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Sample records for acute behavioral effects

  1. Acute and Chronic Effects of Cocaine on the Spontaneous Behavior of Pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkston, Jonathan W.; Branch, Marc N.

    2010-01-01

    The present experiment examined the effects of acute and daily cocaine on spontaneous behavior patterns of pigeons. After determining the acute effects of a range of doses, 9 pigeons were divided into three groups that received one of three doses of cocaine daily, either 1.0, 3.0, or 10.0 mg/kg cocaine. Measures were taken of spontaneous…

  2. Acute effects of corticosterone injection on paternal behavior in California mouse (Peromyscus californicus) fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Breanna N; Perea-Rodriguez, Juan Pablo; Saltzman, Wendy

    2011-11-01

    Glucocorticoids are thought to mediate the disruption of parental behavior in response to acute and chronic stress. Previous research supports their role in chronic stress; however, no study has experimentally tested the effects of acute glucocorticoid elevation on paternal behavior. We tested the prediction that acute corticosterone (CORT) increases would decrease paternal behavior in California mouse fathers and would lead to longer-term effects on reproductive success, as even short-term increases in CORT have been shown to produce lasting effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. First-time fathers were injected with 30 mg/kg CORT, 60 mg/kg CORT or vehicle, or left unmanipulated. Interactions between the male and its pup(s) were recorded 1.5-2h after injection and scored for paternal and non-paternal behavior. Treatment groups were combined into control (unmanipulated + vehicle, n = 15) and CORT (30 mg/kg + 60 mg/kg, n = 16) for analysis based on resulting plasma CORT concentrations. CORT treatment did not alter paternal or non-paternal behaviors or any long-term measures (male body mass or temperature, pup growth rate, pup survival, interbirth interval, number or mass of pups born in the second litter). Fathers showed a significant rise in body mass at day 30 postpartum, followed by a decrease in body mass after the birth of the second litter; however, this pattern did not differ between the CORT and control groups. In summary, acute elevation of plasma CORT did not alter direct paternal behavior, body mass, or reproductive outcomes, suggesting that acute CORT elevation alone does not overtly disrupt paternal care in this biparental mammal. PMID:21939660

  3. ACUTE PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO ETHANOL AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR: EFFECT OF AGE, SEX, AND TIMING OF EXPOSURE

    OpenAIRE

    Mooney, Sandra M.; Varlinskaya, Elena I.

    2010-01-01

    During development of the central nervous system, neurons pass through critical periods of vulnerability to environmental factors. Exposure to ethanol during gastrulation or during neuronal generation results in a permanent reduction in the number of neurons in trigeminal-associated cranial nerve nuclei. Normal functioning of the trigeminal system is required for social behavior, the present study examined the effects of acute prenatal exposure to ethanol on social interactions across ontogen...

  4. Acute behavioral effects of nicotine in male and female HINT1 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, K J; Wang, J B; Barbier, E; Chen, X; Damaj, M I

    2012-11-01

    Human genetic association and brain expression studies, and mouse behavioral and molecular studies implicate a role for the histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and anxiety. The high comorbidity between smoking and psychiatric disorders, schizophrenia in particular, is well established. Associations with schizophrenia and HINT1 are also sex specific, with effects more predominant in males; however, it is unknown if sex differences associated with the gene extend to other phenotypes. Thus, in this study, using a battery of behavioral tests, we elucidated the role of HINT1 in acute nicotine-mediated behaviors using male and female HINT1 wild-type (+/+) and knockout (-/-) mice. The results show that male HINT1 -/- mice were less sensitive to acute nicotine-induced antinociception in the tail-flick, but not hot-plate test. At low nicotine doses, male and female HINT1 -/- mice were less sensitive to nicotine-induced hypomotility, although the effect was more pronounced in females. Baseline differences in locomotor activity observed in male HINT1 +/+ and -/- mice were absent in females. Nicotine did not produce an anxiolytic effect in male HINT1 -/- mice, but rather an anxiogenic response. Diazepam also failed to induce an anxiolytic response in these mice, suggesting a general anxiety phenotype not specific to nicotine. Differences in anxiety-like behavior were not observed in female mice. These results further support a role for HINT1 in nicotine-mediated behaviors and suggest that alterations in the gene may have differential effects on phenotype in males and females. PMID:22827509

  5. Behavioral economic analysis of stress effects on acute motivation for alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Max M; Ray, Lara A; MacKillop, James

    2015-01-01

    Due to issues of definition and measurement, the heavy emphasis on subjective craving in the measurement of acute motivation for alcohol and other drugs remains controversial. Behavioral economic approaches have increasingly been applied to better understand acute drug motivation, particularly using demand curve modeling via purchase tasks to characterize the perceived reinforcing value of the drug. This approach has focused on using putatively more objective indices of motivation, such as units of consumption, monetary expenditure, and price sensitivity. To extend this line of research, the current study used an alcohol purchase task to determine if, compared to a neutral induction, a personalized stress induction would increase alcohol demand in a sample of heavy drinkers. The stress induction significantly increased multiple measures of the reinforcing value of alcohol to the individual, including consumption at zero price (intensity), the maximum total amount of money spent on alcohol (Omax), the first price where consumption was reduced to zero (breakpoint), and the general responsiveness of consumption to increases in price (elasticity). These measures correlated only modestly with craving and mood. Self-reported income was largely unrelated to demand but moderated the influence of stress on Omax. Moderation based on CRH-BP genotype (rs10055255) was present for Omax, with T allele homozygotes exhibiting more pronounced increases in response to stress. These results provide further support for a behavioral economic approach to measuring acute drug motivation. The findings also highlight the potential relevance of income and genetic factors in understanding state effects on the perceived reinforcing value of alcohol. PMID:25413719

  6. Effect of acute Fluoxetine application on a context fear conditioned task in behaviorally restrained rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A . León

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of behavioral or pharmacologically enhanced anxiety on the acquisition of contextual fear conditioning, thirty two Wistar rats (275±25 gm were divided in two groups (behavioral restriction and control. Half of each group received saline solution (ig.; 0.9% or fluoxetine(ig.; 4mg/Kg before the fear conditioning procedure. The two way ANOVA showed significant differences for treatment (F[1,28] = 25.261; P < 0.001. Student Newman-Keuls showed that subjects treated with fluoxetine had lower freezing times. There were no significant differences nor for restriction neither for the interaction between the factors (F[1,28] = 0.115; P = 0.737 y F[1,28] = 0.016; P = 0.899. Thus, the restriction procedure used did not modify the acquisition of the conditioned fear response suggesting that the putative 5-HT enhancement induced is not comparable to that induced by fluoxetine. Acute fluoxetine disrupted the acquisition of the conditioned fear response, suggesting that the mechanism by means of which anxiety disrupts learning could be serotonergic in nature.

  7. Acute and developmental behavioral effects of flame retardants and related chemicals in zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Jarema, Kimberly A; Hunter, Deborah L.; Shaffer, Rachel M.; Behl, Mamta; Padilla, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    As polybrominated diphenyl ethers are phased out, numerous compounds are emerging as potential replacement flame retardants for use in consumer and electronic products. Little is known, however, about the neurobehavioral toxicity of these replacements. This study evaluated the neurobehavioral effects of acute or developmental exposure to t-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate (BPDP), 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDP), isodecyl diphenyl phosphate (IDDP), isopropylated phenyl phosphate (IPP), tr...

  8. Effects of acute or chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence on behavioral inhibition and efficiency in a modified water maze task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn K Acheson

    Full Text Available Ethanol is well known to adversely affect frontal executive functioning, which continues to develop throughout adolescence and into young adulthood. This is also a developmental window in which ethanol is misused by a significant number of adolescents. We examined the effects of acute and chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence on behavioral inhibition and efficiency using a modified water maze task. During acquisition, rats were trained to find a stable visible platform onto which they could escape. During the test phase, the stable platform was converted to a visible floating platform (providing no escape and a new hidden platform was added in the opposite quadrant. The hidden platform was the only means of escape during the test phase. In experiment 1, adolescent animals received ethanol (1.0 g/kg 30 min before each session during the test phase. In experiment 2, adolescent animals received chronic intermittent ethanol (5.0 g/kg for 16 days (PND30 To PND46 prior to any training in the maze. At PND72, training was initiated in the same modified water maze task. Results from experiment 1 indicated that acute ethanol promoted behavioral disinhibition and inefficiency. Experiment 2 showed that chronic intermittent ethanol during adolescence appeared to have no lasting effect on behavioral disinhibition or new spatial learning during adulthood. However, chronic ethanol did promote behavioral inefficiency. In summary, results indicate that ethanol-induced promotion of perseverative behavior may contribute to the many adverse behavioral sequelae of alcohol intoxication in adolescents and young adults. Moreover, the long-term effect of adolescent chronic ethanol exposure on behavioral efficiency is similar to that observed after chronic exposure in humans.

  9. Effects of an acute and a sub-chronic 900 MHz GSM exposure on brain activity and behaviors of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsa Brillaud; Aleksandra Piotrowski; Anthony Lecomte; Franck Robidel; Rene de Seze [Toxicology Unit, INERIS, Verneuil en Halatte (France)

    2006-07-01

    Radio frequencies are suspected to produce health effects. Concerning the mobile phone technology, according to position during use (close to the head), possible effects of radio frequencies on the central nervous system have to be evaluated. Previous works showed contradictory results, possibly due to experimental design diversity. In the framework of R.A.M.P. 2001 project, we evaluated possible effect of a 900 MHz GSM exposure on the central nervous system of rat at a structural, a functional and a behavioral level after acute or sub-chronic exposures. Rats were exposed using a loop antenna system to different S.A.R. levels and durations, according to results of the French C.O.M.O.B.I.O. 2001 project. A functional effect was found (modification of the cerebral activity and increase of the glia surface) after an acute exposure, even at a low level of brain averaged S.A.R. (1.5 W/kg). No cumulative effect was observed after a sub-chronic exposure (same amplitude of the effect). No structural or behavioral consequence was noted. We do not conclude on the neurotoxicity of the 900 MHz GSM exposure on the rat brain. Our results do not indicate any health risk. (authors)

  10. The effects of experimentally manipulated social status on acute eating behavior: A randomized, crossover pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardel, M I; Johnson, S L; Beck, J; Dhurandhar, E; Keita, A D; Tomczik, A C; Pavela, G; Huo, T; Janicke, D M; Muller, K; Piff, P K; Peters, J C; Hill, J O; Allison, D B

    2016-08-01

    Both subjective and objectively measured social status has been associated with multiple health outcomes, including weight status, but the mechanism for this relationship remains unclear. Experimental studies may help identify the causal mechanisms underlying low social standing as a pathway for obesity. Our objective was to investigate the effects of experimentally manipulated social status on ad libitum acute dietary intakes and stress-related outcomes as potential mechanisms relating social status and weight. This was a pilot feasibility, randomized, crossover study in Hispanic young adults (n=9; age 19-25; 67% female; BMI ≥18.5 and ≤30kg/m(2)). At visit 1, participants consumed a standardized breakfast and were randomized to a high social status position (HIGH) or low social status position (LOW) in a rigged game of Monopoly™. The rules for the game differed substantially in terms of degree of 'privilege' depending on randomization to HIGH or LOW. Following Monopoly™, participants were given an ad libitum buffet meal and energy intakes (kcal) were estimated by pre- and post-weighing foods consumed. Stress-related markers were measured at baseline, after the game of Monopoly™, and after lunch. Visit 2 used the same standardized protocol; however, participants were exposed to the opposite social status condition. When compared to HIGH, participants in LOW consumed 130 more calories (p=0.07) and a significantly higher proportion of their daily calorie needs in the ad libitum buffet meal (39% in LOW versus 31% in HIGH; p=0.04). In LOW, participants reported decreased feelings of pride and powerfulness following Monopoly™ (p=0.05) and after their lunch meal (p=0.08). Relative to HIGH, participants in LOW demonstrated higher heart rates following Monopoly™ (p=0.06), but this relationship was not significant once lunch was consumed (p=0.31). Our pilot data suggest a possible causal relationship between experimentally manipulated low social status and

  11. The effects of experimentally manipulated social status on acute eating behavior: A randomized, crossover pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardel, M I; Johnson, S L; Beck, J; Dhurandhar, E; Keita, A D; Tomczik, A C; Pavela, G; Huo, T; Janicke, D M; Muller, K; Piff, P K; Peters, J C; Hill, J O; Allison, D B

    2016-08-01

    Both subjective and objectively measured social status has been associated with multiple health outcomes, including weight status, but the mechanism for this relationship remains unclear. Experimental studies may help identify the causal mechanisms underlying low social standing as a pathway for obesity. Our objective was to investigate the effects of experimentally manipulated social status on ad libitum acute dietary intakes and stress-related outcomes as potential mechanisms relating social status and weight. This was a pilot feasibility, randomized, crossover study in Hispanic young adults (n=9; age 19-25; 67% female; BMI ≥18.5 and ≤30kg/m(2)). At visit 1, participants consumed a standardized breakfast and were randomized to a high social status position (HIGH) or low social status position (LOW) in a rigged game of Monopoly™. The rules for the game differed substantially in terms of degree of 'privilege' depending on randomization to HIGH or LOW. Following Monopoly™, participants were given an ad libitum buffet meal and energy intakes (kcal) were estimated by pre- and post-weighing foods consumed. Stress-related markers were measured at baseline, after the game of Monopoly™, and after lunch. Visit 2 used the same standardized protocol; however, participants were exposed to the opposite social status condition. When compared to HIGH, participants in LOW consumed 130 more calories (p=0.07) and a significantly higher proportion of their daily calorie needs in the ad libitum buffet meal (39% in LOW versus 31% in HIGH; p=0.04). In LOW, participants reported decreased feelings of pride and powerfulness following Monopoly™ (p=0.05) and after their lunch meal (p=0.08). Relative to HIGH, participants in LOW demonstrated higher heart rates following Monopoly™ (p=0.06), but this relationship was not significant once lunch was consumed (p=0.31). Our pilot data suggest a possible causal relationship between experimentally manipulated low social status and

  12. Effects of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists in assays of acute pain-stimulated and pain-depressed behaviors in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Kelen C; Carroll, F Ivy; Negus, S Stevens

    2015-11-01

    Agonists at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) constitute one drug class being evaluated as candidate analgesics. Previous preclinical studies have implicated α4β2 and α7 nAChRs as potential mediators of the antinociceptive effects of (–)-nicotine hydrogen tartrate (nicotine) and other nAChR agonists; however, these studies have relied exclusively on measures of pain-stimulated behavior, which can be defined as behaviors that increase in frequency, rate, or intensity after presentation of a noxious stimulus. Pain is also associated with depression of many behaviors, and drug effects can differ in assays of pain-stimulated versus pain-depressed behavior. Accordingly, this study compared the effects of nicotine, the selective α4/6β2 agonist 5-(123I)iodo-3-[2(S)-2-azetidinylmethoxy]pyridine (5-I-A-85380), and the selective α7 agonist N-(3R)-1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl-4-chlorobenzamide in assays of pain-stimulated and pain-depressed behavior in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Intraperitoneal injection of dilute lactic acid served as an acute noxious stimulus to either stimulate a stretching response or depress the operant responding, which is maintained by electrical brain stimulation in an intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure. Nicotine produced a dose-dependent, time-dependent, and mecamylamine-reversible blockade of both acid-stimulated stretching and acid-induced depression of ICSS. 5-I-A-85380 also blocked both acid-stimulated stretching and acid-induced depression of ICSS, whereas N-(3R)-1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl-4-chlorobenzamide produced no effect in either procedure. Both nicotine and 5-I-A-85380 were ≥10-fold more potent in blocking the acid-induced depression of ICSS than in blocking the acid-induced stimulation of stretching. These results suggest that stimulation of α4β2 and/or α6β2 nAChRs may be especially effective to alleviate the signs of pain-related behavioral depression in rats; however, nonselective behavioral effects

  13. Neuroelectric and Behavioral Effects of Acute Exercise on Task Switching in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chiao-Ling; Huang, Chung-Ju; Tsai, Yu-Jung; Chang, Yu-Kai; Hung, Tsung-Min

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this two-part study was to examine the effects of acute, moderate intensity exercise on task switching in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In Study 1, we compared the task switching performance of children with and without ADHD. Twenty children with ADHD and 20 matched controls performed the task switching paradigm, in which the behavioral indices and P3 component of event-related potentials elicited by task-switching were assessed simultaneously. The amplitude and latency of P3 reflected the amount of attention resource allocated to task-relevant stimulus in the environment and the efficiency of stimulus detection and evaluation, respectively. The task switching included two conditions; the pure condition required participants to perform the task on the same rule (e.g., AAAA or BBBB) whereas the mixed condition required participants to perform the task on two alternating rules (e.g., AABBAA…). The results indicated that children with ADHD had significantly longer RTs, less accuracy, and larger global switch cost for accuracy than controls. Additionally, ADHD participants showed smaller amplitudes and longer P3 latencies in global switch effects. In Study 2, we further examined the effects of an acute aerobic exercise session on task switching in children with ADHD. Thirty-four children with ADHD performed a task switching paradigm after 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on a treadmill and after control sessions (watching videos while seated). The results revealed that following exercise, children with ADHD exhibited smaller global switch costs in RT compared with after control sessions. The P3 amplitude only increased following exercise in the mixed condition relative to the pure condition, whereas no effects were found in the control session. These findings suggest that single bouts of moderate intensity aerobic exercise may have positive effects on the working memory of children with ADHD. PMID

  14. Effect of obstructive sleep apnea on response to cognitive behavior therapy for depression after an acute myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freedland, Kenneth E.; Carney, Robert M.; Hayano, Junichiro; Steinmeyer, Brian C.; Reese, Rebecca L.; Roest, Annelieke M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) interferes with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for depression in patients with coronary heart disease. Methods: Patients who were depressed within 28 days after an acute myocardial infarction (MI) were enrolled in the Enhancing Recovery

  15. The effect of intra-articular vanilloid receptor agonists on pain behavior measures in a murine model of acute monoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mishal; Mahowald, Maren L; Frizelle, Sandra P; Dorman, Christopher W; Funkenbusch, Sonia C; Krug, Hollis E

    2016-01-01

    Arthritis is the most common cause of disability in the US, and the primary manifestation of arthritis is joint pain that leads to progressive physical limitation, disability, morbidity, and increased health care utilization. Capsaicin (CAP) is a vanilloid agonist that causes substance P depletion by interacting with vanilloid receptor transient receptor potential V1 on small unmyelinated C fibers. It has been used topically for analgesia in osteoarthritis with variable success. Resiniferatoxin (RTX) is an ultra potent CAP analog. The aim of this study was to measure the analgesic effects of intra-articular (IA) administration of CAP and RTX in experimental acute inflammatory arthritis in mice. Evoked pain score (EPS) and a dynamic weight bearing (DWB) device were used to measure nociceptive behaviors in a murine model of acute inflammatory monoarthritis. A total of 56 C57B16 male mice underwent EPS and DWB testing – 24 nonarthritic controls and 32 mice with carrageenan-induced arthritis. The effects of pretreatment with 0.1% CAP, 0.0003% RTX, or 0.001% RTX were measured. Nociception was reproducibly demonstrated by increased EPS and reduced DWB measures in the affected limb of arthritic mice. Pretreatment with 0.001% RTX resulted in statistically significant improvement in EPS and DWB measures when compared with those observed in carrageenan-induced arthritis animals. Pretreatment with IA 0.0003% RTX and IA 0.01% CAP resulted in improvement in some but not all of these measures. The remaining 24 mice underwent evaluation following treatment with 0.1% CAP, 0.0003% RTX, or 0.001% RTX, and the results obtained were similar to that of naïve, nonarthritic mice. PMID:27574462

  16. Research on Acute Toxicity and the Behavioral Effects of Methanolic Extract from Psilocybin Mushrooms and Psilocin in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuk, Olga; Jasicka-Misiak, Izabela; Poliwoda, Anna; Kazakova, Anastasia; Godovan, Vladlena V.; Halama, Marek; Wieczorek, Piotr P.

    2015-01-01

    The pharmacological activities and acute toxicity of the psilocin (PC) and dried residues of the crude extracts of psychotropic mushrooms were investigated in mice. The hallucinogenic substances were effectively isolated, by using methanol, from the species of Psilocybe semilanceata and Pholiotina cyanopus, that were collected in the north-east region of Poland. The chemical analysis of these extracts, which was performed by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection (LC-MS), indicated the presence of psilocin and other hallucinogenic substances, including indolealkylamines and their phosphorylated analogues. When the pure psilocin or fungal extracts were used, slight differences in determined LD50 values were observed. However, the application of PC evoked the highest level of toxicity (293.07 mg/kg) compared to the activity of extracts from Ph. cyanopus and P. semilanceata, where the level of LD50 was 316.87 mg/kg and 324.37 mg/kg, respectively. Furthermore, the behavioral test, which considered the head-twitching response (HTR), was used to assess the effects of the studied psychotropic factors on the serotonergic system. Both, the fungal extracts and psilocin evoked characteristic serotoninergic effects depending on the dose administered to mice, acting as an agonist/partial agonist on the serotonergic system. A dose of 200 mg/kg 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) induced spontaneous head-twitching in mice (100% effect), as a result of the formation of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the brain. Compared to the activity of 5-HTP, the intraperitoneal administration of 1mg/kg of psilocin or hallucinogenic extracts of studied mushrooms (Ph. cyanopus and P. semilanceata) reduced the number of head-twitch responses of about 46% and 30%, respectively. In contrast, the administration of PC exhibited a reduction of about 60% in HTR numbers. PMID:25826052

  17. Research on Acute Toxicity and the Behavioral Effects of Methanolic Extract from Psilocybin Mushrooms and Psilocin in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Zhuk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacological activities and acute toxicity of the psilocin (PC and dried residues of the crude extracts of psychotropic mushrooms were investigated in mice. The hallucinogenic substances were effectively isolated, by using methanol, from the species of Psilocybe semilanceata and Pholiotina cyanopus, that were collected in the north-east region of Poland. The chemical analysis of these extracts, which was performed by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection (LC-MS, indicated the presence of psilocin and other hallucinogenic substances, including indolealkylamines and their phosphorylated analogues. When the pure psilocin or fungal extracts were used, slight differences in determined LD50 values were observed. However, the application of PC evoked the highest level of toxicity (293.07 mg/kg compared to the activity of extracts from Ph. cyanopus and P. semilanceata, where the level of LD50 was 316.87 mg/kg and 324.37 mg/kg, respectively. Furthermore, the behavioral test, which considered the head-twitching response (HTR, was used to assess the effects of the studied psychotropic factors on the serotonergic system. Both, the fungal extracts and psilocin evoked characteristic serotoninergic effects depending on the dose administered to mice, acting as an agonist/partial agonist on the serotonergic system. A dose of 200 mg/kg 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP induced spontaneous head-twitching in mice (100% effect, as a result of the formation of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT in the brain. Compared to the activity of 5-HTP, the intraperitoneal administration of 1mg/kg of psilocin or hallucinogenic extracts of studied mushrooms (Ph. cyanopus and P. semilanceata reduced the number of head-twitch responses of about 46% and 30%, respectively. In contrast, the administration of PC exhibited a reduction of about 60% in HTR numbers.

  18. Research on acute toxicity and the behavioral effects of methanolic extract from psilocybin mushrooms and psilocin in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuk, Olga; Jasicka-Misiak, Izabela; Poliwoda, Anna; Kazakova, Anastasia; Godovan, Vladlena V; Halama, Marek; Wieczorek, Piotr P

    2015-03-27

    The pharmacological activities and acute toxicity of the psilocin (PC) and dried residues of the crude extracts of psychotropic mushrooms were investigated in mice. The hallucinogenic substances were effectively isolated, by using methanol, from the species of Psilocybe semilanceata and Pholiotina cyanopus, that were collected in the north-east region of Poland. The chemical analysis of these extracts, which was performed by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection (LC-MS), indicated the presence of psilocin and other hallucinogenic substances, including indolealkylamines and their phosphorylated analogues. When the pure psilocin or fungal extracts were used, slight differences in determined LD50 values were observed. However, the application of PC evoked the highest level of toxicity (293.07 mg/kg) compared to the activity of extracts from Ph. cyanopus and P. semilanceata, where the level of LD50 was 316.87 mg/kg and 324.37 mg/kg, respectively. Furthermore, the behavioral test, which considered the head-twitching response (HTR), was used to assess the effects of the studied psychotropic factors on the serotonergic system. Both, the fungal extracts and psilocin evoked characteristic serotoninergic effects depending on the dose administered to mice, acting as an agonist/partial agonist on the serotonergic system. A dose of 200 mg/kg 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) induced spontaneous head-twitching in mice (100% effect), as a result of the formation of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the brain. Compared to the activity of 5-HTP, the intraperitoneal administration of 1mg/kg of psilocin or hallucinogenic extracts of studied mushrooms (Ph. cyanopus and P. semilanceata) reduced the number of head-twitch responses of about 46% and 30%, respectively. In contrast, the administration of PC exhibited a reduction of about 60% in HTR numbers.

  19. The effects of acute aerobic activity on cognition and cross-domain transfer to eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Cassandra J; Hall, Peter A; Vincent, Corita M; Luu, Kimberley

    2014-01-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated that a single session of aerobic exercise can enhance cognitive functioning; specifically, the inhibition facet of executive function (EF). Additionally, previous research has demonstrated that inhibitory abilities are essential for effective dietary self-control. However, it is currently unknown whether exercise induced enhancements in EF also facilitate self-control in the dietary domain. The present study sought to determine whether a single session of aerobic exercise enhances EF, and whether there is a transfer effect to dietary self-control. Thirty four undergraduate students were randomly assigned to one of three exercise conditions: (1) minimal exercise; (2) moderate intensity exercise (30% heart rate reserve); (3) vigorous intensity exercise (50% heart rate reserve). After the exercise bout, participants completed three standardized EF tasks followed by a bogus taste test for three appetitive snack foods (milk chocolate and potato chips) and two control foods (dark chocolate and crackers). The amount of food consumed during the taste test was covertly measured. The results revealed a significant main effect of treatment condition on the Stroop task performance, but not Go-NoGo (GNG) and Stop Signal task performance. Findings with respect to food consumption revealed that EF moderated the treatment effect, such that those with larger exercise effects on Stroop performance in the moderate intensity exercise condition consumed more control foods (but not less appetitive foods). These findings support the contention that a single bout of aerobic exercise enhances EF, and may have transfer effects to the dietary domain, but that such effects may be indirect in nature. PMID:24808850

  20. The effects of acute aerobic activity on cognition and cross-domain transfer to eating behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra eLowe

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies have demonstrated that a single session of aerobic exercise can enhance cognitive functioning; specifically, the inhibition facet of executive function (EF. Additionally, previous research has demonstrated that inhibitory abilities are essential for effective dietary self-control. However, it is currently unknown whether exercise induced enhancements in EF also facilitate self-control in the dietary domain. The present study sought to determine whether a single session of aerobic exercise enhances EF, and whether there is a transfer effect to dietary self-control. Thirty four undergraduate students were randomly assigned to one of three exercise conditions: (1 minimal exercise; (2 moderate intensity exercise (30% heart rate reserve; (3 vigorous intensity exercise (50% heart rate reserve. After the exercise bout, participants completed three standardized EF tasks followed by a bogus taste test for three appetitive snack foods(milk chocolate and potato chips and two control foods (dark chocolate and crackers. The amount of food consumed during the taste test was covertly measured. The results revealed a significant main effect of treatment condition on the Stroop task, but not the Go-NoGo and Stop Signal task. Findings with respect to food consumption revealed that EF moderated the treatment effect, such that those with larger exercise effects on Stroop performance in the moderate intensity exercise condition consumed more control foods (but not less appetitive foods. These findings support the contention that a single bout of aerobic exercise enhances EF, and may have transfer effects to the dietary domain, but that such effects may be indirect in nature.

  1. The effects of acute aerobic activity on cognition and cross-domain transfer to eating behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Lowe, Cassandra J.; Hall, Peter A.; Vincent, Corita M.; Luu, Kimberley

    2014-01-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated that a single session of aerobic exercise can enhance cognitive functioning; specifically, the inhibition facet of executive function (EF). Additionally, previous research has demonstrated that inhibitory abilities are essential for effective dietary self-control. However, it is currently unknown whether exercise induced enhancements in EF also facilitate self-control in the dietary domain. The present study sought to determine whether a single session of aerob...

  2. Acute toxicity and effects of malathion exposure on behavior and hematological indices in Indian carp, Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rauf

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Malathion is one of the most commonly used pesticides in agriculture. This study was aimed to investigate the acute toxicity of malathion as an aquatic pollutant on the behavior and hematological indices in Indian carp (Cirrhinus mrigala. A static experiment was conducted and 1, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs LC50 values of malathion for the test fish were estimated as 14.55 mg/L, 12.48 mg/L, 11.56 mg/L, 10.85 mg/L and 9.32 mg/L, respectively. During 96 hrs exposure to 9.32 mg/L of malathion, behavioral abnormalities such as hyperactivity, cough, convulsions, erratic swimming, loss of balance, rapid opercular movements, gill mucous secretion, surfacing and gulping of air were observed in the test fish. The hematological changes in exposed fish after 96 hrs exposure to malathion included a significant decrease in erythrocyte count, hemoglobin content, hematocrit, leukocyte count and a significant increase in neutrophils count as compared to the control fish. In conclusion, acute exposure to 9.32 mg/L of malathion provoked behavioral and hematological abnormalities in Indian carp which offers a valuable tool to monitor malathion induced toxicity in fish.

  3. Effects of acute and chronic apomorphine on sex behavior and copulation-induced neural activation in the male rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier, Jocelien D A; de Jong, Trynke R; Jos Dederen, P; van Oorschot, Ruud; Heeren, Dick; Pattij, Tommy; Waldinger, Marcel D; Coolen, Lique M; Cools, Alexander R; Olivier, Berend; Veening, Jan G

    2007-01-01

    Apomorphine is a non-selective dopaminergic receptor agonist. Because of its pro-erectile effects, apomorphine is clinically used for treatment of erectile dysfunction. We investigated the effects of subcutaneous apomorphine administration (0.4 mg/kg rat) on sexual behavior and mating-induced Fos-ex

  4. Effects of acute treadmill running at different intensities on activities of serotonin and corticotropin-releasing factor neurons, and anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Tomomi; Nishii, Ayu; Amemiya, Seiichiro; Kubota, Natsuko; Nishijima, Takeshi; Kita, Ichiro

    2016-02-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that physical exercise can reduce and prevent the incidence of stress-related psychiatric disorders, including depression and anxiety. Activation of serotonin (5-HT) neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) is implicated in antidepressant/anxiolytic properties. In addition, the incidence and symptoms of these disorders may involve dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis that is initiated by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Thus, it is possible that physical exercise produces its antidepressant/anxiolytic effects by affecting these neuronal activities. However, the effects of acute physical exercise at different intensities on these neuronal activation and behavioral changes are still unclear. Here, we examined the activities of 5-HT neurons in the DRN and CRF neurons in the PVN during 30 min of treadmill running at different speeds (high speed, 25 m/min; low speed, 15m/min; control, only sitting on the treadmill) in male Wistar rats, using c-Fos/5-HT or CRF immunohistochemistry. We also performed the elevated plus maze test and the forced swim test to assess anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, respectively. Acute treadmill running at low speed, but not high speed, significantly increased c-Fos expression in 5-HT neurons in the DRN compared to the control, whereas high-speed running significantly enhanced c-Fos expression in CRF neurons in the PVN compared with the control and low-speed running. Furthermore, low-speed running resulted in decreased anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors compared with high-speed running. These results suggest that acute physical exercise with mild and low stress can efficiently induce optimal neuronal activation that is involved in the antidepressant/anxiolytic effects. PMID:26542811

  5. The Difference between Anxiolytic and Anxiogenic Effects Induced by Acute and Chronic Alcohol Exposure and Changes in Associative Learning and Memory Based on Color Preference and the Cause of Parkinson-Like Behaviors in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Li, Xu; Li, Yi-Xiang; Zhang, Yuan; Chen, Di; Sun, Ming-Zhu; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Dong-Yan; Feng, Xi-Zeng

    2015-01-01

    We describe an interdisciplinary comparison of the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure in terms of their disturbance of light, dark and color preferences and the occurrence of Parkinson-like behavior in zebrafish through computer visual tracking, data mining, and behavioral and physiological analyses. We found that zebrafish in anxiolytic and anxious states, which are induced by acute and chronic repeated alcohol exposure, respectively, display distinct emotional reactions in light/dark preference tests as well as distinct learning and memory abilities in color-enhanced conditional place preference (CPP) tests. Additionally, compared with the chronic alcohol (1.0%) treatment, acute alcohol exposure had a significant, dose-dependent effect on anxiety, learning and memory (color preference) as well as locomotive activities. Acute exposure doses (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%) generated an "inverted V" dose-dependent pattern in all of the behavioral parameters, with 1.0% having the greatest effect, while the chronic treatment had a moderate effect. Furthermore, by measuring locomotive activity, learning and memory performance, the number of dopaminergic neurons, tyrosine hydroxylase expression, and the change in the photoreceptors in the retina, we found that acute and chronic alcohol exposure induced varying degrees of Parkinson-like symptoms in zebrafish. Taken together, these results illuminated the behavioral and physiological mechanisms underlying the changes associated with learning and memory and the cause of potential Parkinson-like behaviors in zebrafish due to acute and chronic alcohol exposure. PMID:26558894

  6. Behavioral, Thermal and Neurochemical Effects Of Acute And Chronic 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (“Ecstasy”) Self-Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Reveron, Maria Elena; Maier, Esther Y.; Duvauchelle, Christine L.

    2009-01-01

    3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a popular methamphetamine derivative associated with young adults and all-night dance parties. However, the enduring effects of MDMA at voluntary intake levels have not been extensively investigated. In this study, MDMA-influenced behaviors and core temperatures were assessed over the course of 20 daily MDMA self-administration sessions in rats. In vivo microdialysis techniques were used in a subsequent MDMA challenge test session to determine extra...

  7. Fluoxetine and diazepam acutely modulate stress induced-behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomini, Ana Cristina V V; Abreu, Murilo S; Giacomini, Luidia V; Siebel, Anna M; Zimerman, Fernanda F; Rambo, Cassiano L; Mocelin, Ricieri; Bonan, Carla D; Piato, Angelo L; Barcellos, Leonardo J G

    2016-01-01

    Drug residue contamination in aquatic ecosystems has been studied extensively, but the behavioral effects exerted by the presence of these drugs are not well known. Here, we investigated the effects of acute stress on anxiety, memory, social interaction, and aggressiveness in zebrafish exposed to fluoxetine and diazepam at concentrations that disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis. Stress increased the locomotor activity and time spent in the bottom area of the tank (novel tank). Fluoxetine and diazepam prevented these behaviors. We also observed that stress and fluoxetine and diazepam exposures decreased social interaction. Stress also increased aggressive behavior, which was not reversed by fluoxetine or diazepam. These data suggest that the presence of these drugs in aquatic ecosystems causes significant behavioral alterations in fish. PMID:26403161

  8. Effect of Beta vulgaris Linn. Leaves Extract on Anxiety- and Depressive-like Behavior and Oxidative Stress in Mice after Acute Restraint Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulakhiya, Kunjbihari; Patel, Vikas Kumar; Saxena, Rahul; Dashore, Jagrati; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Rathore, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stress plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. Beta vulgaris is commonly known as “beet root” possessing antioxidant, anticancer, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, wound healing, and anti-inflammatory properties. Objective: To study the protective effect of Beta vulgaris Linn. ethanolic extract (BVEE) of leaves against acute restraint stress (ARS)-induced anxiety- and depressive-like behavior and oxidative stress in mice. Materials and Methods: Mice (n = 6) were pretreated with BVEE (100 and 200 mg/kg, p. o.) for 7 days and subjected to ARS for 6 h to induce behavioral and biochemical changes. Anxiety- and depressive-like behavior were measured by using different behavioral paradigms such as open field test (OFT), elevated plus maze (EPM), forced swim test (FST), and tail suspension test (TST) 40 min postARS. Brain homogenate was used to analyze oxidative stress parameters, that is, malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) level. Results: BVEE pretreatment significantly (P < 0.05) reversed the ARS-induced reduction in EPM parameters, that is, percentage entries and time spent in open arms and in OFT parameters, that is, line crossings, and rearings in mice. ARS-induced increase in the immobility time in FST and TST was attenuated significantly (P < 0.05) by BVEE pretreatment at both the dosage. An increase in MDA and depletion of GSH level postARS was prevented significantly (P < 0.05) with BVEE pretreatment at both the dosage (100 and 200 mg/kg). Conclusion: BVEE exhibits anxiolytic and antidepressant activity in stressed mice along with good antioxidant property suggesting its therapeutic potential in the treatment of stress-related psychiatric disorders. SUMMARY Stress plays major role in the pathogenesis of anxiety and depressionARS-induced anxiety- and depressive-like behavior through oxidative damage in miceBVEE pretreatment reversed ARS-induced behavioral changes

  9. Effect of Beta vulgaris Linn. leaves extract on anxiety- and depressive-like behavior and oxidative stress in mice after acute restraint stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunjbihari Sulakhiya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. Beta vulgaris is commonly known as "beet root" possessing antioxidant, anticancer, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, wound healing, and anti-inflammatory properties. Objective: To study the protective effect of Beta vulgaris Linn. ethanolic extract (BVEE of leaves against acute restraint stress (ARS-induced anxiety- and depressive-like behavior and oxidative stress in mice. Materials and Methods: Mice (n = 6 were pretreated with BVEE (100 and 200 mg/kg, p. o. for 7 days and subjected to ARS for 6 h to induce behavioral and biochemical changes. Anxiety- and depressive-like behavior were measured by using different behavioral paradigms such as open field test (OFT, elevated plus maze (EPM, forced swim test (FST, and tail suspension test (TST 40 min postARS. Brain homogenate was used to analyze oxidative stress parameters, that is, malondialdehyde (MDA and reduced glutathione (GSH level. Results: BVEE pretreatment significantly (P < 0.05 reversed the ARS-induced reduction in EPM parameters, that is, percentage entries and time spent in open arms and in OFT parameters, that is, line crossings, and rearings in mice. ARS-induced increase in the immobility time in FST and TST was attenuated significantly (P < 0.05 by BVEE pretreatment at both the dosage. An increase in MDA and depletion of GSH level postARS was prevented significantly (P < 0.05 with BVEE pretreatment at both the dosage (100 and 200 mg/kg. Conclusion: BVEE exhibits anxiolytic and antidepressant activity in stressed mice along with good antioxidant property suggesting its therapeutic potential in the treatment of stress-related psychiatric disorders.

  10. A Randomized Trial of Behavioral Physical Therapy Interventions for Acute and Sub-Acute Low Back Pain (NCT00373867)

    OpenAIRE

    George, Steven Z.; Zeppieri, Giorgio; Cere, Anthony L.; Cere, Melissa R.; Borut, Michael S.; Hodges, Michael J.; Reed, Dalton M.; Valencia, Carolina; Robinson, Michael E.

    2008-01-01

    Psychological factors consistent with fear-avoidance models are associated with the development of chronic low back pain (LBP). As a result, graded activity (GA) and graded exposure (GX) have been suggested as behavioral treatment options. This clinical trial compared the effectiveness of treatment based classification (TBC) physical therapy alone, to TBC augmented with GA or GX for patients with acute and sub-acute LBP. Our primary hypothesis was that GX would be most effective for those wit...

  11. [The dynamics of behavioral and neuroreceptor effects after acute and long-term noopept administration in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, G I; Kondrakhin, E A; Salimov, R M; Neznamov, G G

    2014-01-01

    The effect of acute, 7-fold and 14-fold noopept (1 mg/kg/day) administration on the dynamics of anxiolitic and nootropic behavioral effects in cross-maze, as well as their correlations with NMDA- and BDZ-receptor density was studied in inbred mice strains, differing in exploratory and emotional status--C57BL/6 and BALB/c. The dipeptide failed to affect the anxiety and exploration activity in C57BL/6 mice at each of 3 steps of experimental session. In this strain the B(max) values of [3H]-MK-801 and [3H]-Flunitrazepam binding changed only after single administration. In respect to BALB/c mice noopept induced both the anxiolitic and nootropic effects reaching their maximum on 7th day. In BALB/c strain the dynamics of hippocampal NMDA-receptor binding corresponds to the dynamics of exploratory efficacy whereas the dynamics of BDZ-receptors in prefrontal cortex was reciprocally to dynamics of anxiety level. PMID:25739185

  12. Effect of continuous exposure to apomorphine and acute exposure to fluphenazine-N-mustard on dopaminergic behavior and radioligand binding in supersensitive mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Mice with unilateral, 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesions of the corpus striatum were exposed to continuous infusion of apomorphine via a subcutaneously implanted osmotic pump. The turning response of these mice when challenged with an acute injection of apomorphine was significantly reduced at one day after chronic implantation and was totally absent at two and four days after implantation. This effect of continuous exposure to apomorphine was found to be concentration- and time-dependent as well as reversible when the implant was removed. Mice tolerant to apomorphine were cross-tolerant to the rotational effects of the D{sub 1} dopaminergic agonist SKF 38393 and the D{sub 2} dopaminergic agonist Ly 171555, but not to amphetamine. Continuous exposure to apomorphine resulted in a decrease in the binding of ({sup 3}H)spiroperidol (D{sub 2} sites) by 44%, whereas the binding of ({sup 3}H)SCH 23390 (D{sub 1} sites) was not affected. Fluphenazine-N-mustard (FNM) has been shown to bind irreversibly to dopaminergic sites. Experiments using varying doses of FNM demonstrated that FNM inhibited Ly 171555-induced rotational behavior at doses ten fold lower than those required to block rotations induced by SKF 38393. In vitro, FNM inhibited the specific binding of ({sup 3}H) spiroperidol at concentrations ten fold lower than those required to inhibit the binding of ({sup 3}H)Sch23390. In vivo, FNM inhibited the binding of ({sup 3}H) spiroperidol measured ex vivo, but did not inhibit the binding of ({sup 3}H) Sch 23390, even when given in doses as high as 100 mg/kg. These studies indicate that FNM was approximately ten times more potent at inhibiting D{sub 2} than D{sub 1} mediated behavior and at displacing D{sub 2} versus D{sub 1} ligands, suggesting that FNM may be useful for studying and differentiating D{sub 2} and D{sub 1} mediated events.

  13. Efficacy and safety comparison of DL-3-n-butylphthalide and Cerebrolysin: Effects on neurological and behavioral outcomes in acute ischemic stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Li-Xia; Zhang, Ting; Zhao, Yu-Wu; Geng, Zhi; CHEN Jing-jiong; Chen, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Cerebrolysin and DL-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) have each shown neuroprotective efficacy in preclinical models of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and passed clinical trials as therapeutic drugs for AIS. The present study was a clinical trial to assess and compare the efficacy and safety of NBP and Cerebrolysin in the reduction of neurological and behavioral disability following AIS. A randomized, double-blind trial was conducted with enrolment of 60 patients within 12 h of AIS. In addition to routin...

  14. Strain-dependent effects of acute caffeine on anxiety-related behavior in PVG/c, Long-Evans and Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert N; Hancock, Nicola J

    2016-01-01

    To assess the possibility that acute caffeine's behavioral action might depend on rats' strain, effects of 50mg/kg of the drug were observed on activity, anxiety-related behavior and habituation learning in male and female rats from three different strains, namely PVG/c, Long-Evans and Wistar. All subjects were tested in an open field, an elevated plus maze and a light-dark box. For the three strains combined, increased occupancy of the center of the open field and entries of the open plus-maze arms with caffeine suggested caffeine-induced anxiolysis, whereas increased grooming in the open field, decreased rearing in the plus maze and increased risk assessment in the light-dark box were consistent with anxiogenesis. Caffeine also reduced open-field rearing only for PVG/c rats, and entries into and occupation of the light side of the light-dark box only for Long-Evans rats, and increased total defecation in the three types of apparatus for all three strains combined. Overall, caffeine appeared to be mainly anxiogenic. The drug also increased open-field ambulation for PVG/c rats and walking for all rats, but decreased open-field ambulation and entries into the plus maze closed arms for Wistar rats alone. In general, Wistar rats appeared to be the least and Long-Evans the most anxious of the three strains investigated. Caffeine also decreased within-session habituation of open-field ambulation for PVG/c rats alone, thereby suggesting strain-dependent interference with non-associative learning and short-term memory. Several overall sex differences were also observed that supported female rats being more active and less anxious than males. PMID:26577750

  15. Strain-dependent effects of acute caffeine on anxiety-related behavior in PVG/c, Long-Evans and Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert N; Hancock, Nicola J

    2016-01-01

    To assess the possibility that acute caffeine's behavioral action might depend on rats' strain, effects of 50mg/kg of the drug were observed on activity, anxiety-related behavior and habituation learning in male and female rats from three different strains, namely PVG/c, Long-Evans and Wistar. All subjects were tested in an open field, an elevated plus maze and a light-dark box. For the three strains combined, increased occupancy of the center of the open field and entries of the open plus-maze arms with caffeine suggested caffeine-induced anxiolysis, whereas increased grooming in the open field, decreased rearing in the plus maze and increased risk assessment in the light-dark box were consistent with anxiogenesis. Caffeine also reduced open-field rearing only for PVG/c rats, and entries into and occupation of the light side of the light-dark box only for Long-Evans rats, and increased total defecation in the three types of apparatus for all three strains combined. Overall, caffeine appeared to be mainly anxiogenic. The drug also increased open-field ambulation for PVG/c rats and walking for all rats, but decreased open-field ambulation and entries into the plus maze closed arms for Wistar rats alone. In general, Wistar rats appeared to be the least and Long-Evans the most anxious of the three strains investigated. Caffeine also decreased within-session habituation of open-field ambulation for PVG/c rats alone, thereby suggesting strain-dependent interference with non-associative learning and short-term memory. Several overall sex differences were also observed that supported female rats being more active and less anxious than males.

  16. Effect of Allopregnenalone (AP and 4′-Chlorodiazepam (4′CD on the Lindane-induced acute and chronic convulsive behavior in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Tanwar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Neurosteroids (NS are considered important modulators of brain functions. Lindane a pesticide has been shown to affect the nerv-ous system adversely. The present study was designed to explore the modulation of the effects of lindane on convulsions by Allopregnenalone (AP, and 4′-Chlorodiazepam (4′-CD, in both acute and chronic seizure models using Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ. We used acute and chronic models. In the acute model, seizures were induced by PTZ 90mg/kg, intra-peritoneal (i.p. injection, while in the chronic model, kindling was induced by injecting PTZ 30 mg/kg sub-cutaneous(s.c on alternate days three times in a week. Lindane produced augmented effect on convulsions by decreasing the onset of preclonic convulsions and increased duration of clonic convulsions. AP (2.5mg/kg, i.p and 4′-CD (0.5mg/kg, i.p were able to attenuate the effect of acute as well as chronic exposure of lindane. They significantly increased the onset and decreased the duration of convulsions in lindane-treated rats. These results conclusively demonstrate the efficacy of the neurosteroids in lindane-induced convulsions in both acute as well as chronic models. Thus, NS have a potential role as anticonvulsant in treatment of convulsions produced by pesticides like lindane.

  17. Effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate on acute lethality and avoidance behavior of earthworm%PFOS对蚯蚓急性毒性和回避行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐冬梅; 文岳中; 李立; 钟旭初

    2011-01-01

    全氟辛烷磺酰基化合物(PFOS)作为一种新型持久性有机污染物,已经成为环境科学和毒理学的研究热点,其对生态环境的影响值得深入研究.本文采用OECD标准滤纸接触法、人工土壤法及自然土壤法研究了PFOS对蚯蚓急性致死作用及回避行为的影响.结果表明:PFOS对蚯蚓的急性毒性作用与染毒时间和染毒浓度相关,试验求得滤纸法48h、人工土壤法14d和自然土壤法14d的LC50值分别为13.64μg·cm-2、955.28mg·kg-1和542.08mg·kg-1;人工土壤和自然土壤中蚯蚓在PFOS的最大试验浓度组160mg·kg-1,中均表现出显著的回避行为,表明蚯蚓可以明显感知较高浓度PFOS污染土壤并作出回避反应.与急性毒性试验的测试终点LC50,相比,蚯蚓行为测试终点对PFOS的反应更为敏感.自然土壤中PFOS对蚯蚓的急性毒性大于人工土壤,相同浓度PFOS作用下,蚯蚓于自然土壤中的回避行为较人工土壤明显.%As a new kind of persistent organic pollutants, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has become a research spot of environmental science and toxicology.Its impacts on ecological environment should be deeply studied.In this paper, standard contact filter paper test of OECD, artificial soil test, and natural soil test were adopted to study the effects of PFOS on the acute lethality and avoidance behavior of earthworm.The results showed that the acute toxicity of PFOS on earthworm was related to the toxicant exposure time and concentration.The LC50,48 h in filter paper test,LC50, 14 d in artificial soil test, and LC50, 14 d in natural soil test were 13.64 μg · cm-2, 955.28 mg· kg-1, and 542.08 mg· kg-1, respectively.At the maximum test concentration of 160 mg·kg-1 , the earthworm in artificial soil and natural soil showed significant avoidance behavior, which proved that earthworm could perceive and avoid the soil contaminated by a higher concentration of PFOS.To assess PFOS-contaminated soils, the

  18. Acute effects of nicotine amplify accumbal neural responses during nicotine-taking behavior and nicotine-paired environmental cues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Guillem

    Full Text Available Nicotine self-administration (SA is maintained by several variables, including the reinforcing properties of nicotine-paired cues and the nicotine-induced amplification of those cue properties. The nucleus accumbens (NAc is implicated in mediating the influence of these variables, though the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms are not yet understood. In the present study, Long-Evans rats were trained to self-administer nicotine. During SA sessions each press of a lever was followed by an intravenous infusion of nicotine (30 µg/kg paired with a combined light-tone cue. Extracellular recordings of single-neuron activity showed that 20% of neurons exhibited a phasic change in firing during the nicotine-directed operant, the light-tone cue, or both. The phasic change in firing for 98% of neurons was an increase. Sixty-two percent of NAc neurons additionally or alternatively showed a sustained decrease in average firing during the SA session relative to a presession baseline period. These session decreases in firing were significantly less prevalent in a group of neurons that were activated during either the operant or the cue than in a group of neurons that were nonresponsive during those events (referred to as task-activated and task-nonactivated neurons, respectively. Moreover, the session decrease in firing was dose-dependent for only the task-nonactivated neurons. The data of the present investigation provide supportive correlational evidence for two hypotheses: (1 excitatory neurophysiological mechanisms mediate the NAc role in cue-maintenance of nicotine SA, and (2 a differential nicotine-induced inhibition of task-activated and task-nonactivated neurons mediates the NAc role in nicotine-induced amplification of cue effects on nicotine SA.

  19. Acute marijuana effects on human risk taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Scott D; Cherek, Don R; Tcheremissine, Oleg V; Lieving, Lori M; Pietras, Cythia J

    2005-04-01

    Previous studies have established a relationship between marijuana use and risky behavior in natural settings. A limited number of laboratory investigations of marijuana effects on human risk taking have been conducted. The present study was designed to examine the acute effects of smoked marijuana on human risk taking, and to identify behavioral mechanisms that may be involved in drug-induced changes in the probability of risky behavior. Using a laboratory measure of risk taking designed to address acute drug effects, 10 adults were administered placebo cigarettes and three doses of active marijuana cigarettes (half placebo and half 1.77%; 1.77%; and 3.58% Delta9-THC) in a within-subject repeated-measures experimental design. The risk-taking task presented subjects with a choice between two response options operationally defined as risky and nonrisky. Data analyses examined cardiovascular and subjective effects, response rates, distribution of choices between the risky and nonrisky option, and first-order transition probabilities of trial-by-trial data. The 3.58% THC dose increased selection of the risky response option, and uniquely shifted response probabilities following both winning and losing outcomes following selection of the risky option. Acute marijuana administration thereby produced measurable changes in risky decision making under laboratory conditions. Consistent with previous risk-taking studies, shifts in trial-by-trial response probabilities at the highest dose suggested a change in sensitivity to both reinforced and losing risky outcomes. Altered sensitivity to consequences may be a mechanism in drug-induced changes in risk taking. Possible neurobiological sites of action related to THC are discussed.

  20. Acute behavioral toxicity of carbaryl and propoxur in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, P H; Cook, L L; Dean, K F; Reiter, L W

    1983-04-01

    Motor activity and neuromotor function were examined in adult CD rats exposed to either carbaryl or propoxur, and behavioral effects were compared with the time course of cholinesterase inhibition. Rats received an IP injection of either 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8 mg/kg propoxur or 0, 4, 8, 16 or 28 mg/kg carbaryl in corn oil 20 min before testing. All doses of propoxur reduced 2 hr activity in a figure-eight maze, and crossovers and rears in an open field. For carbaryl, dosages of 8, 16 and 28 mg/kg decreased maze activity whereas 16 and 28 mg/kg reduced open field activity. In order to determine the time course of effects, rats received a single IP injection of either corn oil, 2 mg/kg propoxur or 16 mg/kg carbaryl, and were tested for 5 min in a figure-eight maze either 15, 30, 60, 120 or 240 min post-injection. Immediately after testing, animals were sacrificed and total cholinesterase was measured. Maximum effects of propoxur and carbaryl on blood and brain cholinesterase and motor activity were seen within 15 min. Maze activity had returned to control levels within 30 and 60 min whereas cholinesterase levels remained depressed for 120 and 240 min for propoxur and carbaryl, respectively. These results indicate that both carbamates decrease motor activity, but behavioral recovery occurs prior to that of cholinesterase following acute exposure.

  1. Acute stress modulates genotype effects on amygdala processing in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Cousijn, Helena; Rijpkema, Mark; Qin, Shaozheng; van Marle, Hein J. F.; Franke, Barbara; Hermans, Erno J.; van Wingen, Guido; Fernández, Guillén

    2010-01-01

    Probing gene–environment interactions that affect neural processing is crucial for understanding individual differences in behavior and disease vulnerability. Here, we tested whether the current environmental context, which affects the acute brain state, modulates genotype effects on brain function in humans. We manipulated the context by inducing acute psychological stress, which increases noradrenergic activity, and probed its effect on tonic activity and phasic responses in the amygdala us...

  2. Glucose Effect in the Acute Porphyrias

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home Diet and Nutrition The glucose effect in acute porphyrias The disorders Acute Intermittent ... are treated initially with the administration of carbohydrate/glucose. This therapy has its basis in the ability ...

  3. Understanding prehospital delay behavior in acute myocardial infarction in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Cynthia G

    2006-12-01

    Studies demonstrate that acute myocardial infarction (AMI) mortality can be reduced if reperfusion therapy is initiated within 1 hour of AMI symptom onset. However, a considerable number of men and women arrive at the emergency department outside of the time frame for thrombolytic and angioplasty effectiveness. This is especially true for women who have been shown to delay longer than men due to their prehospital decision-making process utilized. With a mean total delay time greater than 4 hours, the time interval from symptom onset to transport activation to the hospital consumes the majority of the prehospital phase of emergency cardiac care. The health belief model, self-regulation model, theory of reasoned action, and theory of planned behavior have all been used to describe the prehospital decision-making process of both men and women with an AMI and the variables that impact that process. These models have identified the importance of symptom attribution to cardiac-related causes as a target variable for research and interventions related to care-seeking behavior. PMID:18340239

  4. Investigating Metacognition, Cognition, and Behavioral Deficits of College Students with Acute Traumatic Brain Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Sarah; Davalos, Deana

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Executive dysfunction in college students who have had an acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) was investigated. The cognitive, behavioral, and metacognitive effects on college students who endorsed experiencing a brain injury were specifically explored. Participants: Participants were 121 college students who endorsed a mild TBI, and 121…

  5. Effects of reproductive status on behavioral and endocrine responses to acute stress in a biparental rodent, the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Chauke, Miyetani; Malisch, Jessica L.; Robinson, Cymphonee; de Jong, Trynke R.; Saltzman, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    In several mammalian species, lactating females show blunted neural, hormonal, and behavioral responses to stressors. It is not known whether new fathers also show stress hyporesponsiveness in species in which males provide infant care. To test this possibility, we determined the effects of male and female reproductive status on stress responsiveness in the biparental, monogamous California mouse (Peromyscus californicus).Breeding (N=8 females, 8 males), nonbreeding (N=10 females, 10 males) a...

  6. Cannabinoids & Stress: impact of HU-210 on behavioral tests of anxiety in acutely stressed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinden, Renee; Zhang, Xia

    2015-05-01

    Anxiety disorders are one of the most prevalent classes of mental disorders affecting the general population, but current treatment strategies are restricted by their limited efficacy and side effect profiles. Although the cannabinoid system is speculated to be a key player in the modulation of stress responses and emotionality, the vast majority of current research initiatives had not incorporated stress exposure into their experimental designs. This study was the first to investigate the impact of exogenous cannabinoid administration in an acutely stressed mouse model, where CD1 mice were pre-treated with HU-210, a potent CB1R agonist, prior to acute stress exposure and subsequent behavioral testing. Exogenous cannabinoid administration induced distinct behavioral phenotypes in stressed and unstressed mice. While low doses of HU-210 were anxiolytic in unstressed subjects, this effect was abolished when mice were exposed to an acute stressor. The administration of higher HU-210 doses in combination with acute stress exposure led to severe locomotor deficits that were not previously observed at the same dose in unstressed subjects. These findings suggest that exogenous cannabinoids and acute stress act synergistically in an anxiogenic manner. This study underlies the importance of including stress exposure into future anxiety-cannabinoid research due to the differential impact of cannabinoid administration on stressed and unstressed subjects.

  7. OSO paradigm--A rapid behavioral screening method for acute psychosocial stress reactivity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzózka, M M; Unterbarnscheidt, T; Schwab, M H; Rossner, M J

    2016-02-01

    Chronic psychosocial stress is an important environmental risk factor for the development of psychiatric diseases. However, studying the impact of chronic psychosocial stress in mice is time consuming and thus not optimally suited to 'screen' increasing numbers of genetically manipulated mouse models for psychiatric endophenotypes. Moreover, many studies focus on restraint stress, a strong physical stressor with limited relevance for psychiatric disorders. Here, we describe a simple and a rapid method based on the resident-intruder paradigm to examine acute effects of mild psychosocial stress in mice. The OSO paradigm (open field--social defeat--open field) compares behavioral consequences on locomotor activity, anxiety and curiosity before and after exposure to acute social defeat stress. We first evaluated OSO in male C57Bl/6 wildtype mice where a single episode of social defeat reduced locomotor activity, increased anxiety and diminished exploratory behavior. Subsequently, we applied the OSO paradigm to mouse models of two schizophrenia (SZ) risk genes. Transgenic mice with neuronal overexpression of Neuregulin-1 (Nrg1) type III showed increased risk-taking behavior after acute stress exposure suggesting that NRG1 dysfunction is associated with altered affective behavior. In contrast, Tcf4 transgenic mice displayed a normal stress response which is in line with the postulated predominant contribution of TCF4 to cognitive deficits of SZ. In conclusion, the OSO paradigm allows for rapid screening of selected psychosocial stress-induced behavioral endophenotypes in mouse models of psychiatric diseases.

  8. Acute Toxicity and the Effects of Copper Sulphate (CuSO4.5H2O on the Behavior of the Black Fish (Capoeta Fusca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Zarei

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The development of toxicity tests regarding toxic responses of different fish species could be more effectively used in predictive toxicology and risk assessment. In this study lethal concentrations (LC50-96 h values of copper sulphate; an important toxic industrial pollutant, on Capoeta fusca were determined. Behavioral changes at different concentrations of CuSO4 were determined for the C.fusca. Methods: The sample fishes were collected from Qanat in Birjand and were transported to the laboratory in polythene bags. The exposure time of fish to CuSO4 was 96 hours. Mortalities were recorded at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours of exposure, and the dead fish were removed regularly from the test aquariums. Physicochemical parameters, such as dissolved oxygen, pH and Total hardness of aquaria were monitored daily. Results: The LC50 values for CuSO4 at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of exposure, were 43.62, 12.6, 7.66, and 6.85 mg/L, respectively. The median LC50 value of CuSO4 for C.fusca was found to be 6.928 mg/L by EPA method and estimated to be 6.787 mg/L with SPSS statistical software. Conclusion: The mortality decreased with time, and most of the deaths occurred during the first 24 h. In addition, behavioural changes increased with increased concentration. This metal is an important constituent in industrial effluents discharged into freshwaters. The results obtained in this study clearly revealed the fact that it is necessary to control the use of a heavy metal such as copper.

  9. Copper acutely impairs behavioral function and muscle acetylcholinesterase activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverroth, Gabriela M B; Welang, Chariane; Mocelin, Riciéri N; Postay, Daniela; Bertoncello, Kanandra T; Franscescon, Francini; Rosemberg, Denis B; Dal Magro, Jacir; Dalla Corte, Cristiane L

    2015-12-01

    Copper is a heavy metal found at relatively high concentrations in surface waters around the world. Copper is a micronutrient at low concentrations and is essential to several organisms. At higher concentrations copper can become toxic, which reveal the importance of studying the toxic effects of this metal on the aquatic life. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the toxic effects of copper on the behavior and biochemical parameters of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish were exposed for 24h at a concentration of 0.006 mg/L Cu. After the exposure period, behavioral profile of animals was recorded through 6 min using two different apparatuses tests: the Novel Tank and the Light-Dark test. After behavioral testing, animals were euthanized with a solution of 250 mg/L of tricaine (MS-222). Brain, muscle, liver and gills were extracted for analysis of parameters related to oxidative stress and accumulation of copper in these tissues. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was determined in brain and muscle. Results showed acute exposure to copper induces significant changes in behavioral profile of zebrafish by changing locomotion and natural tendency to avoid brightly lit area. On the other hand, there were no significant effects on parameters related to oxidative stress. AChE activity decreased significantly in zebrafish muscle, but there were no significant changes in cerebral AChE activity. Copper levels in tissues did not increase significantly compared to the controls. Taken together, these results indicate that a low concentration of copper can acutely affect behavioral profile of adult zebrafish which could be partially related to an inhibition on muscle AChE activity. These results reinforce the need of additional tests to establishment of safe copper concentrations to aquatic organisms and the importance of behavioral parameters in ecotoxicological studies.

  10. Protective Effect of Melatonin on Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Jaworek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin, a product of the pineal gland, is released from the gut mucosa in response to food ingestion. Specific receptors for melatonin have been detected in many gastrointestinal tissues including the pancreas. Melatonin as well as its precursor, L-tryptophan, attenuates the severity of acute pancreatitis and protects the pancreatic tissue from the damage caused by acute inflammation. The beneficial effect of melatonin on acute pancreatitis, which has been reported in many experimental studies and supported by clinical observations, is related to: (1 enhancement of antioxidant defense of the pancreatic tissue, through direct scavenging of toxic radical oxygen (ROS and nitrogen (RNS species, (2 preservation of the activity of antioxidant enzymes; such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, or glutathione peroxidase (GPx, (3 the decline of pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis α (TNFα production, accompanied by stimulation of an anti-inflammatory IL-10, (4 improvement of pancreatic blood flow and decrease of neutrophil infiltration, (5 reduction of apoptosis and necrosis in the inflamed pancreatic tissue, (6 increased production of chaperon protein (HSP60, and (7 promotion of regenerative process in the pancreas. Conclusion. Endogenous melatonin produced from L-tryptophan could be one of the native mechanisms protecting the pancreas from acute damage and accelerating regeneration of this gland. The beneficial effects of melatonin shown in experimental studies suggest that melatonin ought to be employed in the clinical trials as a supportive therapy in acute pancreatitis and could be used in people at high risk for acute pancreatitis to prevent the development of pancreatic inflammation.

