WorldWideScience

Sample records for acute bowel toxicity

  1. The dose-volume relationship of acute small bowel toxicity from concurrent 5-FU-based chemotherapy and radiation therapy for rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baglan, Kathy L.; Frazier, Robert C.; Yan Di; Huang, Raywin R.; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Robertson, John M.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: A direct relationship between the volume of small bowel irradiated and the degree of acute small bowel toxicity experienced during concurrent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemoradiotherapy for rectal carcinoma is well recognized but poorly quantified. This study uses three-dimensional treatment-planning tools to more precisely quantify this dose-volume relationship. Methods and Materials: Forty patients receiving concurrent 5-FU-based chemotherapy and pelvic irradiation for rectal carcinoma had treatment-planning CT scans with small bowel contrast. A median isocentric dose of 50.4 Gy was delivered using a posterior-anterior and opposed lateral field arrangement. Bowel exclusion techniques were routinely used, including prone treatment position on a vacuum bag cradle to allow anterior displacement of the abdominal contents and bladder distension. Individual loops of small bowel were contoured on each slice of the planning CT scan, and a small bowel dose-volume histogram was generated for the initial pelvis field receiving 45 Gy. The volume of small bowel receiving each dose between 5 and 40 Gy was recorded at 5-Gy intervals. Results: Ten patients (25%) experienced Common Toxicity Criteria Grade 3+ acute small bowel toxicity. A highly statistically significant association between the development of Grade 3+ acute small bowel toxicity and the volume of small bowel irradiated was found at each dose level. Specific dose-volume threshold levels were found, below which no Grade 3+ toxicity occurred and above which 50-60% of patients developed Grade 3+ toxicity. The volume of small bowel receiving at least 15 Gy (V 15 ) was strongly associated with the degree of toxicity. Univariate analysis of patient and treatment-related factors revealed no other significant predictors of severe toxicity. Conclusions: A strong dose-volume relationship exists for the development of Grade 3+ acute small bowel toxicity in patients receiving concurrent 5-FU-based chemoradiotherapy

  2. Small Bowel Dose Parameters Predicting Grade ≥3 Acute Toxicity in Rectal Cancer Patients Treated With Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation: An Independent Validation Study Comparing Peritoneal Space Versus Small Bowel Loop Contouring Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Robyn; Chakraborty, Santam; Nygren, Ian; Sinha, Richie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether volumes based on contours of the peritoneal space can be used instead of individual small bowel loops to predict for grade ≥3 acute small bowel toxicity in patients with rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A standardized contouring method was developed for the peritoneal space and retrospectively applied to the radiation treatment plans of 67 patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy for rectal cancer. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) data were extracted and analyzed against patient toxicity. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and logistic regression were carried out for both contouring methods. Results: Grade ≥3 small bowel toxicity occurred in 16% (11/67) of patients in the study. A highly significant dose-volume relationship between small bowel irradiation and acute small bowel toxicity was supported by the use of both small bowel loop and peritoneal space contouring techniques. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that, for both contouring methods, the greatest sensitivity for predicting toxicity was associated with the volume receiving between 15 and 25 Gy. Conclusion: DVH analysis of peritoneal space volumes accurately predicts grade ≥3 small bowel toxicity in patients with rectal cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy, suggesting that the contours of the peritoneal space provide a reasonable surrogate for the contours of individual small bowel loops. The study finds that a small bowel V15 less than 275 cc and a peritoneal space V15 less than 830 cc are associated with a less than 10% risk of grade ≥3 acute toxicity

  3. Dose-Volume Relationships for Acute Bowel Toxicity in Patients Treated With Pelvic Nodal Irradiation for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorino, Claudio; Alongi, Filippo; Perna, Lucia; Broggi, Sara; Cattaneo, Giovanni Mauro; Cozzarini, Cesare; Di Muzio, Nadia; Fazio, Ferruccio; Calandrino, Riccardo

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To find correlation between dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the intestinal cavity (IC) and moderate-severe acute bowel toxicity in men with prostate cancer treated with pelvic nodal irradiation. Methods and Materials: The study group consisted of 191 patients with localized prostate cancer who underwent whole-pelvis radiotherapy with radical or adjuvant/salvage intent during January 2004 to November 2007. Complete planning/clinical data were available in 175 of these men, 91 of whom were treated with a conventional four-field technique (50.4 Gy, 1.8 Gy/fraction) and 84 of whom were treated with IMRT using conventional Linac (n = 26, 50.4 Gy, 1.8 Gy/fraction) or Helical TomoTherapy (n = 58, 50-54 Gy, 1.8-2 Gy/fraction). The IC outside the planning target volume (PTV) was contoured and the DVH for the first 6 weeks of treatment was recovered in all patients. The correlation between a number of clinical and DVH (V10-V55) variables and toxicity was investigated in univariate and multivariate analyses. The correlation between DVHs for the IC outside the PTV and DVHs for the whole IC was also assessed. Results: Twenty-two patients experienced toxicity (3/22 in the IMRT/tomotherapy group). Univariate analyses showed a significant correlation between V20-V50 and toxicity (p = 0.0002-0.001), with a higher predictive value observed for V40-V50. Previous prostatectomy (p = 0.066) and abdominal/pelvic surgery (p = 0.12) also correlated with toxicity. Multivariate analysis that included V45, abdominal/pelvic surgery, and prostatectomy showed that the most predictive parameters were V45 (p = 0.002) and abdominal/pelvic surgery (p = 0.05, HR = 2.4) Conclusions: Our avoidance IMRT approach drastically reduces the incidence of acute bowel toxicity. V40-V50 of IC and, secondarily, previous abdominal/pelvic surgery were the main predictors of acute bowel toxicity.

  4. Acute small bowel toxicity and preoperative chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer: Investigating dose-volume relationships and role for inverse planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tho, Lye Mun; Glegg, Martin; Paterson, Jennifer; Yap, Christina; MacLeod, Alice; McCabe, Marie; McDonald, Alexander C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The relationship between volume of irradiated small bowel (VSB) and acute toxicity in rectal cancer radiotherapy is poorly quantified, particularly in patients receiving concurrent preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Using treatment planning data, we studied a series of such patients. Methods and Materials: Details of 41 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer were reviewed. All received 45 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks, 3-4 fields three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy with daily 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid during Weeks 1 and 5. Toxicity was assessed prospectively in a weekly clinic. Using computed tomography planning software, the VSB was determined at 5 Gy dose intervals (V 5 , V 1 , etc.). Eight patients with maximal VSB had dosimetry and radiobiological modeling outcomes compared between inverse and conformal three-dimensional planning. Results: VSB correlated strongly with diarrheal severity at every dose level (p 5 and V 15 . Conclusions: A strong dose-volume relationship exists between VSB and acute diarrhea at all dose levels during preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Our constructed model may be useful in predicting toxicity, and this has been derived without the confounding influence of surgical excision on bowel function. Inverse planning can reduce calculated dose to small bowel and late NTCP, and its clinical role warrants further investigation

  5. Reduced Acute Bowel Toxicity in Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelian, Jason M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Callister, Matthew D., E-mail: Callister.matthew@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Ashman, Jonathan B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Young-Fadok, Tonia M. [Division of Colorectal Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Borad, Mitesh J. [Division of Hematology-Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Gunderson, Leonard L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: We have previously shown that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can reduce dose to small bowel, bladder, and bone marrow compared with three-field conventional radiotherapy (CRT) technique in the treatment of rectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to review our experience using IMRT to treat rectal cancer and report patient clinical outcomes. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of patients with rectal cancer who were treated at Mayo Clinic Arizona with pelvic radiotherapy (RT). Data regarding patient and tumor characteristics, treatment, acute toxicity according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v 3.0, tumor response, and perioperative morbidity were collected. Results: From 2004 to August 2009, 92 consecutive patients were treated. Sixty-one (66%) patients were treated with CRT, and 31 (34%) patients were treated with IMRT. All but 2 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. There was no significant difference in median dose (50.4 Gy, CRT; 50 Gy, IMRT), preoperative vs. postoperative treatment, type of concurrent chemotherapy, or history of previous pelvic RT between the CRT and IMRT patient groups. Patients who received IMRT had significantly less gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Sixty-two percent of patients undergoing CRT experienced {>=}Grade 2 acute GI side effects, compared with 32% among IMRT patients (p = 0.006). The reduction in overall GI toxicity was attributable to fewer symptoms from the lower GI tract. Among CRT patients, {>=}Grade 2 diarrhea and enteritis was experienced among 48% and 30% of patients, respectively, compared with 23% (p = 0.02) and 10% (p = 0.015) among IMRT patients. There was no significant difference in hematologic or genitourinary acute toxicity between groups. In addition, pathologic complete response rates and postoperative morbidity between treatment groups did not differ significantly. Conclusions: In the management of rectal cancer, IMRT is associated with a

  6. Reduced Acute Bowel Toxicity in Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuelian, Jason M.; Callister, Matthew D.; Ashman, Jonathan B.; Young-Fadok, Tonia M.; Borad, Mitesh J.; Gunderson, Leonard L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We have previously shown that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can reduce dose to small bowel, bladder, and bone marrow compared with three-field conventional radiotherapy (CRT) technique in the treatment of rectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to review our experience using IMRT to treat rectal cancer and report patient clinical outcomes. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of patients with rectal cancer who were treated at Mayo Clinic Arizona with pelvic radiotherapy (RT). Data regarding patient and tumor characteristics, treatment, acute toxicity according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v 3.0, tumor response, and perioperative morbidity were collected. Results: From 2004 to August 2009, 92 consecutive patients were treated. Sixty-one (66%) patients were treated with CRT, and 31 (34%) patients were treated with IMRT. All but 2 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. There was no significant difference in median dose (50.4 Gy, CRT; 50 Gy, IMRT), preoperative vs. postoperative treatment, type of concurrent chemotherapy, or history of previous pelvic RT between the CRT and IMRT patient groups. Patients who received IMRT had significantly less gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Sixty-two percent of patients undergoing CRT experienced ≥Grade 2 acute GI side effects, compared with 32% among IMRT patients (p = 0.006). The reduction in overall GI toxicity was attributable to fewer symptoms from the lower GI tract. Among CRT patients, ≥Grade 2 diarrhea and enteritis was experienced among 48% and 30% of patients, respectively, compared with 23% (p = 0.02) and 10% (p = 0.015) among IMRT patients. There was no significant difference in hematologic or genitourinary acute toxicity between groups. In addition, pathologic complete response rates and postoperative morbidity between treatment groups did not differ significantly. Conclusions: In the management of rectal cancer, IMRT is associated with a

  7. Treatment with a belly-board device significantly reduces the volume of small bowel irradiated and results in low acute toxicity in adjuvant radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer: results of a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Joseph; Fitzpatrick, Kathryn; Horan, Gail; McCloy, Roisin; Buckney, Steve; O'Neill, Louise; Faul, Clare

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: To determine whether treatment prone on a belly-board significantly reduces the volume of small bowel irradiated in women receiving adjuvant radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer, and to prospectively study acute small bowel toxicity using an accepted recording instrument. Material and methods: Thirty-two gynecologic patients underwent simulation with CT scanning supine and prone. Small bowel was delineated on every CT slice, and treatment was prone on the belly-board using 3-5 fields-typically Anterior, Right and Left Lateral, plus or minus Lateral Boosts. Median prescribed dose was 50.4 Gy and all treatments were delivered in 1.8 Gy fractions. Concomitant Cisplatin was administered in 13 patients with cervical carcinoma. Comparison of small bowel dose-volumes was made between supine and prone, with each subject acting as their own matched pair. Acute small bowel toxicity was prospectively measured using the Common Toxicity Criteria: Version 2.0. Results: Treatment prone on the belly-board significantly reduced the volume of small bowel receiving ≥100; ≥95; ≥90; and ≥80% of the prescribed dose, but not ≥50%. This was found whether volume was defined in cubic centimeters or % of total small bowel volume. Of 29 evaluable subjects, 2 (7%) experienced 1 episode each of grade 3 diarrhoea. All other toxicity events were grade 2 or less and comprised diarrhoea (59%), abdominal pain or cramping (48%), nausea (38%), anorexia (17%), vomiting (10%). There were no Grade 4 events and no treatment days were lost due to toxicity. Conclusions: Treatment prone on a belly-board device results in significant small bowel sparing, during adjuvant radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer. The absence of Grade 4 events or Treatment Days Lost compares favorably with the published literature

  8. Acute bowel ischemia: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelelli, Giuseppe; Scardapane, Arnaldo; Memeo, Maurizio; Stabile Ianora, Amato Antonio; Rotondo, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    Acute bowel ischemia represents one of the most dramatic abdominal emergencies and, despite the fact it is more and more frequently observed in clinical practice, its mortality rate remains very high. In recent years Computed Tomography (CT) has proved to be a valid diagnostic tool in the evaluation of patients with acute abdominal syndrome and in the visualization of early signs of bowel ischemia. This paper reviews the aetiological and pathophysiological aspects as well as a broad spectrum of CT findings of this clinical condition

  9. Pathophysiology of acute small bowel disease with CT correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwani, N.; Tappouni, R.; Tice, J.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this article is to review the pathophysiology of acute small bowel diseases, and to correlate the mechanisms of disease with computed tomography (CT) findings. Disease entities will be classified into the following: immune mediated and infectious causes, vascular causes, mechanical causes, trauma, and others. Having an understanding of acute small bowel pathophysiology is a useful teaching tool, and can lead to imaging clues to the most likely diagnosis of acute small bowel disorders.

  10. Normal Tissue Complication Probability Analysis of Acute Gastrointestinal Toxicity in Cervical Cancer Patients Undergoing Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Cisplatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, Daniel R.; Song, William Y.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Rose, Brent S.; Yashar, Catheryn M.; Mundt, Arno J.; Mell, Loren K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that increased bowel radiation dose is associated with acute gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity in cervical cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), using a previously derived normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model. Methods: Fifty patients with Stage I–III cervical cancer undergoing IMRT and concurrent weekly cisplatin were analyzed. Acute GI toxicity was graded using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale, excluding upper GI events. A logistic model was used to test correlations between acute GI toxicity and bowel dosimetric parameters. The primary objective was to test the association between Grade ≥2 GI toxicity and the volume of bowel receiving ≥45 Gy (V 45 ) using the logistic model. Results: Twenty-three patients (46%) had Grade ≥2 GI toxicity. The mean (SD) V 45 was 143 mL (99). The mean V 45 values for patients with and without Grade ≥2 GI toxicity were 176 vs. 115 mL, respectively. Twenty patients (40%) had V 45 >150 mL. The proportion of patients with Grade ≥2 GI toxicity with and without V 45 >150 mL was 65% vs. 33% (p = 0.03). Logistic model parameter estimates V50 and γ were 161 mL (95% confidence interval [CI] 60–399) and 0.31 (95% CI 0.04–0.63), respectively. On multivariable logistic regression, increased V 45 was associated with an increased odds of Grade ≥2 GI toxicity (odds ratio 2.19 per 100 mL, 95% CI 1.04–4.63, p = 0.04). Conclusions: Our results support the hypothesis that increasing bowel V 45 is correlated with increased GI toxicity in cervical cancer patients undergoing IMRT and concurrent cisplatin. Reducing bowel V 45 could reduce the risk of Grade ≥2 GI toxicity by approximately 50% per 100 mL of bowel spared.

  11. Early hematologic changes during prostate cancer radiotherapy predictive for late urinary and bowel toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkawa, Michael; Djukic, Victoria; Klotz, Jens; Holy, Richard; Eble, Michael J. [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Aachen (Germany); Ribbing, Carolina [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Aachen (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    The primary objective of the study was to identify early hematologic changes predictive for radiotherapy (RT)-associated genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity. In a group of 91 prostate cancer patients presenting for primary (n = 51) or postoperative (n = 40) curative RT, blood samples (blood count, acute phase proteins, and cytokines) were analyzed before (T1), three times during (T2-T4), and 6-8 weeks after (T5) radiotherapy. Before RT (baseline), on the last day (acute toxicity), a median of 2 months and 16 months (late toxicity) after RT, patients responded to a validated questionnaire (Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite). Acute score changes > 20 points and late changes > 10 points were considered clinically relevant. Radiotherapy resulted in significant changes of hematologic parameters, with the largest effect on lymphocytes (mean decrease of 31-45 %) and significant dependence on target volume. C-reactive protein (CRP) elevation > 5 mg/l and hemoglobin level decrease ≥ 5 G/1 at T2 were found to be independently predictive for acute urinary toxicity (p < 0.01, respectively). CRP elevation was predominantly detected in primary prostate RT (p = 0.02). Early lymphocyte level elevation ≥ 0.3G/l at T2 was protective against late urinary and bowel toxicity (p = 0.02, respectively). Other significant predictive factors for late bowel toxicity were decreasing hemoglobin levels (cut-off ≥ 5 G/l) at T2 (p = 0.04); changes of TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor; p = 0.03) and ferritin levels (p = 0.02) at T5. All patients with late bowel toxicity had interleukin (IL)-6 levels < 1.5 ng/l at T2 (63 % without; p = 0.01). Early hematologic changes during prostate cancer radiotherapy are predictive for late urinary and bowel toxicity. (orig.) [German] Das primaere Ziel der Studie war die Identifikation von fruehen haematologischen Veraenderungen mit praediktiver Bedeutung fuer radiotherapieassoziierte genitourinale und gastrointestinale Toxizitaet. In einer

  12. Acute toxicity after a diverting stoma and spacer prior to chemoradiation in locally advanced rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voort van Zyp, Jochem R.N. van der; Ceha, Heleen M.; Niehe, Valerie; Marinelli, Andreas W.K.S.; Putter, Hein; Marijnen, Corrie A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by surgery is the standard of care for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). For grade ⩾3 acute diarrhea there is a relationship between dose and irradiated small bowel volume. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether combined placement of a diverting stoma and sigmoid spacer (DSSS) led to reduced irradiated small bowel volume and less grade ⩾3 acute diarrhea in the treatment of LARC. Materials/methods: Between 2003 and 2010, 54 of 189 LARC patients treated with CRT in two institutions had a DSSS prior to CRT. Data on patient and treatment characteristics and outcomes were collected retrospectively. Delineation of small bowel was performed with planning CT-scans. CTCAE version 4.0 was used for acute toxicity. Results: Patients with a DSSS had significantly less small bowel volume irradiated up to doses of 20 Gy. This difference was not observed for the higher dose levels. CRT induced grade ⩾3 acute diarrhea was not different between the two groups (8.3% vs. 12.8%; p = 0.41). Conclusion: DSSS is not clearly beneficial to reduce grade ⩾3 acute diarrhea, and it must be considered whether placement of a DSSS is justified for this purpose

  13. Assessment and diagnosis of acute bowel ischemia with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sojka, B.; Gieszczyk-Paraniak, B.; Gibinska, J.; Konopka, M.

    2008-01-01

    Acute bowel ischemia (ABT) is a life-threatening condition which most often effects elderly patients. It requires an intensive treatment and quick diagnosis. Unfortunately ABI manifested not only by specific but also various nonspecific clinical or laboratory finding. The radiological symptoms of the bowel ischemia are also differentiated and often nonspecific while the specific findings are rather uncommon.That is why the knowledge of the bowel ischemia pathogenesis and possible CT findings is so important for the correct diagnosis. The our paper, we present the radiological findings of the acute bowel ischemia based on the analysis of the patients' abdominal -CT examination. The purpose of our study is to MDCT in patients with acute bowel ischemia. The material of this study consists of four computer tomography examinations - three of those an angio-CT and one abdominal - in patients with acute abdomen symptoms. The result revealed the mesenteric thrombosis in two cases, and mesenteric artery stenosis in one case. In one case, the thrombus was present in the abdominal aorta. In conclusion, we claim that the MDCT should be the modality of choice for the diagnosis of the acute bowel ischemia. (author)

  14. A Challenging Case of Acute Mercury Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nayfeh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mercury exists in multiple forms: elemental, organic, and inorganic. Its toxic manifestations depend on the type and magnitude of exposure. The role of colonoscopic decompression in acute mercury toxicity is still unclear. We present a case of acute elemental mercury toxicity secondary to mercury ingestion, which markedly improved with colonoscopic decompression. Clinical Case. A 54-year-old male presented to the ED five days after ingesting five ounces (148 cubic centimeters of elemental mercury. Examination was only significant for a distended abdomen. Labs showed elevated serum and urine mercury levels. An abdominal radiograph showed radiopaque material throughout the colon. Succimer and laxatives were initiated. The patient had recurrent bowel movements, and serial radiographs showed interval decrease of mercury in the descending colon with interval increase in the cecum and ascending colon. Colonoscopic decompression was done successfully. The colon was evacuated, and a repeat radiograph showed decreased hyperdense material in the colon. Three months later, a repeat radiograph showed no hyperdense material in the colon. Conclusion. Ingested elemental mercury can be retained in the colon. Although there are no established guidelines for colonoscopic decompression, our patient showed significant improvement. We believe further studies on this subject are needed to guide management practices.

  15. Acute toxicity of postoperative IMRT and chemotherapy for endometrial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tierney, R.M.; Powell, M.A.; Mutch, D.G.; Gibb, R.K.; Rader, J.S.; Grigsby, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with and without chemotherapy in patients with endometrial cancer. A total of 19 patients with stages IB-IVB endometrial cancer who underwent surgery and postoperative IMRT were reviewed. The treatment planning goal was to cover the tissue at risk and minimize the dose to the bladder, bowel, and bone marrow. Median dose was 50.4 Gy (range 49.6-51.2 Gy). Altogether, 14 patients underwent chemotherapy; most were given carboplatin and paclitaxel. Toxicity was scored according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 (CTCAE). The prescribed radiation treatment was completed in all patients. The prescribed cycles of chemotherapy were completed in all 14 patients, except one who received five of six cycles limited by prolonged thrombocytopenia. Chemotherapy was delayed in two patients (14%). Three patients required growth factor support during chemotherapy, and one patient required a blood transfusion. Acute grades 3-4 hematological toxicity occurred in 9 of the 14 patients (64%) who underwent chemotherapy. None experienced acute grade 3 or 4 genitourinary or gastrointestinal toxicity. Adjuvant IMRT and chemotherapy following surgery in patients with endometrial cancer is well tolerated and did not lead to treatment modification in most patients. (author)

  16. A modified inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire and the Vaizey Incontinence questionnaire are more sensitive measures of acute gastrointestinal toxicity during pelvic radiotherapy than RTOG grading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, Usman; McGough, Camilla; Hackett, Claire; Blake, Peter; Harrington, Kevin J.; Khoo, Vincent S.; Tait, Diana; Norman, Andrew R.; Andreyev, H. Jervoise N.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Simple scales with greater sensitivity than Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grading to detect acute gastrointestinal toxicity during pelvic radiotherapy, could be clinically useful. Methods and Materials: Do questionnaires used in benign gastrointestinal diseases detect toxicity in patients undergoing radiotherapy? The patient-completed Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBDQ) and Vaizey Incontinence questionnaires were compared prospectively at baseline and at Week 5 to physician-completed RTOG grading. Results: A total of 107 patients, median age 63 years, were recruited. After 5 weeks of treatment, patients with gynecologic and gastrointestinal cancer were more symptomatic than urologic patients (p 0.012; p = 0.014). Overall, 94% had altered bowel habits, 80% loose stool, 74% frequency, 65% difficult gas, 60% pain, >48% distress, 44% tenesmus, >40% restrictions in daily activity, 39% urgency, 37% fecal incontinence, and 40% required antidiarrheal medication. The median RTOG score was 1 (range, 0-2), median IBDQ score 204.5 (range, 74-224), and median Vaizey score 5 (range, 0-20). Chemotherapy preceding radiotherapy increased fecal incontinence (p 0.002). RTOG scores stabilized after 3 weeks, IBDQ scores peaked at Week 4, and Vaizey scores worsened throughout treatment. IBDQ and Vaizey scores distinguished between groups with different RTOG scores. Conclusion: The IBDQ and Vaizey questionnaires are reliable and sensitive, offering greater insight into the severity and range of symptoms compared with RTOG grading

  17. Acute small bowel obstruction due to chicken bone bezoar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetpillai P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Preadeepan Vetpillai,1 Ayo Oshowo21CT2 Surgery in General, Charing Cross Hospital, 2Colorectal and Laparoscopic Surgery, Whittington Hospital, London, UKAbstract: Acute intestinal obstruction due to foreign bodies, or bezoar, is a rare occurrence in an adult with a normal intestinal tract. We report an unusual case of a 43-year-old black man with no previous abdominal surgery and no significant medical history who presented with an acute episode of small bowel obstruction due to an impacted undigested chicken bone.Keywords: small bowel obstruction, chicken bone, bezoar

  18. Relationship between acute and late normal tissue injury after postoperative radiotherapy in endometrial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara A.; Jassem, Jacek; Badzio, Andrzej

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between acute and late normal tissue reactions in 317 consecutive endometrial cancer patients treated with surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy (RT). Methods: The data of 317 patients (staging according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) treated with postoperative RT were analyzed. Both low-dose-rate brachytherapy and external beam RT were applied in 247 patients (78%); brachytherapy only in 49 (15%) and external beam irradiation only in 21 (7%). The median follow-up was 7.3 years (range 4-21). The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group system with elements of the late effects of normal tissue, subjective, objective, management, analytic (LENT/SOMA) scale was used to score the RT reactions. The correlation between the occurrence and severity of acute and late bowel and bladder toxicity, as well as the relationship between the severity of acute effects and time to occurrence of late reactions, were assessed using linear and logistic regression analyses. Results: Of the 317 patients, 268 (85%) experienced acute RT reactions of any grade. Severe acute bowel reactions were observed in 15 patients (5%), urinary bladder complications in 1 patient (0.5%), cutaneous in 1 patient (0.5%), and vaginal in 1 patient (0.5%). Severe acute hematologic toxicity was seen in 3 patients (1%). A total of 158 patients (51%) experienced late RT reactions of any grade. Severe late bowel reactions were observed in 19 patients (6%), urinary bladder in 5 (2%), vaginal in 3 (1%), and bone in 10 (4%). When all toxic events were considered, there was a highly significant correlation between the acute and late bowel reactions (p <0.001), but the acute and late urinary bladder reactions did not correlate (p=0.64). The grade of acute toxicity was found to predict the grade of late toxicity for the bowel but not for the bladder (p<0.001 and p=0.47, respectively). The severity of acute

  19. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism TGFβ1 R25P Correlates with Acute Toxicity during Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy in Rectal Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J. Joshua; Wasserman, Isaac; Milgrom, Sarah A.; Chow, Oliver S.; Chen, Chin-Tung; Patil, Sujata; Goodman, Karyn A.; Garcia-Aguilar, Julio

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To validate the finding of an association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and toxicity during chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in rectal cancer patients, in an independent population. Methods and Materials: The cohort consisted of 165 patients who received CRT for rectal cancer from 2006 to 2012. Prospectively recorded toxicity information, graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0, was retrieved from the medical record. Additionally, a subset of 52 patients recorded their gastrointestinal symptoms weekly during CRT, using the 7-item Bowel Problems Scale. Deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted from normal tissue in the proctectomy specimens and screened for 3 SNPs: XRCC1 R399Q, XPD K751Q, and TGFβ1 R25P. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were constructed. Results: The median radiation dose was 50.4 Gy, and all patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Toxicities measured by the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events were closely associated with patient-reported outcomes for the patients who completed the 7-item Bowel Problems Scale. Grade ≥3 toxicity occurred during CRT in 14 patients (8%). All 14 patients had either XRCC1 R399Q or TGFβ1 R25P polymorphisms. The TGFβ1 R25P polymorphism was significantly associated with grade ≥3 toxicity (odds ratio [OR] 3.47, P=.04) and, in patients who completed the Bowel Problems Scale, with grade ≥4 toxicity (OR 5.61, P=.02). The latter finding persisted in a multivariable logistic regression model controlling for ethnicity, age, and sex (adjusted OR 1.83, P=.02). Conclusions: We have validated the correlation between the TGFβ1 R25P SNP and acute toxicity during CRT in an independent cohort using both clinician- and patient-reported toxicity. The information from our study could be used as a basis to formulate a prospective trial testing the utility of this SNP as a biomarker of acute toxicity during neoadjuvant treatment in locally

  20. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism TGFβ1 R25P Correlates with Acute Toxicity during Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy in Rectal Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J. Joshua [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wasserman, Isaac [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York (United States); Milgrom, Sarah A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Chow, Oliver S.; Chen, Chin-Tung [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Patil, Sujata [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Goodman, Karyn A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Garcia-Aguilar, Julio, E-mail: garciaaj@mskcc.org [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: To validate the finding of an association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and toxicity during chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in rectal cancer patients, in an independent population. Methods and Materials: The cohort consisted of 165 patients who received CRT for rectal cancer from 2006 to 2012. Prospectively recorded toxicity information, graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0, was retrieved from the medical record. Additionally, a subset of 52 patients recorded their gastrointestinal symptoms weekly during CRT, using the 7-item Bowel Problems Scale. Deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted from normal tissue in the proctectomy specimens and screened for 3 SNPs: XRCC1 R399Q, XPD K751Q, and TGFβ1 R25P. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were constructed. Results: The median radiation dose was 50.4 Gy, and all patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Toxicities measured by the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events were closely associated with patient-reported outcomes for the patients who completed the 7-item Bowel Problems Scale. Grade ≥3 toxicity occurred during CRT in 14 patients (8%). All 14 patients had either XRCC1 R399Q or TGFβ1 R25P polymorphisms. The TGFβ1 R25P polymorphism was significantly associated with grade ≥3 toxicity (odds ratio [OR] 3.47, P=.04) and, in patients who completed the Bowel Problems Scale, with grade ≥4 toxicity (OR 5.61, P=.02). The latter finding persisted in a multivariable logistic regression model controlling for ethnicity, age, and sex (adjusted OR 1.83, P=.02). Conclusions: We have validated the correlation between the TGFβ1 R25P SNP and acute toxicity during CRT in an independent cohort using both clinician- and patient-reported toxicity. The information from our study could be used as a basis to formulate a prospective trial testing the utility of this SNP as a biomarker of acute toxicity during neoadjuvant treatment in locally

  1. GHS additivity formula: can it predict the acute systemic toxicity of agrochemical formulations that contain acutely toxic ingredients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cott, Andrew; Hastings, Charles E; Landsiedel, Robert; Kolle, Susanne; Stinchcombe, Stefan

    2018-02-01

    In vivo acute systemic testing is a regulatory requirement for agrochemical formulations. GHS specifies an alternative computational approach (GHS additivity formula) for calculating the acute toxicity of mixtures. We collected acute systemic toxicity data from formulations that contained one of several acutely-toxic active ingredients. The resulting acute data set includes 210 formulations tested for oral toxicity, 128 formulations tested for inhalation toxicity and 31 formulations tested for dermal toxicity. The GHS additivity formula was applied to each of these formulations and compared with the experimental in vivo result. In the acute oral assay, the GHS additivity formula misclassified 110 formulations using the GHS classification criteria (48% accuracy) and 119 formulations using the USEPA classification criteria (43% accuracy). With acute inhalation, the GHS additivity formula misclassified 50 formulations using the GHS classification criteria (61% accuracy) and 34 formulations using the USEPA classification criteria (73% accuracy). For acute dermal toxicity, the GHS additivity formula misclassified 16 formulations using the GHS classification criteria (48% accuracy) and 20 formulations using the USEPA classification criteria (36% accuracy). This data indicates the acute systemic toxicity of many formulations is not the sum of the ingredients' toxicity (additivity); but rather, ingredients in a formulation can interact to result in lower or higher toxicity than predicted by the GHS additivity formula. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. CT findings in acute small bowel diverticulitis; Computertomographie bei akuter Duenndarmdivertikulitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferstl, F.J.; Obert, R. [Radiologisch-Nuklearmedizinisches Zentrum (RNZ) am St. Theresienkrankenhaus Nuernberg (Germany)

    2004-02-01

    Small bowel diverticulitis is a rare cause of an acute abdomen. Originating from acquired diverticula of the jejunum, less often of the ileum, or Meckel diverticulum, the symptoms are non-specific, simulating other acute inflammatory disorders, such as appendicitis, cholecystitis or colonic diverticulitis. The diagnosis of small bowel diverticulitis is solely based on radiologic findings, with computed tomography (CT) regarded as the method of choice. In recent years, a number of case reports have described the spectrum of the CT features in acute small bowel diverticulitis and its dependence on the severity of the inflammatory process. Typical findings are an inflamed diverticulum, inflammatory mesenteric infiltration, extraluminal gas collection and mural edema of adjacent small bowel loops with resultant separation of bowel loops. An enterolith is rarely found in an inflamed diverticulum. Complications include abscesses, fistulae, small bowel obstruction and free perforation with peritonitis. Small bowel diverticulitis can be a diagnostic problem if it involves the terminal ileum or Meckel's diverticulum. For preoperative confirmation of the presumed diagnosis of small bowel diverticulitis on CT, an enteroclysis for acquired diverticula or a technetium scan for Meckel's diverticulum should be performed. We present the CT findings in three patients of acute small bowel diverticulitis, two affecting the jejunum and one a Meckel's diverticulum. (orig.) [German] Die akute Duenndarmdivertikulitis ist eine seltene Ursache eines akuten Abdomens. Ausgehend von den erworbenen Divertikeln des Jejunums, seltener des Ileums, oder von einem Meckel-Divertikel, manifestiert sich die Divertikulitis klinisch durch eine unspezifische Symptomatik, die zuerst an die haeufigeren, akutentzuendlichen Erkrankungen des Abdomens wie z. B. Appendizitis, Cholezystitis oder Kolondivertikulitis denken laesst. Die Duenndarmdivertikulitis kann praeoperativ nur durch

  3. Differential toxicity and influence of salinity on acute toxicity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differential toxicity and influence of salinity on acute toxicity of copper sulphate and lead nitrate against Oreochromis niloticus. KA Bawa-Allah, F Osuala, J Effiong. Abstract. This study investigated the salinity-tolerance of Oreochromis niloticus and the influence of salinity changes on the acute toxicities of copper sulphate ...

  4. Reduction of acute rejection by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells during rat small bowel transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    Full Text Available Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs have shown immunosuppressive activity in transplantation. This study was designed to determine whether BMMSCs could improve outcomes of small bowel transplantation in rats.Heterotopic small bowel transplantation was performed from Brown Norway to Lewis rats, followed by infusion of BMMSCs through the superficial dorsal veins of the penis. Controls included rats infused with normal saline (allogeneic control, isogeneically transplanted rats (BN-BN and nontransplanted animals. The animals were sacrificed after 1, 5, 7 or 10 days. Small bowel histology and apoptosis, cytokine concentrations in serum and intestinal grafts, and numbers of T regulatory (Treg cells were assessed at each time point.Acute cellular rejection occurred soon after transplantation and became aggravated over time in the allogeneic control rats, with increase in apoptosis, inflammatory response, and T helper (Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg-related cytokines. BMMSCs significantly attenuated acute cellular rejection, reduced apoptosis and suppressed the concentrations of interleukin (IL-2, IL-6, IL-17, IL-23, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and interferon (IFN-γ while upregulating IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF-β expression and increasing Treg levels.BMMSCs improve the outcomes of allogeneic small bowel transplantation by attenuating the inflammatory response and acute cellular rejection. Treatment with BMMSCs may overcome acute cellular rejection in small bowel transplantation.

  5. Acute toxicity of ingested fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Gary Milton

    2011-01-01

    This chapter discusses the characteristics and treatment of acute fluoride toxicity as well as the most common sources of overexposure, the doses that cause acute toxicity, and factors that can influence the clinical outcome. Cases of serious systemic toxicity and fatalities due to acute exposures are now rare, but overexposures causing toxic signs and symptoms are not. The clinical course of systemic toxicity from ingested fluoride begins with gastric signs and symptoms, and can develop with alarming rapidity. Treatment involves minimizing absorption by administering a solution containing calcium, monitoring and managing plasma calcium and potassium concentrations, acid-base status, and supporting vital functions. Approximately 30,000 calls to US poison control centers concerning acute exposures in children are made each year, most of which involve temporary gastrointestinal effects, but others require medical treatment. The most common sources of acute overexposures today are dental products - particularly dentifrices because of their relatively high fluoride concentrations, pleasant flavors, and their presence in non-secure locations in most homes. For example, ingestion of only 1.8 ounces of a standard fluoridated dentifrice (900-1,100 mg/kg) by a 10-kg child delivers enough fluoride to reach the 'probably toxic dose' (5 mg/kg body weight). Factors that may influence the clinical course of an overexposure include the chemical compound (e.g. NaF, MFP, etc.), the age and acid-base status of the individual, and the elapsed time between exposure and the initiation of treatment. While fluoride has well-established beneficial dental effects and cases of serious toxicity are now rare, the potential for toxicity requires that fluoride-containing materials be handled and stored with the respect they deserve. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Computerized tomography in acute toxic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Nobuhiko; Kaneshi, Kunio; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Kurihara, Eiji.

    1983-01-01

    We experienced three cases of acute toxic encephalopathy, including a case of probable Reye syndrome, which had similar and unique CT findings in their acute stage; symmetrical low density area in the thalamus and the dentate nucleus, followed by changes in cerebellar hemispheres and around lateral ventricles. The CT findings, common to probable Reye syndrome and other acute toxic encephalopathy, may suggest the possibility of similar pathogenesis of brain damage in both disorders. The authors propose that present cases are a new subgroup in acute toxic encephalopathy, because of their similar and unique CT features. (author)

  7. Acute And Toxicity Effect of The Aqueous Extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    antidiarrhoeal, antimalarial and antitrypanosomal activities of plants-based products support this ... Experimental design for Acute toxicity Study: The acute toxicity study was .... Lorke, D. (1983). A new approach to practical acute toxicity testing.

  8. Tomotherapy for prostate adenocarcinoma: A report on acute toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiler, Louis; Dobbins, Donald; Kulasekere, Ravi; Einstein, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: To analyze the impact of Tomotherapy (TOMO) intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) on acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity in prostate cancer. Materials and methods: The records of 55 consecutively treated TOMO patients were reviewed. Additionally a well-matched group of 43 patients treated with LINAC-based step and shoot IMRT (LINAC) was identified. Acute toxicity was scored according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group acute toxicity criterion. Results: The grade 2-3 acute GU toxicity rates for the TOMO vs. LINAC groups were 51% vs. 28% (p = 0.001). Acute grade 2 GI toxicity was 25% vs. 40% (p = 0.024), with no grade 3 GI toxicity in either group. In univariate analysis, androgen deprivation, prostate volume, pre-treatment urinary toxicity, and prostate dose homogeneity correlated with acute GI and GU toxicity. With multivariate analysis use of Tomotherapy, median bladder dose and bladder dose homogeneity remained significantly correlated with GU toxicity. Conclusions: Acute GI toxicity for prostate cancer is improved with Tomotherapy at a cost of increased acute GU toxicity possibly due to differences in bladder and prostate dose distribution

  9. Accuracy of multidetector row computed tomography for the diagnosis of acute bowel ischemia in a non-selected study population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesner, Walter; Hauser, Andreas; Steinbrich, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of multidetector row computed tomography for the prospective diagnosis of acute bowel ischemia in the daily clinical routine was analyzed. Two hundred ninety-one consecutive patients with an acute or subacute abdomen, examined by MDCT over a time period of 5 months, were included in the study. All original CT diagnoses made during the daily routine by radiological generalists were compared to the final diagnoses made by using all available medical information from endoscopies, surgical interventions, autopsies and follow-up. Finally, all CT examinations of patients with an initial CT diagnosis or a final diagnosis of bowel ischemia were reread by a radiologist specialized in abdominal imaging in order to analyze the CT findings and the reasons for initially false negative or false positive CT readings. Twenty-four patients out of 291 (8.2%) had acute bowel ischemia. The age of affected patients ranged from 50 to 94 years (mean age: 75.7 years). Eleven patients were male, and 13 female. Reasons for acute bowel ischemia were: arterio-occlusive (n=11), non-occlusive (n=5), strangulation (n=2), over-distension (n=3) and radiation (n=3). The prospective sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of MDCT for the diagnosis of acute bowel ischemia in the daily routine were 79.17, 98.51, 90.48 and 98.15%. MDCT reaches a similarly high sensitivity in diagnosing acute bowel as angiography. Furthermore, it has the advantage of being helpful in most of its clinical differential diagnoses and of being less invasive with the consecutive possibility of being used earlier in the diagnostic process with all the resulting positive effects on the patients prognosis. Therefore, nowadays MDCT should probably be used as the first step imaging modality of choice in patients with suspected acute bowel ischemia. (orig.)

  10. Increased risk for irritable bowel syndrome after acute diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Erica; Fuller, Garth; Bolus, Roger; Modi, Rusha; Vu, Michelle; Shahedi, Kamyar; Shah, Rena; Atia, Mary; Kurzbard, Nicole; Sheen, Victoria; Agarwal, Nikhil; Kaneshiro, Marc; Yen, Linnette; Hodgkins, Paul; Erder, M Haim; Spiegel, Brennan

    2013-12-01

    Individuals with diverticulosis frequently also have irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but there are no longitudinal data to associate acute diverticulitis with subsequent IBS, functional bowel disorders, or related emotional distress. In patients with postinfectious IBS, gastrointestinal disorders cause long-term symptoms, so we investigated whether diverticulitis might lead to IBS. We compared the incidence of IBS and functional bowel and related affective disorders among patients with diverticulitis. We performed a retrospective study of patients followed up for an average of 6.3 years at a Veteran's Administration medical center. Patients with diverticulitis were identified based on International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision codes, selected for the analysis based on chart review (cases, n = 1102), and matched with patients without diverticulosis (controls, n = 1102). We excluded patients with prior IBS, functional bowel, or mood disorders. We then identified patients who were diagnosed with IBS or functional bowel disorders after the diverticulitis attack, and controls who developed these disorders during the study period. We also collected information on mood disorders, analyzed survival times, and calculated adjusted hazard ratios. Cases were 4.7-fold more likely to be diagnosed later with IBS (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-14.0; P = .006), 2.4-fold more likely to be diagnosed later with a functional bowel disorder (95% CI, 1.6-3.6; P mood disorder (CI, 1.4-3.5; P IBS and functional bowel disorders. We propose calling this disorder postdiverticulitis IBS. Diverticulitis appears to predispose patients to long-term gastrointestinal and emotional symptoms after resolution of inflammation; in this way, postdiverticulitis IBS is similar to postinfectious IBS. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-infectious chemotherapy-associated acute toxicities during childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Müller, Klaus Gottlob; Mogensen, Signe Sloth

    2017-01-01

    During chemotherapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, all organs can be affected by severe acute side effects, the most common being opportunistic infections, mucositis, central or peripheral neuropathy (or both), bone toxicities (including osteonecrosis), thromboembolism, sinusoidal...... useful risk factors, and across study groups there has been wide diversity in toxicity definitions, capture strategies, and reporting, thus hampering meaningful comparisons of toxicity incidences for different leukemia protocols. Since treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia now yields 5-year overall...... obstruction syndrome, endocrinopathies (especially steroid-induced adrenal insufficiency and hyperglycemia), high-dose methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity, asparaginase-associated hypersensitivity, pancreatitis, and hyperlipidemia. Few of the non-infectious acute toxicities are associated with clinically...

  12. Analysis of acute and late toxicity of adjuvant radiotherapy in women with cervical and endometrial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warenczak-Florczak, Z.; Roszak, A.; Wlodarczyk, H.; Wojciechowska-Lacka, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In case of pure prognostic factors women with cervical and endometrial cancer after surgical operation need to be treated with radiotherapy . Every radiation treatment may be involved with toxicity, acute and late. Material and methods: Performed was detailed analysis of 173 patients with cervical (38) and endometrial (135) cancer. We evaluated early and late post radiation reactions in all patients. Results: Acute reactions were found in 48.5% and late toxicity was found in 9.8% of patients. Women with endometrial cancer were significantly older then patients with cervical cancer (p < 0.002). Higher percentage of acute and late toxicity was observed from the bowel tah urinary tract (26% and 22.5% - acute; 8.1% and 1.73% - late). Higher percentage of acute side effects was observed in patients with cervical than with endometrial cancer (60.5% and 33.7%). Late post radiation reaction predominate also in patient with cervical cancer (13.2% and 8.9%). The adverse effects were associated with prolonged time of treatment due to breaks in radiotherapy. Higher percentage of breaks was found in older patients, more frequent in patient with endometrial than in cervical cancer group (7.4% and 2.6%).To conclude early postradiation reaction appeared more frequently, than late post radiation reactions. It was stated that early and late post radiation reaction appear more frequently in women with cervical than in endometrial cancer. Interruption in radiation delivery was longer than seven days in group with endometrial cancer that leads to extension of complete radiation treatment. (authors)

  13. Improved CT-detection of acute bowel ischemia using frequency selective non-linear image blending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweiss, Sven; Esser, Michael; Thaiss, Wolfgang; Boesmueller, Hans; Ditt, Hendrik; Nikolau, Konstantin; Horger, Marius

    2017-07-01

    Computed tomography (CT) as a fast and reliable diagnostic technique is the imaging modality of choice for acute bowel ischemia. However, diagnostic is often difficult mainly due to low attenuation differences between ischemic and perfused segments. To compare the diagnostic efficacy of a new post-processing tool based on frequency selective non-linear blending with that of conventional linear contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) image blending for the detection of bowel ischemia. Twenty-seven consecutive patients (19 women; mean age = 73.7 years, age range = 50-94 years) with acute bowel ischemia were scanned using multidetector CT (120 kV; 100-200 mAs). Pre-contrast and portal venous scans (65-70 s delay) were acquired. All patients underwent surgery for acute bowel ischemia and intraoperative diagnosis as well as histologic evaluation of explanted bowel segments was considered "gold standard." First, two radiologists read the conventional CECT images in which linear blending was adapted for optimal contrast, and second (three weeks later) the frequency selective non-linear blending (F-NLB) image. Attenuation values were compared, both in the involved and non-involved bowel segments creating ratios between unenhanced and CECT. The mean attenuation difference between ischemic and non-ischemic wall in the portal venous scan was 69.54 HU (reader 2 = 69.01 HU) higher for F-NLB compared with conventional CECT. Also, the attenuation ratio between contrast-enhanced and pre-contrast CT data for the non-ischemic walls showed significantly higher values for the F-NLB image (CECT: reader 1 = 2.11 (reader 2 = 3.36), F-NLB: reader 1 = 4.46 (reader 2 = 4.98)]. Sensitivity in detecting ischemic areas increased significantly for both readers using F-NLB (CECT: reader 1/2 = 53%/65% versus F-NLB: reader 1/2 = 62%/75%). Frequency selective non-linear blending improves detection of bowel ischemia compared with conventional CECT by increasing

  14. Non-infectious chemotherapy-associated acute toxicities during childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Müller, Klaus; Mogensen, Signe Sloth; Mogensen, Pernille Rudebeck; Wolthers, Benjamin Ole; Stoltze, Ulrik Kristoffer; Tuckuviene, Ruta; Frandsen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    During chemotherapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, all organs can be affected by severe acute side effects, the most common being opportunistic infections, mucositis, central or peripheral neuropathy (or both), bone toxicities (including osteonecrosis), thromboembolism, sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, endocrinopathies (especially steroid-induced adrenal insufficiency and hyperglycemia), high-dose methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity, asparaginase-associated hypersensitivity, pancreatitis, and hyperlipidemia. Few of the non-infectious acute toxicities are associated with clinically useful risk factors, and across study groups there has been wide diversity in toxicity definitions, capture strategies, and reporting, thus hampering meaningful comparisons of toxicity incidences for different leukemia protocols. Since treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia now yields 5-year overall survival rates above 90%, there is a need for strategies for assessing the burden of toxicities in the overall evaluation of anti-leukemic therapy programs. PMID:28413626

  15. Classification of baseline toxicants for QSAR predictions to replace fish acute toxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nendza, Monika; Müller, Martin; Wenzel, Andrea

    2017-03-22

    Fish acute toxicity studies are required for environmental hazard and risk assessment of chemicals by national and international legislations such as REACH, the regulations of plant protection products and biocidal products, or the GHS (globally harmonised system) for classification and labelling of chemicals. Alternative methods like QSARs (quantitative structure-activity relationships) can replace many ecotoxicity tests. However, complete substitution of in vivo animal tests by in silico methods may not be realistic. For the so-called baseline toxicants, it is possible to predict the fish acute toxicity with sufficient accuracy from log K ow and, hence, valid QSARs can replace in vivo testing. In contrast, excess toxicants and chemicals not reliably classified as baseline toxicants require further in silico, in vitro or in vivo assessments. Thus, the critical task is to discriminate between baseline and excess toxicants. For fish acute toxicity, we derived a scheme based on structural alerts and physicochemical property thresholds to classify chemicals as either baseline toxicants (=predictable by QSARs) or as potential excess toxicants (=not predictable by baseline QSARs). The step-wise approach identifies baseline toxicants (true negatives) in a precautionary way to avoid false negative predictions. Therefore, a certain fraction of false positives can be tolerated, i.e. baseline toxicants without specific effects that may be tested instead of predicted. Application of the classification scheme to a new heterogeneous dataset for diverse fish species results in 40% baseline toxicants, 24% excess toxicants and 36% compounds not classified. Thus, we can conclude that replacing about half of the fish acute toxicity tests by QSAR predictions is realistic to be achieved in the short-term. The long-term goals are classification criteria also for further groups of toxicants and to replace as many in vivo fish acute toxicity tests as possible with valid QSAR

  16. Extensive review of fish embryo acute toxicities for the prediction of GHS acute systemic toxicity categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Stefan; Ortmann, Julia; Klüver, Nils; Léonard, Marc

    2014-08-01

    Distribution and marketing of chemicals require appropriate labelling of health, physical and environmental hazards according to the United Nations global harmonisation system (GHS). Labelling for (human) acute toxicity categories is based on experimental findings usually obtained by oral, dermal or inhalative exposure of rodents. There is a strong societal demand for replacing animal experiments conducted for safety assessment of chemicals. Fish embryos are considered as alternative to animal testing and are proposed as predictive model both for environmental and human health effects. Therefore, we tested whether LC50s of the fish embryo acute toxicity test would allow effectively predicting of acute mammalian toxicity categories. A database of published fish embryo LC50 containing 641 compounds was established. For these compounds corresponding rat oral LD50 were identified resulting in 364 compounds for which both fish embryo LC50 and rat LD50 was available. Only a weak correlation of fish embryo LC50 and rat oral LD50 was obtained. Fish embryos were also not able to effectively predict GHS oral acute toxicity categories. We concluded that due to fundamental exposure protocol differences (single oral dose versus water-borne exposure) a reverse dosimetry approach is needed to explore the predictive capacity of fish embryos. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Recurrent intestinal volvulus in midgut malrotation causing acute bowel obstruction: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Fayed; Balarajah, Vickna; Ayantunde, Abraham Abiodun

    2013-03-27

    Intestinal malrotation occurs when there is a disruption in the normal embryological development of the bowel. The majority of patients present with clinical features in childhood, though rarely a first presentation can take place in adulthood. Recurrent bowel obstruction in patients with previous abdominal operation for midgut malrotation is mostly due to adhesions but very few reported cases have been due to recurrent volvulus. We present the case of a 22-year-old gentleman who had laparotomy in childhood for small bowel volvulus and then presented with acute bowel obstruction. Preoperative computerised tomography scan showed small bowel obstruction and features in keeping with midgut malrotation. Emergency laparotomy findings confirmed midgut malrotation with absent appendix, abnormal location of caecum, ascending colon and small bowel. In addition, there were small bowel volvulus and a segment of terminal ileal stricture. Limited right hemicolectomy was performed with excellent postoperative recovery. This case is presented to illustrate a rare occurrence and raise an awareness of the possibility of dreadful recurrent volvulus even several years following an initial Ladd's procedure for midgut malrotation. Therefore, one will need to exercise a high index of suspicion and this becomes very crucial in order to ensure prompt surgical intervention and thereby preventing an attendant bowel ischaemia with its associated high fatality.

  18. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and acute toxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening results indicate the presence of saponins, flavonoids, phytosterols and phenols. Acute toxicity study showed there was no mortality at 8000 mg/kg of the extract. The results indicate that the plant is rich in phytochemicals and is relatively safe. Key words: Phytochemicals, acute toxicity, proximate ...

  19. Leptospirosis complicating with acute large bowel gangrene: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamri, Z; Shaker, A H; Razman, J

    2012-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis with worldwide distribution. It is often referred to as swineherd's disease, swamp fever or mud fever. In recent years there is increase incidence in leptospirosis in human. The incidence varies from sporadic in temperate zones to endemic in the tropical countries. Leptospirosis generally present with features of bacterial infection in acute phase following with multi organs complications. Acute bowel ischaemia with perforation following leptospirosis is a rare presentation . To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of such condition. The surgical management of this rare incidence will be discussed.

  20. Consolidating duodenal and small bowel toxicity data via isoeffective dose calculations based on compiled clinical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Phillip; Tai, An; Erickson, Beth; Li, X Allen

    2014-01-01

    To consolidate duodenum and small bowel toxicity data from clinical studies with different dose fractionation schedules using the modified linear quadratic (MLQ) model. A methodology of adjusting the dose-volume (D,v) parameters to different levels of normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) was presented. A set of NTCP model parameters for duodenum toxicity were estimated by the χ(2) fitting method using literature-based tolerance dose and generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) data. These model parameters were then used to convert (D,v) data into the isoeffective dose in 2 Gy per fraction, (D(MLQED2),v) and convert these parameters to an isoeffective dose at another NTCP (D(MLQED2'),v). The literature search yielded 5 reports useful in making estimates of duodenum and small bowel toxicity. The NTCP model parameters were found to be TD50(1)(model) = 60.9 ± 7.9 Gy, m = 0.21 ± 0.05, and δ = 0.09 ± 0.03 Gy(-1). Isoeffective dose calculations and toxicity rates associated with hypofractionated radiation therapy reports were found to be consistent with clinical data having different fractionation schedules. Values of (D(MLQED2'),v) between different NTCP levels remain consistent over a range of 5%-20%. MLQ-based isoeffective calculations of dose-response data corresponding to grade ≥2 duodenum toxicity were found to be consistent with one another within the calculation uncertainty. The (D(MLQED2),v) data could be used to determine duodenum and small bowel dose-volume constraints for new dose escalation strategies. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Acute oral toxicity test of chemical compounds in silkworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Kimihito; Nishida, Satoshi; Sugita, Takuya; Ueki, Takuro; Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Okumura, Hidenobu; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2016-02-01

    This study performed an acute oral toxicity test of 59 compounds in silkworms. These compounds are listed in OECD guidelines as standard substances for a cytotoxicity test, and median lethal dose (LD(50)) werecalculated for each compound. Acute oral LD(50) values in mammals are listed in OECD guidelines and acute oral LD(50) values in silkworms were determined in this study. R(2) for the correlation between LD(50) values in mammals and LD(50) values in silkworms was 0.66. In addition, the acute oral toxicity test in silkworms was performed by two different facilities, and test results from the facilities were highly reproducible. These findings suggest that an acute oral toxicity test in silkworms is a useful way to evaluate the toxicity of compounds in mammals.

  2. Predictors of Grade 3 or Higher Late Bowel Toxicity in Patients Undergoing Pelvic Radiation for Cervical Cancer: Results From a Prospective Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, Supriya, E-mail: schopra@actrec.gov.in [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Dora, Tapas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Chinnachamy, Anand N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Tata Memorial Centre, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Thomas, Biji [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Kannan, Sadhna [Epidemiology and Clinical Trials Unit, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Engineer, Reena; Mahantshetty, Umesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Tata Memorial Centre, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Phurailatpam, Reena; Paul, Siji N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Shrivastava, Shyam Kishore [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Tata Memorial Centre, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India)

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: The present study investigates relationship between dose–volume parameters and severe bowel toxicity after postoperative radiation treatment (PORT) for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: From June 2010 to December 2012, a total of 71 patients undergoing PORT were included. Small bowel (SB) and large bowel (LB) loops were contoured 2 cm above the target volume. The volume of SB and LB that received 15 Gy, 30 Gy, and 40 Gy was calculated (V15 SB, V15 LB, V30 SB, V30 LB, V40 SB, V 40 LB). On follow-up, bowel toxicity was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0. A reciever operating characteristic (ROC) curve identified volume thresholds that predicted for grade 3 or higher toxicity with highest specificity. All data was dichotomized across these identified cut-off values. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed using SPSS, version 15. Results: The median patient age was 47 years (range, 35-65 years). Of the 71 patients, 46 received image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy, and 25 received conformal radiation (50 Gy in 25 fractions for 5 weeks). Overall, 63 of 71 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. On a median follow-up of 18 months (range, 8-29 months), grade 2 or higher bowel toxicity was seen in 22 of 71 patients (30.9%) and grade 3 or higher bowel toxicity was seen in 9 patients (12.6%). On univariate analysis, V15 SB <275 cc (P=.01), V30 SB <190 cc (P=.02), V40 SB <150 cc (P=.01), and V15 LB <250 cc (P=.03), and V40 LB <90 cc (P=.04) predicted for absence of grade 3 or higher toxicity. No other patient- or treatment-related factors were statistically significant. On multivariate analysis, only V15 SB (P=.002) and V15 LB (P=.03) were statistically significant. Conclusions: V 15 Gy SB and LB are independent predictors of late grade 3 or higher toxicity. Restricting V15 SB and V15 LB to <275 cc and <250 cc can reduce grade 3 or higher toxicity to less than 5%.

  3. Albendazole Induced Recurrent Acute Toxic Hepatitis: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgic, Yilmaz; Yilmaz, Cengiz; Cagin, Yasir Furkan; Atayan, Yahya; Karadag, Nese; Harputluoglu, Murat Muhsin Muhip

    2017-01-01

    Drug induced acute toxic hepatitis can be idiosyncratic. Albendazole, a widely used broad spectrum antiparasitic drug is generally accepted as a safe drug. It may cause asymptomatic transient liver enzyme abnormalities but acute toxic hepatitis is very rare. Case Report : Herein, we present the case of 47 year old woman with recurrent acute toxic hepatitis after a single intake of albendazole in 2010 and 2014. The patient was presented with symptoms and findings of anorexia, vomiting and jaundice. For diagnosis, other acute hepatitis etiologies were excluded. Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) score was calculated and found to be 10, which meant highly probable drug hepatotoxicity. Within 2 months, all pathological findings came to normal. There are a few reported cases of albendazole induced toxic hepatitis, but at adults, there is no known recurrent acute toxic hepatitis due to albendazole at this certainty according to RUCAM score. Physicians should be aware of this rare and potentially fatal adverse effect of albendazole. © Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica.

  4. Acute Portomesenteric Venous Thrombosis following Laparoscopic Small Bowel Resection and Ventral Hernia Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhradeev Sivasambu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute portomesenteric venous thrombosis is a rare but life-threatening complication of laparoscopic surgery that has been described in literature. Prompt diagnosis and early initiation of treatment are vital to prevent life-threatening complications such as mesenteric ischemia and infarction. A 51-year-old lady had laparoscopic small bowel resection and primary anastomosis with ventral hernia repair 4 weeks earlier for partial small bowel obstruction. Her postoperative period was uneventful and she was discharged home. Four weeks after surgery she developed watery diarrhea and generalized abdominal pain for four-day duration. A computed tomography of the abdomen revealed portomesenteric venous thrombosis although a computed tomography of abdomen before surgery 4 weeks back did not show any portomesenteric venous thrombosis. We are reporting a case of acute portomesenteric venous thrombosis as a complication of laparoscopic surgery.

  5. Acute aquatic toxicity and biodegradation potential of biodiesel fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haws, R.A.; Zhang, X.; Marshall, E.A.; Reese, D.L.; Peterson, C.L.; Moeller, G.

    1995-01-01

    Recent studies on the biodegradation potential and aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels are reviewed. Biodegradation data were obtained using the shaker flask method observing the appearance of CO 2 and by observing the disappearance of test substance with gas chromatography. Additional BOD 5 and COD data were obtained. The results indicate the ready biodegradability of biodiesel fuels as well as the enhanced co-metabolic biodegradation of biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel mixtures. The study examined reference diesel, neat soy oil, neat rape oil, and the methyl and ethyl esters of these vegetable oils as well as various fuel blends. Acute toxicity tests on biodiesel fuels and blends were performed using Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow Trout) in a static non-renewal system and in a proportional dilution flow replacement system. The study is intended to develop data on the acute aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels and blends under US EPA Good Laboratory Practice Standards. The test procedure is designed from the guidelines outlined in Methods for Measuring the Acute Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater and Marine Organisms and the Fish Acute Aquatic Toxicity Test guideline used to develop aquatic toxicity data for substances subject to environmental effects test regulations under TSCA. The acute aquatic toxicity is estimated by an LC50, a lethal concentration effecting mortality in 50% of the test population

  6. A randomized hypofractionation dose escalation trial for high risk prostate cancer patients: interim analysis of acute toxicity and quality of life in 124 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norkus, Darius; Valuckas, Konstantinas Povilas; Karklelyte, Agata; Engels, Benedikt; Versmessen, Harijati; Griskevicius, Romas; De Ridder, Mark; Storme, Guy; Aleknavicius, Eduardas; Janulionis, Ernestas

    2013-01-01

    The α/β ratio for prostate cancer is postulated being in the range of 0.8 to 2.2 Gy, giving rise to the hypothesis that there may be a therapeutic advantage to hypofractionation. To do so, we carried out a randomized trial comparing hypofractionated and conventionally fractionated image-guided intensity modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) in high-risk prostate cancer. Here, we report on acute toxicity and quality of life (QOL) for the first 124 randomized patients. The trial compares 76 Gy in 38 fractions (5 fractions/week) (Arm 1) to 63 Gy in 20 fractions (4 fractions/week) (Arm 2) (IG-IMRT). Prophylactic pelvic lymph node irradiation with 46 Gy in 23 fractions sequentially (Arm 1) and 44 Gy in 20 fractions simultaneously (Arm 2) was applied. All patients had long term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) started before RT. Both physician-rated acute toxicity and patient-reported QOL using EPIC questionnaire are described. There were no differences in overall maximum acute gastrointestinal (GI) or genitourinary (GU) toxicity. Compared to conventional fractionation (Arm 1), GI and GU toxicity both developed significantly earlier but also disappeared earlier in the Arm 2, reaching significant differences from Arm 1 at week 8 and 9. In multivariate analyses, only parameter shown to be related to increased acute Grade ≥1 GU toxicity was the study Arm 2 (p = 0.049). There were no statistically significant differences of mean EPIC scores in any domain and sub-scales. The clinically relevant decrease (CRD) in EPIC urinary domain was significantly higher in Arm 2 at month 1 with a faster recovery at month 3 as compared to Arm 1. Hypofractionation at 3.15 Gy per fraction to 63 Gy within 5 weeks was well tolerated. The GI and GU physician-rated acute toxicity both developed earlier but recovered faster using hypofractionation. There was a correlation between acute toxicity and bowel and urinary QOL outcomes. Longer follow-up is needed to determine the significance of these

  7. Acute and subacute toxicity of 18F-FDG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Danielle Maia

    2013-01-01

    Before starting clinical trials of a new drug, it is necessary to perform a battery of safety tests for assessing human risk. Radiopharmaceuticals like any new drug must be tested taking into account its specificity, duration of treatment and especially the toxicity of both parties, the unlabeled molecule and its radionuclide, apart from impurities emanating from radiolysis. Regulatory agencies like the Food and Drug Administration - USA (FDA) and the European Medicine Agency (EMEA), establish guidelines for the regulation of production and research of radiopharmaceuticals. In Brazil the production of radiopharmaceuticals was not regulated until the end of 2009, when were established by the National Agency for Sanitary Surveillance (ANVISA) resolutions No. 63, which refers to the Good Manufacturing Practices of Radiopharmaceuticals and No. 64 which seeks the registration of record radiopharmaceuticals. To obtain registration of radiopharmaceuticals are necessary to prove the quality, safety, efficacy and specificity of the drug . For the safety of radiopharmaceuticals must be presented studies of acute toxicity, subacute and chronic toxicity as well as reproductive, mutagenic and carcinogenic. Nowadays IPEN-CNEN/SP produces one of the most important radiopharmaceutical of nuclear medicine, the 18 F-FDG, which is used in many clinical applications, particularly in the diagnosis and staging of tumors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the systemic toxicity (acute/ subacute) radiopharmaceutical 18 F-FDG in an in vivo test system, as recommended by the RDC No. 64, which will serve as a model for protocols toxicity of radiopharmaceuticals produced at IPEN. The following tests were performed: tests of acute and subacute toxicity, biodistribution studies of 18 F-FDG, comet assay and reproductive toxicity. In acute toxicity, healthy rats were injected . (author)

  8. Understanding about diagnosis of acute small bowel retrograde intussusception in adults by means of 64-slice-spinal CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Ruizhou; Chen Jincheng

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To have a further study of the value of MSCT in diagnosing acute small bowel retrograde intussusception in adults by means of 64-slice-spinal CT. Methods: A 46-year-old female patient with the history of abdominal operation was found having acute mechanical small bowel obstruction through plain X-ray radiograph. 64-slice MSCT was performed afterwards (plain scan + 3 stage contrast scans). Hence, evidence is provided for operation. Results: Using the technique of MSCT for the patient can promptly approach the diagnosis of jejuno-jejunal intussusception with severe bowel obstruction; no small bowel tumor or other organic lesion found in this case. With the patient who has the history of abdominal operations, MSCT can predict the reason of adhesion causing bowel intussusception, and provide the evidence for operation; whereas MSCT with contrast media offers a further investigation of the blood supply to the bowels through SMA, and observation of blood circulation through the intussuscepting site, which represents venous congestion of intussusception. This case is a retrograde small bowel intussusception and confirmed with operation evidence. A greater amount of gas and fluid is accumulated between the dilated space of middle-distal portion of intussusceptum and intussuscipiens. Nevertheless, less gas at the proximal portion and that can be an important sign for retrograde intussusception. Conclusion: MSCT is a good choice of examination for diagnosis of adult's intussusception. As the literature mentioned the advantages of MSCT for observing the circulation of intussusceptum and whether the diagnosis is antegrade or retrograde intussusception is also essential. (authors)

  9. Spectral analysis of bowel sounds in intestinal obstruction using an electronic stethoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Siok Siong; Tan, Yih Kai

    2012-09-07

    To determine the value of bowel sounds analysis using an electronic stethoscope to support a clinical diagnosis of intestinal obstruction. Subjects were patients who presented with a diagnosis of possible intestinal obstruction based on symptoms, signs, and radiological findings. A 3M™ Littmann(®) Model 4100 electronic stethoscope was used in this study. With the patients lying supine, six 8-second recordings of bowel sounds were taken from each patient from the lower abdomen. The recordings were analysed for sound duration, sound-to-sound interval, dominant frequency, and peak frequency. Clinical and radiological data were reviewed and the patients were classified as having either acute, subacute, or no bowel obstruction. Comparison of bowel sound characteristics was made between these subgroups of patients. In the presence of an obstruction, the site of obstruction was identified and bowel calibre was also measured to correlate with bowel sounds. A total of 71 patients were studied during the period July 2009 to January 2011. Forty patients had acute bowel obstruction (27 small bowel obstruction and 13 large bowel obstruction), 11 had subacute bowel obstruction (eight in the small bowel and three in large bowel) and 20 had no bowel obstruction (diagnoses of other conditions were made). Twenty-five patients received surgical intervention (35.2%) during the same admission for acute abdominal conditions. A total of 426 recordings were made and 420 recordings were used for analysis. There was no significant difference in sound-to-sound interval, dominant frequency, and peak frequency among patients with acute bowel obstruction, subacute bowel obstruction, and no bowel obstruction. In acute large bowel obstruction, the sound duration was significantly longer (median 0.81 s vs 0.55 s, P = 0.021) and the dominant frequency was significantly higher (median 440 Hz vs 288 Hz, P = 0.003) when compared to acute small bowel obstruction. No significant difference was seen

  10. Predictive acute toxicity tests with pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, V K

    1983-01-01

    By definition pesticides are biocidal products and this implies a probability that pesticides may be acutely toxic to species other than the designated target species. The ways in which pesticides are manufactured, formulated, packaged, distributed and used necessitates a potential for the exposure of non-target species although the technology exists to minimize adventitious exposure. The occurrence of deliberate exposure of non-target species due to the misuse of pesticides is known to happen. The array of predictive acute toxicity tests carried out on pesticides and involving the use of laboratory animals can be justified as providing data on which hazard assessment can be based. This paper addresses the justification and rationale of this statement.

