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Sample records for acute bacterial meningitis

  1. Acute bacterial and viral meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartt, Russell

    2012-12-01

    Most cases of acute meningitis are infectious and result from a potentially wide range of bacterial and viral pathogens. The organized approach to the patient with suspected meningitis enables the prompt administration of antibiotics, possibly corticosteroids, and diagnostic testing with neuroimaging and spinal fluid analysis. Acute meningitis is infectious in most cases and caused by a potentially wide range of bacterial and viral pathogens. Shifts in the epidemiology of bacterial pathogens have been influenced by changes in vaccines and their implementation. Seasonal and environmental changes influence the likely viral and rickettsial pathogens. The organized approach to the patient with suspected meningitis enables the prompt administration of antibiotics, possibly corticosteroids, and diagnostic testing with neuroimaging and spinal fluid analysis. Pertinent testing and treatment can vary with the clinical presentation, season, and possible exposures. This article reviews the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of acute meningitis.

  2. Corticosteroids for acute bacterial meningitis.

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    Brouwer, Matthijs C; McIntyre, Peter; Prasad, Kameshwar; van de Beek, Diederik

    2015-09-12

    In experimental studies, the outcome of bacterial meningitis has been related to the severity of inflammation in the subarachnoid space. Corticosteroids reduce this inflammatory response. To examine the effect of adjuvant corticosteroid therapy versus placebo on mortality, hearing loss and neurological sequelae in people of all ages with acute bacterial meningitis. We searched CENTRAL (2015, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1966 to January week 4, 2015), EMBASE (1974 to February 2015), Web of Science (2010 to February 2015), CINAHL (2010 to February 2015) and LILACS (2010 to February 2015). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of corticosteroids for acute bacterial meningitis. We scored RCTs for methodological quality. We collected outcomes and adverse effects. We performed subgroup analyses for children and adults, causative organisms, low-income versus high-income countries, time of steroid administration and study quality. We included 25 studies involving 4121 participants (2511 children and 1517 adults; 93 mixed population). Four studies were of high quality with no risk of bias, 14 of medium quality and seven of low quality, indicating a moderate risk of bias for the total analysis. Nine studies were performed in low-income countries and 16 in high-income countries.Corticosteroids were associated with a non-significant reduction in mortality (17.8% versus 19.9%; risk ratio (RR) 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80 to 1.01, P value = 0.07). A similar non-significant reduction in mortality was observed in adults receiving corticosteroids (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.05, P value = 0.09). Corticosteroids were associated with lower rates of severe hearing loss (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.88), any hearing loss (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.87) and neurological sequelae (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.00).Subgroup analyses for causative organisms showed that corticosteroids reduced mortality in Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) meningitis (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.98), but not in

  3. Acute bacterial meningitis in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Fiona; Heyderman, Robert S; Panagiotou, Stavros; Tunkel, Allan R; Solomon, Tom

    2016-12-17

    Over the past several decades, the incidence of bacterial meningitis in children has decreased but there remains a significant burden of disease in adults, with a mortality of up to 30%. Although the pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis is not completely understood, knowledge of bacterial invasion and entry into the CNS is improving. Clinical features alone cannot determine whether meningitis is present and analysis of cerebrospinal fluid is essential for diagnosis. Newer technologies, such as multiplex PCR, and novel diagnostic platforms that incorporate proteomics and genetic sequencing, might help provide a quicker and more accurate diagnosis. Even with appropriate antimicrobial therapy, mortality is high and so attention has focused on adjunctive therapies; adjunctive corticosteroids are beneficial in certain circumstances. Any further improvements in outcome are likely to come from either modulation of the host response or novel approaches to therapy, rather than new antibiotics. Ultimately, the best hope to reduce the disease burden is with broadly protective vaccines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cholinesterase modulations in patients with acute bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Ronan M G; Ofek, Keren; Qvist, Tavs

    2011-01-01

    The circulating cholinesterases acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase may be suppressed and subsequently released from the brain in acute bacterial meningitis.......The circulating cholinesterases acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase may be suppressed and subsequently released from the brain in acute bacterial meningitis....

  5. Fluid therapy for acute bacterial meningitis.

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    Maconochie, Ian K; Bhaumik, Soumyadeep

    2016-11-04

    Acute bacterial meningitis remains a disease with high mortality and morbidity rates. However, with prompt and adequate antimicrobial and supportive treatment, the chances for survival have improved, especially among infants and children. Careful management of fluid and electrolyte balance is an important supportive therapy. Both over- and under-hydration are associated with adverse outcomes. This is the latest update of a review first published in 2005 and updated in 2008 and 2014. To evaluate treatment of acute bacterial meningitis with differing volumes of initial fluid administration (up to 72 hours after first presentation) and the effects on death and neurological sequelae. For this 2016 update we searched the following databases up to March 2016: the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Global Health, and Web of Science. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of differing volumes of fluid given in the initial management of bacterial meningitis were eligible for inclusion. All four of the original review authors extracted data and assessed trials for quality in the first publication of this review (one author, ROW, has passed away since the original review; see Acknowledgements). The current authors combined data for meta-analysis using risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous data or mean difference (MD) for continuous data. We used a fixed-effect statistical model. We assessed the overall quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. We included three trials with a total of 420 children; there were no trials in adult populations. The largest of the three trials was conducted in settings with high mortality rates and was judged to have low risk of bias for all domains, except performance bias which was high risk. The other two smaller trials were not of high quality.The meta-analysis found no significant difference between the maintenance-fluid and restricted-fluid groups in number of deaths (RR 0.82, 95

  6. Utility of cerebrospinal fluid cortisol level in acute bacterial meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Anish Mehta; Rohan R Mahale; Uchil Sudhir; Mahendra Javali; Rangasetty Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Meningitis remains a serious clinical problem in developing as well as developed countries. Delay in diagnosis and treatment results in significant morbidity and mortality. The role and levels of intrathecal endogenous cortisol is not known. Objective: To study the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cortisol levels and to evaluate its role as a diagnostic and therapeutic marker in acute bacterial meningitis. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with acute bacterial meningitis with no pri...

  7. Utility of cerebrospinal fluid cortisol level in acute bacterial meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Anish; Mahale, Rohan R.; Sudhir, Uchil; Javali, Mahendra; Srinivasa, Rangasetty

    2015-01-01

    Background: Meningitis remains a serious clinical problem in developing as well as developed countries. Delay in diagnosis and treatment results in significant morbidity and mortality. The role and levels of intrathecal endogenous cortisol is not known. Objective: To study the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cortisol levels and to evaluate its role as a diagnostic and therapeutic marker in acute bacterial meningitis. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with acute bacterial meningitis with no prior treatment were evaluated. Cortisol levels were compared with 20 patients with aseptic (viral) meningitis and 25 control subjects. Results: Mean CSF cortisol level was 13.85, 3.47, and 1.05 in bacterial meningitis, aseptic meningitis, and controls, respectively. Mean CSF cortisol level in bacterial meningitis was significantly higher as compared to controls (P meningitis (P meningitis. This suggests that intrathecalcortisol may serve as a valuable, rapid, relatively inexpensive diagnostic marker in discriminatingbetween bacterial and aseptic meningitis. This helps in earlier institution of appropriate treatment and thereby decreasing morbidity and mortality. PMID:26019421

  8. [Acute care of patients with bacterial meningitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetefeld, H R; Dohmen, C

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a life-threatening emergency that is still associated with high mortality and poor outcome. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of clinical presentation, diagnostic procedure, therapy, and prognosis in bacterial meningitis. Prognostic factors which could be influenced positively are identified and a focused procedure in the emergency setting and for the treatment of complications are provided. This work is based on a literature search (PubMed, guidelines) and personal experience (standard operating procedures, SOP). Despite improved health care, bacterial meningitis is still associated with high mortality and poor neurological outcome, which has remained largely unaltered during recent decades. Diagnosis and, more importantly, effective therapy of bacterial meningitis are often delayed, having an immediate negative influence on clinical outcome. Neurological and nonneurological complications often necessitate intensive care and may occur rapidly or in the further course of the disease. Immediate initiation of effective therapy is crucial to positively influence mortality and neurological outcome. Antibiotics should be administered within 30 min after admission. To achieve this, a focused and well-organized procedure in the emergency setting is necessary. Because of intra- and extracranial complications, patients need to be treated on intensive care units including neurological expertise and interdisciplinary support.

  9. Steroids in adults with acute bacterial meningitis: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, Diederik; de Gans, Jan; McIntyre, Peter; Prasad, Kameshwar

    2004-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is uncommon but causes significant mortality and morbidity, despite optimum antibiotic therapy. A clinical trial in 301 patients showed a beneficial effect of adjunctive steroid treatment in adults with acute community-acquired pneumococcal meningitis, but data on other

  10. Childhood Acute Bacterial Meningitis in Benin City, Nigeria | Ojide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Childhood acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. The usual practice of commencing antibiotic therapy before the complete laboratory result is available necessitates the knowledge of the current most frequent aetiologic agents of meningitis and the antibiogram in the local ...

  11. Dynamics of germs responsible for acute bacterial meningitis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to analyze ten (10) years of epidemiological surveillance data of meningitis in Burkina Faso for high risk germs patterns identification in order to contribute to the strengthening of prevention strategies. A retrospective study of the past decade (2005- 2014) of cases of acute bacterial meningitis ...

  12. Etiology of Acute Bacterial Meningitis in Iran: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghotaslou, Reza; Yeganeh-Sefidan, Fatemeh; Salahi-Eshlaqi, Behnaz; Ebrahimzadeh-Leylabadlo, Hamed

    2015-08-01

    Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is one of the most severe infectious diseases, causing neurologic sequel, and a case fatality rate of 20-30%. The aim of this paper was to summarize the main causes of ABM in Iran. We searched the data for relevant articles using meningitis, etiology, and Iran as search terms. We found 23 papers for inclusion in the review that focused specifically on the ABM, addressing etiology and acute meningitis. Finally, during the 23 years, a total of 18163 cases were recorded, and 1074 cases of which met the criteria for bacterial meningitis. The most common agent associated with bacterial meningitis was S. pneumoniae, followed by H. influenzae, Enterobacter spp., N. meningitidis, and group B streptococcus. The total incidence of ABM during 1991 to 2002 was higher than during 2003-2013. S. pneumoniae still remains a main cause of bacterial meningitis. For improved outcomes, studies are needed to further clarify the etiology of meningitis in Iran, explore simple, accurate, and practical diagnostic tools as PCR, and investigate the most appropriate specific and supportive interventions to manage and prevent meningitis as vaccination.

  13. Bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Karen L.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a neurological emergency. Empiric antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy should be initiated as soon as a single set of blood cultures has been obtained. Clinical signs suggestive of bacterial meningitis include fever, headache, meningismus, vomiting, photophobia, and an

  14. Bacterial Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccine Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis Bacterial Meningitis Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Prevention Reference Español: Meningitis bacteriana Bacterial meningitis is very serious and can be deadly. Death ...

  15. Childhood Acute Bacterial Meningitis: Clinical Spectrum, Bacteriological Profile and Outcome.

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    Bari, Attia; Zeeshan, Fatima; Zafar, Aiza; Ejaz, Hassan; Iftikhar, Aisha; Rathore, Ahsan Waheed

    2016-10-01

    To determine the disease pattern, etiological agents and outcome of childhood acute bacterial meningitis. Adescriptive study. Department of Paediatric Medicine, The Children's Hospital, Lahore, from January to December 2012. Atotal of 199 children between the ages of 1 month and 5 years, admitted with the diagnosis of meningitis on the basis of clinical findings and positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), were included. In all patients, complete blood count (CBC), CSF culture sensitivity, and blood culture sensitivity were performed. Data was analysed using SPSS version 20. Out of 199 children, 127 (63.8%) were males with M:F ratio of 1.7:1. Mean age was 11.33 ±12 months. Maximum numbers of children were bacterial meningitis mostly affected children under the age of 1 year. CSF culture revealed both Grampositive and Gram-negative bacteria. The most common pathogen in children who died was streptococcus pneumoniae.

  16. Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Antimicrobial Treatment of Acute Bacterial Meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Tunkel, Allan R.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2010-01-01

    The epidemiology of bacterial meningitis has changed as a result of the widespread use of conjugate vaccines and preventive antimicrobial treatment of pregnant women. Given the significant morbidity and mortality associated with bacterial meningitis, accurate information is necessary regarding the

  17. Acute bacterial meningitis in Iran: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houri, Hamidreza; Pormohammad, Ali; Riahi, Seyed Mohammad; Nasiri, Mohammad Javad; Fallah, Fatemeh; Dabiri, Hossein; Pouriran, Ramin

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis persists in being a substantial cause of high mortality and severe neurological morbidity, despite the advances in antimicrobial therapy. Accurate data has not been available regarding the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis particularly in developing countries, yet. Indeed, the present systematic review provides a comprehensive data analysis on the prevalence and epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in Iran. We systematically reviewed articles from 1994 to 2015. The reports which contained the prevalence and etiology of acute bacterial meningitis by valid clinical and laboratory diagnosis were comprised in the present study. Our analysis indicated that Streptococcus pneumoniae (30% [I2 = 56% p bacterial meningitis among meningitis cases in Iran. Notably, high frequency rates of nosocomial meningitis pathogens were detected in the present analysis. It was magnificently attained that the majority of cases for bacterial meningitis in Iran could be avertable by public immunization schemes and by preventive care to inhibit the broadening of hospital acquired pathogens.

  18. Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Antimicrobial Treatment of Acute Bacterial Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Tunkel, Allan R.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2010-01-01

    Summary: The epidemiology of bacterial meningitis has changed as a result of the widespread use of conjugate vaccines and preventive antimicrobial treatment of pregnant women. Given the significant morbidity and mortality associated with bacterial meningitis, accurate information is necessary regarding the important etiological agents and populations at risk to ascertain public health measures and ensure appropriate management. In this review, we describe the changing epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in the United States and throughout the world by reviewing the global changes in etiological agents followed by specific microorganism data on the impact of the development and widespread use of conjugate vaccines. We provide recommendations for empirical antimicrobial and adjunctive treatments for clinical subgroups and review available laboratory methods in making the etiological diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. Finally, we summarize risk factors, clinical features, and microbiological diagnostics for the specific bacteria causing this disease. PMID:20610819

  19. Bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heckenberg, Sebastiaan G. B.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a neurologic emergency. Vaccination against common pathogens has decreased the burden of disease. Early diagnosis and rapid initiation of empiric antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy are vital. Therapy should be initiated as soon as blood cultures have been obtained,

  20. CSF lactate level: a useful diagnostic tool to differentiate acute bacterial and viral meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abro, Ali Hassan; Abdou, Ahmed Saheh; Ustadi, Abdulla M; Saleh, Ahmed Alhaj; Younis, Nadeem Javeed; Doleh, Wafa F

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the potential role of CSF lactate level in the diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis and in the differentiation between viral and bacterial meningitis. This was a hospital based observational study, conducted at Infectious Diseases Unit, Rashid Hospital Dubai, United Arab Emirates, from July 2004 to June 2007. The patients with clinical diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis and who had CSF Gram stain/culture positive, CSF analysis suggestive of bacterial meningitis with negative Gram stain and culture but blood culture positive for bacteria and patients with clinical diagnosis suggestive of viral meningitis supported by CSF chemical analysis with negative Gram stain and culture as well as negative blood culture for bacteria were included in the study. CT scan brain was done for all patients before lumber puncture and CSF and blood samples were collected immediately after admission. CSF chemical analysis including lactate level was done on first spinal tap. The CSF lactate level was tested by Enzymatic Colorimetric method. A total 95 adult patients of acute meningitis (53 bacterial and 42 viral) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Among 53 bacterial meningitis patients, Neisseria meningitides were isolated in 29 (54.7%), Strept. Pneumoniae in 18 (33.96%), Staph. Aureus in 2 (3.77%), Klebsiell Pneumoniae in 2 (3.77%), Strept. Agalactiae in 1 (1.8%) and E. Coli in 1 (1.8%). All the patients with bacterial meningitis had CSF lactate > 3.8 mmol/l except one, whereas none of the patients with viral meningitis had lactate level > 3.8 mmol/l. The mean CSF lactate level in bacterial meningitis cases amounted to 16.51 +/- 6.14 mmol/l, whereas it was significantly lower in viral group 2.36 +/- 0.6 mmol/l, p viral meningitis and it can provide pertinent, rapid and reliable diagnostic information. Furthermore, CSF lactate level can also differentiate bacterial meningitis from viral one in a quick and better way.

  1. Childhood acute bacterial meningitis: risk factors for acute neurological complications and neurological sequelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniuk, Sérgio A; Hamdar, Fátima; Ducci, Renata D; Kira, Ariane T F; Cat, Mônica N L; Cruz, Cristina R da

    2011-01-01

    To assess acute neurological complications and neurological sequelae of childhood acute bacterial meningitis in order to determine possible warning signs. This retrospective study evaluated children with acute bacterial meningitis (between 1 month and 14 years of age) admitted between 2003 and 2006. Of the 44 patients studied, 17 (38.6%) had acute neurological complications. Seizure was the most frequent (31.8%) complication. Patients with acute neurological complications showed a higher frequency of lower neutrophil count (p = 0.03), seizure at admission (p 200 mg/dL (p < 0.01), and cerebrospinal fluid glucose concentration/glycemia ratio (p < 0.01) were identified as risk variables for sequelae. Neutrophil count < 60%, seizure at admission, and S. pneumoniae as the etiologic agent were identified as warning signs for acute neurological complications, while protein levels, cerebrospinal fluid glucose concentration/glycemia ratio, and seizure at admission were seen as risk factors for neurological sequelae.

  2. Regional cerebral blood flow during mechanical hyperventilation in patients with acute bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten; Høgh, Peter; Larsen, Fin Stolze

    2000-01-01

    Mechanical hyperventilation is often instituted in patients with acute bacterial meningitis when increased intracranial pressure is suspected. However, the effect on regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) is unknown. In this study, we measured regional CBF (rCBF) in patients with acute bacterial...... meningitis before and during short-term hyperventilation. In 17 patients with acute bacterial meningitis, absolute rCBF (in ml/100 g min-1) was measured during baseline ventilation and hyperventilation by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using intravenous 133Xe bolus injection. Intravenous...... in the frontal and parietal cortex as well as in the basal ganglia. Focal perfusion abnormalities were present in 10 of 12 patients. Regional cerebral blood flow abnormalities are frequent in patients with acute bacterial meningitis. Short-term hyperventilation does not enhance these abnormalities....

  3. Dexamethasone in adults with bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gans, Jan; van de Beek, Diederik

    2002-01-01

    Background: Mortality and morbidity rates are high among adults with acute bacterial meningitis, especially those with pneumococcal meningitis. In studies of bacterial meningitis in animals, adjuvant treatment with corticosteroids has beneficial effects. Methods: We conducted a prospective,

  4. Diffusion-weighted imaging in acute bacterial meningitis in infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan, W.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Bilaniuk, L.T.; Hunter, J.V.; Simon, E.M.; Haselgrove, J. [Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th Street and Civic Center Boulevard, PA 19104, Philadelphia (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Bacterial meningitis is frequently fatal or leads to severe neurological impairment. Complications such as vasculitis, resulting in infarcts, should be anticipated and dealt with promptly. Our aim was to demonstrate the complications of meningitis by diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in patients who deteriorated despite therapy. We studied 13 infants between the ages of 1 day and 32 months who presented with symptoms ranging from fever and vomiting to seizures, encephalopathy and coma due to bacterial meningitis, performing MRI, including DWI, 2-5 days after presentation. Multiple infarcts were found on DWI in 12 of the 13, most commonly in the frontal lobes (in 10). Global involvement was seen in four children, three of whom died; the fourth had a very poor outcome. In one case abnormalities on DWI were due to subdural empyemas. We diagnosed vasculitis in three of five patients studied with MRA. We think DWI an important part of an MRI study in infants with meningitis. Small cortical or deep white-matter infarcts due to septic vasculitis can lead to tissue damage not easily recognized on routine imaging and DWI can be used to confirm that extra-axial collections represent empyemas. (orig.)

  5. Meningitis registry of hospitalized cases in children: epidemiological patterns of acute bacterial meningitis throughout a 32-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syriopoulou Vassiliki P

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial meningitis remains a source of substantial morbidity and mortality in childhood. During the last decades gradual changes have been observed in the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis, related to the introduction of new polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines. The study presents an overview of the epidemiological patterns of acute bacterial meningitis in a tertiary children 's hospital during a 32-year period, using information from a disease registry. Moreover, it discusses the contribution of communicable disease registries in the study of acute infectious diseases. Methods In the early 1970s a Meningitis Registry (MR was created for patients admitted with meningitis in Aghia Sofia Children's Hospital in Athens. The MR includes demographic, clinical and laboratory data as well as treatment, complications and outcome of the patients. In 2000 a database was created and the collected data were entered, analyzed and presented in three chronological periods: A (1974–1984, B (1985–1994 and C (1995–2005. Results Of the 2,477 cases of bacterial meningitis registered in total, 1,146 cases (46.3% were classified as "probable" and 1,331 (53.7% as "confirmed" bacterial meningitis. The estimated mean annual Incidence Rate (IR was 16.9/100,000 for bacterial meningitis, 8.9/100,000 for Neisseria meningitidis, 1.3/100,000 for Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2.5/100,000 for Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib before vaccination and 0.4/100,000 for Hib after vaccination. Neisseria meningitis constituted the leading cause of childhood bacterial meningitis for all periods and in all age groups. Hib was the second most common cause of bacterial meningitis before the introduction of Hib conjugate vaccine, in periods A and B. The incidence of bacterial meningitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae was stable. The long-term epidemiological pattern of Neisseria meningitidis appears in cycles of approximately 10 years, confirmed by a significant

  6. Acute bacterial meningitis at the 'Complexe Pédiatrique' of Bangui, Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercion, Raymond; Bobossi-Serengbe, Gustave; Gody, Jean Chrysostome; Beyam, Edith Narcisse; Manirakiza, Alexandre; Le Faou, Alain

    2008-04-01

    To precis the aetiologies of children meningitis and the susceptibility to antibiotics of bacteria responsible for meningitis in Bangui, we conducted a prospective study between October 2004 and September 2005, at the 'Complexe Pédiatrique de Bangui', Central African Republic (CAR). Children from 1 day to 16 years with suspected meningitis and who underwent a lumbar puncture were enrolled. Gram staining, culture on chocolate blood medium, cell count, biochemistry (protein level, glucose ratio), capsular antigen detection were performed for each cerebrospinal fluid. MICs were determined by the E-test method. Four hundred and seventeen patients were enrolled during the study period; 130 were proven acute bacterial meningitis and 37 probable bacterial meningitis. Among proven bacterial meningitis, Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common organism responsible for meningitis (62 cases, 48%) followed by Haemophilus influenzae (46 cases, 35%) and by Neisseria meningitidis and Salmonella sp. (8 cases, 6% each). Ninety-four percent and 96% of S. pneumoniae strains tested remain susceptible to benzylpenicilline and chloramphenicol, respectively. A beta-lactamase was detected in 92% of H. influenzae strains tested. However, MICs 50% and 90% for amoxicillin were found to be 1 and 4 mg/l, respectively and 33% of these strains were resistant to chloramphenicol. The global mortality rate was 35% (59/167). This mortality rate was 47% for S. pneumoniae, 33% for H. influenzae, 62% for Salmonella sp. and 13% for N. meningitidis. The probabilistic treatment with ampicillin and chloramphenicol usually administered for children meningitis in Bangui must be reconsidered particularly in cases of H. influenzae meningitis. It is of importance to reduce the presentation delays of children with suspected meningitis in Bangui. The H. influenzae b immunization would allow a dramatic reduction of meningitis cases and deaths in Central African children.

  7. Current concept in the management of acute bacterial meningitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Though largely considered a disease of the so called dry and hot “African meningitis belt,” meningitis is assuming a global public health problem. Recent emergence of resistant strains of bacteria has resulted in increased morbidity of and mortality attributable to meningitis. This review addresses recent developments in the ...

  8. Circulating levels of vasoactive peptides in patients with acute bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Ronan M G; Strauss, Gitte Irene; Tofteng, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: The underlying mechanisms for cerebral blood flow (CBF) abnormalities in acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) are largely unknown. Putative mediators include vasoactive peptides, e.g. calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and endothelin-1 (ET-1), all...

  9. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in the differential diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentis, A-F A; Kyprianou, M A; Xirogianni, A; Kesanopoulos, K; Tzanakaki, G

    2016-03-01

    The differential diagnosis of acute community-acquired meningitis is of paramount importance in both therapeutic and healthcare-related economic terms. Despite the routinely used markers, novel, easily calculated, and rapidly available biomarkers are needed particularly in resource-poor settings. A promising, exponentially studied inflammatory marker is the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), albeit not assessed in meningitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of the NLR in the differential diagnosis of acute meningitis. Data on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood leukocyte parameters from more than 4,000 patients diagnosed with either bacterial or viral meningitis in Greece during the period 2006-2013 were retrospectively examined. The diagnostic accuracy of the NLR and neutrophil counts in CSF and blood were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curves. The discrimination ability of both the NLR and neutrophil counts was significantly higher in CSF than in blood. The optimal cutoff values of the NLR and neutrophil counts were 2 in CSF vs 8 in blood, and 287 cells in CSF vs 12,100 cells in blood, respectively. For these values, sensitivity, negative predictive value, and odds ratio were statistically significantly higher in CSF than blood for both markers. Logistic regression analysis showed that the CSF NLR carries independent and additive information to neutrophil counts in the differential diagnosis of acute meningitis. This study is the first one to assess NLR in acute meningitis, providing promising results for its differential diagnosis.

  10. Acute Bacterial Meningitis in Qatar: A Hospital-Based Study from 2009 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahmi Yousef Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Bacterial meningitis is a common medical condition in Qatar. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of bacterial meningitis, the frequency of each pathogen, and its sensitivity to antibiotics and risk factors for death. Patients and Methods. This retrospective study was conducted at Hamad General Hospital between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2013. Results. We identified 117 episodes of acute bacterial meningitis in 110 patients. Their mean age was 26.4±22.3 years (range: 2–74 and 81 (69.2% of them were male patients. Fifty-nine episodes (50.4% were community-acquired infection and fever was the most frequent symptom (94%, whereas neurosurgery is the most common underlying condition. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most common causative agent, of which 95% were oxacillin-resistant, while 63.3% of Acinetobacter spp. showed resistance to meropenem. The in-hospital mortality was 14 (12%. Only the presence of underlying diseases, hypotension, and inappropriate treatment were found to be independent predictors of mortality. Conclusion. Acute bacterial meningitis predominantly affected adults and coagulase-negative staphylococci species were the common causative agent in Qatar with majority of infections occurring nosocomially. More than 90% of all implicated coagulase-negative staphylococci strains were oxacillin-resistant.

  11. Cerebral blood flow autoregulation in patients with acute bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten

    2001-01-01

    Ph.d. afhandlingen omhandler sammenhængen mellem hjernens blodtilførsel (CBF) og middelarterietrykket (MAP) hos patienter med akut bakteriel meningitis. Hos raske er CBF uafhængig af MAP, hvilket kaldes CBF autoregulation. Svækket autoregulation antages at øge risikoen for cerebral hypoperfusion og...... iskæmi under episoder med lavt MAP, og for cerebral hyperperfusion og vasogent ødem ved højt MAP. CBF autoregulationen undersøgtes hos tyve voksne patienter med akut bakteriel meningitis i den tidlige sygdomsfase (... meningitis, men retableres ved klinisk restitution. Autoregulationen kan endvidere delvis retableres ved akut hyperventilation. Fundene har potentiel betydning for valg af supportiv terapi hos patienter med meningitis....

  12. Repeat Lumbar Puncture: CSF Lactic Acid Levels are Predictive of Cure with Acute Bacterial Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke A. Cunha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A common clinical problem concerns the utility of repeat lumbar puncture (LP in adults with acute bacterial meningitis (ABM, e.g., pneumococcal meningitis [1]. An LP is initially done for diagnostic purposes in patients with suspected ABM, i.e., diagnostic lumbar puncture (DLP. A repeat LP (RLP may be done 1–3 days after the initial DLP, if the patient shows no improvement. If a patient with ABM is not doing well after three days, adequacy of antimicrobial therapy is the main concern. Other reasons for RLP is to detect possible intracranial complications of ABM unrelated to adequacy of therapy [1–2].

  13. Identifying low-risk patients for bacterial meningitis in adult patients with acute meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Yasuharu; Koizumi, Masahiro; Stein, Gerald H; Birrer, Richard B

    2009-01-01

    To derive and validate a clinical prediction model with high sensitivity for differentiating aseptic meningitis (AM) patients from bacterial meningitis (BM) patients. We developed the model using the derivation cohort in a community rural hospital in Okinawa and assessed its performance using the validation cohort in a metropolitan urban hospital in Tokyo. There were 66 (39.5%) and 5 (17.9%) adult patients with BM among the derivation (n=167) and the validation cohort (n=28), respectively. Recursive partitioning analysis was used to determine the important classification variables and to develop a sensitive model to safely exclude BM. The model produced high- and low-risk groups based on the following: 1) Gram stain, 2) CSF neutrophil percent < or =15%, 3) CSF neutrophil count < or =150 cells/mm(3), and, 4) mental status change. Among the derivation cohort, there were 65 patients with BM in the high-risk group (n=76), while only one patient with BM was noted (sensitivity, 99%) in the low-risk group (n=91). Among the validation cohort, there were 5 patients with BM in the high-risk group (n=7), while no patient was classified with BM (sensitivity, 100%) in the low-risk group (n=21). This simple and sensitive model might be useful to safely identify low-risk patients for BM who would not require antibiotic treatment.

  14. Spectrum and Prevalence of Pathological Intracranial Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Acute Bacterial Meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lummel, N; Koch, M; Klein, M; Pfister, H W; Brückmann, H; Linn, J

    2016-06-01

    Aim of this study was to determine the spectrum and prevalence of pathological intracranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with acute bacterial meningitis. We retrospectively identified all consecutive patients with cerebral spinal fluid proven bacterial meningitis who presented at our neurology department between 2007 and 2012. Pathogenic agents and clinical symptoms were noted. MR-examinations were evaluated regarding presence and localization of pathological signal alterations in the different sequences by two neuroradiologists in consensus. A total of 136 patients with purulent bacterial meningitis were identified. In 114 cases the bacterial pathogen agent was proven and in 75 patients an MRI was available. In 62 of the 75 (82.7 %) patients meningitis-associated pathologic imaging findings were evident on MRI. Overall, intraventricular signal alterations, i.e., signs of pyogenic ventriculitis, were present in 41 cases (54.7 %), while sulcal signal changes were found in 22 cases (29.3 %). Intraparenchymatous signal alterations affected the cortex in 15 cases (20 %), and the white matter in 20 patients (26.7 %). The diffusion-weighted imaging and fluid attenuated inversion recovery sequences were most sensitive in the detection of these changes and showed any pathologic findings in 67.6 and 79.6 %, respectively. Patients with streptococcal meningitis showed significantly more often (n = 29 of 34, 85.3 %) intraventricular and/or sulcal diffusion restrictions than patients with meningitis caused by other agents (n = 12 of 37, 32.4 %) (pmeningitis. Intraventricular diffusion restrictions, i.e., signs of pyogenic ventriculitis, are more often found in patients with streptococcal, especially pneumococcal, infection.

  15. [Autochthonous acute viral and bacterial infections of the central nervous system (meningitis and encephalitis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ruiz, Mercedes; Vicente, Diego; Navarro-Marí, José María

    2008-07-01

    Rapid diagnosis of acute viral and bacterial infections of the central nervous system (meningitis and encephalitis) is highly important for the clinical management of the patient and helps to establish early therapy that may solve life-threatening situations, to avoid unnecessary empirical treatments, to reduce hospital stay, and to facilitate appropriate interventions in the context of public health. Molecular techniques, especially real-time polymerase chain reaction, have become the fastest and most sensitive diagnostic procedures for autochthonous viral meningitis and encephalitis, and their role is becoming increasingly important for the diagnosis and control of most frequent acute bacterial meningitides. Automatic and closed systems may encourage the widespread and systematic use of molecular techniques for the diagnosis of these neurological syndromes in most laboratories.

  16. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism in adults with acute bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten

    2007-01-01

    The intense intrathecal inflammation observed in acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is associated with pronounced changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism. In seven substudies, CBF and metabolism were measured in adults with ABM as well as healthy volunteers during various interventions....... The studies provide new information about pathophysiological changes, in particular regarding CBF, cerebral oxidative metabolism, and certain aspects of the inflammatory response during ABM. These findings may be important for supportive treatment of patients with this life-threatening disease....

  17. Diagnostic value of latex agglutination test in diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Fasiha Mohammadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To know the incidence of bacterial meningitis in children below five years of age. To compare conventional culture and antigen detection methods ( Latex agglutination test. Materials and Methods: 100 CSF samples of clinically suspected meningitis cases in children below 5 years of age were included. The samples were subjected to cell count, Gram stain, culture and LAT. The organisms isolated in the study were characterized according to standard procedures. Results: Of the 100 cases studied, 31 cases were diagnosed as ABM by Gram stain, culture and latex agglutination test as per WHO criteria. The hospital frequency of ABM was 1.7%. 15 (48.38 cases were culture positive. Gram stain was positive in 22(70.96 cases and LAT in 17(54.83 cases. Haemophilus influenzae was the most common causative agent of acute bacterial meningitis followed by S.pneumoniae. Case fatality rate was 45.16%.The sensitivity and specificity of LAT was 66.66% and 87.91% respectively. Conclusion : Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency and early diagnosis and treatment is life saving and reduces chronic morbidity. LAT was more sensitive compared to conventional Gram stain and Culture technique in identifying the fastidious organisms like H.influenzae, S.pneumoniae and Group B Streptococcus. However, the combination of Gram stain, Culture and LAT proved to be more productive than any of the single tests alone.

  18. Evaluation of the Seeplex® Meningitis ACE Detection kit for the detection of 12 common bacterial and viral pathogens of acute meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, So Youn; Kwon, Kye Chul; Park, Jong Woo; Kim, Ji Myung; Shin, So Young; Koo, Sun Hoe

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is an infectious disease with high rates of mortality and high frequency of severe sequelae. Early identification of causative bacterial and viral pathogens is important for prompt and proper treatment of meningitis and for prevention of life-threatening clinical outcomes. In the present study, we evaluated the value of the Seeplex Meningitis ACE Detection kit (Seegene Inc., Korea), a newly developed multiplex PCR kit employing dual priming oligonucleotide methods, for diagnosing acute meningitis. Analytical sensitivity of the kit was studied using reference strains for each pathogen targeted by the kit, while it's analytical specificity was studied using the human genome DNA and 58 clinically well-identified reference strains. For clinical validation experiment, we used 27 control cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples and 78 clinical CSF samples collected from patients at the time of diagnosis of acute meningitis. The lower detection limits ranged from 10(1) copies/µL to 5×10(1) copies/µL for the 12 viral and bacterial pathogens targeted. No cross-reaction was observed. In the validation study, high detection rate of 56.4% was obtained. None of the control samples tested positive, i.e., false-positive results were absent. The Seeplex Meningitis ACE Detection kit showed high sensitivity, specificity, and detection rate for the identification of pathogens in clinical CSF samples. This kit may be useful for rapid identification of important acute meningitis-causing pathogens.

  19. Outcome of 8-hour dosing intervals with beta-lactam antibiotics in adult acute bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Magnus; Hagberg, Lars

    2006-01-01

    The outcome of dosing with beta-lactam antibiotics at 8-h intervals for adult patients with community-acquired acute bacterial meningitis was retrospectively analysed at Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden. 80 medical records were identified for a 6-y period from 1999 to 2004. The most common pathogens noted were Streptococcus pneumoniae (47.5%), Neiseria meningitidis (12.5%), and Listeria monocytogenes (5.0%). Other bacteria were diagnosed in 16.3% of all episodes, but the bacteriological aetiology remained unknown in 18.8%. 79 episodes of bacterial meningitis were treated with beta-lactam antibiotics at 8-h dosing intervals. The mortality rate in these patients was 6.3%, with an incidence of permanent neurological deficiencies of 24.1%. Our study shows that a low mortality rate can be achieved using beta-lactam antibiotics at longer dosing intervals than usually recommended by international guidelines.

  20. Effect of short-term hyperventilation on cerebral blood flow autoregulation in patients with acute bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation is impaired in patients with acute bacterial meningitis: this may be caused by cerebral arteriolar dilatation. We tested the hypothesis that CBF autoregulation is recovered by acute mechanical hyperventilation in 9 adult patients...... with acute bacterial meningitis. METHODS: Norepinephrine was infused to increase mean arterial pressure (MAP) 30 mm Hg from baseline. Relative changes in CBF were concomitantly recorded by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography of the middle cerebral artery, measuring mean flow velocity (V...... completely during hyperventilation. The slope of the autoregulation curve decreased during hyperventilation compared with normoventilation (Pmeningitis, indicating...

  1. Cerebral blood flow, oxidative metabolism and cerebrovascular carbon dioxide reactivity in patients with acute bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten; Strauss, Gitte Irene; Thomsen, Gerda

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The optimal arterial carbon dioxide tension (P(a)CO(2)) in patients with acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is unknown and controversial. The objective of this study was to measure global cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebrovascular CO(2) reactivity (CO(2)R), and cerebral metabolic rates...... and hyperventilation with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) (14 patients) and/or the Kety-Schmidt technique (KS) (11 patients and all controls). In KS studies, CMR was measured by multiplying the arterial to jugular venous concentration difference (a-v D) by CBF. RESULTS: CBF did not differ...

  2. Acute bacterial meningitis in the intensive care unit and risk factors for adverse clinical outcomes: retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, D; Gonçalves-Pereira, J; Janeiro, S; Silvestre, J; Bento, L; Póvoa, P

    2014-06-01

    Bacterial meningitis constitutes a medical emergency. Its burden has driven from childhood to the elderly and the immunocompromised population. However, the admission of patients with bacterial meningitis to the intensive care unit (ICU) has been sparsely approached, as have the prognostic factors associated with an adverse clinical outcome. We performed a retrospective analysis during a 7-year period of patients older than 18 years admitted to 2 polyvalent ICUs. Clinical, demographic, and outcome data were collected to evaluate its clinical impact on the outcome of patients with acute bacterial meningitis. We identified 65 patients with the diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis (mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, 23; hospital mortality, 40%). Upon clinical presentation, their most frequent signs were fever (84%), seizures (21.5%), and a low Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score (GCSbacterial meningitis admitted to ICU had substantial morbidity and mortality. Those with low GCS or absence of fever have a particularly high risk of an adverse outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Bacterial meningitis in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Lawrence C; Boggess, Kim A; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Neonatal bacterial meningitis is uncommon but devastating. Morbidity among survivors remains high. The types and distribution of pathogens are related to gestational age, postnatal age, and geographic region. Confirming the diagnosis is difficult. Clinical signs are often subtle, lumbar punctures are frequently deferred, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures can be compromised by prior antibiotic exposure. Infants with bacterial meningitis can have negative blood cultures and normal CSF parameters. Promising tests such as the polymerase chain reaction require further study. Prompt treatment with antibiotics is essential. Clinical trials investigating a vaccine for preventing neonatal Group B Streptococcus infections are ongoing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Zoonotic bacterial meningitis in human adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Samkar, Anusha; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-01-01

    To describe the epidemiology, etiology, clinical characteristics, treatment, outcome, and prevention of zoonotic bacterial meningitis in human adults. We identified 16 zoonotic bacteria causing meningitis in adults. Zoonotic bacterial meningitis is uncommon compared to bacterial meningitis caused by

  5. Epidemiological, clinical and prognostic profile of childhood acute bacterial meningitis in a resource poor setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuti, Bankole Peter; Bello, Emmanuel Olasehinde; Jegede, Tolulope Opeoluwa; Olubosede, Omolayo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood bacterial meningitis is a neurologic emergency that continues to kill and maims children particularly in developing countries with poor immunization coverage. Objective: This study set out to assess the hospital incidence, pattern of presentation, etiologic agents, outcome and determinants of mortality among the children admitted with bacterial meningitis at the Wesley Guild Hospital (WGH), Ilesa. Patients and Methods: We carried out a retrospective review of admitted cases of bacterial meningitis in children aged one month to 15 years at the WGH, Ilesa over a three year period by looking at the hospital records. Factors in the history and examinations were compared among survivors and those that died to determine factors significantly associated with mortality in these children. Results: Eighty-one (5.5%) of the 1470 childhood admissions during the study period had bacterial meningitis. Male preponderance was observed and two-thirds of the children were infants. More cases were admitted during the wet rainy season than during the dry harmattan season. Haemophilus influenzae type B and Streptococcus pneumoniae were the leading etiologic agents and ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone adequately cover for these organisms. Twenty-two (27.2%) of the 81 children died, while 34 (42.0%) survived with neurologic deficits. Children with multiple seizures, coma, neck retraction, hyponatremia, hypoglycorrhachia, turbid CSF as well as Gram positive meningitis at presentation were found to more likely to die (P meningitis often results in death and neurologic deficit among infants and young children admitted at the WGH, Ilesa. Children diagnosed with meningitis who in addition had multiple seizures, neck retraction and coma at presentation are at increased risk of dying. PMID:26752902

  6. Adult bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, C N; Samuelsson, I S; Galle, M

    2004-01-01

    Episodes of adult bacterial meningitis (ABM) at a Danish hospital in 1991-2000 were identified from the databases of the Department of Clinical Microbiology, and compared with data from the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Notification System. Reduced penicillin susceptibi......Episodes of adult bacterial meningitis (ABM) at a Danish hospital in 1991-2000 were identified from the databases of the Department of Clinical Microbiology, and compared with data from the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Notification System. Reduced penicillin...... susceptibility occurred in 21 (23%) of 92 cases of known aetiology, compared to an estimated 6% in nationally notified cases (p treatment was appropriate in 97% of ABM cases in the study population, and in 99.6% of nationally notified cases. The notification rate...... treatment for ABM should not be based exclusively on clinical notification systems with possible unbalanced under-reporting....