  11. Acute marijuana effects on social conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, S T; Stitzer, M L

    1986-01-01

    The present study assessed the acute effects of smoked marijuana on social conversation. Speech quantity was recorded continuously in seven moderate marijuana users during separate 1 h experimental sessions following the paced smoking of 0, 1.01, 1.84, and 2.84% THC marijuana cigarettes. Subjects engaged in conversation with undrugged partners who smoked placebo marijuana cigarettes. The active marijuana produced significant decreases in speech quantity, increases in heart rate, and increases in self-reports of "high" and sedation. Partners showed no effects in speech quantity or self-reports of drug effects that were systematically related to the doses administered to the subject pair members. The effects on speech quantity observed in the present study after acute dosing are similar to the effects on social conversation reported previously during chronic marijuana dosing. Marijuana appears to be an exception to the general rule that drugs of abuse increase verbal interaction.

  12. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenberg, Eduardo Ekman; Alexandre, João Felipe Morel; Filev, Renato; Cravo, Andre Mascioli; Sato, João Ricardo; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D; Yonamine, Maurício; Waguespack, Marian; Lomnicka, Izabela; Barker, Steven A; da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8-13 Hz) after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30-50 and 50-100 Hz, respectively) between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca's chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered. PMID:26421727

  13. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ekman Schenberg

    Full Text Available Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8-13 Hz after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30-50 and 50-100 Hz, respectively between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca's chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT, harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered.

  14. ACUTE BEHAVIORAL CHANGES IN THE GUPPY (Poecilia reticulata) EXPOSED TO TEMEPHOS

    OpenAIRE

    SELVİ, Mahmut; SARIKAYA, Rabia; Erkoç, Figen

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Temephos  is an organophosphorus  insecticide used to control mosquito, midge and black fly larvae. This  study was aimed to determine the acute toxicity of temephos on behavior of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) were selected for the bioassay experiments. Behavioral changes at each temephos concentration were recorded. The experiments were repeated 3 times. The 96 h acute toxicity range of temephos to adult male guppies was within 10 ...

  15. Effects of melatonin in experimental stroke models in acute, sub-acute, and chronic stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Wen Lin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Hsiao-Wen Lin, E-Jian LeeNeurophysiology Laboratory, Neurosurgical Service, Department of Surgery, National Cheng Kung University Medical Center and Medical School, Tainan, TaiwanAbstract: Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxy-tryptamine, a naturally occurring indole produced mainly by the pineal gland, is a well known antioxidant. Stroke (cerebral ischemia is the second leading cause of death worldwide. To date, however, effective and safe treatment for stroke remains unavailable. Melatonin is both lipid- and water-soluble and readily crosses the blood–brain barrier (BBB. Increasing evidence has shown that, in animal stroke models, administering melatonin significantly reduces infarct volume, edema, and oxidative damage and improves electrophysiological and behavioral performance. Here, we reviewed studies that assess effects of melatonin on cerebral ischemia in acute, sub-acute, and chronic stages. In addition to its potent antioxidant properties, melatonin exerts antiapoptotic, antiexcitotoxic, anti-inflammatory effects and promotes mitochondrial functions in animals with cerebral ischemia. Given that melatonin shows almost no toxicity to humans and possesses multifaceted protective capacity against cerebral ischemia, it is valuable to consider using melatonin in clinical trials on patients suffering from stroke.Keywords: cerebral ischemia, melatonin, stroke, neuroprotection

  16. Programmed acute electrical stimulation of ventral tegmental area alleviates depressive-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Alexander; Frankel, Michael; Flaumenhaft, Yakov; Merenlender, Avia; Pinhasov, Albert; Feder, Yuval; Taler, Michal; Gil-Ad, Irit; Abeles, Moshe; Yadid, Gal

    2009-03-01

    Depressive disorders affect approximately 5% of the population in any given year. Antidepressants may require several weeks to produce their clinical effects. Despite progress being made in this area there is still room and a need to explore additional therapeutic modes to increase treatment effectiveness and responsiveness. Herein, we examined a new method for intervention in depressive states based on deep brain stimulation of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) as a source of incentive motivation and hedonia, in comparison to chemical antidepressants. The pattern of stimulation was fashioned to mimic the firing pattern of VTA neurons in the normal rat. Behavioral manifestations of depression were then monitored weekly using a battery of behavioral tests. The results suggest that treatment with programmed acute electrical stimulation of the VTA substantially alleviates depressive behavior, as compared to chemical antidepressants or electroconvulsive therapy, both in onset time and longitudinal effect. These results were also highly correlated with increases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA levels in the prefrontal cortex. PMID:18843267

  17. Effective strategies for behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Thoesen; Pasternak, Ryan H

    2012-06-01

    Strategies that are most effective in both prevention and management of chronic disease consider factors such as age, ethnicity, community, and technology. Most behavioral change strategies derive their components from application of the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action/theory of planned behavior, transtheoretical model, and social cognitive theory. Many tools such as the readiness ruler and personalized action plan form are available to assist health care teams to facilitate healthy behavior change. Primary care providers can support behavior changes by providing venues for peer interventions and family meetings and by making new partnerships with community organizations. PMID:22608867

  18. Effective strategies for behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Thoesen; Pasternak, Ryan H

    2012-06-01

    Strategies that are most effective in both prevention and management of chronic disease consider factors such as age, ethnicity, community, and technology. Most behavioral change strategies derive their components from application of the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action/theory of planned behavior, transtheoretical model, and social cognitive theory. Many tools such as the readiness ruler and personalized action plan form are available to assist health care teams to facilitate healthy behavior change. Primary care providers can support behavior changes by providing venues for peer interventions and family meetings and by making new partnerships with community organizations.

  19. Executive Function, Coping, and Behavior in Survivors of Childhood Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia*

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Laura K.; Scaduto, Mary; Van Slyke, Deborah; Niarhos, Frances; Whitlock, James A.; Compas, Bruce E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the role of executive function in coping and behavioral outcomes in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) survivors. Methods We examined associations among several domains of executive function (working memory, behavioral inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and self-monitoring), coping, and emotional/behavioral problems in 30 children and adolescents ages 10- to 20-years old who completed treatment for ALL and 30 healthy controls matched on age and sex. Results We fou...

  20. Effects of acute aerobic exercise on motor response inhibition: An ERP study using the stop-signal task

    OpenAIRE

    Chien-Heng Chu; Alderman, Brandon L.; Gao-Xia Wei; Yu-Kai Chang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of acute exercise on motor response inhibition using both behavioral and electrophysiological approaches. Methods: The P3 and N1 event-related potential (ERP) components were recorded while performing a stop-signal task in 21 college students following a moderately intense acute exercise bout for 30 min and a sedentary control session that involved reading. Results: Acute exercise induced a shorter stop signal response time...

  1. Acute and phase-shifting effects of ocular and extraocular light in human circadian physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruger, M; Gordijn, MCM; Beersma, DGM; de Vries, B; Daan, S

    2003-01-01

    Light can influence physiology and performance of humans in two distinct ways. It can acutely change the level of physiological and behavioral parameters, and it can induce a phase shift in the circadian oscillators underlying variations in these levels. Until recently, both effects were thought to

  2. Quantifying fish swimming behavior in response to acute exposure of aqueous copper using computer assisted video and digital image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, Robin D.; Puglis, Holly J.; Little, Edward E.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral responses of aquatic organisms to environmental contaminants can be precursors of other effects such as survival, growth, or reproduction. However, these responses may be subtle, and measurement can be challenging. Using juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) with copper exposures, this paper illustrates techniques used for quantifying behavioral responses using computer assisted video and digital image analysis. In previous studies severe impairments in swimming behavior were observed among early life stage white sturgeon during acute and chronic exposures to copper. Sturgeon behavior was rapidly impaired and to the extent that survival in the field would be jeopardized, as fish would be swept downstream, or readily captured by predators. The objectives of this investigation were to illustrate protocols to quantify swimming activity during a series of acute copper exposures to determine time to effect during early lifestage development, and to understand the significance of these responses relative to survival of these vulnerable early lifestage fish. With mortality being on a time continuum, determining when copper first affects swimming ability helps us to understand the implications for population level effects. The techniques used are readily adaptable to experimental designs with other organisms and stressors.

  3. Comparison of the effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on metabolic features in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatemeh ROSTAMKHANI; Homeira ZARDOOZ; Saleh ZAHEDIASL; Babak FARROKHI

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed to compare the effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on metabolic factors.Forty-two male Wistar rats were divided into control and stressed groups.Stress was applied by a communication box acutely (1 d) and chronically (15 and 30 d).Blood sampling was carried out by retro-orbital-puncture method.The plasma levels of glucose,cholesterol,triglyceride,insulin,and corticosterone were measured.In addition,feed and water intake,latency to eat and drink,adrenal and body weights were determined.Acute and chronic psychological stress did not significantly change basal plasma corticosterone levels.However,immediately (1 min) after acute exposure to stress,plasma corticosterone level increased compared to that before stress exposure.Acute stress increased plasma insulin levels significantly.Fifteen days of stress exposure resulted in plasma glucose increase.Chronic stress significantly increased feed intake,latency to eat,and adrenal weight compared to acute stress.The body weights of both control and stressed groups increased markedly during the experiment.Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index did not change significantly in the stressed group.In conclusion,application of acute and chronic psychological stress leads to different metabolic and/or behavioral changes but the metabolic changes resulting from acute exposure to stress seem to be more pronounced.

  4. The Additive Benefit of Hypnosis and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Treating Acute Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Richard A.; Moulds, Michelle L.; Guthrie, Rachel M.; Nixon, Reginald D. V.

    2005-01-01

    This research represents the first controlled treatment study of hypnosis and cognitive- behavioral therapy (CBT) of acute stress disorder (ASD). Civilian trauma survivors (N = 87) who met criteria for ASD were randomly allocated to 6 sessions of CBT, CBT combined with hypnosis (CBT-hypnosis), or supportive counseling (SC). CBT comprised exposure,…

  5. Effect of passive smoking on the behavior and emotion of rats with acute sleep deprivation%被动吸烟对急性睡眠剥夺大鼠行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻秋珺; 赵晶; 刘芳娥; 李静; 朱伟军; 李小康

    2006-01-01

    组大鼠行为和情绪的变化.结果:纳人大鼠49只,最终进入结果分析49只,无脱失值.①大鼠情绪状态观察结果:实验结束后观察显示,睡眠剥夺+被动吸烟24 h组较睡眠剥夺24 h组,睡眠剥夺+被动吸烟54 h组较睡眠剥夺54 h组,睡眠剥夺54 h组较睡眠剥夺24 h组情绪低靡,蜷缩喜静,对外界刺激不敏感,反应冷漠,对其他鼠的攻击行为较少.②旷场实验测试结果:睡眠剥夺24 h组距旷场中心的平均距离明显小于空白对照组及睡眠剥夺+被动吸烟24 h组[(53.93±1.83,58.21±4.45,58.11±1.62)cm,(P<0.01~0.05)],睡眠剥夺54 h组距旷场中心平均距离明显大于睡眠剥夺24 h组[(61.53±3.02,58.11±1.62)cm,(P<0.01)],睡眠剥夺24 h组的运动总距离明显大于睡眠剥夺+被动吸烟24h组及空白对照组[(3 310.45±1 445.97,1 818.20±733.25,2 338.15±694.70)cm,(P<0.01~0.05)],睡眠剥夺54 h组运动总距离明显大于睡眠剥夺+被动吸烟54 h组,小于睡眠剥夺24h组[(2410.70±548.64,1 473.50±945.89,3 310.45±1445.97)cm,(P<0.05)].结论:大鼠的行为和情绪反应随睡眠剥夺时间的延长呈现先兴奋后抑制的趋势,而被动吸烟在整个大鼠睡眠剥夺过程中对大鼠的行为和情绪状态起抑制作用.%BACKGROUND:Sleep deprivation, resulting in a series of physiological and psychological reactions, is a common phenomenon in our modem society. Recently, many physical and medical therapies are on their way to eliminate the negative influence the sleep deprivation exerted on our human beings, and a large number of cigarette smokers believe that cigarette smoke can obviously improve their abnormal behavioral performance and negative emotional fluctuation caused by sleep deprivation in short terms.However, there are few researches but many disputes when it comes to effect of passive smoking on the behavior and emotion of rats on the occasion of acute sleep deprivation.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of passive smoking (PS) on the

  6. Effect of acute ethanol administration on zebrafish tail-beat motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini, Tiziana; Mwaffo, Violet; Butail, Sachit; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-11-01

    Zebrafish is becoming a species of choice in neurobiological and behavioral studies of alcohol-related disorders. In these efforts, the activity of adult zebrafish is typically quantified using indirect activity measures that are either scored manually or identified automatically from the fish trajectory. The analysis of such activity measures has produced important insight into the effect of acute ethanol exposure on individual and social behavior of this vertebrate species. Here, we leverage a recently developed tracking algorithm that reconstructs fish body shape to investigate the effect of acute ethanol administration on zebrafish tail-beat motion in terms of amplitude and frequency. Our results demonstrate a significant effect of ethanol on the tail-beat amplitude as well as the tail-beat frequency, both of which were found to robustly decrease for high ethanol concentrations. Such a direct measurement of zebrafish motor functions is in agreement with evidence based on indirect activity measures, offering a complementary perspective in behavioral screening.

  7. Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Intervention on Anxiety and Depression of Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome%认知行为干预对急性冠脉综合征患者焦虑抑郁的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨亚佳; 陆群峰; 曾莉

    2013-01-01

    [目的]通过对急性冠脉综合征(Acute Coronary Syndrome,ACS)患者进行心理状态评估及干预,评价认知行为干预在ACS患者护理中的作用.[方法]本研究连续选取2011年10月至2012年2月期间,在同济大学附属第十人民医院CCU住院的174例ACS患者,分为干预组和对照组,在各组中进行临床特点比较,完成抑郁自评量表(SDS)和焦虑自评量表(SAS)测评,干预组进行认知行为干预3个月后进行再次心理评估,观察SDS、SAS分值变化以及预后情况.[结果]在ACS患者中进行干预对照研究结果显示,干预组患者的临床症状缓解较对照组明显,且二次心理量表测评抑郁焦虑程度较前明显好转.[结论]ACS患者中有相当一部分存在焦虑抑郁情绪,认知行为干预对其症状缓解起到积极作用,需重视认知行为干预.%[Objective] To assess the role of cognitive behavior intervention in the nursing of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) through the evaluation and intervention of mental state of ACS patients. [Methods] In the study, 174 ACS inpatients in CCU of the tenth people's hospital affiliated to Tongji university from Oct. 2011 to Feb. 2012 were continuously chosen. All patients were divided into intervention group and control group. Clinical characteristics were compared between two groups. Self-rating depression scale (SDS ) and self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) assessment were completed. Psychological assessment was performed for the intervention group 3 months after cognitive behavioral intervention. The changes of SDS and SAS scores and prognosis were observed. [Results] The results of the comparative study of the intervention for ACS patients showed that the remission of clinical symptoms of patients in intervention group was more obvious than that in control group, and anxiety and depression by two psychological assessments were improved compared with before intervention SDS score: 0. 468±0. 069 vs 0. 437±0. 067, P =0

  8. The Effects of Acute Stress on Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    OpenAIRE

    KUBİLAY, Ayşegül

    2002-01-01

    The physiological effects of acute stressors (transport, handling, netting and confinement) on rainbow trout in an aquaculture system were investigated. Serum cortisol level, serum glucose and lysozyme activity were determined in rainbow trout stressed by acute stressors, and compared with those of unstressed (control) fish. Serum cortisol, glucose levels and lysozyme activity were significantly higher(P

  9. Acute and long-term psychiatric side effects of mefloquine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringqvist, Åsa; Bech, Per; Glenthøj, Birte;

    2015-01-01

    ), and vitality (VT) in the mefloquine group compared to matched controls. CONCLUSION: The most frequent acute psychiatric problems were anxiety, depression, and psychotic symptoms. Data indicated that subjects experiencing acute mefloquine adverse side effects may develop long-term mental health problems...... with a decreased sense of global quality of life with lack of energy, nervousness, and depression....

  10. Acute but not delayed amphetamine treatment improves behavioral outcome in a rat embolic stroke model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rune Skovgaard; Overgaard, Karsten; Kristiansen, Uffe;

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine the effects of d-amphetamine (amph) upon recovery after embolic stroke in rats. METHODS: Ninety-three rats were embolized in the right middle cerebral artery and assigned to: (1) controls; (2) combination (acute amph and later amph-facilitate......OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine the effects of d-amphetamine (amph) upon recovery after embolic stroke in rats. METHODS: Ninety-three rats were embolized in the right middle cerebral artery and assigned to: (1) controls; (2) combination (acute amph and later amph......: In conclusion, results showed that the acute amph group performed the best, while the late amph and the combination groups performed the worst. Amphetamine treatment in acute stroke may be warranted due to reduced detrimental effects of hypotension and improved brain plasticity....

  11. Effect of riluzole on acute pain and hyperalgesia in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, N A; Lillesø, J; Pedersen, J L;

    1999-01-01

    Riluzole modulates several transmitter systems which may be involved in nociception. Antinociceptive effects have been shown in animal studies, but there are no human data. Therefore, we have examined the acute analgesic effect of riluzole in a human model of inflammatory pain induced by a therma...... with a 14-day interval. The burns produced significant hyperalgesia, but riluzole had no acute analgesic effects in normal or hyperalgesic skin....

  12. Prenatal Stress and Acute Stress Later in Life Impacts the Responses in Tests for Depressive-Like Behavior in a Sex-Specific Manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sickmann, Helle Mark; Skoven, Christian; Arentzen, Tina S.;

    , PS blunted this effect. Relative and absolute numbers of rapid eye movement sleep bouts were higher in PS offspring. Moreover, exposure to an acute stressor induced a REM rebound effect in control animals but this compensatory mechanism was blunted in PS animals. Finally, depression-like behavioral...... stress (PS). These include increased helplessness, altered anxiety indicators and sleep modifications. Our purpose was to further investigate behavioral depression indices following PS as well as CNS structural changes including sex specificity of these variables. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were...... in locomotor activity, depressive- and anxiety-like behavior as well as sleep architecture. Some animals were analyzed for CNS microstructural changes based on diffusion MRI. Subsets of PS and control rats were exposed to an acute stressor prior to the behavioral tests. Rearing/climbing activity in a familiar...

  13. Impact of patients' symptom interpretation on care-seeking behaviors of patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Li; YAN Hong-bing; YANG Jin-gang; SUN Yi-hong; HU Da-yi

    2010-01-01

    Background Delay in seeking medical care in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is receiving increasing attention. This study aimed to examine the association between expected symptoms and experienced symptoms of AMI and its effects on care-seeking behaviors of patients with AMI.Methods Between November 1, 2005 and December 31, 2006, a cross-sectional and multicenter survey was conducted in 19 hospitals in Beijing and included 799 patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) admitted within 24 hours after onset of symptoms. Data were collected by structured interviews and medical record review.Results The median (25%, 75%) prehospital delay was 140 (75, 300) minutes. Only 264 (33.0%) arrived at the hospital by ambulance. The most common symptoms expected by patients with STEMI were central or left chest pain (71.4%),radiating arm or shoulder pain (68.7%), shortness of breath or dyspnea (65.5%), and loss of consciousness (52.1%). The most common symptoms experienced were central or left chest pain (82.1%), sweats (71.8%), shortness of breath or dyspnea (43.7%), nausea or vomiting (32.3%), and radiating pain (29.4%). A mismatch between symptoms experienced and those expected occurred in 41.8% of patients. Patients who interpreted their symptoms as noncardiac in origin were more likely to arrive at the hospital by self-transport (86.5% vs. 52.9%, P <0.001) and had longer prehospital delays (medians, 180 vs. 120 minutes, P <0.001) compared to those who interpreted their symptoms as cardiac in origin.Conclusions Symptom interpretation influenced the care-seeking behaviors of patients with STEMI in Beijing. A mismatch between expectation and actual symptoms was associated with longer prehospital delay and decreased use of emergency medical service (EMS).

  14. Ecolocical effects of acute oil spills

    OpenAIRE

    Kooyman, Stine

    2011-01-01

    The coastal ecosystems are under constant pressure from natural and anthropogenic sources. The interactions between organisms and their environment is a complex myriad of changes and responses making impacts from acute pollution events both evident and subtle. Some ecosystems may be more resilient than others, and are able to withstand pressure to a great extent. Other, vulnerable systems may be very fragile and susceptible to impacts from outside events. Oil pollution is a threat to the ecos...

  15. The effects of acute nicotine on contextual safety discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Kutlu, Munir G.; Oliver, Chicora; Gould, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), may be related to an inability to distinguish safe versus threatening environments and to extinguish fear memories. Given the high rate of cigarette smoking in patients with PTSD, as well as the recent finding that an acute dose of nicotine impairs extinction of contextual fear memory, we conducted a series of experiments to investigate the effect of acute nicotine in an animal model of contextual safety discrimination. Followi...

  16. Curative effects of Tiron on dogs with acute uranium intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was reported that the tiron had good therapeutic effects on small animals with acute uranium intoxication. The tiron's therapeutic effects as a first aid on large animals (38 dogs) with acute uranium poisoning are reported in this paper. Indices reflecting its effect were as follows: excretion rate of uranium from the dogs, several appropriate biochemical tests, clinical manifestations, histo-pathological changes of kidney and liver, and also the mortality of dogs. The results showed that the tiron or a combination of tiron and NaHCO3 has a good therapeutic effect as a first aid on the dogs receiving lethal dose of uranyl nitrate

  17. Effects of nitric oxide-related compounds in the acute ketamine animal model of schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Kandratavicius, Ludmyla; Balista, Priscila Alves; Wolf, Daniele Cristina; Abrao, Joao; Evora, Paulo Roberto; Rodrigues, Alfredo Jose; Chaves, Cristiano; Maia-de-Oliveira, Joao Paulo; Leite, Joao Pereira; Dursun, Serdar Murat; Baker, Glen Bryan; Guimaraes, Francisco Silveira; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo Cecilio

    2015-01-01

    Background Better treatments for schizophrenia are urgently needed. The therapeutic use of the nitric oxide (NO)-donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in patients with schizophrenia has shown promising results. The role of NO in schizophrenia is still unclear, and NO modulation is unexplored in ketamine (KET) animal models to date. In the present study, we compared the behavioral effects of pre- and post-treatment with SNP, glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), and methylene blue (MB) in the acute KET animal...

  18. THE EFFECT OF ACUTE TREADMILL WALKING ON COGNITIVE CONTROL AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN PREADOLESCENT CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Hillman, Charles H.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Raine, Lauren B.; Castelli, Darla M.; Hall, Eric E.; Arthur F Kramer

    2009-01-01

    The effect of an acute bout of moderate treadmill walking on behavioral and neuroelectric indices of the cognitive control of attention and applied aspects of cognition involved in school-based academic performance were assessed. A within-subjects design included twenty preadolescent participants (Age = 9.5 ± 0.5 years; 8 female) to assess exercise-induced changes in performance during a modified flanker task and the Wide Range Achievement Test 3. The resting session consisted of cognitive te...

  19. Beneficial effects of hydrocortisone in induced acute pancreatitis of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Wei; WATANABE Yasuhiro; TOKI Akira; WANG Zhong-qiu

    2007-01-01

    Background Little is known of the effects of hydrocortisone on cell adhesion molecules such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and its counterreceptors (LFA-1, Mac-1) in acute pancreatitis (AP). We investigated the effects of prior treatment with hydrocortisone on the production of ICAM-1 and its counterreceptors (LFA-1 and Mac-1) in AP of rats to clarify the effect of hydrocortisone on induced acute pancreatitis.Methods Acute pancreatitis was induced by infusion of 5% chenodeoxycholic acid into the pancreatic duct, followed by ligation of pancreatic duct. Before induction of acute pancreatitis, rats were treated with hydrocortisone (n=20) or 0.9%saline (n=20). Blood and specimens from pancreas and lung were obtained from 5 rats from each treatment euthanized at 1 hour or 3 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours. Expression of ICAM-1 was assessed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis of pancreas and lungs. The expression of LFA-1 and Mac-1 on neutrophils was detected by flow cytometer.The therapeutic effect of hydrocortisone was assessed from injuries to pancreas and lung.Results ICAM-1 expression in the pancreas of hydrocortisone group was significantly less than in control group at 3 hours and 6 hours. In the lungs of hydrocortisone group, ICAM-1 expression was significantly less than in control group at 3 hours, 6 hours and 12 hours. The expression of LFA-1 and Mac-1 on neutrophils in blood increased significantly in control group over hydrocortisone group. Increased expression of ICAM-1, LFA-1 and Mac-1 preceded leukocyte infiltration. Compared to untreated animals with acute pancreatitis, rats pretreated with hydrocortisone had significantly reduced histological lung injury and output of ascitic fluid.Conclusions Prior treatment with hydrocortisone before the induction of acute pancreatitis ameliorates pulmonary injury and the output of ascitic fluid and reduces the expression of ICAM-1 and its counterreceptors (LFA-1, Mac-1) in acute pancreatitis.

  20. BEHAVIORAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RATS ON VARIOUS HIERARCHICAL LEVEL CAUSED BY ACUTE INFORMATIONAL STRESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matitaishvili, T; Domianidze, T; Emukhvari, N; Khananashvili, M

    2016-03-01

    The aim of our research was to study behavioral indices of rats standing on various hierarchical level in the conditions of acute informational stress as well as their resistance to stress taking into account their social status. The Animal's behavior has been studied in conflict and agonist conditions against the background of high food and thirst motivation. After determination of hierarchical relations the stressing procedure of two active avoidance reactions was performed simultaneously during one trial (14 days). During the experiment, behavioral indices of rats induced by stressing procedure were registered. We used "open field" test in order to assess animals' emotional state. The studies performed by us demonstrated behavioral characteristics of animals standing on various hierarchical level. The obtained results showed that after stressing all the animals of the group under stressogenic influence of equal strength, behavior of rats did nor reliably differ in conflict situations. Dominants standing on high hierarchical level remained active in both conflict situations. The impact of stress on their behavior was less detected. Dominant animal maintained its hierarchical status. Submissive rats were more greatly influenced by stress. The obtained results confirmed that dominant animals were characterized with more comprehensively developed self-regulating mechanisms of brain. PMID:27119838

  1. Acute prenatal exposure to ethanol on gestational day 12 elicits opposing deficits in social behaviors and anxiety-like behaviors in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Marvin R; Mooney, Sandra M; Varlinskaya, Elena I

    2016-09-01

    Our previous research has shown that in Long Evans rats acute prenatal exposure to a high dose of ethanol on gestational day (G) 12 produces social deficits in male offspring and elicits substantial decreases in social preference relative to controls, in late adolescents and adults regardless of sex. In order to generalize the observed detrimental effects of ethanol exposure on G12, pregnant female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to ethanol or saline and their offspring were assessed in a modified social interaction (SI) test as early adolescents, late adolescents, or young adults. Anxiety-like behavior was also assessed in adults using the elevated plus maze (EPM) or the light/dark box (LDB) test. Age- and sex-dependent social alterations were evident in ethanol-exposed animals. Ethanol-exposed males showed deficits in social investigation at all ages and age-dependent alterations in social preference. Play fighting was not affected in males. In contrast, ethanol-exposed early adolescent females showed no changes in social interactions, whereas older females demonstrated social deficits and social indifference. In adulthood, anxiety-like behavior was decreased in males and females prenatally exposed to ethanol in the EPM, but not the LDB. These findings suggest that social alterations associated with acute exposure to ethanol on G12 are not strain-specific, although they are more pronounced in Long Evans males and Sprague Dawley females. Furthermore, given that anxiety-like behaviors were attenuated in a test-specific manner, this study indicates that early ethanol exposure can have differential effects on different forms of anxiety. PMID:27154534

  2. Acute Synthesis of CPEB Is Required for Plasticity of Visual Avoidance Behavior in Xenopus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanhua Shen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Neural plasticity requires protein synthesis, but the identity of newly synthesized proteins generated in response to plasticity-inducing stimuli remains unclear. We used in vivo bio-orthogonal noncanonical amino acid tagging (BONCAT with the methionine analog azidohomoalanine (AHA combined with the multidimensional protein identification technique (MudPIT to identify proteins that are synthesized in the tadpole brain over 24 hr. We induced conditioning-dependent plasticity of visual avoidance behavior, which required N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA and Ca2+-permeable α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA receptors, αCaMKII, and rapid protein synthesis. Combining BONCAT with western blots revealed that proteins including αCaMKII, MEK1, CPEB, and GAD65 are synthesized during conditioning. Acute synthesis of CPEB during conditioning is required for behavioral plasticity as well as conditioning-induced synaptic and structural plasticity in the tectal circuit. We outline a signaling pathway that regulates protein-synthesis-dependent behavioral plasticity in intact animals, identify newly synthesized proteins induced by visual experience, and demonstrate a requirement for acute synthesis of CPEB in plasticity.

  3. Effects of Elevated Circulating Cortisol Concentrations on Maternal Behavior in Common Marmoset Monkeys (Callithrix jacchus)

    OpenAIRE

    Saltzman, Wendy; Abbott, David H.

    2009-01-01

    Both acute and chronic stress can impair maternal behavior and increase rates of infant abuse in several species. The mechanisms inducing these effects are unknown, but experimental manipulation of circulating corticosterone levels alters maternal behavior in rats, and circulating or excreted cortisol concentrations have been found to correlate either positively or negatively with maternal behavior in humans and nonhuman primates. In this study, therefore, we experimentally tested the hypothe...

  4. Acute effects of winter air pollution on respiratory health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der S.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis, acute respiratory health effects of exposure to winter air pollution are investigated in panels of children (7-11 yr) and adults (50-70 yr) with and without chronic respiratory symptoms, living in urban and non-urban areas in the Netherlands. The study was performed during three cons

  5. The effects of acute exercise bouts on hepcidin in women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newlin, M.K.; Williams, S.; McNamara, T.; Tjalsma, H.; Swinkels, D.W.; Haymes, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of acute exercise on serum hepcidin and iron (sFe) in active women. Changes in interleukin-6 (IL-6), hepcidin, ferritin, and sFe in response to 2 different exercise durations were compared. METHODS: Twelve women age 19-32 yr performed 2 treadmill runs (60 and 120

  6. Treating Acute Insomnia: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a “Single-Shot” of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Jason; Cushing, Toby; Germain, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives Despite considerable evidence supporting cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) for chronic insomnia, it remains untested within the context of acute insomnia. This study examined the efficacy of a single session of CBT-I, with an accompanying self-help pamphlet, for individuals with acute insomnia. Design A pragmatic parallel group randomized controlled trial. Participants Forty adults (mean age 32.9 + 13.72 y) with Diagnostic and Statistical Manu...

  7. GLP-1 is both anxiogenic and antidepressant; divergent effects of acute and chronic GLP-1 on emotionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderberg, Rozita H; Richard, Jennifer E; Hansson, Caroline; Nissbrandt, Hans; Bergquist, Filip; Skibicka, Karolina P

    2016-03-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), produced in the intestine and hindbrain, is known for its glucoregulatory and appetite suppressing effects. GLP-1 agonists are in clinical use for treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. GLP-1, however, may also affect brain areas associated with emotionality regulation. Here we aimed to characterize acute and chronic impact of GLP-1 on anxiety and depression-like behavior. Rats were subjected to anxiety and depression behavior tests following acute or chronic intracerebroventricular or intra-dorsal raphe (DR) application of GLP-1 receptor agonists. Serotonin or serotonin-related genes were also measured in the amygdala, DR and the hippocampus. We demonstrate that both GLP-1 and its long lasting analog, Exendin-4, induce anxiety-like behavior in three rodent tests of this behavior: black and white box, elevated plus maze and open field test when acutely administered intraperitoneally, into the lateral ventricle, or directly into the DR. Acute central GLP-1 receptor stimulation also altered serotonin signaling in the amygdala. In contrast, chronic central administration of Exendin-4 did not alter anxiety-like behavior but significantly reduced depression-like behavior in the forced swim test. Importantly, this positive effect of Exendin-4 was not due to significant body weight loss and reduced food intake, since rats pair-fed to Exendin-4 rats did not show altered mood. Collectively we show a striking impact of central GLP-1 on emotionality and the amygdala serotonin signaling that is divergent under acute versus chronic GLP-1 activation conditions. We also find a novel role for the DR GLP-1 receptors in regulation of behavior. These results may have direct relevance to the clinic, and indicate that Exendin-4 may be especially useful for obese patients manifesting with comorbid depression. PMID:26724568

  8. Moderate toxic effects following acute zonisamide overdose

    OpenAIRE

    Hofer, K E; Trachsel, C; Rauber-Lüthy, C; Kupferschmidt, H; Kullak-Ublick, G A; Ceschi, A

    2011-01-01

    Zonisamide is an antiepileptic drug that acts on voltage-sensitive sodium and calcium channels, with a modulatory effect on GABA-mediated neuronal inhibition and an inhibitory effect on carbonic anhydrase. It is used mainly for the treatment of partial seizures, and is generally well tolerated at therapeutic doses. The most common reported adverse effects are somnolence, anorexia, dizziness, and headache. There are limited data on zonisamide overdose in the literature, and no case of zonisami...

  9. Acute maternal alcohol consumption disrupts behavioral state organization in the near-term fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, EJH; Morssink, LP; Van der Schee, T; Visser, GHA

    1998-01-01

    Disturbed sleep regulation is often observed in neonates of women who drank heavily during pregnancy. It is unknown if (and how) an occasional drink affects fetal sleeping behavior. In 28 near-term pregnant women we examined the effects on fetal behavioral state organization of two glasses of wine (

  10. Cardiovascular Effects of Acute Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Laudari

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion:Cardiac effects of OP poisoning can be life-threatening. Prompt diagnosis, early supportive and definitive therapies with atropine and oximes along with vigilant monitoring of the patients for prominent cardiac effects such as QT prolongation, VT or VF during hospital stay can definitely save lives of the victims.

  11. Effect of acute and chronic nicotine consumption on reaction time

    OpenAIRE

    Nagalakshmi Vijaykumar; Suresh Badiger

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To record the effect of acute and chronic nicotine usage on visual and whole body reaction time which is the indicators of cognition. Background: Nicotine intake in the form of cigarette smoking does affect cognition. Even though the effect of nicotine on cognition is interesting, knowledge regarding this is inconsistent due to lack of much research. Methods: This study done on 50 male subjects (smokers) in the age group of 30-50 year, equal number of age and sex matched individual...

  12. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis: An unusual side effect of meropenem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalel Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A male patient was hospitalized as a case of pneumonia. He was diabetic, hypertensive and post Hepatitis "C" "H-C". He reported skin eruption following administration of meropenem. Skin biopsy revealed acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis. To elucidate this side effect, we conducted a literature search - this is the second case induced by meropenem. The diagnosis was made after excluding all other possible causes. Dermatologists and clinicians must be aware of this an unusual side effect.

  13. Behavioral and autonomic responses to acute restraint stress are segregated within the lateral septal area of rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G Reis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Lateral Septal Area (LSA is involved with autonomic and behavior responses associated to stress. In rats, acute restraint (RS is an unavoidable stress situation that causes autonomic (body temperature, mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR increases and behavioral (increased anxiety-like behavior changes in rats. The LSA is one of several brain regions that have been involved in stress responses. The aim of the present study was to investigate if the neurotransmission blockade in the LSA would interfere in the autonomic and behavioral changes induced by RS. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Male Wistar rats with bilateral cannulae aimed at the LSA, an intra-abdominal datalogger (for recording internal body temperature, and an implanted catheter into the femoral artery (for recording and cardiovascular parameters were used. They received bilateral microinjections of the non-selective synapse blocker cobalt chloride (CoCl(2, 1 mM/ 100 nL or vehicle 10 min before RS session. The tail temperature was measured by an infrared thermal imager during the session. Twenty-four h after the RS session the rats were tested in the elevated plus maze (EPM. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Inhibition of LSA neurotransmission reduced the MAP and HR increases observed during RS. However, no changes were observed in the decrease in skin temperature and increase in internal body temperature observed during this period. Also, LSA inhibition did not change the anxiogenic effect induced by RS observed 24 h later in the EPM. The present results suggest that LSA neurotransmission is involved in the cardiovascular but not the temperature and behavioral changes induced by restraint stress.

  14. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 and 4 gene deficiency attenuates nociceptive behaviors in a mouse model of acute inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Mithilesh Kumar; Rahman, Md Habibur; Park, Dong Ho; Kook, Hyun; Lee, In-Kyu; Lee, Won-Ha; Suk, Kyoungho

    2016-09-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) kinases (PDKs) 1-4, expressed in peripheral and central tissues, regulate the activity of the PDH complex (PDC). The PDC is an important mitochondrial gatekeeping enzyme that controls cellular metabolism. The role of PDKs in diverse neurological disorders, including neurometabolic aberrations and neurodegeneration, has been described. Implications for a role of PDKs in inflammation and neurometabolic coupling led us to investigate the effect of genetic ablation of PDK2/4 on nociception in a mouse model of acute inflammatory pain. Deficiency in Pdk2 and/or Pdk4 in mice led to attenuation of formalin-induced nociceptive behaviors (flinching, licking, biting, or lifting of the injected paw). Likewise, the pharmacological inhibition of PDKs substantially diminished the nociceptive responses in the second phase of the formalin test. Furthermore, formalin-provoked paw edema formation and mechanical and thermal hypersensitivities were significantly reduced in Pdk2/4-deficient mice. Formalin-driven neutrophil recruitment at the site of inflammation, spinal glial activation, and neuronal sensitization were substantially lessened in the second or late phase of the formalin test in Pdk2/4-deficient animals. Overall, our results suggest that PDK2/4 can be a potential target for the development of pharmacotherapy for the treatment of acute inflammatory pain. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26931482

  15. Behavioral response of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to acute ammonia stress monitored by computer vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jian-yu; MIAO Xiang-wen; LIU Ying; CUI Shao-rong

    2005-01-01

    The behavioral responses of a tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) school to low (0.13 mg/L), moderate (0.79 mg/L) and high (2.65 mg/L) levels of unionized ammonia (UIA) concentration were monitored using a computer vision system. The swimming activity and geometrical parameters such as location of the gravity center and distribution of the fish school were calculated continuously. These behavioral parameters of tilapia school responded sensitively to moderate and high UIA concentration. Under high UIA concentration the fish activity showed a significant increase (P<0.05), exhibiting an avoidance reaction to high ammonia condition, and then decreased gradually. Under moderate and high UIA concentration the school's vertical location had significantly large fluctuation (P<0.05) with the school moving up to the water surface then down to the bottom of the aquarium alternately and tending to crowd together. After several hours' exposure to high UIA level, the school finally stayed at the aquarium bottom. These observations indicate that alterations in fish behavior under acute stress can provide important information useful in predicting the stress.

  16. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning

    OpenAIRE

    Renza Perini; Marta Bortoletto; Michela Capogrosso; Anna Fertonani; Carlo Miniussi

    2016-01-01

    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cor...

  17. Effect of Acute and Fractionated Irradiation on Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Kyu Kim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation has become an inevitable health concern emanating from natural sources like space travel and from artificial sources like medical therapies. In general, exposure to ionizing radiation such as γ-rays is one of the methods currently used to stress specific model systems. In this study, we elucidated the long-term effect of acute and fractionated irradiation on DCX-positive cells in hippocampal neurogenesis. Groups of two-month-old C57BL/6 female mice were exposed to whole-body irradiation at acute dose (5 Gy or fractional doses (1 Gy × 5 times and 0.5 Gy × 10 times. Six months after exposure to γ-irradiation, the hippocampus was analyzed. Doublecortin (DCX immunohistochemistry was used to measure changes of neurogenesis in the subgranular zone (SGZ of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG. The number of DCX-positive cells was significantly decreased in all acute and fractionally irradiation groups. The long-term changes in DCX-positive cells triggered by radiation exposure showed a very different pattern to the short-term changes which tended to return to the control level in previous studies. Furthermore, the number of DCX-positive cells was relatively lower in the acute irradiation group than the fractional irradiation groups (approximately 3.6-fold, suggesting the biological change on hippocampal neurogenesis was more susceptible to being damaged by acute than fractional irradiation. These results suggest that the exposure to γ-irradiation as a long-term effect can trigger biological responses resulting in the inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis.

  18. Acute effects of cannabis on breath-holding duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Metrik, Jane

    2016-08-01

    Distress intolerance (an individual's perceived or actual inability to tolerate distressing psychological or physiological states) is associated with cannabis use. It is unknown whether a biobehavioral index of distress intolerance, breath-holding duration, is acutely influenced (increased or decreased) by cannabis. Such information may further inform understanding of the expression of psychological or physiological distress postcannabis use. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7%-3.0% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed duration of breath holding. Participants (n = 88; 65.9% male) were nontreatment-seeking frequent cannabis users who smoked placebo or active THC cigarette on two separate study days and completed a breath-holding task postsmoking. Controlling for baseline breath-holding duration and participant sex, THC produced significantly shorter breath-holding durations relative to placebo. There was a significant interaction of drug administration × frequency of cannabis use, such that THC decreased breath-holding time among less frequent but not among more frequent users. Findings indicate that cannabis may exacerbate distress intolerance (via shorter breath-holding durations). As compared to less frequent cannabis users, frequent users display tolerance to cannabis' acute effects including increased ability to tolerate respiratory distress when holding breath. Objective measures of distress intolerance are sensitive to contextual factors such as acute drug intoxication, and may inform the link between cannabis use and the expression of psychological distress. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27454678

  19. Acute metal toxicology of olfaction in coho salmon: behavior, receptors, and odor-metal complexation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehnberg, B.C.; Schreck, C.B.

    1986-04-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the acute toxicities of mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) to coho salmon olfaction. The authors used a behavioral assay of olfaction based on an avoidance reaction to L-serine in a two-choice Y-trough. A second objective was to gain some understanding of the mechanism of metal-induced olfactory inhibition by observing how metals affect the binding of L-serine to its olfactory cell membrane receptor. They have also taken the novel approach of addressing olfactory toxicology from the perspective of the odor molecule by considering metal speciation and metal-serpine complexation chemistry on the basis of chemical equilibrium computations.

  20. The Protective Effects of Buzui on Acute Alcoholism in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Da-Chao; Gao, Shu-di; Hu, Xiao-yu; Yi, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of a traditional buzui recipe in anti-inebriation treatment. Buzui consists of Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis, Fructus Chebulae, Fructus Mume, Fructus Crataegi, Endothelium Corneum Gigeriae Galli, and Excrementum Bombycis. The buzui mixture was delivered by gavage, and ethanol was delivered subsequent to the final treatment. The effects of buzui on the righting reflex, inebriation rates, and the survival curve are depicted. Blood alcohol concentrations, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were recorded. The activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as malonaldehyde (MDA) levels, were also measured. Our results demonstrated that a traditional buzui recipe showed significant effects on promoting wakefulness and the prevention of acute alcohol intoxication, accelerating the metabolism of alcohol in the liver and reducing the oxidative damage caused by acute alcoholism. PMID:26884793

  1. Effects of Ozonated Olive Oil on Acute Radiation Proctitis in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gültekin, Fatma Ayça; BAKKAL, Bekir Hakan; Sümer, Demet; Köktürk, Füruzan; Bektaş, Sibel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Acute radiation proctitis is a common complication of pelvic radiation and management of acute radiation proctitis is under evaluation. The beneficial effects of ozonated olive oil (OzOO) have already been shown in the treatment of chronic wounds. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of topical OzOO on acute radiation proctitis. Aims: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of topical OzOO on acute radiation proctitis. Study Design: An...

  2. Genetic NMDA receptor deficiency disrupts acute and chronic effects of cocaine but not amphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Amy J; Laakso, Aki; Cyr, Michel; Sotnikova, Tatyana D; Salahpour, Ali; Medvedev, Ivan O; Dykstra, Linda A; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Caron, Marc G

    2008-10-01

    NMDA receptor-mediated glutamate transmission is required for several forms of neuronal plasticity. Its role in the neuronal responses to addictive drugs is an ongoing subject of investigation. We report here that the acute locomotor-stimulating effect of cocaine is absent in NMDA receptor-deficient mice (NR1-KD). In contrast, their acute responses to amphetamine and to direct dopamine receptor agonists are not significantly altered. The striking attenuation of cocaine's acute effects is not likely explained by alterations in the dopaminergic system of NR1-KD mice, since most parameters of pre- and postsynaptic dopamine function are unchanged. Consistent with the behavioral findings, cocaine induces less c-Fos expression in the striatum of these mice, while amphetamine-induced c-Fos expression is intact. Furthermore, chronic cocaine-induced sensitization and conditioned place preference are attenuated and develop more slowly in mutant animals, but amphetamine's effects are not altered significantly. Our results highlight the importance of NMDA receptor-mediated glutamatergic transmission specifically in cocaine actions, and support a hypothesis that cocaine and amphetamine elicit their effects through differential actions on signaling pathways. PMID:18185498

  3. Spaceflight Sensorimotor Analogs: Simulating Acute and Adaptive Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Laura C.; Harm, Deborah L.; Kozlovskaya, Inessa; Reschke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive changes in sensorimotor function during spaceflight are reflected by spatial disorientation, motion sickness, gaze destabilization and decrements in balance, locomotion and eye-hand coordination that occur during and following transitions between different gravitational states. The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-synthesis of data from spaceflight analogs to evaluate their effectiveness in simulating adaptive changes in sensorimotor function. METHODS. The analogs under review were categorized as either acute analogs used to simulate performance decrements accompanied with transient changes, or adaptive analogs used to drive sensorimotor learning to altered sensory feedback. The effectiveness of each analog was evaluated in terms of mechanisms of action, magnitude and time course of observed deficits compared to spaceflight data, and the effects of amplitude and exposure duration. RESULTS. Parabolic flight has been used extensively to examine effects of acute variation in gravitational loads, ranging from hypergravity to microgravity. More recently, galvanic vestibular stimulation has been used to elicit acute postural, locomotor and gaze dysfunction by disrupting vestibular afferents. Patient populations, e.g., with bilateral vestibular loss or cerebellar dysfunction, have been proposed to model acute sensorimotor dysfunction. Early research sponsored by NASA involved living onboard rotating rooms, which appeared to approximate the time course of adaptation and post-exposure recovery observed in astronauts following spaceflight. Exposure to different bed-rest paradigms (6 deg head down, dry immersion) result in similar motor deficits to that observed following spaceflight. Shorter adaptive analogs have incorporated virtual reality environments, visual distortion paradigms, exposure to conflicting tilt-translation cues, and exposure to 3Gx centrifugation. As with spaceflight, there is considerable variability in responses to most of the analogs

  4. Acute Effects of Marijuana Smoking on Negative and Positive Affect

    OpenAIRE

    Metrik, Jane; Kahler, Christopher W.; McGeary, John E.; Monti, Peter M.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2011-01-01

    Human studies and animal experiments present a complex and often contradictory picture of the acute impact of marijuana on emotions. The few human studies specifically examining changes in negative affect find either increases or reductions following delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration. In a 2 × 2, instructional set (told THC vs. told no THC) by drug administration (smoked marijuana with 2.8% THC vs. placebo) between-subjects design, we examined the pharmacologic effect of marij...

  5. Effect of carbon dioxide in acute mountain sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, T C; Raichle, M E; Winterborn, M H;

    1988-01-01

    The effect of adding CO2 to inhaled air in six subjects with acute mountain sickness was investigated during a medical expedition to 5400 m.3% CO2 in ambient air increased ventilation and resulted in a rise in PaO2 of between 24% and 40%. There was a 9-28% increase in PaCO2 and a reduction of the...

  6. Acute single dose of ketamine relieves mechanical allodynia and consequent depression-like behaviors in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang-Fen; Wang, Jing; Han, Jin-Feng; Guo, Jie; Xie, Ze-Min; Pan, Wei; Yang, Jian-Jun; Sun, Kang-Jian

    2016-09-19

    Both chronic pain and depression are debilitating diseases, which often coexist in clinic. However, current analgesics and antidepressants exhibit limited efficacy for this comorbidity. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of ketamine on the comorbidity of inflammatory pain and consequent depression-like behaviors in a rat model established by intraplantar administration of complete Freunds adjuvant (CFA). The mechanical withdrawal threshold, thermal withdrawal latency, open field test, forced swimming test, and sucrose preference test were evaluated after the CFA injection and ketamine treatment. The hippocampus was harvested to determine the levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), kynurenine (KYN), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and tryptophan (TRP). The inflammatory pain-induced depression-like behaviors presented on 7days and lasted to at least 14days after the CFA injection. Single dose of ketamine at 20mg/kg relieved both the mechanical allodynia and the associated depression-like behaviors as demonstrated by the attenuated mechanical withdrawal threshold, reduced immobility time in the forced swim test, and increased sucrose preference after ketamine treatment. The total distance had no significant change after the CFA injection or ketamine treatment in the open field test. Simultaneously, ketamine reduced the levels of IL-6, IL-1β, IDO, and KYN/TRP ratio and increased the 5-HT/TRP ratio in the hippocampus. In conclusion, acute single dose of ketamine can rapidly attenuate mechanical allodynia and consequent depression-like behaviors and down-regulate hippocampal proinflammatory responses and IDO/KYN signal pathway in rats. PMID:27497920

  7. Behavioral Treatment of Acute Onset School Refusal in a 5-year Old Girl with Separation Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosschalk, Philip O.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the behavioral treatment of acute onset school refusal in a 5-year old girl with Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD). A functional classification was used to select a treatment approach that involved the parent and teacher using shaping, positive reinforcement and extinction. Results showed that by the end of the fifth week of…

  8. Effects of octreotide on acute necrotizing pancreatitis in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    László Czakó; Péter Hegyi; Tamás Takács; Csaba Góg; András Farkas; Yvette Mándy; Ilona Sz. Varga; László Tiszlavicz; János Lonovics

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To assess the role of oxygen-derived free radicals and cytokines in the pathogenesis of taurocholic acid-induced acute pancreatitiS, and to evaluate the preventive effects of octreotide towards the development of acute pancreatitis.METHODS: Acute pancreatitis was induced in male New Zealand 50 g/L sodium taurocholate (NaTC) in the pancreatic duct. Shamwas administered subcutaneously before the induction of pancreatitis. Blood was taken from the jugular vein before and at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h after pancreatitis induction.Serum activities of amylase, IL-6 and TNF-α and levels of malonyl dialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase and superoxide dismutase (Mn-,Cu-, and Zn-SOD) in pancreatic tissue were measured.RESULTS: Serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels increased significantly 3 h after the onset of pancreatitis, and then returned to control level. The tissue concentration of MDA was significantly elevated at 24 h, while the GSH level and GP-x, catalase, Mn-SOD, Cu-, Zn-SOD activities were all significantly decreased in animals with pancreatitis as compared to the control. Octreotide pretreatment significantly reversed the changes in cytokines and reactive oxygen metabolites. Octreotide treatment did not alter the serum amylase activity and did not have any beneficial effects on the development of histopathological changes.CONCLUSION: Oxygen-derived free radicals and proinflammatory cytokines are generated at an early stage of NaTc-induced acute pancreatitis in rabbits. Prophylactic octreotide treatment can prevent release of cytokines and generation of reactive oxygen metabolites, but does not have any beneficial effects on the development of necrotizing pancreatitis.

  9. Improving Management of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Acute Care: Evidence and Lessons Learned From Across the Care Spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Eleanor S; Karel, Michele J

    2016-01-01

    As the prevalence of Alzheimer disease and related dementias increases, dementia-related behavioral symptoms present growing threats to care quality and safety of older adults across care settings. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) such as agitation, aggression, and resistance to care occur in nearly all individuals over the course of their illness. In inpatient care settings, if not appropriately treated, BPSD can result in care complications, increased length of stay, dissatisfaction with care, and caregiver stress and injury. Although evidence-based, nonpharmacological approaches to treating BPSD exist, their implementation into acute care has been thwarted by limited nursing staff expertise in behavioral health, and a lack of consistent approaches to integrate behavioral health expertise into medically focused inpatient care settings. This article describes the core components of one evidence-based approach to integrating behavioral health expertise into dementia care. This approach, called STAR-VA, was implemented in Veterans' Health Administration community living centers (nursing homes). It has demonstrated effectiveness in reducing the severity and frequency of BPSD, while improving staff knowledge and skills in caring for people with dementia. The potential for adapting this approach in acute care settings is discussed, along with key lessons learned regarding opportunities for nursing leadership to ensure consistent implementation and sustainability. PMID:27259128

  10. Characterization of behavioral and endocrine effects of LSD on zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Leah; Utterback, Eli; Stewart, Adam; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Chung, Kyung Min; Suciu, Christopher; Wong, Keith; Elegante, Marco; Elkhayat, Salem; Tan, Julia; Gilder, Thomas; Wu, Nadine; Dileo, John; Cachat, Jonathan; Kalueff, Allan V

    2010-12-25

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a potent hallucinogenic drug that strongly affects animal and human behavior. Although adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) are emerging as a promising neurobehavioral model, the effects of LSD on zebrafish have not been investigated previously. Several behavioral paradigms (the novel tank, observation cylinder, light-dark box, open field, T-maze, social preference and shoaling tests), as well as modern video-tracking tools and whole-body cortisol assay were used to characterize the effects of acute LSD in zebrafish. While lower doses (5-100 microg/L) did not affect zebrafish behavior, 250 microg/L LSD increased top dwelling and reduced freezing in the novel tank and observation cylinder tests, also affecting spatiotemporal patterns of activity (as assessed by 3D reconstruction of zebrafish traces and ethograms). LSD evoked mild thigmotaxis in the open field test, increased light behavior in the light-dark test, reduced the number of arm entries and freezing in the T-maze and social preference test, without affecting social preference. In contrast, LSD affected zebrafish shoaling (increasing the inter-fish distance in a group), and elevated whole-body cortisol levels. Overall, our findings show sensitivity of zebrafish to LSD action, and support the use of zebrafish models to study hallucinogenic drugs of abuse.

  11. Effect of Taurine on Febrile Episodes in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Islambulchilar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of oral taurine on the incidence of febrile episodes during chemotherapy in young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods: Forty young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, at the beginning of maintenance course of their chemotherapy, were eligible for this study. The study population was randomized in a double blind manner to receive either taurine or placebo (2 gram per day orally. Life quality and side effects including febrile episodes were assessed using questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s Chi square test. Results: Of total forty participants, 43.8% were female and 56.3 % were male. The mean age was 19.16±1.95 years (ranges: 16-23 years. The results indicated that the levels of white blood cells are significantly (P<0.05 increased in taurine treated group. There was no elevation in blasts count. A total of 70 febrile episodes were observed during study, febrile episodes were significantly (P<0.05 lower in taurine patients in comparison to the control ones. Conclusion: The overall incidence of febrile episodes and infectious complications in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients receiving taurine was lower than placebo group. Taurine’s ability to increase leukocyte count may result in lower febrile episodes.

  12. Metabolic and behavioral effects of ractopamine at continuous low levels in rats under stress

    OpenAIRE

    Edna Lopes; Raimundo Vicente de Sousa; Márcio Gilberto Zangeronimo; Andressa Naira de Jesus Pereira; Mariana de Resende Coelho; Matheus Soares da Silva Ferreira; Renato Ribeiro de Lima; Fernanda Klein Marcondes; Marcelo Henrique Napimoga; Luciano José Pereira

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effect of ractopamine (RAC) on metabolism, zootechnical performance, body composition, and behavior in Wistar rats submitted to acute and chronic restrain stress. The oral dose of 5 mg/kg of RAC was administered in periods of 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. The elevated plus-maze test (EPMT) was used for behavioral assessment. Blood, carcass and viscera characteristics were evaluated. Insulin-dependent glucose transporters (GLUT-4) were semi-quantified by Western...

  13. Effect of acute exercise on prostate cancer cell growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Rundqvist

    Full Text Available Physical activity is associated with reduced risk of several cancers, including aggressive prostate cancer. The mechanisms mediating the effects are not yet understood; among the candidates are modifications of endogenous hormone levels. Long-term exercise is known to reduce serum levels of growth stimulating hormones. In contrast, the endocrine effects of acute endurance exercise include increased levels of mitogenic factors such as GH and IGF-1. It can be speculated that the elevation of serum growth factors may be detrimental to prostate cancer progression into malignancy. The incentive of the current study is to evaluate the effect of acute exercise serum on prostate cancer cell growth. We designed an exercise intervention where 10 male individuals performed 60 minutes of bicycle exercise at increasing intensity. Serum samples were obtained before (rest serum and after completed exercise (exercise serum. The established prostate cancer cell line LNCaP was exposed to exercise or rest serum. Exercise serum from 9 out of 10 individuals had a growth inhibitory effect on LNCaP cells. Incubation with pooled exercise serum resulted in a 31% inhibition of LNCaP growth and pre-incubation before subcutaneous injection into SCID mice caused a delay in tumor formation. Serum analyses indicated two possible candidates for the effect; increased levels of IGFBP-1 and reduced levels of EGF. In conclusion, despite the fear of possible detrimental effects of acute exercise serum on tumor cell growth, we show that even the short-term effects seem to add to the overall beneficial influence of exercise on neoplasia.

  14. Effects of acute oligohydramnios on respiratory system of fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savich, R D; Guerra, F A; Lee, C C; Padbury, J F; Kitterman, J A

    1992-08-01

    Prolonged oligohydramnios, or a lack of amniotic fluid, is associated with pulmonary hypoplasia and subsequent perinatal morbidity, but it is unclear whether short-term or acute oligohydramnios has any effect on the fetal respiratory system. To investigate the acute effects of removal of amniotic fluid, we studied nine chronically catheterized fetal sheep at 122-127 days gestation. During a control period, we measured the volume of fluid in the fetal potential airways and air spaces (VL), production rate of that fluid, incidence and amplitude of fetal breathing movements, tracheal pressures, and fetal plasma concentrations of cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. We then drained the amniotic fluid for a short period of time [24-48 h, 30.0 +/- 4.0 (SE) h] and repeated the above measurements. The volume of fluid drained for the initial studies was 1,004 +/- 236 ml. Acute oligohydramnios decreased VL from 35.4 +/- 2.9 ml/kg during control to 22.0 +/- 1.6 after oligohydramnios (P less than 0.004). Acute oligohydramnios did not affect the fetal lung fluid production rate, fetal breathing movements, or any of the other measured variables. Seven repeat studies were performed in six of the fetuses after reaccumulation of the amniotic fluid at 130-138 days, and in four of these studies the lung volume also decreased, although the overall mean for the repeat studies was not significantly different (27.0 +/- 5.2 ml/kg for control vs. 25.5 +/- 5.5 ml/kg for oligohydramnios). Again, none of the other measured variables were altered by oligohydramnios in the repeat studies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1399988

  15. Evaluation of the antidepressant-like effects of acute and sub-acute administration of crocin and crocetin in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Amin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the putative antidepressant effects of crocin and crocetin, two major active ingredients of Crocus sativus L. (saffron using mice in two different regimens of acute and sub-acute administration. Material and Methods: In acute treatment, antidepressant-like activities of crocin and crocetin (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg, i.p. were evaluated using forced swim test (FST. In sub-acute study (21 times with 24-h intervals, antidepressant-like effects of oral administration of drugs were examined using FST and tail suspension test (TST. Locomotor activity and motor coordination were studied using open field and rotarod tests, respectively. Results: Acute treatment with crocin (40 mg/kg and crocetin (20 and 40 mg/kg produced antidepressant-like effect in FST without affecting the baseline locomotion in mice. Sub-acute oral administration of crocin significantly decreased immobility time only at the highest dose (100 mg/kg. Crocetin (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg was able to decrease immobility time in FST and TST. Locomotor activity and coordination of mice were not affected by crocin or crocetin. Conclusion: Since higher doses of crocin was required to show antidepressant effects, more efficacy of crocetin may be concluded. This observation provides further support for metabolism of crocin to crocetin following oral administration.

  16. The effects of citicoline on acute ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Early reopening of the occluded artery is, thus, important in ischemic stroke, and it has been calculated that 2 million neurons die every minute in an ischemic stroke if no effective therapy is given; therefore, "Time is Brain." In massive hemispheric infarction and edema, surgical decompression...... other neuroprotective agent had any beneficial effect in confirmative clinical trials or had any positive effect in the subgroup analysis. Citicoline is the only drug that in a number of different clinical stroke trials continuously had some neuroprotective benefit....... lowers the risk of death or severe disability defined as a modified Rankin Scale score greater than 4 in selected patients. The majority, around 80%-85% of all ischemic stroke victims, does not fulfill the criteria for revascularization therapy, and also for these patients, there is no effective acute...... therapy. Also there is no established effective acute treatment of spontaneous intracerebral bleeding. Therefore, an effective therapy applicable to all stroke victims is needed. The neuroprotective drug citicoline has been extensively studied in clinical trials with volunteers and more than 11...

  17. Acute effects of intramuscular aponeurotomy on rat gastrocnemius medialis: Force transmission, muscle force and sarcomere length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, R.T.; Brunner, R.; Pel, J.J.M.; Huijing, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    Acute effects of intramuscular aponeurotomy on muscle force and geometry as a function to muscle length were studied in rat m. gastrocnemius medialis (GM). Acutely after aponeurotomy, activation of the muscle at increasing lengths (acute trajectory) showed a spontaneous and progressive but partial t

  18. Dysregulation in Youth with Anxiety Disorders: Relationship to Acute and 7- to 19- Year Follow-Up Outcomes of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporino, Nicole E; Herres, Joanna; Kendall, Philip C; Wolk, Courtney Benjamin

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the impact of dysregulation across cognitive, affective, and behavioral domains on acute and 7- to 19-year follow-up outcomes of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety, and explored dysregulation as a predictor of psychopathology and impairment in young adulthood among individuals who received anxiety treatment as youth. Participants (N = 64; 50 % female, 83 % non-Hispanic White) from two randomized clinical trials completed a follow-up assessment 7-19 years later. Latent profile analysis identified dysregulation based on Anxious/Depressed, Attention Problems, and Aggressive Behavior scores on the Child Behavior Checklist. Although pretreatment dysregulation was not related to acute or follow-up outcomes for anxiety diagnoses that were the focus of treatment, dysregulation predicted an array of non-targeted psychopathology at follow-up. Among youth with a principal anxiety disorder, the effects of CBT (Coping Cat) appear to be robust against broad impairments in self-regulation. However, youth with a pretreatment dysregulation profile likely need follow-up to monitor for the emergence of other disorders.