  11. Acute Toxicity of Tributyltins and Tributyltin Leachates from Marine Antibiofouling Paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-10

    RO-0184 224 ACUTE TOXICITY OF TRIBUTYLTINS AND TRIBUTYLTIN i/I LEACHATES FROM MARINE ANTIBIOFOULING PAINTS(U) CALIFORNIA UNIV OAKLAND NAVAL...Classification) (U) ACUTE TOXICITY OF TRIBUTYLTINS AND TRIBUTYLTIN LEACHATES FROM MARINE ANTIBIOFOULING PAINTS 12, PERSO A UHR Laugin, Koy"., Linden, Olof and...xins causing acute toxicity or two amphipou species at concentrations as low as 10 g/L . Orchestia traskiana was exposed to bis ( tributyltin ) oxide

  12. Acute and subacute toxicity of Schinus terebinthifolius bark extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, L B; Vasconcelos, C F B; Maranhão, H M L; Leite, V R; Ferreira, P A; Andrade, B A; Araújo, E L; Xavier, H S; Lafayette, S S L; Wanderley, A G

    2009-12-10

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) has long been used in traditional Brazilian medicine, especially to treat inflammatory and haemostatic diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity (45 days) of Schinus terebinthifolius via the oral route in Wistar rats of both sexes. For the acute toxicity test, the dried extract of Schinus terebinthifolius bark was administered in doses from 0.625 to 5.0 g/kg (n=5/group/sex) and in the subacute toxicity test the following doses were used: 0.25, 0.625 and 1.5625 g/kg/day (n=13/group/sex), for 45 consecutive days. In the acute toxicity test, Schinus terebinthifolius did not produce any toxic signs or deaths. The subacute treatment with Schinus terebinthifolius did not alter either the body weight gain or the food and water consumption. The hematological and biochemical analysis did not show significant differences in any of the parameters examined in female or male groups, except in two male groups, in which the treatment with Schinus terebinthifolius (0.25 and 0.625 g/kg) induced an increase of mean corpuscular volume values (2.9 and 2.6%, respectively). These variations are within the physiological limits described for the specie and does not have clinical relevance. The acute and subacute administration of the dried extract of Schinus terebinthifolius bark did not produced toxic effects in Wistar rats.

  13. Acute Toxic Myocarditis and Pulmonary Oedema Developing from Scorpion Sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Sahin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of scorpion stings are generally seen with a set of simple clinical findings, such as pain, oedema, numbness, and tenderness in the area of the sting. However, occasionally events, such as toxic myocarditis, acute heart failure, acute pulmonary oedema, and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS, which occur in scorpion sting cases are a significant problem which determine mortality and morbidity. The case presented here was a 38-year-old man who developed acute toxic myocarditis, acute heart failure, and acute pulmonary oedema following a scorpion sting on the 3rd finger of his right hand.

  14. Non-infectious chemotherapy-associated acute toxicities during childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjeld Schmiegelow

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available During chemotherapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, all organs can be affected by severe acute side effects, the most common being opportunistic infections, mucositis, central or peripheral neuropathy (or both, bone toxicities (including osteonecrosis, thromboembolism, sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, endocrinopathies (especially steroid-induced adrenal insufficiency and hyperglycemia, high-dose methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity, asparaginase-associated hypersensitivity, pancreatitis, and hyperlipidemia. Few of the non-infectious acute toxicities are associated with clinically useful risk factors, and across study groups there has been wide diversity in toxicity definitions, capture strategies, and reporting, thus hampering meaningful comparisons of toxicity incidences for different leukemia protocols. Since treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia now yields 5-year overall survival rates above 90%, there is a need for strategies for assessing the burden of toxicities in the overall evaluation of anti-leukemic therapy programs.

  15. Hypofractionated Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Carcinoma of the Prostate: Analysis of Toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coote, Joanna H.; Wylie, James P.; Cowan, Richard A.; Logue, John P.; Swindell, Ric; Livsey, Jacqueline E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Dose escalation for prostate cancer improves biological control but with a significant increase in late toxicity. Recent estimates of low α/β ratio for prostate cancer suggest that hypofractionation may result in biological advantage. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) should enable dose escalation to the prostate while reducing toxicity to local organs. We report late toxicity data of a hypofractionated IMRT regime. Methods and Materials: Eligible men had T2-3N0M0 adenocarcinoma prostate, and either Gleason score ≥ 7 or prostate-specific antigen 20-50 ng/L. Patients received 57-60 Gy to prostate in 19-20 fractions using five-field IMRT. All received hormonal therapy for 3 months before radiotherapy to a maximum of 6 months. Toxicity was assessed 2 years postradiotherapy using the RTOG criteria, LENT/SOMA, and UCLA prostate index assessment tools. Results: Acute toxicity was favorable with no RTOG Grade 3 or 4 toxicity. At 2 years, there was 4% Grade 2 bowel and 4.25% Grade 2 bladder toxicity. There was no Grade 3 or 4 bowel toxicity; one patient developed Grade 3 bladder toxicity. UCLA data showed a slight improvement in urinary function at 2 years compared with pretreatment. LENT/SOMA assessments demonstrated general worsening of bowel function at 2 years. Patients receiving 60 Gy were more likely to develop problems with bowel function than those receiving 57 Gy. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that hypofractionated radiotherapy using IMRT for prostate cancer is well tolerated with minimal late toxicity at 2 years posttreatment. Ongoing studies are looking at the efficacy of hypofractionated regimes with respect to biological control.

  16. Antioxidant activity and acute toxicity of Neoglaziovia variegata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total phenolics content of the extracts was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Total flavonoid was also determined. The most ... of low toxicity. Keywords: Antioxidant activity, acute toxicity, Neoglaziovia variegata, Bromeliaceae ...

  17. ACUTE TOXICITY STUDIES AND ANTIDOTAL THERAPY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACUTE TOXICITY STUDIES AND ANTIDOTAL THERAPY OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF JATROPHA CURCAS SEEDS IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS. ... with the aim of investigating the toxicity of the ethanol seed extract of JC in rats, mice, and chicks; and also to use conventional antidotes to treat intoxication in rats due to ...

  18. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies of honokiol microemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Li, Jianguo; Zhang, Wei; An, Quan; Wen, Jianhua; Wang, Aiping; Jin, Hongtao; Chen, Shizhong

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of honokiol microemulsion. In the acute toxicity tests, the mice were intravenously injected graded doses of honokiol microemulsion and were observed for toxic symptoms and mortality daily for 14 days. In the sub-chronic toxicity study, rats were injected honokiol microemulsion at doses of 100, 500, 2500 μg/kg body weight (BW) for 30 days. After 30 days treatment and 14 days recovery, the rats were sacrificed for hematological, biochemical and histological examination. In the acute toxicity tests, the estimated median lethal dosage (LD50) was 50.5mg/kg body weight in mice. In the sub-chronic toxicity tests, the non-toxic reaction dose was 500 μg/kg body weight. In each treatment group, degeneration or/and necrosis in vascular endothelial cells and structure change of vessel wall can be observed in the injection site (cauda vein) of a few animals while there were no changes in the vessels of other organs. The overall findings of this study indicate that the honokiol microemulsion is non-toxic up to 500 μg/kg body weight, and it has irritation to the vascular of the injection site which should be paid attention to in clinical medication. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity of Dracaena cinnabari resin methanol extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Afifi, Nashwan Abdullah; Alabsi, Aied Mohammed; Bakri, Marina Mohd; Ramanathan, Anand

    2018-02-05

    Dracaena cinnabari (DC) is a perennial tree that located on the Southern coast of Yemen native to the Socotra Island. This tree produces a deep red resin known as the Dragon's blood, the Twobrother's Blood or Damm Alakhwain. The current study performed to evaluate the safety of the DC resin methanol extract after a single or 28 consecutive daily oral administrations. In assessing the safety of DC resin methanol extract, acute and sub-acute oral toxicity tests performed following OECD guidelines 423 and 407, respectively, with slight modifications. In acute oral toxicity test, DC resin methanol extract administered to female Sprague Dawley rats by oral gavage at a single dose of 300 and 2000 mg/kg body weight. Rats observed for toxic signs for 14 days. In sub-acute oral toxicity test, DC resin methanol extract administered to the rats by oral gavage at 500, 1000, and 1500 mg/kg body weight daily up to 28 days to male and female Spradgue Dawley rats. The control and high dose in satellite groups were also maintained and handled as the previous groups to determine the late onset toxicity of DC resin methanol extract. At the end of each test, hematological and biochemical analysis of the collected blood were performed as well as gross and microscopic pathology. In acute oral toxicity, no treatment-related death or toxic signs were observed. It revealed that the DC resin methanol extract could be well tolerated up to the dose 2000 mg/kg body weight and could be classified as Category 5. The sub-acute test observations indicated that there are no treatment-related changes up to the high dose level compared to the control. Food consumption, body weight, organ weight, hematological parameters, biochemical parameters and histopathological examination (liver, kidney, heart, spleen and lung) revealed no abnormalities. Water intake was significantly higher in the DC resin methanol extract treated groups compared to the control. This study demonstrates tolerability of DC

  20. Acute toxicity from baking soda ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S H; Stone, C K

    1994-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is an extremely well-known agent that historically has been used for a variety of medical conditions. Despite the widespread use of oral bicarbonate, little documented toxicity has occurred, and the emergency medicine literature contains no reports of toxicity caused by the ingestion of baking soda. Risks of acute and chronic oral bicarbonate ingestion include metabolic alkalosis, hypernatremia, hypertension, gastric rupture, hyporeninemia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, intravascular volume depletion, and urinary alkalinization. Abrupt cessation of chronic excessive bicarbonate ingestion may result in hyperkalemia, hypoaldosteronism, volume contraction, and disruption of calcium and phosphorus metabolism. The case of a patient with three hospital admissions in 4 months, all the result of excessive oral intake of bicarbonate for symptomatic relief of dyspepsia is reported. Evaluation and treatment of patients with acute bicarbonate ingestion is discussed.

  1. Acute and Subacute Toxicity Evaluation of Corn Silk Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Ae Wha; Kang, Hyeon Jung; Kim, Sun Lim; Kim, Myung Hwan; Kim, Woo Kyoung

    2018-03-01

    Many studies have reported therapeutic efficacy of corn silk extract. However, research on its toxicity and safe dose range is limited. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the acute and subacute toxicity of corn silk extract in ICR mice. To determine acute toxicity, corn silk extract containing high levels of maysin was orally administered to mice at a dose of 0 or 2,000 mg/kg. Clinical symptoms, mortality, and body weight changes were recorded for 14 days. To determine subacute toxicity, corn silk extract was orally administered to mice over a 4-week period, and then body weight, water and food consumption, and organ weight were determined. In addition, urine and serum analyses were performed. In the acute toxicity study, no death or abnormal symptoms was observed in all treatment groups during the study period. Body weights did not show any significant change compared to those of the control group. Lethal dose of corn silk extract was estimated to be more than 2,000 mg/kg. In the 4-week subacute toxicity study, there was no corn silk extract related toxic effect on body weight, water intake, food consumption, urine parameters, clinical chemistry, or organ weight. Histopathological examination showed no abnormality related to the administration of corn silk extract at 500 mg/kg. The maximum non-toxic dose of corn silk extract containing high levels of maysin was found to be more than 500 mg/kg.

  2. Acute toxicity profile in prostate cancer with conventional and hypofractionated treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viani, Gustavo Arruda; Zulliani, Giseli Correa; Stefano, Eduardo Jose; Silva, Lucas Bernardes Godoy da; Silva, Bruna Bueno da; Crempe, Yuri Bonicelli; Martins, Vinicius Spazzapan; Ferrari, Ricardo Jose Rambaiolo; Pólo, Mariana Colbachini; Rossi, Bruno Thiago; Suguikawa, Elton

    2013-01-01

    To compare the acute toxicities in radical treatment of prostate cancer between conventional schedule (C-ARM) with 78 Gy/39 fractions and hypofractionation conformal treatment (H-ARM) with 69 Gy/23 fractions. This prospective double arm study consisted of 217 patients with prostate cancer, 112 in H-ARM and 105 in C-ARM arm. C-ARM received conventional six- field conformal radiotherapy with 78 Gy in 39 fractions while H-ARM received hypofractionation with 69 Gy in 23 fractions. Weekly assessment of acute reactions was done during treatment and with one, and 3 months using RTOG scale. Univariated analysis was performed to evaluate differences between the incidences of acute reaction in the treatment arms. Variables with p value less than 0.1 were included in the multivariated logistic regression. There was no difference between H-ARM versus C-ARM for severity and incidence in genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) acute toxicity. During the treatment comparing H-ARM with C-ARM no differences was observed for GI toxicity (grade 0–3; H-ARM = 45.5%, 34%, 18.7% and 1.8% versus C-ARM = 47.6%, 35.2%, 17.2% and 0). For acute GU toxicity no difference was detected between H-ARM (grade 0–3; 22.3%, 54.5%, 18.7% and 4.5%) and C-ARM (grade 0–3; 25.8%, 53.3%, 17.1% and 3.8%). At the 3- months follow-up, persistent Grade > =2 acute GU and GI toxicity were 2.5% and 1.8% in H-ARM versus 5.7% and 3% in C-ARM (p > 0.05). In univariated and multivariated analyses, there was not any dosimetric predictor for GI and GU toxicity. Our data demonstrate that hypofractionated radiotherapy achieving high biological effective dose using conformal radiotherapy is feasible for prostate cancer, being well tolerated with minimal severe acute toxicity

  3. Endometriosis: A Rare Cause of Large Bowel Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalo Alexandrino

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Large bowel obstruction can result in significant morbidity and mortality, especially in cases of acute complete obstruction. There are many possible causes, the most common in adults being colorectal cancer. Endometriosis is a benign disease, and the most affected extragenital location is the bowel, especially the rectosigmoid junction. However, transmural involvement and acute occlusion are very rare events. We report an exceptional case of acute large bowel obstruction as the initial presentation of endometriosis. The differential diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma may be challenging, and this case emphasizes the need to consider intestinal endometriosis in females at a fertile age presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms and an intestinal mass causing complete large bowel obstruction.

  4. Determination of leachate toxicity through acute toxicity using Daphnia pulex and anaerobic toxicity assays

    OpenAIRE

    Carabalí-Rivera, Y. S; Barba-Ho, L. E; Torres-Lozada, P

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The municipal solid waste (MSW) of large cities, in particular the ones of developing countries, is mainly disposed in landfills (LFs), whose inadequate management generates the emission of greenhouse gases and the production of leachates with high concentrations of organic and inorganic matter and, occasionally heavy metals. In this study, the toxicity of the leachates from an intermediate-age municipal landfill was evaluated by ecotoxicity and anaerobic toxicity tests. The acute to...

  5. Prediction of acute inhalation toxicity using in vitro lung surfactant inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørli, Jorid B; Huang, Yishi; Da Silva, Emilie; Hansen, Jitka S; Zuo, Yi Y; Frederiksen, Marie; Nørgaard, Asger W; Ebbehøj, Niels E; Larsen, Søren T; Hougaard, Karin S

    2018-01-01

    Private consumers and professionals may experience acute inhalation toxicity after inhaling aerosolized impregnation products. The distinction between toxic and non-toxic products is difficult to make for producers and product users alike, as there is no clearly described relationship between the chemical composition of the products and induction of toxicity. The currently accepted method for determination of acute inhalation toxicity is based on experiments on animals; it is time-consuming, expensive and causes stress for the animals. Impregnation products are present on the market in large numbers and amounts and exhibit great variety. Therefore, an alternative method to screen for acute inhalation toxicity is needed. The aim of our study was to determine if inhibition of lung surfactant by impregnation products in vitro could accurately predict toxicity in vivo in mice. We tested 21 impregnation products using the constant flow through set-up of the constrained drop surfactometer to determine if the products inhibited surfactant function or not. The same products were tested in a mouse inhalation bioassay to determine their toxicity in vivo. The sensitivity was 100%, i.e., the in vitro method predicted all the products that were toxic for mice to inhale. The specificity of the in vitro test was 63%, i.e., the in vitro method found three false positives in the 21 tested products. Six of the products had been involved in accidental human inhalation where they caused acute inhalation toxicity. All of these six products inhibited lung surfactant function in vitro and were toxic to mice.

  6. Research on the Relationships between Endogenous Biomarkers and Exogenous Toxic Substances of Acute Toxicity in Radix Aconiti

    OpenAIRE

    Haonan Zhou; Pengjie Zhang; Zhiguo Hou; Jiabin Xie; Yuming Wang; Bin Yang; Yanyan Xu; Yubo Li

    2016-01-01

    Radix Aconiti, a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been widely used throughout China for disease treatment due to its various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic, and analgesic effects. However, improper use of Radix Aconiti often generated severe acute toxicity. Currently, research on the toxic substances of Radix Aconiti is not rare. In our previous study, acute toxic biomarkers of Radix Aconiti have been found. However, few studies were availabl...

  7. Evaluation of interobserver and interscale agreement in assessing late bowel toxicity after pelvic radiation in patients with carcinoma of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinnachamy, A.N.; Krishnatry, R.; Mahantshetty, U.; Engineer, R.; Shrivastava, S.K.; Chopra, S.; Kannan, S.; Thomas, B.

    2013-01-01

    Lack of agreement and inconsistency in capturing late bowel toxicity may be a source of error while reporting trials with toxicity endpoints. Documenting baseline inconsistency while scoring toxicity questionnaires (Radio Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)/European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE)) may be worthwhile. The present study was conducted as a quality assurance measure prior to initiating a randomized trial (PARCER; NCT01279135) that evaluates the impact of image-guided radiation on bowel toxicity. From August 2010 to July 2011, patients with cervical cancer who underwent pelvic chemoradiation >6 months ago, with controlled disease and any bowel symptom at follow-up, were included. RTOG and CTCAE questionnaires were filled by two blinded observers. Interscale (RTOG vs CTCAE) and interobserver (observer A and B) agreement were evaluated with Spearman's correlation and kappa statistic. Fifty-five patients were included. Twelve patients with symptoms could not be graded by the RTOG scale. Of those graded as asymptomatic on RTOG, distension, vomiting, pain and nausea were identified as the most common symptoms. Amongst these, grade 1, 2 and 3 toxicity was observed in 6, 5 and 1 patient, respectively. The interscale correlation was moderate (Spearman's correlation ρ=0.56; P=0.001). High interobserver agreement (92%) was observed within the RTOG scale [kappa (κ) -0.94; 95% CI 0.77-1]. All disagreements were observed while scoring grade 1-2 toxicity. Among CTCAE, agreement was lower with modules such as distension, anorexia, nausea and constipation. High interobserver agreement was observed for both RTOG and most CTCAE subscales; most disagreements were for grade 1-2. Interscale agreement (RTOG and CTCAE) was moderate. Detailed patient interrogation or use of patient-reported-outcome scores while documenting the aforesaid subscales may be worthwhile. (author)

  8. A case of closed loop small bowel obstruction within a strangulated incisional hernia in association with an acute gastric volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosai, Nik Ritza; Gendeh, H S; Noorharisman, M; Sutton, Paul Anthony; Das, Srijit

    2014-01-01

    Small bowel obstruction is a common clinical problem presenting with abdominal distention, colicky pain, absolute constipation and bilious vomiting. There are numerous causes, most commonly attributed to an incarcerated hernia, adhesions or obstructing mass secondary to malignancy. Here we present an unusual cause of a small bowel obstruction secondary to an incarcerated incisional hernia in association with an acute organoaxial gastric volvulus.

  9. Acute toxicity and associated mechanisms of four strobilurins in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxu; Wang, Yu; Chen, Hao; Zhang, Junli; Wang, Chengju; Li, Xuefeng; Pang, Sen

    2018-04-03

    Strobilurins have been reported highly toxic to non-target aquatic organisms but few illustrated how they cause toxic effects on algae. This study investigated the acute toxicity of Kresoxim-methy (KRE), Pyraclostrobin (PYR), Trifloxystrobin (TRI) and Picoxystrobin (PIC) on two algae and their toxicity mechanisms. Four strobilurins showed lower toxic effects on Chlorella pyrenoidsa but higher on Chlorella vulgaris. bc1 complex activities in C. vulgaris were significantly inhibited by all strobilurins, suggesting bc 1 complex might be the target of strobilurin toxicity in algae. Moreover, SOD, CAT and POD activities were significantly up-regulated by all doses of KRE, PYR and PIC. In contrast, low concentrations of TRI stimulated SOD and POD activities but highest concentration significantly inhibited those activities. Comet assays showed damaged DNA in C. vulgaris by four strobulirins, suggesting their potential genotoxic threats to algae. The results illustrated acute toxicity by strobulirins on algae and their possible toxicity mechanisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Safety studies of homoeopathic drugs in acute, sub-acute and chronic toxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Homoeopathic drugs are frequently recommended in day to day life as therapeutic agents by homoeopathic practitioners. However, safety of homoeopathic drugs remains a challenge because of the high variability of chemical components involved. Aim: The objective of the present study was to investigate the acute, subacute, and chronic oral toxicity of different homoeopathic drugs (Ferrum phosphoricum 3X, Ferrum phosphoricum 6X, Calcarea phosphoricum 6X, and Magnesium phosphoricum 6X in experimental models. Materials and Methods: In acute oral toxicity study, homoeopathic drugs were administered orally at 2000mg/kg body weight, and animals were observed for toxic symptoms till 10 days as per the OECD guidelines. For subacute and chronic toxicity study, homoeopathic drugs were administered for 28 and 180 days, respectively, as per the OECD guidelines. At the end of 28 and 180 days, the animals were sacrificed and toxicity parameters were assessed. Histopathological evaluation of different organs was also performed to assess any toxicity. Results: In acute toxicity study, no mortality was found at a dose of 2000 mg/kg which indicates that oral LD50of homoeopathic drugs were more than 2000 mg/kg. The administration of drugs at a dose of 70 mg/kg body weight for 28 and 180 days did not produce any significant change in haematological and biochemical parameters of male and female rats as compared to normal control group. No pathological changes were observed in histology of various organs of treated rats as compared to normal control animals. Conclusion: These homoeopathic drugs are safe & produce no toxicity when administered for longer duration.

  11. The research progress of acute small bowel perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Schiessel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the various aetiologies of small bowel perforations and their management. In addition to the well-known aetiologies such as trauma, inflammation and circulatory disorders, several new causes of small bowel perforation have been described in recent years. The spectrum reaches from iatrogenic perforations during laparoscopic surgery or enteroscopies to drug-induced perforations with new anticancer agents. The management of small bowel perforations requires a concept consisting of the safe revision of the leaking bowel and the treatment of the peritonitis. Depending on the local situation and the condition of the patient, several treatment options are available. The surgical management of the bowel leak can range from a simple primary closure to a delayed restoration of bowel continuity. When the condition of the bowel or patient is frail, the risk of a failure of a closure or anastomosis is too high, and the exteriorization of the bowel defect as a primary measure is a safe option. The treatment of the peritonitis is also dependent on the condition of the patient and the local situation. Early stages of peritonitis can be treated by a simple peritoneal lavage, either performed by laparoscopy or laparotomy. Severe forms of peritonitis with multi-organ failure and an abdominal compartment syndrome need repeated peritoneal revisions. In such cases, the abdomen can only be closed temporarily. Different technical options are available in order to overcome the difficult care of these patients.

  12. Comparative acute toxicity of shale and petroleum derived distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C R; Ferguson, P W; Katchen, M A; Dennis, M W; Craig, D K

    1989-12-01

    In anticipation of the commercialization of its shale oil retorting and upgrading process, Unocal Corp. conducted a testing program aimed at better defining potential health impacts of a shale industry. Acute toxicity studies using rats and rabbits compared the effects of naphtha, Jet-A, JP-4, diesel and "residual" distillate fractions of both petroleum derived crude oils and hydrotreated shale oil. No differences in the acute oral (greater than 5 g/kg LD50) and dermal (greater than 2 g/kg LD50) toxicities were noted between the shale and petroleum derived distillates and none of the samples were more than mildly irritating to the eyes. Shale and petroleum products caused similar degrees of mild to moderate skin irritation. None of the materials produced sensitization reactions. The LC50 after acute inhalation exposure to Jet-A, shale naphtha, (greater than 5 mg/L) and JP-4 distillate fractions of petroleum and shale oils was greater than 5 mg/L. The LC50 of petroleum naphtha (greater than 4.8 mg/L) and raw shale oil (greater than 3.95 mg/L) also indicated low toxicity. Results demonstrate that shale oil products are of low acute toxicity, mild to moderately irritating and similar to their petroleum counterparts. The results further demonstrate that hydrotreatment reduces the irritancy of raw shale oil.

  13. A CASE OF CLOSED LOOP SMALL BOWEL OBSTRUCTION WITHIN A STRANGULATED INCISIONAL HERNIA IN ASSOCIATION WITH AN ACUTE GASTRIC VOLVULUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Ritza Kosai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Small bowel obstruction is a common clinical problem presenting with abdominal distention, colicky pain, absolute constipation and bilious vomiting. There are numerous causes, most commonly attributed to an incarcerated hernia, adhesions or obstructing mass secondary to malignancy. Here we present an unusual cause of a small bowel obstruction secondary to an incarcerated incisional hernia in association with an acute organoaxial gastric volvulus.

  14. Metal and pharmaceutical mixtures: Is ion loss the mechanism underlying acute toxicity and widespread additive toxicity in zebrafish?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsop, Derek, E-mail: alsopde@mcmaster.ca; Wood, Chris M.

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Zebrafish larvae were used to test the acute toxicity of contaminant mixtures. •Interactions were observed between metals, ammonia and pharmaceuticals. •Larval Na{sup +} loss was observed with exposure to all acutely toxic contaminants tested. •Water quality criteria should recognize the toxic interactions between contaminants. -- Abstract: The acute toxicities and mechanisms of action of a variety of environmental contaminants were examined using zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio; 4–8 days post fertilization). Toxic interactions were observed between metals. For example, the addition of a sublethal level of nickel (15% of the LC{sub 50}, one third of the LC{sub 01}) to all copper treatments decreased the copper 96 h LC{sub 50} by 58%, while sublethal copper exposure (6% of the copper LC{sub 50}, 13% of the LC{sub 01}) decreased the cadmium 96 h LC{sub 50} by 47%. Two predictive models were assessed, the concentration addition (CA) model, which assumes similar mechanisms of action, and the independent action (IA) model, which assumes different mechanisms of action. Quantitative comparisons indicated the CA model performed better than the IA model; the latter tended to underestimate combined toxicity to a greater extent. The effects of mixtures with nickel or ammonia were typically additive, while mixtures with copper or cadmium were typically greater than additive. Larvae exposed to cadmium, copper or nickel experienced whole body ion loss. Decreases were greatest for Na{sup +} followed by K{sup +} (as high as 19% and 9%, respectively, in 24 h). Additive toxicity between copper and other pharmaceutical compounds such as fluoxetine (Prozac™), β-naphthoflavone, estrogen and 17α-ethinylestradiol were also observed. Similar to metals, acutely toxic concentrations of fluoxetine, β-naphthoflavone and ammonia all decreased whole body Na{sup +} and K{sup +}. Overall, whole body Na{sup +} loss showed the greatest correlation with mortality across a

  15. Metal and pharmaceutical mixtures: Is ion loss the mechanism underlying acute toxicity and widespread additive toxicity in zebrafish?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsop, Derek; Wood, Chris M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Zebrafish larvae were used to test the acute toxicity of contaminant mixtures. •Interactions were observed between metals, ammonia and pharmaceuticals. •Larval Na + loss was observed with exposure to all acutely toxic contaminants tested. •Water quality criteria should recognize the toxic interactions between contaminants. -- Abstract: The acute toxicities and mechanisms of action of a variety of environmental contaminants were examined using zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio; 4–8 days post fertilization). Toxic interactions were observed between metals. For example, the addition of a sublethal level of nickel (15% of the LC 50 , one third of the LC 01 ) to all copper treatments decreased the copper 96 h LC 50 by 58%, while sublethal copper exposure (6% of the copper LC 50 , 13% of the LC 01 ) decreased the cadmium 96 h LC 50 by 47%. Two predictive models were assessed, the concentration addition (CA) model, which assumes similar mechanisms of action, and the independent action (IA) model, which assumes different mechanisms of action. Quantitative comparisons indicated the CA model performed better than the IA model; the latter tended to underestimate combined toxicity to a greater extent. The effects of mixtures with nickel or ammonia were typically additive, while mixtures with copper or cadmium were typically greater than additive. Larvae exposed to cadmium, copper or nickel experienced whole body ion loss. Decreases were greatest for Na + followed by K + (as high as 19% and 9%, respectively, in 24 h). Additive toxicity between copper and other pharmaceutical compounds such as fluoxetine (Prozac™), β-naphthoflavone, estrogen and 17α-ethinylestradiol were also observed. Similar to metals, acutely toxic concentrations of fluoxetine, β-naphthoflavone and ammonia all decreased whole body Na + and K + . Overall, whole body Na + loss showed the greatest correlation with mortality across a variety of toxicants. We theorize that a disruption of

  16. Acute and subchronic toxicity studies of the original drug FS-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assem Kalykova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in iodine complexes has increased significantly in recent years because of their wide spectrum of biological activity. The FS-1 is an ion nanostructured complex formed by proteins and/or polypeptides, carbohydrates, salts of alkali and alkaline earth metals with intercalated iodine. Patented in 2014, it is intended for the treatment of infectious diseases of bacterial origin including nosocomial infections and multidrug resistant tuberculosis. The aim of the study was to determine its acute and subchronic toxicity. The study of acute and subchronic toxicity was performed on adult Wistar rats according to OECD guidelines. The data on acute toxicity showed LD50 > 2,000 mg/kg after a single intragastric administration. Twenty-eight days of FS-1 administration at a dose of 500 mg/kg resulted in toxic effects. At a dose of 250 mg/kg, the toxic effects were temporary and a return to normal followed after the recovery period. Doses of 100 mg/kg had no adverse effects on the rats.

  17. OECD validation study to assess intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility of the zebrafish embryo toxicity test for acute aquatic toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, François; Strecker, Ruben; Rawlings, Jane M; Belanger, Scott E; Braunbeck, Thomas; Carr, Gregory J; Cenijn, Peter; Fochtman, Przemyslaw; Gourmelon, Anne; Hübler, Nicole; Kleensang, André; Knöbel, Melanie; Kussatz, Carola; Legler, Juliette; Lillicrap, Adam; Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando; Polleichtner, Christian; Rzodeczko, Helena; Salinas, Edward; Schneider, Katharina E; Scholz, Stefan; van den Brandhof, Evert-Jan; van der Ven, Leo T M; Walter-Rohde, Susanne; Weigt, Stefan; Witters, Hilda; Halder, Marlies

    2014-08-01

    The OECD validation study of the zebrafish embryo acute toxicity test (ZFET) for acute aquatic toxicity testing evaluated the ZFET reproducibility by testing 20 chemicals at 5 different concentrations in 3 independent runs in at least 3 laboratories. Stock solutions and test concentrations were analytically confirmed for 11 chemicals. Newly fertilised zebrafish eggs (20/concentration and control) were exposed for 96h to chemicals. Four apical endpoints were recorded daily as indicators of acute lethality: coagulation of the embryo, lack of somite formation, non-detachment of the tail bud from the yolk sac and lack of heartbeat. Results (LC50 values for 48/96h exposure) show that the ZFET is a robust method with a good intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility (CV30%) for some very toxic or volatile chemicals, and chemicals tested close to their limit of solubility. The ZFET is now available as OECD Test Guideline 236. Considering the high predictive capacity of the ZFET demonstrated by Belanger et al. (2013) in their retrospective analysis of acute fish toxicity and fish embryo acute toxicity data, the ZFET is ready to be considered for acute fish toxicity for regulatory purposes. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Acute inhalation toxicity of carbonyl sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, J.M.; Hahn, F.F.; Barr, E.B. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS), a colorless gas, is a side product of industrial procedures sure as coal hydrogenation and gasification. It is structurally related to and is a metabolite of carbon disulfide. COS is metabolized in the body by carbonic anhydrase to hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), which is thought to be responsible for COS toxicity. No threshold limit value for COS has been established. Results of these studies indicate COS (with an LC{sub 50} of 590 ppm) is slightly less acutely toxic than H{sub 2}S (LC{sub 50} of 440 ppm).

  19. Advanced epithelial ovarian cancer: toxicity of whole abdominal irradiation after operation, combination chemotherapy, and reoperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schray, M.F.; Martinez, A.; Howes, A.E.; Ballon, S.C.; Podratz, K.C.; Sikic, B.I.; Malkasian, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-five patients with advanced ovarian cancer have received, as salvage therapy, irradiation consisting of 30 Gy to the entire abdominal contents with partial liver/kidney shielding and boosts to 42 and 51 Gy for the paraaortic/diaphragmatic and pelvic regions, respectively. These patients had received 6 to 25 cycles (median, 11 cycles) of prior combination chemotherapy (included cisplatin in 30), with second-look laparotomy performed in 33; 24 (68%) had three or more laparotomies. Acute gastrointestinal toxicity was generally mild. Significant hematologic toxicity (leukocytes less than 2000/mm3; or platelets less than 100,000/mm3) was seen in 19 (54%); platelet suppression occurred in 18 of these 19. Nine patients failed to complete the prescribed course of therapy; in seven, this was secondary to hematologic toxicity. Amount of prior chemotherapy and advanced age correlated with degree of hematologic toxicity. Five patients without evidence of disease (laparotomy confirmed) have developed treatment-related bowel obstruction. No other chronic toxicity of clinical significance has been observed. Seven patients have developed bowel obstruction associated with progressive neoplasm. Irradiation was well tolerated symptomatically, but hematologic toxicity associated with prior chemotherapy prevented its completion in 20% of patients. Clinical manifestations of radiation bowel toxicity have been moderate to date and should be interpreted in the context of the aggressive combined modality program

  20. Acute Liver Failure Secondary to Niacin Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Ellsworth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 17-year-old male was transferred to the pediatric intensive care unit for evaluation of acute liver failure. He was recently released from an alcohol treatment center with acute onset of chest pain. Cardiac workup was negative but he was found to have abnormal coagulation studies and elevated liver transaminases. Other evaluations included a normal toxicology screen and negative acetaminophen level. Autoimmune and infectious workups were normal providing no identifiable cause of his acute liver failure. He initially denied any ingestions or illicit drug use but on further query he admitted taking niacin in an attempt to obscure the results of an upcoming drug test. Niacin has been touted on the Internet as an aid to help pass urine drug tests though there is no evidence to support this practice. Niacin toxicity has been associated with serious multisystem organ failure and fulminant hepatic failure requiring liver transplantation. Pediatric providers should be aware of the risks associated with niacin toxicity and other experimental medical therapies that may be described on the Internet or other nonreputable sources.

  1. Psychosis associated with acute recreational drug toxicity: a European case series

    OpenAIRE

    Vallersnes, Odd Martin; Dines, Alison M.; Wood, David M.; Yates, Christopher; Heyerdahl, Fridtjof; Hovda, Knut Erik; Giraudon, Isabelle; Dargan, Paul I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Psychosis can be associated with acute recreational drug and novel psychoactive substance (NPS) toxicity. However, there is limited data available on how common this is and which drugs are most frequently implicated. We describe a European case series of psychosis associated with acute recreational drug toxicity, and estimate the frequency of psychosis for different recreational drugs. Methods ...

  2. Acute and chronic toxicity studies of the water extract from dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute and chronic toxicities of the water extract from the dried fruits of Terminalia bellerica (Gaertn.) Roxb. were assessed in both female and male rats. For the study of acute toxicity, a single oral administration of the water extract at a dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight (10 female, 10 male) was performed and the results ...

  3. Short-term results of self-expanding metal stents for acute malignant large bowel obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobborg, M; Broholm, M; Frostberg, E

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Self-expanding metal stents (SEMSs) can be used as a palliative treatment or to initially decompress colon prior to definitive surgery (as a so-called 'bridge to surgery'). The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of SEMS used as palliation and bridge to surgery...... for malignant large bowel obstruction. METHOD: A multicentre retrospective study was conducted from January 2010 to December 2013 to identify patients undergoing stent placement for acute large bowel obstruction. Patients were included from four Danish colorectal centres. Outcomes identified included clinical...... success, 30-day mortality, stent related complications and surgery related complications. Furthermore, we analysed for predictive factors for successful stenting. Clinical success was defined as relief of obstructive symptoms, without the need of other additional surgical interventions during the hospital...

  4. Non-infectious chemotherapy-associated acute toxicities during childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Müller, Klaus Gottlob; Mogensen, Signe Sloth

    2017-01-01

    obstruction syndrome, endocrinopathies (especially steroid-induced adrenal insufficiency and hyperglycemia), high-dose methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity, asparaginase-associated hypersensitivity, pancreatitis, and hyperlipidemia. Few of the non-infectious acute toxicities are associated with clinically...

  5. Toxicity of Single and Mixed Contaminants in Seawater Measured with Acute Toxicity Bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Fernandez-Alba

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Different types of organic pollutants commonly detected in seawater have been evaluated by acute toxicity bioassays. Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, and Selenastrum capricornotum were selected to test toxic effects of individual compounds and mixtures of these compounds, obtaining EC50 values in the range of 0.001 to 28.9 mg/l. In the case of mixtures, synergistic toxic responses were seen for a clear majority of the cases (>60%. Mixtures containing methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE exhibit accelerated processes that result in a change in concentration required to produce a toxic effect; for example, in the case of mixtures containing MTBE and Diuron and Dichlofluanid.

  6. A clinical evaluation of endoscopically placed self-expanding metallic stents in patients with acute large bowel obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, H C; Vilmann, P; Jakobsen, H L

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Self-expanding metallic stents (SEMS) have since 1991 established themselves as an option in the treatment of large bowel obstruction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of SEMS in management of acute colorectal obstructions at a Danish Surgical Gastroenterology...

  7. Safety assessment of hydroethanolic rambutan rind extract: acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinkratok, Aree; Suwannaprapha, Parin; Srisawat, Rungrudee

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the safety of rambutan rind extract (RRE) in male Wistar rats. While acute toxicity was evaluated by feeding the rats with single doses of RRE (1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 5000 mg/kg) and its sub-chronic toxicity was observed in rats orally administered with RRE (500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg) daily for 30 days. In acute toxicity study, the LD50 was found to be greater than 5000 mg/kg of RRE. In sub-chronic toxicity study, no mortality and sign of toxicity was found up to 1000 mg/kg/day of RRE. At 2000 mg/kg/day dose, the mortality rate was 12.5%. Significant decreases in body weight gain and food consumption were found in both acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies. In acute toxicity study, all the studied doses of RRE did not alter serum levels of triglyceride (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) andalanine aminotransferase (ALT). In sub-chronic toxicity study, all studied doses of RRE significantly decreased plasma levels of TG and blood urea nitrogen, but did not alter plasma levels of AST and ALT. TC levels did not show any significant change in both the studies. The obtained results provide basic information for in vivo experimental studies of the pharmacological potentiality of RRE.

  8. Bowel perforation by crumpled paper in a patient presenting with acute abdominal pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhshaeekia, Alireza; Hosseini, Seyed M.V; Razmi, Tannaz; Shamsaeefar, Alireza

    2009-01-01

    Many of the abdominal foreign bodies are due to accidental ingestion. Our objective in this case report is to emphasize the importance of the enquiry about the foreign body in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain. According to our knowledge, this is the first report of bowel perforation caused by paper ingestion. A 14-year-old boy with abdominal pain underwent exploratory laparotomy and was found to have abdominal pus and ileal perforation. A crumpled paper was found at the site of perforation. Postoperative enquiry revealed that the patient had ingested 10 crumpled papers. We highlight that recording the history is an important aspect in the management of patients with acute abdominal pain and that foreign bodies should be included in its differential diagnosis. (author)

  9. Acute and chronic arsenic toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Ratnaike, R

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. Contamination is caused by arsenic from natural geological sources leaching into aquifers, contaminating drinking water and may also occur from mining and other industrial processes. Arsenic is present as a contaminant in many traditional remedies. Arsenic trioxide is now used to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Absorption occurs predominantly from ingestion from the small intestine, though minimal absorption o...

  10. Acute Toxicity in Definitive Versus Postprostatectomy Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Jonathan C.; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Nguyen, Khanh H.; Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the incidence of acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) injury and the dose-volume response in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer treated with image-guided radiotherapy using helical tomotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between November 2004 and March 2007, 146 consecutive patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with helical tomotherapy at the City of Hope Medical Center. Of the 146 patients, 70 had undergone prostatectomy. Acute GI and GU toxicities were evaluated using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Cancer of Medical scoring system. Events were scored for patients developing Grade 2 or greater morbidity within 90 days after the end of radiotherapy (RT). The dosimetric parameters included the minimal dose received by the highest 10%, 20%, 50%, 80%, and 90% of the target volume, the mean rectal dose, minimal rectal dose, maximal rectal dose, and the volume receiving ≥45, ≥65, and ≥70 Gy. These variables, plus the status of radical prostatectomy, hormonal therapy, RT techniques, and medical conditions, were included in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. A goodness-of-fit evaluation was done using the Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic. Results: A dose-response function for acute GI toxicity was elicited. The acute GI Grade 2 or greater toxicity was lower in the definitive RT group than in the postoperative RT group (25% vs. 41%, p <0.05). Acute GU Grade 2 or greater toxicity was comparable between the two groups. No grade 3 or greater complications were observed. No dosimetric variable was significant for GU toxicity. For acute GI toxicity, the significant dosimetric parameters were the minimal dose received by 10%, 20%, and 50% of the target volume and the mean rectal dose; the most predictive parameter was the minimal dose received by 10% of the target volume. The dose-modifying factor was 1.2 for radical prostatectomy. Conclusion: The results of our

  11. Acute Toxicity Grade 3 and 4 After Irradiation in Children and Adolescents: Results From the IPPARCA Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pixberg, Caroline [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Koch, Raphael [Institute of Biostatistics and Clinical Research, University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Eich, Hans Theodor, E-mail: Hans.Eich@ukmuenster.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Koeln, Koeln (Germany); Martinsson, Ulla [Department of Oncology, University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Kristensen, Ingrid [Department of Radiation Physics, Skåne University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Matuschek, Christiane [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf (Germany); Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Pohl, Fabian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Elsayad, Khaled [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Christiansen, Hans [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical School Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Willich, Normann [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Lindh, Jack [Department of Radiation Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå (Sweden); Steinmann, Diana [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical School Hannover, Hannover (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Purpose: In the context of oncologic therapy for children, radiation therapy is frequently indicated. This study identified the frequency of and reasons for the development of high-grade acute toxicity and possible sequelae. Materials and Methods: Irradiated children have been prospectively documented since 2001 in the Registry for the Evaluation of Side Effects After Radiation in Childhood and Adolescence (RiSK) database in Germany and since 2008 in the registry for radiation therapy toxicity (RADTOX) in Sweden. Data were collected using standardized, published forms. Toxicity classification was based on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria. Results: As of June 2013, 1500 children have been recruited into the RiSK database and 485 into the RADTOX registry leading to an analysis population of 1359 patients (age range 0-18). A total of 18.9% (n=257) of all investigated patients developed high-grade acute toxicity (grades 3/4). High-grade toxicity of the bone marrow was documented for 63.8% (n=201) of those patients, oral mucositis for 7.6% (n=24), and dermatitis for 7.6% (n=24). Patients with high-grade acute toxicity received concomitant chemotherapy more frequently (56%) than patients with no or lower acute toxicity (31.5%). In multivariate analyses, concomitant chemotherapy, diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma, and total radiation dose showed a statistically noticeable effect (P≤.05) on acute toxicity, whereas age, concomitant chemotherapy, Hodgkin lymphoma, Ewing sarcoma, total radiation dose, and acute toxicity influenced the time until maximal late toxicity. Conclusions: Generally, high-grade acute toxicity after irradiation in children and adolescence occurs in a moderate proportion of patients (18.9%). As anticipated, the probability of acute toxicity appeared to depend on the prescribed dose as well as concomitant chemotherapy. The occurrence of chronic toxicity correlates with the prior acute

  12. Acute and subacute toxicity of 18F-FDG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Danielle M.; Silva, Natanael G. da; Manetta, Ana Paula; Osso Junior, Joao A.

    2013-01-01

    Before initiating clinical trials of a new drug, it is necessary to perform a battery of safety tests, for evaluating the risk in humans. Radiopharmaceuticals must be tested taking into account its specificity, duration of treatment and especially the toxicity of both, the unlabelled molecule and its radionuclide, apart from impurities emanating from radiolysis. In Brazil the production of radiopharmaceuticals was not regulated until the end of 2009, when ANVISA established the Resolutions No. 63, which refers to the Good Manufacturing Practices of radiopharmaceuticals and No. 64 which seeks the registration of radiopharmaceuticals. Nowadays IPEN produces one of the most important radiopharmaceutical for nuclear medicine, the 18 F-FDG, which is used in the diagnosis. The objective of this study is to assess systemic toxicity (acute / subacute) of 18 F-FDG in an in vivo test system, as recommended by the RDC No. 64. In acute tests the administration occurred on the first day, healthy rats were observed for 14 days reporting their clinical signs and water consumption, and on the 15th day they were euthanized and necropsied. The assay of subacute toxicity observations were made over a period of 28 days and the first dose was administered at the beginning of the test and after a fortnight a second dose was administered. The parameters evaluated were the necropsy, histopathology of target organs, hematology studies and liver and kidney function. The results are being processed and evaluated. Initial observations did not show any acute toxicity in animals when compared to control animals. (author)

  13. Acute toxicity of tobacco ( Nicotiana tobaccum ) leaf dust on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted using dry tobacco (Nicotiana tobaccum) leaves aqueous extract to determine the acute toxicity and sub lethal effects on some haematological indices of Oreochromis niloticus using static renewable bioassay method. The extract was found to be toxic with a 48-h LC50 value of 109.6 mg/l.

  14. Acute Toxicity of a Recently Identified Phenol-based Synthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on the acute toxicity of a new phenol based synthetic tsetse fly repellent recently identified at the International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology (patent No. ... The repellent can be classified as being highly toxic with central nervous system (CNS) involvement and a mild skin and eye irritant.

  15. Acute toxicity of Headline® fungicide to Blanchard's cricket frogs (Acris blanchardi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusaac, J Patrick W; Morrison, Shane A; Belden, Jason B; Smith, Loren M; McMurry, Scott T

    2016-04-01

    Previous laboratory studies have suggested that pyraclostrobin-containing fungicide formulations are toxic to amphibians at environmentally relevant concentrations. However, it is unknown if all pyraclostrobin formulations have similar toxicity and if toxicity occurs in different amphibian species. We investigated the acute toxicity of two formulations, Headline(®) fungicide and Headline AMP(®) fungicide, to Blanchard's cricket frogs (Acris blanchardi) based on a direct overspray scenario. In addition, we examined body residues of fungicide active ingredients in A. blanchardi following direct exposure to Headline AMP fungicide. Headline fungicide and Headline AMP fungicide had similar toxicity to A. blanchardi with calculated median lethal doses of 2.1 and 1.7 µg pyraclostrobin/cm(2), respectively, which are similar to the suggested maximum label rate in North American corn (2.2 and 1.52 µg pyraclostrobin/cm(2), respectively). Tissue concentrations of pyraclostrobin were lower than predicted based on full uptake of a direct dose, and did not drop during the first 24 h after exposure. Headline fungicides at corn application rates are acutely toxic to cricket frogs, but acute toxicity in the field will depend on worst-case exposure.

  16. Computed tomography to detect body packing: an unusual cause of small bowel obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.A.; Phang, T.; Enns, R.; Butchart, M.K.; Filipenko, J.D.; Mason, A.C.; Cooperberg, P.I.

    2002-01-01

    Concealment of illicit drugs within the alimentary tract is now an established method used by both smugglers and traffickers to evade detection by authorities. Those who ingest wrapped packets of drugs to transport them across international borders are known as 'body packers,' whereas those who ingest packages of drugs upon an unexpected encounter with law enforcement agents are known as 'body stuffers' or 'quick swallowers. Although most of these individuals require no medical care, acute drug toxicity (from inadvertent leaking of contents or rupture of the drug packet) and bowel obstruction are recognized hazards of drug packet ingestion. The detection of these packets is a challenge to custom officials and police interested in preventing the import and trafficking of illegal drugs, as well as to physicians who have to treat individuals who have ingested them. We report a case of a 38-year-old intravenous drug abuser who presented with an acute small bowel obstruction secondary to an impacted intraluminal heroin balloon in the mid jejunum. The value of computed tomography (CT) in the patient's diagnostic evaluation is highlighted. (author)

  17. Acute and chronic toxicity of boron to a variety of freshwater organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucek, David J; Dickinson, Amy; Koch, Brian T

    2011-08-01

    Boron enters the aquatic environment from various sources, including weathering of borates, sewage effluents, coal combustion, use of cleaning compounds, and agrochemicals. The present study was designed to generate data on acute and chronic boron toxicity in support of an update of water quality standards in Illinois, USA. We examined the acute toxicity of boron to eight different freshwater organisms including a fish, an insect, two crustaceans, and four bivalve mollusks. To our knowledge, this is the first study to present data on the toxicity of boron to freshwater mollusks. We also sought to clarify whether hardness or pH affect boron toxicity to aquatic life, and to quantify chronic effect levels in two freshwater species. Sensitivity among the various species ranged widely, with the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) being the most sensitive. Neither pH nor hardness had a consistent effect on acute boron toxicity to two crustaceans (Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca), but we observed evidence that chloride reduces boron toxicity to H. azteca. The fathead minnow, while more acutely sensitive than the other species, had a lower acute to chronic ratio than did H. azteca, which had reduced reproduction at 13 mg/L. While we do not know the extent to which the eight tested species represent the range of sensitivities of native but untested species in Illinois, the current water quality standard for Illinois (1 mg/L) is conservative with regard to the native species tested thus far. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  18. An evaluation of acute toxicity of colloidal silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneewattanapinyo, Pattwat; Banlunara, Wijit; Thammacharoen, Chuchaat; Ekgasit, Sanong; Kaewamatawong, Theerayuth

    2011-11-01

    Tests for acute oral toxicity, eye irritation, corrosion and dermal toxicity of colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were conducted in laboratory animals following OECD guidelines. Oral administration of AgNPs at a limited dose of 5,000 mg/kg produced neither mortality nor acute toxic signs throughout the observation period. Percentage of body weight gain of the mice showed no significant difference between control and treatment groups. In the hematological analysis, there was no significant difference between mice treated with AgNPs and controls. Blood chemistry analysis also showed no differences in any of the parameter examined. There was neither any gross lesion nor histopathological change observed in various organs. The results indicated that the LD(50) of colloidal AgNPs is greater than 5,000 mg/kg body weight. In acute eye irritation and corrosion study, no mortality and toxic signs were observed when various doses of colloidal AgNPs were instilled in guinea pig eyes during 72 hr observation period. However, the instillation of AgNPs at 5,000 ppm produced transient eye irritation during early 24 hr observation time. No any gross abnormality was noted in the skins of the guinea pigs exposed to various doses of colloidal AgNPs. In addition, no significant AgNPs exposure relating to dermal tissue changes was observed microscopically. In summary, these findings of all toxicity tests in this study suggest that colloidal AgNPs could be relatively safe when administered to oral, eye and skin of the animal models for short periods of time.

  19. Target tailoring and proton beam therapy to reduce small bowel dose in cervical cancer radiotherapy. A comparison of benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, Peter de; Westerveld, Henrike; Smit, Mark; Bel, Arjan; Rasch, Coen R.N.; Stalpers, Lukas J.A.; Schoot, Agustinus J.A.J. van de; Buist, Marrije R.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the potential clinical benefit from both target tailoring by excluding the tumour-free proximal part of the uterus during image-guided adaptive radiotherapy (IGART) and improved dose conformity based on intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT). The study included planning CTs from 11 previously treated patients with cervical cancer with a >4-cm tumour-free part of the proximal uterus on diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). IGART and robustly optimised IMPT plans were generated for both conventional target volumes and for MRI-based target tailoring (where the non-invaded proximal part of the uterus was excluded), yielding four treatment plans per patient. For each plan, the V 15Gy , V 30Gy , V 45Gy and D mean for bladder, sigmoid, rectum and bowel bag were compared, and the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for ≥grade 2 acute small bowel toxicity was calculated. Both IMPT and MRI-based target tailoring resulted in significant reductions in V 15Gy , V 30Gy , V 45Gy and D mean for bladder and small bowel. IMPT reduced the NTCP for small bowel toxicity from 25% to 18%; this was further reduced to 9% when combined with MRI-based target tailoring. In four of the 11 patients (36%), NTCP reductions of >10% were estimated by IMPT, and in six of the 11 patients (55%) when combined with MRI-based target tailoring. This >10% NTCP reduction was expected if the V 45Gy for bowel bag was >275 cm 3 and >200 cm 3 , respectively, during standard IGART alone. In patients with cervical cancer, both proton therapy and MRI-based target tailoring lead to a significant reduction in the dose to surrounding organs at risk and small bowel toxicity. (orig.) [de

  20. Acute and Sub-chronic (28-day) Oral Toxicity Studies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    was to investigate the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of A. conyzoides leaves in Wistar rats. Methods: In the acute test, the ... associated with navel in children [4], and in the treatment of ... Ethical Committee for Teaching and. Research (ref no.

  1. Alternative approaches for identifying acute systemic toxicity: Moving from research to regulatory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Jon; Sullivan, Kristie; Clippinger, Amy J; Strickland, Judy; Bell, Shannon; Bhhatarai, Barun; Blaauboer, Bas; Casey, Warren; Dorman, David; Forsby, Anna; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Gehen, Sean; Graepel, Rabea; Hotchkiss, Jon; Lowit, Anna; Matheson, Joanna; Reaves, Elissa; Scarano, Louis; Sprankle, Catherine; Tunkel, Jay; Wilson, Dan; Xia, Menghang; Zhu, Hao; Allen, David

    2017-06-01

    Acute systemic toxicity testing provides the basis for hazard labeling and risk management of chemicals. A number of international efforts have been directed at identifying non-animal alternatives for in vivo acute systemic toxicity tests. A September 2015 workshop, Alternative Approaches for Identifying Acute Systemic Toxicity: Moving from Research to Regulatory Testing, reviewed the state-of-the-science of non-animal alternatives for this testing and explored ways to facilitate implementation of alternatives. Workshop attendees included representatives from international regulatory agencies, academia, nongovernmental organizations, and industry. Resources identified as necessary for meaningful progress in implementing alternatives included compiling and making available high-quality reference data, training on use and interpretation of in vitro and in silico approaches, and global harmonization of testing requirements. Attendees particularly noted the need to characterize variability in reference data to evaluate new approaches. They also noted the importance of understanding the mechanisms of acute toxicity, which could be facilitated by the development of adverse outcome pathways. Workshop breakout groups explored different approaches to reducing or replacing animal use for acute toxicity testing, with each group crafting a roadmap and strategy to accomplish near-term progress. The workshop steering committee has organized efforts to implement the recommendations of the workshop participants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. OECD validation study to assess intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility of the zebrafish embryo toxicity test for acute aquatic toxicity testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busquet, F.; Strecker, R.; Rawlings, J.M.; Belanger, S.E.; Braunbeck, T.; Carr, G.J.; Cenijn, P.H.; Fochtman, P.; Gourmelon, A.; Hübler, N.; Kleensang, A.; Knöbel, M.; Kussatz, C.; Legler, J.; Lillicrap, A.; Martínez-Jerónimo, F.; Polleichtner, C.; Rzodeczko, H.; Salinas, E.; Schneider, K.E.; Scholz, S.; van den Brandhof, E.J.; van der Ven, L.T.; Walter-Rohde, S.; Weigt, S.; Witters, H.; Halder, M.

    2014-01-01

    A The OECD validation study of the zebrafish embryo acute toxicity test (ZFET) for acute aquatic toxicity testing evaluated the ZFET reproducibility by testing 20 chemicals at 5 different concentrations in 3 independent runs in at least 3 laboratories. Stock solutions and test concentrations were

  3. Towards Global QSAR Model Building for Acute Toxicity: Munro Database Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Chavan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of 436 Munro database chemicals were studied with respect to their corresponding experimental LD50 values to investigate the possibility of establishing a global QSAR model for acute toxicity. Dragon molecular descriptors were used for the QSAR model development and genetic algorithms were used to select descriptors better correlated with toxicity data. Toxic values were discretized in a qualitative class on the basis of the Globally Harmonized Scheme: the 436 chemicals were divided into 3 classes based on their experimental LD50 values: highly toxic, intermediate toxic and low to non-toxic. The k-nearest neighbor (k-NN classification method was calibrated on 25 molecular descriptors and gave a non-error rate (NER equal to 0.66 and 0.57 for internal and external prediction sets, respectively. Even if the classification performances are not optimal, the subsequent analysis of the selected descriptors and their relationship with toxicity levels constitute a step towards the development of a global QSAR model for acute toxicity.

  4. Research on the Relationships between Endogenous Biomarkers and Exogenous Toxic Substances of Acute Toxicity in Radix Aconiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haonan; Zhang, Pengjie; Hou, Zhiguo; Xie, Jiabin; Wang, Yuming; Yang, Bin; Xu, Yanyan; Li, Yubo

    2016-11-25

    Radix Aconiti , a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been widely used throughout China for disease treatment due to its various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic, and analgesic effects. However, improper use of Radix Aconiti often generated severe acute toxicity. Currently, research on the toxic substances of Radix Aconiti is not rare. In our previous study, acute toxic biomarkers of Radix Aconiti have been found. However, few studies were available to find the relationships between these endogenous biomarkers and exogenous toxic substances. Therefore, in this study, toxic substances of Radix Aconiti have been found using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS technology. Then, we used biochemical indicators as a bridge to find the relationships between biomarkers and toxic substances of Radix Aconiti through Pearson correlation analysis and canonical correlation analysis (CCA). Finally, the CCA results showed that LysoPC(22:5) is related to 14-acetyl-talatisamine, mesaconitine, talatisamine and deoxyaconitine in varying degrees; l-acetylcarnitine is negatively correlated with deoxyaconitine and demethyl-14-acetylkaracoline; shikimic acid has a good correlation with karacoline, demethyl-14-acetylkaracoline and deoxyaconitine; and valine is correlated with talatisamine and deoxyaconitine. Research on these relationships provides an innovative way to interpret the toxic mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine, and plays a positive role in the overall study of TCM toxicity.

  5. Prediction of acute inhalation toxicity using in vitro lung surfactant inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørli, Jorid Birkelund; Huang, Yishi; Da Silva, Emilie

    2018-01-01

    impregnation products using the constant flow through set-up of the constrained drop surfactometer to determine if they inhibited LS function or not. The same products were tested in a mouse inhalation bioassay to determine their toxicity in vivo. The sensitivity was 100%, i.e. the in vitro method predicted...... the chemical composition of the products and induction of toxicity. The currently accepted method for determination of acute inhalation toxicity is based on experiments on animals; it is time-consuming, expensive and causes stress for the animals. Impregnation products are present on the market in large...... numbers and amounts and exhibit great variety. Therefore, an alternative method to screen for acute inhalation toxicity is needed. The aim of our study was to determine if inhibition of lung surfactant by impregnation products in vitro could accurately predict toxicity in vivo in mice. We tested 21...

  6. Duodenal and Other Gastrointestinal Toxicity in Cervical and Endometrial Cancer Treated With Extended-Field Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy to Paraaortic Lymph Nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poorvu, Philip D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sadow, Cheryl A. [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Townamchai, Kanokpis; Damato, Antonio L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Viswanathan, Akila N., E-mail: aviswanathan@lroc.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To characterize the rates of acute and late duodenal and other gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities among patients treated for cervical and endometrial cancers with extended-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (EF-IMRT) to the paraaortic nodes and to analyze dose-volume relationships of GI toxicities. Methods and Materials: Fifty-three patients with endometrial or cervical cancer underwent EF-IMRT to the paraaortic nodes, of whom 46 met the inclusion criteria for GI toxicity and 45 for duodenal toxicity analysis. The median prescribed dose to the paraaortic nodes was 54 Gy (range, 41.4-65 Gy). The 4 duodenal segments, whole duodenum, small bowel loops, peritoneum, and peritoneum plus retroperitoneal segments of colon were contoured retrospectively, and dosimetric analysis was performed to identify dose-volume relationships to grade ≥3 acute (<90 day) and late (≥90 day) GI toxicity. Results: Only 3/46 patients (6.5%) experienced acute grade ≥3 GI toxicity and 3/46 patients (6.5%) experienced late grade ≥3 GI toxicity. The median dose administered to these 6 patients was 50.4 Gy. One of 12 patients who received 63 to 65 Gy at the level of the renal hilum experienced grade 3 GI toxicity. Dosimetric analysis of patients with and without toxicity revealed no differences between the mean absolute or fractional volumes at any 5-Gy interval between 5 Gy and the maximum dose. None of the patients experienced duodenal toxicity. Conclusions: Treatment of paraaortic nodes with IMRT is associated with low rates of GI toxicities and no duodenal-specific toxicity, including patients treated with concurrent chemotherapy. This technique may allow sufficient dose sparing of the bowel to enable safe dose escalation to at least 65 Gy.

  7. Duodenal and Other Gastrointestinal Toxicity in Cervical and Endometrial Cancer Treated With Extended-Field Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy to Paraaortic Lymph Nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poorvu, Philip D.; Sadow, Cheryl A.; Townamchai, Kanokpis; Damato, Antonio L.; Viswanathan, Akila N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize the rates of acute and late duodenal and other gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities among patients treated for cervical and endometrial cancers with extended-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (EF-IMRT) to the paraaortic nodes and to analyze dose-volume relationships of GI toxicities. Methods and Materials: Fifty-three patients with endometrial or cervical cancer underwent EF-IMRT to the paraaortic nodes, of whom 46 met the inclusion criteria for GI toxicity and 45 for duodenal toxicity analysis. The median prescribed dose to the paraaortic nodes was 54 Gy (range, 41.4-65 Gy). The 4 duodenal segments, whole duodenum, small bowel loops, peritoneum, and peritoneum plus retroperitoneal segments of colon were contoured retrospectively, and dosimetric analysis was performed to identify dose-volume relationships to grade ≥3 acute (<90 day) and late (≥90 day) GI toxicity. Results: Only 3/46 patients (6.5%) experienced acute grade ≥3 GI toxicity and 3/46 patients (6.5%) experienced late grade ≥3 GI toxicity. The median dose administered to these 6 patients was 50.4 Gy. One of 12 patients who received 63 to 65 Gy at the level of the renal hilum experienced grade 3 GI toxicity. Dosimetric analysis of patients with and without toxicity revealed no differences between the mean absolute or fractional volumes at any 5-Gy interval between 5 Gy and the maximum dose. None of the patients experienced duodenal toxicity. Conclusions: Treatment of paraaortic nodes with IMRT is associated with low rates of GI toxicities and no duodenal-specific toxicity, including patients treated with concurrent chemotherapy. This technique may allow sufficient dose sparing of the bowel to enable safe dose escalation to at least 65 Gy

  8. Acute toxicity, lipid peroxidation and ameliorative properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OKEY

    2014-01-29

    Jan 29, 2014 ... Full Length Research Paper. Acute toxicity ... Diabetes mellitus represents a group of metabolic ... Figure 1. Pictorial view of Alstonia boonei leaves (Sidiyasa, 1998). ..... The position of hydroxyl groups and other features in the.

  9. Evaluation of acute and sub-acute toxicity of Pinus eldarica bark extract in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Ghadirkhomi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pinus eldarica (P. eldarica is one of the most common pines in Iran which has various bioactive constituents and different uses in traditional medicine. Since there is no documented evidence for P. eldarica safety, the acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark were investigated in male and female Wistar rats in this study. Materials and Methods: In the acute study, a single dose of extract (2000 mg/kg was orally administered and animals were monitored for 7 days. In the sub-acute study, repeated doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day of the extract were administered for 28 days and biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Our results showed no sign of toxicity and no mortality after single or repeated administration of P. eldarica. The median lethal dose (LD50 of P. eldarica was determined to be higher than 2000 mg/kg. The mean body weight and most of the biochemical and hematological parameters showed normal levels.  There were only significant decreases in serum triglyceride levels at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of the extract in male rats (pConclusion: Oral administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark may be considered as relatively non-toxic particularly at the doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg.

  10. Small Bowel Perforation due to Gossypiboma Caused Acute Abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahsin Colak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gossypiboma, an infrequent surgical complication, is a mass lesion due to a retained surgical sponge surrounded by foreign body reaction. In this case report, we describe gossypiboma in the abdominal cavity which was detected 14 months after the hysterectomy due to acute abdominal pain. Gossypiboma was diagnosed by computed tomography (CT. The CT findings were a rounded mass with a dense central part and an enhancing wall. In explorative laparotomy, small bowel loops were seen to be perforated due to inflammation of long standing gossypiboma. Jejunal resection with end-to-end anastomosis was performed. The patient was discharged whithout complication. This case was presented to point to retained foreign body (RFB complications and we believed that the possibility of a retained foreign body should be considered in the differential diagnosis of who had previous surgery and complained of pain, infection, or palpable mass.

  11. Acute oral Toxicity and Antioxidant Activity of Neoglaziovia variegata

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fisiologia

    2012-09-18

    Sep 18, 2012 ... In the acute toxicity of Nv-EtOH, behavioral and physiological alterations were not observed neither animal's death in the doses of 2.0 g/kg intraperitoneally and 5.0 g/kg orally, respectively indicating low toxicity of the extract. In this experiment, it was observed that the. Nv-EtOH has LD50 > 5000 mg/kg.

  12. A comparative assessment of the acute inhalation toxicity of vanadium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, N; Seagrave, J C; Plunkett, L M; MacGregor, J A

    2016-11-01

    Vanadium compounds have become important in industrial processes, resulting in workplace exposure potential and are present in ambient air as a result of fossil fuel combustion. A series of acute nose-only inhalation toxicity studies was conducted in both rats and mice in order to obtain comparative data on the acute toxicity potential of compounds used commercially. V 2 O 3 , V 2 O 4 , and V 2 O 5 , which have different oxidation states (+3, +4, +5, respectively), were delivered as micronized powders; the highly water-soluble and hygroscopic VOSO 4 (+4) could not be micronized and was instead delivered as a liquid aerosol from an aqueous solution. V 2 O 5 was the most acutely toxic micronized powder in both species. Despite its lower overall percentage vanadium content, a liquid aerosol of VOSO 4 was more toxic than the V 2 O 5 particles in mice, but not in rats. These data suggest that an interaction of characteristics, i.e., bioavailability, solubility and oxidation state, as well as species sensitivity, likely affect the toxicity potential of vanadium compounds. Based on clinical observations and gross necropsy findings, the lung appeared to be the target organ for all compounds. The level of hazard posed will depend on the specific chemical form of the vanadium. Future work to define the inhalation toxicity potential of vanadium compounds of various oxidation states after repeated exposures will be important in understanding how the physico-chemical and biological characteristics of specific vanadium compounds interact to affect toxicity potential and the potential risks posed to human health.