  7. Community-acquired bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, Diederik; Brouwer, Matthijs; Hasbun, Rodrigo; Koedel, Uwe; Whitney, Cynthia G.; Wijdicks, Eelco

    2016-01-01

    Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges and subarachnoid space that can also involve the brain cortex and parenchyma. It can be acquired spontaneously in the community - community-acquired bacterial meningitis - or in the hospital as a complication of invasive procedures or head trauma

  8. Time window for positive cerebrospinal fluid broad-range bacterial PCR and Streptococcus pneumoniae immunochromatographic test in acute bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Magnus; Welinder-Olsson, Christina; Hagberg, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Reliable microbiological tests are essential for the diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis (ABM). In this study we investigated the time period after the start of antibiotic therapy during which culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the immunochromatographic test (ICT) are able to detect bacteria in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The study was performed on CSF samples from adults with ABM admitted to the Department of Infectious Diseases, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden, from January 2007 to April 2014. In addition to the initial lumbar puncture (LP), the participants underwent one or two more LPs during 10 days following the start of antibiotics. The analyses performed on the CSF samples were culture, PCR and ICT. The study comprised 70 CSF samples from 25 patients with ABM. A bacterium could be identified by CSF culture in 44%, by blood culture in 58% and by PCR in 100% of the patients. There were no positive CSF cultures in samples taken later than the day of starting antibiotics. PCR was positive in 89% on days 1-3, 70% on days 4-6 and 33% on days 7-10. For cases of pneumococcal meningitis, the ICT was positive in 88% on days 1-3, 90% on days 4-6 and 75% on days 7-10. This study shows that PCR is highly sensitive for bacterial detection in CSF samples taken up to 1 week into antibiotic therapy. The ICT is highly sensitive for the detection of pneumococci in CSF samples taken during the first week of antibiotic treatment.

  9. Acute Bacterial Meningitis and Systemic Abscesses due to Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jourani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated abscesses due to group G β-hemolytic Streptococcus dysgalactiae were observed in a 57-year-old cirrhotic patient with the skin being the putative way of entry for the pathogen. S. dysgalactiae is a rare agent in human infections responsible for acute pyogenic meningitis. The mortality rate associated with S. dysgalactiae bacteraemia and meningitis may be as high as 50%, particularly in the presence of endocarditis or brain abscesses. In our patient, main sites of infections were meningitis and ventriculitis, spondylodiscitis, septic arthritis, and soft-tissue infections. In contrast, no endocarditis was evidenced. Cirrhosis-related immune suppression was considered as a pathophysiological cofactor for the condition. Fortunately, clinical status improved after long-term (3 months antimicrobial therapy.

  10. Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with people who have meningococcal meningitis should receive antibiotics to prevent becoming infected. Alternative Names Meningitis - bacterial; Meningitis - viral; Meningitis - fungal; Meningitis - ...

  11. Bacteriële meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, M. C.; van de Beek, D.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a severe disease which affects 35.000 Europeans each year and has a mortality rate of about 20%. During the past 25 years the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis has changed significantly due to the implementation of vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria

  12. Role of Clinical Presentations and Routine CSF Analysis in the Rapid Diagnosis of Acute Bacterial Meningitis in Cases of Negative Gram Stained Smears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Rabab; El-Kholy, Badawy; Yosry, Ayman

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim. Bacterial meningitis is a lethal, disabling endemic disease needing prompt antibiotic management. Gram stained smears is rapid accurate method for diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. In cases of negative gram stained smears diagnosis is delayed till culture results. We aim to assess the role of clinical presentations and routine CSF analysis in the cost-effective rapid diagnosis of negative gram stained smears bacterial meningitis. Methods. Cross sectional study including 623 acute meningitis patients divided into two groups: bacterial meningitis and nonbacterial meningitis groups. The clinical presentations, systemic inflammatory parameters, and CSF analysis were evaluated and compared in both groups. Results. Altered conscious level, localizing neurological signs, Kernig's and Brudzinski's signs together with peripheral leucocytosis (>10.000/mm3), high CRP (>6) together with high CSF protein (>50 gl/dL), CSF neutrophilic count (≥50% of total CSF leucocytic count), and low CSF glucose level (bacterial meningitis patients. From the significant CSF analysis variables CSF protein carried the higher accuracy of diagnosis 78% with sensitivity 88% and specificity 72%. Conclusions. High CSF protein (>50 mg/dL) together with plasma inflammatory markers and CSF cytochemical parameters can diagnose bacterial meningitis in gram stain negative smear till culture results. PMID:24803939

  13. Cognitive outcome in adults after bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogman, Martine; van de Beek, Diederik; Weisfelt, Martijn; de Gans, Jan; Schmand, Ben

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cognitive outcome in adult survivors of bacterial meningitis. METHODS: Data from three prospective multicentre studies were pooled and reanalysed, involving 155 adults surviving bacterial meningitis (79 after pneumococcal and 76 after meningococcal meningitis) and 72 healthy

  14. Endocarditis in adults with bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucas, Marjolein J.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2013-01-01

    Endocarditis may precede or complicate bacterial meningitis, but the incidence and impact of endocarditis in bacterial meningitis are unknown. We assessed the incidence and clinical characteristics of patients with meningitis and endocarditis from a nationwide cohort study of adults with

  15. Cognitive outcome in adults after bacterial meningitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogman, M.; Beek, D. van de; Weisfelt, M.; Gans, J. de; Schmand, B.A.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cognitive outcome in adult survivors of bacterial meningitis. METHODS: Data from three prospective multicentre studies were pooled and reanalysed, involving 155 adults surviving bacterial meningitis (79 after pneumococcal and 76 after meningococcal meningitis) and 72 healthy

  16. The level of neuron-specific enolase and S-100 protein in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute bacterial meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sokhan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic role of neuron-specific enolase (NSE and S-100 protein levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of patients with acute bacterial meningitis in the course of the disease. Materials and Methods. 54 cases of acute bacterial meningitis were analyzed, among them – 26 with pneumococcal and 28 with meningococcal etiology. Patients were divided into groups depending on the severity and etiology of disease. In addition to routine laboratory methods, we analyzed the CSF levels of S-100 protein and NSE at admission and after 10 – 12 days of treatment. 12 patients with acute respiratory infections and meningism were examined as a comparison group. Results. In all patients with acute bacterial meningitis CSF NSE and protein S-100 levels were significantly higher than in the control group (P <0,05. CSF neuro specific proteins level was in direct dependence on severity of the disease, and in patients with severe disease was significantly higher than in patients with moderate severity and in the control group (P <0,01. After 10 – 12 days of treatment, the level of the NSE and S-100 protein decreased, but in severe cases was still higher than in the control group (P <0,05. Conclusions. Increased cerebrospinal fluid NSE and S – 100 protein levels shows the presence and value of neurons and glial cells damage in patients with acute bacterial meningitis. CSF S-100 protein and neuron-specific enolase levels help to determine the severity of neurons destruction and glial cells in patients with acute bacterial meningitis. Level of neurospecific protein is in direct proportion to the severity of the disease and is the highest in patients with severe cases (P<0,05. It confirms the diagnostic and prognostic value of CSF neurospecific protein determination in patients with bacterial meningitis.

  17. Diagnostic challenges with acellular bacterial meningitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pleocytosis, hypoglycorrhachia and a raised CSF protein level.[2,8,16]. Despite our patient's reduced CSF glucose and raised protein, the inconsistent polymorph cell count was striking. Based on clinical suspicion, CSF and laboratory determinants, she was treated for acute bacterial meningitis. CSF Gram stains and culture ...

  18. Neurosonographic findings of bacterial meningitis in Infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Moon Chul; Lee, Sung Sik; Lee, Hong Kue; Lee, Soon Il [Sowa Children' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-02-15

    44 infants under 1 year were studied retrospectively during these illness and follow up after 1 week intervals. The spectrum of sonographic features of bacterial meningitis in acute stage included normal scan (20 patients), echogenic sulci (10 patients), echogenic lining of epandymas (8 patients), Abnormal parenchymal echogenecity (6 patients). On follow up examination with 1 week intervals, variety of complications was found in 14 patients (32%) of the infants. There were ventriculomegaly in 7 patients, extraaxial fluid collection in 4 patients, brain abscess in 2 patients and poor encephalic cyst in 1 patient. We conclude that ultrasound was an effective method for evaluation of progression and complications of bacterial meningitis.

  19. Neurological sequelae of bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Marjolein J; Brouwer, Matthijs C; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-07-01

    We reported on occurrence and impact of neurological sequelae after bacterial meningitis. We reviewed occurrence of neurological sequelae in children and adults after pneumococcal and meningococcal meningitis. Most frequently reported sequelae are focal neurological deficits, hearing loss, cognitive impairment and epilepsy. Adults with pneumococcal meningitis have the highest risk of developing focal neurological deficits, which are most commonly caused by cerebral infarction, but can also be due to cerebritis, subdural empyema, cerebral abscess or intracerebral bleeding. Focal deficits may improve during clinical course and even after discharge, but a proportion of patients will have persisting focal neurological deficits that often interfere in patient's daily life. Hearing loss occurs in a high proportion of patients with pneumococcal meningitis and has been associated with co-existing otitis. Children and adults recovering from bacterial meningitis without apparent neurological deficits are at risk for long-term cognitive deficits. Early identification of neurological sequelae is important for children to prevent additional developmental delay, and for adults to achieve successful return in society after the disease. Neurological sequelae occur in a substantial amount of patients following bacterial meningitis. Most frequently reported sequelae are focal neurological deficits, hearing loss, cognitive impairment and epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical characteristics and prognosis of acute bacterial meningitis in elderly patients over 65: a hospital-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Lai Wei-An; Chen Shu-Fang; Tsai Nai-Wen; Chang Chiung-Chih; Chang Wen-Neng; Lu Cheng-Hsien; Chuang Yao-Chung; Chien Chun-Chih; Huang Chi-Ren

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background To examine the clinical characteristics of bacterial meningitis in elderly patients. Methods 261 patients with adult bacterial meningitis (ABM), collected during a study period of 11 years (2000-2010), were included for study. Among them, 87 patients aged ≥ 65 years and were classified as the elderly group. The clinical and laboratory characteristics and prognostic factors were analyzed, and a clinical comparison with those of non-elderly ABM patients was also made. Result...

  1. Adjunctive Corticosteroids in Adults with Bacterial Meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, Diederik; de Gans, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a complex disorder in which neurologic injury is caused, in part, by the causative organism and, in part, by the host's own inflammatory response. In studies of experimental bacterial meningitis, adjuvant treatment with corticosteroids, specifically dexamethasone, has

  2. Induced Hypothermia in Severe Bacterial Meningitis A Randomized Clinical Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourvillier, Bruno; Tubach, Florence; van de Beek, Diederik; Garot, Denis; Pichon, Nicolas; Georges, Hugues; Lefevre, Laurent Martin; Bollaert, Pierre-Edouard; Boulain, Thierry; Luis, David; Cariou, Alain; Girardie, Patrick; Chelha, Riad; Megarbane, Bruno; Delahaye, Arnaud; Chalumeau-Lemoine, Ludivine; Legriel, Stéphane; Beuret, Pascal; Brivet, François; Bruel, Cédric; Camou, Fabrice; Chatellier, Delphine; Chillet, Patrick; Clair, Bernard; Constantin, Jean-Michel; Duguet, Alexandre; Galliot, Richard; Bayle, Frédérique; Hyvernat, Hervé; Ouchenir, Kader; Plantefeve, Gaetan; Quenot, Jean-Pierre; Richecoeur, Jack; Schwebel, Carole; Sirodot, Michel; Esposito-Farèse, Marina; Le Tulzo, Yves; Wolff, Michel

    2013-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Despite advances in care, mortality and morbidity remain high in adults with acute bacterial meningitis, particularly when due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Induced hypothermia is beneficial in other conditions with global cerebral hypoxia. OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that induced

  3. neonatal bacterial meningitis in Cape Town children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with proven bacterial meningitis at all the hospitaJs in the. Cape Town ... children with haemophilus and pneumococcal meningitis were similar ..... treatment policies. The current treatment policy in most of the hospitals in the area is that meningococcal meningitis is treated for at least 7 days, while the other types are treated.

  4. Meningococcal Disease (Bacterial Meningitis) Vaccine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meningococcal Disease (Bacterial Meningitis) Vaccine In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a baby with a ... advice from your health care provider. What is meningitis? Meningitis is an infection of the lining around ...

  5. Evaluation of posttraumatic recurrent bacterial meningitis in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveci, Özcan; Uysal, Cem; Varol, Sefer; Tekin, Recep; Bozkurt, Fatma; Bekçibaşı, Muhammed; Hoşoğlu, Salih

    2015-07-01

    Acute bacterial meningitis may develop as a complication after head trauma. The aim of this study was to present the demographic, clinical, microbiological and radiological characteristics of adult patients who presented with recurrent bacterial meningitis attacks after trauma. Using a retrospective approach, the medical records of patients with acute recurrent bacterial meningitis (RBM) were reviewed, and those who had a history of trauma were included into the study. RBM was diagnosed based on clinical, bacteriologic and laboratory results. Demographic characteristics, clinical course, laboratory test results including cerebrospinal fluid analysis (CSF), radiological images, and the applied treatments were evaluated. A total of two hundred and twelve patients with acute bacterial meningitis were included into the study. RBM was diagnosed in twenty-five patients (11.8%), and in 18 of these patients (8.5%), the attacks had occurred subsequent to a trauma. In the CSF cultures of four patients, S. pneumoniae growth was observed. CT cisternography indicated CSF leaks in eleven patients. Moreover, bone fractures were observed in the CT images of ten patients. Ceftriaxone therapy was prescribed to 83% of the patients. Eight patients had a history of a fall in childhood, and five were involved in traffic accidents before acute bacterial meningitis. Four of the patients developed epilepsy and one developed deafness as sequelae. Since RBM attacks are frequently observed following trauma, in patients with a history of trauma who present with meningitis, the risk of recurrence should be considered.

  6. C-reactive protein and bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Lars Ulrik; Jørgensen, P E; Nexø, E

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was to review published articles on the diagnostic accuracy of C-reactive protein (CRP) tests with cerebrospinal fluid and serum in diagnosing bacterial meningitis. The literature from 1980 and onwards was searched using the electronic databases of MEDLINE, and we used summary...... measured in serum, and 4 in which it had been measured in both cerebrospinal fluid and serum. The odds ratio for bacterial meningitis versus aseptic meningitis for a positive CRP test with cerebrospinal fluid was estimated at 241 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 59-980), and the central tendencies.......06-0.08, respectively, the post-test probability of not having bacterial meningitis given a negative test is very high (> or = 97%), in the range of a pre-test probability (prevalence of bacterial meningitis) from 10 to 30%, whereas the post-test probability of bacterial meningitis given a positive test is considerably...

  7. CT scan of bacterial and aseptic meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takemoto, Kazumasa; Saiwai, Shigeo; Tamaoka, Koichi (Kobe Central Municipal Hospital (Japan))

    1983-01-01

    CT scans of the patients with aseptic and bacterial meningitis were reviewed and compared to previous reports. In aseptic meningitis, no abnormal CT findings were observed. In bacterial meningitis, CT findings were ventricular dilatation, subdural fluid collection, parenchymal low density, intracerebral hematoma and meningeal enhancement after contrast injection. Three patients among 48 suffered from status epileptics during the course of the illness. All of the 3 patients developed parenchymal inhomogeneous low density and progressive ventricular dilatation which did not improve after ventricular peritoneal shunt surgery. We believe that these changes are most likely due to hypoxic hypoxemia during epileptic seizure and meningitis itself seems to play a little role.

  8. Neonatal Bacterial Meningitis And Dexamethasone Adjunctive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology: Babies admitted from1992 to 1995 in the Special Care Baby Unit of the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maduguri, Nigeria, with bacterial meningitis were studied prospectively. Neonatal bacterial meningitis was confirmed if the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) microbiological, chemical, immunological and ...

  9. Epidemiology of community-acquired bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2018-01-01

    The epidemiology of bacterial meningitis has been dynamic in the past 30 years following introduction of conjugated vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type B, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. The purpose of this review is to describe recent developments in bacterial

  10. Oxidative stress in children with bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ragni; Lohokare, Rajeev; Prasad, Rajniti

    2013-08-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in children. The oxidative stress in bacterial meningitis is barely determined. Forty children with bacterial meningitis were studied for their oxidants and antioxidants status in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Fever (95%) was commonest presentation followed by seizure and vomiting. Neck rigidity and Kernig's sign were present in 37.5% and 27.5% cases, respectively. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl and nitrite levels were significantly raised in cases (p ascorbic acid, glutathione and superoxide dismutase levels were significantly decreased in children with septic meningitis (p ascorbic acid and superoxide dismutase indicates utilization of the antioxidants in septic meningitis. Thus, changes in oxidants and antioxidants observed suggest production of reactive oxygen species and their possible role in pathogenesis of septic meningitis.

  11. Zoonotic bacterial meningitis in human adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Samkar, Anusha; Brouwer, Matthijs C; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-09-13

    To describe the epidemiology, etiology, clinical characteristics, treatment, outcome, and prevention of zoonotic bacterial meningitis in human adults. We identified 16 zoonotic bacteria causing meningitis in adults. Zoonotic bacterial meningitis is uncommon compared to bacterial meningitis caused by human pathogens, and the incidence has a strong regional distribution. Zoonotic bacterial meningitis is mainly associated with animal contact, consumption of animal products, and an immunocompromised state of the patient. In a high proportion of zoonotic bacterial meningitis cases, CSF analysis showed only a mildly elevated leukocyte count. The recommended antibiotic therapy differs per pathogen, and the overall mortality is low. Zoonotic bacterial meningitis is uncommon but is associated with specific complications. The suspicion should be raised in patients with bacterial meningitis who have recreational or professional contact with animals and in patients living in regions endemic for specific zoonotic pathogens. An immunocompromised state is associated with a worse prognosis. Identification of risk factors and underlying disease is necessary to improve treatment. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  12. [Community acquired bacterial meningitis in patients over 60].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora Mora, Luis A; Arco Espinosa, Micke E de; Plumet, Javier; Micheli, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Acute bacterial meningitis has a global mortality rate of 135000 cases per year. In Argentina over the last 12 years, the annual incidence rate has been 5.5/100 000. About 20% of patients present neurological sequelae, which are more common in patients aged 60 or older. Our objective here is to determine the clinical characteristics, the most common causes and to measure evolution in patients over 60 years old diagnosed with meningitis and treated at the Hospital de Clinicas José de San Martín. This is a retrospective study based on a review of medical records from 2003 to 2013 that takes into account patients older than 60 who were diagnosed with acute bacterial meningitis acquired in the community by a microbiological diagnosis of CSF or those included due to a high suspicion of bacterial meningitis (pleocitosis > 2000 cells/mm3, proteins > 220 mg/dl, glycorrhachia meningitis, nosocomial, postoperative and other nonbacterial meningitis were excluded. Sixty nine patients were included, 45 (65%) were women with an average age of 78 ± 10.6 years. Only 40% had the triad of classical meningitis symptoms (stiff neck, fever and altered mental status). In 52% of the patients germs developed in the CSF, the most frequent being Streptococcus pneumoniae present in 47% of cases. Lethality rate was 41%, all of them by methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Only 24 (35%) cases were admitted into intensive care. The main sequelae present were motor disorders (12%) and hearing loss (5%).

  13. Pediatric bacterial meningitis in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elenga, N; Sicard, S; Cuadro-Alvarez, E; Long, L; Njuieyon, F; Martin, E; Kom-Tchameni, R; Balcaen, J; Moreau, B; Boukhari, R

    2015-01-01

    Controlling vaccine-preventable infectious diseases is a public health priority in French Guiana but there is currently no epidemiological data on pediatric bacterial meningitis in this overseas department. Our aim was to describe data related to pediatric bacterial meningitis in French Guiana and compare it with that of metropolitan France. We conducted a multicenter retrospective study from 2000 to 2010 to describe the clinical picture, biological data, epidemiology, and outcome of pediatric bacterial meningitis case patients in French Guiana. The median age of bacterial meningitis patients was 6months [0-15] and the sex ratio 1.06. We observed a total of 60 bacterial meningitis case patients. Most presented with pneumococcal meningitis (24 patients; 40%); 11 with Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis (23%), five with group B streptococcal meningitis (8.5%), and five others (8.5%) with staphylococcal meningitis (three patients presented with coagulase-negative staphylococci and two with Staphylococcus aureus). Only one patient presented with group B meningococcal meningitis, an 18-month-old infant. We recorded 14 deaths (overall case fatality: 23%); eight were due to Streptococcus pneumoniae (case fatality: 33%). The overall sequelae rate was 28%. It was 32% for patients presenting with pneumococcal meningitis. We observed that 38% of children who had never been vaccinated were infected by a vaccine-preventable bacterium. We observed many differences in the distribution of the bacteria and in the patients' prognosis when comparing the French Guiana data with that of metropolitan France. Improving vaccination coverage would decrease the incidence of H. influenzae meningitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Dependency of cerebral blood flow upon mean arterial pressure in patients with acute bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten; Larsen, Fin Stolze; Qvist, Jesper

    2000-01-01

    , 30-87 cm/sec) to 63 cm/sec (33-105 cm/sec) (p restored in eight of ten...... patients undergoing serial examination after 7 (range, 2-10) days. Six of these patients had an uncomplicated course, one had a protracted recovery, and one died. Autoregulation was not restored in two patients; one died and one had a protracted recovery. CONCLUSION: In patients in the early phase of acute...

  15. The epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namani, Sadie A; Koci, Remzie A; Qehaja-Buçaj, Emine; Ajazaj-Berisha, Lindita; Mehmeti, Murat

    2014-07-14

    The purpose of this study was to present the epidemiologic features of bacterial meningitis in the developing country of Kosovo. Data were collected from active surveillance of bacterial meningitis cases treated at the University Clinical Center of Kosovo in the years 2000 (first post-war year) and 2010. Meningitis cases in 2000 compared with 2010 showed a 35.5% decline in incidence (from 4.8 to 3.1 cases per 100,000 population) and a decrease in the case fatality rate from 10% to 5%. In children, there was a lower mortality rate (5% versus 2%) and a lower incidence of neurological complications (13% versus 16%) as compared to adults (32% versus 10% and 16% versus 35%, respectively). Neisseria meningitidis was the most common pathogen of bacterial meningitis in both study periods. Bacterial meningitis was most prevalent in the pediatric population, and showed an increase in the median age, from three years in 2000 to seven years in 2010. A steady number of bacterial meningitis cases in adults throughout last decade (around 20 cases per year) was recorded. During the last decade, gradual changes have been observed in the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis that are unrelated to the introduction of new vaccines, but are partly due to the improvement of living conditions.

  16. Risk factors for community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Adriani, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges and occurs when bacteria invade the subarachnoid space. The meninges are the protective membranes that surround the brain and the spinal cord. Bacterial meningitis is a life-threatening disease because the proximity of the infection to the brain and still has a high mortality. Bacterial meningitis is described as early as the 5th century B.C. in Hippocratic writings. Organisms causing meningitis were identified in the late 19th century. ...

  17. Endolymphatic sac involvement in bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Brandt, Christian; Østergaard, Christian

    2015-01-01

    is largely unaccounted for, and thus the object of the present study. A well-established adult rat model of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis was employed. Thirty adult rats were inoculated intrathecally with Streptococcus pneumoniae and received no additional treatment. Six rats were sham......The commonest sequelae of bacterial meningitis are related to the inner ear. Little is known about the inner ear immune defense. Evidence suggests that the endolymphatic sac provides some protection against infection. A potential involvement of the endolymphatic sac in bacterial meningitis...... days. Bacteria invaded the inner ear through the cochlear aquaduct. On days 5-6, the bacteria invaded the endolymphatic sac through the endolymphatic duct subsequent to invasion of the vestibular endolymphatic compartment. No evidence of direct bacterial invasion of the sac through the meninges...

  18. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SERUM C - REACTIVE PROTEIN ESTIMATION IN ACUTE MENINGITIS IN ADULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Konatham; Kathyayani

    2015-01-01

    In the study of 50 cases of acute meningitis the following observations were made in sex incidence, age, clinical presentation, CSF analysis and serum C reactive protein levels and prognosis. Serum CRP level of less than 6 mg / l with signs of meningeal inf ection is a definitive indicative of viral meningitis and CRP levels more than 48 mg / l with clinical signs of meningeal infection is definite indication of bacterial meningitis. AIM OF THE STUDY: to evalu...

  19. Accuracy of cerebrospinal leucocyte count, protein and culture for the diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis: a comparative study using Bayesian latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Laurens; Laman, Moses; Mare, Trevor; Hwaiwhanje, Ilomo; Siba, Peter; Davis, Timothy M E

    2014-12-01

    To examine the utility of laboratory methods other than bacterial culture in diagnosing acute bacterial meningitis (ABM). Bayesian latent class analysis was used to estimate diagnostic precision of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture, leucocyte counts and protein concentrations for ABM in Melanesian children. With a cut-off of ≥20 leucocytes/mm(3) , the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC ROC) was >97.5% for leucocyte counts. A lower (93%) AUC ROC was observed for CSF protein concentrations ≥1 g/l. CSF culture had poor sensitivity and high specificity. Leucocyte counts provide sufficient diagnostic precision to aid clinical decision-making in ABM. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Clinical characteristics and prognosis of acute bacterial meningitis in elderly patients over 65: a hospital-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Wei-An

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the clinical characteristics of bacterial meningitis in elderly patients. Methods 261 patients with adult bacterial meningitis (ABM, collected during a study period of 11 years (2000-2010, were included for study. Among them, 87 patients aged ≥ 65 years and were classified as the elderly group. The clinical and laboratory characteristics and prognostic factors were analyzed, and a clinical comparison with those of non-elderly ABM patients was also made. Results The 87 elderly ABM patients were composed of 53 males and 34 females, aged 65-87 years old (median = 71 years. Diabetes mellitus (DM was the most common underlying condition (34%, followed by end stage renal disease (7%, alcoholism (4% and malignancies (4%. Fever was the most common clinical manifestation (86%, followed by altered consciousness (62%, leukocytosis (53%, hydrocephalus (38%, seizure (30%, bacteremia (21% and shock (11%. Thirty-nine of these 87 elderly ABM patients had spontaneous infection, while the other 48 had post-neurosurgical infection. Forty-four patients contracted ABM in a community-acquired state, while the other 43, a nosocomial state. The therapeutic results of the 87 elderly ABM patients were that 34 patients expired and 53 patients survived. The comparative results of the clinical and laboratory characteristics between the elderly and non-elderly ABM patients showed that only peripheral blood leukocytosis was significant. Presence of shock and seizure were significant prognostic factors of elderly ABM patients. Conclusions Elderly ABM patients accounted for 34.8% of the overall ABM cases, and this relatively high incidence rate may signify the future burden of ABM in the elderly population in Taiwan. The relative frequency of implicated pathogens of elderly ABM is similar to that of non-elderly ABM. Compared with non-elderly patients, the elderly ABM patients have a significantly lower incidence of peripheral blood leukocytosis

  1. ETIOLOGY AND NEUROLOGICAL COMPLICATIONS OF BACTERIAL MENINGITIS IN 189 PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    P. Tabatabaie; Sayahtaheri, S; A. Siadati O. Alizad

    1997-01-01

    Results of a seven year (April 1985 to March 1992) prospoective study of bacterial meningitis in 189 infants and children admitted to our Center indicate that: 1) Tiie Gram-negative bacilli, especially Klebsiella species, are the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in neonates and young infants (<2 months), group B Streptococcus meningitis is rare, and Listeria monocytogenes meningitis is not observed. 2) Haemophilus influenzae is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children...

  2. Risk factors for community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriani, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges and occurs when bacteria invade the subarachnoid space. The meninges are the protective membranes that surround the brain and the spinal cord. Bacterial meningitis is a life-threatening disease because the proximity of the infection to the

  3. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance profiles of cerebrospinal fluid pathogens in children with acute bacterial meningitis in Yunnan province, China, 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongchao; Su, Min; Kui, Liyue; Huang, Hailin; Qiu, Lijuan; Li, Li; Ma, Jing; Du, Tingyi; Fan, Mao; Sun, Qiangming; Liu, Xiaomei

    2017-01-01

    Acute bacterial meningitis is still considered one of the most dangerous infectious diseases in children. To investigate the prevalence and antibiotic resistance profiles of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pathogens in children with acute bacterial meningitis in Southwest China, CSF samples from 179 meningitis patients (3 days to 12 years old) with positive culture results were collected from 2012 to 2015. Isolated pathogens were identified using the Vitek-32 system. Gram stain results were used to guide subcultures and susceptibility testing. The antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates was determined using the disc diffusion method. Of the isolates, 50.8% were Gram-positive bacteria, and 49.2% were Gram-negative bacteria. The most prevalent pathogens were E. coli (28.5%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (17.8%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (10.0%), Haemophilus influenzae type b (9.5%), and group B streptococcus (7.2%). In young infants aged ≤3 months, E. coli was the organism most frequently isolated from CSF (39/76; 51.3%), followed by group B streptococcus (13/76; 17.1%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (8/76; 10.5%). However, in young infants aged >3 months, the most frequently isolated organism was Streptococcus pneumoniae (24/103; 23.3%), followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (18/103; 17.5%) and Haemophilus influenzae type b (16/103; 15.5%). Antimicrobial susceptibility tests indicated that for E. coli isolates, the susceptibility rates to aminoglycosides ranged from 56.8% to 100.0%, among them, amikacin was identified as the most effective against E. coli. As for cephalosporins, the susceptibility rates ranged from 29.4% to 78.4%, and cefoxitin was identified as the most effective cephalosporin. In addition, the susceptibility rates of piperacillin/tazobactam and imipenem against E. coli were 86.3% and 100%. Meanwhile, the susceptibility rates of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates to penicillin G, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone and tetracycline were 68.8%, 0

  4. Bacterial meningitis in patients with HIV: A population-based prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, Kiril E B; Brouwer, Matthijs C; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-03-01

    We studied occurrence, disease course, and prognosis of community-acquired bacterial meningitis in HIV-infected adults in the Netherlands. We performed a nationwide, prospective cohort study. Patients over 16 years old with bacterial meningitis were included. Data on patient history, symptoms and signs on admission, laboratory findings, radiologic examination, treatment, and outcome were collected prospectively. For HIV-positive patients additional information was collected retrospectively. From March 2006 to December 2013, 1354 episodes of community-acquired meningitis were included in the cohort. Thirteen patients were HIV-infected (1.0%). The annual incidence of bacterial meningitis was 8.3-fold higher (95%CI 4.6-15.1, P bacterial meningitis as compared to the general population despite cART therapy. Clinical presentation and outcome of patients with acute bacterial meningitis with and without HIV are similar. Copyright © 2016 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Population-based surveillance for bacterial meningitis in China, September 2006-December 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yixing; Yin, Zundong; Shao, Zhujun; Li, Manshi; Liang, Xiaofeng; Sandhu, Hardeep S; Hadler, Stephen C; Li, Junhong; Sun, Yinqi; Li, Jing; Zou, Wenjing; Lin, Mei; Zuo, Shuyan; Mayer, Leonard W; Novak, Ryan T; Zhu, Bingqing; Xu, Li; Luo, Huiming

    2014-01-01

    During September 2006-December 2009, we conducted active population and sentinel laboratory-based surveillance for bacterial meningitis pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae type b, in 4 China prefectures. We identified 7,876 acute meningitis and encephalitis syndrome cases, including 6,388 among prefecture residents. A total of 833 resident cases from sentinel hospitals met the World Health Organization case definition for probable bacterial meningitis; 339 of these cases were among children bacterial meningitis in 74 of 3,391 tested cases. The estimated annual incidence (per 100,000 population) of probable bacterial meningitis ranged from 1.84 to 2.93 for the entire population and from 6.95 to 22.30 for children bacterial meningitis cases in China, but more complete laboratory testing is needed to better define the epidemiology of the disease in this country.

  6. Counterimmunoelectrophoresis in the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Lind, I

    1977-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE) would facilitate the rapid, etiological diagnosis of bacterial meningitis when used in parallel with other routine methods in a medical bacteriological laboratory. Of 3,674 consecutive specimens of cerebros......The aim of the present study was to investigate whether counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE) would facilitate the rapid, etiological diagnosis of bacterial meningitis when used in parallel with other routine methods in a medical bacteriological laboratory. Of 3,674 consecutive specimens....../139) of the culture-negative specimens. CSF specimens from 21 patients with bacterial meningitis caused by other species were all negative in CIE, except four, three of which contained Escherichia coli antigen reacting with antiserum to N. meningitidis group B and one E. coli antigen reacting with antiserum to H...

  7. Bacterial Meningitis in Adults After Splenectomy and Hyposplenic States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriani, Kirsten S.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the occurrence, disease course, prognosis, and vaccination status of patients with community-acquired bacterial meningitis with a history of splenectomy or functional hyposplenia. Patients and Methods: Patients with bacterial meningitis proven by cerebrospinal fluid culture

  8. Hyperglycemia in bacterial meningitis: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, E.S.; Westendorp, W.F.; de Gans, J.; Kruyt, N.D.; Spanjaard, L.; Reitsma, J.B.; van de Beek, D.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia has been associated with unfavorable outcome in several disorders, but few data are available in bacterial meningitis. We assessed the incidence and significance of hyperglycemia in adults with bacterial meningitis. METHODS: We collected data prospectively between

  9. Neuron-Specific Enolase Is Correlated to Compromised Cerebral Metabolism in Patients Suffering from Acute Bacterial Meningitis; An Observational Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartek, Jiri; Thelin, Eric Peter; Ghatan, Per Hamid

    2016-01-01

    in combination with serum samples of biomarkers indicating brain tissue injury, S100B and Neuron Specific Enolase (NSE), additional information might be provided. The aim of this study was to evaluate biomarkers in serum and MD parameters in patients with ABM. METHODS: From a prior study on patients (n = 52......INTRODUCTION: Patients suffering from acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) with a decreased level of consciousness have been shown to have an improved clinical outcome if treated with an intracranial pressure (ICP) guided therapy. By using intracranial microdialysis (MD) to monitor cerebral metabolism......) with a confirmed ABM and impaired consciousness (GCS ≤ 9, or GCS = 10 combined with lumbar spinal opening pressure > 400 mmH2O), a subgroup of patients (n = 21) monitored with intracerebral MD and biomarkers was included in the present study. All patients were treated in the NICU with intracranial pressure (ICP...

  10. Update on bacterial meningitis: epidemiology, trials and genetic association studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasanmoentalib, E. Soemirien; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a life-threatening disease that continues to inflict a heavy toll. We reviewed recent advances in vaccination, randomized studies on treatment, and genetic association studies in bacterial meningitis. The incidence of bacterial meningitis has decreased after implementation of

  11. Bacteriological profile of community acquired acute bacterial meningitis: A ten-year retrospective study in a tertiary neurocare centre in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Ten years retrospective study to evaluate the bacteriological spectrum of community acquired acute bacterial meningitis (CAABM. Methods: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from 385 clinically suspected cases of pyogenic meningitis were processed for cell counts, cytospin Gram stain, culture, antigen detection by latex agglutination (LAT and antibiotic susceptibility test. Eighteen of these CSF samples were also subjected to a polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay for detection of pneumococcal DNA. Results: The etiological agent could be identified in 284 (73.8% of the total 385 cases by culture and/or smear and /or LAT. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the predominant pathogen accounting for 238 (61.8% cases. Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis accounted for 7 (1.8% and 4 (1% cases respectively. Other gram negative bacilli, Streptococcus spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from 19 (4.9%, 9 (2.3% and 7 (1.8% cases respectively. Conclusions: Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the major aetiological agent of CAABM both in adults and children in our set-up. No penicillin resistance was detected among the isolates. Further research should focus on preventable aspects of CAABM, especially pneumococcal vaccines, to help reduce the disease burden.

  12. Prognostic factors related to sequelae in childhood bacterial meningitis: Data from a Greek meningitis registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilopoulou Vasiliki A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial meningitis (BM is a life-threatening disease, often related with serious complications and sequelae. Infants and children who survive bacterial meningitis often suffer neurological and other sequelae. Methods A total of 2,477 patients aged 1 month to 14 years old hospitalized in a Children's Hospital in Greece diagnosed with acute bacterial meningitis were collected through a Meningitis Registry, from 1974 to 2005. Clinical, laboratory and other parameters (sex, age, pathogen, duration of symptoms before and after admission were evaluated through univariate and multivariate analysis with regard to sequelae. Analysis of acute complications were also studied but not included in the final model. Results The rate of acute complications (arthritis and/or subdural effusion was estimated at 6.8% (152 out of 2,251 patients, 95%CI 5.8-7.9 while the rate of sequelae (severe hearing loss, ventriculitis, hydrocephalus or seizure disorder among survivors was estimated at 3.3% (73 out of 2,207 patients, 95%CI 2.6-4.2. Risk factors on admission associated with sequelae included seizures, absence of hemorrhagic rash, low CSF glucose, high CSF protein and the etiology of meningitis. A combination of significant prognostic factors including presence of seizures, low CSF glucose, high CSF protein, positive blood culture and absence of petechiae on admission presented an absolute risk of sequelae of 41.7% (95%CI 15.2-72.3. Conclusions A combination of prognostic factors of sequelae in childhood BM may be of value in selecting patients for more intensive therapy and in identifying possible candidates for new treatment strategies.

  13. neonatal bacterial meningitis in Cape Town children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial meningitis is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in South Africa. However, comprehensive regional or national epidemiological data, essential for rational public health interventions, are lacking. The purpose of this 1-year prospective study, from. 1 August 1991 to 31 July 1992, was to define the.

  14. Outcomes of bacterial meningitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briand, C; Levy, C; Baumie, F; Joao, L; Béchet, S; Carbonnelle, E; Grimprel, E; Cohen, R; Gaudelus, J; de Pontual, L

    2016-06-01

    Pediatricians are well aware of the immediate risks of bacterial meningitis in children. However, the long-term outcome of the disease has not been extensively studied. We aimed: (i) to evaluate the duration and quality of the long-term follow-up of children diagnosed with bacterial meningitis in a general pediatric department, (ii) to estimate the incidence of sequelae at the various stages of follow-up, and (iii) to compare our data with that of other studies. We conducted a retrospective study and included 34 children (3 months-15 years) who had been hospitalized for bacterial meningitis in the pediatric department of a University Hospital between January 1st, 2001 and December 31st, 2013. Overall, 32% of patients presented with sequelae and 15% with seizures. Only one patient presented with hearing loss, but 23.5% of patients did not have any hearing test performed. Seven patients had a neuropsychological assessment performed and no severe neuropsychological sequela was observed in this group. The average follow-up duration increased during the study period (from 23 to 49months). The long-term follow-up modalities observed in other studies were highly variable. Assessing the incidence and severity of sequelae was therefore difficult. A standardized follow-up should be implemented by way of a national surveillance network of children presenting with bacterial meningitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Childhood bacterial meningitis in Mbarara Hospital, Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The recommended antibiotic treatment of bacterial meningitis has come under scrutiny following frequent reports of in-vitro resistance by the common causative organisms to penicillin and chloramphenicol. Objective. The study recorded'the causative organisms, antibiotic sensitivity patterns and outcome of ...