  19. Dysregulation in Youth with Anxiety Disorders: Relationship to Acute and 7- to 19- Year Follow-Up Outcomes of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporino, Nicole E; Herres, Joanna; Kendall, Philip C; Wolk, Courtney Benjamin

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the impact of dysregulation across cognitive, affective, and behavioral domains on acute and 7- to 19-year follow-up outcomes of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety, and explored dysregulation as a predictor of psychopathology and impairment in young adulthood among individuals who received anxiety treatment as youth. Participants (N = 64; 50 % female, 83 % non-Hispanic White) from two randomized clinical trials completed a follow-up assessment 7-19 years later. Latent profile analysis identified dysregulation based on Anxious/Depressed, Attention Problems, and Aggressive Behavior scores on the Child Behavior Checklist. Although pretreatment dysregulation was not related to acute or follow-up outcomes for anxiety diagnoses that were the focus of treatment, dysregulation predicted an array of non-targeted psychopathology at follow-up. Among youth with a principal anxiety disorder, the effects of CBT (Coping Cat) appear to be robust against broad impairments in self-regulation. However, youth with a pretreatment dysregulation profile likely need follow-up to monitor for the emergence of other disorders. PMID:26384978

  20. Nephroprotective effect of ethanolic extract of abutilon indicum root in gentamicin induced acute renal failure

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob Jesurun RS; Lavakumar S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The term acute renal failure (ARF) is at present called acute kidney injury (AKI). AKI is a reversible condition in which there is a sudden decline in renal function, manifested by elevated SCr and BUN which occurs in hours to days to weeks. The present study was to evaluate the nephron protective effect of abutilon indicum root in gentamicin induced acute renal failure in wistar albino rats. Methods: Experimental evaluation was done in gentamicin induced acute renal failure. 2...

  1. Marijuana’s Acute Effects on Cognitive Bias for Affective and Marijuana Cues

    OpenAIRE

    Metrik, Jane; Aston, Elizabeth R.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; McGeary, John E.; Knopik, Valerie S.

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana produces acute increases in positive subjective effects and decreased reactivity to negative affective stimuli, though may also acutely induce anxiety. Implicit attentional and evaluative processes may explicate marijuana’s ability to acutely increase positive and negative emotions. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7–3.0 % delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed attentional processing of rewarding and negative affec...

  2. Effects on rat sexual behaviour of acute MDMA (ecstasy) alone or in combination with loud music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagiano, R; Bera, I; Sabatini, R; Flace, P; Vermesan, D; Vermesan, H; Dragulescu, S I; Bottalico, L; Santacroce, L

    2008-01-01

    The effects on sexual behaviour of acute low doses of methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) (0.3, 1, 3 mg/kg/i.p.), alone or in combination with exposure to loud music (1 h stimulation), were investigated in Wistar rats. Results indicate that acute MDMA, at dose of 3 mg/kg, notably impaired copulatory behavior of sexually experienced male rats. In particular, MDMA-exposed animals exhibited a significant increase in intromission and ejaculation latencies as well as a significant decrease in percentage of rats displaying copulatory activity (one intromission at least). Surprisingly, one hour exposure to loud music, which per se resulted ineffective, antagonized the suppressive effect of MDMA by increasing the percent of animals displaying sexual activity. However, combined treatment of MDMA and music stimulation did not fully restore normal sexual behavior as the animals reaching ejaculation still showed a marked reduction of copulatory efficiency. These findings demonstrate that the systemic administration of a single low dose of MDMA, alone or in combination with loud music, which is commonly present in certain environments such as rave parties, notably impairs copulatory activity of male rats. PMID:19024211

  3. Effects on rat sexual behaviour of acute MDMA (ecstasy) alone or in combination with loud music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagiano, R; Bera, I; Sabatini, R; Flace, P; Vermesan, D; Vermesan, H; Dragulescu, S I; Bottalico, L; Santacroce, L

    2008-01-01

    The effects on sexual behaviour of acute low doses of methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) (0.3, 1, 3 mg/kg/i.p.), alone or in combination with exposure to loud music (1 h stimulation), were investigated in Wistar rats. Results indicate that acute MDMA, at dose of 3 mg/kg, notably impaired copulatory behavior of sexually experienced male rats. In particular, MDMA-exposed animals exhibited a significant increase in intromission and ejaculation latencies as well as a significant decrease in percentage of rats displaying copulatory activity (one intromission at least). Surprisingly, one hour exposure to loud music, which per se resulted ineffective, antagonized the suppressive effect of MDMA by increasing the percent of animals displaying sexual activity. However, combined treatment of MDMA and music stimulation did not fully restore normal sexual behavior as the animals reaching ejaculation still showed a marked reduction of copulatory efficiency. These findings demonstrate that the systemic administration of a single low dose of MDMA, alone or in combination with loud music, which is commonly present in certain environments such as rave parties, notably impairs copulatory activity of male rats.

  4. Acute toxic effects of fenpyroximate acaricide on Guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Nesli; Yazıcı, Zehra; Şişman, Turgay; Aşkin, Hakan

    2013-09-01

    Fenpyroximate (FP), an acaricide, is widely used in the prevention of acarids (mites) in fruit plant gardens. In this study, the acute toxic effects of different concentrations of FP were investigated using adult guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859). Guppy adults were exposed to a range of FP concentrations (25, 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 µg/L) during 48 h. Static method, which is one of the acute toxicity experiments, has been used in this study. According to probit analysis, the 48-h median lethal concentration (LC50) value of FP at 26°C was found to be 72.821 µg/L. Sublethal exposures were predetermined based on 48-h LC50 value. Guppies were exposed to low concentrations (15, 25, and 50 µg/L) of FP for 48 h. Signs of paralysis and behavior deformations were monitored every 12 h in a number of live and dead adults. Low concentrations of FP were also responsible for erratic swimming, loss of equilibrium, and being lethargic. Liver histology revealed several pathological damages including congestion, picnotic nucleus, sinusoidal dilatation, increase in melanomacrophagic centers, and endothelial degeneration. Finally, the toxicity test results provided 48-h LC50 value for FP, and low concentrations of FP can be highly detrimental to guppy adults with clear evidence of behavioral and histologic effects.

  5. Effect of differential electroacupuncture frequencies on behavior of acute stress depression model of C57BL/6 mice%不同频率电针对急性应激模型C57BL/6小鼠抑郁行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卫东; 卢峻; 图娅

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨不同频率电针干预对C57BL/6小鼠急性应激的影响.方法 30只C57BL/6雄性小鼠,随机分为模型组、电针2 Hz组和电针100 Hz组,每组各10只.对不同频率电针干预组,选取"百会"和"印堂"穴,采用频率为2 Hz 或100 Hz、电流强度1 mA的方波干预7 d,进而对所有小鼠进行强迫游泳实验和悬尾实验,比较各组小鼠强迫游泳和悬尾实验5 min内的累积不动时间.结果 电针2 Hz组小鼠的强迫游泳不动时间[(32.00±14.73)s]和悬尾不动时间[(72.50±20.44)s]均较100 Hz小鼠强迫游泳不动时间[(145.60±34.62)s]和悬尾不动时间[(124.22±21.67)s]短,2组之间差异有显著性( P 0.05). Conclusions The effect of 2 Hz eletroacupuncture could improve the behaviors of the acute stress of C57BL/6 mice and had the more effectiveness on anti-depression.

  6. Behavioral changes and cholinesterase activity of rats acutely treated with propoxur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiesen, F V; Barros, H M; Tannhauser, M; Tannhauser, S L

    1999-01-01

    Early assessment of neurological and behavioral effects is extremely valuable for early identification of intoxications because preventive measures can be taken against more severe or chronic toxic consequences. The time course of the effects of an oral dose of the anticholinesterase agent propoxur (8.3 mg/kg) was determined on behaviors displayed in the open-field and during an active avoidance task by rats and on blood and brain cholinesterase activity. Maximum inhibition of blood cholinesterase was observed within 30 min after administration of propoxur. The half-life of enzyme-activity recovery was estimated to be 208.6 min. Peak brain cholinesterase inhibition was also detected between 5 and 30 min of the pesticide administration, but the half-life for enzyme activity recovery was much shorter, in the range of 85 min. Within this same time interval of the enzyme effects, diminished motor and exploratory activities and decreased performance of animals in the active avoidance task were observed. Likewise, behavioral normalization after propoxur followed a time frame similar to that of brain cholinesterase. These data indicate that behavioral changes that occur during intoxication with low oral doses of propoxur may be dissociated from signs characteristic of cholinergic over-stimulation but accompany brain cholinesterase activity inhibition.

  7. Effect of acute and chronic nicotine consumption on reaction time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagalakshmi Vijaykumar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To record the effect of acute and chronic nicotine usage on visual and whole body reaction time which is the indicators of cognition. Background: Nicotine intake in the form of cigarette smoking does affect cognition. Even though the effect of nicotine on cognition is interesting, knowledge regarding this is inconsistent due to lack of much research. Methods: This study done on 50 male subjects (smokers in the age group of 30-50 year, equal number of age and sex matched individuals were taken as controls. Cognition is evaluated by following parameters: (a Simple and choice visual reaction time. (b C1 of whole body reaction time. Student t test was used to compare the reaction time between smokers and non smokers. Results: The difference between simple and choice visual reaction time which is the indicator of cognition is significantly lower in smokers when compared to that of non smokers. (p=0.02 C1 of whole body reaction time is significantly lower in smokers when compared to that of non smokers (p=0.04. Conclusion: acute and chronic effect of nicotine consumption improves cognition and there by decreases reaction time.

  8. Acute mucocutaneous and systemic adverse effects of Etretinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Mortazavi H

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This cross sectional study was carried out between 1993 to 1998 at Razi Skin Hospital, the affiliated Dermatology Department of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Eight hundred patients receiving etretinate for various skin diseases took part in this study. Among them, 457 patients with first admission to dermatologic clinic who had at least four regular sequential visits and responding to our questionnaire were selected to enter the study for evaluating acute toxicity of etretinate. Cheilitis with a frequency of 88 percent was the most frequent side effect. Hair loss (22.97%, dry mouth with thirst (15.09%, dryness of mucous membranes (13.12%, xerosis with pruritus (11.15%, nose bleeding (8.31%, paronychia (5.47%, facial dermatitis (3.06%, conjunctivitis (2.84% and in addition to mucocutaneous ones, chills (2.63%, headache (2.19%, mental depression (2.19%, urinary frequency (1.53% and papilledema (0.44% were among the other observed toxicities, The relationship between mucocutaneous side effect with dosage of etretinate, sex and, age of the patients was evaluated. The association between mucoctaneous toxicities and sex was significant, sex and, age of the patients was evaluated. The association between mucocutaneous toxicities and sex was significant (P<0.05. We observed four rare side effect in the patients including hair color lightening appering as whitening or blondness, hair waving, dyspareunia and gynecomastia. In conclusion, females were more to acute mucocutaneous toxicities of etretinate.

  9. A BDNF loop-domain mimetic acutely reverses spontaneous apneas and respiratory abnormalities during behavioral arousal in a mouse model of Rett syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Kron

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF are thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of Rett syndrome (RTT, a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2. In Mecp2 mutant mice, BDNF deficits have been associated with breathing abnormalities, a core feature of RTT, as well as with synaptic hyperexcitability within the brainstem respiratory network. Application of BDNF can reverse hyperexcitability in acute brainstem slices from Mecp2-null mice, suggesting that therapies targeting BDNF or its receptor, TrkB, could be effective at acute reversal of respiratory abnormalities in RTT. Therefore, we examined the ability of LM22A-4, a small-molecule BDNF loop-domain mimetic and TrkB partial agonist, to modulate synaptic excitability within respiratory cell groups in the brainstem nucleus tractus solitarius (nTS and to acutely reverse abnormalities in breathing at rest and during behavioral arousal in Mecp2 mutants. Patch-clamp recordings in Mecp2-null brainstem slices demonstrated that LM22A-4 decreases excitability at primary afferent synapses in the nTS by reducing the amplitude of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents and the frequency of spontaneous and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents. In vivo, acute treatment of Mecp2-null and -heterozygous mutants with LM22A-4 completely eliminated spontaneous apneas in resting animals, without sedation. Moreover, we demonstrate that respiratory dysregulation during behavioral arousal, a feature of human RTT, is also reversed in Mecp2 mutants by acute treatment with LM22A-4. Together, these data support the hypothesis that reduced BDNF signaling and respiratory dysfunction in RTT are linked, and establish the proof-of-concept that treatment with a small-molecule structural mimetic of a BDNF loop domain and a TrkB partial agonist can acutely reverse abnormal breathing at rest and in response to

  10. Development, maternal effects, and behavioral plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Jill M

    2014-11-01

    Behavioral, hormonal, and genetic processes interact reciprocally, and differentially affect behavior depending on ecological and social contexts. When individual differences are favored either between or within environments, developmental plasticity would be expected. Parental effects provide a rich source for phenotypic plasticity, including anatomical, physiological, and behavioral traits, because parents respond to dynamic cues in their environment and can, in turn, influence offspring accordingly. Because these inter-generational changes are plastic, parents can respond rapidly to changing environments and produce offspring whose phenotypes are well suited for current conditions more quickly than occurs with changes based on evolution through natural selection. I review studies on developmental plasticity and resulting phenotypes in Belding's ground squirrels (Urocitellus beldingi), an ideal species, given the competing demands to avoid predation while gaining sufficient weight to survive an upcoming hibernation, and the need for young to learn their survival behaviors. I will show how local environments and perceived risk of predation influence not only foraging, vigilance, and anti-predator behaviors, but also adrenal functioning, which may be especially important for obligate hibernators that face competing demands on the storage and mobilization of glucose. Mammalian behavioral development is sensitive to the social and physical environments provided by mothers during gestation and lactation. Therefore, maternal effects on offspring's phenotypes, both positive and negative, can be particularly strong. PMID:24820855

  11. Peripheral analgesic effects of ketamine in acute inflammatory pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J L; Galle, T S; Kehlet, H

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND. This study examined the analgesic effect of local ketamine infiltration, compared with placebo and systemic ketamine, in a human model of inflammatory pain. METHODS: Inflammatory pain was induced by a burn (at 47 degrees C for 7 min; wound size, 2.5 x 5 cm) on the calf in 15 volunteers.......02). Secondary hyperalgesia and suprathreshold pain responses to heat and mechanical stimuli were not significantly affected by local ketamine. No difference between local ketamine and placebo could be detected 1 h and 2 h after the burn. CONCLUSIONS: Ketamine infiltration had brief local analgesic effects......, but several measures of pain and hyperalgesia were unaffected. Therefore, a clinically relevant effect of peripheral ketamine in acute pain seems unlikely....

  12. Effects of antiarrhythmic peptide 10 on acute ventricular arrhythmia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Sun; Jin-Fa Jiang; Cui-Mei Zhao; Chao-Hui Hu

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effects antiarrhythmic peptide 10 (AAP10) aon acute ventricular arrhythmia and the phosphorylation state of ischemic myocardium connexin.Methods:Acute total ischemia and partial ischemia models were established by ceasing perfusion and ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery in SD rats. The effects of AAP10 (1 mg/L) on the incidence rate of ischemia-induced ventricular arrhythmia were observed. The ischemic myocardium was sampled to detect total-Cx43 and NP-Cx43 by immunofluorescent staining and western blotting. the total-Cx43 expression was detected through image analysis system by semi-quantitative analysis.Results: AAP10 could significantly decrease the incidence of ischemia-induced ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. During ischemic stage, total ischemia (TI) and AAP10 total ischemia (ATI) groups were compared with partial ischemia (PI) and AAP10 partial ischemia (API) groups. The rates of incidence for arrhythmia in the ATI and API groups (10% and 0%) were lower than those in the TI and PI groups (60% and 45%). The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P=0.019, P=0.020). The semi-quantitative analysis results of the ischemic myocardium showed that the total-Cx43 protein expression distribution areas for TI, ATI, PI and API groups were significantly decreased compared with the control group. On the other hand, the NP-Cx43 distribution areas of TI, ATI, PI and API groups were significantly increased compared with the control group (P>0.05). AAP10 could increase the total-Cx43 expression in the ischemic area and decrease the NP-Cx43 expression. Western blot results were consistent with the results of immunofluorescence staining.Conclusions:AAP10 can significantly decrease the rate of incidence of acute ischemia-induced ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. Acute ischemic ventricular arrhythmias may have a relationship with the decreased phosphorylation of Cx43

  13. EFFECTS OF ACUTE HYPOGLYCEMIA ON THE OREXIN SYSTEM IN RAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-yan Zhao; Lei Guo; Jian Du; Guo-liang Liu

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of acute glucose level changes on expression of prepro-orexin, orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) and orexin 2 receptor (OX2R) mRNA in rat hypothalamus tissue and pancreatic islets cells.Methods Thirty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three equal groups (n= 10). The acute hypoglycemia rat model was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of insulin. Twenty acute hypoglycemia rats were divided into group B and group C. Group B was allowed to eat freely, while group C was food-deprived. Control rats were injected the same volume of saline. The effect of glucose levels (2.8 mmol/L and 8.3 mmol/L) on pancreatic islet cell orexin system was detected in pancreas islet cell cultured in vitro. The expression of prepro-orexin and OXR mRNA was examined in rat hypothalamus tissue and pancreatic islets cell cultured in vitro using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR).Results Expression of orexin mRNA increased about 150% for the food-deprived hypoglycemia rats in comparison with control group (P < 0.01), whereas expression of OX1R mRNA decreased up to 30% (P < 0.01). However, expression of OX2R mRNA was unchanged in comparison with control group. In vitro, after incubation with 2.8 mmol/L glucose for 6hours, the expression of prepro-orexin mRNA increased 2 times in rat pancreas islet cells in comparison with 8.3 mmol/Lglucose group (P < 0.01). But the expression of OX1R mRNA was not sensitive to acute glucose fluctuation.Conclusions Orexin in rat hypothalamus is stimulated by decline in blood glucose and inhibited by signals related to feeding. Moreover, glucose plays a role in modulating the gene expression of prepro-orexin in rat pancreatic islet cells.

  14. Mustard gas toxicity: the acute and chronic pathological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabili, Kamyar; Agutter, Paul S; Ghanei, Mostafa; Ansarin, Khalil; Shoja, Mohammadali M

    2010-10-01

    Ever since it was first used in armed conflict, mustard gas (sulfur mustard, MG) has been known to cause a wide range of acute and chronic injuries to exposure victims. The earliest descriptions of these injuries were published during and in the immediate aftermath of the First World War, and a further series of accounts followed the Second World War. More recently, MG has been deployed in warfare in the Middle East and this resulted in large numbers of victims, whose conditions have been studied in detail at hospitals in the region. In this review, we bring together the older and more recent clinical studies on MG toxicity and summarize what is now known about the acute and chronic effects of the agent on the eyes, skin, respiratory tract and other physiological systems. In the majority of patients, the most clinically serious long-term consequences of MG poisoning are on the respiratory system, but the effects on the skin and other systems also have a significant impact on quality of life. Aspects of the management of these patients are discussed.

  15. Evidence Report: Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Simonsen, Lisa; Huff, Janice L.

    2016-01-01

    Possible acute and late risks to the central nervous system (CNS) from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) are concerns for human exploration of space. Acute CNS risks may include: altered cognitive function, reduced motor function, and behavioral changes, all of which may affect performance and human health. Late CNS risks may include neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia and premature aging. Although detrimental CNS changes are observed in humans treated with high-dose radiation (e.g., gamma rays and 9 protons) for cancer and are supported by experimental evidence showing neurocognitive and behavioral effects in animal models, the significance of these results on the morbidity to astronauts has not been elucidated. There is a lack of human epidemiology data on which to base CNS risk estimates; therefore, risk projection based on scaling to human data, as done for cancer risk, is not possible for CNS risks. Research specific to the spaceflight environment using animal and cell models must be compiled to quantify the magnitude of CNS changes in order to estimate this risk and to establish validity of the current permissible exposure limits (PELs). In addition, the impact of radiation exposure in combination with individual sensitivity or other space flight factors, as well as assessment of the need for biological/pharmaceutical countermeasures, will be considered after further definition of CNS risk occurs.

  16. Assessment of locomotion behavioral defects induced by acute toxicity from heavy metal exposure in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dayong; XING Xiaojuan

    2008-01-01

    Locomotion behaviors are susceptible to disruption by a broad spectrum of chemicals and environmental stresses. However, no systematic testing of locomotion behavior defects induced by metal exposure has been conducted in the model organism of nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, the acute toxicity from heavy metal exposure on the locomotion behaviors was analyzed in nematodes. Endpoints of head thrash, body bend, forward turn, backward turn, and Omega/U turn were chosen to evaluate the locomotion behavioral defects. Our data suggest that the endpoints of head thrash, body bend, and forward turn will be useful for the evaluation of heavy metal toxicity in nematodes. The endpoint of head thrash could detect the toxicity from Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, and Pb exposures at a low concentration (2.5 μmol/L). The endpoint of body bend could be explored to evaluate the toxicity from all assayed heavy metal exposures at different concentrations, whereas the endpoint of forward turn will be more useful for the evaluation of heavy metal toxicity at high concentrations. Thus, endpoints of these locomotion behaviors establish a fast and economic way to assess the presence of acute toxicity from heavy metal exposure in nematode C. elegans.

  17. Effects of gabapentin in acute inflammatory pain in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, M U; Perkins, F M; Holte, Kathrine;

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine the analgesic effects of the anticonvulsant, gabapentin, in a validated model of acute inflammatory pain. METHODS: Twenty-two volunteers were investigated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Gabapentin 1......,200 mg or placebo was given on 2 separate study days. Three hours after drug administration, a first-degree burn injury was produced on the medial aspect of the nondominant calf (12.5 cm(2), 47 degrees C for 7 minutes). Quantitative sensory testing (QST) included pain ratings to thermal and mechanical...... stimuli (visual analog scale [VAS]), assessments of thermal and mechanical detection thresholds, and areas of secondary hyperalgesia. Side effects drowsiness and postural instability were assessed by subjective ratings (VAS). RESULTS: The burn injury induced significant primary and secondary hyperalgesia...

  18. Acute effect of different stretching methods on isometric muscle strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Vasconcellos de Lima Costa e Silva

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the acute effect of static stretching methods (SS and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF on the static muscle strength (SMS. Eleven young male subjects with strength training experience, performed 3 tests with a 48h interval between them, randomly selected, where each one subject carried out all procedures: a hand grip without stretching; b hand grip preceded by static stretching of wrist flexors muscles; c hand grip preceded by PNF stretching of wrist flexors muscles. The Shapiro-Wilk test verified the normality of data, and a one-way ANOVA with repeated measures, followed by Tukey’s post hoc test, evaluated the differences between the groups. The significance was set at p 0.05. In conclusion, both stretching methods had caused negative effects on isometric strength, reducing its levels.

  19. The Effects of Pornography on Aggressive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Lauri L.

    This document reviews existing empirical research on the effect of pornography on aggressive behavior. Two types of pornography are distinguished: aggressive pornography and non-aggressive pornography. Conclusions drawn from the research review are presented, including: (1) aggressive pornograpy consistently increases aggressive attitudes and…

  20. Protective effects of erythropoietin against acute lung injury in a rat model of acute necrotizing pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of exogenous erythropoietin (EPO) administration on acute lung injury (ALI) in an experimental model of sodium taurodeoxycholateinduced acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP).METHODS: Forty-seven male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into 7 groups: sham group (n = 5),3 ANP groups (n = 7 each) and 3 EPO groups (n = 7each). ANP was induced by retrograde infusion of 5% sodium taurodeoxycholate into the common bile duct.Rats in EPO groups received 1000 U/kg intramuscular EPO immediately after induction of ANP. Rats in ANP groups were given 1 mL normal saline instead. All animals were sacrificed at postoperative 24 h, 48 h and 72 h. Serum amilase, IL-2, IL-6 and lung tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. Pleural effusion volume and lung/body weight (LW/BW) ratios were calculated. Tissue levels of TNF-α, IL-2 and IL-6 were screened immunohistochemically. Additionally, ox-LDL accumulation was assessed with immune-fluorescent staining. Histopathological alterations in the lungs were also scored.RESULTS: The mean pleural effusion volume, calculated LW/BW ratio, serum IL-6 and lung tissue MDA levels were significantly lower in EPO groups than in ANP groups. No statistically significant difference was observed in either serum or tissue values of IL-2 among the groups. The level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)and IL-6 and accumulation of ox-LDL were evident in the lung tissues of ANP groups when compared to EPO groups, particularly at 72 h. Histopathological evaluation confirmed the improvement in lung injury parameters after exogenous EPO administration, particularly at 48 h and 72 h.CONCLUSION: EPO administration leads to a significant decrease in ALI parameters by inhibiting polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) accumulation,decreasing the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in circulation, preserving microvascular endothelial cell integrity and reducing oxidative stress-associated lipid peroxidation and therefore, can be

  1. Cost effectiveness of diagnostic strategies for patients with acute, undifferentiated chest pain

    OpenAIRE

    Goodacre, S; Calvert, N.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: Patients presenting to hospital with acute, undifferentiated chest pain have a low, but important, risk of significant myocardial ischaemia. Potential diagnostic strategies for patients with acute, undifferentiated chest pain vary from low cost, poor effectiveness (discharging all home) to high cost, high effectiveness (admission and intensive investigation). This paper aimed to estimate the relative cost effectiveness of these strategies.

  2. Different Effects of Testosterone on Acute and Chronic Pain in Gonadectomized Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zarifkar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Nociception and behavioral responses to noxious stimuli are different in males and females. It seems that these differences are due to the effects of sex hormones on the pain mechanisms. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of testosterone administration on nociception by formalin test in gonadectomized rats. Material & Methods: In this study 32 male wistar rats were divided into four groups (n=8 the control rats without receiving any drug or surgical operation, the sham – operated animals with surgical stress, the gonadectomized rats receiving 0.5 ml vehicle (olive oil i.p., and the gonadectomized rats receiving testosterone enantate (6 mg/100 gr body weight in 0.5 ml vehicle i.p.. On the sixth day after gonadectomy operation, formalin test was done in all rats. Pain scores in formalin test were statistically analyzed by SPSS and ANOVA. Results: The results showed that testosterone caused an increase in pain score in acute phase of formalin test in gonadectomized rats compared with sham-operated group (p<0.001. However, pain score in chronic phase was significantly reduced in testosterone received rats (p<0.001. Conclusion: It can be concluded that testosterone increases nociception in acute phase of formalin test in gonadectomized rats. On the other hand, testosterone relieved pain during chronic phase. Anti-nociceptive effects of testosterone in chronic phase may be through central nervous system by interacting with endogenous pain modulatory systems

  3. Protective effects of rhubarb on experimental severe acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Qing Zhao; Xiao-Hong Liu; Tetsuhide Ito; Jia-Ming Qian

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of rhubarb on severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in rats.METHODS: Severe acute pancreatitis was induced by two intraperitoneal injections of cerulein (40 μg/kg body weight) plus 5-h restraint water-immersion stress. Rhubarb (75-150 mg/kg) was orally fed before the first cerulein injection.The degree of pancreatic edema, serum amylase level,local pancreatic blood flow (PBF), and histological alterations were investigated. The effects of rhubarb on pancreatic exocrine secretion in this model were evaluated by comparing with those of somatostatin.RESULTS: In the Cerulein+Stress group, severe edema and diffuse hemorrhage in the pancreas were observed,the pancreatic wet weight (11.60±0.61 g/Kg) and serum amylase (458 490±43 100 U/L) were markedly increased (P<0.01 vs control). In the rhubarb (150 mg/kg) treated rats, necrosis and polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) infiltration in the pancreas were significantly reduced (P<0.01), and a marked decrease (50%) in serum amylase levels was also observed (P<0.01). PBF dropped to 38%(93±5 Ml/min per 100 g) of the control in the Cerulein+Stressgroup and partly recovered in the Cerulein+Stress+Rhubarb 150 mg group (135±12 Ml/min per 100 g) (P<0.01). The pancreatic exocrine function was impaired in the SAP rats.The amylase levels of pancreatic juice were reduced in the rats treated with rhubarb or somatostatin, comparing with that of untreated SAP group. The bicarbonate concentration of pancreatic juice was markedly elevated only in the rhubarb treated group (P<0.01).CONCLUSION: Rhubarb can exert protective effects on SAP, probably by inhibiting the inflammation of pancreas,improving pancreatic microcirculation, and altering exocrine secretion.

  4. Sublethal landrin toxicity: Behavioral and physiological effects on captive vultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forthman-Quick, D.L.; Hill, E.F.

    1988-01-01

    Use of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) has been proposed to reduce consumption of California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) eggs by ravens (Corvus corax). Although landrin has induced aversions in ravens and other birds, no data were available on behavioral and physiological effects of landrin on condors, non-target birds that might consume treated eggs. Because condors are endangered, we selected taxonomically related surrogates to approximate the effects on condors of acute oral doses of landrin. Seven black vultures (Coragyps atratus), 2 turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), and 2 king vultures (Sarcoramphus papa) received landrin and placebo treatments 1 week apart. Plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activity was monitored at zero, 3, and 24 hours posttreatment, and behavioral observations were made for 2 hours posttreatment. The doses tested were nonlethal, and ChE levels approached normal within 24 hours after treatment. Only the frequency of vomiting differed statistically between the placebo and landrin treatment. We conclude that with appropriate precautions, landrin can be used in applications of CTA to discourage consumption of condor eggs by ravens, while posing no apparent risk to reintroduced condors.

  5. Effects of mazindol on behavior maintained or occasioned by cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansbach, R S; Balster, R L

    1993-01-01

    The effects of mazindol, cocaine and D-amphetamine were studied in rhesus monkeys trained to self-administer cocaine, and in rats and squirrel monkeys trained to discriminate cocaine from saline. Non-contingent intravenous drug injections were administered to monkeys responding under a session consisting of a 5-min period during which lever-pressing produced food reinforcement and a 60-min session in which responding produced i.v. cocaine infusions (10 or 33 micrograms/kg per infusion). Acute i.v. injections of cocaine (0.1-1.7 mg/kg), D-amphetamine (0.1-1 mg/kg) and the dopamine re-uptake inhibitor mazindol (0.03-0.56 mg/kg) given 5 min before the session decreased self-administration of cocaine, but also decreased rates of behavior maintained by the presentation of food. In both rats and squirrel monkeys trained to discriminate cocaine from saline in a two-lever, food-maintained procedure, mazindol, cocaine and D-amphetamine substituted for cocaine in a dose-related manner. Despite a lack of selectivity to decrease cocaine self-administration as compared to behavior maintained by food, the present data provide some rationale for further consideration of mazindol as a potential pharmacotherapy for stimulant abuse, due to its relatively low abuse liability and cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects. PMID:8436063

  6. Effects of gabapentin in acute inflammatory pain in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, M U; Perkins, F M; Holte, Kathrine;

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine the analgesic effects of the anticonvulsant, gabapentin, in a validated model of acute inflammatory pain. METHODS: Twenty-two volunteers were investigated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Gabapentin 1......,200 mg or placebo was given on 2 separate study days. Three hours after drug administration, a first-degree burn injury was produced on the medial aspect of the nondominant calf (12.5 cm(2), 47 degrees C for 7 minutes). Quantitative sensory testing (QST) included pain ratings to thermal and mechanical...... (P pain threshold in the burn area (P =.04) and reduced secondary hyperalgesia, but the reduction was not significant (P =.06). Heat pain thresholds, pain during the burn, and mechanical pain in the area of secondary hyperalgesia were...

  7. Effects of acute stress on emotional behaviors and the expression of tyrosine hydroxylas and dopamine-β-hydroxylase in locus coeruleus of rats%急性应激对大鼠行为学及蓝斑TH、DBH基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶杨; 丁秀芳; 陈育尧; 孙学刚; 覃桂强; 张艳平; 黄杰春; 吕志平

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察急性应激状态下大鼠行为学的改变及不同时间点蓝斑内酪氨酸羟化酶(TH)和多巴胺一β一羟化酶(DBH)的基因表达.方法 将24只健康雄性Wistar大鼠随机分为空白对照组和模型组,模型组又分为造模后1、3、6 h组,每组6只.运用束缚和游泳的方法造模,观察其行为学的改变;并分别在造模后相应时间点取出蓝斑,用RT-PCR法检测蓝斑TH、DBH的表达.结果 模型组造模前后比较,1、6 h组的穿越格数和直立次数明显下降(P0.05),TH和DBH两者的表达趋势相似.结论 急性应激使大鼠的行为能力降低,蓝斑去甲肾上腺素能神经元中TH、DBH表达增高,使去甲肾上腺素合成增多,而去甲肾上腺素可以显著影响大鼠的情绪行为,在应激过程中起重要作用;TH、DBH表达的增高可能参与了急性应激所致的行为异常.%Objective To observe the emotional behaviors and stress-induced expression of tyrosine hydroxylas and dopamine-β-hydroxylase in the locus coeruleus.Methods Twenty-four healthy male rats were randomly divided into control group and experimental groups.Rats of the experimental groups received acute stress (i.e.restriction of mobility and swimming)and then the emotional behaviors were examined.Locus coeruleus were collected from the decapitated heads at 1 h, 3 h, and 6 h after the stress application.The levels of mRNA of TH and DBH in the locus coeroleus were determined by RT-PCR.Results After tbe acute stress, the traversing grid decreases in group 1 h,3 h and 6 h (P<0.05), erect time also reduces in three model groups (P<0.05,P<0.01) ,and grooming time only decreases in group 3 h (P<0.05).Compared with control group, the traversing grid reduces in group 1 h (P<0.05) ,erect time decreases in group 1 h and 3 h (P<0.01 ,P<0.05) ,and grooming time with all model groups have statistical significance (P<0.01).The levels of mRNA of TH and DBH in the locus coeruleus of the treatment

  8. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay B. Baker

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1–2 h. Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1 potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2 the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3 what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports. Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30–60 g/h in the form of a 6%–7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before

  9. Acute Effect of Hookah Smoking on the Human Coronary Microcirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael D; Rezk-Hanna, Mary; Rader, Florian; Mason, O'Neil R; Tang, Xiu; Shidban, Sarah; Rosenberry, Ryan; Benowitz, Neal L; Tashkin, Donald P; Elashoff, Robert M; Lindner, Jonathan R; Victor, Ronald G

    2016-06-01

    Hookah (water pipe) smoking is a major new understudied epidemic affecting youth. Because burning charcoal is used to heat the tobacco product, hookah smoke delivers not only nicotine but also large amounts of charcoal combustion products, including carbon-rich nanoparticles that constitute putative coronary vasoconstrictor stimuli and carbon monoxide, a known coronary vasodilator. We used myocardial contrast echocardiography perfusion imaging with intravenous lipid shelled microbubbles in young adult hookah smokers to determine the net effect of smoking hookah on myocardial blood flow. In 9 hookah smokers (age 27 ± 5 years, mean ± SD), we measured myocardial blood flow velocity (β), myocardial blood volume (A), myocardial blood flow (A × β) as well as myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) before and immediately after 30 minutes of ad lib hookah smoking. Myocardial blood flow did not decrease with hookah smoking but rather increased acutely (88 ± 10 to 120 ± 19 a.u./s, mean ± SE, p = 0.02), matching a mild increase in MVO2 (6.5 ± 0.3 to 7.6 ± 0.4 ml·minute(-1), p hookah, the increased MVO2 was accompanied by decreased heart rate variability, an indirect index of adrenergic overactivity, and eliminated by β-adrenergic blockade (i.v. propranolol). In conclusion, nanoparticle-enriched hookah smoke either is not an acute coronary vasoconstrictor stimulus or its vasoconstrictor effect is too weak to overcome the physiologic dilation of coronary microvessels matching mild cardiac β-adrenergic stimulation. PMID:27067622

  10. Effect of combined Antioxidants on Acute Myocardial infarction size

    OpenAIRE

    B.Farahani; K.Hadiyan; A.Mohseni

    2001-01-01

    SummaryBackground and purpose : The role of oxygen-derived free radicals in destruction of myocardial cells during acute ischemia or reperfusion has been proved. This phenomenon made the workers to study and find the inhibitory therapeutic methods in order to reduce the myocardial cell destruction during acute myocardial infarction. This study evaluates the role of combined antioxidants on acute myocardial infarction sige in patients referring to vali asr hospital of Arak.Materials and Method...

  11. The effects of acute alcohol on motor impairments in adolescent, adult, and aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, Laura C; Novier, Adelle; Van Skike, Candice E; Diaz-Granados, Jaime L; Matthews, Douglas B

    2015-03-01

    Acute alcohol exposure has been shown to produce differential motor impairments between aged and adult rats and between adolescent and adult rats. However, the effects of acute alcohol exposure among adolescent, adult, and aged rats have yet to be systematically investigated within the same project using a dose-dependent analysis. We sought to determine the age- and dose-dependent effects of acute alcohol exposure on gross and coordinated motor performance across the rodent lifespan. Adolescent (PD 30), adult (PD 70), and aged (approximately 18 months) male Sprague-Dawley rats were tested on 3 separate motor tasks: aerial righting reflex (ARR), accelerating rotarod (RR), and loss of righting reflex (LORR). In a separate group of animals, blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) were determined at multiple time points following a 3.0 g/kg ethanol injection. Behavioral tests were conducted with a Latin square repeated-measures design in which all animals received the following doses: 1.0 g/kg or 2.0 g/kg alcohol or saline over 3 separate sessions via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. During testing, motor impairments were assessed on the RR 10 min post-injection and on ARR 20 min post-injection. Aged animals spent significantly less time on the RR when administered 1.0 g/kg alcohol compared to adult rats. In addition, motor performance impairments significantly increased with age after 2.0 g/kg alcohol administration. On the ARR test, aged rats were more sensitive to the effects of 1.0 g/kg and 2.0 g/kg alcohol compared to adolescents and adults. Seven days after the last testing session, animals were given 3.0 g/kg alcohol and LORR was examined. During LORR, aged animals slept longer compared to adult and adolescent rats. This effect cannot be explained solely by BEC levels in aged rats. The present study suggests that acute alcohol exposure produces greater motor impairments in older rats when compared to adolescent and adult rats and begins to establish a

  12. Tinospora cordifolia ameliorates anxiety-like behavior and improves cognitive functions in acute sleep deprived rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rachana; Manchanda, Shaffi; Gupta, Muskan; Kaur, Taranjeet; Saini, Vedangana; Sharma, Anuradha; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2016-01-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) leads to the spectrum of mood disorders like anxiety, cognitive dysfunctions and motor coordination impairment in many individuals. However, there is no effective pharmacological remedy to negate the effects of SD. The current study examined whether 50% ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia (TCE) can attenuate these negative effects of SD. Three groups of adult Wistar female rats - (1) vehicle treated-sleep undisturbed (VUD), (2) vehicle treated-sleep deprived (VSD) and (3) TCE treated-sleep deprived (TSD) animals were tested behaviorally for cognitive functions, anxiety and motor coordination. TSD animals showed improved behavioral response in EPM and NOR tests for anxiety and cognitive functions, respectively as compared to VSD animals. TCE pretreatment modulated the stress induced-expression of plasticity markers PSA-NCAM, NCAM and GAP-43 along with proteins involved in the maintenance of LTP i.e., CamKII-α and calcineurin (CaN) in hippocampus and PC regions of the brain. Interestingly, contrary to VSD animals, TSD animals showed downregulated expression of inflammatory markers such as CD11b/c, MHC-1 and cytokines along with inhibition of apoptotic markers. This data suggests that TCE alone or in combination with other memory enhancing agents may help in managing sleep deprivation associated stress and improving cognitive functions. PMID:27146164

  13. Behavioral interventions--rationale, measurement, and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenilman, Jonathan M

    2005-06-01

    Effective STD and HIV prevention requires synergism of individual-based prevention behaviors and societal/structural supports that will promote and maintain these behaviors. We should also expect the unexpected. STD rates in gay men have risen after effective prevention of HIV/STD in gay men and effective antiretroviral therapy. New drugs of abuse, such as methamphetamine ("crystal meth"), have induced risky sexual behaviors in gay and heterosexual communities. Economic dislocation in Eastern Europe has resulted in trafficking of commercial sex workers to Europe, the Mideast, and Asia, all with the potential for STD and HIV spread. James Curran, formerly director of the HIV epidemiology and prevention effort at the CDC, has written: It is ironic that the two clearest examples of large-scale success in HIV prevention-reduction in HIV transmission in gay men in the United States and national declines in HIV incidence in Thailand-arise in societies/communities known in their own way for sexual openness....the openness in both communities provided the environment to make the powerful revolutionary changes needed. In Africa, the powerful voice of President Museveni of Uganda has also encouraged candor about sexual risk-taking and facilitated that nation's encouraging early success in reducing HIV prevalence...Unfortunately, most of the world remains unable or unwilling to deal frankly and consistently with sexuality despite the considerable risks of HIV infection in many communities. There is a worldwide sexual hangup hampering HIV prevention efforts. PMID:15963887

  14. Environmental effects of acute oil spills. Marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological effects as result of acute oil spill pollution may be considered as a product of: the existing biophysical conditions; occurrence and appearance of organisms in time and space; the fate of the oil in time and space; the vulnerability of the various organisms for oil and oil derivatives in a three-dimensional perspective. In general, it seems as every individual oil spill has its own nature and dynamics, inter alia because the physical, chemical and biological conditions never are the same. This means that the properties of the recipients often are more important than the amount of oil that is spilled. This may be exemplified by two oil spills in recent time. Exxon Valdez (1989), where 35000 ton oil were released in a partly closed sea area, caused considerable effects. From Braer (1993) the double amount of oil was spilled, but in an open sea area and at a time where the presence of dense concentrations of environmental components was limited, and the physical conditions favorable with respect to evaporation and dilution. Preliminary results show that the environmental effects were very limited. 311 refs., 32 figs., 10 tabs

  15. Acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, J. R.; Gottesdiener, K.; Jordan, J.; Chen, K.; Flattery, S.; Larson, P. J.; Candelore, M. R.; Gertz, B.; Robertson, D.; Sun, M.

    1999-01-01

    Ephedrine is used to help achieve weight control. Data on its true efficacy and mechanisms in altering energy balance in human subjects are limited. We aimed to determine the acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work and urinary catecholamines in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover study. Ten healthy volunteers were given ephedrine (50 mg) or placebo thrice daily during each of two 24-h periods (ephedrine and placebo) in a whole-room indirect calorimeter, which accurately measures minute-by-minute energy expenditure and mechanical work. Measurements were taken of 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work, urinary catecholamines and binding of (+/-)ephedrine in vitro to human beta1-, beta2- and beta3-adrenoreceptors. Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure was 3.6% greater (8965+/-1301 versus 8648+/-1347 kJ, Penergy expenditure in normal human subjects. A lack of binding of ephedrine to beta3-adrenoreceptors and the observed decrease in urinary noradrenaline during ephedrine treatment suggest that the thermogenic effect of ephedrine results from direct beta1-/beta2-adrenoreceptor agonism. An indirect beta3-adrenergic effect through the release of noradrenaline seems unlikely as urinary noradrenaline decreased significantly with ephedrine.

  16. A cost effectiveness analysis of the preferred antidotes for acute paracetamol poisoning patients in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Senarathna, S M D K Ganga; Ranganathan, Shalini Sri; Buckley, Nick; Fernandopulle, Rohini

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute paracetamol poisoning is a rapidly increasing problem in Sri Lanka. The antidotes are expensive and yet no health economic evaluation has been done on the therapy for acute paracetamol poisoning in the developing world. The aim of this study is to determine the cost effectiveness of using N-acetylcysteine over methionine in the management of acute paracetamol poisoning in Sri Lanka. Methods Economic analysis was applied using public healthcare system payer perspective. Costs ...

  17. Minimal effects of acute liver injury/acute liver failure on hemostasis as assessed by thromboelastography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stravitz, R. Todd; Lisman, Ton; Luketic, Velimir A.; Sterling, Richard K.; Puri, Puneet; Fuchs, Michael; Ibrahim, Ashraf; Lee, William M.; Sanyal, Arun J.

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims: Patients with acute liver injury/failure (ALI/ALF) are assumed to have a bleeding diathesis on the basis of elevated INR; however, clinically significant bleeding is rare. We hypothesized that patients with ALI/ALF have normal hemostasis despite elevated INR. Methods: Fifty-one pa

  18. [Acute Toxic Effects of Bromate on Aquatic Organisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-wei; Liu, Dong-mei; Zhang, Wen-juan; Cui, Fu-yi

    2016-02-15

    Acute toxic effects of potassium bromate, sodium bromate and potassium bromide on luminescent bacteria, water flea, green alga and zebrafish were studied using standard toxic testing methods. The results showed that the pollutants had no effect on the luminous intensity of luminescent bacteria. The 96 h EC5. of potassium bromate on Scenedesmus obliquus was 738.18 mg x L(-1), 48 h EC50 on Daphnia magna and Moina was 154.01 mg x L(-1) was 161.80 mg x L(-1), while 48 h LC50 was 198 52 mg x L(-1), 175.68 mg x L(-1), and 96 h LC50 on zebrafish was 931.4 mg x L(-1). The 96 h EC50 of sodium bromate on Scenedesmus obliquus was 540.26 mg x L(-1), 48 h EC50 Daphnia magna and Moina was 127.90 mg x L(-1), 111.07 mg x L(-1), while 48 h LC50 was 161.80 mg x L(-1), 123.47 mg x L(-1), and 96 h LC50 on zebrafish was 1065.6 mg x L(-1). But the effects of potassium bromide on the above several kinds of aquatic organisms were far smaller than those of potassium bromate and sodium bromate. The toxic effects on test organisms were due to the impacts of bromate after the comparison of different pollutants, and the effects were more obvious with the increase of exposure time. The order of sensitivity to the toxic effects of bromate was Daphnia magna, Moina > Scenedesmus obliquus > zebrafish > Chlorella vulgaris, luminescent bacteria. PMID:27363170

  19. Electrode Evaporation Effects on Air Arc Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xingwen; CHEN Degui; LI Rui; WU Yi; NIU Chunping

    2008-01-01

    A numerical study of the effects of copper and silver vapours on the air arc behavior is performed. The commercial software FLUENT is adapted and modified to develop a two-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) models of arc with the thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients, net emission coefficient for the radiation model of 99% ai-1% Cu, 99% air-1% Ag, and pure air, respectively. The simulation result demonstrates that vaporization of the electrode material may cool the arc center region and reduce the arc velocity. The effects of Ag vapour are stronger compared to those of Cu vapour.

  20. Adverse Effects of Synthetic Cannabinoids: Management of Acute Toxicity and Withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Ziva D

    2016-05-01

    Although several chemical structural classes of synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) were recently classified as Schedule I substances, rates of use and cases of serious toxic effects remain high. While case reports and media bring attention to severe SC toxicity, daily SC use resulting in dependence and withdrawal is a significant concern that is often overlooked when discussing the risks of these drugs. There is a rich literature on evidence-based approaches to treating substance use disorders associated with most abused drugs, yet little has been published regarding how to best treat symptoms related to SC dependence given its recency as an emerging clinically significant issue. This review provides a background of the pharmacology of SCs, recent findings of adverse effects associated with both acute intoxication and withdrawal as a consequence of daily use, and treatment approaches that have been implemented to address these issues, with an emphasis on pharmacotherapies for managing detoxification. In order to determine prevalence of use in cannabis smokers, a population at high risk for SC use, we obtained data on demographics of SC users, frequency of use, and adverse effects over a 3.5-year period (2012-2015) in the New York City metropolitan area, a region with a recent history of high SC use. While controlled studies on the physiological and behavioral effects of SCs are lacking, it is clear that risks associated with using these drugs pertain not only to the unpredictable and severe nature of acute intoxication but also to the effects of long-term, chronic use. Recent reports in the literature parallel findings from our survey, indicating that there is a subset of people who use SCs daily. Although withdrawal has not been systematically characterized and effective treatments have yet to be elucidated, some symptom relief has been reported with benzodiazepines and the atypical antipsychotic, quetiapine. Given the continued use and abuse of SCs, empirical studies

  1. ANALGETIC EFFECT OF J. CURCAS ON ACUTE DENTAL PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrya Kirana Mattulada

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Reducing pain is the first phase of treatment in dentistry. Pain can be reduced by application of peroral analgetic medicines such as paracetamol, although on certain circumstances such as pulpitis paim, this is less helpful. Dentists often use eugenol to alleviate acute pulpitis pain, while latex of Jaropha curcas is one of the most popular analgetic agent used by people. The objective of this study was to compare the analgetic effect of the latex of J. curcas with paracetamol by the hot plate test. Thirty male mices aged 2 – 3 months old, weight 20 -30 gram were divided into 5 groups. The lyophilized latex of J. curcas was diluted into 5, 10, and 15% respectively, and the dose was 5 mg/Kg BW. The dose of paracetamol (positive control was 1,3 mg/Kg BW and sterile aquabidest (negative control was 1,3 mg/Kg BW. All agents were administered orally. Analgetic activity was evaluated after 3, 6, and 24 hours. The test was considered positive if the latent time of the test group was equal or 3 times higher than the control group. Data was analyzed by 1-way Anova. Had it been a difference, research would be continued using HSD test (p,0,05. Latex of J. curcas has the same analgetic effect as paracetamol on 3 and 6 hours observation, but was reduced on 24 hours observation.

  2. Neurobehavioral and neurophysiological effects after acute exposure to a single peak of 200 ppm toluene in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobald, S Oliver; Wascher, Edmund; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Golka, Klaus; van Thriel, Christoph

    2015-05-01

    The solvent toluene has neurotoxic properties that are especially relevant in the working environment. Short-term exposure limits (STELs) vary from 50 ppm up to 300 ppm across countries but their acute effects remain elusive in humans. Several in vitro and in vivo studies elucidated that toluene acutely acts by perturbations of different neurotransmitter systems. More specifically visual evoked potentials (VEPs) of rats are decreased after acute toluene exposure, leading to the assumption that particularly visual attention processes might be a target of toluene in humans. Therefore a visual change detection task was applied to measure both neurobehavioral and neurophysiological effects by using electroencephalography (EEG) after a single peak exposure to 200 ppm toluene. Performance and event-related components of the EEG were examined before and after exposure in a toluene-exposed and a control group. Thirty-three young healthy volunteers participated in this study. The behavioral results of the experiment indicate that toluene impairs the rate of correct responses especially in task conditions in which an irrelevant distractor is given, while the response times did not differ between both groups. The neurophysiological findings hint toward a less efficient visual processing of behaviorally relevant stimuli and an increased distractibility by irrelevant distractors. Thus the present results are a promising starting point for further research specifically targeting visual attention after toluene exposure and the reconsideration of the presently very heterogeneous STELs.

  3. Demographics, Clinical Characteristics, and Treatment of Aggressive Patients Admitted to the Acute Behavioral Unit of a Community General Hospital: A Prospective Observational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nourse, Rosemary; Reade, Cynthia; Stoltzfus, Jill; Mittal, Vikrant

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Aggressive patients are not uncommon in acute inpatient behavioral health units of general hospitals. Prior research identifies various predictors associated with aggressive inpatient behavior. This prospective observational study examines the demographic and clinical characteristics of aggressive inpatients and the routine medications these patients were receiving at discharge.

  4. Consensus definitions of 14 severe acute toxic effects for childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Barzilai, Shlomit;

    2016-01-01

    toxic effects, that no two protocols shared identical definitions of all toxic effects, and that no toxic effect definition was shared by all protocols. Using the Delphi method over three face-to-face plenary meetings, consensus definitions were obtained for all 14 toxic effects. In the overall......Although there are high survival rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, their outcome is often counterbalanced by the burden of toxic effects. This is because reported frequencies vary widely across studies, partly because of diverse definitions of toxic effects. Using the Delphi...... method, 15 international childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia study groups assessed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia protocols to address toxic effects that were to be considered by the Ponte di Legno working group. 14 acute toxic effects (hypersensitivity to asparaginase, hyperlipidaemia, osteonecrosis...

  5. Effects of LSD on grooming behavior in serotonin transporter heterozygous (Sert⁺/⁻) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzar, Evan J; Stewart, Adam Michael; Kalueff, Allan V

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) plays a crucial role in the brain, modulating mood, cognition and reward. The serotonin transporter (SERT) is responsible for the reuptake of 5-HT from the synaptic cleft and regulates serotonin signaling in the brain. In humans, SERT genetic variance is linked to the pathogenesis of various psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Rodent self-grooming is a complex, evolutionarily conserved patterned behavior relevant to stress, ASD and OCD. Genetic ablation of mouse Sert causes various behavioral deficits, including increased anxiety and grooming behavior. The hallucinogenic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a potent serotonergic agonist known to modulate human and animal behavior. Here, we examined heterozygous Sert(+/-) mouse behavior following acute administration of LSD (0.32 mg/kg). Overall, Sert(+/-) mice displayed a longer duration of self-grooming behavior regardless of LSD treatment. In contrast, LSD increased serotonin-sensitive behaviors, such as head twitching, tremors and backwards gait behaviors in both Sert(+/+) and Sert(+/-) mice. There were no significant interactions between LSD treatment and Sert gene dosage in any of the behavioral domains measured. These results suggest that Sert(+/-) mice may respond to the behavioral effects of LSD in a similar manner to wild-type mice.

  6. Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson-Hanley C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cay Anderson-Hanley, Kimberly Tureck, Robyn L Schneiderman Department of Psychology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA Abstract: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Exergaming combines physical and mental exercise simultaneously by linking physical activity movements to video game control and may yield better compliance with exercise. In this investigation, two pilot studies explored the potential behavioral and cognitive benefits of exergaming. In Pilot I, twelve children with autism spectrum disorders completed a control task and an acute bout of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR; in Pilot II, ten additional youths completed an acute bout of cyber cycling. Repetitive behaviors and executive function were measured before and after each activity. Repetitive behaviors significantly decreased, while performance on Digits Backwards improved following the exergaming conditions compared with the control condition. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings, and to explore the application of exergaming for the management of behavioral disturbance and to increase cognitive control in children on the autism spectrum. Keywords: autism, repetitive behaviors, exergaming, exercise, executive function

  7. Strain-dependent Effects of Acute, Chronic, and Withdrawal from Chronic Nicotine on Fear Conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Portugal, George S.; Wilkinson, Derek S.; Justin W Kenney; Sullivan, Colleen; Gould, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of nicotine on cognitive processes such as learning and memory may play an important role in the addictive liability of tobacco. However, it remains unknown whether genetic variability modulates the effects of nicotine on learning and memory. The present study characterized the effects of acute, chronic, and withdrawal from chronic nicotine administration on fear conditioning, somatic signs, and the elevated plus maze in 8 strains of inbred mice. Strain-dependent effects of acute ...

  8. Acute effects of ambient air pollution episodes on respiratory health of children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, G.

    1992-01-01

    In this thesis the acute effects of air pollution episodes on respiratory health of seven to eleven year old children living in non-urban communities in the Netherlands are discussed. Repeated measurements of pulmonary function (spirometry) and the occurrence of acute respiratory symptoms using a da

  9. Effects of chronic kidney disease on platelet response to antiplatelet therapy in acute myocardial infarction patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓捷

    2012-01-01

    Objective To elucidate the effects of dual antiplatelet therapy on platelet response in acute myocardial infarction patients with chronic kidney disease. Methods From September 2011 to June 2012,a total of 195 acute myocardial infarction patients with drug eluting stent implanting were enrolled. Among them,133 cases had normal

  10. Costs and effectiveness of a brief MRI examination of patients with acute knee injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.H.G. Oei (Edwin); J.J. Nikken (Jeroen); A.Z. Ginai (Abida); G.P. Krestin (Gabriel); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); A.B. van Vugt (Arie); M.G.M. Hunink (Myriam)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study was to assess the costs and effectiveness of selective short magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with acute knee injury. A model was developed to evaluate the selective use of MRI in patients with acute knee injury and no fracture on radiography based on th

  11. The Effects of Token Reinforcement on Delinquents' Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Michael M.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The effects of a token reinforcement program on the classroom behavior of 19 delinquent boys in a correctional institution were investigated. Findings suggest that the use of global, composite measures may mask program effects on important component behaviors. (Author)

  12. Acute and sub-acute effects of repetitive kicking on hip adduction torque in injury-free elite youth soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper; Bandholm, Thomas; Hölmich, Per;

    2014-01-01

    Hip adduction strength is important for kicking and acceleration in soccer players. Changes in hip adduction strength may therefore have an effect on soccer players' athletic performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute and sub-acute effects of a kicking drill session on hi...

  13. Hepatic effect of NAC on sevear acute pancteatise of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Chen; Ye-Jiang Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the hepatic protection of n-acetyl cysteine(NAC) on severe acute pancreatitis(SAP).Methods:SD rats were randomly divided into control group,SAP group and NAC group.SAPAHO method was adopted to establish the model,2 h after modeling, rats inNAC group had intraperitoneal injection ofNAC(200 mg/kg).Ten rats from each group were sacrificed in every6 and12 h at different time points respectively.Liver damage, liver function and serum amylase,AST,ALT and malondialdehyde(MDA) were determined.Results:Serum amylase,AST, ALT andMDA content inSAP,NAC group at each time point were significantly higher in the control group(P<0.05), serum amylase,AST,ALT andMDA content inNAC group rats were lower in theSAP group significantly(P<0.05);Microscopic examination showed that the liver injury in rats and theNAC group significantly reduced in theSAP group.Conclusions:NAC provides effective protection against liver damage toSAP, protective fromSAP liver injury.

  14. Protective Effects of Hydrogen Gas on Experimental Acute Pancreatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Xin Zhou

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis (AP is an inflammatory disease mediated by damage to acinar cells and pancreatic inflammation. In patients with AP, subsequent systemic inflammatory responses and multiple organs dysfunction commonly occur. Interactions between cytokines and oxidative stress greatly contribute to the amplification of uncontrolled inflammatory responses. Molecular hydrogen (H2 is a potent free radical scavenger that not only ameliorates oxidative stress but also lowers cytokine levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of H2 gas on AP both in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro assessment, AR42J cells were treated with cerulein and then incubated in H2-rich or normal medium for 24 h, and for the in vivo experiment, AP was induced through a retrograde infusion of 5% sodium taurocholate into the pancreatobiliary duct (0.1 mL/100 g body weight. Wistar rats were treated with inhaled air or 2% H2 gas and sacrificed 12 h following the induction of pancreatitis. Specimens were collected and processed to measure the amylase and lipase activity levels; the myeloperoxidase activity and production levels; the cytokine mRNA expression levels; the 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, malondialdehyde, and glutathione levels; and the cell survival rate. Histological examinations and immunohistochemical analyses were then conducted. The results revealed significant reductions in inflammation and oxidative stress both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of H2 gas were associated with reductions in AR42J cell and pancreatic tissue damage. In conclusion, our results suggest that H2 gas is capable of ameliorating damage to the pancreas and AR42J cells and that H2 exerts protective effects both in vitro and in vivo on subjects with AP. Thus, the results obtained indicate that this gas may represent a novel therapy agent in the management of AP.

  15. Sleep quality but not sleep quantity effects on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Sarah M; Lupis, Sarah B; Gianferante, Danielle; Rohleder, Nicolas; Wolf, Jutta M

    2015-01-01

    Given the well-documented deleterious health effects, poor sleep has become a serious public health concern and increasing efforts are directed toward understanding underlying pathways. One potential mechanism may be stress and its biological correlates; however, studies investigating the effects of poor sleep on a body's capacity to deal with challenges are lacking. The current study thus aimed at testing the effects of sleep quality and quantity on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress. A total of 73 college-aged adults (44 females) were investigated. Self-reported sleep behavior was assessed via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and salivary cortisol responses to the Trier Social Stress Test were measured. In terms of sleep quality, we found a significant three-way interaction, such that relative to bad sleep quality, men who reported fairly good or very good sleep quality showed blunted or exaggerated cortisol responses, respectively, while women's stress responses were less dependent on their self-reported sleep quality. Contrarily, average sleep duration did not appear to impact cortisol stress responses. Lastly, participants who reported daytime dysfunctions (i.e. having trouble staying awake or keeping up enthusiasm) also showed a trend to blunted cortisol stress responses compared to participants who did not experience these types of daytime dysfunctions. Overall, the current study suggests gender-specific stress reactivity dysfunctions as one mechanism linking poor sleep with detrimental physical health outcomes. Furthermore, the observed differential sleep effects may indicate that while the body may be unable to maintain normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal functioning in an acute psychosocial stress situation after falling prey to low sleep quality, it may retain capacities to deal with challenges during extended times of sleep deprivation.

  16. Behavior in a stressful situation, personality factors, and disease severity in patients with acute myocardial infarction: baseline findings from the prospective cohort study SECAMI (The Secondary Prevention and Compliance following Acute Myocardial Infarction-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tydén Patrik

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychosocial stress has been identified as a risk factor in association with cardiovascular disease but less attention has been paid to heterogeneity in vulnerability to stress. The serial Color Word Test (CWT measures adaptation to a stressful situation and it can be used to identify individuals that are vulnerable to stress. Prospective studies have shown that individuals with a maladaptive behavior in this test are exposed to an increased risk of future cardiovascular events. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether maladaptive behavior in the serial CWT alone or in combination with any specific personality dimension was associated with severity of myocardial infarction (MI. Methods MI-patients (n = 147 completed the test and filled in a personality questionnaire in close proximity to the acute event. The results were analyzed in association with four indicators of severity: maximum levels above median of the cardiac biomarkers troponin I and creatine kinase-MB (CKMB, Q-wave infarctions, and a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF ≤ 50%. Results Maladaptive behavior in the serial CWT together with low scores on extraversion were associated with maximum levels above median of cardiac troponin I (OR 2.97, CI 1.08-8.20, p = 0.04 and CKMB (OR 3.33, CI 1.12-9.93, p = 0.03. No associations were found between the combination maladaptive behavior and low scores on extraversion and Q-wave infarctions or a decreased LVEF. Conclusions Maladaptive behavior in combination with low scores on extraversion is associated with higher cardiac biomarker levels following an MI. The serial CWT and personality questionnaires could be used to identify individuals vulnerable to the hazardous effects of stress and thereby are exposed to an increased risk of a more severe infarction.

  17. Differential Effects of a Tier Two Behavior Intervention Based on Function of Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Kent; Campbell, Amy L.; Carter, Deborah Russell; Dickey, Celeste Rossetto

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a tier two daily behavior card intervention and differential effects based on function of problem behavior. The participants were 36 elementary school students nominated for additional intervention beyond universal School-Wide Positive Behavior Support. Measures included…

  18. Preliminary evaluation of porcine zona pellucida (PZP) immunocontraception for behavioral effects in feral horses (Equus caballus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, D M

    1999-01-01

    Successful management of captive populations of wild animals requires effective control of reproduction. Contraception is one tool for controlling reproduction of animals in zoos; however, the options available to the animal manager are limited. Contraceptives vary in efficacy, reversibility, and side effects, and thus may not be suitable for widespread use. One consideration when selecting a contraceptive is its potential for side effects on behavior, especially given the fact that reproduction plays such a prominent role in the biology of any species. To date, there have been few evaluations of contraceptives for behavioral effects, and those that have been conducted have focused on hormone-based contraceptives. This study sought to evaluate a novel method of population control, immunocontraception, for behavioral effects in a population of feral horses. Porcine zona pellucida (PZP) immunocontraception prevents fertilization of ova and does not alter normal hormone secretion patterns. It therefore should leave the animal behaviorally intact in terms of reproductive behavior. The study examined the behavior of 43 sexually mature mares on Assateague Island during the 1997 breeding season and, with help from Earthwatch volunteers, collected observations over a 3-month period. The study found no significant differences between treated and untreated mares in general activity budget, aggression given or received, and spatial relationships relative to the stallion. These preliminary findings indicate that PZP contraception seems to have no acute behavioral effects on the behavior of individuals. The study findings also suggest that PZP could be a desirable and effective management tool for captive species in which social behavior plays an integral role in group dynamics. Analyses of group level effects and population level effects are continuing.