  13. Comparison of Acute Toxicity of Algal Metabolites Using Bioluminescence Inhibition Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansa Jeswani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are reported to degrade hazardous compounds. However, algae, especially cyanobacteria are known to produce secondary metabolites which may be toxic to flora, fauna and human beings. The aim of this study was selection of an appropriate algal culture for biological treatment of biomass gasification wastewater based on acute toxicity considerations. The three algae that were selected were Spirulina sp., Scenedesmus abundans and a fresh water algal consortium. Acute toxicity of the metabolites produced by these algal cultures was tested at the end of log phase using the standard bioluminescence inhibition assay based on Vibrio fischeri NRRLB 11174. Scenedesmus abundans and a fresh water algal consortium dominated by cyanobacteria such as Phormidium, Chroococcus and Oscillatoria did not release much toxic metabolites at the end of log phase and caused only about 20% inhibition in bioluminescence. In comparison, Spirulina sp. released toxic metabolites and caused 50% bioluminescence inhibition at 3/5 times dilution of the culture supernatant (EC50.

  14. Metal uptake and acute toxicity in zebrafish: Common mechanisms across multiple metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsop, Derek, E-mail: alsopde@mcmaster.ca [Department of Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1 (Canada); Wood, Chris M. [Department of Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    All metals tested reduced calcium uptake in zebrafish larvae. However, it was whole body sodium loss that was functionally related to toxicity. The zebrafish larvae acute toxicity assay save time, space and resources. - Abstract: Zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio) were used to examine the mechanisms of action and acute toxicities of metals. Larvae had similar physiological responses and sensitivities to waterborne metals as adults. While cadmium and zinc have previously been shown to reduce Ca{sup 2+} uptake, copper and nickel also decreased Ca{sup 2+} uptake, suggesting that the epithelial transport of all these metals is through Ca{sup 2+} pathways. However, exposure to cadmium, copper or nickel for up to 48 h had little or no effect on total whole body Ca{sup 2+} levels, indicating that the reduction of Ca{sup 2+} uptake is not the acute toxic mechanism of these metals. Instead, mortalities were effectively related to whole body Na{sup +}, which decreased up to 39% after 48 h exposures to different metals around their respective 96 h LC50s. Decreases in whole body K{sup +} were also observed, although they were not as pronounced or frequent as Na{sup +} losses. None of the metals tested inhibited Na{sup +} uptake in zebrafish (Na{sup +} uptake was in fact increased with exposure) and the observed losses of Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} were proportional to the ionic gradients between the plasma and water, indicating diffusive ion loss with metal exposure. This study has shown that there is a common pathway for metal uptake and a common mechanism of acute toxicity across groups of metals in zebrafish. The disruption of ion uptake accompanying metal exposure does not appear to be responsible for the acute toxicity of metals, as has been previously suggested, but rather the toxicity is instead due to total ion loss (predominantly Na{sup +}).

  15. Acute toxicity of injection of 153Sm-EDTMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Baiwei; Chai Xuehong

    2004-01-01

    Sm-153 has several distinct advantages as a radiopharmaceutical for the treat of patients with bone to skeletal metastasis. Sm-153 shows high skeletal uptake and rapid blood and nonosseous tissue clearance. Several paper have considered the toxicity of 153Sm-EDTMP. We report the acute toxicity in mice and rats after injection of 153Sm-EDTMP or unlabeled EDTMP. The EDTMP was injected to mice by 9.76, 7.8, 6.25, 5, 4 mg/Kg. The logarithmic dose of EDTMP were given to mice to determine LD50. The LD50 of EDTMP in mice is 7.1 mg/Kg. The decay of 153Sm-EDTMP for 4 months were injected to mice at dose of 225 mg/Kg. 153Sm-EDTMP were given at 4 difference dosage to rats by 74 MBq/Kg, 370 MBq/Kg, 1110 MBq/Kg, 1850 MBq/Kg. The LD50 of 153Sm-EDTMP in rats is more than 370 MBq/Kg. Although the cold EDTMP LD50 was low, chelated with Sm can decrease it's toxicity. The decay 153Sm-EDTMP can be safe at dose of 225 mg/Kg. The clinical dose will be used at 37 MBq/Kg. So there is no need to consider to acute toxicity in clinical used 153Sm-EDTMP in designated regimen because the safe range is wide enough to cover clinical used. (authors)

  16. Acute toxicity and bio-accumulation of mercury and copper in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acute toxicity of Mercury and Copper on C. africanus and T. fuscatus and the bio-accumulation potentials of the metals were investigated in laboratory experiments employing standard bio–assay techniques. On the basis of LC50 values, both metals had similar magnitudes of toxicity against C. africanus. However ...

  17. Research on the Relationships between Endogenous Biomarkers and Exogenous Toxic Substances of Acute Toxicity in Radix Aconiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haonan Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Radix Aconiti, a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, has been widely used throughout China for disease treatment due to its various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic, and analgesic effects. However, improper use of Radix Aconiti often generated severe acute toxicity. Currently, research on the toxic substances of Radix Aconiti is not rare. In our previous study, acute toxic biomarkers of Radix Aconiti have been found. However, few studies were available to find the relationships between these endogenous biomarkers and exogenous toxic substances. Therefore, in this study, toxic substances of Radix Aconiti have been found using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS technology. Then, we used biochemical indicators as a bridge to find the relationships between biomarkers and toxic substances of Radix Aconiti through Pearson correlation analysis and canonical correlation analysis (CCA. Finally, the CCA results showed that LysoPC(22:5 is related to 14-acetyl-talatisamine, mesaconitine, talatisamine and deoxyaconitine in varying degrees; l-acetylcarnitine is negatively correlated with deoxyaconitine and demethyl-14-acetylkaracoline; shikimic acid has a good correlation with karacoline, demethyl-14-acetylkaracoline and deoxyaconitine; and valine is correlated with talatisamine and deoxyaconitine. Research on these relationships provides an innovative way to interpret the toxic mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine, and plays a positive role in the overall study of TCM toxicity.

  18. Acute and subacute toxicity of {sup 18F}-FDG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Danielle M.; Silva, Natanael G. da; Manetta, Ana Paula; Osso Junior, Joao A., E-mail: danielle_2705@hotmail.com, E-mail: jaossoj@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: ngsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: apaulasp2008@hotmail.co [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Before initiating clinical trials of a new drug, it is necessary to perform a battery of safety tests, for evaluating the risk in humans. Radiopharmaceuticals must be tested taking into account its specificity, duration of treatment and especially the toxicity of both, the unlabelled molecule and its radionuclide, apart from impurities emanating from radiolysis. In Brazil the production of radiopharmaceuticals was not regulated until the end of 2009, when ANVISA established the Resolutions No. 63, which refers to the Good Manufacturing Practices of radiopharmaceuticals and No. 64 which seeks the registration of radiopharmaceuticals. Nowadays IPEN produces one of the most important radiopharmaceutical for nuclear medicine, the {sup 18}F-FDG, which is used in the diagnosis. The objective of this study is to assess systemic toxicity (acute / subacute) of {sup 18}F-FDG in an in vivo test system, as recommended by the RDC No. 64. In acute tests the administration occurred on the first day, healthy rats were observed for 14 days reporting their clinical signs and water consumption, and on the 15th day they were euthanized and necropsied. The assay of subacute toxicity observations were made over a period of 28 days and the first dose was administered at the beginning of the test and after a fortnight a second dose was administered. The parameters evaluated were the necropsy, histopathology of target organs, hematology studies and liver and kidney function. The results are being processed and evaluated. Initial observations did not show any acute toxicity in animals when compared to control animals. (author)

  19. Acute and subacute toxicities of defatted ethanolic extract of Moringa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moringa oleifera seeds are widely accepted as a nutritional supplement. The seeds are consumed and are sold on the shelf of nature, herbal shops, pharmacy and supermarkets. They are consumed as herbal remedy for various diseases. This study was designed to evaluate the acute and sub-acute toxicity of defatted ...

  20. Animal Testing for Acute Inhalation Toxicity: A Thing of the Past?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Silva, Emilie; Sørli, Jorid Birkelund

    2018-01-01

    According to REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals), testing for acute inhalation toxicity is required for chemicals manufactured or imported at tonnages ≥ 10 tons per year. Three OECD test guidelines for acute inhalation toxicity in vivo are adopted (TG 403......, TG 436, and TG 433). Since animal testing is ethically, scientifically and economically questionable, adoption of alternative methods by the European Union and the OECD is needed. An in vitro system based on the study of lung surfactant function is introduced....

  1. Non-animal Replacements for Acute Toxicity Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker-Treasure, Carol; Coll, Kevin; Belot, Nathalie; Longmore, Chris; Bygrave, Karl; Avey, Suzanne; Clothier, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Current approaches to predicting adverse effects in humans from acute toxic exposure to cosmetic ingredients still heavily necessitate the use of animals under EU legislation, particularly in the context of the REACH system, when cosmetic ingredients are also destined for use in other industries. These include the LD50 test, the Up-and-Down Procedure and the Fixed Dose Procedure, which are regarded as having notable scientific deficiencies and low transferability to humans. By expanding on previous in vitro tests, such as the animal cell-based 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) assay, this project aims to develop a truly animal-free predictive test for the acute toxicity of cosmetic ingredients in humans, by using human-derived cells and a prediction model that does not rely on animal data. The project, funded by Innovate UK, will incorporate the NRU assay with human dermal fibroblasts in animal product-free culture, to generate an in vitro protocol that can be validated as an accepted replacement for the currently available in vivo tests. To date, the project has successfully completed an assessment of the robustness and reproducibility of the method, by using sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) as a positive control, and displaying analogous results to those of the original studies with mouse 3T3 cells. Currently, the testing of five known ingredients from key groups (a surfactant, a preservative, a fragrance, a colour and an emulsifier) is under way. The testing consists of initial range-finding runs followed by three valid runs of a main experiment with the appropriate concentration ranges, to generate IC50 values. Expanded blind trials of 20 ingredients will follow. Early results indicate that this human cell-based test holds the potential to replace aspects of in vivo animal acute toxicity testing, particularly with reference to cosmetic ingredients. 2015 FRAME.

  2. Evaluation of the acute toxicity of refined petroleum products against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Static and static-renewal evaluation of the acute toxicity of three refined petroleum products — petrol, kerosene and diesel — against two freshwater animals, the mollusc Pila ovata and the fish Poecilia reticulata, was conducted in the laboratory. Petrol, kerosene and diesel were found to be moderately toxic to the test ...

  3. Cannabidiol Rescues Acute Hepatic Toxicity and Seizure Induced by Cocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Rezende Vilela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine is a commonly abused illicit drug that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The most severe and common complications are seizures, ischemic strokes, myocardial infarction, and acute liver injury. Here, we demonstrated that acute cocaine intoxication promoted seizure along with acute liver damage in mice, with intense inflammatory infiltrate. Considering the protective role of the endocannabinoid system against cell toxicity, we hypothesized that treatment with an anandamide hydrolysis inhibitor, URB597, or with a phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD, protects against cocaine toxicity. URB597 (1.0 mg/kg abolished cocaine-induced seizure, yet it did not protect against acute liver injury. Using confocal liver intravital microscopy, we observed that CBD (30 mg/kg reduced acute liver inflammation and damage induced by cocaine and prevented associated seizure. Additionally, we showed that previous liver damage induced by another hepatotoxic drug (acetaminophen increased seizure and lethality induced by cocaine intoxication, linking hepatotoxicity to seizure dynamics. These findings suggest that activation of cannabinoid system may have protective actions on both liver and brain induced by cocaine, minimizing inflammatory injury promoted by cocaine, supporting its further clinical application in the treatment of cocaine abuse.

  4. Logistic Analysis Of Acute Toxicity Of Hunteria Umbellata Extract In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we analyse the acute toxicity of Hunteria umbellata, a herbal medicinal plant, in mice in Nigeria using the logistic model. Hunteria umbellata is a plant with therapeutic potentials in the treatment of various diseases that include yaws, peptic ulcers, diabetes, piles, infertility and inflammation. Data on the acute ...

  5. Acute Toxicity and Cytotoxicity of Pereskia aculeata, a Highly Nutritious Cactaceae Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Debora O; Seifert, Mauricio; Nora, Fabiana R; Bobrowski, Vera L; Freitag, Rogerio A; Kucera, Heidi R; Nora, Leonardo; Gaikwad, Nilesh W

    2017-04-01

    Pereskia aculeata is a Cactaceae plant with valuable nutritional properties, including terrific amounts of protein, minerals, vitamins, and fiber. However, P. aculeata is reported to contain antinutrients and alkaloids in its leaves. In addition, in a study on growth and development, Wistar rats fed with P. aculeata and casein as protein source grew less than the control group (fed with casein only). Therefore, in this study, we evaluated, for the first time, the oral acute toxicity of P. aculeata in rats and also the cytotoxicity behavior of the plant on lettuce seeds. The acute toxicity research was carried out using dried P. aculeata ethanolic extract, in three different doses, administered by gavage to 24 female Wistar rats. The rats were then examined for signs of toxicity, food intake, body weight, and fecal excretion fluctuations, as well as histopathological alterations, using eight different body tissues. The acute toxicity study did not show any difference among the groups in either clinical evaluation or histopathological analyses. For the cytotoxicity study, dried P. aculeata ethanolic extract was applied on lettuce seeds in five different concentrations. These seeds were evaluated for germination, root and shoot length, and mitotic index. The results show that P. aculeata extract affects lettuce root and shoot growth, but not germination or mitotic index. In conclusion, the acute toxicity on rats and the cytogenotoxicity on lettuce of P. aculeata are neglectable, validating the potential of this plant to be used as a functional food.

  6. Computed tomography to detect body packing: an unusual cause of small bowel obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.A. [St. Paul' s Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Phang, T. [St. Paul' s Hospital, Dept. of Surgery, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Enns, R. [St. Paul' s Hospital, Div. of Gastroenterology, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Butchart, M.K. [St. Paul' s Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Filipenko, J.D. [St. Paul' s Hospital, Dept. of Pathology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Mason, A.C.; Cooperberg, P.I. [St. Paul' s Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2002-04-01

    Concealment of illicit drugs within the alimentary tract is now an established method used by both smugglers and traffickers to evade detection by authorities. Those who ingest wrapped packets of drugs to transport them across international borders are known as 'body packers,' whereas those who ingest packages of drugs upon an unexpected encounter with law enforcement agents are known as 'body stuffers' or 'quick swallowers. Although most of these individuals require no medical care, acute drug toxicity (from inadvertent leaking of contents or rupture of the drug packet) and bowel obstruction are recognized hazards of drug packet ingestion. The detection of these packets is a challenge to custom officials and police interested in preventing the import and trafficking of illegal drugs, as well as to physicians who have to treat individuals who have ingested them. We report a case of a 38-year-old intravenous drug abuser who presented with an acute small bowel obstruction secondary to an impacted intraluminal heroin balloon in the mid jejunum. The value of computed tomography (CT) in the patient's diagnostic evaluation is highlighted. (author)

  7. 40 CFR 799.9130 - TSCA acute inhalation toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... period. Chamber concentration may be measured using gravimetric or analytical methods as appropriate. If...) Conventional acute toxicity test—(1) Principle of the test method. Several groups of experimental animals are... practicable, monitored continuously or intermittently depending on the method of analysis, and recorded at...

  8. Phytochemical composition and acute toxicity evaluation of aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the phytochemical constituents and acute toxicity of the aqueous root bark extract of Securidaca longipedunculata Linn. The result of phytochemical screening revealed the presence of some secondary metabolites of pharmacological significance in the aqueous root bark extract ...

  9. The Different Volume Effects of Small-Bowel Toxicity During Pelvic Irradiation Between Gynecologic Patients With and Without Abdominal Surgery: A Prospective Study With Computed Tomography-Based Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, E.-Y.; Sung, C.-C.; Ko, S.-F.; Wang, C.-J.; Yang, Kuender D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of abdominal surgery on the volume effects of small-bowel toxicity during whole-pelvic irradiation in patients with gynecologic malignancies. Methods and Materials: From May 2003 through November 2006, 80 gynecologic patients without (Group I) or with (Group II) prior abdominal surgery were analyzed. We used a computed tomography (CT) planning system to measure the small-bowel volume and dosimetry. We acquired the range of small-bowel volume in 10% (V10) to 100% (V100) of dose, at 10% intervals. The onset and grade of diarrhea during whole-pelvic irradiation were recorded as small-bowel toxicity up to 39.6 Gy in 22 fractions. Results: The volume effect of Grade 2-3 diarrhea existed from V10 to V100 in Group I patients and from V60 to V100 in Group II patients on univariate analyses. The V40 of Group I and the V100 of Group II achieved most statistical significance. The mean V40 was 281 ± 27 cm 3 and 489 ± 34 cm 3 (p 3 and 132 ± 19 cm 3 (p = 0.003). Multivariate analyses revealed that V40 (p = 0.001) and V100 (p = 0.027) were independent factors for the development of Grade 2-3 diarrhea in Groups I and II, respectively. Conclusions: Gynecologic patients without and with abdominal surgery have different volume effects on small-bowel toxicity during whole-pelvic irradiation. Low-dose volume can be used as a predictive index of Grade 2 or greater diarrhea in patients without abdominal surgery. Full-dose volume is more important than low-dose volume for Grade 2 or greater diarrhea in patients with abdominal surgery

  10. Implementation of an image guided intensity-modulated protocol for post-prostatectomy radiotherapy: planning data and acute toxicity outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Benjamin; Min, Myo; Wood, Maree; Edwards, Sarah; Hoffmann, Matthew; Greenham, Stuart; Kovendy, Andrew; McKay, Michael J; Shakespeare, Thomas P

    2013-08-01

    There is substantial interest in implementation of image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) in the post-prostatectomy setting. We describe our implementation of IG-IMRT, and examine how often published organ-at-risk (OAR) constraints were met. Furthermore, we evaluate the incidence of acute genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities when patients were treated according to our protocol. Patients were eligible if they received post-prostatectomy radiotherapy (PPRT). Planning data were collected prospectively, and toxicity assessments were collected before, during and after treatment. Seventy-five eligible patients received either 64 Gy (19%) or 66 Gy (81%) in a single phase to the prostate bed. Suggested rectal dose-constraints of V40Gy < 60% and V60Gy < 40% were met in 64 (85%) and 75 (100%) patients, respectively. IMRT-specific rectal dose-constraints of V40Gy < 35% and V65Gy < 17% were achieved in 5 (7%) and 57 (76%) of patients. Bladder dose-constraint (V50Gy < 50%) was met in 58 (77%) patients. Two patients (3%) experienced new grade 3 genitourinary toxicity and one patient (1%) experienced new grade 3 gastroinestinal toxicity. All grade 3 toxicities had improved by 3-month review. Overall deterioration in urinary and gastrointestinal symptoms occurred in 33 (44%) and 35 (47%) of patients respectively. We report on our implementation of PPRT which takes into account nationally adopted guidelines, with a margin reduction supported by use of daily image guidance. Non-IMRT OAR constraints were met in most cases. IMRT-specific constraints were less often achieved despite margin reductions, suggesting the need for review of guidelines. Severe toxicity was rare, and most patients did not experience deterioration in urinary or bowel function attributable to radiotherapy. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  11. Implementation of an image guided intensity-modulated protocol for post-prostatectomy radiotherapy: planning data and acute toxicity outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua, Benjamin; Min, Myo; Wood, Maree; Edwards, Sarah; Hoffmann, Matthew; Greenham, Stuart; Kovendy, Andrew; McKay, Michael J.; Shakespeare, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    There is substantial interest in implementation of image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) in the post-prostatectomy setting. We describe our implementation of IG-IMRT, and examine how often published organ-at-risk (OAR) constraints were met. Furthermore, we evaluate the incidence of acute genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities when patients were treated according to our protocol. Patients were eligible if they received post-prostatectomy radiotherapy (PPRT). Planning data were collected prospectively, and toxicity assessments were collected before, during and after treatment. Seventy-five eligible patients received either 64Gy (19%) or 66Gy (81%) in a single phase to the prostate bed. Suggested rectal dose-constraints of V40Gy<60% and V60Gy<40% were met in 64 (85%) and 75 (100%) patients, respectively. IMRT-specific rectal dose-constraints of V40Gy<35% and V65Gy<17% were achieved in 5 (7%) and 57 (76%) of patients. Bladder dose-constraint (V50Gy<50%) was met in 58 (77%) patients. Two patients (3%) experienced new grade 3 genitourinary toxicity and one patient (1%) experienced new grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity. All grade 3 toxicities had improved by 3-month review. Overall deterioration in urinary and gastrointestinal symptoms occurred in 33 (44%) and 35 (47%) of patients respectively. We report on our implementation of PPRT which takes into account nationally adopted guidelines, with a margin reduction supported by use of daily image guidance. Non-IMRT OAR constraints were met in most cases. IMRT-specific constraints were less often achieved despite margin reductions, suggesting the need for review of guidelines. Severe toxicity was rare, and most patients did not experience deterioration in urinary or bowel function attributable to radiotherapy.

  12. Clinico-Pathological Profile and Management of Acute Mechanical Small Bowel Obstruction: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir Saleem Khan

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: Abdominal pain and distention of the abdomen are the most common symptoms and physical findings in patients presenting with acute mechanical small bowel obstruction (SBO. Worm (ascaridial obstruction is the most common cause of obstruction followed by postoperative adhesions. Although all patients were managed conservatively to start with, the operative rate in our series remained very high because it is very difficult to distinguish simple from strangulation obstruction on clinical, biochemical and/or radiological grounds with certainty. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2013; 2(3.000: 154-160

  13. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Radiotherapy, and the Risk of Acute and Chronic Toxicity: The Mayo Clinic Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinn, Melva E.; Gold, Douglas G. M.; Petersen, Ivy A.; Osborn, Thomas G.; Brown, Paul D.; Miller, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the acute and chronic toxic effects of radiotherapy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods and Materials: Medical records of 21 consecutive patients with SLE, who had received 34 courses of external beam radiotherapy and one low-dose-rate prostate implant, were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with discoid lupus erythematosus were excluded. Results: Median survival was 2.3 years and median follow-up 5.6 years. Eight (42%) of 19 patients evaluable for acute toxicity during radiotherapy experienced acute toxicity of Grade 1 or greater, and 4 (21%) had acute toxicity of Grade 3 or greater. The 5- and 10-year incidence of chronic toxicity of Grade 1 or greater was 45% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22-72%) and 56% (95% CI, 28-81%), respectively. The 5- and 10-year incidence of chronic toxicity of Grade 3 or greater was 28% (95% CI, 18-60%) and 40% (95% CI, 16-72%), respectively. Univariate analysis showed that chronic toxicity of Grade 1 or greater correlated with SLE renal involvement (p < 0.006) and possibly with the presence of five or more American Rheumatism Association criteria (p < 0.053). Chronic toxicity of Grade 3 or greater correlated with an absence of photosensitivity (p < 0.02), absence of arthritis (p < 0.03), and presence of a malar rash (p < 0.04). Conclusions: The risk of acute and chronic toxicity in patients with SLE who received radiotherapy was moderate but was not prohibitive of the use of radiotherapy. Patients with more advanced SLE may be at increased risk for chronic toxicity

  14. Acute toxicity of intravenously administered titanium dioxide nanoparticles in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaying Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With a wide range of applications, titanium dioxide (TiO₂ nanoparticles (NPs are manufactured worldwide in large quantities. Recently, in the field of nanomedicine, intravenous injection of TiO₂ nanoparticulate carriers directly into the bloodstream has raised public concerns on their toxicity to humans. METHODS: In this study, mice were injected intravenously with a single dose of TiO₂ NPs at varying dose levels (0, 140, 300, 645, or 1387 mg/kg. Animal mortality, blood biochemistry, hematology, genotoxicity and histopathology were investigated 14 days after treatment. RESULTS: Death of mice in the highest dose (1387 mg/kg group was observed at day two after TiO₂ NPs injection. At day 7, acute toxicity symptoms, such as decreased physical activity and decreased intake of food and water, were observed in the highest dose group. Hematological analysis and the micronucleus test showed no significant acute hematological or genetic toxicity except an increase in the white blood cell (WBC count among mice 645 mg/kg dose group. However, the spleen of the mice showed significantly higher tissue weight/body weight (BW coefficients, and lower liver and kidney coefficients in the TiO₂ NPs treated mice compared to control. The biochemical parameters and histological tissue sections indicated that TiO₂ NPs treatment could induce different degrees of damage in the brain, lung, spleen, liver and kidneys. However, no pathological effects were observed in the heart in TiO₂ NPs treated mice. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous injection of TiO₂ NPs at high doses in mice could cause acute toxicity effects in the brain, lung, spleen, liver, and kidney. No significant hematological or genetic toxicity was observed.

  15. Biofilms associated with bowel necrosis: A newly recognised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All specimens showed varying degrees of bowel necrosis and an organising acute peritoneal reaction. In addition, all showed colonies of Gram-negative bacteria within a mucopolysaccharide matrix. Conclusions. The identification of biofilms in necrotic bowel has raised questions regarding their clinical implications. Further ...

  16. INTER-SPECIES MODELS FOR ACUTE AQUATIC TOXICITY BASED ON MECHANISM OF ACTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will provide interspecies QSARs for acute toxicity to 17 aquatic species, such as fish, snail, tadpole, hydrozoan, crustacean, insect larvae, and bacteria developed using 5,000 toxic effect results for approximately 2400 chemicals.

  17. Feasibility and Acute Toxicity of Hypofractionated Radiation in Large-breasted Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, Paige L.; Corbin, Kimberly S.; Al-Hallaq, Hania; Hasan, Yasmin; Chmura, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of and acute toxicity associated with hypofractionated whole breast radiation (HypoRT) after breast-conserving surgery in patients excluded from or underrepresented in randomized trials comparing HypoRT with conventional fractionation schedules. Methods and Materials: A review was conducted of all patients consecutively treated with HypoRT at University of Chicago. All patients were treated to 42.56 Gy in 2.66 Gy daily fractions in either the prone or supine position. Planning was performed in most cases using wedges and large segments or a “field-in-field” technique. Breast volume was estimated using volumetric measurements of the planning target volume (PTV). Dosimetric parameters of heterogeneity (V105, V107, V110, and maximum dose) were recorded for each treatment plan. Acute toxicity was scored for each treated breast. Results: Between 2006 and 2010, 78 patients were treated to 80 breasts using HypoRT. Most women were overweight or obese (78.7%), with a median body mass index of 29.2 kg/m 2 . Median breast volume was 1,351 mL. Of the 80 treated breasts, the maximum acute skin toxicity was mild erythema or hyperpigmentation in 70.0% (56/80), dry desquamation in 21.25% (17/80), and focal moist desquamation in 8.75% (7/80). Maximum acute toxicity occurred after the completion of radiation in 31.9% of patients. Separation >25 cm was not associated with increased toxicity. Breast volume was the only patient factor significantly associated with moist desquamation on multivariable analysis (p = 0.01). Patients with breast volume >2,500 mL experienced focal moist desquamation in 27.2% of cases compared with 6.34% in patients with breast volume 25 cm and in patients with large breast volume when employing modern planning and positioning techniques. We recommend counseling regarding expected increases in skin toxicity in women with a PTV volume >2,500 mL.

  18. Feasibility and Acute Toxicity of Hypofractionated Radiation in Large-breasted Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorn, Paige L., E-mail: pdorn@radonc.uchicago.edu [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Hospitals, Chicago, IL (United States); Corbin, Kimberly S.; Al-Hallaq, Hania; Hasan, Yasmin; Chmura, Steven J. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Hospitals, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of and acute toxicity associated with hypofractionated whole breast radiation (HypoRT) after breast-conserving surgery in patients excluded from or underrepresented in randomized trials comparing HypoRT with conventional fractionation schedules. Methods and Materials: A review was conducted of all patients consecutively treated with HypoRT at University of Chicago. All patients were treated to 42.56 Gy in 2.66 Gy daily fractions in either the prone or supine position. Planning was performed in most cases using wedges and large segments or a 'field-in-field' technique. Breast volume was estimated using volumetric measurements of the planning target volume (PTV). Dosimetric parameters of heterogeneity (V105, V107, V110, and maximum dose) were recorded for each treatment plan. Acute toxicity was scored for each treated breast. Results: Between 2006 and 2010, 78 patients were treated to 80 breasts using HypoRT. Most women were overweight or obese (78.7%), with a median body mass index of 29.2 kg/m{sup 2}. Median breast volume was 1,351 mL. Of the 80 treated breasts, the maximum acute skin toxicity was mild erythema or hyperpigmentation in 70.0% (56/80), dry desquamation in 21.25% (17/80), and focal moist desquamation in 8.75% (7/80). Maximum acute toxicity occurred after the completion of radiation in 31.9% of patients. Separation >25 cm was not associated with increased toxicity. Breast volume was the only patient factor significantly associated with moist desquamation on multivariable analysis (p = 0.01). Patients with breast volume >2,500 mL experienced focal moist desquamation in 27.2% of cases compared with 6.34% in patients with breast volume <2,500 mL (p = 0.03). Conclusions: HypoRT is feasible and safe in patients with separation >25 cm and in patients with large breast volume when employing modern planning and positioning techniques. We recommend counseling regarding expected increases in skin toxicity in women

  19. In silico assessment of the acute toxicity of chemicals: recent advances and new model for multitasking prediction of toxic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleandrova, Valeria V; Luan, Feng; Speck-Planche, Alejandro; Cordeiro, M Natália D S

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of acute toxicity is one of the most important stages to ensure the safety of chemicals with potential applications in pharmaceutical sciences, biomedical research, or any other industrial branch. A huge and indiscriminate number of toxicity assays have been carried out on laboratory animals. In this sense, computational approaches involving models based on quantitative-structure activity/toxicity relationships (QSAR/QSTR) can help to rationalize time and financial costs. Here, we discuss the most significant advances in the last 6 years focused on the use of QSAR/QSTR models to predict acute toxicity of drugs/chemicals in laboratory animals, employing large and heterogeneous datasets. The advantages and drawbacks of the different QSAR/QSTR models are analyzed. As a contribution to the field, we introduce the first multitasking (mtk) QSTR model for simultaneous prediction of acute toxicity of compounds by considering different routes of administration, diverse breeds of laboratory animals, and the reliability of the experimental conditions. The mtk-QSTR model was based on artificial neural networks (ANN), allowing the classification of compounds as toxic or non-toxic. This model correctly classified more than 94% of the 1646 cases present in the whole dataset, and its applicability was demonstrated by performing predictions of different chemicals such as drugs, dietary supplements, and molecules which could serve as nanocarriers for drug delivery. The predictions given by the mtk-QSTR model are in very good agreement with the experimental results.

  20. New genetic associations in thiopurine-related bone marrow toxicity among inflammatory bowel disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabala, William; Cruz, Raquel; Barreiro-de Acosta, Manuel; Chaparro, María; Panes, Julián; Echarri, Ana; Esteve, Maria; Carpio, Daniel; Andreu, Montserrat; García-Planella, Esther; Domenech, Eugeni; Carracedo, Angel; Gisbert, Javier P; Barros, Francisco

    2013-04-01

    The toxicity related to thiopurine drug therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) varies widely among patients. Almost 15-30% of patients with IBD develop side effects during treatment, often bone marrow suppression. Several factors have been implicated in determining this toxicity, mainly individual genetic variation related to formation of active thiopurine metabolites. The aim was to identify genes involved in thiopurine-related myelosuppression. A two-stage investigation of 19,217 coding SNPs (cSNPs) was performed in a Spanish (Inflammatory Bowel Disease Group of Galicia [EIGA]) cohort of 173 IBD patients, 15 with bone marrow suppression. The top 20 cSNPs identified in the first stage with p ENEIDA) cohort (87 patients, 29 with bone marrow suppression). Several cSNPs showed a significant p-value in the allelic joint analysis (p-Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test ≤2.55 × 10(-3)) despite no cSNP passing correction for multiple testing in the first cohort. Of note is rs3729961 in the gene IL6ST, a transducer signal chain shared by many cytokines including IL6 (p-value combined = 2.36 × 10(-4), odds ratio [95% CI]: 3.41 [1.71-6.78]). In addition, we detected association with rs3749598 in the FSTL5 gene that appears to interact with metalloproteases at the extracellular matrix level (p-value combined = 4.89 × 10(-4)), odds ratio (95% CI): 3.67 (1.68-8.01). We have identified IL6ST and FSLT5 as new bone marrow suppression susceptibility candidate genes after thiopurine treatment in IBD patients. This is the first report of variants associated with thiopurine-related myelosuppression that was identified by a genome-wide association study. Its validation awaits functional analyses and replication in additional studies. Original submitted 14 September 2012; Revision submitted 13 February 2013.

  1. Biocompatible lutein-polymer-lipid nanocapsules: Acute and subacute toxicity and bioavailability in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranganathan, Arunkumar; Hindupur, Ravi; Vallikannan, Baskaran, E-mail: baskaranv@cftri.res.in

    2016-12-01

    Lutein-poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-phospholipid (PL) nanocapsules were prepared (henceforth referred as lutein nanocapsules) and studied for acute, subacute oral toxicity and bioavailability of lutein in mice. Prior to examining the safety of lutein nanocapsules, particle size, zeta potential, surface morphology and interaction between lutein, PLGA and PL were studied. In acute study, mice were gavaged with a single dose of lutein nanocapsules at 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight (BW) and examined for 2 weeks, while in subacute study, daily mice were gavaged with a dose of 1 and 10 mg/kg BW for 4 weeks. Results revealed that mean size and zeta value of lutein nanocapsules were 140 nm and − 44 mV, respectively. Acute and subacute toxicity studies did not show any mortality or treatment related adverse effect in clinical observations, ophthalmic examinations, body and organ weights. No toxicity related findings were observed in hematology, histopathology and other blood and tissue clinical chemistry parameters. In subacute study, no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of lutein nanocapsules was found to be at a dose of 10 mg/kg BW. Feeding lutein nanocapsules resulted in a significant (p < 0.01) increase in lutein level in plasma and tissue compared to the control group. Lutein nanocapsules did not cause toxicity in mice. However, human trials are warranted. - Highlights: • Acute and subacute toxicity studies of lutein-PLGA-PL showed no toxicity. • PLGA-PL nanocapsules were safe carriers for oral delivery of lutein. • Oral gavage of lutein-PLGA-PL nanocapsule improves plasma lutein levels.

  2. The acute toxicity of clove oil to fish Danio rerio and Poecilia reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Doleželová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Clove oil (active substance eugenol is an anaesthetic used in aquaculture for stress prevention and prevention of mechanical damage during veterinary procedures. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of clove oil in two aquarium fish species - zebrafish (Danio rerio and guppy (Poecilia reticulata, which are considered the most commonly used model organisms in toxicity testing. The semi-static method according to OECD no. 203 (Fish, Acute toxicity test was used for testing the toxicity of clove oil for juvenile fish. A series of 5 acute toxicity tests was performed, with 10 fish of both species used for each concentration and for the control. The results obtained (number of dead individuals at particular test concentrations were subjected to a probit analysis using the EKO-TOX 5.2 program in order to determine 96hLC50 clove oil values. The significance of the difference between 96hLC50 values in D. rerio and P. reticulata was tested using the Mann-Whitney non-parametric test. The 96hLC50 mean value for clove oil was 18.2 ± 5.52 mg·l–1 in juvenile D. rerio and 21.7 ± 0.8 mg·l–1 in P. reticulata. In spite of variability in clove oil composition, acute toxicity values of clove oil for juvenile stages of both fish species were comparable. The results did not show different sensitivities to clove oil in tested fish species. This is the first similar study in these fish species.

  3. Acute and sub-acute toxicity of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. stem bark hydroalcoholic extract on Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard A. Toudji

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Pithecellobium dulce (PD is an annual herbaceous plant commonly used in African traditional medicine as a purgative, antipyretic, anti-ulcer and wound dressing agent. Aims: To evaluate the acute and sub-acute toxicity of P. dulce stem bark hydroethanolic extract in Wistar rats. Methods: In the acute test, a single dose of 5 g/kg body weight was administered to Wistar rats afterwards they were observed individually 4 hours post-dosing, and at least once daily for 14 consecutive days. The sub-acute toxicity was evaluated by daily oral administration of 0.5 and 1 g/kg extract, for 28 days. Biochemical and hematological parameters assessment as well as body and organ weights of the rats were carried out. Results: The limit dose of 5 g/kg did not cause any mortality or signs of acute toxicity on the rats during the experimentation period. In the sub-acute test, uterus-ovary-trompe (UOT weight decreased dose-dependently: Control group (0.82 ± 0.03 g; Extract 0.5 g/kg (0.57 ± 0.06 g; Extract 1g/kg (0.48 ± 0.01 g (p ˂ 0.01. Extract lowered urea values in female group treated with 1 g/kg (p < 0.01. Lymphocytes percentage was dose dependently increased in treated male groups: Control group (53.00 ± 0.58%; extract 0.5 g/kg (58.67 ± 0.67% and extract 1 g/kg (60.67 ± 2.41%. Conclusions: These findings suggest that PD is relatively safe when administered orally in rats but is slightly atrophic for female reproductive organs.

  4. Acute lethal toxicity following passive immunization for treatment of murine cryptococcosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Savoy, A C; Lupan, D M; Manalo, P B; Roberts, J S; Schlageter, A M; Weinhold, L C; Kozel, T R

    1997-01-01

    Passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for the major capsular polysaccharide of Cryptococcus neoformans alters the course of murine cryptococcosis. During studies of passive immunization for treatment of murine cryptococcosis, we noted the occurrence of an acute, lethal toxicity. Toxicity was characterized by scratching, lethargy, respiratory distress, collapse, and death within 20 to 60 min after injection of antibody. The toxic effect was observed only in mice with ...

  5. Acute radiotherapy toxicity in 57 dogs with gross and microscopic mast cell tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, L; Tanis, J B; Harper, A; Amores-Fuster, I; Killick, D R; Finotello, R

    2018-05-15

    Mast cell tumours (MCTs) are commonly treated with radiation therapy, most often in a microscopic disease setting. Poorer outcomes are expected in patients with gross disease, and irradiation of gross disease may be associated with greater toxicity. The aim of this study was to compare acute radiation adverse events (AE) in dogs with gross and microscopic MCTs receiving radiotherapy. Fifty-seven dogs were included, 28 with gross disease and 29 with microscopic. In order to assess mucosal and skin toxicity, patients were assigned to 2 groups: head (29 patients, 14 patients with gross and 15 microscopic) and other sites (28 patients, 14 each). All were treated with external beam radiotherapy, and toxicity assessed at the end of treatment and 10 to 14 days later (first recheck). All patients developed some acute radiation toxicity by the end of the course. However, there was no difference in the severity of toxicity between gross and microscopic disease in either site group at either time point. The only variable associated with an increased frequency of grade 2 or 3 toxicity at the first recheck was the use of prednisolone prior to radiotherapy (P = .05). No other factors were identified which were associated with increased toxicity. For the head group, the site of highest grade toxicity was mucosa or, if included in the field, nasal planum, which was often more severely affected than the mucosa. No significant late toxicity was identified. Two dogs developed acute haematemesis during the radiotherapy course, but both completed the course without further events. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Acute toxicity of chlorantraniliprole to non-target crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) associated with rice-crayfish cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbee, Gary C; McClain, W Ray; Lanka, Srinivas K; Stout, Michael J

    2010-09-01

    Chlorantraniliprole, a novel anthranilic diamide insecticide, was recently introduced into the United States where rice-crayfish crop rotations are practiced to control rice water weevil (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel) infestations. Chlorantraniliprole has high margins of mammalian safety and excellent insecticidal efficacy, but its toxicity to non-target crayfish is uncertain. In this study, the acute toxicity of chlorantraniliprole to the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii Girard was determined using aquatic and feeding assays. The aquatic 96 h median lethal toxicity (LC(50)) data indicate that technical-grade chlorantraniliprole is highly toxic (US EPA category) to crayfish with an LC(50) of 951 microg L(-1) (95% CL = 741-1118 microg L(-1)). A no observed effect concentration (NOEC) of 480 microg L(-1) was recorded. Neither the 36 day chronic feeding study, where crayfish fed on chlorantraniliprole-treated rice seed in aquaria, nor the 144 h acute feeding test, where crayfish fed on rice seeds treated with chlorantraniliprole, produced mortality or abnormal behavior. Chlorantraniliprole is three orders of magnitude less acutely toxic to P. clarkii than lambda-cyhalothrin and etofenprox, two pyrethroid insecticides also used in rice, and is less likely to cause acute crayfish toxicity in rice pond ecosystems. Based on acute toxicity data, the use of chlorantraniliprole should be more compatible with rice-crayfish crop rotations than pyrethroids. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Acute and late toxicities of radiotherapy for patients with discoid lupus erythematosus: a retrospective case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Ajaykumar B

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate acute and late toxicities of radiotherapy for patients with discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE. Methods A retrospective review was performed of patients with DLE who received radiotherapy at our institution between 1980 and 2005. Patients with other connective tissue disorders were excluded. Control patients were matched 2:1 with the DLE treatment courses based on age, cancer diagnosis, year of treatment, radiotherapy dose, and sex. Acute (within 30 days from the completion of radiotherapy and late toxicities were evaluated for each treatment course using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Version 3.0. Results Twelve patients with DLE received a total of 15 radiotherapy courses. The median follow-up time was 2.6 years (range, 0.0-15.2 years. Acute toxicity of any organ was observed in 10 (67% treatment courses, of which 2 (13% were Grade 3 or higher. Acute Grade 1 or 2 dermatologic toxicity was observed in 8 courses (53%. Late toxicity of any organ was observed in 7 of 12 (58% evaluable treatment courses, of which 3 (23% were grade 3 or higher. Late grade 1 or 2 dermatologic toxicity was observed in 5 (42% courses. No patient experienced acute or late Grade 3 or higher dermatologic toxicity. The rates of any organ or dermatologic acute and late toxicity were not significantly different between DLE and control treatment courses. Conclusions Our findings do not suggest an increased risk of toxicity to the skin or other organs in patients with DLE receiving radiotherapy.

  8. Acute and late toxicities of radiotherapy for patients with discoid lupus erythematosus: a retrospective case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Ajaykumar B; Hallemeier, Christopher L; Petersen, Ivy A; Jensen, Ashley W; Osborn, Thomas G; Miller, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate acute and late toxicities of radiotherapy for patients with discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE). A retrospective review was performed of patients with DLE who received radiotherapy at our institution between 1980 and 2005. Patients with other connective tissue disorders were excluded. Control patients were matched 2:1 with the DLE treatment courses based on age, cancer diagnosis, year of treatment, radiotherapy dose, and sex. Acute (within 30 days from the completion of radiotherapy) and late toxicities were evaluated for each treatment course using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Version 3.0. Twelve patients with DLE received a total of 15 radiotherapy courses. The median follow-up time was 2.6 years (range, 0.0-15.2 years). Acute toxicity of any organ was observed in 10 (67%) treatment courses, of which 2 (13%) were Grade 3 or higher. Acute Grade 1 or 2 dermatologic toxicity was observed in 8 courses (53%). Late toxicity of any organ was observed in 7 of 12 (58%) evaluable treatment courses, of which 3 (23%) were grade 3 or higher. Late grade 1 or 2 dermatologic toxicity was observed in 5 (42%) courses. No patient experienced acute or late Grade 3 or higher dermatologic toxicity. The rates of any organ or dermatologic acute and late toxicity were not significantly different between DLE and control treatment courses. Our findings do not suggest an increased risk of toxicity to the skin or other organs in patients with DLE receiving radiotherapy

  9. [Acute onset pulmonary toxicity associated to amiodarone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Pedro Gonçalo; Saraiva, Fátima; Carreira, Cláudia

    2012-01-01

    Amiodarone is a potent anti-arrhythmic drug with a well-known potential chronic pulmonary toxicity. We describe a case of acute pulmonary toxicity (APT) induced by amiodarone in a 57 year old patient submitted to a perfusion of 900 mg in just 6 hours, to control an auricular flutter with rapid ventricular response. During the administration, the patient developed hemodynamic instability and oxygen dessaturation that led to an electrical cardioversion with return of sinus rhythm. Still, the patient continued in progressive respiratory deterioration with acute bilateral infiltrates on chest x-ray and apparent normal cardiac filling pressures confirmed by echocardiography. Anon-cardiogenic pulmonar edema progressing to clinico-physiological ARDS criteria was diagnosed. Expeditive therapeutic measures were undertaken, namely by initiation of non-invasive positive airway pressure support, that attained a good result.Albeit rare, amiodarone-induced APT might have severe consequences, namely progression to ALI/ARDS with a high mortality index.As it is a frequently prescribed drug, there should be a high clinical suspicion towards this phenomenon, allowing precocious therapeutic measures to be taken in a timely fashion to prevent the associated unfavorable outcome.

  10. Effect of age and body weight on toxicity and survival in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løhmann, Ditte J A; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Ha, Shau-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Treatment for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia is very toxic and the association between outcome and age and Body Mass Index is unclear. We investigated effect of age and Body Mass Index on toxicity and survival in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. We studied all patients who completed first...

  11. Acute toxicity after a diverting stoma and spacer prior to chemoradiation in locally advanced rectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Voort Van Zyp, Jochem R N; Ceha, Heleen M.; Niehe, Valerie; Marinelli, Andreas W K S; Putter, Hein; Marijnen, Corrie A M

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background and purpose Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by surgery is the standard of care for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). For grade ≥3 acute diarrhea there is a relationship between dose and irradiated small bowel volume. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether combined

  12. The Acute Toxicity of Major Ion Salts to Ceriodaphnia dubia. III. Mathematical models for mixture toxicity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset concerns the development of models for describing the acute toxicity of major ions to Ceriodaphnia dubia using data from single salt tests and binary...

  13. Evaluation of acute toxicity of genabilic acid (menbutone 10% in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. El Okle

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 A complete investigation of the acute toxicity of a choleretic compound, menbutone, was performed in rabbits, including lethal dose for 50% of rabbits determination, clinical signs observation and in vivo and post-mortem examinations. Haematological, biochemical and histopathological changes resulting from intramuscular injection of menbutone were also investigated at dose 400 mg/kg body weight. Acute toxicity of menbutone at dose of 400 mg/kg BW induced interstitial myocarditis and multifocal necrosis, whereas serum creatine phosphokinase, creatinine phosphokinase-MB isoenzyme and aspartate aminotransferase activities were significantly increased. Elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities and total bilirubin level associated with lowered albumin content was consistent with histopathological changes of hepatic tissues; hepatic necrosis and fatty infiltration were pronounced indicators of injuries. Renal tubular necrosis and interstitial nephritis were also observed in intoxicated rabbits. Menbutone also induced variations in some haematological parameters. We concluded that acute toxicity of menbutone in rabbits occurred at accidental high doses, as the lethal dose was about 50 fold over the recommended therapeutic dose for other animals. Cardiac muscle, liver and kidneys are the main target organs for menbutone toxicity. Menbutone is not recommended for use in rabbits suffering from any cardiacand hepatic disorders, especially in overdosing situations.

  14. Acute toxicity and genotoxicity of fermented traditional medicine oyaksungi-san.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hwayong; Hwang, Youn-Hwan; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2017-06-01

    The traditional medicine oyaksungi-san (OY) has been prescribed in East Asia for hundreds of years for the treatment of stroke, paralysis, and ataxia. OY also has therapeutic effects on arthralgia, myalgia, and rheumatoid arthritis, and recent studies have shown its protective effects against apoptosis of hippocampal cells and its anti-inflammatory effects on the peripheral blood cells of patient with cerebral infarction. Many studies have explored the use of traditional medicine and herb materials in the development of safe, novel, and effective pharmaceuticals with fewer side effects. These efforts commonly adopt a bioconversion tool for fermentation with beneficial microbes. However, only pharmaceuticals with high levels of safety and low levels of toxicity can be used in healthcare system. OY water extract was fermented with Lactobacillus and assayed for acute toxicity and genotoxicity. Single dose acute toxicity, bacterial reverse mutation, chromosome aberrations, and micronucleus were observed and assayed in rats, histidine/tryptophan auxotrophic bacteria, Chinese hamster ovary fibroblast cells, and mice bone marrow cells, respectively. All the experimental animals showed no abnormal behavior, clinical signs, body weight increases, or mortality. In the bacterial cultures, no revertant colonies were observed. Morphological and numerical chromosomal aberrations were not found in all metaphases examined. Frequency of induced micronuclei was not significantly increased in all doses applied. As a whole, no acute toxicity or genotoxicity were observed in all the assays examined. Therefore, fermented OY is considered to be a safe material that can be used for development of complementary and alternative medicine using bioconversion.

  15. Methotrexate-induced acute toxic leukoencephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag R Salkade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is one of the most common malignancies of childhood, which is treated with high doses of methotrexate (MTX, as it crosses the blood-brain barrier and can be administered intravenously and via intrathecal route to eradicate leukemic cells from central nervous system (CNS. Additionally, high doses of MTX not only prevent CNS recurrence but also hematologic relapses. Although, standard treatment protocol for ALL includes multimodality therapy, MTX is usually associated with neurotoxicity and affects periventricular deep white matter region. Methotrexate-induced ′acute toxic leukoencephalopathy′ has varying clinical manifestations ranging from acute neurological deficit to seizures or encephalopathy. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI is widely available and routinely used in clinical practice to identify acute stroke and also to distinguish acute stroke from non-stroke like conditions. We report a local teenage Chinese girl who developed 2 discrete episodes of left upper and lower limb weakness with left facial nerve paresis after receiving the 2 nd and 3 rd cycle of high dose of intravenous and intrathecal methotrexate, without having cranial irradiation. After each episode of her neurological deficit, the DW-MRI scan showed focal restricted diffusion in right centrum semiovale. Her left sided focal neurological deficit and facial nerve paresis almost completely subsided on both these occasions within 3 days of symptom onset. Follow-up DW-MRI, after her neurological recovery, revealed almost complete resolution of previously noted restricted diffusion in right centrum semiovale, while the lesion was not evident on concurrent T2W (T2-weighted and FLAIR (Fluid-Attenuated Inversion recovery sequences, nor showed any post contrast enhancement on post gadolinium enhanced T1W (T1-weighted sequences. No residual neurological deficit or intellectual impairment was identified on clinical follow up

  16. Asparaginase-Associated toxicity in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Hijiya (Nobuko); I.M. van der Sluis (Inge)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAsparaginase is an integral component of multiagent chemotherapy regimens for the treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Positive outcomes are seen in patients who are able to complete their entire prescribed course of asparaginase therapy. Toxicities associated with

  17. Acute methaemoglobinaemia initially treated as organophosphate poisoning leading to atropine toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakhandki, Srinivas; Yahya, Mohammed; Praveen, Mudalgi

    2012-07-01

    A case of unknown compound poisoning is presented. It was initially treated as organophosphate poisoning with lack of response. A timely diagnosis of acute methaemoglobinaemia and iatrogenic atropine toxicity was made based on clinical evaluation. Treatment of methaemoglobinaemia using oral methylene blue and of atropine toxicity with supportive measures could save the patient.

  18. The Dose-Volume Relationship of Small Bowel Irradiation and Acute Grade 3 Diarrhea During Chemoradiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, John M.; Lockman, David; Yan Di; Wallace, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Previous work has found a highly significant relationship between the irradiated small-bowel volume and development of Grade 3 small-bowel toxicity in patients with rectal cancer. This study tested the previously defined parameters in a much larger group of patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 96 consecutive patients receiving pelvic radiation therapy for rectal cancer had treatment planning computed tomographic scans with small-bowel contrast that allowed the small bowel to be outlined with calculation of a small-bowel dose-volume histogram for the initial intended pelvic treatment to 45 Gy. Patients with at least one parameter above the previously determined dose-volume parameters were considered high risk, whereas those with all parameters below these levels were low risk. The grade of diarrhea and presence of liquid stool was determined prospectively. Results: There was a highly significant association with small-bowel dose-volume and Grade 3 diarrhea (p ≤ 0.008). The high-risk and low-risk parameters were predictive with Grade 3 diarrhea in 16 of 51 high-risk patients and in 4 of 45 low-risk patients (p = 0.01). Patients who had undergone irradiation preoperatively had a lower incidence of Grade 3 diarrhea than those treated postoperatively (18% vs. 28%; p = 0.31); however, the predictive ability of the high-risk/low-risk parameters was better for preoperatively (p = 0.03) than for postoperatively treated patients (p = 0.15). Revised risk parameters were derived that improved the overall predictive ability (p = 0.004). Conclusions: The highly significant dose-volume relationship and validity of the high-risk and low-risk parameters were confirmed in a large group of patients. The risk parameters provided better modeling for the preoperative patients than for the postoperative patients

  19. Prostate hypofractionated radiation therapy with injection of hyaluronic acid: acute toxicities in a phase 2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapet, Olivier; Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie; Faix, Antoine; Ruffion, Alain; Jalade, Patrice; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian; Azria, David

    2015-03-15

    Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapet, Olivier; Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie; Faix, Antoine; Ruffion, Alain; Jalade, Patrice; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian; Azria, David

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity

  1. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapet, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.chapet@chu-lyon.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); EMR3738, Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie [Pole Information Médicale Evaluation Recherche, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon (France); Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); EA SIS, Université de Lyon, Lyon (France); Faix, Antoine [Department of Urology, Clinique Beausoleil, Montpellier (France); Ruffion, Alain [Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Department of Urology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Jalade, Patrice [Department of Medical Physics, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Fenoglietto, Pascal [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France); Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Azria, David [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity.

  2. Variability of LD50 Values from Rat Oral Acute Toxicity Studies: Implications for Alternative Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative models developed for estimating acute systemic toxicity are generally evaluated using in vivo LD50 values. However, in vivo acute systemic toxicity studies can produce variable results, even when conducted according to accepted test guidelines. This variability can ma...

  3. Phytochemical screening, cytotoxicity and acute toxicity of Annona ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening, cytotoxicity and acute toxicity of Annona vepretorum Mart (Annonaceae) leaf extracts. Mariana G e Silva, Ana P de Oliveira, Camila de S Araújo, Érica M de Lavor, Juliane C Silva, Rosemairy L Mendes, Cláudia do Ó Pessoa, Marcília P Costa, Jackson R G da S Almeida ...

  4. The Study on Acute Subacute Toxicity and Anti-cancer Effect of K-herbal-acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Ho, Kim

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate Acute· Subacute Toxicity and Anti-cancer Effect of K-Herbal-acupuncture in mice and rats. Methods : Balb/c mice were injected intraperitoneally with K- herbal-acupuncture for LD50 and acute toxicity test. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with K-herbal-acupuncture for subacute toxicity test. K-Herbal-acupuncture was injected on abdomen of mice with S-180 cancer cell line. Result : 1. LD50 of K-Herbal-acupuncture was limited 4×10-3ml/kg~2×10-3ml/kg by the test. 2. In acute toxicity test, all of mice were down to the moving reflex, but the weight of mice was increased in treatment group, compared with the normal group. (p<0.05 3. In acute toxicity test of serum biochemical values of mice, glucose was increased in treatment II group, total cholesterol was increased both treatments.(p<0.05 4. In subacute toxicity test, the clinical signs of toxication was down to the moving reflex, but it is not severe like acute toxicity test, and observed weight loss at the treatments. 5. In subacute toxicity test, liver weight was decreased compared with the normal group. (p<0.05 6. In subacute toxicity test of complete blood count test (CBC of rat, HCT was decreased in treatments, compared with the normal group.(p<0.05 7. In subacute toxicity test of serum biochemical values of rat, uric acid and triglyceride were decreased, and glucose was increased in treatment groups compared with the control group. (p<0.05 8. Median survival time was increased about 45% in treatment groups compared with the control group.(p<0.05 9. Natural killer cell activity was increased in B16F10 lung cancer model, but it was not in sarcoma-180 abdomen cancer. 10. In interleukin-2 productivity test, treatment groups didn't show significant change in lung cancer and abdomen cancer, compared with the normal group.(p<0.005 11. In making an examination of metastatic cancer with the naked eye, melanoma

  5. Dose–Volume Effects on Patient-Reported Acute Gastrointestinal Symptoms During Chemoradiation Therapy for Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ronald C.; Mamon, Harvey J.; Ancukiewicz, Marek; Killoran, Joseph H.; Crowley, Elizabeth M.; Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S.; Wo, Jennifer Y.; Ryan, David P.; Hong, Theodore S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Research on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in rectal cancer is limited. We examined whether dose–volume parameters of the small bowel and large bowel were associated with patient-reported gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms during 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)–based chemoradiation treatment for rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: 66 patients treated at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital or Massachusetts General Hospital between 2006 and 2008 were included. Weekly during treatment, patients completed a questionnaire assessing severity of diarrhea, urgency, pain, cramping, mucus, and tenesmus. The association between dosimetric parameters and changes in overall GI symptoms from baseline through treatment was examined by using Spearman’s correlation. Potential associations between these parameters and individual GI symptoms were also explored. Results: The amount of small bowel receiving at least 15 Gy (V15) was significantly associated with acute symptoms (p = 0.01), and other dosimetric parameters ranging from V5 to V45 also trended toward association. For the large bowel, correlations between dosimetric parameters and overall GI symptoms at the higher dose levels from V25 to V45 did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.1), and a significant association was seen with rectal pain from V15 to V45 (p < 0.01). Other individual symptoms did not correlate with small bowel or large bowel dosimetric parameters. Conclusions: The results of this study using PROs are consistent with prior studies with physician-assessed acute toxicity, and they identify small bowel V15 as an important predictor of acute GI symptoms during 5-FU–based chemoradiation treatment. A better understanding of the relationship between radiation dosimetric parameters and PROs may allow physicians to improve radiation planning to optimize patient outcomes.

  6. Evaluation of the toxic effect of endocrine disruptor Bisphenol A (BPA) in the acute and chronic toxicity tests with Pomacea lineata gastropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, André Lucas Correa; Soares, Priscila Rafaela Leão; da Silva, Stephannie Caroline Barros Lucas; da Silva, Marília Cordeiro Galvão; Santos, Thamiris Pinheiro; Cadena, Marilia Ribeiro Sales; Soares, Pierre Castro; Cadena, Pabyton Gonçalves

    2017-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a plasticizer and a risk when it interacts with organisms, and can cause changes in the development and reproduction of them. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of BPA, by acute and chronic toxicity tests with neonates and adults of Pomacea lineata. Adults and neonates were divided into groups exposed to BPA (1-20mg/L), or 17β-estradiol (1mg/L) and control in the acute and chronic toxicity tests. Behavior, heart rate, reproduction and hemolymph biochemical analysis were measured. In the acute toxicity test, the 96-h LC 50 with adults was 11.09 and with neonates was 3.14mg/L. In this test, it was observed lethargic behavior and an increase of 77.6% of aspartate aminotransferase in the adults' hemolymph (ptest, it was observed behaviors associated with reproduction, as Copulate, in the groups exposed to BPA. The results that were found in this study proved that BPA is a potentially toxic agent to Pomacea lineata according to biological parameters evaluated. These data contribute to the understanding of BPA toxic effects' in the aquatic invertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Acute toxicity and genotoxicity study of fermented traditional herb formula Guibi-tang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hwayong; Hwang, Youn-Hwan; Yang, Hye Jin; Kim, Hyun-Kyu; Song, Kyung Seuk; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2014-10-28

    Guibi-tang (Guipi-tang in Chinese and Kihi-to in Japanese) is a multi-herb traditional medicine commonly prescribed to treat psychoneurosis in East Asia. Although this medicine has been widely used, there is little available information on the safety and toxicity of Guibi-tang, especially on the fermented one. Guibi-tang, composed of 12 herbs, was fermented with bacteria and lyophilized. Single dose acute toxicity in rats was observed for 14 days after administration. Genetic toxicity of fermented Guibi-tang was evaluated on bacterial reverse mutation in Salmonella and Escherichia spp., chromosome aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells, and micronucleus formation in mice. Ingredients in FGBT were identified and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. In acute oral toxicity study, behavior, clinical signs and body weight changes were normal observing in all experimental animals. No revertant colonies were found in any bacterial cultures examined. Morphological or numerical anomalies and significant increased number of aberrant metaphases were not observed. Micronucleus assay showed no significant increases in the frequency of inducing micronuclei in any dose examined. Decursinol, decursin, glycyrrhizin, and 6-gingerol in fermented Guibi-tang were identified and quantitated. As a whole, no acute and genotoxic effects were found in all the assays and parameters analyzed. Fermented Guibi-tang was recognized as safe and non-toxic, and therefore can be used for applications of traditional medicine in modern complementary and alternative therapeutics and health care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Acute and subacute toxicity of 10B-paraboronophenylalanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniyama, K.; Fujiwara, H.; Kuno, T.; Saito, N.; Shuntoh, H.; Sakaue, M.; Tanaka, C.

    1989-01-01

    The acute and subacute toxicities of 10B-paraboronophenylalanine (10B-BPA) were investigated in the rat, according to the Good Laboratory Practice Standard for safety studies on drugs in Japan. In the acute toxicity test of 10B-BPA, LD50 values of acidic 10B-BPA for intraperitoneal and subcutaneous injections were 640 mg/kg for male and 710 mg/kg for female rats, and more than 1,000 mg/kg for male and female rats, respectively. The LD50 values of neutral 10B-BPA for intraperitoneal and subcutaneous injections were more than 3,000 mg/kg for male and female rats. The difference in LD50 values between acidic and neutral 10B-BPA may be attributed to the acidity of material. From the subacute toxicity test, in which the rats were injected daily subcutaneously for 28 days, the following toxic effects of 10B-BPA were observed. Increase in ketone level in the urine was induced in all rats treated with 10B-BPA. High dose of 10B-BPA (1,500 mg/kg) induced increase in spleen weight and reticulocyte count, and decrease in hemoglobin count, thereby suggesting that 10B-BPA causes hemolysis. Increases in the leukocyte count and the ratio of neutrophils and lymphocytes were also observed in rats treated with a high dose of 10B-BPA. This may be attributed to local reactions at the injection site. There were no significant differences in the findings between control rats and rats treated with a low dose of 10B-BPA (300 mg/kg). Thus, low doses of neutral 10B-BPA may be available for use as a drug

  9. Acute lethal toxicity following passive immunization for treatment of murine cryptococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoy, A C; Lupan, D M; Manalo, P B; Roberts, J S; Schlageter, A M; Weinhold, L C; Kozel, T R

    1997-01-01

    Passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for the major capsular polysaccharide of Cryptococcus neoformans alters the course of murine cryptococcosis. During studies of passive immunization for treatment of murine cryptococcosis, we noted the occurrence of an acute, lethal toxicity. Toxicity was characterized by scratching, lethargy, respiratory distress, collapse, and death within 20 to 60 min after injection of antibody. The toxic effect was observed only in mice with a cryptococcal infection and was reduced or absent in the early and late stages of disease. The clinical course and histopathology were consistent with those for shock. There was considerable variation between mouse strains in susceptibility to toxicity. Swiss Webster mice from the Charles River colony were most susceptible, followed by C3H/He, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 mice. DBA/2 mice and Swiss Webster mice from the Simonsen colony were resistant. Acute toxicity was mimicked by injection of preformed complexes of MAb and purified polysaccharide. The toxic effect was also produced by injection of MAbs into mice that were preloaded with polysaccharide. The toxic effect was not blocked by treatment of mice with chloropheniramine or anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha antibodies or by depletion of complement components via pretreatment with cobra venom factor. Toxicity was reduced by treatment of mice with high doses of epinephrine, dexamethasone, or chlorpromazine. Finally, the toxic effect was completely blocked by treatment of mice with the platelet-activating factor antagonist WEB 2170 BS or by pretreatment of mice with the liposome-encapsulated drug dichloromethylene diphosphonate, a procedure which depletes macrophages from the spleen and liver. PMID:9125564

  10. Moist skin care can diminish acute radiation-induced skin toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momm, F.; Weissenberger, C.; Bertelt, S.; Henke, M.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Radiation treatment may induce acute skin reactions. There are several methods of managing them. Validity of these methods, however, is not sufficiently studied. We therefore investigated, whether moist skin care with 3% urea lotion will reduce acute radiation skin toxicity. Patients and Methods: 88 patients with carcinomas of the head and neck undergoing radiotherapy with curative intent (mean total dose 60 Gy, range: 50-74 Gy) were evaluated weekly for acute skin reactions according to the RTOG-CTC score. In 63 patients, moist skin care with 3% urea lotion was performed. The control group consisted of 25 patients receiving conventional dry skin care. The incidence of grade I, II, and III reactions and the radiation dose at occurrence of a particular reaction were determined and statistically analyzed using the log-rank test. The dose-time relations of individual skin reactions are described. Results: At some point of time during radiotherapy, all patients suffered from acute skin reactions grade I, > 90% from grade II reactions. 50% of patients receiving moist skin care experienced grade I reactions at 26 Gy as compared to 22 Gy in control patients (p = 0.03). Grade II reactions occurred at 51 Gy versus 34 Gy (p = 0.006). Further, 22% of the patients treated with moist skin care suffered from acute skin toxicity grade III as compared to 56% of the controls (p = 0.0007). Conclusion: Moist skin care with 3% urea lotion delays the occurrence and reduces the grade of acute skin reactions in percutaneously irradiated patients with head and neck tumors. (orig.)

  11. Polyaluminium chloride (PAX-18) - acute toxicity and toxicity for early development stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mácová, S.; Máchová, J.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Plhalová, L.; Široká, Z.; Dlesková, K.; Doleželová, P.; Svobodová, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 30, Suppl. 1 (2009), s. 192-198 ISSN 0172-780X. [Interdisciplinary Czech-Slovak Toxicological Conference /14./. Brno, 01.06.2009-03.06.2009] R&D Projects: GA MZe QH71305 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : fish * acute toxicity test * embryo-larval toxicity test * pH Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 1.047, year: 2009 http://node.nel.edu/?node_id=9497

  12. Bowel ischaemia and cocaine consumption: case study and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Martínez-Vieira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Amongst others, cocaine consumption has a detrimental effect in the vascular supply to the mesenteric area causing abdominal ischemic changes. Early recognition of these changes and adequate treatment are essential to avoid serious complications and possible death of the patient from sepsis. Case report: In this case study, the subject is a 40-years-old gentleman presenting with acute abdominal pain due to multiple ischemic changes in both small bowel and sigmoid loops. The patient required emergency surgical intervention consisting of bowel resection and anastomosis. The pathologic analysis of the segment showed transmural necrosis and necrotizing phlebitis caused by the ingestion of drugs or toxic agents. The patient later confirmed the habitual consumption of cocaine. Discussion: The increase in cocaine consumption and other recreational toxins substructed from erythroyilon coca alcaloids amongst young people have generated a large number of admissions to Hospital Accident and Emergency Departments with patients complaining of acute abdominal pain. In many of these cases, surgical intervention is required and in some cases patients will sadly die without a proper diagnosis. Some of the most common effects of cocaine and its compounds includes; hollow viscus perforation, gastro-intestinal bleed, and other vascular problems such as enteritis and ischemic colitis. It appears clear that there is a great need for an advance history taking of these patients and their habit to cocaine and other drugs together with a urine test for drug screening. These together with a suspicion of a non- occlusive ischemic bowel caused by the effects of cocaine in young adults with no cardiac risk factors will guide clinicians and establish, and plan the correct treatment for these categories of patients.

