammatory cells in lung. BALF protein content and inflammatory cell recruitment in the lung still remained elevated at 7 d after the administration of DDAC with the higher dose of EG. These results suggest that the combination of DDAC and EG can synergistically induce pulmonary cytotoxicity and inflammation, and EG appears to amplify the harmful effects of DDAC on the lung. Therefore pulmonary exposure to these two chemicals commonly found in commercial products can be a potential hazard to human health.

  16. Toxic effects of Cadmium on the garden snail (Helix aspersa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, L.K. (Northrop Services Inc., Corvallis, OR); DeHaven, J.I.; Botts, R.P.

    1981-05-01

    Spreading treated municipal wastes on agricultural and forest lands is becoming an established method of disposal. However, there is concern about the deleterious effects of toxicants, particularly cadmium, in the sludges. Cadmium concentrations in sewage sludge have been reported as high as 1500 ppM. The work reported here is a part of a larger project to investigate the ecological effects of municipal wastes on forest lands. Snails, Helix aspersa, were chosen to examine the entrance of cadmium into terrestrial food chains. This experiment was designed to determine cadmium accumulation, acute toxicity, and behavioral, reproductive and growth responses with increasing levels of cadmium.

  17. Effect of age on acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, nickel, and zinc in individual-metal exposures to Daphnia magna neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traudt, Elizabeth M; Ranville, James F; Meyer, Joseph S

    2017-01-01

    In previous studies, variability was high among replicate acute cadmium (Cd) Daphnia magna lethality tests (e.g., >10-fold range of median effect concentrations [EC50s]), less among zinc (Zn) tests, and relatively low for copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) tests. Although the US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) protocol includes starting toxicity tests with neonates less than 24 h old, the authors hypothesized that age-related differences in sensitivity to metals might occur even within that relatively narrow age range. Daphnia magna neonates were collected during 3 age windows (0-4 h, 10-14 h, and 20-24 h old) and immediately exposed to each of the 4 metals for 48 h using the standard USEPA protocol. In repeated sets of tests during different weeks, the Cd EC50 of the youngest neonates was approximately 10-fold greater than the EC50 of the oldest neonates (i.e., Cd was less toxic to the youngest neonates) and the EC50 of neonates aged 10 h to 14 h was intermediate. Age-related differences were negligible in Cu, Ni, and Zn tests. Therefore, variability in toxicity of Cd may partly be caused by temporal variability in neonate age at the start of toxicity tests. Decreasing the age range of D. magna used in toxicity tests could help to improve the accuracy and precision of toxicity models, particularly for metal mixtures. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:113-119. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  18. Determination of cadmium oxide in and on the surface of high purity cadmium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiba, Toshiyasu; Matsumoto, Ken; Shimizu, Genji

    1975-01-01

    In a 100 ml separating funnel were added 50 ml of 1 M ammonium chloride-aqueous ammonia buffer solution(pH 10) and 2.5 ml mercury; after passing nitrogen gas sufficiently to remove oxygen from the vessel and also from the aqueous solution, several pieces of cadmium metal of high purity were put into the vessel. The content was shaken vigorously; the metal went into mercury forming cadmium-amalgam, while the cadmium oxide dissolved itself in the aqueous solution to form cadmium tetrammine complex cations. After Removal of mercury from the funnel, the solution was submitted to the determination of cadmium dissolved in it by means of the atomic absorption spectrophotometry of the EDTA titration. By the above procedure a minute amount of cadmium oxide could be determined precisely with high reproducibility. The critical experiments were also done to clarify the behaviors of cadmium metal and cadmium oxide in this separation process for the purpose of establishing a suitable procedure. (auth.)

  19. The Effects of Cadmium at Low Environmental Concentrations on THP-1 Macrophage Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszowski, Tomasz; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Gutowska, Izabela; Piotrowska, Katarzyna; Mierzejewska, Katarzyna; Korbecki, Jan; Kurzawski, Mateusz; Tarnowski, Maciej; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium at environmental concentrations is a risk factor for many diseases, including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, in which macrophages play an important role. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cadmium at low environmental (nanomolar) concentrations on apoptotic processes in THP-1(acute monocytic leukemia cells line)-derived macrophages, with special focus on mitochondrial events involved. Macrophages were incubated with various cadmium chloride (CdCl2) solutions for 48 h at final concentrations of 5 nM, 20 nM, 200 nM and 2 µM CdCl2. Cell viability was measured using flow cytometry. Flow cytometric measurement (annexin V/FITC (annexin V/fluorescein isothiocyanate) and PI (propidium iodide) double staining) was used to quantify the extent of apoptosis. Fluorescence and confocal microscopy were used for imaging of apoptosis process. Changes in mitochondrial membrane potential were monitored using cytofluorimetry after cell staining with JC-1(5,5′,6,6′-tetrachloro-1,1′,3,3′-tetraethylbenzimidazol-carbocyane iodide) probe. Mitochondrial ROS (reactive oxygen species) levels were measured cytofluorimetrically after incubation of cells with mitochondrial superoxide indicator (MitoSOX) red fluorescent marker. The mRNA expression of Bcl-2 and Bax was analysed with qRT-PCR. Our study demonstrates that cadmium, even at low environmental concentrations, exerts mitochondrial toxicity in THP-1 macrophages. Forty-eight-hour exposure to very low concentrations reduces cell viability and results in cell death by apoptosis and necrosis. The decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, increased ROS production, increased Bax and decreased Bcl-2 mRNA expression are mitochondrial events involved in cadmium-induced apoptosis. PMID:26370970

  20. Effect of magnesium chloride on psychomotor activity, emotional status, and acute behavioural responses to clonidine, d-amphetamine, arecoline, nicotine, apomorphine, and L-5-hydroxytryptophan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iezhitsa, Igor N; Spasov, Alexander A; Kharitonova, Maria V; Kravchenko, Maria S

    2011-01-01

    The beneficial effects of magnesium (Mg) salts on central manifestations of Mg deficiency are well known. Mg replacement therapy can be effective to prevent some of the serious depression-like and anxiety-related behaviour sequelae of Mg deficiency. However, few experimental studies have been undertaken on Mg-deficiency-induced behavioural changes. Even fewer studies have been carried out on acute behavioural responses to clonidine, D-amphetamine, arecoline, nicotine, apomorphine, and L-5-hydroxytryptophan (HTP), which might characterize possible neuromediator changes in Mg deficiency. The effects of correcting Mg deficiency by magnesium chloride (MgCl₂ · 6H₂O) and the combination of this salt with vitamin B₆, on the behavioural manifestations of Mg deficiency have never been described as well. The aims of this study were: to estimate effect of MgCl₂ · 6H₂O alone and in combination with vitamin B6 on acute behavioural responses to agonists or blockers of the main neurotransmitter systems in CNS, psychomotor activity and emotional status of rats fed with Mg-deficient diet for 49 days. In our study open field test has shown that in Mg-deficient rats locomotor activity and vertical activity, number of visiting and residence time in central squares were decreased significantly. In the elevated plus maze test, the number of visiting open arms and residence time of rats were significantly less as compared with the control group. In the forced swimming test, time immobile was significantly increased by 44.29% and time of swimming was decreased by 52.79% compared to control. In our study Mg-deficient rats were more sensitive to d-amphetamine-induced motor stereotypes. Mg deficiency antagonized 5-hydroxytryptophan-induced head-twitch response and arecoline-induced tremor. Supplement of MgCl₂ · 6H₂O with vitamin B₆ administered to a Mg-deficient rat increased the Mg level in plasma and erythrocytes. Furthermore, this increase was in relation to vitamin B

  1. Cadmium and the kidney.

    OpenAIRE

    Friberg, L

    1984-01-01

    The paper is a review of certain aspects of importance of cadmium and the kidney regarding the assessment of risks and understanding of mechanisms of action. The review discusses the following topics: history and etiology of cadmium-induced kidney dysfunction and related disorders; cadmium metabolism, metallothionein and kidney dysfunction; cadmium in urine as indicator of body burden, exposure and kidney dysfunction; cadmium levels in kidney and liver as indicators of kidney dysfunction; cha...

  2. Effects of cadmium ion on the structure and function of rat hepatocyte

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of cadmium ion on the structure and function of rat liver hepatocyte after oral (88mg/kg) and intramuscular (25mg/kg) administration of cadmium chloride for 14days was investigated by evaluating some liver marker enzymes, bilirubin and histopathological analysis. The result showed that both oral and ...

  3. Acute toxicity of copper, lead, cadmium, and zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in laboratory and Columbia River water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardy, David W; Santore, Robert; Ryan, Adam; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Populations of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are in decline in North America. This is attributed, primarily, to poor recruitment, and white sturgeon are listed as threatened or endangered in several parts of British Columbia, Canada, and the United States. In the Columbia River, effects of metals have been hypothesized as possible contributing factors. Previous work has demonstrated that early life stage white sturgeon are particularly sensitive to certain metals, and concerns over the level of protectiveness of water quality standards are justified. Here we report results from acute (96-h) toxicity tests for copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), and lead (Pb) from parallel studies that were conducted in laboratory water and in the field with Columbia River water. Water effect ratios (WERs) and sensitivity parameters (i.e., median lethal accumulations, or LA50s) were calculated to assess relative bioavailability of these metals in Columbia River water compared to laboratory water, and to elucidate possible differences in sensitivity of early life stage white sturgeon to the same concentrations of metals when tested in the different water sources. For Cu and Pb, white sturgeon toxicity tests were initiated at two life stages, 8 and 40 days post-hatch (dph), and median lethal concentrations (LC50s) ranged between 9-25 μg Cu/L and 177-1,556 μg Pb/L. LC50s for 8 dph white sturgeon exposed to Cd in laboratory water and river water were 14.5 and 72 μg/L, respectively. Exposure of 8 dph white sturgeon to Zn in laboratory and river water resulted in LC50s of 150 and 625 μg/L, respectively. Threshold concentrations were consistently less in laboratory water compared with river water, and as a result, WERs were greater than 1 in all cases. In addition, LA50s were consistently greater in river water exposures compared with laboratory exposures in all paired tests. These results, in combination with results from the biotic ligand model, suggest that the observed

  4. The inhibition effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin-induced aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation in human hepatoma cells with the treatment of cadmium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, How-Ran [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Neipu, Pingtung 912, Taiwan (China); Emerging Compounds Research Center, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Neipu, Pingtung 912, Taiwan (China); Tsou, Tsui-Chun [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli 350, Taiwan (China); Chen, Hung-Ta [Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Chang, Eddy Essen; Tsai, Feng-Yuan [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli 350, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ding-Yan [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Neipu, Pingtung 912, Taiwan (China); Chen, Fu-An [Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Department of Pharmacy, Tajen University, Yan-Pu, Pingtung 907, Taiwan (China); Wang, Ya-Fen, E-mail: yfwang@cycu.edu.tw [Department of Bioenvironmental Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chungli, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China); R and D Center of Membrane Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chungli 320, Taiwan (China)

    2009-10-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), considered as endocrine disruptors, tend to accumulate in fatty tissues. Dioxin-responsive element chemical activated luciferase gene expression assay (DRE-luciferase assay) has been recognized as a semi-quantitative method for screening dioxins for its fast and low-cost as compared with HRGC/HRMS. However, some problems with the bioassay, including specificity, detection variation resulted from different cleanup strategies, and uncertainty of false-negative or false-positive results, remain to be overcome. Cadmium is a prevalent environmental contaminant around the world. This study was aimed to examine the effects of cadmium on the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated gene expression in human hepatoma cells (Huh7-DRE-Luc cells and Huh7 cells). Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and DRE-luciferase assay were employed to determine the enzyme activity of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and activation of AhR, respectively. The results showed that Cd{sup 2+} levels significantly inhibited the induction of TCDD-induced CYP1A1 and DRE luciferase activation in hepatoma cells. The 50% inhibited concentrations (IC{sub 50}) of CdCl{sub 2} were 0.414 {mu}M (95% confidence interval (C.I.): 0.230-0.602 {mu}M) in Huh7-DRE-Luc cells and 23.2 {mu}M (95% C.I.: 21.7-25.4 {mu}M) in Huh7 cells. Accordingly, prevention of interference with non-dioxin-like compounds in a DRE-luciferase assay is of great importance in an extensive cleanup procedure.

  5. Assessment and management of risk to wildlife from cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium, a nonessential heavy metal that comes from natural and anthropogenic sources, is a teratogen, carcinogen, and a possible mutagen. Assessment of potential risk from cadmium requires understanding environmental exposure, mainly from ingestion, although there is some local exposure through inhalation. Chronic exposure is more problematic than acute exposure for wildlife. There is evidence for bioaccumulation, particularly in freshwater organisms, but evidence for biomagnification up the food chain is inconsistent; in some bird studies, cadmium levels were higher in species that are higher on the food chain than those that are lower. Some freshwater and marine invertebrates are more adversely affected by cadmium exposure than are birds and mammals. There is very little experimental laboratory research on the effects of cadmium in amphibians, birds and reptiles, and almost no data from studies of wildlife in nature. Managing the risk from cadmium to wildlife involves assessment (including ecological risk assessment), biomonitoring, setting benchmarks of effects, regulations and enforcement, and source reduction

  6. Correlative characteristic of cadmium in soils of steppe Dnieper region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Tsvetkova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Much attention is paid to searching for methods of establishing environmental standards for objective assessment of admissibility of anthropogenic load on the biosphere. The main pollutants of the environment are xenobiotics; heavy metals such as cadmium occupy hold a special place among them. Cadmium is one of the most dangerous environmental toxic agents, belonging to the 1stclass of hazard. Due to insufficient and fragmented information available on the distribution of cadmium in the city edaphotopes, it’s necessary to conduct additional research, taking into account the properties of soils and the biological characteristics of every element. The paper shows the ratio of cadmium in soils and soil-forming rocks of steppe Dnieper region. Environmental assessment of cadmium content in Dniprodzerzhinsk city soilsis made, and the problem of topsoil contamination of the city as a territory of high anthropogenic load is considered. It is found that the content of cadmium down the profile in natural soil increases. Enrichment of the topsoil with cadmium occurs due to contamination. The value of movable forms content, expressed as a percentage of the total content, varies from 12% to 70%, providing the evidence of the technogenic origin of cadmium in Dniprodzerzhinsk city topsoil. General and proximate correlation analyses of interrelation of soil cadmium and specifically selected characteristics of soil (pH, humus, sulfate ions, dry solid, chloride ions, total alkalinity, hygroscopic moisture were made. It is established that cadmium concentration in the movable forms of natural soils of the steppe Dnieper region depends primarily on pH value. With the increase in pH value, concentration of movable cadmium in soil increases.

  7. ( Rattus norvegicus ) Fed with Dietary Cadmium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological changes in the kidney tissues of albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) fed 100mg/kg body weight of cadmium sulphate incorporated as food material has been studied in vivo in an acute toxicological experiment. The behavioural pattern and physical changes in the rats were also investigated. Loss of weight and ...

  8. Calcium enhances cadmium tolerance and decreases cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We aimed at characterizing mechanisms controlling cadmium accumulation in lettuce, which is a food crop showing one of the highest capacities to accumulate this toxic compound. In this study, plants from three lettuce varieties were grown for eight days on media supplemented or not with cadmium (15 μM CdCl2) and ...

  9. Lead and Cadmium in Vinyl Children's Products. A Greenpeace Expose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gangi, Joseph

    Polyvinyl chloride (vinyl or PVC) is a substance widely used in children's products. Because children in contact with these products may ingest substantial quantities of potentially harmful chemicals during normal play, especially when they chew on the product, this Greenpeace study examined the levels of lead and cadmium in a variety of consumer…

  10. Chloride Blood Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/chloridebloodtest.html Chloride Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Chloride Blood Test? A chloride blood test measures the amount of ...

  11. TOXIC EFFECTS OF CADMIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Vukićević

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is one of the heavy metals, it is often used in industry, and exerts toxic effects on human health. Cadmium is classified as a carcinogenic substance for humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and is in a group I carcinogen. Cadmium affects the development of cell cycle, proliferation, differentiation, DNA repair, replication and apoptosis, as well as promotion of cancer in tissues. Intoxication with cadmium in people usually occurs by inhalation of cigarette smoke, but it is also possible via water, food and air. Cadmium exerts toxic effects on the kidneys, liver, lungs, cardiovascular system, immune system and reproductive system. Metallothionein protects tissues from the toxicity of cadmium. Cadmium-metallothionein complex is distributed in various tissues. There is no way for natural cadmium elimination from the human body. The main route of cadmium in the body is through binding with metallothionein, low molecular weight protein that participates in the homeostasis of certain metals. Cadmium-metallothionein complex is distributed in various tissues. The role of metallothionein in detoxification of cadmium is primarily in the large binding affinity of metals for metallothionein.

  12. Effects of Different Dietary Cadmium Levels on Growth and Tissue Cadmium Content in Juvenile Parrotfish,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okorie E. Okorie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of different dietary cadmium levels on growth and tissue cadmium content in juvenile parrotfish, Oplegnathus fasciatus, using cadmium chloride (CdCl2 as the cadmium source. Fifteen fish averaging 5.5±0.06 g (mean±SD were randomly distributed into each of twenty one rectangular fiber tanks of 30 L capacity. Each tank was then randomly assigned to one of three replicates of seven diets containing 0.30 (C0, 21.0 (C21, 40.7 (C41, 83.5 (C83, 162 (C162, 1,387 (C1,387 and 2,743 (C2,743 mg cadmium/kg diet. At the end of sixteen weeks of feeding trial, weight gain (WG, specific growth rate (SGR and feed efficiency (FE of fish fed C21 were significantly higher than those of fish fed C83, C162, C1,387 and C2,743 (p<0.05. Weight gain, SGR and FE of fish fed C0, C21 and C41 were significantly higher than those of fish fed C162, C1,387 and C2,743. Protein efficiency ratio of fish fed C0, C21 and C41 were significantly higher than those of fish fed C1,387 and C2,743. Average survival of fish fed C0, C21, C41 and C162 were significantly higher than that of fish fed C2,743. Tissue cadmium concentrations increased with cadmium content of diets. Cadmium accumulated the most in liver, followed by gill and then muscle. Muscle, gill and liver cadmium concentrations of fish fed C0, C21, C41 and C83 were significantly lower than those of fish fed C162, C1,387 and C2,743. Based on the ANOVA results of growth performance and tissue cadmium concentrations the safe dietary cadmium level could be lower than 40.7 mg Cd/kg diet while the toxic level could be higher than 162 mg Cd/kg diet.

  13. Cadmium induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, S B; Das, N; Rama, R; Peshin, S S; Khattar, S; Gulati, K; Seth, S D

    1997-02-01

    Onset of hypertension and nephropathy after 1,2, and 4 weeks of exposure to cadmium chloride (1 mg/kg, ip) was studied in rats by measuring changes in blood pressure and renal function (urinary output, electrolytes, serum creatinine, inulin clearance and Na+K+ ATPase). Significant decrease in body weight and rise in blood pressure were observed as early as one week of exposure while microalbuminuria was detected in 50% of the animals after 2 weeks. Na+K+ ATPase, a renal tubular enzyme, was depressed after 1 week with maximum lowering occurring after 4 weeks. There were no detectable changes in fluid intake, urine output, electrolytes, inulin clearance and serum creatinine even after 4 weeks. It is concluded that hypertension and tubular lesion set in earlier than glomerulopathy as indicated by microalbuminuria and the latter could be the consequence of rise in blood pressure.

  14. Acute toxicity of copper and cadmium for piauçu, Leporinus macrocephalus, and curimatã, Prochilodus vimboides - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i3.5069 Acute toxicity of copper and cadmium for piauçu, Leporinus macrocephalus, and curimatã, Prochilodus vimboides - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i3.5069

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Loureiro Fernandes

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ninety-six-hour static bioassays were conducted in the laboratory to determine lethal concentrations (96-h LC50 of copper and cadmium for curimatã (Prochilodus vimboides and piauçu (Leporinus macrocephalus. The 96-h LC50 of copper were 0.047 and 0.090 mg L-1, and of cadmium 3.16 and 7.42 mg L-1 for curimatã and piauçu, respectively. Curimatã is a preferred indigenous species for toxicological studies in the Doce River basin due to its availability in the hatcheries of the region and high sensitivity to metals.Ninety-six-hour static bioassays were conducted in the laboratory to determine lethal concentrations (96-h LC50 of copper and cadmium for curimatã (Prochilodus vimboides and piauçu (Leporinus macrocephalus. The 96-h LC50 of copper were 0.047 and 0.090 mg L-1, and of cadmium 3.16 and 7.42 mg L-1 for curimatã and piauçu, respectively. Curimatã is a preferred indigenous species for toxicological studies in the Doce River basin due to its availability in the hatcheries of the region and high sensitivity to metals.

  15. Protective effect of cannabidiol against cadmium hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Amr A; Al-Mulhim, Abdulruhman S; Gomaa, Wafaey

    2013-10-01

    The protective effect of cannabidiol, the non-psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa, against liver toxicity induced by a single dose of cadmium chloride (6.5 mgkg(-1) i.p.) was investigated in rats. Cannabidiol treatment (5 mgkg(-1)/day, i.p.) was applied for five days starting three days before cadmium administration. Cannabidiol significantly reduced serum alanine aminotransferase, and suppressed hepatic lipid peroxidation, prevented the depletion of reduced glutathione and nitric oxide, and catalase activity, and attenuated the elevation of cadmium level in the liver tissue resulted from cadmium administration. Histopathological examination showed that cadmium-induced liver tissue injury was ameliorated by cannabidiol treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that cannabidiol significantly decreased the cadmium-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2, nuclear factor-κB, caspase-3, and caspase-9, and increased the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in liver tissue. It was concluded that cannabidiol may represent a potential option to protect the liver tissue from the detrimental effects of cadmium toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparative study of the effect of acute and chronic mercuric chloride treatment on the activities of a few digestive enzymes of a Teleost fish, Channa punctatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastry, K.V.; Gupta, P.K.; Malik, P.V.

    1979-05-01

    In this study a comparison of the effect of exposure of Channa punctatus to LC(50) (1.8 mg/L) and a sublethal concentration (0.30 mg/L) of mercuric chloride on the activities of maltase, lactase leucyl-L-glycine dipeptidase and lipase has been made. After 96 hr of treatment, a slight elevation in maltase activity was recorded in all the portions of the digestive system. Lipase and leucyl-L-glycine dipeptidase showed inhibition in activity. Chronic treatment for 20 days revealed a significant inhibition in the activities of all the four enzymes.

  17. SR-FTIR imaging of the altered cadmium sulfide yellow paints in Henri Matisse's Le Bonheur de vivre (1905-6)--examination of visually distinct degradation regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass, Jennifer; Sedlmair, Julia; Patterson, Catherine Schmidt; Carson, David; Buckley, Barbara; Hirschmugl, Carol

    2013-10-21

    SR-FTIR imaging has been used to map the mid-IR active photo-degradation phases in two thin sections of cadmium yellow paint removed from Henri Matisse's Le Bonheur de vivre (1905-1906, The Barnes Foundation). These samples represent both the darkened cadmium yellow foliage in the upper left of the work and the lightened cadmium yellow field beneath the central reclining figures. The altered cadmium yellow paints from both regions were found to contain cadmium carbonate (CdCO3), cadmium sulphate (CdSO4), and cadmium oxalate (CdC2O4). Each of these phases was imaged to determine their positions as a function of depth, with the aim of better understanding the role of each phase in the degradation mechanism. This speciation mapping is critical because cadmium oxalate was used in this period as an additive in cadmium yellow light. In addition, cadmium carbonate and cadmium sulphate were synthesis starting materials for cadmium yellow, and so their distribution throughout the paint layer can provide an indication of their roles. It was established that cadmium oxalate is localized at the surface of the paint layer, cadmium carbonate is found deeper in the layer but still enriched at the surface, and cadmium sulphate is distributed throughout the layer. This distribution, along with the chloride content of the paint suggesting a cadmium chloride starting material, is consistent with an alteration mechanism in which the cadmium sulphide is oxidized to sulphate and this is then converted to carbonate and oxalate. The relative solubilities of the three photo-degradation products are also relevant to their locations in the paint film.

  18. Chloride regulates afferent arteriolar contraction in response to depolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Jensen, B L; Skott, O

    1998-01-01

    afferent arterioles. In 70% of vessels examined, K+-induced contraction was abolished by acute substitution of bath chloride. Consecutive addition of Cl- (30, 60, 80, 100, 110, and 117 mmol/L) restored the sensitivity to K+, and half-maximal response was observed at 82 mmol/L chloride. The calcium channel...... antagonist diltiazem (10(-6) mol/L) abolished K+-induced contractions. Bicarbonate did not modify the sensitivity to chloride. Norepinephrine (10(-6) mol/L) induced full contraction in depolarized vessels even in the absence of chloride. Iodide and nitrate were substituted for chloride with no inhibitory...

  19. Zinc and cadmium monosalicylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharitonov, Yu.Ya.; Tujebakhova, Z.K.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc and cadmium monosalicylates of the composition MSal, where M-Zn or Cd, Sal - twice deprotonated residue of salicylic acid O-HOC 6 H 4 COOH (H 2 Sal), are singled out and characterized. When studying thermograms, thermogravigrams, IR absorption spectra, roentgenograms of cadmium salicylate compounds (Cd(OC 6 H 4 COO) and products of their thepmal transformations, the processes of thermal decomposition of the compounds have been characterized. The process of cadmium monosalicylate decomposition takes place in one stage. Complete loss of salicylate acido group occurs in the range of 320-460 deg. At this decomposition stage cadmium oxide is formed. A supposition is made that cadmium complex has tetrahedral configuration, at that, each salicylate group plays the role of tetradentate-bridge ligand. The compound evidently has a polymer structure

  20. Cadmium preparation by reduction of zinc-cadmium carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinowski, Cz.; Malecki, S.; Malchar, B.; Orlicz, J.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents the investigation results regarding a possibility of selective reduction process of cadmium and zinc carbonates in order to obtain high purity cadmium metallic or cadmium oxide. The reduction tests performed in CO stream and with coke indicated a possibility of a selective course of this process. The results obtained allowed to determine more precisely the temperature conditions of the reduction process so as to attain cadmium or cadmium oxide of purities required. (author)

  1. Effect of zinc, cadmium and mercury salts on the growth of Lactic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savel, J.; Prokopova, M.

    1974-01-01

    This paper discusses the effects of zinc, cadmium, and mercury salts on the growth of lactic bacteria. The organisms used in the study were Pediococcus and Lactobacillus. Both organisms were equally sensitive to mercury. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of Cadmium chloride were 200-1400 mg/l for the Lactobacillus and 1.6-200 mg/l for Pediococcus. The inhibitory effects of zinc salts were similar but occurred at much higher concentrations. 5 tables.

  2. Preparation of cadmium-doped ZnO thin films by SILAR and their ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pH measurement was carried out in a systronics pH meter. (Model 335). Cadmium doping was carried out by adding cadmium chloride (CdCl2·H2O, GR grade, Loba Chemie, mol. wt 201·32) in sodium zincate bath. Details of pure ZnO film deposition process from sodium or ammonium zincate bath has been reported earlier.

  3. Effect of cadmium on CNS function and development in rat offspring: effect of vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Jasem

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The work was designed to study the effect of vitamin E ( 500 mg /kg diet on the central nervous system function and landmarks development in offspring of rats whoser mothers treated with cadmium (50mg/L of drinking water during lactation. Cadmium chloride caused a significant increase in righting reflex , olfactory discrimination tests in pups (aged one week and in the onset of movement test in weaned pups. The results indicated a significant reduction in motor activity in the open field, cliff avoidance, click response and weight in weaned pups. Cadmium chloride caused a significant increased in negative geotaxic in weaned pups. Cadmium chloride did not affect significantly on landmarks development ( opening of eyes and ears , appearance of teeth and hair with the exception of a significant increase in descending time of testis and a significant decrease in appearance time of vaginal opening . Administration of vitamin E caused a significant increase in motor activity in the open field. and significant reduction in the onset of movement test, negative geotaxic and weight of weaned pups and in descending time of testis . It is concluded from this study that vitamin E caused positive effects on central nervous system and some landmarks development in pups whose their mothers treated with cadmium chloride.

  4. Calcium enhances cadmium tolerance and decreases cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-26

    Apr 26, 2012 ... concentrations alleviated the toxic effect of cadmium on the growth and water status of lettuce plants. The three lettuce varieties ... electroplating, in batteries, in electrical conductors, in the manufacture of alloys ..... Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals, Third edition, Salt Lake City, UT: Acad. Press. Österås ...

  5. Cadmium and mercury effects on cellular immunity in terrestrial arthropods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, J.E.; Klaine, S.J. [Inst. of Wildlife and Environmental Toxicology, Pendleton, SC (United States). Dept. of Environmental Toxicology

    1995-12-31

    The field cricket, Acheta domesticus, was used as a test organism to determine the effects of heavy metal exposure on cellular immunity. Insects were separated by sex and exposed to cadmium chloride or mercuric chloride at concentrations of 0, 2.5, and 5.0 ug/g. Exposures consisted of injecting the chemicals into the hemocoel of each insect on days 0, 2, and 4. Hemolymph was collected on day 7 of the study to determine total hemocyte counts, protein levels, and phenoloxidase activity in individual insects. Cadmium chloride decreased the total number of hemocytes in male crickets at 2.5 and 5.0 ug/g and in female crickets at 5.0 ug/g. Protein levels increased in a dose dependent manner in the males but only slightly increased in the females. Mercuric chloride caused a dose-dependent increase in total hemocytes in both male and female crickets. In addition, mercuric chloride caused a dose-dependent increase in protein levels in males but not females.

  6. 28-Homobrassinolide protects chickpea (Cicer arietinum) from cadmium toxicity by stimulating antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, S.A.; Hayat, S.; Ali, B.; Ahmad, A.

    2008-01-01

    In the present experiment the seeds of Cicer arietinum (L.) cv. Uday were inoculated with specific Rhizobium grown in sandy loam soil and were allowed to grow for 15 days. At this stage, the seedlings were supplied with 0, 50, 100 or 150 μM of cadmium in the form of cadmium chloride and sprayed with 0.01 μM of 28-homobrassinolide (HBL) at 30-day stage. The data indicated that plant fresh and dry mass, number of nodules, their fresh and dry mass, leghemoglobin content, nitrogen and carbohydrate content in the nodules, leaf chlorophyll content, nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase activities decreased proportionately with the increasing concentrations of cadmium but the content of proline and the activities of catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase increased. The ill effect, generated by cadmium, was overcome if the stressed plants were sprayed with HBL. - The cadmium toxicity can be overcome by the foliar application of 28-homobrassinolide

  7. 28-Homobrassinolide protects chickpea (Cicer arietinum) from cadmium toxicity by stimulating antioxidants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, S.A. [Plant Physiology Section, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, U.P. (India); Hayat, S. [Plant Physiology Section, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, U.P. (India)], E-mail: shayat@lycos.com; Ali, B.; Ahmad, A. [Plant Physiology Section, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, U.P. (India)

    2008-01-15

    In the present experiment the seeds of Cicer arietinum (L.) cv. Uday were inoculated with specific Rhizobium grown in sandy loam soil and were allowed to grow for 15 days. At this stage, the seedlings were supplied with 0, 50, 100 or 150 {mu}M of cadmium in the form of cadmium chloride and sprayed with 0.01 {mu}M of 28-homobrassinolide (HBL) at 30-day stage. The data indicated that plant fresh and dry mass, number of nodules, their fresh and dry mass, leghemoglobin content, nitrogen and carbohydrate content in the nodules, leaf chlorophyll content, nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase activities decreased proportionately with the increasing concentrations of cadmium but the content of proline and the activities of catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase increased. The ill effect, generated by cadmium, was overcome if the stressed plants were sprayed with HBL. - The cadmium toxicity can be overcome by the foliar application of 28-homobrassinolide.

  8. Interaction of cadmium(2) trifluoroacetate with activated aromatic compounds: a new reaction of direct metallation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boev, V.I.; Denisov, S.P.; Moskalenko, A.I.; Stamova, L.G.; Gulin, A.V.

    2000-01-01

    Interaction of cadmium trifluoroacetate with aniline, 4-bromo-aniline, indole and benzimidazole was studied to develop a simple method for synthesizing cadmium organic compounds by direct electrophilic metallation of aromatic compounds. It is shown that heating of the reagents in anhydrous ethanol for several hours or without a solvent at 100-120 deg C for 5-10 min with subsequent treatment of the reacting mass by sodium chloride involves formation of the relevant cadmium organic compounds. The substances prepared were characterized by the methods of element analysis, IR and 1 H NMR spectroscopy [ru

  9. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    for the food authorities in order to give correct advises to the population. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioavailability of cadmium from whole linseed, crushed linseed, cocoa and cadmium chloride in rats. An experiment where 40 rats were divided into 4 groups and a control group and dosed...... with whole linseed, crushed linseed, cocoa and CdCl2 for 3 weeks was performed. Linseed or cocoa made up 10% of the feed (by weight) and was added as a replacement for carbohydrate source. The rats were dosed for 3 weeks and the cadmium content in the rats' kidneys was measured by ICPMS as a biomarker...... be measured in the kidney compared to the calculated total intake was as follows: Control 2.0 %, Crushed linseed 0.9 %, whole linseed, 1.5 %, cocoa 0.7 % and CdCl2 4.6 %. Based on this study it could not be concluded that the bioavailability in rats form whole linseed is lower that for crushed linseed...

  10. Impact of acute cadmium exposure on the trunk lateral line neuromasts and consequences on the 'C-start' response behaviour of the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.; Teleostei, Moronidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faucher, Karine; Fichet, Denis; Miramand, Pierre; Lagardere, Jean Paul

    2006-01-01

    Behavioural responses of sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax were investigated after exposure to cadmium ions in laboratory-controlled conditions. The aim of this study was to discover whether environmental exposure to cadmium ions inactivates fish lateral line system neuromasts, and to determine the behavioural consequences of such a sensory blockage. For this, fish escape behaviour in response to an artificial water jet was recorded using a 25-frames s -1 analog video camera before and after cadmium exposure. Experimental set up was tested with fish whose lateral line system was artificially inactivated by antibiotics (gentamicin and streptomycin). Histological analyses with scanning electron microscopy showed antibiotic treatment destroyed lateral line system neuromasts. In addition, these fish did not respond to stimulations provoked by the water jet after antibiotic treatment. Fish escape behaviour was then recorded before and after cadmium exposure at two different concentrations. When fish were exposed to the first concentration of cadmium tested (0.5 μg l -1 , which represents the maximal cadmium concentration encountered in contaminated estuaries), no alteration in neuromast tissue was observed. In addition, before cadmium exposure, fish responded positively in 98.41 ± 4.95% of lateral line system stimulations (escape behaviour in response to the water jet). After cadmium exposure, no behavioural modification could be detected: the fish responded positively in 95.16 ± 9.79% of stimulations (χ 2 = 2.464, p = 0.116). In contrast, the high cadmium concentration used (5 μg l -1 , which represents 10 times the concentration occurring in highly polluted estuarine areas) involved severe neuromast tissue damage. Just after such cadmium exposure, fish showed only 41.67 ± 35.36% of positive responses to their lateral line system stimulations, while they responded positively in 95.93 ± 9.10% of stimulations under control conditions (χ 2 = 24.562, p 2 = 2.876, p = 0

  11. Chronic cadmium treatment promotes oxidative stress and endothelial damage in isolated rat aorta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila C P Almenara

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a highly toxic metal that is present in phosphate fertilizers, and the incidence of cadmium poisoning in the general population has increased, mainly due to cigarette smoking. Once absorbed, cadmium accumulates in the tissues, causing harmful effects including high blood pressure, endothelial damage and oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is known to efficiently produce oxidized low-density lipoprotein and consequently atherosclerosis, mainly in the aorta. However, the mechanisms through which endothelial damage is induced by cadmium have not been elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of this metal in the isolated aorta and the possible role of oxidative stress. Rats received 100 mg.L(-1 cadmium chloride (CdCl2 in the drinking water or distilled water alone for four weeks. The pressor effect of cadmium was followed throughout the exposure period by tail plethysmography. At the end of the fourth week, the blood cadmium content was established, and the vascular reactivity of the isolated aorta to phenylephrine, acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside was analyzed in the context of endothelium denudation and incubation with L-NAME, apocynin, losartan, enalapril, superoxide dismutase (SOD or catalase. We observed an increased response to phenylephrine in cadmium-treated rats. This increase was abolished by catalase and SOD incubation. Apocynin treatment reduced the phenylephrine response in both treatment groups, but its effect was greater in cadmium-treated rats, and NOX2 expression was greater in the cadmium group. These results suggested that cadmium in blood concentrations similar to those found in occupationally exposed populations is able to stimulate NOX2 expression, contributing to oxidative stress and reducing NO bioavailability, despite enhanced eNOS expression. These findings suggest that cadmium exposure promotes endothelial damage that might contribute to inflammation, vascular injury and the

  12. Chronic cadmium treatment promotes oxidative stress and endothelial damage in isolated rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almenara, Camila C P; Broseghini-Filho, Gilson B; Vescovi, Marcus V A; Angeli, Jhuli K; Faria, Thaís de O; Stefanon, Ivanita; Vassallo, Dalton V; Padilha, Alessandra S

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium is a highly toxic metal that is present in phosphate fertilizers, and the incidence of cadmium poisoning in the general population has increased, mainly due to cigarette smoking. Once absorbed, cadmium accumulates in the tissues, causing harmful effects including high blood pressure, endothelial damage and oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is known to efficiently produce oxidized low-density lipoprotein and consequently atherosclerosis, mainly in the aorta. However, the mechanisms through which endothelial damage is induced by cadmium have not been elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of this metal in the isolated aorta and the possible role of oxidative stress. Rats received 100 mg.L(-1) cadmium chloride (CdCl2) in the drinking water or distilled water alone for four weeks. The pressor effect of cadmium was followed throughout the exposure period by tail plethysmography. At the end of the fourth week, the blood cadmium content was established, and the vascular reactivity of the isolated aorta to phenylephrine, acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside was analyzed in the context of endothelium denudation and incubation with L-NAME, apocynin, losartan, enalapril, superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase. We observed an increased response to phenylephrine in cadmium-treated rats. This increase was abolished by catalase and SOD incubation. Apocynin treatment reduced the phenylephrine response in both treatment groups, but its effect was greater in cadmium-treated rats, and NOX2 expression was greater in the cadmium group. These results suggested that cadmium in blood concentrations similar to those found in occupationally exposed populations is able to stimulate NOX2 expression, contributing to oxidative stress and reducing NO bioavailability, despite enhanced eNOS expression. These findings suggest that cadmium exposure promotes endothelial damage that might contribute to inflammation, vascular injury and the development of

  13. Simultaneous determination of oxygen and cadmium in cadmium and cadmium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaeda, K.; Kuriki, T.; Ohsawa, K.; Ishii, Y.

    1977-01-01

    Cadmium and its compounds were analysed for oxygen and cadmium by a modification of the Schutze-Unterzaucher method. Oxygen in some compounds such as cadmium oxide, nitrate and sulphate could not be determined by the usual method. The method of adding carbon was employed for the determination of total oxygen. Total oxygen could be determined by the addition of 5 mg of carbon to a sample boat and heating at 950 0 . The determination was also carried out by addition of naphthalene (2 mg). It was found that the cadmium powder and cadmium flake used contained ca. 1 and 0.15% oxygen, respectively. Oxygen and cadmium in cadmium and its compounds were simultaneously determined by the addition of 2 mg of naphthalene. Cadmium was determined colorimetrically by use of glyoxal-bis-(2-hydroxyanil). Oxygen and cadmium in the samples could be determined simultaneously with an average error of -0.02 and -0.22%, respectively. (author)

  14. Adaptive responses and latent costs of multigeneration cadmium exposure in parasite resistant and susceptible strains of a freshwater snail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salice, Christopher J.; Anderson, Todd; Roesijadi, Guritno

    2010-11-01

    Population response to anthropogenic activities will be influenced by prior adaptation to environmental conditions. We tested how parasite-resistant and -susceptible strains of a freshwater snail responded to cadmium and elevated temperature challenges after having been exposed to low-level cadmium continuously for multiple generations. Snails exposed to cadmium for three generations were removed for the fourth generation, and challenged in the fifth generation with (1) chronic cadmium exposure over the entire life cycle, (2) acute cadmium exposure of adults, and (3) elevated temperature challenge of adults. The parasite susceptible NMRI strain is more cadmium tolerant than the parasite resistant BS90 strain and remained more tolerant than BS90 throughout this study. Additionally, NMRI exhibited greater adaptive capacity for cadmium than BS90 and became more tolerant of both chronic and acute cadmium challenges, while BS90 became more tolerant of acute cadmium challenge only. Fitness costs, reflected in population growth rate, were not apparent in fifth generation snails maintained in cadmium-free conditions. However, costs were latent and expressed as decreased tolerance to a secondarily imposed temperature stress. Adaptation to prior selection pressures can influence subsequent adaptation to anthropogenic stresses and may have associated costs that reduce fitness in novel environments.