  19. The effects of acute alcohol administration on the human brain: Insights from neuroimaging

    OpenAIRE

    Bjork, James M.; Gilman, Jodi M

    2013-01-01

    Over the last quarter century, researchers have peered into the living human brain to develop and refine mechanistic accounts of alcohol-induced behavior, as well as neurobiological mechanisms for development and maintenance of addiction. These in vivo neuroimaging studies generally show that acute alcohol administration affects brain structures implicated in motivation and behavior control, and that chronic intoxication is correlated with structural and functional abnormalities in these same...

  20. Effects of adult-onset calorie restriction on anxiety-like behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levay, Elizabeth A; Govic, Antonina; Penman, Jim; Paolini, Antonio G; Kent, Stephen

    2007-12-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) has consistently been shown to increase lifespan and ameliorate disease outcomes. Its effects on behavior are less clear, although anxiolytic-like effects have been observed. Rats were subjected to 1 of 4 dietary regimens: control, CR25%, CR50% and, an acute episode of CR and tested in 3 tests of anxiety: the open field test, the elevated plus maze, and the modified open field test. In the open field test, the CR25% and CR50% groups made more central zone entries than the control and Acute groups, which was primarily due to differences in the initial 5 min of the test. Moreover, both CR groups engaged in greater exploration of the central zone than the control group in the initial 5 min of the test. The Acute group also exhibited significantly longer latencies to leave the central zone at test onset than the control and CR50% group. In the elevated plus maze, the Acute group also displayed longer latencies to open arm entry as compared to the control and CR50% group and showed a lower ratio of open to total arm entries compared to all other groups. There were no effects of CR on any variable of the modified open field test. Possible neurochemical mechanisms underlying the anxiolytic-like effect of CR are discussed.

  1. The moderating effects of parenting styles on African-American and Caucasian children's suicidal behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Luebbe, Aaron

    2010-04-01

    Given that parenting practices have been linked to suicidal behavior in adolescence, examining the moderating effect of parenting styles on suicidal behavior early in development could offer potential insight into possible buffers as well as directions for suicide prevention and intervention later in adolescence. Hence, the moderating effects of parenting styles, including authoritarian, permissive, and features of authoritative parenting, on depressed and aggressive children's suicidal behavior, including ideation and attempts, were evaluated with young children (N = 172; 72% male, 28% female) ranging from 6 to 12 years of age. African American (69%) and Caucasian (31%) children admitted for acute psychiatric inpatient care completed standardized measures of suicidal behavior, depressive symptoms, and proactive and reaction aggression. Their parents also completed standardized measures of parental distress and parenting style. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that, while statistically controlling for age and gender, children who endorsed more depressive symptoms or reactive aggression reported more current and past suicidal behavior than children who endorsed fewer depressive or aggressive symptoms. The significant positive relationship observed between depressive symptoms and childhood suicidal behavior, however, was attenuated by parental use of authoritarian parenting practices for African-American and older children but not for younger and Caucasian children. The ethnic/racial difference observed for the buffering effect of authoritarian parenting practices offers potential theoretical and clinical implications for conceptualizing the moderating effects of parenting styles on African-American and Caucasian children's suicidal behavior.

  2. Effects of oral montelukast on airway function in acute asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cýllý, A; Kara, A; Ozdemir, T; Oğüş, C; Gülkesen, K H

    2003-05-01

    Montelukast, a specific cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist, has been shown to improve pulmonary function within 1 h of ingestion. This study was undertaken to compare the effects on peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) of oral montelukast added to intravenous steroid, intravenous steroid alone and placebo during the 24 h period following administration. Seventy asthmatic patients (FEV1 40-80% predicted and > or = 15% improvement after inhaled beta agonist) were enrolled in a single blind study to receive oral montelukast (10 mg) plus intravenous prednisolone (1 mg/kg), intravenous prednisolone (1 mg/kg) or placebo in a randomised fashion. The patients received one ofthe above three groups of medication before any other treatments. This was immediately followed by the aerosol treatments of 100 mcg of terbutaline sulphate divided into three doses during 1 h as described in the consensus statement. Thereafter, patients were observed for 24 h to document the effects on PEFR, Borg dyspnoea score and need for rescue medication. The primary end point was percentage change at different time points. Secondary end points were Borg dyspnoea score and use of rescue medication. Compared with placebo, montelukast added to the prednisolone group and the prednisolone alone group had significant percentage change from baseline in PEFR in the entire 24 h period (P<0.05). The difference in PEFR between montelukast plus prednisolone group and prednisolone group favoured the montelukast plus prednisolone group but did not reach statistical significance. Furthermore, montelukast plus prednisolone group required less inhaled short-acting beta agonistthan other two groups. The results of this study indicate that adding montelukast to steroid in acute asthma may have some additive improvement in lung functions. PMID:12735671

  3. Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Tureck, Kimberly; Schneiderman, Robyn L

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Exergaming combines physical and mental exercise simultaneously by linking physical activity movements to video game control and may yield better compliance with exercise. In this investigation, two pilot studies explored the potential behavioral and cognitive benefits of exergaming. In Pilot I, twelve children with autism spectrum disorders completed a control task and an acute bout of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR); in Pilot II, ten additional youths completed an acute bout of cyber cycling. Repetitive behaviors and executive function were measured before and after each activity. Repetitive behaviors significantly decreased, while performance on Digits Backwards improved following the exergaming conditions compared with the control condition. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings, and to explore the application of exergaming for the management of behavioral disturbance and to increase cognitive control in children on the autism spectrum. PMID:22114543

  4. Yueju Pill Rapidly Induces Antidepressant-Like Effects and Acutely Enhances BDNF Expression in Mouse Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenda Xue

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional antidepressants have a major disadvantage in delayed onset of efficacy, and the emerging fast-acting antidepressant ketamine has adverse behavioral and neurotoxic effects. Yueju pill, an herb medicine formulated eight hundred years ago by Doctor Zhu Danxi, has been popularly prescribed in China for alleviation of depression-like symptoms. Although several clinical outcome studies reported the relative short onset of antidepressant effects of Yueju, this has not been scientifically investigated. We, therefore, examined the rapid antidepressant effect of Yueju in mice and tested the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that acute administration of ethanol extract of Yueju rapidly attenuated depressive-like symptoms in learned helpless paradigm, and the antidepressant-like effects were sustained for at least 24 hours in tail suspension test in ICR mice. Additionally, Yueju, like ketamine, rapidly increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the hippocampus, whereas the BDNF mRNA expression remained unaltered. Yueju rapidly reduced the phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2, leading to desuppression of BDNF synthesis. Unlike ketamine, both the BDNF expression and eEF2 phosphorylation were revered at 24 hours after Yueju administration. This study is the first to demonstrate the rapid antidepressant effects of an herb medicine, offering an opportunity to improve therapy of depression.

  5. Acute exercise improves cognition in the depressed elderly: the effect of dual-tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Eduardo Vasques; Helena Moraes; Heitor Silveira; Andrea Camaz Deslandes; Jerson Laks

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to assess the acute effect of physical exercise on the cognitive function of depressed elderly patients in a dual-task experiment. INTRODUCTION: Physical exercise has a positive effect on the brain and may even act as a treatment for major depressive disorder. However, the effects of acute cardiovascular exercise on cognitive function during and after one session of aerobic training in elderly depressive patients are not known. METHODS: Ten elderly subjec...

  6. Acute toxicity impacts of Euphorbia hirta L extract on behavior, organs body weight index and histopathology of organs of the mice and Artemia salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abu Basma Rajeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The methanol extract of Euphorbia hirta L (Euphorbiaceae, which is used in traditional medicines, was tested for in vivo toxicity. Materials and Methods: In vivo brine shrimp lethality assay and oral acute toxicity study at single high dose of 5000 mg/kg and observation for 14 days in mice were used to study the toxic effect of E. hirta. Results: Brine shrimp lethality assay was used to calculate the median lethal concentration (LC 50 of E. hirta (for leaves, stems, flowers and roots methanolic extracts at concentrations from 100 to 0.07 mg/ml. The LC 50 values of 1.589, 1.420, 0.206 and 0.0827 mg/ml were obtained for stems, leaves, flowers and roots, respectively. Potassium dichromate (the positive control had LC 50 value of 0.00758 mg/ml. The acute oral toxicity study of the leaf extract resulted in one third mortality and mild behavioral changes among the treated mice. No significant statistical differences found between body weight, relative (% and absolute (g organ weights of treated and untreated groups (P> 0.05. Gross and microscopic examination of the vital organ tissues revealed no differences between control and treated mice. All the tissues appeared normal. Conclusions : E. hirta leaves methanol extract has exhibited mild toxic effects in mice.

  7. Central Agonism of GPR120 Acutely Inhibits Food Intake and Food Reward and Chronically Suppresses Anxiety-Like Behavior in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisette, Alexandre; Fernandes, Maria F.; Hryhorczuk, Cécile; Poitout, Vincent; Alquier, Thierry; Fulton, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Background: GPR120 (FFAR4) is a G-protein coupled receptor implicated in the development of obesity and the antiinflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects of omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids. Increasing central ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels has been shown to have both anorectic and anxiolytic actions. Despite the strong clinical interest in GPR120, its role in the brain is largely unknown, and thus we sought to determine the impact of central GPR120 pharmacological activation on energy balance, food reward, and anxiety-like behavior. Methods: Male C57Bl/6 mice with intracerebroventricular cannulae received a single injection (0.1 or 1 µM) or continuous 2-week infusion (1 µM/d; mini-pump) of a GPR120 agonist or vehicle. Free-feeding intake, operant lever-pressing for palatable food, energy expenditure (indirect calorimetry), and body weight were measured. GPR120 mRNA expression was measured in pertinent brain areas. Anxiety-like behavior was assessed in the elevated-plus maze and open field test. Results: GPR120 agonist injections substantially reduced chow intake during 4 hours postinjection, suppressed the rewarding effects of high-fat/-sugar food, and blunted approach-avoidance behavior in the open field. Conversely, prolonged central GPR120 agonist infusions reduced anxiety-like behavior in the elevated-plus maze and open field, yet failed to affect free-feeding intake, energy expenditure, and body weight on a high-fat diet. Conclusion: Acute reductions in food intake and food reward suggest that GPR120 could mediate the effects of central ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to inhibit appetite. The anxiolytic effect elicited by GPR120 agonist infusions favors the testing of compounds that can enter the brain to activate GPR120 for the mitigation of anxiety. PMID:26888796

  8. Effect of Dextran 40 and aprotinin on experimental acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocket, K V; Reising, J R; Wirman, J A; Gau, N; Joffe, S N

    1984-03-01

    This study examines and compares the prophylactic role of aprotinin and Dextran 40 in acute pancreatitis. Experimental acute pancreatitis was induced in 70 male Wistar rats using the closed-duodenal-loop technique. The rats were randomly divided into four groups; sham operation, untreated acute pancreatitis, and therapy with aprotinin or Dextran 40. Samples of blood and urine were collected at the beginning and at the end of the 24-hr period for measurement of amylase and creatinine which allowed calculation of the amylase-creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR). Mortality in the aprotinin group was the same as the untreated rats (20%). Dextran 40 therapy was associated with a lower mortality rate (6.7%). Light microscopic examination confirmed that the histologic changes of acute pancreatitis were less severe in both the aprotinin- and Dextran 40-treated rats. The ACCR was elevated after Dextran 40 therapy, which was due mainly to high urinary amylase levels. These results suggest that Dextran 40 may have a prophylactic role in acute experimental pancreatitis but again emphasizes the high false-positive rate of the ACCR determination. PMID:6199589

  9. Acute and chronic effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment on fear conditioning: implications for underlying fear circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghardt, N S; Bauer, E P

    2013-09-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely used for the treatment of a spectrum of anxiety disorders, yet paradoxically they may increase symptoms of anxiety when treatment is first initiated. Despite extensive research over the past 30 years focused on SSRI treatment, the precise mechanisms by which SSRIs exert these opposing acute and chronic effects on anxiety remain unknown. By testing the behavioral effects of SSRI treatment on Pavlovian fear conditioning, a well characterized model of emotional learning, we have the opportunity to identify how SSRIs affect the functioning of specific brain regions, including the amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and hippocampus. In this review, we first define different stages of learning involved in cued and context fear conditioning and describe the neural circuits underlying these processes. We examine the results of numerous rodent studies investigating how acute SSRI treatment modulates fear learning and relate these effects to the known functions of serotonin in specific brain regions. With these findings, we propose a model by which acute SSRI administration, by altering neural activity in the extended amygdala and hippocampus, enhances both acquisition and expression of cued fear conditioning, but impairs the expression of contextual fear conditioning. Finally, we review the literature examining the effects of chronic SSRI treatment on fear conditioning in rodents and describe how downregulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the amygdala and hippocampus may mediate the impairments in fear learning and memory that are reported. While long-term SSRI treatment effectively reduces symptoms of anxiety, their disruptive effects on fear learning should be kept in mind when combining chronic SSRI treatment and learning-based therapies, such as cognitive behavioral therapy.

  10. Effects of Breaking Sitting by Standing and Acute Exercise on Postprandial Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Sedentary behavior, which includes sitting and TV viewing, has been identified as an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Breaking sedentary behavior improves metabolic health such as postprandial glycaemia and insulinemia. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect are unclear. Objectives Here, we examined whether breaking sitting by standing and acute exercise reduces postprandial oxidative stress. Patient and Methods Fifteen participants performed 3 trials (sitting, standing, and exercise, each lasting 2 days, in a randomised order. On day one of sitting trial, participants sat in a chair. For the standing trial, the participants stood 6 times, for a 45-minute period each time. For the exercise trial, the participants walked or ran at approximately 60% of age-predicted maximum heart rate for 30 minutes. On day two of each trial, participants rested and consumed the standardised breakfast and lunch. Blood samples were collected in the morning and afternoon on day one, and fasting and at 2, 4, and 6 hours postprandially on day two. Results The concentrations of serum derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs measured at 4 hours (P = 0.064 and 6 hours (P = 0.071 tended to be higher than that in the fasting state in the sitting trial, but not standing and exercise trial (two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA, trial × time interaction, P = 0.006. Conclusions Our results indicate the importance of reducing sitting time for improving postprandial oxidative stress status.

  11. Effects of Montelukast in an Experimental Model of Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angı, Serkan; Eken, Hüseyin; Kılıc, Erol; Karaköse, Oktay; Balci, Gürhan; Somuncu, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND We evaluated the hematological, biochemical, and histopathological effects of Montelukast on pancreatic damage in an experimental acute pancreatitis model created by cerulein in rats before and after the induction of pancreatitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Forty rats were divided into 4 groups with 10 rats each. The study groups were: the Cerulein (C) group, the Cerulein + early Montelukast (CMe) group, the Cerulein + late Montelukast (CMl) group, and the Control group. The pH, pO2, pCO2, HCO3, leukocyte, hematocrit, pancreatic amylase, and lipase values were measured in the arterial blood samples taken immediately before rats were killed. RESULTS There were statistically significant differences between the C group and the Control group in the values of pancreatic amylase, lipase, blood leukocyte, hematocrit, pH, pO2, pCO2, HCO3, and pancreatic water content, and also in each of the values of edema, inflammation, vacuolization, necrosis, and total histopathological score (P<0.05). When the CMl group and C group were compared, no statistically significant differences were found in any parameter analyzed. When the CMe group was compared with the C group, pancreatic amylase, lipase, pH, PO2, pCO2, HCO3, pancreatic water content, histopathological edema, inflammation, and total histopathological score values were significantly different between the groups (P<0.05). Finally, when the CMe group and the Control group were compared, significant differences were found in all except 2 (leukocyte and pO2) parameters (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Leukotriene receptor antagonists used in the late phases of pancreatitis might not result in any benefit; however, when they are given in the early phases or prophylactically, they may decrease pancreatic damage. PMID:27479458

  12. Inhibition factors of arsenic trioxide therapeutic effects in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sui Meijuan; Zhang Zhuo; Zhou Jin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To summarize limitations involved in arsenic trioxide therapeutic effects in acute promyelocytic leukemia,because current studies show that some individuals of acute promyelocytic leukemia have relatively poor outcomes during treatment with arsenic trioxide.Data sources Most relevant articles were included in the PubMed database between 2000 and 2013 with the keywords "acute promyelocytic leukemia","arsenic trioxide","thiol" or "methylation".In addition,a few older articles were also reviewed.Study selection Data and articles related to arsenic trioxide effect in acute promyelocytic leukemia treatment were selected and reviewed.We developed an overview of limitations associated with arsenic trioxide therapeutic effect.Results This review focuses on the researches about the arsenic trioxide therapeutic effect in acute promyelocytic leukemia and summarizes three mainly limitations which can influence the arsenic trioxide therapeutic effect to different degrees.First,with the combination of arsenic and glutathione the therapeutic effect and cytotoxicity decrease when glutathione concentration increases; second,arsenic methylation,stable arsenic methylation products weaken the apoptosis effect of arsenic trioxide in leukemia cells; third,gene mutations affect the sensitivity of tumor cells to arsenic trioxide and increase the resistance of leukemia cells to arsenic trioxide.Conclusions The chief limitations are listed in the review.If we can exclude all of them,we can obtain a better therapeutic effect of arsenic trioxide in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia.

  13. Adaptive changes in the acute haemodynamic effects of cilazapril during chronic treatment. Comparison with long-term clinical effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J; Sykulski, R; Jensen, G;

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the adaptive changes in the acute haemodynamic response to ACE inhibition during chronic treatment in CHF. METHODS: The acute and chronic effects of oral cilazapril (CLZ) treatment, an ACE-inhibitor with prolonged duration on haemodynamic measures (PCWP, PAP, RAP, CI and SVR) ...

  14. Fear extinction and acute stress reactivity reveal a role of LPA(1) receptor in regulating emotional-like behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, C; Sánchez-López, J; Castilla-Ortega, E; Rosell-Valle, C; Zambrana-Infantes, E; García-Fernández, M; Rodriguez de Fonseca, F; Chun, J; Santín, L J; Estivill-Torrús, G

    2014-09-01

    LPA1 receptor is one of the six characterized G protein-coupled receptors (LPA1-6) through which lysophosphatidic acid acts as an intercellular signaling molecule. It has been proposed that this receptor has a role in controlling anxiety-like behaviors and in the detrimental consequences of stress. Here, we sought to establish the involvement of the LPA1 receptor in emotional regulation. To this end, we examined fear extinction in LPA1-null mice, wild-type and LPA1 antagonist-treated animals. In LPA1-null mice we also characterized the morphology and GABAergic properties of the amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, the expression of c-Fos protein in the amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex, and the corticosterone response following acute stress were examined in both genotypes. Our data indicated that the absence of the LPA1 receptor significantly inhibited fear extinction. Treatment of wild-type mice with the LPA1 antagonist Ki16425 mimicked the behavioral phenotype of LPA1-null mice, revealing that the LPA1 receptor was involved in extinction. Immunohistochemistry studies revealed a reduction in the number of neurons, GABA+ cells, calcium-binding proteins and the volume of the amygdala in LPA1-null mice. Following acute stress, LPA1-null mice showed increased corticosterone and c-Fos expression in the amygdala. In conclusion, LPA1 receptor is involved in emotional behaviors and in the anatomical integrity of the corticolimbic circuit, the deregulation of which may be a susceptibility factor for anxiety disorders and a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of these diseases.

  15. Effects of Losartan on acute atrial electrical remodeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李悦; 李为民; 薛竟宜; 韩薇; 杨树森; 谷宏越

    2004-01-01

    Background Atrial electrical remodeling (AER) contributes to the maintainance of atrial fibrillation (AF). This study was to compare the effects of Losartan with those of Diltiazem on tachycardia-induced acute AER in rabbits.Methods Twenty-one rabbits paced with maximal atrial capture rate for 3 hours in the right atrium (RA) were randomly divided into saline group, Diltiazem group and Losartan group. After autonomic blockage, we measured atrial effective refractory period (AERP), AERP rate adapting feature, AERP dispersion and RA conduction time at basic cycle lengths (BCLs) of 200 ms and 150 ms at baseline, 0.5 hour, 1 hour, 2 and 3 hours after rapid atrial pacing. Results In the saline group, there was a prompt decrease in AERP as a result of rapid atrial pacing, and AERP200 and AERP150 were shortened sharply within 0.5 hour of pacing (30.2±10.5 ms and 24.1±9.1 ms, respectively). The AERP did not change dramatically in the Diltiazem and Losartan groups. In the saline group, the value of (AERP200-AERP150)/50 ms in high RA was 0.17±0.08 at baseline and became significantly smaller at 0.5 hour (0.08±0.06), 1 hour (0.09±0.06), 2 hours (0.08±0.04) and 3 hours (0.09±0.05) (all P<0.05), suggesting a reduction of rate adaptation of AERP. The value of (AERP200-AERP150)/50 ms in high RA did not change during the 3 hours of pacing in both Diltiazem and Losartan groups. In the saline group, AERP dispersion increased significantly at 2 and 3 hours (P<0.05). However, Diltiazem could not prevent the increase of AERP dispersion at 3 hours (P<0.05). During Losartan infusion, the AERP dispersion was no longer increased after rapid atrial pacing. There was no significant difference in RA conduction time among the three groups.Conclusion Like calcium antagonist Diltiazem, Losartan could prevent AERP shortening and preserve rate adaptation of AERP after rapid atrial pacing. Losartan is more effective than Diltiazem in inhibiting the increase of AERP dispersion.

  16. Acute toxicity and effect of some petroleum hydrocarbon on the metabolic index in Etroplus suratensis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Farshchi, P.

    Acute toxicity (LC sub(50)) and effect of some petroleum hydrocarbons (Toluene, Quinoline, Pyridine and Naphthalene) on the metabolic index (oxygen consumption rate) of an estuarine fish. Etroplus suratensis is reported. The LC sub(50) values were...

  17. Effect of azole antifungal therapy on vincristine toxicity in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schie, R.M. van; Bruggemann, R.J.M.; Hoogerbrugge, P.M.; Loo, D.M. te

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vincristine is one of the cornerstones of the treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Constipation, and peripheral and central neurotoxicities are the most common side effects. A comparative study exploring vincristine toxicity in individual patients receiving vin

  18. Preventive effect of Cichorium intybus L. two extracts on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Minaiyan

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: These data suggest that C. intybus hydroalcoholic extracts were effective to protect against experimental acute pancreatitis and the efficacy was partly dependent to the dose and was more significant after parenteral administration.

  19. Acute Effects of Fine Particulate Air Pollution on ST Segment Height: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The mechanisms for the relationship between particulate air pollution and cardiac disease are not fully understood. Air pollution-induced myocardial ischemia is one of the potentially important mechanisms. Methods: We investigate the acute effects and the time cours...

  20. Behavioral and neurochemical effects of anpirtoline and citalopram in isolated and group housed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilke, O; Will, K; Jähkel, M; Oehler, J

    2001-07-01

    Acute effects of serotonergic drugs acting via different mechanisms were investigated by a social interaction test and subsequent determination of serotonin and dopamine metabolisms in mice housed in groups or isolated for 6 weeks. A resident/intruder test was performed with anpirtoline (5-HT1B receptor agonist in rodents; 1 mg/kg), citalopram (SSRI; 0.5 mg/kg) and saline treatment before animals were decapitated and different brain regions were frozen for subsequent HPLC-analyses. Behavioral investigations indicated a strong increase of aggressive behavior after 6 weeks of isolation housing. Acute citalopram treatment did not influence behavioral parameters of isolated and group housed mice. In contrast, anpirtoline antagonized isolation induced aggressive behavioral components in a specific manner. Analysis of dopamine and serotonin metabolism revealed that citalopram treatment did not affect dopamine metabolism, but reduced serotonin metabolism in the striatum, hippocampus, cortex and midbrain independent of housing conditions. In contrast, anpirtoline treatment increased dopamine metabolism in cortex, striatum and midbrain as well as influenced serotonin metabolism in a structure- and state-specific manner. Whereas anpirtoline decreased serotonin metabolism in the cortex, the midbrain and the hippocampus independent of housing conditions, in the striatum anpirtoline abolished the isolation induced decrease of serotonin metabolism. These results indicate that anpirtoline might induce antiaggressive effects via postsynaptic receptor- and structure-specific activation of serotonergic but also dopaminergic processes, whereas structure independent increase of synaptic serotonin via citalopram was ineffective to reverse aggressivity in isolated mice.

  1. Specific Effects of Acute Moderate Exercise on Cognitive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davranche, Karen; McMorris, Terry

    2009-01-01

    The main issue of this study was to determine whether cognitive control is affected by acute moderate exercise. Twelve participants [4 females (VO[subscript 2 max]=42 ml/kg/min) and 8 males (VO[subscript 2 max]=48 ml/kg/min)] performed a Simon task while cycling at a carefully controlled workload intensity corresponding to their individual…

  2. The acute effects of nicotine on positive and negative affect in adolescent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassel, Jon D; Evatt, Daniel P; Greenstein, Justin E; Wardle, Margaret C; Yates, Marisa C; Veilleux, Jennifer C

    2007-08-01

    Although adolescent cigarette smoking remains a critical public health concern, little is known about the reinforcing mechanisms governing smoking in this vulnerable population. To assess predictions derived from both positive and negative reinforcement models of drug use, the authors measured the acute effects of nicotine, as administered via tobacco cigarettes, on both positive and negative affect in a group of 15- to 18-year-old smokers. A matched group of nonsmokers served as a comparison group. Findings revealed that whereas adolescents who smoked a cigarette experienced reductions in both positive and negative affect, the observed reductions in negative affect were moderated by nicotine content of the cigarette (high yield vs. denicotinized), level of nicotine dependence, level of baseline craving, and smoking expectancies pertinent to negative affect regulation. Nonsmokers experienced no change in affect over the 10-min assessment period, and no interaction effects were observed for positive affect. Overall, the findings conform to a negative reinforcement model of nicotine effects and strongly suggest that, even among young light smokers, nicotine dependence and resultant withdrawal symptomatology may serve as motivating factors governing smoking behavior. PMID:17696710

  3. The acute effects of nicotine on positive and negative affect in adolescent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassel, Jon D; Evatt, Daniel P; Greenstein, Justin E; Wardle, Margaret C; Yates, Marisa C; Veilleux, Jennifer C

    2007-08-01

    Although adolescent cigarette smoking remains a critical public health concern, little is known about the reinforcing mechanisms governing smoking in this vulnerable population. To assess predictions derived from both positive and negative reinforcement models of drug use, the authors measured the acute effects of nicotine, as administered via tobacco cigarettes, on both positive and negative affect in a group of 15- to 18-year-old smokers. A matched group of nonsmokers served as a comparison group. Findings revealed that whereas adolescents who smoked a cigarette experienced reductions in both positive and negative affect, the observed reductions in negative affect were moderated by nicotine content of the cigarette (high yield vs. denicotinized), level of nicotine dependence, level of baseline craving, and smoking expectancies pertinent to negative affect regulation. Nonsmokers experienced no change in affect over the 10-min assessment period, and no interaction effects were observed for positive affect. Overall, the findings conform to a negative reinforcement model of nicotine effects and strongly suggest that, even among young light smokers, nicotine dependence and resultant withdrawal symptomatology may serve as motivating factors governing smoking behavior.

  4. Acute Stress Promotes Aggressive-Like Behavior in Rats Made Allergic to Tree Pollen

    OpenAIRE

    Tonelli, Leonardo H.; Hoshino, Akina; Katz, Morgan; Teodor T. Postolache

    2008-01-01

    It has been reported that allergies are associated with depression and possibly suicide in women. Aggression is an important behavioral component that predisposes depressed individuals to suicidal acts. In the present study we examined the relationship between allergies and aggression to determine a potential contribution of allergies in factors of risk for suicidal behavior. Because stress plays a critical role in the manifestation of clinical symptoms of allergies and also in suicidal behav...

  5. ESTIMATED RATE OF FATAL AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENTS ATTRIBUTABLE TO ACUTE SOLVENT EXPOSURE AT LOW INHALED CONCENTRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute solvent exposures may contribute to automobile accidents because they increase reaction time and decrease attention, in addition to impairing other behaviors. These effects resemble those of ethanol consumption, both with respect to behavioral effects and neurological mecha...

  6. PROCOAGULANT EFFECTS OF THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY IN ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕妮; 刘茜茜; 祝家庆; 袁祖贻; 马西

    2002-01-01

    Objective.To examine the procoagulant effects of thrombolytic agent on hemostasis and study the role of hemostatic markers as predictors of clinical outcomes.Methods.In the present study,eighteen patients with acute myocardial infarction(AMI) received 1.5 or 2.0 million U nonspecific urokinase(UK),or 70~80 mg fibrin specific recombinant tissue plasminogen activator(rt PA)and did not use heparin until 8 hours after intravenous injection of the above agents.Eight patients with AMI and without thrombolytic therapy were enrolled as controls.Coagulant and thrombolytic activity markers included thrombin antithrombin Ⅲ complex (TAT),D dimer,fibrinogen (Fg),FMPV/Amax.All markers were determined before,immediately,1,2,4 and 8 hours after the administration of thrombolytic agents respectively. Results.Molecular marker of thrombin generation- - TAT showed an activated coagulant state immediately after thrombolytic therapy.Level of TAT showed no significant changes between every two observed phases in controls.However,level of TAT increased significantly from 4.95± 1.75μ g/L ( 4.63± 1.37μ g/L) to 14.71± 3.31μ g/L ( 14.25± 2.53μ g/L) before and immediately after administration of thrombolytic agents UK(or rt PA).There was significant difference between level of serum TAT of patients with and without thrombolytic therapy (P< 0.05).Patients achieving clinical reperfusion had lower TAT level than those failing in thrombolytic therapy,and higher FMPV/Amax level than controls.D dimer,a surrogate of thrombolytic activity increased markedly and Fg significantly declined after thrombolytic therapy(P< 0.05). Conclusions.Thrombin generation occurred in plasma in response to excess fibrinolysis induced by thrombolytic therapy.Both urokinase and rt PA had procoagulant action.This transient activation of the coagulant system might contribute to early reocclusion.These data provided the theoretical support for simultaneous administration of anticoagulant therapy with thrombolytic

  7. Protection of Gastrointestinal Mucosa from Acute Heavy Alcohol Consumption: The Effect of Berberine and Its Correlation with TLR2, 4/IL1β-TNFα Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Pei Wang

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to confirm the protective effect of berberine (BBR on gastrointestinal injury caused by acute heavy alcohol exposure, an effect that has not been reported previously. Our research details how BBR protects against gastrointestinal injuries from acute alcohol exposure using both in vivo and in vitro experiments. Acute high alcohol concentrations lead to obvious damage to the gastrointestinal mucosa, resulting in necrosis of the intestinal mucosa. Oral administration of BBR was able to significantly reduce this alcohol-induced damage, inhibit increases of alcohol-induced TNFα and IL-1β expression in gastrointestinal mucosa as well as their upstream signals TLR2 and TLR4, and regulate cytokines that modulate tight junctions. Alcohol consumption is a popular human social behavior worldwide, and the present study reports a comprehensive mechanism by which BBR protects against gastrointestinal injuries from alcohol stress, providing people with a novel application of BBR.

  8. Coping with an acute psychosocial challenge: behavioral and physiological responses in young women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Villada

    Full Text Available Despite the relevance of behavior in understanding individual differences in the strategies used to cope with stressors, behavioral responses and their relationships with psychobiological changes have received little attention. In this study on young women, we aimed at analyzing the associations among different components of the stress response and behavioral coping using a laboratory psychosocial stressor. The Ethological Coding System for Interviews, as well as neuroendocrine, autonomic and mood parameters, were used to measure the stress response in 34 young women (17 free-cycling women in their early follicular phase and 17 oral contraceptive users subjected to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST and a control condition in a crossover design. No significant differences in cardiac autonomic, negative mood and anxiety responses to the stressor were observed between the two groups of women. However, women in the follicular phase showed a higher cortisol response and a larger decrease in positive mood during the social stress episode, as well as greater anxiety overall. Interestingly, the amount of displacement behavior exhibited during the speaking task of the TSST was positively related to anxiety levels preceding the test, but negatively related to baseline and stress response values of heart rate. Moreover, the amount of submissive behavior was negatively related to basal cortisol levels. Finally, eye contact and low-aggressiveness behaviors were associated with a worsening in mood. Overall, these findings emphasize the close relationship between coping behavior and psychobiological reactions, as well as the role of individual variations in the strategy of coping with a psychosocial stressor.

  9. The Effects of Inhaled Steroids on Recurrent Wheeze After Acute Bronchiolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Green MD

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute bronchiolitis infection during infancy is associated with an increased risk of asthma later in life. The objective of this study was to determine if inhaled steroids are effective in preventing the development of recurrent wheeze or asthma following acute bronchiolitis. Methods. Multiple databases and bibliographies of selected references were searched. Inclusion required (a a randomized controlled trial of inhaled steroids and control group, (b at least 2 weeks duration of therapy started during the acute phase of disease, and (c identification of the rate of recurrent wheeze or asthma at least 6 months after therapy. Results. Of 1410 studies reviewed, 8 reports were included in this meta-analysis (748 patients. The overall odds ratio for developing recurrent wheeze or asthma with treatment versus without treatment was 1.02 (95% confidence interval = 0.58-1.81. Conclusions. A course of inhaled steroids after acute bronchiolitis is not effective in preventing recurrent wheeze or asthma.

  10. Acute mucocutaneous and systemic adverse effects of Etretinate

    OpenAIRE

    "Mortazavi H; Shariati B.; Zarrinpour N "

    2003-01-01

    This cross sectional study was carried out between 1993 to 1998 at Razi Skin Hospital, the affiliated Dermatology Department of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Eight hundred patients receiving etretinate for various skin diseases took part in this study. Among them, 457 patients with first admission to dermatologic clinic who had at least four regular sequential visits and responding to our questionnaire were selected to enter the study for evaluating acute toxicity of etretinate. Chei...

  11. Acute reinforcing effects of low-dose nicotine nasal spray in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, K A; Grobe, J E; Caggiula, A; Wilson, A S; Stiller, R L

    1997-02-01

    Tobacco smoking behavior is reinforced by nicotine intake, but there has been little human research examining self-administration of nicotine per se, isolated from tobacco. In this study, 10 smokers (5 men, 5 women) who wanted to quit smoking sampled 0 (placebo), 0.75, and 1.5 ug/kg/spray nicotine via nasal spray during separate lab sessions before engaging in a free choice session, involving ad lib access to all three spray doses. Subjects also ad lib smoked during another session. For the group as a whole, neither nicotine spray dose was self-administered significantly more than placebo during the free choice session, suggesting low abuse potential. However, 4 of 10 subjects self-administered 1.5 ug/kg/spray on more than 50% of all sprays (vs. 33% chance) and were designated nicotine "choosers," while the others were "nonchoosers." Choosers responded to initial nicotine spray exposure during sampling sessions with greater positive subjective effects (similar to their responses to tobacco smoking), smoked more during the ad lib smoking session (i.e., self-administered more nicotine via tobacco smoking), and tended to be more heavily dependent smokers. They did not report greater withdrawal relief or less aversive effects from nicotine, suggesting their greater nicotine choice reflected greater positive reinforcement rather than negative reinforcement. These results are consistent with the few existing studies demonstrating that acute nicotine intake per se, in the absence of tobacco, may be reinforcing in some smokers. PMID:9050080

  12. Acute reinforcing effects of low-dose nicotine nasal spray in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, K A; Grobe, J E; Caggiula, A; Wilson, A S; Stiller, R L

    1997-02-01

    Tobacco smoking behavior is reinforced by nicotine intake, but there has been little human research examining self-administration of nicotine per se, isolated from tobacco. In this study, 10 smokers (5 men, 5 women) who wanted to quit smoking sampled 0 (placebo), 0.75, and 1.5 ug/kg/spray nicotine via nasal spray during separate lab sessions before engaging in a free choice session, involving ad lib access to all three spray doses. Subjects also ad lib smoked during another session. For the group as a whole, neither nicotine spray dose was self-administered significantly more than placebo during the free choice session, suggesting low abuse potential. However, 4 of 10 subjects self-administered 1.5 ug/kg/spray on more than 50% of all sprays (vs. 33% chance) and were designated nicotine "choosers," while the others were "nonchoosers." Choosers responded to initial nicotine spray exposure during sampling sessions with greater positive subjective effects (similar to their responses to tobacco smoking), smoked more during the ad lib smoking session (i.e., self-administered more nicotine via tobacco smoking), and tended to be more heavily dependent smokers. They did not report greater withdrawal relief or less aversive effects from nicotine, suggesting their greater nicotine choice reflected greater positive reinforcement rather than negative reinforcement. These results are consistent with the few existing studies demonstrating that acute nicotine intake per se, in the absence of tobacco, may be reinforcing in some smokers.

  13. The Zebrafish, a Novel Model Organism for Screening Compounds Affecting Acute and Chronic Ethanol-Induced Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, S; Facciol, A; Gerlai, R

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol addiction is a major unmet medical and economic issue for which very few efficacious pharmacological treatment options are currently available. The development and identification of new compounds and drugs to treat alcohol addiction is hampered by the high costs and low amenability of traditional laboratory rodents to high-throughput behavioral screens. The zebrafish represents an excellent compromise between systems complexity and practical simplicity by overcoming many limitations inherent in these rodent models. In this chapter, we review current advances in the behavioral and neurochemical characterization of ethanol-induced changes in zebrafish. We also discuss the basic principles and methods of and the most recent advances in using paradigms with which one can screen for compounds altering acute and chronic ethanol-induced effects in zebrafish. PMID:27055623

  14. Effect of drugs on the pulmonary changes in experimental acute pancreatitis in the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, A R; Taylor, T V

    1982-01-01

    Respiratory complications of acute pancreatitis are well recognised and are closely related to a poor prognosis. Using an experimental model in the rat, a decrease in lung compliance and an increase in lung weight were produced in acute pancreatitis. The effects of dexamethasone, heparin, and aspirin on these changes were studied. The mean specific lung compliance was reduced by 16% in the pancreatitis group compared with the control group (p less than 0.05) and this change was abolished by d...

  15. Brewing complications: the effect of acute ethanol exposure on wound healing

    OpenAIRE

    Radek, Katherine A.; Ranzer, Matthew J.; DiPietro, Luisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol consumption is linked to a higher incidence of traumatic wounds and increases the risk for morbidity and mortality following surgical or traumatic injury. One of the most profound effects of acute ethanol exposure on wound healing occurs during the inflammatory response, and altered cytokine production is a primary component. Acute ethanol exposure also impairs the proliferative response during healing, causing delays in epithelial coverage, collagen synthesis, and blood vessel regrow...

  16. Preventive Effect of Cichorium Intybus L. Two Extracts on Cerulein-induced Acute Pancreatitis in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Minaiyan; Ali-Reza Ghannadi; Parvin Mahzouni; Ali-Reza Abed

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory condition of pancreas with sudden onset, high mortality rate and multiple organ failure characteristics. It has been shown that oxygen free radicals have an important role in development of pancreatitis and its complications. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hepatotoxicity and gastroprotective properties of Cichorium intybus L. suggest that this plant may have beneficial effects in the management of acute pancreatitis. Methods: Five in...

  17. Immediate effects of anterior to posterior talocrural joint mobilizations following acute lateral ankle sprain

    OpenAIRE

    Cosby, Nicole L.; Koroch, Michael; Grindstaff, Terry L.; Parente, William; Hertel, Jay

    2011-01-01

    Restrictions in ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) have been associated with decreased posterior talar glide in individuals with an acute lateral ankle sprain. Talocrural joint mobilizations may be used to restore joint arthrokinematics. Our purpose was to examine the effects of a single bout of anterior to posterior (AP) talocrural joint mobilization on self-reported function, dorsiflexion ROM, and posterior talar translation in individuals with an acute lateral ankle sprain. This sing...

  18. Effects of Certain Counselor Behaviors on Perceived Expertness and Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Azy; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Examined effects and relative contribution of three counselor behaviors (nonverbal behavior, jargon, and attire) on perceived expertise and attractiveness. Results revealed that all three independent variables significantly affected the two rated dimensions. Nonverbal behavior accounted for most of the variance and differentially affected ratings…

  19. THE EFFECT OF ACUTE MYOCARDIUM ISCHEMIC ON HEART FUNCTION OF PREGNANCY RAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Xiaopu; Ma Aiqun; Niu Changmin; Dong Anping; Han Ke; Liu Yu; Zhang Wei; Geng Tao

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of acute myocardium ischemic on heart function of pregnancy rat.Methods 13 female SD rats and 6 early pregnancy rats were divided into normal group, unpregnant group with acute myocardial infarction and early pregnant group with acute myocardial infarction. The anterior branch of the left coronary artery was ligated. 3 weeks later, Image 1.31 software was used to measure areas of myocardial infarction,and to evaluate hemodynamics of heart with powerLAB4.12, and cardiac tissues were stained with Massion. Results Compared with unpregnant group with acute myocardial infarction , the early pregnant group with acute myocardial infarction had less myocardial infarction area (28. 86% vs. 36. 8%), and had a higher left ventricle end systolic pressure, ±dp/dt max, and lower left ventricle end diastolic pressure. Massion stain showed the amount of collagen of the lesion was less in the early pregnant group with acute myocardial infarction than that in unpregnant group.Conclusion The early pregnant group with acute myocardial infarction had better heart contractive and diastolic function.

  20. Exploring the Behavior of Highly Effective CIOs Using Video Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Komal; Wilderom, Celeste; Hillegersberg, van, Jos

    2009-01-01

    Although recently several studies have addressed the required skills of effective CIOs, little is known of the actual behavior successful CIOs. In this study, we explore the behavior of highly effective CIOs by video-recording CIOs at work. The two CIOs videotaped were nominated as CIO of the year. We analyze the data in an innovative and systematic way by developing and using a behavioral leadership coding scheme. The analysis indicates that highly effective CIOs are good listeners. They als...

  1. The Effect of Corporal Punishment on Antisocial Behavior in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of corporal punishment on antisocial behavior of children using stronger statistical controls than earlier literature in this area; to examine whether the effect of corporal punishment on antisocial behavior is nonlinear; and to investigate whether the effects of corporal punishment on antisocial…

  2. Ginseng Extract Enhances Anti-cancer Effect of Cytarabine on Human Acute Leukemia Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiju Hou

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng as a traditional medicine is well known to exhibit various pharmacological effects. Ginsenoside Rg3 is the active ingredient extracted from ginseng. The pharmacological modulatory effects of Rg3 on multidrug resistant cancer cells are reported in the present study. Cytarabine is a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of acute leukemia. However, this compound has serious side effects at high doses, for example hematopoiesis depression. In this study, using hl60 human leukemia cells, we investigated the possible synergistic anti-cancer effects between ginseng extract Rg3 and cytarabine on acute myeloid leukemia cells. Results of this study demonstrate that Rg3 can enhance the anti-proliferation effect of cytarabine on hl60 cells and may decrease the dosage of cytarabine needed for acute myeloid leukemia treatment.

  3. Transgenerational effects of environmental enrichment on repetitive motor behavior development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechard, Allison R; Lewis, Mark H

    2016-07-01

    The favorable consequences of environmental enrichment (EE) on brain and behavior development are well documented. Much less is known, however, about transgenerational benefits of EE on non-enriched offspring. We explored whether transgenerational effects of EE might extend to the development of repetitive motor behaviors in deer mice. Repetitive motor behaviors are invariant patterns of movement that, across species, can be reduced by EE. We found that EE not only attenuated the development of repetitive behavior in dams, but also in their non-enriched offspring. Moreover, maternal behavior did not seem to mediate the transgenerational effect we found, although repetitive behavior was affected by reproductive experience. These data support a beneficial transgenerational effect of EE on repetitive behavior development and suggest a novel benefit of reproductive experience.

  4. [Cardioprotective effect of GABA derivatives in acute alcohol intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfilova, V N; Tiurenkov, I N; Berestovitskaia, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2006-01-01

    Cardioprotective properties of GABA analogs under conditions of acute alcoholic intoxication have been studied using the following functional tests: volume loads, tests for adrenoreactivity, and maximum isometric load. The experiments showed that a 32% aqueous ethanol solution intraperitoneally injected in a dose of 8 g/kg produces a cardiotoxic action, which is manifested by a decrease in the inotropic reserve in load tests. Citrocard (50 mg/kg), phenibut (50 mg/kg), and piracetam (200 mg/kg) prevent the alcohol-induced myocardium injury, as shown by the heart contractility retained on a higher level in the test group than in the control group. PMID:16995433

  5. Effects of Acute Low Back Pain on Postural Control

    OpenAIRE

    Sohn, Min Kyun; Lee, Sang Sook; Song, Hyun Tak

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the changes in static and dynamic postural control after the development of acute low back pain. Methods Thirty healthy right-handed volunteers were divided into three groups; the right back pain group, the left back pain group, and the control group. 0.5 mL of 5% hypertonic saline was injected into L4-5 paraspinal muscle for 5 seconds to cause muscle pain. The movement of the center of gravity (COG) during their static and dynamic postural control was measured with thei...

  6. [Effects of environmental change and others' behavior on cooperative behavior and solution preference in social dilemma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuma, S

    2001-12-01

    This study examined how environmental change and others' behavior affected cooperative behavior and solution preference of the person in social dilemma situation. Participants in two experiments played an "environment game," in which gradual pollution in environment and reduction in profit rate were simulated. Information on behavior of other players was manipulated: in "free rider" condition, one person was an extreme free rider, and the others were cooperative; in "loafing" condition, everyone loafed. In both experiments, "Bad Apple Effect" was not observed clearly, and cooperative behavior increased as environmental pollution worsened. In Experiment 2, there was no main effect of others' behavior on solution preference. However, significant correlations were found among solution preference, motivation to control others' behavior, and perceived seriousness of the situation, only when an extreme free rider was among them. PMID:11883324

  7. The Effects of Social Context and Acute Stress on Decision Making Under Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FeldmanHall, Oriel; Raio, Candace M; Kubota, Jennifer T; Seiler, Morgan G; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2015-12-01

    Uncertainty preferences are typically studied in neutral, nonsocial contexts. This approach, however, fails to capture the dynamic factors that influence choices under uncertainty in the real world. Our goal was twofold: to test whether uncertainty valuation is similar across social and nonsocial contexts, and to investigate the effects of acute stress on uncertainty preferences. Subjects completed matched gambling and trust games following either a control or a stress manipulation. Those who were not under stress exhibited no differences between the amount of money gambled and the amount of money entrusted to partners. In comparison, stressed subjects gambled more money but entrusted less money to partners. We further found that irrespective of stress, subjects were highly attuned to irrelevant feedback in the nonsocial, gambling context, believing that every loss led to a greater chance of winning (the gamblers' fallacy). However, when deciding to trust a stranger, control subjects behaved rationally, treating each new interaction as independent. Stress compromised this adaptive behavior, increasing sensitivity to irrelevant social feedback. PMID:26546080

  8. Effects of prosocial video games on prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; Osswald, Silvia

    2010-02-01

    Previous research has documented that playing violent video games has various negative effects on social behavior in that it causes an increase in aggressive behavior and a decrease in prosocial behavior. In contrast, there has been much less evidence on the effects of prosocial video games. In the present research, 4 experiments examined the hypothesis that playing a prosocial (relative to a neutral) video game increases helping behavior. In fact, participants who had played a prosocial video game were more likely to help after a mishap, were more willing (and devoted more time) to assist in further experiments, and intervened more often in a harassment situation. Results further showed that exposure to prosocial video games activated the accessibility of prosocial thoughts, which in turn promoted prosocial behavior. Thus, depending on the content of the video game, playing video games not only has negative effects on social behavior but has positive effects as well.

  9. Effects of social defeat and of diazepam on behavior in a resident-intruder test in male DBA/2 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumley, L A; Charles, R F; Charles, R C; Hebert, M A; Morton, D M; Meyerhoff, J L

    2000-11-01

    Social stress induces robust behavioral and physiological changes, some of which may alter the responsiveness to pharmacological agents, including diazepam (DZP). We used a resident-intruder paradigm to (1) develop a comprehensive ethogram of behavioral changes following social defeat (SD) in the socially reactive strain, DBA/2 male mice, (2) determine whether acute exposure of DBA/2 mice to low-dose DZP would induce flight or aggressive behavior, both of which have been observed in other rodent models and (3) to test whether prior social stress affects responses to DZP. Behavioral responses to a nonaggressive intruder (NAI) mouse 24 h post-SD were measured in resident subject mice exposed to DZP (0, 0.5, 2.0 mg/kg, ip) either prior to the resident-intruder test (Experiment 1) or immediately post-SD (Experiment 2); control mice were not defeated (NOSD). In general, SD mice displayed increased passive and active avoidance, defense, immobility, and risk assessment relative to NOSD mice. In Experiment 1, mice treated acutely with 0.5 mg/kg DZP had more approach and flight behavior, while those treated with 2.0 mg/kg DZP had more avoidance than vehicle-treated mice, independent of SD. In Experiment 2, acute DZP (2 mg/kg) induced effects 24 h later, possibly secondary to withdrawal. In a nonsocial context (Experiment 3), DZP increased exploratory activity. PMID:11164070

  10. Effects of COX-2 inhibitor in temporomandibular joint acute inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, T C B; Andersen, M L; Tufik, S

    2007-05-01

    Since it is recognized that cyclo-oxygenase-2 mediates nociception and the sleep-wake cycle as well, and that acute inflammation of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) results in sleep disturbances, we hypothesized that cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitor would restore the sleep pattern in this inflammatory rat model. First, sleep was monitored after the injection of Freund's adjuvant (FA group) or saline (SHAM group) into the rats' temporomandibular joint. Second, etoricoxib was co-administered in these groups. The Freund's adjuvant group showed a reduction in sleep efficiency, in rapid eye movement (REM), and in non-REM sleep, and an increase in sleep and REM sleep latency when compared with the SHAM group, while etoricoxib substantially increased sleep quality in the Freund's adjuvant group. These parameters returned progressively to those found in the SHAM group. Etoricoxib improved the sleep parameters, suggesting the involvement of the cyclo-oxygenase-2 enzyme in acute inflammation of the TMJ, specifically in REM sleep. PMID:17452571

  11. The acute effect of vibration applications on jumping performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat Yıldız

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, vibration has become very popular as a method of exercise and training and drawn attention of researchers. The aim of this study was to analyses the acute affect of vibration applications as a method of exercise and training on jumping performance.In this study experimental group consists of 25 subjects who are studying at Physical Education and Sports Department of Sakarya University (age 22.2±1.7 years, height 179.2±4.8 cm. body weight 71.5±9.0 kg. This study included a vibration at density of 35 Hz (3x30 sec. frequency that result from aerobic exercise that has low density and b just methods of aerobic exercise (without any vibration that has low density. Subjects have taken the tests of countermovement and squat jumping after 2 minutes of each application. All applications and tests have been done in nonconsecutive days in a random scheme. In statistical analysis Wilcoxon has been applied in nonparametric scheme.For counter movement jumping; height of jumping, the difference between before and after the application of vibration related to the point of peak power and average power has been found significiant (respectively, p0.05; p>0.05; p>0.05.As a result, it is concluded that vibration that is applied at the range of 35 Hz frequency could increase the performance of acute countermovement jumping.

  12. Effects of Acute Exposures to Carbon Dioxide Upon Cognitive Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, R. R.; Alexander, D. J.; Ryder, V. E.; Lam, C. W.; Statish, U.; Basner, M.

    2016-01-01

    controlled at levels that are well below current spacecraft limits. Our study will extend the earlier study to determine if crew-like subjects are similarly effected by CO2. In addition to employing the Strategic Management Simulation tool, we will use the Cognition battery of psychometric measures that are being utilized aboard the ISS. It will be important to learn, by using Cognition, if additional cognitive domains are sensitive to concentrations of CO2 at or below limits currently controlled by flight rules. While spaceflight Cognition data will greatly enhance the knowledge base related to inflight behavioral health and performance, some of the measures may be influenced by fatigue (related to sleep deprivation and or workload) and changes in circadian rhythms. Therefore our use of this battery of tests in a well-controlled, ground-based study that is free of these potential confounding influences will establish a baseline terrestrial data set against which Cognition data collected in flight may be assessed. The findings from this study will be useful to the NASA Toxicology Office and the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology, which assists NASA in setting environmental standards, for revision of the SMAC for CO2, and for designing further studies on effects of CO2 upon cognitive functions.

  13. The effect of acute alcohol intoxication on gut wall integrity in healthy male volunteers; a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, W J; Cleveringa, A M; Greijdanus, B; Meyer, P; Heineman, E; Hulscher, J B

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the effect of acute alcohol consumption on enterocytes. Chronic alcohol consumption has been known to induce a decrease in gut wall integrity in actively drinking alcoholics and patients with alcohol-induced liver disease. Data on the extent of the damage induced by acute alcohol consumption in healthy human beings is scarce. Studies show that heavy incidental alcohol consumption is a growing problem in modern society. Data on this matter may provide insights into the consequences of this behavior for healthy individuals. In a randomized clinical trial in crossover design, 15 healthy volunteers consumed water one day and alcohol the other. One blood sample was collected pre-consumption, five every hour post-consumption, and one after 24 h. Intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) was used as a marker for enterocyte damage. Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were used as markers for hepatocyte damage. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) and soluble CD14 (sCD14) were used as a measure of translocation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was used to assess the acute inflammatory response to endotoxemia. Alcohol consumption caused a significant increase in serum I- and L-FABP levels, compared to water consumption. Levels increased directly post-consumption and decreased to normal levels within 4 h. LBP, sCD14, and IL-6 levels were not significantly higher in the alcohol group. Moderate acute alcohol consumption immediately damages the enterocyte but does not seem to cause endotoxemia. PMID:25559494

  14. Exploring the Behavior of Highly Effective CIOs Using Video Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, Komal; Wilderom, Celeste; Hillegersberg, van Jos

    2009-01-01

    Although recently several studies have addressed the required skills of effective CIOs, little is known of the actual behavior successful CIOs. In this study, we explore the behavior of highly effective CIOs by video-recording CIOs at work. The two CIOs videotaped were nominated as CIO of the year.

  15. Recognizing acute health effects of substitute fungicides: are first-aid reports effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, K; Hertzman, C; Wiens, M; Dimich-Ward, H; Hershler, R; Ostry, A; Kelly, S J

    1992-01-01

    Recently, many British Columbia sawmills stopped using traditional chlorophenate anti-sapstain fungicides and substituted 2-(thiocyanomethylthio) benzothiazole (TCMTB) and copper-8-quinolinolate (Copper 8). We conducted a cross-sectional study with two aims: to ascertain which acute health effects, if any, were associated with the use of the substitute fungicides; and to determine the effectiveness of first-aid records as a means of detecting acute health outcomes. Workers in five coastal sawmills were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire about symptoms considered potentially related and unrelated to fungicide exposure, and about injuries commonly reported in sawmills. In addition, we collected first-aid records from the mills, and asked senior workers to estimate the duration of exposure to fungicides for each job. Symptoms found to be consistently elevated in TCMTB mills included dry skin around the eyes, blood-stained mucus from the nose, nose bleed, peeling skin, burning or itching skin, and skin redness or rash. No symptoms were consistently elevated in the Copper 8 mills. Symptoms related to TCMTB exposure were recorded only 12 times in first-aid logs during the study period (versus 335 questionnaire self-reports). This low symptom-recording frequency may be a function of established patterns of first-aid use in which illness symptoms are reported less frequently than injuries. PMID:1585948

  16. Modelling the effects of ionizing radiation on survival of animal population: acute versus chronic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryshev, A I; Sazykina, T G

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the present paper was application of a model, which was originally developed to simulate chronic ionizing radiation effects in a generic isolated population, to the case of acute exposure, and comparison of the dynamic features of radiation effects on the population survival in cases of acute and chronic exposure. Two modes of exposure were considered: acute exposure (2-35 Gy) and chronic lifetime exposure with the same integrated dose. Calculations were made for a generic mice population; however, the model can be applied for other animals with proper selection of parameter values. In case of acute exposure, in the range 2-11 Gy, the population response was in two phases. During a first phase, there was a depletion in population survival; the second phase was a recovery period due to reparation of damage and biosynthesis of new biomass. Model predictions indicate that a generic mice population, living in ideal conditions, has the potential for recovery (within a mouse lifetime period) from acute exposure with dose up to 10-11 Gy, i.e., the population may recover from doses above an LD50 (6.2 Gy). Following acute doses above 14 Gy, however, the mice population went to extinction without recovery. In contrast, under chronic lifetime exposures (500 days), radiation had little effect on population survival up to integrated doses of 14-15 Gy, so the survival of a population subjected to chronic exposure was much better compared with that after an acute exposure with the same dose. Due to the effect of "wasted radiation", the integrated dose of chronic exposure could be about two times higher than acute dose, producing the same effect on survival. It is concluded that the developed generic population model including the repair of radiation damage can be applied both to acute and chronic modes of exposure; results of calculations for generic mice population are in qualitative agreement with published data on radiation effects in mice. PMID

  17. [Effect of shengmaisan on serum lipid peroxidation in acute viral myocarditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, M H; Rong, Y Z; Lu, B J

    1996-03-01

    The effect of Shengmaisan (SMS) on 62 acute viral myocarditis patients and its peroxidation damage was studied. The results revealed that the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in blood were decreased and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma was increased in acute viral myocarditis patients in comparison with the healthy controls (P SMS group and placebo group. After treatment, both SOD and GSH-Px activities were increased and the level of MDA decreased (P SMS group, while those in placebo group were not changed (P < 0.05). The results suggested that the myocardial damage of viral myocarditis is closely related with lipid peroxidation SMS acts as an effective free radical scavenger and anti-lipid peroxidation drug. SMS could prevent the damage of myocardia and might be taken as one of the effective therapeutic methods in treatment of acute viral myocarditis. PMID:9208534

  18. Using the Effective Behavior Supports Survey to Guide Development of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Stephen P.

    2006-01-01

    As the use of school-based positive behavior support (PBS) spreads nationwide, the development of assessment strategies to identify intervention priorities becomes more critical. This study addresses the validity of the Effective Behavior Supports Survey (Lewis & Sugai, 1999) by examining reliability, determining whether rating differences exist…

  19. Teacher Perceptions of Level System Effectiveness on the Behavior of Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Daniel T.; Smith, Stephen W.; Brownell, Mary T.

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 172 teachers of students with emotional/behavioral disorders found that 71% reported they currently use level systems for behavioral management. Analysis notes similarities and differences between level system users and nonusers, characteristics common to level systems, and inconsistencies in perceptions of effectiveness and…

  20. The Effectiveness of Two Universal Behavioral Supports for Children with Externalizing Behavior in Head Start Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sandra Covington; Lewis, Timothy J.; Stormont, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    To add to the emerging early intervention research on universal supports for children, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an intervention designed to increase teachers' use of two universal behavioral supports on target children's behavior. The children targeted for this study were at elevated risk for problem…

  1. Effectiveness of a Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment on the Social Behaviors of Children with Asperger Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Christopher; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Volker, Martin A.; Nida, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    The current study presents preliminary data from an ongoing research project evaluating a summer treatment program for children with Asperger disorder (AD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral treatment program on the social behaviors of 6- to 13-year-old children with AD. Overall program…

  2. Acute endolymphatic hydrops has no direct effect on the vestibular evoked potential in the guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, C. M.; Wit, H. P.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effect of an acute endolymphatic hydrops on the functioning of the vestibular system a hydrops was created by microinjection of artificial endolymph through the basilar membrane into scala media in 10 guinea pigs. To control for the effect of perforation of the basilar membrane, t

  3. Acute Effect of Decaffeinated Coffee on Heart Rate, Blood Pressure, and Exercise Performance in Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ravi; Kaushik, Vidya S.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of decaffeinated coffee on the cardiovascular exercise performance in nine healthy volunteers was evaluated in a double-blind randomized fashion. The heart rate, blood pressure, and duration of exercise were unchanged, and no arrhythmias or ischemic changes were seen on the electrocardiogram after drinking decaffeinated coffee. It was concluded that decaffeinated coffee has no discernible, acute, adverse cardiovascular effects. PMID:3339645

  4. Acute effects of exposure to 56Fe and 16O particles on learning and memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although it has been shown that exposure to HZE particles disrupts cognitive performance when tested 2-4 weeks after irradiation, it has not been determined whether exposure to HZE particles can exert acute effects on cognitive performance; i.e., effects within 4-48 hrs after exposure. The present ...

  5. Antidepressant-like activity of sildenafil following acute and subchronic treatment in the forced swim test in mice: effects of restraint stress and monoamine depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socała, Katarzyna; Nieoczym, Dorota; Pieróg, Mateusz; Szuster-Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Wyska, Elżbieta; Wlaź, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    Sildenafil is a highly effective oral agent for the treatment of erectile dysfunction of multiple etiologies. Although in clinical practice sildenafil is often used in depressed patients, its influence on the pathophysiology of depression remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antidepressant-like activity following acute and subchronic treatment with sildenafil in naïve mice as well as in mice with reserpine- and restraint stress-induced depressive-like behavior. Since corticosterone is released in response to acute stress, we also aimed to assess the influence of sildenafil on serum corticosterone level in non-stressed and stressed animals. The antidepressant activity of sildenafil was assessed in the forced swim test. Corticosterone serum level was determined by using ELISA method, while brain and serum sildenafil level via HPLC method. Sildenafil administered acutely exerted an antidepressant-like effect. Subchronic (14 days) administration of sildenafil resulted only in a weak antidepressant-like effect when evaluated 24 h after the last dose. Acute but not subchronic sildenafil administration reversed the reserpine- and stress-induced immobility in the forced swim test. The lack of effects of sildenafil after subchronic treatment could have been related to its complete elimination from the brain within 24 h from the last injection. Interestingly, acute administration of sildenafil produced a marked increase in serum corticosterone level in both non-stressed and stressed animals. Sildenafil exerts differential effects in the forced swim test after acute and subchronic administration. Further studies on the antidepressant activity of sildenafil are required.