  13. Acute toxicity of potassium permanganate to fingerlings of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... Key words: Potassium permanganate, acute toxicity, LC50, LT50, behaviour, Clarias gariepinus, Nigeria. ... soft waters where other chemicals, such as copper sulphate, were too .... The temperature (oC) was measured by dipping a dry bulb thermo- .... (KMnO4) interferes with the respiratory mechanisms of.

  14. Evaluation of acute and subacute toxicities of aqueous ethanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of acute and subacute toxicities of aqueous ethanolic extract of leaves of Senna alata (L.) Roxb (Ceasalpiniaceae) ... Significant variation (P<0.05) of the body weight was observed after 26 days of treatment, in some biochemicals index of serum and 20% liver homogenates (glutathione , alkaline phosphatase ...

  15. Acute toxicity and sleep-wake EEG analysis of Stachtarpheta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of systemic administration of TASC on sleep architecture in rats was also evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats that were chronically implanted with electrodes for electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) recording. The acute toxicity test revealed no lethal effect with doses of SCCR (up to 2000 ...

  16. Acute toxicity study of methanolic extract of Asparagus pubescens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acute toxicity study of methanolic extract of Asparagus pubescens root was studied on rats. The indices of the study were the liver enzymes (transaminases), cholesterol, creatinine and urea serum levels as well as the ionic analysis. Both alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) showed a ...

  17. Comparative analysis of pharmaceuticals versus industrial chemicals acute aquatic toxicity classification according to the United Nations classification system for chemicals. Assessment of the (Q)SAR predictability of pharmaceuticals acute aquatic toxicity and their predominant acute toxic mode-of-action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans; Thomsen, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    data. Pharmaceuticals were found to be more frequent than industrial chemicals in GHS category III. Acute toxicity was predictable (>92%) using a generic (Q)SAR ((Quantitative) Structure Activity Relationship) suggesting a narcotic MOA. Analysis of model prediction error suggests that 68...

  18. Rapunzel Syndrome: a rare cause of acute small bowel obstruction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Rapunzel syndrome is a very rare condition where trichobezoar has extended up to the small bowel. Here we are reporting a rare case of Rapunzel syndrome in an adolescent girl with history of trichophagia who presented with small bowel obstruction. Patient underwent exploratory laparotomy and bezoar was ...

  19. Acute toxicity and genotoxicity of fermented traditional medicine oyaksungi-san

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwayong Park

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: As a whole, no acute toxicity or genotoxicity were observed in all the assays examined. Therefore, fermented OY is considered to be a safe material that can be used for development of complementary and alternative medicine using bioconversion.

  20. Consensus definitions of 14 severe acute toxic effects for childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, K.; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Barzilai, Shlomit

    2016-01-01

    Although there are high survival rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, their outcome is often counterbalanced by the burden of toxic effects. This is because reported frequencies vary widely across studies, partly because of diverse definitions of toxic effects. Using the Delphi ...

  1. Acute Inhalation Toxicity and Blood Absorption of 2,4-Dinitroanisole (DNAN) in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-17

    light/dark cycle. A certified pesticide -free rodent chow (Harlan Teklad ® , 8728C Certified Rodent Diet) and drinking quality water were available ad...respiration, toxicity, blood, concentration, alternative, welfare, method, model, in vitro, pain, distress, simulate, video , computer, replacement, refinement...Prevention, Pesticides , and Toxic Substances. December 2002. Health Effects Test Guidelines: OPPTS 870.1000, Acute Toxicity Testing - Background. EPA

  2. The Study on Acute and Subacute Toxicity and Anti-Cancer Effects of cultivated wild ginseng Herbal acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Rok, Kwon

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate acute and subacute toxicity and sarcoma-180 anti-cancer effects of herbal acupuncture with cultivated wild ginseng (distilled in mice and rats. Methods : Balb/c mice were injected intravenous with cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture for LD50 and acute toxicity test. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intravenous with cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture for subacute toxicity test. The cultivated wild ginseng herbal-acupuncture was injected at the tail vein of mice. Results : 1. In acute LD50 toxicity test, there was no mortality thus unable to attain the value. 2. Examining the toxic response in the acute toxicity test, there was no sign of toxication. 3. In acute toxic test, running biochemical serum test couldn't yield any differences between the control and experiment groups. 4. In subacute toxicity test, there was no sign of toxication in the experimental groups and didn't show any changes in weight compared to the normal group. 5. In subacute toxicity test, biochemical serum test showed significant increase of Total albumin, Albumin, and Glucose in the experimental group I compared with the control group. Significant decrease of GOT, ALP, GPT, and Triglyceride were shown. In experiment group II, only Glucose showed significant increase compared with the control group. 6. Measuring survival rate for anti-cancer effects of Sarcoma-180 cancer cell line, all the experimental groups showed significant increase in survival rate. 7. Measuring NK cell activity rate, no significant difference was shown throughout the groups. 8. Measuring Interleukin-2 productivity rate, all the experimental groups didn't show significant difference. 9. For manifestation of cytokine mRNA, significant decrease of interleukin-10 was witnessed in the experimental group compared to the control group. Conclusion : According to the results, we can conclude cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture

  3. Evaluation the protective effect of diphenhydramine against acute toxicity induced by levamisole in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Y. Matti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of different doses of diphenhydramine against acute toxicosis with Levamisole. The Mechanism of levamisole induced acute toxicity and that of protective effect of diphenhydramine against Levamisole toxicosis also examined on the level of cholinesterase (ChE activity. Subcutanous injection of 100mg/kg levamisole in male mice with induced cholinergic over stimulation and death in 100% of animals. The Toxicosis was not related to the significantly decreased in plasma, red blood cells and brain ChE activity. Injection low dose of diphenhydramin 2.5mg/kg S.C. 15 min before levamisole produced protective effect against acute toxicity with levamisole. Significantly decreased the severity of toxicosis and increased survival rates to 100%. Diphenhydramine at low dose alone or with acute dose of levamisole did not Produced Significantly inhibition in ChE activity.The data suggested that the toxic effect of Levamisole was not related to inhibition of ChE. The low dose of diphenhydramine protected mice from Levamisole toxicity. The antidoatal effect of diphenhydramine not at the level of protection from ChE inhibition. There was no adverse interaction between two drugs.

  4. Treatment of Acute Tacrolimus Toxicity with Phenytoin in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arin S. Jantz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus are influenced by many factors, including genetic variability, acute infections, liver dysfunction, and interacting medications, which can result in elevated concentrations. The most appropriate management of acute tacrolimus toxicity has not been defined though case reports exist describing the therapeutic use of enzyme inducers to increase tacrolimus metabolism and decrease concentrations. We are reporting on the utilization of phenytoin to assist in decreasing tacrolimus concentrations in a case series of four solid organ transplant recipients with acute, symptomatic tacrolimus toxicity presenting with elevated serum creatinine, potassium, and tacrolimus trough concentrations greater than 30 ng/mL. All four patients had the potential causative agents stopped or temporarily held and were given 300 to 400 mg/day of phenytoin for two to three days. Within three days of beginning phenytoin, all four patients had a decrease in tacrolimus concentration to less than 15 ng/mL, a return to or near baseline creatinine concentration, and lack of phenytoin-related side effects. Therefore, phenytoin appears to be a safe and potentially beneficial treatment option in patients with symptomatic tacrolimus toxicity.

  5. Acute and chronic toxicity of veterinary antibiotics to Daphnia magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollenberger, Leah; Halling-Sørensen, B.; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2000-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of nine antibiotics used both therapeutically and as growth promoters in intensive farming was investigated on the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna. The effect of the antibiotics metronidazole (M), olaquindox (OL), oxolinic acid (OA), oxytetracycline (OTC...

  6. Identification of the cause of weak acute toxicity to rainbow trout at a petroleum refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, W.R.; Zaleski, R.T.; Biddinger, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    The refinery in question performs flow through acute toxicity tests on its effluent four times per month using three fish species: fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus oculeatus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Several months of monitoring data indicated a transient low level acute toxicity to rainbow trout. In most cases, several days were required for mortality to occur in the flow through tests and numerous attempts to reproduce toxicity in static and static renewal tests were unsuccessful. A decision was made to manipulate the effluent in an attempt to enhance the toxic effect in the static mode so that conventional methods could be used to identify the cause. these tests indicated that toxicity was pH dependent. Additional testing, using EPA's Phase 1 Toxicity Identification Evaluation methods suggested that the cause of toxicity was probably an organic acid. Experiments were subsequently begun to identify the specific cause and source of toxicity. This paper reviews the problems confronted during the various phases of the study and the decisions that were made that eventually led to an understanding of the basis of toxicity

  7. Determining the efficiency of a commercial belly board device in reducing small bowel volume in rectal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukarski, Dusko; Petkovska, Sonja; Angelovska, Natalija; Grozdanovska, Biljana; Mitrevski, Nenad

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this treatment planning study was to evaluate the efficiency of a commercial belly board device in reducing the irradiated volume of the small bowel. In this study 10 patients with rectal carcinoma receiving postoperative radiotherapy were included. For each of them we made two computer tomography series in prone position. In the first one the patients were lying on the flat table top, and in the second one they were lying on the belly board device which is under investigation. On both series we calculated and optimized plans according to the standing protocol of our department. From the dose-volume histograms of these plans we compared the volumes of the small bowel irradiated to three dose levels 15, 30 and 45 Gy. The results showed that the absolute irradiated volumes were significantly smaller in the plans with the belly board device. Based on these results we believe that the employment of this belly board device will reduce the acute and late small bowel toxicity. This should be verified with a clinical study.(Author)

  8. Determining the efficiency of a commercial belly board device in reducing small bowel volume in rectal cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukarski, Dusko; Petkovska, Sonja; Angelovska, Natalija; Grozdanovska, Biljana; Mitrevski, Nenad [University Clinic of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Skopje(Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this treatment planning study was to evaluate the efficiency of a commercial belly board device in reducing the irradiated volume of the small bowel. In this study 10 patients with rectal carcinoma receiving postoperative radiotherapy were included. For each of them we made two computer tomography series in prone position. In the first one the patients were lying on the flat table top, and in the second one they were lying on the belly board device which is under investigation. On both series we calculated and optimized plans according to the standing protocol of our department. From the dose-volume histograms of these plans we compared the volumes of the small bowel irradiated to three dose levels 15, 30 and 45 Gy. The results showed that the absolute irradiated volumes were significantly smaller in the plans with the belly board device. Based on these results we believe that the employment of this belly board device will reduce the acute and late small bowel toxicity. This should be verified with a clinical study.(Author)

  9. Small bowel perforation due to fish bone: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Pulat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Accidental ingestion of foreign bodies are a common condition in clinical practice. However, small bowel perforation which dues to ingestion foreign bodies has been rarely seen. In this article, we report a case of small bowel perforation which dues to ingestion foreign body. A 80-year-old female patient, presenting with complaints of acute abdomen, was admitted to the emergency department. She denied abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. The patient had tenderness and defense on the right lower quadrant. Contrast enhanced abdominal computed tomography has been used on the patient's diagnosis. This revealed small bowel perforation due to the ingestion of foreign body. The patient was operated emergency. A microperforation due to fish bone was detected on the terminal ileum. The patient underwent debridement and primary repair. The patient was discharged postoperative 7th day without problem. Bowel perforation due to the ingestion of foreign bodies should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen. Keywords: Foreign body, Small intestine, Perforation

  10. Acute genitourinary toxicity after high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external-beam radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer: Correlation between the urethral dose in HDR brachytherapy and the severity of acute genitourinary toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Tetsuo; Ito, Kazuto; Saitoh, Jun-ichi; Noda, Shin-ei; Harashima, Koichi; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Nakayama, Yuko; Yamamoto, Takumi; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Nakano, Takashi; Niibe, Hideo

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Several investigations have revealed that the α/β ratio for prostate cancer is atypically low, and that hypofractionation or high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy regimens using appropriate radiation doses may be expected to yield tumor control and late sequelae rates that are better or at least as favorable as those achieved with conventional radiation therapy. In this setting, we attempted treating localized prostate cancer patients with HDR brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using this approach, with special emphasis on the relationship between the severity of acute genitourinary (GU) toxicity and the urethral dose calculated from the dose-volume histogram (DVH) of HDR brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between September 2000 and December 2003, 70 patients with localized prostate cancer were treated by iridium-192 HDR brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated EBRT at the Gunma University Hospital. Hypofractionated EBRT was administered in fraction doses of 3 Gy, three times per week; a total dose of 51 Gy was delivered to the prostate gland and the seminal vesicles using the four-field technique. No elective pelvic irradiation was performed. After the completion of EBRT, all the patients additionally received transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided HDR brachytherapy. The fraction size and the number of fractions in HDR brachytherapy were prospectively changed, whereas the total radiation dose for EBRT was fixed at 51 Gy. The fractionation in HDR brachytherapy was as follows: 5 Gy x 5, 7 Gy x 3, 9 Gy x 2, administered twice per day, although the biologic effective dose (BED) for HDR brachytherapy combined with EBRT, assuming that the α/β ratio is 3, was almost equal to 138 in each fractionation group. The planning target volume was defined as the prostate gland with 5-mm margin all around, and the planning was conducted based on

  11. Acute Toxicity Comparison of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Various Freshwater Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Kyung Sohn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While the commercialization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs is rapidly expanding, the environmental impact of this nanomaterial is not well understood. Therefore, the present study evaluates the acute aquatic toxicity of SWCNTs towards two freshwater microalgae (Raphidocelis subcapitata and Chlorella vulgaris, a microcrustacean (Daphnia magna, and a fish (Oryzias latipes based on OECD test guidelines (201, 202, and 203. According to the results, the SWCNTs inhibited the growth of the algae R. subcapitata and C. vulgaris with a median effective concentration (EC50 of 29.99 and 30.96 mg/L, respectively, representing “acute category 3” in the Globally Harmonized System (GHS of classification and labeling of chemicals. Meanwhile, the acute toxicity test using O. latipes and D. magna did not show any mortality/immobilizing effects up to a concentration of 100.00 mg/L SWCNTs, indicating no hazard category in the GHS classification. In conclusion, SWCNTs were found to induce acute ecotoxicity in freshwater microalgae, yet not in D. magna and medaka fish.

  12. A re-evaluation of PETROTOX for predicting acute and chronic toxicity of petroleum substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Aaron D; Parkerton, Thomas F; Leon Paumen, Miriam; Butler, Josh D; Letinski, Daniel J; den Haan, Klass

    2017-08-01

    The PETROTOX model was developed to perform aquatic hazard assessment of petroleum substances based on substance composition. The model relies on the hydrocarbon block method, which is widely used for conducting petroleum substance risk assessments providing further justification for evaluating model performance. Previous work described this model and provided a preliminary calibration and validation using acute toxicity data for limited petroleum substance. The objective of the present study was to re-evaluate PETROTOX using expanded data covering both acute and chronic toxicity endpoints on invertebrates, algae, and fish for a wider range of petroleum substances. The results indicated that recalibration of 2 model parameters was required, namely, the algal critical target lipid body burden and the log octanol-water partition coefficient (K OW ) limit, used to account for reduced bioavailability of hydrophobic constituents. Acute predictions from the updated model were compared with observed toxicity data and found to generally be within a factor of 3 for algae and invertebrates but overestimated fish toxicity. Chronic predictions were generally within a factor of 5 of empirical data. Furthermore, PETROTOX predicted acute and chronic hazard classifications that were consistent or conservative in 93 and 84% of comparisons, respectively. The PETROTOX model is considered suitable for the purpose of characterizing petroleum substance hazard in substance classification and risk assessments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2245-2252. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  13. Identifying and designing chemicals with minimal acute aquatic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostal, Jakub; Voutchkova-Kostal, Adelina; Anastas, Paul T; Zimmerman, Julie Beth

    2015-05-19

    Industrial ecology has revolutionized our understanding of material stocks and flows in our economy and society. For this important discipline to have even deeper impact, we must understand the inherent nature of these materials in terms of human health and the environment. This paper focuses on methods to design synthetic chemicals to reduce their intrinsic ability to cause adverse consequence to the biosphere. Advances in the fields of computational chemistry and molecular toxicology in recent decades allow the development of predictive models that inform the design of molecules with reduced potential to be toxic to humans or the environment. The approach presented herein builds on the important work in quantitative structure-activity relationships by linking toxicological and chemical mechanistic insights to the identification of critical physical-chemical properties needed to be modified. This in silico approach yields design guidelines using boundary values for physiochemical properties. Acute aquatic toxicity serves as a model endpoint in this study. Defining value ranges for properties related to bioavailability and reactivity eliminates 99% of the chemicals in the highest concern for acute aquatic toxicity category. This approach and its future implementations are expected to yield very powerful tools for life cycle assessment practitioners and molecular designers that allow rapid assessment of multiple environmental and human health endpoints and inform modifications to minimize hazard.

  14. Impact of intensity-modulated radiotherapy on acute hematologic toxicity in women with gynecologic malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brixey, Clark J.; Roeske, John C.; Lujan, Anthony E.; Yamada, S. Diane; Rotmensch, Jacob; Mundt, Arno J.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of intensity-modulated whole pelvic radiotherapy (IM-WPRT) on acute hematologic toxicity (HT) in gynecology patients. Methods and Materials: Between February 2000 and June 2001, 36 patients (24 cervix, 12 uterus) received IM-WPRT. The target consisted of the upper vagina, parametria, uterus, and presacral and pelvic lymph nodes. Using commercially available software, seven or nine coplanar IM-WPRT plans were generated. The planning goals were to irradiate the target while minimizing the dose to the small bowel, bladder, and rectum. Pelvic bone marrow (BM) was not a constraint in the planning process. The variables analyzed included white blood count (WBC), absolute neutrophil count (ANC), platelets, and hemoglobin (Hgb) obtained before and weekly during RT. As a comparison, the HT in 88 patients (44 cervix, 44 uterus) treated to the same target volume and total dose (45 Gy) with conventional four-field WPRT was analyzed. In addition, the medullary spaces within the pelvic bones in 10 women were contoured and the average dose-volume histograms representing the pelvic BM were compared between the two groups. Results: IM-WPRT patients had a lower median age (p=0.008), higher percentage of squamous histologic features (p=0.04), and were more likely to receive chemotherapy (CTX) (p=0.02) than were the WPRT patients. No differences were seen in the baseline WBC, ANC, platelet, or Hgb levels between the two groups. Grade 2 or greater WBC, ANC, and Hgb toxicity was seen in 19.4%, 9.1%, and 8.6% of the IM-WPRT patients, respectively. Comparable rates were seen in the WPRT patients (WBC 21.6%, p=0.79; ANC 8.3%, p=0.91; Hgb 9.2%, p=0.94). No Grade 2 or greater platelet toxicity was seen in either group. Significant HT was infrequent in women treated with RT alone and was comparable in the two groups. In contrast, WPRT + CTX patients experienced more Grade 2 or greater WBC toxicity (60% vs. 31.2%, p=0.08) and developed lower median WBC (2.8 vs

  15. The Impact of Pretreatment Prostate Volume on Severe Acute Genitourinary Toxicity in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizer, Ayal A.; Anderson, Nicole S.; Oh, Steven C.; Yu, James B.; McKeon, Anne M.; Decker, Roy H.; Peschel, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of pretreatment prostate volume on the development of severe acute genitourinary toxicity in patients undergoing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 2004 and 2007, a consecutive sample of 214 patients who underwent IMRT (75.6 Gy) for prostate cancer at two referral centers was analyzed. Prostate volumes were obtained from computed tomography scans taken during treatment simulation. Genitourinary toxicity was defined using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Version 3.0 guidelines. Acute toxicity was defined as any toxicity originating within 90 days of the completion of radiation therapy. Patients were characterized as having a small or large prostate depending on whether their prostate volume was less than or greater than 50 cm 3 , respectively. Genitourinary toxicity was compared in these groups using the chi-square or Fisher's exact test, as appropriate. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to further assess the impact of prostate volume on severe (Grade 3) acute genitourinary toxicity. Results: Patients with large prostates (>50 cm 3 ) had a higher rate of acute Grade 3 genitourinary toxicity (p = .02). Prostate volume was predictive of the likelihood of developing acute Grade 3 genitourinary toxicity on bivariate (p = .004) and multivariate (p = .006) logistic regression. Every 27.0 cm 3 increase in prostate volume doubled the likelihood of acute Grade 3 genitourinary toxicity. Conclusions: Patients with larger prostates are at higher risk for the development of severe acute genitourinary toxicity when treated with IMRT for prostate cancer.

  16. Psychosis associated with acute recreational drug toxicity: a European case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallersnes, Odd Martin; Dines, Alison M; Wood, David M; Yates, Christopher; Heyerdahl, Fridtjof; Hovda, Knut Erik; Giraudon, Isabelle; Dargan, Paul I

    2016-08-18

    Psychosis can be associated with acute recreational drug and novel psychoactive substance (NPS) toxicity. However, there is limited data available on how common this is and which drugs are most frequently implicated. We describe a European case series of psychosis associated with acute recreational drug toxicity, and estimate the frequency of psychosis for different recreational drugs. The European Drug Emergencies Network (Euro-DEN) collects data on presentations to Emergency Departments (EDs) with acute recreational drug and NPS toxicity at 16 centres in ten countries. Euro-DEN data from October 2013 through September 2014 was retrospectively searched, and cases with psychosis were included. The proportion of cases with psychosis per drug was calculated in the searched Euro-DEN dataset. Psychosis was present in 348 (6.3 %) of 5529 cases. The median (interquartile range) age was 29 (24-38) years, 276 (79.3 %) were male and 114 (32.8 %) were admitted to psychiatric ward. The drugs most commonly reported were cannabis in 90 (25.9 %) cases, amphetamine in 87 (25.0 %) and cocaine in 56 (16.1 %). More than one drug was taken in 189 (54.3 %) cases. Psychosis was frequent in those ED presentations involving tryptamines (4/7; 57.1 %), methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) (6/22; 27.3 %), methylphenidate (6/26; 23.1 %), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) (18/86; 20.9 %), psilocybe mushrooms (3/16; 18.8 %), synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (4/26; 15.4 %) and amphetamine (87/593; 14.7 %), but less common in those involving mephedrone (14/245; 5.7 %), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) (20/461; 4.3 %) and methedrone (3/92; 3.3 %). Amphetamine was the most frequent drug associated with psychosis when only one agent was reported, with psychosis occurring in 32.4 % of these presentations. The frequency of psychosis in acute recreational drug toxicity varies considerably between drugs, but is a major problem in amphetamine poisoning. In rapidly changing drug markets and

  17. Acute and subacute oral toxicity evaluation of Tephrosia purpurea extract in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talib Hussain

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity of 50% ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea (T. purpurea in rodents. Methods: The acute toxicity test was conducted in Swiss albino mice. The extract of T. purpurea was administrated in single doses of 50, 300 and 2000 mg/ kg and observed for behavioral changes and mortality, if any. In subacute toxicity study, Wistar rats of either sex were administered two doses of T. purpurea i.e., 200 and 400 mg/kg (One-tenth and one-fifth of the maximum tolerated dose, p.o. for 4 weeks. During 28 days of treatment, rats were observed weekly for any change in their body weight, food and water intake. At the end of 28 days, rats were sacrificed for hematological, biochemical and histopathology study. Results: In the acute toxicity study, T. purpurea was found to be well tolerated upto 2 000 mg/kg, produced neither mortality nor changes in behavior in mice. In subacute toxicity study, T. purpurea at dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg did not produce any significant difference in their body weight, food and water intake when compared to vehicle treated rats. It also showed no significant alteration in hematological and biochemical parameters in experimental groups of rats apart from a decrease in aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphate content at the dose of 400 mg/kg. Histopathological study revealed normal architecture of kidney and liver of T. purpurea treated rats. Conclusions: These results demonstrated that there is a wide margin of safety for the therapeutic use of T. purpurea and further corroborated the traditional use of this extract as an anti hepatocarcinogenic agent

  18. Carbon ion therapy for advanced sinonasal malignancies: feasibility and acute toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Alexandra D; Nikoghosyan, Anna V; Ecker, Swantje; Ellerbrock, Malte; Debus, Jürgen; Münter, Marc W

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate feasibility and toxicity of carbon ion therapy for treatment of sinonasal malignancies. First site of treatment failure in malignant tumours of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity is mostly in-field, local control hence calls for dose escalation which has so far been hampered by accompanying acute and late toxicity. Raster-scanned carbon ion therapy offers the advantage of sharp dose gradients promising increased dose application without increase of side-effects. Twenty-nine patients with various sinonasal malignancies were treated from 11/2009 to 08/2010. Accompanying toxicity was evaluated according to CTCAE v.4.0. Tumor response was assessed according to RECIST. Seventeen patients received treatment as definitive RT, 9 for local relapse, 2 for re-irradiation. All patients had T4 tumours (median CTV1 129.5 cc, CTV2 395.8 cc), mostly originating from the maxillary sinus. Median dose was 73 GyE mostly in mixed beam technique as IMRT plus carbon ion boost. Median follow- up was 5.1 months [range: 2.4 - 10.1 months]. There were 7 cases with grade 3 toxicity (mucositis, dysphagia) but no other higher grade acute reactions; 6 patients developed grade 2 conjunctivits, no case of early visual impairment. Apart from alterations of taste, all symptoms had resolved at 8 weeks post RT. Overall radiological response rate was 50% (CR and PR). Carbon ion therapy is feasible; despite high doses, acute reactions were not increased and generally resolved within 8 weeks post radiotherapy. Treatment response is encouraging though follow-up is too short to estimate control rates or evaluate potential late effects. Controlled trials are warranted

  19. Acute and Subchronic Toxic Effects of the Fruits of Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak Ozlem Perk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruit of Physalis peruviana L. (PPL has been traditionally used as antispasmodic, diuretic, antiseptic, sedative, and analgesic all over the world. We aimed to perform qualitative content analysis of the fruits of PPL and to clarify the in vitro genotoxicity and in vivo acute and subchronic toxicity of the fruit. Lyophilized fruit juice does not induce genetic damage. In the acute toxicity studies, LD50 value of the fruit was found to be more than 5000 mg kg−1 for both sexes. According to the subchronic toxicity studies, hepatic, renal, and hematological toxic effects were not induced in both sexes. Plasma troponin I (only in the group treated with 5000 mg kg−1 of lyophilized fruit juice and troponin T levels were significantly increased in male groups treated with lyophilized fruit juice compared to the control group. Furthermore, potassium level was significantly increased in the male group treated with 5000 mg kg−1 of lyophilized fruit juice. These findings were considered to indicate the myocardial damage particularly in the male group treated with 5000 mg kg−1 of lyophilized fruit juice. In conclusion, lyophilized fruit juice of PPL is shown to induce cardiac toxicity only at high doses and in male gender.

  20. Acute and Subchronic Toxic Effects of the Fruits of Physalis peruviana L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perk, Basak Ozlem; Ilgin, Sinem; Atli, Ozlem; Duymus, Hale Gamze; Sirmagul, Basar

    2013-01-01

    The fruit of Physalis peruviana L. (PPL) has been traditionally used as antispasmodic, diuretic, antiseptic, sedative, and analgesic all over the world. We aimed to perform qualitative content analysis of the fruits of PPL and to clarify the in vitro genotoxicity and in vivo acute and subchronic toxicity of the fruit. Lyophilized fruit juice does not induce genetic damage. In the acute toxicity studies, LD50 value of the fruit was found to be more than 5000 mg kg(-1) for both sexes. According to the subchronic toxicity studies, hepatic, renal, and hematological toxic effects were not induced in both sexes. Plasma troponin I (only in the group treated with 5000 mg kg(-1) of lyophilized fruit juice) and troponin T levels were significantly increased in male groups treated with lyophilized fruit juice compared to the control group. Furthermore, potassium level was significantly increased in the male group treated with 5000 mg kg(-1) of lyophilized fruit juice. These findings were considered to indicate the myocardial damage particularly in the male group treated with 5000 mg kg(-1) of lyophilized fruit juice. In conclusion, lyophilized fruit juice of PPL is shown to induce cardiac toxicity only at high doses and in male gender.

  1. The fecal microbiome in dogs with acute diarrhea and idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan S Suchodolski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent molecular studies have revealed a highly complex bacterial assembly in the canine intestinal tract. There is mounting evidence that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic enteropathies of dogs, including idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. The aim of this study was to characterize the bacterial microbiota in dogs with various gastrointestinal disorders. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fecal samples from healthy dogs (n = 32, dogs with acute non-hemorrhagic diarrhea (NHD; n = 12, dogs with acute hemorrhagic diarrhea (AHD; n = 13, and dogs with active (n = 9 and therapeutically controlled idiopathic IBD (n = 10 were analyzed by 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and qPCR assays. Dogs with acute diarrhea, especially those with AHD, had the most profound alterations in their microbiome, as significant separations were observed on PCoA plots of unweighted Unifrac distances. Dogs with AHD had significant decreases in Blautia, Ruminococcaceae including Faecalibacterium, and Turicibacter spp., and significant increases in genus Sutterella and Clostridium perfringens when compared to healthy dogs. No significant separation on PCoA plots was observed for the dogs with IBD. Faecalibacterium spp. and Fusobacteria were, however, decreased in the dogs with clinically active IBD, but increased during time periods of clinically insignificant IBD, as defined by a clinical IBD activity index (CIBDAI. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study revealed a bacterial dysbiosis in fecal samples of dogs with various GI disorders. The observed changes in the microbiome differed between acute and chronic disease states. The bacterial groups that were commonly decreased during diarrhea are considered to be important short-chain fatty acid producers and may be important for canine intestinal health. Future studies should correlate these observed phylogenetic differences with functional changes in the intestinal

  2. Acute toxicity of uranium hexafluoride, uranyl fluoride and hydrogen fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) released into the atmosphere will react rapidly with moisture in the air to form the hydrolysis products uranyl fluoride (UO 2 F 2 ) and hydrogen fluoride (HF). Uranium compounds such as UF 6 and UO 2 F 2 exhibit both chemical toxicity and radiological effects, while HF exhibits only chemical toxicity. This paper describes the development of a methodology for assessing the human health consequences of a known acute exposure to a mixture of UF 6 , UO 2 F 2 , and HF. 4 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Irradiation in the setting of collagen vascular disease: acute and late toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Monica; Powell, Simon

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Based upon reports of greater toxicity from radiation therapy, collagen vascular diseases have been considered a contraindication to irradiation. We assessed the acute and late complication rate of radiation therapy in patients with collagen vascular disease. Methods and Materials: A retrospective chart review was undertaken to analyze acute and late toxicity in the 96 patients with documented collagen vascular disease (CVD) who were irradiated between 1960 and 1995. The majority had rheumatoid arthritis (55); 14 had systemic lupus erythematosus; 7 polymyositis or dermatomyositis; 7 ankylosing spondylitis; 4 scleroderma; 2 juvenile rheumatoid arthritis; and the remainder various mixed connective tissue disorders. Mean follow up of survivors was 6.3 years from time of irradiation. Treatment was megavoltage in all but 8 cases. Doses ranged from 6 to 70Gy, with an average of 41.7Gy. Treatment of 32 sites was combined with chemotherapy, 15 concurrent with irradiation. Surgery was involved in the treatment of 46 sites. Toxicity was scored using the RTOG acute and the RTOG/EORTC Late Effects on Normal Tissues radiation morbidity scoring scales. Results: Overall, 127 sites were evaluable in 96 patients. Significant (grade 3 or higher) acute complications were seen in 15 of 127 (11.8%) of irradiated sites. The actuarial incidence of significant late complications at 5 and 10 years was 16% and 24%, respectively. There was a single in-field sarcoma. 2 patients had treatment-related deaths, one from leukencephalopathy and the other from postoperative wound infection. Univariate analysis revealed late effects to be more severe in those receiving combined modality treatment (p=.03), and in those with significant acute reactions (p=.0001). Patients with rheumatoid arthritis had less severe late effects than those with other collagen vascular diseases (6% vs 37% at 5 years, p=.0001). We did not demonstrate a difference in late effects according to radiation dose, timing

  4. Acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos to embryo and larvae of banded gourami Trichogaster fasciata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumon, Kizar Ahmed; Saha, Sampa; Brink, van den Paul J.; Peeters, Edwin T.H.M.; Bosma, Roel H.; Rashid, Harunur

    2017-01-01

    This study elucidated the acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos on the early life stages of banded gourami (Trichogaster fasciata). To determine the acute effects of chlorpyrifos on their survival and development, we exposedthe embryos and two-day-old larvae to six concentrations (0, 0.01, 0.10, 1.0, 10

  5. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity, and Acute Oral Toxicity of Gynura bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuen Yew Teoh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gynura bicolor (Compositae which is widely used by the locals as natural remedies in folk medicine has limited scientific studies to ensure its efficacy and nontoxicity. The current study reports the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, cytotoxicity, and acute oral toxicity of crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water of G. bicolor leaves. Five human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, SW480, Caco-2, and HCT 116, one human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7, and one human normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of G. bicolor. The present findings had clearly demonstrated that ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor with the highest total phenolic content among the extracts showed the strongest antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging assay and metal chelating assay, possessed cytotoxicity, and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death, especially towards the HCT 116 and HCT-15 colon cancer cells. The acute oral toxicity study indicated that methanol extract of G. bicolor has negligible level of toxicity when administered orally and has been regarded as safe in experimental rats. The findings of the current study clearly established the chemoprevention potential of G. bicolor and thus provide scientific validation on the therapeutic claims of G. bicolor.

  6. Acute toxic neuropathy mimicking guillain barre syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Jasim Abdul Jalal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Case: A 30 year old male presented with numbness of palms and soles followed by weakness of upper limbs and lower limbs of 5 days duration, which was ascending and progressive. Three months back he was treated for oral and genital ulcers with oral steroids. His ulcers improved and shifted to indigenous medication. His clinical examination showed polyneuropathy. CSF study did not show albuminocytological dissociation. Nerve conduction study showed demyelinating polyneuropathy. His blood samples and the ayurvedic drug samples were sent for toxicological analysis. Inference: Acute toxic neuropathy - Arsenic

  7. Clinical and neuropathological findings of acute carbon monoxide toxicity in chihuahuas following smoke inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Marc; Creevy, Kate E; Delahunta, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Three adult Chihuahuas were presented for evaluation after smoke inhalation during a house fire. All three dogs received supportive care and supplemental oxygen. After initial improvement, the dogs developed seizures. Despite anticonvulsant therapy and supportive care, the dogs died. The brains of two dogs were examined. Lesions were identified that were compatible with acute carbon monoxide (CO) toxicity. Lesions were confined to the caudate nucleus, the globus pallidus, and the substantia nigra bilaterally, as well as the cerebellum, cerebral cortex, and dorsal thalamus. This case report describes the clinicopathological sequelae in acute CO toxicity.

  8. Acute toxicity studies of aqueous stem bark extract of Ximenia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... the aqueous stem bark extract revealed the presence of cardiac ... needs of rural populations in African and other third world ... Table 1. Phytochemical screening of Ximenia Americana. ... Table 2. Post mortem gross pathology result of acute toxicity of ... while the treated groups showed variable weight loss.

  9. Disinfection in Wastewater Treatment Plants: Evaluation of Effectiveness and Acute Toxicity Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Collivignarelli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, urban wastewater disinfection is regulated in the third part of Legislative Decree n. 152/2006, which states that wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs must include a disinfection unit, with a capacity exceeding 2000 Population Equivalent (PE. This treatment shall ensure microbial quality and health security. The legislation provides the following limits for wastewater: Escherichia coli (E. coli concentration below 5000 CFU 100 mL−1 (recommended value, active chlorine concentration below 0.2 mg L−1 and lack of acute toxicity. The compliance with these conditions is shown by means of the study of correct disinfectant dosage, which also depends on wastewater characteristics. An investigation at the regional level (from 2013 to 2016 shows a correlation between acute toxicity discharge and disinfection treatment through chemical reagents (mainly with the use of chlorine compounds and peracetic acid. The experimental work concerns two active sludge WWTPs in northern Italy with small capacity (10,000–12,000 PE. The activities provide the assessment of microbiological quality and toxicity of WWTPs effluents in relation to the dosage of sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid, by means of the use of batch tests. The results show that with similar disinfectant dosage and comparable initial E. coli concentration, peracetic acid exhibits the best performance in terms of microbial removal (with removal yields up to 99.99%. Moreover, the acute toxicity was evident at higher doses and therefore with higher residuals of peracetic acid (2.68 mg L−1 compared to the free residual chlorine (0.17 mg L−1.

  10. Use of fractional dose–volume histograms to model risk of acute rectal toxicity among patients treated on RTOG 94-06

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, Susan L.; Michalski, Jeff M.; Bosch, Walter R.; Mohan, Radhe; Dong, Lei; Winter, Kathryn; Purdy, James A.; Cox, James D.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: For toxicities occurring during the course of radiotherapy, it is conceptually inaccurate to perform normal-tissue complication probability analyses using the complete dose–volume histogram. The goal of this study was to analyze acute rectal toxicity using a novel approach in which the fit of the Lyman–Kutcher–Burman (LKB) model is based on the fractional rectal dose–volume histogram (DVH). Materials and methods: Grade ⩾2 acute rectal toxicity was analyzed in 509 patients treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 94-06. These patients had no field reductions or treatment-plan revisions during therapy, allowing the fractional rectal DVH to be estimated from the complete rectal DVH based on the total number of dose fractions delivered. Results: The majority of patients experiencing Grade ⩾2 acute rectal toxicity did so before completion of radiotherapy (70/80 = 88%). Acute rectal toxicity depends on fractional mean rectal dose, with no significant improvement in the LKB model fit when the volume parameter differs from n = 1. The incidence of toxicity was significantly lower for patients who received hormone therapy (P = 0.024). Conclusions: Variations in fractional mean dose explain the differences in incidence of acute rectal toxicity, with no detectable effect seen here for differences in numbers of dose fractions delivered.

  11. Use of butterflies as nontarget insect test species and the acute toxicity and hazard of mosquito control insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Tham C; Pryor, Rachel L; Rand, Gary M; Frakes, Robert A

    2011-04-01

    Honeybees are the standard insect test species used for toxicity testing of pesticides on nontarget insects for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) under the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Butterflies are another important insect order and a valued ecological resource in pollination. The current study conducted acute toxicity tests with naled, permethrin, and dichlorvos on fifth larval instar (caterpillars) and adults of different native Florida, USA, butterfly species to determine median lethal doses (24-h LD50), because limited acute toxicity data are available with this major insect group. Thorax- and wing-only applications of each insecticide were conducted. Based on LD50s, thorax and wing application exposures were acutely toxic to both caterpillars and adults. Permethrin was the most acutely toxic insecticide after thorax exposure to fifth instars and adult butterflies. However, no generalization on acute toxicity (sensitivity) of the insecticides could be concluded based on exposures to fifth instars versus adult butterflies or on thorax versus wing exposures of adult butterflies. A comparison of LD50s of the butterflies from this study (caterpillars and adults) with honeybee LD50s for the adult mosquito insecticides on a µg/organism or µg/g basis indicates that several butterfly species are more sensitive to these insecticides than are honeybees. A comparison of species sensitivity distributions for all three insecticides shows that permethrin had the lowest 10th percentile. Using a hazard quotient approach indicates that both permethrin and naled applications in the field may present potential acute hazards to butterflies, whereas no acute hazard of dichlorvos is apparent in butterflies. Butterflies should be considered as potential test organisms when nontarget insect testing of pesticides is suggested under FIFRA. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  12. Small bowel toxicity after high dose spot scanning-based proton beam therapy for paraspinal/retroperitoneal neoplasms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, R.A.; Albertini, F.; Koch, T.; Ares, C.; Lomax, A.; Goitein, G. [Paul Scherrer Institute PSI, Villigen (Switzerland). Center for Proton Therapy; Vitolo, V. [Fondazione CNAO, Pavia (Italy); Hug, E.B. [Paul Scherrer Institute PSI, Villigen (Switzerland). Center for Proton Therapy; ProCure Proton Therapy Centers, New York, NY (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Mesenchymal tumours require high-dose radiation therapy (RT). Small bowel (SB) dose constraints have historically limited dose delivery to paraspinal and retroperitoneal targets. This retrospective study correlated SB dose-volume histograms with side-effects after proton radiation therapy (PT). Patients and methods: Between 1997 and 2008, 31 patients (mean age 52.1 years) underwent spot scanning-based PT for paraspinal/retroperitoneal chordomas (81 %), sarcomas (16 %) and meningiom (3 %). Mean total prescribed dose was 72.3 Gy (relative biologic effectiveness, RBE) delivered in 1.8-2 Gy (RBE) fractions. Mean follow-up was 3.8 years. Based on the pretreatment planning CT, SB dose distributions were reanalysed. Results: Planning target volume (PTV) was defined as gross tumour volume (GTV) plus 5-7 mm margins. Mean PTV was 560.22 cm{sup 3}. A mean of 93.2 % of the PTV was covered by at least 90 % of the prescribed dose. SB volumes (cm{sup 3}) receiving doses of 5, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 75 and 80 Gy (RBE) were calculated to give V5, V20, V30, V40, V50, V60, V70, V75 and V80 respectively. In 7/31 patients, PT was accomplished without any significant SB irradiation (V5 = 0). In 24/31 patients, mean maximum dose (Dmax) to SB was 64.1 Gy (RBE). Despite target doses of > 70 Gy (RBE), SB received > 50 and > 60 Gy (RBE) in only 61 and 54 % of patients, respectively. Mean SB volumes (cm{sup 3}) covered by different dose levels (Gy, RBE) were: V20 (n = 24): 45.1, V50 (n = 19): 17.7, V60 (n = 17): 7.6 and V70 (n = 12): 2.4. No acute toxicity {>=} grade 2 or late SB sequelae were observed. Conclusion: Small noncircumferential volumes of SB tolerated doses in excess of 60 Gy (RBE) without any clinically-significant late adverse effects. This small retrospective study has limited statistical power but encourages further efforts with higher patient numbers to define and establish high-dose threshold models for SB toxicity in modern radiation oncology. (orig.)

  13. Acute toxicity assessment of explosive-contaminated soil extracting solution by luminescent bacteria assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenjie; Jiang, Zhenming; Zhao, Quanlin; Zhang, Zhenzhong; Su, Hongping; Gao, Xuewen; Ye, Zhengfang

    2016-11-01

    Explosive-contaminated soil is harmful to people's health and the local ecosystem. The acute toxicity of its extracting solution was tested by bacterial luminescence assay using three kinds of luminescent bacteria to characterize the toxicity of the soil. An orthogonal test L 16 (4 5 ) was designed to optimize the soil extracting conditions. The optimum extracting conditions were obtained when the ultrasonic extraction time, ultrasonic extraction temperature, and the extraction repeat times were 6 h, 40 °C, and three, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results showed that the main components of the contaminated soil's extracting solution were 2,4-dinitrotoluene-3-sulfonate (2,4-DNT-3-SO 3 - ); 2,4-dinitrotoluene-5-sulfonate (2,4-DNT-5-SO 3 - ); and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT). Compared with Photobacterium phosphoreum and Vibrio fischeri, Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Nov. is more suitable for assessing the soil extracting solution's acute toxicity. Soil washing can remove most of the contaminants toxic to luminescent bacterium Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Nov., suggesting that it may be a potential effective remediation method for explosive-contaminated soil.

  14. A simple technique to reduce small bowel toxicity when irradiating the periaortic area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, J.C.; Fine, B.; Herman, T.S.; Rothenberg, M.; Nicol, N.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Patients receiving periaortic radiation are normally treated in the supine position. We decided to evaluate whether positioning the patient prone on a modified 'belly-board' can reduce the volume of small bowel within the lateral fields in patients receiving four field periaortic radiation. Materials and Methods: Sixteen consecutive women with gynecologic primaries underwent simulation of the periaortic area using a four-field set up (AP, PA, Lats). The fields extended from the top of the L1 vertebral body to the bottom of L5 and had a mean length of 16.2 cm. The AP and PA fields had a width of 8 cm (centered on the midline of the vertebral bodies) while the right and left lateral fields had a width of 4 cm (2 cm anterior and 2 cm posterior to the anterior margin of the vertebral bodies) and did not include the spinal cord. Following oral ingestion of small bowel contrast, simulation films were obtained in the supine position and in the prone position on a modified 'belly-board' (with the pelvic opening extended superiorly to the superior abdomen). It was hypothesized that the prone position on a modified 'belly-board' would allow the abdominal small bowel to fall by gravity away from the periaortic area. We measured the volume of small bowel irradiated through the lateral fields for both the supine and prone-in-belly-board positions using the method described by Gallagher et al. Results: The volume of small bowel included within the lateral fields in the supine position ranged from 164 to 359.5 cc 3 (mean 285 cc 3 ) while placement in the prone-in-bellyboard position reduced the volume of small bowel within the lateral fields to a range of 35-152 cc 3 (mean 86 cc 3 ), an overall reduction of approximately 70% in the volume of small bowel included within lateral fields. Conclusion: The use of lateral fields in the prone-in-bellyboard position allows for significant small bowel sparing through the lateral component of a four-field periaortic set

  15. In vivo dosimetry and acute toxicity in breast cancer patients undergoing intraoperative radiotherapy as boost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jason Joon Bock; Choi, Jin Hyun; Lee, Ik Jae; Park, Kwang Woo; Kim, Kang Pyo; Kim, Jun Won [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sung Gwe; Jeong, Joon [Dept. of Surgery, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    To report the results of a correlation analysis of skin dose assessed by in vivo dosimetry and the incidence of acute toxicity. This is a phase 2 trial evaluating the feasibility of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) as a boost for breast cancer patients. Eligible patients were treated with IORT of 20 Gy followed by whole breast irradiation (WBI) of 46 Gy. A total of 55 patients with a minimum follow-up of 1 month after WBI were evaluated. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter (OSLD) detected radiation dose delivered to the skin during IORT. Acute toxicity was recorded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.0. Clinical parameters were correlated with seroma formation and maximum skin dose. Median follow-up after IORT was 25.9 weeks (range, 12.7 to 50.3 weeks). Prior to WBI, only one patient developed acute toxicity. Following WBI, 30 patients experienced grade 1 skin toxicity and three patients had grade 2 skin toxicity. Skin dose during IORT exceeded 5 Gy in two patients: with grade 2 complications around the surgical scar in one patient who received 8.42 Gy. Breast volume on preoperative images (p = 0.001), ratio of applicator diameter and breast volume (p = 0.002), and distance between skin and tumor (p = 0.003) showed significant correlations with maximum skin dose. IORT as a boost was well-tolerated among Korean women without severe acute complication. In vivo dosimetry with OSLD can help ensure safe delivery of IORT as a boost.

  16. Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity studies of methanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity studies of methanol extract of Clinacanthus nutans in mice. Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria, Mohammad Hafiz Abdul Rahim, Norhafizah Mohtarrudin, Arifah Abdul Kadir, Manraj Singh Cheema, Zuraini Ahmad, Ching Siew Mooi, Siti Farah Md. Tohid ...

  17. Acute toxicity study of tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil-solid lipid nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Shuyu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our previous studies demonstrated that tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil solid lipid nanoparticles (Til-HCO-SLN are a promising formulation for enhanced pharmacological activity and therapeutic efficacy in veterinary use. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the acute toxicity of Til-HCO-SLN. Methods Two nanoparticle doses were used for the study in ICR mice. The low dose (766 mg/kg.bw with tilmicosin 7.5 times of the clinic dosage and below the median lethal dose (LD50 was subcutaneously administered twice on the first and 7th day. The single high dose (5 g/kg.bw was the practical upper limit in an acute toxicity study and was administered subcutaneously on the first day. Blank HCO-SLN, native tilmicosin, and saline solution were included as controls. After medication, animals were monitored over 14 days, and then necropsied. Signs of toxicity were evaluated via mortality, symptoms of treatment effect, gross and microscopic pathology, and hematologic and biochemical parameters. Results After administration of native tilmicosin, all mice died within 2 h in the high dose group, in the low dose group 3 died after the first and 2 died after the second injections. The surviving mice in the tilmicosin low dose group showed hypoactivity, accelerated breath, gloomy spirit and lethargy. In contrast, all mice in Til-HCO-SLN and blank HCO-SLN groups survived at both low and high doses. The high nanoparticle dose induced transient clinical symptoms of treatment effect such as transient reversible action retardation, anorexy and gloomy spirit, increased spleen and liver coefficients and decreased heart coefficients, microscopic pathological changes of liver, spleen and heart, and minor changes in hematologic and biochemical parameters, but no adverse effects were observed in the nanoparticle low dose group. Conclusions The results revealed that the LD50 of Til-HCO-SLN and blank HCO-SLN exceeded 5 g/kg.bw and thus the

  18. Acute genitourinary toxicity after high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external-beam radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer: Second analysis to determine the correlation between the urethral dose in HDR brachytherapy and the severity of acute genitourinary toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Tetsuo; Katoh, Hiroyuki; Noda, Shin-ei; Ito, Kazuto; Yamamoto, Takumi; Kashiwagi, Bunzo; Nakano, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: We have been treating localized prostate cancer with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) at our institution. We recently reported the existence of a correlation between the severity of acute genitourinary (GU) toxicity and the urethral radiation dose in HDR brachytherapy by using different fractionation schema. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of the urethral dose in the development of acute GU toxicity more closely than in previous studies. For this purpose, we conducted an analysis of patients who had undergone HDR brachytherapy with a fixed fractionation schema combined with hypofractionated EBRT. Methods and Materials: Among the patients with localized prostate cancer who were treated by 192-iridium HDR brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated EBRT at Gunma University Hospital between August 2000 and November 2004, we analyzed 67 patients who were treated by HDR brachytherapy with the fractionation schema of 9 Gy x two times combined with hypofractionated EBRT. Hypofractionated EBRT was administered at a fraction dose of 3 Gy three times weekly, and a total dose of 51 Gy was delivered to the prostate gland and seminal vesicles using the four-field technique. No elective pelvic irradiation was performed. After the completion of EBRT, all the patients additionally received transrectal ultrasonography-guided HDR brachytherapy. The planning target volume was defined as the prostate gland with a 5-mm margin all around, and the planning was conducted based on computed tomography images. The tumor stage was T1c in 13 patients, T2 in 31 patients, and T3 in 23 patients. The Gleason score was 2-6 in 12 patients, 7 in 34 patients, and 8-10 in 21 patients. Androgen ablation was performed in all the patients. The median follow-up duration was 11 months (range 3-24 months). The toxicities were graded based on the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and the European Organization

  19. Acute and subchronic toxicity of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil in mallards and ferrets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubblefield, W.A.; Hancock, G.A.; Ford, W.H.; Ringer, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    The toxic properties of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil (WEVC) were assessed in a battery of acute and subchronic toxicity tests using mallards, Anas platyrhynchos, and European ferrets, Mustela putorius. Adult mallard acute oral toxicity study results indicated no mortalities or signs o toxicity, i.e., no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) and median lethal dose (LD50) > 5,000 mg/kg. Acute oral feeding and food avoidance tests with ducklings also indicated no toxicity (NOAEL and LC50 > 50,000 mg/kg diet) with no evidence of food avoidance (FAC50 > 20,000 mg/kg diet). No mortalities or toxic signs were noted in a 14-d feeding study with adult birds at dietary concentrations up to 100,000 mg WEVC/kg diet. Among clinical and physiological end points evaluated, the only significant difference noted was an increase in liver: body weight ratios in the 100,000-mg WEVC/kg diet dose group. No differences in clinical chemistry or hematological parameters were noted, and there were no consistent differences in histological evaluations of organ tissues. Daily oral doses of up to 5,000 mg/kg of WEVC over 5 d resulted in minimal effects on ferrets. Increased serum albumin concentrations were observed in the 5,000-mg/kg dose group females and decreased spleen weights were noted in females of all WEVC treatment groups. No other significant observations were noted

  20. Sub-acute toxicity evaluation of ethanol extract of rheumatic tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sub-acute toxicity profile of Rheumatic Tea Formula (RTF), a polyherbal tea consisting of Salix alba, Eucalyptus globulus and Albizia chevalieri was investigated in wistar rats of both sexes. Wistar rats were orally administered three different doses of ethanol extract of RTF for 28 days after which the effect on body weight, ...

  1. Dose-response of acute urinary toxicity of long-course preoperative chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L.; Bentzen, Søren M.; Jakobsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-course preoperative chemoradiotherapy (chemo-RT) improves outcomes for rectal cancer patients, but acute side effects during treatment may cause considerable patient discomfort and may compromise treatment compliance. We developed a dose-response model for acute urinary toxicity...... based on a large, single-institution series. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In total 345 patients were treated with (chemo-)RT for primary rectal cancer from January 2007 to May 2012. Urinary toxicity during RT was scored prospectively using the CTCAE v 3.0 cystitis score (grade 0-5). Clinical variables...... and radiation dose to the bladder were related to graded toxicity using multivariate ordinal logistic regression. Three models were optimized, each containing all available clinical variables and one of three dose metrics: Mean dose (Dmean), equivalent uniform dose (EUD), or relative volume given x Gy or above...

  2. Pharmacogenetics predictive of response and toxicity in acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lin; Ontiveros, Evelena P; Griffiths, Elizabeth A; Thompson, James E; Wang, Eunice S; Wetzler, Meir

    2015-07-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a relatively rare disease in adults accounting for no more than 20% of all cases of acute leukemia. By contrast with the pediatric population, in whom significant improvements in long term survival and even cure have been achieved over the last 30years, adult ALL remains a significant challenge. Overall survival in this group remains a relatively poor 20-40%. Modern research has focused on improved pharmacokinetics, novel pharmacogenetics and personalized principles to optimize the efficacy of the treatment while reducing toxicity. Here we review the pharmacogenetics of medications used in the management of patients with ALL, including l-asparaginase, glucocorticoids, 6-mercaptopurine, methotrexate, vincristine and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Incorporating recent pharmacogenetic data, mainly from pediatric ALL, will provide novel perspective of predicting response and toxicity in both pediatric and adult ALL therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Study on acute toxicity of anti-vertigo granule on mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhonghua; Hao, Shaojun; Xie, Guoqi; Li, Jun; Su, Feng; Liu, Xiaobin; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zhengchen

    2018-04-01

    To observe the effect of anti - glare particles on acute toxicity of mice. Methods: 40 male and female mice weighing 18 - 21 g were randomly divided into anti - glare granule group and normal saline control group. The maximum volume of anti - glare particles (0.94 g/ml) was administered before the experiment. Results: the oral toxicity of the suspension was very small. The maximal concentration of mice was given at the maximum volume of gastric perfusion, and it was given three times in 1st. The cumulative maximum tolerance dose was 112.8g/kg per day. The dose was 226 times of clinical dosage and no death was found in mice. Conclusion: the toxicity of Kangxuan granules is very small and it can be considered safe in clinical use.

  4. Hypofractionated IMRT of the Prostate Bed After Radical Prostatectomy: Acute Toxicity in the PRIAMOS-1 Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Sonja, E-mail: sonja.katayama@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Striecker, Thorbjoern; Kessel, Kerstin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Sterzing, Florian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Habl, Gregor [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Edler, Lutz [Department of Biostatistics, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, Juergen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Herfarth, Klaus [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy as primary treatment for prostate cancer is currently being investigated in large phase 3 trials. However, there are few data on postoperative hypofractionation. The Radiation therapy for the Prostate Bed With or Without the Pelvic Lymph Nodes (PRIAMOS 1) trial was initiated as a prospective phase 2 trial to assess treatment safety and toxicity of a hypofractionated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of the prostate bed. Methods and Materials: From February to September 2012, 40 patients with indications for adjuvant or salvage radiation therapy were enrolled. One patient dropped out before treatment. Patients received 54 Gy in 18 fractions to the prostate bed with IMRT and daily image guidance. Gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicities (according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0) were recorded weekly during treatment and 10 weeks after radiation therapy. Results: Overall acute toxicity was favorable, with no recorded adverse events grade ≥3. Acute GI toxicity rates were 56.4% (grade 1) and 17.9% (grade 2). Acute GU toxicity was recorded in 35.9% of patients (maximum grade 1). Urinary stress incontinence was not influenced by radiation therapy. The incidence of grade 1 urinary urge incontinence increased from 2.6% before to 23.1% 10 weeks after therapy, but grade 2 urge incontinence remained unchanged. Conclusions: Postoperative hypofractionated IMRT of the prostate bed is tolerated well, with no severe acute side effects.

  5. Acute embryo toxicity and teratogenicity of three potential biofuels also used as flavor or solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluhm, Kerstin; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Environmental Research, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Anders, Nico [RWTH Aachen University, Aachener Verfahrenstechnik — Enzyme Process Technology, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Klankermayer, Jürgen [RWTH Aachen University, Institut für Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Schaeffer, Andreas [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Environmental Research, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Chongqing University, College of Resources and Environmental Science, Chongqing 400715 (China); Nanjing University, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing 210093 (China); Hollert, Henner, E-mail: Henner.Hollert@bio5.rwth-aachen.de [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Environmental Research, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Chongqing University, College of Resources and Environmental Science, Chongqing 400715 (China); Nanjing University, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing 210093 (China); Tongji University, College of Environmental Science and Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2016-10-01

    The demand for biofuels increases due to concerns regarding greenhouse gas emissions and depletion of fossil oil reserves. Many substances identified as potential biofuels are solvents or already used as flavors or fragrances. Although humans and the environment may be readily exposed little is known regarding their (eco)toxicological effects. In this study, the three potential biofuels ethyl levulinate (EL), 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF) and 2-methylfuran (2-MF) were investigated for their acute embryo toxicity and teratogenicity using the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test to identify unknown hazard potentials and to allow focusing further research on substances with low toxic potentials. In addition, two fossil fuels (diesel and gasoline) and an established biofuel (rapeseed oil methyl ester) were investigated as references. The FET test is widely accepted and used in (eco)toxicology. It was performed using the zebrafish Danio rerio, a model organism useful for the prediction of human teratogenicity. Testing revealed a higher acute toxicity for EL (LC{sub 50}: 83 mg/L) compared to 2-MTHF (LC{sub 50}: 2980 mg/L), 2-MF (LC{sub 50}: 405 mg/L) and water accommodated fractions of the reference fuels including gasoline (LC{sub 50}: 244 mg DOC/L). In addition, EL caused a statistically significant effect on head development resulting in elevated head lengths in zebrafish embryos. Results for EL reduce its likelihood of use as a biofuel since other substances with a lower toxic potential are available. The FET test applied at an early stage of development might be a useful tool to avoid further time and money requiring steps regarding research on unfavorable biofuels. - Highlights: • The demand for biofuels increases but their (eco)toxicological effects are unknown. • Acute fish embryo toxicity and teratogenicity of potential biofuels were evaluated. • Ethyl levulinate induced a higher acute toxicity compared to WAFs of gasoline. • Ethyl levulinate caused

  6. Sub-acute toxicity and biochemical effects of extracts of Anaphe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ataxia syndrome which is characterized by sudden onset of severe muscular tremor and gait ataxia has been shown to be associated with the consumption of the larvae of Anaphe venata in South Western part of Nigeria. In this report, the sub -acute toxicity and biochemical effects of polar and nonpolar extracts of Anaphe ...

  7. Whole acute toxicity removal from industrial and domestic effluents treated by electron beam radiation: emphasis on anionic surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, M.C.F.; Romanelli, M.F; Sena, H.C.; Pasqualini da Silva, G.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Borrely, S.I.

    2004-01-01

    Electron beam radiation has been applied to improve real industrial and domestic effluents received by Suzano wastewater treatment plant. Radiation efficacy has been evaluated as toxicity reduction, using two biological assays. Three sites were sampled and submitted for toxicity assays, anionic surfactant determination and electron beam irradiation. This paper shows the reduction of acute toxicity for both test-organisms, the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia similis. The raw toxic effluents exibitted from 0.6 ppm up to 11.67 ppm for anionic surfactant before being treated by the electron beam. Radiation processing resulted in reduction of the acute toxicity as well as surfactant removal. The final biological effluent was in general less toxic than other sites but the presence of anionic surfactants was evidenced

  8. Whole acute toxicity removal from industrial and domestic effluents treated by electron beam radiation: emphasis on anionic surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, M.C.F. E-mail: mariacristinafm@uol.com.br; Romanelli, M.F; Sena, H.C.; Pasqualini da Silva, G.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Borrely, S.I

    2004-10-01

    Electron beam radiation has been applied to improve real industrial and domestic effluents received by Suzano wastewater treatment plant. Radiation efficacy has been evaluated as toxicity reduction, using two biological assays. Three sites were sampled and submitted for toxicity assays, anionic surfactant determination and electron beam irradiation. This paper shows the reduction of acute toxicity for both test-organisms, the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia similis. The raw toxic effluents exibitted from 0.6 ppm up to 11.67 ppm for anionic surfactant before being treated by the electron beam. Radiation processing resulted in reduction of the acute toxicity as well as surfactant removal. The final biological effluent was in general less toxic than other sites but the presence of anionic surfactants was evidenced.

  9. Acute toxicity of double-walled carbon nanotubes to three aquatic organisms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lukhele, LP

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available , respectively. In the presence of humic acid high DWCNTs acute toxicity towards D. pulex and P. reticulata was observed but ionic strength led to opposite effect irrespective of DWCNTs form. Both humic acid and ionic strength shielded the P. subcapitata from...

  10. The Acute Toxicity and Hematological Characterization of the Effects of Tentacle-Only Extract from the Jellyfish Cyanea capillata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Zhang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the hematologic changes and the activities of jellyfish venoms other than hemolytic and cardiovascular toxicities, the acute toxicity of tentacle-only extract (TOE from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata was observed in mice, and hematological indexes were examined in rats. The median lethal dose (LD50 of TOE was 4.25 mg/kg, and the acute toxicity involved both heart- and nervous system-related symptoms. Arterial blood gas indexes, including pH, PCO2, HCO3−, HCO3std, TCO2, BEecf and BE (B, decreased significantly. PO2 showed a slight increase, while SO2c (% had no change at any time. Na+ and Ca2+ decreased, but K+ increased. Biochemical indexes, including LDH, CK, CK-MB, ALT, AST and sCr, significantly increased. Other biochemical indexes, including BUN and hemodiastase, remained normal. Lactic acid significantly increased, while glucose, Hct% and THbc showed slight temporary increases and then returned to normal. These results on the acute toxicity and hematological changes should improve our understanding of the in vivo pathophysiological effects of TOE from C. capillata and indicate that it may also have neurotoxicity, liver toxicity and muscular toxicity in addition to hemolytic and cardiovascular toxicities, but no kidney or pancreatic toxicity.

  11. Acute fibrinous organising pneumonia: a manifestation of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole pulmonary toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamous, Fady; Ayaz, Syed Zain; Choate, Jacquelyn

    2014-10-29

    A 50-year-old man was treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) for acute arthritis of his right big toe. Within a few days, he developed dyspnoea, hypoxaemia and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. Symptoms improved with discontinuation of the antibiotic but worsened again with its reintroduction. An open lung biopsy was performed. We describe the workup performed and the factors that pointed to a final diagnosis of TMP-SMX-related pulmonary toxicity in the form of acute fibrinous organising pneumonia. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  12. The early toxicity of escalated versus standard dose conformal radiotherapy with neo-adjuvant androgen suppression for patients with localised prostate cancer: Results from the MRC RT01 trial (ISRCTN47772397)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, David P.; Sydes, Matthew R.; Langley, Ruth E.; Graham, John D.; Huddart, Robert A.; Syndikus, Isabel; Matthews, John H.L.; Scrase, Christopher D.; Jose, Chakiath C.; Logue, John; Stephens, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Five-year disease-free survival rates for localised prostate cancer following standard doses of conventional radical external beam radiotherapy are around 80%. Conformal radiotherapy (CFRT) raises the possibility that radiotherapy doses can be increased and long-term efficacy outcomes improved, with safety an important consideration. Methods: MRC RT01 is a randomised controlled trial of 862 men with localised prostate cancer comparing Standard CFRT (64 Gy/32 f) versus Escalated CFRT (74 Gy/37 f), both administered with neo-adjuvant androgen suppression. Early toxicity was measured using physician-reported instruments (RTOG, LENT/SOM, Royal Marsden Scales) and patient-reported questionnaires (MOS SF-36, UCLA Prostate Cancer Index, FACT-P). Results: Overall early radiotherapy toxicity was similar, apart from increased bladder, bowel and sexual toxicity, in the Escalated Group during a short immediate post-radiotherapy period. Toxicity in both groups had abated by week 12. Using RTOG Acute Toxicity scores, cumulative Grade ≥2 bladder and bowel toxicity was 38% and 30% for Standard Group and 39% and 33% in Escalated Group, respectively. Urinary frequency (Royal Marsden Scale) improved in both groups from pre-androgen suppression to 6 months post-radiotherapy (p < 0.001), but bowel and sexual functioning deteriorated. This pattern was supported by patient-completed assessments. Six months after starting radiotherapy the incidence of RTOG Grade ≥2 side-effects was low (<1%); but there were six reports of rectal ulceration (6 Escalated Group), six haematuria (5 Escalated Group) and eight urethral stricture (6 Escalated Group). Conclusions: The two CFRT schedules with neo-adjuvant androgen suppression have broadly similar early toxicity profiles except for the immediate post-RT period. At 6 months and compared to before hormone therapy, bladder symptoms improved, whereas bowel and sexual symptoms worsened. These assessments of early treatment safety will be

  13. Phytochemical Screening and Acute Toxicity of Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus in Swiss Albino Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Dayane K D; Souza, Ivone A DE; Oliveira, Antônio F M DE; Barbosa, Mariana O; Santana, Marllon A N; Pereira, Daniel F; Lira, Eduardo C; Vieira, Jeymesson R C

    2016-09-01

    Mangroves represent areas of high biological productivity and it is a region rich in bioactive substances used in medicine production. Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae) known as button mangrove is one of the species found in mangroves and it is used in folk medicine in the treatment of anemia, catarrh, conjunctivitis, diabetes, diarrhea, fever, gonorrhea, headache, hemorrhage, orchitis, rash, bumps and syphilis. The present study aimed to investigate the acute toxicity of aqueous extract of leaves of C. erectus in Swiss albino mice. The plant material was collected in Vila Velha mangroves, located in Itamaracá (PE). The material was subjected to a phytochemical screening where extractive protocols to identify majority molecules present in leaves were used. The evaluation of acute toxicity of aqueous extract of C. erectus followed the model of Acute Toxicity Class based on OECD 423 Guideline, 2001. The majority molecules were identified: flavonoids, tannins and saponins. The LD50 was estimated at 2,000 mg/kg bw. Therefore, the aqueous extract showed low acute toxicity classified in category 5.

  14. Phytochemical Screening and Acute Toxicity of Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus in Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAYANE K.D. NASCIMENTO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mangroves represent areas of high biological productivity and it is a region rich in bioactive substances used in medicine production. Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae known as button mangrove is one of the species found in mangroves and it is used in folk medicine in the treatment of anemia, catarrh, conjunctivitis, diabetes, diarrhea, fever, gonorrhea, headache, hemorrhage, orchitis, rash, bumps and syphilis. The present study aimed to investigate the acute toxicity of aqueous extract of leaves of C. erectus in Swiss albino mice. The plant material was collected in Vila Velha mangroves, located in Itamaracá (PE. The material was subjected to a phytochemical screening where extractive protocols to identify majority molecules present in leaves were used. The evaluation of acute toxicity of aqueous extract of C. erectus followed the model of Acute Toxicity Class based on OECD 423 Guideline, 2001. The majority molecules were identified: flavonoids, tannins and saponins. The LD50 was estimated at 2,000 mg/kg bw. Therefore, the aqueous extract showed low acute toxicity classified in category 5.