  15. Radiochemical separation of cadmium-109

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egamediev, S.; Mukhtarov, A.; Nurbaeva, D.; Rakhmanov, A.

    2006-01-01

    chlorides with 6 M HCl from nitric acid solutions of Ag, Cu and Cd. Then the solution is filtered to remove silver. The filtrate is evaporated almost to dryness and the solid residue is dissolved in 2 M HCl. The solution obtained is passed through an anion-exchange column with DOWEX 1x8. Cadmium is retained on column at this concentration of HCl while Cu is completely eluted with 30 ml of 2 M HCl. Finally cadmium is eluted with 200 ml of 1 N HNO 3 , while the traces of silver remain on the column. Thus a pure solution of cadmium nitrate is obtained that can be evaporated to the desirable volume. Measuring the activity of the initial and obtained quantity of 109 Cd it is found that 80% of the total cadmium is recovered. Second method is based on the selective adsorption of silver on column containing 0.5 g of polyethenemonosulphide (PEMS or trade name TR-1) from nitric acid solutions of Ag, Cu, Zn and Cd. This sorbent has high adsorptive capacity to silver, its adsorptive capacity reaches to 1920 mg/g from 1.5 M nitric acid solutions. After adsorption of silver the solution obtained evaporated to dryness and the solid residue is dissolved in 0.5 M nitric acid containing 0.1 M hydrobromic acid. Then the solution obtained is percolated through the column, containing 5 ml of Dowex1x8 resin. The copper(II) and zinc are completely eluted with 70 ml of 0.5 M HNO 3 + 0.1 M HBr. The cadmium-109 is eluted with 50 ml of 3 M nitric acid. The obtained solution is evaporated to dryness and the dry residue is treated by evaporation with 2 ml of 12 M hydrochloric acid. After treatment the damp residue is dissolved in 0.1 M hydrochloric acid. The yield of cadmium-109 is higher than 90% and the radiochemical purity was more than 99.9%. These methods will be used for separation and purification of cadmium-109 to make of sealed sources for X-ray fluorescence analysis. The Science and Technologies Center at Cabinet of Ministers of Republic of Uzbekistan support this work (cont ract no.13

  16. Cadmium Transporters in the Kidney and Cadmium-Induced Nephrotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Shu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Among the organs in which the environmental pollutant cadmium causes toxicity, the kidney has gained the most attention in recent years. Numerous studies have sought to unravel the exact pathways by which cadmium enters the renal epithelial cells and the mechanisms by which it causes toxicity in the kidney. The purpose of this review is to present the progress made on the mechanisms of cadmium transport in the kidney and the role of transporter proteins in cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:25584611

  17. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents the state-of-the art: an analytical model which describes chloride profiles in concrete as function of depth...... makes physical sense for the design engineer, i.e. the achieved chloride diffusion coefficients at 1 year and 100 years, D1 and D100 respectively, and the corresponding achieved chloride concentrations at the exposed concrete surface, C1 and C100. Data from field exposure supports the assumption of time...... dependent surface chloride concentrations and the diffusion coefficients. Model parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in marine atmospheric and submerged South Scandinavian environment are suggested in a companion paper based on 10 years field exposure data....

  18. Chronic cadmium exposure stimulates SDF-1 expression in an ERα dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda Ponce

    Full Text Available Cadmium is an omnipotent environmental contaminant associated with the development of breast cancer. Studies suggest that cadmium functions as an endocrine disruptor, mimicking the actions of estrogen in breast cancer cells and activating the receptor to promote cell growth. Although acute cadmium exposure is known to promote estrogen receptor-mediated gene expression associated with growth, the consequence of chronic cadmium exposure is unclear. Since heavy metals are known to bioaccumulate, it is necessary to understand the effects of prolonged cadmium exposure. This study aims to investigate the effects of chronic cadmium exposure on breast cancer progression. A MCF7 breast cancer cell line chronically exposed to 10(-7 M CdCl2 serves as our model system. Data suggest that prolonged cadmium exposures result in the development of more aggressive cancer phenotypes - increased cell growth, migration and invasion. The results from this study show for the first time that chronic cadmium exposure stimulates the expression of SDF-1 by altering the molecular interactions between ERα, c-jun and c-fos. This study provides a mechanistic link between chronic cadmium exposure and ERα and demonstrates that prolonged, low-level cadmium exposure contributes to breast cancer progression.

  19. Cardioprotective and Antioxidant Influence of Aqueous Extracts from Sesamum indicum Seeds on Oxidative Stress Induced by Cadmium in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyinloye, Babatunji Emmanuel; Ajiboye, Basiru Olaitan; Ojo, Oluwafemi Adeleke; Nwozo, Sarah Onyenibe; Kappo, Abidemi Paul

    2016-05-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several acute and chronic diseases of the heart as a result of indiscriminate exposure to cardiotoxic heavy metals. The study reported here was designed to evaluate the possible ameliorative effect of aqueous extracts from Sesamum indicum (SI) seeds on oxidative stress induced by cadmium (Cd) in Wistar rats. Daily administration of Cd (200 mg/L Cd as CdCl2) in the animals' main drinking water for 21 days led to oxidative stress. Thereafter, the ameliorative effects were assessed by measuring biochemical parameters such as extent of lipid peroxidation (LPO), lipid profile, and enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants, as well as serum aminotransferase activities. Treatment with SI extract elicited notable reduction in serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels as well as concomitant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. SI extract also reversed the elevations witnessed in serum aminotransferase activities, LPO level, and ameliorated enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant status in the heart of Cd-exposed rats. Thus, SI appears to be an attractive candidate with potential for the novel treatment of cardiotoxicity and management of oxidative stress arising from Cd exposure. Cadmium (200 mg/L) exposure in drinking water caused pronounced oxidative stress and cardiac tissue damage in animal modelAqueous extract of Sesamum indicum (SI) seeds at a dose of 200 or 400 mg/kg body weight exhibited a significant reversal effect in all biochemical parameters measured such as extent of lipid peroxidation, lipid profile, and enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants, as well as serum aminotransferase activitiesAqueous extract of SI seeds possess antioxidant and cardioprotective potential in a dose-dependent manner, thus conferring protection against oxidative stress induced by cadmium. Abbreviation used: SI: Sesamum indicum, Cd: Cadmium, CdCl2: Cadmium chloride, LPO

  20. Flux of Cadmium through Euphausiids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benayoun, G.; Fowler, S.W.; Oregioni, B.

    1976-01-01

    Flux of the heavy metal cadmium through the euphausiid Meganyctiphanes norvegica was examined. Radiotracer experiments showed that cadmium can be accumulated either directly from water or through the food chain. When comparing equilibrium cadmium concentration factors based on stable element measurements with those obtained from radiotracer experiments, it is evident that exchange between cadmium in the water and that in euphausiid tissue is a relatively slow process, indicating that, in the long term, ingestion of cadmium will probably be the more important route for the accumulation of this metal. Approximately 10% of cadmium ingested by euphausiids was incorporated into internal tissues when the food source was radioactive Artemia. After 1 month cadmium, accumulated directly from water, was found to be most concentrated in the viscera with lesser amounts in eyes, exoskeleton and muscle, respectively. Use of a simple model, based on the assumption that cadmium taken in by the organism must equal cadmium released plus that accumulated in tissue, allowed assessment of the relative importance of various metabolic parameters in controlling the cadmium flux through euphausiids. Fecal pellets, due to their relatively high rate of production and high cadmium content, accounted for 84% of the total cadmium flux through M. norvegica. Comparisons of stable cadmium concentrations in natural euphausiid food and the organism's resultant fecal pellets indicate that the cadmium concentration in ingested material was increased nearly 5-fold during its passage through the euphausiid. From comparisons of all routes by which cadmium can be released from M. norvegica to the water column, it is concluded that fecal pellet deposition represents the principal mechanism effecting the downward vertical transport of cadmium by this species. (author)

  1. Protective effect of hemin against cadmium-induced testicular damage in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouad, Amr A.; Qureshi, Habib A.; Al-Sultan, Ali Ibrahim; Yacoubi, Mohamed T.; Ali, Abdellah Abusrie

    2009-01-01

    The protective effect of hemin, the heme oxygenase-1 inducer, was investigated in rats with cadmium induced-testicular injury, in which oxidative stress and inflammation play a major role. Testicular damage was induced by a single i.p. injection of cadmium chloride (2 mg/kg). Hemin was given for three consecutive days (40 μmol/kg/day, s.c.), starting 1 day before cadmium administration. Hemin treatment significantly increased serum testosterone level that was reduced by cadmium. Hemin compensated deficits in the antioxidant defense mechanisms (reduced glutathione, and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities), and suppressed lipid peroxidation in testicular tissue resulted from cadmium administration. Also, hemin attenuated the cadmium-induced elevations in testicular tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide levels, and caspase-3 activity. Additionally, hemin ameliorated cadmium-induced testicular tissue damage observed by light and electron microscopic examinations. The protective effect afforded by hemin was abolished by prior administration of zinc protoporphyrin-IX, the heme oxygenase-1 inhibitor. It was concluded that hemin, through its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects, represents a potential therapeutic option to protect the testicular tissue from the detrimental effects of cadmium

  2. Introduction to the study of cadmium fixation in Anguilla anguilla (L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pally, Monique; Foulquier, Luc

    1975-05-01

    Eels weighing an average of about 30 grams were kept without food in fresh-water aquaria containing approximately 10, 30 and 50 p.p.b. of cadmium in the form of cadmium chloride. In each case the evolution of the cadmium content in the water was monitored as a function of elapsed time. After dissection, the cadmium concentration in the principal organs of the eels (in p.p.b.) was determined and compared with their live weight. To do so, various methods were used for destruction of biological material and cadmium analysis i.e.: incineration in a 600 deg C furnace, incineration at low temperature in a jet of active oxygen, nitro-sulfuric mineralization followed by atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis, and nitro-sulfuro-perchloric mineralization followed by inverse anodic redissolution. The results of these analyses raise a number of methodological questions, in that they differ according to the technique being used. The first content data essentially concern the cadmium content of eels (after nitro-sulfuric mineralization) kept in water containing 10 p.p.b. of cadmium: after 44 days the concentrations in the various organs continue to rise. The highest concentration is found in the spleen - heart - air bladder system (15200 ppb compared with 2680 ppb in the control group), followed - in an order which varies over time - by the kidneys, branchiae and liver; the digestive tract seems to concentrate cadmium more slowly [fr

  3. Uptake and loss of absorbed dissolved cadmium to Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-06-16

    Jun 16, 2006 ... Res NATO Sci. Comm. Conf. 7: 187-195 London. Eisler R, Gardner GR (1973). Acute toxicology to an estuarine teleost of mistures of cadmuim, copper, and zinc salts. J. Fish. Biol. 5: 131 – 142. Eisler R (1974). Radio cadmium exchange with seawater by. Fundulus heteroclitus (L) (Pisces: Cyprinodontidae) ...

  4. Therapeutic Effects of Cassia angustifolia in a Cadmium Induced Hepatotoxicity Assay Conducted in Male Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tahir Haidry

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of Senna plant (Cassia angustifolia L. in a cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity assay by evaluating the activity of alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and total protein (TP in the albino rats’ serum. A total of 30 white albino rats were taken and divided into three groups; each group comprising ten rats. The group A was taken as a control group; group B was given cadmium chloride concentration of 5 mg/kg (body weight for 42 days; and group C was given cadmium chloride 5 mg/kg body weight for first 21 days and then extract of C. angustifolia 100 mg/kg (body weight was given for remaining 21 days. The analysis were performed twice i.e., on 21stst day and 42nd day. Results illustrated that the concentration of cadmium was significantly elevated (P<0.05 at the levels of serum biochemical markers namely ALT, AST, ALP which lowered the protein levels in albino rats. Moreover, treatment with the standard extracts of C. angustifolia observed to reverse the effects of the cadmium significantly (P<0.05. It is concluded that the C. angustifolia had hepatoprotective effects and therapeutic potential against the cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats.

  5. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents experimentally based design parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash...... in marine atmospheric and submersed South Scandinavian environment. The design parameters are based on sequential measurements of 86 chloride profiles taken over ten years from 13 different types of concrete. The design parameters provide the input for an analytical model for chloride profiles as function...... of depth and time, when both the surface chloride concentration and the diffusion coefficient are allowed to vary in time. The model is presented in a companion paper....

  6. Oxidation process of cadmium sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Koshiro; Toda, Yoshitomo; Sato, Takayori

    1977-01-01

    Complicated thermogravimetric curve was observed on oxidation process of cadmium sulfide precipitate in air. Phases of various oxidation stage were identified by X-ray diffraction method. Cadmium sulfide was first oxidized to cadmium oxide at 400 0 C, while the successive reaction with sulfur dioxide and oxygen gases gave rise to cadmium sulfate. The phases such as 2 CdS. CdSO 4 , Cd 3 SO 6 and β-CdSO 4 appeared during the oxidation process up to 1100 0 C, at which all the particles were converted into cadmium oxide at 1100 0 C. Cadmium sulfide kept in nitrogen gas above 700 0 C was directly converted into cadmium oxide when oxygen gas was introduced into the furnace. (auth.)

  7. Comparison of toxicity and disposition of cadmium chloride and cadmium-metallothionein in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groten, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    In Chapter 1 of this thesis a general introduction is presented with a survey of the literature. It gives a brief overview of the factors involved in the absorption, metabolism and toxicity of Cd after oral intake.

    In short, the main source of

  8. The effects of topical agents of fluticasone propionate, oxymetazoline, and 3% and 0.9% sodium chloride solutions on mucociliary clearance in the therapy of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inanli, Selçuk; Oztürk, Ozmen; Korkmaz, Mukadder; Tutkun, Alper; Batman, Cağlar

    2002-02-01

    The aims of the study were to determine: 1) how mucociliary activity in acute bacterial rhinosinusitis is affected; 2) how this activity is changed by therapy; 3) the effects of topical agents on mucociliary clearance, and 4) the most appropriate topical agent(s) to be used in the therapy of sinusitis. Five groups of patients with acute bacterial rhinosinusitis were studied prospectively. All patients had 500 mg oral amoxicillin and 125 mg oral clavulanic acid preparations given three times daily for 3 weeks. According to the topical agent applications, these groups included: group I (n = 12), no topical treatment was given; group II (n = 14), two puffs for each nostril once daily of 50 microg/100 mL fluticasone propionate was given; group III (n = 9), one puff for each nostril three times daily of 0.05% oxymetazoline was given; group IV (n =12), 3% sodium chloride (NaCl) (buffered to pH 6.5-7 at room temperature) was given; and group V (n =13), 10-mL solutions of 0.9% NaCl (buffered to pH 6.5--7 at room temperature) were given for nasal irrigations three times daily. All patients had medication for 3 weeks and were controlled each week. The saccharin method was used to measure nasal mucociliary clearance. To investigate the early effects of the topical agents for groups II to V, an additional test was repeated 20 minutes after the basal mucociliary clearance recordings. The test was repeated in the first, second, and third weeks of the treatment. The mucociliary clearance was significantly slower in the acute bacterial rhinosinusitis group than in the control group. There was no significant difference between the basal mucociliary clearance and the 20th minute mucociliary clearance of the fluticasone propionate and 0.9% NaCl solution groups. The mean values of the basal and the 20 minute's mucociliary clearance of the oxymetazoline group were 24.72 +/- 6.16 and 15.5 +/- 7.45 minutes, respectively, which were statistically significant. The mean values of the basal

  9. Effect of Calcium chloride and Cadmium chloride on the enthalpy of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the effect of two dissolved inorganic salts, CaCl2 and CdCl2 on the enthalpy of mixing of the binary 1,4 dioxane + water system has been investigated at 303.15 K in an isothermal displacement calorimeter with vapour space. A significantly increasing trend in the endothermic excess enthalpy values for ...

  10. Zinc chloride - biuret - water and cadmium chloride - biuret - water systems at 30 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyjtyeva, N.; Davranov, M.; Sulajmankulov, K.

    1983-01-01

    By the solubility method the systems ZnCl 2 -C 2 H 5 N 3 O 2 -H 2 O and CdCl 2 -C 2 H 5 N 3 O 2 -H 2 O are studied at 30 deg. It has been found in the systems a formation of incongruently soluble compounds: ZnCl 2 x2C 2 H 5 N 3 O 2 , ZnCl 2 xC 2 H 5 N 3 O 2 , 2ZnCl 2 xC 2 H 5 N 3 O 2 , CdCl 2 x1.5C 2 H 5 N 3 O 2 and congruently soluble compound CdCl 2 x2C 2 H 5 N 3 O 2

  11. Zinc chloride - biuret - water and cadmium chloride - biuret - water systems at 30 deg C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shyjtyeva, N.; Davranov, M.; Sulajmankulov, K.

    1983-01-01

    By the solubility method the systems ZnCl/sub 2/-C/sub 2/H/sub 5/N/sub 3/O/sub 2/-H/sub 2/O and CdCl/sub 2/-C/sub 2/H/sub 5/N/sub 3/O/sub 2/-H/sub 2/O are studied at 30 deg. It has been found in the systems a formation of incongruently soluble compounds: ZnCl/sub 2/x2C/sub 2/H/sub 5/N/sub 3/O/sub 2/, ZnCl/sub 2/xC/sub 2/H/sub 5/N/sub 3/O/sub 2/, 2ZnCl/sub 2/xC/sub 2/H/sub 5/N/sub 3/O/sub 2/, CdCl/sub 2/x1.5C/sub 2/H/sub 5/N/sub 3/O/sub 2/ and congruently soluble compound CdCl/sub 2/x2C/sub 2/H/sub 5/N/sub 3/O/sub 2/.

  12. Cadmium plating replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, M.J.; Groshart, E.C.

    1995-03-01

    The Boeing Company has been searching for replacements to cadmium plate. Two alloy plating systems seem close to meeting the needs of a cadmium replacement. The two alloys, zinc-nickel and tin-zinc are from alloy plating baths; both baths are neutral pH. The alloys meet the requirements for salt fog corrosion resistance, and both alloys excel as a paint base. Currently, tests are being performed on standard fasteners to compare zinc-nickel and tin-zinc on threaded hardware where cadmium is heavily used. The Hydrogen embrittlement propensity of the zinc-nickel bath has been tested, and just beginning for the tin-zinc bath. Another area of interest is the electrical properties on aluminum for tin-zinc and will be discussed. The zinc-nickel alloy plating bath is in production in Boeing Commercial Airplane Group for non-critical low strength steels. The outlook is promising that these two coatings will help The Boeing Company significantly reduce its dependence on cadmium plating.

  13. zinc, chromium, cadmium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-30

    Jun 30, 2016 ... Cadmium also causes destruction of the immune system, thus, predisposes the consumer to infectious diseases like tuberculosis (Khan et al., 2008). ... years, sputum specimens positive for acid-fast bacilli by microscopy and clinical and radiographic abnormalities consistent with pulmonary tuberculosis.

  14. Speciation of Dissolved Cadmium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Peter Engelund; Andersen, Sjur; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1995-01-01

    Equilibrium dialysis and ion exchange methods, as well as computer calculations (GEOCHEM), were applied for speciation of dissolved cadmium (Cd) in test solutions and leachate samples. The leachate samples originated from soil, compost, landfill waste and industrial waste. The ion exchange (IE...

  15. Acute toxicity of copper and cadmium for piauçu, Leporinus macrocephalus, and curimatã, Prochilodus vimboides - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i3.5069

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Levy Carvalho; UVV; Chippari-Gomes, Adriana Regina; UVV; Oss, Rodrigo Nunes; Fernandes, Luis Fernando Loureiro; UFES; Magris, Rafael de Almeida; UFES

    2009-01-01

    Ninety-six-hour static bioassays were conducted in the laboratory to determine lethal concentrations (96-h LC50) of copper and cadmium for curimatã (Prochilodus vimboides) and piauçu (Leporinus macrocephalus). The 96-h LC50 of copper were 0.047 and 0.090 mg L-1, and of cadmium 3.16 and 7.42 mg L-1 for curimatã and piauçu, respectively. Curimatã is a preferred indigenous species for toxicological studies in the Doce River basin due to its availability in the hatcheries of the region and high s...

  16. Advantages and disadvantages of voltammetric method in studying cadmium-metallothionein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erk, M; Raspor, B

    2000-03-01

    A sensitive and chemical species-selective technique of differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) was applied in studying the cadmium-metallothionein (Cd-MT) interaction. The amperometric titrations of the purified MT20 and MT10 fractions, isolated by verified biochemical procedures from the digestive gland of cadmium-exposed mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis, with Cd2+ ions were performed in the buffered sodium chloride solution of 0.59 M ionic strength, pH 7.9 and 25 degrees C. Applying the DPASV method at various cadmium to metallothionein ratio several groups of chemical species were recorded. The data on the available ligand concentration to complex cadmium ions (CL), the apparent concentration stability constants (K,) of the respective complexes and the reliability of the determined complexing parameters are discussed. In quantifying the Cd-MT interaction the interference of dithiotreitol (DTT), which is used as the reducing agent in isolation and purification of MTs, is documented.

  17. Optimization of a whole-cell cadmium sensor with a toggle gene circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cindy H; Le, David; Mulchandani, Ashok; Chen, Wilfred

    2009-01-01

    This work demonstrates improvement of a whole-cell cadmium detection sensor through construction of a gene circuit. A cadmium (II) specific regulatory promoter, P(cadR,) from Psuedomonas putida 06909, is used in the assembly of a toggle circuit. The circuit contains the cadR promoter fused to lacIq and gfp, and a divergently transcribed tac promoter and cadR. The toggle sensor exhibits lower background fluorescence, and a 20-fold lower detection limit in comparison to a nontoggle gene circuit. The detection limit of the toggle sensor is 0.01 microM (1.12 ppb) cadmium chloride, and tunable with the addition of isopropyl-b-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). The toggle sensor is highly specific to cadmium (II), and no response is elicited from zinc, lead, manganese, nickel, copper, and mercury. 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers

  18. Acquired tolerance in cadmium-adapted lung epithelial cells: Roles of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway and basal level of metallothionein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Andy T.Y.; Zhang Jian; Chiu, J.-F.

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium-resistant cells were developed in our laboratory with rat lung epithelial cells (LECs) by stepwise exposure of LECs to cadmium chloride from 1 μM to 20 μM after 20 passages. To investigate the Cd-resistant phenotype in a long-term perspective, cadmium-resistant cells adapted to 20 μM cadmium (Cd R ) were then cultured in the absence of cadmium for various passages [Cd R (-n)]. All these adapted cells were significantly protected from cadmium toxicity as compared to parental cadmium-sensitive LECs (Cd S ). The cadmium-resistant phenotype of adapted cells was relatively stable in the absence of cadmium for as long as 40 passages. Basal mRNA level of metallothionein-1 (MT-1) was dramatically higher in Cd R than in Cd R (-), which may account for the higher Cd-resistance of Cd R than Cd R (-). MT-1 mRNA level decreased drastically in Cd R after cadmium removal, suggesting that the high basal level of MT-1 in Cd R may be only partially responsible for cadmium-resistance. Treatment of cells with high levels of cadmium resulted in decreased phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK1/2) in adapted cells than in sensitive cells and this cadmium-induced JNK activity was blocked by JNK inhibitor II, SP600125. Ro318220, a strong activator of JNK, reverted cadmium-sensitive phenotype in adapted cells. Taken together, our results suggest that during cadmium adaptation, cells develop tolerance to cell death, generally due to perturbation of the JNK signaling pathway and the nonresponsiveness of JNK phosphorylation is critical for the Cd-tolerance in these cells

  19. Cadmium toxicity studies under long term-low level exposure (LLE) conditions. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbioni, E.; Marafante, E.; Amantini, L.; Ubertalli, L.; Pietra, R.

    1978-01-01

    A long term-low level exposure (LLE) experiment was conducted on rats to determine the metabolic patterns for realistic dietary levels of cadmium. Male rats fed with 61 ppb of cadmium ad libitum, 50 labelled with 109 Cd radiotracer as cadmium chloride via drinking mineral water and 11 unlabelled via food for 2 years. The diet was characterized in its metal content by neutron activation analysis to obtain the total dietary intake of different elements. The kidney was found to be the tissue with the major concentration of cadmium which accumulated continuously during the experiment. The variation of the accumulation pattern of Cd concentration in the liver and intestine indicated an initial rapid increase of Cd during the first 100 days. After this period an apparent equilibrium was attained in both these tissues until the end of the study. The intracellular distribution of cadmium in kidneys, liver, intestine and pancreas were similar, the cytosol fractions containing about 80% of the cellular cadmium. Dialysis experiments indicated that significant amounts of cadmium were able to be associated with cellular organelles, the mitochondria representing the most important organelle capable of binding cadmium. The cytoplasmatic Cd-profiles obtained at various stages of the experiment showed that the metal was only bound to a low-molecular-weight component, cadmium-binding protein (CdBP), which represents the specific cellular-binding component for cadmium under the long term-low level exposure (LLE) conditions. No significant variations in the concentrations of the elements in different organs were observed in animals supplemented with 109 Cd in respect to 109 Cd untreated controls. (Auth.)

  20. Cadmium induced physio-biochemical and molecular response in Brassica juncea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugaraj, Bala Murugan; Chandra, Harish Mani; Srinivasan, Balamurugan; Ramalingam, Sathishkumar

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium is a hazardous heavy metal; its presence in the agricultural soil constrains the crop productivity and restricts crop plants from reaching their full genetic potential. In the present study, two Brassica juncea cultivars (Pusa Bold and Pusa Jaikisan), were exposed to different concentrations of cadmium (Cd) as cadmium chloride (CdCl2) (50 microM, 100 microM, 150 microM, and 200 microM). The effect of cadmium on seed germination ratio, changes in the root and shoot length, plant dry weight, moisture content, metal tolerance index, antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation were studied. The consequence of cadmium stress at the molecular level was studied using a key gene Phytochelatin Synthase (PCS). The results of our study suggested that, exposure of cadmium affected the seed germination, growth rate, biomass content and antioxidant enzyme activities in the root, shoot and leaves of both the cultivars. Transcript expression of PCS was increased with increasing CdCl2 concentration in both the cultivars. Based on the results, it was concluded that, Brassica juncea Cv Pusa Jaikisan is more tolerant to cadmium toxicity than the Pusa Bold. These findings could be used to develop heavy metal stress tolerant plants and more importantly, detoxification of heavy metals in the soil.

  1. Coexposure to sulfamethoxazole and cadmium impairs development and attenuates transcriptional response in sea urchin embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa, Maria Antonietta; Costa, Salvatore; Cuttitta, Angela; Gianguzza, Fabrizio; Nicosia, Aldo

    2017-08-01

    Among sulfonamides, sulfamethoxazole represents one of the most widely employed. A considerable amount of sulfamethoxazole is introduced into the marine environment after utilization in aquaculture. The cytotoxicity of sulfamethoxazole relies mainly on arylhydroxylamine metabolites and it is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species. Cadmium represents a metal largely employed in several anthropic activities and it is toxic for all living organisms even at low concentrations. Since it is not degraded, cadmium irreversibly accumulates into cells. In order to understand the mechanisms of response to changes in the chemical environment, we investigated by light microscopy observations and RT-qPCR assays the impact of sulfamethoxazole and cadmium in P. lividus sea urchin embryos. During development, embryos were exposed to sulfamethoxazole amount comparable to that usually used in aquaculture procedures and/or sublethal levels of cadmium chloride. Impairment of development and biomarkers for inflammation, detoxification, metal scavenging and cell death were inspected. Even though treatment with sulfamethoxazole apparently did not affect development, it stimulated a remarkable molecular response to oxidative stress. Moreover, combined exposure seriously compromised development and the defense mechanisms to cadmium were blocked. This study leads to the conclusion that coexposure to sulfamethoxazole and cadmium induces neutralizing effects on sea urchin embryos. Thus, in marine areas nearby aquaculture farms, where sulfamethoxazole discharge represents an important environmental contaminant, cadmium occurrence may alter population dynamics of P. lividus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Protective Effects of Long Term Administration of Zinc on Bone Metabolism Parameters in Male Wistar Rats Treated with Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Najafi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Violent poisoning by cadmium in human is created through drinks or meals which have packed in the metallic tins with cadmium plating. The symptoms of variation in the mineral metabolism of bones are observed and different conditions maybe appeared. The toxic (poisonous effect due to cadmium can be neutralized by intervening zinc. This study has been designed to investigate the protective effects of zinc for reducing the poisonous effects due to cadmium on the metabolism in the parameters related to the bone in rat. Methods In this experimental study, 48 male rats of wistar species were distributed in eight experimental groups and tested in the investigative lab of Falavarjan university. These groups were received 0.5 cc physiological serum, 0.5 mg/kg Zinc, 0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg Cadmium respectively and some groups were included in those were taken all there cadmium and zinc concentrations synchronously. Blood samples were taken in a 60 days period and those factors related to the bone metabolism were measured. The data were analyzed by 2-ANOVA Ways, complementary tests through software SPSS 16. Results The results showed that 0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg doses cadmium chloride caused to increase alkaline Phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and decrease albumin as compared with control group. Also, synchronous usage of all three cadmium chloride concentrations with zinc cause to decrease alkaline phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and increase albumin concentration. In a word, the other bone parameters have been significant in different cadmium and zinc doses (P < 0.05. Conclusions Findings showed that zinc can play a protective role on the metabolism parameters related to bone against to poisoning caused by cadmium.

  3. Thin film cadmium telluride and zinc phosphide solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, T.

    1984-10-01

    The deposition of cadmium telluride films by direct combination of the cadmium and tellurium vapor on foreign substrates is described. Nearly stoichiometric p-type cadmium telluride films and arsenic-doped p-type films were prepared reproducibly. Major efforts were directed to the deposition and characterization of heterojunction window materials, indium tin oxide, fluorine-doped tin oxide, cadmium oxide, and zinc oxide. A number of heterojunction solar cells were prepared, and the best thin-film ITO/CdTe solar cells had an AMI efficiency of about 7.2%. Zinc phosphide films were deposited on W/steel substrated by the reaction of zinc and phosphine in a hydrogen flow. Films without intentional doping had an electrical resistivity on the order of 10(6) ohm-cm, and this resistivity may be reduced to about 5 x 10(4) ohm-cm by adding hydrogen chloride or hydrogen bromide to the reaction mixture. Lower resistivity films are deposited by adding a controlled amount of silver nitrate solution on to the substrate surface. Major efforts are directed to the deposition of low-resistivity zinc selenide to prepare ZnSe/An3P2 heterojunction thin-film solar cells. The zinc selenide films deposited by vaccum evaporation and chemical vapor deposition techniques are all of high resistivity.

  4. Exposure to environmental levels of waterborne cadmium impacts corticosteroidogenic and metabolic capacities, and compromises secondary stressor performance in rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandhu, Navdeep; McGeer, James C.; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Low level chronic waterborne cadmium exposure did not evoke a plasma cortisol response in rainbow trout. •Chronic cadmium exposure increases liver and gill metabolic capacities. •Chronic cadmium exposure disrupts head kidney steroidogenic capacity. •Chronic cadmium exposure disrupts glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor protein expressions in target tissues. •Chronic cadmium exposure compromises physiological performances to a secondary stressor in trout. -- Abstract: The physiological responses to waterborne cadmium exposure have been well documented; however, few studies have examined animal performances at low exposure concentrations of this metal. We tested the hypothesis that longer-term exposure to low levels of cadmium will compromise the steroidogenic and metabolic capacities, and reduce the cortisol response to a secondary stressor in fish. To test this, juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to 0 (control), 0.75 or 2.0 μg/L waterborne cadmium in a flow-through system and were sampled at 1, 7 and 28 d of exposure. There were only very slight disturbances in basal plasma cortisol, lactate or glucose levels in response to cadmium exposure over the 28 d period. Chronic cadmium exposure significantly affected key genes involved in corticosteroidogenesis, including melanocortin 2 receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme. At 28 d, the high cadmium exposure group showed a significant drop in the glucocorticoid receptor and mineralocorticoid receptor protein expressions in the liver and brain, respectively. There were also perturbations in the metabolic capacities in the liver and gill of cadmium-exposed trout. Subjecting these fish to a secondary handling disturbance led to a significant attenuation of the stressor-induced plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate levels in the cadmium groups. Collectively, although trout appears to adjust to subchronic exposure

  5. Exposure to environmental levels of waterborne cadmium impacts corticosteroidogenic and metabolic capacities, and compromises secondary stressor performance in rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, Navdeep [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); McGeer, James C. [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3C5 (Canada); Vijayan, Mathilakath M., E-mail: matt.vijayan@ucalgary.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •Low level chronic waterborne cadmium exposure did not evoke a plasma cortisol response in rainbow trout. •Chronic cadmium exposure increases liver and gill metabolic capacities. •Chronic cadmium exposure disrupts head kidney steroidogenic capacity. •Chronic cadmium exposure disrupts glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor protein expressions in target tissues. •Chronic cadmium exposure compromises physiological performances to a secondary stressor in trout. -- Abstract: The physiological responses to waterborne cadmium exposure have been well documented; however, few studies have examined animal performances at low exposure concentrations of this metal. We tested the hypothesis that longer-term exposure to low levels of cadmium will compromise the steroidogenic and metabolic capacities, and reduce the cortisol response to a secondary stressor in fish. To test this, juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to 0 (control), 0.75 or 2.0 μg/L waterborne cadmium in a flow-through system and were sampled at 1, 7 and 28 d of exposure. There were only very slight disturbances in basal plasma cortisol, lactate or glucose levels in response to cadmium exposure over the 28 d period. Chronic cadmium exposure significantly affected key genes involved in corticosteroidogenesis, including melanocortin 2 receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme. At 28 d, the high cadmium exposure group showed a significant drop in the glucocorticoid receptor and mineralocorticoid receptor protein expressions in the liver and brain, respectively. There were also perturbations in the metabolic capacities in the liver and gill of cadmium-exposed trout. Subjecting these fish to a secondary handling disturbance led to a significant attenuation of the stressor-induced plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate levels in the cadmium groups. Collectively, although trout appears to adjust to subchronic exposure

  6. Effect of the cadmium ion source on the structural and optical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rami, M.; Benamar, E.; Fahoume, M.; Chraibi, F.; Ennaoui, A.

    1999-06-01

    The chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique has been successfully used to deposit cadmium sulphide from cadmium chloride and cadmium acetate as the cadmium ion source and thiourea as the sulphur source on both glass microscope slide and indium tin oxide coated glass substrates. Various properties of the films such as surface morphology, crystallinity, optical properties and resistivitiy have been investigated. XRD patterns reveal that the CdS films deposited from cadmium chloride have an hexagonal structure. Their preferential orientation changes from (002) to (100) with the thermal annealing. Films deposited from cadmium acetate are amorphous but improve their crystallinity with annealing. SEM analysis shows that the grains of the as deposited films are randomly shaped and appear to be bigger in the case of the CdS prepared from cadmium chloride. The optical transmission of the layers are in the 70-80 % range for wavelength above the band gap absorption which makes them more appropriate as window material in heterojunction solar cells.

  7. Effect of the cadmium ion source on the structural and optical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rami, M.; Benamar, E.; Fahoume, M.; Chraibi, F.; Ennaoui, A. [University Mohamed V, Laboratory of Materials Physics, Dept., Faculty of Sciences, Rabat (Morocco)

    1999-06-01

    The chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique has been successfully used to deposit cadmium sulphide from cadmium chloride and cadmium acetate as the cadmium ion source and thiourea as the sulphur source on both glass microscope slide and indium tin oxide coated glass substrates. Various properties of the films such as surface morphology, crystallinity, optical properties and resistivity have been investigated. XRD patterns reveal that the CdS films deposited from cadmium chloride have an hexagonal structure. Their preferential orientation changes from (002) to (100) with the thermal annealing. Films deposited from cadmium acetate are amorphous but improve their crystallinity with annealing. SEM analysis shows that the grains of the as deposited films are randomly shaped and appear to be bigger in the case of the CdS prepared from cadmium chloride. The optical transmission of the layers are in the 70-80% range for wavelength above the band gap absorption which makes them more appropriate as window material in heterojunction solar cells. (authors)

  8. Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkman, H.; Iverfeldt, Aa. [Swedish Environmental Research Inst. (Sweden); Borg, H.; Lithner, G. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. for Applied Environmental Research

    1998-03-01

    This report aims at assessing possible effects of cadmium in the Swedish environment. Swedish soils and soft freshwater systems are, due to a generally poor buffering capacity, severely affected by acidification. In addition, the low salinity in the Baltic Sea imply a naturally poor organism structure, with some important organisms living close to their limit of physiological tolerance. Cadmium in soils is mobilized at low pH, and the availability and toxicity of cadmium in marine systems are enhanced at low salinity. The Swedish environment is therefore extra vulnerable to cadmium pollution. The average concentrations of cadmium in the forest mor layers, agricultural soils, and fresh-waters in Sweden are enhanced compared to `back-ground concentrations`, with a general increasing trend from the north to the south-west, indicating strong impact of atmospheric deposition of cadmium originating from the central parts of Europe. In Swedish sea water, total cadmium concentrations, and the fraction of bio-available `free` cadmium, generally increases with decreasing salinity. Decreased emissions of cadmium to the environment have led to decreasing atmospheric deposition during the last decade. The net accumulation of cadmium in the forest mor layer has stopped, and even started to decrease. In northern Sweden, this is due to the decreased deposition, but in southern Sweden the main reason is increased leakage of cadmium from the topsoil as a consequence of acidification. As a result, cadmium in the Swedish environments is undergoing an extended redistribution between different soil compartments, and from the soils to the aquatic systems. 90 refs, 23 figs, 2 tabs. With 3 page summary in Swedish

  9. Cadmium: The deformed metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubbs, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The paper, which is a somewhat abridged version of the introductory paper of the 2nd International Cadmium Conference in Cannes on February 6 to 8, 1979, outlines the present trends in production, reserves, consumption, world trade, prices, and cost. Due to the lack of statistics on the USSR and other socialist countries, the review is limited to the non-socialist world. (orig./IHOE) [de

  10. Interaction of chelating agents with cadmium in mice and rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eybl, V.; Sykora, J.; Koutensky, J.; Caisova, D.; Schwartz, A.; Mertl, F.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of several chelating agents (CaDTPA, ZnDTPA, CaEDTA, ZnEDTA, DMSA, D-penicillamine and DMPS, DMP and DDC) on the acute toxicity of CdCl 2 and on the whole body retention and tissue distribution of cadmium after the IV application of /sup 115mCdCl 2 was compared in mice. The chelating agents were applied immediately after the application of cadmium. CaDTPA, ZnDTPA and DMSA appeared to be the most effective antidotes. However, DMSA increased the amount of cadmium retained in kidneys. The treatement of cadmium-poisoned mice with the combination of DMSA (IP) and ZnDTPA (SC) (all the compounds were injected in equimolar dose) decreased the toxicity of cadmium more than treatment with one chelating agents (given in a 2:1 dose). However, by studying the effect of these chelating agents and their combination application of the antidotes showed little or no improvement over the results obtained with the most effective of the individual components. In the urine of rats injected with CdCl 2 and treated with the chelating agents (CaDTPA, ZnDTPA, DMSA), the presence of cadmium complexes was demonstrated. The formation of mixed ligand chelates in vivo was not proved. Experiments in mice given a single injection of /sup 115m/Cd-labeled Cd complexes of DMPS, DMSA and DTPA showed a high retention of cadmium in the organisms after the IV application of CdDMPS and CdDMSA complexes

  11. Bone marrow scintigraphy with 111In-chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujishima, Mamoru; Hiraki, Yoshio; Takeda, Yoshihiro; Kohno, Yoshihiro; Niiya, Harutaka; Aono, Kaname; Yorimitsu, Seiichi; Takahashi, Isao

    1988-01-01

    Bone marrow scintigraphy with indium chloride ( 111 In) was performed in fifty-one patients with the hematological diseases. The results of the investigation were that 1) in all patients, as well as in patients with aplastic anemia, no correlation was there between the degree of the indium chloride accumulation and peripheral blood counts, 2) in patients with aplastic anemia and pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) a tendency to reduction in uptake of indium chloride in bone marrow, 3) in patients with these two good correlation between the degree of indium chloride accumulation and histology of the erythroid bone marrow, but in patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) and atypical leukemia no correlation between the two, so it seemed unlikely that indium chloride should reflect the effective production of erythrocytes, 4) four patients with leukemia were studied with indium chloride bone marrow imaging two times to evaluate their responses to chemotherapy, and peripheral expansion was no change or reduced in two patients with acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) and one patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) who obtained complete remission, but on the other hand, it enlarged in one patient with acute myelocytic leukemia who obtained partial remission, and 5) in two patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia it enlarged up to the ankle joints, which was considerably specific. (author)

  12. Metallothionein protection of cadmium toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaassen, Curtis D.; Liu, Jie; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.