  6. Thalidomide effect in endothelial cell of acute radiation proctitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ki-Tae Kim; Hiun-Suk Chae; Jin-Soo Kim; Hyung-Keun Kim; Young-Seok Cho; Whang Choi; Kyu-Yong Choi; Sang-Young Rho; Suk-Jin Kang

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether thalidomide prevents microvascular injury in acute radiation proctitis in white rats. METHODS: Fourteen female Wistar rats were used:six in the radiation group,six in the thalidomide group,and two in normal controls.The radiation and thalidomide groups were irradiated at the pelvic area using a single 30 Gy exposure.The thalidomide (150 mg/kg) was injected into the peritoneum for 7 d from the day of irradiation.All animals were sacrificed and the rectums were removed on day 8 after irradiation.The microvessels of resected specimens were immunohistochemically stained with thrombomodulin (TM),yon Willebrand Factor (vWF),and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).RESULTS: The microscopic scores did not differ significantly between the radiation and thalidomide groups,but both were higher than in the control group.Expression of TM was significantly lower in the endothelial cells (EC) of the radiation group than in the control and thalidomide groups (P < 0.001).The number of capillaries expressing vWF in the EC was higher in the radiation group (15.3 ± 6.8) than in the control group (3.7 ± 1.7),and the number of capillaries expressing vWF was attenuated by thalidomide (10.8 ± 3.5,P < 0.001).The intensity of VEGF expression in capillaries was greater in the radiation group than in the control group and was also attenuated by thalidomide (P = 0.003).CONCLUSION: The mechanisms of acute radiationinduced proctitis in the rats are related to endothelial cell injury of microvessel,which may be attenuated with thalidomide.

  7. The acute effect of vibration applications on jumping performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şener Soylu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, vibration has become very popular as a method of exercise and training and drawn attention of researchers. The aim of this study was to analyses the acute affect of vibration applications as a method of exercise and training on jumping performance. In this study experimental group consists of 25 subjects who are studying at Physical Education and Sports Department of Sakarya University (age 22.2±1.7 years, height 179.2±4.8 cm. body weight 71.5±9.0 kg. This study included a vibration at density of 35 Hz (3x30 sec. frequency  that result from  aerobic exercise that has low density and b just  methods of aerobic exercise (without any vibration that has  low density. Subjects have taken the tests of countermovement and squat jumping after 2 minutes of each application. All applications and tests have been done in nonconsecutive days in a random scheme. In statistical analysis Wilcoxon has been applied in nonparametric scheme. For counter movement jumping; height of jumping,  the difference between before and after  the application of vibration related to the point of peak power and average power has been found significiant (respectively, p<0.05; p<0.05; p<0.01. In addition to this, no statistical difference was found for squat vertical jumping before and after the application of vibration related to the point of peak power and average power (respectively, p>0.05; p>0.05; p>0.05. As a result, it is concluded that vibration that is applied at the range of 35 Hz frequency could increase the performance of acute countermovement jumping. 

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on acute oral toxicity of ethanolic extract of red ginger (zingiber officinale)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Red ginger is widely used in traditional medicine to treat various types of diseases. Evaluation of the toxic properties of red ginger is very important to know the negative harmful impact to human health. Therefore, before it is consumed by humans, it is needed to conduct acute oral toxicity of red ginger extract in mice. Thin rhizome of red ginger in poly ethylene plastic packaging was irradiated by gamma rays at a dose of 10 kGy with a dose rate of 10 kGy/h. The ethanol extract of unirradiated as well as irradiated red ginger was then tested for the acute oral toxicity using OECD Guideline test method. The results showed that throughout the 14 days of treatment there was a change in behavior pattern, clinical symptoms and body weight of control mice and treatment groups. Histopathological examination of kidneys, heart, liver, lungs and spleen of the dose less than 1250 mg/kg body weight showed normal condition and no significant side effects observation. While central venous damage and a reduced number of hepatocyte cells in male mice occurred in the test dose higher than 2000 mg/kg body weight, whereas in female mice it occurred in the test group dose higher than 1250 mg/kg bw. Based on renal histology of male and female mice at doses higher than 1250 mg/kg body weight, there were damage to Bowman's capsule, glomerulus, proximal vessel and distal vessels. LD50 of unirradiated and irradiated with 10 kGy of ethanol extract of red ginger were 1887 mg/kg body weight and 2639 mg/kg body weight, respectively, and it can be categorized as moderately toxic. Oral administration of ethanol extract of red ginger with dose of 1250 mg/kg body weight gave an effect in mice organs. From these results it can be concluded that oral administration of both unirradiated and irradiated with a dose 10 kGy of ethanol extract consider safe at a dose less than 1250 mg/kg body weigh. (author)

  9. Effect of Antiepileptic Drugs for Acute and Chronic Seizures in Children with Encephalitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Lin Lin

    Full Text Available Encephalitis presents with seizures in the acute phase and increases the risk of late unprovoked seizures and epilepsy. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of antiepileptic drugs in pediatric patients with acute seizures due to encephalitis and epilepsy.Cases of acute pediatric encephalitis between January 2000 and December 2010 were reviewed. Clinical data, including onset at age, seizure type, seizure frequency, effects of antiepileptic drugs, and prognosis were analyzed.During the study period, 1038 patients (450 girls, 588 boys were enrolled. Among them, 44.6% (463 had seizures in the acute phase, 33% had status epilepticus, and 26% (251 developed postencephalitic epilepsy. At one year of follow-up, 205 of the 251 patients with postencephalitic epilepsy were receiving antiepileptic drugs while 18% were seizure free even after discontinuing the antiepileptic drugs. Among those with postencephalitic epilepsy, 67% had favorable outcomes and were using <2 anti-epileptic drugs while 15% had intractable seizures and were using ≥ 2 antiepileptic drugs. After benzodiazepines, intravenous phenobarbital was preferred over phenytoin as treatment of postencephalitic seizures in the acute phase. For refractory status epilepticus, high-dose topiramate combined with intravenous high-dose phenobarbital or high-dose lidocaine had less side effects.Children with encephalitis have a high rate of postencephalitic epilepsy. Phenobarbital and clonazepam are the most common drugs used, alone or in combination, for postencephalitic epilepsy.

  10. Effect of estrogen on plasma ceruloplasmin level in rats exposed to acute stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganaraja B

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plasma ceruloplasmin, a copper containing protein, belongs to a class called acute phase proteins. Reduced level of ceruloplasmin was associated with Wilson′s disease and Menke′s kinky hair disease in man, primarily affecting copper metabolism. Stress was known to increase Ceruloplasmin. Several stress associated changes were commonly observed in women at menopause and also those who underwent overiectomy. Present experiment investigated the effect of estrogen on ceruloplasmin level in acute stress. AIMS: To assess the estradiol induced changes in plasma ceruloplasmin concentration on exposure of the rats to acute stress. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Acute stress was induced by forcing the rats to swim till exhaustion. The rats were overiectomised bilaterally to remove the primary source of sex hormones. And hormone replacement was done later. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Wistar albino female rats were used. Acute stress was induced before overiectomy, following recovery from surgery, and again after Estradiol Valerate injection (for 10 days in same group of rats. The plasma ceruloplasmin was estimated immediately after stress during each stage - that is preoperative control, stressed control, after overiectomy and then following treatment with Estradiol Valerate. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Paired sample T test was applied to analyze the findings. Results: We found lowest ceruloplasmin level after stress in overiectomised animals, while on substitution of estradiol the trend appeared to be reversed. CONCLUSION: The result suggested a direct effect of estrogen on hepatic ceruloplasmin production/release and this could account for some of the beneficial effects of hormone replacement therapy.

  11. Prolonged Effects of Acute Stress on Decision-Making under Risk: A Human Psychophysiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Kaori; Ohira, Hideki; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Isowa, Tokiko

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the prolonged effects of physiological responses induced by acute stress on risk-taking in decision-making. Participants were divided into a Stress group (N = 14) and a Control group (N = 12). The Trier Social Stress Test was administered as an acute stressor, and reading was administered as a control task; thereafter, participants performed a decision-making task in which they needed to choose a sure option or a gamble option in Gain and Loss frame trials 2 h after (non-) exposure to the stressor. Increased cortisol, adrenaline, heart rate (HR), and subjective stress levels validated acute stress manipulation. Stressed participants made fewer risky choices only in the Gain domain, whereas no effect of stress was shown in the Loss domain. Deceleration of HR reflecting attention was greater for Gains compared with Losses only in the Stress group. Risk avoidance was determined by increased levels of cortisol caused by acute stress. These results suggest that processes regarding glucocorticoid might be involved in the prolonged effects of acute stress on the evaluation of risks and the monitoring of outcomes in decision-making.

  12. Effect of somatostatin on the sphincter of Oddi in patients with acute non-biliary pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, K.; Lo, G.; Cheng, J; Fu, M; Wang, E; Chan, H.; Wang, Y.; P. Hsu; Lin, C.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Somatostatin has been used to prevent pancreatitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography but its effect on acute non-biliary pancreatitis is still unclear.
AIM—The purpose of this study was to evaluate the function of the sphincter of Oddi (SO) and the effect of somatostatin on patients with non-biliary pancreatitis.
METHODS—Twenty patients (18 males, two females) with acute pancreatitis (alcoholic 18, idiopathic two) received SO manometry within one week after admis...

  13. Tinospora cordifolia ameliorates anxiety-like behavior and improves cognitive functions in acute sleep deprived rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rachana Mishra; Shaffi Manchanda; Muskan Gupta; Taranjeet Kaur; Vedangana Saini; Anuradha Sharma; Gurcharan Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) leads to the spectrum of mood disorders like anxiety, cognitive dysfunctions and motor coordination impairment in many individuals. However, there is no effective pharmacological remedy to negate the effects of SD. The current study examined whether 50% ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia (TCE) can attenuate these negative effects of SD. Three groups of adult Wistar female rats - (1) vehicle treated-sleep undisturbed (VUD), (2) vehicle treated-sleep deprived (VSD)...

  14. Dual PDF signaling pathways reset clocks via TIMELESS and acutely excite target neurons to control circadian behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seluzicki, Adam; Flourakis, Matthieu; Kula-Eversole, Elzbieta; Zhang, Luoying; Kilman, Valerie; Allada, Ravi

    2014-03-01

    Molecular circadian clocks are interconnected via neural networks. In Drosophila, PIGMENT-DISPERSING FACTOR (PDF) acts as a master network regulator with dual functions in synchronizing molecular oscillations between disparate PDF(+) and PDF(-) circadian pacemaker neurons and controlling pacemaker neuron output. Yet the mechanisms by which PDF functions are not clear. We demonstrate that genetic inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) in PDF(-) clock neurons can phenocopy PDF mutants while activated PKA can partially rescue PDF receptor mutants. PKA subunit transcripts are also under clock control in non-PDF DN1p neurons. To address the core clock target of PDF, we rescued per in PDF neurons of arrhythmic per⁰¹ mutants. PDF neuron rescue induced high amplitude rhythms in the clock component TIMELESS (TIM) in per-less DN1p neurons. Complete loss of PDF or PKA inhibition also results in reduced TIM levels in non-PDF neurons of per⁰¹ flies. To address how PDF impacts pacemaker neuron output, we focally applied PDF to DN1p neurons and found that it acutely depolarizes and increases firing rates of DN1p neurons. Surprisingly, these effects are reduced in the presence of an adenylate cyclase inhibitor, yet persist in the presence of PKA inhibition. We have provided evidence for a signaling mechanism (PKA) and a molecular target (TIM) by which PDF resets and synchronizes clocks and demonstrates an acute direct excitatory effect of PDF on target neurons to control neuronal output. The identification of TIM as a target of PDF signaling suggests it is a multimodal integrator of cell autonomous clock, environmental light, and neural network signaling. Moreover, these data reveal a bifurcation of PKA-dependent clock effects and PKA-independent output effects. Taken together, our results provide a molecular and cellular basis for the dual functions of PDF in clock resetting and pacemaker output. PMID:24643294

  15. Report of the Task Group on Behavioral Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall objective of the Task Group on Behavioral Effects is to examine effects on the mental health of the public and the workers directly involved in the accident at TMI-2. Of particular interest are the behavioral response of the workers under stress during the accident, and the behavioral response of the population under stress during the accident. In examining effects on mental health, a distinction is to be made between short term and long term effects. Attention is also to be paid to the possible impact [on] the affected populations and workers of a variety of studies either under way or planned

  16. The Effects of 830 nm Light-Emitting Diode Therapy on Acute Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Kui Young; Han, Tae Young; Kim, In Su; Yeo, In Kwon; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Myeung Nam

    2013-01-01

    Background Skin lesions and pain are the most distinctive features of herpes zoster. Light-emitting diode (LED) therapy is an effective treatment known for its wound-healing effects. Objective To determine whether the LED treatment affects wound healing and acute pain in acute herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Methods We recruited 28 consecutive Korean patients with acute herpes zoster ophthalmicus for the study. In the control group (group A), 14 subjects received oral famcyclovir. In the experime...

  17. The effect of unethical behavior on brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Faezeh Rezazadeh Baei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explains the components of ethical behavior and their impacts on life insurance companies in province of Mazandaran, Iran. There were 367 insurance representatives and the study selects a sample of 187 ones based on Cochran formula and 2 questionnaires were distributed among them. The first questionnaire, unethical behavior, includes 8 items including Bribery, Cheating, Deception, Interact with colleagues, Act as social behavior, Uncommitted to firm and Irresponsibility. In addition, the questionnaire of brand equity contains three components of Awareness, Perceived quality and Loyalty. Using structural equation modeling, the study has determined that the effects of cheating and deception on unethical behaviors were not confirmed but the effects of other factors, bribery, interact with colleagues, act as social behavior, uncommitted to firm and irresponsibility on unethical behavior were confirmed. In addition, three components of Awareness, Perceived quality and Loyalty had positive relationship with brand equity.

  18. The effect of streptokinase on chest pain in acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J H; Sørensen, H T; Rasmussen, S E;

    1991-01-01

    Treatment with intravenous streptokinase is known to restore blood flow to the ischaemic myocardium in patients with acute myocardial infarction. However, little is known about its effect on chest pain. In a retrospective cohort study, 76 patients treated with streptokinase were compared to 76...... patients not treated with streptokinase. All patients had acute myocardial infarction and less than 6 h of cardiac symptoms. Patients treated with streptokinase had a significantly lower need for nicomorphine (median 20 mg) than patients not treated with streptokinase (median 41 mg). Correspondingly......, the median duration (3.5 h) of pain was reduced significantly in patients treated with streptokinase compared to patients not treated (24 h). We conclude that intravenous streptokinase given in the acute phase of myocardial infarction is effective in reducing the duration of cardiac chest pain....

  19. Metabolic and behavioral effects of ractopamine at continuous low levels in rats under stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Lopes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of ractopamine (RAC on metabolism, zootechnical performance, body composition, and behavior in Wistar rats submitted to acute and chronic restrain stress. The oral dose of 5 mg/kg of RAC was administered in periods of 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. The elevated plus-maze test (EPMT was used for behavioral assessment. Blood, carcass and viscera characteristics were evaluated. Insulin-dependent glucose transporters (GLUT-4 were semi-quantified by Western Blot in epididymal adipocytes. RAC periods associated with chronic stress increased the GLUT-4 protein expression in adipose tissue in a time-dependent manner (P=0.01, i.e., the longer the RAC addition period, the higher the GLUT-4 concentration in chronically stressed animals (0=1.42; 7=1.19; 14=2.03; 21=1.59; 28=2.35. The stress periods combined with RAC increased the time spent in the opened arms of the maze (Chronic stress: 0=10.6; 7=8.7; 14=5.9; 21=12.3; 28=4.0; Acute stress 0=3.1; 7= 4.7; 14=7.5; 21=0.0; 28=2.8 (P=0.04. Chronic (entries on the closed arms [ECA]=3.60 and acute (ECA=3.80 stress reduced locomotive activity in the maze (P=0.03. The results suggested that stress could negatively affect the possible benefits offered by the RAC, mainly impairing the adipose tissue metabolism and behavior in the animals.

  20. Influence of perinatal trans fat on behavioral responses and brain oxidative status of adolescent rats acutely exposed to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pase, C S; Roversi, Kr; Trevizol, F; Roversi, K; Kuhn, F T; Schuster, A J; Vey, L T; Dias, V T; Barcelos, R C S; Piccolo, J; Emanuelli, T; Bürger, M E

    2013-09-01

    Because consumption of processed foods has increased in the last decades and so far its potential influence on emotionality and susceptibility to stress is unknown, we studied the influence of different fatty acids (FA) on behavioral and biochemical parameters after acute restrain stress (AS) exposure. Two sequential generations of female rats were supplemented with soybean oil (control group; C-SO), fish oil (FO) and hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF) from pregnancy and during lactation. At 41days of age, half the animals of each supplemented group were exposed to AS and observed in open field and elevated plus maze task, followed by euthanasia for biochemical assessments. The HVF-supplemented group showed higher anxiety-like symptoms per se, while the C-SO and FO groups did not show these behaviors. Among groups exposed to AS, HVF showed locomotor restlessness in the open field, while both C-SO and HVF groups showed anxiety-like symptoms in the elevated plus maze, but this was not observed in the FO group. Biochemical evaluations showed higher lipoperoxidation levels and lower cell viability in cortex in the HVF group. In addition, HVF-treated rats showed reduced catalase activity in striatum and hippocampus, as well as increased generation of reactive species in striatum, while FO was associated with increased cell viability in the hippocampus. Among groups exposed to AS, HVF increased reactive species generation in the brain, decreased cell viability in the cortex and striatum, and decreased catalase activity in the striatum and hippocampus. Taken together, our findings show that the type of FA provided during development and growth over two generations is able to modify the brain oxidative status, which was particularly adversely affected by trans fat. In addition, the harmful influence of chronic consumption of trans fats as observed in this study can enhance emotionality and anxiety parameters resulting from stressful situations of everyday life, which can

  1. Acute effects of aerobic stretching, health and happiness improving movement exercise on cortical activity of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyungsoo; Park, Sangjun; Kim, Kyekyoon Kevin; Lee, Kwanghee; Rhyu, Hyun-Seung

    2016-08-01

    Acute high-intensity physical exercise is known to improve cognitive performance of children, including those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this work, we investigated the acute effect of an aerobic stretching and moderate-intensity, health and happiness improving movement (HHIM) exercise on the cortical activity of children with and without ADHD using electroencephalography (EEG). Children aged 12 to 14 yr with combined-type ADHD and age-matched healthy controls participated in the study, performing two individual movements (n=79, 35 controls) and a single exercise bout (n=45, 18 controls). electroencephalographic signals were recorded before and immediately after each movement, and before and after acute exercise under resting conditions, to obtain absolute and relative power estimates for the theta (3.5-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), sensory motor rhythm (12-16 Hz), and beta (16-25 Hz) bands. After acute HHIM exercise, all children showed significant changes in their relative EEG, mainly in the theta and alpha bands. Individual movements were found to influence relative theta, alpha and beta, and theta-to-beta ratios. He presents aerobic stretching HHIM exercise has demonstrated acute effect on the cortical activity of children.

  2. Acute effects of aerobic stretching, health and happiness improving movement exercise on cortical activity of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyungsoo; Park, Sangjun; Kim, Kyekyoon Kevin; Lee, Kwanghee; Rhyu, Hyun-Seung

    2016-08-01

    Acute high-intensity physical exercise is known to improve cognitive performance of children, including those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this work, we investigated the acute effect of an aerobic stretching and moderate-intensity, health and happiness improving movement (HHIM) exercise on the cortical activity of children with and without ADHD using electroencephalography (EEG). Children aged 12 to 14 yr with combined-type ADHD and age-matched healthy controls participated in the study, performing two individual movements (n=79, 35 controls) and a single exercise bout (n=45, 18 controls). electroencephalographic signals were recorded before and immediately after each movement, and before and after acute exercise under resting conditions, to obtain absolute and relative power estimates for the theta (3.5-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), sensory motor rhythm (12-16 Hz), and beta (16-25 Hz) bands. After acute HHIM exercise, all children showed significant changes in their relative EEG, mainly in the theta and alpha bands. Individual movements were found to influence relative theta, alpha and beta, and theta-to-beta ratios. He presents aerobic stretching HHIM exercise has demonstrated acute effect on the cortical activity of children. PMID:27656629

  3. Acute effects of aerobic stretching, health and happiness improving movement exercise on cortical activity of children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyungsoo; Park, Sangjun; Kim, Kyekyoon Kevin; Lee, Kwanghee; Rhyu, Hyun-Seung

    2016-01-01

    Acute high-intensity physical exercise is known to improve cognitive performance of children, including those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this work, we investigated the acute effect of an aerobic stretching and moderate-intensity, health and happiness improving movement (HHIM) exercise on the cortical activity of children with and without ADHD using electroencephalography (EEG). Children aged 12 to 14 yr with combined-type ADHD and age-matched healthy controls participated in the study, performing two individual movements (n=79, 35 controls) and a single exercise bout (n=45, 18 controls). electroencephalographic signals were recorded before and immediately after each movement, and before and after acute exercise under resting conditions, to obtain absolute and relative power estimates for the theta (3.5–8 Hz), alpha (8–12 Hz), sensory motor rhythm (12–16 Hz), and beta (16–25 Hz) bands. After acute HHIM exercise, all children showed significant changes in their relative EEG, mainly in the theta and alpha bands. Individual movements were found to influence relative theta, alpha and beta, and theta-to-beta ratios. He presents aerobic stretching HHIM exercise has demonstrated acute effect on the cortical activity of children.

  4. Possible Electromagnetic Effects on Abnormal Animal Behavior Before an Earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Masashi Hayakawa

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Possible electromagnetic effects on abnormal animal behavior before earthquakes. Abstract The former statistical properties summarized by Rikitake (1998) on unusual animal behavior before an earthquake (EQ) have first been presented by using two parameters (epicentral distance (D) of an anomaly and its precursor (or lead) time (T)). Three plots are utilized to characterize the unusual animal behavior; (i) EQ magnitude (M) versus D, (ii) log T versus M, and (iii) occurrence hist...

  5. Behavior therapy and callous-unemotional traits: effects of a pilot study examining modified behavioral contingencies on child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Natalie V; Haas, Sarah M; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Willoughby, Michael T; Helseth, Sarah A; Crum, Kathleen I; Coles, Erika K; Pelham, William E

    2014-09-01

    The conduct problems of children with callous-unemotional (CU) traits (i.e., lack of empathy, lack of guilt/lack of caring behaviors) are particularly resistant to current behavioral interventions, and it is possible that differential sensitivities to punishment and reward may underlie this resistance. Children with conduct problems and CU (CPCU) are less responsive to behavioral punishment techniques (e.g., time-out), whereas reward techniques (e.g., earning points for prizes or activities) are effective for reducing conduct problems. This study examined the efficacy of modified behavioral interventions, which de-emphasized punishment (Condition B) and emphasized reward techniques (Condition C), compared with a standard behavioral intervention (Condition A). Interventions were delivered through a summer treatment program over 7 weeks with an A-B-A-C-A-BC-A design to a group of 11 children (7-11 years; 91% male). All children were diagnosed with either oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, in addition to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Results revealed the best treatment response occurred during the low-punishment condition, with rates of negative behavior (e.g., aggression, teasing, stealing) increasing over the 7 weeks. However, there was substantial individual variability in treatment response, and several children demonstrated improvement during the modified intervention conditions. Future research is necessary to disentangle treatment effects from order effects, and implications of group treatment of CPCU children (i.e., deviancy training) are discussed.

  6. Behavioral effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine sensitization in female rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, M.F. [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Couto-Pereira, N.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Departamento de Bioquímica, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Freese, L.; Costa, P.A.; Caletti, G.; Bisognin, K.M. [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Nin, M.S. [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto Porto Alegre, Centro Metodista do Sul, Curso de Farmácia, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Curso de Farmácia, Centro Metodista do Sul, Instituto Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Gomez, R. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Departamento de Farmacologia, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Barros, H.M.T. [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-05-09

    Cocaine sensitization is a marker for some facets of addiction, is greater in female rats, and may be influenced by their sex hormones. We compared the modulatory effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in 106 female rats. Ovariectomized female rats received progesterone (0.5 mg/mL), estradiol (0.05 mg/mL), progesterone plus estradiol, or the oil vehicle. Sham-operated control females received oil. Control and acute subgroups received injections of saline, while the repeated group received cocaine (15 mg/kg, ip) for 8 days. After 10 days, the acute and repeated groups received a challenge dose of cocaine, after which locomotion and stereotypy were monitored. The estrous cycle phase was evaluated and blood was collected to verify hormone levels. Repeated cocaine treatment induced overall behavioral sensitization in female rats, with increased locomotion and stereotypies. In detailed analysis, ovariectomized rats showed no locomotor sensitization; however, the sensitization of stereotypies was maintained. Only females with endogenous estradiol and progesterone demonstrated increased locomotor activity after cocaine challenge. Estradiol replacement enhanced stereotyped behaviors after repeated cocaine administration. Cocaine sensitization of stereotyped behaviors in female rats was reduced after progesterone replacement, either alone or concomitant with estradiol. The behavioral responses (locomotion and stereotypy) to cocaine were affected differently, depending on whether the female hormones were of an endogenous or exogenous origin. Therefore, hormonal cycling appears to be an important factor in the sensitization of females. Although estradiol increases the risk of cocaine sensitization, progesterone warrants further study as a pharmacological treatment in the prevention of psychostimulant abuse.

  7. Behavioral effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine sensitization in female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocaine sensitization is a marker for some facets of addiction, is greater in female rats, and may be influenced by their sex hormones. We compared the modulatory effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in 106 female rats. Ovariectomized female rats received progesterone (0.5 mg/mL), estradiol (0.05 mg/mL), progesterone plus estradiol, or the oil vehicle. Sham-operated control females received oil. Control and acute subgroups received injections of saline, while the repeated group received cocaine (15 mg/kg, ip) for 8 days. After 10 days, the acute and repeated groups received a challenge dose of cocaine, after which locomotion and stereotypy were monitored. The estrous cycle phase was evaluated and blood was collected to verify hormone levels. Repeated cocaine treatment induced overall behavioral sensitization in female rats, with increased locomotion and stereotypies. In detailed analysis, ovariectomized rats showed no locomotor sensitization; however, the sensitization of stereotypies was maintained. Only females with endogenous estradiol and progesterone demonstrated increased locomotor activity after cocaine challenge. Estradiol replacement enhanced stereotyped behaviors after repeated cocaine administration. Cocaine sensitization of stereotyped behaviors in female rats was reduced after progesterone replacement, either alone or concomitant with estradiol. The behavioral responses (locomotion and stereotypy) to cocaine were affected differently, depending on whether the female hormones were of an endogenous or exogenous origin. Therefore, hormonal cycling appears to be an important factor in the sensitization of females. Although estradiol increases the risk of cocaine sensitization, progesterone warrants further study as a pharmacological treatment in the prevention of psychostimulant abuse

  8. Healthcare-seeking behaviors for acute respiratory illness in two communities of Java, Indonesia: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praptiningsih, Catharina Y; Lafond, Kathryn E; Wahyuningrum, Yunita; Storms, Aaron D; Mangiri, Amalya; Iuliano, Angela D; Samaan, Gina; Titaley, Christiana R; Yelda, Fitra; Kreslake, Jennifer; Storey, Douglas; Uyeki, Timothy M

    2016-06-01

    Understanding healthcare-seeking patterns for respiratory illness can help improve estimations of disease burden and inform public health interventions to control acute respiratory disease in Indonesia. The objectives of this study were to describe healthcare-seeking behaviors for respiratory illnesses in one rural and one urban community in Western Java, and to explore the factors that affect care seeking. From February 8, 2012 to March 1, 2012, a survey was conducted in 2520 households in the East Jakarta and Bogor districts to identify reported recent respiratory illnesses, as well as all hospitalizations from the previous 12-month period. We found that 4% (10% of those less than 5years) of people had respiratory disease resulting in a visit to a healthcare provider in the past 2weeks; these episodes were most commonly treated at government (33%) or private (44%) clinics. Forty-five people (0.4% of those surveyed) had respiratory hospitalizations in the past year, and just over half of these (24/45, 53%) occurred at a public hospital. Public health programs targeting respiratory disease in this region should account for care at private hospitals and clinics, as well as illnesses that are treated at home, in order to capture the true burden of illness in these communities.

  9. Effects of HIV and Methamphetamine on Brain and Behavior: Evidence from Human Studies and Animal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soontornniyomkij, Virawudh; Kesby, James P; Morgan, Erin E; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Minassian, Arpi; Brown, Gregory G; Grant, Igor

    2016-09-01

    Methamphetamine (Meth) use is frequent among HIV-infected persons. Combined HIV and Meth insults may exacerbate neural injury in vulnerable neuroanatomic structures or circuitries in the brain, leading to increased behavioral disturbance and cognitive impairment. While acute and chronic effects of Meth in humans and animal models have been studied for decades, the neurobehavioral effects of Meth in the context of HIV infection are much less explored. In-depth understanding of the scope of neurobehavioral phenotypes and mechanisms in HIV/Meth intersection is needed. The present report summarizes published research findings, as well as unpublished data, in humans and animal models with regard to neurobehavioral disturbance, neuroimaging, and neuropathology, and in vitro experimental systems, with an emphasis on findings emerging from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) funded Translational Methamphetamine AIDS Research Center (TMARC). Results from human studies and animal (primarily HIV-1 gp120 transgenic mouse) models thus far suggest that combined HIV and Meth insults increase the likelihood of neural injury in the brain. The neurobehavioral effects include cognitive impairment and increased tendencies toward impaired behavioral inhibition and social cognition. These impairments are relevant to behaviors that affect personal and social risks, e.g. worse medication adherence, riskier behaviors, and greater likelihood of HIV transmission. The underlying mechanisms may include electrochemical changes in neuronal circuitries, injury to white matter microstructures, synaptodendritic damage, and selective neuronal loss. Utilization of research methodologies that are valid across species is instrumental in generating new knowledge with clinical translational value. PMID:27484318

  10. Acute sleep restriction effects on emotion responses in 30- to 36-month-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Rebecca H; Miller, Alison L; Seifer, Ronald; Cares, Stephanie R; LeBourgeois, Monique K

    2012-06-01

    Early childhood is a period of dramatic change in sleep and emotion processing, as well as a time when disturbance in both domains are first detected. Although sleep is recognized as central in emotion processing and psychopathology, the great majority of experimental data have been collected in adults. We examined the effects of acute sleep restriction (nap deprivation) on toddlers' emotion expression. Ten healthy children (seven females; 30-36 months old) followed a strict sleep schedule (≥12.5 h time in bed per 24-h) for 5 days, before each of two randomly assigned afternoon emotion assessments following Nap and No-Nap conditions (resulting in an 11-day protocol). Children viewed emotion-eliciting pictures (five positive, three neutral, three negative) and completed puzzles (one solvable, one unsolvable). Children's faces were video-recorded, and emotion displays were coded. When sleep restricted, children displayed less confusion in response to neutral pictures, more negativity to neutral and negative pictures, and less positivity to positive pictures. Sleep restriction also resulted in a 34% reduction in positive emotion responses (solvable puzzle), as well as a 31% increase in negative emotion responses and a 39% decrease in confused responses (unsolvable puzzle). These findings suggest sleep is a key factor in how young children respond to their world. When sleep restricted, toddlers are neither able to take full advantage of positive experiences nor are they as adaptive in challenging contexts. If insufficient sleep consistently 'taxes' young children's emotion responses, they may not manage emotion regulation challenges effectively, potentially placing them at risk for future emotional/behavioral problems. PMID:21988087

  11. Acute sleep restriction effects on emotion responses in 30- to 36-month-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Rebecca H; Miller, Alison L; Seifer, Ronald; Cares, Stephanie R; LeBourgeois, Monique K

    2012-06-01

    Early childhood is a period of dramatic change in sleep and emotion processing, as well as a time when disturbance in both domains are first detected. Although sleep is recognized as central in emotion processing and psychopathology, the great majority of experimental data have been collected in adults. We examined the effects of acute sleep restriction (nap deprivation) on toddlers' emotion expression. Ten healthy children (seven females; 30-36 months old) followed a strict sleep schedule (≥12.5 h time in bed per 24-h) for 5 days, before each of two randomly assigned afternoon emotion assessments following Nap and No-Nap conditions (resulting in an 11-day protocol). Children viewed emotion-eliciting pictures (five positive, three neutral, three negative) and completed puzzles (one solvable, one unsolvable). Children's faces were video-recorded, and emotion displays were coded. When sleep restricted, children displayed less confusion in response to neutral pictures, more negativity to neutral and negative pictures, and less positivity to positive pictures. Sleep restriction also resulted in a 34% reduction in positive emotion responses (solvable puzzle), as well as a 31% increase in negative emotion responses and a 39% decrease in confused responses (unsolvable puzzle). These findings suggest sleep is a key factor in how young children respond to their world. When sleep restricted, toddlers are neither able to take full advantage of positive experiences nor are they as adaptive in challenging contexts. If insufficient sleep consistently 'taxes' young children's emotion responses, they may not manage emotion regulation challenges effectively, potentially placing them at risk for future emotional/behavioral problems.

  12. Effect of Vagotomy on Acute Pancreatitis in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    One hundred and eighty-two SD rats were randomly divided into the normal control group, fast operating group and food-intake operating group. The experimental model of acute pancreatitis (AP) in rats was established by injecting 5 % sodium taurocholate into the pancreatic duct of rat according to Aho's method. The sandostatin was used for positive contrast. The concentrations of serum amylase, calcium, C reaction protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were assayed respectively at different time points. The pathological sections were observed. Each operating group contained 10 rats. The mortality of the operating groups was observed during the 24 h. The serum amylase level in the AP rats was reduced after receiving vagotomy (VG, P<0.05). Although the serum calcium level in most groups was decreased, the reduction in the group with VG plus sandostatin was not obvious (P>0.05). The increase of CRP and IL-6 was not obvious after VG (P>0.05). The change of mortality was not significant (P>0.05). The pathological sections showed that the AP pathological change was mild after VG. The disease condition of food-intake operating group was more serious than that of fast operating group. It was suggested that VG had some influence on the prognosis of AP in rats.

  13. Cognitive and physiological effects of an acute physical activity intervention in elementary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja eJäger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of an acute physical activity intervention including cognitive engagement on executive functions and on cortisol level in young elementary school children. Half of the 104 participating children (6 to 8 years old attended a 20-minute sport sequence, which included cognitively engaging and playful forms of physical activity. The other half was assigned to a resting control condition. Individual differences in children`s updating, inhibition, and shifting performance as well as salivary cortisol were assessed before (pre-test, immediately after (post-test, and 40 minutes after (follow-up the intervention or control condition respectively. Results revealed a significantly stronger improvement in inhibition in the experimental group compared to the control group, while it appeared that acute physical activity had no specific effect on updating and shifting. The intervention effect on inhibition levelled out 40 minutes after physical activity. Salivary cortisol increased significantly more in the experimental compared to the control group between post-test and follow-up and results support partly the assumed inverted U-shaped relationship between cortisol level and cognitive performance. In conclusion, results indicate that acute physical activity including cognitive engagement may have immediate positive effects on inhibition, but not necessarily on updating and shifting in elementary school children. This positive effect may partly be explained trough cortisol elevation after acute physical activity.

  14. Acute Toxicity and Behavioral Changes Associated with Diazinon in Rutilus rutilus caspicus and Hypophthalmicthys molitrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Akbar Hedayati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diazinon is an organophosphorous pesticide which widely found in municipal, agricultural, and urban storm water discharges. The present study was conducted to achieve lethal concentration (LC50 and behavioral changes of Rutilus rutilus caspius and Hypophthal-micthys molitrix after exposure to lethal concentration of diazinon. Methods: The experiment was carried out in static conditions, based on instructions of OECD in 4 days under controlled water physicochemical conditions with pH of 7.2±0.2, oxygen of 7±0.3 mg/l, total hardness of 180 mg CaCo3 and temperature of 24±1 C°. All fishes were accli-matized in 400 L aquaria for 10 days. Treated aquaria had concentrations of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 ppm of diazinon for H. molitrix, and 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, and 20 for R. rutilus caspi-cus, while there was no toxic concentration for the control group. LC1, LC10, LC30, LC50, LC70, LC90, and LC99 were calculated for 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours. Results: LC50 96h diazinon values were 3.93 and 1.71 ppm for H. molitrix and R. rutilus caspi-cus, respectively. Clinical observation revealed that the poisoned fishes suffered from nerve paralysis syndrome. The fishes exhibited irregular, erratic, and darting swimming movements, severe aching, and collapse to the bottom of the aquarium. Conclusion: These findings suggest that diazinon has medium toxicity at low concentrations for thede two species and causes morbidities.

  15. Effect of acute and chronic ethanol pre-treatment on the disposition of phencyclidine (PCP) in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlamani, N L; Pontani, R B; Misra, A L

    1982-05-01

    Disposition of [H] Phencyclidine in brain, plasma and adipose tissue of rats acutely and chronically-treated with ethanol was studied using a method possessing high sensitivity and specificity for PCP. In rats acutely-treated with ethanol (5 g/kg PO dose) and PCP (10 mg/kg IP dose), dispositional factors did not play a role in the intensifies pharmacological and behavioral effects of PCP. However in rats chronically-treated with 2.5 g/kg PO dose of ethanol twice a day for 19 days, the disposition of PCP (5 mg/kg IP dose) was significantly altered and the values of PCP in brain, plasma and adipose tissue were significantly higher than those in the control group. Although inhibition of PCP metabolism and a comparatively slower rate of its elimination appear to account for the potentiation of drug effects in animals chronically-treated with ethanol, interaction of drugs at the level of the central nervous system cannot be ruled out. PMID:7089042

  16. Chronic hyperleptinemia induces resistance to acute natriuretic and NO-mimetic effects of leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełtowski, Jerzy; Wójcicka, Grazyna; Jamroz-Wiśniewska, Anna; Wojtak, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    Apart from controlling energy balance, leptin, secreted by adipose tissue, is also involved in the regulation of cardiovascular function. Previous studies have demonstrated that acutely administered leptin stimulates natriuresis and vascular nitric oxide (NO) production and that these effects are impaired in obese animals. However, the mechanism of resistance to leptin is not clear. Because obesity is associated with chronically elevated leptin, we examined if long-term hyperleptinemia impairs acute effects of leptin on sodium excretion and NO production in the absence of obesity. Hyperleptinemia was induced in lean rats by administration of exogenous leptin at a dose of 0.5mg/kg/day for 7 days, and then acute effect of leptin (1mg/kg i.v.) was studied under general anesthesia. Leptin increased fractional sodium excretion and decreased Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity in the renal medulla. In addition, leptin increased the level of NO metabolites and cyclic GMP in plasma and aortic wall. These acute effects of leptin were impaired in hyperleptinemic animals. In both control and hyperleptinemic groups the effect of leptin on Na(+) excretion and renal Na(+),K(+)-ATPase was abolished by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, wortmannin, but not by protein kinase B/Akt inhibitor, triciribine,. In contrast, acute effect of leptin on NO metabolites and cGMP was abolished by triciribine but not by wortmannin. Leptin stimulated Akt phosphorylation at Ser(473) in aortic tissue but not in the kidney, and this effect was comparable in control and hyperleptinemic groups. These results suggest that hyperleptinemia may mediate "renal" and "vascular" leptin resistance observed in obesity. PMID:19854228

  17. Comparison Between the Acute Pulmonary Vascular Effects of Oxygen with Nitric Oxide and Sildenafil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald W. Day

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Right heart catheterization is performed in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension to determine the severity of disease and their pulmonary vascular reactivity. The acute pulmonary vascular effect of inhaled nitric oxide is frequently used to identify patients who will respond favorably to vasodilator therapy. This study sought to determine whether the acute pulmonary vascular effects of oxygen with nitric oxide and intravenous sildenafil are similar. Methods. A retrospective, descriptive study of 13 individuals with pulmonary hypertension who underwent heart catheterization and acute vasodilator testing was performed. The hemodynamic measurements during five phases (21% to 53% oxygen, 100% oxygen, 100% oxygen with 20 ppm nitric oxide, 21% to 51% oxygen, and 21% to 51% oxygen with 0.05 mg/kg to 0.29 mg/kg intravenous sildenafil of the procedures were compared.Results. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance acutely decreased with 100% oxygen with nitric oxide, and 21% to 51% oxygen with sildenafil. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mm Hg, mean ± standard error of the mean was 38 ± 4 during 21% to 53% oxygen, 32 ± 3 during 100% oxygen, 29 ± 2 during 100% oxygen with nitric oxide, 37 ± 3 during 21% to 51% oxygen, and 32 ± 2 during 21% to 51% oxygen with sildenafil. There was not a significant correlation between the percent change in pulmonary vascular resistance from baseline with oxygen and nitric oxide, and from baseline with sildenafil (r2 = 0.011, p = 0.738. Conclusions. Oxygen with nitric oxide and sildenafil decreased pulmonary vascular resistance. However, the pulmonary vascular effects of oxygen and nitric oxide cannot be used to predict the acute response to sildenafil. Additional studies are needed to determine whether the acute response to sildenafil can be used to predict the long-term response to treatment with an oral phosphodiesterase V inhibitor.

  18. Better Choices: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Behavior Management Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna, Miguel T.

    2011-01-01

    Managing student behavior is often looked upon as a sidebar in teaching. The lack of formal classroom management training in teacher education programs reveals the low importance placed on this skill. As a result, teachers are often very well prepared to instruct, but in terms of effectively understanding the behavior of students--particularly…

  19. Effects of Nonverbal Behavior on Perceptions of Power Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguinis, Herman; Simonsen, Melissa M.; Pierce, Charles A.

    1998-01-01

    Manipulates three types of nonverbal behaviors and examines their effects on perceptions of power bases. Reports that a relaxed facial expression increased the ratings for five of the selected power bases; furthermore, direct eye contact yielded higher credibility ratings. Provides evidence that various nonverbal behaviors have only additive…

  20. Effects of Behavior and Family Structure on Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Effects of information about an adolescent's family structure and behavior on perceptions of education majors were studied for 45 male and 98 female college students. College students made subtle judgments based on this minimal information, but how strongly such judgments affect perceptions and behavior toward adolescents is not known. (SLD)

  1. Effects of carbamazepine on cortisol levels and behavioral responses to stress in the fish Jenynsia multidentata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagno, Emilia; Durando, Patricia; Valdés, M Eugenia; Franchioni, Liliana; Bistoni, María de los Ángeles

    2016-05-01

    Carbamazepine (CBZ) is an anticonvulsant drug, prescribed worldwide for the treatment of epilepsy, bipolar disorder and trigeminal neuralgia, which has been frequently detected in aquatic environments. The objective of this study was to analyze if CBZ modifies scototaxis and shoaling behaviors and/or whole-body cortisol levels of the one-sided livebearing fish Jenynsia multidentata under stress condition. Female adults of J. multidentata were exposed to 0, 10, 50 and 200μgCBZ/L during 14days. After CBZ exposure, fish were subjected to restraint stress during 15min. Control animals were not exposed to CBZ or stress. In the light/dark preference test (scototaxis), the individuals under acute restraint stress (without CBZ) exhibited a significant increase in the mean speed and in the time spent both in the light compartment and in the bottom of the tank with respect to controls. They also showed a tendency to stay longer frozen in the light compartment. Fish exposed to 10 and 50μgCBZ/L showed a significant reduction in mean speed compared to stressed fish without CBZ. A reduction in the time spent in the bottom of the tank was also observed in fish exposed to 10μgCBZ/L. Fish exposed to 200μgCBZ/L showed a decreasing tendency in all behavioral endpoints (time spent in the light compartment, mean speed, time spent at the bottom and freezing) in comparison to stressed fish not exposed to CBZ. Considering whole-body cortisol results, fish under acute restraint stress (without CBZ) significantly increased their hormone levels with respect to the control group, while fish exposed to CBZ and acute restraint stress, significantly decreased their whole-body cortisol levels. There were no significant changes in shoaling behavior due to either stress or CBZ exposure and no significant differences in whole-body cortisol levels between experimental groups. Considering that the light/dark and shoaling tests measure different stress response behaviors regulated by different

  2. Acute effects of alcohol on feedback processing and outcome evaluation during risky decision-making: an ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Euser (Anja); C.S. Meel (Catharine); M. Snelleman (Michelle); I.H.A. Franken (Ingmar)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractRationale: Although risky decision-making is one of the hallmarks of alcohol use disorders, relatively little is known about the acute psychopharmacological effects of alcohol on decision-making processes. Objective: The present study investigated the acute effects of alcohol on neural m

  3. EFFECTS OF GLUTAMATE ON SODIUM CHANNEL IN ACUTELY DISSOCIATED HIPPOCAMPAL CA1 PYRAMIDAL NEURONS OF RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高宾丽; 伍国锋; 杨艳; 刘智飞; 曾晓荣

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of glutamate on sodium channel in acutely dissociated hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons of rats.Methods Voltage-dependent sodium currents (INa) in acutely dissociated hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons of neonate rats were recorded by whole-cell patchclamp of the brain slice technique when a series of doses of glutamate (100-1000μmol/L) were applied.Results Different concentrations of glutamate could inhibit INa,and higher concentration of glutamate affected greater inhibitio...

  4. Acute exposure to silica nanoparticles aggravate airway inflammation: different effects according to surface characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hye Jung; Sohn, Jung-Ho; Kim, Yoon-Ju; Park, Yoon Hee; Han, Heejae; Park, Kyung Hee; Lee, Kangtaek; Choi, Hoon; Um, Kiju; Choi,In-Hong; Park, Jung-Won; Lee, Jae-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Silica nanoparticles (SNPs) are widely used in many scientific and industrial fields despite the lack of proper evaluation of their potential toxicity. This study examined the effects of acute exposure to SNPs, either alone or in conjunction with ovalbumin (OVA), by studying the respiratory systems in exposed mouse models. Three types of SNPs were used: spherical SNPs (S-SNPs), mesoporous SNPs (M-SNPs), and PEGylated SNPs (P-SNPs). In the acute SNP exposure model performed, 6-week-old BALB/c ...

  5. THE EFFECT OF ANISODAMINE ON CEREBRAL RESUSCITATION OF RATS IN ACUTE CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA FROM CARDIAC ARREST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭新琦; 曹苏谊; 可君

    1995-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanisms of acute cerebral ischemia,and to look for effective drugs on cerebral resuscitation,we made a model of acute complete global brain ischemia,reperfusion and resuscita-tion on rats according to Garavilla's method.Our results showed that the event of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury could result in the in-crease of total brain calcium content,and anisodamine has the same reducing brain calcium contents as dil-tiazem's,while improving neurological outcome and alleviating injury to neurons.

  6. Acute psychomotor effects of MDMA and ethanol (co-) administration over time in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumont, G J H; Schoemaker, R C; Touw, D J; Sweep, F C G J; Buitelaar, J K; van Gerven, J M A; Verkes, R J

    2010-01-01

    In Western societies, a considerable percentage of young people use 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or 'ecstasy'). The use of alcohol (ethanol) in combination with ecstasy is common. The aim of the present study was to assess the acute psychomotor and subjective effects of (co-) administrati

  7. Late cardiac effects of anthracycline containing therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Carlsen, Niels L T; Oxhøj, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    At present about 80% of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) will be cured following treatment with multi-drug chemotherapy. A major concern for this growing number of survivors is the risk of late effects of treatment. The aim of this study was to determine whether signs of cardiomyo...

  8. Acute Genome-wide effects of Rosiglitazone on PPARγ transcriptional networks in Adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haakonsson, Anders Kristian; Madsen, Maria Stahl; Nielsen, Ronni;

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation, and genome-wide studies indicate that it is involved in the induction of most adipocyte genes. Here we report, for the first time, the acute effects of the synthetic PPARγ agonist rosiglitazon...

  9. Effect of glutathione S-transferases on the survival of patients with acute myeloid leukaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Judith; Hokland, Peter; Pedersen, Lars;

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of genetic polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferases (GST) on the survival of acute myeloid leukaemia patients receiving adriamycin induction therapy. A total of 89 patients were included in the study. Patients who carried at least one GSTM...

  10. Acute Alcohol Effects on Repetition Priming and Word Recognition Memory with Equivalent Memory Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Suchismita; Bates, Marsha E.

    2006-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication effects on memory were examined using a recollection-based word recognition memory task and a repetition priming task of memory for the same information without explicit reference to the study context. Memory cues were equivalent across tasks; encoding was manipulated by varying the frequency of occurrence (FOC) of words…

  11. Acute effects of the ampakine farampator on memory and information processing in healthy elderly volunteers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezenberg, E.; Verkes, R.J.; Ruigt, G.S.F.; Hulstijn, W.; Sabbe, B.G.C.C.

    2007-01-01

    Ampakines act as positive allosteric modulators of AMPA-type glutamate receptors and facilitate hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a mechanism associated with memory storage and consolidation. The present study investigated the acute effects of farampator, 1-(benzofurazan-5-ylcarbonyl) piperi

  12. Antinociceptive, antiinflammatory and acute toxicity effects of Salvia leriifolia Benth seed extract in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Haddadkhodaparast, Mohammad H; Arash, Ali R

    2003-04-01

    The antinociceptive and antiinflammatory effects as well as the acute toxicity of Salvia leriifolia aqueous seed extract were studied in mice and rats. Antinociceptive activity was assessed using the hot-plate and tail flick tests. The effect on acute inflammation was studied using vascular permeability increased by acetic acid and xylene-induced ear oedema in mice. The activity against chronic inflammation was assessed using the cotton pellet test in rats. The LD(50) of the extract was found to be 19.5 g/kg (i.p.) in mice. The aqueous seed extract showed significant and dose-dependent (1.25-10 g/kg) antinociceptive activity over 7 h, and was inhibited by naloxone pretreatment. Significant and dose-dependent (2.5-10 g/kg) activity was observed against acute inflammation induced by acetic acid and in the xylene ear oedema test. In the chronic inflammation test the extract (2.5-5 g/kg) showed significant and dose-dependent antiinflammatory activity. The aqueous seed extract of S. leriifolia may therefore have supraspinal antinociceptive effects which may be mediated by opioid receptors, and showed considerable effects against acute and chronic inflammation. PMID:12722156

  13. Effect of acute metabolic acid/base shifts on the human airway calibre.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brijker, F.; Elshout, F.J.J. van den; Heijdra, Y.F.; Bosch, F.H.; Folgering, H.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    Acute metabolic alkalosis (NaHCO(3)), acidosis (NH(4)Cl), and placebo (NaCl) were induced in 15 healthy volunteers (12 females, median age 34 (range 24-56) years) in a double blind, placebo controlled study to evaluate the presence of the effects on airway calibre. Acid-base shifts were determined b

  14. Venous thromboembolism in adults treated for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: Effect of fresh frozen plasma supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Lauw (Ivoune); B. van der Holt (Bronno); S. Middeldorp (Saskia); J.C.M. Meijers; J.J. Cornelissen (Jan); B.J. Biemond (Bart)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractTreatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is frequently complicated by venous thromboembolism (VTE). The efficacy and optimal approach of VTE prevention are unclear, particularly in adult patients. We assessed the effect of thromboprophylaxis on symptomatic VTE incidence in cycle

  15. Acute effects of all-trans-retinoic acid in ischemic injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) is a vitamin A derivative that is important in neuronal patterning, survival, and neurite outgrowth. We investigated the relatively acute effects of ATRA (100 nM and 1 µM) on cell swelling in ischemic injury and on key features hypothesized to contribute to cell swelli...

  16. Protective effects of allicin on acute cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENGYan-hua; CHENChong-hong

    2004-01-01

    AIM To study the protective effects of allicin on acute focal cerebral ischemia reperfusioninjury. METHODS: The model of cerebral ishemia-3 h/reperfusion - 24h was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in SD rats. Allicin (10,20mg·kg-1) was administered once daily in rats: at 0 h of reperfusion. After 24h reperfusion, the content of

  17. Nephroprotective effect of ethanolic extract of abutilon indicum root in gentamicin induced acute renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Jesurun RS

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The ethanolic extract of abutilon indicum root has nephron protective effect in gentamicin induced acute renal failure. Nephro protective action in this study could be due to the antioxidant and other phytochemical of abutilon indicum root. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 841-845

  18. The effect of obesity on inflammatory cytokine and leptin production following acute mental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caslin, H L; Franco, R L; Crabb, E B; Huang, C J; Bowen, M K; Acevedo, E O

    2016-02-01

    Obesity may contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by eliciting chronic systemic inflammation and impairing the immune response to additional stressors. There has been little assessment of the effect of obesity on psychological stress, an independent risk factor for CVD. Therefore, it was of interest to examine interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and leptin following an acute mental stress task in nonobese and obese males. Twenty college-aged males (21.3 ± 0.56 years) volunteered to participate in a 20-min Stroop color-word and mirror-tracing task. Subjects were recruited for obese (body mass index: BMI > 30) and nonobese (BMI < 25) groups, and blood samples were collected for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis. The acute mental stress task elicited an increase in heart rate, catecholamines, and IL-1β in all subjects. Additionally, acute mental stress increased cortisol concentrations in the nonobese group. There was a significant reduction in leptin in obese subjects 30 min posttask compared with a decrease in nonobese subjects 120 min posttask. Interestingly, the relationship between the percent change in leptin and IL-1Ra at 120 min posttask in response to an acute mental stress task was only observed in nonobese individuals. This is the first study to suggest that adiposity in males may impact leptin and inflammatory signaling mechanisms following acute mental stress. PMID:26511907

  19. The effects of acute anticipatory stress on frontal executive functions in healthy females

    OpenAIRE

    Brookmann, Frieda

    2010-01-01

    Objective Results from previous studies show effects of stress hormones (cortisol) on cognitive functions, particularly those mediated by the hippocampus, but little research has examined the effects of cortisol on frontal executive functions, despite a preponderance of cortisol receptors in the frontal lobes. Existing research has focused on traditional measures of executive functions and the findings are inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of acute stres...

  20. Acute Effects of Whole Body Vibration on Inhibition in Healthy Children

    OpenAIRE

    Anne E den Heijer; Groen, Yvonne; Anselm B M Fuermaier; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; van der Zee, Eddy A.; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Whole Body Vibration (WBV) is a passive exercise method known to have beneficial effects on various physical measures. Studies on adults furthermore demonstrated beneficial effects of WBV treatment on cognition (e.g. inhibition). The present study replicated these findings in healthy children and examined acute effects of WBV treatment on inhibition. Methods Fifty-five healthy children (aged 8–13) participated in this within-subject design study. WBV treatment was applied by having...

  1. No acute effects of grape juice on appetite, implicit memory, and mood

    OpenAIRE

    Mattes, Richard D.; Hendrickson, Sara J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Animal experiments document effects of grape juice on cognitive performance and motor skills, and observational studies in humans suggest an inverse association between flavonoid intake and cognitive decline. These effects may be related to the antioxidant properties of polyphenols. Juice consumption and flavonoid intake may also affect appetite. Objective: To study the acute effects of grape juice consumption on appetite, mood and implicit memory during a time of increased lethar...

  2. The effect of acute exercise on collagen turnover in human tendons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Pingel, Jessica; Boesen, Mikael;

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical loading of human tendon stimulates collagen synthesis, but the relationship between acute loading responses and training status of the tendon is not clear. We tested the effect of prolonged load deprivation on the acute loading-induced collagen turnover in human tendons, by applying...... the contra-lateral leg was used habitually. Following the procedure both Achilles tendons and calf muscles were loaded with the same absolute load during a 1-h treadmill run. Tissue collagen turnover was measured by microdialysis performed post-immobilization but pre-exercise around both Achilles tendons...... and compared to values obtained by 72-h post-exercise. Power Doppler was used to monitor alterations in intratendinous blood flow velocity of the Achilles tendon and MRI used to quantitate changes in tendon cross-section area. Acute loading resulted in an increased collagen synthesis 72 h after the run in both...

  3. Effect of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function: an event-related cortical desynchronization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Chu, Chien-Heng; Wang, Chun-Chih; Song, Tai-Fen; Wei, Gao-Xia

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effects of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function using the Stroop test and event-related desynchronization (ERD) in an aged population. Old adults (63.10 ± 2.89 years) were first assigned to either a high-fitness or a low-fitness group, and they were then subjected to an acute exercise treatment and a reading control treatment in a counterbalanced order. Alpha ERD was recorded during the Stroop test, which was administered after both treatments. Acute exercise improved cognitive performance regardless of the level of cognition, and old adults with higher fitness levels received greater benefits from acute exercise. Additionally, acute exercise, rather than overall fitness, elicited greater lower and upper alpha ERDs relative to the control condition. These findings indirectly suggest that the beneficial effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance may result from exercise-induced attentional control observed during frontal neural excitation. PMID:25308605

  4. Incentives for cost-effective physician behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, A

    1987-04-01

    The objective of the National Health Service is to maximise improvements in the health status of patients regardless of their willingness and ability to pay. To achieve this objective it is necessary to identify those procedures which maximise improvements in health or quality adjusted life years (QALYs) and direct scarce resources to those therapies with the best cost-QALY characteristics. Unfortunately in the NHS and elsewhere cost-QALY characteristics are largely unknown and the structure of the health service and its provider remuneration systems are such that objectives are vague, behavior perverse due to the haphazard construction of incentive systems, and health status outcomes often unknown due to the failure to evaluate input-outcome relationships. To reform the NHS, in particular ensure more efficient practice by physicians, existing perverse incentives will have to be replaced by the use of buyer (NHS) power and by budgeting mechanisms which induce economizing behavior. It is not clear which type of incentive mechanism will produce outcomes consistent with NHS goals. To remedy this ignorance experimentation with careful evaluation would seem appropriate. PMID:10312074

  5. Determination of behavioral reactions of a child of 3-6 ages group to be hospitalized due to an acute illness

    OpenAIRE

    Zümrüt Başbakkal; Sibel Sönmez; Nesrin Şen Celasin; Figen Esenay

    2010-01-01

    The study is executed with mothers of children aged 3-6 (n=170) whose children were hospitalized for the first time between the dates of 15.07.2003 and 15.06.2006, who were reachable by phone and accepted to participate in the study aiming determination of behavioral reactions of a child of 3-6 ages group to be hospitalized due to an acute illness.In this study, for data gathering "Personal Information Form" including 15 questions and "Inquiry Form of Behavior Changes of  3-6 Ages Group Child...

  6. Failure to identify an acute exercise effect on executive function assessed by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chih Wang

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Acute aerobic exercise failed to influence executive function as assessed by the WCST, revealing that this classical neuropsychological test tapping executive function may not be sensitive to acute exercise. Our findings suggest that acute exercise does not broadly affect the entire family of executive functions, or its effect on a specific aspect of executive function may be task-dependent, as proposed by Etnier and Chang (2009.

  7. Cognitive and Behavioral Effects of Topiramate Versus Carbamazepine Monotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive and behavioral effects of topiramate (TPM versus carbamazepine (CBZ were evaluated in a multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group trial at Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul, and other university centers in Korea.

  8. Rapid and acute effects of estrogen on time perception in male and female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen ePleil

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in the rapid and acute effects of estrodiol on time perception were investigated in adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Because estrodiol has been shown to increase striatal dopamine release, it may be able to modify time perception and timed performance by increasing the speed of an internal clock in a manner similar to indirect dopamine agonists such as amphetamine and cocaine. Two groups of females (neonatally estradiol-treated/adult ovariectomized and neonatally oil-treated/adult ovariectomized and 2 groups of males (neonatally castrated and adult castrated were trained in a 2 s vs. 8 s duration bisection procedure and tested using intermediate signal durations. After obtaining oil-injected baseline psychometric functions over several days, rats were administered 5μg of estradiol for 4 days and behaviorally evaluated 30 min following each injection. This oil-estradiol administration cycle was subsequently repeated 3 times following the re-establishment of baseline training. Results revealed significant sex differences in the initial baseline functions that were not modifiable by organizational hormones, with males’ duration bisection functions shifted horizontally to the left of females’. Upon the first administration of estradiol, females, but not males, showed a significant, transient leftward shift in their bisection functions, indicative of an increase in clock speed. After extensive retraining in the duration bisection procedure, rats that were exposed to gonadal hormones during the first week of life showed a significant rightward shift in their bisection functions on the fourth day of estradiol administration during each cycle, suggesting a decrease in clock speed. Taken together, our results support the view that there are multiple mechanisms of estrogens’ action in the striatum that modulate dopaminergic activity and are differentially organized by gonadal steroids during early brain development.

  9. Separate and combined effects of methylphenidate and a behavioral intervention on disruptive behavior in children with mental retardation.

    OpenAIRE

    Blum, N J; Mauk, J E; McComas, J J; Mace, F C

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the separate and combined effects of a behavioral intervention and methylphenidate (Ritalin) on disruptive behavior and task engagement in 3 children with severe to profound mental retardation. The behavioral intervention involved differential reinforcement of appropriate behavior and guided compliance. All 3 children demonstrated decreased disruptive behavior and improved task engagement in response to the response to the behavioral intervention. Two of the 3 children demonst...

  10. A Rare Side Effect due to TNF-Alpha Blocking Agent: Acute Pleuropericarditis with Adalimumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Ozkan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonism is an important treatment strategy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, vasculitis, and ankylosing spondylitis. Adalimumab is one of the well-known tumor necrosis factor-alpha blocking agents. There are several side effects reported in patients with adalimumab therapy. Cardiac side effects of adalimumab are rare. Only a few cardiac side effects were reported. A 61-year-old man treated with adalimumab for the last 6 months due to psoriatic arthritis presented with typically acute pleuropericarditis. Chest X-ray and echocardiography demonstrated marked pericardial effusion. Patient was successfully evaluated for the etiology of acute pleuro-pericarditis. Every etiology was excluded except the usage of adalimumab. Adalimumab was discontinued, and patient was treated with 1200 mg of ibuprofen daily. Control chest X-ray and echocardiography after three weeks demonstrated complete resolution of both pleural and pericardial effusions. This case clearly demonstrated the acute onset of pericarditis with adalimumab usage. Acute pericarditis and pericardial effusion should be kept in mind in patients with adalimumab treatment.

  11. The Effects of Failure and Recovery on Customer Purchase Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Heumann, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The present dissertation empirically assesses the effects of failure, complaints, and recovery on actual purchase behavior. Using a unique data set incorporating retail purchase data over three years and repeated survey measures capturing customer pre- and postfailure relationship perceptions, this thesis investigates the effects of failure resolution and perceived justice on postfailure purchase behavior. Interactional justice assumes a salient role as outcome determinant. Moreover, the find...