  15. Web-based Interspecies Correlation Estimation (Web-ICE) for Acute Toxicity: User Manual Version 3.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the acute toxicity to multiple species is needed for the assessment of the risks to, and the protection of, individuals, populations, and ecological communities. However, toxicity data are limited for the majority of species, while standard test species are general...

  16. Applicability of the fish embryo acute toxicity (FET) test (OECD 236) in the regulatory context of Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation, and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobanska, Marta; Scholz, Stefan; Nyman, Anna-Maija; Cesnaitis, Romanas; Gutierrez Alonso, Simon; Klüver, Nils; Kühne, Ralph; Tyle, Henrik; de Knecht, Joop; Dang, Zhichao; Lundbergh, Ivar; Carlon, Claudio; De Coen, Wim

    In 2013 the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline (236) for fish embryo acute toxicity (FET) was adopted. It determines the acute toxicity of chemicals to embryonic fish. Previous studies show a good correlation of FET with the standard acute fish toxicity

  17. ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF BREVETOXIN TO OYSTERS AND GRASS SHRIMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Calvin C., James T. Winstead, Steven S. Foss, Janis C. Kurtz, James Watts, Jeanne E. Scott and William S. Fisher. In press. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Brevetoxin to Oysters and Grass Shrimp (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November ...

  18. Acute aquatic toxicity of tire and road wear particles to alga, daphnid, and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwood, Christopher; McAtee, Britt; Kreider, Marisa; Ogle, R Scott; Finley, Brent; Sweet, Len; Panko, Julie

    2011-11-01

    Previous studies have indicated that tire tread particles are toxic to aquatic species, but few studies have evaluated the toxicity of such particles using sediment, the likely reservoir of tire wear particles in the environment. In this study, the acute toxicity of tire and road wear particles (TRWP) was assessed in Pseudokirchneriella subcapita, Daphnia magna, and Pimephales promelas using a sediment elutriate (100, 500, 1000 or 10000 mg/l TRWP). Under standard test temperature conditions, no concentration response was observed and EC/LC(50) values were greater than 10,000 mg/l. Additional tests using D. magna were performed both with and without sediment in elutriates collected under heated conditions designed to promote the release of chemicals from the rubber matrix to understand what environmental factors may influence the toxicity of TRWP. Toxicity was only observed for elutriates generated from TRWP leached under high-temperature conditions and the lowest EC/LC(50) value was 5,000 mg/l. In an effort to identify potential toxic chemical constituent(s) in the heated leachates, toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) studies and chemical analysis of the leachate were conducted. The TIE coupled with chemical analysis (liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry [LC/MS/MS] and inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry [ICP/MS]) of the leachate identified zinc and aniline as candidate toxicants. However, based on the high EC/LC(50) values and the limited conditions under which toxicity was observed, TRWP should be considered a low risk to aquatic ecosystems under acute exposure scenarios.

  19. Acute and chronic systemic chromium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, S C

    1989-10-01

    Although chromium and compounds containing it have been recognized as having potential severe adverse effects on health for more than 160 years, understanding of the systemic toxicology and true hazard of these compounds is still not complete. A review of the current state of knowledge is attempted in this paper, with appropriate attention given to the complications of multiple valence states and solubility. Selected chromium compounds, particularly hexavalent ones, are carcinogens, corrosives, delayed contact sensitizers, and have the kidney as their primary target organ. But chromium is also an essential element for humans. The body clearly possesses some effective detoxification mechanisms for some degree of exposure to hexavalent chrome compounds. The significant features of acute and chronic chromium toxicity are presented in view of these considerations.

  20. Reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine (Prozac) submitted to ionizing radiation to Vibrio fischeri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Dymes R.A.; Garcia, Vanessa S.G.; Vilarrubia, Anna C.S.; Borrely, Sueli I.

    2011-01-01

    The constant use of pharmaceutical drugs by great part of the population and its continuous input into the environment creates a growing need of investigating its presence, behavior and the effects on aquatic biota, as well as new ways to treat wastewater containing such substances. The fluoxetine hydrochloride (FH) present in the drug Prozac is an active ingredient used in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders. Generally, these compounds enter the aquatic environment by sewage collectors systems after undergoing prior treatment in sewage treatment plants (STPs) or without any treatment. This study focused on evaluating the reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical FH, under its manipulated formula, for the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. It was also evaluated the acute toxicity of the aqueous solution containing the FH after its exposition to ionizing radiation from industrial electron accelerator. It was performed acute toxicity tests lasting 15 minutes, where the average EC (50) of the non-irradiated CF water solution was approximately 0.68 mg L-1. While the CF water solution irradiated with 1 kGy, 2.5 kGy, 7.5 kGy and 10 kGy, presented an average EC(50) 1.63 mg.L -1 , 2.34 mg.L -1 , 2.35 mg.L -1 and 1.80 mg.L -1 , respectively, showing a notable reduction of the acute toxicity for this organism. (author)

  1. Acute and subacute toxicity evaluation of ethanolic extract from fruits of Schinus molle in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Adriana; Minetti, Alejandra; Bras, Cristina; Zanetti, Noelia

    2007-09-25

    Ethanolic and hexanic extracts from fruits and leaves of Schinus molle showed ability to control several insect pests. Potential vertebrate toxicity associated with insecticidal plants requires investigation before institutional promotion. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity of ethanolic extracts from fruits of Schinus molle in rats. The plant extract was added to the diet at 2g/kg body weight/day during 1 day to evaluate acute toxicity and at 1g/kg body weight/day during 14 days to evaluate subacute toxicity. At the end of the exposure and after 7 days, behavioral and functional parameters in a functional observational battery and motor activity in an open field were assessed. Finally, histopathological examinations were conducted on several organs. In both exposures, an increase in the arousal level was observed in experimental groups. Also, the landing foot splay parameter increased in the experimental group after acute exposure. Only the subacute exposure produced a significant increase in the motor activity in the open field. All these changes disappeared after 7 days. None of the exposures affected the different organs evaluated. Our results suggest that ethanolic extracts from fruits and leaves of Schinus molle should be relatively safe to use as insecticide.

  2. The acute toxic effects of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate ionic liquids on Chlorella vulgaris and Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Shuai; Zhu, Lusheng; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Zhou, Tongtong

    2017-10-01

    Given their increasingly widespread application, the toxic effects of ionic liquids (ILs) have become the subject of significant attention in recent years. Therefore, the present study assessed the acute toxic effects of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate ([C n mim]NO 3 (n = 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12)) on Chlorella vulgaris and Daphnia magna. The sensitivity of the tested organism Daphnia magna and the investigated IL concentrations in water using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were also evaluated to demonstrate the reliability of the present study. The results illustrated that Daphnia magna is indeed sensitive to the reference toxicant and the investigated ILs were stable in the aquatic environment. The 50% effect concentration (EC 50 ) was used to represent the acute toxic effects on Chlorella vulgaris and Daphnia magna. With the increasing alkyl-chain lengths, the toxicity of the investigated ILs increased in both the test organisms. Accordingly, the alkyl-chain lengths can cause significantly toxic effects on aquatic organisms, and Daphnia magna are much more sensitive than Chlorella vulgaris to the imidazolium-based ILs used in the present study. Furthermore, the present study provides more information on the acute toxic effects of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapy techniques for treatment of pelvic tumors. Analysis of acute toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrigno, Robson; Santos, Adriana; Martins, Lidiane C; Weltman, Eduardo; Chen, Michael J; Sakuraba, Roberto; Lopes, Cleverson P; Cruz, José C

    2010-01-01

    This retrospective analysis reports on the comparative outcome of acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicities between conformal radiation therapy (CRT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques in the treatment of patients with pelvic tumors. From January 2002 to December 2008, 69 patients with pelvic tumors underwent whole pelvic CRT and 65 underwent whole pelvic IMRT to treat pelvic lymph nodes and primary tumor regions. Total dose to the whole pelvis ranged from 50 to 50.4 Gy in 25 to 28 daily fractions. Chemotherapy (CT) regimen, when employed, was based upon primary tumor. Acute GI and GU toxicities were graded by RTOG/EORTC acute radiation morbidity criteria. Absence of GI symptoms during radiotherapy (grade 0) was more frequently observed in the IMRT group (43.1% versus 8.7; p < 0.001) and medication for diarrhea (Grade 2) was more frequently used in the CRT group (65.2% versus 38.5%; p = 0.002). Acute GI grade 1 and 3 side effects incidence was similar in both groups (18.5% versus 18.8%; p = 0.95 and 0% versus 7.2%; p = 0.058, respectively). Incidence of GU toxicity was similar in both groups (grade 0: 61.5% versus 66.6%, p = 0.54; grade 1: 20% versus 8.7%, p = 0.06; grade 2: 18.5% versus 23.5%, p = 0.50 and grade 3: 0% versus 1.5%, p > 0.99). This comparative case series shows less grade 2 acute GI toxicity in patients treated with whole pelvic IMRT in comparison with those treated with CRT. Incidence of acute GU toxicity was similar in both groups

  4. PROCTITIS ONE WEEK AFTER STEREOTACTIC BODY RADIATION THERAPY FOR PROSTATE CANCER: IMPLICATIONS FOR CLINICAL TRIAL DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ima Paydar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proctitis following prostate cancer radiation therapy is a primary determinant of quality of life (QOL. While previous studies have assessed acute rectal morbidity at 1 month after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT, little data exist on the prevalence and severity of rectal morbidity within the first week following treatment. This study reports the acute bowel morbidity one week following prostate SBRT. Materials and methods: Between May 2013 and August 2014, 103 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with 35 to 36.25 Gy in five fractions using robotic SBRT delivered on a prospective clinical trial. Bowel toxicity was graded using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 (CTCAEv.4. Bowel QOL was assessed using EPIC-26 questionnaire bowel domain at baseline, one week, one month, and three months. Time-dependent changes in bowel symptoms were statistically compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Clinically significant change was assessed by the minimally important difference (MID in EPIC score. This was defined as a change of one-half standard deviation (SD from the baseline score. Results: One hundred and three patients with a minimum of three months of follow-up were analyzed. The cumulative incidence of acute grade 2 GI toxicity was 23%. There were no acute ≥ grade 3 bowel toxicities. EPIC bowel summary scores maximally declined at 1 week after SBRT (-13.9, p<0.0001 before returning to baseline at three months after SBRT (+0.03, p=0.94. Prior to treatment, 4.9% of men reported that their bowel bother was a moderate to big problem. This increased to 28.4% (p<0.0001 one week after SBRT and returned to baseline at three months after SBRT (0.0%, p=0.66. Only the bowel summary and bowel bother score declines at 1 week met the MID threshold for clinically significant change. Conclusion: The rate and severity of acute proctitis following prostate SBRT peaked at one week after

  5. Acute toxicity of live and decomposing green alga Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera to abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Yu, Rencheng; Zhou, Mingjiang

    2011-05-01

    From 2007 to 2009, large-scale blooms of green algae (the so-called "green tides") occurred every summer in the Yellow Sea, China. In June 2008, huge amounts of floating green algae accumulated along the coast of Qingdao and led to mass mortality of cultured abalone and sea cucumber. However, the mechanism for the mass mortality of cultured animals remains undetermined. This study examined the toxic effects of Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera, the causative species of green tides in the Yellow Sea during the last three years. The acute toxicity of fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent of U. prolifera to the cultured abalone Haliotis discus hannai were tested. It was found that both fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent had toxic effects to abalone, and decomposing algal effluent was more toxic than fresh culture medium. The acute toxicity of decomposing algal effluent could be attributed to the ammonia and sulfide presented in the effluent, as well as the hypoxia caused by the decomposition process.

  6. Surgical treatment of bowel occlusion as late radiation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeschl, P.; Miholic, J.; Wolner, E.

    1989-01-01

    67 patients were operated for intestinal complications following radiotherapy. The lesions were located in the small bowel (n = 41) and in the sigmoid colon/rectum (n = 33). 98.5% of the patients were females, the most frequent cause for irradiation being ovarian cancer. Bowel stenosis with resultant chronic or acute ileus was the most frequent indication for operation. Percutaneous irradiation resulted in a significantly higher proportion of small bowel lesions (77%, p = 0.001), whilst endocavitary irradiation was followed in 67% of cases by colorectal lesions. Different application modality of irradiation also resulted in completely different symptoms for small and large bowel lesions. The operative mortality was 9.5%. Peritonitis following anastomotic leakage was the cause of death in 6 of 7 cases. In the treatment of small bowel ileus mortality following bowel resection (9%, one of 11 cases) was comparable to that of the bypass operation (6%, one of 18 cases). Both operation methods seem to be justified. Single-layer anastomosis resulted in zero mortality (21 cases) for ileus operation compared with 19% mortality (16 cases) in double-layer anastomosis and should be prefered for operations on the irradiated bowel. (author)

  7. Acute toxicity of ammonia to blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acute toxicity of blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus (3.28 ± 0.36 g in body weight, 61.84 ± 2.08 mm in body length) exposed to environmental un-ionized ammonia at different salinities (1, 8, 12, 16 and 20 ppt) was assessed via a series of static exposure trials. Median lethal concentrations of 24 h of exposure were ...

  8. Acute Toxicity of Delsate® Herbicide (Glyphosate) On Albumin and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some biochemical metabolism [albumin and blood urea nitrogen (BUN)] were monitored in the serum of fresh water adult African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus exposed to acute concentrations of Delsate herbicide for 96 hours. The concentrations of the toxicant tested were 0.5 mgL-1, 1.0 mgL-1, 1.5 mgL-1, 2.0 mgL-1 and 2.5 ...

  9. Acute nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Tonolini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Resulting from direct toxicity on the bowel mucosa, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID-induced colitis is an underestimated although potentially serious condition. Plain abdominal radiographs and multidetector computed tomography allow to identify a right-sided acute colitis with associated pericolonic inflammation, progressively diminished changes along the descending and sigmoid colon, and rectal sparing, consistent with the hypothesized pathogenesis of NSAID colitis. Increased awareness of this condition should reduce morbidity through both prevention and early recognition. High clinical suspicion and appropriate patient questioning, together with consistent instrumental findings, negative biochemistry, and stool investigations should help physicians not to miss this important diagnosis.

  10. Acute Toxicity Effect of the Leaf Extract of Leptadenia Hastata (Pers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the LD50 of the aqueous extract of the Leptadenia hastata was calculated using arithmetic method. The acute toxicity signs observed were inappetence, weakness, unsteady gait, polypnoea and asthenia in all the groups; having unsteady gait and polypnoea being more prominent in 800 to 3200mg/Kg bwt treated groups.

  11. Relative oral efficacy and acute toxicity of hydroxypyridin-4-one iron chelators in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, J.B.; Morgan, J.; Hoyes, K.P.; Burke, L.C.; Huehns, E.R.; Hider, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between the oral efficacy and the acute toxicity of hydroxypyridin-4-one iron chelators has been investigated to clarify structure-function relationships of these compounds in vivo and to identify compounds with the maximum therapeutic safety margin. By comparing 59Fe excretion following oral or intraperitoneal administration of increasing doses of each chelator to iron-overloaded mice, the most effective compounds have been identified. These have partition coefficients (Kpart) above 0.3 in the iron-free form with a trend of increasing oral efficacy with increasing Kpart values (r = .6). However, this is achieved at a cost of increasing acute toxicity, as shown by a linear correlation between 59Fe excretion increase per unit dose and 1/LD50 (r = .83). A sharp increase in the LD50 values is observed for compounds with Kpart values above 1.0, suggesting that such compounds are unlikely to possess a sufficient therapeutic safety margin. Below a Kpart of 1.0, acute toxicity is relatively independent of lipid solubility. All the compounds are less toxic by the oral route than by the intraperitoneal route, although iron excretion is not significantly different by these two routes. At least five compounds (CP51, CP94, CP93, CP96, and CP21) are more effective orally than the same dose of intraperitoneal desferrioxamine (DFO) (P less than or equal to .02) or orally administered L1(CP20) (P less than or equal to .02)

  12. Proton Therapy for Spinal Ependymomas: Planning, Acute Toxicities, and Preliminary Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amsbaugh, Mark J. [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Grosshans, David R., E-mail: dgrossha@mdanderson.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); McAleer, Mary Frances; Zhu, Ron; Wages, Cody; Crawford, Cody N.; Palmer, Matthew; De Gracia, Beth; Woo Shiao; Mahajan, Anita [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To report acute toxicities and preliminary outcomes for pediatric patients with ependymomas of the spine treated with proton beam therapy at the MD Anderson Cancer Center. Methods and Materials: Eight pediatric patients received proton beam irradiation between October 2006 and September 2010 for spinal ependymomas. Toxicity data were collected weekly during radiation therapy and all follow-up visits. Toxicities were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Results: All patients had surgical resection of the tumor before irradiation (7 subtotal resection and 1 gross total resection). Six patients had World Health Organization Grade I ependymomas, and two had World Health Organization Grade II ependymomas. Patients had up to 3 surgical interventions before radiation therapy (range, 1-3; median, 1). Three patients received proton therapy after recurrence and five as part of their primary management. The entire vertebral body was treated in all but 2 patients. The mean radiation dose was 51.1 cobalt gray equivalents (range, 45 to 54 cobalt gray equivalents). With a mean follow-up of 26 months from the radiation therapy start date (range, 7-51 months), local control, event-free survival, and overall survival rates were all 100%. The most common toxicities during treatment were Grade 1 or 2 erythema (75%) and Grade 1 fatigue (38%). No patients had a Grade 3 or higher adverse event. Proton therapy dramatically reduced dose to all normal tissues anterior to the vertebral bodies in comparison to photon therapy. Conclusion: Preliminary outcomes show the expected control rates with favorable acute toxicity profiles. Proton beam therapy offers a powerful treatment option in the pediatric population, where adverse events related to radiation exposure are of concern. Extended follow-up will be required to assess for late recurrences and long-term adverse effects.

  13. Acute and joint toxicity of three agrochemicals to Chinese tiger frog (Hoplobatrachus chinensis) tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li; Shao, Wei-Wei; Ding, Guo-Hua; Fan, Xiao-Li; Yu, Miao-Ling; Lin, Zhi-Hua

    2014-07-01

    We studied acute and joint toxicity of three different agrochemicals (chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam) to Chinese tiger frog (Hoplobatrachus chinensis) tadpoles with the method of stability water tests. Results showed that the three agrochemicals increased tadpole mortality. For acute toxicity, the LC50 values after 24, 48 and 72 h of chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam exposure were 5.37, 4.90 and 4.68 mg/L; 0.035, 0.025 and 0.021 mg/L; 1.74, 1.45 and 1.29 mg/L, respectively. The safety concentrations (SC) of chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam to the tadpoles were 1.23, 0.30 and 0.003 mg/L, respectively. Based on these findings, chlorantraniliprole and penoxsulam were moderately toxic, while flubendiamide-abamectin was highly toxic. All pairwise joint toxicity tests showed moderate toxicity. The LC50 values after 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure were 7.08, 6.61 and 6.03 mg/L for chlorantraniliprole+penoxsulam, with corresponding values of 2.455, 2.328 and 2.183 mg/L for chlorantraniliprole+flubendiamide-abamectin, and 1.132, 1.084 and 1.050 mg/L for penoxsulam+flubendiamide-abamectin, with safe concentrations of 1.73, 0.63 and 0.30 mg/L, respectively. For toxic evaluations of pairwise combinations of the three agrochemicals, only the joint toxicity of chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide-abamectin after 24 h was found to be synergistic, whereas all other tests were antagonistic. Our findings provide valuable information on the toxic effects of agrochemicals on amphibians and how various types of agrochemicals can be reasonably used in agricultural areas.

  14. Sacha Inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L. powder: acute toxicity, 90 days oral toxicity study and micronucleus assay in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idania Rodeiro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Sacha Inchi has been consumed for years by indigenous peoples. Meanwhile, its toxicological potential has not been sufficiently studied. Aims: To assess the acute, sub-chronic toxicity and genotoxicity evaluation of Sacha Inchi powder obtained from Plukenetia volubilis L. Methods: A dose of 2000 mg/kg was orally administered to rats and mice and toxicity symptoms for 14 days were observed. In repeated dose study, the product was orally administered to Sprague Dawley rats of both sexes. Animals received 50, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day of the product for 90 days. At the end, animals were sacrificed and samples were done for hematological and biochemical analysis, organ weighs and histopathological examination. Genotoxicity potential of Sacha Inchi powder was evaluated through micronucleus test in mice. Negative controls received the vehicle (carboxymethyl cellulose, 0.5% used. Results: No morbidity or mortality at 2000 mg/kg of the product were found. Sacha Inchi powder oral administration during 90 days to rats did not lead to death, body weight gain, food consumption, or adverse events. No significant changes on hematological or biochemical parameters, organ weights or histopathological findings were observed. Induction of micronucleus formation attributable to the product was not found in mice. Conclusions: No toxicity effects after oral acute exposure of Sacha Inchi power to rats and mice were observed. Neither toxicity attributable to oral doses of the product up to 500 mg/kg during 90 days to rats were found. Results suggested Sacha Inchi powder does not have genotoxicity potential under our experimental conditions.

  15. The acute toxicity of ethanol extract from irradiated Temulawak (curcuma xanthorrizha roxb.) which have anticancer activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermin Katrin; Susanto; Hendig Winarno

    2011-01-01

    Pasteurization of herbs and herbal medicinal products have been carried out by several herbal industries, but information about the safety of irradiated herbal medicine is still a little, even the influence of gamma irradiation for pasteurization purpose on the toxicity of crude Temulawak has never been investigated. The ethanol extract of Curcuma xanthorrizha Roxb. has cytotoxic activity which potential as an anticancer. In this research, the acute toxicity tests were carried out to the ethanol extract from Curcuma xanthorrizha without irradiation and irradiated with doses of 5 and 10 kGy. The acute toxicity tests of ethanol extract were conducted in mice by observing the effect of extracts on animal behavior (pharmacologic profile) after a single dose of test material, the development of animal body weight and death every day for 14 days and observed several organ weights on day 14. Acute toxicity test results after administration of extracts on male and female mice a dose up to 7500 mg/kg body weight (BW) showed that no deaths and no significant toxic effect, so that the ethanol extract of Curcuma xanthorrizha without irradiation and irradiated with doses of 5 and 10 kGy can be declared safe. Thus LD 50 from ethanol extract of Curcuma xanthorrizha without irradiation and irradiated (5 and 10 kGY) in mice was greater than 7500 mg/kg body weight. (author)

  16. Small Microbial Three-Electrode Cell Based Biosensor for Online Detection of Acute Water Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dengbin; Zhai, Junfeng; Liu, Changyu; Zhang, Xueping; Bai, Lu; Wang, Yizhe; Dong, Shaojun

    2017-11-22

    The monitoring of toxicity of water is very important to estimate the safety of drinking water and the level of water pollution. Herein, a small microbial three-electrode cell (M3C) biosensor filled with polystyrene particles was proposed for online monitoring of the acute water toxicity. The peak current of the biosensor related with the performance of the bioanode was regarded as the toxicity indicator, and thus the acute water toxicity could be determined in terms of inhibition ratio by comparing the peak current obtained with water sample to that obtained with nontoxic standard water. The incorporation of polystyrene particles in the electrochemical cell not only reduced the volume of the samples used, but also improved the sensitivity of the biosensor. Experimental conditions including washing time with PBS and the concentration of sodium acetate solution were optimized. The stability of the M3C biosensor under optimal conditions was also investigated. The M3C biosensor was further examined by formaldehyde at the concentration of 0.01%, 0.03%, and 0.05% (v/v), and the corresponding inhibition ratios were 14.6%, 21.6%, and 36.4%, respectively. This work provides a new insight into the development of an online toxicity detector based on M3C biosensor.

  17. Use of various acute, sublethal and early life-stage tests to evaluate the toxicity of refinery effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherry, J.; Scott, B.; Dutka, B.

    1997-01-01

    The toxicities of effluents from three Ontario, Canada, refineries were assessed with microbes, plants, invertebrates, and fish. Acute toxicity was assessed by the Microtox test, an assay based on electron transport activity in submitochondrial particles, and Daphnia magna (water flea); growth of Selenastrum capricornutum (alga); growth of Lemna minor (aquatic plant); germination of Lactuca sativa (nonaquatic plant); survival, growth, and maturation of Panagrellus redivivus (nematode); and genotoxicity in the SOS-Chromotest. Only the Microtox test and the submitochondrial particle test detected acute toxicity in the effluent samples. Reduced survival and sublethal responses were caused by some effluents, but not all effluents were toxic, and none caused a response in all of the tests applied. The results suggest that the effluent treatment systems used at Ontario refineries have largely eliminated acute toxicity to the organisms in their test battery. Although reduced survival and sublethal effects were detected in some of the effluents, the effects were minor. Some of the tests provided evidence, albeit weak, of variations in the responses of the test organisms to a temporal series of effluent samples. Not unexpectedly, there were also minor differences in the responses of the tests to effluents from the three refineries. The fathead minnow test seems to be a sensitive indicator of the sublethal toxicity of Ontario refinery effluents

  18. Acute toxicity and the 28-day repeated dose study of a Siddha medicine Nuna Kadugu in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaswamy Ramaswamy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nuna Kadugu (NK, a Siddha medicine prepared from leaves and fruits of Morinda Pubescens, used for the treatment of various skin diseases. Though NK has been widely used for several decades, no scientific report was available on its safety. Present study was undertaken to demonstrate the oral toxicity of NK in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods Acute and 28-day repeated oral toxicity studies were performed following OECD test guidelines 423 and 407, respectively, with minor modifications. In acute oral toxicity study, NK was administered at 2000mg/kg b.wt., p.o and animals were observed for toxic signs at 0, 0.5, 1, 4, 24 h and for next 14 days. Gross pathology was performed at the end of the study. In repeated dose, the 28- day oral toxicity study, NK was administered at 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg b.wt./p.o/day. Two satellite groups (control and high dose were also maintained to determine the delayed onset toxicity of NK. Animals were observed for mortality, morbidity, body weight changes, feed and water intake. Haematology, clinical biochemistry, electrolytes, gross pathology, relative organ weight and histopathological examination were performed. Results In acute toxicity study, no treatment related death or toxic signs were observed with NK administration. In the repeated dose study, no significant differences in body weight changes, food / water intake, haematology, clinical biochemistry and electrolytes content were observed between control and NK groups. No gross pathological findings and difference in relative organ weights were observed between control and NK treated rats. Histopathological examination revealed no abnormalities with NK treatment. Conclusion Acute study reveals that the LD50 of NK is greater than 2000mg/kg, b.wt. in fasted female rats and can be classified as Category 5. 28-day repeated oral toxicity demonstrates that the No Observed Adverse Effect Level of NK is greater than 900 mg/kg b.wt./day, p.o in rats

  19. Assessment of acute toxicity of water soluble fraction of diesel on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute toxicity of water soluble fraction (WSF) of diesel fuel was assessed by evaluating its effects on growth of two marine microalgae, Isochrysis and Chaetoceros. Pure cultures of each of the two microalgae were exposed to concentrations of 0% (controls), 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of diesel WSF (in triplicates) and allowed ...

  20. Acute Toxicity of Castor Oil Bean Extract and Tolerance Level of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was carried out to determine the acute toxicity of raw castor oil bean (Ricinus communis) extract and the tolerance level of raw castor oil bean by broilers. The seeds were ground, defatted with petroleum ether and the residue was subjected to extraction with phosphate-buffered saline. The extract volume ...

  1. Acute GI obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucl, Tomas

    2013-10-01

    Acute gastrointestinal obstruction occurs when the normal flow of intestinal contents is interrupted. The blockage can occur at any level throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The clinical symptoms depend on the level and extent of obstruction. Various benign and malignant processes can produce acute gastrointestinal obstruction, which often represents a medical emergency because of the potential for bowel ischemia leading to perforation and peritonitis. Early recognition and appropriate treatment are thus essential. The typical clinical symptoms associated with obstruction include nausea, vomiting, dysphagia, abdominal pain and failure to pass bowel movements. Abdominal distention, tympany due to an air-filled stomach and high-pitched bowel sounds suggest the diagnosis. The diagnostic process involves imaging including radiography, ultrasonography, contrast fluoroscopy and computer tomography in less certain cases. In patients with uncomplicated obstruction, management is conservative, including fluid resuscitation, electrolyte replacement, intestinal decompression and bowel rest. In many cases, endoscopy may aid in both the diagnostic process and in therapy. Endoscopy can be used for bowel decompression, dilation of strictures or placement of self-expandable metal stents to restore the luminal flow either as a final treatment or to allow for a delay until elective surgical therapy. When gastrointestinal obstruction results in ischemia, perforation or peritonitis, emergency surgery is required. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Handbook of acute toxicity of chemicals to fish and aquatic invertebrates : summaries of toxicity tests conducted at Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory, 1965-78

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. Waynon; Finley, Mack T.

    1980-01-01

    Acute toxicity is a major subject of research at Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory for evaluating the impact of toxic chemicals on fishery resources. The Laboratory has played a leading role in developing research technology for toxicity testing and data interpretation. In 1965-78, more than 400 chemicals were tested against a variety of invertebrates and fish species representative of both cold- and warm-water climates.The use of acute toxicity tests for assessing the potential hazard of chemical contaminants to aquatic organisms is well documented (Boyd 1957; Henderson et al. 1960; Sanders and Cope 1966; Macek and McAllister 1970). Static acute toxicity tests provide rapid and (within limits) reproducible concentration-response curves for estimating toxic effects of chemicals on aquatic organisms. These tests provide a database for determining relative toxicity of a large number of chemicals to a variety of species and for estimating acute effects of chemical spills on natural aquatic systems; they also assist in determining priority and design of additional toxicity studies.Acute toxicity tests usually provide estimates of the exposure concentration causing 50% mortality (LC50) to test organisms during a specified period of time. For certain invertebrates, the effective concentration is based on immobilization, or some other identifiable endpoint, rather than on lethality. The application of the LC50 has gained acceptance among toxicologists and is generally the most highly rated test for assessing potential adverse effects of chemical contaminants to aquatic life (Brungs and Mount 1978; American Institute for Biological Sciences 1978a).The literature contains numerous papers dealing with the acute toxicity of chemicals to freshwater organisms. However, there is a tremendous need for a concise compendium of toxicity data covering a large variety of chemicals and test species. This Handbook is a compilation of a large volume of acute toxicity data

  3. Reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine (Prozac) submitted to ionizing radiation to Vibrio fischeri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Dymes R.A.; Garcia, Vanessa S.G.; Vilarrubia, Anna C.S.; Borrely, Sueli I., E-mail: vanessagarcia@usp.br, E-mail: sborrely@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The constant use of pharmaceutical drugs by great part of the population and its continuous input into the environment creates a growing need of investigating its presence, behavior and the effects on aquatic biota, as well as new ways to treat wastewater containing such substances. The fluoxetine hydrochloride (FH) present in the drug Prozac is an active ingredient used in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders. Generally, these compounds enter the aquatic environment by sewage collectors systems after undergoing prior treatment in sewage treatment plants (STPs) or without any treatment. This study focused on evaluating the reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical FH, under its manipulated formula, for the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. It was also evaluated the acute toxicity of the aqueous solution containing the FH after its exposition to ionizing radiation from industrial electron accelerator. It was performed acute toxicity tests lasting 15 minutes, where the average EC (50) of the non-irradiated CF water solution was approximately 0.68 mg L-1. While the CF water solution irradiated with 1 kGy, 2.5 kGy, 7.5 kGy and 10 kGy, presented an average EC(50) 1.63 mg.L{sup -1}, 2.34 mg.L{sup -1}, 2.35 mg.L{sup -1} and 1.80 mg.L{sup -1}, respectively, showing a notable reduction of the acute toxicity for this organism. (author)

  4. Comparative acute toxicity of neonicotinoid and pyrethroid insecticides to non-target crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) associated with rice-crayfish crop rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbee, Gary C; Stout, Michael J

    2009-11-01

    Most insecticides used to control rice water weevil (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuscel) infestations are pyrethroids. However, pyrethroids are highly toxic to non-target crayfish associated with rice-crayfish crop rotations. One solution to the near-exclusive reliance on pyrethroids in a rice-crayfish pest management program is to incorporate neonicotinoid insecticides, which are insect specific and effective against weevils but not extremely toxic to crayfish. This study aimed to take the first step to assess neonicotinoids as alternatives to pyrethroids in rice-crayfish crop rotations by measuring the acute toxicities of three candidate neonicotinoid insecticides, clothianidin, dinotefuran and thiamethoxam, to juvenile Procambarus clarkii (Girard) crayfish and comparing them with the acute toxicities of two currently used pyrethroid insecticides, lambda-cyhalothrin and etofenprox. Neonicotinoid insecticides are at least 2-3 orders of magnitude less acutely toxic (96 h LC(50)) than pyrethroids to juvenile Procambarid crayfish: lambda-cyhalothrin (0.16 microg AI L(-1)) = etofenprox (0.29 microg AI L(-1)) > clothianidin (59 microg AI L(-1)) > thiamethoxam (967 microg AI L(-1)) > dinotefuran (2032 microg AI L(-1)). Neonicotinoid insecticides appear to be much less hazardous alternatives to pyrethroids in rice-crayfish crop rotations. Further field-level neonicotinoid acute and chronic toxicity testing with crayfish is needed. (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. [IMPROVEMENT AND CHOICE OF COLOSTOMY METHOD IN THE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS, SUFFERING AN ACUTE OBTURATIVE IMPASSABILITY OF LARGE BOWEL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustryo, V I; Langazo, O V

    2015-11-01

    Colostomy was done in 49 patients, suffering an acute obturative impassability of large bowel (AOILB). In 28 patients (1st group) colostomy was conducted in accordance to standard method; in 21 (2nd group)--in accordance to the method, proposed by us. Application of the method proposed for surgical treatment of AOILB have guaranteed a reduction of postoperative paracolostomal complications rate in 6.8 times, of postoperative lethality--in 2.2 times, duration of the patient stationary treatment--in 1.4 times, the rate of dressings and the dressing material expanses--in 10 times.

  6. Influence of pH on the acute toxicity of ammonia to juvenile freshwater mussels (fatmucket, Lampsills siliquoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.; Erickson, R.J.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Ivey, C.D.; Brunson, E.L.; Augspurger, T.; Barnhart, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of pH on the toxicity of ammonia to juvenile freshwater mussels. Acute 96-h ammonia toxicity tests were conducted with 10-d-old juvenile mussels (fatmucket, Lampsilis siliquoidea) at five pH levels ranging from 6.5 to 9.0 in flow-through diluter systems at 20??C. Acute 48-h tests with amphipods (Hyalella azteca) and 96-h tests with oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) were conducted concurrently under the same test conditions to determine the sensitivity of mussels relative to these two commonly tested benthic invertebrate species. During the exposure, pH levels were maintained within 0.1 of a pH unit and ammonia concentrations were relatively constant through time (coefficient of variation for ammonia concentrations ranged from 2 to 30% with a median value of 7.9%). The median effective concentrations (EC50s) of total ammonia nitrogen (N) for mussels were at least two to six times lower than the EC50s for amphipods and oligochaetes, and the EC50s for mussels decreased with increasing pH and ranged from 88 mg N/L at pH 6.6 to 0.96 mg N/L at pH 9.0. The EC50s for mussels were at or below the final acute values used to derive the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's acute water quality criterion (WQC). However, the quantitative relationship between pH and ammonia toxicity to juvenile mussels was similar to the average relationship for other taxa reported in the WQC. These results indicate that including mussel toxicity data in a revision to the WQC would lower the acute criterion but not change the WQC mathematical representation of the relative effect of pH on ammonia toxicity. ?? 2008 SETAC.

  7. Quality of Life and Toxicity after SBRT for Organ-Confined Prostate Cancer, a Seven Year Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Jay Katz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT yields excellent disease control for lowandintermediate-risk prostate cancer by delivering high doses of radiation in a small number offractions. Our report presents a 7-year update on treatment toxicity and quality of life (QOLfrom 515 patients treated with prostate SBRT.Methods: From 2006 to 2009, 515 patients with clinically localized, low-, intermediate- andhigh-risk prostate cancer were treated with SBRT using Cyberknife technology. Treatmentconsisted of 35 to 36.25 Gy in 5 fractions. Seventy-two patients received hormone therapy.Toxicity was assessed at each follow up visit using the Expanded Prostate Cancer IndexComposite (EPIC questionnaire and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG urinaryand rectal toxicity scale.Results: Median follow up was 72 months. The actuarial 7-year freedom from biochemicalfailure was 95.8%, 89.3% and 68.5% for low-, intermediate- and high-risk groups, respectively(p < 0.001. No patients experienced acute Grade III or IV acute complications. Fewer than 5%of patients had any acute Grade II urinary or rectal toxicity. Late toxicity was low, with Grade IIrectal and urinary toxicity of 4% and 9.1%, respectively, and Grade III urinary toxicity of 1.7%.Mean EPIC urinary and bowel QOL declined at 1 month post-treatment, returned to baseline by2 years and remained stable thereafter. EPIC sexual QOL declined by 23% at 6-12 months andremained stable afterwards. Of patients potent at baseline evaluation, 67% remained potent atlast follow-up.Conclusions: This study suggests that SBRT, when administered to doses of 35 to 36.25 Gy, isefficacious and safe. With long-term follow up in our large patient cohort, we continue to findlow rates of late toxicity and excellent rates of biochemical control.

  8. Acute toxicity screening of Hanford Site waste grouts using aquatic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebagay, T.V.; Dodd, D.A.; Lockrem, L.L.; Voogd, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Liquid wastes containing radioactive, hazardous, and regulated chemicals have been generated throughout the 50 years operation of the Hanford Site of the US Department of Energy near Richland, Washington. The current strategy for the disposal of the low-level radioactive portion of these wastes involves immobilization of the waste in the form of grout. Because the potential risk of animal and plant exposure to grouts is unknown, acute toxicity screening of grouts is needed. Grouts were prepared by mixing a surrogate nonradioactive liquid waste with a blend consisting of cement, fly ash, and clay. Aqueous extracts of the grout were then screened for acute toxicity using aquatic invertebrates as test organisms and a fluorogenic substrate as the toxic stress indicator. After a 1-hour exposure of juvenile daphnids (D, magna, D. pulex, and C. dubia) to the grout extracts followed by a 15-minute reaction with the fluorogenic substrate, the degree of in vivo enzymatic inhibition was measured by the number of resulting fluorescent daphnids. The EC50 values calculated by probit analysis were 2,877 mg/L, 2,983 mg/L, and 3,174 mg/L for D. pulex, D. magna, and C. dubia, respectively. The slight difference in the responses may be attributed to the subjective pass-fail scoring of the fluorescence criterion. The results indicated that the grout studied is nonhazardous and nondangerous

  9. Adult large bowel obstruction: A review of clinical experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adult large bowel obstruction is an infrequent cause of acute obstruction in Africa ... of obstruction varies between regions of the world. .... were obtained for bacteriological culture. ... attachment, as observed in previous studies.

  10. Comparative Toxicity and Dosimetric Profile of Whole-Pelvis Versus Prostate Bed-Only Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy After Prostatectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deville, Curtiland, E-mail: deville@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Vapiwala, Neha [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Hwang, Wei-Ting [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Lin Haibo; Bar Ad, Voichita; Tochner, Zelig; Both, Stefan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To assess whether whole-pelvis (WP) intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer (PCa) after prostatectomy is associated with increased toxicity compared to prostate-bed only (PB) IMRT. Methods and Materials: All patients (n = 67) undergoing postprostatectomy IMRT to 70.2 Gy at our institution from January 2006 to January 2009 with minimum 12-month follow-up were divided into WP (n = 36) and PB (n = 31) comparison groups. WP patients received initial pelvic nodal IMRT to 45 Gy. Pretreatment demographics, bladder and rectal dose-volume histograms, and maximum genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities were compared. Logistic regression models evaluated uni- and multivariate associations between pretreatment demographics and toxicities. Results: Pretreatment demographics including age and comorbidities were similar between groups. WP patients had higher Gleason scores, T stages, and preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, and more WP patients underwent androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). WP minimum (Dmin) and mean bladder doses, bladder volumes receiving more than 5 Gy (V5) and V20, rectal Dmin, and PB bladder and rectal V65 were significantly increased. Maximum acute GI toxicity was Grade 2 and was increased for WP (61%) vs. PB (29%) patients (p = 0.001); there was no significant difference in acute Grade {>=}2 GU toxicity (22% WP vs. 10% PB; p = 0.193), late Grade {>=}2 GI toxicity (3% WP vs. 0% PB; p = 0.678), or late Grade {>=}2 GU toxicity (28% WP vs. 19% PB; p = 0.274) with 25-month median follow-up (range, 12-44 months). On multivariate analysis, long-term ADT use was associated with Grade {>=}2 late GU toxicity (p = 0.02). Conclusion: Despite dosimetric differences in irradiated bowel, bladder, and rectum, WP IMRT resulted only in clinically significant increased acute GI toxicity in comparison to that with PB IMRT, with no differences in GU or late GI toxicity.

  11. Gastrointestinal toxicity of vorinostat: reanalysis of phase 1 study results with emphasis on dose-volume effects of pelvic radiotherapy

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bratland, Ase

    2011-04-08

    Abstract Background In early-phase studies with targeted therapeutics and radiotherapy, it may be difficult to decide whether an adverse event should be considered a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) of the investigational systemic agent, as acute normal tissue toxicity is frequently encountered with radiation alone. We have reanalyzed the toxicity data from a recently conducted phase 1 study on vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, in combination with pelvic palliative radiotherapy, with emphasis on the dose distribution within the irradiated bowel volume to the development of DLT. Findings Of 14 eligible patients, three individuals experienced Common Terminology Criteria of Adverse Events grade 3 gastrointestinal and related toxicities, representing a toxicity profile vorinostat has in common with radiotherapy to pelvic target volumes. For each study patient, the relative volumes of small bowel receiving radiation doses between 6 Gy and 30 Gy at 6-Gy intervals (V6-V30) were determined from the treatment-planning computed tomography scans. The single patient that experienced a DLT at the second highest dose level of vorinostat, which was determined as the maximum-tolerated dose, had V6-V30 dose-volume estimates that were considerably higher than any other study patient. This patient may have experienced an adverse radiation dose-volume effect rather than a toxic effect of the investigational drug. Conclusions When reporting early-phase trial results on the tolerability of a systemic targeted therapeutic used as potential radiosensitizing agent, radiation dose-volume effects should be quantified to enable full interpretation of the study toxicity profile. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00455351

  12. Gastrointestinal toxicity of vorinostat: reanalysis of phase 1 study results with emphasis on dose-volume effects of pelvic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratland, Åse; Dueland, Svein; Hollywood, Donal; Flatmark, Kjersti; Ree, Anne H

    2011-01-01

    In early-phase studies with targeted therapeutics and radiotherapy, it may be difficult to decide whether an adverse event should be considered a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) of the investigational systemic agent, as acute normal tissue toxicity is frequently encountered with radiation alone. We have reanalyzed the toxicity data from a recently conducted phase 1 study on vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, in combination with pelvic palliative radiotherapy, with emphasis on the dose distribution within the irradiated bowel volume to the development of DLT. Of 14 eligible patients, three individuals experienced Common Terminology Criteria of Adverse Events grade 3 gastrointestinal and related toxicities, representing a toxicity profile vorinostat has in common with radiotherapy to pelvic target volumes. For each study patient, the relative volumes of small bowel receiving radiation doses between 6 Gy and 30 Gy at 6-Gy intervals (V6-V30) were determined from the treatment-planning computed tomography scans. The single patient that experienced a DLT at the second highest dose level of vorinostat, which was determined as the maximum-tolerated dose, had V6-V30 dose-volume estimates that were considerably higher than any other study patient. This patient may have experienced an adverse radiation dose-volume effect rather than a toxic effect of the investigational drug. When reporting early-phase trial results on the tolerability of a systemic targeted therapeutic used as potential radiosensitizing agent, radiation dose-volume effects should be quantified to enable full interpretation of the study toxicity profile.

  13. Toxicity levels to humans during acute exposure to hydrogen fluoride - An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halton, D.M.

    1995-09-01

    In March 1993, the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) commissioned and update of a 1984 review on the acute toxicity of hydrogen fluoride (HF). The study places particular emphasis on the effects of inhalation of gaseous HF and is divided into two main parts: a literature review and a lethal concentration (LC) estimation. The literature review summarizes data under four categories: animal studies, controlled human studies, community exposure, and industrial exposure. Data in these areas were critically reviewed for their relevance to lethal concentrations at LC LO , LC 10 and LC 50 levels that were derived in the 1984 report. In the last ten years, only one relevant animal study has been published. No new controlled human studies were found but a community exposure incident was reported. There were three new industrial/accidental exposures reported since 1984. Evaluation of new data does not change the lethal concentration estimates made in the 1984 report, but does indicate the absence of appropriate models to estimate the lethality of irritant and corrosive gases. In the last 10 years, much literature on the evaluation of major hazards has been published and suggests that such assessments are of growing political, economic and social importance. Numerous articles have been published on the acute toxicity of HF from skin contact and chronic toxicity from repeated airborne exposure. These publications offer important insights into the nature of HF toxicity. Several avenues of investigative research are suggested. (author). 55 refs., 4 tabs

  14. Toxicity levels to humans during acute exposure to hydrogen fluoride - An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halton, D M

    1995-09-01

    In March 1993, the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) commissioned and update of a 1984 review on the acute toxicity of hydrogen fluoride (HF). The study places particular emphasis on the effects of inhalation of gaseous HF and is divided into two main parts: a literature review and a lethal concentration (LC) estimation. The literature review summarizes data under four categories: animal studies, controlled human studies, community exposure, and industrial exposure. Data in these areas were critically reviewed for their relevance to lethal concentrations at LC{sub LO}, LC{sub 10} and LC{sub 50} levels that were derived in the 1984 report. In the last ten years, only one relevant animal study has been published. No new controlled human studies were found but a community exposure incident was reported. There were three new industrial/accidental exposures reported since 1984. Evaluation of new data does not change the lethal concentration estimates made in the 1984 report, but does indicate the absence of appropriate models to estimate the lethality of irritant and corrosive gases. In the last 10 years, much literature on the evaluation of major hazards has been published and suggests that such assessments are of growing political, economic and social importance. Numerous articles have been published on the acute toxicity of HF from skin contact and chronic toxicity from repeated airborne exposure. These publications offer important insights into the nature of HF toxicity. Several avenues of investigative research are suggested. (author). 55 refs., 4 tabs.

  15. Sirc-cvs cytotoxicity test: an alternative for predicting rodent acute systemic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagaki, Masato; Wakuri, Shinobu; Hirota, Morihiko; Tanaka, Noriho; Itagaki, Hiroshi

    2006-10-01

    An in vitro crystal violet staining method using the rabbit cornea-derived cell line (SIRC-CVS) has been developed as an alternative to predict acute systemic toxicity in rodents. Seventy-nine chemicals, the in vitro cytotoxicity of which was already reported by the Multicenter Evaluation of In vitro Toxicity (MEIC) and ICCVAM/ECVAM, were selected as test compounds. The cells were incubated with the chemicals for 72 hrs and the IC(50) and IC(35) values (microg/mL) were obtained. The results were compared to the in vivo (rat or mouse) "most toxic" oral, intraperitoneal, subcutaneous and intravenous LD(50) values (mg/kg) taken from the RTECS database for each of the chemicals by using Pearson's correlation statistics. The following parameters were calculated: accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, prevalence, positive predictability, and negative predictability. Good linear correlations (Pearson's coefficient; r>0.6) were observed between either the IC(50) or the IC(35) values and all the LD(50) values. Among them, a statistically significant high correlation (r=0.8102, p50) values and the oral LD(50) values. By using the cut-off concentrations of 2,000 mg/kg (LD(50)) and 4,225 microg/mL (IC(50)), no false negatives were observed, and the accuracy was 84.8%. From this, it is concluded that this method could be used to predict the acute systemic toxicity potential of chemicals in rodents.

  16. Malrotation with midgut volvulus: CT findings of bowel infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aidlen, Jeremy; Anupindi, Sudha A.; Jaramillo, Diego; Doody, Daniel P.

    2005-01-01

    Midgut volvulus, the most common serious complication of malrotation, can be diagnosed using conventional contrast fluoroscopy, US or CT. CT is a quick and comprehensive examination in the evaluation of complex acute abdominal pathology in children. Contrast-enhanced CT can readily help the radiologist recognize perfusion abnormalities of the bowel, which is vital for reducing morbidity and mortality in affected children. Our case emphasizes and demonstrates additional CT features of bowel infarction in a child with a proven malrotation with midgut volvulus. (orig.)

  17. Malrotation with midgut volvulus: CT findings of bowel infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aidlen, Jeremy [University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Worchester (United States); Anupindi, Sudha A.; Jaramillo, Diego [Massachusetts General Hospital, Pediatric Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Doody, Daniel P. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Boston, MA (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Midgut volvulus, the most common serious complication of malrotation, can be diagnosed using conventional contrast fluoroscopy, US or CT. CT is a quick and comprehensive examination in the evaluation of complex acute abdominal pathology in children. Contrast-enhanced CT can readily help the radiologist recognize perfusion abnormalities of the bowel, which is vital for reducing morbidity and mortality in affected children. Our case emphasizes and demonstrates additional CT features of bowel infarction in a child with a proven malrotation with midgut volvulus. (orig.)

  18. Cumulative toxicity of neonicotinoid insecticide mixtures to Chironomus dilutus under acute exposure scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin M; Morrissey, Christy A; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Liber, Karsten

    2017-11-01

    Extensive agricultural use of neonicotinoid insecticide products has resulted in the presence of neonicotinoid mixtures in surface waters worldwide. Although many aquatic insect species are known to be sensitive to neonicotinoids, the impact of neonicotinoid mixtures is poorly understood. In the present study, the cumulative toxicities of binary and ternary mixtures of select neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam) were characterized under acute (96-h) exposure scenarios using the larval midge Chironomus dilutus as a representative aquatic insect species. Using the MIXTOX approach, predictive parametric models were fitted and statistically compared with observed toxicity in subsequent mixture tests. Single-compound toxicity tests yielded median lethal concentration (LC50) values of 4.63, 5.93, and 55.34 μg/L for imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam, respectively. Because of the similar modes of action of neonicotinoids, concentration-additive cumulative mixture toxicity was the predicted model. However, we found that imidacloprid-clothianidin mixtures demonstrated response-additive dose-level-dependent synergism, clothianidin-thiamethoxam mixtures demonstrated concentration-additive synergism, and imidacloprid-thiamethoxam mixtures demonstrated response-additive dose-ratio-dependent synergism, with toxicity shifting from antagonism to synergism as the relative concentration of thiamethoxam increased. Imidacloprid-clothianidin-thiamethoxam ternary mixtures demonstrated response-additive synergism. These results indicate that, under acute exposure scenarios, the toxicity of neonicotinoid mixtures to C. dilutus cannot be predicted using the common assumption of additive joint activity. Indeed, the overarching trend of synergistic deviation emphasizes the need for further research into the ecotoxicological effects of neonicotinoid insecticide mixtures in field settings, the development of better toxicity models for neonicotinoid mixture

  19. Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juheini Amin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves. Preminelary experiment showed that ethanolic extract ofgandarusa leaves (Justicia gendarussa Burm. could decreased uric acid blood level on rats. The aim of this experimentwas to determine of the value LD50 and liver function based on activities of aminotransferase. Animals test which wereused in this experiment were 50 males and 50 females white mice. They were divided into 5 groups. Group 1 as controlgroup was given aquadest. Group 2-5 were treated by ethanolic extract of gandarusa leaves with dosage 4, 8, 16, and 32g/kg bw. The LD50 value was determined by the amount of death in group during 24 hours after giving a single dose oftest substance. The result showed that the highest dose was practically non toxic with LD50 value of 31.99 g/kg bw(male groups and 27.85 g/kg bw (female groups. Measurement of aminotransferase activity was done by usingcolorimetric method. The result of ANOVA analysis for liver function showed that the giving test substance 4 g/kg bw–16 g/kg bw was not significantly different between treated groups and control group.

  20. Acute Skin Toxicity Following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Who's at Risk?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, Bradford S.; Laser, Benjamin; Kowalski, Alex V.; Fontenla, Sandra C.; Pena-Greenberg, Elizabeth; Yorke, Ellen D.; Lovelock, D. Michael; Hunt, Margie A.; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We examined the rate of acute skin toxicity within a prospectively managed database of patients treated for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and investigated factors that might predict skin toxicity. Methods: From May 2006 through January 2008, 50 patients with Stage I NSCLC were treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center with 60 Gy in three fractions or 44-48 Gy in four fractions. Patients were treated with multiple coplanar beams (3-7, median 4) with a 6 MV linac using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and dynamic multileaf collimation. Toxicity grading was performed and based on the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects. Factors associated with Grade 2 or higher acute skin reactions were calculated by Fisher's exact test. Results: After a minimum 3 months of follow-up, 19 patients (38%) developed Grade 1, 4 patients (8%) Grade 2, 2 patients (4%) Grade 3, and 1 patient Grade 4 acute skin toxicity. Factors associated with Grade 2 or higher acute skin toxicity included using only 3 beams (p = 0.0007), distance from the tumor to the posterior chest wall skin of less than 5 cm (p = 0.006), and a maximum skin dose of 50% or higher of the prescribed dose (p = 0.02). Conclusions: SBRT can be associated with significant skin toxicity. One must consider the skin dose when evaluating the treatment plan and consider the bolus effect of immobilization devices

  1. 111In autologous leucocytes in the diagnosis and assessment of inflammatory bowel disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saverymuttu, S.H.; Peters, A.M.; Reavy, H.J.; Danpure, H.J.; Osman, S.; Chadwick, V.S.; Hodgson, H.J.; Lavender, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    111 In-labelled leucocytes were used to obtain gamma camera images of inflamed of bowel in a wide variety of inflammatory bowel disease. No false positive scans were observed in the irritable bowel syndrome and in bowel malignancy. All patients with moderate or severely active disease had positive scans. Faecal excretion of 111 Indium increased with disease severity. 111 In-tropolone labelling appeared to offer the advantage over 111 In-acac labelling in localising inflamed bowel earlier. In many cases the bowel was imaged within 40 min of re-injection of the leucocytes. 111 In-leucocyte scanning provides a novel approach to the problem of diagnosis and assessment of inflammatory bowel disease. It is non-invasive, requires no bowel preparation and thus is safe in the acutely sick patient where conventional radiological imaging methods may be hazardous. 111 Indium faecal excretion provides an objective assessment of disease activity which should prove useful in evaluating treatment regimes

  2. Small bowel obstruction complicating colonoscopy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter Iain A

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction This report describes a rare complication of colonoscopy and reviews the literature with regard to other rare causes of acute abdominal presentations following colonoscopy. Case presentation After a therapeutic colonoscopy a 60-year-old woman developed an acute abdomen. At laparotomy she was discovered to have small bowel obstruction secondary to incarceration through a congenital band adhesion. Conclusion Although there is no practical way in which such rare complications can be predicted, this case report emphasises the wide array of pathologies that can result in acute abdominal symptoms following colonoscopy.

  3. Acute cardiovascular toxicity of sterilizers, PHMG, and PGH: severe inflammation in human cells and heart failure in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Yong; Kim, Hak Hyeon; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2013-06-01

    In 2011, dozens of children and pregnant women in Korea died by exposure to sterilizer for household humidifier, such as Oxy(®) and Cefu(®). Until now, however, it remains unknown how the sterilizer affect the human health to cause the acute deaths. To find its toxicity for organ, we investigated the putative toxicity of the sterilizer in the cardiovascular system. The sterilizers, polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate (PHMG, Cefu(®)), and oligo-[2-(2-ethoxy)-ethoxyethyl)-guanidinium-chloride (PGH, Oxy(®)) were treated to human lipoproteins, macrophages, and dermal fibroblast cells. The PGH and PHMG at normal dosages caused severe atherogenic process in human macrophages, cytotoxic effect, and aging in human dermal cell. Zebrafish embryos, which were exposed to the sterilizer, showed early death with acute inflammation and attenuated developmental speed. All zebrafish exposed to the working concentration of PHMG (final 0.3 %) and PGH (final 10 mM) died within 70 min and displayed acute increases in serum triacylglycerol level and fatty liver induction. The dead zebrafish showed severe accumulation of fibrous collagen in the bulbous artery of the heart with elevation of reactive oxygen species. In conclusion, the sterilizers showed acute toxic effect in blood circulation system, causing by severe inflammation, atherogenesis, and aging, with embryo toxicity.

  4. Predictive factors for acute and late urinary toxicity after permanent interstitial brachytherapy in Japanese patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Ryuta; Bekku, Kensuke; Katayama, Norihisa

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the frequency of and to determine predictive factors associated with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group urinary toxicity in prostate brachytherapy patients. From January 2004 to April 2011, 466 consecutive Japanese patients underwent permanent iodine-125-seed brachytherapy (median follow up 48 months). International Prostate Symptom Score and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group toxicity data were prospectively collected. Prostate volume, International Prostate Symptom Score before and after brachytherapy, and postimplant analysis were examined for an association with urinary toxicity, defined as Radiation Therapy Oncology Group urinary toxicity of Grade 1 or higher. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the factors associated with urinary toxicity. The rate of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group urinary toxicity grade 1 or higher at 1, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months was 67%, 40%, 21%, 31%, 27% and 28%, respectively. Grade 2 or higher urinary toxicity was less than 1% at each time-point. International Prostate Symptom Score was highest at 3 months and returned to normal 12 months after brachytherapy. On multivariate analysis, patients with a larger prostate size, greater baseline International Prostate Symptom Score, higher prostate V100, higher prostate V150, higher prostate D90 and a greater number of seeds had more acute urinary toxicities at 1 month and 12 months after brachytherapy. On multivariate analysis, significant predictors for urinary toxicity at 1 month and 12 months were a greater baseline International Prostate Symptom Score and prostate V100. Most urinary symptoms are tolerated and resolved within 12 months after prostate brachytherapy. Acute and late urinary toxicity after brachytherapy is strongly related to the baseline International Prostate Symptom Score and prostate V100. (author)

  5. Field and laboratory tests on acute toxicity of cadmium to freshwater crayfish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    Environmental regulatory standards for cadmium (EPA 1980), like those for most pollutants, are based on acute, laboratory toxicity tests of single species. Such tests can be conducted rapidly and inexpensively in comparison to acute or chronic field studies, but their validity has often been questioned. Laboratory-based criteria are subject to two criticisms: (1) chemical and physical conditions differ greatly in degree and variability from laboratory to field, and (2) species are not isolated, but live in an ecosystem of interacting taxa and biofeedback. To investigate the validity of basing field toxicity standards on laboratory data, the authors subjected the freshwater crayfish Orconectes immunis for 96 h to various levels of cadmium in laboratory aquaria and experimental ponds. The study was designed to evaluate in part the first criticism of lab-based criteria. The studies were conducted concurrently with similar short-term experiments on the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, and coincided with studies of chronic cadmium stress on fathead minnows in experimental ponds.

  6. Comparative analysis of pharmaceuticals versus industrial chemicals acute aquatic toxicity classification according to the United Nations classification system for chemicals. Assessment of the (Q)SAR predictability of pharmaceuticals acute aquatic toxicity and their predominant acute toxic mode-of-action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans; Thomsen, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    data. Pharmaceuticals were found to be more frequent than industrial chemicals in GHS category III. Acute toxicity was predictable (>92%) using a generic (Q)SAR ((Quantitative) Structure Activity Relationship) suggesting a narcotic MOA. Analysis of model prediction error suggests that 68...... a comprehensive database based on OECD's standardized measured ecotoxicological data and to evaluate if there is generally cause of greater concern with regards to pharmaceutical aquatic toxicological profiles relative to industrial chemicals. Comparisons were based upon aquatic ecotoxicity classification under...... the United Nations Global Harmonized System for classification and labeling of chemicals (GHS). Moreover, we statistically explored whether the predominant mode-of-action (MOA) for pharmaceuticals is narcosis. We found 275 pharmaceuticals with 569 acute aquatic effect data; 23 pharmaceuticals had chronic...

  7. Helical tomotherapy in the treatment of pediatric malignancies: a preliminary report of feasibility and acute toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltrán César

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiation therapy plays a central role in the management of many childhood malignancies and Helical Tomotherapy (HT provides potential to decrease toxicity by limiting the radiation dose to normal structures. The aim of this article was to report preliminary results of our clinical experience with HT in pediatric malignancies. Methods In this study 66 consecutive patients younger than 14 years old, treated with HT at our center between January 2006 and April 2010, have been included. We performed statistical analyses to assess the relationship between acute toxicity, graded according to the RTOG criteria, and several clinical and treatment characteristics such as a dose and irradiation volume. Results The median age of patients was 5 years. The most common tumor sites were: central nervous system (57%, abdomen (17% and thorax (6%. The most prevalent histological types were: medulloblastoma (16 patients, neuroblastoma (9 patients and rhabdomyosarcoma (7 patients. A total of 52 patients were treated for primary disease and 14 patients were treated for recurrent tumors. The majority of the patients (72% were previously treated with chemotherapy. The median prescribed dose was 51 Gy (range 10-70 Gy. In 81% of cases grade 1 or 2 acute toxicity was observed. There were 11 cases (16,6% of grade 3 hematological toxicity, two cases of grade 3 skin toxicity and one case of grade 3 emesis. Nine patients (13,6% had grade 4 hematological toxicity. There were no cases of grade 4 non-hematological toxicities. On the univariate analysis, total dose and craniospinal irradiation (24 cases were significantly associated with severe toxicity (grade 3 or more, whereas age and chemotherapy were not. On the multivariate analysis, craniospinal irradiation was the only significant independent risk factor for grade 3-4 toxicity. Conclusion HT in pediatric population is feasible and safe treatment modality. It is characterized by an acceptable level of

  8. Helical tomotherapy in the treatment of pediatric malignancies: a preliminary report of feasibility and acute toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesbah, Latifa; Marsiglia, Hugo; Matute, Raúl; Usychkin, Sergey; Marrone, Immacolata; Puebla, Fernando; Mínguez, Cristina; García, Rafael; García, Graciela; Beltrán, César

    2011-01-01

    Radiation therapy plays a central role in the management of many childhood malignancies and Helical Tomotherapy (HT) provides potential to decrease toxicity by limiting the radiation dose to normal structures. The aim of this article was to report preliminary results of our clinical experience with HT in pediatric malignancies. In this study 66 consecutive patients younger than 14 years old, treated with HT at our center between January 2006 and April 2010, have been included. We performed statistical analyses to assess the relationship between acute toxicity, graded according to the RTOG criteria, and several clinical and treatment characteristics such as a dose and irradiation volume. The median age of patients was 5 years. The most common tumor sites were: central nervous system (57%), abdomen (17%) and thorax (6%). The most prevalent histological types were: medulloblastoma (16 patients), neuroblastoma (9 patients) and rhabdomyosarcoma (7 patients). A total of 52 patients were treated for primary disease and 14 patients were treated for recurrent tumors. The majority of the patients (72%) were previously treated with chemotherapy. The median prescribed dose was 51 Gy (range 10-70 Gy). In 81% of cases grade 1 or 2 acute toxicity was observed. There were 11 cases (16,6%) of grade 3 hematological toxicity, two cases of grade 3 skin toxicity and one case of grade 3 emesis. Nine patients (13,6%) had grade 4 hematological toxicity. There were no cases of grade 4 non-hematological toxicities. On the univariate analysis, total dose and craniospinal irradiation (24 cases) were significantly associated with severe toxicity (grade 3 or more), whereas age and chemotherapy were not. On the multivariate analysis, craniospinal irradiation was the only significant independent risk factor for grade 3-4 toxicity. HT in pediatric population is feasible and safe treatment modality. It is characterized by an acceptable level of acute toxicity that we have seen in this highly

  9. Ecotoxicological effect of ketamine: Evidence of acute, chronic and photolysis toxicity to Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shih-Wei; Wang, Yu-Hsiang; Lin, Angela Yu-Chen

    2017-09-01

    Ketamine has been increasingly used in medicine and has the potential for abuse or illicit use around the world. Ketamine cannot be removed by conventional wastewater treatment plants. Although ketamine and its metabolite norketamine have been detected to a significant degree in effluents and aquatic environments, their ecotoxicity effects in aquatic organisms remain undefined. In this study, we investigated the acute toxicity of ketamine and its metabolite, along with the chronic reproductive toxicity of ketamine (5-100μg/L) to Daphnia magna. Multiple environmental scenarios were also evaluated, including drug mixtures and sunlight irradiation toxicity. Ketamine and norketamine caused acute toxicity to D. magna, with half lethal concentration (LC 50 ) values of 30.93 and 25.35mg/L, respectively, after 48h of exposure. Irradiated solutions of ketamine (20mg/L) significantly increased the mortality of D. magna; pre-irradiation durations up to 2h rapidly increased the death rate to 100%. A new photolysis byproduct (M.W. 241) of norketamine that accumulates during irradiation was identified for the first time. The relevant environmental concentration of ketamine produced significant reproductive toxicity effects in D. magna, as revealed by the reduction of the number of total live offspring by 33.6-49.8% (p ketamine concentration cannot be ignored and warrant further examination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dosimetric Coverage of the Prostate, Normal Tissue Sparing, and Acute Toxicity with High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Large Prostate Volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurposeTo evaluate dosimetric coverage of the prostate, normal tissue sparing, and acute toxicity with HDR brachytherapy for large prostate volumes.Materials and MethodsOne hundred and two prostate cancer patients with prostate volumes >50 mL (range: 5-29 mL were treated with high-dose-rate (HDR brachytherapy ± intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT to 4,500 cGy in 25 daily fractions between 2009 and 2013. HDR brachytherapy monotherapy doses consisted of two 1,350-1,400 cGy fractions separated by 2-3 weeks, and HDR brachytherapy boost doses consisted of two 950-1,150 cGy fractions separated by 4 weeks. Twelve of 32 (38% unfavorable intermediate risk, high risk, and very high risk patients received androgen deprivation therapy. Acute toxicity was graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE version 4.ResultsMedian follow-up was 14 months. Dosimetric goals were achieved in over 90% of cases. Three of 102 (3% patients developed Grade 2 acute proctitis. No variables were significantly associated with Grade 2 acute proctitis. Seventeen of 102 (17% patients developed Grade 2 acute urinary retention. American Urological Association (AUA symptom score was the only variable significantly associated with Grade 2 acute urinary retention (p=0.04. There was no ≥ Grade 3 acute toxicity.ConclusionsDosimetric coverage of the prostate and normal tissue sparing were adequate in patients with prostate volumes >50 mL. Higher pre-treatment AUA symptom scores increased the relative risk of Grade 2 acute urinary retention. However, the overall incidence of acute toxicity was acceptable in patients with large prostate volumes.