    2009-01-01

    The discovery of the cadmium (Cd)-binding protein from horse kidney in 1957 marked the birth of research on this low-molecular weight, cysteine-rich protein called metallothionein (MT) in Cd toxicology. MT plays minimal roles in the gastrointestinal absorption of Cd, but MT plays important roles in Cd retention in tissues and dramatically decreases biliary excretion of Cd. Cd-bound to MT is responsible for Cd accumulation in tissues and the long biological half-life of Cd in the body. Induction of MT protects against acute Cd-induced lethality, as well as acute toxicity to the liver and lung. Intracellular MT also plays important roles in ameliorating Cd toxicity following prolonged exposures, particularly chronic Cd-induced nephrotoxicity, osteotoxicity, and toxicity to the lung, liver, and immune system. There is an association between human and rodent Cd exposure and prostate cancers, especially in the portions where MT is poorly expressed. MT expression in Cd-induced tumors varies depending on the type and the stage of tumor development. For instance, high levels of MT are detected in Cd-induced sarcomas at the injection site, whereas the sarcoma metastases are devoid of MT. The use of MT-transgenic and MT-null mice has greatly helped define the role of MT in Cd toxicology, with the MT-null mice being hypersensitive and MT-transgenic mice resistant to Cd toxicity. Thus, MT is critical for protecting human health from Cd toxicity. There are large individual variations in MT expression, which might in turn predispose some people to Cd toxicity.

  13. Toxicological studies of cadmium and zinc on the crayfish Orconectes virilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirenda, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The acute toxicities of cadmium and of zinc to the crayfish Oronectes virilis were determined. Adult, intermolt crayfish were exposed to a series of concentrations of either cadmium or zinc for a two week period. Cadmium was found to be a cumulative poison to the crayfish; LC50 values decreased from 6.1 mg Cd/I for 96 hours to 0.7 mg Cd/I for two weeks. An incipient LC50 was also estimated to be 0.0604 mg Cd/I. Zinc was found to have a relatively low toxicity to O. virilis under the present exposure conditions. Whole animal and tissue analyses for cadmium or zinc were performed on the crayfish used in the acute toxicity tests. Whole animals concentrations both for cadmium and for zinc exhibited a linear relationship to exposure concentrations (r = 0.85 and 0.87, respectively). The gills had the highest concentrations (r = 0.85 and 0.87, respectively). The gills had the highest concentrations of cadmium and zinc, and displayed a linear relationship to exposure concentrations (r = 0.82 and 0.87 respectively). The hepatopancreas displayed a plateau in metal concentrations and is probably the main storage site for both metals in the crayfish. The relationship of cadmium concentration to exposure concentration in the antennal glands also showed linearity (r = 0.65), while zinc levels reached a steady state level. All the remaining tissues analyzed exhibited a plateau in metal concentration

  14. Isolation, identification and cadmium adsorption of a high cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The morphology was analyzed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The growth in the 100 mg/l cadmium medium was investigated and the biomass was analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The results showed that strain M1 which tolerated 80 mM cadmium belong to Paecilomyces lilacinus.

  15. Isolation, identification and cadmium adsorption of a high cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... fertilizers (Udo et al., 2001). Cadmium is a non-essential element and highly toxic .... 250 ml Czapek liquid media contained 0 and 100 mg/l cadmium and were added in 500 ml shake flasks, and 1 ± 0.1 g wet ..... Fungi Intimately Associated with the Brown Seaweed Fucus serratus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.

  16. Cadmium induces lung inflammation independent of lung cell proliferation: a molecular approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundu Subhadip

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cadmium is one of the inflammation-related xenobiotics and has been regarded as a potent carcinogen. The relationship between inflammation and cell proliferation due to chronic infection has been studied, but the mechanism is not fully clear. Though the mode of cadmium toxicity is well characterized in animal cells, still it requires some further investigations. Previously we reported that cadmium induces immune cell death in Swiss albino mice. In the present study we showed that instead of inducing cell death mechanism, cadmium in low concentration triggers proliferation in mice lung cell and our results reveals that prior to the induction of proliferation it causes severe inflammation. Methods Swiss albino mice were treated with different concentrations of cadmium to determine the LD50. Mice were subdivided (5 mice each according to the exposure period (15, 30, 45, 60 days and were given sub lethal dose (5 mg/Kg body weight of cadmium chloride and ibuprofen (50 mg/Kg body weight, recommended dose once in a week. SEM and histology were performed as evidence of changes in cellular morphology. Inflammation was measured by the expression of Cox-2 and MMPs. Expression of proinflammatory cytokines (Cox-2, IL-6, signaling and cell cycle regulatory molecules (STAT3, Akt, CyclinD1 were measured by western blot, ELISA and immunoprecipitation. Mutagenecity was evidenced by comet assay. Cell proliferation was determined by cell count, cell cycle and DNA analysis. Results Prolonged exposure of low concentration of cadmium resulted in up regulation of proinflammatory cytokines and cell cycle regulatory molecules. Though NSAIDs like Ibuprofen reduces the expression of inflammatory cytokines, but it did not show any inhibitory effect on cadmium adopted lung cell proliferation. Conclusion Our results prove that cadmium causes both inflammation and cell proliferation when applied in a low dose but proliferative changes occur independent of

  17. Trace elements cadmium and zinc in the pathogenesis of experimental hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockett, C.J.R.

    1980-01-01

    In human kidneys cadmium is bound by a protein, metallothionein, which also contains zinc, and because cadmium apparently competes with zinc on the same binding sites, the cadmium-zinc ratio is particularly important. An increase in this ratio would mean a relative deficiency in zinc which might result in some forms of hypertension in man and animals. Studies were conducted to determine the effect of small amounts of supplementary dietary cadmium on weanling and adult albino rats. Two colonies of rats were examined. The object of this study was to determine if hypertension could be induced and to investigate its effects on renal function and renin levels in these animals. Sodium and potassium levels and balances, renin, angiotensin II, and urea output were therefore estimated in these animals. In order to assess the effect of length of exposure to cadmium in relation to growth and maturation upon blood pressure, experiments were done on a second colony of male weanling rats. Tissue levels of cadmium and zinc, and serum levels of sodium, potassium, chloride, carbon dioxide, urea and urate were measured. All supplemented diets caused hypertension and a significant drop in urinary urea excretion levels. Plasma angiotensin in males, and renal cadmium-zinc ratios were higher than in controls. The results of the studies in adult rats showed slight sodium and water retention. Weanlings showed a more rapid uptake of cadmium and reached higher blood pressure levels. In conclusion, cadmium does seem to be a factor in selected animal hypertension. A possible mechanism is via interference with renal function, and our data regarding urea output support the idea of renal function impairment. The initiation of a renin-angiotensin hypertension is suggested by the raised angiotensin levels which were detected

  18. Investigation of cadmium-induced alterations in renal glomerular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, T.J.

    1982-01-01

    This research was designed to test the hypothesis that certain aspects of cadmium-induced renal dysfunction are the result of glomerular, rather than classic tubular, injury. To determine whether cadmium-induced proteinuria was due to altered glomerular function, cadmium was administered chronically at a concentration of 185 ppm in the drinking water. This protocol resulted in the production of proteinuria which when analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography and radioimmunoassay was indistinguishable from that occurring in control rats. Glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow, and filtration fraction were all significantly depressed after 20-30 weeks of exposure. In order to further investigate these alterations in glomerular function, an acute exposure model was developed. It was found that a single i.p. injection of cadmium in mercaptoethanol resulted in the onset of acute renal failure. The clinical picture was characterized by a reduction in glomerular filtrate rate of 50-90% within 24 hours, with partial to total recovery occurring by day 7 post-exposure. Histological evidence indicated that to a large extent the reduction in GFR was due to tubular blockade and/or backleak of filtrate across damaged tubules

  19. Protective efficacy of Emblica officinalis Linn. against radiation and cadmium induced biochemical alterations in the liver of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, P.K.; Chakrawarti, Aruna; Agarwal, Manisha

    2012-01-01

    All organisms living on earth are being perpetually exposed to some amount of radiation originating from a variety of sources. Radiation causes deleterious effects in all forms of life due to increasing utilization and production of modern technology, a simultaneous exposure of organisms to heavy metals is also unavoidable. These heavy metals become toxic when present in large quantities, with increasing the industrial revolution and industrial waste, the emission of cadmium has increased into the environment. Thus concomitant exposure to cadmium chloride and ionizing radiation might produce deleterious effect upon biological system. The total environmental burden of toxicants may have greater effect as against their individual impact as expected by their nature. So interaction between radiation and other toxicants represents a field of great potential importance. In the recent years, immense interest has been developed in the field of chemoprotection against radiation and heavy metals induced changes. In view of the potential for practical application, a variety of compounds are being tested for their radioprotective activities. Among these, Emblica holds a great promise. In light of the above, the present study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Emblica against radiation and cadmium induced biochemical alterations in the liver of Swiss albino mice. The animals were exposed to 6.0 Gy of gamma rays with or without cadmium chloride treatment. The Emblica was administered seven days prior to irradiation or cadmium chloride treatment

  20. Cadmium in blood and hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eum, Ki-Do; Lee, Mi-Sun; Paek, Domyung

    2008-01-01

    Objectives:: This study is to examine the effect of cadmium exposure on blood pressure in Korean general population. Methods:: The study population consisted of 958 men and 944 women who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), in which blood pressure and blood cadmium were measured from each participant. Results:: The mean blood cadmium level was 1.67 μg/L (median level 1.55). The prevalence of hypertension was 26.2%. The blood cadmium level was significantly higher among those subjects with hypertension than those without (mean level 1.77 versus 1.64 μg/dL). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio of hypertension comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of cadmium in blood was 1.51 (95% confidence interval 1.13 to 2.05), and a dose-response relationship was observed. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure were all positively associated with blood cadmium level, and this effect of cadmium on blood pressure was markedly stronger when the kidney function was reduced. Conclusions:: Cadmium exposures at the current level may have increased the blood pressure of Korean general population

  1. Projectbeschrijving Cadmium-informatiepunt (CIP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer PJ

    1989-01-01

    To minimize the use of cadmium the Central Government has decided to perform the purchase of products and materials within the Central Government as much as possible within the Draft Cadmium Decree. The activities to achieve this are as far as could be seen at the start of the project in june

  2. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations

  3. Cloning and occurrence of czrC, a gene conferring cadmium and zinc resistance in MRSA CC398 Isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaco, Lina; Hasman, Henrik; Stegger, Marc

    2010-01-01

    determinant, czrC, by PCR. The cloning of czrC confirmed that the zinc chloride and cadmium acetate MICs for isogenic constructs carrying this gene were increased compared to those for S. aureus RN4220. No difference in susceptibility to sodium arsenate, copper sulfate, or silver nitrate was observed. Seventy...

  4. Experimental study, in rat wistar, of cadmium distribution and elimination as a function of administration route. Cadmium 109 maximum permissible concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valero, Marc.

    1979-01-01

    The absorption and the elimination of cadmium have been investigated in rats wistar after oral administration or after inhalation. Before studying gastro-intestinal absorption, it appeared necessary to precise acute toxicity of orally administred cadmium. The distribution of cadmium within organes was determined following a single or multiple oral doses, and we specially studied retention of a Cd dose ingested after several weeks of treatment with Cd-Acetate. Pulmonary and gastro-intestinal absorption of cadmium after ihalation of Cd-microparticles were studied. Data obtained from these studies on rats and extrapolated to man were used to calculate mximum permissible concentration (M.P.C.) of Cd-109 in water and in air [fr

  5. Cadmium exposure in the Swedish environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report gives a thorough description of cadmium in the Swedish environment. It comprises three parts: Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks;, Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure;, and Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all three parts

  6. Lithium thionyl chloride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saathoff, D.J.; Venkatasetty, H.V.

    1982-10-19

    The discharge rate and internal conductivity of electrochemical cell including a lithium anode, and a cathode and an electrolyte including LiAlCl4 and SOC2 is improved by the addition of an amount of a mixture containing AlCl3 and butyl pyridinium chloride.

  7. Strontium-89 Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may harm the fetus.notify any health care professional (especially other doctors) giving you treatment that you will be taking strontium-89 chloride.do not have any vaccinations (e.g., measles or flu shots) without talking to your doctor.

  8. Prophylactic role of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced histological alterations in the kidney of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarti, A.; Prajapat, T.R.; Ojha, S.; Kanwar, Om; Nayak, K.; Ram, Purkha; Bhartiya, K.M.; Gupta, M.L.; Jangir, A.

    2012-01-01

    Protection of biological systems against radiation damage is of paramount importance during accidental and unavoidable exposure of radiation. Thus, development of novel and effective approaches using non toxic radioprotectors is of considerable interest for not only in the protection of normal tissue during radio therapy of tumors but also for defence (nuclear wars), nuclear industries, radiation accidents, space flights etc. Adult male Swiss albino mice were exposed to 5.0 Gy gamma radiations in the presence or absence of the Aloe vera. For this purpose 6 to 8 week old male mice were divided into seven groups; group I (sham-irradiated), group II (cadmium chloride), group III (irradiated with 5Gy. Gamma rays), group IV (radiation and cadmium chloride), group V (cadmium chloride and Aloe vera), group VI (radiation and Aloe vera), group VII (radiation, cadmium chloride and Aloe vera). Animals from all the above groups were autopsied at 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days post treatment intervals. For histopathological studies kidney was taken out and it's pieces were fixed in Bouins fixative for 24 hours. The tissue was washed in clean water to remove excess of the fixative, dehydrated in graded series of alcohol, cleared in xylene and embedded in paraffin wax. Sections were cut at 5 μm and stained in Harris haematoxyline and alcoholic eosine. In the present experiment histopathological changes were found in the kidney of Swiss albino mice. Severe changes seen in the renal architecture after exposure of 5 Gy of gamma rays were: blurred renal architecture, intracellular oedema, damaged tubules, cytoplasmic degranulation, vacuolation and pycnotic nuclei in the cortical and medullary part. The changes were more marked on day 7, but on day 14 the signs of recovery were observed and on day 28 comparatively better renal architecture was observed. In cadmium chloride treated animals the changes observed were: cytoplasmic degranulation, vacuolation, crenated and pycnotic nuclei. The

  9. 2D X-ray and FTIR micro-analysis of the degradation of cadmium yellow pigment in paintings of Henri Matisse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouyet, E.; Cotte, M.; Fayard, B.; Salomé, M.; Meirer, F.; Mehta, A.; Uffelman, E. S.; Hull, A.; Vanmeert, F.; Kieffer, J.; Burghammer, M.; Janssens, K.; Sette, F.; Mass, J.

    2015-11-01

    The chemical and physical alterations of cadmium yellow (CdS) paints in Henri Matisse's The Joy of Life (1905-1906, The Barnes Foundation) have been recognized since 2006, when a survey by portable X-ray fluorescence identified this pigment in all altered regions of the monumental painting. This alteration is visible as fading, discoloration, chalking, flaking, and spalling of several regions of light to medium yellow paint. Since that time, synchrotron radiation-based techniques including elemental and spectroscopic imaging, as well as X-ray scattering have been employed to locate and identify the alteration products observed in this and related works by Henri Matisse. This information is necessary to formulate one or multiple mechanisms for degradation of Matisse's paints from this period, and thus ensure proper environmental conditions for the storage and the display of his works. This paper focuses on 2D full-field X-ray Near Edge Structure imaging, 2D micro-X-ray Diffraction, X-ray Fluorescence, and Fourier Transform Infra-red imaging of the altered paint layers to address one of the long-standing questions about cadmium yellow alteration—the roles of cadmium carbonates and cadmium sulphates found in the altered paint layers. These compounds have often been assumed to be photo-oxidation products, but could also be residual starting reagents from an indirect wet process synthesis of CdS. The data presented here allow identifying and mapping the location of cadmium carbonates, cadmium chlorides, cadmium oxalates, cadmium sulphates, and cadmium sulphides in thin sections of altered cadmium yellow paints from The Joy of Life and Matisse's Flower Piece (1906, The Barnes Foundation). Distribution of various cadmium compounds confirms that cadmium carbonates and sulphates are photo-degradation products in The Joy of Life, whereas in Flower Piece, cadmium carbonates appear to have been a [(partially) unreacted] starting reagent for the yellow paint, a role

  10. Effects of Chemical Applications to Metal Polluted Soils on Cadmium Uptake by Rice Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo J. H.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pot experiment using metal polluted soils was conducted to investigate the effects of lime, iron and sulfur on changes in Cd availability and uptake by rice plant. Drainage and irrigation of water were performed to develop redox changes like field cultivation. Iron chloride and sodium sulfate solutions were applied to the pots in the middle of growth period of rice plant. Reactive metal pool in heavily polluted soils was slightly decreased after treatments with lime, iron chloride, sodium sulfate and combination of these chemicals. However, cadmium uptake by rice plant was significantly different across the treatments and the extent of Cd pollution. For highly polluted soils, more Cd reduction was observed in iron chloride treatments. Cd content in polished rice for iron chloride and (iron chloride+organic matter treatments was only 16-23% and 25-37% compared to control and liming, respectively. Treatment of (iron chloride+sulfate rather increased Cd content in rice. For moderately polluted soils, Cd reduction rate was the order of (OM+iron chloride > iron chloride > lime. Other treatments including sulfate rather increased Cd content in rice maximum 3 times than control. It was proposed to determine the optimum application rate of iron for minimizing hazardous effect on rice plant.

  11. Congenital chloride diarrhea: late presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Al Bishi, Laila; Mustafa,

    2011-01-01

    Laila Al Bishi1, Mustafa Al Toonisi2Pediatric Department, North West Armed Forces Hospital, Tabuk, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: We report the case of a male infant who presented with diarrhea at 6 months of age. He was failing to thrive, and biochemical investigation revealed hypokalemic hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Diagnosis of congenital chloride diarrhea was suspected and confirmed by the stool chloride result. He was started on high-dose sodium chloride and potassium chloride to...

  12. Biomonitoring of cadmium in pig production

    OpenAIRE

    Lindén, Anna

    2002-01-01

    Cadmium is a nephrotoxic metal with increasing levels in arable soils. The non-smoking population is exposed to cadmium mainly from vegetable food, especially cereal products. The major part of pig feed is cereals, and accumulated cadmium in pig kidney could reflect cadmium in the local agricultural environment. In this thesis, the possibility to use pig kidney as a bioindicator of the availability of cadmium in the agricultural environment was evaluated. There were significant correlations b...

  13. Cadmium immobilization by hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smičiklas Ivana D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of air, soil and water by cadmium is a great environmental problem. If cadmium occurs in nature in ionic form, soluble in water, it easily enters into the food chain. Hydroxyapatite (HAP, Ca-o(POAe(OH2 is a sparingly soluble salt and an excellent matrix for the removal of heavy metals from solutions. Considerable research attention has been paid to the bond between Cc/2+ ions and synthetic hydroxyapatite of known composition. The sorption mechanism is complex. The dominant process is ion exchange, but surface adsorption, surface complexation and coprecipitation can also contribute to the overall mechanism. The sorption capacity depends on the characteristics of hydroxyapatite itself and on the experimental conditions. Under optimum conditions a maximum capacity of 0.8 mol Cd2+/mol HAP can be achieved. HAP is a potential sorbent for the remediation of contaminated water and soil, for industrial waste treatment, and it is also referenced as a material that can be used as a barrier around waste depositories.

  14. Retention, distribution, and excretion of repeatedly administered cadmium-109 in the albino rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanbaky, M.M.

    1975-01-01

    This study was initiated to investigate uptake, distribution, and excretion of cadmium after prolonged intravenous and oral administrations. In both the intravenous and the oral studies cadmium was administered at 48 hr intervals for 30, 60, and 90 days to the first, second, and third animal groups, respectively. The total cadmium administered to each rat equaled 1 / 10 of the acute LD 50 (the intravenous LD 50 = 2.0 mg/kg, and the oral LD 50 = 150 mg/kg). In the excretion groups, urine and feces were collected every 48 hr during the experiment. All tissues and excreta were assayed for cadmium-109 activity by internal liquid scintillation counting. In the intravenous study the liver showed the highest cadmium retention. There were no significant differences between the mean retention values for liver in the intravenous study. Renal cadmium levels in the 120-day group were significantly higher than that of any of the other groups. In the oral study, the liver showed a mean retention of 0.90 percent on day 30, 0.96 percent on day 60, 0.68 percent on day 90, and 0.61 percent on day 120. The kidneys retained 0.13 percent, 0.19 percent, and 0.20 percent for the 30-day, 60-day, 90-day, and 120-day groups, respectively. In both the intravenous and the oral studies hepatic and renal cadmium levels were highly correlated. Cadmium excretion during the first three months of the intravenous study was cyclic in nature. After three months, about 22 percent of the total amount of intravenously administered cadmium had been excreted. In the oral study, almost all the administered cadmium was excreted

  15. A method for determination of cadmium species in solid waste leachates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas H.; Xu Ze Lun

    1989-01-01

    A procedure has been developed for determination of cadmium (Cd) species in solid waste leachates employing a cation exchange resin (Chelex 100) in a batch-column-batch sequence. The procedure allows for determination of free divalent Cd (Cd2+), labile Cd complexes, slowly labile Cd complexes...... and stable Cd complexes. The effects of equilibration time, pH, calcium activity and ratio of sample volume to amount of resin have been examined. The method has been tested on standardized chloride and EDTA solutions containing Cd and on two actual leachates. The Cd species determined in the chloride...

  16. Effects of cadmium on the uptake of dopamine and norepinephrine in rat brain synaptosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) a known environmental contaminant is neurotoxic. Kinetics of cadmium inhibition indicate that the metal may compete with ATP and Na + sites on Na + -K + ATPase in rat brain synaptosomes. Uptake and release processes of catecholamines into the central nervous system are dependent on membrane bound Na + -K + ATPase. It is suggested that the uptake and release processes of dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in neurons are energy utilizing and hence are dependent on active ion transport. If the two aforementioned mechanisms are truly interdependent, then any alteration caused by a toxin to either of the above two mechanisms should also cause a parallel change in the other. The purpose of this study was to examine in vitro effects of cadmium chloride on the uptake of DA and NE and the activity of ATPase in the rat brain synaptosome

  17. Prevention of radiation and cadmium induced haematological alternations in the Swiss albino mice by Aloe Vera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Manisha; Songara, Venkteshwar; Singariya, Seema; Meena, Dinesh; Chakrawarti, Aruna; Purohit, R.K.

    2013-01-01

    The development of effective radio protectors and radio recovery drugs is of great importance in view of their potential application during both planned (i.e., radiotherapy) and unplanned radiation exposure (i.e., in the nuclear industry and natural background radiation). The combined effect of radiation and cadmium further increases the causation of damages to organs and tissues. Aloe vera has enjoyed a reputation as a healer for millennia, based primarily on anecdotal evidence. For the last 40 years concerted efforts by the scientific research community has brought Aloe vera out of the realm of folk medicine, providing it solid medical and scientific foundation. Haematopoietic organs are among the most radiosensitive cells in the living organisms. Therefore, present study was carried out to study the modulatory influence of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced hematological changes in the Swiss albino mice. For the study, six to eight weeks old male Swiss albino mice were procured and kept in polypropylene cages.The animals were exposed 3.5 Gy and 7.0 Gy of gamma radiation with or without cadmium chloride treatment. The Aloe vera was administered seven days prior to irradiation or cadmium chloride treatment. Five animals from each group were autopsied by cervical dislocation at each post treatment interval of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days. Blood was collected in heparinized tubes to estimate various haematological parameters viz. RBC, WBC, PCV, Haemoglobin and MCV. Radiation exposure resulted in a significant decline in RBC, WBC, PCV, Haemoglobin and MCV up to day-14 in peripheral blood, thereafter it increased up to day-28 without reaching to normal. After combined treatment of radiation and cadmium chloride the more severe changes were noticed showing synergistic or additive effect. An early and fast recovery was seen in Aloe vera pretreatment groups. Thus, it may be concluded from above observation that Aloe vera has the potential of combating the

  18. A Green Alternative to Aluminum Chloride Alkylation of Xylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereda, Grigoriy A.; Rajpara, Vikul B.

    2007-01-01

    An acutely less toxic 2-bromobutane is used to develop a simple graphite-promoted procedure of alkylation of p-xylene. It is further demonstrated that aluminum chloride is not required, the need for aqueous workup is eliminated, waste solutions are not produced and the multiple use of the catalyst is allowed.

  19. Cadmium effects on the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancic, Snezana A; Stosic, Bojan Z

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium has been listed as one of the 126 priority pollutants and a category I carcinogen. Carcinogenic effects of cadmium on the lungs, testicles, and prostate are widely recognized, but there has been insufficient research on the effect of cadmium on the thyroid gland. Cadmium has the affinity to accumulate not only in the liver, kidneys, and pancreas but also in the thyroid gland. It has been established that cadmium blood concentration correlates positively with its accumulation in the thyroid gland. Women of fertile age have higher cadmium blood and urine concentrations than men. In spite of its redox inertia, cadmium brings about oxidative stress and damage to the tissue by indirect mechanisms. Mitochondria are considered to be the main intracellular targets for cadmium. Colloid cystic goiter, adenomatoid follicular hyperplasia with low-grade dysplasia and thyroglobulin hypo- and asecretion, and parafollicular cell diffuse and nodular hyperplasia and hypertrophy are often found in chronic cadmium toxicity. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cadmium-containing waste and recycling possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegand, V.; Rauhut, A.

    1981-01-01

    To begin with, the processes of cadmium production from zinc ores in smelting plants or from intermediates of other metal works are described. A considerable amount of the cadmium is obtained in the recycling process in zinc, lead, and copper works. The way of the cadmium-containing intermediaries, processing, enrichment, and disposal of cadmium waste are described. Uses of cadmium and its compounds are mentioned, and cadmium consumption in the years 1973-1977 in West Germany is presented in a table. Further chapters discuss the production and the way of waste during production and processing of cadmium-containing products, the problem of cadmium in household refuse and waste incineration plants, and the problem of cadmium emissions. (IHOE) [de

  1. Discovery of the cadmium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, S.; Thoennessen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-seven cadmium isotopes have been observed so far and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  2. On the physicochemical states of cadmium and lead in sea water and sediment pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Isao; Sakai, Takashi; Inoue, Yoriteru

    1976-01-01

    The existence states of cadmium and lead in sea water taken from Wakasa Bay in Japan were experimentally studied and their transfer to bottom sand layer was tested. Sample water was filtered through a glass wool filter and a 0.45 μ-m membrane filter. Cadmium chloride and lead chloride were fed so that the concentrations of the metals became the environmental standard values (0.01 ppm for cadmium and 0.1 ppm for lead). Cd-115m and lead-210 were added to the sample as tracers. The existence states were measured by dialysis, the filtration with a membrane filter and the adsorption on an ion-exchange resin. As a result, the ionic state of cadmium decreased to 85% and the deposition factor on the membrane filter increased to about 30% when pH is 9.6. The distribution factor of the cation exchange resin was 2 - 5, whereas that of the anion exchange resin was 1000 or more at pH 8,4 or less, but was reduced to 541 at pH 9.6. The ion existence ratio of lead was 80% - 90% at pH 8 or less, and was 10% or less at pH 8.8. The deposition factor of lead was higher than that of cadmium. The distribution factor of lead showed similar tendency to that of cadmium. As a result of measuring the radioactivity adsorbed by the bottom sand in the experimental tank, it was found that the transfer of very small amount of heavy metals to the bottom material depended upon the physicochemical existence states of the metals in water. (Iwakiri, K.)

  3. Exposing to cadmium stress cause profound toxic effect on microbiota of the mice intestinal tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehao Liu

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd, one of the heavy metals, is an important environmental pollutant and a potent toxicant to organism. It poses a severe threat to the growth of the organism, and also has been recognized as a human carcinogen. However, the toxicity of cadmium and its influences on microbiota in mammal's intestine are still unclear. In our experiment, the changes of intestinal microbiota in two groups of mice were investigated, which were supplied with 20 and 100 mg kg(-1 cadmium chloride respectively for 3 weeks. The control group was treated with water free from cadmium chloride only. This study demonstrated that Cd accumulated in some tissues of mice after Cd administration and the gut barrier was impaired. Cd exposure also significantly elevated the colonic level of TNF-α. On the other hand, Cd-treatment could slow down the growth of gut microbiota and reduced the abundance of total intestinal bacteria of the mice. Among them, the growth of Bacteroidetes was significantly suppressed while Firmicutes growth was not. The probiotics including Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were notably inhibited. We also observed that the copies of key genes involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates to short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs were lower in Cd-treated groups than control. As a result, the levels of short-chain fatty acids in colonic decreased significantly. In summary, this study provides valuable insight into the effects of Cd intake on mice gut microbiota.

  4. Lead and cadmium in wild birds in southeastern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Fernandez, A.J.; Sanchez-Garcia, J.A.; Luna, A. [Univ. of Murcia (Spain); Jimenez-Montalban, P. [Regional Environmental Agency, Murcia (Spain). Centro de Recuperacion de Fauna Silvestre El Valle

    1995-12-01

    The main purpose of this study was to monitor exposure to lead and cadmium in wild birds in Murcia, a southeastern region of Spain on the Mediterranean coast. This region lies on one of the African-European flyways. Samples of liver, kidney, brain, bone, and whole blood from several species of wild birds were obtained during 1993. The authors found a clear relationship between cadmium and lead concentrations in birds and their feedings habits. Vultures (Gyps fulvus) had the highest concentrations of lead (mean 40 {micro}g/dl in blood), and seagulls (Larus argentatus and Larus ridibundus) the highest concentrations of cadmium (mean 4.43 {micro}g/g in kidney). Insectivores had high concentrations of both metals, and diurnal and nocturnal raptors showed the lowest tissue concentrations. The findings that tissue and blood concentrations were generally not elevated suggests environmental (rather than acute) exposure. Birds from more industrialized areas of the region studied here had higher concentrations of both lead and cadmium.

  5. Cadmium determination in wrapping paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostapczuk, P. (Institute of Applied Physical Chemistry, Research Center Juelich (Germany)); Knezevic, G. (Fraunhofer Inst. fuer Verpackung und Lebensmitteltechnologie, Muenchen (Germany)); Matter, L. (Chemisches und Lebensmitteluntersuchungsamt der Stadt Duisburg (Germany)); Steinle, G. (Suedzucker AG, Gruenstadt (Germany))

    1993-01-01

    The determination of cadmium in wrapping paper was carried out by the 'Inorganic Constituents' working group in an interlaboratory comparison. Pressure digestion in PTFE bombs and high pressure ashing in quartz vessels with nitric acid were used. Eleven participants used ET AAS and only two DPASV for cadmium determination. The mean of all (13) participants was 0.059 [+-] 0.027 mg/kg. Individual data are presented. (orig.).

  6. Cadmium induced inhibition of Na sup + /K sup + ATPase activity in tissues of crab Scylla serrata (Forskal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhavale, D.M. (RJ College, Bombay (India)); Masurekar, V.B. (Institute of Science, Bombay (India)); Giridhar, B.A. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (USA))

    1988-06-01

    Heavy metals discharged from industries these days are a major source of pollution which has become threat to all forms of life. A measure of metabolism may be a most sensitive parameter since it integrates many factors such as enzyme activity, biochemical contents and physiological response. The ability to accurately characterize enzymes with respect to their distribution and kinetics makes them attractive indices of stress. The concept of Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase being intimately involved in active transport of ions across biological membranes has gained wide acceptance in recent years. Interference with osmoregulation may restrict the animal's ability to adapt to salinity changes. Several studies have shown that crustacenas are highly sensitive to metal pollutants, particularly when acclimated to low salinities. The present study was initiated to compare the characteristics of Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity in hepatopancreas and gills of crabs Scylla serrata (Forskal) exposed to acute and sublethal concentrations of cadmium chloride for defined periods with those from undosed animals.

  7. Biological indicators of cadmium exposure and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, Z.A.; Smith, L.M.

    1986-01-01

    The increasing environmental and occupational exposure of populations to cadmium creates the need for biological indicators of cadmium exposure and toxicity. The advantages and disadvantages of monitoring blood cadmium, urinary, fecal, hair, and tissue cadmium, serum creatine, beta 2-microglobulin, alpha 1-anti-trypsin and other proteins, and urinary amino acids, enzymes, total proteins, glucose, beta 2-microglobulin, retinol-binding protein, lysozyme, and metallothionein are discussed. It is concluded that urinary cadmium, metallothionein and beta 2-microglubulin may be used together to assess cadmium exposure and toxicity. 66 references.

  8. Electrodeposition nucleation and film formation of cadmium from a low melting molten salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rajev

    Consider the simple electrodeposition reaction of a metal: Mz+ + ze- M (at the cathode of the base metal)Whereby metal ions, Mz+, are reduced to metal atoms, M, at the interface of the base metal and electrolyte. The occurrence of such an electrode reaction does not guarantee the nucleation of M or the formation of a compact film of metal M on the base metal. In cases where deposition does occur, metal crystals are formed at fixed sites on the base metal. These metal crystals grow into a polycrystalline film. In this work, this concept of metal deposition is studied. The studies were carried out on cadmium using nickel as a base metal and purified chloroaluminate molten salt electrolyte under purified helium. Cadmium is typically electroplated from aqueous electrolytes. Therefore, the first part of this work consisted of developing an electroplating process for the deposition of this metal from a molten salt electrolyte. This consisted of selection of an electrolyte, cadmium salt, base metal, and experimental proof of cadmium deposition in the selected system. The second part consisted of identification of the cadmium electrode reactions in the chloroaluminate molten salt electrolyte using cyclic voltammetry. When cadmium chloride was added to the chloroaluminate melt, the divalent salt dissolved to form a mixture of divalent and subvalent ions of cadmium in the electrolyte. During cathodic potential scans, these cadmium ions produced two reduction peaks. The first cathodic peak was from reduction of divalent ions to subvalent ions, and the second peak from reduction of subvalent ions to cadmium metal. During anodic potential scans, two oxidation peaks were produced due to reverse reactions of cadmium ions and metal. In addition, a third pair of cadmium peaks was noted to form between the two bulk pairs of cadmium peaks. This third pair of peaks was from chemical dissociation of subvalent ions to divalent ions and cadmium, and coupled electrochemical reactions of

  9. Amelioration of cadmium-induced changes in biochemical parameters of the muscle of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio by Vitamin C and Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Banaee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of administering antioxidants, including vitamin C and chitosan on oxidative stress markers in muscle as edible tissues of Cyprinus carpio exposed to cadmium chloride. In this experiment, by exposing to 0.2 mg/L cadmium chloride for 21 days, fish were fed a normal diet, diet containing chitosan (1000 mg/kg diet, vitamin C (1000 mg/kg diet or both vitamin C and chitosan. Oxidative stress markers, including the activity of catalase, total antioxidant and malondialdehyde (MDA as well as biochemical parameters, including the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, creatine phosphokinase (CPK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE were measured. Fish exposure to cadmium chloride significantly increased AST, LDH, CPK, catalase, and MDA activity, while it significantly decreased AST and AChE activity, and levels of total antioxidant in muscle cells. Administration of chitosan or vitamin C alone or in combination with each other to fish exposed to cadmium chloride was effective in regulating ALT, CPK, and catalase activity. Although administration of vitamin C and chitosan caused a significant decrease in MDA, AST and LDH, these enzymes were still significantly higher than those in the control group. Administration of vitamin C and chitosan had no significant effects on the activity of AChE and levels of total antioxidant. Although, chitosan alone could not prevent oxidative stress damages in muscle tissues of cadmium-treated fish, administration of vitamin C combined with chitosan may increase the efficiency of antioxidant defense system and improve the detoxification system in the muscles of fish exposed to cadmium chloride.

  10. Congenital chloride diarrhea: late presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Bishi L

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Laila Al Bishi1, Mustafa Al Toonisi2Pediatric Department, North West Armed Forces Hospital, Tabuk, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: We report the case of a male infant who presented with diarrhea at 6 months of age. He was failing to thrive, and biochemical investigation revealed hypokalemic hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Diagnosis of congenital chloride diarrhea was suspected and confirmed by the stool chloride result. He was started on high-dose sodium chloride and potassium chloride to control the electrolyte imbalance. The disease was difficult to control for a year after diagnosis. Late presentation is associated with severe chronic electrolyte disturbances and high-dose replacement therapy.Keywords: congenital chloride diarrhea, hypokalemic hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, high stool chloride

  11. BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF LIPID METABOLISM IN ANIMALS AFFECTED BY HEAVY METAL SALTS AND TREATED WITH CARNITINE CHLORIDE AND SODIUM ALGINATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Bekus

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lipid metabolism disorders in the organism affected by environmental pollutants, including poisoning with cadmium and lead salts are of topical matter nowadays. Objective. The study was aimed to examine biochemical features of lipid metabolism in rats subjected to toxic damage by lead and cadmium salts and treated with carnitine chloride and Algigel. Methods. Experiments were carried out on white mature outbred male rats weighing 180-200 g. To cause the toxic damage the animals were administered with aqueous solution of cadmium chloride and lead acetate daily for the period of 30 days using intra-gastric lavage. The indices of lipid metabolism were detected by biochemical methods. Results. In animals treated with cadmium chloride and lead acetate the following changes were observed: HDL-cholesterol concentrations significantly decreased, resulting in 87% of the levels in the intact animals on the third day, 84% on the fifth and 80% on the seventh day. Conversely, concentrations of HDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol significantly increased during the experiment. Respectively, the ratios for HDL-cholesterol are 240%, 352%, and 388%; and for VLDL-cholesterol 108%, 116%, and 132%. Conclusions. Lipids profile of the rats displayed changes in the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoproteins of low, high and very low density.

  12. Cadmium Extraction from Solutions by Solid-Phase and its Trace Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashrafi, F.; Attaran, A. M. [Payame Noor University, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kermani, N. Memar [Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    A new sensitive and selective spectrophotometric method for determination of trace amounts of cadmium using a polyvinyl chloride membrane containing bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate as a solid phase extraction medium was investigated. Bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate has used as a plasticizer. Cd(II) in an aqueous solution was trapped on the membrane in the form of colorful Cd (II)-I{sup -} - MG complexes (which MG is malachite green) and the cadmium complex was concentrated in the membrane. The absorbance of the green membrane was measured at 629 nm using a spectrophotometer, and then, the concentration of the cadmium was calculated using a calibration curve, which expressed the relationship between the Cd(II) concentration and the membrane absorbance after coloring for 25 min. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 10-760 μgL{sup -1} cadmium in the test solution. The detection limit based on the 3S{sub bl} criterion was 1.8199 μgL{sup -1} and the relative standard deviations (RSD) were less than 4 % (n=5). The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of trace amounts of cadmium in the Tadjan River water sample (Sari-Iran), and the mean value of 28.7 μgL{sup -1} was obtained.

  13. Histological Effects of Cadmium on Hepatopancreas and Gill in Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Ghiasi*

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Histological studies in organs like hepatopancreas and gill of the freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio, were made to assess tissue damage due to sub-lethal concentration of cadmium after a long exposure period. Methods: This study was conducted in University of Tehran, in 2013. The fish were divided into two groups in 1000 litre fiberglass tanks supplied with dechlorinated water [hardness 302.6 mg CaCo3/l, pH 7, O2 7.8 mg/L and temperature 15 ± 2 ºC] and continuous aeration. Group 1 was without any cadmium considered as control group. Group 2 was exposed to 30 ppb CdCl2 (Merck containing 7.8 ppb cadmium. The tissue samples from: hepatopancreas, gill were collected 30 days post exposure and processed by histological procedures. Results: The main lesions in cadmium exposed groups were: (a pancreatitis necrosis in endocrine part of pancreas (b cholangitis and necrosis in liver parenchyma (c hypertrophy, fusion and telangiectasia in secondary lamellae Conclusion: Cadmium chloride at low concentration can induce pathological alterations in hepatopancreas and gill of common carp.