  12. Acute Administration of MK-801 in an Animal Model of Psychosis in Rats Interferes with Cognitively Demanding Forms of Behavioral Flexibility on a Rotating Arena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan eSvoboda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Patients with schizophrenia often manifest deficits in behavioral flexibility. Non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonists such as MK-801 induce schizophrenia-like symptoms in rodents, including cognitive functions. Despite work exploring flexibility has been done employing behavioral paradigms with simple stimuli, much less is known about what kinds of flexibility are affected in an MK-801 model of schizophrenia-like behavior in the spatial domain. We used a rotating arena-based apparatus (Carousel requiring rats to avoid an unmarked sector defined in either the reference frame of the rotating arena (arena frame task, AF or the stationary room (room frame task, RF. We investigated behavioral flexibility in four conditions involving different cognitive loads. Each condition encompassed an initial (five sessions and a test phase (five sessions in which some aspects of the task were changed to test flexibility in which rats were given saline, 0.05 mg/kg or 0.1 mg/kg MK-801 thirty minutes prior to a session. In the first condition, rats acquired avoidance in RF with clockwise rotation of the arena while in the test phase the arena rotated counterclockwise. In the second condition, rats initially acquired avoidance in RF with the sector on the north and then it was reversed to south (spatial reversal. In the third and fourth conditions, rats initially performed an AF (RF, respectively task, followed by an RF (AF, respectively task, testing the ability of cognitive set-shifting. We found no effect of MK-801 either on simple motor adjustment after reversal of arena rotation or on spatial reversal within the RF. In contrast, administration of MK-801 at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg interfered with set-shifting in both conditions. Furthermore, we observed MK-801 0.1 mg/kg elevated locomotion in all cases. These data suggest that blockade of NMDA receptors by acute system administration of MK-801 preferentially affects set-shifting in the cognitive domain rather

  13. Effects of cocaine on maternal behavior and neurochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nephew, Benjamin C; Febo, Marcelo

    2012-03-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder that involves drug seeking and abuse despite the negative social and health consequences. While the potential effects of cocaine on child development have been extensively studied over the last 30 years, few researchers have focused on the effects of cocaine on maternal behavior, which includes offspring care and maternal aggression towards an unfamiliar individual. In humans, maternal cocaine use can lead to child neglect, abuse, and disrupt the mother-child bond. While it has been argued the developmental effects of maternal cocaine use on children were initially overstated, it is clear that disruptions of typical maternal behavior (i.e. postpartum depression, anxiety disorders) are detrimental to the physical and emotional health of offspring. Cocaine use in mothers is commonly associated with psychological disorders, including depression and anxiety, and it is postulated that many of the negative effects of maternal cocaine use on offspring are mediated through changes in maternal behavior. This review will summarize research on cocaine and maternal behavior in animal and human studies, discuss potential mechanisms, and suggest therapeutic strategies for treating cocaine-affected maternal behavior which may improve the physical and behavioral health of both mother and child. The primary objective is to stimulate future communication, cooperation, and collaboration between researchers who use animals and humans to study cocaine and maternal behavior. PMID:22942878

  14. The Effects of Acute Exercise and Exercise Training on Plasma Homocysteine: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deminice, Rafael; Ribeiro, Diogo Farias; Frajacomo, Fernando Tadeu Trevisan

    2016-01-01

    Background Although studies have demonstrated that physical exercise alters homocysteine levels in the blood, meta-analyses of the effects of acute exercise and exercise training on homocysteine blood concentration have not been performed, especially regarding the duration and intensity of exercise, which could affect homocysteine levels differently. Objective The aim of this meta-analysis was to ascertain the effects of acute exercise and exercise training on homocysteine levels in the blood. Method A review was conducted according to the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses using the online databases PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and SciELO to identify relevant studies published through June 2015. Review Manager was used to calculate the effect size of acute exercise and exercise training using the change in Hcy plasmaserum concentration from baseline to post-acute exercise and trained vs. sedentary control groups, respectively. Weighted mean differences were calculated using random effect models. Results Given the abundance of studies, acute exercise trials were divided into two subgroups according to exercise volume and intensity, whereas the effects of exercise training were analyzed together. Overall, 22 studies with a total of 520 participants indicated increased plasma homocysteine concentration after acute exercise (1.18 μmol/L, 95% CI: 0.71 to 1.65, p homocysteine levels in the blood. Increased homocysteine induced by exercise was significantly associated with volume of exercise, but not intensity. By contrast, resistance training reduced plasma homocysteine concentration (-1.53 μmol/L, 95% CI: -2.77 to -0.28, p = .02), though aerobic training did not. The cumulative results of the seven studies with a total of 230 participants in exercise training analysis did not demonstrate a significant impact on homocysteine levels in the blood (-0.56 μmol/L, 95% CI: -1.61 to 0.50, p = .23). Conclusions Current evidence

  15. The effectiveness of heliox in acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Yilmaz

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study histopathologically indicated the effectiveness of heliox in the decreasing of neutrophil infiltation, interstitial/intraalveolar edema, perivascular and/or intraalveolar hemorrhage and HM formation in ARDS. Besides the known effect of heliox in obstructive lung disease, inhaled heliox therapy could be associated with the improvement of inflamation in ARDS.

  16. Thyroid receptor β involvement in the effects of acute nicotine on hippocampus-dependent memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Prescott T; Kenney, Justin W; Connor, David A; Gould, Thomas J

    2015-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is common despite adverse health effects. Nicotine's effects on learning may contribute to addiction by enhancing drug-context associations. Effects of nicotine on learning could be direct or could occur by altering systems that modulate cognition. Because thyroid signaling can alter cognition and nicotine/smoking may change thyroid function, nicotine could affect learning through changes in thyroid signaling. These studies investigate the functional contributions of thyroid receptor (TR) subtypes β and α1 to nicotine-enhanced learning and characterize the effects of acute nicotine and learning on thyroid hormone levels. We conducted a high throughput screen of transcription factor activity to identify novel targets that may contribute to the effects of nicotine on learning. Based on these results, which showed that combined nicotine and learning uniquely acted to increase TR activation, we identified TRs as potential targets of nicotine. Further analyses were conducted to determine the individual and combined effects of nicotine and learning on thyroid hormone levels, but no changes were seen. Next, to determine the role of TRβ and TRα1 in the effects of nicotine on learning, mice lacking the TRβ or TRα1 gene and wildtype littermates were administered acute nicotine prior to fear conditioning. Nicotine enhanced contextual fear conditioning in TRα1 knockout mice and wildtypes from both lines but TRβ knockout mice did not show nicotine-enhanced learning. This finding supports involvement of TRβ signaling in the effect of acute nicotine on hippocampus-dependent memory. Acute nicotine enhances learning and these effects may involve processes regulated by the transcription factor TRβ. PMID:25666034

  17. The Effects of Training, Feedback, and Participant Involvement in Behavioral Safety Observations on Office Ergonomic Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Joseph R.; Austin, John

    2005-01-01

    Eleven computer terminal operators participated in an experiment that assessed effects of several interventions aimed at increasing safe ergonomic performance. All participants received ergonomics training and performance feedback while six of them collected observations of safe behavior among the remaining five participants. Effects of…

  18. Chemical toxicity of uranium hexafluoride compared to acute effects of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, S.A.

    1991-02-01

    The chemical effects from acute exposures to uranium hexafluoride are compared to the nonstochastic effects from acute radiation doses of 25 rems to the whole body and 300 rems to the thyroid. The analysis concludes that an intake of about 10 mg of uranium in soluble form is roughly comparable, in terms of early effects, to an acute whole body dose of 25 rems because both are just below the threshold for significant nonstochastic effects. Similarly, an exposure to hydrogen fluoride at a concentration of 25 mg/m{sup 3} for 30 minutes is roughly comparable because there would be no significant nonstochastic effects. For times t other than 30 minutes, the concentration C of hydrogen fluoride considered to have the same effect can be calculated using a quadratic equation: C = 25 mg/m{sup 3} (30 min/t). The purpose of these analyses is to provide information for developing design and siting guideline based on chemical toxicity for enrichment plants using uranium hexafluoride. These guidelines are to be similar, in terms of stochastic health effects, to criteria in NRC regulations of nuclear power plants, which are based on radiation doses. 26 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  19. Chemical toxicity of uranium hexafluoride compared to acute effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical effects from acute exposures to uranium hexafluoride are compared to the nonstochastic effects from acute radiation doses of 25 rems to the whole body and 300 rems to the thyroid. The analysis concludes that an intake of about 10 mg of uranium in soluble form is roughly comparable, in terms of early effects, to an acute whole body dose of 25 rems because both are just below the threshold for significant nonstochastic effects. Similarly, an exposure to hydrogen fluoride at a concentration of 25 mg/m3 for 30 minutes is roughly comparable because there would be no significant nonstochastic effects. For times t other than 30 minutes, the concentration C of hydrogen fluoride considered to have the same effect can be calculated using a quadratic equation: C = 25 mg/m3 (30 min/t). The purpose of these analyses is to provide information for developing design and siting guideline based on chemical toxicity for enrichment plants using uranium hexafluoride. These guidelines are to be similar, in terms of stochastic health effects, to criteria in NRC regulations of nuclear power plants, which are based on radiation doses. 26 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  20. Effect of HIV infection on time to recovery from an acute manic episode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Nakimuli-Mpungu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available E Nakimuli-Mpungu1,2,3, B Mutamba2,3, S Nshemerirwe2,3, MS Kiwuwa4, S Musisi21Mental Health Department, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, Makerere College of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Kampala; 3Butabika National Referral Mental Hospital, Ministry of Health, Kampala; 4Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Makerere College of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Kampala, UgandaIntroduction: Understanding factors affecting the time to recovery from acute mania is critical in the management of manic syndromes. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of HIV infection on time to recovery from acute mania.Methods: We performed a retrospective study in which medical charts of individuals who were treated for acute mania were reviewed. Survival analysis with Cox regression models were used to compare time to recovery from an acute manic episode between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive individuals and HIV-negative individuals.Results: Median survival time was one week for HIV-positive individuals and more than four weeks for HIV-negative individuals (Χ2 = 18.4, P value = 0.000. HIV infection was the only marginally significant independent predictor of survival probability on the acute admission ward (hazards ratio 2.87, P = 0.06.Conclusion: Acute mania in HIV-infected persons responds faster to psychotropic drugs compared with that in HIV-negative persons.Keywords: HIV-related mania, bipolar disorder, HIV infection, Uganda, immunodeficiency virus

  1. The effects of acute exercise on executive functioning, mood and attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: It is internationally recognised that exercise is beneficial—both physically and mentally. However, only a minority of published research has explored the unique contribution of the exercise task itself. We tested the effect an ‘acute bout of moderate exercise’ had on selective attention, executive function and mood. We hypothesised that acute exercise would improve mood and cognitive performance compared to the controls. Method: 29 females and 11 males aged between 18-50 (M=26.5, SD=8.8 were administered the Stroop Colour-Interference Test, Erikson Flanker Task and Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS.  Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions (exercise or relaxation. The experimental group (N=20 performed 20 minutes of exercise on a treadmill. The control group (N=20 relaxed for 20 minutes. Measures were taken before and after the intervention. Results: An independent samples t-test compared the differences between post-test and pre-test for the two groups. Results revealed a significant difference between the exercise group and control group on the measures of mood. The exercise group reported increased positive affect (t(38 = 3.10, p = .004, d = .99 and decreased negative affect (t(38 = -3.24, p = .003, d = 1.0 on the post-test. No significant differences between the exercise and control groups were obtained for the two tasks of cognitive performance. Conclusions: A significant difference in the PANAS ratings following exercise offers strong support to earlier research demonstrating that acute exercise improves mood. Although no significant improvement in performance was observed in the two cognitive tasks following acute exercise, it is possible that fitness levels could be the relevant factor, rather than acute exercise as a task. Our findings did not support the hypothesis that acute exercise improves cognitive performance.

  2. The effect of acute exercise on cognitive performance in children with and without ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Aaron T. Piepmeier; Chia-Hao Shih; Margaret Whedon; Lauren M. Williams; Matthew E. Davis; David A. Henning; SeYun Park; Calkins, Susan D.; Jennifer L. Etnier

    2015-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood disorder that affects approximately 11% of children in the United States. Research supports that a single session of exercise benefits cognitive performance by children, and a limited number of studies have demonstrated that these effects can also be realized by children with ADHD. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of acute exercise on cognitive performance by children with and without ADHD. ...

  3. Clinical Effects of Arsenic Trioxide by Slowing-intravenous Infusion on Acute Promyelocyte Leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Zhou; Ran Meng; Bao-feng Yang

    2005-01-01

    @@ Although As2O3 is effective in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), some side effects, such as leukocytosis which can increase the incidence of cerebral hemorrhage and early death rate, often occur during the early stage of As2O3 treatment. In this paper, the advantages of continuously slow intravenous As2O3 infusion on relieving leukocytosis and decreasing the incidence of cerebral hemorrhage and early death rate were observed clinically.

  4. Corticosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone in songbird plasma and brain: effects of season and acute stress

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, Amy E.M.; Soma, Kiran K.

    2009-01-01

    Prolonged increases in plasma glucocorticoids can exacerbate neurodegeneration. In rats, these neurodegenerative effects can be reduced by dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), an androgen precursor with anti-glucocorticoid actions. In song sparrows, season and acute restraint stress affect circulating levels of corticosterone and DHEA, and the effects of stress differ in plasma collected from the brachial and jugular veins. Jugular plasma is an indirect index of the neural steroidal milieu. Here, w...

  5. Effect of acute moderate exercise on cognitive P300 in persons having sedentary lifestyles

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Naresh; Singh, Manjeet; Sood, Sushma; Beena,; Sakshi; Roy, Prasanta Saha; Behera, Joshil Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Background: There are conflicting reports regarding the effect of exercise on cognition. We therefore planned to assess the acute effect of moderate exercise on cognition, studied by event-related brain potential P300, in subjects having sedentary lifestyles. Materials and Methods: Sixty adults (40 males and 20 females) in the age-group of 18–30 years having sedentary lifestyles were included in the study. Baseline P300 was first measured and after that the subjects were divided into two equa...

  6. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells that survive combination chemotherapy in vivo remain sensitive to allogeneic immune effects

    OpenAIRE

    Jansson, Johan; Hsu, Yu-Chiao; Kuzin, Igor I.; Campbell, Andrew; Mullen, Craig A.

    2010-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is often performed for patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) whose disease has relapsed after chemotherapy treatment. However, graft versus leukemia (GVL) effects in ALL are generally weak and the mechanisms of this weakness are unknown. These studies tested the hypothesis that ALL cells that have survived conventional chemotherapy in vivo acquire relative resistance to the allogeneic GVL effect. C57BL/6 mice were injected with mur...

  7. Microbiological effects and clinical use of xylitol in preventing acute otitis media

    OpenAIRE

    Tapiainen, T. (Terhi)

    2002-01-01

    Abstract The purpose was to evaluate the microbiological mechanism of action of xylitol and to assess its use in clinical practice for preventing acute otitis media (AOM). To test whether the effect of xylitol on S. pneumoniae is inhibited by fructose, a total of 20 strains of S. pneumoniae were exposed to xylitol in the presence of fructose and other carbon sources. Addition of 5% xylitol to the media resulted in marked growth inhibition, an effect which was totally el...

  8. The Effect of Opium Addiction on Arrhythmia Following Acute Myocardial Infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa Shokoohi; Hamid Najafipour; Afsaneh Forood; Morvarid Dadras; Fatemeh Mirzaiepour

    2012-01-01

    The effect of opium addiction on the appearance of different types of arrhythmias after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been assessed in few studies. This study is aimed to determine the effect of opium on post-MI arrhythmia and also to address the differences in the appearance of different types of arrhythmias after AMI between opium addicted and non-addicted patients. In this comparative study, participants were classified into two groups with opium addiction (n=94) and without opium ...

  9. Acute Dose-Related Differential Effects of Methylphenidate on Murine Cystometric Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Sung Ho; Cho, Young Sam; Cho, Sung Tae; Lee, Tack; Kim, Khae Hawn

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Methylphenidate is the most widely used central nervous system stimulant in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, few studies have assessed its effects on voiding. Various doses of methylphenidate were investigated for their effects on cystometric parameters in conscious mice. Methods Ten male C57BL/6 mice, weighing between 20 and 23 g, were used in this study. To compare the acute drug responses before and after the oral medication was administered in the a...

  10. Comparison the effectiveness of aripiprazole and risperidone for the treatment of acute bipolar mania

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Akhavan Rezayat; Paria Hebrani; Fatemeh Behdani; Mohamad Salaran; Majid Nabizadeh Marvast

    2014-01-01

    Background: Second-generation antipsychotics, approved for the treatment of mania, are associated with adverse effects such as weight gain and metabolic disorders. Aripiprazole, a recently introduced second-generation antipsychotic, are thought to account for its low propensity for weight gain, metabolic disturbances and sedation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of risperidone versus aripiprazole in the treatment of acute mania. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients wi...

  11. Effect of Tamoxifen and Lithium on Treatment of Acute Mania Symptoms in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Fallah, Elham; Arman, Sorror; Najafi, Mostafa; Shayegh, Bahar

    2016-01-01

    Objective Many studies have supported the role of protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors in the physiopathology and treatment of bipolar disorder in adults. Tamoxifen is one of the drugs with the effect of PKC inhibition. This study aimed to determine the effect of tamoxifen on the rate of improvement mania symptoms in the sample of children and adolescents with acute mania. Materials & Methods In this randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial study, registered in www.irct.ir with the code of ...

  12. The effects of levan on the acute inflammatory response.

    OpenAIRE

    Sedgwick, A D; Rutman, A.; Sin, Y. M.; Mackay, A. R.; Willoughby, D A

    1984-01-01

    The fructose polymer levan has been shown to affect the accumulation of leucocytes in inflammatory lesions. The present study has investigated the effect of levan on experimental pleurisy induced by carrageenan and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals. Total pleural polymorphonuclear leucocyte counts and exudate volumes were significantly reduced by levan treatment. We were, however, unable to detect any effect on mononuclear cell numbers. Furthermore, levan treatment significantly...

  13. Dopamine and pain sensitivity: neither sulpiride nor acute phenylalanine and tyrosine depletion have effects on thermal pain sensations in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Susanne; Ceko, Marta; Louis-Foster, Mytsumi; Elfassy, Nathaniel M; Leyton, Marco; Shir, Yoram; Schweinhardt, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Based on animal studies and some indirect clinical evidence, dopamine has been suggested to have anti-nociceptive effects. Here, we investigated directly the effects of increased and decreased availability of extracellular dopamine on pain perception in healthy volunteers. In Study 1, participants ingested, in separate sessions, a placebo and a low dose of the centrally acting D2-receptor antagonist sulpiride, intended to increase synaptic dopamine via predominant pre-synaptic blockade. No effects were seen on thermal pain thresholds, tolerance, or temporal summation. Study 2 used the acute phenylalanine and tyrosine depletion (APTD) method to transiently decrease dopamine availability. In one session participants ingested a mixture that depletes the dopamine amino acid precursors, phenylalanine and tyrosine. In the other session they ingested a nutritionally balanced control mixture. APTD led to a small mood-lowering response following aversive thermal stimulation, but had no effects on the perception of cold, warm, or pain stimuli. In both studies the experimental manipulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission was successful as indicated by manipulation checks. The results contradict proposals that dopamine has direct anti-nociceptive effects in acute experimental pain. Based on dopamine's well-known role in reward processing, we hypothesize that also in the context of pain, dopamine acts on stimulus salience and might play a role in the initiation of avoidance behavior rather than having direct antinociceptive effects in acute experimental pain.

  14. Opiate antinociception is altered by immunemodification: the effect of interferon, cyclosporine and radiation-induced immune suppression upon acute and long-term morphine activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has recently been demonstrated that various forms of immune modification result in a profound attenuation of the opiate withdrawal syndrome. Herein we investigate the extent to which some of the immune modifiers active in withdrawal attenuation affect other opiate related behaviors, namely antinociception and the development of tolerance to this effect. The observations demonstrate that immune modification by cyclosporine and irradiation exposure result in an alteration of the acute antinociceptive effect of morphine; while none of these treatments modify the development of tolerance to this property of morphine. (Auth.)

  15. Stimulating cost effective behavior in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, D

    1987-04-01

    Types of influence on the delivery of medical care are divided into monetary and other. These incentives effect care at the system, hospital, care team, physician and patient levels. Selected examples, primarily from the USA, are discussed. PMID:10312075

  16. Effects of cadmium on olfactory mediated behaviors and molecular biomarkers in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Low Cd exposures elicited significant olfactory mediated behavioral changes independent of histological injury. •The olfactory behavioral deficits persisted following a 16-day depuration. •Olfactory molecular biomarkers expression was strongly linked to injury to the olfactory epithelium. •Cd induced a strong antioxidant response in the coho salmon olfactory system. •Results suggest a sensitivity of salmonids to waterborne Cd. -- Abstract: The olfactory system of salmonids is sensitive to the adverse effects of metals such as copper and cadmium. In the current study, we analyzed olfactory-mediated alarm responses, epithelial injury and recovery, and a suite of olfactory molecular biomarkers encoding genes critical in maintaining olfactory function in juvenile coho salmon receiving acute exposures to cadmium (Cd). The molecular biomarkers analyzed included four G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) representing the two major classes of odorant receptors (salmon olfactory receptor sorb and vomeronasal receptors svra, svrb, and gpr27), as well as markers of neurite outgrowth (nrn1) and antioxidant responses to metals, including heme oxygenase 1 (hmox1), and peroxiredoxin 1 (prdx1). Coho received acute (8–168 h) exposures to 3.7 ppb and 347 ppb Cd, and a subset of fish was analyzed following a 16-day depuration. Coho exposed to 347 ppb Cd over 48 h exhibited a reduction in freeze responses, and an extensive loss of olfaction accompanied by histological injury to the olfactory epithelium. The olfactory injury in coho exposed to 347 ppb Cd was accompanied at the gene level by significant decreases in expression of the olfactory GPCRs and increased expression of hmox1. Persistent behavioral deficits, histological injury and altered expression of a subset of olfactory biomarkers were still evident in Cd-exposed coho following a 16-day depuration in clean water. Exposure to 3.7 ppb Cd also resulted in reduced freeze responses and histological changes

  17. Effects of cadmium on olfactory mediated behaviors and molecular biomarkers in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Chase R.; Gallagher, Evan P., E-mail: evang3@u.washington.edu

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Low Cd exposures elicited significant olfactory mediated behavioral changes independent of histological injury. •The olfactory behavioral deficits persisted following a 16-day depuration. •Olfactory molecular biomarkers expression was strongly linked to injury to the olfactory epithelium. •Cd induced a strong antioxidant response in the coho salmon olfactory system. •Results suggest a sensitivity of salmonids to waterborne Cd. -- Abstract: The olfactory system of salmonids is sensitive to the adverse effects of metals such as copper and cadmium. In the current study, we analyzed olfactory-mediated alarm responses, epithelial injury and recovery, and a suite of olfactory molecular biomarkers encoding genes critical in maintaining olfactory function in juvenile coho salmon receiving acute exposures to cadmium (Cd). The molecular biomarkers analyzed included four G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) representing the two major classes of odorant receptors (salmon olfactory receptor sorb and vomeronasal receptors svra, svrb, and gpr27), as well as markers of neurite outgrowth (nrn1) and antioxidant responses to metals, including heme oxygenase 1 (hmox1), and peroxiredoxin 1 (prdx1). Coho received acute (8–168 h) exposures to 3.7 ppb and 347 ppb Cd, and a subset of fish was analyzed following a 16-day depuration. Coho exposed to 347 ppb Cd over 48 h exhibited a reduction in freeze responses, and an extensive loss of olfaction accompanied by histological injury to the olfactory epithelium. The olfactory injury in coho exposed to 347 ppb Cd was accompanied at the gene level by significant decreases in expression of the olfactory GPCRs and increased expression of hmox1. Persistent behavioral deficits, histological injury and altered expression of a subset of olfactory biomarkers were still evident in Cd-exposed coho following a 16-day depuration in clean water. Exposure to 3.7 ppb Cd also resulted in reduced freeze responses and histological changes

  18. Effects of switching behavior for the attraction on pedestrian dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kwak, Jaeyoung; Luttinen, Tapio; Kosonen, Iisakki

    2014-01-01

    Walking is a fundamental activity of our daily life not only for moving to other places but also for interacting with surrounding environment. While walking on the streets, pedestrians can be aware of attractions like shopping windows. They can be influenced by the attractions and some of them might shift their attention towards the attractions, namely switching behavior. As a first step to incorporate the switching behavior, this study investigates collective effects of switching behavior for an attraction by developing a behavioral model. Numerical simulations exhibit different patterns of pedestrian behavior depending on the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay. When the social influence is strong along with a long length of stay, a saturated phase can be defined at which all the pedestrians have visited the attraction. If the social influence is not strong enough, an unsaturated phase appears where one can observe that some pedestrians head for the attraction while others walk i...

  19. Effect of DC voltage pulses on memristor behavior.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Brian R.

    2013-10-01

    Current knowledge of memristor behavior is limited to a few physical models of which little comprehensive data collection has taken place. The purpose of this research is to collect data in search of exploitable memristor behavior by designing and implementing tests on a HP Labs Rev2 Memristor Test Board. The results are then graphed in their optimal format for conceptualizing behavioral patterns. This series of experiments has concluded the existence of an additional memristor state affecting the behavior of memristors when pulsed with positively polarized DC voltages. This effect has been observed across multiple memristors and data sets. The following pages outline the process that led to the hypothetical existence and eventual proof of this additional state of memristor behavior.

  20. Synergistic effects of anethole and ibuprofen in acute inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski-Rebecca, Edirlene S; Rocha, Bruno A; Wiirzler, Luiz A M; Cuman, Roberto K N; Velazquez-Martinez, Carlos A; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar A

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the effect of the combination of anethole and ibuprofen in comparison with monotherapy by either drug alone, using two in vivo inflammatory models, namely the pleurisy and paw edema in rats. We also measured the levels of the TNF protein in plasma, and the ability of anethole to inhibit, in vitro, the activity of the cyclooxygenase 1 and cyclooxygenase 2 enzymes. The test drugs (anethole; ibuprofen; anethole + ibuprofen), at different doses, were administered once (p.o.) 60 min before the induction of the inflammatory response. The association of anethole + ibuprofen inhibited the development of the inflammatory response in both models used. This effect can be partially explained by the inhibitory action on the production of TNF and of COX isoforms. The isobologram analysis evidenced a synergistic effect between ibuprofen and anethole, because the combination of drugs showed a higher inhibitory potential than either drug alone.

  1. Acute differential effects of milk-derived dietary proteins on postprandial lipaemia in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Hartvigsen, Merete; Mortensen, L.S.;

    2012-01-01

    Postprandial lipaemia is an established risk factor for atherosclerosis. To investigate the acute effect of four milk-derived dietary proteins (alpha-lactalbumin, whey isolate, caseinoglycomacropeptide and whey hydrolysate) on postprandial lipaemia, we have conducted a randomized, acute, single-b...

  2. The effect of music on pain and acute confusion in older adults undergoing hip and knee surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Ruth; Locsin, Rozzano

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of music listening in older adults following hip or knee surgery. Acute confusion and pain after surgery can increase length of stay and reduce function. Study results demonstrate a reduction in acute confusion and pain and improved ambulation and higher satisfaction scores in older adults who listened to music. PMID:16974175

  3. Effects of acute aerobic exercise on motor response inhibition: An ERP study using the stop-signal task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Heng Chu

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Acute exercise has a selective and beneficial effect on cognitive function, specifically affecting the motor response inhibition aspect of executive function. Furthermore, acute exercise predominately impacts later stages of information processing during motor response inhibition, which may lead to an increase in attentional resource allocation and confer the ability to successfully withhold a response to achieve motor response inhibition.

  4. Acute effects of ghrelin administration on glucose and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Esben Thyssen; Djurhuus, Christian Born; Gjedsted, Jakob;

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: Ghrelin infusion increases plasma glucose and nonesterified fatty acids, but it is uncertain whether this is secondary to the concomitant release of GH. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to study direct effects of ghrelin on substrate metabolism. DESIGN: This was a randomized, single-blind, p...

  5. Neuropeptides as therapeutic targets to combat stress-associated behavioral and neuroendocrinological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Anjana; Singh, Nirmal; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2014-03-01

    Stress has become an integral part of human life and organisms are being constantly subjected to stress and the ability to cope with such stress is a crucial determinant of health and disease. Neuropeptides (bioactive peptides) play a crucial role in mediating different effects of acute and chronic stress. Some of these neuropeptides including oxytocin, urocortins, neuropeptide Y (NPY), neuropeptide S, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript, endorphins, enkephalins, ghrelin and thyrotropin-releasing hormone primarily attenuate stress and act as anxiolytic. On the other hand, neuropeptides including corticotropin releasing hormone, vasopressin, dynorphin, angiotensin, nesfatin-1, orexin and cholecystokinin primarily tend to promote stress related anxiety behavior. However, these neuropeptide tend to produce different actions depending on the type of receptors, the nature and intensity of the stressor. For example, NPY may exhibit anxiolytic effects by activating NPY1 and Y5 receptors, while pro-depressive effects are produced through NPY2 and Y4 receptors. Galanin may produce 'prodepressive' effects by activating its Gal 1 receptors and exert 'antidepressant' effects through Gal 2 receptors. The present review describes different neuropeptides as therapeutic targets to attenuate stress-induced behavioral and neuroendocrinological effects.

  6. Acute analgesic effects of nicotine and tobacco in humans: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditre, Joseph W; Heckman, Bryan W; Zale, Emily L; Kosiba, Jesse D; Maisto, Stephen A

    2016-07-01

    Although animal models have consistently demonstrated acute pain inhibitory effects of nicotine and tobacco, human experimental studies have yielded mixed results. The main goal of this meta-analysis was to quantify the effects of nicotine/tobacco administration on human experimental pain threshold and tolerance ratings. A search of PubMed and PsycINFO online databases identified 13 eligible articles, including k = 21 tests of pain tolerance (N = 393) and k = 15 tests of pain threshold (N = 339). Meta-analytic integration for both threshold and tolerance outcomes revealed that nicotine administered through tobacco smoke and other delivery systems (eg, patch, nasal spray) produced acute analgesic effects that may be characterized as small to medium in magnitude (Hedges g = 0.35, 95% confidence interval = 0.21-0.50). Publication bias-corrected estimates remained significant and indicated that these effects may be closer to small. Sex composition was observed to be a significant moderator, such that pain threshold effects were more robust among samples that included more men than women. These results help to clarify a mixed literature and may ultimately help to inform the treatment of both pain and nicotine dependence. Pain and tobacco smoking are both highly prevalent and comorbid conditions. Current smoking has been associated with more severe chronic pain and physical impairment. Acute nicotine-induced analgesia could make smoking more rewarding and harder to give up. Future research should use dynamic measures of experimental pain reactivity and further explore biopsychosocial mechanisms of action. PMID:27023418

  7. Acute effects of air pollution on asthma hospitalization in Shanghai, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution has been accepted as an important contributor to asthma development and exacerbation. However, the evidence is limited in China. In this study, we investigated the acute effect of air pollution on asthma hospitalization in Shanghai, China. We applied over-dispersed generalized additive model adjusted for weather conditions, day of the week, long-term and seasonal trends. An interquartile range increase in the moving average concentrations of PM10, SO2, NO2 and BC on the concurrent day and previous day corresponded to 1.82%, 6.41%, 8.26% and 6.62% increase of asthmatic hospitalization, respectively. The effects of SO2 and NO2 were robust after adjustment for PM10. The associations appeared to be more evident in the cool season than in the warm season. Our results contribute to the limited data in the scientific literature on acute effects of air pollution on asthma in high exposure settings, which are typical in developing countries. - Highlights: • Few prior studies in China examine the effect of air pollution on asthma. • We found acute effect of air pollution on asthma hospitalization in Shanghai. • Our results contribute to limited data on air pollution and asthma in China. - Ambient air pollution increases the risk of asthma hospitalization in Shanghai, China

  8. Effects of rubberized flooring on Asian elephant behavior in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, Camie L; Croney, Candace C; Shepherdson, David

    2007-01-01

    Six Asian elephants at the Oregon Zoo were observed to determine the effects of a poured rubber flooring substrate on captive Asian elephant behavior. Room utilization also was evaluated in seven rooms used for indoor housing, including Front and Back observation areas. Data were collected in three phases. Phase I (Baseline Phase) examined elephant behavior on old concrete floors. In Phase II (Choice Phase), elephant behavior was observed in the Back observation area where room sizes were comparable and when a choice of flooring substrates was available. Phase III (Final Phase) examined elephant behavior when all rooms in both observation areas, Front and Back, were converted to rubberized flooring. Room use in both observation areas remained stable throughout the study, suggesting that flooring substrate did not affect room use choice. However, there was a clear pattern of decreased discomfort behaviors on the new rubber flooring. Normal locomotion as well as stereotypic locomotion increased on the new rubber flooring. In addition, resting behavior changed to more closely reflect the resting behavior of wild elephants, which typically sleep standing up, and spend very little time in lateral recumbence. Overall, these findings suggest that the rubber flooring may have provided a more comfortable surface for locomotion as well as standing resting behavior. It is suggested that poured rubber flooring may be a beneficial addition to similar animal facilities. Zoo Biol 0:1-11, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. The effects of levan on the acute inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgwick, A. D.; Rutman, A.; Sin, Y. M.; Mackay, A. R.; Willoughby, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The fructose polymer levan has been shown to affect the accumulation of leucocytes in inflammatory lesions. The present study has investigated the effect of levan on experimental pleurisy induced by carrageenan and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals. Total pleural polymorphonuclear leucocyte counts and exudate volumes were significantly reduced by levan treatment. We were, however, unable to detect any effect on mononuclear cell numbers. Furthermore, levan treatment significantly reduced peripheral leucocyte numbers. The counter-irritant activity of levan was compared with that of a known counter-irritant, dextran. The ability of levan to reduce pleural polymorph numbers and exudate volume could not be accounted for totally by counter-irritation. Studies using an in-vitro leucocyte adhesion assay system indicate that levan affects leucocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium. PMID:6201184

  10. Inhibitory Effect of Helicteres gardneriana Ethanol Extract on Acute Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Oliveira de Melo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory effect of an ethanol extract of Helicteres gardneriana (Nees Castiglioni was assayed in experimental models of pleurisy and microcirculation in situ. Treatment of animals with 500 mg/kg body weight reduced the exudate volume (35% reduction induced by intrapleural injection of carrageenan and the migration of polymorphonuclear cells into the inflamed pleural cavity of rats (40%. Additionally, rolling and adhesion of leukocytes and the number of leukocytes that migrated toward the perivascular space in response to the carrageenan injection were decreased by the extract (500 mg/kg. These data demonstrate the anti-inflammatory effect of the ethanol extract of Helicteres gardneriana and imply that inhibition of leukocyte-endothelial interactions is important in the extract's mechanism of action.

  11. Effects of logging on orangutan behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Hardus; A.R. Lameira; S.B.J. Menken; S.A. Wich

    2012-01-01

    The human footprint is increasing across the world’s natural habitats, causing large negative impacts on the survival of many species. In order to successfully mitigate the negative effects on species’ survival, it is crucial to understand their responses to human-induced changes. This paper examine

  12. The effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine in preventing acute gastroenteritis during rotavirus seasons among Polish children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieltyka, Agnieszka; Majewska, Renata; Augustyniak, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rotavirus is the main etiological cause of intestinal infections in children. Voluntary rotavirus vaccines were included in the Polish vaccination schedule in 2007. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a completed rotavirus vaccination course in preventing acute gastroenteritis in Polish infants during their first five years of life. Material and methods This was a retrospective cohort study conducted in Lesser Poland (Malopolska Province). The sample population included a group of 303 children who received the completed rotavirus vaccination course and 303 children not vaccinated against rotavirus. The date of the child's acute gastroenteritis diagnosis and his or her vaccination history were extracted from the physicians’ records. Each kind of diagnosed acute gastroenteritis during winter-spring rotavirus seasons was treated as the endpoint. The relative risk of having gastrointestinal infection was assessed using the hazard ratio from the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results In the examined group, 96 (15.8%) children had winter-spring gastrointestinal infections. In the non-vaccinated children, the cumulative incidence of these infections in the first 5 years of life was 20.8%, whereas in the children vaccinated with Rotarix it was only 10.9%. Those who were vaccinated with Rotarix had a 44% reduction in the risk of a winter-spring acute gastroenteritis infection compared to those not vaccinated with Rotarix (p = 0.005). Birth weight less than 2500 g increased the risk of the infection twofold and also reached statistical significance (p = 0.044). Conclusions The results showed that Rotarix is effective in preventing acute gastroenteritis in Polish children during rotavirus seasons. PMID:27279856

  13. Rays Sting: The Acute Cellular Effects of Ionizing Radiation Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, A; Ciccarelli, M; Sorriento, D; Napolitano, L; Fiordelisi, A; Trimarco, B; Durante, M; Iaccarino, G

    2016-05-01

    High-precision radiation therapy is a clinical approach that uses the targeted delivery of ionizing radiation, and the subsequent formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in high proliferative, radiation sensitive cancers. In particular, in thoracic cancer ratdiation treatments, can not avoid a certain amount of cardiac toxicity. Given the low proliferative rate of cardiac myocytes, research has looked at the effect of radiation on endothelial cells and consequent coronary heart disease as the mechanism of ratdiation induced cardiotoxicity. In fact, little is known concerning the direct effect of radiation on mitochondria dynamis in cardiomyocyte. The main effect of ionizing radiation is the production of ROS and recent works have uncovered that they directly participates to pivotal cell function like mitochondrial quality control. In particular ROS seems to act as check point within the cell to promote either mitochondrial biogenesis and survival or mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. Thus, it appears evident that the functional state of the cell, as well as the expression patterns of molecules involved in mitochondrial metabolism may differently modulate mitochondrial fate in response to radiation induced ROS responses. Different molecules have been described to localize to mitochondria and regulate ROS production in response to stress, in particular GRK2. In this review we will discuss the evidences on the cardiac toxicity induced by X ray radiation on cardiomyocytes with emphasis on the role played by mitochondria dynamism.

  14. Rays Sting: The Acute Cellular Effects of Ionizing Radiation Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, A; Ciccarelli, M; Sorriento, D; Napolitano, L; Fiordelisi, A; Trimarco, B; Durante, M; Iaccarino, G

    2016-05-01

    High-precision radiation therapy is a clinical approach that uses the targeted delivery of ionizing radiation, and the subsequent formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in high proliferative, radiation sensitive cancers. In particular, in thoracic cancer ratdiation treatments, can not avoid a certain amount of cardiac toxicity. Given the low proliferative rate of cardiac myocytes, research has looked at the effect of radiation on endothelial cells and consequent coronary heart disease as the mechanism of ratdiation induced cardiotoxicity. In fact, little is known concerning the direct effect of radiation on mitochondria dynamis in cardiomyocyte. The main effect of ionizing radiation is the production of ROS and recent works have uncovered that they directly participates to pivotal cell function like mitochondrial quality control. In particular ROS seems to act as check point within the cell to promote either mitochondrial biogenesis and survival or mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. Thus, it appears evident that the functional state of the cell, as well as the expression patterns of molecules involved in mitochondrial metabolism may differently modulate mitochondrial fate in response to radiation induced ROS responses. Different molecules have been described to localize to mitochondria and regulate ROS production in response to stress, in particular GRK2. In this review we will discuss the evidences on the cardiac toxicity induced by X ray radiation on cardiomyocytes with emphasis on the role played by mitochondria dynamism. PMID:27326395

  15. Effective viscoelastic behavior of particulate polymer composites at finite concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dan; HU Geng-kai

    2007-01-01

    Polymeric materials usually present some viscoelastic behavior. To improve the mechanical behavior of these materials, ceramics materials are often filled into the polymeric materials in form of fiber or particle. A micromechanical model was proposed to estimate the overall viscoelastic behavior for particulate polymer composites, especially for high volume concentration of filled particles. The method is based on Laplace transform technique and an elastic model including two-particle interaction. The effective creep compliance and the stress and strainrelation at a constant loading rate are analyzed. The results show that the proposed method predicts a significant stiffer response than those based on Mori-Tanaka's method at high volume concentration of particles.

  16. Effect of Teaching Behavior on Study Motivation in Generative Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玉梅; 薛小莹

    2014-01-01

    Teaching behavior plays a vital role in students’study and has a great effect on their academic achievement.Study moti-vation is one of key essentials for students to focus themselves on their study. As a teacher,how to arouse students ’motivation and inspire students to study actively is a critical teaching behavior.How to change default teaching into generative teaching is al-so one of necessary teaching behaviors in English teaching.This paper will illustrate what measures should be taken and what prin-ciples should be followed in generative teaching.

  17. Effect of acute alcohol use on the lethality of suicide attempts in patients with mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Leo; Oquendo, Maria A; Richardson-Vejlgaard, Randall; Makhija, Nita M; Posner, Kelly; Mann, J John; Stanley, Barbara H

    2009-07-01

    Acute alcohol use is an important risk factor for attempted and completed suicide. We evaluated the effect of acute alcohol intake on the lethality of suicide attempts to test the hypothesis that acute alcohol intoxication is associated with more lethal suicide attempts. This retrospective study included 317 suicide attempters enrolled in mood disorders protocols. Demographic and clinical parameters were assessed. The use of alcohol at the time of the most lethal suicide attempt was determined. On the basis of their responses participants were classified into three groups: participants who reported "Enough alcohol intake to impair judgment, reality testing and diminish responsibility" or "Intentional intake of alcohol in order to facilitate implementation of attempt" were included in the group "Alcohol" (A); participants who reported "Some alcohol intake prior to but not related to attempt, reportedly not enough to impair judgment, reality testing" were included in the group "Some Alcohol" (SA); and participants who reported "No alcohol intake immediately prior to attempt" were included in the group "No Alcohol" (NA). Lethality of the most lethal suicide attempts was higher in the A group compared to the SA and NA groups. Prevalence of patients with alcohol use disorders was higher in the A group compared to the SA and NA groups. SA participants reported more reasons for living and lower suicide intent scores at the time of their most lethal suicide attempt compared to the A and NA groups. Acute alcohol use increases the lethality of suicide attempts in individuals with mood disorders.

  18. Effect of an acute increase in central blood volume on cerebral hemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogoh, Shigehiko; Hirasawa, Ai; Raven, Peter B; Rebuffat, Thomas; Denise, Pierre; Lericollais, Romain; Sugawara, Jun; Normand, Hervé

    2015-10-15

    Systemic blood distribution is an important factor involved in regulating cerebral blood flow (CBF). However, the effect of an acute change in central blood volume (CBV) on CBF regulation remains unclear. To address our question, we sought to examine the CBF and systemic hemodynamic responses to microgravity during parabolic flight. Twelve healthy subjects were seated upright and exposed to microgravity during parabolic flight. During the brief periods of microgravity, mean arterial pressure was decreased (-26 ± 1%, P pulse pressure and estimated carotid sinus pressure increased rapidly. In addition, this increase in central arterial pulse pressure was associated with an arterial baroreflex-mediated decrease in heart rate (r = -0.888, P blood velocity (MCA Vmean) remained unchanged throughout parabolic flight (P = 0.30). During microgravity the contribution of cardiac output to MCA Vmean was gradually reduced (P < 0.05), and its contribution was negatively correlated with an increase in total vascular conductance (r = -0.683, P < 0.0001). These findings suggest that the acute loading of the arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreceptors by increases in CBV during microgravity results in acute and marked systemic vasodilation. Furthermore, we conclude that this marked systemic vasodilation decreases the contribution of cardiac output to CBF. These findings suggest that the arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreflex-mediated peripheral vasodilation along with dynamic cerebral autoregulation counteracts a cerebral overperfusion, which otherwise would occur during acute increases in CBV. PMID:26310936

  19. Early seizures in patients with acute stroke: Frequency, predictive factors, and effect on clinical outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Alberti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Alberti, Maurizio Paciaroni, Valeria Caso, Michele Venti, Francesco Palmerini, Giancarlo AgnelliStroke Unit and Division of Internal and Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia, ItalyBackground: Early seizure (ES may complicate the clinical course of patients with acute stroke. The aim of this study was to assess the rate of and the predictive factors for ES as well the effects of ES on the clinical outcome at hospital discharge in patients with first-ever stroke.Patients and methods: A total of 638 consecutive patients with first-ever stroke (543 ischemic, 95 hemorrhagic, admitted to our Stroke Unit, were included in this prospective study. ES were defined as seizures occurring within 7 days from acute stroke. Patients with history of epilepsy were excluded.Results: Thirty-one patients (4.8% had ES. Seizures were significantly more common in patients with cortical involvement, severe and large stroke, and in patient with cortical hemorrhagic transformation of ischemic stroke. ES was not associated with an increase in adverse outcome (mortality and disability. After multivariate analysis, hemorrhagic transformation resulted as an independent predictive factor for ES (OR = 6.5; 95% CI: 1.95–22.61; p = 0.003.Conclusion: ES occur in about 5% of patients with acute stroke. In these patients hemorrhagic transformation is a predictive factor for ES. ES does not seem to be associated with an adverse outcome at hospital discharge after acute stroke.Keywords: seizures, stroke, cortical involvement, hemorrhagic transformation

  20. Early seizures in patients with acute stroke: Frequency, predictive factors, and effect on clinical outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Andrea; Paciaroni, Maurizio; Caso, Valeria; Venti, Michele; Palmerini, Francesco; Agnelli, Giancarlo

    2008-01-01

    Background Early seizure (ES) may complicate the clinical course of patients with acute stroke. The aim of this study was to assess the rate of and the predictive factors for ES as well the effects of ES on the clinical outcome at hospital discharge in patients with first-ever stroke. Patients and methods A total of 638 consecutive patients with first-ever stroke (543 ischemic, 95 hemorrhagic), admitted to our Stroke Unit, were included in this prospective study. ES were defined as seizures occurring within 7 days from acute stroke. Patients with history of epilepsy were excluded. Results Thirty-one patients (4.8%) had ES. Seizures were significantly more common in patients with cortical involvement, severe and large stroke, and in patient with cortical hemorrhagic transformation of ischemic stroke. ES was not associated with an increase in adverse outcome (mortality and disability). After multivariate analysis, hemorrhagic transformation resulted as an independent predictive factor for ES (OR = 6.5; 95% CI: 1.95–22.61; p = 0.003). Conclusion ES occur in about 5% of patients with acute stroke. In these patients hemorrhagic transformation is a predictive factor for ES. ES does not seem to be associated with an adverse outcome at hospital discharge after acute stroke. PMID:18827922

  1. Effect of acute and chronic cholinesterase inhibition on biogenic amines in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soininen, H; Unni, L; Shillcutt, S

    1990-12-01

    The effects of five cholinesterase inhibitors on forebrain monoamine and their metabolite levels, and on forebrain and plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activity in rat were studied in acute and chronic conditions. Acute tetrahydroaminoacridine (THA) dosing caused lower brain (68%) and higher plasma (90%) ChE inhibition than the other drugs studied and increased levels of brain dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) (236%), homovanillic acid (HVA) (197%) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) (130%). Acute physostigmine (PHY) administration caused a 215% increase in brain DOPAC content. Despite high brain ChE inhibition induced by metrifonate (MTF), dichlorvos (DDVP) or naled no changes in brain noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA) or serotonin (5-HT) occurred due to treatment with the study drugs in the acute study. In the chronic 10-day study THA or PHY caused no substantial ChE inhibition in brain when measured 18 hours after the last dose, whereas MTF induced 74% ChE inhibition. Long-term treatment with THA or MTF caused no changes in monoamine levels, but PHY treatment resulted in slightly increased 5-HT values. These results suggest that MTF, DDVP and naled seem to act solely by cholinergic mechanisms. However, the central neuropharmacological mechanism of action of THA and PHY may involve changes in cholinergic as well as dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems. PMID:1711162

  2. The Effect of an Intraperitoneal Injection of Melatonin on Serum Amylase Levels in Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavit Çöl

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Context Several experimental studies have been carried out to explain the ph ysiopathological mechan isms and to introduce endocrinological, enzymatic, biochemical and histopathol ogical changes in organism s during acute pancreatitis. Objective To evaluate the effect of an intraperitoneal injection of melatonin on serum amylase levels. Design Experimental acut e pancreatitis was experimentally caused through panc reatic duct ligation in 20 Winstar Albino rats . The rats were then divided into two groups: control and melatonin groups. Intervention The serum amylase level was measured on the 7 th day after acute pancreatitis had developed. In the melatonin group, an intraperitoneal injecti on of melatonin (20 mg/kg/day was performed starting from the 2 nd day after pancreatic duct ligation. Main outcome measure The levels of serum amylase were measured with an auto analyzer. Results It was found that the mean (±SD level of serum amylase in th e control group was 947±182 IU/mL wh ile it was 358±177 IU/mL in the experimental group (P<0.001. Conclusions The 20 mg/kg/day intraperitoneal injection of melatonin which was carried out for one week attenuated the serum amylase levels to a statistically si gnificant degree. The researchers believe that intraperitoneal in jections of melatonin decrease the severity of acute pancreatitis.

  3. The Effect of Behavioral Codes and Gender on Honesty

    OpenAIRE

    Arbel, Yuval; Bar-El, Ronen; Siniver, Erez; Tobol, Yossi

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effect of adherence to behavioral codes, as measured by the degree of religiosity, on the level of honesty by conducting under-the-cup die experiments. The findings suggest that behavioral codes, which prohibit lying, offset the monetary incentive to lie. The highest level of honesty is found among young religious females while the lowest is found among secular females. Moreover, when the monetary incentive to lie is removed, the tendency of secular subjects to lie disappears. ...

  4. Is honey an effective treatment for acute cough in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, María Pía; Carreño, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Cough represents one of the most common reasons for pediatrician consultations. There are many available treatments for symptomatic relief, including honey. Despite its wide availability, there is little knowledge about its benefits. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified three systematic reviews including three randomized trials. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded the use of honey probably decreases the severity and frequency of cough, improves the quality of parent's and patient's sleep, and does not have side effects. PMID:27280298

  5. Effect of Acute Aerobic Exercise on Executive Function (EF) of Elderly People :Evidences from fNIRS and Behavior Experiments%急性有氧负荷对老年人执行功能的影响:来自fNIRS和行为实验的证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文世林; 夏树花; 李思; 蒋长好

    2015-01-01

    Objective :Brain imaging technique was used to monitor the changes of the brain acti-vation patterns in the process of psychological task to reflect the effect of the aerobic exercise on the executive function and to evaluate the training effect of the aerobic exercise on the per-formance of the executive function .Methods :The behavior and brain activation patterns of 15 elderly people with 10min moderate intensity cycling were discussed by means of behavioral measurement and near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS ) .Results :The Flanker interference of re-action time (RT ) of the experiment group was significant lower than the control group (t(1 ,14)= -2 .64 ,P< 0 .05) .The flanker interference of oxy-Hb single of experiment group was sig-nificant higher than the control group in left frontopolar area (L-FPA ) ( t(1 ,14) = 3 .94 ,P<0 .001) ,Conclusions :10min moderate intensity aerobic load can significantly improve the opera-tion behaviors of the elderly flanker task ,and enhance the neural activity in the left frontal pole (L-FPA ) and the improvement of local regions of the brain neural activity increased with cog-nitive performance synchronization occurs .%目的 :采用脑成像技术监测心理学任务过程中脑激活模式的变化来反映有氧运动对执行功能的影响 ,并结合认知行为表现来评价有氧运动对执行功能所产生的训练效益.方法 :通过行为测量和近红外光谱功能成像(fNIRS )的方法探讨10 min中等强度自行车蹬踏运动对15名老年人在 Flanker任务过程中的行为表现和脑激活模式的影响.结果 :运动任务的 Flanker效应的反应时显著低于对照任务[ t(1 ,14) = -2 .64 ,P< 0 .05 ].在左侧额极区(L-FPA )上 ,运动任务的 Flanker效应的 oxy-Hb信号显著高于对照任务[ t(1 ,14) = 3 .94 ,P<0 .001 ].结论 :10 min中等强度有氧负荷显著提高了老年人 Flanker任务的行为操作表现 ,并增强了左侧额极区(L-FPA )的神经活性 ,且局部脑

  6. Myocardium-protective effect of ticagrelor combined with emergency PCI treatment of acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Jun Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the myocardium-protective effect of ticagrelor combined with emergency PCI treatment of acute myocardial infarction and explore the possible molecular mechanisms. Methods:A total of 84 patients with acute myocardial infarction who received emergency PCI treatment in our hospital from February 2014 to October 2015 were selected for study and randomly divided into and ticagrelor group and clopidogrel group that received different perioperative anti-platelet therapy. Degree of myocardial cell damage, cardiac pump function as well as blood perfusion and platelet aggregation function of two groups were evaluated. Results:Before as well as 10 min and 24 h after PCI, plasma CK-MB and cTnI levels as well as maximum platelet aggregation rate and P2Y12 reaction unit of ticagrelor group were significantly lower than those of clopidogrel group, and ADP-way platelet inhibition rate were higher than those of clopidogrel group; after PCI, TIMI blood flow grade, TMP myocardial perfusion grade and LVEF of ticagrelor group were significantly higher than those of clopidogrel group, LVEDD was significantly lower than that of clopidogrel group and the number of cases with no reflow/slow flow was less than that of clopidogrel group. Conclusions:The myocardium-protective effect of ticagrelor combined with emergency PCI treatment of acute myocardial infarction is better than that of clopidogrel, and ticagrelor can enhance the anti-platelet aggregation effect to exert myocardium-protective effect.

  7. Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Malignancies and Acute Biological Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann

    The hypothesis being evaluated in this research program is that control of radiation induced oxidative stress will reduce the risk of radiation induced adverse biological effects occurring as a result of exposure to the types of radiation encountered during space travel. As part of this grant work, we have evaluated the protective effects of several antioxidants and dietary supplements and observed that a mixture of antioxidants (AOX), containing L-selenomethionine, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), ascorbic acid, vitamin E succinate, and alpha-lipoic acid, is highly effective at reducing space radiation induced oxidative stress in both in vivo and in vitro systems, space radiation induced cytotoxicity and malignant transformation in vitro [1-7]. In studies designed to determine whether the AOX formulation could affect radiation induced mortality [8], it was observed that the AOX dietary supplement increased the 30-day survival of ICR male mice following exposure to a potentially lethal dose (8 Gy) of X-rays when given prior to or after animal irradiation. Pretreatment of animals with antioxidants resulted in significantly higher total white blood cell and neutrophil counts in peripheral blood at 4 and 24 hours following exposure to doses of 1 Gy and 8 Gy. Antioxidant treatment also resulted in increased bone marrow cell counts following irradiation, and prevented peripheral lymphopenia following 1 Gy irradiation. Supplementation with antioxidants in irradiated animals resulted in several gene expression changes: the antioxidant treatment was associated with increased Bcl-2, and decreased Bax, caspase-9 and TGF-β1 mRNA expression in the bone marrow following irradiation. These results suggest that modulation of apoptosis may be mechanistically involved in hematopoietic system radioprotection by antioxidants. Maintenance of the antioxidant diet was associated with improved recovery of the bone marrow following sub-lethal or potentially lethal irradiation. Taken together

  8. EFFECT OF THICKENERS ON PAPER COATING VISCOELASTIC BEHAVIOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heng Zhang; Kefu Chen; Rendang Yang; Zhengnan Xuan

    2004-01-01

    Paper coating has a viscoelastic character, which affected by dissolved polymer in the aqueous phase.The different thickeners have different effects on Paper Coating viscoelasticity behavior. CMC, PVA and CMS are compared in this article, and CMC have the strongest effect than the others.

  9. Psychological and Behavioral Effects of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrke, Michael S.

    This review of the literature on the psychological and behavioral effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AS) first looks at aspects of the history and prevalence of AS use in competitive sports. Research suggests that one-quarter to one-half million adolescents in the United States have used, or are currently using AS. Some effects of androgens…

  10. The effects of acute radiation exposure on the serum components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The blood samples were collected from the experimental animals 24 hrs after irradiation of gamma doses upto 80 Gy. Native PAGE showed a decreasing trend in gamma globulin fraction of serum from the irradiated group compared to control, while SDS PAGE indicated an enhanced tendency in protein of molecular weight 30,000 to 40,000. Serum albumin slightly decreased with radiation doses as a result of decrease in total protein amount. Radiation exposure had little or no effects on such lipid related components as phospholipid, triglyceride, and cholesterol, respectively. Among others, glutamic pyryvic transaminase (GPT) showed a drastic decrease in its amount 24 hrs after radiation exposure, which can be applied to the health care program for radiation workers. (Author)

  11. Acute effects of tibolone on cerebral vascular reactivity in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, C O; Nilas, Lisbeth; Dalsgaard, T;

    2003-01-01

    alpha-OH-tibolone, 3beta-OH-tibolone, Delta(4) isomer and 17beta-estradiol were obtained before and after addition of the NO blocker N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 10(-4) mol/l) or the potassium-channel blocker tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA, 10(-2) mol/l). Additionally, the effects...... of the hormones on the concentration-response curves with calcium were examined. RESULTS: Tibolone and its metabolites induced a concentration-dependent relaxation comparable to that of 17beta-estradiol (area under the curve (AUC); tibolone vs. 17beta-estradiol: 242 vs. 251; p < 0.05, analysis of...... variance). L-NAME increased the AUC for all substances compared with controls (p < 0.05, Student's t test), except for 17beta-estradiol. Preincubation with TEA induced no changes. The concentration-dependent contraction curves with calcium were shifted rightward by all hormones. CONCLUSIONS: The study...

  12. Effect of moderate- and high-intensity acute exercise on appetite in obese individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Catia; Stensvold, Dorthe; Finlayson, Graham;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The effect of acute exercise, and exercise intensity, on appetite control in obese individuals requires further study. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute isocaloric bouts (250 kcal) of high-intensity intermittent cycling (HIIC) and moderate-intensity continuous....../obese volunteers. Participants were assigned to the control, MICC, HIIC, and S-HIIC conditions, 1 wk apart, in a counterbalanced order. Exercise was performed 1 h after a standard breakfast. An ad libitum test lunch was served 3 h after breakfast. Fasting/postprandial plasma samples of insulin, acylated ghrelin......, and glucagon-like peptide 1 levels significantly increased during all exercise bouts compared with those during rest. Acylated ghrelin plasma levels were lower in the MICC and HIIC, but not in S-HIIC, compared with those in control. There were no significant differences for polypeptide YY3-36 plasma levels...

  13. Protective effects of C-phycocyanin on alcohol-induced acute liver injury in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dong; Liu, Bing; Luan, Xiying; Sun, Junyan; Liu, Nana; Qin, Song; Du, Zhenning

    2016-03-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption leads to liver disease. Extensive evidence suggests that C-phycocyanin (C-PC), a chromophore phycocyanobilin derived from Spirulina platensis, exerts protective effects against chemical-induced organ damage. In this study, we investigated whether C-PC could protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (CHOL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), liver homogenate malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) content were measured, and pathological examination of liver sections were examined. C-PC showed obvious inhibitory effects on serum ALT, AST, TG, CHOL, LDL and MDA, and SOD content significantly increased in the liver. The structure of hepatic lobules was clear, liver sinus returned to normal, and liver cell cords were arranged in neat rows. Cloudiness, swelling, inflammatory cell infiltration and spotty necrosis of liver cells were significantly reduced. Therefore, C-PC can significantly protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury.

  14. The effect of differing intensities of acute cycling on preadolescent academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael; Johnson, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of differing intensity levels of acute exercise on preadolescent academic ability. In a repeated measures design, 18 preadolescent participants (mean age±S.D.= 9.8±1.4 years: 9 male and 9 female) completed the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT 4) following 20 minutes of rest, 20-minutes on a cycling ergometer at 50% maximal heart rate reserve (HRR), and 20-minutes on a cycling ergometer at 75% HRR on separate days. Exercise was found to improve spelling irrespective of intensity level. Moderate levels of exercise improved reading although the effect of high levels of intensity is less clear. Both intensity levels impaired arithmetic, whilst sentence comprehension was unaffected. These findings further support the past research that indicates acute bouts of exercise can selectively improve cognition in preadolescent children. However, the present study finds no support for the notion that increasing the intensity of exercise accentuates benefits. PMID:23724796

  15. Effects of acute physical exercise on executive functions: a comparison between aerobic and strength exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Christiano Rodrigues; Gualano, Bruno; Takao, Pollyana Pereira; Avakian, Paula; Fernandes, Rafael Mistura; Morine, Diego; Takito, Monica Yuri

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute aerobic and strength exercises on selected executive functions. A counterbalanced, crossover, randomized trial was performed. Forty-two healthy women were randomly submitted to three different conditions: (1) aerobic exercise, (2) strength exercise, and (3) control condition. Before and after each condition, executive functions were measured by the Stroop Test and the Trail Making Test. Following the aerobic and strength sessions, the time to complete the Stroop "non-color word" and "color word" condition was lower when compared with that of the control session. The performance in the Trail Making Test was unchanged. In conclusion, both acute aerobic and strength exercises improve the executive functions. Nevertheless, this positive effect seems to be task and executive function dependent. PMID:22889693

  16. Acute marijuana effects on response-reinforcer relations under multiple variable-interval schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, S D; Cherek, D R; Pietras, C J; Tcheremissine, O V

    2004-07-01

    Acute marijuana administration may alter response-reinforcer relationships via a change in reinforcer efficacy, but may also impair coordination and motor function. One approach to evaluating drug effects on both motor function and reinforcer efficacy involves fitting the matching law equation to data obtained under multiple variable interval (VI) schedules. The present report describes an experiment that examined the effects of acute marijuana on response properties using this approach. Six human subjects responded under a multiple VI schedule for monetary reinforcers after smoking placebo and two active doses of marijuana. The low marijuana dose produced unsystematic changes in responding. As measured by the matching law equation parameters (k and rB), at the high dose five subjects showed a decrease-motor-related properties of response rate and four subjects' responding indicated a decrease in reinforcer efficacy. These data raise the possibility that, at high doses, marijuana administration alters both motor function and reinforcer efficacy.

  17. The Effects of a Multiflavonoid Supplement on Vascular and Hemodynamic Parameters following Acute Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Kappus

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants can decrease oxidative stress and combined with acute exercise they may lead to further decreases in blood pressure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 weeks of antioxidant supplementation on vascular distensibility and cardiovascular hemodynamics during postexercise hypotension. Methods. Twenty young subjects were randomized to placebo (=10 or antioxidant supplementation (=10 for two weeks. Antioxidant status, vascular distensibility, and hemodynamics were obtained before, immediately, and 30 minutes after an acute bout of aerobic exercise both before and after supplementation. Results. Two weeks of antioxidant supplementation resulted in a greater systolic blood pressure (SBP decrease during postexercise hypotension (PEH and significant decreases in augmentation index versus placebo (12.5% versus 3.5%, resp.. Also ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP increased significantly (interaction P = 0.024 after supplementation. Conclusion. Supplementation showed an additive effect on PEH associated with increased FRAP values and decreases in systolic blood pressure and augmentation index.

  18. The Aberrant Behavior Checklist: A Behavior Rating Scale for the Assessment of Treatment Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Michael G.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The development of a scale to assess drug and other treatment effects on severely mentally retarded individuals is described. Separate factor analyses of the data from two samples resulted in a five-factor scale: (1) Irritability, Agitation, Crying; (2) Lethargy, Social Withdrawal; (3) Stereotypic Behavior; (4) Hyperactivity, Noncompliance; and…

  19. The Acute Effects of Grape Polyphenols Supplementation on Endothelial Function in Adults: Meta-Analyses of Controlled Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Shao-Hua Li; Hong-Bo Tian; Hong-Jin Zhao; Liang-Hua Chen; Lian-Qun Cui

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The acute effects of grape polyphenols on endothelial function in adults are inconsistent. Here, we performed meta-analyses to determine these acute effects as measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD). METHODS: Trials were searched in PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library database. Summary estimates of weighted mean differences (WMDs) and 95% CIs were obtained by using random-effects models. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses were performed to identify the source of heterogen...