  11. Dosimetric coverage of the prostate, normal tissue sparing, and acute toxicity with high-dose-rate brachytherapy for large prostate volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, George; Strom, Tobin J.; Shrinath, Kushagra; Mellon, Eric A.; Fernandez, Daniel C.; Biagioli, Matthew C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL (United States); Wilder, Richard B., E-mail: mcbiagioli@yahoo.com [Cancer Treatment Centers of America, Newnan, GA (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: to evaluate dosimetric coverage of the prostate, normal tissue sparing, and acute toxicity with HDR brachytherapy for large prostate volumes. Materials and methods: one hundred and two prostate cancer patients with prostate volumes >50 mL (range: 5-29 mL) were treated with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy ± intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to 4,500 cGy in 25 daily fractions between 2009 and 2013. HDR brachytherapy monotherapy doses consisted of two 1,350-1,400 cGy fractions separated by 2-3 weeks, and HDR brachytherapy boost doses consisted of two 950-1,150 cGy fractions separated by 4 weeks. Twelve of 32 (38%) unfavorable intermediate risk, high risk, and very high risk patients received androgen deprivation therapy. Acute toxicity was graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4. Results: median follow-up was 14 months. Dosimetric goals were achieved in over 90% of cases. Three of 102 (3%) patients developed Grade 2 acute proctitis. No variables were significantly associated with Grade 2 acute proctitis. Seventeen of 102 (17%) patients developed Grade 2 acute urinary retention. American Urological Association (AUA) symptom score was the only variable significantly associated with Grade 2 acute urinary retention (p-0.04). There was no ≥ Grade 3 acute toxicity. Conclusions: dosimetric coverage of the prostate and normal tissue sparing were adequate in patients with prostate volumes >50 mL. Higher pre-treatment AUA symptom scores increased the relative risk of Grade 2 acute urinary retention. However, the overall incidence of acute toxicity was acceptable in patients with large prostate volumes. (author)

  12. Effect of azole antifungal therapy on vincristine toxicity in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schie, R.M. van; Bruggemann, R.J.M.; Hoogerbrugge, P.M.; Loo, D.M. te

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vincristine is one of the cornerstones of the treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Constipation, and peripheral and central neurotoxicities are the most common side effects. A comparative study exploring vincristine toxicity in individual patients receiving

  13. Acute and subacute toxicity of {sup 18}F-FDG; Toxicidade aguda e subaguda do radiofarmaco {sup 18}F-FDG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Danielle Maia

    2013-07-01

    Before starting clinical trials of a new drug, it is necessary to perform a battery of safety tests for assessing human risk. Radiopharmaceuticals like any new drug must be tested taking into account its specificity, duration of treatment and especially the toxicity of both parties, the unlabeled molecule and its radionuclide, apart from impurities emanating from radiolysis. Regulatory agencies like the Food and Drug Administration - USA (FDA) and the European Medicine Agency (EMEA), establish guidelines for the regulation of production and research of radiopharmaceuticals. In Brazil the production of radiopharmaceuticals was not regulated until the end of 2009, when were established by the National Agency for Sanitary Surveillance (ANVISA) resolutions No. 63, which refers to the Good Manufacturing Practices of Radiopharmaceuticals and No. 64 which seeks the registration of record radiopharmaceuticals. To obtain registration of radiopharmaceuticals are necessary to prove the quality, safety, efficacy and specificity of the drug . For the safety of radiopharmaceuticals must be presented studies of acute toxicity, subacute and chronic toxicity as well as reproductive, mutagenic and carcinogenic. Nowadays IPEN-CNEN/SP produces one of the most important radiopharmaceutical of nuclear medicine, the {sup 18}F-FDG, which is used in many clinical applications, particularly in the diagnosis and staging of tumors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the systemic toxicity (acute/ subacute) radiopharmaceutical {sup 18}F-FDG in an in vivo test system, as recommended by the RDC No. 64, which will serve as a model for protocols toxicity of radiopharmaceuticals produced at IPEN. The following tests were performed: tests of acute and subacute toxicity, biodistribution studies of {sup 18}F-FDG, comet assay and reproductive toxicity. In acute toxicity, healthy rats were injected . (author)

  14. Acute toxicity assessment of Osthol content in bio-pesticides using two aquatic organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Chae Yim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study focused on the assessment of acute toxicity caused by Osthol, a major component of environment-friendly biological pesticides, by using two aquatic organisms. Methods The assessment of acute toxicity caused by Osthol was conducted in Daphnia magna and by examining the morphological abnormalities in Danio rerio embryos. Results The median effective concentration value of Osthol in D. magna 48 hours after inoculation was 19.3 μM. The median lethal concentration of D. rerio embryo at 96 hours was 30.6 μM. No observed effect concentration and predicted no effect concentration values of Osthol in D. magna and D. rerio were calculated as 5.4 and 0.19 μM, respectively. There was an increase in the morphological abnormalities in D. rerio embryo due to Osthol over time. Coagulation, delayed hatching, yolk sac edema, pericardial edema, and pigmentation were observed in embryos at 24–48 hours. Symptoms of scoliosis and head edema occurred after 72 hours. In addition, bent tails, ocular defects, and symptoms of collapse were observed in fertilized embryo tissue within 96 hours. Ocular defects and pigmentation were the additional symptoms observed in this study. Conclusions Because Osthol showed considerable toxicity levels continuous toxicity evaluation in agro-ecosystems is necessary when bio-pesticides containing Osthol are used.

  15. The Acute Oral Toxicity of Commonly Used Pesticides in Iran, to Honeybees (Apis Mellifera Meda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasuli Farhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The honey bee is credited with approximately 85% of the pollinating activity necessary to supply about one-third of the world’s food supply. Well over 50 major crops depend on these insects for pollination. The crops produce more abundantly when honey bees are plentiful. Worker bees are the ones primarily affected by pesticides. Poisoning symptoms can vary depending on the developmental stage of the individual bee, and the kind of chemical employed. The oral toxicity of these insecticides: (phosalone and pirimicarb, acaricide (propargite, insecticide and acaricide (fenpropathrin, fungicides, and bactericides (copper oxychloride and the Bordeaux mixture, were evaluated for the purposes of this research. The results showed that fenpropathrin had high acute oral toxicity (LC50-24h and LC50-48 were 0.54 and 0.3 ppm, respectively. Propargite had 7785 ppm (active ingredient for LC50-24h and 6736 ppm (active ingredient for LC50-48h in honeybees and is therefore, non-toxic to Apis mellifera. On the other hand, copper oxychloride had minimum acute oral toxicity to honeybees (LC50-24h and LC50-48 were 4591.5 and 5407.9 ppm, respectively and was therefore considered non-toxic. Also, the Bordeaux mixture was safe to use around honeybees. Phosalone and primicarb were considered highly and moderately toxic to honeybees, respectively.

  16. Acute and 28-day subchronic toxicity studies of mangiferin, a glucosylxanthone isolated from Mangifera indica L. stem bark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalena Prado

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Pharmacological properties of mangiferin have been reported, but few studies have investigated mangiferin toxicity. Aims: To study the acute and 28-day toxicity effects of mangiferin in rodents. Methods: Single doses of mangiferin were administered by oral or i.p. route or were applied dermally to Sprague-Dawley rats and Balb/C mice. Clinical symptoms of animals were observed during 14 days after treatment. Animals also received single oral doses daily for 28 consecutive days. Blood biochemistry, hematology and pathology findings were reported. Results: In the acute study, no toxic effects were observed after dermal exposure to mangiferin 2000 mg/kg but transient dyspnea, flank position and piloerection were observed after oral administration to this xanthone. I.p. administration induced similar toxicity signs, but at the highest dose (2000 mg/kg all mice, one female rat and one male rat died. Rats orally treated with mangiferin (250-1000 mg/kg for 28 days did not show any abnormal clinical signs or hematology alterations, when compared to control group animals. Histopathological alterations like vacuolar degeneration, necrosis and increment of apoptosis of the acinar cells were observed in the exocrine pancreas of rats at 1000 mg/kg. This suggesting that exocrine pancreas was the target organ for mangiferin’s toxicity. Conclusions: These studies indicated that acute and subchronic toxicities of mangiferin for oral exposure are low.

  17. Acute Toxicity from Topical Cocaine for Epistaxis: Treatment with Labetalol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, John R; Laurin, Erik G; Tabish, Nabil; Lange, Richard A

    2017-03-01

    Topical cocaine is sometimes used for the treatment of epistaxis, as it has both potent anesthetic and vasoconstrictive properties. Cocaine has unpredictable cardiovascular effects, such as sudden hypertension, tachycardia, coronary arterial vasoconstriction, and dysrhythmia. We report a case of acute iatrogenic cardiovascular toxicity from the use of topical cocaine in a 56-year-old man presenting to the Emergency Department with profound epistaxis. To prepare for cauterization and nasal packing, the patient received 4% topical cocaine-soaked nasal pledgets. He became hypertensive, tachypneic, tachycardic, and dysphoric immediately after administration. To directly counter these adverse hyperadrenergic effects, the patient was given 10 mg intravenous labetalol, a mixed β- and α-blocker. This instantly normalized his vital signs and adverse subjective effects. His epistaxis was successfully treated, and he was discharged 1 h later. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: We believe that emergency physicians should be aware of the unpredictable acute cardiovascular toxicity of topical cocaine. Labetalol represents an effective first-line treatment, which, unlike benzodiazepines, directly counters the pharmacologic effects of cocaine and has no respiratory or sedative side effects. Labetalol, with its mixed β/α-blocking properties, also mitigates the potential for "unopposed α-stimulation." Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A randomized trial comparing hypofractionated and conventionally fractionated three-dimensional external-beam radiotherapy for localized prostate adenocarcinoma. A report on acute toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norkus, Darius; Miller, Albert; Kurtinaitis, Juozas; Valuckas, Konstantinas Povilas [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Inst. of Oncology, Vilnius Univ. (Lithuania); Haverkamp, Uwe [Dept. of Radiology, Clemenshospital, Muenster (Germany); Popov, Sergey [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Riga Eastern Hospital, Latvian Oncology Center, Riga (Latvia); Prott, Franz-Josef [Inst. of Radiology and Radiotherapy (RNS), St. Josefs Hospital, Wiesbaden (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: to compare acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity between patient groups with localized prostate adenocarcinoma, treated with conventionally fractionated (CFRT) and hypofractionated (HFRT) three-dimensional conformal external-beam radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Patients and methods: 91 patients were enrolled into a randomized study with a minimum follow-up of 3 months. 44 men in the CFRT arm were irradiated with 74 Gy in 37 fractions at 2 Gy per fraction for 7.5 weeks. 47 men in the HFRT arm were treated with 57 Gy in 17 fractions for 3.5 weeks, given as 13 fractions of 3 Gy plus four fractions of 4.5 Gy. The clinical target volume (CTV) included the prostate and the base of seminal vesicles. The CTV-to-PTV (planning target volume) margin was 8-10 mm. Study patients had portal imaging and/or simulation performed on the first fractions and repeated at least weekly. Results: no acute grade 3 or 4 toxicities were observed. The grade 2 GU acute toxicity proportion was significantly lower in the HFRT arm: 19.1% versus 47.7% ({chi}{sup 2}-test, p = 0.003). The grade 2 GU acute toxicity-free survival was significantly better in the HFRT arm (log-rank test, p = 0.008). The median duration of overall GI acute toxicity was shorter with HFRT: 3 compared to 6 weeks with CFRT (median test, p = 0.017). Conclusion: in this first evaluation, the HFRT schedule is feasible and induces acceptable or even lower acute toxicity compared with the toxicities in the CFRT schedule. Extended follow-up is needed to justify this fractionation schedule's safety in the long term. (orig.)

  19. Acute toxicity in prostate cancer patients treated with and without image-guided radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Scott

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT increases the accuracy of treatment delivery through daily target localisation. We report on toxicity symptoms experienced during radiotherapy treatment, with and without IGRT in prostate cancer patients treated radically. Methods Between 2006 and 2009, acute toxicity data for ten symptoms were collected prospectively onto standardized assessment forms. Toxicity was scored during radiotherapy, according to the Common Terminology Criteria Adverse Events V3.0, for 275 prostate cancer patients before and after the implementation of a fiducial marker IGRT program and dose escalation from 74Gy in 37 fractions, to 78Gy in 39 fractions. Margins and planning constraints were maintained the same during the study period. The symptoms scored were urinary frequency, cystitis, bladder spasm, urinary incontinence, urinary retention, diarrhoea, haemorrhoids, proctitis, anal skin discomfort and fatigue. Analysis was conducted for the maximum grade of toxicity and the median number of days from the onset of that toxicity to the end of treatment. Results In the IGRT group, 14228 toxicity scores were analysed from 249 patients. In the non-IGRT group, 1893 toxicity scores were analysed from 26 patients. Urinary frequency ≥G3 affected 23% and 7% in the non-IGRT and IGRT group respectively (p = 0.0188. Diarrhoea ≥G2 affected 15% and 3% of patients in the non-IGRT and IGRT groups (p = 0.0174. Fatigue ≥G2 affected 23% and 8% of patients in the non-IGRT and IGRT groups (p = 0.0271. The median number of days with a toxicity was higher for ≥G2 (p = 0.0179 and ≥G3 frequency (p = 0.0027, ≥G2 diarrhoea (p = 0.0033 and ≥G2 fatigue (p = 0.0088 in the non-IGRT group compared to the IGRT group. Other toxicities were not of significant statistical difference. Conclusions In this study, prostate cancer patients treated radically with IGRT had less severe urinary frequency, diarrhoea and fatigue during treatment

  20. 77 FR 43089 - Evaluation of an Up-and-Down Procedure for Acute Dermal Systemic Toxicity Testing: Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... vivo acute dermal systemic toxicity tests. Corresponding acute oral LD 50 data for the same compounds....), estimated LD 50 , and incidence of death and other adverse effects. Background Information on ICCVAM and... tests. DATES: Nominations and test method data for the acute dermal and oral tests should be submitted...

  1. The role of multidetector computed tomography in evaluation of small bowel obstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fatih İnci

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the study was to evaluate therole and additional diagnostic contribution of multi-detectorcomputed tomography (MDCT in patients with acuteabdominal pain caused by small bowel obstruction.Materials and methods: A total of 48 patients who admittedto our hospital with acute abdominal pain and underwentMDCT on suspicion of intestinal obstruction and hadabdominal surgery between January 2012 and October2012 were included to our study. MDCT images were interpretedby two experienced radiologist retrospectively.All clinical data and surgery notes also were evaluated.Patients had surgery due to penetrating or blunt abdominalinjury were excluded.Results: Of these 48 patients, 26 (54.1% were male and22 (45.9% were female. Patients’ ages ranged 25 to 71and mean age was 52±5.4 years. The causes of intestinalobstruction of patients were adhesions for 12 (46.1% patients,tumors for 7 (26.9% patients, external hernias for5 (19.2% patients, internal hernia for 1 (3.9% patient andintussusception for 1 (3.9% patient. A total concordancebetween the MDCT findings and definitive diagnosis wasfound in 26 of 23 cases and the sensitivity and specifityof MDCT in the diagnosis of small bowel obstruction werefound to be 88.5% and 90%, respectively.Conclusion: MDCT is a fast, effective and reliable imagingmethod for preoperative diagnosing small bowel obstructioncauses acute abdominal pain with the advantagesof MDCT such as multi-planar and three-dimensionalreformatted imaging.Key words: Acute abdominal pain, multi-detector computed tomography, small bowel obstruction

  2. Ileal angiodysplasia presentation as a bowel obstruction: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ons Ghdes

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Angiodysplasia should be kept in the back of one’s mind as one of the causes of acute abdomen and bowel obstruction, especially in elderly people suffering from occult gastrointestinal bleeding.

  3. Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome : Radiation Neurotoxins, Mechanisms of Toxicity, Neuroimmune Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    . Radiation Toxins (SRD-1)had been isolated from Central Lymph of irradiated animals (cows, sheep, pigs). Experiments to study toxicity of Radiation Neurotoxins had been performed. Intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) administration of RT SRD-1 to radiation naive animals had induced acute toxicity which referred to the harmful effects generated by high doses of radiation. In-jection of toxic doses of RT SRD-1 (Toxic doses: 0,1 mg/kg, 0,5mg/kg, 1 mg/kg, 10mg/kg,30 mg/kg, 50mg/kg,70 mg/kg,100 mg/kg, 110mg/kg)were compared to the similar effects caused by high doses of radiation. Results: Injection of SRD-1 ( Neurotoxin Cv ARS)of all ten tested toxic doses had caused a death of radiation naive animals within the first hours after admin-istration of toxins. For all animals in all experiments, a short period of extreme agitation was replaced by deep coma, and suppression of blood circulation and breathing. The results of postmortem section had showed characteristics of intra-cortical hemorrhage. Conclusions: Acute radiation injury induces a disorder of blood supply of the Central Nervous System (CNS). However, administration of SRD-1 Radiation Toxins to radiation naive animals produces crit-ically important inflammatory reactions with hemorrhagic stroke development. Neurotoxicity and Excitotoxicity are two stages of the pathological processes resulted in damaging and killing nerve cells thorough apoptotic necrosis. Excitotoxicity is well known as a pathological process that occurs when important excitatory neurotransmitters (glutamate, serotonin) over-activate the receptors -NMDA, AMPA, 5HT1, 5HT2, 5H3. Radiation Neurotoxins possibly act on the same receptors and activate the cell death mechanisms through direct or indirect excessive activation of same receptors.

  4. Acute Toxicity of Opuntia Ficus Indica and Pistacia Lentiscus Seed Oils in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Boukeloua, A; Belkhiri, A; Djerrou, Z; Bahri, L; Boulebda, N; Pacha, Y Hamdi

    2012-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the fixed oil of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds in mice through determination of LD50 values, and also the physicochemical characteristics of the fixed oil of these oils. The acute toxicity of their fixed oil were also investigated in mice using the method of Kabba and Berhens. The fixed oil of Pistacia lentiscus and Opunti...

  5. Evaluation of acute and chronic toxicity of DSS and LAS surfactants undergoing the irradiation with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanelli, Maria Fernanda

    2004-01-01

    Surfactants are synthetic organic compounds widely used in cosmetic, food, textile, dyers and paper production industries and in particular detergents and others cleaning products industries. The world consumption is nearly 8 million tons per year. One of the main environmental issues coming from the use of these compounds is their toxicity that compromises the biological treatment of effluents and the quality of receiving waters. The objective of this work was the application of ionizing radiation by electron beam in the degradation and reduction of acute and chronic toxicities of surfactants sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), dodecyl p-benzenesulfonate acid (LAS) and sodium dodecyl p-benzenesulfonate (LAS). This treatment technology has been studied as a pre-treatment for effluents containing toxic and non-biodegradable compounds, before the biological treatment. Two acute toxicity assays were employed, one with the micro-crustacean Daphnia similis and the other with the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri along with a chronic toxicity assay with the micro-crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia (just for SDS and acid LAS) for the non-irradiated and irradiated samples and radiation doses 3.0 kGy, 6.0 kGy, 9.0 kGy and 12.0 kGy. Physical-chemical parameters were evaluated for the following up the degradation of the surfactant molecules. The reductions of acute toxicity varied between 72.49% and 90.98% for SDS, 18.22% and 78.98% for acid LAS and 82.66% and 94.26% for sodium LAS. For the chronic toxicity, the reduction percentages varied between 64.03% and 83.01% for SDS and 47.48% and 64.91% for acid LAS. When one considers the application of the electron beam as a pre-treatment of effluents containing high concentrations of surfactants, the toxicity is an essential parameter allowing the further biological treatment of these effluents. (author)

  6. Computed tomography features of small bowel volvulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loh, Y.H.; Dunn, G.D.

    2000-01-01

    Small bowel volvulus is a cause of acute abdomen and commonly occurs in neonates and young infants. Although it is rare in adults in the Western world,' it is a relatively common surgical emergency in the Middle East, India and Central Africa. It is associated with a mortality rate of 10-67% and, hence, it is important to make an early diagnosis to expedite surgical intervention. Computed tomography has become an important imaging modality in diagnosis and a number of signs have been recognized in a handful of documented case reports. We describe a case of small bowel volvulus that illustrates these important CT signs. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  7. Acute toxicity assessment of perfluorinated carboxylic acids towards the Baltic microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latała, Adam; Nędzi, Marcin; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2009-09-01

    The presence of high-energy carbon-fluorine bonds in perfluoro compounds lends them great stability and causes them to be environmentally persistent. Relatively little is known about the acute toxicity of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) to ecotoxicological markers such as aquatic plants and animals. This study tested the toxicity of these compounds to the green alga Chlorella vulgaris, the diatom Skeletonema marinoi and the blue-green alga Geitlerinema amphibium, which are species representative of the algal flora of the Baltic Sea. The EC(50) values obtained range from 0.28 mM to 12.84 mM. A distinct relationship between hydrophobicity and toxicity is demonstrated. For every extra perfluoromethylene group in the alkyl chain, the toxicity increases twofold. LogEC(50) values are very well correlated linearly with both the number of carbon atoms in the perfluoroalkyl chain and the partition coefficients. The results also indicate that there are clear differences between the responses of particular taxonomic groups of algae: blue-green algae and diatoms are far more sensitive to PFCAs than green algae, probably because of differences in cell wall structure.

  8. Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT: differences in target volumes and improvement in clinically relevant doses to small bowel in rectal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delclos Marc E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A strong dose-volume relationship exists between the amount of small bowel receiving low- to intermediate-doses of radiation and the rates of acute, severe gastrointestinal toxicity, principally diarrhea. There is considerable interest in the application of highly conformal treatment approaches, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT, to reduce dose to adjacent organs-at-risk in the treatment of carcinoma of the rectum. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive dosimetric evaluation of IMRT compared to 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT in standard, preoperative treatment for rectal cancer. Methods Using RTOG consensus anorectal contouring guidelines, treatment volumes were generated for ten patients treated preoperatively at our institution for rectal carcinoma, with IMRT plans compared to plans derived from classic anatomic landmarks, as well as 3DCRT plans treating the RTOG consensus volume. The patients were all T3, were node-negative (N = 1 or node-positive (N = 9, and were planned to a total dose of 45-Gy. Pairwise comparisons were made between IMRT and 3DCRT plans with respect to dose-volume histogram parameters. Results IMRT plans had superior PTV coverage, dose homogeneity, and conformality in treatment of the gross disease and at-risk nodal volume, in comparison to 3DCRT. Additionally, in comparison to the 3DCRT plans, IMRT achieved a concomitant reduction in doses to the bowel (small bowel mean dose: 18.6-Gy IMRT versus 25.2-Gy 3DCRT; p = 0.005, bladder (V40Gy: 56.8% IMRT versus 75.4% 3DCRT; p = 0.005, pelvic bones (V40Gy: 47.0% IMRT versus 56.9% 3DCRT; p = 0.005, and femoral heads (V40Gy: 3.4% IMRT versus 9.1% 3DCRT; p = 0.005, with an improvement in absolute volumes of small bowel receiving dose levels known to induce clinically-relevant acute toxicity (small bowel V15Gy: 138-cc IMRT versus 157-cc 3DCRT; p = 0.005. We found that the IMRT treatment volumes were typically larger than that

  9. Evidence-based recommendations for bowel cleansing before colonoscopy in children: a report from a national working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D; Levine, A; Weiss, B; Hirsh, A; Shamir, R; Shaoul, R; Berkowitz, D; Bujanover, Y; Cohen, S; Eshach-Adiv, O; Jamal, Gera; Kori, M; Lerner, A; On, A; Rachman, L; Rosenbach, Y; Shamaly, H; Shteyer, E; Silbermintz, A; Yerushalmi, B

    2010-12-01

    There are no current recommendations for bowel cleansing before colonoscopy in children. The Israeli Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition (ISPGAN) established an iterative working group to formulate evidence-based guidelines for bowel cleansing in children prior to colonoscopy. Data were collected by systematic review of the literature and via a national-based survey of all endoscopy units in Israel. Based on the strength of evidence, the Committee reached consensus on six recommended protocols in children. Guidelines were finalized after an open audit of ISPGAN members. Data on 900 colonoscopies per year were accrued, which represents all annual pediatric colonoscopies performed in Israel. Based on the literature review, the national survey, and the open audit, several age-stratified pediatric cleansing protocols were proposed: two PEG-ELS protocols (polyethylene-glycol with electrolyte solution); Picolax-based protocol (sodium picosulphate with magnesium citrate); sodium phosphate protocol (only in children over the age of 12 years who are at low risk for renal damage); stimulant laxative-based protocol (e. g. bisacodyl); and a PEG 3350-based protocol. A population-based analysis estimated that the acute toxicity rate of oral sodium phosphate is at most 3/7320 colonoscopies (0.041 %). Recommendations on diet and enema use are provided in relation to each proposed protocol. There is no ideal bowel cleansing regimen and, thus, various protocols are in use. We propose several evidence-based protocols to optimize bowel cleansing in children prior to colonoscopy and minimize adverse events. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Cross-Linked Hyaluronan Gel Reduces the Acute Rectal Toxicity of Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilder, Richard B.; Barme, Greg A.; Gilbert, Ronald F.; Holevas, Richard E.; Kobashi, Luis I.; Reed, Richard R.; Solomon, Ronald S.; Walter, Nancy L.; Chittenden, Lucy; Mesa, Albert V.; Agustin, Jeffrey; Lizarde, Jessica; Macedo, Jorge; Ravera, John; Tokita, Kenneth M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively analyze whether cross-linked hyaluronan gel reduces the mean rectal dose and acute rectal toxicity of radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between September 2008 and March 2009, we transperitoneally injected 9mL of cross-linked hyaluronan gel (Hylaform; Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, MA) into the anterior perirectal fat of 10 early-stage prostate cancer patients to increase the separation between the prostate and rectum by 8 to 18mm at the start of radiotherapy. Patients then underwent high-dose rate brachytherapy to 2,200cGy followed by intensity-modulated radiation therapy to 5,040cGy. We assessed acute rectal toxicity using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 grading scheme. Results: Median follow-up was 3 months. The anteroposterior dimensions of Hylaform at the start and end of radiotherapy were 13 ± 3mm (mean ± SD) and 10 ± 4mm, respectively. At the start of intensity-modulated radiation therapy, daily mean rectal doses were 73 ± 13cGy with Hylaform vs. 106 ± 20cGy without Hylaform (p = 0.005). There was a 0% incidence of National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 Grade 1, 2, or 3 acute diarrhea in 10 patients who received Hylaform vs. a 29.7% incidence (n = 71) in 239 historical controls who did not receive Hylaform (p = 0.04). Conclusions: By increasing the separation between the prostate and rectum, Hylaform decreased the mean rectal dose. This led to a significant reduction in the acute rectal toxicity of radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

  11. Ecotoxicological evaluation of leachate from the Limeira sanitary landfill with a view to identifying acute toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    José Euclides Stipp Paterniani; Ronaldo Teixeira Pelegrini; Núbia Natália de Brito Pelegrini

    2007-01-01

    Final disposal of solid waste is still a cause for serious impacts on the environment. In sanitary landfills, waste undergoes physical, chemical, and biological decomposition, generating biogas and leachate. Leachate is a highly toxic liquid with a very high pollution potential. The purpose of this work is to evaluate toxicity of in natura leachate samples collected from Limeira Sanitary Landfill, in Limeira, SP. The ecotoxicological evaluation comprised acute toxicity assays using as test or...

  12. High-grade acute organ toxicity as positive prognostic factor in primary radio(chemo)therapy for locally advanced, inoperable head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Hendrik Andreas; Bosch, Jan; Hennies, Steffen; Hess, Clemens F.; Christiansen, Hans [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Univ. Medicine Goettingen (Germany); Jung, Klaus [Dept. of Medical Statistics, Univ. Medicine Goettingen (Germany); Overbeck, Tobias [Dept. of Haematology and Oncology, Univ. Medicine Goettingen (Germany); Matthias, Christoph; Roedel, Ralph M. [Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Univ. Medicine Goettingen (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: to test for a possible correlation between high-grade acute organ toxicity during primary radio(chemo)therapy and treatment outcome in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Patients and methods: from 05/1994 to 01/2009, 216 HNSCC patients were treated with radio(chemo)therapy in primary approach. They received normofractionated (2 Gy/fraction) irradiation including associated nodal drainage sites to a cumulative dose of 70 Gy. 151 patients received additional concomitant chemotherapy (111 patients 5-fluorouracil/mitomycin C, 40 patients cisplatin-based). Toxicity during treatment was monitored weekly according to the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC), and any toxicity grade CTC {>=} 3 of mucositis, dysphagia or skin reaction was assessed as high-grade acute organ toxicity for later analysis. Results: a statistically significant coherency between high-grade acute organ toxicity and overall survival as well as locoregional control was found: patients with CTC {>=} 3 acute organ toxicity had a 5-year overall survival rate of 4% compared to 8% in patients without (p < 0.01). Thereby, multivariate analyses revealed that the correlation was independent of other possible prognostic factors or factors that may influence treatment toxicity, especially concomitant chemotherapy and radiotherapy technique or treatment-planning procedure. Conclusion: these data indicate that normal tissue and tumor tissue may behave similarly with respect to treatment response, as high-grade acute organ toxicity during radio(chemo)therapy showed to be an independent prognostic marker in the own patient population. However, the authors are aware of the fact that a multivariate analysis in a retrospective study generally has statistical limitations. Therefore, their hypothesis should be further analyzed on biomolecular and clinical levels and other tumor entities in prospective trials. (orig.)

  13. Bowel disease after radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schofield, P.F.; Holden, D.; Carr, N.D. (Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Inst., Manchester (UK))

    1983-06-01

    The clinical presentation, operative findings and outcome in 40 patients who required surgery for bowel disease after radiotherapy are presented. The type of presentation varied according to the time after radiotherapy. In the first month, many patients had a proctitis but none required surgery. Five patients were operated on within one month, 2 for radiation-induced acute ileitis and 3 for exacerbations of pre-existing disease (diverticular disease 2, ulcerative colitis 1). The commonest time of presentation was between 3 and 18 months after radiotherapy, when 20 patients needed surgery for bowel disease caused by radiation-induced local ischaemia. Twelve of these patients had chronic perforation, 6 had severe rectal bleeding and 2 had painful anorectal ulceration. Fifteen patients presented between 2 and 24 years after radiotherapy, usually with incomplete intestinal obstruction due to a fibrous stricture, but 2 patients had rectal carcinoma. Wide resection of the involved bowel was the principal method of treatment but any anastomosis was protected by a proximal defunctioning stoma. There was no operative mortality but 10 patients have died subsequently. The danger of dismissing these patients as having incurable malignancy is stressed because, although the condition is infrequent, it is usually amenable to adequate surgery.

  14. Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome (Bone marrow syndrome, Aplastic Anemia): Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri

    Key Words: Aplastic Anemia (AA), Pluripotential Stem Cells (PSC) Introduction: Aplastic Anemia (AA) is a disorder of the pluripotential stem cells involve a decrease in the number of cells of myeloid, erythroid and megakaryotic lineage [Segel et al. 2000 ]. The etiology of AA include idiopathic cases and secondary aplastic anemia after exposure to drugs, toxins, chemicals, viral infections, lympho-proliferative diseases, radiation, genetic causes, myelodisplastic syndromes and hypoplastic anemias, thymomas, lymphomas. [Brodskyet al. 2005.,Modan et al. 1975., Szklo et al. 1975]. Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome (or Bone marrow syndrome, or Radiation-Acquired Aplastic Anemia) is the acute toxic syndrome which usually occurs with a dose of irradiation between 0.7 and 10 Gy (70- 1000 rads), depending on the species irradiated. [Waselenko et al., 2004]. The etiology of bone morrow damage from high-level radiation exposure results depends on the radiosensitivity of certain bone marrow cell lines. [Waselenko et al. 2004] Aplastic anemia after radiation exposure is a clinical syndrome that results from a marked disorder of bone marrow blood cell production. [Waselenko et al. 2004] Radiation hematotoxicity is mediated via genotoxic and other specific toxic mechanisms, leading to aplasia, cell apoptosis or necrosis, initiation via genetic mechanisms of clonal disorders, in cases such as the acute radiation-acquired form of AA. AA results from radiation injury to pluripotential and multipotential stem cells in the bone marrow. The clinical signs displayed in reticulocytopenia, anemia, granulocytopenia, monocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia. The number of marrow CD34+ cells (multipotential hematopoietic progenitors) and their derivative colony-forming unit{granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) and burst forming unit {erythroid (BFU{E) are reduced markedly in patients with AA. [Guinan 2011, Brodski et al. 2005, Beutler et al.,2000] Cells expressing CD34 (CD34+ cell) are normally

  15. Acute Lidocaine Toxicity: a Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Rahimi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Parenteral form of lidocaine is the best-known source of lidocaine poisoning. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of acute lidocaine toxicity.Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, demographics, clinical presentation, laboratory findings, and outcome of patients intoxicated with lidocaine (based on  ICD10 codes admitted to Loghman Hakim Hospital, during April 2007 to March 2014 were analyzed.Results: 30 cases with the mean age of 21.83 ± 6.57 year were studied (60% male. All subjects had used either 6.5% lidocaine spray or 2% topical formulations of lidocaine. The mean consumed dose of lidocaine was 465 ± 318.17 milligrams. The most frequent clinical presentations were nausea and vomiting (50%, seizure (33.3%, and loss of consciousness (16.7%. 22 (73.3% cases had normal sinus rhythm, 4 (13.3% bradycardia, 2 (6.7% ventricular tachycardia, and 2 (6.7% had left axis deviation. 11 (36.6% cases were intubated and admitted to intensive care unit (ICU for 6.91 ± 7.16 days. Three patients experienced status epilepticus that led to cardiac arrest, and death (all cases with suicidal intention.Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, most cases of topical lidocaine toxicity were among < 40-year-old patients with a male to female ratio of 1.2, with suicidal attempt in 90%, need for intensive care in 36.6%, and  mortality rate of 10%.

  16. Acute toxicity profiling of the ethyl acetate fraction of Swietenia macrophylla seeds and in-vitro neuroprotectio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustak Sayyad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Swietenia macrophylla (SM is a medicinally important plant found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The ethyl acetate fraction of the seeds of S. macrophylla (SMEAF is reported to exhibit potent anticancer, antitumor, anti-inflammatory and antifeedant activities. Till date, there have been no studies reported on the acute oral toxicity profile of the ethyl acetate fraction of the seeds of SM. The objective of the present study was to determine the acute toxicity of SMEAF and evaluate the in-vitro neuroprotective activity of SMEAF using primary neuronal cell cultures. In acute oral toxicity study, the SMEAF did not produce any lethal signs of morbidity and mortality. Histo-pathological findings, support the safety of SMEAF, as there were no significant changes observed in any of the parameters studied. Based on the results obtained in MTT assay, we infer that SMEAF has a significant neuroprotective effect, as it increased the cell viability and exhibited protection to the neuronal cells against TBHP induced oxidative stress. Thus, SMEAF can be suggested for use in the development of herbal drug formulations with neuroprotective potential.

  17. TOXICITY PATHWAY ANALYSIS IN AGING BROWN NORWAY RAT BRAIN FOLLOWING ACUTE TOLUENE EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental stressors is poorly understood. To investigate the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we examined the effects of acute exposure by oral gavage of the volatile organic solvent toluene (0.00, 0.3...

  18. The acute toxicity of the metaldehyde on the climbing perch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahida Mohamad Ismail, Syamimi; Aini Dahalan, Farrah; Zakaria, Ammar; Mad Shakaff, Ali Yeon; Aqlima Ahmad, Siti; Shukor, Mohd Yunus Abd; Khalizan Sabullah, Mohd; Khalil, Khalilah Abdul; Jalil, Mohd Faizal Ab

    2018-03-01

    In Asia, Climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) is commonly found in paddy fields and irrigation systems. Due to its habitat, Climbing perch is exposed to toxic pesticides used in paddy fields such as metaldehyde which is one of the most widely used molluscicide. This study aims to determine the acute toxicity Lethal Concentration50 (LC50) of metaldehyde and its effect on the behaviour and physical changes of the Climbing perch. The fish mortality responses to six different metaldehyde concentrations ranging from 180 to 330 mg/L were investigated. The 96-h LC50 values were determined and analysed using three different analysis methods which is arithmetic, logarithmic and probit graphic. The LC50 values obtained in this study were 239, 234 and 232 mg/L, respectively. After 96-h of exposure to metaldehyde, the fish showed a series of abnormal behavioural response in all cases: imbalance position, and restlessness of movement. The LC50 values show that metaldehyde is moderately toxic to the Climbing perch indicating that metaldehyde is not destructive to Climbing perch. However, long term exposure of aquatic organisms to the metaldehyde means a continuous health risk for the fish population as they are more vulnerable and it is on high risk for human to consume this toxicated fishes.

  19. Acute toxic hepatitis caused by an aloe vera preparation in a young patient: a case report with a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeonghun; Lee, Mi Sun; Nam, Kwan Woo

    2014-07-01

    Aloe is one of the leading products used in phytomedicine. Several cases of aloe-induced toxic hepatitis have been reported in recent years. However, its toxicology has not yet been systematically described in the literature. A 21-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with acute hepatitis after taking an aloe vera preparation for four weeks. Her history, clinical manifestation, laboratory findings, and histological findings all led to the diagnosis of aloe vera-induced toxic hepatitis. We report herein on a case of acute toxic hepatitis induced by aloe vera.

  20. Acute toxicity in pelvic radiotherapy; a randomised trial of conformal versus conventional treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tait, Diana M.; Nahum, Alan E.; Meyer, Lesley C.; Law, Matthew; Dearnaley, David P.; Horwich, Alan; Mayles, W. Philip; Yarnold, John R.

    1997-01-01

    Background: A prospective, randomized clinical trial to assess the effect of reducing the volume of irradiated normal tissue on acute reactions in pelvic radiotherapy accrued 266 evaluable patients between 1988 and 1993. Purpose: This is the definitive analysis to assess the differences between the conformal and conventional arms of the trial. Materials and methods: In both arms, patients were treated with 6 MV X-rays using a 3-field technique (in all but 5 cases) consisting of an anterior and two wedged lateral or posterior oblique fields; in the conventional arm, rectangular fields were employed, whereas in the conformal arm, the fields were shaped with customized blocks drawn according to the beam's-eye-view of the target volume. The most common dosage was 65 Gy in 2-Gy fractions 5 times a week, although a subgroup (of ca. bladder patients) were treated with 30-36 Gy in once-a-week 6 Gy fractions. Each patient completed a comprehensive acute toxicity scoring questionnaire concentrating on bowel and bladder problems, tiredness and nausea, before the start of treatment, weekly during and for 3 weeks after the end of treatment and then monthly for a further 2 months. Compliance was excellent. Results: There were no differences between the patients in the two arms with respect to age, gender, tumour type (52% prostate, 41% bladder, 5% rectum, 2% other) fractionation/dosage, anterior field size, weight, or baseline symptoms. Substantial differences in normal-tissue volumes (rectum, bladder, etc.) were achieved: median high-dose volume (HDV) of 689 cm 3 for the conformal technique versus 792 cm 3 for the conventional. A clear pattern of an increase in symptoms during RT, followed by a decrease after RT, was observed for the patient group as a whole. However, a very extensive analysis has not revealed any (statistically) significant differences between the two arms in level of symptoms, nor in medication prescribed. The disparity between our findings and those of other

  1. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Soluble Fractions of Industrial Solid Wastes on Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Flohr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial wastes may produce leachates that can contaminate the aquatic ecosystem. Toxicity testing in acute and chronic levels is essential to assess environmental risks from the soluble fractions of these wastes, since only chemical analysis may not be adequate to classify the hazard of an industrial waste. In this study, ten samples of solid wastes from textile, metal-mechanic, and pulp and paper industries were analyzed by acute and chronic toxicity tests with Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri. A metal-mechanic waste (sample MM3 induced the highest toxicity level to Daphnia magna(CE50,48 h=2.21%. A textile waste induced the highest toxicity level to Vibrio fischeri (sample TX2, CE50,30 min=12.08%. All samples of pulp and paper wastes, and a textile waste (sample TX2 induced chronic effects on reproduction, length, and longevity of Daphnia magna. These results could serve as an alert about the environmental risks of an inadequate waste classification method.

  2. High-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer using daily fiducial marker-based position verification: acute and late toxicity in 331 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lips, Irene M; Dehnad, Homan; Gils, Carla H van; Boeken Kruger, Arto E; Heide, Uulke A van der; Vulpen, Marco van

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the acute and late toxicity after high-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with fiducial marker-based position verification for prostate cancer. Between 2001 and 2004, 331 patients with prostate cancer received 76 Gy in 35 fractions using IMRT combined with fiducial marker-based position verification. The symptoms before treatment (pre-treatment) and weekly during treatment (acute toxicity) were scored using the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC). The goal was to score late toxicity according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (RTOG/EORTC) scale with a follow-up time of at least three years. Twenty-two percent of the patients experienced pre-treatment grade ≥ 2 genitourinary (GU) complaints and 2% experienced grade 2 gastrointestinal (GI) complaints. Acute grade 2 GU and GI toxicity occurred in 47% and 30%, respectively. Only 3% of the patients developed acute grade 3 GU and no grade ≥ 3 GI toxicity occurred. After a mean follow-up time of 47 months with a minimum of 31 months for all patients, the incidence of late grade 2 GU and GI toxicity was 21% and 9%, respectively. Grade ≥ 3 GU and GI toxicity rates were 4% and 1%, respectively, including one patient with a rectal fistula and one patient with a severe hemorrhagic cystitis (both grade 4). In conclusion, high-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy with fiducial marker-based position verification is well tolerated. The low grade ≥ 3 toxicity allows further dose escalation if the same dose constraints for the organs at risk will be used

  3. High-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer using daily fiducial marker-based position verification: acute and late toxicity in 331 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boeken Kruger Arto E

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We evaluated the acute and late toxicity after high-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT with fiducial marker-based position verification for prostate cancer. Between 2001 and 2004, 331 patients with prostate cancer received 76 Gy in 35 fractions using IMRT combined with fiducial marker-based position verification. The symptoms before treatment (pre-treatment and weekly during treatment (acute toxicity were scored using the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC. The goal was to score late toxicity according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (RTOG/EORTC scale with a follow-up time of at least three years. Twenty-two percent of the patients experienced pre-treatment grade ≥ 2 genitourinary (GU complaints and 2% experienced grade 2 gastrointestinal (GI complaints. Acute grade 2 GU and GI toxicity occurred in 47% and 30%, respectively. Only 3% of the patients developed acute grade 3 GU and no grade ≥ 3 GI toxicity occurred. After a mean follow-up time of 47 months with a minimum of 31 months for all patients, the incidence of late grade 2 GU and GI toxicity was 21% and 9%, respectively. Grade ≥ 3 GU and GI toxicity rates were 4% and 1%, respectively, including one patient with a rectal fistula and one patient with a severe hemorrhagic cystitis (both grade 4. In conclusion, high-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy with fiducial marker-based position verification is well tolerated. The low grade ≥ 3 toxicity allows further dose escalation if the same dose constraints for the organs at risk will be used.

  4. Evaluation of acute toxicity, genotoxicity and inhibitory effect on acute inflammation of an ethanol extract of Morus alba L. (Moraceae) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alisson Macário de; Nascimento, Matheus Ferreira do; Ferreira, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; Moura, Danielle Feijó de; Souza, Talita Giselly Dos Santos; Silva, Gabriela Cavalcante da; Ramos, Eduardo Henrique da Silva; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; Medeiros, Paloma Lys de; Silva, Teresinha Gonçalves da; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Chagas, Cristiano Aparecido; Souza, Ivone Antônia de; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique

    2016-12-24

    Morus alba L. (white mulberry) is used in traditional medicine worldwide, including Brazil. The leaves of this plant are used to treat inflammatory disorders. Universal interest in this plant necessitates studies on the toxicological safety and scientific substantiation of the medicinal properties of M. alba. In previous work, we investigated the acute toxicity of orally administered M. alba ethanol extract in mice. This work was designed to investigate the ethanol extract obtained from M. alba leaves for acute toxicity when intraperitoneally administered, in vivo genotoxicity, and potential to reduce acute inflammation. In order to further investigate the constituents of the extract, we also obtained the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint of the extract. Phytochemical analysis by thin layer chromatography (TLC) was performed and the results were used to obtain the HPLC fingerprint. Acute toxicity of 300 and 2000mg/kg b.w. i.p. doses administered to mice for 14 days was evaluated. Genotoxicity was evaluated by counting the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in the blood of mice that either received or did not receive the extract at 75, 150 and 300mg/kg b.w. per os. The anti-inflammatory effect of the same doses administered per os was investigated using the carrageenan air pouch model. The TLC analysis of the extract revealed the presence of a remarkable amount of flavonoids and cinnamic acids. The HPLC fingerprint showed the presence of one major peak corresponding to chlorogenic acid and two smaller peaks corresponding to flavonoids. In the toxicity assays, there were no deaths or deviations in behavior of treated mice as compared to the control at any dose. However, biochemical, hematological, and histological analyses showed that intraperitoneal injection caused several forms of damage to the mice, which were not observed in case of oral administration, studied in our previous work. Oral administration of the extract did

  5. A sustained hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to acute psychosocial stress in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, P J; Cryan, J F; Quigley, E M M; Dinan, T G; Clarke, G

    2014-10-01

    Despite stress being considered a key factor in the pathophysiology of the functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), there is a paucity of information regarding the ability of IBS patients to respond to acute experimental stress. Insights into the stress response in IBS could open the way to novel therapeutic interventions. To this end, we assessed the response of a range of physiological and psychological parameters to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in IBS. Thirteen female patients with IBS and 15 healthy female age-matched control participants underwent a single exposure to the TSST. Salivary cortisol, salivary C-reactive protein (CRP), skin conductance level (SCL), GI symptoms, mood and self-reported stress were measured pre- and post-exposure to the TSST. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to the TSST was sustained in IBS, as shown by a greater total cortisol output throughout (p = 0.035) and higher cortisol levels measured by an area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCG) analysis (p = 0.044). In IBS patients, GI symptoms increased significantly during the recovery period following exposure to the TSST (p = 0.045). Salivary CRP and SCL activity showed significant changes in relation to stress but with no differential effect between experimental groups. Patients with IBS exhibit sustained HPA axis activity, and an increase in problematic GI symptoms in response to acute experimental psychosocial stress. These data pave the way for future interventional studies aimed at identifying novel therapeutic approaches to modulate the HPA axis and GI symptom response to acute psychosocial stress in IBS.

  6. Acute toxicity of definitive chemoradiation in patients with inoperable or irresectable esophageal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haj Mohammad, Nadia; Hulshof, Maarten CCM; Bergman, Jacques JGHM; Geijsen, Debby; Wilmink, Johanna W; Berge Henegouwen, Mark I van; Laarhoven, Hanneke WM van

    2014-01-01

    Definitive chemoradiation (dCRT) is considered curative intent treatment for patients with inoperable or irresectable esophageal cancer. Acute toxicity data focussing on dCRT are lacking. A retrospective analysis of patients treated with dCRT consisting of 6 cycles of paclitaxel 50 mg/m2 and carboplatin AUC2 concomitant with radiotherapy (50.4 Gy/1.8Gy) from 2006 through 2011 at a single tertiary center was performed. Toxicity, hospital admissions and survival were analysed. 127 patients were treated with definitive chemoradiation. 33 patients were medically inoperable, 94 patients were irresectable, Despite of a significantly smaller tumor length in inoperable patients grade ≥3 toxicity was significantly recorded more often in the inoperable patients (44%) than in irresectable patients (20%) (p < 0.05) Hospital admission occurred more often in the inoperable patients (39%) than in the irresectable patients (22%) (p < 0.05) Median number of cycles of chemotherapy was five for inoperable patients (p = 0.01), while six cycles could be administered to patients with irresectable disease. Recurrence and survival were not significantly different. The odds ratio for developing toxicity ≥ grade 3 was 2.6 (95% CI 1.0-6.4 p < 0.05) for being an inoperable patient and 1.2 (95% CI 1.0-1.4 p = 0.02) per 10 extra micromol/l creatinine. Our data show that acute toxicity of definitive chemoradiation is worse in patients with medically inoperable esophageal carcinoma compared to patients with irresectable esophageal cancer and mainly occurs in the 5th cycle of treatment. Improvement of supportive care should be undertaken in this more fragile group

  7. Acute toxicity of definitive chemoradiation in patients with inoperable or irresectable esophageal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haj Mohammad, Nadia [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hulshof, Maarten CCM [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bergman, Jacques JGHM [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Geijsen, Debby [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wilmink, Johanna W [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Berge Henegouwen, Mark I van [Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Laarhoven, Hanneke WM van [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-01-31

    Definitive chemoradiation (dCRT) is considered curative intent treatment for patients with inoperable or irresectable esophageal cancer. Acute toxicity data focussing on dCRT are lacking. A retrospective analysis of patients treated with dCRT consisting of 6 cycles of paclitaxel 50 mg/m2 and carboplatin AUC2 concomitant with radiotherapy (50.4 Gy/1.8Gy) from 2006 through 2011 at a single tertiary center was performed. Toxicity, hospital admissions and survival were analysed. 127 patients were treated with definitive chemoradiation. 33 patients were medically inoperable, 94 patients were irresectable, Despite of a significantly smaller tumor length in inoperable patients grade ≥3 toxicity was significantly recorded more often in the inoperable patients (44%) than in irresectable patients (20%) (p < 0.05) Hospital admission occurred more often in the inoperable patients (39%) than in the irresectable patients (22%) (p < 0.05) Median number of cycles of chemotherapy was five for inoperable patients (p = 0.01), while six cycles could be administered to patients with irresectable disease. Recurrence and survival were not significantly different. The odds ratio for developing toxicity ≥ grade 3 was 2.6 (95% CI 1.0-6.4 p < 0.05) for being an inoperable patient and 1.2 (95% CI 1.0-1.4 p = 0.02) per 10 extra micromol/l creatinine. Our data show that acute toxicity of definitive chemoradiation is worse in patients with medically inoperable esophageal carcinoma compared to patients with irresectable esophageal cancer and mainly occurs in the 5th cycle of treatment. Improvement of supportive care should be undertaken in this more fragile group.

  8. Detection of acute inflammatory bowel disease with Tc-99m-HSA-sucralfate scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yip, T.C.; Houle, S.; Jeejeebhoy, K.N.

    1987-01-01

    Sucralfate binds to mucosal ulcerations. Twelve studies were performed in 11 patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Technetium-sucralfate was prepared in vitro and given orally. Images were obtained at 4-6, 24, and 48 hours. Persistent focal abnormalities or activity in the large bowel beyond 48 hours was interpreted as positive. Patients' charts were reviewed. Technetium-sucralfate was positive in ten of ten studies in nine patients with active disease, one with equivocal activity, and negative in one patient with inactive disease. Nine of 19 abnormal sites were detected with technetium-sucralfate and radiology or endoscopy; six of ten were detected with technetium-sucralfate only. Technetium-sucralfate is very sensitive in detecting active inflammatory bowel disease in individual patients

  9. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling of cardiac toxicity in human acute overdoses: utility and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mégarbane, Bruno; Aslani, Arsia Amir; Deye, Nicolas; Baud, Frédéric J

    2008-05-01

    Hypotension, cardiac failure, QT interval prolongation, dysrhythmias, and conduction disturbances are common complications of overdoses with cardiotoxicants. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationships are useful to assess diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment efficacy in acute poisonings. To review the utility and limits of PK/PD studies of cardiac toxicity. Discussion of various models, mainly those obtained in digitalis, cyanide, venlafaxine and citalopram poisonings. A sigmoidal E(max) model appears adequate to represent the PK/PD relationships in cardiotoxic poisonings. PK/PD correlations investigate the discrepancies between the time course of the effect magnitude and its evolving concentrations. They may help in understanding the mechanisms of occurrence as well as disappearance of a cardiotoxic effect. When data are sparse, population-based PK/PD modeling using computer-intensive algorithms is helpful to estimate population mean values of PK parameters as well as their individual variability. Further PK/PD studies are needed in medical toxicology to allow understanding of the meaning of blood toxicant concentration in acute poisonings and thus improve management.

  10. Acute silver toxicity in aquatic animals is a function of sodium uptake rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchini, A.; Grosell, Martin Hautopp; Gregory, S.

    2002-01-01

    -specific surface area of the gills depends on animal body mass; and (iv) the gill surface is also the major site of Na+ loss by diffusion, we hypothesized that whole body Na+ uptake rate (i.e., turnover rate) and secondarily body mass would be good predictors of acute silver toxicity. Results obtained from...... toxicological (LC50 of AgNO3) and physiological (22Na uptake rate) tests performed on juvenile fish (rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss), early juvenile and adult crayfish (Cambarus diogenes diogenes), and neonate and adult daphnids (Daphnia magna) in moderately hard water of constant quality support the above...... hypothesis. Therefore, sensitivity to AgNO3, in terms of either total measured silver or free Ag+, was reliably predicted from the whole body Na+ uptake rate in animals with body mass ranging over 6 orders of magnitude (from micrograms to grams). A positive log-log correlation between acute AgNO3 toxicity...

  11. The GETUG 70 Gy vs. 80 Gy randomized trial for localized prostate cancer: Feasibility and acute toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckendorf, Veronique; Guerif, Stephane; Le Prise, Elisabeth; Cosset, Jean Marc; Lefloch, Olivier; Chauvet, Bruno; Salem, Naji; Chapet, Olivier; Bourdin, Sylvain; Bachaud, Jean Marc; Maingon, Philippe; Lagrange, Jean-L.eon; Malissard, Luc; Simon, Jean-Marc; Pommier, Pascal M.D.; Hay, Men H.; Dubray, Bernard; Luporsi, Elisabeth; Bey, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To describe treatments and acute tolerance in a randomized trial comparing 70 Gy and 80 Gy to the prostate in patients with localized prostate cancer. Methods and materials: Between September 1999 and February 2002, 306 patients were randomized to receive 70 Gy (153 patients) or 80 Gy (153 patients) in 17 institutions. Patients exhibited intermediate-prognosis tumors. If the risk of node involvement was greater than 10%, surgical staging was required. Previous prostatectomy was excluded, and androgen deprivation was not admitted. The treatment was delivered in two steps. PTV1-including seminal vesicles, prostate, and a 1-0.5-cm margin-received 46 Gy given with a 4-field conformal technique. PTV2, reduced to prostate with the same margins, irradiated with at least 5 fields. Dose was prescribed according to ICRU recommendations in the 70 Gy group, but adapted at the 80 Gy level. Results: All patients but one in the 80 Gy arm completed the treatment. In the 70 Gy arm, the mean dose to the PTV2 was 69.5 Gy. In the 80 Gy arm, the mean dose in the PTV2 was 78.5 Gy. Acute toxicity according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale during treatment was reported in 306 patients. There was no statistically significant difference between the two arms: 12% had no toxicity, 80% complained of bladder toxicity, and 70% complained of rectal symptoms. Two months after the end of treatment, 43% of the 70 Gy level and 48% of the 80 Gy level complained of side effects, including 24% and 20% of sexual disorders. There was 6% and 2% of Grade 3 urinary and rectal toxicity. Five patients required a 10-29-day suspension of the treatment. Acute Grade 2 and 3 side effects were related to PTV and CTV1 size, which was the only independent predictive factor in multivariate analysis. Toxicity was not related to the center, age, arm of treatment, or selected data from dose-volume histogram of organ at risk. Conclusion: Treatments were completed in respect to constraints. Acute toxicity

  12. Comparison of toxicity of acute overdoses with citalopram and escitalopram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Bryan D; Klein-Schwartz, Wendy; Clark, Richard F; Muller, Allison A; Miloradovich, Jane E

    2010-07-01

    Seizures and QTc prolongation are associated with citalopram poisoning; however, overdose experience with escitalopram is more limited. The goals of this study were to compare citalopram's vs. escitalopram's clinical effects in overdose, including the incidence of seizures. A retrospective review was conducted for single-substance acute overdoses with citalopram and escitalopram, managed in hospitals, that were reported to six U.S. poison centers from 2002-2005. There were 374 citalopram and 421 escitalopram overdose cases. Gender and ages were similar between the two, with 68-70% females and a median age of 20 years for citalopram and 18 years for escitalopram. Median dose by history was 310 mg for citalopram and 130 mg for escitalopram. More serious outcomes were associated with citalopram overdoses (p escitalopram were tachycardia, drowsiness, hypertension, and vomiting. Seizures (30 vs. 1, respectively, p escitalopram cases (p = 0.109). There was an association between increasing dose and severity of outcome for citalopram (p escitalopram (p = 0.011). In children escitalopram cases experienced toxicity, such as drowsiness, nausea/vomiting, and tachycardia. There were no seizures in this age group. Escitalopram seems to be less toxic than citalopram after an acute overdose; seizures and tremors were more common with citalopram. Initial management of overdoses should include seizure precautions for citalopram and cardiac monitoring for both drugs. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dosimetry and preliminary acute toxicity in the first 100 men treated for prostate cancer on a randomized hypofractionation dose escalation trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollack, Alan; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Horwitz, Eric M.; Feigenberg, Steven J.; Konski, Andre A.; Movsas, Benjamin; Greenberg, Richard E.; Uzzo, Robert G.; Ma, C.-M. Charlie; McNeeley, Shawn W.; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Price, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The α/β ratio for prostate cancer is postulated to be between 1 and 3, giving rise to the hypothesis that there may be a therapeutic advantage to hypofractionation. The dosimetry and acute toxicity are described in the first 100 men enrolled in a randomized trial. Patients and Methods: The trial compares 76 Gy in 38 fractions (Arm I) to 70.2 Gy in 26 fractions (Arm II) using intensity modulated radiotherapy. The planning target volume (PTV) margins in Arms I and II were 5 mm and 3 mm posteriorly and 8 mm and 7 mm in all other dimensions. The PTV D95% was at least the prescription dose. Results: The mean PTV doses for Arms I and II were 81.1 and 73.8 Gy. There were no differences in overall maximum acute gastrointestinal (GI) or genitourinary (GU) toxicity acutely. However, there was a slight but significant increase in Arm II GI toxicity during Weeks 2, 3, and 4. In multivariate analyses, only the combined rectal DVH parameter of V65 Gy/V50 Gy was significant for GI toxicity and the bladder volume for GU toxicity. Conclusion: Hypofractionation at 2.7 Gy per fraction to 70.2 Gy was well tolerated acutely using the planning conditions described

  14. Acute toxicity of birch tar oil on aquatic organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. HAGNER

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Birch tar oil (BTO is a by-product of processing birch wood in a pyrolysis system. Accumulating evidence suggests the suitability of BTO as a biocide or repellent in terrestrial environments for the control of weeds, insects, molluscs and rodents. Once applied as biocide, BTO may end up, either through run-off or leaching, in aquatic systems and may have adverse effects on non-target organisms. As very little is known about the toxicity of BTO to aquatic organisms, the present study investigated acute toxicity (LC50/EC50 of BTO for eight aquatic organisms. Bioassays with the Asellus aquaticus (crustacean, Lumbriculus variegatus (oligochaeta worm, Daphnia magna (crustacean, Lymnea sp. (mollusc, Lemna minor (vascular plant, Danio rerio (fish, Scenedesmus gracilis (algae, and Vibrio fischeri (bacterium were performed according to ISO, OECD or USEPA-guidelines. The results indicated that BTO was practically nontoxic to most aquatic organisms as the median effective BTO concentrations against most organisms were >150 mg L-1. In conclusion, our toxicity tests showed that aquatic organisms are to some extent, invariably sensitive to birch tar oil, but suggest that BTO does not pose a severe hazard to aquatic biota. We deduce that, unless BTOs are not applied in the immediate vicinity of water bodies, no special precaution is required.;

  15. Acute aquatic toxicity of heavy fuel oils. Summary of relevant test data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Parkerton, T.; Paumen, M.L.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2011-12-15

    This report describes the experimental procedures and results obtained in acute ecotoxicity tests on several heavy fuel oil (HFO) samples. Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of these samples were tested for toxicity to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the crustacean zooplankter (Daphnia magna) and green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum). These results assist in determining the environmental hazard from heavy fuel oil.

  16. Acute aquatic toxicity of heavy fuel oils. Summary of relevant test data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Parkerton, T.; Paumen, M.L.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the experimental procedures and results obtained in acute ecotoxicity tests on several heavy fuel oil (HFO) samples. Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of these samples were tested for toxicity to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the crustacean zooplankter (Daphnia magna) and green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum). These results assist in determining the environmental hazard from heavy fuel oil.

  17. Acute and subchronic toxicity assessment model of Ferula assa-foetida gum in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Goudah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was performed to investigate acute and subchronic oral toxicity of Ferula assa-foetida gum (28 days in Sprague Dawley rats. Materials and Methods: Acute oral administration of F. assa-foetida was done as a single bolus dose up to 5 g/kg in mice and subchronic toxicity study for 28 days was done by oral administration at doses of 0 (control and 250 mg/kg in Sprague Dawley rats. Results: The obtained data revealed that oral administration of F. assa-foetida extract in rats for 28 successive days had no significant changes on body weight, body weight gain, the hematological parameters in rats all over the period of the experiment, and there are no significant increases in the activity of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and urea. Liver of treated rats showed mild changes as thrombosis and sinusoidal leukocytosis. It also showed portal infiltration with inflammatory cells, while kidney of treated rat showed an atrophy of glomerular tuft, thickening of parietal layer of Bowman capsule, and focal tubular necrosis. It also showed dilatation and congestion of renal blood vessels. Conclusion: We concluded that F. assa-foetida gum had broad safety and little toxicity for short term use in dose of 250 mg/kg.

  18. Acute and subchronic toxicity assessment model of Ferula assa-foetida gum in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudah, Ayman; Abdo-El-Sooud, Khaled; Yousef, Manal A

    2015-05-01

    The present study was performed to investigate acute and subchronic oral toxicity of Ferula assa-foetida gum (28 days) in Sprague Dawley rats. Acute oral administration of F. assa-foetida was done as a single bolus dose up to 5 g/kg in mice and subchronic toxicity study for 28 days was done by oral administration at doses of 0 (control) and 250 mg/kg in Sprague Dawley rats. The obtained data revealed that oral administration of F. assa-foetida extract in rats for 28 successive days had no significant changes on body weight, body weight gain, the hematological parameters in rats all over the period of the experiment, and there are no significant increases in the activity of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and urea. Liver of treated rats showed mild changes as thrombosis and sinusoidal leukocytosis. It also showed portal infiltration with inflammatory cells, while kidney of treated rat showed an atrophy of glomerular tuft, thickening of parietal layer of Bowman capsule, and focal tubular necrosis. It also showed dilatation and congestion of renal blood vessels. We concluded that F. assa-foetida gum had broad safety and little toxicity for short term use in dose of 250 mg/kg.

  19. Acute Toxicity and Dermal and Eye Irritation of the Aqueous and Hydroalcoholic Extracts of the Seeds of “Zapote” Pouteria mammosa (L. Cronquist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. S. Dutok

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The common use of Pouteria mammosa (L. Cronquist, “Mamey or Zapote,” in food and ethnobotanic medicine shows its low or absent toxicity as fruit extracts prepared from seeds. However, it is essential to conduct security trials to scientifically support their use in drug therapy. This study evaluated the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extract (25% Acute Oral Toxicity, obtained from the seeds of P. mammosa, in Sprague Dawley rats and dermal and eye irritability in New Zealand rabbits. The 404 and 405 acute dermal and eye irritation/corrosion guidelines were used, as well as the 423 Acute Oral Toxicity guideline, Acute Toxic Class Method of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD. The aqueous extract was located in the following category: not classified as toxic (CTA 5, while hydroalcoholic extract at 25% was classified as dangerous (CTA 4. Both extracts can be used without side reaction that irritates the skin which permitted classification as potentially not irritant. P. mammosa in the two extracts caused mild and reversible eye irritation, and it was classified as slightly irritating.

  20. Acute and subchronic toxicity studies of methanol extract of Polygonum minus leaves in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christapher, Parayil Varghese; Parasuraman, Subramani; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran

    2017-06-01

    Medicinal plant preparations may contain high levels of toxic chemical constituents to potentially cause serious harm to animals and/or humans. Thus, toxicity studies are important to assess the toxic effects of plant derived products. Polygonum minus is used traditionally for different ailments in Southeast Asia. This study was conducted to establish the acute and subchronic toxicity profile of the methanol extract of P. minus leaves. The acute toxicity study showed that the methanol extract of P. minus is safe even at the highest dose tested of 2000 mg/kg in female Sprague Dawley rats. There were no behavioural or physiological changes and gross pathological abnormalities observed. The subchronic toxicity study of methanol extract of P. minus at 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg were conducted in both sexes of Sprague Dawley rats. There were no changes observed in the extract treated animal's body weight, food and water intake, motor coordination, behaviour and mental alertness. The values of haematological and biochemical parameters were not different between the treated and control animals. The relative organ weights of extract-treated animals did not differ with that of control animals. Based on the present findings, the methanol extract of P. minus leaves could be considered safe up to the dose of 2000 mg/kg. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Helical CT in acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, Olivier; Leroy, Christophe; Sergent, Geraldine; Bulois, Philippe; Saint-Drenant, Sophie; Paris, Jean-Claude

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of helical CT in depicting the location of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. A three-phase helical CT of the abdomen was performed in 24 patients referred for acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. The diagnosis of the bleeding site was established by CT when there was at least one of the following criteria: spontaneous hyperdensity of the peribowel fat; contrast enhancement of the bowel wall; vascular extravasation of the contrast medium; thickening of the bowel wall; polyp or tumor; or vascular dilation. Diverticula alone were not enough to locate the bleeding site. The results of CT were compared with the diagnosis obtained by colonoscopy, enteroscopy, or surgery. A definite diagnosis was made in 19 patients. The bleeding site was located in the small bowel in 5 patients and the colon in 14 patients. The CT correctly located 4 small bowel hemorrhages and 11 colonic hemorrhages. Diagnosis of the primary lesion responsible for the bleeding was made in 10 patients. Our results suggest that helical CT could be a good diagnostic tool in acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding to help the physician to diagnose the bleeding site. (orig.)

  2. Nanosilica and Polyacrylate/Nanosilica: A Comparative Study of Acute Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Mei Niu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared the acute toxicity of nanosilica and polyacrylate/nanosilica instillation in Wistar rats (n=60. Exposure to nanosilica and polyacrylate/nanosilica showed a 30% mortality rate. When compared with saline-treated rats, animals in both exposure groups exhibited a significant reduction of PO2 (P<0.05 at both 24 and 72 hr. after exposure. Both exposure groups exhibited a significant reduction of neutrophils in arterial blood compared to saline controls (P<0.05 24 hr. after exposure. The levels of blood ALT and LDH in exposed groups were found to be significantly increased (P<0.05 24 hr. following exposure. The exposed groups exhibited various degrees of pleural effusion and pericardial effusion. Our findings indicated respiratory exposure to polyacrylate/nanosilica and nanosilica is likely to cause multiple organ toxicity.

  3. The effect of aerobic exercise on treatment-related acute toxicity in men receiving radical external beam radiotherapy for localised prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, G; Windsor, P M; McCowan, C

    2010-09-01

    We retrospectively analysed acute radiation toxicity data for patients who had participated in a randomised controlled study in our centre in order to assess the impact of aerobic exercise on acute rectal and bladder morbidity during treatment. Data from 65 of 66 patients were analysed: 33 allocated into a control group (standard advice) and 33 into an exercise group (aerobic walking for 30 min at least three times per week) during 4 weeks of external beam radiotherapy; one patient in the exercise group withdrew after randomisation before starting radiotherapy. There was a trend towards less severe acute rectal toxicity in the exercise group with a statistically significant difference in mean toxicity scores over the 4 weeks of radiotherapy (P=0.004), with no significant difference in bladder toxicity scores between the two groups (P=0.123). The lack of an association for severity of bladder toxicity could be attributed to the confounding effect of lower urinary tract symptoms from their prostate cancer. Keeping active and being asked to adhere to a well-defined exercise schedule appears to reduce the severity of rectal toxicity during radiotherapy to the prostate.