  14. Cadmium nanoparticles citrullinate cytokeratins within lung epithelial cells: cadmium as a potential cause of citrullination in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutchinson D

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available David Hutchinson,1,2 Judith Müller,3 Joseph E McCarthy,4 Yurii K Gun’ko,4,5 Navin Kumar Verma,6 Xuezhi Bi,7 Luisana Di Cristo,8 Laura Kickham,8 Dania Movia,8 Adriele Prina-Mello,5,8 Yuri Volkov5,8,9 1Royal Cornwall Hospital NHS Trust, Treliske, 2University of Exeter Medical School Cornwall, UK; 3University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 4School of Chemistry, 5Advanced Materials for BioEngineering Research Centre (AMBER, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; 6Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, 7Bioprocessing Technology Institute, A*STAR Graduate Academy, Singapore; 8Department of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; 9International Laboratory of Magnetically Controlled Nanosystems for Theranostics of Oncological and Cardiovascular Diseases, ITMO University, St. Petersburg, Russia Objective: The objective of the study was to determine whether the cadmium-derived materials induce intracellular protein citrullination. Methods: Human A549 lung epithelial cells were exposed to cadmium in soluble and nanoparticulate forms represented by cadmium chloride (CdCl2 and cadmium oxide (CdO, respectively, and their combinations with ultrafine carbon black (ufCB produced by high temperature combustion, imitating cigarette burning. Protein citrullination in cell lysates was analyzed by Western immunoblotting and verified by immunofluorescent confocal microscopy. Target citrullinated proteins were identified by proteomic analysis. Results: CdO, ufCB and its combination with CdCl2 and CdO after high temperature combustion induced protein citrullination in cultured human lung epithelial cells, as detected by immunoblotting with anti-citrullinated protein antibody. Cytokeratins of type II (1, 2, 5, 6A, 6B and 77 and type I (9, 10 were identified as major intracellular citrullination targets. Immunofluorescent staining confirmed the localization of citrullinated proteins both in the

  15. Effects of waterborne cadmium on metabolic rate, oxidative stress, and ion regulation in the freshwater fish, inanga (Galaxias maculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Nicole K; Gaw, Sally; Glover, Chris N

    2018-01-01

    The freshwater fish Galaxias maculatus (inanga) is a widespread Southern hemisphere species, but despite its habitation of lowland near-coastal waters with a high potential for cadmium contamination, nothing is known regarding its sensitivity to this toxic trace metal. Acute (96h) exposures were therefore performed to determine sublethal responses of inanga to waterborne cadmium at a regulatory trigger value (nominally 0.2μgL -1 ; measured 1μgL -1 ), an environmental level (measured at 2.5μgL -1 ), and an effect level (measured at 10μgL -1 ). Whole body (tissue remaining following excision of kidney and liver) cadmium burden remained constant up until an exposure concentration of 10μgL -1 , at which point cadmium concentration increased significantly. A transient effect of cadmium on metabolic rate was observed, with an impaired oxygen consumption noted at 2.5, but not 1 or 10, μg L -1 . Cadmium did not impair influx rates of either sodium or calcium, and no effects of cadmium on oxidative stress parameters (catalase activity, lipid peroxidation) were noted in the kidney. However, at cadmium concentrations of 2.5 and 10μgL -1 , lipid peroxidation in the liver increased, concomitant with a decline in hepatic catalase activity. These data indicate that there are significant differences in the mechanisms of cadmium toxicity in inanga, relative to better-studied Northern hemisphere species, especially with respect to ionoregulatory impacts. However, effects were induced at cadmium concentrations unlikely to be encountered in any but the most highly contaminated waterways, and thus our data suggest that current trigger values for cadmium concentrations in Australian and New Zealand waters are likely to be protective of inanga. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Zinc-induced protection against cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Early, J.L.; Schnell, R.C.

    1978-02-01

    Pretreatment of male rats with cadmium acetate potentiates the duration of hexobarbital hypnosis and inhibits the rate of hepatic microsomal drug metabolism. Pretreatment of rats with zinc acetate protects against these alterations in drug action elicited by cadmium.

  17. Uptake and distribution of cadmium in corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peel, J.W.; Vetter, R.J.; Christian, J.E.; Kessler, W.V.; McFee, W.W.

    1978-01-01

    The uptake and distribution of cadmium in corn (Zea mays) treated at various time intervals after planting and sampled at various times after treatment were measured. Cadmium was found to accumulate in all parts sampled. As shown in field studies, stems and leaves generally concentrated more cadmium than did husks, cobs, kernels, silks, or tassels. Samples of stems and leaves from corn treated 23 days after planting and sampled 5 days later exhibited higher concentrations of cadmium than samples taken 25, 45, 65, or 85 days after treatment. Concentrations generally decreased with time. Greenhouse studies showed that corn exposed to cadmium for the longest period of time accumulated the greatest total cadmium. The highest cadmium concentrations were found in the base or lowest leaves sampled 45 days after planting; this suggests a useful technique for quick screening corn crops for cadmium pollution

  18. Chloride Transport in Heterogeneous Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A.; Holt, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    The chloride mass balance (CMB) is a commonly-used method for estimating groundwater recharge. Observations of the vertical distribution of pore-water chloride are related to the groundwater infiltration rates (i.e. recharge rates). In CMB method, the chloride distribution is attributed mainly to the assumption of one dimensional piston flow. In many places, however, the vertical distribution of chloride will be influenced by heterogeneity, leading to horizontal movement of infiltrating waters. The impact of heterogeneity will be particularly important when recharge is locally focused. When recharge is focused in an area, horizontal movement of chloride-bearing waters, coupled with upward movement driven by evapotranspiration, may lead to chloride bulges that could be misinterpreted if the CMB method is used to estimate recharge. We numerically simulate chloride transport and evaluate the validity of the CMB method in highly heterogeneous systems. This simulation is conducted for the unsaturated zone of Ogallala, Antlers, and Gatuna (OAG) formations in Andrews County, Texas. A two dimensional finite element model will show the movement of chloride through heterogeneous systems. We expect to see chloride bulges not only close to the surface but also at depths characterized by horizontal or upward movement. A comparative study of focused recharge estimates in this study with available recharge data will be presented.

  19. Protective role of metallothionein during regeneration in Eisenia andrei exposed to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorat, Agnieszka; Vandenbulcke, Franck; Gałuszka, Adrianna; Klimek, Beata; Plytycz, Barbara

    2017-12-01

    Lumbricid earthworms are often exposed to simultaneous action of various environmental stressors like soil contamination, temperature fluctuation or predators' attacks, which may induce extrusion of coelomocyte-containing coelomic fluid or loss of tail segments. If the injuries are not lethal, renewal of the immune-competent cells and soluble components of coelomic fluid and/or the regeneration of tail segments occurs. The aim of our investigations was to test the hypothesis that exposure of adult earthworms Eisenia andrei to cadmium-polluted soil at room temperature (RT) and/or low temperature (6°C) have adverse effects on restoration of experimentally depleted coelomocytes or on regeneration of amputated posterior segments. Intact control earthworms and their experimental counterparts subjected to electrostimulation-induced coelomocyte depletion or surgical amputation of posterior segments were maintained either in control soil or in soil spiked with cadmium chloride (500mg/kg air-dried soil) at RT or 6°C. Four weeks after the beginning of experiments, cadmium accumulation in earthworm bodies was significantly lower at 6°C than at room temperature. The numbers of restored cells and fluorophore contents were hardly affected by temperature or cadmium. However, cocoon production was reduced by cadmium and completely abolished at 6°C and regeneration of amputated posterior segments was inhibited in cold but was enhanced by cadmium exposure at RT. Independently on the temperature, the 4-week cadmium exposure of adult earthworms was connected with significantly upregulated expression of Cd-metallothionein (but not of catalase, lysenin and phytochelatin) in coelomocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Induction of Plac8 promotes pro-survival function of autophagy in cadmium-induced prostate carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolluru, Venkatesh; Pal, Deeksha; Papu John, A M Sashi; Ankem, Murali K; Freedman, Jonathan H; Damodaran, Chendil

    2017-11-01

    Chronic exposure to cadmium is known to be a risk factor for human prostate cancer. Despite over-whelming evidence of cadmium causing carcinogenicity in humans, the specific underlying molecular mechanisms that govern metal-induced cellular transformation remain unclear. Acute exposure (up to 72 h) to cadmium induces apoptosis in normal prostate epithelial cells (RWPE-1), while chronic exposure (>1 year) transforms these cells to a malignant phenotype (cadmium-transformed prostate epithelial cells; CTPE). Increased expression of autophagy-regulated genes; Plac8, LC3B and Lamp-1; in CTPE cells was associated with cadmium-induced transformation. Increased expression of Plac8, a regulator of autophagosome/autolysosome fusion, facilitates the pro-survival function of autophagy and upregulation of pAKT (ser473) and NF-κβ, to allow CTPE to proliferate. Likewise, inhibition of Plac8 suppresses CTPE cell growth. Additionally, overexpression of Plac8 in RWPE-1 cells induces resistance to cadmium toxicity. Pharmacological inhibitors and an inducer of autophagy failed to affect Plac8 expression and CTPE cell viability, suggesting a unique role for Plac8 in cadmium-induced prostate epithelial cell transformation. These results support a role for Plac8 as an essential component in the cadmium-induced transformation of normal prostate epithelial cells to a cancerous state. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cadmium uptake by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghiri, F.

    1973-01-01

    Absorption of /sup 115m/Cd by soybean (Gylcine max l.) plants via foliar and root systems and translocation into the seed was determined. The uptake of /sup 115m/Cd by soybeans via the root system was more efficient than that of the foliar placement. Growth and Cd concentrations of soybean and wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) tops were influenced by soil-applied Cd. In both crops, the Cd concentration of plant tops increased while yield decreased with increasing levels of applied Cd. Cadmium toxicitiy began to occur in both crops at the lowest level of soil applied Cd (2.5 ppM). With soybean plants, Cd toxicity symptoms resembled fe chlorosis. For wheat plants there were no visual symptoms other than the studied growth. The relative concentration of Cd found in several vegetable crops varied depending on the plant species. The relative Cd concentration in descending order for various vegetables was lettuce (Lactuca sativa l.) > radish top (Raphanus sativus l.) > celery stalk (Apium graveolens l.) > celery leaves greater than or equal to green pepper (Capsicum frutescens l.) > radish roots.

  2. antioxidants, cadmium-induced toxicity, serum biochemical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Owu

    histopathological parameters of the liver, kidney and testes of the Wister rate were investigated. Cadmium (CD) in the dose range ... and their mechanisms of actions. Key words: vitamin C, cadmium, kidney, testes, hormones, antioxidants ... Cancer (Jarup et al 1998; Kjellstrom 1992;. Waalkes et al 1999), Cadmium has also ...

  3. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    In Denmark and EU the exposure of cadmium from food is at a level that is relatively close to the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI). This report describes an investigation of the bioavailability of cadmium in selected food items known to contain high levels of cadmium. The purpose was to provide data ...... or crushed linseed nor the intake of cocoa and chocolate....

  4. 29 CFR 1928.1027 - Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cadmium. 1928.1027 Section 1928.1027 Labor Regulations...) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE Occupational Health § 1928.1027 Cadmium. See § 1910.1027, Cadmium. [61 FR 9255, Mar. 7, 1996] ...

  5. A comparative investigation of DNA strand breaks, sister chromatid exchanges and K-ras gene mutations induced by cadmium salts in cultured human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouron, Silvana Andrea; Grillo, Claudia Alejandra; Dulout, Fernando Noel; Golijow, Carlos Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal of continuing occupational and environmental concern with a wide variety of adverse effects. Several studies have shown that cadmium produces DNA strand breaks, DNA-protein cross-links, oxidative DNA damage, chromosomal aberrations, dysregulation of gene expression resulting in enhanced proliferation, depressed apoptosis and/or altered DNA repair. This study was undertaken to investigate the ability of cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) and cadmium sulphate (CdSO 4 ) to induce point mutations in codon 12 of the K-ras protooncogene assessed by polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphisms (PCR-SSCP) and RFLP-enriched PCR methods. Also their genotoxic effects were analyzed by the comet assay and sister chromatid exchanges test. The human lung fibroblast cell line MRC-5 was used for the experiments. Sister chromatid exchanges assay (SCEs) frequencies were significantly increased in cells exposed to cadmium salts in relation to controls (p < 0.001). Despite the slow increment observed in the three comet parameters considered when cells were treated with cadmium chloride, significant differences between groups were only found in the variable comet moment (CM) (p < 0.005). On the other hand, when cells were exposed to cadmium sulphate, the Kruskal-Wallis test showed highly significant differences between groups for migration, tail moment and comet moment parameters (p < 0.001). Nevertheless, a null or weak point mutation induction in K-ras protooncogene was detected using polymerase chain reaction-low ionic strength-single strand conformation polymorphisms (PCR-LIS-SSCP) and RFLP-enriched PCR methods when cells were treated with cadmium salts. Thus, inorganic cadmium produces genotoxicity in human lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells, in the absence of significant point mutation of the K-ras gene

  6. Hsp27, Hsp70, and metallothionein in MDCK and LLC-PK1 renal epithelial cells: effects of prolonged exposure to cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonham, Rita T.; Fine, Michael R.; Pollock, Fiona M.; Shelden, Eric A.

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium is a widely distributed industrial and environmental toxin. The principal target organ of chronic sublethal cadmium exposure is the kidney. In renal epithelial cells, acute high-dose cadmium exposure induces differential expression of proteins, including heat shock proteins. However, few studies have examined heat shock protein expression in cells after prolonged exposure to cadmium at sublethal concentrations. Here, we assayed total cell protein, neutral red uptake, cell death, and levels of metallothionein and heat shock proteins Hsp27 and inducible Hsp70 in cultures of MDCK and LLC-PK1 renal epithelial cells treated with cadmium for 3 days. Treatment with cadmium at concentrations equal to or greater than 10 μM (LLC-PK1) or 25 μM (MDCK) reduced measures of cell vitality and induced cell death. However, a concentration-dependent increase in Hsp27 was detected in both cell types treated with as little as 5 μM cadmium. Accumulation of Hsp70 was correlated only with cadmium treatment at concentrations also causing cell death. Metallothionein was maximally detected in cells treated with cadmium at concentrations that did not reduce cell vitality, and further increases were not detected at greater concentrations. These results reveal that heat shock proteins accumulate in renal epithelial cells during prolonged cadmium exposure, that cadmium induces differential expression of heat shock protein in epithelial cells, and that protein expression patterns in epithelial cells are specific to the cadmium concentration and degree of cellular injury. A potential role for Hsp27 in the cellular response to sublethal cadmium-induced injury is also implicated by our results

  7. Coprecipitation of cadmium with calcite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujino, Osamu; Kumagai, Tetsu; Shigematsu, Tsunenobu; Matsui, Masakazu

    1976-01-01

    The distribution of cadmium between precipitates of calcite and saturated aqueous solution was measured at 25 0 C to understand the distribution of cadmium in the bivalves. Calcite was precipitated from calcium bicarbonate solution by the gradual release of carbon dioxide. The cadmium ions were coprecipitated in calcite, obeying the logarithmic distribution law. The apparent distribution coefficient was decreased as α, α'-dipyridyl increased, but the true distribution coefficient was found to be an almost constant value, 560. This value is fairly close to the ratio of solubility product constants K sub(calcite)/K sub(CdCO 3 ), 890. This suggests that the deviation of the present solid solution from ideality is not very large. (auth.)

  8. Valyl benzyl ester chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Dutkiewicz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound (systematic name: 1-benzyloxy-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-aminium chloride, C12H18NO2+·Cl−, the ester group is approximately planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.040 (2 Å from the least-squares plane, and makes a dihedral angle of 28.92 (16° with the phenyl ring. The crystal structure is organized by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds which join the two components into a chain along the b axis. Pairs of chains arranged antiparallel are interconnected by further N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming eight-membered rings. Similar packing modes have been observed in a number of amino acid ester halides with a short unit-cell parameter of ca 5.5 Å along the direction in which the chains run.

  9. Chloride on the Move

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bo

    2017-01-09

    Chloride (Cl−) is an essential plant nutrient but under saline conditions it can accumulate to toxic levels in leaves; limiting this accumulation improves the salt tolerance of some crops. The rate-limiting step for this process – the transfer of Cl− from root symplast to xylem apoplast, which can antagonize delivery of the macronutrient nitrate (NO3−) to shoots – is regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and is multigenic. Until recently the molecular mechanisms underpinning this salt-tolerance trait were poorly defined. We discuss here how recent advances highlight the role of newly identified transport proteins, some that directly transfer Cl− into the xylem, and others that act on endomembranes in ‘gatekeeper’ cell types in the root stele to control root-to-shoot delivery of Cl−.

  10. Electron transfer of monovalent cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerat-Parizot, O.; Potier, J.; Hickel, B.

    1993-01-01

    The surveys presented here concern monovalent Cadmium in aqueous solutions, produced by reduction of Cd(II), using pulsed radiolysis. We specifically studied the Cd(I) reactivity when complexed in certain synthetic ionophores. Cd(I), being an extremely powerful reducing agent, regains its stable valence by transferring an electron to an acceptor. Organic molecules are introduced into a solvent, permitting the analysis of the transfer rate of this electron. We investigated the influence of the ligand specificities and the variation of the electron transfer rate, that depend on the potential difference between Cadmium and the acceptor being used. 34 refs

  11. Influence of cadmium on ketamine-induced anesthesia and brain microsomal Na[sup +], K[sup +]-ATPase in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Y.; Sangiah, S. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States))

    1994-10-01

    Cadmium is a rare metallic element, present in almost all types of food. Shellfish, wheat and rice accumulate very high amounts. Occupational and environmental pollutants are the main sources of cadmium exposure. Cadmium has a very long biologic half-life. Exposure to Cadmium causes anemia, hypertension, hepatic, renal, pulmonary and cardiovascular disorders as well as being a possible mutagen, teratogen and carcinogen. Acute cadmium treatment increased the hexobarbital sleeping time and inhibited hepatic microsomal drug metabolism due to a decrease in cytochrome P[sub 450] content. Cadmium potentiated ethanol-induced sleep in a dose-dependent manner. Cadmium has been shown to inhibit brain microsomal Na[sup +], K[sup +]-ATPase activity in vitro and in vivo. Cadmium and ethanol additively inhibited brain Na[sup +], K[sup +]-ATPase. This might be a direct interaction between cadmium and ethanol in the central nervous system. Ketamine is an intravenous anesthetic agent. It acts on central nervous system and produces [open quotes]dissociative anaesthesia.[close quotes] Ketamine provides adequate surgical anesthesia and is used alone in humans and/or combination with xylazine, an [alpha][sub 2]-adrenergic agonist in animals. It produces CNS depression, analgesia, amnesia, immobility and a feeling of dissociation from the environment. Ketamine is a non-competitive antagonist of the NMDA subset of the glutamate receptor. This perhaps results in an increase in neuronal activity leading to disorganization of normal neurotransmission and produces dissociative anesthetic state. Because it is different from most other anesthetics, ketamine may be expected to have a unique effect on brain biochemical parameters and enzymes. The purpose of this study was to examine the interactions between cadmium and ketamine on the central nervous system and ATPase, in an attempt to further understand the mechanism of action. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Preferential Elimination of Older Erythrocytes in Circulation and Depressed Bone Marrow Erythropoietic Activity Contribute to Cadmium Induced Anemia in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sreoshi; Saxena, Rajiv K.

    2015-01-01

    Feeding cadmium chloride (50 or 1000 ppm CdCl2 in drinking water, ad libitum) to C57BL/6 mice resulted in a significant and sustained fall in blood erythrocyte count and hemoglobin levels that started 4 and 3 weeks after the start of 50 and 1000 ppm cadmium doses respectively. A transient yet significant reticulocytosis occurred during the first 4 weeks of cadmium treatment. Using the recently developed double in vivo biotinylation (DIB) technique, turnover of erythrocyte cohorts of different age groups was simultaneously monitored in control and cadmium treated mice. A significant accumulation of younger erythrocytes and a concomitant decline in the relative proportions of older erythrocytes in circulation was observed in both 50 and 1000 ppm cadmium groups indicating that older erythrocytes were preferentially eliminated in cadmium induced anemia. A significant increase in the erythropoietin levels in plasma was seen in mice exposed to 1000 ppm cadmium. Levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL1A, IL6, TNFα, IFNγ) were however not significantly altered in cadmium treated mice. A significant increase in cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed in older erythrocytes in circulation but not in younger erythrocytes. Erythropoietic activity in the bone marrows and spleens of cadmium treated mice was examined by monitoring the relative proportion of cells belonging to the erythroid line of differentiation in these organs. Erythroid cells in bone marrow declined markedly (about 30%) in mice in the 1000 ppm cadmium group but the decline was not significant in the 50 ppm cadmium group. Cells representing various stages of erythroid differentiation in bone marrow and spleen were enumerated flow cytometrically by double staining with anti-Ter119 and anti-transferrin receptor (CD71) monoclonal antibodies. Decline of erythroid cells was essentially confined to pro-erythroblast and erythroblast-A, along with a concurrent increase in the splenic erythroid

  13. [Investigation of urinary cadmium reference of general population in two rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium-polluted in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jingxiu; Li, Qiujuan; Yao, Dancheng; Zheng, Jiangang; Zhang, Wenli; Shang, Qi

    2014-09-01

    To study the reference of urinary. cadmium of the general population in rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium contaminated in China. In rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium contaminated, randomly selected non-occupational-cadmium exposed population 1134 people (male 519, female 615) with each gender and age groups, questionnaire surveyed and collected random urine. Urinary cadmium and urinary creatinine (Cr) concentration were tested, excluding urinary Cr 3 g/L. Analyze the impact factors of urinary cadmium and calculated 95% quantile (P,95 ) of urinary cadmium after correction by urinary Cr. Female median urinary cadmium was significantly higher than men, male smokers median urinary cadmium was significantly higher than male non-smokers (P 30 year-old. According to gender, and 15 -30, 30 years old, analysis the upper limit of cadmium in urine. The 95% upper limit of urinary cadmium of 30 year-old female (12.24 microg/gCr) was significantly higher than other populations ( population exceeded the upper limit (5 microg/gCr) of the occupational cadmium poisoning diagnostic criteria in China (GBZ 17-2002). In the two rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium polluted , urinary cadmium reference of non-cadmium-occupational-exposed male is <9.0 microg/gCr, and female <13.0 microg/gCr.

  14. The determination, by differential pulse anodic-stripping voltammetry at the thin mercury-film electrode, of cadmium and thallium in six NIMROC reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.F.

    1981-01-01

    A previously reported procedure has been extended to include the determination of thallium. In samples where thallium occurred in the presence of relatively high concentrations of cadmium, the stripping peak for cadmium was first suppressed with non-ionic surface-active agent, Triton X-100. Cadmium and thallium were determined directly in six NIMROC reference materials without interference from iron(III), in a reducing electrolyte, which is also a complexing agent, consisting of 1 M ammonium chloride, 0,1 M citric acid, and 0,025 M ascorbic acid. Interelement interferences were eliminated by the use of a mercury-film electrode of adequate thickness. The limits of detection for cadmium were 10ng/g and those for thallium 20ng/g

  15. Cadmium-induced immune abnormality is a key pathogenic event in human and rat models of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong; Huang, Yinping; Zhang, Keke; Huang, Yanjun; Yan, Yan; Wang, Fan; Wu, Jie; Wang, Xiao; Xu, Zhangye; Chen, Yongtao; Cheng, Xue; Li, Yong; Jiao, Jinyu; Ye, Duyun

    2016-11-01

    With increased industrial development, cadmium is an increasingly important environmental pollutant. Studies have identified various adverse effects of cadmium on human beings. However, the relationships between cadmium pollution and the pathogenesis of preeclampsia remain elusive. The objective of this study is to explore the effects of cadmium on immune system among preeclamptic patients and rats. The results showed that the cadmium levels in the peripheral blood of preeclamptic patients were significantly higher than those observed in normal pregnancy. Based on it, a novel rat model of preeclampsia was established by the intraperitoneal administration of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) (0.125 mg of Cd/kg body weight) on gestational days 9-14. Key features of preeclampsia, including hypertension, proteinuria, placental abnormalities and small foetal size, appeared in pregnant rats after the administration of low-dose of CdCl2. Cadmium increased immunoglobulin production, mainly angiotensin II type 1-receptor-agonistic autoantibodies (AT1-AA), by increasing the expression of activation-induced cytosine deaminase (AID) in B cells. AID is critical for the maturation of antibody and autoantibody responses. In addition, angiotensin II type 1-receptor-agonistic autoantibody, which emerged recently as a potential pathogenic contributor to PE, was responsible for the deposition of complement component 5 (C5) in kidneys of pregnant rats via angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) activation. C5a is a fragment of C5 that is released during C5 activation. Selectively interfering with C5a signalling by a complement C5a receptor-specific antagonist significantly attenuated hypertension and proteinuria in Cd-injected pregnant rats. Our results suggest that cadmium induces immune abnormalities that may be a key pathogenic contributor to preeclampsia and provide new insights into treatment strategies of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. catena-Poly[[di-μ-chlorido-bis{[6-methoxy-2-(4-methylphenyliminiomethylphenolato-κ2O,O′]cadmium(II}]-di-μ2-thiocyanato-κ2N:S;κ2S:N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Liang Zhao

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Cd2Cl2(NCS2(C15H15NO22]n, contains the Schiff base 2-[(4-methylphenyliminomethyl]-6-methoxyphenol (HL ligand, one thiocyanate and one chloride ligand coordinated to a cadmium centre. The cadmium centers are linked to each other via two thiocyanate and two chloride bridges alternately, resulting in centrosymmetric zigzag chains running parallel to the a axis. The CdII coordination environment contains two Cl atoms, one thiocyanate (SCN S atom, one isothiocyanate (NCS N atom and two O atoms from the HL ligand. The Schiff base ligand is in the trans conformation.

  17. Cadmium toxicokinetics in the freshwater turtle, Chinemys reevesii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Junfeng; Dong, Aiguo; Yan, Juanjuan; Wang, Lan; Ma, Cungen; Lee, Shaochin

    2017-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate the toxicokinetics of Cadmium (Cd) in Chinemys reevesii. The animals were exposed to 15 mg/kg Cd chloride by intraperitoneal injection, and the Cd absorption, distribution, and excretion in different organs were determined. The results showed that Cd absorption reached its peak in the blood at 3 h after treatment. The accumulation of Cd was the highest in the liver and the second highest in the pancreas. All other tissues also accumulated Cd, such as spleen, kidney, intestine, lung, stomach, heart, brain, muscle. A small amount of Cd was found in the faeces. The urine and bile had low concentrations of Cd. In conclusion, absorbance of Cd reaches its peak at 3 h in blood. The liver and pancreas are the major organs of Cd accumulation, and the major excretion route of Cd is through feaces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Chelating agents and cadmium toxicity: problems and prospects.

    OpenAIRE

    Nordberg, G F

    1984-01-01

    Symptoms and signs in humans after excessive exposure to cadmium usually involve the gastrointestinal tract after single oral intake, the lung after acute inhalation, and the kidney after long-term exposure. These organs are usually considered to be the "critical" organs, i.e., the organs most sensitive at a certain type of exposure. The type of Cd-related damage that is most common in humans is probably the renal toxicity after long-term exposure. Most animal experiments, including the most ...

  19. Neurobehavioral toxicity of cadmium sulfate to the planarian Dugesia dorotocephala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebe, E.; Schaeffer, D.J. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (United States))

    1991-05-01

    The authors are developing bioassays which use planarians (free-living platyhelminthes) for the rapid determination of various types of toxicity, including acute mortality, tumorigenicity, and short-term neurobehavioral responses. Their motivation for using these animals is due to their importance as components of the aquatic ecology of unpolluted streams their sensitivity to low concentrations of environmental toxicants and the presence of a sensitive neurological system with a true brain which allows for complex social behavior. A previous paper described the results of a neurobehavioral bioassay using phenol in a crossover study. This paper reports a similar crossover study using cadmium sulfate.

  20. Extraction-spectrophotometric method for silicon determination in high-purity substances. 2. Silicon determination in cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yudelevich, I.G.; Shaburova, V.P.; Shamrina, L.V.

    1989-01-01

    Cadmium extraction by tributyl phosphate and trialkylbenzylammonium chloride (TABAC) depending on acid (HCl, HI), extracting agent concentration, volume of aqueous and organic phases, number of extraction steps is investigated. On the basis of the obtained results the spectrophotometric method for silicon determination in cadmium and CdCl 2 using malachite green with preliminary extraction of the base by the TABAC from HCl solutions. The method detection limit is 3.9x10 -4 % Si with respect to initial cadmium sample of 100 mg and 7.8x10 -5 % with respect to 0.5 g of CdCl 2 . The relative standard deviation is S r -0.07-0.13

  1. Ameliorative Effect of Arctium lappa Against Cadmium Genotoxicity and Histopathology in Kidney of Wistar Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman Al-Gebaly, Asma

    2017-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential metal whose dispersion in the environment has increased recently, Cd may enhance cell oxidative stress that leads to DNA damage and apoptotic cell death. The study aimed to evaluate the antioxidative capability of Burdock root 'Arctium lappa' on cadmium-induced oxidative stress and histopathology of the kidney of Wistar rats. Cadmium was applied in a form of cadmium chloride to three groups (15 mg Cd kg-1) for five weeks with two groups pre-treated with 'Arctium lappa' administration, 100 and 200 mg kg-1 b.wt. Data were analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Least Significant Difference (LSD) test to determine the difference among means using the JMP version 12. Results revealed that cadmium induced a significant disorganization (pArctium lappa kg-1 b.wt., showed a slightly less hypercellularity of glomerulus and reduction in the cell tail (59 μm). Furthermore, histological sections of kidney of rats pre-treated with 200 mg Arctium lappa kg-1 b.wt., showed high improvement of renal tubules and glomerulus with a prominent urinary space beside tail length of cells was recorded as 39 μm which was lower in comparison to other groups. Moreover, cadmium induced cellular destruction of the kidney was resumed with the pre-treatment of the secondary metabolites as an antioxidant compounds that produced from plant extracts. Arctium lappa leaf extract was efficient at both applied doses while 200 mg Arctium lappa kg-1 b.wt., had the most ameliorative effect.

  2. Real-time monitoring of cadmium toxicity in rabbit kidney cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Milek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic effect of the metal salt cadmium chloride dihydrate on the rabbit kidney cell line using the xCELLigence system or real-time cell analyser (RTCA, and to compare this relatively new method with standard biological cytotoxicity assays. This system provides real-time monitoring of cell behaviour and proliferative activity during the whole time of experiment. Moreover, after 24 h exposure of cells to cadmium, colorimetric 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-difenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT test was used to measure the metabolic activity and cytotoxicity was determined by measurement of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH leaked from damaged cells. We found that renal cells exposed to lower concentrations (5–10 mg·l-1 of cadmium tend to grow similarly to control cells, however, cell index was significantly different (P < 0.05 after 24 h. With increasing concentration of cadmium (15–50 mg·l-1 significantly lower proliferative (P < 0.05 and metabolic activity (P < 0.05 of cells was observed and cytotoxicity increased simultaneously (P < 0.001. In addition, we found that the real-time monitoring of the cell response was significantly correlated with commonly used biological methods for toxicity measurement, for MTT assay R2 was 0.9448 (P < 0.01 and for LDH assay R2 was 0.9466 (P < 0.01, respectively. The present study is the first report when combination of RTCA, MTT assay and LDH test was used for cadmium nephrotoxicity assessment. In all these methods, the toxic effect of cadmium on rabbit kidney cells increased in a concentration-dependent manner.

  3. New application of myocardial infarct map using a dual isotope single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of [99mTc]pyrophosphate and [201Tl]chloride in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroe, Michiaki; Muramatsu, Yasuji; Sugimoto, Keiichi; Tsujino, Motoyoshi; Maejima, Michihiro; Miyahara, Yasuhiro; Taniguchi, Koichi; Matsui, Susumu; Mizukawa, Katsumi.

    1988-01-01

    In 12 patients with acute myocardial infarction, a dual isotope SPECT was applied to describe a myocardial infarct map for detecting the site and the extent of the infarct. Threshold cut-off level was determined as 55 % for [ 99m Tc] and 35 % for [ 201 Tl] according to cardiac phantom studies. Multiple cardiac tomograms showed two different uptakes of the isotopes in indentical slices and regions. Then, color tomograms were described on the red and green image for [ 99m Tc] and for [ 201 Tl], respectively, and Bulls eye map was drawn in the two colored fashion as the myocardial infarct map. In all patients, the infarct map was successful to determine the exact site of the infarct and the overlapped area by the viable myocardium. In conclusion, this functional map of acute myocardial infarction may be useful for understanding three dimensional area of the infarct and the viable myocardium easily and exactly. (author)

  4. Effects of cadmium on the growth and uptake of cadmium by microorganisms. [Esherichia coli; Bacillus cereus; Lactobacillus acidophilus; Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus faecalis; Actinomyces niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, J.J.; Marshall, R.T.; Pfander, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    Six species of microorganisms, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis and Actinomyces niger, were grown under suitable conditions in appropriate media. Cadmium chloride was added to provide 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 ..mu..g of Cd per ml. At 40 and 80 ..mu..g of Cd per ml, E. coli and B. cereus grew well and the other species were repressed. Cd uptake patterns differed significantly among the species tested. The significance of these data with respect to Cd in food chains is discussed. 14 references, 3 tables.

  5. Mechanisms of cadmium induced genomic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipič, Metka

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium is an ubiquitous environmental contaminant that represents hazard to humans and wildlife. It is found in the air, soil and water and, due to its extremely long half-life, accumulates in plants and animals. The main source of cadmium exposure for non-smoking human population is food. Cadmium is primarily toxic to the kidney, but has been also classified as carcinogenic to humans by several regulatory agencies. Current evidence suggests that exposure to cadmium induces genomic instability through complex and multifactorial mechanisms. Cadmium dose not induce direct DNA damage, however it induces increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which in turn induce DNA damage and can also interfere with cell signalling. More important seems to be cadmium interaction with DNA repair mechanisms, cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis as well as with epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression control. Cadmium mediated inhibition of DNA repair mechanisms and apoptosis leads to accumulation of cells with unrepaired DNA damage, which in turn increases the mutation rate and thus genomic instability. This increases the probability of developing not only cancer but also other diseases associated with genomic instability. In the in vitro experiments cadmium induced effects leading to genomic instability have been observed at low concentrations that were comparable to those observed in target organs and tissues of humans that were non-occupationally exposed to cadmium. Therefore, further studies aiming to clarify the relevance of these observations for human health risks due to cadmium exposure are needed.

  6. Cadmium risks to freshwater life: derivation and validation of low-effect criteria values using laboratory and field studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebane, Christopher A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2001, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released updated aquatic life criteria for cadmium. Since then, additional data on the effects of cadmium to aquatic life have become available from studies supported by the EPA, Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (IDEQ), and the U.S. Geological Survey, among other sources. Updated data on the effects of cadmium to aquatic life were compiled and reviewed and low-effect concentrations were estimated. Low-effect values were calculated using EPA's guidelines for deriving numerical national water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic organisms and their uses. Data on the short-term (acute) effects of cadmium on North American freshwater species that were suitable for criteria derivation were located for 69 species representing 57 genera and 33 families. For longer-term (chronic) effects of cadmium on North American freshwater species, suitable data were located for 28 species representing 21 genera and 17 families. Both the acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium were dependent on the hardness of the test water. Hardness-toxicity regressions were developed for both acute and chronic datasets so that effects data from different tests could be adjusted to a common water hardness. Hardness-adjusted effects values were pooled to obtain species and genus mean acute and chronic values, which then were ranked by their sensitivity to cadmium. The four most sensitive genera to acute exposures were, in order of increasing cadmium resistance, Oncorhynchus (Pacific trout and salmon), Salvelinus ('char' trout), Salmo (Atlantic trout and salmon), and Cottus (sculpin). The four most sensitive genera to chronic exposures were Hyalella (amphipod), Cottus, Gammarus (amphipod), and Salvelinus. Using the updated datasets, hardness dependent criteria equations were calculated for acute and chronic exposures to cadmium. At a hardness of 50 mg/L as calcium carbonate, the criterion maximum concentration (CMC, or 'acute

  7. Semiconducting properties of layered cadmium sulphide-based hybrid nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotomayor Torres Clivia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A series of hybrid cadmium salt/cationic surfactant layered nanocomposites containing different concentrations of cadmium sulphide was prepared by exchanging chloride by sulphide ions in the layered precursor CdX x (OH y (CnTA z in a solid phase/gas reaction, resulting in a series of layered species exhibiting stoichiometries corresponding to CdS v X x (OH y (CnTA z , constituted by two-dimensional CdCl2/CdS ultra-thin sheets sandwiched between two self-assembled surfactant layers. The electronic structure of CdS in the nanocomposite is similar to that of bulk, but showing the expected features of two-dimensional confinement of the semiconductor. The nanocomposite band gap is found to depend in a non-linear manner on both the length of the hydrocarbon chain of the surfactant and the concentration of the sulphide in the inorganic sheet. The products show photocatalytic activity at least similar and usually better than that of "bulk" CdS in a factor of two.

  8. Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The greener, clean and efficient protocol for the synthesis of acridine diones derivatives has been achieved by reacting aromatic aldehyde, dimedone and amines using methyltrioctylammonium chloride (Aliquate 336) as a catalyst under ultrasonic irradiations.

  9. Influence of chloride on the chronic toxicity of sodium nitrate to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucek, David J; Dickinson, Amy

    2016-09-01

    While it has been well established that increasing chloride concentration in water reduces the toxicity of nitrite to freshwater species, little work has been done to investigate the effect of chloride on nitrate toxicity. We conducted acute and chronic nitrate (as sodium nitrate) toxicity tests with the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia and the amphipod Hyalella azteca (chronic tests only) over a range of chloride concentrations spanning natural chloride levels found in surface waters representative of watersheds of the Great Lakes Region. Chronic nitrate toxicity test results with both crustaceans were variable, with H. azteca appearing to be one of the more sensitive invertebrate species tested and C. dubia being less sensitive. While the variability in results for H. azteca were to an extent related to chloride concentration in test water that was distinctly not the case for C. dubia. We concluded that the chloride dependent toxicity of nitrate is not universal among freshwater crustaceans. An additional sodium chloride chronic toxicity test with the US Lab strain of H. azteca in the present study suggested that when present as predominantly sodium chloride and with relatively low concentrations of other ions, there is a narrow range of chloride concentrations over which this strain is most fit, and within which toxicity test data are reliable.

  10. Antioxidant Effect of Pollen Grains and Soya Lecithin on Cadmium-induced Biochemical and Structural disorders in the Ovary of Female Rats during Estrus Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, S. Z.; Ramadan, F. L.

    2010-01-01

    This work aims at assessing the role of pollen grains with soya lecithin on cadmium-induced damage. Cadmium chloride was administered to female albino rats (0.5 mg/kg b. wt, i.p.) during 6 weeks. Pollen grains (54 mg/kg b.wt), and soya lecithin (18 mg/kg b.wt), were given, via gavages, 7 days before cadmium administration, and during cadmium treatment. The results demonstrate that cadmium exposure induces different distortions in ovarian tissues, fibrotic follicular cortex, appearance of atretic follicles, partial oocytes degeneration and significant decreases in the number of primordial, primary, secondary and antral follicles associated with significant increase in MDA levels , significant decreases in GSH content, GSH-Px, SOD and Cat activities. Significant increases in total saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and significant decreases in polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were recorded. Significant decreases in plasma calcium, progesterone, estradiol and HDL-C and significant increases in triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-C levels were recorded. Administration of pollen grains with soya lecithin has significantly improved the antioxidant status and fatty acids levels associated with regeneration of ovarian tissues. Significant amelioration in saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and hormones levels were also recorded. It is concluded that pollen grains with soya lecithin may protect the ovary during estrus cycle from cadmium-induced toxicity. Key words: pollen, soya lecithin, cadmium, oxidative stress, ovary, fatty acids, follicle numbers

  11. Toxicity of Cadmium, Copper, and Zinc to the Threatened Chiricahua Leopard Frog (Lithobates [Rana] chiricahuensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, Robin D; Little, Edward E

    2017-12-01

    The Chiricahua leopard frog (Lithobates chiricahuensis) is in decline throughout the western United States, and is particularly sensitive to physical, chemical and biotic changes in their habitat. Acute toxicity tests revealed that among the metals detected in Chiricahua leopard frog habitat, copper was toxic at concentrations lower than those observed in the environment. Developing tadpoles were chronically exposed for 60 days to cadmium, copper and zinc because of the potential for long term exposure to these metals during early development. Cadmium was toxic, but at concentrations above observed environmental levels. Copper was especially toxic to this species at concentrations of about 10% of concentrations observed in their habitats. The onset of toxicity occurred within a few days of exposure, thus pulsed exposures from rain events could potentially be acutely toxic to tadpoles of this species. Zinc did not appear to have a negative impact during the acute or chronic exposures.