  20. Cost effectiveness of community-based therapeutic care for children with severe acute malnutrition in Zambia: decision tree model

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann Max O

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Children aged under five years with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in Africa and Asia have high mortality rates without effective treatment. Primary care-based treatment of SAM can have good outcomes but its cost effectiveness is largely unknown. Method This study estimated the cost effectiveness of community-based therapeutic care (CTC) for children with severe acute malnutrition in government primary health care centres in Lusaka, Zambia, compared to no care. A decision...

  1. Unexpected effects of low doses of a neonicotinoid insecticide on behavioral responses to sex pheromone in a pest insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabhi, Kaouther K; Esancy, Kali; Voisin, Anouk; Crespin, Lucille; Le Corre, Julie; Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Anton, Sylvia; Gadenne, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In moths, which include many agricultural pest species, males are attracted by female-emitted sex pheromones. Although integrated pest management strategies are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on widespread use of neurotoxic chemicals, including neonicotinoid insecticides. Residual accumulation of low concentrations of these insecticides in the environment is known to be harmful to beneficial insects such as honey bees. This environmental stress probably acts as an "info-disruptor" by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decreases chances of reproduction in target insects that largely rely on olfactory communication. However, low doses of pollutants could on the contrary induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway, thus enhancing reproduction. Here we tested the effects of acute oral treatments with different low doses of the neonicotinoid clothianidin on the behavioral responses to sex pheromone in the moth Agrotis ipsilon using wind tunnel experiments. We show that low doses of clothianidin induce a biphasic effect on pheromone-guided behavior. Surprisingly, we found a hormetic-like effect, improving orientation behavior at the LD20 dose corresponding to 10 ng clothianidin. On the contrary, a negative effect, disturbing orientation behavior, was elicited by a treatment with a dose below the LD0 dose corresponding to 0.25 ng clothianidin. No clothianidin effect was observed on behavioral responses to plant odor. Our results indicate that risk assessment has to include unexpected effects of residues on the life history traits of pest insects, which could then lead to their adaptation to environmental stress. PMID:25517118

  2. Unexpected effects of low doses of a neonicotinoid insecticide on behavioral responses to sex pheromone in a pest insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaouther K Rabhi

    Full Text Available In moths, which include many agricultural pest species, males are attracted by female-emitted sex pheromones. Although integrated pest management strategies are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on widespread use of neurotoxic chemicals, including neonicotinoid insecticides. Residual accumulation of low concentrations of these insecticides in the environment is known to be harmful to beneficial insects such as honey bees. This environmental stress probably acts as an "info-disruptor" by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decreases chances of reproduction in target insects that largely rely on olfactory communication. However, low doses of pollutants could on the contrary induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway, thus enhancing reproduction. Here we tested the effects of acute oral treatments with different low doses of the neonicotinoid clothianidin on the behavioral responses to sex pheromone in the moth Agrotis ipsilon using wind tunnel experiments. We show that low doses of clothianidin induce a biphasic effect on pheromone-guided behavior. Surprisingly, we found a hormetic-like effect, improving orientation behavior at the LD20 dose corresponding to 10 ng clothianidin. On the contrary, a negative effect, disturbing orientation behavior, was elicited by a treatment with a dose below the LD0 dose corresponding to 0.25 ng clothianidin. No clothianidin effect was observed on behavioral responses to plant odor. Our results indicate that risk assessment has to include unexpected effects of residues on the life history traits of pest insects, which could then lead to their adaptation to environmental stress.

  3. The effects of acute alcohol on psychomotor, set-shifting, and working memory performance in older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Lauren A; Sklar, Alfredo L; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2015-05-01

    A limited number of publications have documented the effects of acute alcohol administration among older adults. Among these, only a few have investigated sex differences within this population. The current project examined the behavioral effects of acute low- and moderate-dose alcohol on 62 older (ages 55-70) male and female, healthy, light to moderate drinkers. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three dose conditions: placebo (peak breath alcohol concentration [BrAC] of 0 mg/dL), low (peak BrAC of 40 mg/dL), and moderate (peak BrAC of 65 mg/dL). Tasks assessed psychomotor, set-shifting, and working memory performance. Better set-shifting abilities were observed among women, whereas men demonstrated more efficient working memory, regardless of dose. The moderate-dose group did not significantly differ from the placebo group on any task. However, the low-dose group performed better than the moderate-dose group across measures of set shifting and working memory. Relative to the placebo group, the low-dose group exhibited better working memory, specifically for faces. Interestingly, there were no sex by dose interactions. These data suggest that, at least for our study's task demands, low and moderate doses of alcohol do not significantly hinder psychomotor, set-shifting, or working memory performance among older adults. In fact, low-dose alcohol may facilitate certain cognitive abilities. Furthermore, although sex differences in cognitive abilities were observed, these alcohol doses did not differentially affect men and women. Further investigation is necessary to better characterize the effects of sex and alcohol dose on cognition in older adults.

  4. Cross-shift study of acute respiratory effects in cement production workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Omid Aminian; Maryam Aslani; Khosro Sadeghniiat Haghighi

    2014-01-01

    Cement dust exposure is associated with increased respiratory impairment. As the major occupational hazard in the cement production industry is cement particles, our aim was to more thoroughly examine the acute effects of occupational exposure to cement dust on the respiratory system. A cross-shift study was conducted in a cement factory in Iran. 100 high exposed workers from production and packing sections and 100 low exposed from office workers were included. Environmental total dust was me...

  5. Beneficial effects of probucol on endothelial function in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董红梅

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of antioxidant probucol on endothelial function in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods A total of 49 ACS patients randomly received standard therapy plus probucol (P,n=24) or standard therapy (C,n=25). Plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) , nitric oxide (NO) and circulating endothelial cells (CEC) were measured. The brachial arterial hyperemia-induced flow mediated dilation (FMD) and sublingual nitroglyc-

  6. An Uncommon Side Effect of Bupropion: A Case of Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Tak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP is a rare inflammatory dermatosis characterized by multiple nonfollicular pustules that occur on erythematous skin. Despite its similarity to pustular psoriasis and association with fever and leukocytosis, AGEP typically heals quickly. Etiologically, drugs and viruses have been suspected in most cases. Here, we present a case of AGEP, in a woman, that developed 1 day after starting bupropion for smoking cessation, as a rare side effect of the treatment.

  7. Cognitive and physiological effects of an acute physical activity intervention in elementary school children

    OpenAIRE

    Jäger, Katja; Schmidt, Mirko; Conzelmann, Achim; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of an acute physical activity intervention that included cognitive engagement on executive functions and on cortisol level in young elementary school children. Half of the 104 participating children (6–8 years old) attended a 20-min sport sequence, which included cognitively engaging and playful forms of physical activity. The other half was assigned to a resting control condition. Individual differences in children's updating, inhib...

  8. Cognitive and physiological effects of an acute physical activity intervention in elementary school children

    OpenAIRE

    Katja eJäger; Mirko eSchmidt; Achim eConzelmann; Claudia Maria Roebers

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of an acute physical activity intervention including cognitive engagement on executive functions and on cortisol level in young elementary school children. Half of the 104 participating children (6 to 8 years old) attended a 20-minute sport sequence, which included cognitively engaging and playful forms of physical activity. The other half was assigned to a resting control condition. Individual differences in children`s updating, inh...

  9. Acute effect of vigorous aerobic exercise on the inhibitory control in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Browne, Rodrigo Alberto Vieira; Costa, Eduardo Caldas; Sales, Marcelo Magalhães; Fonteles, André Igor; Moraes, José Fernando Vila Nova de; Barros, Jônatas de França

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the acute effect of vigorous aerobic exercise on the inhibitory control in adolescents. Methods: Controlled, randomized study with crossover design. Twenty pubertal individuals underwent two 30-minute sessions: (1) aerobic exercise session performed between 65% and 75% of heart rate reserve, divided into 5 min of warm-up, 20 min at the target intensity and 5 min of cool down; and (2) control session watching a cartoon. Before and after the sessions, the computeri...

  10. Acute effect of cycling intervention on carotid arterial hemodynamics: basketball athletes versus sedentary controls

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hai-Bin; Yuan, Wen-Xue; Qin, Kai-Rong; Hou, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the acute effects of a cycling intervention on carotid arterial hemodynamics between basketball athletes and sedentary controls. Methods Ten young long-term trained male basketball athletes (BA) and nine age-matched male sedentary controls (SC) successively underwent four bouts of exercise on a bicycle ergometer at the same workload. Hemodynamic variables at right common carotid artery were determined at rest and immediately following each bout of exercise. An ANCOVA was ...

  11. The Unpredictable Effect of Changing Cardiac Output on Hypoxemia after Acute Pulmonary Thromboembolism

    OpenAIRE

    Tsang, John Y.C.; Wayne J E Lamm; Blazej Neradilek; Polissar, Nayak L.; Michael P. Hlastala

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies reported that the degree of hypoxemia following acute pulmonary thromboembolism (APTE) was highly variable and that its mechanism was mainly due to the creation of many high and low ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) units, as a result of the heterogeneous regional blood flow (Q) caused by embolic obstruction. We studied the effect of changing cardiac output (Qt) on gas exchange after APTE in 5 embolized piglets (23 ± 3 Kg), using Dobutamine intermittently at approximately 20 µg/kg/...

  12. Effectiveness of an acute pain service inception in a general hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Bardiau, Françoise; Braeckman, M.M.; Seidel, Laurence; Albert, Adelin; Boogaerts, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of an Acute Pain Service (APS) inception on postoperative pain management in a general teaching hospital using pain indicators as performance measures. DESIGN: Open, prospective, nonrandomized, observational study. SETTING: Postanesthesia Care Unit, surgical wards of University Hospital Center of Charleroi. PATIENTS: 1304 patients in the pre-APS inception phase and 671 patients after its implemention who have undergone various types of surgery (orthoped...

  13. Effect of estrogen on plasma ceruloplasmin level in rats exposed to acute stress

    OpenAIRE

    Ganaraja B; Pavithran P; Ghosh S

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasma ceruloplasmin, a copper containing protein, belongs to a class called acute phase proteins. Reduced level of ceruloplasmin was associated with Wilson′s disease and Menke′s kinky hair disease in man, primarily affecting copper metabolism. Stress was known to increase Ceruloplasmin. Several stress associated changes were commonly observed in women at menopause and also those who underwent overiectomy. Present experiment investigated the effect of estrogen on cer...

  14. Evaluation of the Effects of Honey on Acute-Phase Deep Burn Wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Nakajima, Yukari; Mukai, Kanae; Nasruddin; kOMATSU, Emi; Iuchi, Terumi; Kitayama, Yukie; Sugama, Junko; Nakatani, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effects of honey on acute-phase deep burn wounds. Two deep burn wounds were created on mice which were divided into four groups: no treatment, silver sulfadiazine, manuka honey, and Japanese acacia honey. Wound sizes were calculated as expanded wound areas and sampled 30 minutes and 1–4 days after wounding for histological observation. The wound sections were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistological staining to detect necrotic cells, apoptotic ...

  15. Effect of topically applied Saccharomyces boulardii on the healing of acute porcine wounds: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Partlow, Jessica; Blikslager, Anthony; Matthews, Charles; Law, Mac; Daniels, Joshua; Baker, Rose; Labens, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    Background Normal wound healing progresses through a series of interdependent physiological events: inflammation, angiogenesis, re-epithelialization, granulation tissue formation and extracellular matrix remodeling. Alterations in this process as well as the bacterial type and load on a wound may alter the wound healing rate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of topical Saccharomyces boulardii on the healing of acute cutaneous wounds, using a prospective, controlled, experi...

  16. Potential effects of PKC or protease inhibitors on acute pancreatitis-induced tissue injury in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Changbin; Zhao, Xia; Wang, Xiangdong; Zhao, Liming; Andersson, Roland

    2007-01-01

    Background: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is still one of the severe diseases, that cause the development of multiple organ dysfunction with a high mortality. Effective therapies for AP are still limited, mainly due to unclear mechanisms by which A-P initiates both pancreatic and extrapancreatic organ injury. Methods: Protease inhibitors (aprotinin, pefabloc, trypsin inhibitor) and PKC inhibitors (polymyxin B, staurosporine) were administrated 30 min before 'induction of AP in rats. To investig...

  17. The effects of acute citalopram dosing on gastric motor function and nutrient tolerance in healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Pieter; Oudenhove, Lukas Van; Casteels, Cindy; De Vos, Rita; Verbeke, Kristin; Tack, Jan

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether endogenous serotonin release is involved in the regulation of gastric motility and food intake. AIM: To study the effect of acute administration of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram on gastric motor function in man. METHODS: Nineteen healthy volunteers underwent a gastric barostat, gastric emptying and/or a drinking test after dosing with either placebo or citalopram (20 mg intravenously). In the barostat protocol, a flacc...

  18. Early seizures in patients with acute stroke: Frequency, predictive factors, and effect on clinical outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Alberti; Maurizio Paciaroni; Valeria Caso; Michele Venti; Francesco Palmerini; Giancarlo Agnelli

    2008-01-01

    Andrea Alberti, Maurizio Paciaroni, Valeria Caso, Michele Venti, Francesco Palmerini, Giancarlo AgnelliStroke Unit and Division of Internal and Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia, ItalyBackground: Early seizure (ES) may complicate the clinical course of patients with acute stroke. The aim of this study was to assess the rate of and the predictive factors for ES as well the effects of ES on the clinical outcome at hospital discharge in patients with first-ever stroke.Patie...

  19. Effect of a Pre-Workout Energy Supplement on Acute Multi-Joint Resistance Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Adam M.; Walsh, Allyson L; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Jie Kang; Hoffman, Jay R

    2011-01-01

    The effect of a pre-workout energy supplement on acute multi- joint resistance exercise was examined in eight resistance-trained college-age men. Subjects were randomly provided either a placebo (P) or a supplement (S: containing caffeine, taurine, glucuronolactone, creatine, β-alanine, and the amino acids; leucine, isoleucine, valine, glutamine and arginine) 10 minutes prior to resistance exercise. Subjects performed 4 sets of no more than 10 repetitions of either barbell squat or bench pres...

  20. Effects of acute stress on learning and memory processes of malnourished rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Duarte Ferreira Manhas dos Vales; Marisa Tomoe Hebihara Fukuda; Sebastião de Sousa Almeida

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of acute stress on the processes of learning and memory in malnourished rats tested in the Morris water maze. The animals were divided into eight groups according to nutritional status (malnourished or well nourished) and stress (stressed or unstressed). In Experiment I the animals were subjected to immobilization stress procedure before the learning session and in Experiment II after the learning sessions. The test consisted of two daily se...

  1. Effects of acute paroxetine administration on tryptophan metabolism and disposition in the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Badawy, A. A.; Morgan, C. J.

    1991-01-01

    1 The effects of acute oral administration of paroxetine on tryptophan metabolism and disposition were examined in the rat. 2 Basal liver tryptophan pyrrolase activity was inhibited by paroxetine in vitro and after oral administration. Maximum inhibition was caused by a 1 mg kg-1 dose. 3 Paroxetine administration also inhibited pyrrolase activity that had previously been enhanced by hormonal induction by cortisol or cofactor activation by haematin. The cortisol induction of the enzyme was, ho...

  2. The Effect of Acute Fluoride Poisoning on Nitric Oxide and Methemoglobin Formation in the Guinea pig

    OpenAIRE

    ŞİRELİ, Meltem

    2004-01-01

    To study the effect of acute fluoride poisoning on nitric oxide and methemoglobin formation, 250 mg/kg bw sodium fluoride was applied alone and verapamil was applied together with fluoride. Blood nitric oxide (Griess reaction) and calcium levels; hemoglobin, methemoglobin and hematocrit values; and erythrocyte counts were determined and compared with those of the controls. After the fluoride application it was found that there was a relative relationship between the increase in nitric oxide a...

  3. Marijuana's acute effects on cognitive bias for affective and marijuana cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metrik, Jane; Aston, Elizabeth R; Kahler, Christopher W; Rohsenow, Damaris J; McGeary, John E; Knopik, Valerie S

    2015-10-01

    Marijuana produces acute increases in positive subjective effects and decreased reactivity to negative affective stimuli, though may also acutely induce anxiety. Implicit attentional and evaluative processes may explicate marijuana's ability to acutely increase positive and negative emotions. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7-3.0% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed attentional processing of rewarding and negative affective stimuli as well as marijuana-specific stimuli. On 2 separate days, regular marijuana users (N = 89) smoked placebo or active THC cigarette and completed subjective ratings of mood, intoxication, urge to smoke marijuana, and 2 experimental tasks: pleasantness rating (response latency and perceived pleasantness of affective and marijuana-related stimuli) and emotional Stroop (attentional bias to affective stimuli). On the pleasantness rating task, active marijuana increased response latency to negatively valenced and marijuana-related (vs. neutral) visual stimuli, beyond a general slowing of response. Active marijuana also increased pleasantness ratings of marijuana images, although to a lesser extent than placebo due to reduced marijuana urge after smoking. Overall, active marijuana did not acutely change processing of positive emotional stimuli. There was no evidence of attentional bias to affective word stimuli on the emotional Stroop task with the exception of attentional bias to positive word stimuli in the subgroup of marijuana users with cannabis dependence. Marijuana may increase allocation of attentional resources toward marijuana-specific and negatively valenced visual stimuli without altering processing of positively valenced stimuli. Marijuana-specific cues may be more attractive with higher levels of marijuana craving and less wanted with low craving levels. PMID:26167716

  4. Acute effects of intense interval training on running mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, M H; Pearsall, D J; Zavorsky, G S; Bateni, H; Turcotte, R A; Montgomery, D L

    2000-02-01

    The aims of this study were to determine if there are significant kinematic changes in running pattern after intense interval workouts, whether duration of recovery affects running kinematics, and whether changes in running economy are related to changes in running kinematics. Seven highly trained male endurance runners (VO2max = 72.3+/-3.3 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1); mean +/- s) performed three interval running workouts of 10 x 400 m at a speed of 5.94+/-0.19 m x s(-1) (356+/-11.2 m x min(-1)) with a minimum of 4 days recovery between runs. Recovery of 60, 120 or 180 s between each 400 m repetition was assigned at random. Before and after each workout, running economy and several kinematic variables were measured at speeds of 3.33 and 4.47 m x s(-1) (200 and 268 m x min(-1)). Speed was found to have a significant effect on shank angle, knee velocity and stride length (P pre- and post-test for VO2 (ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and several kinematic variables were not significant (P > 0.05) at both speeds. In general, duration of recovery was not found to adversely affect running economy or the kinematic variables assessed, possibly because of intra-individual adaptations to fatigue. PMID:10718563

  5. Acute potentiating effect of depth jumps on sprint performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Paul J; Kenny, John; O' Rourke, Brian

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the addition of 3 depth jumps to a dynamic warm-up (DYNDJ) protocol would significantly improve 20-m sprint performance when compared with a cardiovascular (C) warm-up protocol or a dynamic (DYN) stretching protocol alone. The first part of the study identified optimal drop height for all subjects using the maximum jump height method. The identified optimal drop heights were later used during the DYNDJ protocol. The second part compared the 3 warm-up protocols above to determine their effect on 20-m sprint performance. Twenty-nine subjects (age, 20.8 ± 4.4 years; weight, 82.6 ± 9.9 kg; height, 180.3 ± 6.2 cm) performed 3 protocols of a C protocol, a DYN protocol, and a DYNDJ protocol in a randomized order. A 20-m sprint was performed 1 minute after the completion of each of the 3 protocols. Results displayed significant differences between each of the 3 protocols. A significant improvement (p = 0.001) of 2.2% was obtained in sprint time between the C protocol (3.300 ± 0.105 seconds) and the DYN protocol (3.227 ± 0.116 seconds), a further significant improvement of 5.01% was attained between the C and the DYNDJ protocols (3.300 ± 0.10 vs. 3.132 ± 0.120 seconds; p = 0.001). In addition, a significant improvement (p = 0.001) of 2.93% was observed between the DYN protocol (3.227 ± 0.116 seconds) and the DYNDJ protocol (3.132 ± 0.116 seconds). The data from this study advocate the use of DYNDJ protocol as a means of significantly improving 20-m sprint performance 1 minute after the DYNDJ protocol. PMID:23799423

  6. The acute effects of different stretching exercises on jump performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Laura; Balius, Ramon; Aliste, Luisa; Pujol, Montse; Pedret, Carles

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the short-term effects of different stretching exercises during the warm-up period on the lower limbs. A controlled, crossover clinical study involving 49 volunteers (14 women and 35 men; mean age: 20.4 years) enrolled in a "physical and sporting activities monitor" program. The explosive force was assessed using the Bosco test. The protocol was as follows: The test involved a (pre) jump test, general warm-up, intervention and (post) jump test. Each volunteer was subjected to each of the 5 interventions (no stretching [NS] and stretching: static passive stretching [P]; proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation [PNF] techniques; static active stretching in passive tension [PT]; static active stretching in active tension [AT]) in a random order. The jump test was used to assess the squat jump, countermovement jump (CMJ), elasticity index (EI), and drop jump. An intragroup statistical analysis was performed before and after each intervention to compare the differences between the different stretching exercises. An intergroup analysis was also performed. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found between all variables for the interventions "P," "PNF," and "TA" in the intragroup analysis, with each value being higher in the postjump test. Only the "P" intervention showed a significant difference (p = 0.046) for "EI," with the postvalue being lower. Likewise, significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed for the "CMJ" measurements during the intergroup analysis, especially between "NS" and the interventions "P," "PNF," "AT," and "PT," with each value, particularly that for "AT," being higher after stretching. The results of this study suggest that static active stretching in AT can be recommended during the warm-up for explosive force disciplines. PMID:21993032

  7. Investigation of the bystander effect in MRC5 cells after acute and fractionated irradiation in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokouhozaman Soleymanifard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE has been defined as radiation responses observed in nonirradiated cells. It has been the focus of investigators worldwide due to the deleterious effects it induces in nonirradiated cells. The present study was performed to investigate whether acute or fractionated irradiation will evoke a differential bystander response in MRC5 cells. A normal human cell line (MRC5, and a human lung tumor cell line (QU-DB were exposed to 0, 1, 2, and 4Gy of single acute or fractionated irradiation of equal fractions with a gap of 6 h. The MRC5 cells were supplemented with the media of irradiated cells and their micronucleus frequency was determined. The micronucleus frequency after single and fractionated irradiation did not vary significantly in the MRC5 cells conditioned with autologous or QU-DB cell-irradiated media, except for 4Gy where the frequency of micronucleated cells was lower in those MRC5 cells cultured in the media of QU-DB-exposed with a single dose of 4Gy. Our study demonstrates that the radiation-induced bystander effect was almost similar after single acute and fractionated exposure in MRC5 cells.

  8. The Study on Acute and Subacute Toxicity and Sarcoma-180 Anti-cancer Effects of Vermilionum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Rok Kwon

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Methods : In order to measure the acute and subacute toxicity of Vermilionum and it's anti-cancer effects, Sarcoma-180 abdominal cancer cells were injected intravenously. The following results were obtained after measuring the survival rate, toxicity of the NK cells, and IL-2 productivity. Results : 1. It was impossible to measure LD50 value in the acute toxicity test and no toxic effects were witnessed in the clinical observation. 2. No significant differences were shown in the weight changes between the experiment groups and the control group in the acute toxicity test. 3. No peculiar toxic effects were shown in the subacute toxicity test and the weight changes were insignificant between the experiment groups and the control group. 4. In measuring the survival rate after inducing abdominal cancer by Sarcoma-180, the experiment groups showed increased of 9,52% compared to the control group. 5. In measuring the activity of NK cells, no significant changes were shown between the experiment groups and the control group. 6. In measuring the productivity of IL-2, significant reduction was shown in the experiment groups compared to the normal group, but no significance was witnessed compared to the control group.

  9. Complex effects of reward upshift on consummatory behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annicchiarico, Ivan; Glueck, Amanda C; Cuenya, Lucas; Kawasaki, Katsuyoshi; Conrad, Shannon E; Papini, Mauricio R

    2016-08-01

    Exposing rats to an upshift from a small reward to a larger reward sometimes yields evidence of consummatory successive positive contrast (cSPC), an effect that could be a suitable animal model of positive emotion. However, cSPC is an unreliable effect. Ten experiments explored the effects of an upshift in sucrose or saccharin concentration on consummatory behavior under several conditions. There was occasional evidence of cSPC, but mostly a combination of increased consummatory behavior relative to preshift reward concentrations and a reduced behavioral level relative to unshifted controls. Such a pattern is consistent with processes causing opposite changes on behavior. Reward upshift may induce processes that suppress behavior, such as taste neophobia (induced by an intense sucrose taste) and generalization decrement (induced by novelty in reward conditions after the upshift). An experiment tested the role of such novelty-related effects by preexposing animals to either the upshift concentration (12% sucrose) or water during three days before the start of the experiment. Sucrose-preexposed animals drank significantly more than water-preexposed animals during the upshift, but just as much as unshifted controls (i.e., no evidence of cSPC). These results suggest that cSPC may be difficult to obtain reliably because reward upshift induces opposing processes. However, they also seriously question the ontological status of cSPC. PMID:27298234

  10. Antiarrhythmic and electrophysiologic effects of flecainide on acutely induced atrial fibrillation in healthy horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Maria Mathilde; Pehrson, S.; Carstensen, Helena;

    2015-01-01

    understood. OBJECTIVES: To study the potential of flecainide to terminate acutely induced AF of short duration (≥ 15 minutes), to examine flecainide-induced changes in AF duration and AF vulnerability, and to investigate the in vivo effects of flecainide on right atrial effective refractory period, AF cycle...... length, and ventricular depolarization and repolarization. ANIMALS: Nine Standardbred horses. Eight received flecainide, 3 were used as time-matched controls, 2 of which also received flecainide. METHODS: Prospective study. The antiarrhythmic and electrophysiologic effects of flecainide were based on 5...

  11. Developmental neurotoxic effects of two pesticides: Behavior and biomolecular studies on chlorpyrifos and carbaryl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Iwa; Eriksson, Per; Fredriksson, Anders; Buratovic, Sonja; Viberg, Henrik

    2015-11-01

    In recent times, an increased occurrence of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as neurodevelopmental delays and cognitive abnormalities has been recognized. Exposure to pesticides has been suspected to be a possible cause of these disorders, as these compounds target the nervous system of pests. Due to the similarities of brain development and composition, these pesticides may also be neurotoxic to humans. We studied two different pesticides, chlorpyrifos and carbaryl, which specifically inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the nervous system. The aim of the study was to investigate if the pesticides can induce neurotoxic effects, when exposure occurs during a period of rapid brain growth and maturation. The results from the present study show that both compounds can affect protein levels in the developing brain and induce persistent adult behavior and cognitive impairments, in mice neonatally exposed to a single oral dose of chlorpyrifos (0.1, 1.0 or 5mg/kg body weight) or carbaryl (0.5, 5.0 or 20.0mg/kg body weight) on postnatal day 10. The results also indicate that the developmental neurotoxic effects induced are not related to the classical mechanism of acute cholinergic hyperstimulation, as the AChE inhibition level (8-12%) remained below the threshold for causing systemic toxicity. The neurotoxic effects are more likely caused by a disturbed neurodevelopment, as similar behavioral neurotoxic effects have been reported in studies with pesticides such as organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids and POPs, when exposed during a critical window of neonatal brain development.

  12. Acute Effect of High-Intensity Eccentric Exercise on Vascular Endothelial Function in Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youngju; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Zempo-Miyaki, Asako; Ra, Song-Gyu; Shiraki, Hitoshi; Ajisaka, Ryuichi; Maeda, Seiji

    2016-08-01

    Choi, Y, Akazawa, N, Zempo-Miyaki, A, Ra, S-G, Shiraki, H, Ajisaka, R, and Maeda, S. Acute effect of high-intensity eccentric exercise on vascular endothelial function in young men. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2279-2285, 2016-Increased central arterial stiffness is as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Evidence regarding the effects of high-intensity resistance exercise on vascular endothelial function and central arterial stiffness is conflicting. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute high-intensity eccentric exercise on vascular endothelial function and central arterial stiffness. We evaluated the acute changes in endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD), low-flow-mediated constriction (L-FMC), and arterial stiffness after high-intensity eccentric exercise. Seven healthy, sedentary men (age, 24 ± 1 year) performed maximal eccentric elbow flexor exercise using their nondominant arm. Before and 45 minutes after eccentric exercise, carotid arterial compliance and brachial artery FMD and L-FMC in the nonexercised arm were measured. Carotid arterial compliance was significantly decreased, and β-stiffness index significantly increased after eccentric exercise. Brachial FMD was significantly reduced after eccentric exercise, whereas there was no significant difference in brachial L-FMC before and after eccentric exercise. A positive correlation was detected between change in arterial compliance and change in FMD (r = 0.779; p ≤ 0.05), and a negative correlation was detected between change in β-stiffness index and change in FMD (r = -0.891; p < 0.01) with eccentric exercise. In this study, acute high-intensity eccentric exercise increased central arterial stiffness; this increase was accompanied by a decrease in endothelial function caused by reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilation but not by a change in endothelium-dependent vasoconstriction. PMID:24832967

  13. Effects of budesonide and N-acetylcysteine on acute lung hyperinflation, inflammation and injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Anne-Helene; Eriksson, Christina; Wang, Xiangdong

    2005-08-01

    Leukocyte activation and production of inflammatory mediators and reactive oxygen species are important in the pathogenesis of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury. The present study investigated acute lung hyperinflation, edema, and lung inflammation 4 h after an intratracheal instillation of LPS (0.5, 2.5, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, 1000, and 5000 microg/ml/kg). Effects of budesonide, an inhaled anti-inflammatory corticosteroids, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, were evaluated in Wistar rats receiving either low (2.5 microg/ml/kg) or high (50 microg/ml/kg) concentrations of LPS. This study demonstrates that LPS in a concentration-dependent pattern induces acute lung hyperinflation measured by excised lung gas volume (25-45% above control), lung injury indicated by increased lung weight (10-60%), and lung inflammation characterized by the infiltration of leukocytes (40-14000%) and neutrophils (80-17000%) and the production of cytokines (up to 2700%) and chemokines (up to 350%) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Pretreatment with NAC partially prevented tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) production induced by the low concentration of LPS, while pretreatment with budesonide totally prevented the increased production of TNFalpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractive protein (MCP)-1 after LPS challenge at both low and high concentrations. Budesonide failed to prevent BALF levels of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 (GRO/CINC-1) as well as lung hyperinflation induced by both low and high concentrations of LPS. Pretreatment with budesonide totally prevented the formation of lung edema at the low concentration of LPS and had partial effects on acute lung injury and leukocyte influx at the high concentrations. Thus, our data indicate that therapeutic effects of budesonide and NAC are dependent upon the severity of the disease.

  14. Effect of ricinoleic acid in acute and subchronic experimental models of inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celme Vieira

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies indicate that topical application of ricinoleic acid (RA, the main component of castor oil, exerts remarkable analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. Pharmacological characterization has shown similarities between the effects of RA and those of capsaicin, suggesting a potential interaction of this drug on sensory neuropeptide-mediated neurogenic inflammation. The aim of this study was to assess RA anti-inflammatory activities in comparison with capsaicin in several models of acute and subchronic inflammation. The acute inflammation was induced by intradermal injection of carrageenan in the mouse or by histamine in the guinea-pig eyelid. In either experiment, the extent of the oedema thickness was measured. Subchronic oedema was induced by complete Freund's adjuvant injection in the ventral right paw of mice. Tissue substance P (SP was measured in the carrageenan experiments by radioimmunoassay (RIA. It was found that the acute topical application of RA (0.9 mg/mouse or capsaicin (0.09 mg/mouse significantly increased the mouse paw oedema induced by carrageenan, while an 8-day repeated topical treatment with the same doses of both compounds resulted in a marked inhibition of carrageenaninduced paw oedema matched by a reduction in SP tissue levels. Similar effects were found against histamine-induced eyelid oedema in guinea-pigs after acute or repeated application of RA or capsaicin. RA and capsaicin given for 1–3 weeks reduced the established oedema induced by Freund's adjuvant, a subchronic model of inflammation, particularly if given by the intradermal route. Either in mouse paw or in guineapig eyelid, capsaicin but not RA by itself produced a slight hyperemia and activation of a behavioural response (e.g. scratching of the eyelids. On the basis of the present results, RA may be seen as a new capsaicin-like, non-pungent anti-inflammatory agent suitable for peripheral application.

  15. Hepatoprotective effect of carob against acute ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souli, Abdelaziz; Sebai, Hichem; Chehimi, Latifa; Rtibi, Kaïs; Tounsi, Haifa; Boubaker, Samir; Sakly, Mohsen; El-Benna, Jamel; Amri, Mohamed

    2015-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine whether subacute treatment with aqueous extract of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) pods (AECPs) protects against ethanol (EtOH)-induced oxidative stress in rat liver. Animals were divided into four groups: control, carob, EtOH and EtOH + carob. Wistar rats were intraperitoneally pretreated with AECP (600 mg/kg body weight (bw)) during 7 days and intoxicated for 6 h by acute oral administration of EtOH (6 g/kg bw) 24 h after the last injection. We found that acute administration of EtOH leads to hepatotoxicity as monitored by the increase in the levels of hepatic marker aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase as well as hepatic tissue injury. EtOH also increased the formation of malondialdehyde in the liver, indicating an increase in lipid peroxidation and depletion of antioxidant enzyme activities as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Subacute carob pretreatment prevented all the alterations induced by EtOH and returned their levels to near normal. Importantly, we showed that acute alcohol increased hepatic and plasmatic hydrogen peroxide and free iron levels. The carob pretreatment reversed EtOH effects to near control levels. These data suggest that carob could have a beneficial effect in inhibiting the oxidative damage induced by acute EtOH administration and that its mode of action may involve an opposite effect on plasma and tissue-free iron accumulation. Indeed, carob can be offered as a food additive to protect against EtOH-induced oxidative damage.

  16. Acute effects of vinegar intake on some biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rohani Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exaggerated postprandial spikes in blood glucose and lipids induce proportional increases in oxidative stress, which acutely trigger impairment endothelial, inflammation and increased risk of future cardiovascular events. In this research, we have investigated acute effects of vinegar intake on some of the biochemical atherosclerosis risk factors in high cholesterol fed rabbits to see if we can find a probable protective value for it. Methods The rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet, high cholesterol diet (%1cholesterol, %1 cholesterol with 5 ml vinegar (low dose, %1 cholesterol with 10 ml vinegar (high dose. After fasting for 12-15 hours, blood samples were taken to determine baseline values. Three hours after feeding, blood samples were collected again to investigate acute effects of vinegar intake on the measured factors. Results Using high-dose vinegar with cholesterolemic diet caused significant reduce in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C, oxidized-LDL (ox-LDL, malondialdehyde (MDA, total cholesterol (TC and apolipoprotein B (ApoB in comparison with hypercholesterolemic diet. Consumption low-dose vinegar with cholesterolemic diet induced a significant decrease in fibrinogen and glucose compared to hypercholesterolemic diet. Level of serum nitrite, nitrate, triacylglycerol (TAG, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, apolipoprotein A (ApoA, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT, serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT and C-reactive protein (CRP were not significantly difference in low and high doses vinegar with cholesterolemic diet compared to hypercholesterolemic diet. A significant difference was observed for LDL-C, ApoB100 and TC between low and high doses vinegar. Conclusion This study suggest that vinegar, might have some acute effects on biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis and a probable protective value can be considered for its postprandial use.

  17. Effects of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, David A; Siegford, Janice M; Snider, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Zoological institutions develop human-animal interaction opportunities for visitors to advance missions of conservation, education, and recreation; however, the animal welfare implications largely have yet to be evaluated. This behavioral study was the first to quantify impacts of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior and welfare, by documenting giraffe time budgets that included both normal and stereotypic behaviors. Thirty giraffes from nine zoos (six zoos with varying guest feeding programs and three without) were observed using both instantaneous scan sampling and continuous behavioral sampling techniques. All data were collected during summer 2012 and analyzed using linear mixed models. The degree of individual giraffe participation in guest feeding programs was positively associated with increased time spent idle and marginally associated with reduced time spent ruminating. Time spent participating in guest feeding programs had no effect on performance of stereotypic behaviors. When time spent eating routine diets was combined with time spent participating in guest feeding programs, individuals that spent more time engaged in total feeding behaviors tended to perform less oral stereotypic behavior such as object-licking and tongue-rolling. By extending foraging time and complexity, guest feeding programs have the potential to act as environmental enrichment and alleviate unfulfilled foraging motivations that may underlie oral stereotypic behaviors observed in many captive giraffes. However, management strategies may need to be adjusted to mitigate idleness and other program consequences. Further studies, especially pre-and-post-program implementation comparisons, are needed to better understand the influence of human-animal interactions on zoo animal behavior and welfare. PMID:26910772

  18. Effects of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, David A; Siegford, Janice M; Snider, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Zoological institutions develop human-animal interaction opportunities for visitors to advance missions of conservation, education, and recreation; however, the animal welfare implications largely have yet to be evaluated. This behavioral study was the first to quantify impacts of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior and welfare, by documenting giraffe time budgets that included both normal and stereotypic behaviors. Thirty giraffes from nine zoos (six zoos with varying guest feeding programs and three without) were observed using both instantaneous scan sampling and continuous behavioral sampling techniques. All data were collected during summer 2012 and analyzed using linear mixed models. The degree of individual giraffe participation in guest feeding programs was positively associated with increased time spent idle and marginally associated with reduced time spent ruminating. Time spent participating in guest feeding programs had no effect on performance of stereotypic behaviors. When time spent eating routine diets was combined with time spent participating in guest feeding programs, individuals that spent more time engaged in total feeding behaviors tended to perform less oral stereotypic behavior such as object-licking and tongue-rolling. By extending foraging time and complexity, guest feeding programs have the potential to act as environmental enrichment and alleviate unfulfilled foraging motivations that may underlie oral stereotypic behaviors observed in many captive giraffes. However, management strategies may need to be adjusted to mitigate idleness and other program consequences. Further studies, especially pre-and-post-program implementation comparisons, are needed to better understand the influence of human-animal interactions on zoo animal behavior and welfare.

  19. Pressure effects on dynamics behavior of multiwall boron nitride nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talebian, Taha [Faculty of Engineering, Neyshabur Branch, Islamic Azad University, Neyshabur (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    The dynamic behavior of Multiwall boron nitride nanotubes (MWBNNTs) is investigated by employing multiple elastic shells model. The influences of van der Waals interactions on layers are shown as nonlinear functions of the interlayer distance of MWBNNTs. Governing equations are solved by using the developed finite element method and by employing time history diagrams. The radial wave speed from the outermost layer to the innermost layer is computed. The effects of geometrical factors such as diameter-to-thickness ratio on dynamic behavior of MWBNNTs are determined. The magnification aspects of MWBNNTs are computed, and the effects of surrounding pressures on wave speed and magnification aspect of MWBNNTs are discussed.

  20. Media effects on the audience attitudes and behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Marques Carriço Ferreira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a bibliographical review of the development of the literature on media effects and it presents a nuanced history of the development of the studies on media effects. This text intends to recover the classical demarcation of literature belonging to the era of (1 unlimited effects, in which the media have complete power over its audience, to the period in which the studies (2 evoked potentially intervening variables in media effects (in determining limited effects, and to the (returning era of (3 significant effects. The perspective taken in this study focuses on researches that approach the media influence on the attitudes and behaviors of the audience.

  1. Taurine and ethanol interactions: behavioral effects in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ginsburg, Brett C.; Lamb, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    Taurine is an abundant amino acid in the brain that shares pharmacological effects and similar potency with ethanol. Recently, taurine-containing beverages have been reported to enhance the euphoric effects of ethanol, though the extent of this effect and the role of taurine remain speculative. The present study was designed to explore interactions between taurine and ethanol on several behaviors including locomotion, ataxia, and loss of righting. Two strains of mice, C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice...

  2. Clinical, behavioral and antinociceptive effects of crotalphine in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Cristina Bueno do Prado Guirro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Crotalphine is a novel analgesic peptide that acts on kappa opioid and delta receptors, causing powerful analgesia in rats submitted to inflammatory, neuropathic or oncologic models of pain. This study evaluated clinical, behavioral and antinociceptive effects caused by crotalphine in horses, employing 18 Arabian horses and it was divided in three phases. In Phase I, "clinical and behavioral effects", crotalphine did not change the latency to urinate and defecate; did not modify the values of cardiac or respiratory rates, intestinal motility and rectal temperature; and did not cause significant ataxia, head, eye and lip ptosis. In Phase II, "antinociceptive effect on intact skin at scapular or ischial region", crotalphine did not cause significant analgesia. In Phase III, "antinociceptive effect on incised skin at scapular or ischial region", crotalphine promoted effective antinociceptive effects for six hours and inhibited hyperalgesia state for three days in the ischial region of horses submitted to incisional model of inflammatory pain, but crotalphine did not evoke relevant analgesic effect on the scapular region. Concluding, intravenous injection of a single dose of crotalphine (3.8ngkg-1 did not cause important clinical or behavioral changes and promotes antinociceptive effect on incised ischial region for seven days in horses. Moreover, crotalphine did not evoke relevant anti nociceptive effect on the scapular region or in intact skin of horses.

  3. Acute toxicological effects on the earthworm Eisenia fetida of 18 common pharmaceuticals in artificial soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Ma Rosa; Val, Jonatan; Mainar, Ana Ma; Zuriaga, Estefanía; Español, Cecilia; Langa, Elisa

    2015-06-15

    Following soil applications of recycled water and biosolids, pharmaceutical residues can eventually enter the terrestrial environment. In vitro and in vivo assays have largely focused on the acute ecotoxicity of these compounds in aquatic systems. However, studies on the ecotoxicological effects of pharmaceuticals in soil biota are especially scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute toxicity of 18 pharmaceuticals (4 NSAIDs, 5 blood lipid-lowering agents, 6 β-blockers and 3 antibiotics) that are usually found in the environment by using an Eisenia fetida bioassay. In addition, the presence of these pharmaceuticals in artificial soil was verified at the end of the test. Our results indicate that seven of the studied drugs cause acute adverse effects in E. fetida, in particular, the NSAIDs and the blood lipid-lowering agents. Ibuprofen (LC50=64.80 mg/kg) caused the highest acute toxicity for all tested compounds, followed by diclofenac (LC50=90.49 mg/kg) and simvastatin (LC50=92.70 mg/kg). Other tested pharmaceuticals from NSAIDs and blood lipid-lowering families have toxicity effects, from a LC50=140.87 mg/kg for gemfibrozil to 795.07 mg/kg for lovastatin. Atorvastatin, bezafibrate, β-blockers and antibiotics showed no detectable lethality in E. fetida. The four NSAIDs showed evidence of modification of their original chemical structure after 14 days so the detected toxicity may be due to the original product as well as their degradation products. The three blood lipid-lowering agents seem to be more stable in soil. From an environmental perspective, the lethal concentrations of the tested drugs are much greater than those reported in wastewater and biosolids, therefore acute toxic effects may be improbable. However, little is known about the accumulation of these substances in soils after regular applications, so accumulative and chronic effects cannot be excluded. Moreover, more studies are needed to determine the role of the degradation

  4. Effects of preinfarction angina on no-reflow phenomenon after percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王荣英

    2003-01-01

    Effects of preinfarction angina on no-reflow phenomenon after percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with acute myocardial infarction@王荣英$河北医科大学第二医院!石家庄050000 0311-70469016011

  5. Protective effect of recombinant human IL-1Ra on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Run-Zhi; Xiang, Di; Xie, Chao; Li, Jing-Jing; Hu, Jian-Jun; He, Hong-Lin; Yuan, Yun-Sheng; GAO, JIN; HAN, WEI; Yu, Yan

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of positive regulation of recombinant human interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (rhIL-1Ra) on hepatic tissue recovery in acute liver injury in mice induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4).

  6. EFFECTS OF IMMUNOSUPPRESSION WITH CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE ON ACUTE MURINE CYTOMEGALOVIRUS INFECTION AND VIRUS-AUGMENTED NATURAL KILLER CELL ACTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of cyclophosphamide (CY) treatment on acute murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection were studied to explore the potential usefulness of MCMV as a means of detecting immune dysfunction and to identify host defense mechanisms important for protection against MCMV.

  7. Mild Alkalization Acutely Triggers the Warburg Effect by Enhancing Hexokinase Activity via Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Hee; Park, Jin Won; Moon, Seung Hwan; Cho, Young Seok; Choe, Yearn Seong; Lee, Kyung-Han

    2016-01-01

    To fully understand the glycolytic behavior of cancer cells, it is important to recognize how it is linked to pH dynamics. Here, we evaluated the acute effects of mild acidification and alkalization on cancer cell glucose uptake and glycolytic flux and investigated the role of hexokinase (HK). Cancer cells exposed to buffers with graded pH were measured for 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake, lactate production and HK activity. Subcellular localization of HK protein was assessed by western blots and confocal microscopy. The interior of T47D breast cancer cells was mildly alkalized to pH 7.5 by a buffer pH of 7.8, and this was accompanied by rapid increases of FDG uptake and lactate extrusion. This shift toward glycolytic flux led to the prompt recovery of a reversed pH gradient. In contrast, mild acidification rapidly reduced cellular FDG uptake and lactate production. Mild acidification decreased and mild alkalization increased mitochondrial HK translocation and enzyme activity. Cells transfected with specific siRNA against HK-1, HK-2 and voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC)1 displayed significant attenuation of pH-induced changes in FDG uptake. Confocal microscopy showed increased co-localization of HK-1 and HK-2 with VDAC1 by alkaline treatment. In isolated mitochondria, acidic pH increased and alkaline pH decreased release of free HK-1 and HK-2 from the mitochondrial pellet into the supernatant. Furthermore, experiments using purified proteins showed that alkaline pH promoted co-immunoprecipitation of HK with VDAC protein. These findings demonstrate that mild alkalization is sufficient to acutely trigger cancer cell glycolytic flux through enhanced activity of HK by promoting its mitochondrial translocation and VDAC binding. This process might serve as a mechanism through which cancer cells trigger the Warburg effect to maintain a dysregulated pH. PMID:27479079

  8. The acute effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on oxidative stress in rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Oxidative stress and oxygen free radicals are thought to play an important role in acute effects of a number of neurotoxic processes. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy, a ring substituted amphetamine derivate, has attracted a great deal of media attention in recent years due to its widespread abuse as recreational drug by the young generation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on oxidative stress parameters (index of lipid peroxidation - ILP, superoxide radicals O2-, superoxide dismutase - SOD and glutathione - GSH in frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus in Wistar rats. Materials and methods The study included 40 male Wistar rats (200-250 g, housed 4 per cage having free access to food and water. MDMA was dissolved in distillated water and administered peroraly at 5, 10, 20 or 40 mg/kg. 8 hours following MDMA, the rats were killed by decapitation, their brains were rapidly removed and the brain structures were dissected out on ice and analyzed biochemically. Results Acute peroral administration of a single dose (5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg resulted in increase of ILP, O2-, SOD and decrease of GSH. Conclusion The results obtained in the present study suggest that oxidative stress plays a crucial role in MDMA-induced neurotoxicity and that the mechanism of MDMA neurotoxycity may vary between brain regions.

  9. Effects of Schizolobium parahyba extract on experimental Bothrops venom-induced acute kidney injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Silva Martines

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Venom-induced acute kidney injury (AKI is a frequent complication of Bothrops snakebite with relevant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Schizolobium parahyba (SP extract, a natural medicine with presumed anti-Bothrops venom effects, in an experimental model of Bothrops jararaca venom (BV-induced AKI. METHODOLOGY: Groups of 8 to 10 rats received infusions of 0.9% saline (control, C, SP 2 mg/kg, BV 0.25 mg/kg and BV immediately followed by SP (treatment, T in the doses already described. After the respective infusions, animals were assessed for their glomerular filtration rate (GFR, inulin clearance, renal blood flow (RBF, Doppler, blood pressure (BP, intra-arterial transducer, renal vascular resistance (RVR, urinary osmolality (UO, freezing point, urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA], lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, kinetic method, hematocrit (Hct, microhematocrit, fibrinogen (Fi, Klauss modified and blinded renal histology (acute tubular necrosis score. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: BV caused significant decreases in GFR, RBF, UO, HcT and Fi; significant increases in RVR, NGAL and LDH; and acute tubular necrosis. SP did not prevent these changes; instead, it caused a significant decrease in GFR when used alone. CONCLUSION: SP administered simultaneously with BV, in an approximate 10∶1 concentration, did not prevent BV-induced AKI, hemolysis and fibrinogen consumption. SP used alone caused a decrease in GFR.

  10. Evaluation of acute toxicity and teratogenic effects of plant growth regulators by Daphnia magna embryo assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai-Sung; Lu, Chi-Yuan; Chang, Shih-Hsien

    2011-06-15

    This study selected common plant growth regulators (Atonik, Cytokinin, Ethephon, Gibberellic acid and Paclobutrazol) to investigate their biological toxicity to the waters of the important biological indicator Daphnia magna. The methods used in this study included traditional neonate acute toxicity test, new Daphnia embryo toxicity test, and teratogenic embryo test. The study concluded that the acute toxicity of the five PGRs to Daphnia neonate had EC(50) value range of 1.9-130.5 mg l(-1), while acute toxicity of PGRs on Daphnia embryo had EC(50) value range of 0.2-125 mg l(-1); the Daphnia embryos' LOEC values (0.05-48 mg l(-1)) for the five PGRs were lower than embryo EC(50) values. The toxic ratios of 48 h EC(50) (neonate)/48 h LOEC (embryo) for 5 PGRs were 19-512 times. The study found that teratogenic effects of Paclobutrazol and Cytokinin induced in embryo were higher than those of most other PGRs. Microscopic observation of the teratogenic effects showed that all 5 PGRs induced malformations of the second antenna, rostrum, Malpighian tube, sensory bristles, and tail spine as well as function loss and death.

  11. The acute effects of different energy beta-emitters on pig and mouse skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute changes were studied in the skin of mice and pigs following irradiation with Sr90 (Esub(max) 2.27 MeV), Tm170 (Esub(max) 0.97 MeV) and Pm147 (Esub(max) 0.225 MeV). Sr90 irradiation in the pig and Sr90 and Tm170 exposure in the mouse resulted in a distinct field-size effect for sources of 5-22.5 mm diameter; ED50 values for moist desquamation were 22.0-27.5 Gy from the 22.5 mm source and 75-90 Gy for the 5 mm source. Tm170 irradiation in the pig produced no distinct area effect for sources of 5-19 mm diameter (ED50 approx.= 80 Gy). Acute tissue breakdown was only achieved in pig and mouse skin by very high doses (ED50 >= 140 Gy) from sources of 147 produced acute epithelial breakdown, only after high skin-surface doses (ED50 550-725 Gy). Area-and energy-related changes can, in part be explained by an hypothesis based on repopulation of the epithelium in the irradiated area by the migration of either cells from the edge of that area and/or cells surviving at the base of hair follicles. Differences in the results in pig and mouse can be explained on the basis of the distribution of target cells in the epidermis at varying depths. (author)

  12. Pronounced effects of acute endurance exercise on gene expression in resting and exercising human skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milène Catoire

    Full Text Available Regular physical activity positively influences whole body energy metabolism and substrate handling in exercising muscle. While it is recognized that the effects of exercise extend beyond exercising muscle, it is unclear to what extent exercise impacts non-exercising muscles. Here we investigated the effects of an acute endurance exercise bouts on gene expression in exercising and non-exercising human muscle. To that end, 12 male subjects aged 44-56 performed one hour of one-legged cycling at 50% W(max. Muscle biopsies were taken from the exercising and non-exercising leg before and immediately after exercise and analyzed by microarray. One-legged cycling raised plasma lactate, free fatty acids, cortisol, noradrenalin, and adrenalin levels. Surprisingly, acute endurance exercise not only caused pronounced gene expression changes in exercising muscle but also in non-exercising muscle. In the exercising leg the three most highly induced genes were all part of the NR4A family. Remarkably, many genes induced in non-exercising muscle were PPAR targets or related to PPAR signalling, including PDK4, ANGPTL4 and SLC22A5. Pathway analysis confirmed this finding. In conclusion, our data indicate that acute endurance exercise elicits pronounced changes in gene expression in non-exercising muscle, which are likely mediated by changes in circulating factors such as free fatty acids. The study points to a major influence of exercise beyond the contracting muscle.

  13. Curative effect of monosialotetrahexosylganglioside combined with Xingnaojing injection on acute cerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-xing SUN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to observe the curative effect of monosialotetrahexosylganglioside combined with Xingnaojing injection on acute cerebral hemorrhage. A total of 120 cases with acute cerebral hemorrhage were treated with Xingnaojing injection monotherapy (control group, N = 60 or monosialotetrahexosylganglioside combined with Xingnaojing injection (combined treatment group, N = 60. Bleeding amount and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS scores of 2 groups were both significantly reduced on the 21th day after treatment (P = 0.000, for all, but bleeding amount and NIHSS scores in combined treatment group were significantly lower than those in control group (P = 0.000, for all. After 21 d treatment, total effective rate of combined treatment group was 86.67% (52/60, which was significantly higher than that of control group [66.67% (40/60; χ2 = 1.493, P = 0.024]. For patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage, monosialotetrahexosylganglioside combined with Xingnaojing injection can significantly improve the neurological function. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.07.014

  14. The acute effect of kinesio taping on hamstring extensibility in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MERINO-MARBAN R.,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim and rationale of our study was to determine the acute effect of kinesio taping on theextensibility of the hamstring muscle among university students.Design: An intra-subject experimental design was used to evaluate the possible acute effects of KT using the Xshapedtaping technique in order to affect hamstring muscle extensibility.Method: Forty-three healthy university students (age 21.98 ± 4.68 years, body mass 71.50 ± 13.49 kg, height172.35 ± 8.17 cm were assessed for hamstring flexibility. All participants had both legs tested under threedifferent randomly ordered conditions (kinesio tape, sham tape and control using the Passive Straight Leg RaiseTest. All measurements were made during the same testing session. Participants performed three sets of tests,each set measured twice, to determine hamstring extensibility in both legs. There was a 12 minute rest periodbetween each set and a one minute break between each repetition.Results: An analysis of variance (ANOVA with repeated measurements showed no statistically significantdifferences either in the right (p=0.503 or the left leg (p=0.948 between the three study conditions.Conclusions: The application of kinesio taping does not seem to acutely increase hip flexion range of motion inhealthy subjects.

  15. Mechanism Underlying Protective Effect of Danbiqing Granule on Experimental Acute Bacterial Cholangitis in Rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINXiu-zhen; GONGYan-ling; WANGHong-bo

    2003-01-01

    Aim To study the mechanism of protective effects of Danbiqing granule (DBQ) on experimental acute bacterial cholangitis in rabbits. Methods The acute bacterial cholangitis was induced by injecting 1 mL of 1 × l03 cuf·mL-1 Escherchia coli suspension into common bile duit. The serum nitrous oxide (NO) levels were measured using nitric acid reductase kit. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity was assayed by a method of acid titration (microassay). Serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), inferleukin-6 (IL-6) and plasma thromboxane B2 ( TXB2 ), 6-keto-platelet growth factor 1(PGF1α) were determined by radioimmunoassay. Results Compared with control group, serum NO, PLA2, TNF-α, IL-6 and plasma TXB2 levels increased significantly in model group ( P < 0.01) while those of DBQ groutm decreased significantly( P < 0.01). Conclusion DBQ dramatically inhibits the overproduction of pro-inflammatory factor PLA2 and inflammatory cytokine. Hence, the mechanism of DBQ underlying anti-inflammatory and protective effect against acute bacterial cholangitis in rabbits has been revealed.

  16. Effects of acut and chronic doses of methoxy acetic acid on hamster sperm fertilising ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. D.C. Peiris; H.D.M. Moore

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effects of acute and chronic doses of methoxy acetic acid (MAA) on in vitro fertilisation by hamster sperm and to correlate the data with the testicular damage. Methods: Adult male hamsters were gavaged with 3 single doses (0, 80, 160 and 650 mg/kg) and 3 chronic doses (0, 8, 32 and 64 mg/kg daily for 5 weeks) of MAA in distilled water. After treatment hamsters were killed at weekly intervals and spermatozoa recovered from the distal cauda epididymides were used to assess the fertilising capacity in vitro. The testes were processed for histological examination. Results: Acute doses showed a significant reduction in sperm fertilising ability from week 3 and 4 after treatment and with the chronic doses, the effects were more extensive and persistent. The results were in correpondence with the testicular damages observed. Conclusion: It is evident that both acute and chronic doses of MAA can impair the sperm function by damaging one or more cell populations in the testis.

  17. Acute and chronic effects of glyceryl trinitrate therapy on insulin and glucose regulation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrzkiewicz, Sean; Parker, John D

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the effect of acute and sustained transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) therapy on insulin and glucose regulation. Totally, 12 males (18-30 years) underwent a glucose tolerance test at baseline (visit 1), 90 minutes after acute transdermal GTN 0.6 mg/h (visit 2), following 7 days of continuous GTN (visit 3), and 2 to 3 days after stopping GTN (visit 4). At each visit, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were measured before and 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after a 75-g oral glucose load. Indices of glucose metabolism that were examined included the insulin sensitivity index, the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and the insulinogenic index. The acute administration of GTN had no effect on glucose and insulin responses (visit 2). However, after 7 days of GTN exposure (visit 3) there was an increase in the mean glucose concentration measured after the oral glucose load. On visit 1, the mean glucose concentration (± standard deviation) following the 75 g oral glucose challenge was 5.7 ± 0.5 µmol/L. On visit 3, after 7 days of transdermal GTN therapy, the mean glucose concentration after the oral glucose was significantly higher; 6.2 ± 0.5 µmol/L (P GTN therapy modifies glucose metabolism causing evidence of increased insulin resistance during sustained therapy in normal humans.

  18. EFFECT OF ACUPUNCTURE ON NEUROLOGICAL DEFECTS AND DAILY LIFE ABILITY IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周爽; 方邦江; 孙国杰

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of acupuncture of Shuigou (GV 26), Neiguan (PC 6), Zusanli (ST36), etc. on neurological defects and daily life ability in patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage. Methods: Fifty-eight cases of acute cerebral hemorrhage patients were randomized into control group (n = 28) and treatment group (n =30). Patients of two groups were both treated with intravenous infusion of Mannitol and other expectant medicines. In addition, patients of treatment group were also treated with acupuncture therapy, once daily and continuously for one month. Before and after treatment, the scores of neurological defects and daily life ability (Barthel Index) were givenfor assessing the therapeutic effect. Results: Following treatment, both scores of neurological defects of two groups decreased significantly (P < 0.05), and the score of treatment group was strikingly lower than that of control group (P<0.05). After treatment, values of Barthel Index (BI) of two groups increased considerably in comparison with pretreatment (P< 0.01 ), and the value of BI of treatment group was bigger than that of control group (P< 0.05). Conclusion: Acupuncture can improve acute cerebral hemorrhage patients' nervous function and daily life ability.

  19. Effect of hemoperfusion on internal environment of patients with acute poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Li; Wen-Qiang Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of hemoperfusion on the internal environment of patients with acute poisoning.Methods: A total of 36 patients with the acute poisoning who received the hemoperfusion treatment in Department of Emergency Medicine of this hospital were selected as the research subjects and a retrospective study was performed on them. At the beginning, 30 min and 120 min of hemoperfusion treatment, the blood was taken from the blood-collecting point of artery with cardiopulmonary bypass to detect the blood pH, partial pressure of CO2, partial pressure of oxygen, blood lactic acid, potassium, sodium, free calcium, bicarbonate ion and blood glucose level. The above indicators at the different time point were compared. Results:At the beginning, 30 min and 120 min of hemoperfusion, there was no significant difference in the partial pressure of CO2, pH, blood potassium, blood sodium, bicarbonate ion and free calcium between groups. But at the beginning, 30 min and 120 min of hemoperfusion, there was the significant difference in the partial pressure of oxygen, lactic acid and blood glucose between groups.Conclusion:There is no significant effect on the internal environment of patients with acute poisoning who receive the hemoperfusion treatment.

  20. Costs and effectiveness of a brief MRI examination of patients with acute knee injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oei, Edwin H.G. [Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, GE Rotterdam (Netherlands)]|[Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, GE Rotterdam (Netherlands)]|[Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, CE Rotterdam (Netherlands); Nikken, Jeroen J. [Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, GE Rotterdam (Netherlands)]|[Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, GE Rotterdam (Netherlands)]|[Sint Franciscus Gasthuis, Kleiweg 500, Department of Radiology, PM Rotterdam (Netherlands); Ginai, Abida Z.; Krestin, Gabriel P. [Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, GE Rotterdam (Netherlands)]|[Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, CE Rotterdam (Netherlands); Verhaar, Jan A.N. [Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, GE Rotterdam (Netherlands)]|[Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, CE Rotterdam (Netherlands); Vugt, Arie B. van [Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Traumatology, GE Rotterdam (Netherlands)]|[UMC St Radboud, Department of Traumatology, P.O. Box 9101, HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Hunink, M.G.M. [Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, GE Rotterdam (Netherlands)]|[Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, GE Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-02-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the costs and effectiveness of selective short magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with acute knee injury. A model was developed to evaluate the selective use of MRI in patients with acute knee injury and no fracture on radiography based on the results of a trial in which 208 patients were randomized between radiography only and radiography plus MRI. We analyzed medical (diagnostic and therapeutic) costs, quality of life, duration of diagnostic workup, number of additional diagnostic examinations, time absent from work, and time to convalescence during a 6-month follow-up period. Quality of life was lowest (EuroQol at 6 weeks 0.61 (95% CI 0.54-0.67)); duration of diagnostic workup, absence from work, and time to convalescence were longest; and the number of diagnostic examinations was largest with radiography only. These outcomes were more favorable for both MRI strategies (EuroQol at 6 weeks 0.72 (95% CI 0.67-0.77) for both). Mean total costs were 2,593 euros (95% CI 1,815-3,372) with radiography only, 2,116 euros (95% CI 1,488-2,743) with radiography plus MRI, and 1,973 euros (95% CI 1,401-2,543) with selective MRI. The results suggest that selective use of a short MRI examination saves costs and potentially increases effectiveness in patients with acute knee injury without a fracture on radiography. (orig.)

  1. Methadone, monoamine oxidase, and depression: opioid distribution and acute effects on enzyme activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, C.A.; Kreek, M.J.; Raghunath, J.; Arns, P.