  16. Childhood bacterial meningitis in Mbarara Hospital, Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background : The recommended antibiotic treatment of bacterial meningitis has come under scrutiny following frequent reports of in-vitro resistance by the common causative organisms to penicillin and chloramphenicol. Objective : The study recorded the causative organisms, antibiotic sensitivity patterns and outcome of ...

  17. Advances in treatment of bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, Diederik; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Thwaites, Guy E.; Tunkel, Allan R.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis kills or maims about a fifth of people with the disease. Early antibiotic treatment improves outcomes, but the effectiveness of widely available antibiotics is threatened by global emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria. New antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones, could have a

  18. Epidemiology of community-acquired bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of review The epidemiology of bacterial meningitis has been dynamic in the past 30 years following introduction of conjugated vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type B, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. The purpose of this review is to describe recent developments in

  19. Computed Tomography Study Of Complicated Bacterial Meningitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To monitor the structural intracranial complications of bacterial meningitis using computed tomography (CT) scan. Retrospective study of medical and radiological records of patients who underwent CT scan over a 4 year period. AUniversityTeachingHospital in a developing country. Thirty three patients with clinically and ...

  20. Validation of the bacterial meningitis score in adults presenting to the ED with meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Robert; Edlow, Jonathan A; Nigrovic, Lise E

    2016-07-01

    The Bacterial Meningitis Score classifies children with meningitis and none of the following high-risk predictors at very low risk for bacterial meningitis: positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Gram stain, CSF protein ≥80mg/dL, CSF absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ≥1000 cells/mm(3), peripheral ANC ≥10,000 cells/mm(3), and seizure at or prior to presentation. Although extensively validated in children, the Bacterial Meningitis Score has not been rigorously evaluated in adults. We performed a single-center cross-sectional retrospective study of adults presenting to the emergency department between 2003 and 2013 with meningitis (defined by CSF white blood cell count ≥10 cells/mm(3)). We defined a case of bacterial meningitis with either a positive CSF or blood culture. We report the performance of the Bacterial Meningitis Score in the study population. We identified 441 eligible patients of which, 4 (1%) had bacterial meningitis. The Bacterial Meningitis Score had a sensitivity of 100% [95% confidence interval (CI) 40%-100%], specificity 51% (95% CI, 46%-56%) and negative predictive value of 100% (95% CI, 98%-100%). None of the low risk adults had bacterial meningitis. If Bacterial Meningitis Score had been applied prospectively, the hospital admission rate would have dropped from 84% to 49% without missing any patients with bacterial meningitis. The Bacterial Meningitis Score accurately identified patients at low risk for bacterial meningitis and could assist clinical decision-making for adults with meningitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Population-based Surveillance for Bacterial Meningitis in China, September 2006–December 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yixing; Yin, Zundong; Shao, Zhujun; Li, Manshi; Liang, Xiaofeng; Sandhu, Hardeep S.; Hadler, Stephen C.; Li, Junhong; Sun, Yinqi; Li, Jing; Zou, Wenjing; Lin, Mei; Zuo, Shuyan; Mayer, Leonard W.; Novak, Ryan T.; Zhu, Bingqing; Xu, Li

    2014-01-01

    During September 2006–December 2009, we conducted active population and sentinel laboratory–based surveillance for bacterial meningitis pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae type b, in 4 China prefectures. We identified 7,876 acute meningitis and encephalitis syndrome cases, including 6,388 among prefecture residents. A total of 833 resident cases from sentinel hospitals met the World Health Organization case definition for probable bacterial meningitis; 339 of these cases were among children meningitis in 74 of 3,391 tested cases. The estimated annual incidence (per 100,000 population) of probable bacterial meningitis ranged from 1.84 to 2.93 for the entire population and from 6.95 to 22.30 for children meningitis cases in China, but more complete laboratory testing is needed to better define the epidemiology of the disease in this country. PMID:24377388

  2. Bacterial meningitis in children. MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Toshibumi; Ishii, Kiyoshi; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Onuma, Takehide [Sendai City Hospital (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    We analyzed MRI findings for 17 children with bacterial meningitis. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images revealed meningeal enhancement at the basal cistern and/or the convex surface of the brain in 15 cases. Cerebral infarcts were found in the distribution of perforating and/or medullary arteries in four cases. In one neonatal case, venous infarction with hemorrhagic transformation was evident. Communicating hydrocephalus was noted in three cases, subdural effusion in two, subdural empyema in one, and encephalitis in one. In one neonatal case ventriculitis was found. We conclude that MRI is useful for the evaluation of the active inflammatory process of the meninges and the identification of the focal lesions in central nervous system complications. (author)

  3. Ability of procalcitonin to predict bacterial meningitis in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Casado, M I; Moreno Alonso, F; Juárez Belaunde, A L; Heredero Gálvez, E; Talavera Encinas, O; Julián-Jiménez, A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse and compare procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) as tools for detecting bacterial meningitis and predicting bacteraemia. Prospective, observational, and descriptive analytical study of 98 consecutive patients aged ≥15 years and diagnosed with acute meningitis in an emergency department between August 2009 and July 2013. We analysed 98 patients with AM (66 males [67%]); mean age was 44±21 years. The diagnosis was bacterial meningitis in 38 patients (20 with bacteraemia); viral meningitis in 33; probable viral meningitis in 15; and presumptively diagnosed partially treated acute meningitis in 12. PCT had the highest area under the ROC curve (AUC) (0.996; 95% CI, 0.987-1; pmeningitis vs. 0.10±0.15 ng/ml in viral meningitis (p meningitis, only PCT delivered a significant difference (14.7±7.1 ng/mL vs. 4.68±3.54 ng/mL, pmeningitis in emergency department patients. PCT outperforms CRP in the detection of bacterial aetiology and is a good predictor of bacteraemia in bacterial meningitis. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. C-REACTIVE PROTEIN IN BACTERIAL MENINGITIS: DOSE IT HELP TO DIFFERENTIATE BACTERIAL FROM VIRAL MENINGITIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR EMAMI NAEINI

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Central nervous system infections are among the most serious conditions in of medical practice. C-reactive Protein has recently been evaluated in terms of its ability to diffeccentiate bacterial from nonbacterial central nervous system inflammations.
    Methods. We studied the frequency of positive CRP in 61 patients who had signs of meningitis. All the specimens referred to one laboratory and were examined by Slide method.
    Results. Positive CRP was found in 97.6 percent of those who were finally diagnosed as bacterial meningitis. The frequency of CRP for other types of meningitis was 16.6 percent (P < 0.05.
    Discussion. In the absence of infection, CSF is free of CRP. Positive CRP may help to the differentiate the different types of meningitis.

  5. Community-acquired bacterial meningitis in alcoholic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weisfelt, M.; de Gans, J.; van der Ende, A.; van de Beek, D.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcoholism is associated with susceptibility to infectious disease, particularly bacterial pneumonia. In the present study we described characteristics in alcoholic patients with bacterial meningitis and delineate the differences with findings in non-alcoholic adults with bacterial

  6. Cerebrospinal fluid ferritin in children with viral and bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, M; Mamishi, S; Mahmoudi, S; Pourakbari, B; Khotaei, G; Daneshjou, K; Hashemi, N

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that the prognosis of bacterial meningitis has been improved by the influence of antibiotics, this disease is still one of the significant causes of morbidity and mortality in children. Rapid differentiation between bacterial and aseptic meningitis, and the need for immediate antibiotic treatment in the former, is crucial in the prognosis of these patients. Ferritin is one of the most sensitive biochemical markers investigated in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for the early diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. The present study aims to evaluate the diagnostic capability of CSF ferritin in differentiating bacterial and viral meningitis in the paediatric setting. A cross-sectional study was carried out in the referral Children's Medical Center Hospital, Tehran, during 2008 and 2009. According to the inclusion criteria, CSF samples from 42 patients with suspected meningitis were obtained and divided into two meningitis groups, bacterial (n = 18) and viral (n = 24). Ferritin and other routine determinants (i.e., leucocytes, protein and glucose) were compared between the two groups. Ferritin concentration in the bacterial meningitis group was 106.39 +/- 86.96 ng/dL, which was considerably higher than in the viral meningitis group (10.17 +/- 14.09, P meningitis group and showed a positive correlation with CSF ferritin. In conclusion, this study suggests that CSF ferritin concentration is an accurate test for the early differentiation of bacterial and aseptic meningitis; however, further investigation on a larger cohort of patients is required to confirm this finding.

  7. Cerebrospinal fluid lactic acidosis in bacterial meningitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Eross, J; Silink, M; Dorman, D

    1981-01-01

    A rapid, microenzymatic method was used to measure cerebrospinal fluid lactate levels in 205 children with suspected bacterial meningitis. Fifty children with normal CSF containing fewer than 0.005 X 10(9)/l WBC, no segmented neutrophils, glucose 3.4 +/- 0.8 mmol/l (61.2 +/- 14.4 mg/100 ml), and a protein of less than 0.30 g/l had CSF lactate levels below 2.0 mmol/l (18 mg/100 ml) (mean and standard deviation 1.3 +/- 0.3 mmol/l (11.8 +/- 2.7 mg/100 ml)). In 31 cases of proved viral meningitis...

  8. Acute bacterial meningitis in HIV, pacients in southern Brazil: Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil Meningite bacteriana aguda em portadores de HIV, no sul do Brasil: Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio M. de Almeida

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute communitarian bacterial meningitis and AIDS are prevalent infectious disease in Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of acute communitarian bacterial meningitis in AIDS patients, the clinical and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF characteristics. It was reviewed the Health Department data from city of Curitiba, Southern Brazil, from 1996 to 2002. During this period, 32 patients with AIDS fulfilled criteria for acute bacterial meningitis, representing 0.84% of the AIDS cases and 1.85% of the cases of bacterial meningitis. S. pneumoniae was the most frequent bacteria isolated. The number of white blood cells and the percentage of neutrophils were higher and CSF glucose was lower in the group with no HIV co-infection (p 0.12; 0.008; 0.04 respectively. Bacteria not so common causing meningitis can occur among HIV infected patients. The high mortality rate among pneumococcus meningitis patients makes pneumococcus vaccination important.A meningite bacteriana aguda comunitária e a AIDS são doenças prevalentes no Brasil. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a freqüência de meningite bacteriana aguda comunitária entre os pacientes com AIDS e as características clínicas e do líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR. Foram revistos os dados da Secretaria Municipal da Saúde, Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil, nos anos de 1996 a 2002. Nesse período, 32 pacientes com AIDS preencheram os critérios para meningite bacteriana aguda, representando 0,84% dos casos com AIDS e 1,85% dos casos com meningite bacteriana aguda. A bactéria mais freqüentemente isolada foi S. pneumoniae. A celularidade total e a porcentagem de neutrófilos no LCR foi mais elevada e a glicose foi mais baixa no grupo sem co-infecção (p 0,12; 0,008; 0,04 respectivamente. Bactérias menos freqüentes como agentes etiológicos de meningite podem ocorrer. A taxa de mortalidade elevada entre pacientes com meningite por pneumococo torna a vacinação importante.

  9. Bacterial meningitis in newborn and infant: correlation between organism, CT findings and clinical outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hye Young; Park, Young Seo; Yoo, Shi Joon; Suh, Dae Chul; Chung, Young Kyo [College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-03-15

    Acute bacterial meningitis often results in significant neurologic complications regardless of the antibiotics treatment Computed tomographic (CT) finding of tuberculous meningitis is fairly well known but not the findings of bacterial meningitis. This study was performed to determine the incidence of causative organisms and to correlate between the organisms and computed tomographic (CT) findings with clinical outcome of bacterial meningitis in newborns and infants. We analyzed the brain CT and clinical records of 15 infants who had been diagnosed as bacterial meningitis by CSF culture. We found that the most common organisms were Group B streptococcus in neonates without no neurologic complications in all but one and Hemophilus influenza in infants whose clinical outcomes were poor in all except one. CT findings related with poor prognosis in this study were cerebral edema, basal cisternal obliteration and enhancement, and cerebral infarction on initial CT and ventriculomegaly on follow-up CT. We concluded that CT diagnosed intracranial complications of bacterial meningitis well and could contributed to better treatment of bacterial meningitis.

  10. The Epidemiology, Management, and Outcomes of Bacterial Meningitis in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchenir, Lynda; Renaud, Christian; Khan, Sarah; Bitnun, Ari; Boisvert, Andree-Anne; McDonald, Jane; Bowes, Jennifer; Brophy, Jason; Barton, Michelle; Ting, Joseph; Roberts, Ashley; Hawkes, Michael; Robinson, Joan L

    2017-07-01

    The pathogens that cause bacterial meningitis in infants and their antimicrobial susceptibilities may have changed in this era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, use of conjugated vaccines, and maternal antibiotic prophylaxis for group B Streptococcus (GBS). The objective was to determine the optimal empirical antibiotics for bacterial meningitis in early infancy. This was a cohort study of infants bacterial meningitis at 7 pediatric tertiary care hospitals across Canada in 2013 and 2014. There were 113 patients diagnosed with proven meningitis (n = 63) or suspected meningitis (n = 50) presented at median 19 days of age, with 63 patients (56%) presenting a diagnosis from home. Predominant pathogens were Escherichia coli (n = 37; 33%) and GBS (n = 35; 31%). Two of 15 patients presenting meningitis on day 0 to 6 had isolates resistant to both ampicillin and gentamicin (E coli and Haemophilus influenzae type B). Six of 60 infants presenting a diagnosis of meningitis from home from day 7 to 90 had isolates, for which cefotaxime would be a poor choice (Listeria monocytogenes [n = 3], Enterobacter cloacae, Cronobacter sakazakii, and Pseudomonas stutzeri). Sequelae were documented in 84 infants (74%), including 8 deaths (7%). E coli and GBS remain the most common causes of bacterial meningitis in the first 90 days of life. For empirical therapy of suspected bacterial meningitis, one should consider a third-generation cephalosporin (plus ampicillin for at least the first month), potentially substituting a carbapenem for the cephalosporin if there is evidence for Gram-negative meningitis. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Influence of the blood bacterial load on the meningeal inflammatory response in Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, C; O´Reilly, T; Brandt, C

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite bacteraemia is present in the majority of patients with pneumococcal, little is known about the influence of the systemic infection on the meningeal inflammatory response. METHODS: To explore the role of systemic infection on the meningeal inflammation, experimental meningitis...... levels in 153 pneumococcal meningitis patients with and without presence of bacteraemia. RESULTS: As designed, blood bacterial concentrations were significantly different among three experimental groups during the 16 hours study period (Kruskal Wallis test, P ... to the two other groups between 12-16 hours from time of infection (P meningitis, no significant difference in CSF WBC was observed between patients with or without bacteraemia at admission (n = 103, 1740...

  12. Bacterial Agents Associated with Seasonal Meningitis in Ebonyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal bacterial meningitis has been a regular occurrence in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. In a prospective study of 45 children of both sexes, aged 0 to 17yr (mean 12.5 + 1.5yr), infected with bacterial meningitis, in whom appropriate specimens were collected, examined and analyzed in order to identify the predominant ...

  13. Risk factors for community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriani, K. S.; Brouwer, M. C.; van de Beek, D.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a life-threatening infectious disease with high mortality and disability rates, despite availability of antibiotics and adjunctive therapy with dexamethasone. Several risk factors and predisposing conditions have been identified that increase susceptibility for bacterial

  14. Bacterial agents causing meningitis during 2013-2014 in Turkey: A multi-center hospital-based prospective surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan, Mehmet; Ozsurekci, Yasemin; Gürler, Nezahat; Karadag Oncel, Eda; Camcioglu, Yıldız; Salman, Nuran; Celik, Melda; Emiroglu, Melike Keser; Akin, Fatih; Tezer, Hasan; Parlakay, Aslinur Ozkaya; Tuygun, Nilden; Tamburaci, Diyar; Dinleyici, Ener Cagri; Karbuz, Adem; Uluca, Ünal; Alhan, Emre; Çay, Ümmühan; Kurugol, Zafer; Hatipoğlu, Nevin; Şiraneci, Rengin; İnce, Tolga; Sensoy, Gülnar; Belet, Nursen; Coskun, Enes; Yilmaz, Fatih; Hacimustafaoglu, Mustafa; Celebi, Solmaz; Celik, Ümit; Ozen, Metehan; Akaslan, Aybüke; Devrim, İlker; Kuyucu, Necdet; Öz, Fatmanur; Bozdemir, Sefika Elmas; Kara, Ahu

    2016-11-01

    This is an observational epidemiological study to describe causes of bacterial meningitis among persons between 1 month and 18 y of age who are hospitalized with suspected bacterial meningitis in 7 Turkish regions. covering 32% of the entire population of Turkey. We present here the results from 2013 and 2014. A clinical case with meningitis was defined according to followings: any sign of meningitis including fever, vomiting, headache, and meningeal irritation in children above one year of age and fever without any documented source, impaired consciousness, prostration and seizures in those bacterial agents. The specific gene targets were ctrA, bex, and ply for N. meningitidis, Hib, and S. pneumoniae, respectively. PCR positive samples were recorded as laboratory-confirmed acute bacterial meningitis. A total of 665 children were hospitalized for suspected acute meningitis. The annual incidences of acute laboratory-confirmed bacterial meningitis were 0.3 cases / 100,000 population in 2013 and 0.9 cases/100,000 in 2014. Of the 94 diagnosed cases of bacterial meningitis by PCR, 85 (90.4%) were meningococcal and 9 (9.6%) were pneumococcal. Hib was not detected in any of the patients. Among meningococcal meningitis, cases of serogroup Y, A, B and W-135 were 2.4% (n = 2), 3.5% (n = 3), 32.9% (n = 28), and 42.4% (n = 36). No serogroup C was detected among meningococcal cases. Successful vaccination policies for protection from bacterial meningitis are dependent on accurate determination of the etiology of bacterial meningitis. Additionally, the epidemiology of meningococcal disease is dynamic and close monitoring of serogroup distribution is comprehensively needed to assess the benefit of adding meningococcal vaccines to the routine immunization program.

  15. Aseptic and Bacterial Meningitis: Evaluation, Treatment, and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Hillary R; Boyle, Sean D

    2017-09-01

    The etiologies of meningitis range in severity from benign and self-limited to life-threatening with potentially severe morbidity. Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency that requires prompt recognition and treatment. Mortality remains high despite the introduction of vaccinations for common pathogens that have reduced the incidence of meningitis worldwide. Aseptic meningitis is the most common form of meningitis with an annual incidence of 7.6 per 100,000 adults. Most cases of aseptic meningitis are viral and require supportive care. Viral meningitis is generally self-limited with a good prognosis. Examination maneuvers such as Kernig sign or Brudzinski sign may not be useful to differentiate bacterial from aseptic meningitis because of variable sensitivity and specificity. Because clinical findings are also unreliable, the diagnosis relies on the examination of cerebrospinal fluid obtained from lumbar puncture. Delayed initiation of antibiotics can worsen mortality. Treatment should be started promptly in cases where transfer, imaging, or lumbar puncture may slow a definitive diagnosis. Empiric antibiotics should be directed toward the most likely pathogens and should be adjusted by patient age and risk factors. Dexamethasone should be administered to children and adults with suspected bacterial meningitis before or at the time of initiation of antibiotics. Vaccination against the most common pathogens that cause bacterial meningitis is recommended. Chemoprophylaxis of close contacts is helpful in preventing additional infections.

  16. Serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in children with acute bacterial meningitis in Mozambique: implications for a national immunization strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhantumbo, Aquino Albino; Gudo, Eduardo Samo; Caierão, Juliana; Munguambe, Alcides Moniz; Comé, Charlotte Elizabeth; Zimba, Tomás Francisco; Moraes, Milton Ozório; Dias, Cícero; Cantarelli, Vlademir Vicente

    2016-06-29

    S. pneumoniae is the leading cause of acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) in children. Vaccination using the 10-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV-10) was recently introduced into the National Immunization Program in Mozambique, but data on serotype coverage of this vaccine formulation are scarce. In this study, we investigated the serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of isolates of S. pneumoniae causing ABM in children < 5 years at the two largest hospitals in Mozambique. Between March 2013 and March 2014, a total of 352 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected from eligible children, of which 119 (33.8 %) were positive for S. pneumoniae. Of these, only 50 samples met the criteria for serotyping and were subsequently serotyped using sequential multiplex PCR (SM-PCR), but 15 samples were non-typable. The most common serotypes of S. pneumoniae were 1 (18.2 %), 5 (15.2 %), 14 (12.1 %), 9 V (12.1 %), 23 F (9.1 %), 6A (9.1 %), 4 (9.1 %) and 6B (6.1 %). Serotypes 1, 5, 9 V, 6A and 12 were mostly prevalent in Northern Mozambique, while serotypes 23 F, 4, 6B, 3 and 15B were predominant in Southern. Serotype coverage of PCV-10 and PCV-13 vaccine formulations were 81.8 % and 93.9 %, respectively. Serotypes 1, 3, 4, 6B, 14, 23 F were resistant to penicillin and sensitive to ceftriaxone. Our findings shows that changing the current in use PCV-10 vaccine formulation to PCV-13 formulation might increase substantially the protection against invasive strains of S. pneumoniae as the PCV-10 vaccine formulation does not cover the serotypes 3 and 6A, which are prevalent in Mozambique.

  17. Cerebrospinal fluid concentration of fibronectin in meningitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Torre, D; Zeroli, C; Issi, M; Fiori, G P; Ferraro, G.; Speranza, F

    1991-01-01

    Fibronectin concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid were assessed in 20 patients with acute meningitis using a turbidimetric immunoassay. A significant increase in fibronectin concentrations was observed in patients with bacterial meningitis; decreased concentrations were observed in patients with viral meningitis. The determination of fibronectin concentration in patients with bacterial meningitis may represent a useful marker in differentiating bacterial from viral meningitis.

  18. Bilateral acute retinal necrosis after herpetic meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsura T

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Keisho Hirota1,2, Masayuki Akimoto1,3, Toshiaki Katsura21Department of Ophthalmology, Kyoto Medical Center, National Hospital Organization, 2Internal Medicine, Kyoto Medical Center, 3Clinical Research Center, Kyoto Medical Center, Kyoto, JapanPurpose: The report of a case of bilateral acute retinal necrosis after herpetic meningitis.Case report: A 47-year-old man was admitted with the chief complaint of persistent high fever and transient loss of consciousness. Although his general condition improved after intravenous acyclovir administration, the patient presented with visual loss in both eyes 4 days after admission. Visual acuity in his right eye was 20/200 and his left eye had light perception alone. Both eyes showed panretinal arteritis diagnosed as acute retinal necrosis. Panretinal photocoagulation was performed for both eyes. Progression of retinal detachment was prevented in both eyes; however, visual acuity of the left eye was totally lost because of neovascular glaucoma. Visual acuity of the right eye recovered to 20/20.Conclusion: Although cases of bilateral acute retinal necrosis have been reported after herpetic encephalitis, this condition is rare after herpetic meningitis. Prophylactic acyclovir therapy and early panretinal photocoagulation may prevent retinal detachment and improve the prognosis. Neurologists and ophthalmologists should be aware that not only herpetic encephalitis but also herpetic meningitis can lead to acute retinal necrosis within a very short interval.Keywords: acute retinal necrosis, herpetic meningitis, herpes simplex, varicella zoster virus

  19. Epidemiologic and microbiologic characteristics of recurrent bacterial and fungal meningitis in the Netherlands, 1988-2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Driel, Joris J.; Bekker, Vincent; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; van der Ende, Arie; Kuijpers, Taco W.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Patients may experience multiple episodes of bacterial meningitis. Information from large studies of recurrent meningitis is limited. We evaluated the incidence of recurrent bacterial meningitis and the distribution of causative organisms in The Netherlands. Methods. Data for patients

  20. Risk factors for community-acquired bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbo, Lene Fogt; Benfield, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bacterial meningitis is a significant burden of disease and mortality in all age groups worldwide despite the development of effective conjugated vaccines. The pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis is based on complex and incompletely understood host-pathogen interactions. Some...... of these are pathogen-specific, while some are shared between different bacteria. METHODS: We searched the database PubMed to identify host risk factors for bacterial meningitis caused by the pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae type b, because they are three most common...

  1. CSF lactate for accurate diagnosis of community-acquired bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulieri, S; Chapuis-Taillard, C; Jaton, K; Cometta, A; Chuard, C; Hugli, O; Du Pasquier, R; Bille, J; Meylan, P; Manuel, O; Marchetti, O

    2015-10-01

    CSF lactate measurement is recommended when nosocomial meningitis is suspected, but its value in community-acquired bacterial meningitis is controversial. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of lactate and other CSF parameters in a prospective cohort of adult patients with acute meningitis. Diagnostic accuracy of lactate and other CSF parameters in patients with microbiologically documented episodes was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The cut-offs with the best diagnostic performance were determined. Forty-five of 61 patients (74%) had a documented bacterial (n = 18; S. pneumoniae, 11; N. meningitidis, 5; other, 2) or viral (n = 27 enterovirus, 21; VZV, 3; other, 3) etiology. CSF parameters were significantly different in bacterial vs. viral meningitis, respectively (p bacterial from viral meningitis, with a cutoff set at 3.5 mmol/l providing 100% sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and efficiency. CSF lactate had the best accuracy for discriminating bacterial from viral meningitis and should be included in the initial diagnostic workup of this condition.

  2. Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also prescribe corticosteroids to protect a person from hearing loss as a result of bacterial meningitis. If there are problems caused by the infection, the doctor will need to treat those problems, too. Sometimes people can have permanent ...

  3. Long term neurological complications of bacterial meningitis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    Long term neurological complications of bacterial meningitis in Nigerian children. Accepted: 11th March 2013. Frank-Briggs AI ... illnesses, a person's memory, mo- tor and cognitive abilities, con- centration, speech, and physique ... follow up prospective study of children with meningitis at the. Paediatric neurology unit of the.

  4. Diagnosis and treatment of bacterial meningitis in the newborn

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    2012-05-29

    May 29, 2012 ... Abstract Background: Bacterial meningitis in the newborn is glob- ally renowned for high mortality. The associated morbidities also include audiologic, motor, visual and mental deficits. Objective: To highlight the peculi- arities in the current diagnostic and management strategies in newborn meningitis.

  5. Diagnosis and treatment of bacterial meningitis in the newborn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bacterial meningitis in the newborn is globally renowned for high mortality. The associated morbidities also include audiologic, motor, visual and mental deficits. Objective: To highlight the peculiarities in the current diagnostic and management strategies in newborn meningitis. Methods: Relevant literature on ...

  6. Experimental bacterial meningitis in rabbit; evaluation with CT and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun; Chu, Sung Nam; Kim, Yun Hyeon; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Chung, Hyon De [Chonnam Univ. Medical School, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of computed tomography(CT) and magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) in experimental bacterial meningitis. CT and MR images of experimental bacterial meningitis were obtained after inoculation of 1ml suspension of 10-6/ml Staphylococcus aureus directly into the supratentorial arachnoid space of 18 New Zealand white rabbits. Each animal was studied with both pre-enhanced and post-enhanced CT and MRI at 12, 24, 48 hours and 1 week. Cerebrospinal fluid of all of 18 rabbits were sampled and cultured for bacterial growth. All of 18 rabbits had the clinical symptoms such as neck stiffness and anorexia within 24 hours after the inoculation. Cerebrospinal fluid cultures were positive for Staphylococcus aureus growth. Gd-enhanced MRI exhibited diffuse enhancement along the thickened supratentorial meninges earlier than CT. In Gd-enhanced MRI, the mean contrast enhancement along the thickened supratentorial meninges earlier than CT. In Gd-enhanced MRI, the mean contrast enhancement ratio(CER) at supratentorial meninges increased to 1.93 at 12 hours and 2.99 at 24 hours from 1.06 at 0 hour. Histologic evaluation demonstrated inflammatory cell infiltration into the meninges. MRI also identified the complications of meningitis such as ependymitis and hydrocephalus more effectively than CT. These results indicated that Fd-enhanced MRI detectred earlier the abnormal findingfs of bacterial meningitis and evaluated more effectively the complications of meningitis compared with CT. MRI was more useful than CT in evaluation of the bacterial meningitis.

  7. Rapid Diagnosis of Bacterial Meningitis Using a Microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Jy Ben

    2008-06-01

    Conclusion: The microarray method provides a more accurate and rapid diagnostic tool for bacterial meningitis compared to traditional culture methods. Clinical application of this new technique may reduce the potential risk of delay in treatment.

  8. Bacterial meningitis in the era of paediatric vaccination against the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hib), Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus), and Neisseria meningitidis (the meningococcus) are still the most common bacteria causing acute meningitis in infants and children worldwide, despite the availability of effective vaccines.

  9. ETIOLOGY AND NEUROLOGICAL COMPLICATIONS OF BACTERIAL MENINGITIS IN 189 PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tabatabaie .

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Results of a seven year (April 1985 to March 1992 prospoective study of bacterial meningitis in 189 infants and children admitted to our Center indicate that: 1 Tiie Gram-negative bacilli, especially Klebsiella species, are the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in neonates and young infants (<2 months, group B Streptococcus meningitis is rare, and Listeria monocytogenes meningitis is not observed. 2 Haemophilus influenzae is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children under 4 years old and Streptococcus pneumoniae becomes the leading cause over 5 years old. 3 Nine percent of H. influenzae isolates were ampicillin - resistant and 5% of S. pneumoniae were penicillin G resistant. All but one Niesseria meningitidis isolates were penicillin - susceptible. Both penicillin G f chloramphenicol or ampicillin/chloramphenicol resistance among these isolates were 2 percent. 4 The neurological compilations and mortality were highest under two months of age, 39% of these neonates died due to complications as compared to 22% in all other age groups combined. 5 Dexamethasone improves outcome when used as an adjunctive therapy for bacterial meningitis in infants and children. Tlie immediate and long-term clinical profiles both indicate better outcomes for dexamethasone.

  10. Interleukin-6 in cerebrospinal fluid as a biomarker of acute meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, Pablo; Prieto, Belén; Martínez-Morillo, Eduardo; Rodríguez, Verónica; Álvarez, Francisco V

    2016-01-01

    Microbiological culture of cerebrospinal fluid is the gold standard to differentiate between aseptic and bacterial meningitis, but this method has low sensitivity. A fast and reliable new marker would be of interest in clinical practice. Interleukin-6, secreted by T cells in response to meningeal pathogens and quickly delivered into cerebrospinal fluid, was evaluated as a marker of acute meningitis. A total of 150 cerebrospinal fluid samples were analysed by an electrochemiluminescence method, selected according to patient diagnosis: (a) bacterial meningitis confirmed by positive culture (n = 26); (b) bacterial meningitis with negative culture or not performed (n = 15); (c) viral meningitis confirmed by polymerase chain reaction or immunoglobulin G determination (n = 23); (d) viral meningitis with polymerase chain reaction negative or not performed (n = 42); and (e) controls (n = 44). Cerebrospinal fluid interleukin-6 concentration showed significant differences between all pathologic groups and the control group (P meningitis, interleukin-6 showed an area under the curve of 0.937 (95% confidence intervals: 0.895-0.978), significantly higher than those of classical biomarkers. An interleukin-6 cutoff of 1418 pg/mL showed 95.5% sensitivity and 77.5% specificity, whereas a value of 15,060 pg/mL showed 63.6% sensitivity and 96.7% specificity, for diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. Interleukin-6 measured by electrochemiluminescence method is a promising marker for early differentiation between aseptic and bacterial meningitis. More studies are needed to validate clinical implications for future practice in an emergency laboratory. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Predicting Outcome of Childhood Bacterial Meningitis With a Single Measurement of C-Reactive Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Peltola, Heikki; Pelkonen, Tuula; Roine, Irmeli; Cruzeiro, Manuel Leite; Bernardino, Luis; Latin Amer Meningitis Study Grp

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation, shows high serum levels in invasive bacterial infections. We investigated the potential of a single CRP measurement at different phases of acute childhood bacterial meningitis to predict outcomes. Methods: Using whole-blood finger-prick samples with no centrifugation, CRP was measured quantitatively on arrival and on day 3 or 4 in children participating in 2 prospective, randomized, double-blind treatment studies conducted in L...

  12. Bacterial meningitis: an update of new treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nau, Roland; Djukic, Marija; Spreer, Annette; Ribes, Sandra; Eiffert, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    The outcome of bacterial meningitis critically depends on the rapid initiation of bactericidal antibiotic therapy and adequate management of septic shock. In community-acquired meningitis, the choice of an optimum initial empirical antibiotic regimen depends on the regional resistance patterns. Pathogens resistant to antibacterials prevail in nosocomial bacterial meningitis. Dexamethasone is recommended as adjunctive therapy for community-acquired meningitis in developed countries. In comatose patients, aggressive measures to lower intracranial pressure <20 mmHg (in particular, external ventriculostomy, osmotherapy and temporary hyperventilation) were effective in a case-control study. Although many experimental approaches were protective in animal models, none of them has been proven effective in patients. Antibiotics, which are bactericidal but do not lyse bacteria, and inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases or complement factor C5 appear the most promising therapeutic options. At present, vaccination is the most efficient method to reduce disease burden. Palmitoylethanolamide appears promising to enhance the resistance of the brain to infections.

  13. Risk factors for community-acquired bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundbo, Lene Fogt; Benfield, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a significant burden of disease and mortality in all age groups worldwide despite the development of effective conjugated vaccines. The pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis is based on complex and incompletely understood host-pathogen interactions. Some of these are pathogen-specific, while some are shared between different bacteria. We searched the database PubMed to identify host risk factors for bacterial meningitis caused by the pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae type b, because they are three most common causative bacteria beyond the neonatal period. We describe a number of risk factors; including socioeconomic factors, age, genetic variation of the host and underlying medical conditions associated with increased susceptibility to invasive bacterial infections in both children and adults. As conjugated vaccines are available for these infections, it is of utmost importance to identify high risk patients to be able to prevent invasive disease.

  14. Brain ventricular dimensions and relationship to outcome in adult patients with bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporrborn, Janni L; Knudsen, Gertrud B; Sølling, Mette; Seierøe, Karina; Farre, Annette; Lindhardt, Bjarne Ø; Benfield, Thomas; Brandt, Christian T

    2015-08-25

    Experimental studies suggest that changes in brain ventricle size are key events in bacterial meningitis. This study investigated the relationship between ventricle size, clinical condition and risk of poor outcome in patients with bacterial meningitis. Adult patients diagnosed with bacterial meningitis admitted to two departments of infectious diseases from 2003 through 2010 were identified. Clinical and biochemical data as well as cerebral computed tomographic images were collected. The size of the brain ventricles were presented as a Ventricle to Brain Ratio (VBR). Normal range of VBR was defined from an age matched control group. A multivariate analysis was performed to identify predictors of 30-day mortality. One hundred and seven patients were included. Eighty-one patients had a CT scan at the time of diagnosis. VBR was identified as an independent risk factor of 30-day mortality, Mortality Rate Ratio: 6.03 (95 % confidence interval: 1.61-22.64, p = 0.008) for highest versus lowest tertile. A VBR deviating more than 2 standard deviations from the normal range was associated with increased mortality. Brain ventricles are commonly subject to marked changes in size as a consequence of meningitis. Increased brain ventricle size in the acute phase of bacterial meningitis was associated with increased mortality.

  15. Use of intracranial pressure monitoring in bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lykke; Rom Poulsen, Frantz; Nielsen, Troels H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of patients with severe bacterial meningitis where intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring has been performed. METHODS: A retrospective observational study including patients admitted 1st(.) January 2005 to 31st(.) December 2014...... CT scans with signs of elevated ICP. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with severe meningitis should be admitted to intensive care units and evaluated for ICP monitoring regardless of head CT findings....

  16. Diagnostic clinical and laboratory findings in response to predetermining bacterial pathogen: data from the Meningitis Registry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Karanika

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Childhood meningitis continues to be an important cause of mortality in many countries. The search for rapid diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis has lead to the further exploration of prognostic factors. This study was scheduled in an attempt to analyze various clinical symptoms as well as rapid laboratory results and provide an algorithm for the prediction of specific bacterial aetiology of childhood bacterial meningitis. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: During the 32 year period, 2477 cases of probable bacterial meningitis (BM were collected from the Meningitis Registry (MR. Analysis was performed on a total of 1331 confirmed bacterial meningitis cases of patients aged 1 month to 14 years. Data was analysed using EPI INFO (version 3.4.3-CDC-Atlanta and SPSS (version 15.0-Chicago software. Statistically significant (p or = 15000/microL (OR 2.19 with a PPV of 77.8% (95%CI 40.0-97.2. For the diagnosis of Haemophilus influenzae, the most significant group of diagnostic criteria included, absence of haemorrhagic rash (OR 13.61, age > or = 1 year (OR 2.04, absence of headache (OR 3.01, CSF Glu < 40 mg/dL (OR 3.62 and peripheral WBC < 15,000/microL (OR 1.74 with a PPV of 58.5% (95%CI 42.1-73.7. CONCLUSIONS: The use of clinical and laboratory predictors for the assessment of the causative bacterial pathogen rather than just for predicting outcome of mortality seems to be a useful tool in the clinical management and specific treatment of BM. These findings should be further explored and studied.

  17. Predictive factors of bacterial meningitis in the patients seen in emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Casado, María Isabel; Julián-Jiménez, Agustín; Lobato-Casado, Paula; Cámara-Marín, Belén; Pérez-Matos, Julio Alberto; Martínez-Maroto, Tamara

    2017-04-01

    To analyse and compare predictive factors of bacterial meningitis in the patients seen in the Emergency Departments (ED) due to an episode of acute meningitis (AM). A prospective, observational study was carried out in patients aged 15 years and older seen in ED due to AM between August 2009 and November 2015. Thirty-two variables for predicting bacterial meningitis were assessed. They covered epidemiological, comorbidity, clinical and analytical factors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. The study included 154 patients. The diagnosis was bacterial meningitis in 53 (34.4%) patients. Four variables were significantly associated with bacterial aetiology: cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate concentration ≥33mg/dl (odds ratio [OR] 50.84; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 21.63-119.47, P<.001), serum procalcitonin (PCT) ≥0.8ng/ml (OR 46.34; 95%CI: 19.71-108.89; P<.001), CSF glucose <60% of blood value (OR 20.82; 95%CI: 8.86-48.96; P=.001), CSF polymorphonuclears greater than 50% (OR 20.19; 95%CI: 8.31-49.09; P=.002]. The area under the curve for the model serum PCT≥0.8ng/ml plus CSF lactate ≥33mg/dl was 0.992 (95%CI: 0.979-1; P<.001), and achieved 99% sensitivity and 98% specificity for predicting bacterial meningitis. Serum PCT with CSF lactate, CSF glucose and CSF polymorphonuclears evaluated in an initial assessment in the ED for patients with AM, achieved an excellent diagnostic usefulness for predicting bacterial meningitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  18. Cerebral oxygenation and energy metabolism in bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lykke

    Introduction: In a recent retrospective study of patients with severe bacterial meningitis we demonstrated that cerebral oxidative metabolism was affected in approximately 50% of the cases. An increase of lactate/pyruvate (LP) ratio above the upper normal limit, defined according to according...... bacterial meningitis; secondly to examine whether it is correct to separate the diagnosis of cerebral ischemia from mitochondrial dysfunction based exclusively on the biochemical pattern obtained during intracerebral microdialysis. Method: A prospective clinical study including patients with severe...... community acquired bacterial meningitis admitted to the Department of Infectious Diseases, Odense University Hospital, during the period January 2014 to June 2016. We relate data from measurements of brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO2) to simultaneously recorded data reflecting cerebral cytoplasmic redox...