  12. Paradoxical bronchospasm from benzalkonium chloride (BAC preservative in albuterol nebulizer solution in a patient with acute severe asthma. A case report and literature review of airway effects of BAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew George, MD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nebulized bronchodilator solutions are available in the United States as both nonsterile and sterile-filled products. Sulfites, benzalkonium chloride (BAC, or chlorobutanol are added to nonsterile products to prevent bacterial growth. Bronchoconstriction from inhaled BAC is cumulative, prolonged, and correlates directly with basal airway responsiveness. The multi-dose dropper bottle of albuterol sulfate solution contains 50 μg BAC per/2.5 mg of albuterol, which may be below or at the lower limit of the threshold dose for bronchoconstriction. However, with repeated albuterol nebulization, the effect can be additive and cumulative, often exceeding the bronchoconstriction threshold. We report a case of a 17 years old patient, who received 32 mg of BAC via nebulization over a period of 3.5 days that probably caused persistent bronchospasm evidenced by failure to improve clinically and to increase peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR from 125 L/min (27% of predicted value to 300 L/min (68% of predicted value within 2 hours of withdrawing BAC. The patient's respiratory status and PEFR improved dramatically once the nebulization solution was switched to BAC free lev-albuterol solution. The pediatric providers, particularly the emergency department physicians, intensivists and pulmonologists need to be aware of this rare albeit possible toxicity to the respiratory system caused by BAC used as a preservative in albuterol nebulizer solution.

  13. Histopathologic effects of dietary cadmium on kidneys and tests of mallard ducks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H. (Fish and Wildlife Service, Victoria, TX); Finley, M.T.; Ferrell, J.F.

    1978-07-01

    Mallard ducks fed 2, 20, or 200 ppM cadmium chloride were sacrificed at 30, 60, and 90 d. No mortality occurred during the study and body weights remained unchanged. Kidney weights of the 200-ppM group were significantly greater after 60 and 90 d than those of controls; also, testis weights were significantly lower after 90 d. Kidneys of ducks fed 2 and 20 ppM cadmium were relatively unaffected; however, slight to severe kidney lesions were found in the 200-ppM group after 60 d of treatment. No significant lesions were found in mallard testes after feeding 2 ppM cadmium in the diet, and only a few birds in the 20-ppM group showed slight to moderate gonad alterations. After 90 d of treatment, however, testes of males fed 200 ppM had atrophied and the spermatogenic process had ceased. This study should provide important information for the interpretation of cadmium levels found in kidneys and testes of wild ducks.

  14. Primary rat Sertoli and interstitial cells exhibit a differential response to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clough, S.R.; Welsh, M.J.; Payne, A.H.; Brown, C.D.; Brabec, M.J. (Eastern Michigan Univ., Ypsilanti (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Two cell types central to the support of spermatogenesis, the Sertoli cell and the interstitial (Leydig) cell, were isolated from the same cohort of young male rats and challenged with cadmium chloride to compare their susceptibility to the metal. Both cell types were cultured under similar conditions, and similar biochemical endpoints were chosen to minimize experimental variability. These endpoints include the uptake of 109Cd, reduction of the vital tetrazolium dye MTT, incorporation of 3H-leucine, change in heat-stable cadmium binding capacity, and production of lactate. Using these parameters, it was observed that the Sertoli cell cultures were adversely affected in a dose-and time-dependent manner, while the interstitial cell cultures, treated with identical concentrations of CdCl2, were less affected. The 72-hr LC50's for Sertoli cells and interstitial cells were 4.1 and 19.6 microM CdCl2, respectively. Thus, different cell populations within the same tissue may differ markedly in susceptibility to a toxicant. These in vitro data suggest that the Sertoli cell, in relation to the interstitium, is particularly sensitive to cadmium. Because the Sertoli cell provides functional support for the seminiferous epithelium, the differential sensitivity of this cell type may, in part, explain cadmium-induced testicular dysfunction, particularly at doses that leave the vascular epithelium intact.

  15. Dynamic electrochemical measurement of chloride ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, Derk B.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes the dynamic measurement of chloride ions using the transition time of a silver silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrode. Silver silver chloride electrode is used extensively for potentiometric measurement of chloride ions concentration in electrolyte. In this measurement,

  16. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... hydrochloric acid solution and crystallizing out magnesium chloride hexahydrate. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  17. Cadmium resistance in Drosophila: a small cadmium binding substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, K.B.; Williams, M.W.; Richter, L.J.; Holt, S.E.; Hook, G.J.; Knoop, S.M.; Sloop, F.V.; Faust, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    A small cadmium-binding substance (CdBS) has been observed in adult Drosophila melanogaster that were raised for their entire growth cycle on a diet that contained 0.15 mM CdCl 2 . Induction of CdBS was observed in strains that differed widely in their sensitivity of CdCl 2 . This report describes the induction of CdBS and some of its characteristics. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  18. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Richter

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use elevates blood and urine cadmium concentrations. Cadmium is a carcinogen, and an inducer of proinflammatory immune responses. Elevated exposure to cadmium is associated with reduced pulmonary function, obstructive lung disease, bronchogenic carcinoma, cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and various oral pathologies. Cadmium and zinc have a toxicologically inverse relationship. Zinc is an essential element and is reportedly antagonistic to some manifestations of cadmium toxicity. This review summarizes associations between blood, urine, and tissue cadmium concentrations with emphasis on cadmium exposure due to tobacco use and several disease states. Available data about zinc and cadmium/zinc ratios and tobacco-related diseases is summarized from studies reporting smoking status. Collectively, data suggest that blood, urine, and tissue cadmium and cadmium/zinc ratios are often significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers and they are also different in smokers for several diseases and cancers. Additional biomonitoring data such as blood or serum and urine zinc and cadmium levels and cadmium/zinc ratios in smokers may provide further insight into the development and progression of diseases of the lung, cardiovascular system, and possibly other organs.

  19. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Richter; Obaid Faroon; R. Steven Pappas

    2017-01-01

    Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use ...

  20. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Faroon, Obaid; Pappas, R Steven

    2017-09-29

    Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use elevates blood and urine cadmium concentrations. Cadmium is a carcinogen, and an inducer of proinflammatory immune responses. Elevated exposure to cadmium is associated with reduced pulmonary function, obstructive lung disease, bronchogenic carcinoma, cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and various oral pathologies. Cadmium and zinc have a toxicologically inverse relationship. Zinc is an essential element and is reportedly antagonistic to some manifestations of cadmium toxicity. This review summarizes associations between blood, urine, and tissue cadmium concentrations with emphasis on cadmium exposure due to tobacco use and several disease states. Available data about zinc and cadmium/zinc ratios and tobacco-related diseases is summarized from studies reporting smoking status. Collectively, data suggest that blood, urine, and tissue cadmium and cadmium/zinc ratios are often significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers and they are also different in smokers for several diseases and cancers. Additional biomonitoring data such as blood or serum and urine zinc and cadmium levels and cadmium/zinc ratios in smokers may provide further insight into the development and progression of diseases of the lung, cardiovascular system, and possibly other organs.

  1. Effects of chelating agents on oral uptake and renal deposition and excretion of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstroem, B.

    1984-01-01

    The gastrointestinal absorption, transport, tissue deposition and excretion of cadmium was studied in adult male mice given a single oral LD 50 dose of 109 Cd-labeled CdCl 2 alone or in combination with nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Blood, intestinal mucosa, liver and kidneys were analyzed for 109 Cd at different times after exposure and the influence of the chelating agents on Cd binding to metallothionein and other tissue ligands was also studied. The effect of different chelating agents on acute cadmium toxicity and metabolism seemed to be due to changes in the stability of the administered chelate complexes, due to variation in pH and to the availability of metal binding ligands such as metallothionein in vivo. NTA, STPP and EDTA had no effect on the metabolism or toxicity of cadmium after long-term low dose oral exposure. 43 references, 4 tables, 9 figures

  2. Electrodialytic Removal of Cadmium from Straw Ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    1999-01-01

    A problem with flyash from straw and wood combustion is the high level of heavy metals, especially cadmium. Two electrodialytic remediation experiments were carried out on cadmium polluted flyash from straw combustion. The flyash could be cleaned to 1/3 of its initial level after 24 days...... of remediation. Further removal of cadmium could be possible with longer remediation time or a higher current density...

  3. Cadmium telluride photovoltaic radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agouridis, D.C.; Fox, R.J.

    A dosimetry-type radiation detector is provided which employs a polycrystalline, chlorine-compensated cadmium telluride wafer fabricated to operate as a photovoltaic current generator used as the basic detecting element. A photovoltaic junction is formed in the wafer by painting one face of the cadmium telluride wafer with an n-type semi-conductive material. The opposite face of the wafer is painted with an electrically conductive material to serve as a current collector. The detector is mounted in a hermetically sealed vacuum containment. The detector is operated in a photovoltaic mode (zero bias) while DC coupled to a symmetrical differential current amplifier having a very low input impedance. The amplifier converts the current signal generated by radiation impinging upon the barrier surface face of the wafer to a voltage which is supplied to a voltmeter calibrated to read quantitatively the level of radiation incident upon the detecting wafer.

  4. Crystallinity of the double layer of cadmium arachidate films at the water surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leveiller, F.; Jacquemain, D.; Lahav, M.

    1991-01-01

    A crystalline counterionic layer at the interface between an electrolyte solution and a charged layer of insoluble amphiphilic molecules was observed with grazing incidence synchrotron x-ray diffraction. Uncompressed arachidic films spread over 10(-3) molar cadmium chloride solution (pH 8.......8) spontaneously form crystalline clusters with coherence lengths of approximately 1000 angstroms at 9-degrees-C. Ten distinct diffraction peaks were observed, seven of which were attributed to scattering only from a crystalline Cd2+ layer and the other three to scattering primarily from the arachidate layer....... The reflections from the Cd2+ layer were indexed according to a 2 X 3 supercell of the arachidate lattice with three Cd2+ ions per cadmium unit cell....

  5. Desferrioxamine-cadmium as a 'Trojan horse' for the delivery of Cd to bacteria and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Ana Luiza Costa; Constantino, Vera Regina Leopoldo; de Couto, Ricardo Alexandre Alves; Pinto, Delia Manuela Luna; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Espósito, Breno Pannia

    2013-04-01

    Molecules naturally designed for the acquisition of essential metals can be used as a shuttle to deliver toxic metal ions to target organisms. In this study, we describe for the first time the synthesis of a derivative of cadmium and desferrioxamine B, a bacterial siderophore. The new compound was characterized by elemental analysis, vibrational (infrared and Raman) spectroscopy, mass coupled thermal analyses and X-ray diffraction methods. Studies on the in vitro toxicity toward a fungus and two bacterial strains indicated that the coordination compound is more active against microrganisms than cadmium chloride on a Cd-concentration basis, indicating that desferrioxamine can work as a "Trojan horse" in the delivery of a toxic metal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Atomization of cadmium by FAAS in presence of a complex matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenig, M.; Vanderstappen, R.; Hoeyweghen, P. van.

    1979-01-01

    Cadmium is one of the elements which is easily determinated in the absence of interfering ions by a flameless atomic absorption spectrometry, because of its low detection limits and good reproducibility of the measurements. In this study some of these interferences are evaluated and a method is described to overcome them by increasing the available carbon during the carbo-reduction having place in the thermal program run. This influence already partially assumed to happen by the furnace is completed by the carbon resulting from the thermal decomposition of the ascorbic acid added to the solutions. Perturbations of the atomization due to the excess of sodium and magnesium chlorides are considerably compensated. These encouraging results led to the realisation of the determination of cadmium in sea water by direct injection [fr

  7. Cadmium Toxicity to Ringed Seals (Phoca hispida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, R.; Riget, F. F.

    Cadmium concentrations in kidneys from ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from North West Greenland (Qaanaaq) are high. Concentrations range at level known to induce renal toxic effects (mainly tubulopathy) and demineralisation (osteopenia) of the skeletal system (Fanconi's Syndrome) in humans as well...... as laboratory mammals. We have studied possible cadmium induced histopathological changes in the kidneys as well as a demineralisation of the skeletal system (DXA-scanning of lumbal vertebraes). No obvious cadmium induced toxic changes were found. Food composition and physiological adaptations may explain...... the absence of toxic effects of cadmium in ringed seal...

  8. Acquisition of apoptotic resistance in cadmium-induced malignant transformation: specific perturbation of JNK signal transduction pathway and associated metallothionein overexpression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wei; Fuquay, Richard; Sakurai, Teruaki; Waalkes, Michael P

    2006-08-01

    Prior work has shown that chronic cadmium exposed rat liver epithelial cells (CCE-LE) become malignantly transformed after protracted low level cadmium exposure. Acquisition of apoptotic resistance is common in oncogenesis and the present work explores this possibility in CCE-LE cells. CCE-LE cells were resistant to apoptosis induced by etoposide or an acute high concentration of cadmium as assessed by flow cytometry with annexin/FITC. Three key mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), namely ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38, were phosphorylated in CCE-LE cells after acute cadmium exposure. However, the levels of phosphorylated JNK1/2 were markedly decreased in CCE-LE cells compared to control. JNK kinase activity was also suppressed in CCE-LE cells exposed to cadmium. Epidermal growth factor (EGF), used as a positive control for stimulating JNK phosphorylation, was much less effective in CCE-LE cells than control cells. Ro318220 (Ro), a strong activator of JNK, increased phosphorylated JNK1/2 to levels similar to the cadmium-treated control cells and also enhanced apoptosis in response to cadmium in CCE-LE cells. Metallothionein (MT), which is thought to potentially inhibit apoptosis, was strongly overexpressed in CCE-LE cells. Further, in MT knockout (MT-/-) fibroblasts, JNK1/2 phosphorylation was markedly increased after cadmium exposure compared with similarly treated wild-type (MT+/+) cells. These results indicate cadmium-transformed cells acquired apoptotic resistance, which may be linked to the specific suppression of the JNK pathway and is associated with MT overexpression, which, in turn, may impact this signal transduction pathway. The acquisition of apoptotic resistance may play an important role in cadmium carcinogenesis by contributing to both tumor initiation and malignant progression.

  9. Lead and cadmium in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliesmann, S.; Kruse, H.; Kriews, M.; Mangels, H.

    1992-08-01

    The amounts of lead and cadmium produced and processed in these days are considerable. As a result, our environment is increasingly polluted by heavy metals and industrial installations, motor vehicles or incinerating plants appear to be among the main culprits here. Air and water are the media permitting the entry of heavy metals into our natural environment where they accumulate in the soil and then gradually migrate into the plants. Their further transport in the food constitutes the third step in the environmental spread of heavy metals. The consumption of muscle and organ meats, of vegetables, fruits, canned food and drinking water is unavoidably associated with some ingestion of lead and cadmium. The degree to which they are taken up and stored in different tissues is determined by absorption properties and the nutritional state of the organism. Cadmium tends to accumulate in the kidneys, lead is mainly stored in the bones. A continuously increasing uptake finally results in health injuries that range from unspecific complaints to damaged kidneys or bones and disorders of liver function. Children and elderly people are at a particular risk here. The level of food contamination is such that screening for heavy metals must be rigorously carried out once appropriate legal thresholds have been set, which ought to be based on proven detrimental effects of lead and cadmium on our health and also take account of infants and children or any other risk groups, where particular caution must be exercised. It should be pointed out that such thresholds have so far not been determined. (orig./MG) [de

  10. Effects of cadmium on the glial architecture in lizard brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Favorito

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The glial cells are positioned to be the first cells of the brain parenchyma to face molecules crossing the blood-brain barrier with a relevant neuroprotective role from cytotoxic action of heavy metals on the nervous system. Cadmium is a highly toxic metal and its levels in the environment are increasing due to industrial activities. This element can pass the blood-brain barrier and have neurotoxic activity. For this reason we have studied the effects of cadmium on the glial architecture in the lizard Podarcis siculus, a significant bioindicator of chemical exposure due to its persistence in a variety of habitats. The study was performed on two groups of lizards. The first group of P. siculus was exposed to an acute treatment by a single i.p. injection (2 mg/kg-BW of CdCl2 and sacrificed after 2, 7 and 16 days. The second one was used as control. The histology of the brain was studied by Hematoxylin/Eosin and Cresyl/Violet stains while the glial structures were analyzed by immunodetection of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, the most widely accepted marker for astroglial cells. Evident morphological alterations of the brain were observed at 7 and 16 days from the injection, when we revealed also a decrease of the GFAP-immunopositive structures in particular in the rhombencephalic ventricle, telencephalon and optic tectum. These results show that in the lizards an acute exposure to cadmium provokes morphological cellular alterations in the brain but also a decrement of the expression of GFAP marker with possible consequent damage of glial cells functions.

  11. Chemo preventive action of Liv.52 against radiation and cadmium induced histopathological changes in the jejunum of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, R.K.; Sunita; Bhati, Sharwan; Isran, Rakesh; Ranga, Deepti; Meena, Dinesh; Pyarelal

    2012-01-01

    The present century has been an ever-increasing use of nuclear technologies in different fields raising the alarming problem of radiation hazards to living beings including man. An increasing body of evidence indicates that human activities are responsible for global climatic changes, which, in turn, may be directly or indirectly increasing human exposure to environmental hazards. On the other hand, all forms of cadmium are poisonous leading cadmium intoxication under appropriate circumstances. The interaction between radiation and other toxicants represents a field of immense potential importance as their total environmental burden may have greater effects than expected from the sum of their individual impact. In the present study six to eight weeks old male Swiss albino mice were exposed to 2.5 and 5.0 Gy of gamma rays with or without cadmium chloride treatment. The animals of experimental groups were administered Liv.52 for seven days prior to radiation or cadmium chloride treatment. After routine procedure of histology the histopathological changes were observed in the jejunum of Swiss albino mice. The changes included loosened sub-mucosa with hydropic degeneration. Lamina propria exhibited hydropic degeneration, abnormal mitotic figures, pyknotic nuclei and cytoplasmic degranulation in crypt cells, loosened tips and shortened villi. Leucocytic infiltration appeared in lamina propria. Few mitotic figures were observed during the early intervals but were not normal and resulted in mitotic death. Recovery started on day-14 in non-drug treated groups and day-7 in Liv.52 treated groups. After irradiation with various doses of gamma rays, histological changes depend upon the dose of radiation delivered. The important radio-lesions were looseness of musculature, hydropic degeneration in sub-mucosa and lamina propria, hyperaemia and haemorrhage in sub-mucosa, pyknotic cells, cytoplasmic degranulation and vacuolation, abnormal mitotic figures. Karyolysis, karyorrhexis

  12. Modulatory influence of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced hepatic lesions in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsha, Radha; Purohit, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    The major objectives in radiobiology has been the development of agents that can mitigate the damage produced by ionizing radiation to normal tissues and thus reduces the side effects caused by radiation and improvement of cancer radiotherapy. The various agents have drawn attention of researchers as they provide wider acceptability and least side effects. The current study was aimed to investigate the protective effect of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced changes in the liver of Swiss albino mice. For the study healthy male Swiss albino mice (6 to 8 weeks old) were selected from an inbred colony and kept in polypropylene cages. They were provided with standard mice feed and tap water ad libitum. The animals were exposed to 3.0 and 6.0 Gy of gamma radiation with or without cadmium chloride treatment. The animals of experimental groups were administered Aloe vera juice seven days prior to irradiation or cadmium chloride treatment. The animals of each group were autopsied at each post treatment interval of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days of treatment. The various biochemical parameters estimated were total proteins, glycogen, cholesterol, acid and alkaline phosphatase activities, DNA and RNA. After routine procedure, histopathological changes were also observed. The changes in various biochemical parameters were observed in the form of increase of decrease in values. The histopathological changes observed on day-1 after exposure to 3.0 Gy were distortion of hepatic architecture, intracellular oedema, narrower sinusoids, cytoplasmic degranulation, vacuolation and pycnotic nuclei. The changes were more marked on day-4 and continued up to day-14. But on day-28 the sign of recovery was observed. After exposure to a higher dose (6.0 Gy) similar changes were noticed but they were more pronounced and there was late manifestation of recovery. In the combined treatment of radiation and cadmium chloride synergistic effects were observed. The liver of Aloe vera treated

  13. Improvement of cadmium phytoremediation after soil inoculation with a cadmium-resistant Micrococcus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangthong, Chirawee; Setkit, Kunchaya; Prapagdee, Benjaphorn

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium-resistant Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221, a plant growth-promoting bacterium, has stimulatory effects on the root lengths of Zea mays L. seedlings under toxic cadmium conditions compared to uninoculated seedlings. The performance of Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 on promoting growth and cadmium accumulation in Z. mays L. was investigated in a pot experiment. The results indicated that Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221significantly promoted the root length, shoot length, and dry biomass of Z. mays L. transplanted in both uncontaminated and cadmium-contaminated soils. Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 significantly increased cadmium accumulation in the roots and shoots of Z. mays L. compared to uninoculated plants. At the beginning of the planting period, cadmium accumulated mainly in the shoots. With a prolonged duration of cultivation, cadmium content increased in the roots. As expected, little cadmium was found in maize grains. Soil cadmium was significantly reduced with time, and the highest percentage of cadmium removal was found in the bacterial-inoculated Z. mays L. after transplantation for 6 weeks. We conclude that Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 is a potent bioaugmenting agent, facilitating cadmium phytoextraction in Z. mays L.

  14. Cadmium binding components in the supernatant fraction of the small intestinal mucosa of rats administered cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Shosuke

    1978-01-01

    Cadmium binding protein was isolated by gel filtration from the supernatant fraction of the small intestines of rats continuously administered cadmium for 1, 3, 6, 9, 32 and 96 days. About two-thirds of the total amount of absorbed cadmium was associated with the cytosol of mucosal tissues scraped from the small intestines. Cadmium was almost always bound to proteins, molecular weights of which ranged from 5,400 to 9,800. Cadmium in livers and that in intestinal mucosa were in the same binding state, but as there was some lag period between the induction of the Cd-binding proteins of both tissues, the protein of the small intestinal mucosal cells must have been induced at the mucosa itself by contact with cadmium. The Cd-binding protein of the mucosal cells may play an important role in absorbing cadmium, because no other form of this metal was found in the mucosal cells of the small intestines. (Kobatake, H.)

  15. 2D X-ray and FTIR micro-analysis of the degradation of cadmium yellow pigment in paintings of Henri Matisse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouyet, E.; Cotte, M.; Fayard, B.; Salome, M.; Kieffer, J.; Burghammer, M.; Sette, F.; Meirer, F.; Mehta, A.; Uffelman, E.S.; Hull, A.; Vanmeert, F.; Janssens, K.; Mass, J.

    2015-01-01

    The chemical and physical alterations of cadmium yellow (CdS) paints in Henri Matisse's The Joy of Life (1905-1906, The Barnes Foundation) have been recognized since 2006, when a survey by portable X-ray fluorescence identified this pigment in all altered regions of the monumental painting. This alteration is visible as fading, discoloration, chalking, flaking, and spalling of several regions of light to medium yellow paint. Since that time, synchrotron radiation-based techniques including elemental and spectroscopic imaging, as well as X-ray scattering have been employed to locate and identify the alteration products observed in this and related works by Henri Matisse. This information is necessary to formulate one or multiple mechanisms for degradation of Matisse's paints from this period, and thus ensure proper environmental conditions for the storage and the display of his works. This paper focuses on 2D full-field X-ray Near Edge Structure imaging, 2D micro-X-ray Diffraction, X-ray Fluorescence, and Fourier Transform Infra-red imaging of the altered paint layers to address one of the long-standing questions about cadmium yellow alteration - the roles of cadmium carbonates and cadmium sulphates found in the altered paint layers. These compounds have often been assumed to be photo-oxidation products, but could also be residual starting reagents from an indirect wet process synthesis of CdS. The data presented here allow identifying and mapping the location of cadmium carbonates, cadmium chlorides, cadmium oxalates, cadmium sulphates, and cadmium sulphides in thin sections of altered cadmium yellow paints from The Joy of Life and Matisse's Flower Piece (1906, The Barnes Foundation). Distribution of various cadmium compounds confirms that cadmium carbonates and sulphates are photo-degradation products in The Joy of Life, whereas in Flower Piece, cadmium carbonates appear to have been a [(partially) unreacted] starting reagent for the yellow paint, a

  16. 2D X-ray and FTIR micro-analysis of the degradation of cadmium yellow pigment in paintings of Henri Matisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouyet, E. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); ARC-Nucleart - CEA/Grenoble, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Cotte, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); LAMS (Laboratoire d' Archeologie Moleculaire et Structurale) UMR-8220, Ivry-sur-Seine (France); Fayard, B.; Salome, M.; Kieffer, J.; Burghammer, M.; Sette, F. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Meirer, F. [Utrecht University, Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Utrecht (Netherlands); Mehta, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford Synchrotron radiation Lightsource, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Uffelman, E.S. [Washington and Lee University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Lexington, VA (United States); Hull, A. [University of Delaware, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Newark, DE (United States); Vanmeert, F.; Janssens, K. [University of Antwerp, AXES Research Group, Department of Chemistry, Antwerp (Belgium); Mass, J. [Winterthur Museum, Scientific Research and Analysis Laboratory, Conservation Department, Winterthur, DE (United States)

    2015-11-15

    The chemical and physical alterations of cadmium yellow (CdS) paints in Henri Matisse's The Joy of Life (1905-1906, The Barnes Foundation) have been recognized since 2006, when a survey by portable X-ray fluorescence identified this pigment in all altered regions of the monumental painting. This alteration is visible as fading, discoloration, chalking, flaking, and spalling of several regions of light to medium yellow paint. Since that time, synchrotron radiation-based techniques including elemental and spectroscopic imaging, as well as X-ray scattering have been employed to locate and identify the alteration products observed in this and related works by Henri Matisse. This information is necessary to formulate one or multiple mechanisms for degradation of Matisse's paints from this period, and thus ensure proper environmental conditions for the storage and the display of his works. This paper focuses on 2D full-field X-ray Near Edge Structure imaging, 2D micro-X-ray Diffraction, X-ray Fluorescence, and Fourier Transform Infra-red imaging of the altered paint layers to address one of the long-standing questions about cadmium yellow alteration - the roles of cadmium carbonates and cadmium sulphates found in the altered paint layers. These compounds have often been assumed to be photo-oxidation products, but could also be residual starting reagents from an indirect wet process synthesis of CdS. The data presented here allow identifying and mapping the location of cadmium carbonates, cadmium chlorides, cadmium oxalates, cadmium sulphates, and cadmium sulphides in thin sections of altered cadmium yellow paints from The Joy of Life and Matisse's Flower Piece (1906, The Barnes Foundation). Distribution of various cadmium compounds confirms that cadmium carbonates and sulphates are photo-degradation products in The Joy of Life, whereas in Flower Piece, cadmium carbonates appear to have been a [(partially) unreacted] starting reagent for the yellow paint, a

  17. [Investigation of urinary cadmium characteristics of the general population in three non-cadmium-polluted rural areas in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jingxiu; Hu, Ji; Sun, Hong; Jing, Qiqing; Wang, Xiaofeng; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Zhen; Chen, Xiaodong; Zhang, Wenli; Shang, Qi

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the characteristics of urinary cadmium of the non-occupational-cadmium-exposed population in non-cadmium contaminated rural area in China. Randomly selected non-occupational cadmium exposed population 2548 people (male 1290, female 1258) with each gender and age groups, questionnaire surveyed and collected random urine. Urinary cadmium and urinary creatinine (Cr) concentration were tested, excluding urinary Cr 3 g/L. Analyze the impact factors of urinary cadmium and calculated 95% quantile (P95) of urinary cadmium after correction by urinary Cr. Urinary cadmium increased with age and showed an upward trend. The urinary cadmium of the population of ≥ 30 years old was significantly higher than that of populations (China (GB Z17-2002). The urinary cadmium reference value of non-occupational-cadmium-exposed populations is China, but for smoking women over 30 year-old it needs more research to explore.

  18. 29 CFR 1926.1127 - Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... determination, and the name and social security number of each employee. (3) Monitoring frequency (periodic... cadmium; any history of renal, cardiovascular, respiratory, hematopoietic, reproductive, and/or musculo... future exposure to cadmium; smoking history and current status; reproductive history; current use of...

  19. REMOVAL OF CADMIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The discharge of industrial effluents containing appreciably high concentrations of heavy metals such as zinc, cadmium, lead, ... synthesized products for the removal of cadmium ion from aqueous solution. This involves investigation ... manganese, and the charge is not compensated by the presence of other cation. Table 1.

  20. Association of urinary cadmium and myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, Charles J.; Frithsen, Ivar L.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of individuals 45-79 years old in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988-1994) (NHANES III). Myocardial infarction was determined by electrocardiogram (ECG). Our sample included 4912 participants, which when weighted represented 52,234,055 Americans. We performed adjusted logistic regressions with the Framingham risk score, pack-years of smoking, race-ethnicity, and family history of heart attack, and diabetes as covariates. Urinary cadmium ≥0.88 μg/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.86 (95% CI 1.26-2.75) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 μg/g creatinine. This result supports the hypothesis that cadmium is associated with coronary heart disease. When logistic regressions were done by gender, women, but not men, showed a significant association of urinary cadmium with myocardial infarction. Women with urinary cadmium ≥0.88 μg/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.80 (95% CI 1.06-3.04) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 μg/g creatinine. When the analysis was restricted to never smokers (N=2187) urinary cadmium ≥0.88 μg/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.85 (95% CI 1.10-3.14) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 μg/g creatinine

  1. Cadmium in the bioenergy system - a synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlfont, K.

    1997-12-01

    Cadmium is a toxic metal without any known positive biological effects. Both emissions and atmospheric deposition of cadmium have decreased radically in Sweden during recent years. In Sweden, about 150 tonnes of cadmium was supplied to the technosphere in 1990, mostly originating from NiCd batteries. More than 100 tonnes of cadmium accumulated in the technosphere. Mankind takes up cadmium from water, food and particulate atmospheric pollution. Even small amounts may be injurious in the long-term since the half-life in the kidneys is 30 years. Cadmium in biofuel and ashes are generally a cause of discussion. Ashes from biofuel constitute a nutrient resource that should be returned to the soil. A possible risk with spreading ashes is the spreading of heavy metals, and then foremost cadmium, which is among the heavy metals that forest soils are considered to tolerate the least. Several studies on cadmium in the bioenergy system have been made, both within the Research Programme for Recycling of Wood-ash, and within Vattenfall's Bioenergy Project. The present report is intended to provide a picture of the current state of knowledge and to review plans for the future With a 3 page summary in English. 51 refs, 1 fig, 3 tabs

  2. Cadmium and children: Exposure and health effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoeters, G.; Hond, E. Den; Zuurbier, M.; Naginiene, R.; Hazel, P.J. van den; Stilianakis, N.; Ronchetti, R.; Koppe, J.G.

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium exposure and accumulation in the body start at young age. Exposure routes in children are mainly via food, environmental tobacco smoke and house dust. Excretion from the body is limited. Cadmium accumulation in the kidney is responsible for effects such as nephrotoxicity and osteoporosis

  3. 29 CFR 1915.1027 - Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cadmium. 1915.1027 Section 1915.1027 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED... Cadmium. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical to...

  4. Cadmium toxcity in the pregnant rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.G.; Hitchcock, B.B.; King, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    Iron-deficient and normal pregnant rats were assigned to groups that either received a dose of cadmium (0.025, 0.050, or 0.100 mmole) plus 8 μCi of /sup 115m/Cd on day 18 of gestation or served as a nondosed group. Animals were either sacrificed 3 days after the dosing or allowed to litter (nondosed and 0.100 mmole cadmium groups only); pups and dams were sacrificed at 14 days of age. Viability of iron-deficient dams and fetuses and pups from iron-deficient dams was affected by the 0.100 mmole cadmium dose to a greater degree than was that in comparable normal animals. Although calculated amounts of cadmium deposited in the dam's liver, kidney, blood, tibia, and fetuses were greater in iron-deficient than in normal animals at all doses, differences were not significant except in the amount of cadmium accumulated in the placenta at the highest cadmium doses. Total deposition in the placentas/litter was similar for normal and iron-deficient groups at each dose level. The decreased viability may have been due to the dam's decreased food intake; blockage of nutrients, especially minerals, by cadmium--protein complexes in the placenta; or hormonal interruptions of pregnancy by steroid--cadmium complexes

  5. Zone refining of cadmium and related characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present the zone refining results of cadmium using horizontal resistive zone refiner under constant flow of moisture free hydrogen gas. The boron impurity in cadmium can be avoided using quartz (GE 214 grade) boat in lieu of high pure graphite boat. The analytical results using inductively coupled plasma optical ...

  6. Novel Cadmium Resistance Determinant in Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Cameron; Lee, Sangmi; Jayeola, Victor; Kathariou, Sophia

    2017-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause severe disease (listeriosis) in susceptible individuals. It is ubiquitous in the environment and often exhibits resistance to heavy metals. One of the determinants that enables Listeria to tolerate exposure to cadmium is the cadAC efflux system, with CadA being a P-type ATPase. Three different cadA genes (designated cadA1 to cadA3 ) were previously characterized in L. monocytogenes A novel putative cadmium resistance gene ( cadA4 ) was recently identified through whole-genome sequencing, but experimental confirmation for its involvement in cadmium resistance is lacking. In this study, we characterized cadA4 in L. monocytogenes strain F8027, a cadmium-resistant strain of serotype 4b. By screening a mariner-based transposon library of this strain, we identified a mutant with reduced tolerance to cadmium and that harbored a single transposon insertion in cadA4 The tolerance to cadmium was restored by genetic complementation with the cadmium resistance cassette ( cadA4C ), and enhanced cadmium tolerance was conferred to two unrelated cadmium-sensitive strains via heterologous complementation with cadA4C Cadmium exposure induced cadA4 expression, even at noninhibitory levels. Virulence assessments in the Galleria mellonella model suggested that a functional cadA4 suppressed virulence, potentially promoting commensal colonization of the insect larvae. Biofilm assays suggested that cadA4 inactivation reduced biofilm formation. These data not only confirm cadA4 as a novel cadmium resistance determinant in L. monocytogenes but also provide evidence for roles in virulence and biofilm formation. IMPORTANCE Listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular foodborne pathogen causing the disease listeriosis, which is responsible for numerous hospitalizations and deaths every year. Among the adaptations that enable the survival of Listeria in the environment are the abilities to persist in biofilms, grow in the cold, and

  7. Cadmium Alters the Concentration of Fatty Acids in THP-1 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszowski, Tomasz; Gutowska, Izabela; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Łukomska, Agnieszka; Drozd, Arleta; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2018-03-01

    Fatty acid composition of human immune cells influences their function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of known toxicant and immunomodulator, cadmium, at low concentrations on levels of selected fatty acids (FAs) in THP-1 macrophages. The differentiation of THP-1 monocytes into macrophages was achieved by administration of phorbol myristate acetate. Macrophages were incubated with various cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) solutions for 48 h at final concentrations of 5 nM, 20 nM, 200 nM, and 2 μM CdCl 2 . Fatty acids were extracted from samples according to the Folch method. The fatty acid levels were determined using gas chromatography. The following fatty acids were analyzed: long-chain saturated fatty acids (SFAs) palmitic acid and stearic acid, very long-chain saturated fatty acid (VLSFA) arachidic acid, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) palmitoleic acid, oleic acid and vaccenic acid, and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. Treatment of macrophages with very low concentrations of cadmium (5-200 nM) resulted in significant reduction in the levels of arachidic, palmitoleic, oleic, vaccenic, and linoleic acids and significant increase in arachidonic acid levels (following exposure to 5 nM Cd), without significant reduction of palmitic and stearic acid levels. Treatment of macrophages with the highest tested cadmium concentration (2 μM) produced significant reduction in the levels of all examined FAs: SFAs, VLSFA, MUFAs, and PUFAs. In conclusion, cadmium at tested concentrations caused significant alterations in THP-1 macrophage fatty acid levels, disrupting their composition, which might dysregulate fatty acid/lipid metabolism thus affecting macrophage behavior and inflammatory state.

  8. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waisberg, Michael; Joseph, Pius; Hale, Beverley; Beyersmann, Detmar

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal, which is widely used in industry, affecting human health through occupational and environmental exposure. In mammals, it exerts multiple toxic effects and has been classified as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Cadmium affects cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and other cellular activities. Cd 2+ does not catalyze Fenton-type reactions because it does not accept or donate electrons under physiological conditions, and it is only weakly genotoxic. Hence, indirect mechanisms are implicated in the carcinogenicity of cadmium. In this review multiple mechanisms are discussed, such as modulation of gene expression and signal transduction, interference with enzymes of the cellular antioxidant system and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibition of DNA repair and DNA methylation, role in apoptosis and disruption of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion. Cadmium affects both gene transcription and translation. The major mechanisms of gene induction by cadmium known so far are modulation of cellular signal transduction pathways by enhancement of protein phosphorylation and activation of transcription and translation factors. Cadmium interferes with antioxidant defense mechanisms and stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species, which may act as signaling molecules in the induction of gene expression and apoptosis. The inhibition of DNA repair processes by cadmium represents a mechanism by which cadmium enhances the genotoxicity of other agents and may contribute to the tumor initiation by this metal. The disruption of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion by cadmium probably further stimulates the development of tumors. It becomes clear that there exist multiple mechanisms which contribute to the carcinogenicity of cadmium, although the relative weights of these contributions are difficult to estimate

  9. Cadmium mobility and accumulation in soils of the European Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraters B; van Beurden AUCJ

    1993-01-01

    In this overview of the effects of cadmium pollution on agricultural soils in the European Community, both the cadmium loads on agricultural land and the soil sensitivity to cadmium accumulation have been estimated. Cadmium loads have been estimated separately for arable land and grassland. The

  10. Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis of acridine diones. BHUPINDER KAUR and HARISH KUMAR. ∗. Department of Chemistry, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, Longowal 148 106, India e-mail: choprahk67@gmail.com. MS received 21 May 2012; revised 30 January ...

  11. 1,5-Diaminotetrazolium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Qiao Meng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, CH5N6+·Cl−, crystallized with two indepedent 1,5-diaminotetrazolium cations and two independent chloride anions in the asymmetric unit. In the crystal, there are a number of N—H...Cl hydrogen-bonding interactions, which generate a three-dimensional network.

  12. Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 125; Issue 5. Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis of acridine diones ... The greener, clean and efficient protocol for the synthesis of acridine diones derivatives has been achieved by reacting aromatic aldehyde, dimedone and amines ...

  13. Chloride : The queen of electrolytes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berend, Kenrick; van Hulsteijn, Leonard Hendrik; Gans, Rijk O. B.

    Background: Channelopathies, defined as diseases that are caused by mutations in genes encoding ion channels, are associated with a wide variety of symptoms and have been documented extensively over the past decade. In contrast, despite the important role of chloride in serum, textbooks in general

  14. Nitrate removal from water using alum and ferric chloride: A comparative study of alum and ferric chloride efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ahmad Aghapour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nitrate is an acute and well-known hazardous contaminant, and its contamination of water sources has been a growing concern worldwide in recent years. This study evaluated the feasibility of nitrate removal from water using the traditional coagulants alum and ferric chloride with lower concentrations than those used in the conventional coagulation process. Methods: In this research, two coagulants, alum and ferric chloride, were compared for their efficiency in removing nitrate in a conventional water treatment system. The removal process was done in a batch system (jar test to examine the effects of coagulant dosages and determine the conditions required to achieve optimum results. Results: The results revealed that ferric chloride at an initial dose rate of 4 mg/L reduced nitrate concentration from 70 mg/L to less than the World Health Organization (WHO guideline value (50 mg/L N-NO 3. However, the removal efficiency of alum was not salient to significant nitrate reduction. Conclusion: In conclusion, ferric chloride was more effective than alumin removing NO-3, even in common dosage range, and can be considered a cost-effective and worthy treatment option to remediate nitratepolluted water. Furthermore, the removal of nitrate by coagulation can be simple and more economical than other treatment alternatives.