  4. Evaluation of acute toxicity of babassu mesocarp in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth S. B. Barroqueiro

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The safety of babassu mesocarp (Orbignya phalerata Mart., Arecaceae, which exhibited anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic activities, was evaluated by determining the potential acute toxicity in mice. A lyophilized ethanol extract of babassu mesocarp (BME was administered to C3H/HePas mice (10/group in a single dose of 1000, 3000 and 5000 mg/kg, by gavage. General behavior adverse effects and mortality were determined for up to fourteen days. Selected biochemical parameters including glucose, triacylglyceride, cholesterol, urea, alkaline phosphatase and creatinine were determined by colorimetric assay. The heart, liver, spleen, kidneys and brain were weighted and evaluated macro and microscopically. The median lethal dose (LD50 of BME was greater than 5000 mg/kg. No behavior or body weight alterations were detected after the treatment. The acute treatment with BME has no effect on macroscopic and microscopic aspect of examined organs. Instead, BME increased the alkaline phosphatase and reduced the urea concentration in all groups. A significant increase on triacylglyceride was detected in the group BME1000. In conclusion, the acute treatment with high doses of BME can affect some biochemical parameters with a long lasting effect, although any change was detected at tissue level or body and organ weight.

  5. Is the OECD acute worm toxicity test environmentally relevant? The effect of mineral form on calculated lead toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, N.A.Nicola A.; Hodson, M.E.Mark E.; Black, S.Stuart

    2003-01-01

    The current OECD acute worm toxicity test does not relate well to ambient conditions. - In a series of experiments the toxicity of lead to worms in soil was determined following the draft OECD earthworm reproduction toxicity protocol except that lead was added as solid lead nitrate, carbonate and sulphide rather than as lead nitrate solution as would normally be the case. The compounds were added to the test soil to give lead concentrations of 625-12500 μg Pb g -1 of soil. Calculated toxicities of the lead decreased in the order nitrate>carbonate>sulphide, the same order as the decrease in the solubility of the metal compounds used. The 7-day LC 50 (lethal concentration when 50% of the population is killed) for the nitrate was 5321±275 μg Pb g -1 of soil and this did not change with time. The LC 50 values for carbonate and sulphide could not be determined at the concentration ranges used. The only parameter sensitive enough to distinguish the toxicities of the three compounds was cocoon (egg) production. The EC 50 s for cocoon production (the concentration to produce a 50% reduction in cocoon production) were 993, 8604 and 10246 μg Pb g -1 of soil for lead nitrate, carbonate and sulphide, respectively. Standard toxicity tests need to take into account the form in which the contaminant is present in the soil to be of environmental relevance

  6. Development of thresholds of excess toxicity for environmental species and their application to identification of modes of acute toxic action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin J; Zhang, Xu J; Yang, Yi; Huang, Tao; Li, Chao; Su, Limin; Zhao, Yuan H; Cronin, Mark T D

    2018-03-01

    The acute toxicity of organic pollutants to fish, Daphnia magna, Tetrahymena pyriformis, and Vibrio fischeri was investigated. The results indicated that the Toxicity Ratio (TR) threshold of log TR =1, which has been based on the distribution of toxicity data to fish, can also be used to discriminate reactive or specifically acting compounds from baseline narcotics for Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri. A log TR=0.84 is proposed for Tetrahymena pyriformis following investigation of the relationships between the species sensitivity and the absolute averaged residuals (AAR) between the predicted baseline toxicity and the experimental toxicity. Less inert compounds exhibit relatively higher toxicity to the lower species (Tetrahymena pyriformis and Vibrio fischeri) than the higher species (fish and Daphnia magna). A greater number of less inert compounds with log TR greater than the thresholds was observed for Tetrahymena pyriformis and Vibrio fischeri. This may be attributed to the hydrophilic compounds which may pass more easily through cell membranes than the skin or exoskeleton of organisms and have higher bioconcentration factors in the lower species, leading to higher toxicity. Most of classes of chemical associated with excess toxicity to one species also exhibited excess toxicity to other species, however, a few classes with excess toxicity to one species exhibiting narcotic toxicity to other species and thus may have different MOAs between species. Some ionizable compounds have log TR much lower than one because of the over-estimated log K OW . The factors that influence the toxicity ratio calculated from baseline level are discussed in this paper. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Acute toxicity of 5-(furan-2-yl, 2-metylfuran-3-yl-4-amino-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol alkyl derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Danilchenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our work was the further exploration of the new 5-(furan-2-yl, 2-metylfuran-3-yl-4-amino-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol alkyl derivatives’ acute toxicity, setting some patterns of alkyl substituents influence by the Sulfur atom on the acute toxicity. Research materials and methods. In this study we used first time synthesized 5-(furan-2-yl, 2-metylfuran-3-yl-4-amino-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thione derivatives. Acute toxicity was conducted on white rats weighing 160–250 g, which were injected once intraperitoneally with the investigated substances. The rats were received from the nursery of the Pharmacology and Toxicology Institute of Ukraine Medical Sciences Academy. The animals were kept on a standard diet with natural light mode "day-night". Results and their discussion. After the acute toxicity studies in a group of 5-(furan-2-yl, 2-metylfuran-3-yl-4-amino-4H-1,2,4-triazole 3-alkyl derivatives it was found that among all studied structures the most toxic was 2e, LD50 of which was 263 mg/kg, and the least toxic compound was 2a, LD50 of which was 1570 mg/kg, that belongs to the V toxicity class. After comparing the acute toxicity of well-known antimycotic agent fluconazole with the studied compounds it can be argued that most compounds are less toxic than the comparison drug fluconazole with the index of LD50 ˃320 mg/kg. It was found that the transition in a group from butyl to decyl, octyl, ventyl, propyl, nonyl and heptyl substituents in the molecule of 3-alkylthio 5-(furan-2-yl-4-amino-4H-1,2,4-triazole is accompanied by the toxicity increasing. Speaking about the 5-(2-metylfuran-3-yl-4-amino-4H-1,2,4-triazole 3-alkylthio derivatives we can find that this dependence is observed in a number from propyl, pentyl, nonil, butyl, heksyl, octyl and heptyl hydrocarbon chains. Conclusions. The investigated 3-alkylthio 5-(furan-2-yl, 2-metylfuran-3-yl-4-amino-4H-1,2,4-triazole derivatives belong to the IV-V toxicity class. The toxicity of 5

  8. Acute and chronic toxicity of neonicotinoids to nymphs of a mayfly species and some notes on seasonal differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, Van den P.J.; Smeden, Van J.M.; Bekele, R.S.; Dierick, Wiebe; Gelder, De Daphne M.; Noteboom, Maarten; Roessink, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Mayfly nymphs are among the most sensitive taxa to neonicotinoids. The present study presents the acute and chronic toxicity of 3 neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam) to a mayfly species (Cloeon dipterum) and some notes on the seasonality of the toxicity of imidacloprid to

  9. Acute and Late Toxicity in a Randomized Trial of Conventional Versus Hypofractionated Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcangeli, Giorgio; Fowler, Jack; Gomellini, Sara; Arcangeli, Stefano; Saracino, Biancamaria; Petrongari, Maria Grazia; Benassi, Marcello; Strigari, Lidia

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the toxicity between hypofractionation vs. conventional fractionation schedules in patients with high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between January 2003 and December 2007, 168 patients were randomized to receive either hypofractionated (62 Gy in 20 fractions within 5 weeks, 4 fractions/wk) or conventionally fractionated (80 Gy in 40 fractions within 8 weeks) three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy to the prostate and seminal vesicles. All patients had undergone a 9-month course of total androgen deprivation, with radiotherapy starting 2 months after initiation of the total androgen deprivation. Results: The median follow-up was 32 and 35 months in the hypofractionation and conventional fractionation arms, respectively. For the patients developing acute toxicity, no difference between the two fractionation groups was found in either severity or duration of gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicity. Also, no difference was found in the incidence and severity of late gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity between the two treatment schedules, with a 3-year rate of Grade 2 or greater toxicity of 17% and 16% for the hypofractionation arm and 14% and 11% for the conventional fractionation arm, respectively. A statistically significant correlation between acute and late gastrointestinal toxicity was found only in the conventional fractionation group. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the hypofractionation regimen used in our study is safe, with only a slight, nonsignificant increase in tolerable and temporary acute toxicity compared with the conventional fractionation schedule. The severity and frequency of late complications was equivalent between the two treatment groups.

  10. Goblet Cell Carcinoid Tumor of the Appendix with Small Bowel Obstruction: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Su Yeon; Jang, Kyung Mi; Kim, Min Jeong; Koh, Sung Hye; Jeon, Eui Yong; Min, Kwang Seon; Seo, Jin Won; Park, Hyoung Chul [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    Goblet cell carcinoid tumor of the appendix (GCTA) is a tumor with histological features of both adenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumors. The most common clinical presentation of GCTA is acute appendicitis, although small bowel obstruction has been reported as a rare clinical symptom of GCTA. However, to the best of our knowledge, the CT feature of small bowel obstructions in patients with GCTA has not been reported to date. Here, we present a case of small bowel obstruction in a patient with GCTA caused by extensive tumor infiltration at the terminal ileum and distal ileum.

  11. Hypofractionated Accelerated Radiotherapy Using Concomitant Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Boost Technique for Localized High-Risk Prostate Cancer: Acute Toxicity Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Tee S.; Cheung, Patrick; Loblaw, D. Andrew; Morton, Gerard; Sixel, Katharina E.; Pang, Geordi; Basran, Parminder; Zhang Liying; Tirona, Romeo; Szumacher, Ewa; Danjoux, Cyril; Choo, Richard; Thomas, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the acute toxicities of hypofractionated accelerated radiotherapy (RT) using a concomitant intensity-modulated RT boost in conjunction with elective pelvic nodal irradiation for high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: This report focused on 66 patients entered into this prospective Phase I study. The eligible patients had clinically localized prostate cancer with at least one of the following high-risk features (Stage T3, Gleason score ≥8, or prostate-specific antigen level >20 ng/mL). Patients were treated with 45 Gy in 25 fractions to the pelvic lymph nodes using a conventional four-field technique. A concomitant intensity-modulated radiotherapy boost of 22.5 Gy in 25 fractions was delivered to the prostate. Thus, the prostate received 67.5 Gy in 25 fractions within 5 weeks. Next, the patients underwent 3 years of adjuvant androgen ablative therapy. Acute toxicities were assessed using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, weekly during treatment and at 3 months after RT. Results: The median patient age was 71 years. The median pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level and Gleason score was 18.7 ng/L and 8, respectively. Grade 1-2 genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities were common during RT but most had settled at 3 months after treatment. Only 5 patients had acute Grade 3 genitourinary toxicity, in the form of urinary incontinence (n = 1), urinary frequency/urgency (n = 3), and urinary retention (n = 1). None of the patients developed Grade 3 or greater gastrointestinal or Grade 4 or greater genitourinary toxicity. Conclusion: The results of the present study have indicated that hypofractionated accelerated RT with a concomitant intensity-modulated RT boost and pelvic nodal irradiation is feasible with acceptable acute toxicity

  12. WEB-BASED INTERSPECIES CORRELATION ESTIMATION (WEB-ICE) FOR ACUTE TOXICITY: USER MANUAL V2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predictive toxicological models are integral to environmental risk Assessment where data for most species are limited. Web-based Interspecies Correlation Estimation (Web-ICE) models are least square regressions that predict acute toxicity (LC50/LD50) of a chemical to a species, ...

  13. Impact of Bone Marrow Radiation Dose on Acute Hematologic Toxicity in Cervical Cancer: Principal Component Analysis on High Dimensional Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun Liang; Messer, Karen; Rose, Brent S.; Lewis, John H.; Jiang, Steve B.; Yashar, Catheryn M.; Mundt, Arno J.; Mell, Loren K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To study the effects of increasing pelvic bone marrow (BM) radiation dose on acute hematologic toxicity in patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy, using a novel modeling approach to preserve the local spatial dose information. Methods and Materials: The study included 37 cervical cancer patients treated with concurrent weekly cisplatin and pelvic radiation therapy. The white blood cell count nadir during treatment was used as the indicator for acute hematologic toxicity. Pelvic BM radiation dose distributions were standardized across patients by registering the pelvic BM volumes to a common template, followed by dose remapping using deformable image registration, resulting in a dose array. Principal component (PC) analysis was applied to the dose array, and the significant eigenvectors were identified by linear regression on the PCs. The coefficients for PC regression and significant eigenvectors were represented in three dimensions to identify critical BM subregions where dose accumulation is associated with hematologic toxicity. Results: We identified five PCs associated with acute hematologic toxicity. PC analysis regression modeling explained a high proportion of the variation in acute hematologicity (adjusted R 2 , 0.49). Three-dimensional rendering of a linear combination of the significant eigenvectors revealed patterns consistent with anatomical distributions of hematopoietically active BM. Conclusions: We have developed a novel approach that preserves spatial dose information to model effects of radiation dose on toxicity, which may be useful in optimizing radiation techniques to avoid critical subregions of normal tissues. Further validation of this approach in a large cohort is ongoing.

  14. Combined curative radiotherapy including HDR brachytherapy and androgen deprivation in localized prostate cancer: A prospective assessment of acute and late treatment toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlgren, Thomas; Nilsson, Sten; Ryberg, Marianne; Brandberg, Yvonne; Lennernaes, Bo

    2005-01-01

    Self-reported symptoms including urinary, bowel and sexual side effects were investigated prospectively at multiple assessment points before and after combined radiotherapy of prostate cancer including HDR brachytherapy and neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy. Between April 2000 and June 2003, patients with predominantly advanced localized prostate tumours subjected to this treatment were asked before treatment and on follow-up visits to complete a questionnaire covering urinary, bowel and sexual problems. The mainly descriptive analyses included 525 patients, responding to at least one questionnaire before or during the period 2-34 months after radiotherapy. Adding androgen deprivation before radiotherapy significantly worsened sexual function. During radiotherapy, urinary, bowel and sexual problems increased and were reported at higher levels up to 34 months, although there seemed to be a general tendency to less pronounced irritative bowel and urinary tract symptoms over time. No side effects requiring surgery were reported. Classic late irradiation effects such as mucosal bleeding were demonstrated mainly during the second year after therapy, but appear less pronounced in comparison with dose escalated EBRT series. In conclusion, despite the high radiation dose given, the toxicity seemed comparable with that of other series but long term (5-10 years) symptom outcome has to be determined

  15. Toxicity assessment of perfluorooctane sulfonate using acute and subchronic male C57BL/6J mouse models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Jiali; Wang, Gang; Zhao, Jichun; Wang, Eryin; Yin, Boxing; Fang, Dongsheng; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong Q.; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a principal representative and the final degradation product of several commercially produced perfluorinated compounds. However, PFOS has a high bioaccumulation potential and therefore can exert toxicity on aquatic organisms, animals, and cells. Considering the widespread concern this phenomenon has attracted, we examined the acute and subchronic toxic effects of varying doses of PFOS on adult male C57BL/6 mice. The acute oral LD_5_0 value of PFOS in male C57BL/6J mice was 0.579 g/kg body weight (BW). Exposure to the subchronic oral toxicity of PFOS at 2.5, 5, and 10 mg PFOS/kg BW/day for 30 days disrupted the homeostasis of antioxidative systems, induced hepatocellular apoptosis (as revealed by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay), triggered liver injury (as evidenced by the increased serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and by the altered histology), and ultimately increased the liver size and relative weight of the mice. PFOS treatment caused liver damage but only slightly affected the kidneys and spleen of the mice. This study provided insights into the toxicological effects of PFOS. - Highlights: • The acute and subchronic toxicity of PFOS was systematically investigated. • The acute oral LD_5_0 value for PFOS in C57BL/6J mice was 0.579 g/kg body weight. • PFOS disrupted the homeostasis of antioxidative systems. • PFOS induced hepatocellular apoptosis and triggered liver injury. - PFOS disrupted the homeostasis of antioxidative systems, induced hepatocellular apoptosis, and triggered liver injury.

  16. The Acute Toxicity of Major Ion Salts to Ceriodaphnia dubia: I. Influence of background water chemistry.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset provides concentration-response data and associated general chemistry conditions for 26 experiments consisting of 149 tests regarding the acute toxicity...

  17. The Acute Toxicity of Major Ions to Ceriodaphnia dubia. II. Empirical Relationships in Binary Salt Mixtures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset provides concentration-response data and associated general chemistry conditions for 29 experiments consisting of 209 tests regarding the acute toxicity...

  18. Quality of Life after Post-Prostatectomy Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: Pelvic Nodal Irradiation Is Not Associated with Worse Bladder, Bowel, or Sexual Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M Melotek

    Full Text Available Limited data exist regarding toxicity and quality of life (QOL after post-prostatectomy intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT and whether pelvic nodal RT influences these outcomes.118 men were treated with curative-intent RT after radical prostatectomy. 69 men (58% received pelvic nodal RT. QOL data and physician-assigned toxicity were prospectively collected. Changes in QOL from baseline were assessed with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests and risk factors associated with each domain were identified with generalized estimating equation (GEE models. Late freedom from (FF toxicity was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and comparisons were tested using the log-rank test.Urinary irritation/obstruction, bowel, and sexual domain scores declined at 2 months (all P ≤ 0.01 but were no different than baseline at subsequent visits through 4 years of follow-up. At 4 years, FF grade 2+ GI toxicity was 90% and FF grade 2+ GU toxicity was 89%. On GEE analysis, pelvic nodal RT was associated with decreased bowel function (P = 0.09 and sexual function (P = 0.01. On multivariate analysis, however, there was no significant association with either decreased bowel (P = 0.31 or sexual (P = 0.84 function. There was also no association with either FF grade 2+ GI toxicity (P = 0.24 or grade 2+ GU toxicity (P = 0.51.Receipt of pelvic nodal RT was not associated with inferior QOL or toxicity compared to prostate bed alone RT. For the entire cohort, RT was associated with only temporary declines in patient-reported urinary, bowel, or sexual QOL.

  19. Acute toxicity of chemoradiation for rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roedel, C.; Fietkau, R.; Keilholz, L.; Grabenbauer, G.G.; Kessler, H.; Martus, P.; Sauer, R.

    1997-01-01

    Between 1987 and 1995, 120 patients with rectal cancer (73 patients with primary tumor, 47 with recurrent disease) received chemoradiation for rectal cancer. Fifty-six patients received preoperative chemoradiation, 64 patients were treated postoperatively. Radiation was given by 4-field box technique with 6 to 10 MV-photons. Daily fraction size was 1.8 Gy, total dose 50.4 Gy (range: 41,4 to 56 Gy) ± 5.4 Gy (range: 3.6 to 19.8 Gy) local boost in selected cases, specified to the ICRU reference point. During the first and fifth week of radiation 5-FU at a dose of 1000 m 2 /d for 120 hours was administered by continuous infusion. Toxicity was recorded following (modified) WHO-criteria. Results: Acute grade 3 toxicity occurred mainly as diarrhea (33%), perineal skin reaction (37%), and leukopenia (10%). Extension of the treatment volume including paraaortic lymph nodes (L3) led to a significant increase of grade 3-diarrhea (68% vs. 25%, p = 0.0003) and grade 3-leukopenia (18% vs. 8%, p 0.03). After abdominoperineal resection less patients suffered from grade 3-diarrhea (8% vs. 47% after sphincter preserving procedures, p = 0.0006), whereas severe perineal erythema occurred more frequently (56% vs. 29%, p 0.02). Women had significantly more toxic side effects (grade 3-diarrhea: 39% vs. 16% in men, p = 0,04; grade 2 to 3-nausea/emesis: 21% vs 8% in men, p 0.018; grade 2 to 3-leukopenia 53% vs. 31% in men, p = 0.02). After preoperative chemoradiation a significant reduction of grade 3-diarrhea (11% vs 29%, p 0.03) and grade 3-erythema (16% vs. 41%, p = 0.04) was noted. (orig./AJ) [de

  20. Thiopurine monitoring in children with inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konidari, Anastasia; Anagnostopoulos, Antonios; Bonnett, Laura J; Pirmohamed, Munir; El-Matary, Wael

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to systematically review the evidence on the clinical usefulness of thiopurine metabolite and white blood count (WBC) monitoring in the assessment of clinical outcomes in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of controlled trials and http://www.clinicaltrials.gov were screened in adherence to the PRISMA statement by two independent reviewers for identification of eligible studies. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies and large case series of children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (6MMPR) as an indicator of hepatotoxicity. Low thiopurine metabolite concentration may be indicative of non-compliance. Thiopurine metabolite testing does not safely predict clinical outcome, but may facilitate toxicity surveillance and treatment optimization in poor responders. Current evidence favours the combination of thiopurine metabolite/WBC monitoring and clinic follow-up for prompt identification of haematologic/hepatic toxicity safe dose adjustment, and treatment modification in cases of suboptimal clinical outcome or non-compliance. Well designed RCTs for the identification of robust surrogate markers of thiopurine efficacy and toxicity are required. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  1. A proposal of classification for acute toxicity; Una scala di tossicita`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oddo, N. [Ecotox srl, Pregnana Milanese (Italy)

    1998-05-01

    A classification for acute toxicity is proposed, including the effects to low level exposures (Hormesis). The criteria, the measurement units and the correlations to chronic and to genotoxicity of the proposed classification are discussed. [Italiano] Viene proposta una scala per la tossicita` acuta, comprendendovi gli effetti deboli (Ormesi). Vengono discussi i criteri di formulazione della scala, le unita` di misura adottate, e le relazioni con la tossicita` cronica e con la genotossicita`.

  2. Acute and additive toxicity of ten photosystem-II herbicides to seagrass

    OpenAIRE

    Adam D. Wilkinson; Catherine J. Collier; Florita Flores; Andrew P. Negri

    2015-01-01

    Photosystem II herbicides are transported to inshore marine waters, including those of the Great Barrier Reef, and are usually detected in complex mixtures. These herbicides inhibit photosynthesis, which can deplete energy reserves and reduce growth in seagrass, but the toxicity of some of these herbicides to seagrass is unknown and combined effects of multiple herbicides on seagrass has not been tested. Here we assessed the acute phytotoxicity of 10 PSII herbicides to the seagrass Halophila ...

  3. Azathioprine-induced Acute Pancreatitis in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases—A Prospective Study on Incidence and Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohl, Wolfgang; Bokemeyer, Bernd; Bündgens, Burkhard; Büning, Jürgen; Miehlke, Stephan; Hüppe, Dietrich; Maaser, Christian; Klugmann, Tobias; Kruis, Wolfgang; Siegmund, Britta; Helwig, Ulf; Weismüller, Joseph; Drabik, Attyla; Stallmach, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Azathioprine [AZA] is recommended for maintenance of steroid-free remission in inflammatory bowel disease IBD. The aim of this study has been to establish the incidence and severity of AZA-induced pancreatitis, an idiosyncratic and major side effect, and to identify specific risk factors. Methods: We studied 510 IBD patients [338 Crohn’s disease, 157 ulcerative colitis, 15 indeterminate colitis] with initiation of AZA treatment in a prospective multicentre registry study. Acute pancreatitis was diagnosed in accordance with international guidelines. Results: AZA was continued by 324 [63.5%] and stopped by 186 [36.5%] patients. The most common cause of discontinuation was nausea [12.2%]. AZA-induced pancreatitis occurred in 37 patients [7.3%]. Of these: 43% were hospitalised with a median inpatient time period of 5 days; 10% had peripancreatic fluid collections; 24% had vomiting; and 14% had fever. No patient had to undergo nonsurgical or surgical interventions. Smoking was the strongest risk factor for AZA-induced acute pancreatitis [p pancreatitis is a common adverse event in IBD patients, but in this study had a mild course in all patients. Smoking is the most important risk factor. PMID:26468141

  4. Acute and chronic toxicity of effluent water from an abandoned uranium mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, S C; Pereira, R; Gonçalves, F

    2007-08-01

    Inactive or abandoned mines represent a significant source of environmental, chemical, physical, and aesthetic impact. Among concerning situations, the occurrence of abandoned or semi-abandoned mine-associated ponds (for sedimentation of solids, for effluent neutralization, or for washing the ore) is a common feature in this type of system. These ponds are a source of contamination for the groundwater resources and adjacent soils, because they lack appropriate impermeabilization. The use of this water for agriculture may also pose chronic risks to humans. In Portugal, these problems have been diagnosed and some remediation projects have been developed. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of water samples collected from the aquatic system surrounding an abandoned uranium mine (Cunha Baixa, Mangualde, Central Portugal). The present study focuses on the water compartment, whose toxicity was evaluated by means of standard toxicity assays using two Daphnia species (D. longispina and D. magna). Three different ponds were used in the characterization of the aquatic system from Cunha Baixa mine: a reference pond (Ref), a mine effluent treatment pond (T), and a mine pit pond (M). Metal analyses performed in the water samples from these ponds showed values that, in some cases, were much higher than maximum recommendable values established (especially Al, Mn) by Portuguese legislation for waters for crop irrigation. Acute toxicity was only observed in the mine pit pond, with EC(50) values of 28.4% and 50.4% for D. longispina and D. magna, respectively. The significant impairment of chronic endpoints, translated in reductions in the population growth rate for both species, gives rise to concerns regarding the potential risks for aquatic zooplanktonic communities, from local receiving waters, potentially exposed to point source discharges of the treated and nontreated effluent from Cunha Baixa uranium mine.

  5. Low malathion concentrations influence metabolism in Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae in acute and chronic toxicity tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Rebechi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Low malathion concentrations influence metabolism in Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae in acute and chronic toxicity tests. Organophosphate compounds are used in agro-systems, and in programs to control pathogen vectors. Because they are continuously applied, organophosphates often reach water sources and may have an impact on aquatic life. The effects of acute and chronic exposure to the organophosphate insecticide malathion on the midge Chironomus sancticaroli are evaluated. To that end, three biochemical biomarkers, acetylcholinesterase (AChE, alpha (EST-α and beta (EST-β esterase were used. Acute bioassays with five concentrations of malathion, and chronic bioassays with two concentrations of malathion were carried out. In the acute exposure test, AChE, EST-α and EST-β activities declined by 66, 40 and 37%, respectively, at 0.251 µg L-1 and more than 80% at 1.37, 1.96 and 2.51 µg L-1. In chronic exposure tests, AChE and EST-α activities declined by 28 and 15% at 0.251 µg L-1. Results of the present study show that low concentrations of malathion can influence larval metabolism, indicating high toxicity for Chironomus sancticaroli and environmental risk associated with the use of organophosphates.

  6. Nontraumatic abdominal emergencies: acute abdominal pain: diagnostic strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marincek, B.

    2002-01-01

    Common causes of acute abdominal pain include appendicitis, cholecystitis, bowel obstruction, urinary colic, perforated peptic ulcer, pancreatitis, diverticulitis, and nonspecific, nonsurgical abdominal pain. The topographic classification of acute abdominal pain (pain in one of the four abdominal quadrants, diffuse abdominal pain, flank or epigastric pain) facilitates the choice of the imaging technique. The initial radiological evaluation often consists of plain abdominal radiography, despite significant diagnostic limitations. The traditional indications for plain films - bowel obstruction, pneumoperitoneum, and the search of ureteral calculi - are questioned by helical computed tomography (CT). Although ultrasonography (US) is in many centers the modality of choice for imaging the gallbladder and the pelvis in children and women of reproductive age, CT is considered to be one of the most valued tools for triaging patients with acute abdominal pain. CT is particularly beneficial in patients with marked obesity, unclear US findings, bowel obstruction, and multiple lesions. The introduction of multidetector row CT (MDCT) has further enhanced the utility of CT in imaging patients with acute abdominal pain. (orig.)

  7. Nontraumatic abdominal emergencies: acute abdominal pain: diagnostic strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marincek, B. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2002-09-01

    Common causes of acute abdominal pain include appendicitis, cholecystitis, bowel obstruction, urinary colic, perforated peptic ulcer, pancreatitis, diverticulitis, and nonspecific, nonsurgical abdominal pain. The topographic classification of acute abdominal pain (pain in one of the four abdominal quadrants, diffuse abdominal pain, flank or epigastric pain) facilitates the choice of the imaging technique. The initial radiological evaluation often consists of plain abdominal radiography, despite significant diagnostic limitations. The traditional indications for plain films - bowel obstruction, pneumoperitoneum, and the search of ureteral calculi - are questioned by helical computed tomography (CT). Although ultrasonography (US) is in many centers the modality of choice for imaging the gallbladder and the pelvis in children and women of reproductive age, CT is considered to be one of the most valued tools for triaging patients with acute abdominal pain. CT is particularly beneficial in patients with marked obesity, unclear US findings, bowel obstruction, and multiple lesions. The introduction of multidetector row CT (MDCT) has further enhanced the utility of CT in imaging patients with acute abdominal pain. (orig.)

  8. Pharmacology and optimization of thiopurines and methotrexate in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coskun, Mehmet; Steenholdt, Casper; de Boer, Nanne K.

    2016-01-01

    Improving the efficacy and reducing the toxicity of thiopurines and methotrexate (MTX) have been areas of intense basic and clinical research. An increased knowledge on pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of these immunomodulators has optimized treatment strategies in inflammatory bowel disease...

  9. Stereotactic radiotherapy of meningiomas. Symptomatology, acute and late toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzel, M.; Gross, M.W.; Failing, T.; Strassmann, G.; Engenhart-Cabillic, R. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Gisssen (Germany); Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Marburg Univ. (Germany); Hamm, K.; Surber, G.; Kleinert, G. [Dept. of Stereotactic Neurosurgery and Radiosurgery, Helios Klinikum Erfurt (Germany)

    2006-07-15

    Background and purpose: stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is well established in the treatment of skull base meningiomas, but this therapy approach is limited to small tumors only. The fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) offers an alternative treatment option. This study aims at local control, symptomatology, and toxicity. Patients and methods: between 1997-2003, 224 patients were treated with SRT (n= 183), hypofractionated SRT (n = 30), and SRS (n = 11). 95/224 were treated with SRT/SRS alone. 129/224 patients underwent previous operations. Freedom from progression and overall survival, toxicity, and symptomatology were evaluated systematically. Additionally, tumor volume (TV) shrinkage was analyzed three-dimensionally within the planning system. Results: the median follow-up was 36 months (range, 12-100 months). Overall survival and freedom from progression for 5 years were 92.9% and 96.9%. Quantitative TV reduction was 26.2% and 30.3% 12 and 18 months after SRT/SRS (p < 0.0001). 95.9% of the patients improved their symptoms or were stable. Clinically significant acute toxicity (CTC III ) was rarely seen (2.5%). Clinically significant late morbidity (III -IV ) or new cranial nerve palsies did not occur. Conclusion: SRT offers an additional treatment option of high efficacy with only few side effects. In the case of large tumor size (> 4 ml) and adjacent critical structures (< 2 mm), SRT is highly recommended. (orig.)

  10. Acute toxicity of heavy metals towards freshwater ciliated protists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madoni, Paolo; Romeo, Maria Giuseppa

    2006-01-01

    The acute toxicity of five heavy metals to four species of freshwater ciliates (Colpidium colpoda, Dexiotricha granulosa, Euplotes aediculatus, and Halteria grandinella) was examined in laboratory tests. After exposing the ciliates to soluble compound of cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, and nickel at several selected concentrations, the mortality rate was registered and the LC 5 values (with 95% confidence intervals) were calculated. Large differences appeared in sensitivities of the four species to the metals. H. grandinella showed the highest sensitivity for cadmium (0.07 mg l -1 , LC 5 ) and lead (0.12 mg l -1 , LC 5 ), whilst E. aediculatus showed the highest sensitivity for nickel (0.03 mg l -1 , LC 5 ). The comparison with data obtained with other species indicate that Halteria grandinella and Euplotes aediculatus are excellent and convenient bioindicator for evaluating the toxicity of waters and wastewaters polluted by heavy metals. The short time (24 h) and simplicity of the test procedure enable this test to be used in laboratory studies. - Ciliated protozoa are suitable bioindicators of heavy metal pollution in freshwater environments

  11. Small bowel obstruction: the role of computed tomography in its diagnosis and management with reference to other imaging modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkill, G.; Bell, J.; Healy, J.

    2001-01-01

    Small bowel obstruction is a leading cause of acute surgical admissions for abdominal pain. There is an increasing tendency for initial conservative management rather than immediate operative intervention, as a proportion of cases will resolve spontaneously. This has resulted in a growing reliance on radiological investigations to reassure the surgeon that medical therapy can be safely instituted. The onus therefore rests with radiologists to guide their surgical colleagues by correctly interpreting the plain abdominal radiograph and suggesting appropriate further investigation if warranted. Recently, computed tomography (CT) has been proposed as the test of choice to define the level and cause of acute small bowel obstruction and to identify complications such as ischaemia and perforation which will prompt surgical intervention. This review will discuss the utility of early CT in the diagnosis of acute small bowel obstruction and outline its impact on patient management. (orig.)

  12. Late small bowel toxicity after aggressive abdominopelvic intensity modulated radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ling, BA

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: It may be possible with IMRT to deliver high doses to small volumes of small bowel with low rates of significant long-term complications. Further studies should explore tolerable dose-volume relationships in cases in which aggressive abdominal or pelvic treatment may be warranted to treat the underlying malignancy.

  13. An acute toxicity study of Heliotropium scottae Rendle in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahome, W M; Muchiri, D J; Mugera, G M

    1994-08-01

    Twenty-four hour ip median lethal doses (LD50) of freeze-dried aqueous extracts of Heliotropium scottae Rendle leaves and stems in mice were determined and clinical signs noted. The LD50 of the leaf extract was 3.0 g/kg, while that of the stems was 3.5 g/kg. Clinical signs were excitement, prostration, rapid breathing, gasping for breath and death. The signs were the same for both the leaf and stem extracts. It was concluded that both the leaves and stems of H scottae have slight acute toxicity.

  14. Bowel Angioedema Associated With Iodinated Contrast Media: Incidence and Predisposing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Nieun; Chung, Yong Eun; Lim, Joon Seok; Song, Mi Kyung; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Kim, Ki Whang

    2017-09-01

    Bowel angioedema is an acute adverse reaction to iodinated contrast media (CM) that involves the gastrointestinal tract. We aimed to investigate the incidence and predisposing factors of iodinated CM-associated bowel angioedema during computed tomography (CT) examinations. This study was approved by our institutional review board, and informed consent was waived due to its retrospective design. From July 2013 to July 2015, adult patients with a history of adverse reactions to iodinated CM during CT (group A, n = 427) and patients without adverse reactions matched for age and sex with the propensity-score matching method (group B, n = 427) were studied. Contrast media-associated bowel angioedema was determined when bowel wall thickness increased after contrast enhancement compared with the precontrast scan. Potential predisposing factors including patient demographics, symptoms and time of adverse reactions, and CM-related factors were compared between patients with and without angioedema in group A. In addition, the incidence of bowel angioedema was compared between groups A and B. The incidence of CM-associated bowel angioedema in group A was 3.3% (14/427) in the per-patient analysis and 2.6% (15/578) in the per-examination analysis. The CM-associated bowel angioedema involved the distal duodenum and/or proximal jejunum and showed long-segmental circumferential bowel wall thickening on CT. None of the studied predisposing factors was different between patients with and without bowel angioedema (P > 0.05). The incidence of CM-associated bowel angioedema in group B was 1.9% (8/427) and 1.7% (8/458) for per-patient and per-examination analyses, respectively, and these rates were not significantly different between groups A and B (P = 0.346 and P = 0.370, respectively). The incidence of CM-associated bowel angioedema during CT was 1.7% to 3.3%, and none of the studied predisposing factors was associated with bowel angioedema.

  15. Predicting acute aquatic toxicity of structurally diverse chemicals in fish using artificial intelligence approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kunwar P; Gupta, Shikha; Rai, Premanjali

    2013-09-01

    The research aims to develop global modeling tools capable of categorizing structurally diverse chemicals in various toxicity classes according to the EEC and European Community directives, and to predict their acute toxicity in fathead minnow using set of selected molecular descriptors. Accordingly, artificial intelligence approach based classification and regression models, such as probabilistic neural networks (PNN), generalized regression neural networks (GRNN), multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPN), radial basis function neural network (RBFN), support vector machines (SVM), gene expression programming (GEP), and decision tree (DT) were constructed using the experimental toxicity data. Diversity and non-linearity in the chemicals' data were tested using the Tanimoto similarity index and Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman statistics. Predictive and generalization abilities of various models constructed here were compared using several statistical parameters. PNN and GRNN models performed relatively better than MLPN, RBFN, SVM, GEP, and DT. Both in two and four category classifications, PNN yielded a considerably high accuracy of classification in training (95.85 percent and 90.07 percent) and validation data (91.30 percent and 86.96 percent), respectively. GRNN rendered a high correlation between the measured and model predicted -log LC50 values both for the training (0.929) and validation (0.910) data and low prediction errors (RMSE) of 0.52 and 0.49 for two sets. Efficiency of the selected PNN and GRNN models in predicting acute toxicity of new chemicals was adequately validated using external datasets of different fish species (fathead minnow, bluegill, trout, and guppy). The PNN and GRNN models showed good predictive and generalization abilities and can be used as tools for predicting toxicities of structurally diverse chemical compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) in locally advanced thyroid cancer: Acute toxicity results of a phase I study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbano, Teresa Guerrero; Clark, Catharine H.; Hansen, Vibeke N.; Adams, Elizabeth J.; Miles, Elizabeth A.; Mc Nair, Helen; Bidmead, A. Margaret; Warrington, Jim; Dearnaley, David P.; Harmer, Clive; Harrington, Kevin J.; Nutting, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: This phase 1 study was designed to determine the toxicity of accelerated fractionation IMRT in locally advanced thyroid cancer. Methods: Patients with high risk locally advanced thyroid cancer who required post-operative EBRT were recruited. A single-phase inverse-planned-simultaneous-boost was delivered by IMRT: 58.8 Gy/28F (daily) to the primary tumour and involved nodes and 50 Gy/28F to the elective nodes. Acute (NCICTCv.2.0) and late toxicity (RTOG and modified LENTSOM) was collected. Results: Thirteen patients were treated (7 medullary thyroid, 2 Hurthle cell and 4 well differentiated thyroid cancer). G3 and G2 radiation dermatitis rates were 38.5% and 31%; G3 and G2 mucositis rates 8% and 53% and G3 and G2 pain 23% and 54%. Thirty-one percentage required enteral feeding. G3 and G2 xerostomia rates were 0% and 31%. Recovery was seen, with 62% patients having dysphagia G ≤ 1 2 months after IMRT. Thirty percent of patients developed L'Hermitte's syndrome. No grade 4 toxicity was observed. No dose limiting toxicity was found. Conclusions: Accelerated fractionation IMRT in this group of patients is feasible and safe. The acute toxicity appeared acceptable and early indicators of late toxicity moderate and similar to what would be expected with conventional RT. Longer follow up is required to quantify late side effects

  17. AGE-RELATED TOXICITY PATHWAY ANALYSIS IN BROWN NORWAY RAT BRAIN FOLLOWING ACUTE TOLUENE EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental exposures is poorly understood. To investigate-the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we examined the effects of an acute exposure to the volatile organic compound, toluene (0.0 or 1.0 g/kg), i...

  18. Acute And Subchronic Toxicity Studies Of SNEDDS (Self Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems) From Ethyl Acetate Extract Of Bay Leaf (Eugenia polyantha W.) with Virgin Coconut Oil As Oil Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prihapsara, F.; Alamsyah, R. I.; Widiyani, T.; Artanti, A. N.

    2018-03-01

    Bay leaf (Eugenia polyantha) is widely used as an alternative therapy for diabetic and hypercholesterol. However, the administration of the extract has a low oral bioavailability, therefore it is prepared by Self Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (SNEDDS) ethyl acetate extract of bay leaf. Therefore, acute and subchronic toxicity test is required. The toxicity test performed was an experimental study, including acute and subchronic toxicity tests. Animal experiments were used using Wistar strain rats. Acute toxicity test using 5 groups (n=5) consisted of 1 control group and 4 groups of SNEDDS dose with 48 mg/kgBW 240 mg/kg, 1200 mg/kg, and 6000 mg/kg, while for subchronic toxicity test with 1 group control and 3 groups of doses of SNEDDS with dose group variation 91.75 mg/kgBW, 183.5 mg/kg, and 367 mg/kg. Duration of observation at acute toxicity test for 14 days while for subcronic toxicity test for 28 days with continuous SNEDDS dosage. The results of the acute toxicity test showed toxic symptoms and obtained median lethal dose (LD50) values from SNEDDS from ethyl acetate extract of bay leaf 1409.30 mg/kgBW belonging to slightly toxic category. Subchronic toxicity studies show that the test drug has minor damage in liver and kidneys and moderate damage in pancreas.

  19. Acute and chronic aquatic toxicity of aromatic extracts. Summary of relevant test data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Parkerton, T.; Leon Paumen, M.; Dmytrasz, B.; Del Castillo, F.

    2013-09-15

    This report describes the experimental procedures and the results obtained in acute and chronic ecotoxicity tests on several aromatic extracts samples. The samples were tested for toxicity to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the crustacean zooplankter, Daphnia magna and the algae, Selenastrum capricornutum using water accommodated fractions. These results assist in determining the environmental hazard posed by aromatic extracts.

  20. Acute toxicity and pharmacokinetics of 13 nm-sized PEG-coated gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Wan-Seob; Cho, Minjung; Jeong, Jinyoung; Choi, Mina; Cho, Hea-Young; Han, Beom Seok; Kim, Sheen Hee; Kim, Hyoung Ook; Lim, Yong Taik; Chung, Bong Hyun; Jeong, Jayoung

    2009-01-01

    In general, gold nanoparticles are recognized as being as nontoxic. Still, there have been some reports on their toxicity, which has been shown to depend on the physical dimension, surface chemistry, and shape of the nanoparticles. In this study, we carry out an in vivo toxicity study using 13 nm-sized gold nanoparticles coated with PEG (MW 5000). In our findings the 13 nm sized PEG-coated gold nanoparticles were seen to induce acute inflammation and apoptosis in the liver. These nanoparticles were found to accumulate in the liver and spleen for up to 7 days after injection and to have long blood circulation times. In addition, transmission electron microscopy showed that numerous cytoplasmic vesicles and lysosomes of liver Kupffer cells and spleen macrophages contained the PEG-coated gold nanoparticles. These findings of toxicity and kinetics of PEG-coated gold nanoparticles may have important clinical implications regarding the safety issue as PEG-coated gold nanoparticles are widely used in biomedical applications

  1. Acute and chronic toxicity and antimicrobial activity of the extract of Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart. Coville

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Almeida

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity and acute or chronic toxicity of the extract of Stryphnodendron adstringens. The stem bark dry extract was obtained by static maceration with ethanol. Quantification of tannins was performed by the Folin-Denis method, which indicated a total tannin content of 32.7%. The antimicrobial activity of the dry extract of S. adstringens was evaluated by agar-based disk diffusion assay with Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 in the concentration of 200, 400 and 600μL/mL. The results indicated that 600μL/mL inhibited microbial growth, i.e. had antimicrobial activity against these species. Acute and chronic toxic effects of S. adstringens was evaluated in Wistar rats treated with 200, 400, 600 and 800mg/kg of extract, administrated by gavage. Liver degeneration was observed in the group of rats receiving 800mg/kg in chronic exposure, what may indicate some degree of toxicity at this concentration. However, no systemic toxicity was observed at lower doses. Considering the broad use of S. adstringens as a phytotherapeutic agent for various human and animal diseases and the livertoxicity observed at high concentrations, attention should be paid to the possible adverse effect of using the extract from this plant at high concentration.

  2. Acute and subchronic toxicity of the antitumor agent rhodium (II citrate in Balb/c mice after intraperitoneal administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella L.B. Carneiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate potential acute and subchronic toxicity of rhodium (II citrate in female Balb/c mice after intraperitoneal injections. In the acute test, independent groups received five doses; the highest dose (107.5 mg/kg was equivalent to 33 times that used in our previous reports. The other doses were chosen as proportions of the highest, being 80.7 (75%, 53.8 (50%, 26.9 (25% or 13.8 mg/kg (12.5%. Animals were monitored over 38 days and no severe signs of toxicity were observed, according to mortality, monitoring of adverse symptoms, hematological, biochemical and genotoxic parameters. We conclude that the median lethal dose (LD50 could be greater than 107.5 mg/kg. In the subchronic test, five doses of Rh2Cit (80, 60, 40, 20 or 10 mg/kg were evaluated and injections were conducted on alternate days, totaling five applications per animal. Paclitaxel (57.5 mg/kg and saline solution were controls. Clinical observations, histopathology of liver, lung and kidneys and effects on hematological, biochemistry and genotoxic records indicated that Rh2Cit induced no severe toxic effects, even at an accumulated dose up to 400 mg/kg.We suggest Rh2Cit has great potential as an antitumor drug without presenting acute and subchronic toxicity.

  3. Pharmacologic treatment of acute pediatric methamphetamine toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruha, Anne-Michelle; Yarema, Mark C

    2006-12-01

    To report our experience with the use of benzodiazepines and haloperidol for sedation of pediatric patients with acute methamphetamine poisoning. We performed a retrospective chart review of 18 pediatric patients who were admitted to an intensive care unit for methamphetamine toxicity from January 1997 to October 2004 and treated with benzodiazepines or haloperidol. Clinical features, dose of drug received, and laboratory test results were noted. Adverse effects from the use of haloperidol such as prolonged QTc, dystonic reactions, and torsades de pointes were recorded. Eighteen patients received a benzodiazepine, the dose of which varied depending on the agent used. Twelve patients also received parenteral haloperidol. No complications developed from the use of either haloperidol or benzodiazepines. In this case series of pediatric patients poisoned with methamphetamine, parenteral benzodiazepines and haloperidol were used to control agitation. No serious adverse effects were observed from the use of these agents.

  4. Impact of bioavailability on the correlation between in vitro cytotoxic and in vivo acute fish toxic concentrations of chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guelden, Michael; Seibert, Hasso

    2005-01-01

    The lower sensitivity of in vitro cytotoxicity assays currently restricts their use as alternative to the fish acute toxicity assays for hazard assessment of chemicals in the aquatic environment. In vitro cytotoxic potencies mostly refer to nominal concentrations. The main objective of the present study was to investigate, whether a reduced availability of chemicals in vitro can account for the lower sensitivity of in vitro toxicity test systems. For this purpose, the bioavailable free fractions of the nominal cytotoxic concentrations (EC 50 ) of chemicals determined with a cytotoxicity test system using Balb/c 3T3 cells and the corresponding free cytotoxic concentrations (ECu 50 ) were calculated. The algorithm applied is based on a previously developed simple equilibrium distribution model for chemicals in cell cultures with serum-supplemented culture media. This model considers the distribution of chemicals between water, lipids and serum albumin. The algorithm requires the relative lipid volume of the test system, the octanol-water partition coefficient (K ow ) and the in vitro albumin-bound fraction of the chemicals. The latter was determined from EC 50 -measurements in the presence of different albumin concentrations with the Balb/c 3T3 test system. Organic chemicals covering a wide range of cytotoxic potency (EC 50 : 0.16-527000 μM) and lipophilicity (log K ow : -5.0-6.96) were selected, for which fish acute toxicity data (LC 50 -values) from at least one of the three fish species, medaka, rainbow trout and fathead minnow, respectively, were available. The availability of several chemicals was shown to be extensively reduced either by partitioning into lipids or by serum albumin binding, or due to both mechanisms. Reduction of bioavailability became more important with increasing cytotoxic potency. The sensitivity of the Balb/c 3T3 cytotoxicity assay and the correspondence between in vivo and in vitro toxic potencies were increased when the free cytotoxic

  5. Acute toxicity tests and meta-analysis identify gaps in tropical ecotoxicology for amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Sonia L; Donnelly, Maureen A; Kerby, Jacob; Whitfield, Steven M

    2014-09-01

    Amphibian populations are declining worldwide, particularly in tropical regions where amphibian diversity is highest. Pollutants, including agricultural pesticides, have been identified as a potential contributor to decline, yet toxicological studies of tropical amphibians are very rare. The present study assesses toxic effects on amphibians of 10 commonly used commercial pesticides in tropical agriculture using 2 approaches. First, the authors conducted 8-d toxicity assays with formulations of each pesticide using individually reared red-eyed tree frog (Agalychnis callidryas) tadpoles. Second, they conducted a review of available data for the lethal concentration to kill 50% of test animals from the US Environmental Protection Agency's ECOTOX database to allow comparison with their findings. Lethal concentration estimates from the assays ranged over several orders of magnitude. The nematicides terbufos and ethoprophos and the fungicide chlorothalonil were very highly toxic, with evident effects within an order of magnitude of environmental concentrations. Acute toxicity assays and meta-analysis show that nematicides and fungicides are generally more toxic than herbicides yet receive far less research attention than less toxic herbicides. Given that the tropics have a high diversity of amphibians, the findings emphasize the need for research into the effects of commonly used pesticides in tropical countries and should help guide future ecotoxicological research in tropical regions. © 2014 SETAC.

  6. Comparative analysis of pharmaceuticals versus industrial chemicals acute aquatic toxicity classification according to the United Nations classification system for chemicals. Assessment of the (Q)SAR predictability of pharmaceuticals acute aquatic toxicity and their predominant acute toxic mode-of-action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Hans; Thomsen, Marianne

    2009-06-01

    Pharmaceuticals have been reported to be ubiquitously present in surface waters prompting concerns of effects of these bioactive substances. Meanwhile, there is a general scarcity of publicly available ecotoxicological data concerning pharmaceuticals. The aim of this paper was to compile a comprehensive database based on OECD's standardized measured ecotoxicological data and to evaluate if there is generally cause of greater concern with regards to pharmaceutical aquatic toxicological profiles relative to industrial chemicals. Comparisons were based upon aquatic ecotoxicity classification under the United Nations Global Harmonized System for classification and labeling of chemicals (GHS). Moreover, we statistically explored whether the predominant mode-of-action (MOA) for pharmaceuticals is narcosis. We found 275 pharmaceuticals with 569 acute aquatic effect data; 23 pharmaceuticals had chronic data. Pharmaceuticals were found to be more frequent than industrial chemicals in GHS category III. Acute toxicity was predictable (>92%) using a generic (Q)SAR ((Quantitative) Structure Activity Relationship) suggesting a narcotic MOA. Analysis of model prediction error suggests that 68% of the pharmaceuticals have a non-specific MOA. Additionally, the acute-to-chronic ratio (ACR) for 70% of the analyzed pharmaceuticals was below 25 further suggesting a non-specific MOA. Sub-lethal receptor-mediated effects may however have a more specific MOA.

  7. Acute toxicity of vanadium to the threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravenmier, J.J.; Johnston, D.W.; Arnold, W.R. [Blasland Bouck & Lee Inc, Petaluma, CA (US)

    2005-02-15

    Vanadium is widely distributed, occurring in many types of minerals, coal, and petroleum. Anthropogenic sources of vanadium originate from the production, processing, and wastes of these materials. The aquatic toxicity of vanadium to fish species is not well characterized. This study focused on the three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, a small and widely distributed euryhaline species of fish. The three-spined stickleback is used as an effluent-monitoring species in both Canada and the United States. Five 96-h static renewal acute toxicity tests were performed in moderately hard water with adult fish. The geometric mean and range of the five 96-h LC{sup 50}s based on measured concentrations of total vanadium in the test solution were 3.17 and 2.35-4.07 mg V/L, respectively. A conservative estimation of a safe concentration of vanadium that would not affect survival of adult three-spined sticklebacks over a 96-h exposure period in moderately hard water is approximately 0.30 mg V/L. A comparison with other fish species previously tested suggests that the three-spined stickleback is intermediate in sensitivity to vanadium. Information reported from this study may be useful in effluent toxicity identification evaluations and ecological risk assessments related to vanadium.

  8. Ecological effects of various toxic agents on the aquatic microcosm in comparison with acute ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuma, S.; Ishii, N.; Takeda, H.; Miyamoto, K.; Yanagisawa, K.; Ichimasa, Y.; Saito, M.; Kawabata, Z.; Polikarpov, G.G.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was an evaluation of the effect levels of various toxic agents compared with acute doses of ionizing radiation for the experimental model ecosystem, i.e., microcosm mimicking aquatic microbial communities. For this purpose, the authors used the microcosm consisting of populations of the flagellate alga Euglena gracilis as a producer, the ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila as a consumer and the bacterium Escherichia coli as a decomposer. Effects of aluminum and copper on the microcosm were investigated in this study, while effects of γ-rays, ultraviolet radiation, acidification, manganese, nickel and gadolinium were reported in previous studies. The microcosm could detect not only the direct effects of these agents but also the community-level effects due to the interspecies interactions or the interactions between organisms and toxic agents. The authors evaluated doses or concentrations of each toxic agent which had the following effects on the microcosm: (1) no effects; (2) recognizable effects, i.e., decrease or increase in the cell densities of at least one species; (3) severe effects, i.e., extinction of one or two species; and (4) destructive effects, i.e., extinction of all species. The resulting effects data will contribute to an ecological risk assessment of the toxic agents compared with acute doses of ionizing radiation

  9. Perceptions of medication safety among patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cullen, Garret

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess attitudes towards and knowledge of medication safety in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). IBD patients frequently require long-term treatment with potentially toxic medications. Techniques are employed to improve patient awareness of medication safety, but there are sparse data on their effectiveness.

  10. Prediction of acute toxicity of cadmium and lead to zebrafish larvae by using a refined toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yongfei; Feng, Jianfeng; Zhu, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed a BLM-aided TK-TD model that considers the effects of H"+. • The time-course metal concentration in larvae was well described by the TK model. • The time-course survival of zebrafish larvae was well simulated by the TD model. - Abstract: The biotic ligand model (BLM) and the toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TK-TD) model are essential in predicting the acute toxicity of metals in various species and exposure conditions; however, these models are usually separately utilized. In this study, a mechanistic TK-TD model was developed to predict the acute toxicity of 10"−"6 M Cd and 10"−"6 M Pb to zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. The novel approach links the BLM with relevant TK processes to simulate the bioaccumulation processes of Cd or Pb as a function of the maximum uptake rate of each metal, the affinity constants, and the concentrations of free metal ions and H"+ in test solutions. Results showed that the refined TK-TD model can accurately predict the accumulation and acute toxicity of Cd and Pb to zebrafish larvae at pH 5.5, 6.5, and 7.0.

  11. Prediction of acute toxicity of cadmium and lead to zebrafish larvae by using a refined toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yongfei; Feng, Jianfeng, E-mail: fengjf@nankai.edu.cn; Zhu, Lin, E-mail: zhulin@nankai.edu.cn

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • We developed a BLM-aided TK-TD model that considers the effects of H{sup +}. • The time-course metal concentration in larvae was well described by the TK model. • The time-course survival of zebrafish larvae was well simulated by the TD model. - Abstract: The biotic ligand model (BLM) and the toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TK-TD) model are essential in predicting the acute toxicity of metals in various species and exposure conditions; however, these models are usually separately utilized. In this study, a mechanistic TK-TD model was developed to predict the acute toxicity of 10{sup −6} M Cd and 10{sup −6} M Pb to zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. The novel approach links the BLM with relevant TK processes to simulate the bioaccumulation processes of Cd or Pb as a function of the maximum uptake rate of each metal, the affinity constants, and the concentrations of free metal ions and H{sup +} in test solutions. Results showed that the refined TK-TD model can accurately predict the accumulation and acute toxicity of Cd and Pb to zebrafish larvae at pH 5.5, 6.5, and 7.0.

  12. Alternative methods for the median lethal dose (LD(50)) test: the up-and-down procedure for acute oral toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispin, Amy; Farrar, David; Margosches, Elizabeth; Gupta, Kailash; Stitzel, Katherine; Carr, Gregory; Greene, Michael; Meyer, William; McCall, Deborah

    2002-01-01

    The authors have developed an improved version of the up-and-down procedure (UDP) as one of the replacements for the traditional acute oral toxicity test formerly used by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member nations to characterize industrial chemicals, pesticides, and their mixtures. This method improves the performance of acute testing for applications that use the median lethal dose (classic LD50) test while achieving significant reductions in animal use. It uses sequential dosing, together with sophisticated computer-assisted computational methods during the execution and calculation phases of the test. Staircase design, a form of sequential test design, can be applied to acute toxicity testing with its binary experimental endpoints (yes/no outcomes). The improved UDP provides a point estimate of the LD50 and approximate confidence intervals in addition to observed toxic signs for the substance tested. It does not provide information about the dose-response curve. Computer simulation was used to test performance of the UDP without the need for additional laboratory validation.

  13. The Promise of Pharmacogenomics in Reducing Toxicity During Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Maintenance Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoshana Rudin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL affects a substantial number of children every year and requires a long and rigorous course of chemotherapy treatments in three stages, with the longest phase, the maintenance phase, lasting 2–3 years. While the primary drugs used in the maintenance phase, 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP and methotrexate (MTX, are necessary for decreasing risk of relapse, they also have potentially serious toxicities, including myelosuppression, which may be life-threatening, and gastrointestinal toxicity. For both drugs, pharmacogenomic factors have been identified that could explain a large amount of the variance in toxicity between patients, and may serve as effective predictors of toxicity during the maintenance phase of ALL treatment. 6-MP toxicity is associated with polymorphisms in the genes encoding thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT, nudix hydrolase 15 (NUDT15, and potentially inosine triphosphatase (ITPA, which vary between ethnic groups. Moreover, MTX toxicity is associated with polymorphisms in genes encoding solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 (SLCO1B1 and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR. Additional polymorphisms potentially associated with toxicities for MTX have also been identified, including those in the genes encoding solute carrier family 19 member 1 (SLC19A1 and thymidylate synthetase (TYMS, but their contributions have not yet been well quantified. It is clear that pharmacogenomics should be incorporated as a dosage-calibrating tool in pediatric ALL treatment in order to predict and minimize the occurrence of serious toxicities for these patients.

  14. Acute and chronic toxicity of buprofezin on Daphnia magna and the recovery evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Qi, Suzhen; Zhang, Wen; Li, Xuefeng; Qiu, Lihong; Wang, Chengju

    2012-11-01

    The toxic effects of buprofezin on Daphnia magna after both chronic and acute exposures were evaluated according to OECD guidelines. A 48-h acute exposure of buprofezin resulted in daphnid immobility at an EC(50) of 0.44 mg/L. In a 14 days chronic exposure of buprofezin (0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 mg/L), the development and reproduction of daphnids were all significantly affected and the body length was more sensitive than other observed parameters. However, the adverse effects of buprofezin on parental daphnids can be passed on to their offspring and cannot be recovered in a short time.

  15. Web-based Interspecies Correlation Estimation (Web-ICE) for Acute Toxicity: User Manual Version 3.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predictive toxicological models are integral to ecological risk assessment because data for most species are limited. Web-based Interspecies Correlation Estimation (Web-ICE) models are least square regressions that predict acute toxicity (LC50/LD50) of a chemical to a species, ge...

  16. Development of a standard acute dietary toxicity test for the silkworm (Bombyx mori L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, X.; Valk, H.; Jiang, H.; Wang, X.; Yuan, S.; Zhang, Y.; Roessink, I.; Gao, X.

    2012-01-01

    Larvae of the silkworm (Bombyx mod L.) may be exposed to pesticide residues on the leaves of their food plant, the mulberry tree (Morus spp.), which can lead to adverse effects on silk production. A new acute dietary toxicity test method was evaluated as the basis for pesticide risk assessment. A

  17. Lymphangioma of the jejunal mesentery and jejunal polyps presenting as an acute abdomen in a teenager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasundara, Jasb; Perera, E; Chandu de Silva, M V; Pathirana, A A

    2017-03-01

    Cystic lymphangioma of the small bowel mesentery is a rare clinical entity, especially after childhood. Medical literature reveals a limited number of such cases presenting as acute abdomen due to bowel obstruction, small bowel volvulus and bleeding into the tumour. We present the management experience of an 18-year-old woman who presented with rapid onset diffuse peritonism and raised inflammatory markers. Computed tomography showed a mass in the small bowel mesentery with suspicion of segmental bowel ischaemia. Emergency laparotomy revealed a mass in the mid-jejunal mesentery close to the bowel wall with no bowel ischaemia. The patient made an uncomplicated recovery after segmental bowel resection and end-to-end anastomosis. Histology confirmed the mass as a cystic lymphangioma involving the jejunal mesentery and two small jejunal polyps. Lymphangioma could be considered in the differential diagnosis of an acute abdomen in a young adult when the presentation is atypical.

  18. Gallstone Ileus: An Unlikely Cause of Mechanical Small Bowel Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Abich

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Gallstone ileus is a rare disease that accounts for 1–4% of intestinal obstructions. Almost exclusively a condition in the older female population, it is a difficult diagnosis to make. We report the case of gallstone ileus in a 94-year-old Caucasian female, who presented to the emergency department with acute-onset nausea, coffee-ground emesis, lack of bowel movement, and abdominal distension. On CT scan, the diagnosis of gallstone ileus was made by the presence of a cholecystoduodenal fistula, pneumobilia, and small bowel obstruction. Emergent laparotomy with a one-stage procedure of enterolithotomy and stone removal by milking the bowel distal to the stone were performed. The postoperative course was uneventful until postoperative day 4 when the patient was found tachycardic, lethargic, and unresponsive. We reviewed the literature on the diagnosis and treatment of gallstone ileus.

  19. Obstructive Small Bowel Metastasis from Uterine Leiomyosarcoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutahir A. Tunio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Uterine leiomyosarcoma is a rare and aggressive gynecologic malignancy with an overall poor prognosis. Lungs, bones, and brain are common sites of metastases of uterine leiomyosarcoma. Metastases of uterine leiomyosarcoma to the small bowel are extremely rare, and only four case reports have been published to date. Case presentation. A 55-year-old Saudi woman diagnosed with a case of uterine leiomyosarcoma treated with total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH and bilateral salpingooophorectomy (BSO presented in emergency room after sixteen months with acute abdomen. Subsequent work-up showed a jejunal mass for which resection and end-to-end anastomosis were performed. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of small bowel metastasis from uterine leiomyosarcoma. Further staging work-up showed wide spread metastasis in lungs and brain. After palliative cranial irradiation, systemic chemotherapy based on single agent doxorubicin was started. Conclusion. Metastatic leiomyosarcoma of small bowel from uterine leiomyosarcoma is a rare entity and is sign of advanced disease. It should be differentiated from primary leiomyosarcoma of small bowel as both are treated with different systemic chemotherapeutic agents.

  20. ACG Clinical Guideline: Diagnosis and Management of Small Bowel Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Lauren B; Fidler, Jeff L; Cave, David R; Leighton, Jonathan A

    2015-09-01

    Bleeding from the small intestine remains a relatively uncommon event, accounting for ~5-10% of all patients presenting with gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Given advances in small bowel imaging with video capsule endoscopy (VCE), deep enteroscopy, and radiographic imaging, the cause of bleeding in the small bowel can now be identified in most patients. The term small bowel bleeding is therefore proposed as a replacement for the previous classification of obscure GI bleeding (OGIB). We recommend that the term OGIB should be reserved for patients in whom a source of bleeding cannot be identified anywhere in the GI tract. A source of small bowel bleeding should be considered in patients with GI bleeding after performance of a normal upper and lower endoscopic examination. Second-look examinations using upper endoscopy, push enteroscopy, and/or colonoscopy can be performed if indicated before small bowel evaluation. VCE should be considered a first-line procedure for small bowel investigation. Any method of deep enteroscopy can be used when endoscopic evaluation and therapy are required. VCE should be performed before deep enteroscopy if there is no contraindication. Computed tomographic enterography should be performed in patients with suspected obstruction before VCE or after negative VCE examinations. When there is acute overt hemorrhage in the unstable patient, angiography should be performed emergently. In patients with occult hemorrhage or stable patients with active overt bleeding, multiphasic computed tomography should be performed after VCE or CTE to identify the source of bleeding and to guide further management. If a source of bleeding is identified in the small bowel that is associated with significant ongoing anemia and/or active bleeding, the patient should be managed with endoscopic therapy. Conservative management is recommended for patients without a source found after small bowel investigation, whereas repeat diagnostic investigations are recommended

  1. Evaluation of the usefulness of computed tomography on diagnosis and management of acute abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takehiro; Yagihashi, Nobuo; Osawa, Tadaharu; Harada, Osamu; Ito, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of computed tomography (CT) in diagnosing and managing acute abdomen. Subjects were 91 patients admitted complaining of acute abdominal pain and divided into two groups-those undergoing CT within 24 hours of admission (emergency CT group, n=70), those without CT (Non-CT group, n=21). The emergency CT group was subdivided into those with bowel obstruction (bowel obstruction group, n=29), those with acute appendicitis and other diseases necessitating differential diagnosis (appendicitis group, n=36), those with perforation of the digestive tract (perforation group, n=4), and other disease (n=1). We evaluated the accuracy of admission diagnosis retrospectively in each group. The final diagnosis of the bowel obstruction group was adhesive bowel obstruction in 16, colon cancer in 5, external hernia in 3 and other in 5. That in the appendicitis group was acute appendicitis in 25, colonic diverticulitis in 3, pelvic inflammatory disease in 3, ovarian hemorrhage in 2 and other in 5. The origin of perforation in the perforation group was upper digestive tract in 2 and lower digestive tract in 2. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of admission diagnosis in the emergency CT group was 91.1, 100 and 91.4%, respectively. The accuracy of admission diagnosis was 96.5% in the bowel obstruction group, 88.9% in the appendicitis group and 75.9% in the perforation group. Patients who could not be diagnosed precisely consisted of 6 patients in the emergency CT group. Those who could not be diagnosed precisely included 3 with pericecal abscess, 1 with acute appendicitis, 1 with stercoral perforation of the sigmoid colon and 1 with impacted bezoar in the small intestine. Evaluated retrospectively, 4 patients were able to be diagnosed by CT on admission. In diagnosis of acute abdomen, CT was useful in differential diagnosis of bowel obstruction and acute appendicitis, detection of fine free air, and determine of perforated sites. Emergency CT was thus

  2. Evaluation of the usefulness and validity of imaging diagnosis for acute abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takehiro; Sudo, Yasuhiro

    2007-01-01

    We retrospectively evaluated the usefulness and validity of imaging diagnosis for acute abdomens. Sixty-one patients who had complained of acute abdominal pain upon hospital admittance were and divided into four groups according to the diagnostic imaging modalities that were used: X-ray alone (X-P group, n=11), ultrasonography (US group, n=12), computed tomography (CT group, n=14), and both ultrasonography and CT (US/CT group, n=24). The diagnosis made at the time of admission was also evaluated, and the patients were divided into three groups and analyzed statistically: bowel obstructions (bowel obstruction group, n=20), acute appendicitis or other diseases necessitating a differential diagnosis (appendicitis group, n=35), and perforations of the digestive tract (perforation group, n=6). X-ray and CT examinations were useful for making a diagnosis in the bowel obstruction and perforation groups. Ultrasonography was regarded as important in the appendicitis group. The accuracy of the diagnosis made upon admission was 95.0% in the bowel obstruction group, 88.6 % in the appendicitis group, and 100 % in the perforation group. Although a prospective evaluation is necessary, CT appears to be useful for diagnosing bowel obstructions and perforations of the digestive tract. Although ultrasonography is useful for diagnosing acute appendicitis, CT is recommended in patients in whom a differential diagnosis is difficult to obtain. (author)

  3. Toxicity levels to humans during acute exposure to hydrogen fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halton, D.M.; Dranitsaris, P.; Baynes, C.J.