  19. Community-acquired bacterial meningitis in alcoholic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn Weisfelt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcoholism is associated with susceptibility to infectious disease, particularly bacterial pneumonia. In the present study we described characteristics in alcoholic patients with bacterial meningitis and delineate the differences with findings in non-alcoholic adults with bacterial meningitis. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This was a prospective nationwide observational cohort study including patients aged >16 years who had bacterial meningitis confirmed by culture of cerebrospinal fluid (696 episodes of bacterial meningitis occurring in 671 patients. Alcoholism was present in 27 of 686 recorded episodes of bacterial meningitis (4% and alcoholics were more often male than non-alcoholics (82% vs 48%, P = 0.001. A higher proportion of alcoholics had underlying pneumonia (41% vs 11% P<0.001. Alcoholics were more likely to have meningitis due to infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae (70% vs 50%, P = 0.01 and Listeria monocytogenes (19% vs 4%, P = 0.005, whereas Neisseria meningitidis was more common in non-alcoholic patients (39% vs 4%, P = 0.01. A large proportion of alcoholics developed complications during clinical course (82% vs 62%, as compared with non-alcoholics; P = 0.04, often cardiorespiratory failure (52% vs 28%, as compared with non-alcoholics; P = 0.01. Alcoholic patients were at risk for unfavourable outcome (67% vs 33%, as compared with non-alcoholics; P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Alcoholic patients are at high risk for complications resulting in high morbidity and mortality. They are especially at risk for cardiorespiratory failure due to underlying pneumonia, and therefore, aggressive supportive care may be crucial in the treatment of these patients.

  20. Comparison of culture and PCR methods in the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başpınar, Emel Ödemiş; Dayan, Saim; Bekçibaşı, Muhammed; Tekin, Recep; Ayaz, Celal; Deveci, Özcan; Hoşoğlu, Salih

    Our aim in this study is to compare the standard culture method with the multiplex PCR and the Speed-Oligo(®) Bacterial Meningitis Test (SO-BMT) - a hybridization-based molecular test method - during the CSF examination of the patients with the pre-diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis. For the purposes of this study, patients with acute bacterial meningitis treated at the Dicle University Medical Faculty Hospital, Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology Clinic between December 2009 and April 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. The diagnosis of bacterial meningitis was made based on the clinical findings, laboratory test anomalies, CSF analysis results, and the radiological images. Growth was observed in the CSF cultures of 10 out of the 57 patients included in the study (17.5%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae was isolated in all of them. The CSF samples of 34 patients (59.6%) were positive according to the SO-BMT and S. pneumoniae was detected in 33 of the samples (97.05%), while Neisseria meningitidis was found in 1 sample (2.95%). In a total of 10 patients, S. pneumoniae was both isolated in the CSF culture and detected in the SO-BMT. The culture and the SO-BMT were negative in 23 of the CSF samples. There was no sample in which the CSF culture was positive although the SO-BMT was negative. While SO-BMT seems to be a more efficient method than bacterial culturing to determine the pathogens that most commonly cause bacterial meningitis in adults, further studies conducted on larger populations are needed in order to assess its efficiency and uses. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Acute versus subacute community-acquired meningitis: Analysis of 611 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Tarek; Salazar, Lucrecia; Hasbun, Rodrigo

    2017-09-01

    Community-acquired meningitis can be classified into acute and subacute presentations by the duration of illness of ≤ or >5 days, respectively. There are currently no studies comparing the clinical features, management decisions, etiologies, and outcomes between acute and subacute presentations.It is a retrospective study of adults with community-acquired meningitis hospitalized in Houston, TX between January 2005 and January 2010. An adverse clinical outcome was defined as a Glasgow Outcome Scale score of ≤4.A total of 611 patients were identified, of which 458 (75%) were acute and 153 subacute (25%). The most common etiologies were unknown in 418 (68.4%), viral in 94 (15.4%), bacterial in 47 (7.7%), fungal in 42 patients (6.9%), and other noninfectious etiologies in 6 (1%). Patients with subacute meningitis were more likely to be immunosuppressed or have comorbidities, had fungal etiologies, and had higher rates of hypoglycorrachia and abnormal neurological findings (P 65 years and abnormal neurological findings were predictive of an adverse clinical outcome in both acute and subacute meningitis, whereas fever was also a significant prognostic factor in acute meningitis. (P meningitis differ in regards to clinical presentations, etiologies, laboratory findings, and management decisions, but did not differ in rates of adverse clinical outcomes. Future studies including thoroughly investigated patients with new diagnostic molecular methods may show different results and outcomes.

  2. Predictive value of decoy receptor 3 in postoperative nosocomial bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Juan; Shao, Li-Hua; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Jian; Ma, Rui-Ping; Liu, Hai-Hong; Dong, Xiao-Meng; Ma, Li-Xian

    2014-11-03

    Nosocomial bacterial meningitis requires timely treatment, but what is difficult is the prompt and accurate diagnosis of this disease. The aim of this study was to assess the potential role of decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) levels in the differentiation of bacterial meningitis from non-bacterial meningitis. A total of 123 patients were recruited in this study, among them 80 patients being with bacterial meningitis and 43 patients with non-bacterial meningitis. Bacterial meningitis was confirmed by bacterial culture of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the level of DcR3 in CSF. CSF levels of DcR3 were statistically significant between patients with bacterial meningitis and those with non-bacterial meningitis (pbacterial meningitis received antibiotic>24 h before CSF sampling, which was much higher than that of non-bacterial meningitis. CSF leucocyte count yielded the highest diagnostic value, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) of 0.928, followed by DcR3. At a critical value of 0.201 ng/mL for DcR3, the sensitivity and specificity were 78.75% and 81.40% respectively. DcR3 in CSF may be a valuable predictor for differentiating patients with bacterial meningitis from those with non-bacterial meningitis. Further studies are needed for the validation of this study.

  3. Community-Acquired Bacterial Meningitis in Alcoholic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisfelt, Martijn; de Gans, Jan; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2010-01-01

    Background Alcoholism is associated with susceptibility to infectious disease, particularly bacterial pneumonia. In the present study we described characteristics in alcoholic patients with bacterial meningitis and delineate the differences with findings in non-alcoholic adults with bacterial meningitis. Methods/Principal Findings This was a prospective nationwide observational cohort study including patients aged >16 years who had bacterial meningitis confirmed by culture of cerebrospinal fluid (696 episodes of bacterial meningitis occurring in 671 patients). Alcoholism was present in 27 of 686 recorded episodes of bacterial meningitis (4%) and alcoholics were more often male than non-alcoholics (82% vs 48%, P = 0.001). A higher proportion of alcoholics had underlying pneumonia (41% vs 11% Pmeningitis due to infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae (70% vs 50%, P = 0.01) and Listeria monocytogenes (19% vs 4%, P = 0.005), whereas Neisseria meningitidis was more common in non-alcoholic patients (39% vs 4%, P = 0.01). A large proportion of alcoholics developed complications during clinical course (82% vs 62%, as compared with non-alcoholics; P = 0.04), often cardiorespiratory failure (52% vs 28%, as compared with non-alcoholics; P = 0.01). Alcoholic patients were at risk for unfavourable outcome (67% vs 33%, as compared with non-alcoholics; P<0.001). Conclusions/Significance Alcoholic patients are at high risk for complications resulting in high morbidity and mortality. They are especially at risk for cardiorespiratory failure due to underlying pneumonia, and therefore, aggressive supportive care may be crucial in the treatment of these patients. PMID:20161709

  4. Focal parenchymal lesions in community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults: a clinico-radiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katchanov, Juri [Campus Charite Mitte, Charite, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); University Hospital Charite, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Siebert, Eberhard; Klingebiel, Randolf [Campus Charite Mitte, Charite, Department of Neuroradiology, Berlin (Germany); Endres, Matthias [Campus Charite Mitte, Charite, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Center for Stroke Research Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Here, we analyzed the frequency, morphological pattern, and imaging characteristics of focal lesions as a consequence of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. We hypothesized that diffusion-weighted imaging combined with contrast-enhanced imaging, serial scanning, and multimodal vascular studies would provide further insight into the pathological basis of such parenchymal lesions in bacterial meningitis. We reviewed clinical and imaging data (i.e., magnetic resonance tomography, magnetic resonance angiography, computed tomography angiography, digital subtraction angiography) of 68 adult patients admitted to our neurological intensive care unit between March 1998 and February 2009 with the diagnosis of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. We identified seven patients with parenchymal lesions. These lesions could be attributed to four morphological patterns: (1) territorial cerebral ischemia, (2) perforating vessels ischemia, (3) ischemia of presumed cardiac origin, and (4) isolated cortical lesions. Whereas the patterns (1) and (2) were associated with vasculopathy of large- and medium-sized vessels (as shown by cerebral vascular imaging), vessel imaging in (3) and (4) did not show abnormal findings. Our study implies that parenchymal lesions in acute bacterial meningitis are mainly ischemic and due to involvement of large-, medium-, and small-sized arteries of the brain. Diffusion-weighted imaging combined with conventional, CT-, or MR-based cerebral angiography revealed the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in the majority of patients. Furthermore, we detected two patients with isolated bilateral cortical involvement and normal vessel imaging. These lesions might represent ischemia due to the involvement of small pial and intracortical arteries. (orig.)

  5. Antithrombotic therapy for secondary stroke prevention in bacterial meningitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelman, Cyrus; Shroff, Manohar; Yau, Ivanna; Bjornson, Bruce; Richrdson, Susan; deVeber, Gabrielle; MacGregor, Daune; Moharir, Mahendranathn; Askalan, Rand

    2014-10-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy of antithrombotic therapy (ATT) for secondary stroke prevention of childhood bacterial meningitis. A retrospective study of cases of stroke associated with bacterial meningitis in 2 pediatric hospitals during a period of 15 years. Patients were included in the study if they were between 28 days and 18 years of age and had at least 2 serial neuroimaging studies during the acute phase of their illness. The safety of ATT was assessed by the presence or absence of intracranial hemorrhage. Efficacy was assessed by the failure in preventing stroke recurrence. Neurologic outcome was determined by the last documented Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure score. Twenty-two cases of childhood bacterial meningitis complicated by stroke were identified. Six cases were treated with heparin after either initial or recurrent infarction. None of the cases receiving heparin had further recurrence. Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid [ASA]) was started after the initial or after recurrent infarction in 10 cases. Four (40%) had infarctions on ASA; 3 of these patients subsequently received heparin. In the 14 cases in which no ATT was begun, 8 (57%) had further recurrence of infarction. None of the patients, whether receiving heparin or ASA, had intracranial hemorrhage. In this small sample, heparin and ASA appeared to be safe in childhood bacterial meningitis complicated by stroke and may be effective in improving outcome. Heparin may be more effective than aspirin in preventing recurrent infarction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens causing meningitis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was total resistance to cotrimoxazole (100%) while 6 (40%) isolates were resistant to tetracycline. Conclusion: Sensitivity to penicillin was high and the high sensitivity of bacteria to ceftriaxone suggested that it can be recommended for treatment of bacterial meningitis in Zimbabwe. No major changes have taken place ...

  7. Bacterial meningitis: epidemiology, herd protection, clinical characteristics, and risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, M.W.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis studied the epidemiology of community-acquired bacterial meningitis after the nationwide implementation of paediatric conjugate vaccines, as well as the long-term epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease and neonatal group B streptococcal disease in the Netherlands. Furthermore,

  8. Update on community-acquired bacterial meningitis: guidance and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ettekoven, C. N.; van de Beek, D.; Brouwer, M. C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The existing heterogeneity in diagnostic work-up and treatment strategies in bacterial meningitis was the incentive to develop a European evidence-based guideline, which was published in 2016 by the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) Study Group on

  9. Prevalence of Bacterial Meningitis among Infants in a Tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial meningitis remains a major cause of mortality and long–term neurological sequelae worldwide. Pathogens responsible for the infection vary with time, geographical location and patient age, thus necessitating periodic review. Against this background, this study was conducted. Cerebrospinal fluid was collected ...

  10. Causes and outcome of bacterial meningitis in Malawian children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    598 children with bacterial meningitis were admitted to the paediatric wards of the Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH), Blantyre, Malawi from July 1997 – March 2001. Patients were followed up at 1 and 6 months after hospital discharge when physical, neurological, developmental and hearing assessments were ...

  11. Risk of Bacterial Meningitis in Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... al. [ Read article ] Risk of Bacterial Meningitis in Children with Cochlear Implants New England Journal of Medicine; July 31, 2003; Volume 349:435-445 J. Reefhuis, M.A. Honein, C.G. Whitney, et al. [ Read article ] Related Links Birth ... Development Developmental Disabilities Learn the Signs. Act Early. ...

  12. Bacterial cytolysin during meningitis disrupts the regulation of glutamate in the brain, leading to synaptic damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Wippel

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcal meningitis is a common bacterial infection of the brain. The cholesterol-dependent cytolysin pneumolysin represents a key factor, determining the neuropathogenic potential of the pneumococci. Here, we demonstrate selective synaptic loss within the superficial layers of the frontal neocortex of post-mortem brain samples from individuals with pneumococcal meningitis. A similar effect was observed in mice with pneumococcal meningitis only when the bacteria expressed the pore-forming cholesterol-dependent cytolysin pneumolysin. Exposure of acute mouse brain slices to only pore-competent pneumolysin at disease-relevant, non-lytic concentrations caused permanent dendritic swelling, dendritic spine elimination and synaptic loss. The NMDA glutamate receptor antagonists MK801 and D-AP5 reduced this pathology. Pneumolysin increased glutamate levels within the mouse brain slices. In mouse astrocytes, pneumolysin initiated the release of glutamate in a calcium-dependent manner. We propose that pneumolysin plays a significant synapto- and dendritotoxic role in pneumococcal meningitis by initiating glutamate release from astrocytes, leading to subsequent glutamate-dependent synaptic damage. We outline for the first time the occurrence of synaptic pathology in pneumococcal meningitis and demonstrate that a bacterial cytolysin can dysregulate the control of glutamate in the brain, inducing excitotoxic damage.

  13. Meningococcal Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Meningococcal meningitis Fact sheet Reviewed January 2018 Key facts Meningococcal meningitis is a bacterial form of meningitis, a serious ...

  14. Early versus late diagnosis in community-acquired bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodilsen, Jacob; Brandt, Christian Thomas; Sharew, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with late diagnosis of community-acquired bacterial meningitis (CABM). METHODS: We conducted a chart review of all adults with proven CABM in three centres in Denmark from 1998 through 2014. Patients were categorised as 1......) early diagnosis of CABM immediately on admission or 2) late diagnosis if CABM was not listed in referral or admission records and neither lumbar puncture nor antibiotic therapy for meningitis was considered immediately on admission. We used modified Poisson regression analysis to compute adjusted...... several statistical significant differences baseline differences (pmeningitis (6...

  15. Dexamethasone Therapy for Bacterial Meningitis: Better Never Than Late?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M King

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A multicentre randomized controlled trial was conducted in children with bacterial meningitis using dexamethasone or placebo for four days within 24 h of starting antibiotics. Primary outcomes were hearing loss and neurological abnormalities at 12 months after meningitis. The dexamethasone (n=50 and placebo (n=51 groups were similar in age, severity of illness and etiological agent. Hearing loss occurred in 10% and 11% of the dexamethasone and placebo groups and neurological deficits occurred in 20% and 18% of patients, respectively. Duodenal perforation occurred in one dexamethasone-treated child. In conclusion, there was no significant benefit in those receiving dexamethasone. The lack of benefit may have been due to the delay in administration of dexamethasone (median delay of 11 h after antibiotics. Therefore, if dexamethasone is used for meningitis it should be given immediately with the antibiotic.

  16. NITRIC OXIDE ACTIVITY OF NEUTROPHIL IN BLOOD AND CEREBROSPINAL FLUID OF THE CHILDREN WITH BACTERIAL AND VIRAL MENINGITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Molochniy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of study of nitric oxide activity of neutrophil leucocytic and freeradical processes in blood and cerebrospinal fluid of the children with bacterial and viral meningitison the acute period diseases. The peculiarities or activity of freeradical processes and nitric oxide of cerebrospinal fluid with bacterial meningitis in acute period diseases and activities of studies of ferments with the health children. 

  17. Zoonotic bacterial meningitis in adults: clinical characteristics, etiology, treatment and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Samkar, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, we describe the clinical characteristics, etiology, treatment and outcome of zoonotic bacterial meningitis. Each chapter describes meningitis patients infected by a specific zoonotic pathogen, such as Streptococcus equi, Streptococcuis suis, Capnocytophaga canimorsus, Campylobacter

  18. Meningitis bacteriémica por Pasteurella multocida Pasteurella multocida bacteremic meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Soloaga

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones por Pasteurella multocida en seres humanos habitualmente están relacionadas con mordeduras o arañazos de perros y gatos. Muchas de ellas se acompañan de otros microorganismos de la orofaringe de estos animales. Se presenta un caso de meningitis bacteriémica por P. multocida en una mujer de 86 años que convivía con siete gatos. Si bien no se documentó una infección de piel o de partes blandas, es posible que ésta haya pasado inadvertida inicialmente y que fuera la causa de la bacteriemia con impacto en meninges, o bien que la meningitis se haya producido luego de la colonización nasofaríngea (no demostrada. Los aislamientos de hemocultivos y de líquido cefalorraquídeo fueron identificados como P. multocida por medio de API 20NE, API 20E y Vitek 1. La cepa aislada presentó sensibilidad a penicilina, cefotaxima, levofloxacina y tetraciclinas, en coincidencia con lo descrito en la literatura.Human infections by Pasteurella multocida are usually associated with bites or scratches from dogs and cats. Many of them are accompanied by other oropharyngeal microorganisms of these animals. We herein present a case of bacteremic meningitis by P. multocida in an 86-year-old woman who was living with seven cats. Even though no skin or soft tissue infection was recorded, it is possible that a mild infection had gone undetected and a subsequent bacteremia had impacted on the meninges, or that meningitis could have occurred after nasopharyngeal colonization (not demonstrated. The isolates obtained from blood cultures and cerebrospinal fluid were identified as P. multocida by API 20NE, API 20E, and Vitek 1. In agreement with findings in the literature, this strain was susceptible to penicillin, cefotaxime, levofloxacin and tetracyclines.

  19. Procalcitonin as a potential predicting factor for prognosis in bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bong Soo; Kim, Si Eun; Park, Si Hyung; Kim, Jinseung; Shin, Kyong Jin; Ha, Sam Yeol; Park, JinSe; Kim, Sung Eun; Lee, Byung In; Park, Kang Min

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the potential role of serum procalcitonin in differentiating bacterial meningitis from viral meningitis, and in predicting the prognosis in patients with bacterial meningitis. This was a retrospective study of 80 patients with bacterial meningitis (13 patients died). In addition, 58 patients with viral meningitis were included as the disease control groups for comparison. The serum procalcitonin level was measured in all patients at admission. Differences in demographic and laboratory data, including the procalcitonin level, were analyzed between the groups. We used the mortality rate during hospitalization as a marker of prognosis in patients with bacterial meningitis. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that high serum levels of procalcitonin (>0.12ng/mL) were an independently significant variable for differentiating bacterial meningitis from viral meningitis. The risk of having bacterial meningitis with high serum levels of procalcitonin was at least 6 times higher than the risk of having viral meningitis (OR=6.76, 95% CI: 1.84-24.90, p=0.004). In addition, we found that high levels of procalcitonin (>7.26ng/mL) in the blood were an independently significant predictor for death in patients with bacterial meningitis. The risk of death in patients with bacterial meningitis with high serum levels of procalcitonin may be at least 9 times higher than those without death (OR=9.09, 95% CI: 1.74-47.12, p=0.016). We found that serum procalcitonin is a useful marker for differentiating bacterial meningitis from viral meningitis, and it is also a potential predicting factor for prognosis in patients with bacterial meningitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Meningitis Outbreak Caused by Vaccine-Preventable Bacterial Pathogens - Northern Ghana, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aku, Fortress Y; Lessa, Fernanda C; Asiedu-Bekoe, Franklin; Balagumyetime, Phoebe; Ofosu, Winfred; Farrar, Jennifer; Ouattara, Mahamoudou; Vuong, Jeni T; Issah, Kofi; Opare, Joseph; Ohene, Sally-Ann; Okot, Charles; Kenu, Ernest; Ameme, Donne K; Opare, David; Abdul-Karim, Abass

    2017-08-04

    Bacterial meningitis is a severe, acute infection of the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord that can rapidly lead to death. Even with recommended antibiotic treatment, up to 25% of infected persons in Africa might experience neurologic sequelae (1). Three regions in northern Ghana (Upper East, Northern, and Upper West), located in the sub-Saharan "meningitis belt" that extends from Senegal to Ethiopia, experienced periodic outbreaks of meningitis before introduction of serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenAfriVac) in 2012 (2,3). During December 9, 2015-February 16, 2016, a total of 432 suspected meningitis cases were reported to health authorities in these three regions. The Ghana Ministry of Health, with assistance from CDC and other partners, tested cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from 286 patients. In the first 4 weeks of the outbreak, a high percentage of cases were caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae; followed by an increase in cases caused by Neisseria meningitidis, predominantly serogroup W. These data facilitated Ghana's request to the International Coordinating Group* for meningococcal polysaccharide ACW vaccine, which was delivered to persons in the most affected districts. Rapid identification of the etiologic agent causing meningitis outbreaks is critical to inform targeted public health and clinical interventions, including vaccination, clinical management, and contact precautions.

  1. Zoonotic bacterial meningitis in adults: clinical characteristics, etiology, treatment and outcome

    OpenAIRE

    van Samkar, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, we describe the clinical characteristics, etiology, treatment and outcome of zoonotic bacterial meningitis. Each chapter describes meningitis patients infected by a specific zoonotic pathogen, such as Streptococcus equi, Streptococcuis suis, Capnocytophaga canimorsus, Campylobacter fetus and Leptospira. We combine cases identified in a nationwide prospective cohort study of adult bacterial meningitis patients with a literature review on meningitis caused by each zoonotic patho...

  2. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay developed to diagnose adult bacterial meningitis in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Tsung; Hsiao, Kuang-Ming; Chen, Jin-Cherng; Su, Cheng-Chuan

    2015-11-01

    Acute bacterial meningitis causes high morbidity and mortality; the associated clinical symptoms often are insensitive or non-specific; and the pathogenic bacteria are geographically diverse. Clinical diagnosis requires a rapid and accurate methodology. This study aimed to develop a new multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assay to detect simultaneously six major bacteria that cause adult bacterial meningitis in Taiwan: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Acinetobacter baumannii. Species-specific primers for the six bacteria were developed using reference strains. The specificities of the mPCRs for these bacteria were validated, and the sensitivities were evaluated via serial dilutions. The mPCR assay specifically detected all of the six pathogens, particularly with sensitivities of 12 colony forming units (CFU)/mL, 90 CFU/mL, and 390 CFU/mL for E. coli, S. pneumoniae, and K. pneumoniae, respectively. This mPCR assay is a rapid and specific tool to detect the six major bacterial pathogens that cause acute adult meningitis in Taiwan, particularly sensitive for detecting E. coli, S. pneumoniae, and K. pneumoniae. The assay may facilitate early diagnosis and guidance for antimicrobial therapy for adult patients with this deadly disease in Taiwan. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Giant anterior sacral meningocele presenting as bacterial meningitis in a previously healthy adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletic, D; Poljak, I; Eskinja, N; Valkovic, P; Sestan, B; Troselj-Vukic, B

    2008-02-01

    Meningocele may be asymptomatic and incidentally discovered. Presenting as a retrorectal mass, sacral meningocele may produce urinary, rectal, and menstrual pain. Anterior sacral meningocele may be the cause of tethered cord syndrome. This article presents a case of a previously healthy 39-year-old man with large meningeal herniation that occupied the entire pelvis who developed symptoms of bacterial meningitis. A 39-year-old man was admitted with fever, chills, headache and photophobia. Escherichia coli was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid culture. Moderate improvement regarding meningeal symptoms was noted due to intravenous antibiotic therapy, but intense pain in the lower back associated with constipation, fecal and urinary incontinence, and saddle anesthesia developed. Abdominal ultrasound was negative. Plain radiographs and computed tomography demonstrated sacral bone defect and retrorectal expansive mass. MRI confirmed anterior sacral meningocele with cord tethering. After posterior laminectomy and dural opening, communication between meningocele and intrathecal compartment was obliterated. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous drainage through the ischiorectal fossa was performed to treat residual presacral cyst. Delayed diagnosis in our patient was related to misleading signs of bacterial meningitis without symptoms of intrapelvic expansion until the second week of illness. In our patient, surgical treatment was unavoidable due to resistive meningitis, acute back pain, and symptoms of space-occupying pelvic lesion. Neurosurgical approach was successful in treatment of meningitis and neurological disorders. Computed tomography-guided evacuation of the residual retrorectal cyst was less invasive than laparotomy, resulting in normalization of defecation and miction despite incomplete evacuation. Further follow-up studies may provide insight into the most effective treatment of such conditions.

  4. MICROBIOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTICS OF THE MENINGOCOCCAL INFECTION AND PURULENT BACTERIAL MENINGITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Kraeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In the review modern data on taxonomy, biological features and clinical significance of agent of meningococcal infection and bacterial purulent meningitis are presented. Methods of laboratory diagnostics as well as recommendations about use of high-quality culture media and diagnostic kits for isolation and identification of microorganisms are described. Modern techniques to detect sensitivity of bacteria to antibiotics are proposed.

  5. The role and reliability of rapid bedside diagnostic test in early diagnosis and treatment of bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Debata, Pradeep Kumar; Ranjan, Amitabh; Gaind, Rajani

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the role and reliability of rapid bedside diagnostic test in early diagnosis and treatment of bacterial meningitis in children using reagent strips. This prospective, single blinded study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics of VMMC & Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi in collaboration with the Department of Microbiology of VMMC & Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, over a period of 15 mo (August 2009 to Nov 2010). Seventy-five children aged 3 mo to 12 y admitted in the pediatric ward with suspected diagnosis of acute meningitis were included. All enroled patients underwent lumbar puncture. CSF samples were taken and divided in 2 parts for laboratory evaluation and rapid strip analysis. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and the negative predictive values of the reagent strips for the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis were calculated. Accuracy of the reagent strips was established using kappa statistics. Latex agglutination for antigen detection and microbiological culture were also done. Highly significant association was observed between CSF examination in routine laboratory method and dipstick method. The number of laboratory values that correlated were- for cells 71(94.63%), for protein 68 (90.67%), for glucose 68(90.67%) out of total 75 cases. The sensitivity and specificity of reagent strip in diagnosing acute bacterial meningitis were 96.7% and 97.8% respectively. The positive predictive and negative predictive values of reagent strip in diagnosing acute bacterial meningitis were 96.7% and 97.8% respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was found to be the most common organism isolated (50%). Thus reagent strip analysis is a very rapid, reliable and effective method for diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis in children. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism isolated.

  6. [Limulus test in diagnosis of acute meningitis (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arístegui, J; Juan, S; Saitúa, G; Hernández, M

    1977-11-01

    We tried to evaluate the utility of the Limulus Test in the diagnosis of acute meningitis. The study was made in 60 patients divided in three groups: Group A, formed by 37 children affected by purulent meningitis of known etiology; Group B, formed by 10 children affected by purulent meningitis of unknown etiology; Group C, formed by 13 children with viral meningitis. The results were compared with a control group (Group D), of 10 healthy children. The results correlated with the etiology, the cuantitative count of germs/ml. in C.S.F. and the clinical evolution. The results indicated that the Test is a rapid, simple and useful tool for the detection of endotoxin in the C.S.F. of purulent meningitis caused by Gram negative germs.

  7. Cerebrospinal fluid ferritin and albumin index: potential candidates for scoring system to differentiate between bacterial and viral meningitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebamalar, Angelin A; Prabhat; Balakrishnapillai, Agiesh K; Parmeswaran, Narayanan; Dhiman, Pooja; Rajendiran, Soundravally

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic role of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ferritin and albumin index (AI = CSF albumin/serum albumin × 1000) in differentiating acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) from acute viral meningitis (AVM) in children. The study included 42 cases each of ABM and AVM in pediatric age group. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was carried out for CSF ferritin and AI. Binary logistic regression was also done. CSF ferritin and AI were found significantly higher in ABM compared to AVM. Model obtained using AI and CSF ferritin along with conventional criteria is better than existing models.

  8. Rapid diagnosis of bacterial meningitis by latex agglutination test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghani, S M; Hassan, E M; Masoud, S; Guirgis, N I

    1989-01-01

    Forty-three patients admitted to Abassia Fever Hospital suffering from meningitis were studied. They were 27 male and 16 female and divided into 3 age groups, as a control, 4 normal CSF samples were collected. A sterile CSF was collected and examined for pressure, aspect, glucose, protein and cellular content. Although all these tests were helpful in differentiating the type of meningitis, a remarkable overlap between the results were detected. Bacteriological study of CSF showed that bacterial culture was more sensitive than the Gram-stained film in (80% and 72% respectively) (p less than 0.05). However, it is a time consuming and its results greatly affected by prior uses of antibiotics. Also the antigen of N. meningitidis A & C, H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae were detected by latex agglutination (L.A.) and gave positive results in 76% of cases. It was less sensitive than the culture method. As a conclusion, L.A. test is a rapid and simple method of diagnosis of bacterial meningitis which give immediate information to the clinician. The sensitivity and specificity of L.A. can be greatly improved by using a higher quality of antibody for all serotypes in the locality.

  9. A proteomic approach for the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Jesse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The discrimination of bacterial meningitis (BM versus viral meningitis (VM shapes up as a problem, when laboratory data are not equivocal, in particular, when Gram stain is negative. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: With the aim to determine reliable marker for bacterial or viral meningitis, we subjected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF to a quantitative proteomic screening. By using a recently established 2D-DIGE protocol which was adapted to the individual CSF flow, we compared a small set of patients with proven BM and VM. Thereby, we identified six potential biomarkers out of which Prostaglandin-H2 D-isomerase was already described in BM, showing proof of concept. In the subsequent validation phase on a more comprehensive collective of 80 patients, we could validate that in BM high levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and low levels of soluble amyloid precursor protein alpha/beta (sAPPalpha/beta are present as possible binding partner of Fibulin-1. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that our CSF flow-adapted 2D-DIGE protocol is valid especially in comparing samples with high differences in total protein and suppose that GFAP and sAPPalpha/beta have a high potential as additional diagnostic markers for differentiation of BM from VM. In the clinical setting, this might lead to an improved early diagnosis and to an individual therapy.

  10. Improved outcome of bacterial meningitis associated with use of corticosteroid treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baunbæk-Knudsen, Gertrud; Sølling, Mette; Farre, Annette

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of patients with bacterial meningitis following the introduction of dexamethasone treatment in Denmark. METHODS: Adult patients with bacterial meningitis, admitted from 2003-2010 to two different university hospitals, were...... (RR = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.04-1.09). Long-term mortality was influenced by age (RR = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.03-1.08) and female sex (RR = 1.81; 95% CI = 1.05-3.14). CONCLUSION: This study indicated that adjuvant corticosteroid treatment in acute bacterial meningitis improves the outcome and can safely...... were included in the study. The population had a median age of 62 years and 31% had an immunosuppressive co-morbidity. Eighty-nine patients had an unfavourable outcome (GOS score = 1-4). Adjuvant treatment with corticosteroids (RR = 0.48; 95% CI = 0.30-0.76) was associated with a favourable outcome...

  11. Subdural Empyema Complicating Bacterial Meningitis: A Challenging Diagnosis in a Patient with Polysubstance Abuse

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramoutar, Virin Rajiv Neil; Dakkak, Melissa; Cullinane, William Russell, Jr

    2015-01-01

    Subdural empyema (SDE) and cerebrovascular accident (CVA) are uncommon life-threatening complications of bacterial meningitis, which require urgent neurosurgical intervention to prevent adverse outcomes...

  12. Pasteurella multocida bacterial meningitis caused by contact with pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. López

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida belongs to the normal flora of the respiratory and digestive tract of many animals. Animal exposure is a considerable risk factor for Pasteurella infection. P. multocida is the most common cause of local infection after an animal bite but is an unusual cause of meningitis. We present a case of bacterial meningitis by P. multocida in a 37-year-old man who worked in a pig farm and was bitten by a pig. The patient had a defect located in the lamina cribosa and this lesion could be the gateway of the infection, although in this case the infection could also be acquired through the pig bite. The bacteria was identified as P. multocida with the biochemical test API 20E (bioMérieux. In agreement with findings in the literature, the strain was susceptible in vitro to penicillin, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, imipenem and tetracycline.

  13. Pasteurella multocida bacterial meningitis caused by contact with pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, C; Sanchez-Rubio, P; Betrán, A; Terré, R

    2013-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida belongs to the normal flora of the respiratory and digestive tract of many animals. Animal exposure is a considerable risk factor for Pasteurella infection. P. multocida is the most common cause of local infection after an animal bite but is an unusual cause of meningitis. We present a case of bacterial meningitis by P. multocida in a 37-year-old man who worked in a pig farm and was bitten by a pig. The patient had a defect located in the lamina cribosa and this lesion could be the gateway of the infection, although in this case the infection could also be acquired through the pig bite. The bacteria was identified as P. multocida with the biochemical test API 20E (bioMérieux). In agreement with findings in the literature, the strain was susceptible in vitro to penicillin, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, imipenem and tetracycline.

  14. Usefulness of interleukin 6 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid for the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Waka; Nakada, Taka-aki; Abe, Ryuzo; Tanaka, Kumiko; Matsumura, Yosuke; Oda, Shigeto

    2014-08-01

    Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a proinflammatory cytokine produced during infections. We hypothesized that IL-6 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) would be elevated in bacterial meningitis and useful for diagnosing and predicting neurologic outcomes. For the differentiation of bacterial meningitis, serum and CSF samples were obtained from patients with an altered level of consciousness. Patients were classified into 3 groups: bacterial meningitis, nonbacterial central nervous system disease, and other site sepsis. Of the 70 patients included in this study, there were 13 in the bacterial meningitis group, 21 in the nonbacterial central nervous system disease group, and 36 in the other site sepsis group. The CSF IL-6 level was significantly higher in the bacterial meningitis group than in the other 2 groups (Pbacterial meningitis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. FREQUENCY OF BACTERIAL, VIRAL AND FUNGAL MENINGITIS OCCURRENCE IN GADAP TOWN KARACHI, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khurram Jah Siddiqui

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the frequency of bacterial (including tuberculous meningitis, viral and fungal meningitis occurrence in Gadap Town, Karachi, Pakistan has been determined. It is a population-based descriptive study which was carried out in Fatima Laboratory Hospital, Baqai Medical University, Karachi from November 2013 to November 2014. A total of 100 cases of meningitis were reported in the hospital during the study period. The physical, chemical and microscopic examinations of the samples were performed following the criteria of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. In biochemical analysis, glucose was estimated by hexokinase method whereas protein was estimated by calorie method of molybdate. The results of the analysis indicated that the incidence of bacterial meningitis was highest (65% in the studied population, in which 30% cases were diagnosed with tuberculous meningitis and 35% with other bacterial infections. In the remaining cases, the fungal meningitis (20% was second most common followed by viral meningitis (15%.

  16. [Neuropsychiatric sequelae of viral meningitis in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsgaard, Jesper; Hjerrild, Simon; Renvillard, Signe Groth; Leutscher, Peter Derek Christian

    2011-10-10

    Viral meningitis is considered to be a benign illness with only mild symptoms. In contrast to viral encephalitis and bacterial meningitis, the prognosis is usually good. However, retrospective studies have demonstrated that patients suffering from viral meningitis may experience cognitive impairment following the acute course of infection. Larger controlled studies are needed to elucidate the potential neuropsychiatric adverse outcome of viral meningitis.

  17. Laboratorial diagnosis of lymphocytic meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida

    Full Text Available Meningitis is the main infectious central nervous system (CNS syndrome. Viruses or bacteria can cause acute meningitis of infectious etiology. The term "Aseptic Meningitis" denotes a clinical syndrome with a predominance of lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, with no common bacterial agents identified in the CSF. Viral meningitis is considered the main cause of lymphocyte meningitis. There are other etiologies of an infectious nature. CSF examination is essential to establish the diagnosis and to identify the etiological agent of lymphocytic meningitis. We examined CSF characteristics and the differential diagnosis of the main types of meningitis.

  18. Predictive value of the APACHE II, SAPS II, SOFA and GCS scoring systems in patients with severe purulent bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietraszek-Grzywaczewska, Iwona; Bernas, Szymon; Łojko, Piotr; Piechota, Anna; Piechota, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    Scoring systems in critical care patients are essential for predicting of the patient outcome and evaluating the therapy. In this study, we determined the value of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II), Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II), Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scoring systems in the prediction of mortality in adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with severe purulent bacterial meningitis. We retrospectively analysed data from 98 adult patients with severe purulent bacterial meningitis who were admitted to the single ICU between March 2006 and September 2015. Univariate logistic regression identified the following risk factors of death in patients with severe purulent bacterial meningitis: APACHE II, SAPS II, SOFA, and GCS scores, and the lengths of ICU stay and hospital stay. The independent risk factors of patient death in multivariate analysis were the SAPS II score, the length of ICU stay and the length of hospital stay. In the prediction of mortality according to the area under the curve, the SAPS II score had the highest accuracy followed by the APACHE II, GCS and SOFA scores. For the prediction of mortality in a patient with severe purulent bacterial meningitis, SAPS II had the highest accuracy.

  19. Bacterial genetics in meningitis: Associating meningococcal and pneumococcal genes with clinical outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piet, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to provide more insight in the association of bacterial genetics with clinical characteristics of patients with bacterial meningitis. In a genetic association study using a cohort of 258 meningococcal meningitis patients, we show that specific meningococcal clonal

  20. Intrathecal production of interleukin-12 and gamma-interferon in patients with bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornelisse, R.F.; Hack, C.E.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Pouw-Kraan, van der T.C.T.M.; Hop, W.C.J.; Mierlo, van G.; Suur, M.H.; Neijens, H.J.; Groot, de R.

    1997-01-01

    To assess the role of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) in children with bacterial meningitis, bioactive IL-12 (p70) and the inactive subunit p40 and IFN-gamma were measured in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 35 children with bacterial meningitis and 10 control

  1. Educational achievement and economic self-sufficiency in adults after childhood bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Casper; Omland, Lars Haukali Hvass; Skinhoj, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To our knowledge, no previous study has examined functioning in adult life among persons who had bacterial meningitis in childhood.......To our knowledge, no previous study has examined functioning in adult life among persons who had bacterial meningitis in childhood....

  2. Outcome of fulminant bacterial meningitis in adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, R; Mateen, F J; Rabinstein, A A

    2014-03-01

    The objective of our study was to identify neurological factors associated with poor outcome in adult patients with fulminant bacterial meningitis. This was a retrospective review of consecutive adult patients with fulminant bacterial meningitis, defined as meningitis causing coma within 24-48 h of hospitalization, at Mayo Clinic Rochester between January 2000 and November 2010. Functional status was assessed at discharge and upon last follow-up using the modified Rankin scale (mRS). The primary end-point was death or new major disability (increase of >2 on the mRS) at last follow-up. Thirty-nine patients were identified. Encephalopathy (44%), coma (28%), focal seizures (3%) or a combination of these (26%) were present on admission. The most common pathogen was Streptococcus pneumoniae (57%). All patients were treated with broad spectrum antibiotics and 51% received steroids. Serious systemic complications were seen in 23 patients. Sixteen patients (41%) died during hospitalization. Median mRS at hospital discharge for surviving patients was 3; four patients had new major disability with a mean follow-up of 11 months. Predictors of death or new major disability included lower Glasgow Coma Scale score at nadir [P = 0.002; age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.28-0.48], longer duration of symptoms before hospitalization (P = 0.045; adjusted OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.02-5.37), abnormal head imaging at presentation (P = 0.008; adjusted OR 9.40, 95% CI 1.78-49.6) and use of intracranial pressure monitoring (P = 0.010, adjusted OR 51.0, 95% CI 2.51-1036). Many adult patients who survive hospitalization are able to regain their pre-morbid level of function. Aggressive management of bacterial meningitis is justified even in comatose adult patients. © 2013 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2013 EFNS.

  3. 10 original article dynamics of germs responsible for acute bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    DYNAMICS OF GERMS RESPONSIBLE FOR ACUTE BACTERIAL MENINGITIS IN. BURKINA FASO IN THE LAST TEN YEARS (2005-2014). Absatou Ky-Ba1,*, Mahamoudou Sanou2,Juliette -Diallo Tranchot3, Paul A. Christiasen4, Abdoul Salam Ouedraogo3,. Mamadou Tamboura2, Dinanibé Kambiré2, Kalifa Ouattara5, ...

  4. Pattern and antimicrobial sensitivity of pathogens in acute bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern and antimicrobial sensitivity of pathogens in acute bacterial meningitis beyond neonatal period at Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (ABUTH) Shika, ... among children beyond neonatal period for prompt empirical treatment of this important cause of morbidity and mortality especially in developing countries.