  15. Association of lead and cadmium exposure with frailty in US older adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Esquinas, Esther; Navas-Acien, Ana; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Artalejo, Fernando Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Background: Environmental lead and cadmium exposure is associated with higher risk of several age-related chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and osteoporosis. These diseases may lead to frailty, a geriatric syndrome characterized by diminished physiologic reserve in multiple systems with decreased ability to cope with acute stressors. However, no previous study has evaluated the association between lead or cadmium exposure and frailty. Methods: Cross-sectional study among individuals aged ≥60 years who participated in the third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and had either blood lead (N=5272) or urine cadmium (N=4887) determinations. Frailty was ascertained with a slight modification of the Fried criteria, so that individuals meeting ≥3 of 5 pre-defined criteria (exhaustion, low body weight, low physical activity, weakness and slow walking speed), were considered as frail. The association between lead and cadmium with frailty was evaluated using logistic regression with adjustment for relevant confounders. Results: Median (intertertile range) concentrations of blood lead and urine cadmium were 3.9 µg/dl (2.9–4.9) and 0.62 µg/l (0.41–0.91), respectively. The prevalence of frailty was 7.1%. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of frailty comparing the second and third to the lowest tertile of blood lead were, respectively, 1.40 (0.96–2.04) and 1.75 (1.33–2.31). Lead concentrations were also associated with the frequency of exhaustion, weakness and slowness. The corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for cadmium were, respectively, 0.97 (0.68–1.39) and 1.55 (1.03–2.32), but this association did not hold after excluding participants with reduced glomerular filtration rate: 0.70 (0.43–1.14) and 1.09 (0.56–2.11), respectively. Conclusions: In the US older adult population, blood lead but not urine cadmium concentrations showed a direct dose

  16. Association of lead and cadmium exposure with frailty in US older adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Esquinas, Esther, E-mail: esthergge@gmail.com [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid/ IdiPAZ, Madrid (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Navas-Acien, Ana [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz [CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Environmental Epidemiology and Cancer Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); Artalejo, Fernando Rodríguez [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid/ IdiPAZ, Madrid (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    Background: Environmental lead and cadmium exposure is associated with higher risk of several age-related chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and osteoporosis. These diseases may lead to frailty, a geriatric syndrome characterized by diminished physiologic reserve in multiple systems with decreased ability to cope with acute stressors. However, no previous study has evaluated the association between lead or cadmium exposure and frailty. Methods: Cross-sectional study among individuals aged ≥60 years who participated in the third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and had either blood lead (N=5272) or urine cadmium (N=4887) determinations. Frailty was ascertained with a slight modification of the Fried criteria, so that individuals meeting ≥3 of 5 pre-defined criteria (exhaustion, low body weight, low physical activity, weakness and slow walking speed), were considered as frail. The association between lead and cadmium with frailty was evaluated using logistic regression with adjustment for relevant confounders. Results: Median (intertertile range) concentrations of blood lead and urine cadmium were 3.9 µg/dl (2.9–4.9) and 0.62 µg/l (0.41–0.91), respectively. The prevalence of frailty was 7.1%. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of frailty comparing the second and third to the lowest tertile of blood lead were, respectively, 1.40 (0.96–2.04) and 1.75 (1.33–2.31). Lead concentrations were also associated with the frequency of exhaustion, weakness and slowness. The corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for cadmium were, respectively, 0.97 (0.68–1.39) and 1.55 (1.03–2.32), but this association did not hold after excluding participants with reduced glomerular filtration rate: 0.70 (0.43–1.14) and 1.09 (0.56–2.11), respectively. Conclusions: In the US older adult population, blood lead but not urine cadmium concentrations showed a direct dose

  17. Comparative proteome analysis of high and low cadmium accumulating soybeans under cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Zahed; Hajika, Makita; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2012-12-01

    A comparative proteomic study was performed to unravel the protein networks involved in cadmium stress response in soybean. Ten-day-old seedlings of contrasting cadmium accumulating soybean cultivars-Harosoy (high cadmium accumulator), Fukuyutaka (low cadmium accumulator), and their recombinant inbred line CDH-80 (high cadmium accumulator) were exposed to 100 μM CdCl(2) treatment for 3 days. Root growth was found to be affected under cadmium stress in all. Varietal differences at root protein level were evaluated. NADP-dependent alkenal double bond reductase P1 was found to be more abundant in low cadmium accumulating Fukuyutaka. Leaf proteome analysis revealed that differentially expressed proteins were primarily involved in metabolism and energy production. The results indicate that both high and low cadmium accumulating cultivars and CDH-80 share some common defense strategies to cope with the cadmium stress. High abundance of enzymes involved in glycolysis and TCA cycle might help cadmium challenged cells to produce more energy necessary to meet the high energy demand. Moreover, enhanced expressions of photosynthesis related proteins indicate quick utilization of photoassimilates in energy generation. Increased abundance of glutamine synthetase in all might be involved in phytochelatin mediated detoxification of cadmium ions. In addition, increased abundance of antioxidant enzymes, namely superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, ensures cellular protection from reactive oxygen species mediated damages under cadmium stress. Enhanced expression of molecular chaperones in high cadmium accumulating cultivar might be another additional defense mechanism for refolding of misfolded proteins and to stabilize protein structure and function, thus maintain cellular homeostasis.

  18. Use of cadmium telluride solar cells and environmental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karus, M.; Wittassek, R.; Linden, W.

    1990-05-01

    Cadmium telluride solar cells for power generation may give rise to environmental pollution with cadmium in the event of incidents during fabrication, fires during operation or inappropriate disposal after use. Fires may liberate more than 50% of cadmium contained; disposal at municipal landfills and sufficient contact with water may even release 100% of cadmium. According to the waste disposal regulations in force, cadmium telluride cells, because of their cadmium content and the high risk of cadmium liberation on contact with water, must be disposed of in underground storages of category six. (orig.) [de

  19. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No... will be followed by a potable water rinse of the carcass. [72 FR 67576, Nov. 29, 2007] ...

  20. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  1. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  2. Experiment to decipher the effect of heavy metal cadmium on coastal benthic foraminifer Pararotalia Nipponica (Asano)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Linshy, V.N.; Saraswat, R.; Kurtarkar, S.R.; Nigam, R.

    health hazards including kidney damage (Jarup et al., 1998; Bernard, 2004), bone damage (Kazantzis, 2004), acute respiratory diseases (Barbee and Prince, 1999), gastro-intestinal problems (Nordberg, 2004) and even cancer in humans (Il'yasova, 2005... and Environmentsl Safety, 7: 9–24. Il'yasova, D. S.G.G. 2005. Cadmium and renal cancer. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 207, 179-186. IOSHIC. 1999 International occupational safety and health information centre. Metals in basics of chemical safety, chapter...

  3. Cadmium Exposure is Associated with the Prevalence of Dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhou; Lu, Yong-Hui; Pi, Hui-Feng; Gao, Peng; Li, Min; Zhang, Lei; Pei, Li-Ping; Mei, Xiang; Liu, Lin; Zhao, Qi; Qin, Qi-Zhong; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Yue-Ming; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Yu, Zheng-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental and occupational pollutant that accumulates in human body with a biological half-life exceeding 10 years. Cadmium exposure has been demonstrated to increase rates of cardiovascular diseases. Whether occupational cadmium exposure is associated with the increase in the prevalence of dyslipidemia and hence contributes to the risk of cardiovascular diseases is still equivocal. To test the hypothesis that exposure to cadmium is related to the prevalence of dyslipidemia, we examined the associations between blood cadmium concentration and the prevalence of dyslipidemia in workers occupationally exposed to cadmium in China. A cross-sectional survey on demographic data, blood cadmium level and lipid profile in cadmium exposed workers from seven cadmium smelting factories in central and southwestern China was conducted. We measured blood cadmium concentration and lipid components of 1489 cadmium exposed workers. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was compared across blood cadmium quartiles. Associations between the blood cadmium concentrations and the prevalence of dyslipidemia were assessed using confounder adjusted linear and logistic regressions. The blood cadmium concentration was 3.61±0.84µg/L ( mean ±SD). The prevalence of dyslipidemia in this occupational population was 66.3%. Mean blood cadmium concentration of workers with dyslipedemia was significantly higher than that of workers without dyslipidemia (p dyslipidemia increased dose-dependently with elevations in blood cadmium concentrations (p for trend dyslipidemia across the increasing blood cadmium quartiles were 1.21(1.16-1.55), 1.56(1.11-1.87), 1.79(1.26-2.25) respectively (referencing to 1.00; p for trend dyslipidemia remained unchanged (all p for trend dyslipidemia. Cadmium exposure could alter lipid metabolism in humans. It is imperative to control cadmium exposure of occupational population in cadmium related industries and reduce adverse health effects. © 2016 The

  4. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  5. 75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China Determination On the basis of the record\\1\\ developed in the subject... order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Barium Chloride from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review). By order of the Commission...

  6. Recuperação de cádmio de baterias níquel-cádmio via extração seletiva com tributilfosfato (TBP Recovery of cadmium from nickel-cadmium batteries via selective extraction with tributylphosphate (TBP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Mauro Gonçalves Barandas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a recovery process of cadmium from spent nickel-cadmium batteries by a new hydrometallurgical route based on the selective extraction in hydrochloric acid medium with tributylphosphate (TBP, alone or dissolved in kerosene. The best results were obtained when TBP concentration was at least 75 vol%. Nickel extraction was negligible under these conditions. It was isolated after processing the rafinate through an anionic ion-exchange column. Final wastes generated are basically sodium chloride solutions, with no turbidity, color or heavy metals present in significant amounts.

  7. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; Ribeiro, Frederico Haddad; Neves, Maria Jose; Porto, Barbara Abranches Araujo; Amaral, Angela M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C.; Rosa, Carlos Augusto

    2009-01-01

    The intensification of industrial activity has been greatly contributing with the increase of heavy metals in the environment. Among these heavy metals, cadmium becomes a serious pervasive environmental pollutant. The cadmium is a heavy metal with no biological function, very toxic and carcinogenic at low concentrations. The toxicity of cadmium and several other metals can be mainly attributed to the multiplicity of coordination complexes and clusters that they can form. Some aspects of the cellular response to cadmium were extensively investigated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The primary site of interaction between many toxic metals and microbial cells is the plasma membrane. Plasma-membrane permeabilisation has been reported in a variety of microorganisms following cadmium exposure, and is considered one mechanism of cadmium toxicity in the yeast. In this work, using the yeast strain S. cerevisiae W303-WT, we have investigated the relationships between Cd uptake and release of cellular metal ions (K + and Na + ) using neutron activation technique. The neutron activation was an easy, rapid and suitable technique for doing these metal determinations on yeast cells; was observed the change in morphology of the strains during the process of Cd accumulation, these alterations were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) during incorporation of cadmium. (author)

  8. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; Ribeiro, Frederico Haddad; Neves, Maria Jose [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia], e-mail: luamatu@uol.com.br; Porto, Barbara Abranches Araujo; Amaral, Angela M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Ativacao Neutronica], e-mail: menezes@cdtn.br; Rosa, Carlos Augusto [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia], e-mail: carlrosa@icb.ufmg

    2009-07-01

    The intensification of industrial activity has been greatly contributing with the increase of heavy metals in the environment. Among these heavy metals, cadmium becomes a serious pervasive environmental pollutant. The cadmium is a heavy metal with no biological function, very toxic and carcinogenic at low concentrations. The toxicity of cadmium and several other metals can be mainly attributed to the multiplicity of coordination complexes and clusters that they can form. Some aspects of the cellular response to cadmium were extensively investigated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The primary site of interaction between many toxic metals and microbial cells is the plasma membrane. Plasma-membrane permeabilisation has been reported in a variety of microorganisms following cadmium exposure, and is considered one mechanism of cadmium toxicity in the yeast. In this work, using the yeast strain S. cerevisiae W303-WT, we have investigated the relationships between Cd uptake and release of cellular metal ions (K{sup +} and Na{sup +}) using neutron activation technique. The neutron activation was an easy, rapid and suitable technique for doing these metal determinations on yeast cells; was observed the change in morphology of the strains during the process of Cd accumulation, these alterations were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) during incorporation of cadmium. (author)

  9. Cadmium decontamination using in-house resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Sangita; Thalor, K.L; Prabhakar, S.; Srivastava, V.K.; Goswami, J.L.; Tewari, P.K.; Dhanpal, Pranav; Goswami, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    A selective and strong in-house chelator has been studied w.r.t. basic parameters like concentration, time, and elution. De-contamination of cadmium, mercury, chromium, lead etc by using high uptake values fro cadmium ions proves its selectivity with high elution ratio ensures further decontamination of run-off water during natural calamities. In three step cascade use the concentration of original cadmium solution (500 ppm) decocted to safe disposable attribute. This polymeric ligand exchanger displayed outlet effluent concentration to 1 ppm and less than 200 ppb when treated for inlet feed concentration of 50 ppm and 500 ppm respectively. (author)

  10. Cadmium electrode and process for its production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rampel, G.G.; Puglisi, V.J.

    1991-11-12

    This patent describes a cadmium electrode for use in a rechargeable cell employing an alkaline electrolyte. It comprises an electrically conductive substrate supporting an electrochemically active material; an interconnecting network of aliphatic alcohol soluble polyamide, the solubility limit of the polyamide in n- propanol being at least about 7.4 percent by weight, linked to the substrate and serving as a binder and an anti- agglomerant retarding cadmium agglomeration during use of the electrode; and a mixture of particulate electrochemically active cadmium material retained in and dispersed through the network and in electrical contact with the substrate during charge and discharge of the electrode.

  11. Effects of cadmium on hypoxia-induced expression of hemoglobin and erythropoietin in larval sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dangre, A.J.; Manning, S.; Brouwer, M.

    2010-01-01

    Hypoxia and toxic metals are two common stressors found in the estuarine environment. To date little information is available on the combined effects of these stressors on early larval development in fish. We investigated the effect of cadmium and hypoxia exposure alone as well in combination on larval Cyprinodon variegatus. The LC 10 for cadmium was determined to be 0.3 ppm in a 96 h acute exposure. This concentration was used in all studies. Cadmium in larvae increased significantly with exposure time (1, 3, 5 and 7 days post-hatch). The increase was proportional to body weight and not affected by hypoxia. Cadmium responsive genes were identified by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) in Cyprinodonvariegatus larvae after exposure to cadmium for 1, 3, 5 and 7 days. We obtained over 700 sequences from the cadmium cDNA library. Blast search of ESTs suggested that cadmium modulates multiple physiological processes. Pertinent to this study, cadmium was found to down-regulate both embryonic α and β globin, which are expressed in erythrocytes generated during the first, or primitive, wave of erythropoiesis in teleosts. Hemoglobin (Hb) and erythropoietin (Epo) (the hormone that promotes red blood cell production) are known hypoxia-inducible genes. To explore the possibility that cadmium might offset the hypoxia-induced expression of Hb and Epo, we investigated the expression of both genes following hypoxia, cadmium and combined exposures for 1, 3, 5 and 7 days post-hatch. Since Epo had not yet been identified in C. variegatus we first successfully cloned a partial coding sequence of the C. variegatus hormone. Subsequent studies revealed that expression levels of Hb and Epo remained unchanged in the normoxic controls during the time course of the study. Hypoxia increased Epo expression relative to normoxic controls, on days 3, 5 and 7, while cadmium in hypoxia inhibited the increase. Only the changes on days 5 and 7 were statistically significant. Hypoxia also

  12. Cadmium Concentration in Human Autopsy Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Teresa; Sadlik, Józefa K

    2017-10-01

    The concentration of cadmium in human tissues obtained on the basis of autopsies of non-poisoned Polish people (n = 150), aged from 1 to 80 years, examined between 1990 and 2010, is presented. The following values were found in wet digested samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) (mean ± SD, median, and range, μg/g of wet weight): brain 0.020 ± 0.031, 0.084, 0-0.120 (n = 41); stomach 0.148 ± 0.195, 0.084, 0-1.25 (n = 89); small intestine 0.227 ± 0.231, 0.130, 0-0.830 (n = 39); liver 1.54 ± 1.55, 1.01, 0.015-9.65 (n = 99); kidney 16.0 ± 13.2, 14.0, 0.62-61.3 (n = 91); lung 0.304 ± 0.414, 0.130, 0-1.90 (n = 25); and heart 0.137 ± 0.107, 0.140, 0.017-0.250 (n = 4). Additionally, results (n = 13 people, aged from 2 to 83 years, 63 samples) obtained by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) between 2010 and 2015 are given. The obtained data on Cd concentration in the human body can be used to estimate the amounts occurring in "healthy" people and those occurring in cases of chronic or acute poisonings with Cd compounds, which are examined for forensic purposes or to assess environmental exposure levels.

  13. Activation of AMPK inhibits cholera toxin stimulated chloride secretion in human and murine intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailín C Rogers

    Full Text Available Increased intestinal chloride secretion through chloride channels, such as the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, is one of the major molecular mechanisms underlying enterotoxigenic diarrhea. It has been demonstrated in the past that the intracellular energy sensing kinase, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, can inhibit CFTR opening. We hypothesized that pharmacological activation of AMPK can abrogate the increased chloride flux through CFTR occurring during cholera toxin (CTX mediated diarrhea. Chloride efflux was measured in isolated rat colonic crypts using real-time fluorescence imaging. AICAR and metformin were used to activate AMPK in the presence of the secretagogues CTX or forskolin (FSK. In order to substantiate our findings on the whole tissue level, short-circuit current (SCC was monitored in human and murine colonic mucosa using Ussing chambers. Furthermore, fluid accumulation was measured in excised intestinal loops. CTX and forskolin (FSK significantly increased chloride efflux in isolated colonic crypts. The increase in chloride efflux could be offset by using the AMPK activators AICAR and metformin. In human and mouse mucosal sheets, CTX and FSK increased SCC. AICAR and metformin inhibited the secretagogue induced rise in SCC, thereby confirming the findings made in isolated crypts. Moreover, AICAR decreased CTX stimulated fluid accumulation in excised intestinal segments. The present study suggests that pharmacological activation of AMPK effectively reduces CTX mediated increases in intestinal chloride secretion, which is a key factor for intestinal water accumulation. AMPK activators may therefore represent a supplemental treatment strategy for acute diarrheal illness.

  14. Cadmium stress in wheat seedlings: growth, cadmium accumulation and photosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ci, Dunwei; Jiang, Dong; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Cd concentrations in shoots and roots could be explained by the regression model Y = K/(1 + exp(a + bX)). Jing 411 was found to be Cd tolerant considering parameters of chlorophyll content, photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence in which less Cd translocation was from roots into shoots. The high......Seedlings of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Jing 411, Jinmai 30 and Yangmai 10 were exposed to 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 or 50 μM of CdCl2 in a solution culture experiment. The effects of cadmium (Cd) stress on wheat growth, leaf photon energy conversion, gas exchange, and Cd accumulation in wheat...... parameters were generally depressed by Cd stress, especially under the high Cd concentrations. Cd concentration and accumulation in both shoots and roots increased with increasing external Cd concentrations. Relationships between corrected parameters of growth, photosynthesis and fluorescence and corrected...

  15. Simple chloride sensors for continuous groundwater monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorn, Paul; Mortensen, John

    2012-01-01

    in continuous application. This study looks at the development of a simple, inexpensive chloride electrode, and evaluates its performance under continuous use, both in the laboratory and in a field test in a monitoring well. The results from the study showed a consistent response to changing chloride...... sensor remained responsive even at low chloride concentrations, where the conductivity electrode was no longer responding to changing chloride levels. With the results, it is believed that the simple chloride sensor could be used for continuous monitoring of groundwater quality....

  16. Effect of two heavy metals, cadmium and nickel, on the organic load removal efficiency in a laboratory UASB reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forero, Luis Eduardo; Sierra, Jorge Humberto

    2004-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in three up flow anaerobic sludge blanket, UASB, reactors each with 3 L capacity, four hours of hydraulic retention time, (HRT) and volumetric organic load of 4,8 g/L/d. After the initial start phase, which was of 4.000 hours for the three reactors, they were affected in the following way: the first reactor was continuously feed with 5 mg/L of cadmium chloride, the second one was continuously feed with 10 mg/L of nickel chloride and the last one was not affected and served as reference. Efficiency in organic load removal was measured as oxygen chemical demand (OCD), the first reactor changed from 60% in the start phase (phase one) to 18% in the cadmium-affected phase (phase two), efficiency in removal (OCI) in reactor two varied from 60 to 24% and the last one did not change in a noticeable manner. Reactor one accumulated cadmium in the mud, whereas reactor two did not do that with nickel

  17. Comparative Genotoxicity of Cadmium and Lead in Earthworm Coelomocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ptumporn Muangphra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine genotoxicity to coelomocytes, Pheretima peguana earthworms were exposed in filter paper studies to cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb for 48 h, at concentrations less than the LC10—Cd: 0.09, 0.19, 0.38, 0.75, and 1.50 μg cm−2; Pb: 1.65, 3.29, 6.58, 13.16, and 26.32 μg cm−2. For Cd at 0.75 μg cm−2, in the micronucleus test (detects chromosomal aberrations, significant increases (<.05 in micronuclei and binucleate cells were observed, and in the comet assay (detects DNA single-strand breaks, tail DNA% was significantly increased. Lead was less toxic with minimal effects on DNA, but the binucleates were significantly increased by Pb at 3.29 μg cm−2. This study shows that Cd is more acutely toxic and sublethally genotoxic than Pb to P. peguana. Cadmium caused chromosomal aberrations and DNA single-strand breaks at 45% of the LC10 concentration. Lead, in contrast, did not induce DNA damage but caused cytokinesis defects.

  18. Long term exposure to cadmium: Pathological effects on kidney tubules cells in Sparus aurata juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avallone, Bice; Cerciello, Raimondo; Cretì, Patrizia; Pizzoleo, Carmela; Scudiero, Rosaria; Tizzano, Monica; Panzuto, Raffaele; Simoniello, Palma; Montinari, Maria Rosa; Motta, Chiara M

    2017-12-01

    The effects of an exposure to cadmium chloride 0.47μM for 150days were studied in kidneys of juveniles Sparus aurata by a multidisciplinary approach so to correlate uptake and detoxification potential to changes in brush border and glycocalyx sugar composition. Results demonstrated that cadmium concentration in kidney significantly increased from day 30 reaching a plateau on day 120 while metallothioneins reached a peak on day 90 and by day 120 were already decreasing to control values. Cytological damage was extensive on day 90, clearly detectable at both structural and ultrastructural levels, in tubular cells and brush-border. Staining with a panel of four lectins revealed a significant increase in N-Ac-Gal and a decrease in mannose in the glycocalyx and the tubular basal membranes. From day 120, when cadmium concentration was high and metallothionein concentration decreasing, a clear recovery was observed in tubular cells morphology and sugar composition. Possible significance of these apparently contrasting data are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Large silver-cadmium technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlip, S.; Lerner, S.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of varying cell design on operation factors on the electrochemical performance of sealed, silver-cadmium cells were determined. A factorial experiment was conducted for all test cells constructed with organic separators. Three operating factors were evaluated: temperature, depth of discharge, and charge rate. The six construction factors considered were separator, absorber, electrolyte quantity, cadmium electrode type, cadmium-to-silver ratio, and auxiliary electrode. Test cells of 4 ampere-hour capacity were fabricated and cycled. The best performing cells, on a 94 minute orbit, at 40% depth of discharge, were those containing silver-treated fibrous sausage casings as the separator, and Teflon-ated, pressed cadmium electrodes. Cycling data of cells with inorganic separators (Astroset) are given. Best performance was shown by cells with nonwoven nylon absorbers. Rigid inorganic separators provided the best barrier to silver migration.

  20. RISK ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CADMIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmium consumed in foods grown on soils contaminated by industrial Cd+Zn discharge has caused renal tubular dysfunction in exposed humans in discrete situations. However, lack of understanding about environmental Cd has caused wide concern that generalpopulations may...

  1. Cadmium substituted high permeability lithium ferrite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , 0.5 and 0.6 were prepared by a double sintering ceramic technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The lattice parameter is found to increase monotonically with the cadmium content.

  2. Exposure to Cadmium Impairs Sperm Functions by Reducing CatSper in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Feng Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cadmium (Cd, a common environmental heavy metal and endocrine disruptor, is known to exert toxic effects on the testes. However, the mechanisms accounting for its toxicity in mature spermatozoa remain unclear. Methods: Adult male C57BL/6 mice were orally administered with CdCl2 for 5 weeks at 3 mg·kg-1·day-1. Additionally, mouse spermatozoa were incubated in vitro with different doses of CdCl2 (0, 10, 50, 250 µM. Several sperm functions including the sperm motility, viability and acrosome reaction (AR ratio were then examined. Furthermore, the current and expression levels of both the sperm-specific Ca2+ channel (CatSper and the sperm-specific K+ channel (KSper were evaluated by patch-clamping and western blotting, respectively. Results: Our data showed that the motility, viability and AR of sperm exposed to cadmium significantly decreased in vivo and in vitro. Interestingly, these changes were correlated with changes in CatSper but not KSper. Conclusion: The findings indicate sperm dysfunction during both chronic and acute cadmium exposure as well as a specific role for CatSper in the reproductive toxicity of cadmium.

  3. Suppression of interleukin-1[beta] and tumour necrosis factor-[alpha] biosynthesis by cadmium in in vitro activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theocharis, S.E. (Dept. of Experimental Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Univ. of Athens (Greece) First Dept. of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Univ. of Athens, Laikon Hospital (Greece)); Panayiotidis, P.G. (First Dept. of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Univ. of Athens, Laikon Hospital (Greece)); Souliotis, V.L. (National Hellenic Research Foundation, Inst. of Biological Research and Biotechnology, Athens (Greece))

    1994-12-01

    Cadmium is a highly toxic element responsible for acute and chronic toxicity in man. There is evidence that cadmium induces pathophysiological effects by modulating components of the immune system. Cytokines are being increasingly recognized as essential mediators of normal and pathologic immune responses. Cadmium at concentrations varying from 1.0x10[sup -4] to 3.3x10[sup -6] M inhibited the phytohemagglutinin induced production of interleukin-1[beta] and tumour necrosis factor-[alpha], in in vitro activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The messenger RNA levels of interleukin-1[beta] and tumour necrosis factor-[alpha] were examined during a 24-h culture period, at different time points. The decreased messenger RNA levels at the time points of the maximum expression of interleukin-1[beta] and tumour necrosis factor-[alpha] indicate that cadmium suppresses their production at the transcriptional level. (orig.)

  4. Cadmium poisoning. Knowledge of the risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltier, A.; Demange, M.; Carton, M.B.

    1979-01-01

    This data sheet provides an up-to-date summary of information on cadmium poisoning. The following points are examined: - the problem of increasing pollution of soil, water and the food chain; - physical and chemical properties, manufacture, industrial applications; - the toxic action of cadmium and its derivatives; - methods and apparatus for taking and analysis samples from the atmosphere and from body fluids; - existing French regulations; - technical control and medical surveillance [fr

  5. Cadmium affects retinogenesis during zebrafish embryonic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hen Chow, Elly Suk; Yu Hui, Michelle Nga; Cheng, Chi Wa; Cheng, Shuk Han

    2009-01-01

    Ocular malformations are commonly observed in embryos of aquatic species after exposure to toxicants. Using zebrafish embryos as the model organism, we showed that cadmium exposure from sphere stage (4 hpf) to end of segmentation stage (24 hpf) induced microphthalmia in cadmium-treated embryos. Embryos with eye defects were then assessed for visual abilities. Cadmium-exposed embryos were behaviorally blind, showing hyperpigmentation and loss of camouflage response to light. We investigated the cellular basis of the formation of the small eyes phenotype and the induction of blindness by studying retina development and retinotectal projections. Retinal progenitors were found in cadmium-treated embryos albeit in smaller numbers. The number of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), the first class of retinal cells to differentiate during retinogenesis, was reduced, while photoreceptor cells, the last batch of retinal neurons to differentiate, were absent. Cadmium also affected the propagation of neurons in neurogenic waves. The neurons remained in the ventronasal area and failed to spread across the retina. Drastically reduced RGC axons and disrupted optic stalk showed that the optic nerves did not extend from the retina beyond the chiasm into the tectum. Our data suggested that impairment in neuronal differentiation of the retina, disruption in RGC axon formation and absence of cone photoreceptors were the causes of microphthalmia and visual impairment in cadmium-treated embryos

  6. Cadmium leaching from thermal treated and gamma irradiated Mexican aluminosilicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila-Rangel, J.I. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, Mexico 11801, D.F. (Mexico); Unidad Academica Centro Regional de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas Cipres 10, Frac. La Penuela, Zacatecas, Zacatecas 98068 (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Instituto Literario No. 100 Col. Centro C.P. 50000, Toluca, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico); Solache-Rios, M. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, Mexico 11801, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: msr@nuclear.inin.mx

    2008-10-15

    Thermal and radiation effects on the leaching of cadmium from two cadmium exchanged zeolitic tuffs and one clay were determined. The cadmium exchanged aluminosilicates were heated at different temperatures (500, 700, 900 and 1100 {sup o}C), and the materials were then treated with NaCl (1 M and 5 M) and HNO{sub 3} (0.001 M and 1 M) solutions to determine the leaching behaviour of cadmium from the materials. The stability of cadmium in the materials increased as the heating temperature was increased. Cadmium leaching from gamma irradiated and heated materials at 1100 {sup o}C was higher than leaching from non-irradiated samples.

  7. Synthesis of Zirconium Lower Chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaviria, Juan P.

    2002-01-01

    This research is accurately related to the Halox concept of research reactor spent fuel element treatment.The aim of this project is to work the conditioning through selected chlorination of the element that make the spent fuel element. This research studied the physical chemistry conditions which produce formation of the lower zirconium chlorides through the reaction between metallic Zr and gaseous ZrCl 4 in a silica reactor.This work focused special attention in the analysis and confrontation of the published results among the different authors in order to reveal coincidences and contradictions.Experimental section consisted in a set of synthesis with different reaction conditions and reactor design. After reaction were analyzed the products on Zr shavings and the deposit growth on wall reactor.The products were strongly dependent of reactor design. It was observed that as the distance between Zr and wall reactor increased greater was tendency to lower chlorides formation.In reactors with small distance the reaction follows other way without formation of lower chlorides.Analysis on deposit growth on reactor showed that may be formed to a mixture of Si x Zr y intermetallics and zirconium oxides.Presence of oxygen in Zr and Zr-Si compounds on wall reactor reveals that there is an interaction between quartz and reactants.This interaction is in gaseous phase because contamination is observed in experiences where Zr was not in contact with reactor.Finally, it was made a global analysis of all experiences and a possible mechanism that interprets reaction ways is proposed

  8. Cigarette Smoke Cadmium Breakthrough from Traditional Filters: Implications for Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, R. Steven; Fresquez, Mark R.; Watson, Clifford H.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium, a carcinogenic metal, is highly toxic to renal, skeletal, nervous, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems. Accurate and precise quantification of mainstream smoke cadmium levels in cigarette smoke is important because of exposure concerns. The two most common trapping techniques for collecting mainstream tobacco smoke particulate for analysis are glass fiber filters and electrostatic precipitators. We observed that a significant portion of total cadmium passed through standard glass fiber filters that are used to trap particulate matter. We therefore developed platinum traps to collect the cadmium that passed through the filters and tested a variety of cigarettes with different physical parameters for quantities of cadmium that passed though the filters. We found less than 1% cadmium passed through electrostatic precipitators. In contrast, cadmium that passed through 92 mm glass fiber filters on a rotary smoking machine was significantly higher, ranging from 3.5% to 22.9% of total smoke cadmium deliveries. Cadmium passed through 44 mm filters typically used on linear smoking machines to an even greater degree, ranging from 13.6% to 30.4% of the total smoke cadmium deliveries. Differences in the cadmium that passed through from the glass fiber filters and electrostatic precipitator could be explained in part if cadmium resides in the smaller mainstream smoke aerosol particle sizes. Differences in particle size distribution could have toxicological implications and could help explain the pulmonary and cardiovascular cadmium uptake in smokers. PMID:25313385

  9. Prevention of hepato-renal toxicity of radiation and cadmium by Aloe vera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrawarti, Aruna; Bhati, Sharvan Lal; Ojha, Shikha; Purkharam; Issran, Rakesh; Agarwal, Manisha; Purohit, R.K.

    2014-01-01

    proteins, glycogen, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase activity and RNA increased in both control as well as experimental groups. While the value of cholesterol and DNA declined up to day-14 in non drug treated groups and day-7 in the drug treated groups thereafter value elevated up to day-28. After combined treatment of radiation and cadmium chloride synergistic effects were observed. In the drug treated animals the changes observed were of lesser magnitude showing protective efficacy by the drug. It could be concluded that Aloe vera might protect liver and kidney from oxidative damage. (author)

  10. l-Nebiviololinium chloride dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Hänsicke

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrochloride salt of chiral l-nebivolol {systematic name: (+−(R,S,S,S-bis[2-(6-fluoro-3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran-2-yl-2-hydroxyethyl]ammonium chloride dihydrate}, C22H26F2NO4+·Cl−·2H2O, was obtained by chiral liquid chromatography as a dihydrate. The pyran rings adopt half-chair conformations. Hydrogen bonds between the cation, anions and water molecules contribute to the formation of layers parallel to the ac plane.

  11. Production of anhydrous aluminum chloride composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandergrift, G.F. III; Krumpelt, M.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1981-10-08

    A process is described for producing an anhydrous aluminum chloride composition from a water-based aluminous material such as a slurry of aluminum hydroxide in a multistage extraction process in which the aluminum ion is first extracted into an organic liquid containing an acidic extractant and then extracted from the organic phase into an alkali metal chloride or chlorides to form a melt containing a mixture of chlorides of alkali metal and aluminum. In the process, the organic liquid may be recycled. In addition, the process advantageously includes an electrolysis cell for producing metallic aluminum and the alkali metal chloride or chlorides may be recycled for extraction of the aluminum from the organic phase.

  12. Distillation of cadmium from uranium plutonium cadmium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Tetsuya; Iizuka, Masatoshi; Inoue, Tadashi; Iwai, Takashi; Arai, Yasuo

    2005-04-01

    Uranium-plutonium alloy was prepared by distillation of cadmium from U-Pu-Cd ternary alloy. The initial ternary alloy contained 2.9 wt% U and 8.7 wt% Pu other than Cd, which were recovered by molten salt electrolysis with liquid Cd cathode. The distillation experiments were conducted in 10 g scale of the initial alloy using a small-scale distillation furnace equipped with an evaporator and a condenser in a vacuum vessel. After distillation at 1073 K, the weight of the residue was in good agreement with that of the loaded actinides, where the content of Cd decreased to less than 0.05 wt%. The uranium-plutonium alloy product was recovered without adhering to the yttria crucible. The cross section of the product was observed using electron probe micro-analyzer and it was found to consist of a dense material. Almost all of the evaporated Cd was recovered in the condenser and so enclosed well in the apparatus.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg..._locations.html. (c) In accordance with § 184.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used in food with no limitation...

  14. Renal abnormalities in congenital chloride diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hamad, Nadia M.; Al-Eisa, Amal A.

    2004-01-01

    Congenital chloride diarrhea CLD is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by a defect in the chloride/ bicarbonate exchange in the ileum and colon. It is characterized by watery diarrhea, abdominal distension, hypochloremic hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis with high fecal content of chloride >90 mmol/l. We report 3 patients with CLD associated with various renal abnormalities including chronic renal failure secondary to renal hypoplasia, nephrocalcinosis and congenital nephrotic syndrome. (author)

  15. Cobalt, nickel and cadmium coordination compounds with phenylacetylhydrazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machkhoshvili, R.I.; Metreveli, D.P.; Mitaishvili, G.Sh.; Shchelokov, R.N.

    1985-03-01

    In the process of interaction of aqueous-ethanol solutions of chlorides, sulphates, nitrates, thiocyanates of cobalt, nickel, cadmium and phenylacetylhydrazine in neutral or low-acid medium coordination compounds: (M(EAG)/sub 3/)X/sub 2/ (M=Co, Ni; X=Cl, 1/2SO/sub 4/, NO/sub 3/), Cd(FAG)/sub 2/X/sub 2/ (X = Cl, 1/2SO/sub 4/, NCS), Ni(EAG)/sub 2/(NCS)/sub 2/, where FAG C/sub 6/H/sub 5/CH/sub 2/xCONHNH/sub 2/, have been synthesized. In the reactions of aqueous-ethanol solutions of (Co(NH/sub 3/)/sub 5/Cl)Cl/sub 2/ and phenylacetylhydrazine the complex Co(C/sub 6/H/sub 5/CH/sub 2/CONNH/sub 2/)/sub 3/ is prepared. Certain physicochemical properties and IR absorption spectra of the coordination compounds synthesized are studied.

  16. Contribution of attendant anions on cadmium toxicity to soil enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Haixia; Kong, Long; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; He, Wenxiang

    2017-11-01

    Sorption and desorption are critical processes to control the mobility and biotoxicity of cadmium (Cd) in soils. It is known that attendant anion species of heavy metals could affect metal adsorption on soils and might further alter their biotoxicity. However, for Cd, the influence of attendant anions on its sorption in soils and subsequent toxicity on soil enzymes are still unknown. In this work, four Cd compounds with different salt anions (SO 4 2- , NO 3 - , Cl - , and Ac - ) were selected to investigate their impact of on the sorption, soil dehydrogenase activity (DHA) and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP). Thus, a series of simulated Cd pollution batch experiments including measuring adsorption-desorption behavior of Cd on soils and soil enzyme activities were carried out. Results showed that CdSO 4 exhibited highest sorption capacity among the tested soils except in Hunan soil. The Cd sorption with NO 3 - displayed a similar behavior with Cl - on all tested soils. Compared with soil properties, all four kinds of anions on Cd sorption played a more significant role affecting Cd ecological toxicity to soil DHA and ALP. Cd in acetate or nitrate form appears more sensitive towards DHA than sulphate and chloride, while the later pair is more toxic towards ALP than the former. These results have important implications for evaluation of Cd contamination using soil enzyme as bioindicator. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seung Seok [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myounghee, E-mail: dkkim73@gmail.com [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su Mi [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sejoong [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Kwon Wook [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chun Soo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ≥+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

  18. Electroplating of CdTe Thin Films from Cadmium Sulphate Precursor and Comparison of Layers Grown by 3-Electrode and 2-Electrode Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imyhamy M. Dharmadasa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrodeposition of CdTe thin films was carried out from the late 1970s using the cadmium sulphate precursor. The solar energy group at Sheffield Hallam University has carried out a comprehensive study of CdTe thin films electroplated using cadmium sulfate, cadmium nitrate and cadmium chloride precursors, in order to select the best electrolyte. Some of these results have been published elsewhere, and this manuscript presents the summary of the results obtained on CdTe layers grown from cadmium sulphate precursor. In addition, this research program has been exploring the ways of eliminating the reference electrode, since this is a possible source of detrimental impurities, such as K+ and Ag+ for CdS/CdTe solar cells. This paper compares the results obtained from CdTe layers grown by three-electrode (3E and two-electrode (2E systems for their material properties and performance in CdS/CdTe devices. Thin films were characterized using a wide range of analytical techniques for their structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties. These layers have also been used in device structures; glass/FTO/CdS/CdTe/Au and CdTe from both methods have produced solar cells to date with efficiencies in the region of 5%–13%. Comprehensive work carried out to date produced comparable and superior devices fabricated from materials grown using 2E system.

  19. Copper-cadmium interaction in mice: effects of copper status on retention and distribution of cadmium after cadmium exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourcier, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    The role of increased dietary copper in altering the accumulation of cadmium and other metals in tissues, was investigated. Female Swiss-Webster mice were pretreated with cadmium or copper in drinking water for three weeks prior to cadmium exposure for an additional nine weeks, with sub groups from each dose level receiving Cu additions to the Cd supplemented water. In Cd pretreated animals, a significant decrease was observed in Cd concentrations in liver and kidney when Cu was added to Cd in drinking water. Cadmium levels in soluble protein fractions of liver of animals administered 5 ppm Cd were approximately three fold greater than that for the same Cd dose when Cu was added. The same was the case for the metallothionein-like protein fraction (MTP) of the liver cytosol. In copper pretreated animals similar trends were noted in that brain, spleen, liver (but not kidney) Cd levels were decreased in animals receiving Cu additions to the Cd dose. Increased binding of Cd to the MTP fraction was observed after both in vivo and in vitro exposure of intestinal mucosal cells to cadmium

  20. Production of chlorine from chloride salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmann, Charles A.

    1981-01-01

    A process for converting chloride salts and sulfuric acid to sulfate salts and elemental chlorine is disclosed. A chloride salt and sulfuric acid are combined in a furnace where they react to produce a sulfate salt and hydrogen chloride. Hydrogen chloride from the furnace contacts a molten salt mixture containing an oxygen compound of vanadium, an alkali metal sulfate and an alkali metal pyrosulfate to recover elemental chlorine. In the absence of an oxygen-bearing gas during the contacting, the vanadium is reduced, but is regenerated to its active higher valence state by separately contacting the molten salt mixture with an oxygen-bearing gas.

  1. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantcheva, Adriana Krassimirova; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs...... have a serine. The LeuT-E290S mutant displays chloride-dependent activity. We show that, in LeuT-E290S cocrystallized with bromide or chloride, the anion is coordinated by side chain hydroxyls from Tyr47, Ser290, and Thr254 and the side chain amide of Gln250. The bound anion and the nearby sodium ion...

  2. Electrochemical Chloride extraction using external electrodes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical methods for the removal of chloride from concrete have been developed and the methods are primarily designed for situations where corrosion has started due to an increased chloride concentration in the vicinity of the reinforcement. In these methods the reinforcement is used as th......, it is possible to use external electrodes and not use of the reinforcement as cathode thus avoiding side effects....... as the cathode. However, some unwanted side effects can occur, including alkali-silica reaction and in some cases hydrogen embrittlement. It is also suggested also to use electrochemical chloride extraction in a preventive way in constructions where chloride induced corrosion is likely to be a problem after...