    1983-09-01

    Narcotic withdrawal is often accompanied by an atypical depression which responds to resumption of narcotics. It was hypothesized that methadone might exert its antidepressant effects through monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition. The current study examined /sub 3/H-methadone distribution in rat brain and effects on regional MAO activity with acute doses (2.5 mg/kg) which approximate those found during chronic methadone maintenance in man. Limbic areas (amygdala, basomedial hypothalamus, caudate-putamen, hippocampus, preoptic nucleus), as well as pituitary and liver were assayed for MAO activity and methadone concentration. MAO activities did not differ significantly in acute methadone or saline-treated cage-mates at 1 or 24 hr. The concentrations of methadone at 1 hr ranged between 17 and 223 ng/100 mg wet wt tissue in the preoptic nucleus and pituitary, respectively. No significant correlation was found between change in MAO activity (MAO methadone/MAO saline) and methadone concentration in any region at 1 or 24 hr. This study does not support the hypothesis that methadone acts as an antidepressant through MAO inhibition, at least not following acute administration of this exogenous opioid.

  2. Methadone, monoamine oxidase, and depression: opioid distribution and acute effects on enzyme activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narcotic withdrawal is often accompanied by an atypical depression which responds to resumption of narcotics. It was hypothesized that methadone might exert its antidepressant effects through monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition. The current study examined 3H-methadone distribution in rat brain and effects on regional MAO activity with acute doses (2.5 mg/kg) which approximate those found during chronic methadone maintenance in man. Limbic areas (amygdala, basomedial hypothalamus, caudate-putamen, hippocampus, preoptic nucleus), as well as pituitary and liver were assayed for MAO activity and methadone concentration. MAO activities did not differ significantly in acute methadone or saline-treated cage-mates at 1 or 24 hr. The concentrations of methadone at 1 hr ranged between 17 and 223 ng/100 mg wet wt tissue in the preoptic nucleus and pituitary, respectively. No significant correlation was found between change in MAO activity (MAO methadone/MAO saline) and methadone concentration in any region at 1 or 24 hr. This study does not support the hypothesis that methadone acts as an antidepressant through MAO inhibition, at least not following acute administration of this exogenous opioid

  3. Acute toxicity, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and antigenotoxic effects of a cellulosic exopolysaccharide obtained from sugarcane molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Flávia Cristina Morone; De-Oliveira, Ana Cecília A X; De-Carvalho, Rosangela R; Gomes-Carneiro, Maria Regina; Coelho, Deise R; Lima, Salvador Vilar C; Paumgartten, Francisco José R; Aguiar, José Lamartine A

    2016-02-10

    The acute toxicity, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and antigenotoxic effects of BC were studied. Cytotoxicity of BC was evaluated in cultured C3A hepatoma cells (HepG2/C3A) using a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity assay. Acute toxicity was tested in adults Wistar rats treated with a single dose of BC. The genotoxicity of BC was evaluated in vivo by the micronucleus assay. BC (0.33-170 μg/mL) added to C3A cell culture medium caused no elevation in LDH release over the background level recorded in untreated cell wells. The treatment with the BC in a single oral dose (2000 mg/kg body weight) caused no deaths or signs of toxicity. BC attenuated CP-induced and inhibition the incidence of MNPCE (female: 46.94%; male: 22.7%) and increased the ratio of PCE/NCE (female: 46.10%; male: 35.25%). There was no alteration in the LDH release in the wells where C3A cells were treated with increasing concentrations of BC compared to the wells where the cells received the cell culture medium only (background of approximately 20% cell death), indicated that in the dose range tested BC was not cytotoxic. BC was not cytotoxic, genotoxic or acutely toxic. BC attenuated CP-induced genotoxic and myelotoxic effects. PMID:26686163

  4. Acute differential effects of dietary protein quality on postprandial lipemia in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Mortensen, Lene Sundahl; Astrup, Arne;

    2013-01-01

    Non-fasting triglyceridemia is much closer associated to cardiovascular risk compared to fasting triglyceridemia. We hypothesized that there would be acute differential effects of four common dietary proteins (cod protein, whey isolate, gluten, and casein) on postprandial lipemia in obese non......-diabetic subjects. To test the hypothesis we conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study with crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins i.e. cod protein, whey protein, gluten or casein. Eleven obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, body mass index: 30.......3-42.0 kg/m(2)) participated and blood samples were drawn in the 8-h postprandial period. Supplementation of a fat rich mixed meal with whey protein caused lower postprandial lipemia (P = .048) compared to supplementation with cod protein and gluten. This was primarily due to lower triglyceride...

  5. The effect of referral for cardiac rehabilitation on survival following acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewinter, Christian; Bland, John M; Crouch, Simon;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: International guidelines recommend referral for cardiac rehabilitation (CR) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, the impact on long-term survival after CR referral has not been adjusted by time-variance. We compared the effects of CR referral after hospitalization for AMI...... in two consecutive decades. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 2196 and 2055 patients were recruited in the prospective observational studies of the Evaluation of the Methods and Management of Acute Coronary Events (EMMACE) -1 and 2 in 1995 and 2003, (1995: median age 72 years, 39% women, 74% referred vs...... 2003: median age 71 years, 36% women, 64% referred) and followed up through September 2010. Survival functions showed CR referral to be an independent predictor for survival in 2003, but not in 1995 (hazard ratio (HR), 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI]; 0.70 to 1.17, p = 0.44 in 1995 vs HR, 0.80; 95...

  6. Protective effects of simvastatin on coronary artery function in swine with acute infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liuba, Petru; Pesonen, Erkki; Forslid, Anders;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: The risk for coronary events may rise during acute infection. Perturbation in coronary endothelial function emerges as one important link. We investigated whether simvastatin could protect the coronary arterial function from the adverse effects of acute infection in swine. METHODS......:: Coronary endothelium-dependent and -independent vasomotor responses were assessed by Doppler velocimetry in 12 Chlamydia pneumoniae-infected and 6 sham-infected swine 2 weeks after intratracheal inoculation. Half of animals from the infection group were pre-treated with simvastatin (80mg daily), while...... the remaining animals received placebo. The treatment was started 2 weeks prior to inoculation and continued until the end of the study. ANOVA was used for statistical calculations. Data are mean+/-S.D. RESULTS:: All animals inoculated with C. pneumoniae developed IgM antibodies against this organism...

  7. Effectiveness of an Early Versus Conservative Invasive Treatment Strategy in Acute Coronary Syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Wadt; Sorensen, Rikke; Madsen, Mette;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Randomized clinical trials have found that early invasive strategies reduce mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), and rehospitalization compared with a conservative invasive approach in acute coronary syndromes (ACSs), but the effectiveness of such strategies in real-world settings...... is unknown. Objective: To investigate adverse cardiovascular outcomes of an early versus conservative invasive strategy in a national cohort of patients with ACSs. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Administrative health care data on hospitalizations, procedures, and outcomes abstracted from...... the Danish national registries and covering all acute invasive procedures in patients presenting with an ACS. Patients: 19 704 propensity score-matched patients hospitalized with a first ACS between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2011. Measurements: Risk for cardiac death or rehospitalization for MI within...

  8. The effects of proton exposure on neurochemistry and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukitt-Hale, B.; Szprengiel, A.; Pluhar, J.; Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    Future space missions will involve long-term travel beyond the magnetic field of the Earth, where astronauts will be exposed to radiation hazards such as those that arise from galactic cosmic rays. Galactic cosmic rays are composed of protons, α particles, and particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles). Research by our group has shown that exposure to HZE particles, primarily 600 MeV/n and 1 GeV/n 56Fe, can produce significant alterations in brain neurochemistry and behavior. However, given that protons can make up a significant portion of the radiation spectrum, it is important to study their effects on neural functioning and on related performance. Therefore, these studies examined the effects of exposure to proton irradiation on neurochemical and behavioral endpoints, including dopaminergic functioning, amphetamine-induced conditioned taste aversion learning, and spatial learning and memory as measured by the Morris water maze. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received a dose of 0, 1.5, 3.0 or 4.0 Gy of 250 MeV protons at Loma Linda University and were tested in the different behavioral tests at various times following exposure. Results showed that there was no effect of proton irradiation at any dose on any of the endpoints measured. Therefore, there is a contrast between the insignificant effects of high dose proton exposure and the dramatic effectiveness of low dose (<0.1 Gy) exposures to 56Fe particles on both neurochemical and behavioral endpoints.

  9. Acute pollution of recipients in urban areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauch, W.; Harremoës, P.

    1997-01-01

    Oxygen and ammonia concentration are key parameters of acute water pollution in urban rivers. These two abiotic parameters are statistically assessed for a historical rain series by means of a simplified deterministic model of the integrated drainage system. Continuous simulation of the system...... performance indicates that acute water pollution is caused by intermittent discharges from both sewer system and wastewater treatment plant. Neglecting one of them in the evaluation of the environmental impact gives a wrong impression of total system behavior. Detention basins and alternative operational...... modes in the treatment plant under wet weather loading have a limited positive effect for minimizing acute water pollution. (C) 1997 IAWQ. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd....

  10. Acute and chronic effects of aerobic and resistance exercise on ambulatory blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crivaldo Gomes Cardoso Jr

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a ubiquitous and serious disease. Regular exercise has been recommended as a strategy for the prevention and treatment of hypertension because of its effects in reducing clinical blood pressure; however, ambulatory blood pressure is a better predictor of target-organ damage than clinical blood pressure, and therefore studying the effects of exercise on ambulatory blood pressure is important as well. Moreover, different kinds of exercise might produce distinct effects that might differ between normotensive and hypertensive subjects. The aim of this study was to review the current literature on the acute and chronic effects of aerobic and resistance exercise on ambulatory blood pressure in normotensive and hypertensive subjects. It has been conclusively shown that a single episode of aerobic exercise reduces ambulatory blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Similarly, regular aerobic training also decreases ambulatory blood pressure in hypertensive individuals. In contrast, data on the effects of resistance exercise is both scarce and controversial. Nevertheless, studies suggest that resistance exercise might acutely decrease ambulatory blood pressure after exercise, and that this effect seems to be greater after low-intensity exercise and in patients receiving anti-hypertensive drugs. On the other hand, only two studies investigating resistance training in hypertensive patients have been conducted, and neither has demonstrated any hypotensive effect. Thus, based on current knowledge, aerobic training should be recommended to decrease ambulatory blood pressure in hypertensive individuals, while resistance exercise could be prescribed as a complementary strategy.

  11. Predicting the neurobehavioral side effects of dexamethasone in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warris, Lidewij T; van den Akker, Erica L T; Aarsen, Femke K; Bierings, Marc B; van den Bos, Cor; Tissing, Wim J E; Sassen, Sebastiaan D T; Veening, Margreet A; Zwaan, Christian M; Pieters, Rob; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M

    2016-10-01

    Although dexamethasone is an effective treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), it can induce a variety of serious neurobehavioral side effects. We hypothesized that these side effects are influenced by glucocorticoid sensitivity at the tissue level. We therefore prospectively studied whether we could predict the occurrence of these side effects using the very low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (DST) or by measuring trough levels of dexamethasone. Fifty pediatric patients (3-16 years of age) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) were initially included during the maintenance phase (with dexamethasone) of the Dutch ALL treatment protocol. As a marker of glucocorticoid sensitivity, the salivary very low-dose DST was used. A post-dexamethasone cortisol level predictive values of the DST for psychosocial problems and sleeping problems were 50% and 30%, respectively. Dexamethasone levels were not associated with neurobehavioral side effects. We conclude that neither the very low-dose DST nor measuring dexamethasone trough levels can accurately predict dexamethasone-induced neurobehavioral side effects. However, patients with glucocorticoid hypersensitivity experienced significantly more symptoms associated with dexamethasone-induced depression. Future studies should elucidate further the mechanisms by which neurobehavioral side effects are influenced by glucocorticoid sensitivity. PMID:27448086

  12. Tramadol—induced physical dependence and its effects on behavioral sensitization to methamphetamine in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiangJH; WangK

    2002-01-01

    Tramadol is a widely used and non-controlled analgesic,which stimulates both centrally opiatergic and monoaminergic systems.The epidemiological data indicate that tramadol possesses relatively high poly-drug abuse potential.Therefore,the present study was designed to assess the physical dependence of tramadol and investigate the effects of tramadol on behavioral sensitization to methamphetamine (MA) and its toxicity.Mice were made acute dependence on tramadol by injection (sc) of tramadol.After 3h,naloxone was given (ip) to precipitate withdrawal symptoms.The results showed that tramadol displayed marked naloxoneprecipitated withdrawal symptoms.5-HTP,a precursor of 5-HT,attenuated tramadol withdrawal symptoms,but parachlorophenylalanine,a tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor,aggravated them.In the open field test,tramadol enhanced the development and expression of behavioral sensitization to MA in mice.In addition,co-administration of tramadol (120mg·kg-1,a non-lethal dose) and MA reduced the LD50 for MA from 63.4mg·kg-1 to 32.3mg·kg-1.Our findings suggest that tramadol produce physical dependence in itself and potentiate MA-induced addictive behavior and toxicity.

  13. Effects of inhaled L-arginine administration in a murine model of acute asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Arikan-Ayyildiz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Increased arginase activity in the airways decreases L-arginine and causes deficiency of bronchodilating and anti-inflammatory nitric oxide (NO in asthma. As, it is suggested that L-arginine may have therapeutic potential in asthma treatment, we aimed to investigate the effects of inhaled L-arginine on oxygen saturation (SaO₂ and airway histology in a murine model of acute asthma. Twenty eight BALB/c mice were divided into four groups; I, II, III and IV (control. All groups except the control were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. After establishement of acute asthma attack by metacholine administration, the mice were treated with inhaled L-arginine (Group I, saline (Group II and budesonide (Group III, respectively. SaO₂was measured by pulse oximeter just before and 5 min after methacholine. A third measurement of SaO₂was also obtained 15 min after drug administration in these study groups. Inflammation in the lung tissues of the sacrificed animals were scored to determine the effects of the study drugs. The number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL was determined. The results indicated that inflammatory scores significantly improved in groups receiving study drugs when compared with placebo and L-arginine was similar in decreasing scores when compared with budesonide. SaO₂had a tendency to increase after L-arginine administration after acute asthma attack and this increase was statistically significant (p=0.043. Eosinophilia in BAL significantly reduced in group receiving L-arginine when compared with placebo (p<0.05. Thus in this study we demonstrated that L-arginine improved SaO₂and inflammatory scores in an acute model of asthma.

  14. Effects of Single Bouts of Walking Exercise and Yoga on Acute Mood Symptoms in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ensari, Ipek; Brian M. Sandroff; Motl, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the acute or immediate effects of walking exercise and yoga on mood in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Such an examination is important for identifying an exercise modality for inclusion in exercise-training interventions that yields mood benefits in MS. We examined the effects of single bouts of treadmill walking and yoga compared with a quiet, seated-rest control condition on acute mood symptoms in MS.

  15. Effect of acute stressor and serotonin transporter genotype on amygdala first wave transcriptome in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa Hohoff

    Full Text Available The most prominent brain region evaluating the significance of external stimuli immediately after their onset is the amygdala. Stimuli evaluated as being stressful actuate a number of physiological processes as an immediate stress response. Variation in the serotonin transporter gene has been associated with increased anxiety- and depression-like behavior, altered stress reactivity and adaptation, and pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. In this study the instant reactions to an acute stressor were measured in a serotonin transporter knockout mouse model. Mice lacking the serotonin transporter were verified to be more anxious than their wild-type conspecifics. Genome-wide gene expression changes in the amygdala were measured after the mice were subjected to control condition or to an acute stressor of one minute exposure to water. The dissection of amygdalae and stabilization of RNA was conducted within nine minutes after the onset of the stressor. This extremely short protocol allowed for analysis of first wave primary response genes, typically induced within five to ten minutes of stimulation, and was performed using Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Gene 1.0 ST Arrays. RNA profiling revealed a largely new set of differentially expressed primary response genes between the conditions acute stress and control that differed distinctly between wild-type and knockout mice. Consequently, functional categorization and pathway analysis indicated genes related to neuroplasticity and adaptation in wild-types whereas knockouts were characterized by impaired plasticity and genes more related to chronic stress and pathophysiology. Our study therefore disclosed different coping styles dependent on serotonin transporter genotype even directly after the onset of stress and accentuates the role of the serotonergic system in processing stressors and threat in the amygdala. Moreover, several of the first wave primary response genes that we found might provide

  16. The Antidepressant Effect of L-Tyrosine-Loaded Nanoparticles: Behavioral Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabsi, Abdelrahman; Khoudary, Adel Charbel; Abdelwahed, Wassim

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression has been linked to disruption in the cerebral levels of specific neurotransmitters. L-tyrosine is a precursor of more than one of the neurotransmitters affected by depression. Even though setbacks of monoamines precursors include high doses and low efficiency, many studies have suggested using L-tyrosine as antidepressant. Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore the possible antidepressant effect of L-tyrosine loaded in a nanoparticle-designed formula, using behavioral tests in acute and chronic mild stress (CMS) models of depression in rats. Methods Animals from both models received L-tyrosine-loaded nanoparticles (5 or 10 mg/kg), L-tyrosine solution (10 mg/kg), fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) or placebo daily for 21 days. Rats from the acute stress model of depression were subjected to open field and forced swim tests (FSTs). For the CMS model, sucrose preference test was carried out. Additionally, 3 profiles of the nanoparticles formula were tested in vitro. High dissolution rate and entrapment efficiency were obtained from the in vitro tests. Moreover, L-tyrosine-loaded nanoparticles 10 mg/kg and fluoxetine 10 mg/kg significantly decreased the immobility time in the FST, concomitant with restoration of the basal levels of locomotor activity, distance travelled and rearing counts. Also, an increase of the sucrose consumption was recorded in the sucrose preference test after treatment with L-tyrosine-loaded nanoparticles 10 mg/kg and fluoxetine 10 mg/kg. Results The positive results after treatment with L-tyrosine-loaded nanoparticles, through behavioral tests, are probably attributed to restorating the basal levels of the cerebral noradrenaline. Conclusion The effects of L-tyrosine administration on the cerebral levels of tyrosine hydroxylase and corticotropin-releasing factor should be further investigated. PMID:27647959

  17. Effect of Chronic Lead Intoxication on Risky Behavior in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Mohammadyar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With industrialization of human societies, pollutants like lead have entered in the life cycle, causing harmful effects on body organs. No sufficient studies have been done on the effects of pollutants on behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of lead on some measurable behaviors of an animal model. Methods: Forty eight male adult mice were divided into 4 groups of 12 each. Lead acetate was added at concentrations of 0, 5, 50, or 500 ppm to the drinking water of the animals for 4 weeks (28 days. On day 29, animals were placed on an Elevated Plus maze (EPM for 5 min and the time in sec spent was measured on closed arms, open arms and the end 1/3rd of the open arms. Increased time on open arms, particularly the end 1/3rd was considered to reflect an enhanced risk-accepting behavior. Results: In this study, it was shown that lead exposure caused an increased number of entrance (P=0.006 and time spent (P=0.034 by mice on open arms of the EPM. There was a positive correlation between the concentration of lead acetate and those two effects. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that lead poisoning may decrease normal anxiety in mice and increase risky behavior in this species. Clinical studies on human subjects with risky behavior are strongly suggested in order to find a possible relation between chronic exposures to lead as well as plasma concentration of lead with the extent of this kind of behavior.

  18. Effects of acute administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on sympathetic nerve activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiradentes, R.V. [Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Centro Universitário do Espírito Santo, Colatina, ES (Brazil); Pires, J.G.P. [Centro Universitário do Espírito Santo, Colatina, ES (Brazil); Escola de Medicina da Empresa Brasileira de Ensino, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Silva, N.F. [Departamento de Morfologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Ramage, A.G. [Department of Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Santuzzi, C.H. [Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Centro Universitário do Espírito Santo, Colatina, ES (Brazil); Futuro, H.A. Neto [Escola de Medicina da Empresa Brasileira de Ensino, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Departamento de Morfologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Escola Superior de Ciências da Saúde, Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Vitória, Vitória, ES (Brazil)

    2014-05-30

    Serotonergic mechanisms have an important function in the central control of circulation. Here, the acute effects of three selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on autonomic and cardiorespiratory variables were measured in rats. Although SSRIs require 2-3 weeks to achieve their full antidepressant effects, it has been shown that they cause an immediate inhibition of 5-HT reuptake. Seventy male Wistar rats were anesthetized with urethane and instrumented to record blood pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and respiratory frequency. At lower doses, the acute cardiovascular effects of fluoxetine, paroxetine and sertraline administered intravenously were insignificant and variable. At middle and higher doses, a general pattern was observed, with significant reductions in sympathetic nerve activity. At 10 min, fluoxetine (3 and 10 mg/kg) reduced RSNA by -33±4.7 and -31±5.4%, respectively, without changes in blood pressure; 3 and 10 mg/kg paroxetine reduced RSNA by -35±5.4 and -31±5.5%, respectively, with an increase in blood pressure +26.3±2.5; 3 mg/kg sertraline reduced RSNA by -59.4±8.6%, without changes in blood pressure. Sympathoinhibition began 5 min after injection and lasted approximately 30 min. For fluoxetine and sertraline, but not paroxetine, there was a reduction in heart rate that was nearly parallel to the sympathoinhibition. The effect of these drugs on the other variables was insignificant. In conclusion, acute peripheral administration of SSRIs caused early autonomic cardiovascular effects, particularly sympathoinhibition, as measured by RSNA. Although a peripheral action cannot be ruled out, such effects are presumably mostly central.

  19. Intergenerational effects of cocaine on maternal aggressive behavior and brain oxytocin in rat dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmurray, M.S.; Joyner, P.W.; Middleton, C.W.; Jarrett, T.M.; Elliott, D.L.; Black, M.A.; Hofler, V.E.; Walker, C.H.; Johns, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Gestational cocaine treatment results in significantly increased maternal aggression towards an intruder by postpartum day six, while acute postpartum treatment dose dependently decreases maternal aggressive (MA) behavior. Both increased and decreased aggression in the cocaine-treated dams are correlated with either decreased or increased levels of oxytocin in the amygdala, respectively. The current study was an effort to determine whether the effect of gestational cocaine on maternal aggression is transient or would continue into the postpartum period; whether an intermittent cocaine treatment regimen, which incorporates gestational and postpartum intermittent cocaine treatment, would differ from chronic daily gestational treatment; and finally, whether next generation female offspring of cocaine-treated or control dams would have altered MA behavior and oxytocin system changes attributable to either prenatal drug exposure, rearing condition or both. We now report no increase in maternal aggression following chronic gestational treatment and significantly lower levels of aggression in intermittently treated dams on postpartum day eight, with no significant effects in either group on postpartum day 12. Young adult female offspring of the cocaine-treated and control dams, who reared their own natural litters and were tested on postpartum day eight for maternal aggression, had higher levels of maternal aggression towards an intruder attributable to both prenatal cocaine exposure and rearing condition. Higher aggression in cocaine-reared next generation dams was associated with lower levels of oxytocin in the amygdala. Intergenerational effects of cocaine were apparent with respect to aggression and oxytocin system changes. PMID:18609307

  20. Effect of forced swim stress on wistar albino rats in various behavioral parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambareesha Kondam, Nilesh N Kate, Gaja Lakshmi, Suresh M, Chandrashekar M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stress is an important factor of depression that causes the changes in various body systems. The forced swim test is a commonly used stressor test where rats are forced to swim in specially constructed tanks for a particular period where there is behavioral activation characterized by vigorous swimming and diving to search for alternate routes of escape. Animal health including human has been shown to be affected by the stressful events of life inducing situation which alters cognition, learning memory and emotional responses, causing mental disorders like depression and anxiety and stress in rats. Methods: The experiment was carried out with 12 healthy albino Wistar female rats weighing about 150-180gms. The animals were randomly divided into two groups of six animals each. Group – I (control, Group – II (Stressed Group. Group –II rats are placed in plastic tanks for 45minutes for15 days. Temperature of water was maintained at 20˚C. During stress phase, the animals will be trained for forced swim test, behavioral changes observed by open field apparatus for emotions, and eight arm maze for memory & leaning, elevated plus maze for anxiety. Results: Forced swim stress causes to a significant change (p<0.05 on cognitive functions: motivation, learning and memory. Forced swim stress is the factor damaging the hippocampus causes repeated immobilization and produce atrophy of dendrites of pyramidal neurons and neuroendocrinological disturbances, controlled by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA. Repeated stress in the form of forced swimming activates the free radical processes leading to an increase in lipid peroxidation in many tissues. Conclusion: This study reveals the effect of repeated forced swim stress causes wide range of adaptive changes in the central nervous system including the elevation of serotonin (5-HT metabolism and an increased susceptibility to affective disorders. The earlier findings have reported

  1. The effectiveness of manual hyperinflation during the physiotherapy management of acute atelectasis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. van Aswegen

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Atelectasis is common in intubated and ventilated patients. Thereasons for the atelectasis are multifactorial. Atelectasis, if prolonged, may lead to hypoxaemia, pulmonary infection and fibrosis. The effectiveness of manual hyperinflation as an adjunct to standard respiratory physiotherapy management of patients in the ICU to re-inflate collapsed lung regions, to improve gas exchange and respiratory compliance and to assist with the removal of secretions, have been proclaimed by numerous authors. This case report demonstrates the effectiveness of the addition of manual hyperinflation to the physiotherapy management of an intubated patient with acute atelectasis.

  2. Acute and chronic effects of tributyltin on the Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周群芳; 江桂斌; 刘稷燕

    2003-01-01

    The acute (12 h) and chronic (7 or 14 d) effects of tributyltin chloride (TBT) on a new type of test fish, the Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus), have been studied. High accumulation of the pollutant in the fish muscle and obvious changes in hepatosomatic index and gonad somatic index were observed after exposure. The ultrastructural findings show a series of pathological changes existing in the exposed gill cells and hepatocytes, which demonstrates the toxicity effects of tributyltin compounds on aquatic organisms. The results clearly show that the Chinese rare minnow is a new sensitive test fish material, whose exposure system is suitable for the extensive organometallic toxicity studies.

  3. The Effects of a Team Charter on Student Team Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Joshua R.; McDowell, William C.; Herdman, Andrew O.

    2014-01-01

    The authors contribute to growing evidence that team charters contribute positively to performance by empirically testing their effects on key team process outcomes. Using a sample of business students in a team-based task requiring significant cooperative and coordinative behavior, the authors compare emergent team norms under a variety of team…

  4. The Effects of a Brushing Procedure on Stereotypical Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tonya N.; Durand, Shannon; Chan, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the effects of a brushing protocol on stereotyped behavior of a young boy with autism. First, a functional analysis was conducted which showed that the participant's stereotypy was maintained by automatic reinforcement. Next, the Wilbarger Protocol, a brushing intervention, was implemented. An ABA design was implemented…

  5. Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Lochbuehler; M. Peters; R.H.J. Scholte; R.C.M.E. Engels

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior. We tested whether smokers who are confronted with smoking characters in a movie smoke more cigarettes while watching than those confronted with non-smoking characters and

  6. The Behavioral Effects of Crowding: Definitions and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Larry M.; And Others

    Crews of 18 U.S. Navy combat vessels rated their living and working conditions aboard ship, including degree of crowding. In order to better understand the behavioral effects of crowding, three different types of measures, corresponding to different definitions of crowding, were constructed. These separate crowding measures correlated uniquely…

  7. Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbühler, K.C.; Peters, P.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior. We tested whether smokers who are confronted with smoking characters in a movie smoke more cigarettes while watching than those confronted with non-smoking characters and whether this e

  8. Effects of Domestic Violence on Children's Behavior Problems and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Kathleen J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Parents and children completed measures that assessed children's behavior problems and depression. Children had experienced abuse, witnessed spouse abuse, experienced and witnessed abuse, or experienced no domestic violence. Reports of effects of domestic violence on children varied, depending on the type of violence and the person reporting it.…

  9. Effect of Maternal Depression on Child Behavior: A Sensitive Period?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagner, Daniel M.; Pettit, Jeremy W.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Seeley, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of maternal depression during the child's first year of life (i.e., sensitive period) on subsequent behavior problems. Method: Participants were 175 mothers participating in the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project (OADP) who met lifetime diagnostic criteria for major depressive…

  10. Effects of Academic Experience and Prestige on Researchers’ Citing Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Nicolaisen, Jeppe

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a bibliometric study of the measurable effects of experience and prestige on researchers' citing behavior. All single authors from two econometrics journals over a 10-year time period form the basis of the analysis of how experience and prestige affect the num...

  11. Effects of Behavioral and Social Class Information on Social Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Reuben M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated the role of disconfirming behavioral information and the limits on social class schema effects. Using a Bayesian model of social perception, it was found that unambiguous, relevant stimulus information influenced judgments. Although social class information did not affect relevant stimulus information, it did sway judgments in…

  12. Effects of Acute Administration of Urtica dioica on the Novel Object-Recognition Task in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi-Firouzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Urtica dioica (nettle has a variety of uses in traditional medicine for the treatment of certain urogenital problems, gastrointestinal disorders, and diabetes. Objectives Recent studies have implicated the effect of U. dioica on brain functions such as pain and memory. However, there is no direct evidence of the acute effects of this plant on cognition. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of U. dioica aqueous extract on the novel object-recognition task (NOR in mice. Materials and Methods First, U. dioica aqueous extract was prepared, then adult male mice were randomly divided into four experimental groups. During the training session, the mice were placed in a box and given 5 minutes to explore two identical objects. The next day, they were again placed in the box and allowed to explore one familiar and one novel object. They received intraperitoneal injections of saline or U. dioica aqueous extract (100 mg/kg before or immediately after the training session or before the test session of the NOR task. Results The results showed that there was a preference for the novel object compared to the familiar one in each of the experimental groups. The object-recognition discrimination index in the group of mice that received U. dioica before training was significantly less than in the other experimental groups. There was no significant difference in the discrimination index between the other groups. U. dioica did not decrease the time spent exploring familiar and unfamiliar objects, or the total time spent exploring both objects. Conclusions Acute administration of U. dioica impairs the object-recognition task if it is used only before the training session. This may be due to its modulation on the acquisition processing of object-recognition. U. dioica has no significant effects on the consolidation or retrieval processing stages of the NOR task. These results emphasize the unfavorable effect on cognitive function of pre

  13. Acute exercise improves cognition in the depressed elderly: the effect of dual-tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Vasques

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to assess the acute effect of physical exercise on the cognitive function of depressed elderly patients in a dual-task experiment. INTRODUCTION: Physical exercise has a positive effect on the brain and may even act as a treatment for major depressive disorder. However, the effects of acute cardiovascular exercise on cognitive function during and after one session of aerobic training in elderly depressive patients are not known. METHODS: Ten elderly subjects diagnosed with major depressive disorder performed neuropsychological tests during and after a moderate physical exercise session (65-75%HRmax. A Digit Span Test (Forward and Backward and a Stroop Color-Word Test were used to assess cognitive function. The elderly participants walked on an electric treadmill for 30 minutes and underwent the same cognitive testing before, during, immediately after, and 15 minutes after the exercise session. In the control session, the same cognitive testing was conducted, but without exercise training. RESULTS: The results of the Digit Span Test did not change between the control and the exercise sessions. The results of the Stroop Color-Word Test improved after physical exercise, indicating a positive effect of exercise on cognition. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that the cognitive functions of depressed elderly persons, especially attention and inhibitory control, are not impaired during and after an acute session of physical exercise. In contrast, the effect of dual-tasks showed beneficial results for these subjects, mainly after exercise. The dual-task may be a safe and useful tool for assessing cognitive function.

  14. Acute and long-term in vitro effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annangi, Balasubramanyam; Rubio, Laura; Alaraby, Mohamed; Bach, Jordi; Marcos, Ricard; Hernández, Alba

    2016-09-01

    Since most of the toxic studies of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) focused on acute and high-dose exposure conditions, the aim of the present study was to fill the existing knowledge gap of long-term effects of ZnO NPs at sub-toxic doses. To overcome this point, we have evaluated the toxic, genotoxic, and carcinogenic effects of ZnO NPs under long-term treatments (12 weeks), using a sub-toxic dose (1 µg/mL) according to acute 48-h exposure. Preliminarily, oxidative stress and genotoxic/oxidative DNA damage were determined under acute exposure and high-dose conditions. To determine the role of oxidative DNA damage, a wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF Ogg1 (+/+)) and its isogenic 8-oxo-guanine DNA glycosylase 1 (Ogg1) knockout partner (MEF Ogg1 (-/-)) cell lines were used. Although short-term exposure (24-h) experiments demonstrated that ZnO NPs were able to induce ROS, genotoxicity, and oxidative DNA damage in both cell lines, no effects were obtained under long-term exposure scenario. Thus, 1 µg/mL exposure over 12 weeks was unable to induce genotoxicity as well as cellular transformation in both cell types, as indicated by the lack of observed morphological cell changes, variations in the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases, and anchorage-independent cell growth ability, regarded as cancer-like phenotypic hallmarks. Our results indicate that short-term effects of ZnO NP exposure are not replicated under long-term and sub-toxic dose conditions. All together, the lack of genotoxic/carcinogenic effects after chronic treatments seem to indicate a reduced risk associated with ZnO NP exposure. PMID:26449478

  15. Determination of behavioral reactions of a child of 3-6 ages group to be hospitalized due to an acute illnessDetermination of behavioral reactions of a child of 3-6 ages group to be hospitalized due to an acute illness

    OpenAIRE

    Nesrin Şen Celasin; Sibel Sönmez; Zümrüt Başbakkal; Figen Esenay

    2010-01-01

    The study is executed with mothers of children aged 3-6 (n=170) whose children were hospitalized for the first time between the dates of 15.07.2003 and 15.06.2006, who were reachable by phone and accepted to participate in the study aiming determination of behavioral reactions of a child of 3-6 ages group to be hospitalized due to an acute illness.In this study, for data gathering "Personal Information Form" including 15 questions and "Inquiry Form of Behavior Changes of 3-6 Ages Group Child...

  16. Effects of ORP150 on appearance and function of pancreatic beta cells following acute necrotizing pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wen-Hong; Chen, Chen; Wang, Wei-Xing; Yu, Jia; Li, Jin-You; Liu, Lei

    2011-06-15

    Pancreatic beta cells produce and release insulin, which decreases the blood glucose level. Endoplasmic reticulum stress caused pancreatic beta cell dysfunction and death in acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP). The 150kD oxygen-regulated protein (ORP150) took part in the process of endoplasmic reticulum stress. This study investigated the effect of ORP150 on appearance and function of pancreatic beta cells in ANP. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis relied on retrograde infusion of 5% sodium taurocholate into the bile-pancreatic duct. The severity of ANP was estimated by serum amylase, secretory phospholipase A(2,) and pancreatic histopathology. The changes in appearance and function of pancreatic beta cells were detected by light and electron microscopy and the levels of serum glucose, insulin, and C-peptide. ORP150 expression was studied using western blot and immunohistochemisty assay. The expression of ORP150 mainly appeared on pancreatic beta cells and decreased gradually during the pathogenesis of ANP. The results of light and electron microscopy indicated pancreatic beta cell dysfunction and death, concomitant with elevation of serum glucose, insulin, and C-peptide in ANP. These results imply a probable role of ORP150 in the changes in appearance and function of pancreatic beta cells following acute necrotizing pancreatitis, through the pathway of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

  17. Therapeutic effects of topical netrin-4 in a corneal acute inflammatory model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun; Han; Yi; Shao; Ting-Ting; Liu; Sang-Ming; Li; Wei; Li; Zu-Guo; Liu

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of netrin-4 on the early acute phase of inflammation in the alkali-burned eye.METHODS: Eye drops containing netrin-4 or phosphate buffered saline(PBS) were administered to a alkali-burn-induced corneal acute inflammatory model four times daily. The clinical evaluations, including fluorescein staining and inflammatory index, were performed on day 1, 4 and 7 using slit lamp microscopy.Global specimens were collected on day 7 and processed for immunofluorescent staining. The levels of inflammatory mediators in the corneas were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction(PCR).RESULTS: Exogenous netrin-4 administered on rat ocular surfaces showed more improvements in decreasing fluorescein staining on day 4 and 7, and resolved alkali burn-induced corneal inflammation index on day 7(P <0.01). The levels of IL-1β, IL-6, intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1), monocyte chemotactic protein-1(MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1(MIP-1) in corneas were decreased in netrin-4-treated groups(P <0.05). In addition, netrin-4 significantly reduced the expression of leukocyte common antigen 45(CD45) in the alkali-burn cornea(P <0.001).CONCLUSION: Topical netrin-4 accelerated wound healing and reduced the inflammation on alkali-burn rat model, suggesting a potential as an anti-inflammatory agent in the clinical to treat the acute inflammation.

  18. THE EFFECT OF FLUOROCARBON ARTIFICIAL BLOOD (FC-34 IN ACUTE VASOGENIC BRAIN EDEMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M NEEMATBAKHSH

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Oxygen transport to tissue after an acute ischemia is strongly important. Fluorocarbon liquids are able to facilitated the oxygen transport. An animal experiment was designed to study the effect of FC-34 in acute brain ischemia. Methods. The left common carotid arteries were ligated in three groups of anesthetized animals for 30 minutes to obtain acute brain edema. The animals were subjected to received 15 ml/kg saline (group 1, 10% monitol (group 2 or FC-43 (group 3. All animals were recovered, and they monitored for two weeks. The electrolytes, BUN, and creatinine were measured before (all animals and after two weeks (survived animals. Pathological investigation was obtained by light and electron microscope via pathological process. Findings. The group 1 animals were died during first five days, but one and four animals were survived by two weeks in groups 2 & 3 respectively (P < 0.05. The pathological determinations indicate less cellular damages in group 3. No significant differences were detected in potassium, calcium, BUN, and creatinine before and after the experiment. Conclusion. The particle size and oxygen solubility in FC-43 is the major factors for better oxygen transport in ischem

  19. Acute effects of exercise and active video games on adults' reaction time and perceived exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, José F; López-García, Jesús

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the acute effects of resting, aerobic exercise practised alone, and aerobic exercise with active video games (AVG), on complex reaction time (CRT) and the post-exercise acute rate of perceived exertion (RPE) in young healthy adults. The experimental group was composed of 92 healthy young adults, 78 males and 13 females (age M = 21.9 ± 2.7 years) who completed two sessions, A and B. In session A, participants rode 30 min on an ergometer, while in session B they exercised for 30 min on an ergometer while playing an AVG on a Wii. The control group was composed of 30 young adults, 26 males and 4 females (age M = 21.4 ± 2.9 years) who rested for 30 min. In each session, a CRT task was performed before and after exercising or resting, and post-exercise global RPE was noted. Repeated measures general linear model (GLM) and Wilcoxon tests were performed. (1) Both aerobic exercise alone and aerobic exercise combined with AVG improved CRT, while resting did not; (2) aerobic exercise combined with AVG did not improve CRT more than aerobic exercise only; and (3) RPE was lower after aerobic exercise combined with AVG compared with aerobic exercise only. In young adults, exercise produces acute benefits on CRT, and practising exercise with AVG helps to decrease RPE.

  20. Protection effect of survivin protein overexpression on acute myocardial infarction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Meng; Li, Bo; Liu, Jingwei; Sun, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the protective effect of adenovirus mediated Survivin protein overexpression on acute myocardial infarction in rats. 45 acute myocardial infarction rat models were constructed by suture method and were randomly divided into sham group, model group and treatment group. The treatment group was injected with Survivin gene packed virus via ventricle. The model group was injected with equal titer of adenovirus packed empty vector. The sham group was not ligated. These rats were killed in 96 h after treatment. The levels of Survivin, Caspase-3, caspase-7 mRNA and protein in myocardial tissues were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and Western blot. Myocardium tissue cell apoptosis were analyzed by TUNEL staining, the immunology of myocardial infarction tissue was analyzed by TTC staining. Compared with model group and sham group, the level of survivin protein in myocardium tissue of rats in treatment group was significantly increased (Pmyocardial tissue of rats in model group and treatment group were significantly increased, but the treatment group were significantly lower than those of model group (Pmyocardial infarction areas of rats in model group and treatment group were significantly higher than those of sham group, but the treatment group were significantly lower than those of model group (Pmyocardial tissue can significantly inhibit the expression of apoptosis promoting factor in myocardial tissue of acute myocardial infarction rats, reduce the apoptosis index of myocardial cells and the myocardial infarct size, which has great significance for protecting myocardial function.

  1. Evaluating effects of normobaric oxygen therapy in acute stroke with MRI-based predictive models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Ona

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voxel-based algorithms using acute multiparametric-MRI data have been shown to accurately predict tissue outcome after stroke. We explored the potential of MRI-based predictive algorithms to objectively assess the effects of normobaric oxygen therapy (NBO, an investigational stroke treatment, using data from a pilot study of NBO in acute stroke. Methods The pilot study of NBO enrolled 11 patients randomized to NBO administered for 8 hours, and 8 Control patients who received room-air. Serial MRIs were obtained at admission, during gas therapy, post-therapy, and pre-discharge. Diffusion/perfusion MRI data acquired at admission (pre-therapy was used in generalized linear models to predict the risk of lesion growth at subsequent time points for both treatment scenarios: NBO or Control. Results Lesion volume sizes 'during NBO therapy' predicted by Control-models were significantly larger (P = 0.007 than those predicted by NBO models, suggesting that ischemic lesion growth is attenuated during NBO treatment. No significant difference was found between the predicted lesion volumes at later time-points. NBO-treated patients, despite showing larger lesion volumes on Control-models than NBO-models, tended to have reduced lesion growth. Conclusions This study shows that NBO has therapeutic potential in acute ischemic stroke, and demonstrates the feasibility of using MRI-based algorithms to evaluate novel treatments in early-phase clinical trials.

  2. Effects of Repetitive Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment in Patients with Acute Cerebral Infarction: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hsin Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke is controversial. This prospective study assessed the efficacy and safety of HBOT as adjuvant treatment on 46 acute ischemic stroke in patients who did not receive thrombolytic therapy. The HBOT group (n=16 received conventional medical treatment with 10 sessions of adjunctive HBOT within 3–5 days after stroke onset, while the control group (n=30 received the same treatment but without HBOT. Early (around two weeks after onset and late (one month after onset outcomes (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, NIHSS scores and efficacy (changes of NIHSS scores of HBOT were evaluated. The baseline clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Both early and late outcomes of the HBOT group showed significant difference (P≤0.001. In the control group, there was only significant difference in early outcome (P=0.004. For early efficacy, there was no difference when comparing changes of NIHSS scores between the two groups (P=0.140 but there was statistically significant difference when comparing changes of NIHSS scores at one month (P≤0.001. The HBOT used in this study may be effective for patients with acute ischemic stroke and is a safe and harmless adjunctive treatment.

  3. Inhibitory Effects of Pretreatment with Radon on Acute Alcohol-Induced Hepatopathy in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruaki Toyota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that radon inhalation activates antioxidative functions in the liver and inhibits carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatopathy in mice. In addition, it has been reported that reactive oxygen species contribute to alcohol-induced hepatopathy. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of radon inhalation on acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy in mice. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to intraperitoneal injection of 50% alcohol (5 g/kg bodyweight after inhaling approximately 4000 Bq/m3 radon for 24 h. Alcohol administration significantly increased the activities of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT, glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT in serum, and the levels of triglyceride and lipid peroxide in the liver, suggesting acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy. Radon inhalation activated antioxidative functions in the liver. Furthermore, pretreatment with radon inhibited the depression of hepatic functions and antioxidative functions. These findings suggested that radon inhalation activated antioxidative functions in the liver and inhibited acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy in mice.

  4. Effects of Acute Aerobic Exercise on Executive Function in Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseann Peiffer, Lynn A. Darby, Adam Fullenkamp, Amy L. Morgan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute aerobic exercise may increase cognitive processing speed among tasks demanding a substantial degree of executive function. Few studies have investigated executive function after acute exercise in older adults across various exercise intensities. Healthy females 60-75 years of age (n = 11 who were not on medications completed 20-min exercise sessions at a moderate (50%VO2max exercise intensity and a vigorous (75%VO2max exercise intensity. Modified flanker tasks (reaction times and d2 tests of sustained and selective attention (components of executive function were completed before, immediately after, and 30-min post-exercise. Results indicated that older adult females had improved scores on the modified flanker task reaction times (RTT, RTI, RTC and d2 tests immediately after both moderate and vigorous intensity aerobic exercise. Some of these effects were maintained 30 min post-exercise. These findings suggest that an acute bout of exercise, regardless of intensity, can improve performance on tests of executive function in older women.

  5. Acute effects of exercise and active video games on adults' reaction time and perceived exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, José F; López-García, Jesús

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the acute effects of resting, aerobic exercise practised alone, and aerobic exercise with active video games (AVG), on complex reaction time (CRT) and the post-exercise acute rate of perceived exertion (RPE) in young healthy adults. The experimental group was composed of 92 healthy young adults, 78 males and 13 females (age M = 21.9 ± 2.7 years) who completed two sessions, A and B. In session A, participants rode 30 min on an ergometer, while in session B they exercised for 30 min on an ergometer while playing an AVG on a Wii. The control group was composed of 30 young adults, 26 males and 4 females (age M = 21.4 ± 2.9 years) who rested for 30 min. In each session, a CRT task was performed before and after exercising or resting, and post-exercise global RPE was noted. Repeated measures general linear model (GLM) and Wilcoxon tests were performed. (1) Both aerobic exercise alone and aerobic exercise combined with AVG improved CRT, while resting did not; (2) aerobic exercise combined with AVG did not improve CRT more than aerobic exercise only; and (3) RPE was lower after aerobic exercise combined with AVG compared with aerobic exercise only. In young adults, exercise produces acute benefits on CRT, and practising exercise with AVG helps to decrease RPE. PMID:27239681

  6. Nesiritide, Renal Function, and Associated Outcomes During Hospitalization for Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Results From the Acute Study of Clinical Effectiveness of Nesiritide and Decompensated Heart Failure (ASCEND-HF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Vincent M.; Hernandez, Adrian F.; Stebbins, Amanda; Hasselblad, Vic; Ezekowitz, Justin A.; Califf, Robert M.; Gottlieb, Stephen S.; O'Connor, Christopher M.; Starling, Randall C.; Tang, W. H. Wilson; McMurray, John J.; Dickstein, Kenneth; Voors, Adriaan A.

    2014-01-01

    Background-Contradictory results have been reported on the effects of nesiritide on renal function in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. We studied the effects of nesiritide on renal function during hospitalization for acute decompensated heart failure and associated outcomes. Methods

  7. Humidity Effects and Aging Behavior in Granular Media

    OpenAIRE

    Restagno, F.; Gayvallet, H.; Bocquet, L.; Charlaix, E.

    1999-01-01

    We present a study of humidity effects on the maximum stability angle in granular media. We show that a granular medium of small glass beads exhibits aging properties : the first avalanche angle increases logarithmically with the resting time of the pile. This aging behavior is found to depend on the relative humidity of the surrounding atmosphere. A short interpretation of this effect, based on a model of activated capillary condensation, is proposed.

  8. Hall Effect Sensors Design, Integration and Behavior Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Kayal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on various aspects regarding Hall Effect sensors’ design, integration, and behavior analysis. In order to assess their performance, different Hall Effect geometries were tested for Hall voltage, sensitivity, offset, and temperature drift. The residual offset was measured both with an automated measurement setup and by manual switching of the individual phases. To predict Hall sensors performance prior to integration, three-dimensional physical simulations were performed.

  9. Hall Effect Sensors Design, Integration and Behavior Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Maher Kayal; Maria-Alexandra Paun; Jean-Michel Sallese

    2013-01-01

    The present paper focuses on various aspects regarding Hall Effect sensors’ design, integration, and behavior analysis. In order to assess their performance, different Hall Effect geometries were tested for Hall voltage, sensitivity, offset, and temperature drift. The residual offset was measured both with an automated measurement setup and by manual switching of the individual phases. To predict Hall sensors performance prior to integration, three-dimensional physical simulations were perfor...

  10. Effect of acute treatment with a water-alcohol extract of Erythrina mulungu on anxiety-related responses in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onusic G.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of acute oral treatment with a water-alcohol extract of the inflorescence of Erythrina mulungu (EM, Leguminosae-Papilionaceae (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg on rats submitted to different anxiety models: the elevated T-maze (for inhibitory avoidance and escape measurements, the light/dark transition, and the cat odor test. These models were selected for their presumed capacity to demonstrate specific subtypes of anxiety disorders as recognized in clinical practice. Treatment with 200 mg/kg EM impaired avoidance latencies (avoidance 1 - 200 mg/kg EM: 18 ± 7 s, control group: 40 ± 9 s; avoidance 2 - 200 mg/kg EM: 15 ± 4 s, control group: 110.33 ± 38 s in a way similar to the reference drug diazepam (avoidance 1: 3 ± 0.79 s; avoidance 2: 3 ± 0.76 s, without altering escape. Additionally, the same treatments increased the number of transitions (200 mg/kg EM: 6.33 ± 0.90, diazepam: 10 ± 1.54, control group: 2.78 ± 0.60 between the two compartments and the time spent in the lighted compartment in the light/dark transition model (200 mg/kg EM: 39 ± 7 s; diazepam: 61 ± 9 s; control group: 14 ± 4 s. The dose of 400 mg/kg EM also increased this last measurement (38 ± 8 s. These results were not due to motor alterations since no significant effects were detected in the number of crossings or rearings in the arena. Furthermore, neither EM nor diazepam altered the behavioral responses of rats to a cloth impregnated with cat odor. These observations suggest that EM exerts anxiolytic-like effects on a specific subset of defensive behaviors, particularly those that have been shown to be sensitive to low doses of benzodiazepines.

  11. Acute effects of cigarette smoking on inflammation in healthy intermittent smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vonk Judith M

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic smoking is the main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Knowledge on the response to the initial smoke exposures might enhance the understanding of changes due to chronic smoking, since repetitive acute smoke effects may cumulate and lead to irreversible lung damage. Methods We investigated acute effects of smoking on inflammation in 16 healthy intermittent smokers in an open randomised cross-over study. We compared effects of smoking of two cigarettes on inflammatory markers in exhaled air, induced sputum, blood and urine at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96 and 192 hours and outcomes without smoking. All sputum and blood parameters were log transformed and analysed using a linear mixed effect model. Results Significant findings were: Smoking increased exhaled carbon monoxide between 0 and 1 hour, and induced a greater decrease in blood eosinophils and sputum lymphocytes between 0 and 3 hours compared to non-smoking. Compared to non-smoking, smoking induced a greater interleukin-8 release from stimulated blood cells between 0 and 3 hours, and a greater increase in sputum lymphocytes and neutrophils between 3 and 12 hours. Conclusion We conclude that besides an increase in inflammation, as known from chronic smoking, there is also a suppressive effect of smoking two cigarettes on particular inflammatory parameters.

  12. The Effects of a Brief Acceptance-based Behavior Therapy vs. Traditional Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Public Speaking Anxiety: Differential Effects on Performance and Verbal Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Lisa Hayley

    Individuals with public speaking phobia experience fear and avoidance that can cause extreme distress, impaired speaking performance, and associated problems in psychosocial functioning. Most extant interventions for public speaking phobia focus on the reduction of anxiety and avoidance, but neglect performance. Additionally, very little is known about the relationship between verbal working memory and social performance under conditions of high anxiety. The current study compared the efficacy of two cognitive behavioral treatments, traditional Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (tCBT) and acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT), in enhancing public speaking performance via coping with anxiety. Verbal working memory performance, as measured by the backwards digit span (BDS), was measured to explore the relationships between treatment type, anxiety, performance, and verbal working memory. We randomized 30 individuals with high public speaking anxiety to a 90-minute ABBT or tCBT intervention. As this pilot study was underpowered, results are examined in terms of effect sizes as well as statistical significance. Assessments took place at pre and post-intervention and included self-rated and objective anxiety measurements, a behavioral assessment, ABBT and tCBT process measures, and backwards digit span verbal working memory tests. In order to examine verbal working memory during different levels of anxiety and performance pressure, we gave each participant a backwards digit span task three times during each assessment: once under calm conditions, then again while experiencing anticipatory anxiety, and finally under conditions of acute social performance anxiety in front of an audience. Participants were asked to give a video-recorded speech in front of the audience at pre- and post-intervention to examine speech performance. Results indicated that all participants experienced a very large and statistically significant decrease in anxiety (both during the speech and BDS

  13. Acute Effects of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide on Circulating Steroid Levels in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strajhar, P; Schmid, Y; Liakoni, E; Dolder, P C; Rentsch, K M; Kratschmar, D V; Odermatt, A; Liechti, M E

    2016-03-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine-2A (5-HT2A ) receptor agonist that is used recreationally worldwide. Interest in LSD research in humans waned after the 1970s, although the use of LSD in psychiatric research and practice has recently gained increasing attention. LSD produces pronounced acute psychedelic effects, although its influence on plasma steroid levels over time has not yet been characterised in humans. The effects of LSD (200 μg) or placebo on plasma steroid levels were investigated in 16 healthy subjects using a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study design. Plasma concentration-time profiles were determined for 15 steroids using liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry. LSD increased plasma concentrations of the glucocorticoids cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone and 11-dehydrocorticosterone compared to placebo. The mean maximum concentration of LSD was reached at 1.7 h. Mean peak psychedelic effects were reached at 2.4 h, with significant alterations in mental state from 0.5 h to > 10 h. Mean maximal concentrations of cortisol and corticosterone were reached at 2.5 h and 1.9 h, and significant elevations were observed 1.5-6 h and 1-3 h after drug administration, respectively. LSD also significantly increased plasma concentrations of the androgen dehydroepiandrosterone but not other androgens, progestogens or mineralocorticoids compared to placebo. A close relationship was found between plasma LSD concentrations and changes in plasma cortisol and corticosterone and the psychotropic response to LSD, and no clockwise hysteresis was observed. In conclusion, LSD produces significant acute effects on circulating steroids, especially glucocorticoids. LSD-induced changes in circulating glucocorticoids were associated with plasma LSD concentrations over time and showed no acute pharmacological tolerance.

  14. Acute Effects of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide on Circulating Steroid Levels in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strajhar, P; Schmid, Y; Liakoni, E; Dolder, P C; Rentsch, K M; Kratschmar, D V; Odermatt, A; Liechti, M E

    2016-03-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine-2A (5-HT2A ) receptor agonist that is used recreationally worldwide. Interest in LSD research in humans waned after the 1970s, although the use of LSD in psychiatric research and practice has recently gained increasing attention. LSD produces pronounced acute psychedelic effects, although its influence on plasma steroid levels over time has not yet been characterised in humans. The effects of LSD (200 μg) or placebo on plasma steroid levels were investigated in 16 healthy subjects using a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study design. Plasma concentration-time profiles were determined for 15 steroids using liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry. LSD increased plasma concentrations of the glucocorticoids cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone and 11-dehydrocorticosterone compared to placebo. The mean maximum concentration of LSD was reached at 1.7 h. Mean peak psychedelic effects were reached at 2.4 h, with significant alterations in mental state from 0.5 h to > 10 h. Mean maximal concentrations of cortisol and corticosterone were reached at 2.5 h and 1.9 h, and significant elevations were observed 1.5-6 h and 1-3 h after drug administration, respectively. LSD also significantly increased plasma concentrations of the androgen dehydroepiandrosterone but not other androgens, progestogens or mineralocorticoids compared to placebo. A close relationship was found between plasma LSD concentrations and changes in plasma cortisol and corticosterone and the psychotropic response to LSD, and no clockwise hysteresis was observed. In conclusion, LSD produces significant acute effects on circulating steroids, especially glucocorticoids. LSD-induced changes in circulating glucocorticoids were associated with plasma LSD concentrations over time and showed no acute pharmacological tolerance. PMID:26849997

  15. Effect of pioglitazone treatment on behavioral symptoms in autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelson Stephen M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Autism is complex neuro-developmental disorder which has a symptomatic diagnosis in patients characterized by disorders in language/communication, behavior, and social interactions. The exact causes for autism are largely unknown, but is has been speculated that immune and inflammatory responses, particularly those of Th2 type, may be involved. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs are agonists of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, a nuclear hormone receptor which modulates insulin sensitivity, and have been shown to induce apoptosis in activated T-lymphocytes and exert anti-inflammatory effects in glial cells. The TZD pioglitazone (Actos is an FDA-approved PPARγ agonist used to treat type 2 diabetes, with a good safety profile, currently being tested in clinical trials of other neurological diseases including AD and MS. We therefore tested the safety and therapeutic potential of oral pioglitazone in a small cohort of children with diagnosed autism. Case description The rationale and risks of taking pioglitazone were explained to the parents, consent was obtained, and treatment was initiated at either 30 or 60 mg per day p.o. A total of 25 children (average age 7.9 ± 0.7 year old were enrolled. Safety was assessed by measurements of metabolic profiles and blood pressure; effects on behavioral symptoms were assessed by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC, which measures hyperactivity, inappropriate speech, irritability, lethargy, and stereotypy, done at baseline and after 3–4 months of treatment. Discussion and evaluation In a small cohort of autistic children, daily treatment with 30 or 60 mg p.o. pioglitazone for 3–4 months induced apparent clinical improvement without adverse events. There were no adverse effects noted and behavioral measurements revealed a significant decrease in 4 out of 5 subcategories (irritability, lethargy, stereotypy, and hyperactivity. Improved behaviors were inversely

  16. Effect of hyperthermia on experimental acute pancreatitis Efeito da hipertermia na pancreatite aguda experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Jesus de Almeida

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUD: Recent studies indicate that hyperthermia can change inflammatory mechanisms and protect experimental animals from deleterious effects of secretagogue-induced acute pancreatitis AIM: To evaluate the effects of hyperthermia post-treatment on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in rats METHODS: Twenty animals were divided in two groups: group I (n = 10, rats with cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis undergone hyperthermia, and group II (n = 10, animals with cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis that were kept normothermic. In all groups, amylase serum levels, histologic damage, vascular permeability and pancreatic water content were assessed. Acute pancreatitis was induced by administration of two cerulein injections (20 mcg/kg. A single dose of Evans' blue dye was administered along with the second dose of cerulein. All animals also received a subcutaneous injection of saline solution. After this process, animals undergone hyperthermia were heated in a cage with two 100 W lamps. Body temperature was increased to 39.5ºC and maintained at that level for 45 minutes. Normothermia rats were kept at room temperature in a second cage RESULTS: Control animals had typical edema, serum amylase activity and morphologic changes of this acute pancreatitis model. Hyperthermia post-treatment ameliorated the pancreatic edema, whereas the histologic damage and the serum amylase level remained unchanged CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest a beneficial effect of the thermal stress on inflammatory edema in experimental acute pancreatitis.RACIONAL: Estudos recentes indicam que a hipertermia pode modificar mecanismos inflamatórios e proteger animais experimentais dos efeitos deletérios da pancreatite aguda induzida por secretagogos OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia da hipertermia como tratamento da pancreatite aguda induzida por ceruleína em ratos MÉTODOS: Vinte animais foram divididos em dois grupos: grupo I (n = 10, ratos com pancreatite aguda induzida por

  17. Effects of tourists on behavior and demography of Olympic marmots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Suzanne C; Valois, Tanguy; Taper, Mark L; Scott Mills, L

    2007-08-01

    If changes in animal behavior resulting from direct human disturbance negatively affect the persistence of a given species or population, then these behavioral changes must necessarily lead to reduced demographic performance. We tested for the effects of human disturbance on Olympic marmots (Marmota olympus), a large ground-dwelling squirrel that has disappeared from several areas where recreation levels are high. We assessed the degree to which antipredator and foraging behavior and demographic rates (survival and reproduction) differed between sites with high recreation levels (high use) and those with little or no recreation (low use). Compared with the marmots at low-use sites, marmots at high-use sites displayed significantly reduced responses to human approach, which could be construed as successful accommodation of disturbance or as a decrease in predator awareness. The marmots at high-use sites also looked up more often while foraging, which suggests an increased wariness. Marmots at both types of sites had comparable reproductive and survival rates and were in similar body condition. Until now, the supposition that marmots can adjust their behavior to avoid negative demographic consequences when confronted with heavy tourism has been based on potentially ambiguous behavioral data. Our results support this hypothesis in the case of Olympic marmots and demonstrate the importance of considering demographic data when evaluating the impacts of recreation on animal populations. PMID:17650256

  18. Perinatal stress: characteristics and effects on adult eating behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Cesiana da Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have pointed out the importance of mother-child interaction in the early months of life. A few decades ago, a method called kangaroo care was developed and its main goal was to keep underweight or premature newborns in direct contact with the mother. This method has reduced the morbidity and mortality of these newborns, increasing their growth rate, breastfeeding time and mother-child contact. In rodents, the dam's presence is crucial for avoiding aggression factors that may trigger phenotypic adaptations in the pups with irreversible morphological, functional and behavioral consequences. Eating behavior is an adaptive response stemming from the external environment demand and modulated by opportunities and limitations imposed by the external environment. This behavior is regulated by a complex interaction of peripheral and central mechanisms that control hunger and satiety. The hypothalamus is a brain structure that integrates central and peripheral signals to regulate energy homeostasis and body weight. The hypothalamic nucleus have orexigenic peptides, such as neuropeptide Y and the Agouti-related peptide, and anorexigenic peptides, such as cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript and proopiomelanocortin. An innovative study of eating behavior in experimental models of neonatal stress separates the mother from the offspring during lactation. This review describes the effects of stress during the neonatal period on general physiological factors, particularly on the control of eating behavior.

  19. On the effects of testosterone on brain behavioral functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eCelec

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone influences the brain via organizational and activational effects. Numerous relevant studies on rodents and a few on humans focusing on specific behavioral and cognitive parameters have been published. The results are, unfortunately, controversial and puzzling. Dosing, timing, even the application route seem to considerably affect the outcomes. In addition, the methods used for the assessment of psychometric parameters are a bit less than ideal regarding their validity and reproducibility. Metabolism of testosterone contributes to the complexity of its actions. Reduction to dihydrotestosterone by 5-alpha reductase increases the androgen activity; conversion to estradiol by aromatase converts the androgen to estrogen activity. Recently, the non-genomic effects of testosterone on behavior bypassing the nuclear receptors have attracted the interest of researchers. This review tries to summarize the current understanding of the complexity of the effects of testosterone on brain with special focus on their role in the known sex differences.

  20. Ferromagnetic behavior and exchange bias effect in akaganeite nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadic, Marin, E-mail: marint@vinca.rs [Condensed Matter Physics Laboratory, Vinca Institute of Nuclear Science, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Milosevic, Irena; Motte, Laurence [Laboratoire CSPBAT, UMR 7244 CNRS Université Paris 13, 93017 Bobigny Cedex (France); Kralj, Slavko [Department for Materials Synthesis, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Saboungi, Marie-Louise [CNRS, University of Orleans, F-45071 Orleans 2 (France); IMPMC, Sorbonne Univ-UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR CNRS 7590, Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, IRD UMR 206, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2015-05-04

    We report ferromagnetic-like properties and exchange bias effect in akaganeite (β-FeOOH) nanorods. They exhibit a Néel temperature T{sub N} = 259 K and ferromagnetic-like hysteresis behavior both below and above T{sub N}. An exchange bias effect is observed below T{sub N} and represents an interesting behavior for akaganeite nanorods. These results are explained on the basis of a core-shell structure in which the core has bulk akaganeite magnetic properties (i.e., antiferromagnetic ordering) while the shell exhibits a disordered spin state. Thus, the nanorods show ferromagnetic properties and an exchange bias effect at the same time, increasing their potential for use in practical applications.