    1984-11-01

    A literature review was conducted of the acute toxicity of hydrogen fluoride (HF) with emphasis on the effects of inhalation of gaseous HF. The data and findings of the relevant references were summarized under four categories: animal studies, controlled human studies, community exposure and industrial exposure. These were critically reviewed and then lethal concentration-time relationships were developed for humans, corresponding to LCsub(LO), LCsub(10) and LCsub(50) levels. The effects of age, health and other physiological variables on the sensitivity to HF were discussed, as well as antagonistic and synergistic effects with other substances

  4. Large Dataset of Acute Oral Toxicity Data Created for Testing in Silico Models (ASCCT meeting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute toxicity data is a common requirement for substance registration in the US. Currently only data derived from animal tests are accepted by regulatory agencies, and the standard in vivo tests use lethality as the endpoint. Non-animal alternatives such as in silico models are ...

  5. Prospective Evaluation of Acute Toxicity and Quality of Life After IMRT and Concurrent Chemotherapy for Anal Canal and Perianal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kathy; Cummings, Bernard J.; Lindsay, Patricia; Skliarenko, Julia; Craig, Tim [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Le, Lisa W. [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Brierley, James; Wong, Rebecca; Dinniwell, Robert; Bayley, Andrew J.; Dawson, Laura A.; Ringash, Jolie [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Krzyzanowska, Monika K.; Moore, Malcolm J.; Chen, Eric X. [Department of Medical Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Easson, Alexandra M. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Kassam, Zahra; Cho, Charles [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Kim, John, E-mail: John.Kim@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate toxicity, quality of life (QOL), and clinical outcomes in patients treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy for anal and perianal cancer. Methods and Materials: From June 2008 to November 2010, patients with anal or perianal cancer treated with IMRT were eligible. Radiation dose was 27 Gy in 15 fractions to 36 Gy in 20 fractions for elective targets and 45 Gy in 25 fractions to 63 Gy in 35 fractions for gross targets using standardized, institutional guidelines, with no planned treatment breaks. The chemotherapy regimen was 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C. Toxicity was graded with the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3. QOL was assessed with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 and CR29 questionnaires. Correlations between dosimetric parameters and both physician-graded toxicities and patient-reported outcomes were evaluated by polyserial correlation. Results: Fifty-eight patients were enrolled. The median follow-up time was 34 months; the median age was 56 years; 52% of patients were female; and 19% were human immunodeficiency virus—positive. Stage I, II, III, and IV disease was found in 9%, 57%, 26%, and 9% of patients, respectively. Twenty-six patients (45%) required a treatment break because of acute toxicity, mainly dermatitis (23/26). Acute grade 3 + toxicities included skin 46%, hematologic 38%, gastrointestinal 9%, and genitourinary 0. The 2-year overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), colostomy-free survival (CFS), and cumulative locoregional failure (LRF) rates were 90%, 77%, 84%, and 16%, respectively. The global QOL/health status, skin, defecation, and pain scores were significantly worse at the end of treatment than at baseline, but they returned to baseline 3 months after treatment. Social functioning and appetite scores were

  6. Assessing variability in chemical acute toxicity of unionid mussels: Influence of intra- and inter-laboratory testing, life stage, and species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The authors developed a toxicity database for unionid mussels to examine the extent of intra- and interlaboratory variability in acute toxicity tests with mussel larvae (glochidia) and juveniles; the extent of differential sensitivity of the 2 life stages; and the variation in se...

  7. Acute oral toxicity of chemicals in terrestrial life stages of amphibians: Comparisons to birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Mark; Finnegan, Meaghean; Weltje, Lennart; Kosmala-Grzechnik, Sylwia; Gross, Melanie; Wheeler, James R

    2016-10-01

    Amphibians are currently the most threatened and rapidly declining group of vertebrates and this has raised concerns about their potential sensitivity and exposure to plant protection products and other chemicals. Current environmental risk assessment procedures rely on surrogate species (e.g. fish and birds) to cover the risk to aquatic and terrestrial life stages of amphibians, respectively. Whilst a recent meta-analysis has shown that in most cases amphibian aquatic life stages are less sensitive to chemicals than fish, little research has been conducted on the comparative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages. Therefore, in this paper we address the questions "What is the relative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages to acute chemical oral exposure when compared with mammals and birds?" and "Are there correlations between oral toxicity data for amphibians and data for mammals or birds?" Identifying a relationship between these data may help to avoid additional vertebrate testing. Acute oral amphibian toxicity data collected from the scientific literature and ecotoxicological databases were compared with toxicity data for mammals and birds. Toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages are generally sparse, as noted in previous reviews. Single-dose oral toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages were available for 26 chemicals and these were positively correlated with LD50 values for mammals, while no correlation was found for birds. Further, the data suggest that oral toxicity to terrestrial amphibian life stages is similar to or lower than that for mammals and birds, with a few exceptions. Thus, mammals or birds are considered adequate toxicity surrogates for use in the assessment of the oral exposure route in amphibians. However, there is a need for further data on a wider range of chemicals to explore the wider applicability of the current analyses and recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of a prostaglandin - given rectally for prevention of radiation-induced acute proctitis - on late rectal toxicity. Results of phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, Tereza; Herrmann, Markus K.A.; Christiansen, Hans; Hermann, Robert M.; Hess, Clemens F.; Hille, Andrea; Zapf, Antonia; Pradier, Olivier; Schmidberger, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: to assess the late effect of a prostaglandin, given rectally during irradiation, on late rectal toxicity. In the acute treatment setting no significant differences in reducing the incidence of acute proctitis symptoms in patients receiving misoprostol, however, significantly more rectal bleeding had been reported. Patients and methods: a total of 100 patients who had undergone radiotherapy for prostate cancer had been entered into this phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study with misoprostol or placebo suppositories. The toxicity was evaluated yearly after cessation of irradiation by the RTOG/LENT-SOMA scale. Results: the median follow-up was 50 months. 20 patients suffered from grade 1, four patients from grade 2 as well, and three patients only from grade 2 toxicity. Frequency, bleeding and urgency were the most commonly reported symptoms. In keeping with other studies and clinical experience, the symptoms peaked within the first 2 years with a median for grade 1 of 13 months and for grade 2 of 15 months. The presence of acute toxicity grade 2 showed a correlation with the development of any late toxicity (p = 0.03). Any acute rectal bleeding was significant correlated with any late rectal bleeding (p = 0.017). Conclusion: misoprostol given as once-daily suppository for prevention of acute radiation-induced proctitis does neither influence the incidence and severity of radiation-induced acute nor late rectal toxicity. Misoprostol has no negative impact on the incidence and severity of late rectal bleeding, in contrast to acute rectal bleeding. The routine clinical use of misoprostol suppositories cannot be recommended. (orig.)

  9. Effect of a prostaglandin - given rectally for prevention of radiation-induced acute proctitis - on late rectal toxicity. Results of phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kertesz, Tereza; Herrmann, Markus K.A.; Christiansen, Hans; Hermann, Robert M.; Hess, Clemens F.; Hille, Andrea [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Univ. of Goettingen (Germany); Zapf, Antonia [Dept. of Medical Statistics, Univ. of Goettingen (Germany); Pradier, Olivier [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Univ. of Brest (France); Schmidberger, Heinz [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Univ. of Mainz (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    Background and purpose: to assess the late effect of a prostaglandin, given rectally during irradiation, on late rectal toxicity. In the acute treatment setting no significant differences in reducing the incidence of acute proctitis symptoms in patients receiving misoprostol, however, significantly more rectal bleeding had been reported. Patients and methods: a total of 100 patients who had undergone radiotherapy for prostate cancer had been entered into this phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study with misoprostol or placebo suppositories. The toxicity was evaluated yearly after cessation of irradiation by the RTOG/LENT-SOMA scale. Results: the median follow-up was 50 months. 20 patients suffered from grade 1, four patients from grade 2 as well, and three patients only from grade 2 toxicity. Frequency, bleeding and urgency were the most commonly reported symptoms. In keeping with other studies and clinical experience, the symptoms peaked within the first 2 years with a median for grade 1 of 13 months and for grade 2 of 15 months. The presence of acute toxicity grade 2 showed a correlation with the development of any late toxicity (p = 0.03). Any acute rectal bleeding was significant correlated with any late rectal bleeding (p = 0.017). Conclusion: misoprostol given as once-daily suppository for prevention of acute radiation-induced proctitis does neither influence the incidence and severity of radiation-induced acute nor late rectal toxicity. Misoprostol has no negative impact on the incidence and severity of late rectal bleeding, in contrast to acute rectal bleeding. The routine clinical use of misoprostol suppositories cannot be recommended. (orig.)

  10. Acute toxicity of heavy metals towards freshwater ciliated protists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madoni, Paolo [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Universita degli Studi di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 11/A, 43100 Parma (Italy)]. E-mail: paolo.madoni@unipr.it; Romeo, Maria Giuseppa [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Universita degli Studi di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 11/A, 43100 Parma (Italy)

    2006-05-15

    The acute toxicity of five heavy metals to four species of freshwater ciliates (Colpidium colpoda, Dexiotricha granulosa, Euplotes aediculatus, and Halteria grandinella) was examined in laboratory tests. After exposing the ciliates to soluble compound of cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, and nickel at several selected concentrations, the mortality rate was registered and the LC{sub 5} values (with 95% confidence intervals) were calculated. Large differences appeared in sensitivities of the four species to the metals. H. grandinella showed the highest sensitivity for cadmium (0.07 mg l{sup -1}, LC{sub 5}) and lead (0.12 mg l{sup -1}, LC{sub 5}), whilst E. aediculatus showed the highest sensitivity for nickel (0.03 mg l{sup -1}, LC{sub 5}). The comparison with data obtained with other species indicate that Halteria grandinella and Euplotes aediculatus are excellent and convenient bioindicator for evaluating the toxicity of waters and wastewaters polluted by heavy metals. The short time (24 h) and simplicity of the test procedure enable this test to be used in laboratory studies. - Ciliated protozoa are suitable bioindicators of heavy metal pollution in freshwater environments.

  11. Heavy metals toxicity after acute exposure of cultured renal cells. Intracellular accumulation and repartition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodja, Hicham; Carriere, Marie; Avoscan, Laure; Gouget, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and uranium (U) present no known biological function but are toxic in various concentration ranges. Pb and Cd lead generally to nephrotoxicity consisting in proximal renal tubular dysfunction and accumulation while U has been reported to induce chemical kidney toxicity, functional and histological damages being as well mainly observed in proximal tubule cells. This work address the question of Cd, Pb, and U cytotoxicity, intracellular accumulation and repartition after acute intoxication of renal proximal tubule epithelial cells. After cells exposure to different concentrations of metals for various times, morphological changes were observed and intracellular concentrations and distributions of toxic metals were specified by PIXE coupled to RBS. Cell viability, measured by biochemical tests, was used as toxicity indicator. A direct correlation between cytotoxicity and intracellular accumulation in renal epithelial cells have been established. Finally, intracellular Pb and U localizations were detected while Cd was found to be uniformly distributed in renal cells. (author)

  12. Acute and chronic toxicity of uranium compounds to Ceriodaphnia-Daphnia dubia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, J.B.; Specht, W.L.; Keyes, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    A study to determine the acute and chronic toxicity of uranyl nitrate, hydrogen uranyl phosphate, and uranium dioxide to the organism Ceriodaphnia dubia was conducted. The toxicity tests were conducted by two independent environmental consulting laboratories. Part of the emphasis for this determination was based on concerns expressed by SCDHEC, which was concerned that a safety factor of 100 must be applied to the previous 1986 acute toxicity result of 0.22 mg/L for Daphnia pulex, This would have resulted in the LETF release limits being based on an instream concentration of 0.0022 mg/L uranium. The NPDES Permit renewal application to SCDHEC utilized the results of this study and recommended that the LETF release limit for uranium be based an instream concentration of 0.004 mg/L uranium. This is based on the fact that the uranium releases from the M-Area LETF will be in the hydrogen uranyl phosphate form, or a uranyl phosphate complex at the pH (6--10) of the Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility effluent stream, and at the pH of the receiving stream (5.5 to 7.0). Based on the chronic toxicity of hydrogen uranyl phosphate, a lower uranium concentration limit for the Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility outfall vs. the existing NPDES permit was recommended: The current NPDES permit ''Guideline'' for uranium at outfall M-004 is 0.500 mg/L average and 1.0 mg/L maximum, at a design flowrate of 60 gpm. It was recommended that the uranium concentration at the M-004 outfall be reduced to 0.28 mg/L average, and 0.56 mg/L, maximum, and to reduce the design flowrate to 30 gpm. The 0.28 mg/L concentration will provide an instream concentration of 0.004 mg/L uranium. The 0.28 mg/L concentration at M-004 is based on the combined flows from A-014, A-015, and A-011 outfalls (since 1985) of 1840 gpm (2.65 MGD) and was the flow rate which was utilized in the 1988 NPDES permit renewal application

  13. Safety Evaluation of Turmeric Polysaccharide Extract: Assessment of Mutagenicity and Acute Oral Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velusami, Chandrasekaran Chinampudur; Boddapati, Srinivasa Rao; Hongasandra Srinivasa, Srikanth; Richard, Edwin Jothie; Balasubramanian, Murali

    2013-01-01

    Curcuma longa Linn. (Zingiberaceae) commonly known as turmeric has long been used for centuries as a spice and household remedy. The present study was carried out to assess the possible mutagenic potential and acute oral toxicity of polysaccharide extract of turmeric rhizome (NR-INF-02) using standard tests. The standard battery of in vitro genotoxicity tests, bacterial reverse mutation test (BRMT), chromosome aberration (CA), and micronucleus (MN) tests were employed to assess the possible mutagenic activity of NR-INF-02 (Turmacin). The results showed no mutagenic effect with NR-INF-02 up to a dose of 5000 µg/mL in BRMT. The results on CA and MN tests revealed the non clastogenic activity of NR-INF-02 in a dose range of 250.36 to 2500 µg/mL with and without metabolic activation (S9). In acute oral toxicity study, NR-INF-02 was found to be safe up to 5 g/kg body weight in Wistar rats. Overall, results indicated that polysaccharide extract of C. longa was found to be genotoxically safe and also exhibited maximum tolerable dose of more than 5 g/kg rat body weight. PMID:24455673

  14. A toxicity reduction evaluation for an oily waste treatment plant exhibiting episodic effluent toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erten-Unal, M; Gelderloos, A B; Hughes, J S

    1998-07-30

    A Toxicity Reduction Evaluation (TRE) was conducted on the oily wastewater treatment plant (Plant) at a Naval Fuel Depot. The Plant treats ship and ballast wastes, berm water from fuel storage areas and wastes generated in the fuel reclamation plant utilizing physical/chemical treatment processes. In the first period of the project (Period I), the TRE included chemical characterization of the plant wastewaters, monitoring the final effluent for acute toxicity and a thorough evaluation of each treatment process and Plant operating procedures. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) procedures were performed as part of the overall TRE to characterize and identify possible sources of toxicity. Several difficulties were encountered because the effluent was saline, test organisms were marine species and toxicity was sporadic and unpredictable. The treatability approach utilizing enhancements, improved housekeeping, and operational changes produced substantial reductions in the acute toxicity of the final effluent. In the second period (Period II), additional acute toxicity testing and chemical characterization were performed through the Plant to assess the long-term effects of major unit process improvements for the removal of toxicity. The TIE procedures were also modified for saline wastewaters to focus on suspected class of toxicants such as surfactants. The TRE was successful in reducing acute toxicity of the final effluent through process improvements and operational modifications. The results indicated that the cause of toxicity was most likely due to combination of pollutants (matrix effect) rather than a single pollutant.

  15. Acute toxicity and mutagenesis of three metabolites mixture of nitrobenzene in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guixia; Zhang, Xiuying; Yao, Chunzhu; Tian, Meizhan

    2011-03-01

    Nitrobenzene is a synthetic compound, more than 95% of which is used in the production of aniline. Nitrobenzene has been demonstrated to be substantially metabolized to p-Nitrophenol, p-Aminophenol and p-Nitroaniline in food animals (e.g., bovines, fowls). There have been no studies on the acute toxicity and the mutagenesis of the mixture of the three metabolites mentioned above. The aim of the present study is to testify the acute toxicity and the mutagenesis of the three metabolites mixture. Seventy Kunming mice (half male, half female) received an intragastric administration exposure to metabolites-containing suspension of 750, 638, 542, 461, 392, 333 mg kg(-1) body weight and 0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (control), followed by a 14-day observation. The medial lethal dose (LD(50)) concentration for nitrobenzene metabolites mixture in this study was 499.92 mg/kg. Their mutagenic toxicology was studied through micronucleus and sperm abnormality test. Kunming mice were twice intragastrically exposed to 1/5 LD(50), 1/10 LD(50), 1/20 LD(50) mg kg(-1) nitrobenzene metabolites-containing suspension spaced 24-h apart. Cyclophosphamide, pure water and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose served as doses of the positive group, the negative group and the solvent control group, respectively. The incidence of micronucleus and sperm abnormality increased significantly in the 1/5 LD(50) and 1/10 LD(50) group compared with the negative and solvent control group. A dose-related increase in the incidence of micronucleus and sperm abnormality was noted. In conclusion, the three metabolites mixture of nitrobenzene was secondary toxicity and mutagenic substances in mice.

  16. Antegrade bowel intussusception after remote Whipple and Puestow procedures for treatment of pancreas divisum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigena, Manuel; Villar, Hugo V; Knowles, Negar G; Cunningham, John T; Outwater, Erik K; Leon, Luis R

    2007-11-28

    To date, antegrade intussusception involving a Roux-en-Y reconstruction has been reported only once. We report a case of acute bowel obstruction due to an intussusception involving two Roux-en-Y limbs in a 40-year-old woman with a history of chronic pancreatitis due to pancreas divisum. Four years preceding this event, the patient had undergone a Whipple procedure, and three years prior to that, a Puestow operation. The patient was successfully treated with bowel resection and a side-to-side anastomosis between the most distal aspect of the bowel and the most distal Roux-en-Y reconstruction, which preserved both Roux-en-Y reconstructions.

  17. Efficacy and Toxicity of Intrathecal Liposomal Cytarabine in First-line Therapy of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Mette; Harila-Saari, Arja; Grell, Kathrine

    2016-01-01

    We investigated efficacy and toxicity of replacing conventional triple (cytarabine, methotrexate, and hydrocortisone) intrathecal therapy (TIT) with liposomal cytarabine during maintenance therapy among 40 acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. Twenty-eight of 29 patients in the TIT arm received...

  18. Acute gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity of image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer using a daily water-filled endorectal balloon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deville, Curtiland; Both, Stefan; Bui, Viet; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Tan, Kay-See; Schaer, Mattia; Tochner, Zelig; Vapiwala, Neha

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose was to report acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity rates for prostate cancer patients undergoing image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) with a daily endorectal water-filled balloon (ERB H2O ), and assess associations with planning parameters and pretreatment clinical characteristics. The first 100 patients undergoing prostate and proximal seminal vesicle IG-IMRT with indexed-lumen 100 cc ERB H2O to 79.2 Gy in 1.8 Gy fractions at our institution from 12/2008- 12/2010 were assessed. Pretreatment characteristics, organ-at-risk dose volume histograms, and maximum GU and GI toxicities (CTCAE 3.0) were evaluated. Logistic regression models evaluated univariate association between toxicities and dosimetric parameters, and uni- and multivariate association between toxicities and pretreatment characteristics. Mean age was 68 (range 51–88). Thirty-two, 49, and 19 patients were low, intermediate, and high-risk, respectively; 40 received concurrent androgen deprivation. No grade 3 or greater toxicities were recorded. Maximum GI toxicity was grade 0, 1, and 2 in 69%, 23%, and 8%, respectively. Infield (defined as 1 cm above/below the CTV) rectal mean/median doses, D75, V30, and V40 and hemorrhoid history were associated with grade 2 GI toxicity (Ps < 0.05). Maximum acute GU toxicity was grade 0, 1, and 2 for 17%, 41%, and 42% of patients, respectively. Infield bladder V20 (P = 0.03) and pretreatment International Prostate Symptom Scale (IPSS) (P = 0.003) were associated with grade 2 GU toxicity. Prostate IG-IMRT using a daily ERB H2O shows low rates of acute GI toxicity compared to previous reports of air-filled ERB IMRT when using stringent infield rectum constraints and comparable GU toxicities

  19. Multi-detector CT-colonography in inflammatory bowel disease: Prospective analysis of CT-findings to high-resolution video colonoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Kjel; Vogt, Christoph; Blondin, Dirk; Beck, Andreas; Heinen, Wolfram; Aurich, Volker; Haeussinger, Dieter; Moedder, Ulrich; Cohnen, Mathias

    2006-01-01

    Aim: Prospective analysis of multi-detector CT-colonography (MDCTC) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) compared to high-resolution video-endoscopy (HRVC). Materials and methods: Twenty-one patients (mean age 49.6 years) with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis underwent MDCTC (Somatom Volume Zoom, Siemens, Erlangen; 1 mm collimation, Pitch 8, 100 mAs, 120 kVp). HRVC was performed within 2 h after MDCTC. MDCTC was analyzed by two blinded readers. MDCTC-findings including bowel wall alterations and extraintestinal changes were compared to results of HRVC. Results: Over-all-sensitivity was 100% for endoluminal lesions with correct diagnosis of two cancers. Acute and chronic IBD were correctly identified by MDCTC in 63.6%, and 100%, respectively, with a specificity of 75%, and 100%. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of MDCTC for diagnosis of acute and chronic disease were best for chronic disease. Sensitivity was worst for acute ulcerative colitis and specificity was worst for acute Crohn's disease. Haustral loss was seen only in ulcerative colitis. Pseudopolyps and fistulae were findings exclusive to Crohn's disease. Particularly extraintestinal findings as increased vascularization and local lymphadenopathy correlated well with endoscopic definition of acute disease. Because of the possibly more vulnerable colonic wall in acute inflammatory bowel disease, the air inflation for MDCTC should be performed most carefully to avoid any risk of colonic perforation. Conclusion: MDCTC may help to distinguish between patients with acute and chronic IBD. Especially extraintestinal complications, tumorous as well as pseudo-tumorous lesions can be detected with high sensitivity and specificity

  20. Chemical toxicity of uranium hexafluoride compared to acute effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, S.A.

    1991-02-01

    The chemical effects from acute exposures to uranium hexafluoride are compared to the nonstochastic effects from acute radiation doses of 25 rems to the whole body and 300 rems to the thyroid. The analysis concludes that an intake of about 10 mg of uranium in soluble form is roughly comparable, in terms of early effects, to an acute whole body dose of 25 rems because both are just below the threshold for significant nonstochastic effects. Similarly, an exposure to hydrogen fluoride at a concentration of 25 mg/m 3 for 30 minutes is roughly comparable because there would be no significant nonstochastic effects. For times t other than 30 minutes, the concentration C of hydrogen fluoride considered to have the same effect can be calculated using a quadratic equation: C = 25 mg/m 3 (30 min/t). The purpose of these analyses is to provide information for developing design and siting guideline based on chemical toxicity for enrichment plants using uranium hexafluoride. These guidelines are to be similar, in terms of stochastic health effects, to criteria in NRC regulations of nuclear power plants, which are based on radiation doses. 26 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  1. Chemical toxicity of uranium hexafluoride compared to acute effects of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, S.A.

    1991-02-01

    The chemical effects from acute exposures to uranium hexafluoride are compared to the nonstochastic effects from acute radiation doses of 25 rems to the whole body and 300 rems to the thyroid. The analysis concludes that an intake of about 10 mg of uranium in soluble form is roughly comparable, in terms of early effects, to an acute whole body dose of 25 rems because both are just below the threshold for significant nonstochastic effects. Similarly, an exposure to hydrogen fluoride at a concentration of 25 mg/m{sup 3} for 30 minutes is roughly comparable because there would be no significant nonstochastic effects. For times t other than 30 minutes, the concentration C of hydrogen fluoride considered to have the same effect can be calculated using a quadratic equation: C = 25 mg/m{sup 3} (30 min/t). The purpose of these analyses is to provide information for developing design and siting guideline based on chemical toxicity for enrichment plants using uranium hexafluoride. These guidelines are to be similar, in terms of stochastic health effects, to criteria in NRC regulations of nuclear power plants, which are based on radiation doses. 26 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  2. Acute toxicity of fire-retardant and foam-suppressant chemicals to yalella azteca (Saussure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Susan F.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Heisinger, James F.

    1997-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted with Hyalella azteca Saussure (an amphipod) exposed in soft and hard waters to three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F) and two foam suppressants (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Silv-Ex). The chemicals were slightly to moderately toxic to amphipods. The most toxic chemical to amphipods in soft and hard water was Phos-Chek WD-881 (96-h mean lethal concentration [LC50] equal to 10 mg/L and 22 mg/L, respectively), and the least toxic chemical to amphipods in soft water was Fire-Trol GTS-R (96-h LC50 equal to 127 mg/L) and in hard water was Fire-Trol LCG-R (96-h LC50 equal to 535 mg/L). Concentrations of ammonia in tests with the three fire retardants and both water types were greater than reported LC50 values and probably were the major toxic component. Estimated un-ionized ammonia concentrations near the LC50 were frequently less than the reported LC50 ammonia concentrations for amphipods. The three fire retardants were more toxic in soft water than in hard water even though ammonia and un-ionized ammonia concentrations were higher in hard water tests than in soft water tests. The accidental entry of fire-fighting chemicals into aquatic environments could adversely affect aquatic invertebrates, thereby disrupting ecosystem function.

  3. Acute and chronic toxic effects of bisphenol A on Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Scenedesmus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Xiong, Bang; Sun, Wen-Fang; An, Shuai; Lin, Kuang-Fei; Guo, Mei-Jin; Cui, Xin-Hong

    2014-06-01

    The acute and chronic toxic effects of Bisphenol A (BPA) on Chlorella pyrenoidosa (C. pyrenoidosa) and Scenedesmus obliquus (S. obliquus) were not well understood. The indoor experiments were carried out to observe and analyze the BPA-induced changes. Results of the observations showed that in acute tests BPA could significantly inhibit the growth of both algae, whereas chronic exposure hardly displayed similar trend. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) activities of both algae were promoted in all the treatments. Chlorophyll a synthesis of the two algae exhibited similar inhibitory trend in short-term treatments, and in chronic tests C. pyrenoidosa hardly resulted in visible influence, whereas in contrast, dose-dependent inhibitory effects of S. obliquus could be clearly observed. The experimental results indicated that the growth and Chlorophyll a syntheses of S.obliquus were more sensitive in response to BPA than that of C. pyrenoidosa, whereas for SOD andCAT activities, C. pyrenoidosa was more susceptible. This research provides a basic understanding of BPA toxicity to aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The Study on Acute and Subacute Toxicity and Sarcoma-180 Anti-cancer Effects of Carthami Tinctor-Fructus Herbal-acupuncture(CF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Suk An

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate acute and subacute toxicity and sarcoma-180 anti-cancer effects of herbal acupuncture with Carthami- Tinctorii fructus (CF in mice and rats. Method: Balb/c mice were injected intraperitoneally with Carthami - Tinctorii fructus (CF for LD50 and acute toxicity test. Sprague Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with Carthami- Tinctorii fructus (CF for subacute toxicity test. The Carthami- Tinctorii fructus herbal-acupuncture was injected on Chung-wan (CV12 of mice with Sarcoma-180 cancer cell line. Results: 1. LD50 was uncountable as none of the subjects expired during the test. 2. In acute toxicity test, toxic symptoms were not detected, but the body weight of mice was increased in treatment Ⅰ, treatment Ⅱ groups, compared to the normal group.(p<0.05 3. In acute toxicity test of serum biochemical values of mice, glucose was increased in treatment Ⅰ and treatment Ⅱ groups, total cholesterol was increased in treatment I group, GOT was decreased in treatment Ⅱ group, and GPT was decreased in treatment Ⅰ group, compared to the normal group.(p<0.05 4. The clinical signs and the body weight of mice treated with 0.1 cc, 0.2cc Carthami- Tinctorii fructus (CF were not affected during the subacute toxicity test. 5. In subacute toxicity test, treatment groups didn't show significant changes in complete blood count test (CBC of rats, compared to the nonnal group.(p<0.05 6. In subacute toxicity test of serum biochemical values of rats, uric acid was decreased in treatment Ⅰ and treatment Ⅱ groups, compared to the nonnal group, triglyceride was decreased in treatment I group, compared to the normal group, GOT and GPT were decreased in treatment I and treatment Ⅱ groups, and alkaline phosphatase was decreased in treatment Ⅰ and treatment Ⅱ groups, compared to the normal group.(p<0.05 7. Median survival time was increased in all the treatment groups for Sarcoma-180 cancer cell

  5. Acute and subchronic toxicity as well as mutagenic evaluation of essential oil from turmeric (Curcuma longa L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liju, Vijayasteltar B; Jeena, Kottarapat; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2013-03-01

    The present study investigated the acute, subchronic and genotoxicity of turmeric essential oil (TEO) from Curcuma longa L. Acute administration of TEO was done as single dose up to 5 g of TEO per kg body weight and subchronic toxicity study for thirteen weeks was done by daily oral administration of TEO at doses 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 g/kg b.wt. in Wistar rats. There were no mortality, adverse clinical signs or changes in body weight; water and food consumption during acute as well as subchronic toxicity studies. Indicators of hepatic function such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were unchanged in treated animals compared to untreated animals. Oral administration of TEO for 13 weeks did not alter total cholesterol, triglycerides, markers of renal function, serum electrolyte parameters and histopathology of tissues. TEO did not produce any mutagenicity to Salmonella typhimurium TA-98, TA-100, TA-102 and TA-1535 with or without metabolic activation. Administration of TEO to rats (1 g/kg b.wt.) for 14 days did not produce any chromosome aberration or micronuclei in rat bone marrow cells and did not produce any DNA damage as seen by comet assay confirming the non toxicity of TEO. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Exploring the role of quantum chemical descriptors in modeling acute toxicity of diverse chemicals to Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reenu; Vikas

    2015-09-01

    Various quantum-mechanically computed molecular and thermodynamic descriptors along with physico-chemical, electrostatic and topological descriptors are compared while developing quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for the acute toxicity of 252 diverse organic chemicals towards Daphnia magna. QSAR models based on the quantum-chemical descriptors, computed with routinely employed advanced semi-empirical and ab-initio methods, along with the electron-correlation contribution (CORR) of the descriptors, are analyzed for the external predictivity of the acute toxicity. The models with reliable internal stability and external predictivity are found to be based on the HOMO energy along with the physico-chemical, electrostatic and topological descriptors. Besides this, the total energy and electron-correlation energy are also observed as highly reliable descriptors, suggesting that the intra-molecular interactions between the electrons play an important role in the origin of the acute toxicity, which is in fact an unexplored phenomenon. The models based on quantum-chemical descriptors such as chemical hardness, absolute electronegativity, standard Gibbs free energy and enthalpy are also observed to be reliable. A comparison of the robust models based on the quantum-chemical descriptors computed with various quantum-mechanical methods suggests that the advanced semi-empirical methods such as PM7 can be more reliable than the ab-initio methods which are computationally more expensive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pharmacogenetic Predictors of Treatment-Related Toxicity Among Children With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Rochelle R; Cole, Peter D

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize the most recent and most robust pharmacogenetic predictors of treatment-related toxicity (TRT) in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Multiple studies have examined the toxicities of the primary chemotherapeutic agents used to treat childhood ALL in relation to host genetic factors. However, few results have been replicated independently, largely due to cohort differences in ancestry, chemotherapy treatment protocols, and definitions of toxicities. To date, there is only one widely accepted clinical guideline for dose modification based on gene status: thiopurine dosing based on TPMT genotype. Based on recent data, it is likely that this guideline will be modified to incorporate other gene variants, such as NUDT15. We highlight genetic variants that have been consistently associated with TRT across treatment groups, as well as those that best illustrate the underlying pathophysiology of TRT. In the coming decade, we expect that survivorship care will routinely specify screening recommendations based on genetics. Furthermore, clinical trials testing protective interventions may modify inclusion criteria based on genetically determined risk of specific TRTs.

  8. A Qualitative Analysis of Acute Skin Toxicity among Breast Cancer Radiotherapy Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnur, Julie B.; Ouellette, Suzanne C.; DiLorenzo, Terry A.; Green, Sheryl; Montgomery, Guy H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives One of the most common acute side effects of breast cancer radiotherapy is treatment induced skin changes, referred to as skin toxicity. Yet no research to date has focused expressly on skin toxicity-related quality of life in breast cancer radiotherapy patients. Therefore, our aim was to use qualitative approaches to better understand the impact of skin toxicity on quality of life. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 women (Stage 0-III breast cancer), during their last week of external beam radiotherapy. Each interview was transcribed verbatim, and thematic analysis was performed. Results Three themes were identified based on the interview responses: First, skin changes affect multiple dimensions of quality of life. They cause physical discomfort, body image disturbance, emotional distress, and impair both day-to-day functioning and satisfaction with radiation treatment. Second, individual differences affect women’s experiences. Generally African-American women, younger women, women who are not currently in a relationship, women who are being treated during the summer, and women who are more invested in their appearance are more distressed by skin toxicity. Third, women use a variety of symptom management strategies including self-medication, complementary/alternative medicine approaches, and psychological strategies. Conclusions Implications of results are: 1) Skin toxicity affects numerous dimensions of quality of life, and assessment approaches and psychosocial interventions should address this; 2) individual differences may affect the experience of skin toxicity, and should be considered in treatment and education approaches; and 3) participants’ own creativity and problem-solving should be used to improve the treatment experience. PMID:20238306

  9. Acute Toxicity of an Organophosphate Insecticide Chlorpyrifos to an Anuran, Rana cyanophlyctis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai Kumar Srivastav

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphate pesticide that elicits broad-spectrum insecticidal activity against a number of important arthropod pests. Determining the insecticides’ toxicity to amphibians can give us a better understanding regarding the role of toxicants in amphibian declines. This information would be beneficial to assess their ecological relevance at environmental concentrations. The present study assessed toxicity of chlorpyrifos to an anuran Rana cyanophlyctis. Methods: For the determination of LC50 values for chlorpyrifos, four-day static renewal acute toxicity test was used. Five replicates each containing ten frogs were subjected to each concentration of chlorpyrifos (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 mg/L for the test. Mortality of the frog at different exposure periods (24, 48, 72 and 96 h was subjected to Probit analysis with the POLO-PC software (LeOra Software to calculate the LC50 and 95% confidence level. Results: The LC50 values of chlorpyrifos for the frog R. cyanophlyctis at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h were 8.252, 7.254, 6.247 and 4.993mg/L, respectively. Conclusion: Mortality has been noticed in chlorpyrifos treated frogs related to the decline in amphibian population. Therefore, chlorpyrifos should not be used near water reservoirs.

  10. Common toxicity criteria: version 2.0. an improved reference for grading the acute effects of cancer treatment: impact on radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotti, Andy; Byhardt, Roger; Stetz, Joanne; Gwede, Clement; Corn, Benjamin; Fu, Karen; Gunderson, Leonard; McCormick, Beryl; Morris, Mitchell; Rich, Tyvin; Shipley, William; Curran, Walter

    2000-01-01

    In 1997, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) led an effort to revise and expand the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) with the goal of integrating systemic agent, radiation, and surgical criteria into a comprehensive and standardized system. Representatives from the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) participated in this process in an effort to improve acute radiation related criteria and to achieve better clarity and consistency among modalities. CTC v. 2.0 replaces the previous NCI CTC and the RTOG Acute Radiation Morbidity Scoring Criteria and includes more than 260 individual adverse events with more than 100 of these applicable to acute radiation effects. One of the advantages of the revised criteria for radiation oncology is the opportunity to grade acute radiation effects not adequately captured under the previous RTOG system. A pilot study conducted by the RTOG indicated the new criteria are indeed more comprehensive and were preferred by research associates. CTC v. 2.0 represents an improvement in the evaluation and grading of acute toxicity for all modalities

  11. Acute toxicity assessment of camphor in biopesticides by using and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Chae Yim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives An ecofriendly alternative to chemical pesticides is bio-pesticides, which are derived from natural sources. The interest in bio-pesticides is based on the disadvantages associated with chemical pesticides. Methods We conducted acute toxicity assessments of camphor, a major component of bio-pesticides, by using Daphnia magna (D. magna as well as assessed the morphological abnormalities that occurred in Danio rerio (D. rerio embryos. Results The median effective concentration of camphor on D. magna after 48 hours was 395.0 μM, and the median lethal concentration on D. rerio embryos after 96 hours was 838.6 μM. The no observed effect concentration and predicted no effect concentration of camphor on D. magna, which was more sensitive than D. rerio, were calculated as 55.2 μM and 3.95 μM, respectively. Morphological abnormalities in D. rerio embryos exposed to camphor increased over time. Coagulation, delayed hatching, yolk sac edema, pericardial edema, and pigmentation of embryos mainly appeared between 24 and 48 hours. Further, symptoms of scoliosis and head edema occurred after 72 hours. In addition, bent tails, ocular defects and collapsed symptoms of fertilized embryonic tissue were observed after 96 hours. Conclusions The camphor toxicity results suggest that continuous observations on the ecosystem are necessary to monitor toxicity in areas where biological pesticides containing camphor are sprayed.

  12. Impact of post operative intensity modulated radiotherapy on acute gastro-intestinal toxicity for patients with endometrial cancer: Results of the phase II RTCMIENDOMETRE French multicentre trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barillot, Isabelle; Tavernier, Elsa; Peignaux, Karine; Williaume, Danièle; Nickers, Philippe; Leblanc-Onfroy, Magali; Lerouge, Delphine

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/objective: Whole “conventional” pelvic irradiation (up to 45–50 Gy) following hysterectomy is associated with a high rate of adverse gastro-intestinal (GI) adverse events, of which around 60% correspond to acute grade 2 toxicity. The phase II RTCMIENDOMETRE trial was designed to test the hypothesis that IMRT could reduce the incidence of grade 2 or more acute GI toxicity to less than 30% in patients irradiated post-operatively for an endometrial cancer. Materials/methods: Patients with post-operative stage Ib G3, Ic or II endometrial carcinomas with no history of chronic inflammatory bowel disease were eligible. Guidelines for volume delineation and dose prescription were detailed in the protocol. The investigators were advised to use a web-based atlas developed for the RTOG 0418 study. The dose of the vaginal and nodal PTV was 45 Gy in 25 fractions. To assess the ability of the participating centres to comply with the protocol guidelines, they were requested to complete a dummy run procedure before inclusion of their 1st patient. GI and genito-urinary (GU) toxicity were graded according to the CTCAE V 3.0 classification and were prospectively recorded every week during irradiation, as well as at time of brachytherapy insertions and during the follow-up visit at week 15 (W15). Special attention was given to note any changes to the grade of adverse events between W5 and W15. Results: From May 2008 to April 2010, 49 patients from 6 centres were recruited for the trial. One patient could not be treated, one patient died of vascular stroke at W3 without toxicity, and 1 patient refused to be followed-up after treatment. Thus, 46 cases were available for analysis at W15. The distribution by stage was as follows: Ib 16.3%, Ic 64.2%, II 20.4%. Thirty six patients (75%) received an additional vaginal vault boost of 6–10 Gy delivered by HDR brachytherapy in 1 or 2 fractions. Among the 47 patients who completed IMRT, 27% (95% CI 14.5–39.7%) developed at

  13. CT Findings of Small Bowel Anisakiasis: Analysis of Four Cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Wee Kyoung; Song, Soon Young; Cho, On Koo; Koh, Byung Hee; Kim, Yong Soo; Jung, Woo Kyoung; Kim, Min Yeong

    2011-01-01

    We wanted to describe the CT findings of small bowel anisakiasis with the pathologic correlation. Four patients with surgically and pathologically proven small bowel anisakiasis were included in this retrospective study. They were three men and one woman and their ages ranged from 28 to 43 years (mean age: 38 years). We evaluated their clinical, CT and histological findings. All the patients had a history of ingesting raw fish within 24 hours from the time of symptom onset. They complained of abdominal pain (n=4), nausea (n=4), vomiting (n=2) and diarrhea (n=1). Physical examination revealed tenderness (n=4), rebound tenderness (n=4) and increased bowel sounds (n=3). Leukocytosis was noted in all the patients on the laboratory examination. None of the patients showed eosinophilia. The CT findings were segmental small bowel wall thickening with preserved layering (n=4), focal segmental luminal narrowing with proximal dilatation (n=4), peritoneal thickening (n=3), mesenteric or omental infiltration (n=4) and varying degrees of ascites (n=4). On the histopathologic examination, they revealed an infiltration of eosinophils (n=4) in all layers of the bowel wall with severe edema. The larvae were found on surgico-pathologic examination in all the cases. The CT findings may be helpful to make the specific diagnosis of small bowel anisakiasis in a patient with the clinical findings of an acute abdomen and a history of eating raw fish

  14. CT Findings of Small Bowel Anisakiasis: Analysis of Four Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Wee Kyoung; Song, Soon Young; Cho, On Koo; Koh, Byung Hee [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Soo; Jung, Woo Kyoung; Kim, Min Yeong [Hanyang University Guri Hospital, College of Medicine, Guri (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    We wanted to describe the CT findings of small bowel anisakiasis with the pathologic correlation. Four patients with surgically and pathologically proven small bowel anisakiasis were included in this retrospective study. They were three men and one woman and their ages ranged from 28 to 43 years (mean age: 38 years). We evaluated their clinical, CT and histological findings. All the patients had a history of ingesting raw fish within 24 hours from the time of symptom onset. They complained of abdominal pain (n=4), nausea (n=4), vomiting (n=2) and diarrhea (n=1). Physical examination revealed tenderness (n=4), rebound tenderness (n=4) and increased bowel sounds (n=3). Leukocytosis was noted in all the patients on the laboratory examination. None of the patients showed eosinophilia. The CT findings were segmental small bowel wall thickening with preserved layering (n=4), focal segmental luminal narrowing with proximal dilatation (n=4), peritoneal thickening (n=3), mesenteric or omental infiltration (n=4) and varying degrees of ascites (n=4). On the histopathologic examination, they revealed an infiltration of eosinophils (n=4) in all layers of the bowel wall with severe edema. The larvae were found on surgico-pathologic examination in all the cases. The CT findings may be helpful to make the specific diagnosis of small bowel anisakiasis in a patient with the clinical findings of an acute abdomen and a history of eating raw fish

  15. Acute and subacute toxicity profiles of thymoquinone-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier in BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ong YS

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Yong Sze Ong,1 Latifah Saiful Yazan,1,2 Wei Keat Ng,1 Mustapha M Noordin,3 Sarah Sapuan,1 Jhi Biau Foo,1 Yin Sim Tor1 1Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, 2Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 3Department of Pathology and Veterinary Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia Background: Thymoquinone (TQ, the predominant active lipophilic component in Nigella sativa seed oil, has a variety of pharmacological properties such as anticancer activities. However, translation of TQ to clinical phase is still not possible due to its hydrophobic properties. This problem can be solved by encapsulating it in nanoformulations to enhance its pharmacological properties. In our previous study, TQ has been successfully encapsulated in a nanostructured lipid carrier (hereinafter referred to as TQNLC with excellent physiochemical properties such as high encapsulation efficiency, high drug-loading capacity, particle diameter less than 100 nm, and stability up to 2 years. In vitro studies also proved that TQNLC exhibited antiproliferative activity toward breast and cervical cancer cell lines. However, no toxicity profile related to this formulation has been reported. In this study, we determine and compare the in vivo toxicity of both TQNLC and TQ. Materials and methods: The in vivo toxicity (acute and subacute toxicity study was carried out by oral administration of TQNLC and TQ to BALB/c mice. Animal survival, body weight, organ weight-to-body weight ratio, hematological profile, biochemistry profile, and histopathological changes were analyzed. Results: In acute toxicity, TQ that is loaded in nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC was found to be less toxic than pure TQ. It can be concluded that encapsulation of TQ in lipid carrier minimizes the toxicity of the compound. In the subacute toxicity study, oral administration of 100 mg/kg of TQNLC and TQ

  16. Acute and Subacute Toxicity In Vivo of Thermal-Sprayed Silver Containing Hydroxyapatite Coating in Rat Tibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Masatsugu; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Ando, Yoshiki; Eto, Shuichi; Akiyama, Takayuki; Yonekura, Yutaka; Mawatari, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    To reduce the incidence of implant-associated infection, we previously developed a novel coating technology using hydroxyapatite (HA) containing silver (Ag). This study examined in vivo acute and subacute toxicity associated with the Ag-HA coating in rat tibiae. Ten-week-old rats received implantation of HA-, 2% Ag-HA-, or 50% Ag-HA-coated titanium rods. Concentrations of silver in serum, brain, liver, kidneys, and spleen were measured in the acute phase (2–4 days after treatment) and subacute phase (4–12 weeks after treatment). Biochemical and histological examinations of those organs were also performed. Mean serum silver concentration peaked in the acute phase and then gradually decreased. Mean silver concentrations in all examined organs from the 2% Ag-HA coating groups showed no significant differences compared with the HA coating group. No significant differences in mean levels of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, or blood urea nitrogen were seen between the three groups and controls. Histological examinations of all organs revealed no abnormal pathologic findings. No acute or subacute toxicity was seen in vivo for 2% Ag-HA coating or HA coating. Ag-HA coatings on implants may represent biologically safe antibacterial biomaterials and may be of value for reducing surgical-site infections related to implantation. PMID:24779019

  17. Safety assessment of VHTR hydrogen production system against fire, explosion and acute toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tomoyuki; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2008-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been developing a nuclear hydrogen production system by using heat from the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). This system will handle a large amount of combustible gas and toxic gas. The risk from fire, explosion and acute toxic exposure caused by an accident involving chemical material release in a hydrogen production system is assessed. It is important to ensure the safety of the nuclear plant, and the risks for public health should be sufficiently small. This report provides the basic policy for the safety evaluation in cases of accident involving fire, explosion and toxic material release in a hydrogen production system. Preliminary safety analysis of a commercial-sized VHTR hydrogen production system, GTHTR300C, is performed. This analysis provides us with useful information on the separation distance between a nuclear plant and a hydrogen production system and a prospect that an accident in a hydrogen production system does not significantly increase the risks of the public. (author)

  18. In vitro antibacterial activity and acute toxicity studies of aqueous-methanol extract of Sida rhombifolia Linn. (Malvaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assam, Assam J P; Dzoyem, J P; Pieme, C A; Penlap, V B

    2010-07-27

    Many bacteria among the Enterobacteria family are involved in infectious diseases and diarrhoea. Most of these bacteria become resistant to the most commonly used synthetic drugs in Cameroon. Natural substances seem to be an alternative to this problem. Thus the aim of this research was to investigate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the methanol and aqueous-methanol extracts of Sida rhombifolia Linn (Malvaceae) against seven pathogenic bacteria involved in diarrhoea. Acute toxicity of the most active extract was determined and major bioactive components were screened. The agar disc diffusion and the agar dilution method were used for the determination of inhibition diameters and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MICs) respectively. The acute toxicity study was performed according WHO protocol. The aqueous-methanol extract (1v:4v) was the most active with diameters of inhibition zones ranging from 8.7 - 23.6 mm, however at 200 microg/dic this activity was relatively weak compared to gentamycin. The MICs of the aqueous-methanol extract (1v:4v) varied from 49.40 to 78.30 microg/ml. Salmonella dysenteriae was the most sensitive (49.40 microg/ml). For the acute toxicity study, no deaths of rats were recorded. However, significant increase of some biochemical parameters such as aspartate amino-transferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and creatinine (CRT) were found. The phytochemical analysis of the aqueous methanol extract indicated the presence of tannins, polyphenols, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids and saponins The results showed that the aqueous-methanol extract of S. rhombifolia exhibited moderate antibacterial activity. Some toxic effects were found when rats received more than 8 g/kg bw of extract.

  19. TU-F-12A-09: GLCM Texture Analysis for Normal-Tissue Toxicity: A Prospective Ultrasound Study of Acute Toxicity in Breast-Cancer Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, T; Yang, X; Curran, W; Torres, M [Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the morphologic and structural integrity of the breast glands using sonographic textural analysis, and identify potential early imaging signatures for radiation toxicity following breast-cancer radiotherapy (RT). Methods: Thirty-eight patients receiving breast RT participated in a prospective ultrasound imaging study. Each participant received 3 ultrasound scans: 1 week before RT (baseline), and at 6-week and 3-month follow-ups. Patients were imaged with a 10-MHz ultrasound on the four quadrant of the breast. A second order statistical method of texture analysis, called gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), was employed to assess RT-induced breast-tissue toxicity. The region of interest (ROI) was 28 mm × 10 mm in size at a 10 mm depth under the skin. Twenty GLCM sonographic features, ratios of the irradiated breast and the contralateral breast, were used to quantify breast-tissue toxicity. Clinical assessment of acute toxicity was conducted using the RTOG toxicity scheme. Results: Ninety-seven ultrasound studies (776 images) were analyzed; and 5 out of 20 sonographic features showed significant differences (p < 0.05) among the baseline scans, the acute toxicity grade 1 and 2 groups. These sonographic features quantified the degree of tissue damage through homogeneity, heterogeneity, randomness, and symmetry. Energy ratio value decreased from 108±0.05 (normal) to 0.99±0.05 (Grade 1) and 0.84±0.04 (Grade 2); Entropy ratio value increased from 1.01±0.01 to 1.02±0.01 and 1.04±0.01; Contrast ratio value increased from 1.03±0.03 to 1.07±0.06 and 1.21±0.09; Variance ratio value increased from 1.06±0.03 to 1.20±0.04 and 1.42±0.10; Cluster Prominence ratio value increased from 0.98±0.02 to 1.01±0.04 and 1.25±0.07. Conclusion: This work has demonstrated that the sonographic features may serve as imaging signatures to assess radiation-induced normal tissue damage. While these findings need to be validated in a larger cohort, they suggest

  20. Acute and subchronic toxicity study of the water extract from dried fruits of Piper nigrum L. in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanjana Jaijoy

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate acute and subchronic toxicities of the water extract from the dried fruits of Piper nigrum L. A single oral administration of the extract at a dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight (5 male, 5 female did not produce signs of toxicity, behavioral changes, mortality, changes on gross appearance or histopathological changes of internal organs. The subchronic toxicity was determined by oral feeding both male and female rats (10 male, 10 female daily with the test substance at the doses of 300, 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight continuously for 90 days. The examinations of signs, animal behavior and health monitoring showed no abnormalities in the test groups as compared to the controls. The test and control groups (on the 90th day and the satellite group (on the 118th day were analyzed by measuring their final body and organ weights, taking necropsy, and examining hematology, blood clinical chemistry and histopathology. The results suggest that the water extract from the dried fruits of P. nigrum does not cause acute or subchronic toxicities in either male or female rats.

  1. Acute and subchronic toxicity study of the water extract from root of Imperata cylindrica (Linn. Raeusch. in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siharat Chunlaratthanaphorn

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The water extract from root of Imperata cylindrica (Linn. Raeusch. was studied for acute and subchronic toxicities. The extract at a single dose of 5,000 mg/kg was administered orally to female and male rats (5 male, 5 female. After 14 days, signs and behavioral changes, mortality, gross and histopathological changes of internal organs were examined. The extract did not produce signs of toxicity. For the subchronic toxicity test, the extract at doses of 300, 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight was orally administered to rats daily for 90 days (10 male, 10 female. The observation of signs, behavior and health status showed no abnormality in the test groups as compared with the controls. At the end of the study, necropsy and histopathology examination were performed in all animals in the control group, the test groups and the satellite group in which the extract was discontinued for another 28 days. Body and organ weights, hematological and blood clinical chemistry were also examined. The results suggest that the water extract of Imperata cylindrica (Linn. Raeusch does not cause acute and subchronic toxicities in rats.

  2. Prognosis of 10 cases of short bowel syndrome following acute superior mesenteric arterial occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furumoto, Katsuyoshi; Mizuno, Rei; Mori, Tomohiko; Ito, Daisuke; Kogire, Masafumi

    2009-01-01

    In evaluating the long-term intensive treatments essential for short bowel syndrome, we analyzed 10 cases of acute superior mesenteric arterial (SMA) occlusion. Abdominal CT scan detected a smaller superior mesenteric vein (SMV) sign in five out of seven cases, which was useful in making preoperative diagnosis even in noncontrast-enhanced CT. The greater part of the small intestine and part of the colon which became necrotic were resected in all 10 cases. Six patients who were able to be eventually discharged from the hospital had a mean residual jejunum length of 75 cm. Four patients requiring no parenteral nutrition had a mean intestinal length of 95 cm, compared to 35 cm for the two still requiring parenteral nutrition. We report here a case of a 68-year-old man with a 20-cm residual jejunum after surgery for SMA occlusion. He has been unable to eat orally and requiring total parenteral home nutrition, and suffered from catheter infection requiring 24 catheter replacements. Despite survival exceeding for more than 5 years, longer than that of reported cases so far, his quality of life is not necessarily good. (author)

  3. The effect of sennosides on colonic mucosal histology and bowel preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gorkom, B A; Karrenbeld, A; Limburg, A J; Kleibeuker, J H

    Introduction: A single high dose of sennosides is often used to optimize bowel preparation for diagnostic procedures. From previous studies it is suspected that sennosides in such a dose cause acute damage to the colonic mucosa. This study was designed to determine any effects of sennosides on

  4. High-dose total-body irradiation and autologous marrow reconstitution in dogs: dose-rate-related acute toxicity and fractionation-dependent long-term survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Weiden, P.L.; Schumacher, D.; Shulman, H.; Graham, T.; Thomas, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    Beagle dogs treated by total-body irradiation (TBI) were given autologous marrow grafts in order to avoid death from marrow toxicity. Acute and delayed non-marrow toxicities of high single-dose (27 dogs) and fractionated TBI (20 dogs) delivered at 0.05 or 0.1 Gy/min were compared. Fractionated TBI was given in increments of 2 Gy every 6 hr for three increments per day. Acute toxicity and early mortality (<1 month) at identical total irradiation doses were comparable for dogs given fractionated or single-dose TBI. With single-dose TBI, 14, 16, and 18 Gy, respectively, given at 0.05 Gy/min, 0/5, 5/5, and 2/2 dogs died from acute toxicity; with 10, 12, and 14 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 5/5 dogs died acutely. With fractionated TBI, 14 and 16 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 2/2 dogs died auctely. Early deaths were due to radiation enteritis with or without associated septicemia (29 dogs; less than or equal to Day 10). Three dogs given 10 Gy of TBI at 0.1 Gy/min died from bacterial pneumonia; one (Day 18) had been given fractionated and two (Days 14, 22) single-dose TBI. Fifteen dogs survived beyond 1 month; eight of these had single-dose TBI (10-14 Gy) and all died within 7 months of irradiation from a syndrome consisting of hepatic damage, pancreatic fibrosis, malnutrition, wasting, and anemia. Seven of the 15 had fractionated TBI, and only one (14 Gy) died on Day 33 from hepatic failure, whereas 6 (10-14 Gy) are alive and well 250 to 500 days after irradiation. In conclusion, fractionated TBI did not offer advantages over single-dose TBI with regard to acute toxicity and early mortality; rather, these were dependent upon the total dose of TBI. The total acutely tolerated dose was dependent upon the exposure rate; however, only dogs given fractionated TBI became healthy long-term survivors

  5. Toxicity of fluoride to aquatic species and evaluation of toxicity modifying factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearcy, Krysta; Elphick, James; Burnett-Seidel, Charlene

    2015-07-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the toxicity of fluoride to a variety of freshwater aquatic organisms and to establish whether water quality variables contribute substantively to modifying its toxicity. Water hardness, chloride, and alkalinity were tested as possible toxicity modifying factors for fluoride using acute toxicity tests with Hyalella azteca and Oncorhynchus mykiss. Chloride appeared to be the major toxicity modifying factor for fluoride in these acute toxicity tests. The chronic toxicity of fluoride was evaluated with a variety of species, including 3 fish (Pimephales promelas, O. mykiss, and Salvelinus namaycush), 3 invertebrates (Ceriodaphnia dubia, H. azteca, and Chironomus dilutus), 1 plant (Lemna minor), and 1 alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata). Hyalella azteca was the most sensitive species overall, and O. mykiss was the most sensitive species of fish. The role of chloride as a toxicity modifying factor was inconsistent between species in the chronic toxicity tests. © 2015 SETAC.

  6. Irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue 3 years after acute giardiasis: historic cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensaas, Knut-Arne; Langeland, Nina; Hanevik, Kurt; Mørch, Kristine; Eide, Geir Egil; Rortveit, Guri

    2012-02-01

    Giardia lamblia is a common cause of gastroenteritis worldwide, but there is limited knowledge about the long-term complications. To estimate the relative risk of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and chronic fatigue 3 years after acute giardiasis. Controlled historic cohort study with 3 years' follow-up. Data collected by mailed questionnaire. Waterborne outbreak of giardiasis in the city of Bergen, Norway. 817 patients exposed to Giardia lamblia infection verified by detection of cysts in stool samples and 1128 matched controls. IBS and chronic fatigue. The prevalence of IBS in the exposed group was 46.1%, compared with 14.0% in the control group, and the adjusted RR=3.4 (95% CI 2.9 to 3.8). Chronic fatigue was reported by 46.1% of the exposed group and 12.0% of the controls, the adjusted RR was 4.0 (95% CI 3.5 to 4.5). IBS and chronic fatigue were associated and the RR for the exposed group of having a combination of the two outcomes was 6.8 (95% CI 5.3 to 8.5). The RR was also increased for having just one of the two syndromes, 1.8 for IBS (95% CI 1.4 to 2.3) and 2.2 for chronic fatigue (95% CI 1.7 to 2.8). Infection with Giardia lamblia in a non-endemic area was associated with a high prevalence of IBS and chronic fatigue 3 years after acute illness, and the risk was significantly higher than in the control group. This shows that the potential consequences of giardiasis are more serious than previously known. Further studies are needed, especially in areas where giardiasis is endemic.

  7. Acute Oncology Care: A narrative review of the acute management of neutropenic sepsis and immune-related toxicities of checkpoint inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Thomas; Ahn, Shin; Rice, Terry W; Cooksley, Tim

    2017-11-01

    Cancer care has become increasingly specialized and advances in therapy have resulted in a larger number of patients receiving care. There has been a significant increase in the number of patients presenting with cancer related emergencies including treatment toxicities and those directly related to the malignancy. Suspected neutropenic sepsis is an acute medical emergency and empirical antibiotic therapy should be administered immediately. The goal of empirical therapy is to cover the most likely pathogens that will cause life-threatening infections in neutropenic patients. Patients with febrile neutropenia are a heterogeneous group with only a minority of treated patients developing significant medical complications. Outpatient management of low risk febrile neutropenia patients identified by the MASCC score is a safe and effective strategy. Immunotherapy with "checkpoint inhibitors" has significantly improved outcomes for patients with metastatic melanoma and evidence of benefit in a wide range of malignancies is developing. Despite these clinical benefits a number of immune related adverse events have been recognised which can affect virtually all organ systems and are potentially fatal. The timing of the onset of the adverse events is dependent on the organ system affected and unlike anti-neoplastic therapy can be delayed significantly after initiation or completion of therapy. The field of Acute Oncology is changing rapidly. Alongside, the traditional challenge of neutropenic sepsis there are many emerging toxicities. Further research into the optimal management, strategies and pathways of acutely unwell patients with cancer is required. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Acute toxicity of subcutaneously administered vitamin E isomers delta- and gamma-tocotrienol in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Sibyl N; Pessu, Roli L; Chakraborty, Kushal; Villa, Vilmar; Lombardini, Eric; Ghosh, Sanchita P

    2014-01-01

    The toxicity of parenterally administered vitamin E isomers, delta-tocotrienol (DT3) and gamma-tocotrienol (GT3), was evaluated in male and female CD2F1 mice. In an acute toxicity study, a single dose of DT3 or GT3 was administered subcutaneously in a dose range of 200 to 800 mg/kg. A mild to moderately severe dermatitis was observed clinically and microscopically in animals at the injection site at doses above 200 mg/kg. The severity of the reaction was reduced when the drug concentration was lowered. Neither drug produced detectable toxic effects in any other tissue at the doses tested. Based on histopathological analysis for both DT3 and GT3, and macroscopic observations of inflammation at the injection site, a dose of 300 mg/kg was selected as the lowest toxic dose in a 30-day toxicity study performed in male mice. At this dose, a mild skin irritation occurred at the injection site that recovered completely by the end of the experimental period. At a dose of 300 mg/kg of DT3 or GT3, no adverse effects were observed in any tissues or organs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity studies of erythritol in Beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Alex K; de Cock, Peter; Crincoli, Christine M; Means, Charlotte; Wismer, Tina; Pappas, Christopher

    2017-07-01

    Polyols, also known as sugar alcohols, are widely used in the formulation of tooth-friendly and reduced-calorie foods. Considering the significant health benefits of polyols in products formulated for human use, there is increased interest in evaluating potential uses in companion animal applications. Erythritol and xylitol are two polyols which are currently widely used in products ranging from reduced-sugar foods to personal care and cosmetics. Published studies have shown that both of these compounds are well-tolerated in rodents. Their toxicity profiles differ when comparing canine safety data. Doses of xylitol as low as 0.15 g/kg-BW in dogs can result in life-threatening hypoglycemia and acute liver failure, whereas erythritol is well-tolerated in dogs with reported No Adverse Effect Levels upwards of 5 g/kg-BW/day in repeat-dose studies. While pivotal studies substantiating the safe use of erythritol in humans have been published, there are limited published studies to support the safe use of erythritol in dogs. Here we present the results of an acute oral and a sub-chronic oral toxicity study in Beagle dogs. Given the potential health benefits of oral products formulated with erythritol and the data presented herein substantiating the safe use in dogs, erythritol can be safely used in products for canines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Severe toxic liver failure after acute poisoning with paracetamol, ferrous sulphate and naproxen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamek, Robert; Wilczek, Lech; Krupiński, Bogusław

    2004-01-01

    We present the case of 20-year-old woman intoxicated with mixed drugs, composed of paracetamol (acetaminophen), ferrous sulphate, naproxen and benzodiazepines. Acute toxic liver damage with clinical symptoms of coma resolved at the patient. Lack of the past history doesn't let to specific therapy and systemic complications. In this data we confirm, that past history, clinical symptoms and laboratory results are needed in designing a treatment strategy.

  11. Outcomes of bowel program in spinal cord injury patients with neurogenic bowel dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal Ozisler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to determine gastrointestinal problems associated with neurogenic bowel dysfunction in spinal cord injury patients and to assess the efficacy of bowel program on gastrointestinal problems and the severity of neurogenic bowel dysfunction. Fifty-five spinal cord injury patients were included in this study. A bowel program according to the characteristics of neurogenic bowel dysfunction was performed for each patient. Before and after bowel program, gastrointestinal problems (constipation, difficult intestinal evacuation, incontinence, abdominal pain, abdominal distension, loss of appetite, hemorrhoids, rectal bleeding and gastrointestinal induced autonomic dysreflexia and bowel evacuation methods (digital stimulation, oral medication, suppositories, abdominal massage, Valsalva maneuver and manual evacuation were determined. Neurogenic bowel dysfunction score was used to assess the severity of neurogenic bowel dysfunction. At least one gastrointestinal problem was identified in 44 (80% of the 55 patients before bowel program. Constipation (56%, 31/55 and incontinence (42%, 23/55 were the most common gastrointestinal problems. Digital rectal stimulation was the most common method for bowel evacuation, both before (76%, 42/55 and after (73%, 40/55 bowel program. Oral medication, enema and manual evacuation application rates were significantly decreased and constipation, difficult intestinal evacuation, abdominal distention, and abdominal pain rates were significantly reduced after bowel program. In addition, mean neurogenic bowel dysfunction score was decreased after bowel program. An effective bowel program decreases the severity of neurogenic bowel dysfunction and reduces associated gastrointestinal problems in patients with spinal cord injury.

  12. Rectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease: natural history and implications for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Sheryl; Stock, Richard; Greenstein, Adrian

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSES/OBJECTIVE: There exists little information concerning the natural history of rectal cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. In addition, the tolerance of pelvic irradiation in these patients is unknown. We analyzed the largest series of patients with inflammatory bowel disease and rectal cancer in order to determine the natural history of the disease as well as the effect and tolerance of pelvic irradiation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 47 patients with inflammatory bowel disease and rectal cancer treated over a 34 year period (1960-1994) was performed. Thirty five patients had Ulcerative Colitis and 12 patients had Crohn's Disease. There were 31 male patients and 16 female patients. The stage (AJC) distribution was as follows: stage 0 in 5 patients, stage I in 13 patients, stage II in 7 patients, stage III in 13 patients and stage IV in 9 patients. Surgical resection was performed in 44 patients. In 2 of these patients, preoperative pelvic irradiation was given followed by surgery. Twenty of these patients underwent post-operative adjuvant therapy (12 were treated with chemotherapy and pelvic irradiation and 8 with chemotherapy alone). Three patients were found to have unresectable disease and were treated with chemotherapy alone (2 patients) or chemotherapy and radiation therapy (1 patient). Radiation complications were graded using the RTOG acute and late effects scoring criteria. Follow up ranged from 4 to 250 months (median - 24 months). RESULTS: The 5 year actuarial results revealed an overall survival (OS) of 42%, a disease free survival (DFS) of 43%, a pelvic control rate (PC) of 67% and a freedom from distant failure (FFDF) of 47%. DFS decreased with increasing T stage with a 5 year rate of 86% for patients with Tis - T2 disease compared to 10% for patients with T3-T4 disease (p ) were noted in 3 patients (20%) receiving radiation therapy and these included two cases of grade 3 skin reactions and one case of grade

  13. [Volvulus of the small bowel due to ascaris lumbricoides package: about a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, Cheikh; Kane, Ahmed; Ndoye, Ndeye Aby; Ndour, Oumar; Faye-Fall, Aimé Lakh; Fall, Mbaye; Alumeti, Désiré Munyali; Ngom, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    We report an exceptional case of a 7 year-old patient with necrotic small bowel volvulus due to adult ascaris lumbricoides. At the admission, the child had intestinal obstruction evolving since two days with alteration of general state. Abdominal radiography without preparation showed small bowel air-fluid levels and tiger-stripe appearance evoking the diagnosis of acute intestinal obstruction associated with abdominal mass. After resuscitation, the surgical treatment consisted of laparotomy which showed necrotic volvulus of the terminal ileum containing adult ascaris lumbricoides. The patient underwent small bowel resection, approximately one meter of affected section was removed and then an ileostomy was performed. The evolution was favorable. The patient underwent ileorectal anastomosis four weeks later. After a 2 year follow-up period the child had no symptoms.

  14. Ceriodaphnia dubia as a potential bio-indicator for assessing acute aluminum oxide nanoparticle toxicity in fresh water environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunandan Pakrashi

    Full Text Available Growing nanomaterials based consumer applications have raised concerns about their potential release into the aquatic ecosystems and the consequent toxicological impacts. So environmental monitoring of the nanomaterials in aqueous systems becomes imperative. The current study reveals the potential of Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia as a bio-indicator for aluminum oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water aquatic ecosystem where it occupies an important ecological niche as a primary consumer. This study aims to investigate the aluminium oxide nanoparticle induced acute toxicity on Ceriodaphnia dubia in a freshwater system. The bioavailability of the aluminum oxide nanoparticles has been studied with respect to their aggregation behavior in the system and correlated with the toxicity endpoints. The oxidative stress generated by the particles contributed greatly toward their toxicity. The crucial role of leached aluminium ion mediated toxicity in the later phases (48 h and 72 h in conjunction with the effects from the nano-sized particles in the initial phases (24 h puts forth the dynamics of nanotoxicity in the test system. The internalization of nanoparticles (both gross and systemic uptake as substantiated through the transmission electron microscopy (TEM and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectral (ICP-OES analysis was another major contributor toward acute toxicity. Concluding the present study, Ceriodaphnia du