  3. Genotoxic Effect of Atrazine, Arsenic, Cadmium and Nitrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ATZ), Cadmium (Cd), Arsenic (As) and Nitrate (NO3) have both estrogenic activity and carcinogenic potential. Atrazine has clastogenic effects and may also act as tumor promoter as it induces the aromatase enzyme. Arsenic and Cadmium ...

  4. Uptake of cadmium from hydroponic solutions by willows ( Salix spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salix integra 'Weishanhu') and Yizhibi (S. integra 'Yizhibi') were chosen as model plants to evaluate their potential for uptake of cadmium from hydroponic culture and relative uptake mechanism. Cadmium uptake showed a linear increase in the ...

  5. Hazards to wildlife from soil-borne cadmium reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.

    2000-01-01

    Cadmium is a toxic element that should be included in environmental risk assessments of contaminated soils. This paper argues, however, that hazards to wildlife from cadmium have often been overstated. The literature contains only meager evidence that wild animals have been seriously harmed by cadmium, even at severely contaminated sites. Although some researchers have reported that wildlife have accumulated concentrations of cadmium in their kidneys that were above suggested injury thresholds, the thresholds may be disputed, since they were well below the World Health Organization criterion of 200 mg/kg (wet weight) of cadmium in the renal cortex for protecting human health. Recent risk assessments have concluded that soil cadmium concentrations less than 1 mg/kg are toxic to soil organisms and wildlife, which implies that background concentrations of cadmium naturally found in soils are hazardous. An examination of the databases used to support these assessments suggested that the toxicity of cadmium has been exaggerated.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE TO VINYL CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Vinyl chloride (VC monomer is a wellknown carcinogenic and mutagenic substance causes liver damages, angiosarcoma of the liver, acro – osteolysis, sclerodermalike changes in workers chronically exposed to this gas. There are following VC emitors to the environment: VC production plants, polymerization facilities and planes where polyvinyl products are fabricated. Because of that, the general population is coming into VC contact through polluted air, food and water. VC concentration in all mentioned sites is very low, often not detectable. There was found any health risk for the general population. The VC air concentration in the vicinity to antropogenic emitors is always higher. Such a situation may causes undesirable health effect for residents living in the neighbourhood. Epidemiological studies are performed to detect the adverse VC effect in selected cohorts. Non of the study did not confirmed cases of angiosarcoma among residents living near a vinyl chloride sites. VC production is growing permanently, so VC emission will be higher. Because of that health monitoring of general population and especially of selected groups seems to be necessary in the future.

  7. Electrochemical chloride extraction of a beam polluted by chlorides after 40 years in the sea

    OpenAIRE

    BOUTEILLER, Véronique; LAPLAUD, André; MALOULA, Aurélie; MORELLE, René Stéphane; DUCHESNE, Béatrice; MORIN, Mathieu

    2006-01-01

    A beam element, naturally polluted by chlorides after 40 years of a marine tidal exposure, has been treated by electrochemical chloride extraction. The chloride profiles, before and after treatment, show that free chlorides are extrated with an efficiency of 70 % close to the steel, 50 % in the intermediate cover and only 5 % at the concrete surface. From the electrochemical characterizations (before, after, 1, 2 and 17 months after treatment), the steel potential values can, semehow, indicat...

  8. An assessment of the effects of a cadmium discharge ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, J.H.; Schultz, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    The problem facing the MMSD was high levels of cadmium in Milorganite fertilizer. The cause was determined to be discharges from industry, primarily electroplaters. The solution was the cooperative development of an ordinance to limit the discharge of cadmium. Because the dischargers acted responsibly to comply with the ordinance, the ordinance succeeded in achieving its objective of significantly reducing the cadmium loading to the municipal sewerage system and subsequently reducing the cadmium concentration in Milorganite fertilizer

  9. Étude par spectroscopie RMN du carbone 13 de la toxicité métabolique du cadmium dans les tubules rénaux proximaux murins et humains

    OpenAIRE

    Faiz, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    As part of the assessment of metabolism nephrotoxicity of cadmium, we have studied the effect of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) on gluconeogenesis in isolated mouse and human renal proximal tubules. The dose-response experiments in vitro have shown that CdCl2 inhibits the use of lactate and glucose production in a dose-dependent fashion. Besides, the CdCl2 induced a significant decrease in cellular concentrations of ATP and the main compounds containing thiol groups such as coenzyme A and reduced g...

  10. Cadmium and Its Neurotoxic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is a heavy metal that has received considerable concern environmentally and occupationally. Cd has a long biological half-life mainly due to its low rate of excretion from the body. Thus, prolonged exposure to Cd will cause toxic effect due to its accumulation over time in a variety of tissues, including kidneys, liver, central nervous system (CNS, and peripheral neuronal systems. Cd can be uptaken from the nasal mucosa or olfactory pathways into the peripheral and central neurons; for the latter, Cd can increase the blood brain barrier (BBB permeability. However, mechanisms underlying Cd neurotoxicity remain not completely understood. Effect of Cd neurotransmitter, oxidative damage, interaction with other metals such as cobalt and zinc, estrogen-like, effect and epigenetic modification may all be the underlying mechanisms. Here, we review the in vitro and in vivo evidence of neurotoxic effects of Cd. The available finding indicates the neurotoxic effects of Cd that was associated with both biochemical changes of the cell and functional changes of central nervous system, suggesting that neurotoxic effects may play a role in the systemic toxic effects of the exposure to Cd, particularly the long-term exposure.

  11. The determination of cadmium in sulphide materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomons, M.

    1986-01-01

    A spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of cadmium in sulphide materials containing up to 200 mg of copper, iron, lead, or zinc individually or 100 mg of each of these four elements in admixture. In the method, an initial liquid-liquid extraction of cadmium from the matrix into a solution of tri-n-octylamine in benzene is followed by stripping into nitric acid. The cadmium is measured spectrophotometrically as the dithizone complex in chloroform at 518 nm. For a sample of 0,5 g, the range of the method is 2 to 24 μg of cadmium per gram of sample. The relative standard deviation and accuracy of the method were determined on a reference material of lead concentrate with a certified lead content of 64 per cent and cadmium content of 143 +- 5 μg/g (95 per cent confidence level). The accuracy of the method was found to be about 97 per cent, and the relative standard deviation was 0,018

  12. Gene expression and pathway analysis of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells treated with cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartularo, Laura; Laulicht, Freda; Sun, Hong; Kluz, Thomas; Freedman, Jonathan H; Costa, Max

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic and carcinogenic metal naturally occurring in the Earth's crust. A common route of human exposure is via diet and cadmium accumulates in the liver. The effects of Cd exposure on gene expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells were examined in this study. HepG2 cells were acutely-treated with 0.1, 0.5, or 1.0 μM Cd for 24h; or chronically-treated with 0.01, 0.05, or 0.1 μM Cd for three weeks and gene expression analysis was performed using Affymetrix GeneChip® Human Gene 1.0 ST Arrays. Acute and chronic exposures significantly altered the expression of 333 and 181 genes, respectively. The genes most upregulated by acute exposure included several metallothioneins. Downregulated genes included the monooxygenase CYP3A7, involved in drug and lipid metabolism. In contrast, CYP3A7 was upregulated by chronic Cd exposure, as was DNAJB9, an anti-apoptotic J protein. Genes downregulated following chronic exposure included the transcriptional regulator early growth response protein 1. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that the top networks altered by acute exposure were lipid metabolism, small molecule biosynthesis, cell morphology, organization, and development; while top networks altered by chronic exposure were organ morphology, cell cycle, cell signaling, and renal and urological diseases/cancer. Many of the dysregulated genes play important roles in cellular growth, proliferation, and apoptosis, and may be involved in carcinogenesis. In addition to gene expression changes, HepG2 cells treated with cadmium for 24h indicated a reduction in global levels of histone methylation and acetylation that persisted 72 h post-treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of ginger ( Zingiber officinale ) on cadmium toxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), while ginger lowered these parameters. Ginger had better therapeutic than prophylactic detoxication effects on liver cadmium accumulation, especially as further cadmium intake was stopped. It was concluded that cadmium detoxication by ginger was more ...

  14. Uptake of cadmium from hydroponic solutions by willows (Salix spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... active absorption and passive absorption occurred in the cadmium uptake by willow roots. Key words: Cadmium ... as biological filter. These traits make it a potential ideal candidate for phytoremediation of cadmium contaminated waters and soils. Dickinson and Pulford, (2005) also reported that willow is a ...

  15. Effect of Low Level Cadmium Exposure on Superoxide Dismutase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data showed a negative correlation between tissue cadmium and SOD in plasma, erythrocyte and brain. While positive associations were observed between blood and tissue (brain and liver) cadmium and SOD, a significant (p < 0.01), negative correlation was found between tissue cadmium and SOD. Conclusion: As ...

  16. Cadmium affects the social behaviour of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloman, Katherine A.; Scott, Graham R.; Diao Zhongyu; Rouleau, Claude; Wood, Chris M.; McDonald, D. Gord

    2003-10-29

    The present study investigated both the effects of cadmium on the social interactions of rainbow trout and the differential accumulation of waterborne cadmium among social ranks of fish. Fish exposed to waterborne cadmium concentrations of 2 {mu}g l{sup -1} for 24 h, followed by a 1, 2 or 3 day depuration period in clean water, had a decreased ability to compete with non-exposed fish. However, the competitive ability of exposed fish given a 5 day depuration period was not significantly impaired. Cadmium accumulated in the olfactory apparatus of fish exposed to waterborne cadmium for 24 h and decreased significantly only after 5 days depuration in clean water. Among groups of ten fish held in stream tanks, where all fish were exposed to cadmium, there were significant effects on social behaviour and growth rate. Dominance hierarchies formed faster among fish exposed to cadmium than among control fish, and overall growth rates were higher in the cadmium treatment. In groups of ten fish, social status also affected tissue accumulation of cadmium during waterborne exposure, with dominant fish accumulating more cadmium at the gill. In conclusion, exposure to low levels of cadmium, affects the social behaviour of fish, in part due to accumulation in the olfactory apparatus, and dominant fish accumulate more gill cadmium than subordinates during chronic waterborne exposure.

  17. Cadmium affects the social behaviour of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloman, Katherine A.; Scott, Graham R.; Diao Zhongyu; Rouleau, Claude; Wood, Chris M.; McDonald, D. Gord

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigated both the effects of cadmium on the social interactions of rainbow trout and the differential accumulation of waterborne cadmium among social ranks of fish. Fish exposed to waterborne cadmium concentrations of 2 μg l -1 for 24 h, followed by a 1, 2 or 3 day depuration period in clean water, had a decreased ability to compete with non-exposed fish. However, the competitive ability of exposed fish given a 5 day depuration period was not significantly impaired. Cadmium accumulated in the olfactory apparatus of fish exposed to waterborne cadmium for 24 h and decreased significantly only after 5 days depuration in clean water. Among groups of ten fish held in stream tanks, where all fish were exposed to cadmium, there were significant effects on social behaviour and growth rate. Dominance hierarchies formed faster among fish exposed to cadmium than among control fish, and overall growth rates were higher in the cadmium treatment. In groups of ten fish, social status also affected tissue accumulation of cadmium during waterborne exposure, with dominant fish accumulating more cadmium at the gill. In conclusion, exposure to low levels of cadmium, affects the social behaviour of fish, in part due to accumulation in the olfactory apparatus, and dominant fish accumulate more gill cadmium than subordinates during chronic waterborne exposure

  18. Bioaccumulation of cadmium in the ascidian Styela clava (Herdman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high rate of accumulation and elimination of cadmium from the body reveals the potential of the organism to be used as a biomonitor of short-term cadmium fluctuation in marine systems. Keywords: accumulation;, cadmium; elimination; kinetics; Styela clava. African Journal of Marine Science 2009, 31(3): 289–295 ...

  19. Cadmium recycling in the United States in 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachy, Jozef

    2003-01-01

    Recycling of cadmium is a young and growing industry that has been influenced by environmental concerns and regulatory constraints. Domestic recycling of cadmium began in 1989 as a byproduct of processing of spent nickel-cadmium batteries. In 1995, International Metals Reclamation Co. Inc. expanded its operations by building a dedicated cadmium recycling plant. In 2000, an estimated 13 percent of cadmium consumption in the United States was sourced from recycled cadmium, which is derived mainly from old scrap or, to lesser degree, new scrap. The easiest forms of old scrap to recycle are small spent nickel-cadmium batteries followed by flue dust generated during recycling of galvanized steel and small amounts of alloys that contain cadmium. Most of new scrap is generated during manufacturing processes, such as nickel-cadmium battery production. All other uses of cadmium are in low concentrations and, therefore, difficult to recycle. Consequently, much of this cadmium is dissipated and lost. The amount of cadmium in scrap that was unrecovered in 2000 was estimated to be 2,030 metric tons, and an estimated 285 tons was recovered. Recycling efficiency was estimated to be about 15 percent.

  20. Determination and estimation of Cadmium intake from Tarom rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most well-known environmental intoxicants to humans. Its entrance to food chain causes the serious damage in humans. One of the major sources of Cadmium intake is rice for rice eating countries such as Iran. Cadmium in rice comes from soil through plant roots. Thus, Rice may be the best ...

  1. Cadmium uptake by the green alga Chlorella emersonii | Arikpo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigations were carried out on the uptake of the heavy metal cadmium (Cd) by the green alga Chlorella emersonii with the aid of an ion selective electrode. Cadmium uptake by Chlorella was very rapid with 70% of total uptake occurring during the first 10 seconds. Uptake of cadmium by Chlorella showed a direct ...

  2. Cadmium-113m as a biogeochemical tracer for cadmium in Lake Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Lake Michigan watershed has been sampled for 113m Cd. This long-lived metastable isotope of cadmium allowed independent evaluation of cadmium distribution in this dynamic ecosystem. 113m Cd analysis was not hampered by contamination or loss. These are problems which have plagued stable cadmium measurements. Sensitivity and specificity were necessary concerns. 113m Cd has been preconcentrated from large samples in order to obtain sufficient activity for quantification. Specificity for the gross beta activity measured was secured in a rigorous ion exchange decontamination. Confirmation of the suspected 113m Cd beta source was checked by reverse tracer analysis and modified Feather analysis range-energy relationships. The 113m Cd activities confirm the expected semiconservative behavior for cadmium. This behavior manifests itself in a long residence time for cadmium in Lake Michigan. The inefficiency of outflow removal, the low sedimentation rate and the unquantified sediment resuspension and release of cadmium are factors contributing to this residence time. Steady state concentration of cadmium in Lake Michigan will increase if present input rates persist

  3. Ribosomal genes as early targets of cadmium-induced toxicity in Chironomus riparius larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planello, R. [Biologia Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Senda del Rey 9, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Martinez-Guitarte, J.L. [Biologia Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Senda del Rey 9, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Morcillo, G. [Biologia Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Senda del Rey 9, 28040, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: gmorcillo@ccia.uned.es

    2007-02-01

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental pollutant that causes severe impacts in organisms. Although the effects of cadmium on aquatic insects have been studied in terms of their toxicity and changes in developmental parameters, little is known about its molecular and genetic effects. We have investigated the alterations in the pattern of gene expression provoked by acute exposure to cadmium in Chironomus riparius Mg. (Diptera, Chironomidae), a sentinel organism widely used in aquatic toxicity testing. The early cytotoxic effects were evaluated using immunocytochemistry and specific fluorescent probes in fourth instar larvae after 12 h of 10 mM cadmium treatments; under these conditions no significant effect on larvae mortality was detected until after 36 h of exposure. The changes in the pattern of gene expression were analysed by means of DNA/RNA hybrid antibodies in the polytene chromosomes from salivary gland cells. A decrease in the activity of the nucleolus is especially remarkable, accompanied by a significant reduction in size and the modification in nucleolar architecture, as shown by FISH. The inhibition of rDNA transcription was further evaluated by Northern blot analysis, which showed a marked decrease in the level of preribosomal rRNA (54% 45S 12 h). However, the BR genes, whose products are the giant polypeptides that constitute the silk-like secretion for constructing housing tubes, remain active. Simultaneously, decondensation and activation take place at some chromosomal regions, especially at the centromeres. The changes observed in the pattern of gene expression do not resemble those found after heat shock or other cell stressors. These data provide the first evidence that cadmium interacts with ribosomal genes and results in a drastic impairment of the functional activity of the nucleolus, an essential organelle for cellular survival. Therefore, the depletion of ribosomes would be a long-term effect of Cd-induced cellular damage. These findings may

  4. Ribosomal genes as early targets of cadmium-induced toxicity in Chironomus riparius larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planello, R.; Martinez-Guitarte, J.L.; Morcillo, G.

    2007-01-01

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental pollutant that causes severe impacts in organisms. Although the effects of cadmium on aquatic insects have been studied in terms of their toxicity and changes in developmental parameters, little is known about its molecular and genetic effects. We have investigated the alterations in the pattern of gene expression provoked by acute exposure to cadmium in Chironomus riparius Mg. (Diptera, Chironomidae), a sentinel organism widely used in aquatic toxicity testing. The early cytotoxic effects were evaluated using immunocytochemistry and specific fluorescent probes in fourth instar larvae after 12 h of 10 mM cadmium treatments; under these conditions no significant effect on larvae mortality was detected until after 36 h of exposure. The changes in the pattern of gene expression were analysed by means of DNA/RNA hybrid antibodies in the polytene chromosomes from salivary gland cells. A decrease in the activity of the nucleolus is especially remarkable, accompanied by a significant reduction in size and the modification in nucleolar architecture, as shown by FISH. The inhibition of rDNA transcription was further evaluated by Northern blot analysis, which showed a marked decrease in the level of preribosomal rRNA (54% 45S 12 h). However, the BR genes, whose products are the giant polypeptides that constitute the silk-like secretion for constructing housing tubes, remain active. Simultaneously, decondensation and activation take place at some chromosomal regions, especially at the centromeres. The changes observed in the pattern of gene expression do not resemble those found after heat shock or other cell stressors. These data provide the first evidence that cadmium interacts with ribosomal genes and results in a drastic impairment of the functional activity of the nucleolus, an essential organelle for cellular survival. Therefore, the depletion of ribosomes would be a long-term effect of Cd-induced cellular damage. These findings may

  5. Cadmium in the shore crab Carcinus maenas: seasonal variation in cadmium content and uptake and elimination of cadmium after administration via food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerregaard, Poul; Bjorn, Lars; Norum, Ulrik; Pedersen, Knud L.

    2005-01-01

    The uptake and assimilation efficiency of cadmium administered via the food in the shore crab Carcinus maenas were investigated together with elimination kinetics and seasonal variations in cadmium content. The majority of shore crabs assimilated between 41 and 86% of the cadmium administered in their food. More than 90% of the cadmium taken up from food was retained in midgut gland. Elimination of cadmium after uptake from one meal of radioactively labelled soft parts of blue mussels could be described by a three-compartment model (percent 109 Cd-retained = 64 x e -0.001107 xt + 25 x e -0.0385 xt + 11 x e -0.888 xt ). The biological half-life for cadmium in the most slowly exchanging compartment (containing 64% of the body burden) was 626 days. Groups of male and female shore crabs were collected from an uncontaminated site in the period May till October and the concentrations of cadmium in midgut gland and gills were determined. Male crabs had higher cadmium concentrations in the midgut gland in June and August (mean 2.7 μg Cd g -1 dry weight) than they had in May, September and October (mean 1.7 μg Cd g -1 dry weight). Females generally had slightly lower cadmium concentrations in the midgut gland than the males, except for a relatively high concentration in May. The cadmium concentrations in gills generally ranged between 0.3 and 0.5 μg Cd g -1 dry weight) except for male values in October (mean 1 μg Cd g -1 dry weight). Some of the seasonal changes in cadmium content of the crabs might plausibly be explained by changes in cadmium uptake from water, i.e. changes during the moult cycle and changes in cadmium uptake rates from water brought about by changes in ambient factors such as salinity and temperature. However, uptake of cadmium from water and transfer to the midgut gland take place at a rate that is two orders of magnitude too low to account for the increase in the cadmium concentrations in midgut gland in male crabs between May and June. The

  6. Selenium antagonizes cadmium-induced apoptosis in chicken spleen but not involving Nrf2-regulated antioxidant response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Menghao; Li, Xiaojing; Fan, Ruifeng; Cao, Changyu; Yao, Haidong; Xu, Shiwen

    2017-11-01

    The nuclear transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) binds to antioxidant response elements (AREs) and is involved in the regulation of genes participated in defending cells against oxidative damage, which have been confirmed in animal models. Selenium (Se), known as an important element in the regulation of antioxidant activity, can antagonize Cadmium (Cd) toxicity in birds. However, the role of Nrf2 in selenium-cadmium interaction has not been reported in birds. To further explore the mechanism of selenium attenuating spleen toxicity induced by cadmium in chickens, cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 , 150mg/kg) and sodium selenite (Na 2 SeO 3 , 2mg/kg) were co-administrated or individually administered in the diet of chickens for 90 days. The results showed that Cd exposure increased the level of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased the antioxidant enzyme activities, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), catalase (CAT). Cd exposure increased obviously nuclear accumulation of Nrf2, and the expression of Nrf2 downstream heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H: quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), reduced the expression of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein (keap1), Gpx-1 and thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR1). In addition, Cd induced the increase of bak, caspase9, p53, Cyt c mRNA levels, increased bax/bcl-2 ratio, increased caspase3 mRNA and protein levels. Selenium treatment reduced the accumulation of Cd in the spleen, attenuates Cd-induced Nrf2 nuclear accumulation, enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities, ameliorated Cd-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in the spleen. In summary, our results demonstrate that Se ameliorated spleen toxicity induced by cadmium by modulating the antioxidant system, independently of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant response pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cadmium accumulation by Axonopus compressus (Sw. P. Beauv and Cyperus rotundas Linn growing in cadmium solution and cadmium-zinc contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paitip Thiravetyan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the phyto-remediation potentials of Cyperus rotundas Linn (Nutgrass and Axonopus compressus (Sw. P. Beauv (Carpetgrass for cadmium removal from cadmium solution andcadmium-zinc contaminated soil. Plants growth in the solution showed that cadmium decreased the relative growth rate of both grasses. However, the amount of cadmium accumulated in shoot and root was increasedwith the increase in cadmium concentration and exposure time. Growth in fertile soil mixed with Cd-contaminated zinc silicate residue (65% Si, 19% Ca, 2% Zn, 1% Mg and 0.03% Cd at the ratio of 50:50 (w/wfor 30 days showed that C. rotundas Linn accumulated cadmium in root and shoot to 2,178 and 1,144 mg kg-1 dry weight, respectively. A. compressus (Sw. P. Beauv accumulated cadmium in root and shoot to 1,965and 669 mg kg-1 dry weight, respectively. Scanning electron microscope connected to energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy suggested that the mechanism of cadmium accumulation by both grasses involved thecadmium precipitation in the stable form of cadmium silicate, which indicated that C. rotundas Linn and A. compressus (Sw. P. Beauv could be grown to prevent soil erosion and to remediate cadmium-contaminatedsoil.

  8. Analysis of cadmium in high alpha solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Overman, L.A.; Hodgens, H.F.

    1977-07-01

    Cadmium nitrate is occasionally used as a neutron poison for convenience in the separation of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium. As the classical methods of analysis for cadmium are very time-consuming, a method to isolate it in solution using solvent extraction of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium with TBP in an n-paraffin hydrocarbon was investigated. After removal of the radionuclides, the cadmium is determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Precision of the method at the 95 percent confidence level is +-2.4 percent. Alpha content of the solutions was typically reduced from 1-10 x 10 11 dis/(min ml) 238 Pu to 1-15 x 10 4 dis/(min ml). Analysis time was typically reduced from approximately 24 hours per sample to less than 1 hour

  9. Bireactor Electronuclear Systems with Liquid Cadmium Valve

    CERN Document Server

    Bznuni, S A; Zhamkochyan, V M; ASosnin, A N; Polanski, A; Khudaverdyan, A H

    2002-01-01

    Three main types of bireactor electronuclear systems are discussed. From the point of view of assuring high level of functional characteristics and safety bireactor electronuclear systems with booster using enriched uranium (20 %) and with a liquid cadmium valve appears to be the most effective. It is shown by means of Monte-Carlo modeling that such operation conditions can be achieved which lead to the destruction of the intermediate cadmium layer making the systems supercritical (k_{eff}>1). One can avoid the problem by using a special design of the liquid cadmium valve. In comparison with other nuclear systems (critical reactors, one-reactor electronuclear systems) cascade electronuclear systems have essential advantages allowing the decrease of the proton beam current by one order of magnitude and providing at same time the necessary level of power generation and neutron flux. Availability of both the thermal and fast cones allows one to transmute not only transuranics but also the fission products - cesi...

  10. ELECTROKINETIC REMEDIATION STUDY FOR CADMIUM CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bala Ramudu

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental research undertaken to evaluate different purging solutions to enhance the removal of cadmium from spiked contaminated field soil by electrokinetic remediation. Three experiments were conducted when soil was saturated with deionised water and subsequently deionised water, ammonium citrate and sodium citrate were used as purging solutions at anode end. One experiment was conducted when the soil was saturated with ammonium citrate and itself was used as the purging solution. Results showed that 49% reduction of cadmium concentration was achieved in the case of soil saturated (washed with ammonium citrate as well as purging solution also was ammonium citrate. The soil pH and washing solutions were the most important factors in controlling the removal of cadmium in electrokinetic remediation process.

  11. Uptake of tridodecylmethylammonium chloride by PVC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Froehling, P.E.; Koenhen, D.M.; Smolders, C.A.; Bantjes, A.

    1977-01-01

    The uptake of tridodecylmethylammonium chloride (TDMAC) by poly(vinyl chloride) has been investigated to provide a more quantitative basis for the preparation of blood-compatible surfaces based on TDMAC-heparin coatings. Sorption isotherms of TDMAC from toluene-cyclohexane and toluene-methanol

  12. Chronopotentiometric chloride sensing using transition time measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, D.B.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Detection of chloride ions is crucial to accurately access the concrete structure durability[1]. The existing electrochemical method of chloride ions detection in concrete, potentiometry[1], is not suitable for in-situ measurement due to the long term stability issue of conventional reference

  13. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... No: 2010-8568] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium... determination to conduct a full five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from... antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  14. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Coats, Alison M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature), The measurements...

  15. Synthesis of 14C-dehydrocorydaline chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Rui; Wang Ding

    1988-01-01

    A method for synthesis of 14 C-dehydrocorydaline chloride is described. In the presence of sodium hydroxide, acetonylpalmatine is reacted with 14 C-methyl iodide in sealed glass ampoule to give 14 C-13-methylpalmatine iodide which is then converted to chloride. The radiochemical purity of 14 C-dehydrocorydaline determined by TLC is over 98% and the labelling efficiency is 54%

  16. Reduction of Cadmium Uptake of Rice Plants Using Soil Amendments in High Cadmium Contaminated Soil: A Pot Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Siswanto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of agricultural residues on reducing cadmium uptake in rice plants. The rice plants growing on no cadmium/free cadmium soils (N, Cd soils (Cds, and Cd soils each amended with 1% w/w of coir pith (CP, coir pith modified with sodium hydroxide (CPm and corncob (CC under high cadmium contaminated soil with an average 145 mg Cd kg-1 soil were investigated. The results showed that the cumulative transpiration of rice grown in various treatments under high cadmium contaminated soil followed the order: Cds > CPm ≥ CP ≥ CC. These transpirations directly influenced cadmium accumulation in shoots and husks of rice plants. The CC and CP seemed to work to reduce the cadmium uptake by rice plants indicated by accumulated cadmium in the husk that were 2.47 and 7.38 mg Cd kg-1 dry weight, respectively. Overall, transpiration tended to drive cadmium accumulation in plants for rice grown in high cadmium contaminated soil. The more that plants uptake cadmium, the lower cadmium that remains in the soil.

  17. Acute pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... its blood vessels. This problem is called acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis affects men more often than women. Certain ... well it can be treated. Complications of acute pancreatitis may include: Acute kidney failure Long-term lung damage (ARDS) Buildup ...

  18. Environmental cadmium and breast cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent women's cancer, with an age-adjusted incidence of 122.9 per 100,000 US women. Cadmium, a ubiquitous carcinogenic pollutant with multiple biological effects, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer in one US regional case-control study. We examined the association of breast cancer with urinary cadmium (UCd), in a case-control sample of women living on Long Island (LI), NY (100 with breast cancer and 98 without), a region with an especially high...

  19. Cadmium telluride quantum dots advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Donegan, John

    2013-01-01

    Optical Properties of Bulk and Nanocrystalline Cadmium Telluride, Núñez Fernández and M.I. VasilevskiyAqueous Synthesis of Colloidal CdTe Nanocrystals, V. Lesnyak, N. Gaponik, and A. EychmüllerAssemblies of Thiol-Capped CdTe Nanocrystals, N. GaponikFörster Resonant Energy Transfer in CdTe Nanocrystal Quantum Dot Structures, M. Lunz and A.L. BradleyEmission of CdTe Nanocrystals Coupled to Microcavities, Y.P. Rakovich and J.F. DoneganBiological Applications of Cadmium Telluride Semiconductor Quantum Dots, A. Le Cign

  20. Mineral resource of the month: cadmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolcin, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    The element cadmium was discovered in 1817 by Friedrich Stromeyer, a professor of chemistry at the University of Göttingen in Germany. Stromeyer noticed that a yellowish glow would occur when heat was applied to certain samples of calamine, a zinc-carbonate. This was unusual as the reaction was expected to be colorless. After further testing, Stromeyer deduced that an unknown metallic impurity in the carbonate caused the color change. He called the new metal "cadmium" after "kadmeia," the Greek word for calamine.

  1. Elektrokemisk fjernelse af cadmium fra bioasker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Simonsen, Peter

    Posteren viser resultater fra elektrokemiske rensningsforsøg på bioasker udført i forbindelse med PSO projekt 5205 "Elektrokemisk fjernelse af cadmium fra bioasker i pilotskala og vurdering af mulighederne for nyttiggørelse af behandlet aske i beton".......Posteren viser resultater fra elektrokemiske rensningsforsøg på bioasker udført i forbindelse med PSO projekt 5205 "Elektrokemisk fjernelse af cadmium fra bioasker i pilotskala og vurdering af mulighederne for nyttiggørelse af behandlet aske i beton"....

  2. Cadmium toxicity in the free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popham, J.D.; Webster, J.M.

    1979-10-01

    The effect of cadmium on the fecundity, growth, and fine structure of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was studied. High concentrations of cadmium significantly decreased the fecundity and growth of these organisms. Electron microscopy showed that cadmium modifies the structure of the mitochondria in the esophagus and intestine, causes the formation of inclusion bodies in the nucleus of esophageal cells, and alters the morphology of cytosomes in the intestinal cells. The results suggest that the decreased fecundity and growth of cadmium-exposed C. elegans may be due to cadmium interfering with nutrient uptake or assimilation or both.

  3. Fuel conditioning facility electrorefiner cadmium vapor trap operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaden, D. E.

    1998-01-01

    Processing sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel at the Fuel Conditioning Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West involves an electrometallurgical process employing a molten LiCl-KCl salt covering a pool of molten cadmium. Previous research has shown that the cadmium dissolves in the salt as a gas, diffuses through the salt layer and vaporizes at the salt surface. This cadmium vapor condenses on cool surfaces, causing equipment operation and handling problems. Using a cadmium vapor trap to condense the cadmium vapors and reflux them back to the electrorefiner has mitigated equipment problems and improved electrorefiner operations

  4. Toxicokinetics of mercuric chloride and methylmercuric chloride in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J B

    1992-09-01

    Future human exposure to inorganic mercury will probably lead to a few individuals occupationally exposed to high levels and much larger populations exposed to low or very low levels from dental fillings or from food items containing inorganic mercury; human exposure to methylmercury will be relatively low and depending on intake of marine food. Ideally, risk assessment is based on detailed knowledge of relations between external and internal dose, organ levels, and their relation to toxic symptoms. However, human data on these toxicokinetic parameters originate mainly from individuals or smaller populations accidentally exposed for shorter periods to relatively high mercury levels, but with unknown total body burden. Thus, assessment of risk associated with exposure to low levels of mercury will largely depend on data from animal experiments. Previous investigations of the toxicokinetics of mercuric compounds almost exclusively employed parenteral administration of relatively high doses of soluble mercuric salts. However, human exposure is primarily pulmonary or oral and at low doses. The present study validates an experimental model for investigating the toxicokinetics of orally administered mercuric chloride and methylmercuric chloride in mice. Major findings using this model are discussed in relation to previous knowledge. The toxicokinetics of inorganic mercury in mice depend on dose size, administration route, and sex, whereas the mouse strain used is less important. The "true absorption" of a single oral dose of HgCl2 was calculated to be about 20% at two different dose levels. Earlier studies that did not take into account the possible excretion of absorbed mercury and intestinal reabsorption during the experimental period report 7-10% intestinal uptake. The higher excretion rates observed after oral than after intraperitoneal administration of HgCl2 are most likely due to differences in disposition of systemically delivered and retained mercury. After

  5. Effect of taurine supplementation on hepatic metabolism and alleviation of cadmium toxicity and bioaccumulation in a marine teleost, red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hano, Takeshi; Ito, Katsutoshi; Kono, Kumiko; Ito, Mana; Ohkubo, Nobuyuki; Mochida, Kazuhiko

    2017-02-01

    This study was performed to unravel the mechanism of the beneficial action of taurine on marine teleost fish, red sea bream (Pagrus major), by analyzing the hepatic metabolism. Moreover, the ameliorative effects of the nutrient against cadmium toxicity and bioaccumulation were further evaluated. The fish were fed a diet containing 0 % (TAU0 %), 0.5 % (TAU0.5 %), or 5.0 % (TAU5.0 %) taurine for 40-55 days (d) and subjected to cadmium acute toxicity and bioaccumulation tests. Taurine deficiency in feed severely affected growth and the hepatic metabolic profiles of the fish, including a remarkable increase in myo-inositol, aspartate, and ß-alanine in the TAU0 % group, which indicates a complementary physiological response to taurine deficiency. For the acute toxicity test, fish were fed the test diets for 55 d and were then exposed to different dose of cadmium ranging from 0 to 5.6 mg/L for 96 h. Fish fed taurine had a higher tolerance to cadmium than those not fed taurine. For the bioaccumulation test, fish were fed the test diets for 40 d and then were chronically exposed to 0.2 mg/L of cadmium for 28 d followed by depuration for 21 d. Cadmium concentrations in the liver and muscle of fish fed TAU5.0 % were significantly lower than those of fish fed TAU0 % for the first 7 d of exposure and the first 7 d of elimination. Our findings suggest a possible mechanism for the beneficial role played by taurine and that the inclusion of taurine in fish aquaculture feed may reduce cadmium contamination of fish intended for human consumption.

  6. Cadmium Exposure and Pancreatic Cancer in South Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Brian G.; Su, L. Joseph; Rood, Jennifer C.; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium has been hypothesized to be a pancreatic carcinogen. We test the hypothesis that cadmium exposure is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer with a population-based case-control study sampled from a population with persistently high rates of pancreatic cancer (south Louisiana). We tested potential dietary and nondietary sources of cadmium for their association with urinary cadmium concentrations which reflect long-term exposure to cadmium due to the accumulation of cadmium in the kidney cortex. Increasing urinary cadmium concentrations were significantly associated with an increasing risk of pancreatic cancer (2nd quartile OR = 3.34, 3rd = 5.58, 4th = 7.70; test for trend P ≤ 0.0001). Potential sources of cadmium exposure, as documented in the scientific literature, found to be statistically significantly associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer included working as a plumber, pipefitter or welder (OR = 5.88) and high consumption levels of red meat (4th quartile OR = 6.18) and grains (4th quartile OR = 3.38). Current cigarette smoking, at least 80 pack years of smoking, occupational exposure to cadmium and paints, working in a shipyard, and high consumption of grains were found to be statistically significantly associated with increased concentrations of urinary cadmium. This study provides epidemiologic evidence that cadmium is a potential human pancreatic carcinogen. PMID:23319964

  7. Effects of cadmium electrode properties on nickel-cadmium cell performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    Tests have been conducted on a number of nickel-cadmium cells that have exhibited a variety of performance problems, ranging from high voltages and pressures during overcharge to low capacity. The performance problems that have been specifically linked to the cadmium electrode are primarily related to two areas, poor sinter and the buildup of excessive pressure during overcharge. A number of specific nickel-cadmium cell and cadmium electrode characterists have been studied in this work to determine what the effects of poor sinter are, and to determine what factors are important in causing excessive pressures during overcharge in cells that otherwise appear normal. Several of the tests appear suitable for screening cells and electrodes for such problems

  8. Biogeochemistry of cadmium and its release to the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Jay T; Maldonado, Maria T

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium is at the end of the 4d-transition series, it is relatively mobile and acutely toxic to almost all forms of life. In this review we present a summary of information describing cadmium's physical and chemical properties, its distribution in crustal materials, and the processes, both natural and anthropogenic, that contribute to the metal's mobilization in the biosphere. The relatively high volatility of Cd metal, its large ionic radius, and its chemical speciation in aquatic systems makes Cd particularly susceptible to mobilization by anthropogenic and natural processes. The biogeochemical cycle of Cd is observed to be significantly altered by anthropogenic inputs, especially since the beginning of the industrial revolution drove increases in fossil fuel burning and non-ferrous metal extraction. Estimates of the flux of Cd to the atmosphere, its deposition and processing in soils and freshwater systems are presented. Finally, the basin scale distribution of dissolved Cd in the ocean, the ultimate receptacle of Cd, is interpreted in light of the chemical speciation and biogeochemical cycling of Cd in seawater. Paradoxically, Cd behaves as a nutrient in the ocean and its cycling and fate is intimately tied to uptake by photosynthetic microbes, their death, sinking and remineralization in the ocean interior. Proximate controls on the incorporation of Cd into biomass are discussed to explain the regional specificity of the relationship between dissolved Cd and the algal nutrient phosphate (PO[Formula: see text]) in oceanic surface waters and nutriclines. Understanding variability in the Cd/PO[Formula: see text] is of primary interest to paleoceanographers developing a proxy to probe the links between nutrient utilization in oceanic surface waters and atmospheric CO(2) levels. An ongoing international survey of trace elements and their isotopes in seawater will undoubtedly increase our understanding of the deposition, biogeochemical cycling and fate of this

  9. Cadmium impact, accumulation and detection in poplar callus cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollárová, Karin; Vatehová, Zuzana; Kučerová, Danica; Lišková, Desana

    2017-06-01

    Effect of cadmium cations and their interaction with silicon cations was determined in poplar calli and expressed as changes in callus growth, cell viability and cadmium cation accumulation. Cell viability throughout culture versus cadmium cation accumulation in cells is discussed. At the same time, the study sought appropriate methods for cadmium cation detection in callus cells and also in experiments with low plant material (e.g. protoplasts). Cadmium cations were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy and using fluorescence microscopy with a specific cadmium cation fluorescent dye. The detection of cadmium cations in callus cells by the latter method appears suitable because the callus cells are surrounded by primary cell walls without auto-fluorescence and these values fit well with atomic absorption spectroscopy quantification. However, the visualisation method has some limits discussed below.

  10. Polarization curves of solutions of high cadmium concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zosimovich, D.P.

    1979-01-01

    At electrochemical cadmium deposition on solid cathode of highly purified cadmium (out of solutions, containing 1.07m, 0.445; 0.312; 0.223; 0.107 mol/l of cadmium, 1 mol/l of sulfuric acid and 0.38 mol/l of zinc) it has been detected, that, cadmium deposition from these solutions agrees with the dependence epsilon - lg/isub(d)-i and for all cadmium concentrations investigated presents a straight line. It has been found that dependence of limiting current on cadmium concentration is a straight line; the mean value of the angle coefficient is 0.026; the mean value of semiwave potential constitutes 0.474+-6 mV as to hydrogen scale; the mean coefficient of cadmium diffusion equals to 2.37x10 -5 cm 2 /s -1

  11. Cadmium Removal from Water and Soil by a Cadmium-Resistant Rhizobacterium and Its Effect on Plant Root Elongation

    OpenAIRE

    Chirawee Sangthong; Siranan Duangboobpha; Benjaphorn Prapagdee

    2015-01-01

    A cadmium resistant rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas sp. PM2, was isolated from plant roots. It is highly resistant to cadmium toxicity. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of cadmium for Pseudomonas sp. PM2 is 2100 mg/L. Pseudomonas sp. PM2 produced high levels of siderophore and rhamnolipid biosurfactant in 74.88 µM of deferoxamine mesylate equivalents and 329.54 mg/L, respectively. It was able to remove cadmium ion in an aqueous solution by 69.84% at the initial cadmium ion concentration of 2...