  5. Common variable immunodeficiency in three horses with presumptive bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini-Masini, Alessandra; Bentz, Amy I; Johns, Imogen C; Parsons, Corrina S; Beech, Jill; Whitlock, Robert H; Flaminio, M Julia B F

    2005-07-01

    Three adult horses were evaluated for signs of musculoskeletal pain, dullness, ataxia, and seizures. A diagnosis of bacterial meningitis was made on the basis of results of CSF analysis. Because primary bacterial meningitis is so rare in adult horses without any history of generalized sepsis or trauma, immune function testing was pursued. Flow cytometric phenotyping of peripheral blood lymphocytes was performed, and proliferation of peripheral blood lymphocytes in response to concanavalin A, phytohemagglutinin, pokeweed mitogen, and lipopolysaccharide was determined. Serum IgA, IgM, and IgG concentrations were measured by means of radial immunodiffusion, and serum concentrations of IgG isotypes were assessed with a capture antibody ELISA. Serum tetanus antibody concentrations were measured before and 1 month after tetanus toxoid administration. Phagocytosis and oxidative burst activity of isolated peripheral blood phagocytes were evaluated by means of simultaneous flow cytometric analysis. Persistent B-cell lymphopenia, hypogammaglobulinemia, and abnormal in vitro responses to mitogens were detected in all 3 horses, and a diagnosis of common variable immunodeficiency was made.

  6. The risk of acquiring bacterial meningitis following surgery in Denmark, 1996-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howitz, M F; Homøe, P

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: This paper estimates the risk of bacterial meningitis following surgery between 1996 and 2009 in Denmark. We conducted two retrospective nationwide cohort studies; first by linking notified bacterial meningitis cases to the National Patient Registry to see how many had undergone a surgical...... procedure; second, we scrutinized notified bacterial meningitis cases to see if the clinician suspected a surgical procedure to be the aetiology. We found that ear, nose and throat surgery had an 11-fold, and neurosurgery a sevenfold, increased risk compared to the reference group in the first 10 days...... following surgery. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the pathogen most often involved. Operation procedures involving penetration of dura mater was associated with increased risk for post-operative bacterial meningitis. In absolute numbers we found few bacterial meningitis cases after surgery; however, patients...

  7. Acute myelopathy with sudden paraplegia as the sole manifestation of meningococcal meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanis H. Ibrahim

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute myelopathy with sudden paraplegia is a very rare manifestation of meningococcal meningitis, with only a few cases reported in the literature. In almost all previously reported cases, other clinical manifestations of meningitis, such as fever, headache, and neck stiffness preceded acute myelopathy. In this paper, we report a case of acute myelopathy with sudden paraplegia as the sole manifestation of meningococcal meningitis, in the absence of other clinical manifestations of meningitis.

  8. Empiric Treatment of Acute Meningitis Syndrome in a Resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-01

    Nov 1, 2017 ... Empiric Treatment of Acute Meningitis Syndrome in a Resource-. Limited Setting: Clinical Outcomes and Predictors of Survival or. Death. Birkneh Tilahun Tadesse1, Byron Alexander Foster2, Mulugeta Sitot Shibeshi1,. HenokTadele Dangiso1. OPEN ACCESS. Citation: Birkneh Tilahun Tadesse, Byron.

  9. Types, Risk Factors, Clinical symptoms and Diagnostic Tests of Acute Adult Meningitis in Northern Iran During 2006-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Babamahmoodi, Farhang

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment and otherwise associated with serious morbidity and mortality. Aim The aim of this study was to assess types, risk factors, clinical symptoms and diagnostic tests of meningitis in hospitalized patients of Mazandaran University of medical sciences hospitals during 2006-2012. Matherials and Methods This is a retrospective descriptive study. Following approval of the ethics committee of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, records of adult patients diagnosed with acute meningitis from 2006 to 2012 were extracted from Mazandaran Provincial Health Center and patients attending hospitals affiliated to Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Statistical Analysis Data were analyzed with SPSS-16 using descriptive statistics (frequency, mean, standard deviation, and median). Results In this study, of the 137 patients with meningitis, 73 (53.9%) were viral, 61 (46%) bacterial, 1 (0.7%) fungal, and 2 (1.4%) unknown. The majority of risk factors in patients were head trauma, upper respiratory infection, and drug addiction. The most common clinical signs were headache, fever, nausea and vomiting, and stiff neck. Conclusion In this study, the incidence of meningitis was much lower than any other country. It could be due to geographic variation or incomplete recording of patient's data. It is recommended to perform a longitudinal study during the coming years on patients with meningitis. PMID:26155497

  10. Diagnostic value of serum creatine kinase-BB for acute meningitis in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Alavi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find out an easy and feasible test instead of cerebrospinal fluid analysis for the diagnosis of acute meningitis. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 in Ahvaz, a city located in the Southwest Iran including 75 patients with clinical diagnosis of fever, headache, vomiting and neck stiffness suspected to have acute meningitis based on cerebrospinal fluid analysis. In the beginning, the patients were divided into two categories as acute meningitis, and non-acute meningitis. Then, 5 L of blood was taken from each patient to determine serum creatine kinase isoenzyme-BB by using ELISA method. After that, the related data including demographics, clinical and laboratory results were analyzed by SPSS software version 16 using Chi-square test for qualitative variables and student’s t-test for quantitative variables. Results: Among the total 75 patients, 37 (49.3% were males and 38 (50.7% were females including 45 patients (60% with acute meningitis and 30 patients (40% without acute meningitis. On the other hand, CK-BB serum levels in acute meningitis and non-acute meningitis patients were 18.23 ± 7.56 and 2.67 ± 1.62, respectively, so significant difference was found between acute meningitis group and non-acute meningitis group (P < 0.000 1. Conclusions: Serum creatine kinase isoenzyme-BB test is a useful test to differentiate acute meningitis from non-acute meningitis among suspected cases of meningitis disease, so measuring the CK-BB serum level in Iran's health system with an expanded health setting especially in remote areas will be useful and helpful in prompt diagnosis and treatment of the acute meningitis.

  11. Improved outcome of bacterial meningitis associated with use of corticosteroid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baunbæk-Knudsen, Gertrud; Sølling, Mette; Farre, Annette; Benfield, Thomas; Brandt, Christian T

    2016-04-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of patients with bacterial meningitis following the introduction of dexamethasone treatment in Denmark. Methods Adult patients with bacterial meningitis, admitted from 2003-2010 to two different university hospitals, were included retrospectively. Data at clinical presentation, Glasgow outcome scale (GOS), cerebrospinal fluid and blood biochemistry were collected. Relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was computed by Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. Results One hundred and forty-seven patients were included in the study. The population had a median age of 62 years and 31% had an immunosuppressive co-morbidity. Eighty-nine patients had an unfavourable outcome (GOS score = 1-4). Adjuvant treatment with corticosteroids (RR = 0.48; 95% CI = 0.30-0.76) was associated with a favourable outcome (GOS score = 5), while altered mental status (RR = 2.36; 95% CI = 1.17-4.78) and age (RR = 1.03; 95% CI = 1.01-1.04) per year increment was associated with an unfavourable outcome. Adjuvant corticosteroid treatment did not affect short- or long-term survival. Short-term mortality was influenced by age (RR = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.04-1.09). Long-term mortality was influenced by age (RR = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.03-1.08) and female sex (RR = 1.81; 95% CI = 1.05-3.14). Conclusion This study indicated that adjuvant corticosteroid treatment in acute bacterial meningitis improves the outcome and can safely be administered in an elderly population with high levels of immunosuppressive co-morbidity.

  12. BACTERIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF PATIENTS WITH ACUTE PYOGENIC MENINGITIS - A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY

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    Arnab

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pyogenic meningitis is one of the most common infectious disease emergencies involving the central nervous system with higher incidence in developing countries than developed nations. Despite the large number of pathogens that have been reported to cause acute pyogenic meningitis, certain microorganisms are isolated with higher frequency depending on patient’s age, immune status and geography. Present study was aimed to determine the trends in aetiology and spectrum of the bacteriological profile in adult patients with suspected pyogenic meningitis in North-East India. MATERIALS 50 CSF samples from as many patients of Acute Bacterial Meningitis over a period of one year were processed for cell counts, biochemical analysis, gram staining, culture, antigen detection by latex agglutination test and antibiotic susceptibility tests, as per standard techniques. OBSERVATION CSF cell counts showed neutrophilic predominance in all cases along with high protein and low sugar levels. 44% of the cases were culture positive and latex agglutination test was positive in 46.4% of the cases where culture was negative. S. pneumonia was the predominant pathogen identified in the present study in 12(24% cases, followed by Pseudomonas and E. coli in 5(10% cases each. Gram stain indicated the causative organisms in 68.2% of the culture positive cases. Among the culture negative patients gram stain indicated the causative organism in 3(10.7% cases and these three cases were positive by LAT also. CONCLUSION Simple, rapid, inexpensive tests like gram staining remain significant means for diagnosis of acute pyogenic meningitis in developing countries. LAT goes a long way in identifying the organisms where the cultures are negative. This study thus paves the way for larger studies in this region for better recognition of the predominant organisms and the empirical antibiotic regimens.

  13. Relationship of Serum Procalcitonin Levels to Severity and Prognosis in Pediatric Bacterial Meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ruimei; Gong, Yansheng; Wang, Yuzhen

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between serum procalcitonin (PCT) levels and prognosis in children with bacterial meningitis. Eighty-two child patients were included in this prospective study. The diagnosis of meningitis was based on clinical features and cerebrospinal fluid findings. PCT levels were measured with a specific immunoluminometric assay. (a) Patients with bacterial meningitis had significantly higher serum PCT than those with viral meningitis. (b) The PCT levels of patients with severe sepsis or septic shock were significantly higher than those who had no or mild sepsis. (c) PCT levels decreased significantly in patients who had good curative effect, whereas PCT levels did not changed in patients who had no curative effect. (d) The PCT levels were significantly higher in those who died than those who survived. Serum PCT is related to the severity of disease in children with bacterial meningitis. A fall in PCT after treatment may have favorable prognostic significance. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Mondini dysplasia with recurrent bacterial meningitis caused by three different pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikano, Hiroaki; Ohnishi, Hidenori; Fukutomi, Hisashi; Ito, Kimiko; Morimoto, Masahiro; Teramoto, Takahide; Aoki, Mitsuhiro; Nishihori, Takezumi; Akeda, Yukihiro; Oishi, Kazunori; Fukao, Toshiyuki

    2015-12-01

    Mondini dysplasia is rare, but has an important association with recurrent bacterial meningitis. We herein describe the case of a 3-year-old girl with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss who presented with three independent episodes of bacterial meningitis within 8 months. Temporal bone computed tomography indicated the characteristic features of Mondini dysplasia in the right inner ear. This was treated by surgical closure of the inner ear defect via oval window and additional vaccination was administered. Appropriate vaccination might prevent the recurrent bacterial meningitis associated with Mondini dysplasia. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  15. Diagnosis and Management of Bacterial Meningitis in the Paediatric Population: A Review

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    Catherine L. Tacon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paediatric bacterial meningitis is a neurological emergency which, despite advances in medical management, still has a significant morbidity and mortality. Over recent decades new vaccines have led to a change in epidemiology of the disease; however, it remains a condition that requires a high index of suspicion, prompt diagnosis, and early management in the emergency department. New laboratory techniques and clinical tools are aiding the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis, yet some controversies still exist in its management. This paper outlines the changing epidemiology of the disease, current diagnostic techniques as well as controversies and advances in the management of bacterial meningitis in the paediatric population.

  16. Adjuvant corticosteroids for reducing death in neonatal bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunlesi, Tinuade A; Odigwe, Chibuzo C; Oladapo, Olufemi T

    2015-11-11

    Bacterial meningitis remains a significant cause of neonatal and childhood morbidity and mortality in many countries of the world, particularly in developing countries. In some instances, children recover but remain impaired as a result of neurological sequelae such as hearing loss, developmental delay and cognitive impairment. To assess the effectiveness and safety of adjunctive corticosteroids in reducing death and neurological sequelae in neonates with bacterial meningitis. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 7), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to July 2015), African Index Medicus (up to January 2015), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (up to July 2015), EMBASE (up to July 2015) and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) for ongoing trials. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs of adjunctive corticosteroids for treatment of neonates with bacterial meningitis. Two review authors independently assessed and extracted data on methods, participants, interventions and outcomes (all-cause death until hospital discharge, presence of sensorineural deafness at one year and presence of neurological deficits or developmental delay at two years, adverse events). Risk ratio (RR), risk difference (RD) and number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) or number needed to treat for an additional harmful outcome (NNTH) were calculated when appropriate. We assessed quality using the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool and the GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) system. We found two trials with 132 participants that met our inclusion criteria. One of the included trials was a quasi-randomised trial.Adjunctive corticosteroids reduced the risk of death (typical RR 0.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.24 to 0.88; typical RD -0.19, 95% CI -0.33 to -0.04; NNTB = 6; two studies, 132 participants, very low-quality evidence) but did

  17. Bacterial meningitis in solid organ transplant recipients: a population-based prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, K E B; Brouwer, M C; van der Ende, A; van de Beek, D

    2016-10-01

    Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are at risk of infections of the central nervous system. However, the incidence and clinical course of bacterial meningitis in SOT recipients are unclear. We studied occurrence, disease course, and prognosis of bacterial meningitis in SOT recipients in the Netherlands. All patients with a medical history of solid organ transplantation were selected from our nationwide prospective cohort study on community-acquired bacterial meningitis in patients >16 years old, performed from March 1, 2006 to October 31, 2014. Data on patient history, symptoms and signs on admission, treatment, and outcome were collected prospectively. For transplant recipients, additional information was collected retrospectively. We identified 6 SOT recipients, all receiving renal transplants. The annual incidence of bacterial meningitis was 7-fold higher (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.94-17.02, P bacterial meningitis (fever, neck stiffness, and change in mental status). Seizures were common, occurring in 33% of patients. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Listeria monocytogenes were identified in 2 patients each, and Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were both identified once. Four of 6 patients (67%) had an unfavorable functional outcome. Bacterial meningitis is a rare but devastating complication of solid organ transplantation. SOT recipients are at high risk for developing meningitis, and recognition of this condition may be difficult, owing to atypical clinical manifestation. © 2016 The Authors. Transplant Infectious Disease Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A Fuzzy Expert System for Distinguishing between Bacterial and Aseptic Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Langarizadeh

    2015-05-01

    Data were extracted from 106 records of patients with meningitis (42 cases with bacterial meningitis in order to evaluate the proposed system. The system accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity were 89%, 92 %, and 97%, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.93, and Kappa test revealed a good level of agreement (k=0.84, P

  19. Cognitive functioning and quality of life nine years after bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmand, B.; de Bruin, E.; de Gans, J.; van de Beek, D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine recovery of psychological functioning nine years after meningitis. In a follow-up study, cognitive functioning and quality of life were evaluated in 28 adults 8-10 years after recovery from bacterial meningitis (n = 17 due to Streptococcus pneumoniae; n = 11 due to Neisseria

  20. Prediction of bacterial meningitis based on cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis in children

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    Sofia Águeda

    Full Text Available Children with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis are frequently treated with parenteral antibiotics, but only a few have bacterial meningitis. Although some clinical prediction rules, such as bacterial meningitis score, are of well-known value, the cerebrospinal fluid white blood cells count can be the initial available information. Our aim was to establish a cutoff point of cerebrospinal fluid white blood cell count that could distinguish bacterial from viral and aseptic meningitis. A retrospective study of children aged 29 days to 17 years who were admitted between January 1st and December 31th, 2009, with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis (white blood cell > 7 µL-1 was conducted. The cases of traumatic lumbar puncture and of antibiotic treatment before lumbar puncture were excluded. There were 295 patients with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis, 60.3% females, medium age 5.0 ± 4.3 years distributed as: 12.2% 1-3 months; 10.5% 3-12 months; 29.8% 12 months to 5 years; 47.5% >5 years. Thirty one children (10.5% were diagnosed with bacterial meningitis, 156 (52.9% viral meningitis and 108 (36.6% aseptic meningitis. Bacterial meningitis was caused by Neisseria meningi tidis (48.4%, Streptococcus pneumoniae (32.3%, other Streptococcus species (9.7%, and other agents (9.7%. cerebrospinal fluid white blood cell count was significantly higher in patients with bacterial meningitis (mean, 4839 cells/µL compared to patients with aseptic meningitis (mean, 159 cells/µL, p < 0.001, with those with aseptic meningitis (mean, 577 cells/µL, p < 0.001 and with all non-bacterial meningitis cases together (p < 0.001. A cutoff value of 321 white blood cell/µL showed the best combination of sensitivity (80.6% and specificity (81.4% for the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis (area under receiver operating characteristic curve 0.837. Therefore, the value of cerebrospinal fluid white blood cell count was found to be a useful and rapid diagnostic test to distinguish

  1. Methotrexate-induced chemical meningitis in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linu A Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intrathecal methotrexate (ITMTX is an important component in the treatment as well as prophylaxis of leukemia/lymphoma. ITMTX can cause chemical meningitis characterized by vomiting, headache, and fever lasting 2-5 days with spontaneous resolution of symptoms which differentiates this syndrome from bacterial meningitis. Objective: This prospective observational study was carried out to determine incidence of post-ITMTX syndrome in patients receiving prophylactic ITMTX as part of Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster (BFM protocol. Materials and Methods: Patients aged 15-50 years receiving BFM 90 or BFM 95 protocol for acute lymphoblastic leukemia or lymphoblastic lymphoma were followed up for post-ITMTX syndrome, defined as vomiting, headache and fever between 38 o and 39 o C following ITMTX. Results: Thirty-three patients received a total of 297 courses of ITMTX. Of the 297 doses of ITMTX, 20 episodes (6.7% of post-ITMTX syndrome were observed. The incidence of post-ITMTX syndrome was highest after the second dose of ITMTX (24%. The most common symptom of post-ITMTX syndrome was headache which was seen in 17 (85% patients. Seventeen (85% patients had vomiting, 10 (50% patients had fever, and 4 (20% patients had backache. Meningeal signs were present in 2 (10% patients. Conclusions: Post-ITMTX syndrome is not uncommon in adult patients receiving prophylactic ITMTX for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and lymphoblastic lymphoma. Patients develop a toxic syndrome closely mimicking acute bacterial meningitis but spontaneous recovery is seen without any neurological sequelae.

  2. Predicting Outcome of Childhood Bacterial Meningitis With a Single Measurement of C-Reactive Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltola, Heikki; Pelkonen, Tuula; Roine, Irmeli; Cruzeiro, Manuel Leite; Bernardino, Luis

    2016-06-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation, shows high serum levels in invasive bacterial infections. We investigated the potential of a single CRP measurement at different phases of acute childhood bacterial meningitis to predict outcomes. Using whole-blood finger-prick samples with no centrifugation, CRP was measured quantitatively on arrival and on day 3 or 4 in children participating in 2 prospective, randomized, double-blind treatment studies conducted in Latin America or Angola. The results were compared with patient outcomes. Although initial CRP values from 669 children gave useful prognostic information, the 3rd or 4th day measurements taken from 275 children associated significantly with seizures, slow recovery and low scores on the Glasgow Outcome Scale, with odds ratios for CRP values above the median (62 mg/L) ranging from 2 to 6, 2 to 5, and 3 to 5 (Latin America-Angola), respectively. Hearing impairment, although not full deafness, was 3 to 7 times more likely if CRP was above the median soon after hospitalization. Especially in resource-poor settings, clinicians have few simple-enough tools to identify the child with meningitis who requires maximum attention. CRP is a worthy addition.

  3. Adherence to standard of care in the diagnosis and treatment of suspected bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, David; Yavari, Youness; Kirsanov, Eugeny; Aronin, Steven I; Sadigh, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is a rare but deadly neurological emergency. Accordingly, Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines summarize current evidence into a straightforward algorithm for its management. The goal of this study is to evaluate the overall compliance with these guidelines in patients with suspected ABM. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted of adult patients who underwent lumbar puncture for suspected ABM to ascertain local adherence patterns to IDSA guidelines for bacterial meningitis. Primary outcomes included appropriate utilization of neuroimaging, blood cultures, antibiotics, corticosteroids, and lumbar puncture. In all, 160 patients were included in the study. Overall IDSA compliance was only 0.6%. Neuroimaging and blood cultures were appropriately utilized in 54.3% and 47.5% of patients, respectively. Steroids and antibiotics were appropriately administered in only 7.5% and 5.6% of patients, respectively. Adherence to IDSA guidelines is poor. Antibiotic choice is often incorrect, corticosteroids are rarely administered, and there is an overutilization of neuroimaging. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Direct molecular testing to assess the incidence of meningococcal and other bacterial causes of meningitis among persons reported with unspecified bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramautar, Arianne E; Halse, Tanya A; Arakaki, Lola; Antwi, Mike; Del Rosso, Paula; Dorsinville, Marie; Nazarian, Elizabeth; Steiner-Sichel, Linda; Lee, Lillian; Dickinson, Michelle; Wroblewski, Danielle; Dumas, Nellie; Musser, Kimberlee; Isaac, Beth; Rakeman, Jennifer; Weiss, Don

    2015-11-01

    Confirmed and probable cases of invasive Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) infection are reportable in New York City. We conducted a study to identify Nm among culture-negative reports of bacterial and viral meningitis. During the study period, 262 reports of suspected meningitis were eligible. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from 138 patients were obtained for testing. No Nm cases were detected. Results from real-time polymerase chain reaction and 16S on CSF specimens were concordant with hospital microbiology findings in 80%; however, other pathogenic organisms were detected in 14 culture-negative specimens. New York City's surveillance system appears to be effective at capturing cases of Nm meningitis. Nucleic acid testing is useful for detecting the presence of bacterial DNA when antibiotic therapy precedes lumbar puncture or bacterial cultures are negative. It remains unanswered whether culture-negative cases of Nm bacteremia are being missed by reportable disease surveillance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Acute cerebrovascular accident associated with drepanocytosis complicated by pneumococcal meningitis in two children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, M E; López-Laso, E; Simón, R; Mateos, F

    Between 6% and 17% of the patients with drepanocytosis will have an acute cerebrovascular accident (ACVA). Precipitating factors have been described including bacterial meningitis, upper respiratory tract obstruction, dehydration, intense exercise, postoperatively, and hypoxia due to altitude. We report two Negro children with drepanocytosis who, at the ages of 8 and 20 months, had pneumococcal meningitis complicated by an ACVA. The 20 month old boy had been previously diagnosed as having drepanocytosis; the 8 month old girl was diagnosed when she was admitted to hospital with meningitis. In both cases the clinical features of the ACVA were focal epileptic seizures followed by hemiplegia. On cranial CT and MR regions of focal ischaemia of the hemisphere were observed. The boy of 20 months made an excellent recovery with no long term sequelae. The 8 month old girl had severe permanent sequelae: hemiparesia, blindness, mental deficiency and epileptic encephalopathy. We present two Negro children with drepanocytosis who had ischemic ACVAs, a common complication of the disease, during the course of pneumococcal meningitis but with very different clinical courses. Recent increases in immigration will mean that previously rare illnesses will be more commonly seen in our environment, and should be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  6. Bedside Evaluation of Cerebral Energy Metabolism in Severe Community-Acquired Bacterial Meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom Poulsen, Frantz; Schulz, Mette; Jacobsen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mortality and morbidity have remained high in bacterial meningitis. Impairment of cerebral energy metabolism probably contributes to unfavorable outcome. Intracerebral microdialysis is routinely used to monitor cerebral energy metabolism, and recent experimental studies indicate that ...

  7. Cochlear ossification in patients with profound hearing loss following bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caye-Thomasen, Per; Dam, Mikkel Seidelin; Omland, Silje Haukali

    2012-01-01

    Cochlear ossification following bacterial meningitis is related to causative pathogen, but not age at disease or time point of evaluation. However, progression may occur over time, especially in case of primary signs of ossification.......Cochlear ossification following bacterial meningitis is related to causative pathogen, but not age at disease or time point of evaluation. However, progression may occur over time, especially in case of primary signs of ossification....

  8. Bacterial meningitis in diabetes patients: a population-based prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, Kiril E. B.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased infection rates. We studied clinical features and outcome of community-acquired bacterial meningitis in diabetes patients. Patients were selected from a nationwide, prospective cohort on community-acquired bacterial meningitis performed from March 2006 to October 2014. Data on patient history, symptoms and signs on admission, treatment, and outcome were prospectively collected. A total of 183 of 1447 episodes (13%) occurred in diabetes patients. The incidence of bacterial meningitis in diabetes patients was 3.15 per 100,000 patients per year and the risk of acquiring bacterial meningitis was 2.2-fold higher for diabetes patients. S. pneumoniae was the causative organism in 139 of 183 episodes (76%) and L. monocytogenes in 11 of 183 episodes (6%). Outcome was unfavourable in 82 of 183 episodes (45%) and in 43 of 183 episodes (23%) the patient died. Diabetes was associated with death with an odds ratio of 1.63 (95% CI 1.12–2.37, P = 0.011), which remained after adjusting for known predictors of death in a multivariable analysis (OR 1.98 [95% CI 1.13–3.48], P = 0.017). In conclusion, diabetes is associated with a 2-fold higher risk of acquiring bacterial meningitis. Diabetes is a strong independent risk factor for death in community-acquired adult bacterial meningitis. PMID:27845429

  9. Cerebrospinal fluid lactate: a differential biomarker for bacterial and viral meningitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Mudasir; Wani, Wasim Ahmad; Malik, Muzaffar Ahmad; Mir, Mohd Rafiq; Ashraf, Younis; Kawoosa, Khalid; Ali, Syed Wajid

    2017-08-30

    To assess the performance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate as a biomarker to differentiate bacterial meningitis from viral meningitis in children, and to define an optimal CSF lactate concentration that can be called significant for the differentiation. Children with clinical findings compatible with meningitis were studied. CSF lactate and other conventional CSF parameters were recorded. At a cut-off value of 3mmol/L, CSF lactate had a sensitivity of 0.90, specificity of 1.0, positive predictive value of 1.0, and negative predictive value of 0.963, with an accuracy of 0.972. The positive and negative likelihood ratios were 23.6 and 0.1, respectively. When comparing between bacterial and viral meningitis, the area under the curve for CSF lactate was 0.979. The authors concluded that CSF lactate has high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating bacterial from viral meningitis. While at a cut-off value of 3mmol/L, CSF lactate has high diagnostic accuracy for bacterial meningitis, mean levels in viral meningitis remain essentially below 2mmol/L. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Intracerebral Hemorrhages in Adults with Community Associated Bacterial Meningitis in Adults: Should We Reconsider Anticoagulant Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mook-Kanamori, Barry B.; Fritz, Daan; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the incidence, clinical presentation and outcome of intracranial hemorrhagic complications in adult patients with community associated bacterial meningitis. Methods Nationwide prospective cohort study from all hospitals in the Netherlands, from 1 March 2006, through 31 December 2010. Results Of the 860 episodes of bacterial meningitis that were included, 24 were diagnosed with intracranial hemorrhagic complications: 8 upon presentation and 16 during clinical course. Clinical presentation between patients with or without intracranial hemorrhage was similar. Causative bacteria were Streptococcus pneumoniae in 16 patients (67%), Staphylococcus aureus in 5 (21%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Listeria monocytogenes both in 1 patient (4%). Occurrence of intracranial hemorrhage was associated with death (63% vs. 15%, Pbacterial meningitis. Since anticoagulant therapy use is associated with increased risk for intracranial hemorrhage, physicians may consider reversing or temporarily discontinuing anticoagulation in patients with bacterial meningitis. PMID:23028898

  11. Epidemiology of Bacterial Meningitis in the North American Arctic, 2000–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounder, Prabhu P.; Zulz, Tammy; Desai, Shalini; Stenz, Flemming; Rudolph, Karen; Tsang, Raymond; Tyrrell, Gregory J.; Bruce, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective To determine the incidence of meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae in the North American Arctic during 2000–2010. Methods Surveillance data were obtained from the International Circumpolar Surveillance network. We defined a case of bacterial meningitis caused by H. influenzae, N. meningitidis, or S. pneumoniae as a culture-positive isolate obtained from a normally sterile site in a resident with a meningitis diagnosis. Results The annual incidence/100,000 persons for meningitis caused by H. influenzae, N. meningitidis, and S. pneumoniae among all North American Arctic residents was: 0.6, 0.5, and 1.5, respectively; the meningitis incidence among indigenous persons in Alaska and Canada (indigenous status not recorded in Greenland) for those three bacteria was: 2.1, 0.8, and 2.4, respectively. The percentage of pneumococcal isolates belonging to a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine serotype declined from 2000–2004 to 2005–2010 (31% to 2%, p-value meningitis and serogroup B caused 86% of meningococcal meningitis. Conclusions Compared with all North American Arctic residents, indigenous people suffer disproportionately from bacterial meningitis. Arctic residents could benefit from the development of a H. influenzae serotype a vaccine and implementation of a meningococcal serogroup B vaccine. PMID:25864638

  12. Epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in the North American Arctic, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounder, Prabhu P; Zulz, Tammy; Desai, Shalini; Stenz, Flemming; Rudolph, Karen; Tsang, Raymond; Tyrrell, Gregory J; Bruce, Michael G

    2015-08-01

    To determine the incidence of meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae in the North American Arctic during 2000-2010. Surveillance data were obtained from the International Circumpolar Surveillance network. We defined a case of bacterial meningitis caused by H. influenzae, N. meningitidis, or S. pneumoniae as a culture-positive isolate obtained from a normally sterile site in a resident with a meningitis diagnosis. The annual incidence/100,000 persons for meningitis caused by H. influenzae, N. meningitidis, and S. pneumoniae among all North American Arctic residents was: 0.6, 0.5, and 1.5, respectively; the meningitis incidence among indigenous persons in Alaska and Canada (indigenous status not recorded in Greenland) for those three bacteria was: 2.1, 0.8, and 2.4, respectively. The percentage of pneumococcal isolates belonging to a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine serotype declined from 2000-2004 to 2005-2010 (31%-2%, p-value meningitis and serogroup B caused 86% of meningococcal meningitis. Compared with all North American Arctic residents, indigenous people suffer disproportionately from bacterial meningitis. Arctic residents could benefit from the development of an H. influenzae serotype a vaccine and implementation of a meningococcal serogroup B vaccine. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults with cancer or a history of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costerus, Joost M; Brouwer, Matthijs C; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-03-01

    To study the incidence, clinical presentation, causative bacteria, and outcome of community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults with cancer. We evaluated incidence and characteristics of patients with cancer included in a nationwide prospective cohort study of adults with community-acquired meningitis performed in the Netherlands from March 1, 2006, to September 31, 2014. All patients underwent a neurologic examination at hospital discharge, and outcome was graded using the Glasgow Outcome Scale. Active cancer was identified in 68 of 1,351 episodes (5%) and a history of cancer in 87 (6%). The annual incidence of community-acquired bacterial meningitis was 2.71-fold (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.68-4.36, p bacterial meningitis in patients with cancer compared to patients without cancer was similar. Patients with active cancer presented with lower leukocyte count in blood (12.1 × 10(9) cells/L vs 17.3 × 10(9) cells/L, p bacterial meningitis (odds ratio 1.85, 95% CI 1.09-3.13). One of 8 patients with community-bacterial meningitis was identified to have a history of cancer and cancer was considered active in half of these patients. Patients with active cancer present with lower CSF leukocyte counts, are more likely to be infected with L monocytogenes, and are at high risk of unfavorable outcome. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  14. Bacterial meningitis in children under 15 years of age in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Rajani Ghaju; Tandukar, Sarmila; Ansari, Shamshul; Subedi, Akriti; Shrestha, Anisha; Poudel, Rekha; Adhikari, Nabaraj; Basnyat, Shital Raj; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur

    2015-08-19

    Bacterial meningitis in children is a life-threatening problem resulting in severe morbidity and mortality. For the prompt initiation of antibacterial therapy, rapid and reliable diagnostic methods are of utmost importance. Therefore, this study was designed to find out the rate of bacterial pathogens of meningitis from suspected cases by performing conventional methods and latex agglutination. A descriptive type of study was carried out from May 2012 to April 2013. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from 252 suspected cases of meningitis were subjected for Gram staining, bacterial culture and latex agglutination test. The identification of growth of bacteria was done following standard microbiological methods recommended by American Society for Microbiology. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was done by modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. From the total 252 suspected cases, 7.2 % bacterial meningitis was revealed by Gram staining and culture methods whereas latex agglutination method detected 5.6 %. Gram-negative organisms contributed the majority of the cases (72.2 %) with Haemophilus influenzae as the leading pathogen for meningitis. Overall, 33.3 % mortality rate was found. In conclusion, a significant rate of bacterial meningitis was found in this study prompting concern for national wide surveillance.

  15. [Neonatal bacterial meningitis: prospective study of the long-term outcome of 55 children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jornada Krebs, V L; De Albuquerque Diniz, E M; Costa Vaz, F A; Marques Dias, M J; Takiguti, C; Araújo Ramos, J L

    1996-03-01

    Fifty-five infants who presented bacterial neonatal meningitis were prospectively studied to analyze the frequency and the type of sequelae. All the infants were full term newborns. There were 38 boys and 17 girls; the age of disease onset varied from 3 to 28 days. The causative organism was represented mainly by enterobacteriae. The median time of follow-up was 5 years. The frequency of neurologic sequelae was 63.7%, represented mainly by neuropsychomotor development delay (58.2%), hydrocephaly (45.5%) and convulsions (34.5%). Severe motor abnormalities ocurred in 23.6% of children (quadriplegia, diplegia, hemiparesia and ataxia). Convulsions in the acute phase of the disease and the positive cerebrospinal fluid culture were highly associated to sequelae. The school performance, obtained in 25 children, showed presence of disabilities in 48% of cases, which were significantly associated to mental retardation.

  16. Role of Rifampin in Reducing Inflammation and Neuronal Damage in Childhood Bacterial Meningitis: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Lipi; Singhi, Sunit; Singhi, Pratibha; Aggarwal, Ritu

    2017-06-01

    Treatment of acute bacterial meningitis in children with bactericidal antibiotics causes cell wall lysis and a surge in inflammatory cascade, which in turn contributes to neuronal damage and morbidity. Pretreatment with a nonbacteriolytic antibiotic, such as rifampin, has been shown to attenuate the inflammatory response in experimental models of bacterial meningitis. In a pilot study, in children with bacterial meningitis, we have studied markers of inflammatory response and neuronal damage in 2 groups of children with bacterial meningitis; one group received rifampin pretreatment with ceftriaxone and the other group received ceftriaxone alone. Forty children with bacterial meningitis, who were 3 months to 12 years of age, were randomly assigned to receive either a single dose rifampin (20 mg/kg) 30 minutes before ceftriaxone or ceftriaxone alone was given. The primary outcome variables were cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), S100B and neuron-specific enolase on day 1 and day 5, and secondary outcome variables were the values of TNFα and interleukin 6 in serum on day 1 and day 5; hearing and neurologic sequelae at 3 months after recovery from the illness. Children in rifampin pretreatment group had significantly lower CSF TNFα concentrations [median (interquartile range [IQR]): 15.5 (7.2-22.0) vs. 53.0 (9.0-87.5) pg/mL, P = 0.019] and S100B [median (IQR): 145.0 (54.7-450.0) vs. 447.5 (221.0-804.6) pg/mL, P = 0.033] on day 1 and S100B [median (IQR): 109.7 (64.0-287.0) vs. 322 (106.7-578.0) pg/mL, P = 0.048] and neuron-specific enolase [median (IQR): 8.6 (5-14.75) vs. 18.2 (7.0-28.75) ng/mL, P = 0.035] on day 5 when compared with ceftriaxone alone group. The rifampin-treated group also had reduced morbidity and neurologic sequelae; however, these were not statistically significant. Pretreatment with single dose rifampin 30 minutes before ceftriaxone administration reduced the CSF concentrations of markers of

  17. A 15-year retrospective analysis of prognostic factors in childhood bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Liang Yi Justin; Tanugroho, Raymond Reinaldo; Thoon, Koh Cheng; Chong, Chia Yin; Choong, Chew Thye; Krishnamoorthy, Subramania; Maiwald, Matthias; Tee, Nancy Wen Sim; Tan, Natalie Woon Hui

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective chart review aimed to identify factors in childhood bacterial meningitis that predicted disease severity and long-term outcome. The study included 112 episodes of microbiologically confirmed bacterial meningitis in children aged three days to 15 years who were admitted to a Singapore hospital from 1998 to 2013. The mortality rate was 6%, and 44% required intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Predictive factors associated with ICU admission included pneumococcal meningitis, with an odds ratio (OR) of 5.2 and 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.5-18.2, leukopenia (OR 5.6, 95% CI 1.7-17.9) and a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF):serum glucose ratio 1000/mm(3) (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.086-0.76) was negatively associated with ICU admission. Five years after meningitis, 32% had residual sequelae, and the associated prognostic factors were Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis (OR 29.5, 95% CI 2-429), seizures during their inpatient stay (OR 10.6, 95% CI 1.9-60.2) and septic shock (OR 8.4, 95% CI 1.1-62.1). As mortality was low in this bacterial meningitis study, ICU admission was used as a marker of disease severity. These findings underscore the importance of the pneumococcal and Hib meningitis vaccines. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Long-Term Effects from Bacterial Meningitis in Childhood and Adolescence on Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hannes; Patel, Mitesh; Ingason, Einar F.; Einarsson, Einar J.; Haraldsson, Ásgeir; Fransson, Per-Anders

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis in childhood is associated with cognitive deficiencies, sensorimotor impairments and motor dysfunction later in life. However, the long-term effects on postural control is largely unknown, e.g., whether meningitis subjects as adults fully can utilize visual information and adaptation to enhance stability. Thirty-six subjects (20 women, mean age 19.3 years) treated in childhood or adolescence for bacterial meningitis, and 25 controls (13 women, mean age 25.1 years) performed posturography with eyes open and closed under unperturbed and perturbed standing. The meningitis subjects were screened for subjective vertigo symptoms using a questionnaire, clinically tested with headshake and head thrust test, as well as their hearing was evaluated. Meningitis subjects were significantly more unstable than controls during unperturbed (p≤0.014) and perturbed standing, though while perturbed only with eyes open in anteroposterior direction (p = 0.034) whereas in lateral direction both with eyes open and closed (pMeningitis subjects had poorer adaption ability to balance perturbations especially with eyes open, and they frequently reported symptoms of unsteadiness (88% of the subjects) and dizziness (81%), which was found significantly correlated to objectively decreased stability. Out of the 36 subjects only 3 had unilateral hearing impairment. Hence, survivors of childhood bacterial meningitis may suffer long-term disorders affecting postural control, and would greatly benefit if these common late effects became generally known so treatments can be developed and applied. PMID:25405756

  19. Long-term effects from bacterial meningitis in childhood and adolescence on postural control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Petersen

    Full Text Available Bacterial meningitis in childhood is associated with cognitive deficiencies, sensorimotor impairments and motor dysfunction later in life. However, the long-term effects on postural control is largely unknown, e.g., whether meningitis subjects as adults fully can utilize visual information and adaptation to enhance stability. Thirty-six subjects (20 women, mean age 19.3 years treated in childhood or adolescence for bacterial meningitis, and 25 controls (13 women, mean age 25.1 years performed posturography with eyes open and closed under unperturbed and perturbed standing. The meningitis subjects were screened for subjective vertigo symptoms using a questionnaire, clinically tested with headshake and head thrust test, as well as their hearing was evaluated. Meningitis subjects were significantly more unstable than controls during unperturbed (p≤0.014 and perturbed standing, though while perturbed only with eyes open in anteroposterior direction (p = 0.034 whereas in lateral direction both with eyes open and closed (p<0.001. Meningitis subjects had poorer adaption ability to balance perturbations especially with eyes open, and they frequently reported symptoms of unsteadiness (88% of the subjects and dizziness (81%, which was found significantly correlated to objectively decreased stability. Out of the 36 subjects only 3 had unilateral hearing impairment. Hence, survivors of childhood bacterial meningitis may suffer long-term disorders affecting postural control, and would greatly benefit if these common late effects became generally known so treatments can be developed and applied.