  12. Cadmium in Salix. A study to show the capacity of Salix to remove cadmium from farmland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestman, G.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this report has been to show the ability of Salix to take up cadmium and how the uptake varies between different types of soil. The information that the results are based on has been obtained from analyses of soil and Salix. The samples were taken at five sites in the district around Lake Maelaren. Two or three stands were taken at each place. The factors studied were the pH, the organic matter content, and the concentration of cadmium in the soil. Salix has a good ability, relative to other crops, to remove cadmium from arable land. The cadmium uptake is 35 times higher with Salix than with straw or energy grass. Salix uptake of cadmium varies between 3 and 14% of the cadmium content in the soil that is accessible to plants. The present annual increase of cadmium in arable land is 1 g/ha, whereas the removal in a Salix plantation is 21 g Cd/ha, yr at an annual growth of 10 tonnes DM. If the Cd uptake is the same each year, then a total of 420 g Cd/ha is removed when Salix is grown over a 20-year period. This is a very large part of the topsoil's total cadmium content, which is 550 g/ha on average in Sweden. The investigation reveals no clear relationship between the Cd concentration in Salix and the concentration of Cd in the soil, the organic matter content or the pH. 22 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  13. Cadmium exposure inhibits MMP2 and MMP9 activities in the prostate and testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacorte, Livia M.; Rinaldi, Jaqueline C.; Justulin, Luis A.; Delella, Flávia K. [Univ Estadual Paulista – UNESP, Institute of Biosciences, Department of Morphology, Extracellular Matrix Laboratory, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Moroz, Andrei [Univ Estadual Paulista – UNESP, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Bioprocess and Biotechnology, Cell Culture Laboratory, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Felisbino, Sérgio L., E-mail: felisbin@ibb.unesp.br [Univ Estadual Paulista – UNESP, Institute of Biosciences, Department of Morphology, Extracellular Matrix Laboratory, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-20

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc (Zn{sup 2+}) and calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) dependant endopeptidases, capable of degradation of numerous components of the extracellular matrix. Cadmium (Cd{sup 2+}) is a well known environmental contaminant which could impair the activity of MMPs. In this sense, this study was conducted to evaluate if Cd{sup 2+} intake inhibits these endopeptidases activities at the rat prostate and testicles and if it directly inhibits the activity of MMP2 and MMP9 at gelatinolytic assays when present in the incubation buffer. To investigate this hypothesis, Wistar rats (5 weeks old), were given tap water (untreated, n = 9), or 15 ppm CdCl{sub 2} diluted in drinking water, during 10 weeks (n = 9) and 20 weeks (n = 9). The animals were euthanized and their ventral prostate, dorsal prostate, and testicles were removed. These tissue samples were processed for protein extraction and subjected to gelatin zymography evaluation. Additionally, we performed an experiment of gelatin zymography in which 5 μM or 2 mM cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) was directly dissolved at the incubation buffer, using the prostatic tissue samples from untreated animals that exhibited the highest MMP2 and MMP9 activities in the previous experiment. We have found that CdCl{sub 2} intake in the drinking water led to the inhibition of 35% and 30% of MMP2 and MMP9 (p < 0.05) at the ventral prostate and testis, respectively, in Cd{sup 2+} treated animals when compared to controls. Moreover, the activities of the referred enzymes were 80% and 100% inhibited by 5 μM and 2 mM of CdCl{sub 2}, respectively, even in the presence of 10 mM of CaCl{sub 2} within the incubation buffer solution. These important findings demonstrate that environmental cadmium contamination may deregulate the natural balance in the extracellular matrix turnover, through MMPs downregulation, which could contribute to the toxic effects observed in prostatic and testicular tissue after its

  14. Cadmium exposure inhibits MMP2 and MMP9 activities in the prostate and testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacorte, Livia M.; Rinaldi, Jaqueline C.; Justulin, Luis A.; Delella, Flávia K.; Moroz, Andrei; Felisbino, Sérgio L.

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc (Zn 2+ ) and calcium (Ca 2+ ) dependant endopeptidases, capable of degradation of numerous components of the extracellular matrix. Cadmium (Cd 2+ ) is a well known environmental contaminant which could impair the activity of MMPs. In this sense, this study was conducted to evaluate if Cd 2+ intake inhibits these endopeptidases activities at the rat prostate and testicles and if it directly inhibits the activity of MMP2 and MMP9 at gelatinolytic assays when present in the incubation buffer. To investigate this hypothesis, Wistar rats (5 weeks old), were given tap water (untreated, n = 9), or 15 ppm CdCl 2 diluted in drinking water, during 10 weeks (n = 9) and 20 weeks (n = 9). The animals were euthanized and their ventral prostate, dorsal prostate, and testicles were removed. These tissue samples were processed for protein extraction and subjected to gelatin zymography evaluation. Additionally, we performed an experiment of gelatin zymography in which 5 μM or 2 mM cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) was directly dissolved at the incubation buffer, using the prostatic tissue samples from untreated animals that exhibited the highest MMP2 and MMP9 activities in the previous experiment. We have found that CdCl 2 intake in the drinking water led to the inhibition of 35% and 30% of MMP2 and MMP9 (p < 0.05) at the ventral prostate and testis, respectively, in Cd 2+ treated animals when compared to controls. Moreover, the activities of the referred enzymes were 80% and 100% inhibited by 5 μM and 2 mM of CdCl 2 , respectively, even in the presence of 10 mM of CaCl 2 within the incubation buffer solution. These important findings demonstrate that environmental cadmium contamination may deregulate the natural balance in the extracellular matrix turnover, through MMPs downregulation, which could contribute to the toxic effects observed in prostatic and testicular tissue after its exposure. - Highlights: • Wistar rats were given

  15. Effects of platinic chloride on Tetrahymena pyrifromis GL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jytte R.

    1992-01-01

    Cellebiologi, platinum(IV)chloride, endocytosis, detoxification, cell proliferation, fine structure, cisplatin......Cellebiologi, platinum(IV)chloride, endocytosis, detoxification, cell proliferation, fine structure, cisplatin...

  16. Impact of iron status on cadmium uptake in suckling piglets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohrvik, Helena; Oskarsson, Agneta; Lundh, Thomas; Skerfving, Staffan; Tallkvist, Jonas

    2007-01-01

    Low iron status is known to increase the uptake of dietary cadmium in both adolescents and adults and there are indications that cadmium is absorbed from the intestine by the two major iron transporters divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin 1 (FPN1). In addition, it has been suggested that duodenal metallothionein (MT) may limit the transport of cadmium across the intestinal epithelium. The present investigation was undertaken to examine whether iron status influences cadmium absorption in newborns by applying a model of suckling piglets and the possible roles of duodenal DMT1, FPN1 and MT. An oral cadmium dose (20 μg/kg body weight) was given daily for 6 consecutive days on postnatal days (PNDs) 10-15 to iron-deficient or iron-supplemented piglets. The cadmium dose was chosen to keep the cadmium level at a realistically low but still detectable level, and without inducing any adverse health effects in the piglets. As indicators of cadmium uptake, cadmium levels in blood and kidneys were measured on PND 16 by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Cadmium levels in blood were statistically significantly correlated with cadmium levels in kidneys. The cadmium uptake was not higher in iron-deficient suckling piglets; rather, we detected a higher cadmium uptake in the iron-supplemented ones. The expression and localisation of DMT1, FPN1 and MT were not affected by iron status and could therefore not explain the findings. Our results suggest that there are developmental differences in the handling of both iron and cadmium in newborns as compared to adults

  17. Environmental factors and uptake of cadmium among brazers using cadmium-containing hard solders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, I; Sjögren, B; Hallne, U; Hedström, L; Holgersson, M

    1984-06-01

    The influence of different work factors on the uptake of cadmium has been studied in 102 brazers working at least 10% of their work day with cadmium-containing hard solders. The blood concentrations of cadmium varied between less than 1 and 113 micrograms/L (less than 9 and 1010 nmol/L). Blood cadmium concentrations were below 10 micrograms/L (89 nmol/L) in 71 brazers and 31 brazers had levels equal to or above that value. The importance of some environmental factors on the blood-level of cadmium was studied with discrimination analysis. The length of the splice was found to be almost the sole determining factor for the cadmium concentration in blood. All brazers working with splices shorter than 2 cm had blood concentrations below 10 micrograms/L, while 87% of the brazers working with splices longer than 10 cm had blood concentrations equal to or above 10 micrograms/L. Other factors like age, sex, exposure time, smoking habit and brazing method were devoid of any measurable importance.

  18. Remediation of cadmium by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. from cadmium contaminated soil: a phytoextraction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar Bhadkariya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a toxic metal for living organisms and an environmental contaminant. Soils in many parts of the world are slightly too moderately contaminated by Cd due to long term use and disposal of Cd-contaminated wastes. Cost effective technologies are needed to remove cadmium from the contaminated sites. Soil phytoextraction is engineering based, low cost and socially accepted developing technology that uses plants to clean up contaminants in soils. This technology can be adopted as a remediation of cadmium from Cd-contaminated soils with the help of Brassica juncea plant. The objective of this work was to evaluate the cadmium (Cd accumulate and the tolerance of Brassica juncea. The Cd accumulates in all parts of plants (roots, stems and leaves. It was found that accumulating efficiency increased with the increase in the concentration of applied cadmium metal solution. Maximum accumulation of cadmium was found in roots than stem and leaves. Phytoextraction coefficient and translocation factor were highest to show the validity of the Brassica juncea species for hyperaccumulation of the Cd metal. These results suggested that Brassica juncea has a high ability to tolerate and accumulate Cd, so it might be a promising plant to be used for phytoextraction of Cd contaminated soil. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10533 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 229-237

  19. Rising environmental cadmium levels in developing countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    these products. Satarug et al. ( 2003) had indeed predicted that given the current rate of release of cadmium in to the environment, Cd content in the ...... Armour, M.A. et al. (2005) Meeting report: Threat human health and environmental sustainability in the pacific basin. Environ Health. Perspect. 115: 1170-1174. Arthur, J.R. ...

  20. Combustion synthesis of cadmium sulphide nanomaterials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anion-doped cadmium sulphide nanomaterials have been synthesized by using combustionmethod at normal atmospheric conditions. Oxidant/fuel ratios have been optimized in order to obtain CdS with best characteristics. Formation of CdS and size of crystallite were identified by X-ray diffraction and confirmed by ...

  1. Cadmium versus phosphate in the world ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baar, Hein J.W. de; Saager, Paul M.; Nolting, Rob F.; Meer, Jaap van der

    1994-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the best studied trace metals in seawater and at individual stations exhibits a more or less linear relation with phosphate. The compilation of all data from all oceans taken from over 30 different published sources into one global dataset yields only a broad scatterplot of Cd

  2. Subcellular localization of cadmium in hyperaccumulator Populus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, subcellular localization of cadmium in hyperaccumulator grey poplar (Populus × canescens) was investigated by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) method. Young Populus × canescens were grown and hydroponic experiments were conducted under four Cd2+ concentrations (10, 30, 50, and 70 μM) ...

  3. Enhanced Electrokinetic Remediation of Cadmium Contaminated Soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an attempt to remediate contaminated soil, a new technique of purging cadmium from soil is examined by enhanced electrokinetic method. It involves the passage of low level direct current between two electrodes in the soil to remove contaminant. An apparatus consisting of four principal parts; soil cell, electrode ...

  4. Characterization of nanocrystalline cadmium telluride thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Structural, electrical and optical characteristics of CdTe thin films prepared by a chemical deposi- tion method, successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR), are described. For deposition of CdTe thin films, cadmium acetate was used as cationic and sodium tellurite as anionic precursor in aqueous me-.

  5. Cadmium variability in leaves of a

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyssaert, S.; Meirvenne, M. Van; Lust, N

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Plant analysis is a valuable tool to evaluate the pollution level. However, leaf sampling is complicated because of the high variability within the crown. To investigate the variability of cadmium (Cd) in the leaves of a tree, we sampled one Salix fragilis L. at 292 locations, each with a

  6. Rise time spectroscopy in cadmium telluride detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharager, Claude; Siffert, Paul; Carnet, Bernard; Le Meur, Roger.

    1980-11-01

    By a simultaneous analysis of rise time and pulse amplitude distributions of the signals issued from various cadmium telluride detectors, it is possible to obtain informations about surface and bulk trapping, field distribution within the detectors, as well as charge collection and transport properties. These investigations have been performed on both pure and chlorine doped and materials for various surfaces preparation conditions [fr

  7. REMOVAL OF CADMIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All synthesized products were thermally stable up to 300 oC and were highly insoluble in most mineral acids except hot perchloric acid. The sorption of cadmium ion from 0.1 M HNO3 solutions on manganese hexacyanoferrates (II) and (III) was investigated. Both sorption kinetics and isotherms were studied. The sorption ...

  8. Rising environmental cadmium levels in developing countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: Cadmium (Cd) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant of increasing worldwide concern. It is thought to be of greater concern to rapidly industrializing developing countries because of the increasing pace of industrial activities in these countries with increasing consumption and release into the environment.

  9. doped cadmium potassium phosphate hexahydrate: A substitutional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Single crystal EPR studies of VO(II)-doped cadmium potassium phosphate hexahydrate (CPPH) have been carried out at room temperature. The angular variation spectra in the three orthogonal planes indicate that the paramagnetic impurity has entered the lattice only substitutionally in place of Cd(II). Spin Hamiltonian ...

  10. New process to discharge negative cadmium electrodes for Ni/Cd batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiker, B.; Vignaud, R.

    1984-01-01

    The new process relates to the chemical oxidation (whether partial or total) of cadmium metal negative electrodes, as used in alkaline nickel-cadmium or silver-cadmium batteries. This process concerns all cadmium electrodes but more particularly the electrodeposited cadmium electrode developed by the company LES PILES WONDER and described in this publication

  11. Reliability-Based Planning of Chloride Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Engelund, S.

    1996-01-01

    In reinforced concrete structures corrosion is initiated when the chloride concentration around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. If corrosion starts then expensive repairs can be necessary. The estimation of the probability that corrosion has been initiated in a given structure is based...... on measurements of the chloride content obtained from the given structure. In the present paper optimal planning of measurements of the chloride content in reinforced concrete structures is considered. It is shown how optimal experimental plans can be obtained using FORM-analysis. Bayesian statistics are used...

  12. Sorption and preconcentration of copper and cadmium on silica gel modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ince, H.; Akman, S.; Koeklue, U. (Istanbul Teknik Univ. (Turkey). Fen-Edebiyat Fakultesi)

    1992-03-01

    3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane, (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}O){sub 3}Si(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}NH{sub 2}, loaded on silica gel was used as a pre-concentration sorbent for copper and cadmium prior to their determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Both batch and column methods were used for the separation of the above metals. The analytes are quantitatively retained on the proposed adsorbent at pH 6.5. The complexation capacity of the collector is 0.032 mmol Cu/g silica. In the batch method, the effects of shaking time and the ratio of metal/silica on the retention by the asorbent were investigated. Columns filled with the collector provided quantitative recovery of the above metals from standardized samples as well as from sodium chloride solutions. (orig.).

  13. Effect of irradation on liver and kidney functions in rat subjected to cadmium or mercury ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refaie, F.M.; Maharem, T.M.; Yousri, R.M.; Omeran, M.F.; Abdel-Hamid, F.M.

    1993-01-01

    Male albino rats were orally administered a single dose of cadmium chloride or mercuric acetate 5-days before exposure to whole body gamma irradiation at the dose levels 3 and 6 Gy. The biochemical analyses were carried out 3-days post irradiation. The data revealed that radiation exposure and/or Cd or Hg treatment resulted in significant increase in serum aminotransferases (ALT and AST) while SALP and SCHE showed statistical significant decrease as compared with the control group. Gamma irradiation (3 and 6 Gy) induced no changes in serum levels of urea and creatinine while significant increase was observed when the animals were administered Cd or Hg 5-days before gamma-irradiation. Significant decrease in urea and creatinine clearance and TPR could be recorded due to radiation exposure. Level of serum protein was not affected in all animal groups over the experimentation period. 2 tab

  14. Lithium-thionyl chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D.; Bowden, W.; Hamilton, N.; Cubbison, D.; Dey, A. N.

    1981-04-01

    The main objective is to develop, fabricate, test, and deliver safe high rate lithium-thionyl chloride batteries for various U.S. Army applications such as manpack ratios and GLLD Laser Designators. We have devoted our efforts in the following major areas: (1) Optimization of the spirally wound D cell for high rate applications, (2) Development of a 3 inch diameter flat cylindrical cell for the GLLD laser designator application, and (3) Investigation of the reduction mechanism of SOCl2. The rate capability of the spirally wound D cell previously developed by us has been optimized for both the manpack radio (BA5590) battery and GLLD laser designator battery application in this program. A flat cylindrical cell has also been developed for the GLLD laser designator application. It is 3 inches in diameter and 0.9 inch in height with extremely low internal cell impedance that minimizes cell heating and polarization on the GLLD load. Typical cell capacity was found to be 18.0-19.0 Ahr with a few cells delivering up to about 21.0 Ahr on the GLLD test load. Study of the reduction mechanism of SOCl2 using electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques has also been carried out in this program which may be directly relevant to the intrinsic safety of the system.

  15. Cadmium phytoextraction potential of different Alyssum species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzanti, R.; Colzi, I.; Arnetoli, M.; Gallo, A.; Pignattelli, S.; Gabbrielli, R.; Gonnelli, C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► The possibility of using serpentine plants for phytoextraction of Cd was investigated. ► Variation in Cd tolerance, accumulation and translocation in three Alyssum plants with different phenotypes were found. ► Alyssum montanum showed higher Cd tolerance and accumulation than the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum bertolonii. ► As for the kinetic parameters of the Cd uptake system, A. montanum presented a low apparent K m value. ► The V max values were not significantly different among the plants. - Abstract: This work was planned for providing useful information about the possibility of using serpentine adapted plants for phytoextraction of cadmium, element scarcely represented in such metalliferous environment. To this aim, we investigated variation in cadmium tolerance, accumulation and translocation in three Alyssum plants with different phenotypes: Alyssum bertolonii, that is a serpentine endemic nickel hyperaccumulator, and two populations of Alyssum montanum, one adapted and one not adapted to serpentine soils. Plants were hydroponically cultivated in presence of increasing concentrations of CdSO 4 for two weeks. For the metal concentration used in the experiments, the three different Alyssum populations showed variation in cadmium tolerance, accumulation and content. The serpentine adapted population of A. montanum showed statistically higher cadmium tolerance and accumulation than A. bertolonii and the population of A. montanum not adapted to serpentine soil thus deserving to be investigated for phytoextraction purposes. Furthermore, as for the kinetic parameters of the cadmium uptake system, A. montanum serpentine population presented a low apparent K m value, suggesting a high affinity for this metal of its uptake system, whereas the V max values were not significantly different among the plants. Present data revealed metallicolous plants are also suitable for the phytoremediation of metals underrepresented in the environment of their

  16. Experimental studies on renal injury of subacute cadmium-intoxication by 1H-MR imaging and 31P-MR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuya, Tetsuhide

    1997-01-01

    Six-weeks-old male Hos Donryu rats were used. After the subcutaneous injection of cadmium chloride (1 mg/kg), examinations by 1H-MR imaging and 31 P-MR spectroscopy were performed every 3 weeks up to the 24th week after administration. Renal tissue cadmium content reached 175.5±33 μg/g after 21 weeks, and 160.8±13 μg/g after 24 weeks of cadmium administration. Our results indicated that renal tissue cadmium content had reached critical concentration 21 weeks after the initiation of its administration. Changes in 1 H-MR imaging; the cortico medullary junction in the kidneys of control rats was clearly delineated by T1 and T2 weighted images of 1 H-MR imaging scans. In contrast, the cortex as well the outer and inner medulla in rats which had injected cadmium for 24 weeks could not be visualized in the T1 weighted images, indicating the disappearance of these structures. The rate of disappearance of the three renal layers was evaluated in the MR images according to weeks of cadmium administration. 1 H-MR imaging showed that the borders separating the cortex, outer medulla and inner medulla had disappeared in some rats ingesting cadmium for 18 weeks. After 24 weeks, the T1 weighted images demonstrated an 80% and the T2 weighted images showed a 60% disappearance rate of the cortex and outer medulla. CMR-I was obtained from the ratio of the cortical and inner medullary signal intensities. The T2 weighted images showed that the CMR-I was higher in rats which had been administered cadmium for more than 15 weeks compared with control rats. Change in 31 P-MR spectroscopy: Signal intensity ratios with regard to high energy phosphate metabolism were detected by 31 P-MR spectroscopy. The Pi/β-ATP and Pi/ATP ratio was reduced in the early groups and Pi/β-ATP and Pi/ATP ratio was increased in the delayed group after the initiation of administration of cadmium. (K.H.)

  17. Pseudo-Bartter syndrome in an infant with congenital chloride diarrhoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igrutinović Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pseudo-Bartter syndrome encompasses a heterogenous group of disorders similar to Bartter syndrome. We are presenting an infant with pseudo-Bartter syndrome caused by congenital chloride diarrhoea. Case Outline. A male newborn born in the 37th gestational week (GW to young healthy and non-consanguineous parents. In the 35th GW a polyhydramnios with bowel dilatation was verified by ultrasonography. After birth he manifested several episodes of hyponatremic dehydration with hypochloraemia, hypokalaemia and metabolic alkalosis, so as Bartter syndrome was suspected treatment with indomethacin, spironolactone and additional intake of NaCl was initiated. However, this therapy gave no results, so that at age six months he was rehospitalized under the features of persistent watery diarrhoea, vomiting, dehydration and acute renal failure (serum creatinine 123 μmol/L. The laboratory results showed hyponatraemia (123 mmol/L, hypokalaemia (3.1 mmol/L, severe hypochloraemia (43 mmol/L, alcalosis (blood pH 7.64, bicarbonate 50.6 mmol/L, high plasma renin (20.6 ng/ml and aldosterone (232.9 ng/ml, but a low urinary chloride concentration (2.1 mmol/L. Based on these findings, as well as the stool chloride concentration of 110 mmol/L, the patient was diagnosed congenital chloride diarrhoea. In further course, the patient was treated by intensive fluid, sodium and potassium supplementation which resulted in the normalization of serum electrolytes, renal function, as well as his mental and physical development during 10 months of follow-up. Conclusion. Persistent watery diarrhoea with a high concentration of chloride in stool is the key finding in the differentiation of congenital chloride diarrhoea from Bartter syndrome. The treatment of congenital chloride diarrhoea consists primarily of adequate water and electrolytes replacement.

  18. The effect of divalent metal chelators and cadmium on serum phosphotriesterase, lactonase and arylesterase activities of paraoxonase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizoń, Anna; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2018-03-01

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is calcium dependent enzyme involved in many functions in human body. PON1 is synthesized in the liver and secreted to the bloodstream where bounds high-density lipoproteins (HDL). Association of PON1 with HDL increases the enzyme stability and biological activities. PON1 have three different activities: phosphotriesterase, lactonase and arylesterase. Until now there is now commercial available kits to determine these three PON1 activities. Also there is no date about stability of PON1 in serum after storage condition. We have elaborated the optimal conditions for determination of PON1 activities in serum using manual procedure as well as the best storage temperature of human serum for determination of PON1 activities. We have also confirmed that PON1 in serum is associated with HDL. Additionally we have investigated the effect of D-penicillamine, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and cadmium chloride on PON1 activities in human serum. D-penicillamine and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in therapeutic doses as well as cadmium chloride in toxic doses decrease PON1 activities in human serum when compared to non-treated serum. D-penicillamine as metal chelator inhibits much stronger PON1 activities than ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. European sea bass gill pathology after exposure to cadmium and terbuthylazine: expert versus fractal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manera, M; Giari, L; Depasquale, J A; Dezfuli, B S

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare expert versus fractal analysis as new methods to evaluate branchial lamellar pathology in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758) experimentally exposed to cadmium and to terbuthylazine. In particular, guided expert quantitative and fractal analysis were performed on selected images from semithin sections to test possible differences according to exposure class (unexposed, cadmium exposed, or terbuthylazine exposed) and the discrimination power of the two methods. With respect to guided expert quantitative analysis, the following elementary pathological features were assessed according to pre-determined cover classes: 'epithelial lifting', 'epithelial shrinkage', 'epithelial swelling', 'pillar cells coarctation', 'pillar cells detachment', 'channels fusion', 'chloride cells swelling' and 'chloride cells invasion'. Considering fractal analysis, DB (box dimension), DM (mass dimension), Dx (mean fractal dimension) as fractal dimensions and lacunarity from DM and Dx scan types were calculated both from the outlined and skeletonized (one pixel wide lines) images. Despite significant differences among experimental classes, only expert analysis provided good discrimination with correct classification of 91.7 % of the original cases, and of 87.5 % of the cross-validated cases, with a sensitivity of 95.45 % and 91.3 %, respectively, and a specificity of 75 % in both cases. Guided expert quantitative analysis appears to be a reliable method to objectively characterize fish gill pathology and may represent a powerful tool in environmental biomonitoring to ensure proper standardization and reproducibility. Though fractal analysis did not equal the discrimination power of the expert method, it certainly warrants further study to evaluate local variations in complexity or possible multiple scaling rules. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  20. Selenium, putrescine, and cadmium influence health-promoting phytochemicals and molecular-level effects on turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvengadam, Muthu; Chung, Ill-Min

    2015-04-15

    The effects of selenium, putrescine, and cadmium on the contents of glucosinolates, total phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, chlorophyll, anthocyanin, malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, and antioxidant capacities as well as gene regulation of phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, and glucosinolates biosynthesis were investigated in turnip plants. Selenium dioxide (SeO2) treatment significantly induced the amount of gluconasturtiin, glucobrassicanapin, glucoallysin, glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin. Cadmium chloride (CdCl2)- and putrescine-treated plants had considerably enhanced gluconasturtiin and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin levels, respectively. Total phenolic and flavonoid content as well as antioxidant capacities were significantly increased in SeO2-treated plants. Lutein was higher in control plants followed by, in decreasing order, SeO2-, putrescine-, and CdCl2-treated plants. The chlorophyll content was significantly decreased and anthocyanin, MDA, and H2O2 levels were significantly increased with CdCl2 treatment. Moreover, plants treated with selenium and cadmium showed significant induction of genes related to glucosinolate, phenolic, and carotenoid biosynthesis. These results demonstrated that SeO2 significantly increased the contents of health-promoting compounds and enhanced the antioxidant capacities of turnip plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The growth inhibitory effects of cadmium and copper on the MDA-MB468 human breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Panjehpour

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cadmium chloride is an important occupational and environmental pollutant. However, it can also be anti-carcinogenic under certain conditions. Copper, an essential trace element, has the ability to generate reactive oxygen species and induce cell apoptosis. This study was aimed to determine the growth inhibitory effects of cadmium and copper on the MDA-MB468 human breast cancer cells. Methods: By using MTT cell viability test, treatment of monolayer cell cultures with different metal concentrations (1-1000 μM showed a significant dose dependent decrease (p < 0.05 of viable cells in different times. Results: A considerable cytotoxicity was observed for CdCl2 at 200 μM and 1 μM after 48 and 72 hours incubations, respectively. The highest concentration of CuCl2 (1000 μM had little cytotoxic effects after 48 hours incubation period, but 1 μM of CuCl2 revealed a considerable cytotoxicity after 72 hours. The maximum synergic cytotoxic effect was observed at 0.5 μM of both metals. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that cytotoxic effect of CuCl2 is somehow lesser than that of CdCl2. This may be due to vital role of copper which is not known for cadmium so far.

  2. Modelling of cadmium fluxes on energy crop land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, V.

    1992-04-01

    The flux of cadmium on energy crop land is investigated. Three mechanisms are accounted for; Uptake by plant, transport with water, and sorption to soil. Sorption is described with Freundlich isotherms. The system is simulated mathematically in order to estimate the sensitivity and importance of different parameters on the cadmium flow and sorption. The water flux through the soil and the uptake by plants are simulated with a hydrological model, SOIL. The simulated time period is two years. The parameters describing root distribution and evaporation due to crop are taken from measurements on energy crop (Salix). The resulting water flux, water content in the soil profile and the water uptake into roots, for each day and soil compartment, are used in the cadmium sorption simulation. In the cadmium sorption simulation the flux and equilibrium chemistry of cadmium is calculated. It is shown that the amount of cadmium that accumulates in the plant, and the depth to which the applied cadmium reaches depends strongly on the constants in the sorption isotherm. With an application of 10 mg Cd/m 2 in the given range of Freundlich equations, the simulations gave a plant uptake of between 0 and 30 % of the applied cadmium in two years. At higher concentrations, where cadmium sorption can be described by nonlinear isotherms, more cadmium is present in soil water and is generally more bioavailable. 25 refs

  3. Cadmium-induced fetal toxicity in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    Cadmium, a heavy metal environment contaminant, induces fetal death and placental necrosis in the Wistar rat. This study investigated fetal, maternal, and placental responses to cadmium intoxication. Subcutaneous injection of CdCl 2 to dams on day 18 of pregnancy produced a high incidence of fetal death (75%) and placental necrosis. Death in the fetus was produced despite limited fetal accumulations of cadmium. Distribution studies using 109 Cd-labeled CdCl 2 demonstrated that less than 0.1% of the injected dose was associated with the fetus. To determine if fetuses were sensitive to these low levels of cadmium, direct injections of CdCl 2 into fetuses were performed in utero. Direct injections produced fetal accumulations 8-fold greater than those following maternal injections. The 8-fold greater fetal accumulations following direct injection were associated with only a 12% fetal mortality compared to the 75% mortality following maternal injections. The data indicated that the fetal toxicity of cadmium following maternal injections was not the result of direct effects of cadmium on the fetus. In conclusion, cadmium-induced fetal death was not the result of direct effects of cadmium on the fetus but may have been induced by placental cellular injury resulting from high accumulations of cadmium in the placenta. A vascular response to placental injury, leading to decreased utero-placental bood flow and cadmium-induced alterations in trophoblastic function, resulted in fetal death

  4. Histopathology as biomarkers: in treated mouse brain with radiation, cadmium and therapeutic agents (Aloe Vera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrawarti, Aruna; Kanwar, Om; Nayak, Kamal Kumar; Ranga, Deepti

    2014-01-01

    There are two different types of radiation energetic particles and electromagnetic waves. These two types can penetrate into living tissue or cell and result in transduction of radiation energy to biological materials. The absorbed energy of ionising radiation can break chemical bonds and cause ionization of different molecules including water and different biological essential macromolecules of as DNA, membrane lipids and protein. Many types of DNA lesions are produce in cell by ionizing radiation and chemicals during cancer therapy. Cadmium is known to deplete glutathione and protein bounds sulfhydrl groups which results in enhance production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The reactions of these ROS with cellular biomolecules have been shown to lead to lipid per-oxidation. Aloe vera is dietary antioxidant that plays an important role in controlling oxidative stress. For this purpose, six to eight weeks old male Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus) were randomly divided into seven groups. On the basis of radiation, cadmium, combined treatment and Aloe treated groups the animals were sacrificed at each post treatment intervals of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days. The brain were taken out and weighed to the analytical balance and fixed for 24 hours in alcoholic Bouin's fixative. A pinch of lithium carbonate was added to remove excess picric acid in the fixative. Histological studies were carried out using the standard techniques of haematoxyline and eosin staining. After combined treatment of radiation and cadmium chloride synergistic changes were observed. These changes were less severe in the Aloe vera treated brain which may be due to the protection provided by drug

  5. Optimization of conditions for cadmium selenide quantum dot biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jordan; Lefebvre, Daniel D

    2017-04-01

    The biosynthesis of quantum dots has been explored as an alternative to traditional physicochemical methods; however, relatively few studies have determined optimal synthesis parameters. Saccharomyces cerevisiae sequentially treated with sodium selenite and cadmium chloride synthesized CdSe quantum dots in the cytoplasm. These nanoparticles displayed a prominent yellow fluorescence, with an emission maximum of approximately 540 nm. The requirement for glutathione in the biosynthetic mechanism was explored by depleting its intracellular content through cellular treatments with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and buthionine sulfoximine. Synthesis was significantly inhibited by both of these reagents when they were applied after selenite treatment prior to the addition of cadmium, thereby indicating that glutathione contributes to the biosynthetic process. Determining the optimum conditions for biosynthesis revealed that quantum dots were produced most efficiently at entry into stationary phase followed by direct addition of 1 mM selenite for only 6 h and then immediately incubating these cells in fresh growth medium containing 3 mM Cd (II). Synthesis of quantum dots reached a maximum at 84 h of reaction time. Biosynthesis of 800-μg g -1 fresh weight cells was achieved. For the first time, significant efforts have been undertaken to optimize each aspect of the CdSe biosynthetic procedure in S. cerevisiae, resulting in a 70% increased production.

  6. Additive toxic effect of deltamethrin and cadmium on hepatic, hematological, and immunological parameters in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Hasibur; Aziz, Al Thbiani; Saggu, Shalini; VanWert, Adam L; Zidan, Nahla; Saggu, Sundeep

    2017-06-01

    Exposure to natural and man-made environmental toxins concurrently can pose a greater threat to multiple organs. In the present work, we investigated interactions between deltamethrin (DM) and cadmium (Cd), whose mechanisms of action in humans are poorly understood. Albino mice were randomly divided into four groups, each containing six mice: saline as control, DM-treated, cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 )-treated, and CdCl 2 plus DM treated. After 2 weeks of treatment biochemical and hematological effects, total leukocyte count (TLC), differential leukocyte count, humoral-mediated immune responses, and histopathological studies were conducted. Mice exposed to DM and Cd showed a significant increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Also, DM and Cd administration resulted in suppression of humoral immunity, erythrocyte count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and TLC. Histopathological evidence revealed hepatic damage, supporting the AST and ALT findings. Cd and DM exhibited an additive type of toxicity. It could be concluded that these toxins either target different cellular pathways, or the individual amounts used in this study were not enough to saturate the toxicological target, thus producing additive effects.

  7. Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

  8. Lithium thionyl chloride high rate discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinedinst, K. A.

    1980-04-01

    Improvements in high rate lithium thionyl chloride power technology achieved by varying the electrolyte composition, operating temperature, cathode design, and cathode composition are discussed. Discharge capacities are plotted as a function of current density, cell voltage, and temperature.

  9. Chloride Ingress into Concrete under Water Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou; Sander, Lotte Braad; Grelk, Bent

    2011-01-01

    The chloride ingress into concrete under water pressures of 100 kPa and 800 kPa have been investigated by experiments. The specimens were exposed to a 10% NaCl solution and water mixture. For the concrete having w/c = 0.35 the experimental results show the chloride diffusion coefficient at 800 k......Pa (~8 atm.) is 12 times greater than at 100 kPa (~1 atm.). For w/c = 0.45 and w/c = 0.55 the chloride diffusion coefficients are 7 and 3 times greater. This means that a change in pressure highly influences the chloride ingress into the concrete and thereby the life length models for concrete structures....

  10. Surface adsorption in strontium chloride ammines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Andreas L.; Lysgaard, Steen; Klukowska, Agata

    2013-01-01

    An adsorbed state and its implications on the ab- and desorption kinetics of ammonia in strontium chloride ammine is identified using a combination of ammonia absorption measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, and density functional theory calculations. During thermogravimetric analysis, ammoni...

  11. The effect on serum enzymes of intramuscular injections of digoxin, bumetanide, pentazocine and isotonic sodium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Damsgaard, T

    1976-01-01

    . No rise in ASAT or total LDH was found after digoxin and pentazocine injections. No changes in enzymes were discovered after bumetanide or isotonic sodium chloride. In the diagnostic evaluation of acute myocardial infarction, a moderate rise in CK must be assessed with caution when the patients have...... received i.m. injections of drugs with osmolarity and pH outside the physiological limits....

  12. Telomerization of Vinyl Chloride with Chloroform Initiated by Ferrous Chloride-Dimethylacetamide under Ultrasonic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Telomerization of vinyl chloride with chloroform was investigated using ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide system, and 42.1% yield, more than four times the one reported before, was achieved. The addition of ultrasound further improved the reaction and yield was raised to 51.9% with trace byproducts at highly reduced reaction time and temperature. Ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide under ultrasonic irradiation acts as a very efficient catalyst system for the 1 : 1 telomerization.

  13. Estimating the chloride transport in cement paste

    OpenAIRE

    Princigallo, A.

    2012-01-01

    A method was developed to measure the diffusion coefficient of chloride ions in cement paste based on an analytical solution to Fick’s 2nd law in a cylindrical coordinate system. This natural method yielded diffusivity results within as little as a month. Testing time was reduced by exploiting the three-dimensional inward flux in the specimen. In an attempt to determine the saturation concentration, dense portland cement pastes were exposed to a concentrated chloride solution. The method prov...

  14. Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Kunz, James L.; Hardesty, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (∼68th–82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper.

  15. Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Dorman, Rebecca A; Brumbaugh, William G; Mebane, Christopher A; Kunz, James L; Hardesty, Doug K

    2014-10-01

    Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (∼68th-82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper. Published 2014 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  16. Enhanced cadmium phytoremediation of Glycine max L. through bioaugmentation of cadmium-resistant bacteria assisted by biostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojjanateeranaj, Pongsarun; Sangthong, Chirawee; Prapagdee, Benjaphorn

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the potential of three strains of cadmium-resistant bacteria, including Micrococcus sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Arthrobacter sp., to promote root elongation of Glycine max L. seedlings, soil cadmium solubility and cadmium phytoremediation in G. max L. planted in soil highly polluted with cadmium with and without nutrient biostimulation. Micrococcus sp. promoted root length in G. max L. seedlings under toxic cadmium conditions. Soil inoculation with Arthrobacter sp. increased the bioavailable fraction of soil cadmium, particularly in soil amended with a C:N ratio of 20:1. Pot culture experiments observed that the highest plant growth was in Micrococcus sp.-inoculated plants with nutrient biostimulation. Cadmium accumulation in the roots, stems and leaves of G. max L. was significantly enhanced by Arthrobacter sp. with nutrient biostimulation. A combined use of G. max L. and Arthrobacter sp. with nutrient biostimulation accelerated cadmium phytoremediation. In addition, cadmium was retained in roots more than in stems and leaves and G. max L. had the lowest translocation factor at all growth stages, suggesting that G. max L. is a phytostabilizing plant. We concluded that biostimulation-assisted bioaugmentation is an important strategy for improving cadmium phytoremediation efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 77 FR 36296 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Cadmium in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... for OMB Review; Comment Request; Cadmium in Construction Standard ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Cadmium in Construction Standard,'' to the Office of [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Cadmium in Construction Standard requires covered employers...

  18. 76 FR 57682 - Petition Requesting Regulations Restricting Cadmium in Children's Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... Requesting Regulations Restricting Cadmium in Children's Products AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission...'') has received a petition requesting standards restricting cadmium in children's products, especially... to begin drafting a proposed rule unless a voluntary standard for cadmium in children's jewelry is...

  19. Cadmium uptake in oyster isognomon alatus under laboratory condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayon Saed; Ahmad Ismail; Missri Kusnan; Hishamuddin Omar

    1999-01-01

    The uptake of cadmium in Flat tree oyster Isognomon alatus was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions for two weeks. Oysters were exposed to 100 μg 1'-1 cadmium and the accumulation of cadmium in the tissues was measured for every two days. Soft tissues of oyster were digested in concentrated acid and cadmium concentrations were determined by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The accumulation of cadmium in the soft tissues of oysters was increased during the first six days from 0.73 μg g- 1 to 10.77 μg g'-1, and remaining constant for four days at average level of 10.96 μg g'-1. The Cl concentrations was increased to 32.70 μg g'-1 until the end of experiment. There was no sign of cadmium accumulation approaching saturation for the period of exposure. (author)

  20. Cadmium filtered neutron flux determination. Comparison of activation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollui-Mboulou, Magloire.

    1979-01-01

    Neutron fluxes under cadmium filters are determined by the cadmium ratio and sandwich activation methods. The thermal neutron flux levels obtained with 7 detectors of different kinds: In, Au, Ag, W, Co, Mn, Zn are compared. The cadmium ratio method was used in locations for which the epithermal and thermal neutron flux ratio are quite different. By irradiating materials under different thicknesses of cadmium it was possible to establish experimental curves from which the flux depression factors for intermediate neutrons may be determined whatever the thickness of the filter used. Whereas the cadmium ratio method can only measure the mean flux above the cadmium cut-off energy the sandwich method enables the flux value to be determined in a narrow band around the resonance energy of each detector used [fr