  20. The use of magnetic resonance and MR angiography in the detection of cerebral infarction: A complication of pediatric bacterial meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stošić-Opinćal Tatjana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground. Association of both cerebral infarction and acute bacterial meningitis is more common in younger patients than in the elderly. The rate of mortality and the frequency of sequel are very high inspite of the use of modern antibiotic therapy. In more than 30% of the cases of childhood bacterial meningitis, both arterial and venous infarctions can occur. The aim of this study was to present the role of the use of magnetic resonance (MRI, and MR angiography (MRA in the detection of bacterial meningitis in children complicated with cerebral infarctions. Method. In the Centre for MR, the Clinical Centre of Serbia, 25 patients with the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis, of which 9 children with cerebral infarction whose clinical conditon deteriorated acutely, despite the antibiotic therapy, underwent MRI and MR angiography examination on a 1T scanner. Examination included the conventional spin-echo techniques with T1-weighted saggital and coronal, and T2- weighted axial and coronal images. Coronal fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR and the postcontrast T1-weighted images in three orthogonal planes were also used. The use MR angiography was accomplished by the three-dimensional time-of-flight (3D TOF technique. Results. The findings included: multiple hemorrhagic infarction in 4 patients, multiple infarctions in 3 patients, focal infarction in 1 patient and diffuse infarction (1 patient. Common sites of involvement were: the frontal lobes, temporal lobes and basal ganglia. The majority of infarctions were bilateral. In 3 of the patients empyema was found, and in 1 patient bitemporal abscess was detected. In 8 of the patients MR angiography confirmed inflammatory vasculitis. Conclusion. Infarction is the most common sequel of severe meningitis in children. Since the complication of cerebral infarction influences the prognosis of meningitis, repetitive MRI examinations are very significant for the evaluation of the time course of

  1. Gene expression in cortex and hippocampus during acute pneumococcal meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wittwer Matthias

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pneumococcal meningitis is associated with high mortality (~30% and morbidity. Up to 50% of survivors are affected by neurological sequelae due to a wide spectrum of brain injury mainly affecting the cortex and hippocampus. Despite this significant disease burden, the genetic program that regulates the host response leading to brain damage as a consequence of bacterial meningitis is largely unknown. We used an infant rat model of pneumococcal meningitis to assess gene expression profiles in cortex and hippocampus at 22 and 44 hours after infection and in controls at 22 h after mock-infection with saline. To analyze the biological significance of the data generated by Affymetrix DNA microarrays, a bioinformatics pipeline was used combining (i a literature-profiling algorithm to cluster genes based on the vocabulary of abstracts indexed in MEDLINE (NCBI and (ii the self-organizing map (SOM, a clustering technique based on covariance in gene expression kinetics. Results Among 598 genes differentially regulated (change factor ≥ 1.5; p ≤ 0.05, 77% were automatically assigned to one of 11 functional groups with 94% accuracy. SOM disclosed six patterns of expression kinetics. Genes associated with growth control/neuroplasticity, signal transduction, cell death/survival, cytoskeleton, and immunity were generally upregulated. In contrast, genes related to neurotransmission and lipid metabolism were transiently downregulated on the whole. The majority of the genes associated with ionic homeostasis, neurotransmission, signal transduction and lipid metabolism were differentially regulated specifically in the hippocampus. Of the cell death/survival genes found to be continuously upregulated only in hippocampus, the majority are pro-apoptotic, while those continuously upregulated only in cortex are anti-apoptotic. Conclusion Temporal and spatial analysis of gene expression in experimental pneumococcal meningitis identified potential

  2. [Diagnostic usefulness of procalcitonin and C-reactive protein in the Emergency Department for predicting bacterial meningitis in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Casado, María Isabel; Julián-Jiménez, Agustín; Moreno-Alonso, Fernando; Valente-Rodríguez, Eder; López-Muñoz, Diego; Saura-Montalbán, José; Cuena-Boy, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    To analyse and compare procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) as tools for detecting bacterial meningitis (BM) in the elderly (>74 years of age). A prospective, observational, descriptive, analytical study of 220 consecutive patients aged ≥1year and diagnosed with acute meningitis in an emergency department between September 2009 and July 2014. A total of 220 patients (136 [62%] male) were studied. The mean age was 30±26years, with BM being diagnosed in 17/83 patients from 1 to 14years of age, 32/111 from 15 to 74years of age, and 17/26 patients ≥75years of age. PCT had the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) (0.972; 95%CI, 0.946-0,998; P<.001) to predict bacterial meningitis. With a cut-off of ≥0.52ng/mL, PCT achieved 93% sensitivity and 86% specificity, and for patients over 75years of age 96% sensitivity and 75% specificity, with the same AUC (0.972). The AUC for CRP was 0.888, and a ≥54,4mg/L cut-off achieved 91% sensitivity and 78% specificity, and for patients over 75years of age an AUC of only 0.514 achieved with 97% sensitivity and 43% specificity. For all patients with acute meningitis in the emergency department, PCT has a high diagnostic power, outperforming CRP and Leukocytes for detection of bacterial etiology, but CPR is of not useful in the elderly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk scores for outcome in bacterial meningitis: Systematic review and external validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijlsma, Merijn W; Brouwer, Matthijs C; Bossuyt, Patrick M; Heymans, Martijn W; van der Ende, Arie; Tanck, Michael W T; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-11-01

    To perform an external validation study of risk scores, identified through a systematic review, predicting outcome in community-acquired bacterial meningitis. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for articles published between January 1960 and August 2014. Performance was evaluated in 2108 episodes of adult community-acquired bacterial meningitis from two nationwide prospective cohort studies by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), the calibration curve, calibration slope or Hosmer-Lemeshow test, and the distribution of calculated risks. Nine risk scores were identified predicting death, neurological deficit or death, or unfavorable outcome at discharge in bacterial meningitis, pneumococcal meningitis and invasive meningococcal disease. Most studies had shortcomings in design, analyses, and reporting. Evaluation showed AUCs of 0.59 (0.57-0.61) and 0.74 (0.71-0.76) in bacterial meningitis, 0.67 (0.64-0.70) in pneumococcal meningitis, and 0.81 (0.73-0.90), 0.82 (0.74-0.91), 0.84 (0.75-0.93), 0.84 (0.76-0.93), 0.85 (0.75-0.95), and 0.90 (0.83-0.98) in meningococcal meningitis. Calibration curves showed adequate agreement between predicted and observed outcomes for four scores, but statistical tests indicated poor calibration of all risk scores. One score could be recommended for the interpretation and design of bacterial meningitis studies. None of the existing scores performed well enough to recommend routine use in individual patient management. Copyright © 2016 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evolving trends of neonatal and childhood bacterial meningitis in northern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Meng-Chin; Chiu, Nan-Chang; Chi, Hsin; Ho, Che-Sheng; Huang, Fu-Yuan

    2015-06-01

    The epidemiology of bacterial meningitis varies in different areas, age groups, and times. To know the trend of neonatal and childhood bacterial meningitis in northern Taiwan, we performed this 29-year-long assessment. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or younger, hospitalized in Mackay Memorial Hospital between 1984 and 2012, and proven by positive cerebrospinal fluid bacterial cultures. Analysis included the patient numbers and pathogens in different age groups, periods, complications, and outcomes. Males were predominant in all the age groups through the years. Almost half of the patients were in the neonatal period. Patient numbers went up in the early study period and declined after 1993-1997. Group B Streptococcus and Escherichia coli were the most common pathogens in neonates, whereas in childhood were Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Patient numbers of Group B Streptococcus, S. pneumoniae, and Hib meningitis declined in the late study period, but E. coli meningitis increased. The mortality rate decreased but sequela rate increased. Among the four most common pathogens, S. pneumoniae had the worst outcome and had highest mortality rate. All Hib meningitis patients survived, but their sequela rate was the highest. This study provides an epidemiological data on trends of neonatal and childhood bacterial meningitis in northern Taiwan during the past 29 years, including male and neonatal predominance, decrease of total patient number in recent years, change of major pathogens, and declined mortality but raised morbidity. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Acute bacterial prostatitis with osteomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nargund, V H; Stewart, P A Hamilton

    1995-01-01

    This short case presentation concerns the simultaneous occurrence of acute bacterial prostatitis and osteomyelitis due to staphylococcal bacteraemia hitherto unrecorded in the literature. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:7629772

  6. Bacterial Meningitis in the Absence of Cerebrospinal Fluid Pleocytosis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Hase

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Elevation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF cell count is a key sign in the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. However, there have been reports of bacterial meningitis with no abnormalities in initial CSF testing. This type of presentation is extremely rare in adult patients. Here, a case involving an 83-year-old woman who was later diagnosed with bacterial meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis is described, in whom CSF at initial and second lumbar puncture did not show elevation of cell counts. Twenty-six non-neutropenic adult cases of bacterial meningitis in the absence of CSF pleocytosis were reviewed. The frequent causative organisms were Streptococcus pneumoniae and N meningitidis. Nineteen cases had bacteremia and seven died. The authors conclude that normal CSF at lumbar puncture at an early stage cannot rule out bacterial meningitis. Therefore, repeat CSF analysis should be considered, and antimicrobial therapy must be started immediately if there are any signs of sepsis or meningitis.

  7. Cochlear-Meningitis Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with cochlear implants are more likely to get bacterial meningitis than children without cochlear implants. In addition, some ... two main types of meningitis, viral and bacterial. Bacterial meningitis is the more serious type and the type ...

  8. Usefulness of inflammatory biomarkers in discriminating between bacterial and aseptic meningitis in hospitalized children from a population with low vaccination coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Gowin, Ewelina; Wysocki, Jacek; Avonts, Dirk; Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska, Danuta; Michalak, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae are the most frequent pathogens responsible for meningitis beyond the neonatal period. Aseptic meningitis is a disabling condition, but bacterial meningitis if left untreated is 100% fatal. The aim of the study was to analyze the usefulness of biochemical and hematological parameters in distinguishing between bacterial and non-bacterial meningitis in children with meningitis from a population with low rates of vaccination agains...

  9. Challenges of bacterial meningitis case management in low income settings: an experience from Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudina, Esayas Kebede; Tesfaye, Markos; Adane, Aynishet; Lemma, Kinfe; Shibiru, Tamiru; Pfister, Hans-Walter; Klein, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the current diagnostic and therapeutic strategies used in the care of patients with suspected bacterial meningitis at teaching hospitals in Ethiopia. This was a hospital-based retrospective study conducted at four teaching hospitals in different regions of Ethiopia. Participants were patients aged 14 years and older treated for suspected bacterial meningitis. Presenting complaints, diagnostic strategies used and treatments given were obtained from clinical records. A total of 425 patients were included in the study; 52.7% were men and 83.8% were younger than 50 years. Fever, headache, neck stiffness and impaired consciousness were the most common clinical presentations; 55.5% underwent lumbar puncture. Overall, only 96 (22.6%) patients had cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities compatible with bacterial meningitis. A causative bacterium was identified in only 14 cases. Ceftriaxone was used as the empiric treatment of choice, either alone or in combination with other antibiotics; 17.6% of patients were also given vancomycin. Adjunctive dexamethasone was given to 50.4%. Most patients treated as bacterial meningitis did not receive a proper diagnostic workup. The choice of antibiotic was not tailored to the specific clinical condition of the patient. Such an approach may result in poor treatment outcomes and lead to antibiotic resistance. Management of patients with suspected bacterial meningitis should be supported by analysis of cerebrospinal fluid, and treatment should be tailored to local evidence and current evidence-based recommendations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Epidemiology of bacterial meningitis among children in Brazil, 1997-1998

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    Débora PL Weiss

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To document the incidence and the descriptive epidemiology of bacterial meningitis among individuals under age 20 in a geographically defined region in Brazil during the two-year period immediately preceding the introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib vaccines into the national immunization program of Brazil. METHODS: Population-based epidemiological study of all cases of bacterial meningitis reported among residents of Campinas, Brazil, under age 20 (n=316,570 during the period of 1997-98, using comprehensive surveillance records compiled by the Campinas Health Department from cases reported among hospital inpatients, outpatients, emergency room visits, death certificates, and autopsy reports. RESULTS: The incidence of bacterial meningitis (n=274 was 334.9, 115 and 43.5 cases/10(5 person-years (pys for residents of Campinas under age 1, 5 and 20, respectively. All cases were hospitalized, with an average length of stay of 12 days. Documented prior antibiotic use was 4.0%. The case-fatality rate of bacterial meningitis in individuals under age 20 was 9% (24/274 with 75% of deaths occurring in children under the age of five. The incidence of Hib meningitis (n=26 was 62.8 and 17 cases/10(5 pys in children age <1 and <5, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of Hib meningitis in children under the age of 5 in Campinas during 1997-98 was similar to that reported in the US, Western Europe, and Israel prior to widespread Hib vaccine use in those regions. This study provides a baseline for later studies to evaluate changes in the etiology and incidence of bacterial meningitis in children after introduction of routine Hib vaccination in Brazil.

  11. From the microbiome to the central nervous system, an update on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis in childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowski, Andrew B; Newland, Jason G

    2017-01-01

    In the past century, advances in antibiotics and vaccination have dramatically altered the incidence and clinical outcomes of bacterial meningitis. We review the shifting epidemiology of meningitis in children, including after the implementation of vaccines that target common meningitic pathogens and the introduction of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis offered to mothers colonized with Streptococcus agalactiae. We also discuss what is currently known about the pathogenesis of meningitis. Recent studies of the human microbiome have illustrated dynamic relationships of bacterial and viral populations with the host, which may potentiate the risk of bacterial meningitis. PMID:28184287

  12. Brain ventricular dimensions and relationship to outcome in adult patients with bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sporrborn, Janni L; Knudsen, Gertrud B; Sølling, Mette

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experimental studies suggest that changes in brain ventricle size are key events in bacterial meningitis. This study investigated the relationship between ventricle size, clinical condition and risk of poor outcome in patients with bacterial meningitis. METHODS: Adult patients diagnosed...... with bacterial meningitis admitted to two departments of infectious diseases from 2003 through 2010 were identified. Clinical and biochemical data as well as cerebral computed tomographic images were collected. The size of the brain ventricles were presented as a Ventricle to Brain Ratio (VBR). Normal range......-day mortality, Mortality Rate Ratio: 6.03 (95 % confidence interval: 1.61-22.64, p = 0.008) for highest versus lowest tertile. A VBR deviating more than 2 standard deviations from the normal range was associated with increased mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Brain ventricles are commonly subject to marked...

  13. A Fuzzy Expert System for Distinguishing between Bacterial and Aseptic Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Langarizadeh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Bacterial meningitis is a known infectious disease which occurs at early ages and should be promptly diagnosed and treated. Bacterial and aseptic meningitis are hard to be distinguished. Therefore, physicians should be highly informed and experienced in this area. The main aim of this study was to suggest a system for distinguishing between bacterial and aseptic meningitis, using fuzzy logic.    Materials and Methods In the first step, proper attributes were selected using Weka 3.6.7 software. Six attributes were selected using Attribute Evaluator, InfoGainAttributeEval, and Ranker search method items. Then, a fuzzy inference engine was designed using MATLAB software, based on Mamdani’s fuzzy logic method with max-min composition, prod-probor, and centroid defuzzification. The rule base consisted of eight rules, based on the experience of three specialists and information extracted from textbooks. Results Data were extracted from 106 records of patients with meningitis (42 cases with bacterial meningitis in order to evaluate the proposed system. The system accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity were 89%, 92 %, and 97%, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.93, and Kappa test revealed a good level of agreement (k=0.84, P

  14. Analysis of clinical outcomes in pediatric bacterial meningitis focusing on patients without cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Li; Chi, Hsin; Huang, Fu-Yuan; Huang, Daniel Tsung-Ning; Chiu, Nan-Chang

    2016-10-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cell count and biochemical examinations and cultures form the basis for the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. However, some patients do not have typical findings and are at a higher risk of being missed or having delayed treatment. To better understand the correlation between CSF results and outcomes, we evaluated CSF data focusing on the patients with atypical findings. This study enrolled CSF culture-proven bacterial meningitis patients aged from 1 month to 18 years in a medical center. The patients were divided into "normal" and "abnormal" groups for each laboratory result and in combination. The correlations between the laboratory results and the outcomes were analyzed. A total of 175 children with confirmed bacterial meningitis were enrolled. In CSF examinations, 16.2% of patients had normal white blood cell counts, 29.5% had normal glucose levels, 24.5% had normal protein levels, 10.2% had normal results in two items, and 8.6% had normal results in all three items. In logistic regression analysis, a normal CSF leukocyte count and increased CSF protein level were related to poor outcomes. Patients with meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and hyponatremia were at a higher risk of mortality and the development of sequelae. In children with bacterial meningitis, nontypical CSF findings and, in particular, normal CSF leukocyte count and increased protein level may indicate a worse prognosis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Uniform research case definition criteria differentiate tuberculous and bacterial meningitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, Regan S; Wessels, Marie; Visser, Douwe H; Donald, Peter R; Marais, Ben J; Schoeman, Johan F; van Furth, Anne M

    2014-12-01

    Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) research is hampered by low numbers of microbiologically confirmed TBM cases and the fact that they may represent a select part of the disease spectrum. A uniform TBM research case definition was developed to address these limitations, but its ability to differentiate TBM from bacterial meningitis has not been evaluated. We assessed all children treated for TBM from 1985 to 2005 at Tygerberg Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. For comparative purposes, a group of children with culture-confirmed bacterial meningitis, diagnosed between 2003 and 2009, was identified from the National Health Laboratory Service database. The performance of the proposed case definition was evaluated in culture-confirmed TBM and bacterial meningitis cases. Of 554 children treated for TBM, 66 (11.9%) were classified as "definite TBM," 408 (73.6%) as "probable TBM," and 72 (13.0%) as "possible TBM." "Probable TBM" criteria identified culture-confirmed TBM with a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 100%; sensitivity was increased but specificity reduced when using "possible TBM" criteria (sensitivity 100%, specificity 56%). "Probable TBM" criteria accurately differentiated TBM from bacterial meningitis and could be considered for use in clinical trials; reduced sensitivity in children with early TBM (stage 1 disease) remains a concern. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Meningitis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-24

    This podcast gives a general overview of meningitis, including what it is, the five types, and the causes.  Created: 10/24/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/24/2012.

  17. Usefulness of inflammatory biomarkers in discriminating between bacterial and aseptic meningitis in hospitalized children from a population with low vaccination coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, Jacek; Avonts, Dirk; Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska, Danuta; Michalak, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae are the most frequent pathogens responsible for meningitis beyond the neonatal period. Aseptic meningitis is a disabling condition, but bacterial meningitis if left untreated is 100% fatal. The aim of the study was to analyze the usefulness of biochemical and hematological parameters in distinguishing between bacterial and non-bacterial meningitis in children with meningitis from a population with low rates of vaccination against S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis. Material and methods This study is a retrospective chart review of children hospitalized with meningitis. In patients with aseptic and bacterial meningitis the following parameters were compared: C-reactive protein, D-dimers, fibrinogen, glucose level, and leukocyte level, and in cerebrospinal fluid, protein, glucose, and leukocyte concentrations were analyzed. Number of points in the Bacterial Meningitis Score (BMS) was calculated. The predictive value of each parameter to distinguish between bacterial and aseptic meningitis was evaluated. Results In total, 129 patients were included in the study: 65 diagnosed with bacterial meningitis and 64 with aseptic meningitis. Bacterial and aseptic meningitis were statistically significantly different based on each analyzed parameter (p meningitis 42 (66%) scored 0 points in the BMS, while all the children with bacterial meningitis had at least one point. Conclusions In children with meningitis inflammatory biomarkers differ statistically significantly depending on the etiology – bacterial or aseptic. Serum concentration of C-reactive protein higher than 80 mg/dl is a useful marker of bacterial etiology of meningitis. A high Bacterial Meningitis Score is indicative for bacterial meningitis. PMID:27186188

  18. Empiric treatment of acute meningitis syndrome in a resource-limited ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bacterial meningitis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. However, limited research has focused on the diagnosis and management of meningitis in resource-limited settings. Methods: We designed a prospective case series of children admitted to a large, academic referral ...

  19. Rarity of bacterial and viral meningitis in areas of Western Greece with fewer than 2,000 inhabitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulos, Ioannis; Leotsinidis, Michael; Diamantopoulos, Stavros; Makrakis, Konstantinos; Ellina, Aikaterini; Giannakopoulos, Agelos; Papanastasiou, Dimitris A

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the incidence of childhood meningitis in regions with fewer than 2,000 inhabitants (rural regions) and regions with more than 2,000 inhabitants (urban regions) in the prefecture of Achaia in Western Greece during 1991-2005. Included were all 555 children hospitalized for meningitis. The criteria for bacterial meningitis were (i) positive blood/cerebralspinal fluid (CSF) culture, Gram stain, or latex agglutination and/or (ii) increased beta-glucuronidase in CSF. In case of suspected bacterial meningitis, the following findings were considered: compatible clinical and laboratory findings, and whether or not a cure was achieved with antibiotic treatment and finally resulted in negative cultures. In cases of suspected viral meningitis, compatible clinical and laboratory findings were considered, together with observation of a cure without antibiotic treatment. Only 28 of 555 meningitis patients were from rural regions. The incidence per 10,000 children in rural and urban regions, respectively, was as follows: meningitis, 1.13 and 8.99; bacterial meningitis, 0.16 and 2.40; suspected bacterial meningitis, 0.52 and 3.00; and viral meningitis, 0.44 and 3.58. The incidence ratio for bacterial, suspected bacterial, and viral meningitis in urban versus rural regions was 14.85, 5.72, and 8.10, respectively. Only 2 of the 79 cases with a confirmed causative pathogen came from rural regions. In conclusion, compared to those living in urban regions, children living in rural regions are relatively spared from bacterial and viral meningitis.

  20. bacterial meningitis among children in federal medical centre

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    improvements in outcome are likely to be achieved not by changes in antibiotic policy, but by improving early diagnosis and basic supportive care and by preventing convulsion (13, 14). Aminoglycosides should be added to empiric treatment when Gram negative infection is suspected (18). Meningitis causes an increase in.

  1. [Successful treatment with chloramphenicol in four pediatric cases of intractable bacterial meningitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Kayo; Abe, Yu-ichi; Itano, Atsushi; Musha, Ikuma; Koga, Takeshi; Yamazaki, Taro; Yamanouchi, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Chloramphenicol (CP) is recently one of the rarely-used antibiotics. In this study, we present four patients with intractable bacterial meningitis, who were successfully treated with CP and discuss the therapeutic indications of CP in these pediatric cases. The patients were diagnosed as bacterial meningitis at the ages ranging from 2 months to 1 year and 4 months. The causative organisms found in three of the patients were H. influenzae and in the fourth patient, S. pneumoniae. According to the microbial sensitivity tests, these organisms were highly sensitive to antibiotics including ceftriaxone, meropenem and/or panipenem/betamipron. Treatment with these antibiotics was initially effective; however, recurrences of meningitis appeared in all patients. Administration of CP (100 mg/kg/day) started between the 11th and the 58th days, and was continued for 9 days up to 19 days. Their fever had disappeared within four days after the administration of CP, and it was confirmed that all patients completely recovered from meningitis. Two of the patients developed a mild degree of anemia, but soon recovered after the discontinuation of CP. None of them had neurological sequela. We recommend CP as one of the choices for the treatment of intractable bacterial meningitis.

  2. Comparison of enterovirus detection in cerebrospinal fluid with Bacterial Meningitis Score in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Frederico Ribeiro; Franco, Andréia Christine Bonotto Farias; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Troster, Eduardo Juan

    2017-01-01

    To measure the role of enterovirus detection in cerebrospinal fluid compared with the Bacterial Meningitis Score in children with meningitis. A retrospective cohort based on analysis of medical records of pediatric patients diagnosed as meningitis, seen at a private and tertiary hospital in São Paulo, Brazil, between 2011 and 2014. Excluded were patients with critical illness, purpura, ventricular shunt or recent neurosurgery, immunosuppression, concomitant bacterial infection requiring parenteral antibiotic therapy, and those who received antibiotics 72 hours before lumbar puncture. The study included 503 patients. Sixty-four patients were excluded and 94 were not submitted to all tests for analysis. Of the remaining 345 patients, 7 were in the Bacterial Meningitis Group and 338 in the Aseptic Meningitis Group. There was no statistical difference between the groups. In the Bacterial Meningitis Score analysis, of the 338 patients with possible aseptic meningitis (negative cultures), 121 of them had one or more points in the Bacterial Meningitis Score, with sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 64.2%, and negative predictive value of 100%. Of the 121 patients with positive Bacterial Meningitis Score, 71% (86 patients) had a positive enterovirus detection in cerebrospinal fluid. Enterovirus detection in cerebrospinal fluid was effective to differentiate bacterial from viral meningitis. When the test was analyzed together with the Bacterial Meningitis Score, specificity was higher when compared to Bacterial Meningitis Score alone. Avaliar o papel da pesquisa de enterovírus no líquido cefalorraquidiano em comparação com o Escore de Meningite Bacteriana em crianças com meningite. Coorte retrospectiva, realizada pela análise de prontuários, incluindo pacientes pediátricos, com diagnóstico de meningite e atendidos em um hospital privado e terciário, localizado em São Paulo, entre 2011 e 2014. Foram excluídos os pacientes com doença crítica, púrpura, deriva

  3. Excacerbation of systemic lupus erythematodes, aseptic meningitis and acute mental symptoms, following metrizamide lumbar myelography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelmers, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    A clinical constellation of excacerbation of systemic lupus erythematodes (SLE), together with aseptic meningitis, and acutre mental symptoms occurred following lumbar myelography with metrizamide. Excacerbation of SLE has not been previously described following myelography with any contrast agent. Meningeal reactions and acute mental symptoms have been reported earlier, but this clinical constellation is new.

  4. Treating Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... David C. Spencer, MD Steven Karceski, MD Treating meningitis Steven Karceski, MD WHAT DID THE AUTHORS STUDY? ... study, “ Dexamethasone and long-term survival in bacterial meningitis, ” Dr. Fritz and his colleagues carefully evaluated 2 ...

  5. Genome-wide identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae genes essential for bacterial replication during experimental meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molzen, T E; Burghout, P; Bootsma, H J

    2010-01-01

    Meningitis is the most serious of invasive infections caused by the Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. Vaccines protect only against a limited number of serotypes, and evolving bacterial resistance to antimicrobials impedes treatment. Further insight into the molecular pathogenesis...... of invasive pneumococcal disease is required in order to enable the development of new or adjunctive treatments and/or pneumococcal vaccines that are efficient across serotypes. We applied genomic array footprinting (GAF) in the search for S. pneumoniae genes that are essential during experimental meningitis...... genes mutants of which had become attenuated or enriched, respectively, during infection. The results point to essential roles for capsular polysaccharides, nutrient uptake, and amino acid biosynthesis in bacterial replication during experimental meningitis. The GAF phenotype of a subset of identified...

  6. Bacterial Invasion of the Inner Ear in Association With Pneumococcal Meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Brandt, Christian; Østergaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the pathways of bacterial invasion and subsequent spreading in the inner ear during pneumococcal meningitis. STUDY DESIGN: A well-established adult rat model of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis was used. METHODS: Thirty rats were inoculated intrathecally with S. pneumoniae...... serotype 1, 3 or 9 V and received no additional treatment. The rats were sacrificed when reaching terminal illness or on Day 7 and then prepared for serial sectioning and PAS-Alcian blue staining for light microscopy. RESULTS: During the first few days after inoculation, bacteria invade the inner ear...... spreading were found within the inner ear. Bacterial elimination was evidenced by engulfment by macrophages within the inner ear. CONCLUSION: From the meninges, pneumococci invade the inner ear through the cochlear aqueduct during the first days of infection, whereas hematogenous invasion via the spiral...

  7. The role of dexamethasone in the treatment of bacterial meningitis - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchorst, S; Møller, K

    2012-01-01

    Corticosteroids are used as an adjunct to antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial meningitis in an attempt to attenuate the intrathecal inflammatory response and thereby reduce mortality and morbidity. The purpose of the present paper is to provide a review of clinical studies of corticosteroids...... in the treatment of bacterial meningitis. Relevant literature was found in PubMed, the Cochrane databases, and references in studies. Forty-four publications of relevance were identified, comprising 29 publications of randomised studies, 10 publications reporting either non- or quasi-randomised studies, and five...... reporting retrospective studies, and nine meta-analyses. Taken together, dexamethasone treatment may be associated with a lower mortality in adults and fewer neurological and auditory sequelae in adults and children from high-income countries, in particular in adults suffering from pneumococcal meningitis...

  8. Evaluation of bacterial meningitis surveillance data of the northern region, Ghana, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaburi, Basil Benduri; Kubio, Chrysantus; Kenu, Ernest; Ameme, Donne Kofi; Mahama, Jacob Yakubu; Sackey, Samuel Oko; Afari, Edwin Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a disease of major public health importance especially for countries such as Ghana; whose northern part lies within the meningitis belt. The Northern region of Ghana has been recording cases with outbreaks over the years. In order to generate evidence to improve surveillance, we described the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis using surveillance data of the northern region. Bacterial meningitis datasets from January 2010 to December 2015 for all the 26 districts of the Northern region were retrieved from line lists. Data were analyzed in terms of person, place, time, and identity of causative organisms using descriptive statistics. The results were presented as proportions, rates, tables and graphs. A total of 1,176 cases were reported. Of these, 53.5% (629/1,176) were males. The proportion of cases aged 0 to 29 years was 77.4%. The Overall Case Fatality Rate (CFR) was 9.7% (114/1,176). About 65% of all cases were recorded from January to April. Only 23.7% (279/1,176) of cases were laboratory-confirmed. Neisseria meningitides and Streptococcus pneumonia accounted for 91.4% of confirmed cases. Over the period, the incidence reduced from 9.0/100,000 population to 3.8/100,000 population and CFR reduced from 16.6% to 5.7%. Most cases of bacterial meningitis were recorded in the dry season and in persons younger than 30 years. Less than a quarter of cases were laboratory confirmed, and no new bacteria species were identified. Both morbidity and mortality rates were on the decline. There is the need to consolidate these gains by intensifying meningitis surveillance and improving on the rate of laboratory case confirmation.

  9. Performance of thirteen clinical rules to distinguish bacterial and presumed viral meningitis in Vietnamese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Tien Huy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Successful outcomes from bacterial meningitis require rapid antibiotic treatment; however, unnecessary treatment of viral meningitis may lead to increased toxicities and expense. Thus, improved diagnostics are required to maximize treatment and minimize side effects and cost. Thirteen clinical decision rules have been reported to identify bacterial from viral meningitis. However, few rules have been tested and compared in a single study, while several rules are yet to be tested by independent researchers or in pediatric populations. Thus, simultaneous test and comparison of these rules are required to enable clinicians to select an optimal diagnostic rule for bacterial meningitis in settings and populations similar to ours. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at the Infectious Department of Pediatric Hospital Number 1, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The performance of the clinical rules was evaluated by area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC using the method of DeLong and McNemar test for specificity comparison. RESULTS: Our study included 129 patients, of whom 80 had bacterial meningitis and 49 had presumed viral meningitis. Spanos's rule had the highest AUC at 0.938 but was not significantly greater than other rules. No rule provided 100% sensitivity with a specificity higher than 50%. Based on our calculation of theoretical sensitivity and specificity, we suggest that a perfect rule requires at least four independent variables that posses both sensitivity and specificity higher than 85-90%. CONCLUSIONS: No clinical decision rules provided an acceptable specificity (>50% with 100% sensitivity when applying our data set in children. More studies in Vietnam and developing countries are required to develop and/or validate clinical rules and more very good biomarkers are required to develop such a perfect rule.

  10. Performance of thirteen clinical rules to distinguish bacterial and presumed viral meningitis in Vietnamese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huy, Nguyen Tien; Thao, Nguyen Thanh Hong; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Khiem, Nguyen Tuan; Moore, Christopher C; Thi Ngoc Diep, Doan; Hirayama, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Successful outcomes from bacterial meningitis require rapid antibiotic treatment; however, unnecessary treatment of viral meningitis may lead to increased toxicities and expense. Thus, improved diagnostics are required to maximize treatment and minimize side effects and cost. Thirteen clinical decision rules have been reported to identify bacterial from viral meningitis. However, few rules have been tested and compared in a single study, while several rules are yet to be tested by independent researchers or in pediatric populations. Thus, simultaneous test and comparison of these rules are required to enable clinicians to select an optimal diagnostic rule for bacterial meningitis in settings and populations similar to ours. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at the Infectious Department of Pediatric Hospital Number 1, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The performance of the clinical rules was evaluated by area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC) using the method of DeLong and McNemar test for specificity comparison. Our study included 129 patients, of whom 80 had bacterial meningitis and 49 had presumed viral meningitis. Spanos's rule had the highest AUC at 0.938 but was not significantly greater than other rules. No rule provided 100% sensitivity with a specificity higher than 50%. Based on our calculation of theoretical sensitivity and specificity, we suggest that a perfect rule requires at least four independent variables that posses both sensitivity and specificity higher than 85-90%. No clinical decision rules provided an acceptable specificity (>50%) with 100% sensitivity when applying our data set in children. More studies in Vietnam and developing countries are required to develop and/or validate clinical rules and more very good biomarkers are required to develop such a perfect rule.

  11. Haemophilus influenzae type f meningitis in a previously healthy boy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Berg, Ronan M G; Bruunsgaard, Helle

    2013-01-01

    Non-serotype b strains of Haemophilus influenzae are extremely rare causes of acute bacterial meningitis in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case of acute bacterial meningitis in a 14-year-old boy, who was previously healthy and had been immunised against H influenzae serotype b (Hib...

  12. Rifampin use in acute community-acquired meningitis in intensive care units: the French retrospective cohort ACAM-ICU study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretonnière, Cédric; Jozwiak, Mathieu; Girault, Christophe; Beuret, Pascal; Trouillet, Jean-Louis; Anguel, Nadia; Caillon, Jocelyne; Potel, Gilles; Villers, Daniel; Boutoille, David; Guitton, Christophe

    2015-08-26

    Bacterial meningitis among critically ill adult patients remains associated with both high mortality and frequent, persistent disability. Vancomycin was added to treatment with a third-generation cephalosporin as recommended by French national guidelines. Because animal model studies had suggested interest in the use of rifampin for treatment of bacterial meningitis, and after the introduction of early corticosteroid therapy (in 2002), there was a trend toward increasing rifampin use for intensive care unit (ICU) patients. The aim of this article is to report on this practice. Five ICUs participated in the study. Baseline characteristics and treatment data were retrospectively collected from charts of patients admitted with a diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis during a 5-year period (2004-2008). The ICU mortality was the main outcome measure; Glasgow Outcome Scale and 3-month mortality were also assessed. One hundred fifty-seven patients were included. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis were the most prevalent causative microorganisms. The ICU mortality rate was 15%. High doses of a cephalosporin were the most prevalent initial antimicrobial treatment. The delay between admission and administration of the first antibiotic dose was correlated with ICU mortality. Rifampin was used with a cephalosporin for 32 patients (ranging from 8% of the cohort for 2004 to 30% in 2008). Administration of rifampin within the first 24 h of hospitalization could be associated with a lower ICU survival. Statistical association between such an early rifampin treatment and ICU mortality reached significance only for patients with pneumococcal meningitis (p=0.031) in univariate analysis, but not in the logistic model. We report on the role of rifampin use for patients with community-acquired meningitis, and the results of this study suggest that this practice may be associated with lower mortality in the ICU. Nevertheless, the only independent predictors of ICU

  13. Arthritis in adults with community-acquired bacterial meningitis: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weisfelt, M.; van de Beek, D.; Spanjaard, L.; de Gans, J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Although the coexistence of bacterial meningitis and arthritis has been noted in several studies, it remains unclear how often both conditions occur simultaneously. Methods: We evaluated the presence of arthritis in a prospective nationwide cohort of 696 episodes of community-acquired

  14. Clinical and pathogenic analysis of 507 children with bacterial meningitis in Beijing, 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ling-Yun; Zhang, Zhi-Xiao; Wang, Xi; Zhang, Ping-Ping; Shi, Wei; Yao, Kai-Hu; Liu, Lin-Lin; Liu, Gang; Yang, Yong-Hong

    2016-09-01

    To explore the clinical characteristics and analyze the pathogens of bacterial meningitis in children. Bacterial meningitis cases occurring from January 2010 through December 2014 at Beijing Children's Hospital were reviewed retrospectively. The records of all patients, including data on clinical features and laboratory information, were obtained and analyzed. In total, the cases of 507 pediatric patients seen over a 5-year period were analyzed; 220 of these cases were etiologically confirmed. These patients were classified into four age groups: 29 days to 1 year (n=373, 73.6%), 1-3 years (n=61, 12.0%), 3-6 years (n=41, 8.1%), and >6 years (n=32, 6.3%). The main pathogens identified in this study were Streptococcus pneumoniae (n=73, 33.2%), Escherichia coli (n=24, 10.9%), Enterococcus (n=22, 10.0%), and group B Streptococcus (n=18, 8.2%). All Gram-positive bacteria were sensitive to vancomycin and linezolid. All Gram-negative bacteria were sensitive to meropenem. The total non-susceptibility rate of S. pneumoniae to penicillin was 47.6% (20/42). The resistance rates to ceftriaxone, cefepime, and ceftazidime were 75% (9/12), 55.6% (5/9), and 40% (4/10), respectively. The main pathogen of bacterial meningitis in this study was S. pneumoniae. The antibiotic resistance rates among children with bacterial meningitis are of serious concern. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemotactic activity of CXCL5 in cerebrospinal fluid of children with bacterial meningitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijnenburg, P.J.G.; Bie, de HM; Roord, J.J.; Poll, van der T.; Furth, van A.M.

    2003-01-01

    CXCL5 (epithelial-cell-derived neutrophil-activating protein (ENA-)78) is a CXC-chemokine that specifically acts on neutrophils. To obtain insight into the extent of local presence and action of CXCL5 during bacterial meningitis, we measured its concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of

  16. Unsuccessful validation of 2004 model for predicting academic or behavioural limitations after childhood bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, R.C.J.; Sanders, M.S.; Terwee, C.B.; Heijmans, M.W.; Gemke, R.J.B.J.; Koomen, I.; Spanjaard, L.; van Furth, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Aim In 2004, a model identifying children at risk of academic or behavioural limitations after bacterial meningitis (BM) was presented. Risk factors were male gender, low birthweight, lower educational level of the father, Streptococcus pneumoniae, lower cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leucocyte count,

  17. Bacterial meningitis in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: a population-based prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, K. E. B.; Brouwer, M. C.; van der Ende, A.; van de Beek, D.

    2016-01-01

    We performed a nationwide prospective cohort study on the epidemiology and clinical features of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. Patients with a medical history of autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) were identified from the cohort performed from March

  18. Study of bacterial agents of meningitis in children and detection of antibiogram patterns in Hamadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rasol Yosefi- Mashouf

    2004-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study showed that gram positive bacteria in particular, Streptococcus pneumonia and Staphilococcus aureus are predominant causes of bacterial meningitis in children under 10 years old in these regions. Most species showed high resistance to routine antibiotics such as amoxicillin, ampicillin and choramphenicol.

  19. Predicting sequelae and death after bacterial meningitis in childhood: A systematic review of prognostic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, R.C.J.; van Furth, A.M.; Wassenaar, M.; Gemke, R.J.B.J.; Terwee, C.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Bacterial meningitis (BM) is a severe infection responsible for high mortality and disabling sequelae. Early identification of patients at high risk of these outcomes is necessary to prevent their occurrence by adequate treatment as much as possible. For this reason, several prognostic

  20. Use of Adjunctive Steroids and Incidence of Delayed Cerebral Venous Thrombosis in Adults with Bacterial Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Cinthia; Salazar, Lucrecia; Tobolowsky, Farrell; Nigo, Masayuki; Hasbun, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Bacterial meningitis is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Adjunctive steroids decrease mortality in adults with meningitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniaebut its use has been recently linked to the development of delayed cerebral thrombosis (DCT). The purpose of our study was to determine the utilization of adjunctive steroids and its incidence. Methods A retrospective multicenter study involving 10 Houston area hospitals from 2008 to 2016. Data was gathered from 120 adults with culture proven community-acquired bacterial meningitis. An adverse clinical outcome was defined as a Glasgow outcome score of 1–4. Results There was a total of 120 patients enrolled; of which, 55% were male. Adjunctive intravenous steroids were administered in 82 (68%) patients with bacterial meningitis. The steroid median duration was 3.8 days. The average age of patients was 55.3 years (range 20–92). There was no difference in Charlson comorbidity score, immunosuppression, presence of sinusitis or otitis, fever, meningeal signs or symptoms, abnormal neurological findings, Gram stain or severity of illness, based on Aronin score (P > 0.05), between patients who received steroids and those that did not. Older patients, age >65, were less likely to receive adjunctive steroids (P = 0.028). The most common organism isolated was Streptococcus pneumoniae, which occurred in 46 (38%) patients. An adverse clinical outcome was seen in 46 (38%) patients with no difference between groups (P = 0.819). Delayed cerebral thrombosis was seen in a total of 9 (7.5%) patients with bacterial meningitis. Of these, 1 patient (2.6%) did not receive steroids and the remaining 8 (10.9%) patients received steroids (P = 0.158). Five cases of meningitis that were complicated by DCT were caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, 1 by Listeria monocytogenes, and 2 with Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusion Adjunctive steroids are being used in the majority of adults with

  1. D- and L-lactate in rabbit and human bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmer, A; Prange, J; Gerber, J; Zysk, G; Lange, P; Michel, U; Eiffert, H; Nau, R

    2001-01-01

    Increased total CSF lactate is an important indicator differentiating bacterial from aseptic meningitis. Bacteria can produce D- and L-lactate; mammalian cells produce only L-lactate. We measured D- and L-lactate production of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Neisseria meningitidis and Escherichia coli in vitro, of S. pneumoniae and E. coli in rabbit experimental meningitis and of various common pathogens in CSF from patients with bacterial meningitis. Despite marked in vitro production of D-lactate by S. aureus (maximum: 4.59 mmol/l; i.e. 34.9% of total lactate), N. meningitidis (4.62 mmol/l; i.e. 98.1%) and E. coli (3.14 mmol/l; i.e. 97.2%), minimal amounts were measured in human S. aureus (0.38 mmol/l; i.e. 1.3% of total lactate) or N. meningitidis (0.28 mmol/l; i.e. 3.9%) and experimental E. coli meningitis (0.75 mmol/l; i.e. 4.4%). In only 9 of 54 human CSF samples did D-lactate exceed 0.15 mmol/l. S. pneumoniae did not produce significant amounts of D-lactate in vitro (maximum: 0.55 mmol/l; i.e. 2.7% of total lactate), in experimental meningitis (0.18 mmol/l; i.e. 3%) or in human cases of meningitis (0.28 mmol/l; i.e. 1.9%). In conclusion, increased total CSF lactate in meningitis consists mainly of L-lactate and originates predominantly from host cells. CSF D-lactate is of limited diagnostic value.

  2. Otobasal liquor fistula causing recurrent bacterial meningitis; Otobasale Liquorfistel als Ursache einer rezidivierenden bakteriellen Meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doege, H. [Abteilung fuer Nuklearmedizin, Leipzig Univ. (Germany); Klinghammer, A.; Elix, H. [Klinik fuer Kinder- und Jugendmedizin, Leipzig Univ. (Germany); Pilz, D. [Institut fuer Bildgebende Diagnostik der Klinikum Chemnitz gGmbH (Germany); Bootz, F. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Hals-Nasen-Ohren-Heilkunde/ Plastische Operationen, Leipzig Univ. (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Cerebral subarachnoid space scintigraphy today still is the modality of choice for detection of a liquorrea or a liquor fistula, especially in the case of a recurrent menengitis of unclear origin. This diagnostic method yielded the results required in the case reported for efficient and successful surgical treatment. (orig./CB) [German] Die zerebrale Liquorraumszintigraphie ist aufgrund der hohen Empfindlichkeit auch heute noch die Methode der Wahl zum Nachweis einer Liquorrhoe beziehungsweise einer Liquorfistel, insbesondere bei einer rezidivierenden Meningitis unklarer Genese. Sie ermoeglichte bei unserer Patientin eine gezielte definitive operative Behandlung. (orig.)

  3. Etiology and prognosis of acute viral encephalitis and meningitis in Chinese children: a multicentre prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Junhong; Xie, Zhengde; Liu, Gang; Chen, Zongbo; Yang, Yong; Li, Yuning; Chen, Jing; Zheng, Guo; Shen, Kunling

    2017-07-14

    In China, there were few studies about the pathogens of acute viral encephalitis and meningitis in children in recent years. The aims of this study were to characterize the etiology and prognosis of acute viral encephalitis and meningitis in Chinese children. This was a multicentre prospective study. Two hundred and sixty one viral encephalitis patients and 285 viral meningitis patients were enrolled. The mean age of viral encephalitis and meningitis were 5.88 ± 3.60 years and 6.39 ± 3.57 years, respectively. Real-time reverse transcription PCR and multiplex PCR were used to detect human enteroviruses and herpes viruses in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with encephalitis or meningitis. The enzyme-linked immune absorbent assay (ELISA) was used for detecting IgM antibody against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in CSF and against mumps virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), dengue virus and rubella virus in acute serum. The clinical and outcome data were collected during patients' hospitalization. The etiology of viral encephalitis was confirmed in 52.5% patients. The primary pathogen was human enteroviruses (27.7%) in viral encephalitis. The incidence of sequelae and the fatality rate of viral encephalitis with confirmed etiology were 7.5% and 0.8%, respectively. The etiology of viral meningitis was identified in 42.8% cases. The leading pathogen was also human enteroviruses (37.7%) in viral meningitis. The prognosis of viral meningitis was favorable with only 0.7% patients had neurological sequelae. Human enteroviruses were the leading cause both in acute viral encephalitis and viral meningitis in children. The incidence of sequelae and fatality rate of viral encephalitis with confirmed etiology were 7.5% and 0.8%, respectively. The prognosis of viral meningitis was favorable compared to viral encephalitis.

  4. Diagnostic value of lactate, procalcitonin, ferritin, serum-C-reactive protein, and other biomarkers in bacterial and viral meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaei Dashti, Anahita; Alizadeh, Shekoofan; Karimi, Abdullah; Khalifeh, Masoomeh; Shoja, Seyed Abdolmajid

    2017-01-01

    Abstract There are many difficulties distinguishing bacterial from viral meningitis that could be reasonably solved using biomarkers. The aim of this study was to evaluate lactate, procalcitonin (PCT), ferritin, serum-CRP (C-reactive protein), and other known biomarkers in differentiating bacterial meningitis from viral meningitis in children. All children aged 28 days to 14 years with suspected meningitis who were admitted to Mofid Children's Hospital, Tehran, between October 2012 and November 2013, were enrolled in this prospective cross-sectional study. Children were divided into 2 groups of bacterial and viral meningitis, based on the results of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture, polymerase chain reaction, and cytochemical profile. Diagnostic values of CSF parameters (ferritin, PCT, absolute neutrophil count [ANC], white blood cell count, and lactate) and serum parameters (PCT, ferritin, CRP, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR]) were evaluated. Among 50 patients with meningitis, 12 were diagnosed with bacterial meningitis. Concentrations of all markers were significantly different between bacterial and viral meningitis, except for serum (P = .389) and CSF (P = .136) PCT. The best rates of area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) were achieved by lactate (AUC = 0.923) and serum-CRP (AUC = 0.889). The best negative predictive values (NPV) for bacterial meningitis were attained by ANC (100%) and lactate (97.1%). The results of our study suggest that ferritin and PCT are not strong predictive biomarkers. A combination of low CSF lactate, ANC, ESR, and serum-CRP could reasonably rule out the bacterial meningitis. PMID:28858084

  5. Adult bacterial meningitis: earlier treatment and improved outcome following guideline revision promoting prompt lumbar puncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glimåker, Martin; Johansson, Bibi; Grindborg, Örjan; Bottai, Matteo; Lindquist, Lars; Sjölin, Jan

    2015-04-15

    In suspected acute bacterial meningitis (ABM), cerebral computerized tomography (CT) is recommended before lumbar puncture (LP) if mental impairment. Despite guideline emphasis on early treatment, performing CT prior to LP implies a risk of delayed treatment and unfavorable outcome. Therefore, Swedish guidelines were revised in 2009, deleting impaired mental status as a contraindication for LP without prior CT scan. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the guideline revision. The Swedish quality registry for community-acquired ABM was analyzed retrospectively. Door-to-antibiotic time and outcome were compared among patients treated 2005-2009 (n=394) and 2010-2012 (n=318). The effect of different LP-CT sequences was analyzed during 2008-2012. Adequate treatment was started 1.2 hours earlier, and significantly more patients were treated treatment, significant increase in door-to-antibiotic times of Treatment delay resulted in a significantly increased risk for fatal outcome, with a relative increase in mortality of 12.6% per hour of delay. The deletion of impaired mental status as contraindication for prompt LP and LP without prior CT scan are associated with significantly earlier treatment and a favorable outcome. A revision of current international guidelines should be considered. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Cerebral blood flow and carbon dioxide reactivity in children with bacterial meningitis

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    Ashwal, S.; Stringer, W.; Tomasi, L.; Schneider, S.; Thompson, J.; Perkin, R. (Loma Linda Univ. School of Medicine, CA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    We examined total and regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) by stable xenon computed tomography in 20 seriously ill children with acute bacterial meningitis to determine whether CBF was reduced and to examine the changes in CBF during hyperventilation. In 13 children, total CBF was normal (62 +/- 20 ml/min/100 gm) but marked local variability of flow was seen. In five other children, total CBF was significantly reduced (26 +/- 10 ml/min/100 gm; p less than 0.05), with flow reduced more in white matter (8 +/- 5 ml/min/100 gm) than in gray matter (30 +/- 15 ml/min/100 gm). Autoregulation of CBF appeared to be present in these 18 children within a range of mean arterial blood pressure from 56 to 102 mm Hg. In the remaining two infants, brain dead within the first 24 hours, total flow was uniformly absent, averaging 3 +/- 3 ml/min/100 gm. In seven children, CBF was determined at two carbon dioxide tension (PCO2) levels: 40 (+/- 3) mm Hg and 29 (+/- 3) mm Hg. In six children, total CBF decreased 33%, from 52 (+/- 25) to 35 (+/- 15) ml/min/100 gm; the mean percentage of change in CBF per millimeter of mercury of PCO2 was 3.0%. Regional variability of perfusion to changes in PCO2 was marked in all six children. The percentage of change in CBF per millimeter of mercury of PCO2 was similar in frontal gray matter (3.1%) but higher in white matter (4.5%). In the seventh patient a paradoxical response was observed; total and regional CBF increased 25% after hyperventilation. Our findings demonstrate that (1) CBF in children with bacterial meningitis may be substantially decreased globally, with even more variability noted regionally, (2) autoregulation of CBF is preserved, (3) CBF/CO2 responsitivity varies among patients and in different regions of the brain in the same patient, and (4) hyperventilation can reduce CBF below ischemic thresholds.

  7. Nested PCR Assay for Eight Pathogens: A Rapid Tool for Diagnosis of Bacterial Meningitis.

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    Bhagchandani, Sharda P; Kubade, Sushant; Nikhare, Priyanka P; Manke, Sonali; Chandak, Nitin H; Kabra, Dinesh; Baheti, Neeraj N; Agrawal, Vijay S; Sarda, Pankaj; Mahajan, Parikshit; Ganjre, Ashish; Purohit, Hemant J; Singh, Lokendra; Taori, Girdhar M; Daginawala, Hatim F; Kashyap, Rajpal S

    2016-02-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a dreadful infectious disease with a high mortality and morbidity if remained undiagnosed. Traditional diagnostic methods for bacterial meningitis pose a challenge in accurate identification of pathogen, making prognosis difficult. The present study is therefore aimed to design and evaluate a specific and sensitive nested 16S rDNA genus-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using clinical cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for rapid diagnosis of eight pathogens causing the disease. The present work was dedicated to development of an in-house genus specific 16S rDNA nested PCR covering pathogens of eight genera responsible for causing bacterial meningitis using newly designed as well as literature based primers for respective genus. A total 150 suspected meningitis CSF obtained from the patients admitted to Central India Institute of Medical Sciences (CIIMS), India during the period from August 2011 to May 2014, were used to evaluate clinical sensitivity and clinical specificity of optimized PCR assays. The analytical sensitivity and specificity of our newly designed genus-specific 16S rDNA PCR were found to be ≥92%. With such a high sensitivity and specificity, our in-house nested PCR was able to give 100% sensitivity in clinically confirmed positive cases and 100% specificity in clinically confirmed negative cases indicating its applicability in clinical diagnosis. Our in-house nested PCR system therefore can diagnose the accurate pathogen causing bacterial meningitis and therefore be useful in selecting a specific treatment line to minimize morbidity. Results are obtained within 24 h and high sensitivity makes this nested PCR assay a rapid and accurate diagnostic tool compared to traditional culture-based methods.

  8. Outcome in patients with bacterial meningitis presenting with a minimal Glasgow Coma Scale score

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    Lucas, Marjolein J.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van der Ende, Arie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In bacterial meningitis, a decreased level of consciousness is predictive for unfavorable outcome, but the clinical features and outcome in patients presenting with a minimal score on the Glasgow Coma Scale are unknown. Methods: We assessed the incidence, clinical characteristics, and outcome of patients with bacterial meningitis presenting with a minimal score on the Glasgow Coma Scale from a nationwide cohort study of adults with community-acquired bacterial meningitis in the Netherlands from 2006 to 2012. Results: Thirty of 1,083 patients (3%) presented with a score of 3 on the Glasgow Coma Scale. In 22 of 30 patients (73%), the minimal Glasgow Coma Scale score could be explained by use of sedative medication or complications resulting from meningitis such as seizures, cerebral edema, and hydrocephalus. Systemic (86%) and neurologic (47%) complications occurred frequently, leading to a high proportion of patients with unfavorable outcome (77%). However, 12 of 30 patients (40%) survived and 7 patients (23%) had a good functional outcome, defined as a score of 5 on the Glasgow Outcome Scale. Patients presenting with a minimal Glasgow Coma Scale score on admission and bilaterally absent pupillary light responses, bilaterally absent corneal reflexes, or signs of septic shock on admission all died. Conclusions: Patients with community-acquired bacterial meningitis rarely present with a minimal score on the Glasgow Coma Scale, but this condition is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. However, 1 out of 5 of these severely ill patients will make a full recovery, stressing the continued need for aggressive supportive care in these patients. PMID:25340065

  9. Clinical Value of Assessing Cytokine Levels for the Differential Diagnosis of Bacterial Meningitis in a Pediatric Population.

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    Ye, Qing; Shao, Wen-Xia; Shang, Shi-Qiang; Shen, Hong-Qiang; Chen, Xue-Jun; Tang, Yong-Min; Yu, Yong-Lin; Mao, Jian-Hua

    2016-03-01

    We performed a prospective observational study to evaluate the utility of measuring inflammatory cytokine levels to discriminate bacterial meningitis from similar common pediatric diseases. Inflammatory cytokine levels and other cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) physicochemical indicators were evaluated in 140 patients who were diagnosed with bacterial meningitis via microbiological culture or PCR assay. The CSF concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10, CSF/blood IL-6 and IL-10 ratios, CSF white blood cell count, and CSF micro total protein were significantly elevated in bacterial meningitis patients compared with healthy children or patients with viral encephalitis, epilepsy, or febrile convulsions (P bacterial meningitis episodes by receiver-operating characteristic analysis were 0.988, 0.949, 0.995, 0.924, 0.945, and 0.928, respectively. The area under the curve for the combination of CSF IL-6 and CSF/blood IL-6 ratio was larger than that for either parameter alone, and the combination exhibited enhanced specificity and positive predictive value. After effective meningitis treatment, CSF IL-6 levels dropped significantly. These results suggest that CSF IL-6 and CSF/blood IL-6 ratio are good biomarkers in discriminating bacterial meningitis. Evaluating CSF IL-6 and CSF/blood IL-6 ratio in combination can improve diagnostic efficiency. Additionally, CSF IL-6 levels can be used to monitor the effects of bacterial meningitis treatment.

  10. Chemical meningitis in metrizamide myelography. A report of seven cases

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    Sand, T.; Hesselberg, J.P.; Anda, S.; Dale, L.; Hellum, K.

    1986-01-01

    Seven patients with acute chemcial meningitis after metrizamide myelography are described. Five of the cases occurred within a time span of two months. Clinical and cerebrospinal fluid findings in the acute stage of the illness were similar to findings in acute bacterial meningitis. Possible causes of this complication are discussed. (orig.).

  11. Bacterial invasion of the inner ear in association with pneumococcal meningitis.

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    Møller, Martin Nue; Brandt, Christian; Østergaard, Christian; Caye-Thomasen, Per

    2014-06-01

    To examine the pathways of bacterial invasion and subsequent spreading in the inner ear during pneumococcal meningitis. A well-established adult rat model of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis was used. Thirty rats were inoculated intrathecally with S. pneumoniae serotype 1, 3 or 9 V and received no additional treatment. The rats were sacrificed when reaching terminal illness or on Day 7 and then prepared for serial sectioning and PAS-Alcian blue staining for light microscopy. During the first few days after inoculation, bacteria invade the inner ear through the cochlear aqueduct, into the scala tympani of the cochlea (perilymphatic space). From here, bacteria spreads apically toward the helicotrema and subsequently basally through the scala vestibuli, toward the vestibule and the vestibular system. When the bacteria after 5 to 6 days had reached scala vestibuli of the basal turn of the cochlea, hematogenous spreading occurred to the spiral ligament and into the cochlear endolymph, subsequently to the vestibular endolymph. We found no evidence of alternative routes for bacterial invasion in the inner ear. Several internal barriers to bacterial spreading were found within the inner ear. Bacterial elimination was evidenced by engulfment by macrophages within the inner ear. From the meninges, pneumococci invade the inner ear through the cochlear aqueduct during the first days of infection, whereas hematogenous invasion via the spiral ligament capillary bed occur at later stages. Although internal barriers exist within the inner ear, the spreading of bacteria occurs via the natural pathways of the fluid compartments. Bacterial elimination occurs by local macrophage engulfment.

  12. Characteristics and outcome of spontaneous bacterial meningitis in patients with cancer compared to patients without cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomar, Virginia; Benito, Natividad; López-Contreras, Joaquin; Coll, Pere; Gurguí, Mercedes; Domingo, Pere

    2017-05-01

    In cancer patients, who are frequently immunocompromised, bacterial meningitis (BM) can be a severe complication, with a different presentation, etiology, and course, compared to patients without cancer. Our objective is to compare the characteristics and outcomes of BM in patients with and without cancer. A single-center, prospective observational cohort study, conducted between 1982 and 2012, in a tertiary university hospital in Barcelona (Spain). The main outcome measure is in-hospital mortality. We evaluated 659 episodes of BM; 97 (15%) had active cancer. Patients with malignancies were older (median 63 (interquartile range [IQR] 24) vs 52 [IQR 42] years, P meningitis triad (35% vs 50%, P = .05), fever (91% vs 96%, P = .03), neck stiffness (58% vs 78%, P meningitis was the commonest cause of BM (29%) and was more frequent in cancer than noncancer (8%, P meningitis was much less frequent (4% vs 36%, P meningitis and cancer are older and have more subtle clinical manifestations than patients without cancer. Listeria monocytogenes is the predominant pathogen and mortality is higher in cancer patients.

  13. Study of bacterial air pollution in an arid region of Africa affected by cerebrospinal meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghipponi, P; Darrigol, J; Skalova, R; Cvjetanović, B

    1971-01-01

    In 1968 and 1969, a study of the prevalence of airborne bacteria in different types of dwelling was carried out in Upper Volta and in Mali in order to determine the relationship between bacterial pollution of the air and the spread of cerebrospinal meningitis.In homes and schools in Upper Volta the total number of airborne bacteria, including those of oral origin, was found to be much higher during the dry season, when epidemics of cerebrospinal meningitis occur, than in the rainy periods.The study in Mali was carried out during an epidemic of cerebrospinal meningitis; two districts of the city of Bamako were chosen, those with the highest and lowest rates of infection. The number of airborne bacteria in the district of high incidence was found to be 10 times that in the district of low incidence.The study has shown that high counts of airborne bacteria and organisms of buccal origin are indicative of conditions that favour the spread of cerebrospinal meningitis. Sanitary measures to reduce the number of airborne bacteria would therefore be a useful means of combating epidemics of cerebrospinal meningitis in Africa.

  14. A Case of Fatal Bacterial Meningitis Caused by Enterococcus Faecalis: Postmortem Diagnosis

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    Gülhan Yağmur

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Enterococcus species rarely cause bacterial meningitis without predisposing factors such as trauma, brain surgery, etc. In this study, we present a bacterial meningitis case caused by Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis in a 13-year-old male who was found dead at home. One hundred and forty two cm tall, 37 kg weight male had admitted to hospital two days after the beginning of complaints such as weakness, headache, swelling of left eye, nausea and vomiting. Body temperature was 37.3 oC, leucocyte count 22100/ mm3, and CRP 71 g/dl at the hospital admission. Antibiotic treatment with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (625 mg was given to the patient but he was found dead in his house the day after. In autopsy; yellow-green purulant liquid in left frontoparietal zone, fullness of meningeal vessels and oedema was seen in brain. Isolated bacteria in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF was identificated as E. faecalis by mini API 32 Strep®. Postmortem microbiological sampling in autopsy and defining etiologic agents is important for rare meningitis cases in which antemortem identification could not be done before death.

  15. Trend of bacterial meningitis in Bahrain from 1990 to 2013 and effect of introduction of new vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, N; AlAnsari, H; AlKhawaja, S; Jawad, J S; Nasser, K; AlYousef, E

    2016-06-15

    Meningitis is among the 10 commonest infectious causes of death worldwide. This retrospective analysis of reported cases of meningitis in Bahrain aimed to assess the trend in the incidence of bacterial meningitis from 1990 to 2013, before and after the introduction of new vaccines. Of 1455 reported cases of meningitis during the study period 73.1% were viral and 26.9% were bacterial etiology (tuberculous meningitis 8.3%; Streptococcus pneumoniae 4.9%, Haemophilus influenzae 3.6% and Neisseria meningitidis 1.7%). There was a peak of meningitis cases in 1995-1996. The incidence of meningitis due to H. influenzae and N. meningitidis showed a marked reduction after the introduction of the corresponding vaccines in 1998 and 2001 respectively, and S. pneumoniae became the predominant organism after Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The changing trend in the etiology of bacterial meningitis points to the need to study vaccination programme modifications, such as pneumococcal vaccine for the adult population, especially high-risk groups.

  16. Bacterial Meningitis: a five year retrospective study among patients who had attended at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Birehanemeskel Tegene

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute Bacterial Meningitis (ABM is an important cause of death and long-term neurological disability. Recent Information on the relative frequency of the isolation and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of these pathogens is scarce in Ethiopia. This study was to document the microbial characteristics, the antibacterial sensitivity pattern, and seasonal variation of community acquired acute bacterial meningitis. The study was retrospective, conducted at university of Gondar referral hospital, serving the rural population of the northwest parts of Ethiopia. A total of three thousand and eighty five cerebrospinal fluid specimens submitted to the bacteriology laboratory for culture and antibiotic susceptibility patterns in a period between January 2006 and December 2010. Analysis of extracted data was performed using SPSS statistical software (Version 17. The etiological agent had been identified in 120 (3.8% of the total 3,085 CSF samples by culture. Thirty-nine (32.5% of them were infants below the age of 12 months. S. pneumoniae was the predominant pathogen accounting for 52 (43.3% of the cases. Whereas N. meningitidis and H. influenzae accounted for 27(22.5%, and 12(10%, respectively. Other gram negative bacilli and S. aureus were isolated from 21(17.2%, and 11(9.2% cases, respectively. Among gram positive organisms S.pneumoniae showed a high level of drug resistance against co-trimoxazole 44(84.3%. Among gram negative bacteria, N.meningitidis was found to be resistant to co-trimoxazole in 25(92.5%. E. coli and salmonella spp. were found to be resistant to most antibiotics except ciprofloxacin. Multiple drug resistance was observed in 58.3% of the isolates. S. pneumoniae remains the major etiological agent of Community Acquired Acute Bacterial Meningitis (CAABM both in adults and children in the study area. 5.7% of S. pneumoniae were resistances to penicillin. Further research should focus on preventable aspects CAABM of, especially pneumococcal

  17. Etiology and laboratory abnormalities in bacterial meningitis in neonates and young infants

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    David Kotzbauer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a retrospective review of electronic medical records of all cases of bacterial meningitis in neonates and young infants at our institution from 2004 to 2014. Fifty-six cases were identified. The most common causative organism was group B streptococcus, followed by Escherichia coli and then Listeria monocytogenes. Fortyfour of the 56 patients in the study had abnormalities of the blood white blood cell (WBC count. The most common WBC count abnormalities were leukopenia and elevation of the immature to total (I:T neutrophil ratio. Six patients in the case series lacked cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pleocytosis. Overall, just 3 of the 56 patients had normal WBC count with differential, CSF WBC count, and urinalysis. Only 1 of the 56 patients was well appearing with all normal lab studies. Our study indicates that bacterial meningitis may occur without CSF pleocytosis but very infrequently occurs with all normal lab studies and well appearance.

  18. Educational achievement and economic self-sufficiency in adults after childhood bacterial meningitis.

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    Roed, Casper; Omland, Lars Haukali; Skinhoj, Peter; Rothman, Kenneth J; Sorensen, Henrik Toft; Obel, Niels

    2013-04-24

    To our knowledge, no previous study has examined functioning in adult life among persons who had bacterial meningitis in childhood. To study educational achievement and economic self-sufficiency in adults diagnosed as having bacterial meningitis in childhood. Nationwide population-based cohort study using national registries of Danish-born children diagnosed as having meningococcal, pneumococcal, or Haemophilus influenzae meningitis in the period 1977-2007 (n=2784 patients). Comparison cohorts from the same population individually matched on age and sex were identified, as were siblings of all study participants. End of study period was 2010. Cumulative incidences of completed vocational education, high school education, higher education, time to first full year of economic self-sufficiency, and receipt of disability pension and differences in these outcomes at age 35 years among meningitis patients, comparison cohorts, and siblings. By age 35 years, among persons who had a history of childhood meningococcal (n=1338), pneumococcal (n=455), and H. influenzae (n=991) meningitis, an estimated 11.0% (41.5% vs 52.5%; 95% CI, 7.3%-14.7%), 10.2% (42.6% vs 52.8%; 95% CI, 3.8%-16.6%), and 5.5% (47.7% vs 53.2%; 95% CI, 1.9%-9.1%) fewer persons, respectively, had completed high school and 7.9% (29.3% vs 37.2%; 95% CI, 1.6%-14.2%), 8.9% (28.1% vs 37.0%; 95% CI, 0.6%-17.2%), and 6.5% (33.5% vs 40.0%; 95% CI, 1.4%-11.6%) fewer had attained a higher education compared with individuals from the comparison cohort. Siblings of meningococcal meningitis patients also had lower educational achievements, while educational achievements of siblings of pneumococcal and H. influenzae meningitis patients did not differ substantially from those in the general population. At end of follow-up, 3.8% (90.3% vs 94.1%; 95% CI, 1.1%-6.5%), 10.6% (84.0% vs 94.6%; 95% CI, 5.1%-16.1%), and 4.3% (90.6% vs 94.9%; 95% CI, 2.0%-6.6%) fewer meningococcal, pneumococcal, and H. influenzae meningitis patients

  19. Association between Toll-like receptor 9 gene polymorphisms and risk of bacterial meningitis in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X H; Shi, H P; Li, F J

    2016-07-25

    We determined whether two common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Toll-like receptor 9 gene (TLR9) (TLR9+2848 rs352140 and TLR9-1237 rs5743836) influenced susceptibility to bacterial meningitis in a Chinese population. The study comprised 126 patients with bacterial meningitis and 252 control subjects, all of whom were recruited from the Tuberculosis Hospital of Shanxi Province. Genotyping of TLR9+2848 rs352140 and TLR9-1237 rs5743836 was performed by polymerase chain reaction coupled with restriction fragment length polymorphism. Using logistic regression analysis, we found that individuals with the AA genotype were associated with an increased risk of bacterial meningitis compared with those with the GG genotype (OR = 0.43, 95%CI = 0.19-0.95; P = 0.03). In a recessive model, the AA genotype was correlated with an elevated risk of bacterial meningitis compared with the GG+GA genotype (OR = 0.49, 95%CI = 0.22-0.99; P = 0.04). However, no significant differences were observed in the association between the TLR9-1237 rs5743836 polymorphism and the risk of bacterial meningitis in the codominant, dominant, or recessive models. In conclusion, the results of our study suggest an association between the TLR9+2848 polymorphism and a reduced risk of bacterial meningitis in the codominant and recessive models.

  20. Prediction of Outcome From Adult Bacterial Meningitis in a High-HIV-Seroprevalence, Resource-Poor Setting Using the Malawi Adult Meningitis Score (MAMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Emma C; Mukaka, Mavuto; Scarborough, Matthew; Ajdukiewicz, Katherine M A; Cartwright, Katharine E; Nyirenda, Mulinda; Denis, Brigitte; Allain, Theresa J; Faragher, Brian; Lalloo, David G; Heyderman, Robert S

    2017-02-15

    Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) in adults residing in resource-poor countries is associated with mortality rates >50%. To improve outcome, interventional trials and standardized clinical algorithms are urgently required. To optimize these processes, we developed and validated an outcome prediction tool to identify ABM patients at greatest risk of death. We derived a nomogram using mortality predictors derived from a logistic regression model of a discovery database of adult Malawian patients with ABM (n = 523 [65%] cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] culture positive). We validated the nomogram internally using a bootstrap procedure and subsequently used the nomogram scores to further interpret the effects of adjunctive dexamethasone and glycerol using clinical trial data from Malawi. ABM mortality at 6-week follow-up was 54%. Five of 15 variables tested were strongly associated with poor outcome (CSF culture positivity, CSF white blood cell count, hemoglobin, Glasgow Coma Scale, and pulse rate), and were used in the derivation of the Malawi Adult Meningitis Score (MAMS) nomogram. The C-index (area under the curve) was 0.76 (95% confidence interval, .71-.80) and calibration was good (Hosmer-Lemeshow C-statistic = 5.48, df = 8, P = .705). Harmful effects of adjunctive glycerol were observed in groups with relatively low predicted risk of poor outcome (25%-50% risk): Case Fatality Rate of 21% in the placebo group and 52% in the glycerol group (P < .001). This effect was not seen with adjunctive dexamethasone. MAMS provides a novel tool for predicting prognosis and improving interpretation of ABM clinical trials by risk stratification in resource-poor settings. Whether MAMS can be applied to non-HIV-endemic countries requires further evaluation.

  1. Bacterial meningitis in alcoholic patients: A population-based prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, Kiril E B; Brouwer, Matthijs C; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2017-04-01

    To study clinical features and outcome of community-acquired bacterial meningitis in alcoholic patients. Patients with a history of alcoholism were selected from our nationwide, prospective cohort on community-acquired bacterial meningitis performed from March 2006 to October 2014. Data on patient history, symptoms and signs on admission, treatment, and outcome were prospectively collected. Of 1359 included episodes, 88 episodes (6%) occurred in 88 alcoholic patients. Seizures as presenting symptom were present in 18% alcoholic patients, and 23% presented with co-existing pneumonia. Causative organisms were Streptococcus pneumoniae in 76%, Listeria monocytogenes in 8%, and Neisseria meningitidis in 6% of patients. A high rate of systemic complications occurred with respiratory failure in 40% and endocarditis in 9% of patients. Outcome was unfavorable in 58% of alcoholic patients, and 25% died. Alcoholism was associated with unfavorable outcome in a multivariate analysis (OR 1.96; 95% CI 1.12-3.46; P = 0.019), but not with death (OR 0.76; 95% CI 0.35-1.68; P = 0.762). Alcoholic bacterial meningitis patients often have an unfavorable outcome, which appears to result from a high rate of systemic complications, mainly respiratory failure. Seizures are common in alcoholic patients and warrant caution of development of an alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Improving the outcome of bacterial meningitis in newborn infants in Africa: reflections on recent progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, Elizabeth M; Dube, Queen; Newberry, Laura

    2015-06-01

    There has been a reduction in overall under fives mortality (UFM) but neonatal mortality has not fallen at the same rate as for older children. Bacterial meningitis remains a common, often unrecognized and devastating illness in many African newborns with high mortality and morbidity. Further progress in reducing UFM has to focus on quality of care for neonates. Recent efforts to improve diagnosis, treatment and outcome are reviewed. Diagnosis is often unsupported by laboratory tests and efforts have been made to improve the clinical diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. Simpler, robust bedside tests are being devised. The cause of bacterial meningitis is changing and first-line antimicrobial therapy and adjuvant therapies are evaluated. Programmes to reduce risk factors and prevent neonatal infections are identified. Neonatal care needs to improve in first referral hospitals with simple, low-cost, validated measures provided as bundles of care for both mother and child. First-line antibiotic therapy must be reconsidered in the light of increased infections by multiresistant and Gram-negative bacteria. Studies are needed for effective and safe lengths of antimicrobial therapy, the role of adjuvant therapy and the best anticonvulsants to use.

  3. LTA4H Genotype Is Associated with Susceptibility to Bacterial Meningitis but Is Not a Critical Determinant of Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, Sarah J.; Tram, Trinh Thi Bich; Thwaites, Guy E.; Chau, Tran Thi Hong; Phu, Nguyen Hoan; Hien, Tran Tinh; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Wolbers, Marcel; Mai, Nguyen Thi Hoang

    2015-01-01

    Adjunctive dexamethasone saves lives in the treatment of tuberculous meningitis but this response is influenced by the patient’s LTA4H genotype. Despite less certain benefit, adjunctive dexamethasone is also frequently used in the treatment of pyogenic bacterial meningitis, but the influence of LTA4H genotype on outcomes has not been previously investigated. We genotyped the LTA4H promoter region SNP (rs17525495) in 390 bacterial meningitis patients and 751 population controls. rs17525495 was associated with susceptibility to bacteriologically confirmed bacterial meningitis (P = 0.01, OR 1.27 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–1.54) but did not influence clinical presentation, disease severity or survival following dexamethasone treatment. PMID:25799317

  4. Fatal Prevotella oralis meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalan, S D; Hick, G; Rossiter, A; Callanan, J J

    2013-03-01

    Prevotella oralis, an obligate Gram-negative anaerobe, was detected as the cause of acute meningitis in a four-year-old cocker spaniel. Clinical signs included acute onset collapse and severe depression. Despite treatment, the animal died. A post-mortem examination was performed which revealed a fibrinosuppurative meningitis with no significant inflammation of the brain or spinal parenchyma. The aetiological diagnosis was confirmed by anaerobic bacterial culture. This report discusses the nature and extent of the lesions and possible routes of infection of the causative organism. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  5. Adult bacterial meningitis-a quality registry study: earlier treatment and favourable outcome if initial management by infectious diseases physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindborg, Ö; Naucler, P; Sjölin, J; Glimåker, M

    2015-06-01

    Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is challenging for the admitting physician because it is a rare but fulminant disease, usually presenting without typical symptoms, and rapid treatment is pivotal. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of initial management by infectious diseases (ID) physicians vs. non-ID physicians. A total of 520 consecutive adults (>17 years old), 110 with initial ID management and 410 with non-ID management, registered in the Swedish quality registry for community-acquired ABM January 2008 to December 2013, were analysed retrospectively. Primary outcome was appropriate treatment with antibiotics and corticosteroids treatment sequences also were analysed. Appropriate treatment treatment, more appropriate diagnostic treatment sequences and favourable outcome. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Direct analysis of clinical relevant single bacterial cells from cerebrospinal fluid during bacterial meningitis by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harz, Michaela; Kiehntopf, Michael; Stöckel, Stephan; Rösch, Petra; Straube, Eberhard; Deufel, Thomas; Popp, Jürgen

    2009-02-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a relevant public health concern. Despite the availability of modern treatment strategies it is still a life-threatening disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, an initial treatment approach plays an important role. For in-time identification of specific bacterial pathogens of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and emerged antimicrobial and adjunctive treatment, microbiological examination is of major importance. This contribution spotlights the potential of micro-Raman spectroscopy as a biomedical assay for direct analysis of bacteria in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with bacterial meningitis. The influence of miscellaneous artificial environments on several bacterial species present during bacterial meningitis was studied by means of Raman spectroscopy. The application of chemometric data interpretation via hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) allows for the differentiation of in vitro cultured bacterial cells and can also be achieved on a single cell level. Moreover as proof of principle the investigation of a CSF sample obtained from a patient with meningococcal meningitis showed that the cerebrospinal fluid matrix does not mask the Raman spectrum of a bacterial cell notably since via chemometric analysis with HCA an identification of N. meningitidis cells from patients with bacterial meningitis could be achieved. ((c) 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim).

  7. Recurrent CSF Rhinorrhea Misdiagnosed as Chronic Allergic Rhinitis with Subsequent Development of Bacterial Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF rhinorrhea results from an abnormal communication of the dura mater to the nasal mucosa. The majority of cases of CSF rhinorrhea are the result of trauma or surgery involving the skull base. Spontaneous CSF rhinorrhea is a rare clinical entity with increased risk of ascending infection. Delay in diagnosis places the patient at risk of developing meningitis. Case Presentation. A 36-year-old African American female with significant medical history of obesity and hypertension presented to the emergency department with headache, altered level of consciousness, fever, and neck stiffness. Previously, the patient was diagnosed with chronic allergic sinusitis by multiple providers. Physical exam findings and laboratory tests were consistent with bacterial meningitis. The patient was admitted and started on appropriate antibiotic therapy. The patient continued to complain of persistent unilateral clear nasal drainage. The initial report from the computerized tomography scan of the sinuses indicated findings consistent with chronic sinusitis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the orbits revealed findings consistent with CSF rhinorrhea. Otolaryngology was consulted for surgical intervention. Conclusion. Suspected CSF rhinorrhea should prompt immediate biochemical and radiologic evaluation and surgical consultation. CSF rhinorrhea places patients at risk of developing bacterial meningitis.

  8. Clinical Prognosis in Neonatal Bacterial Meningitis: The Role of Cerebrospinal Fluid Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jintong; Kan, Juan; Qiu, Gang; Zhao, Dongying; Ren, Fang; Luo, Zhongcheng; Zhang, Yongjun

    2015-01-01

    Neonates are at high risk of meningitis and of resulting neurologic complications. Early recognition of neonates at risk of poor prognosis would be helpful in providing timely management. From January 2008 to June 2014, we enrolled 232 term neonates with bacterial meningitis admitted to 3 neonatology departments in Shanghai, China. The clinical status on the day of discharge from these hospitals or at a postnatal age of 2.5 to 3 months was evaluated using the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS). Patients were classified into two outcome groups: good (167 cases, 72.0%, GOS = 5) or poor (65 cases, 28.0%, GOS = 1-4). Neonates with good outcome had less frequent apnea, drowsiness, poor feeding, bulging fontanelle, irritability and more severe jaundice compared to neonates with poor outcome. The good outcome group also had less pneumonia than the poor outcome group. Besides, there were statistically significant differences in hemoglobin, mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width, C-reaction protein, procalcitonin, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) glucose and CSF protein. Multivariate logistic regression analyses suggested that poor feeding, pneumonia and CSF protein were the predictors of poor outcome. CSF protein content was significantly higher in patients with poor outcome. The best cut-offs for predicting poor outcome were 1,880 mg/L in CSF protein concentration (sensitivity 70.8%, specificity 86.2%). After 2 weeks of treatment, CSF protein remained higher in the poor outcome group. High CSF protein concentration may prognosticate poor outcome in neonates with bacterial meningitis.

  9. Clinical Prognosis in Neonatal Bacterial Meningitis: The Role of Cerebrospinal Fluid Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongying; Ren, Fang; Luo, Zhongcheng; Zhang, Yongjun

    2015-01-01

    Neonates are at high risk of meningitis and of resulting neurologic complications. Early recognition of neonates at risk of poor prognosis would be helpful in providing timely management. From January 2008 to June 2014, we enrolled 232 term neonates with bacterial meningitis admitted to 3 neonatology departments in Shanghai, China. The clinical status on the day of discharge from these hospitals or at a postnatal age of 2.5 to 3 months was evaluated using the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS). Patients were classified into two outcome groups: good (167 cases, 72.0%, GOS = 5) or poor (65 cases, 28.0%, GOS = 1–4). Neonates with good outcome had less frequent apnea, drowsiness, poor feeding, bulging fontanelle, irritability and more severe jaundice compared to neonates with poor outcome. The good outcome group also had less pneumonia than the poor outcome group. Besides, there were statistically significant differences in hemoglobin, mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width, C-reaction protein, procalcitonin, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) glucose and CSF protein. Multivariate logistic regression analyses suggested that poor feeding, pneumonia and CSF protein were the predictors of poor outcome. CSF protein content was significantly higher in patients with poor outcome. The best cut-offs for predicting poor outcome were 1,880 mg/L in CSF protein concentration (sensitivity 70.8%, specificity 86.2%). After 2 weeks of treatment, CSF protein remained higher in the poor outcome group. High CSF protein concentration may prognosticate poor outcome in neonates with bacterial meningitis. PMID:26509880

  10. Diagnosis of ventricular drainage-related bacterial meningitis by broad-range real-time polymerase chain reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deutch, Susanna; Dahlberg, Daniel; Hedegaard, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare a broad-range real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnostic strategy with culture to evaluate additional effects on the etiological diagnosis and the quantification of the bacterial load during the course of ventricular drainage-related bacterial meningitis (VR...

  11. Genetic Variation in the β2-Adrenocepter Gene Is Associated with Susceptibility to Bacterial Meningitis in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriani, Kirsten S.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Baas, Frank; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the biased β2-adrenoceptor/β-arrestin pathway was shown to play a pivotal role in crossing of the blood brain barrier by Neisseria meningitidis. We hypothesized that genetic variation in the β2-adrenoceptor gene (ADRB2) may influence susceptibility to bacterial meningitis. In a prospective genetic association study we genotyped 542 patients with CSF culture proven community acquired bacterial meningitis and 376 matched controls for 2 functional single nucleotide polymorphisms in the β2-adrenoceptor gene (ADRB2). Furthermore, we analyzed if the use of non-selective beta-blockers, which bind to the β2-adrenoceptor, influenced the risk of bacterial meningitis. We identified a functional polymorphism in ADRB2 (rs1042714) to be associated with an increased risk for bacterial meningitis (Odds ratio [OR] 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04–1.76; p = 0.026). The association remained significant after correction for age and was more prominent in patients with pneumococcal meningitis (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.12–2.07; p = 0.007). For meningococcal meningitis the difference in genotype frequencies between patients and controls was similar to that in pneumococcal meningitis, but this was not statistically significant (OR 1.43, 95% CI 0.60–3.38; p = 0.72). Patients with bacterial meningitis had a lower frequency of non-selective beta-blockers use compared to the age matched population (0.9% vs. 1.8%), although this did not reach statistical significance (OR 1.96 [95% CI 0.88–4.39]; p = 0.09). In conclusion, we identified an association between a genetic variant in the β2-adrenoceptor and increased susceptibility to bacterial meningitis. The potential benefit of pharmacological treatment targeting the β2-adrenoceptor to prevent bacterial meningitis in the general population or patients with bacteraemia should be further studied in both experimental studies and observational cohorts. PMID:22624056

  12. Adjunctive dexamethasone therapy in unconfirmed bacterial meningitis in resource limited settings: is it a risk worth taking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudina, Esayas Kebede; Tesfaye, Markos; Adane, Aynishet; Lemma, Kinfe; Shibiru, Tamiru; Wieser, Andreas; Pfister, Hans-Walter; Klein, Matthias

    2016-08-26

    Bacterial meningitis is associated with significant morbidity and mortality despite advances in medical care. The main objective of this study was to assess the association of adjunctive dexamethasone treatment with discharge outcome of patients treated as bacterial meningitis in low income setting. A retrospective study was conducted at four teaching hospitals across Ethiopia. Patients of age 14 years and older treated as cases of bacterial meningitis between January 1, 2011 and April 30, 2015 were included in this study. Information regarding sociodemographic data, clinical presentations, laboratory data, treatments given and status at hospital discharge were retrieved from patients' medical records using a structured questionnaire. Predefined outcome variables at discharge were analysed using descriptive statistics. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors independently associated with poor outcome. A total of 425 patients treated with the presumptive clinical diagnosis of bacterial meningitis were included in this study (lumbar puncture done in 56 %; only 19 % had CSF findings compatible with bacterial meningitis, and only 3 % had proven etiology). The overall in hospital mortality rate was 20.2 %. Impaired consciousness, aspiration pneumonia, and cranial nerve palsy at admission were independently associated with increased mortality. Adjuvant dexamethasone, which was used in 50.4 % of patients, was associated with increased in-hospital mortality (AOR = 3.38; 95 % CI 1.87-6.12, p < 0.001) and low Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) at discharge (AOR = 4.46 (95 % CI 1.98-10.08). This association between dexamethasone and unfavorable outcome was found to be more pronounced in suspected but unproven cases and in those without CSF alterations compatible with bacterial meningitis. Most patients treated for suspected bacterial meningitis did not receive proper diagnostic workup. Adjuvant dexamethasone use in clinically suspected but

  13. Diagnostic performance of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 for bacterial meningitis: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Rong; Cao, Yu; Chen, Yao; Zeng, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to summarize the overall diagnostic performance of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 in cerebrospinal fluid for bacterial meningitis through meta-analysis due to inconclusive results reported. Literature search was performed in PubMed and Embase to identify eligible studies. Data were retrieved and sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio/negative likelihood ratio (PLR/NLR), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were pooled. Summary receiver operating characteristic curve and the area under the curve (AUC) were calculated to evaluate their overall test performances. Thirteen studies were included for present meta-analysis. The summary estimates for interleukin-6 in diagnosing bacterial meningitis were: sensitivity, 0.91 (95% CI 0.81-0.96); specificity, 0.93 (95% CI 0.84-0.97); PLR, 12.38 (95% CI 5.42-28.29); NLR, 0.10 (95% CI 0.04-0.21); DOR, 129.76 (95% CI 41.48-405.88); and AUC 0.97 (95% CI 0.95-0.98). The corresponding summary performance estimates for interleukin-8 were as follows: sensitivity, 0.95 (95% CI 0.71-0.99); specificity, 0.89 (95% CI 0.77-0.95); PLR, 8.50 (95% CI, 3.83-18.86); NLR, 0.06 (95% CI 0.01-0.40); DOR, 154.25 (95% CI 14.56-1634.33); and AUC 0.95 (95% CI 0.93-0.97). Measurements of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 play a valuable role in diagnosing bacterial meningitis. Nevertheless, their results should be interpreted in parallel with the results of routine tests and clinical symptoms. PMID:26221243

  14. [Rare and severe complication of spinal anesthesia: bacterial meningitis (about a case and literature review)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouaib, Naoufal; Jidane, Said; Rafai, Mostafa; Belkouch, Ahmed; Zidouh, Saad; Belyamani, Lahcen

    2017-01-01

    Spinal anesthesia (SA) is the first locoregional anesthesia. It can cause side effects and carry risks that need to be avoided, prevented or treated early. We here report the case of a female patient operated under spinal anesthesia who had intense headache associated with nausea and vomiting evolving in the context of fever within a few days after surgeryLumbar puncture showed cloudy liquid revealing Gram + cocci on direct examination. This allowed the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. Patient's evolution was favorable after antibiotic therapy.

  15. Of the Phrensy: an update on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis in the pediatric population [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Janowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past century, advances in antibiotics and vaccination have dramatically altered the incidence and clinical outcomes of bacterial meningitis. We review the shifting epidemiology of meningitis in children, including after the implementation of vaccines that target common meningitic pathogens and the introduction of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis offered to mothers colonized with Streptococcus agalactiae. We also discuss what is currently known about the pathogenesis of meningitis. Recent studies of the human microbiome have illustrated dynamic relationships of bacterial and viral populations with the host, which may potentiate the risk of bacterial meningitis.

  16. Acute hydrocephalus in a child with a third ventricle arachnoid cyst and coincidental enteroviral meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeltema, Hanne-Rinck; Kuijlen, Jos M. A.; Hoving, Eelco W.

    We present a 2.5-year-old child suffering from acute hydrocephalus. First, the child was diagnosed with aseptic viral meningitis. The PCR of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was positive for enterovirus. Subsequently, MRI revealed that the hydrocephalus was caused by a cyst in the third ventricle.

  17. Following the (Clinical Decision) Rules: Opportunities for Improving Safety and Resource Utilization With the Bacterial Meningitis Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Philip A; Shah, Samir S; Kirkendall, Eric S

    2016-05-01

    The Bacterial Meningitis Score accurately classifies children with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis at very low risk (VLR) versus not very low risk (non-VLR) for bacterial meningitis. Most children with CSF pleocytosis detected during emergency department evaluation are hospitalized despite the high accuracy of this prediction rule and the decreasing incidence of bacterial meningitis. The lack of widespread use of this rule may contribute to unnecessary risk exposure and costs. This cross-sectional study included 1049 patients who, between January 2010 and May 2013, had suspicion for meningitis and underwent both a complete blood cell count and CSF studies during their emergency department evaluation. We then examined their hospitalizations to characterize exposure to drugs, radiologic studies, and the costs associated with their care to determine the safety and value repercussions of these VLR admissions. Primary outcomes include duration of antibiotics, exposure to drugs and radiology studies, safety events, and costs incurred during these VLR admissions. Twenty patients classified as VLR were admitted to the hospital. On average they received 35 hours of antibiotic therapy. There was 1 adverse drug event and 1 safety event. The VLR patients admitted to the hospital were exposed to risk and costs despite their low risk stratification. Systematic application of the Bacterial Meningitis Score could prevent these exposures and costs. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics

  18. Large scale genomic analysis shows no evidence for pathogen adaptation between the blood and cerebrospinal fluid niches during bacterial meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, John A.; Kremer, Philip H. C.; Manso, Ana S.; Croucher, Nicholas J.; Ferwerda, Bart; Serón, Mercedes Valls; Oggioni, Marco R.; Parkhill, Julian; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence for rapid pathogen genome diversification, some of which could potentially affect the course of disease. We have previously described such variation seen between isolates infecting the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a single patient during a case of bacterial meningitis. Here, we performed whole-genome sequencing of paired isolates from the blood and CSF of 869 meningitis patients to determine whether such variation frequently occurs between these two niches in cases of bacterial meningitis. Using a combination of reference-free variant calling approaches, we show that no genetic adaptation occurs in either invaded niche during bacterial meningitis for two major pathogen species, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. This study therefore shows that the bacteria capable of causing meningitis are already able to do this upon entering the blood, and no further sequence change is necessary to cross the blood–brain barrier. Our findings place the focus back on bacterial evolution between nasopharyngeal carriage and invasion, or diversity of the host, as likely mechanisms for determining invasiveness. PMID:28348877

  19. Large scale genomic analysis shows no evidence for pathogen adaptation between the blood and cerebrospinal fluid niches during bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, John A; Kremer, Philip H C; Manso, Ana S; Croucher, Nicholas J; Ferwerda, Bart; Serón, Mercedes Valls; Oggioni, Marco R; Parkhill, Julian; Brouwer, Matthijs C; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik; Bentley, Stephen D

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence for rapid pathogen genome diversification, some of which could potentially affect the course of disease. We have previously described such variation seen between isolates infecting the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a single patient during a case of bacterial meningitis. Here, we performed whole-genome sequencing of paired isolates from the blood and CSF of 869 meningitis patients to determine whether such variation frequently occurs between these two niches in cases of bacterial meningitis. Using a combination of reference-free variant calling approaches, we show that no genetic adaptation occurs in either invaded niche during bacterial meningitis for two major pathogen species, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. This study therefore shows that the bacteria capable of causing meningitis are already able to do this upon entering the blood, and no further sequence change is necessary to cross the blood-brain barrier. Our findings place the focus back on bacterial evolution between nasopharyngeal carriage and invasion, or diversity of the host, as likely mechanisms for determining invasiveness.

  20. Expansion of syndromic vaccine preventable disease surveillance to include bacterial meningitis and Japanese encephalitis: evaluation of adapting polio and measles laboratory networks in Bangladesh, China and India, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallaro, Kathleen F; Sandhu, Hardeep S; Hyde, Terri B; Johnson, Barbara W; Fischer, Marc; Mayer, Leonard W; Clark, Thomas A; Pallansch, Mark A; Yin, Zundong; Zuo, Shuyan; Hadler, Stephen C; Diorditsa, Serguey; Hasan, A S M Mainul; Bose, Anindya S; Dietz, Vance

    2015-02-25

    Surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis with laboratory confirmation has been a key strategy in the global polio eradication initiative, and the laboratory platform established for polio testing has been expanded in many countries to include surveillance for cases of febrile rash illness to identify measles and rubella cases. Vaccine-preventable disease surveillance is essential to detect outbreaks, define disease burden, guide vaccination strategies and assess immunization impact. Vaccines now exist to prevent Japanese encephalitis (JE) and some etiologies of bacterial meningitis. We evaluated the feasibility of expanding polio-measles surveillance and laboratory networks to detect bacterial meningitis and JE, using surveillance for acute meningitis-encephalitis syndrome in Bangladesh and China and acute encephalitis syndrome in India. We developed nine syndromic surveillance performance indicators based on international surveillance guidelines and calculated scores using supervisory visit reports, annual reports, and case-based surveillance data. Scores, variable by country and targeted disease, were highest for the presence of national guidelines, sustainability, training, availability of JE laboratory resources, and effectiveness of using polio-measles networks for JE surveillance. Scores for effectiveness of building on polio-measles networks for bacterial meningitis surveillance and specimen referral were the lowest, because of differences in specimens and techniques. Polio-measles surveillance and laboratory networks provided useful infrastructure for establishing syndromic surveillance and building capacity for JE diagnosis, but were less applicable for bacterial meningitis. Laboratory-supported surveillance for vaccine-preventable bacterial diseases will require substantial technical and financial support to enhance local diagnostic capacity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Raised Proinflammatory Cytokine Production Within Cerebrospinal Fluid Precedes Fever Onset in Patients With Neurosurgery-Associated Bacterial Meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuo-Hao; Tu, Po-Hsun; Chen, Nan-Yu; Yip, Ping K; Bowes, Amy L; Lee, Cheng-Chi; Chan, She-Hung; Kung, Chua-Chi; Wang, Alvin Yi-Chou; Wu, Chieh-Tsai; Lee, Shih-Tseng

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine whether selective inflammatory cytokine concentrations within cerebrospinal fluid are useful markers for the differential diagnosis of aseptic and bacterial meningitis within neurosurgical patients. Prospective, open-label, observational, cohort study. Neurosurgical ICU, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. Thirty-two consecutive neurosurgical patients who had postoperative fever following external ventricular drain insertion for the treatment of brain injury underwent serial cerebrospinal fluid cytokine analysis pre and post fever to determine the value of such markers in ascertaining the differential diagnosis of meningitis. Cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected on the day of fever onset, as well as on day 2 and 4 pre and post fever development. Tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, transforming growth factor-β, and procalcitonin were subsequently analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis techniques. Inflammatory marker levels were compared among febrile aseptic, bacterial, and nonmeningitis patients to determine cerebrospinal fluid inflammatory changes over time. Significant increases in cerebrospinal fluid tumor necrosis factor -α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and interleukin-8 levels were observed within patients with bacterial meningitis at fever onset, which was not evident in aseptic or nonmeningitis patients. Furthermore, significant increases in cerebrospinal fluid tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and interleukin-8 levels were detected as early as 4 days prior to fever onset within patients with bacterial meningitis when compared with both aseptic and nonmeningitis groups. Interestingly, procalcitonin was only significantly increased in patients with bacterial meningitis on the fourth day post fever. The present study suggests that raised cerebrospinal fluid tumor necrosis factor -α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-8 in a

  2. Nationwide Trends in Bacterial Meningitis before the Introduction of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine—Burkina Faso, 2011–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouédraogo-Traoré, Rasmata; Medah, Isaïe; Sangare, Lassana; Yaméogo, Issaka; Sawadogo, Guetawendé; Ouédraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Hema-Ouangraoua, Soumeya; McGee, Lesley; Srinivasan, Velusamy; Aké, Flavien; Congo-Ouédraogo, Malika; Sanou, Soufian; Ba, Absatou Ky; Novak, Ryan T.; Van Beneden, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background Following introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine in 2006 and serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine in 2010, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) became the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in Burkina Faso. We describe bacterial meningitis epidemiology, focusing on pneumococcal meningitis, before 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) introduction in the pediatric routine immunization program in October 2013. Methods Nationwide population-based meningitis surveillance collects case-level demographic and clinical information and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) laboratory results. Sp infections are confirmed by culture, real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR), or latex agglutination, and CSF serotyped using real-time and conventional PCR. We calculated incidence rates in cases per 100,000 persons, adjusting for age and proportion of cases with CSF tested at national reference laboratories, and case fatality ratios (CFR). Results During 2011–2013, 1,528 pneumococcal meningitis cases were reported. Average annual adjusted incidence rates were 26.9 (meningitis occurred among children aged <1 year. The majority of cases were due to PCV13-associated serotypes; introduction of PCV13 should substantially decrease this burden. PMID:27832151

  3. Acute bacterial sinusitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMuri, Gregory; Wald, Ellen R

    2013-10-01

    On the basis of strong research evidence, the pathogenesis of sinusitis involves 3 key factors: sinusostia obstruction, ciliary dysfunction, and thickening of sinus secretions. On the basis of studies of the microbiology of otitis media, H influenzae is playing an increasingly important role in the etiology of sinusitis, exceeding that of S pneumoniae in some areas, and b-lactamase production by H influenzae is increasing in respiratory isolates in the United States. On the basis of some research evidence and consensus,the presentation of acute bacterial sinusitis conforms to 1 of 3 predicable patterns; persistent, severe, and worsening symptoms. On the basis of some research evidence and consensus,the diagnosis of sinusitis should be made by applying strict clinical criteria. This approach will select children with upper respiratory infection symptoms who are most likely to benefit from an antibiotic. On the basis of some research evidence and consensus,imaging is not indicated routinely in the diagnosis of sinusitis. Computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging provides useful information when complications of sinusitis are suspected. On the basis of some research evidence and consensus,amoxicillin-clavulanate should be considered asa first-line agent for the treatment of sinusitis.

  4. Prospective multi-centre sentinel surveillance for Haemophilus influenzae type b & other bacterial meningitis in Indian children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Padmanabhan; Fitzwater, Sean Patrick; Aneja, Satinder; Verghese, Valsan Philip; Kumar, Vishwajeet; Nedunchelian, Krishnamoorthy; Wadhwa, Nitya; Veeraraghavan, Balaji; Kumar, Rashmi; Meeran, Mohamed; Kapil, Arti; Jasmine, Sudha; Kumar, Aarti; Suresh, Saradha; Bhatnagar, Shinjini; Thomas, Kurien; Awasthi, Shally; Santosham, Mathuram; Chandran, Aruna

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is one of the leading bacterial causes of invasive disease in populations without access to Hib conjugate vaccines (Hib-CV). India has recently decided to introduce Hib-CV into the routine immunization programme in selected States. Longitudinal data quantifying the burden of bacterial meningitis and the proportion of disease caused by various bacteria are needed to track the impact of Hib-CV once introduced. A hospital-based sentinel surveillance network was established at four places in the country and this study reports the results of this ongoing surveillance. Methods: Children aged 1 to 23 months with suspected bacterial meningitis were enrolled in Chennai, Lucknow, New Delhi, and Vellore between July 2008 and June 2010. All cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were tested using cytological, biochemical, and culture methods. Samples with abnormal CSF (≥10 WBC per μl) were tested by latex agglutination test for common paediatric bacterial meningitis pathogens. Results: A total of 708 patients with abnormal CSF were identified, 89 of whom had a bacterial pathogen confirmed. Hib accounted for the majority of bacteriologically confirmed cases, 62 (70%), while Streptococcus pneumoniae and group B Streptococcus were identified in 12 (13%) and seven (8%) cases, respectively. The other eight cases were a mix of other bacteria. The proportion of abnormal CSF and probable bacterial meningitis that was caused by Hib was 74 and 58 per cent lower at Christian Medical College (CMC), Vellore, which had a 41 per cent coverage of Hib-CV among all suspected meningitis cases, compared to the combined average proportion at the other three centres where a coverage between 1 and 8 per cent was seen (Pbacterial meningitis in young children in diverse geographic locations in India. Possible indications of herd immunity was seen at CMC compared to sites with low immunization coverage with Hib-CV. As Hib is the most common

  5. Usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-SPECT in evaluation of bacterial meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Kentaro; Ando, Hiroshi; Sueyoshi, Keiko; Matsuyuki, Makado; Hashimoto, Nobuo; Ono, Eiichiro; Katsuragi, Makoto [St. Maria Hospital, Kurume, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT was performed to detect the periodical changes of blood flow distribution in 6 infants (average age 5.5 months) with bacterial meningitis and was compared with findings by CT and MRI imaging, by DQ (developmental quotient) and by neurological examinations. SPECT was done with Shimadzu HEADTOME SET 70 for 20 min at 5 min after intravenous administration of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO (111 MBq) at the stage of 16-26 days (SPECT I) after hospitalization, of 39-105 days (II) and/or of 138-197 days (III). The region of interest was set in both cerebellar hemispheres to calculate the mean pixel count c1 and in other 16 areas for the count c2. SPECT image was evaluated together with c2/c1 ratios. Head CT was performed at hospitalization or at the period around the SPECT I, and head MRI, at 39-183 days. At 3-5 months after crisis, evaluation was done for DQ and neurological signs. Periodical brain SPECT was found useful for the precise evaluation of bacterial meningitis and for prediction of its prognosis. (K.H.)

  6. Bacterial meningitis: insights into pathogenesis and evaluation of new treatment options: a perspective from experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechti, Fabian D; Grandgirard, Denis; Leib, Stephen L

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. Bacterial components induce an overshooting inflammatory reaction, eventually leading to brain damage. Pathological correlates of neurofunctional deficits include cortical necrosis, damage of the inner ear and hippocampal apoptosis. The hippocampal dentate gyrus is important for memory acquisition and harbors a neuronal stem cell niche, thus being potentially well equipped for regeneration. Adjuvant therapies aimed at decreasing the inflammatory reaction, for example, dexamethasone, and those protecting the brain from injury have been evaluated in animal models of the disease. They include nonbacteriolytic antibiotics (e.g., daptomycin), metalloproteinase inhibitors and modulators of the immunological response, for example, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Increasing research interest has recently been focused on interventions aimed at supporting regenerative processes.

  7. Betamethasone and dexamethasone in adult community-acquired bacterial meningitis: a quality registry study from 1995 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glimåker, M; Brink, M; Naucler, P; Sjölin, J

    2016-09-01

    Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is a highly lethal disease. Available data support the use of corticosteroids in high-income countries, but the effect on mortality is still controversial. The effects of corticosteroids on mortality and sequelae were evaluated in the national Swedish quality registry. In total, during 1995-2014 1746 adults with ABM were included, of whom 989 were treated with corticosteroids (betamethasone, n = 766; dexamethasone, n = 248; methylprednisolone, n = 2), 498 were not given corticosteroids and in 259 patients data for corticosteroids were missing. Fatal outcome was observed in 8.9% of the patients in the corticosteroid-treated group vs. 17.9% in the non-corticosteroid-treated group (p meningitis caused by S. pneumoniae, mortality was 10.2% in the corticosteroid-treated group and 21.3% in the non-corticosteroid-treated group (p <0.001) with an adjusted OR of 0.50 (95% CI 0.31-0.80). In ABM patients with non-pneumococcal aetiology the adjusted OR was 0.71 (95% CI 0.40-1.26). Lower mortality was observed in the corticosteroid-treated group with impaired mental status, whereas no significant difference was found in patients with unaffected mental status. The adjusted ORs for betamethasone and dexamethasone were 0.49 (95% CI 0.28-0.84) and 0.61 (95% CI 0.37-1.01), respectively. Corticosteroid treatment decreases mortality in ABM and should be administered initially with antibiotics in adult ABM patients with impaired mental status regardless of presumed aetiology. Betamethasone seems to be at least as effective as dexamethasone. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Procalcitonin as a Serum Biomarker for Differentiation of Bacterial Meningitis From Viral Meningitis in Children: Evidence From a Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Brandon Michael; Roy, Joyeeta; Ramakrishnan, Piravin Kumar; Vikse, Jens; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Walocha, Jerzy A

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have explored the use of serum procalcitonin (PCT) in differentiating between bacterial and viral etiologies in children with suspected meningitis. We pooled these studies into a meta-analysis to determine the PCT diagnostic accuracy. All major databases were searched through March 2015. No date or language restrictions were applied. Eight studies (n = 616 pediatric patients) were included. Serum PCT assay was found to be very accurate for differentiating the etiology of pediatric meningitis with pooled sensitivity and specificity of 0.96 (95% CI = 0.92-0.98) and 0.89 (95% CI = 0.86-0.92), respectively. The pooled positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and area under the curve (AUC) for PCT were 7.5 (95% CI = 5.6-10.1), 0.08(95% CI = 0.04-0.14), 142.3 (95% CI = 59.5-340.4), and 0.97 (SE = 0.01), respectively. In 6 studies, PCT was found to be superior than CRP, whose DOR was only 16.7 (95%CI = 8.8-31.7). Our meta-analysis demonstrates that serum PCT assay is a highly accurate and powerful test for rapidly differentiating between bacterial and viral meningitis in children. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Determination Of Appropriate Antibiotic In Bacterial Meningitis Of Children Based On MIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorbakhsh S

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacterial meningitis is one of the most serious infections in infants and children. Three organisms include S.Pneumo;N.mening;H.Influ are the most common cause of meningitis in children between 2M-14y age.Etest is a new method for determination the MIC of some antimicrobial drugs in agarose .This method is useful for some organisms like as S .Pneumo; N.mening; H.Influ;sensitive Streptococcus and anaerobic ;aerobic gram negative. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross sectional study; In 57 suspected meningitis children ; organisms isolated from blood; CSF or other sterile boy fluid after culturing and antibiogram;. .MIC of someorganisms detected by Etest method. Results: Streptococcuswas the most prevalent ( 70% and S.pneumon( 90% of all Streptococcus; H.infl 2%;N.mening 4%and L.monocyt 6%(more than expected;Gram negative (Ecoli; Klebsiella; entrobacter and psudomona 18%. There was significant difference (P =0.01in type of organisms between age groups. S.pneumonia was more frequent in children > 2 year ;N.meningitis in>4yr old .Site of isolation :blood; CSF (35.8*;28.3%other sterile site 18.4%;concomitant positive culture in two site:17%.Mean age in Streptococcus was significantly different with Listeria (p=0.05; N.meningitis (p=0.04;H.influ (p=0.04;.but no difference with Staphylococcus;Klebsiella and E.coli Two type of H.inf were sensitive to Ampici or chloram ;both of them were sensitive to ceftiaxon. GBS were sensitive to PNC or Ampici Strep.nonAnonBnon- Cotrimoxazol>32mic/ml /PNC >256mic/ml/ Vanco>256mic/ml Strep.D: Cotrimoxazol>0.062mg/ml/ /PNC >0.016mic/ml/Imipenem>0.032mic/ml. Strep Pneumonia: All fo them were sensitive except 3 cases /Cotrimoxazol>2ic/ml /PNC =0.01mic/ml/Vanco>0.125mic/ m Vanco>0. 25mic/ ml/.Cotrimoxazol>2ic/ml / PNC =0.01mg/ml Vanco>0.125mic/ ml / Cotrimoxazol>2mic/ml /MIC-PNC >0.016mic/ml Therefore high dose of PNC is adequate for S.pneu ;because of Interm resistance to PNC All 3 N.menin were

  10. Diagnostic Accuracy of Cerebrospinal Fluid Procalcitonin in Bacterial Meningitis Patients with Empiric Antibiotic Pretreatment.

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    Li, Wen; Sun, Xiaolong; Yuan, Fang; Gao, Qiong; Ma, Yue; Jiang, Yongli; Yang, Xiai; Yang, Fang; Ma, Lei; Jiang, Wen

    2017-04-01

    Accurate diagnosis of bacterial meningitis (BM) relies on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Gram staining and bacterial culture, which often present high false-negative rates because of antibiotic abuse. Thus, a novel and reliable diagnostic biomarker is required. Procalcitonin (PCT) has been well demonstrated to be specifically produced from peripheral tissues by bacterial infection, which makes it a potential diagnostic biomarker candidate. Here, we performed a prospective clinical study comprising a total of 143 patients to investigate the diagnostic value of CSF PCT, serum PCT, and other conventional biomarkers for BM. Patients were assigned to the BM (n = 49), tuberculous meningitis (TBM) (n = 25), viral meningitis/encephalitis (VM/E) (n = 34), autoimmune encephalitis (AIE) (n = 15), or noninflammatory nervous system diseases (NINSD) group (n = 20). Empirical antibiotic pretreatment was not an exclusion criterion. Our results show that the CSF PCT level was significantly (P < 0.01) higher in patients with BM (median, 0.22 ng/ml; range, 0.13 to 0.54 ng/ml) than in those with TBM (median, 0.12 ng/ml; range, 0.07 to 0.16 ng/ml), VM/E (median, 0.09 ng/ml; range, 0.07 to 0.11 ng/ml), AIE (median, 0.06 ng/ml; range, 0.05 to 0.10 ng/ml), or NINSD (median, 0.07 ng/ml; range, 0.06 to 0.08 ng/ml). Among the assessed biomarkers, CSF PCT exhibited the largest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.881; 95% confidence interval, 0.810 to 0.932; cutoff value, 0.15 ng/ml; sensitivity, 69.39%; specificity, 91.49%). Our study sheds light upon the diagnostic dilemma of BM due to antibiotic abuse. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT02278016.). Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. An unusual case of neonatal meningococcal meningitis complicated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of pyogenic meningitis worldwide, as well as causing large epidemics in parts of Africa. With the dramatic decline in cases of Haemophilus inuenzae B, N. meningitidis has emerged as one of the most common causes of acute bacterial meningitis in children and adults in South ...

  12. A case of generalized lymphatic anomaly causing skull-base leakage and bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Kenichi; Goji, Aya; Inoue, Miki; Kawahito, Masami; Taki, Masako; Mori, Kazuhiro

    2017-05-01

    Generalized lymphatic anomaly is a multifocal lymphatic malformation that affects the skin, thoracic viscera, and bones. A 3year-old Japanese boy presented with right facial palsy due to cystic tumors in the ipsilateral petrous bone. Pericardial effusion had been found incidentally and generalized lymphatic anomaly had been diagnosed by pericardial biopsy. Petrous bone tumor had been followed up without surgery. At the age of seven he presented with fever and disturbance of consciousness, and bacterial meningitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae was diagnosed. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed middle skull-base leakage due to lymphatic malformation. He achieved complete recovery under intensive care with antibiotics and mechanical ventilation. One year later, he presented with multiple cystic formations in bilateral femora. At the 3-year follow-up, the patient was healthy with no recurrence of meningitis and osteolytic lesions in the femora were non-progressive. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are useful for demonstration of skull-base leakage by generalized lymphatic anomaly. We should consider generalized lymphatic anomaly among the differential diagnoses for skull-base leakage. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Community-acquired bacterial meningitis in the Loire-Atlantic region: evolution of pneumococcal and meningococcal sensitivity to penicillin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struillou, L; Ninin, E; Berranger, C; Chamoux, C; Chouillet, A; Le Berre, J Y; Riou, J Y; Mouzard, A; Raffi, F

    1999-02-27

    An epidemiological study of community-acquired bacterial meningitis was conducted in Loire-Atlantique in subjects aged over 1 month. Risk factors and changes in pneumococcal and meningococcal susceptibility to betalactams were analyzed. All cases of proven or presumed bacterial meningitis registered by Loire-Atlantic bacteriology laboratories between May 1995 and April 1998 were analyzed. One hundred two cases were registered (annual incidence: 3.12 cases per 100,000 inhabitants). In children (33 cases) the main germs were meningococci (51%), pneumococci (24%) and Haemophilus influenzae (6%). In adults (69 cases), pneumococci (49%), meningococci (14%) and Listeria (4%) predominated. An underlying disease was noted 44% of the cases. Mortality was 17.6%. Sequellae were observed in 9.5%. Some degree of penicillin resistance was observed in 45% of the pneumococcal strains and in 50% of the meningococcal strains. Half of the pneumococcal strains were also resistant to third generation cephalosporins (C3G). No risk factor was significantly related to resistant strains. Susceptibility to antibiotics was not correlated with mortality for either pneumococcal or meningococcal strains, but sequellae were more frequent after meningitis caused by resistant pneumococci. For cases of community-acquired meningococcal meningitis diagnosed in 1999, it would be advisable to prescribe a combination C3G-vancomycin regimen as the first line empirical treatment while waiting for results of susceptibility tests. Certain guidelines proposed by the February 1996 consensus conference on community-acquired purulent meningitis would thus need to be amended.

  14. Streptococcus sanguis meningitis: report of a case and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Kiyoharu; Noda, Masahiro; Saito, Yoshiyuki; Ikeda, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    Viridans streptococcus, an indigenous bacterial species of the mouth and gastrointestinal tract, is thought to be a rare cause of bacterial meningitis. The type of streptococcus involved is important because each type causes a different kind of meningitis and is associated with a different outcome. A 39-year-old previously healthy man was admitted due to the onset of acute purulent meningitis. A cerebrospinal fluid culture grew Streptococcus sanguis (S. sanguis). Although the patient was asymptomatic for dental caries, odontogenic maxillary sinusitis was found to be the cause of the meningitis. Treatment with intravenous antibiotics was successful. Following a review of the pertinent literature, we discuss the characteristics of S. sanguis meningitis.

  15. Intrathecal hematoma and arachnoiditis mimicking bacterial meningitis after an epidural blood patch.

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    Roy-Gash, F; Engrand, N; Lecarpentier, E; Bonnet, M P

    2017-11-01

    We present a case of arachnoiditis and an intrathecal hematoma after an epidural blood patch. A 24-year-old parturient underwent an epidural blood patch three days after an accidental dural puncture during epidural labor analgesia. Four days later, the patient developed severe lower back pain, bilateral leg pain, persistent headache and fever. Bacterial meningitis was initially suspected and antibiotics started. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging was performed and showed an intrathecal hematoma, with no blood in the epidural space. This report briefly reviews the few cases in the literature of arachnoiditis caused by an intrathecal hematoma and discusses the mechanism which resulted in blood in the subarachnoid space. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Tumor necrosis factor α level in cerebrospinal fluid for bacterial and aseptic meningitis: a diagnostic meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, S; Zhao, J; Zhang, J; Kwon, S; Han, M; Bian, R; Fu, H; Zhang, Y; Pan, H

    2014-08-01

    In our previous study, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) was identified as an effective target for sepsis patients (Int J Clin Pract, 68, 2014, 520). TNF-α in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was also investigated for its utility in the differential diagnosis of bacterial and aseptic meningitis. However, there has been neither definite nor convincing evidence so far. Here the overall diagnostic accuracy of TNF-α in differentiation between bacterial and aseptic meningitis was evaluated through the meta-analysis of diagnostic tests. The sensitivity, specificity and other measures of accuracy were pooled using random effect models. Summary receiver operating characteristic curves were used to assess overall test performance. Publication bias was evaluated using funnel plots, and sensitivity analysis was also introduced. A total of 21 studies involving bacterial meningitis (678) and aseptic meningitis (694) involved a total of 1372 patients. The pooled sensitivity and specificity for the TNF-α test were 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80-0.86, I(2)  = 65.1] and 0.92 (95% CI 0.89-0.94, I(2)  = 61.8), respectively. The positive likelihood ratio was 12.05 (95% CI 7.41-19.60, I(2)  = 36.5), the negative likelihood ratio was 0.17 (95% CI 0.13-0.24, I(2)  = 59.4), and TNF-α was significantly associated with bacterial meningitis, with a diagnostic odds ratio of 49.84 (95% CI 28.53-87.06, I(2)  = 47.9). The overall accuracy of the TNF-α test was very high with the area under the curve 0.9317. Publication bias was absent, and sensitivity analysis suggested that our results were highly stable. Our meta-analysis suggested that TNF-α could be recommended as a useful marker for diagnosis of bacterial meningitis and differential diagnosis between bacterial and aseptic meningitis with high sensitivity and specificity. Thus, hospitals should be encouraged to conduct TNF-α tests in CSF after lumbar puncture. © 2014 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2014 EAN.

  17. Community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults in the Netherlands, 2006-14: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijlsma, Merijn W; Brouwer, Matthijs C; Kasanmoentalib, E Soemirien; Kloek, Anne T; Lucas, Marjolein J; Tanck, Michael W; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-03-01

    We studied causative pathogens, clinical characteristics, and outcome of adult community-acquired bacterial meningitis after the introduction of adjunctive dexamethasone treatment and nationwide implementation of paediatric conjugate vaccines. In this cohort study, we prospectively assessed adults (age >16 years) with community-acquired bacterial meningitis in the Netherlands, identified through the National Reference Laboratory for Bacterial Meningitis or individual physicians between Jan 1, 2006, and July 1, 2014. We identified independent predictors of an unfavourable outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale score 1-4) by logistic regression. We assessed 1412 episodes of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. Incidence declined from 1·72 cases per 100,000 adults per year in 2007-08, to 0·94 per 100,000 per year in 2013-14. Streptococcus pneumoniae caused 1017 (72%) of 1412 episodes. Rates of adult bacterial meningitis decreased most sharply among pneumococcal serotypes included in paediatric conjugate vaccine, and in meningococcal meningitis. We found no evidence of serotype or serogroup replacement. The overall case fatality rate was 244 (17%) of 1412 episodes and unfavourable outcome occurred in 531 (38%) of 1412 episodes. Predictors of unfavourable outcome were advanced age, absence of otitis or sinusitis, alcoholism, tachycardia, lower score on the Glasgow Coma Scale, cranial nerve palsy, a cerebrospinal fluid white-cell count lower than 1000 cells per μL, a positive blood culture, and a high serum C-reactive protein concentration. Adjunctive dexamethasone was administered for 1234 (89%) of 1384 assessed episodes. The multivariable adjusted odds ratio of dexamethasone treatment for unfavourable outcome was 0·54 (95% CI 0·39-0·73). The incidence of adult bacterial meningitis has decreased substantially, which is partly explained by herd protection by paediatric conjugate vaccines. Adjunctive dexamethasone treatment was associated with substantially improved

  18. Cefotaxime and ceftriaxone cerebrospinal fluid levels during treatment of bacterial meningitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Paul N

    2005-11-01

    Cefotaxime (CTX) and ceftriaxone (CRO) were compared for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) penetration and antimicrobial efficacy in cases of bacterial meningitis in children. This was a comparative study of CRO (100mg/kg once daily) and CTX (50 mg/kg 6 hourly) in the treatment of children with bacterial meningitis. The aetiological agents included Streptococcus pneumoniae (SPn), Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and Neisseria meningitidis (NMen). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were measured. In 33 patients from whom a second CSF specimen was obtained, CSF was cultured and assayed for antibiotic concentration. Median MICs of CTX and CRO for SPn, Hib and NMen were 0.01 and 0.01 microg/mL, 0.004 and 0.002 microg/mL and 0.008 and 0.004 microg/mL, respectively. All 33 repeat lumbar puncture specimens were sterile. The lowest CSF level recorded (0.45 microg/mL for CTX) was 45 times the MIC (0.01 microg/mL). The highest levels (24-35 microg/mL for CRO) were up to 8750 times the MIC of the patient's causative organism. A wide range of CSF levels for both antibiotics was observed. Levels varied with post-dose interval and duration of illness. On the basis of these findings, clinicians should be reassured that repeat lumbar puncture is not recommended for the causative organisms in this study (i.e., for Hib, NMen and penicillin/cefotaxime/ceftriaxone fully-susceptible SPn).

  19. Usefulness of blood and cerebrospinal fluid laboratory testing to predict bacterial meningitis in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julián-Jiménez, A; Morales-Casado, M I

    2016-07-25

    The classic clinical presentation of bacterial meningitis (BM) is observed in less than half of the cases in adults, and symptoms are less specific in children, the elderly or immunocompromised, and other chronic patients. The usual signs and symptoms do not provide optimal sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing possible BM from viral meningitis (VM), which may lead to a delay in the appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Society therefore stands to benefit from the development of effective, objective, and rapid tools able to predict and identify patients with BM. These tools include laboratory tests for blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The aim of this review is to summarise recently published scientific evidence in order to clarify existing controversies and compare the usefulness and diagnostic ability of the different parameters used to predict BM. Systematic search of the main bibliographic databases and platforms to identify articles published between January 2000 and January 2016. We selected 59 articles that meet the objectives of this review. CSF lactate, proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and CSF glucose, as well as serum procalcitonin (PCT), are the independent factors most predictive of bacterial aetiology. The model that combines serum PCT and CSF lactate achieves the highest predictive power for BM, with a sensitivity and specificity exceeding 99%. We should consider BM when CSF lactate >33 md/dL and/or PCT>0.25ng/mL. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Community acquired bacterial meningitis in Cuba: a follow up of a decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Antonio E; Dickinson, Félix O; Rodríguez, Misladys

    2010-05-25

    Community acquired Bacterial Meningitis (BM) remains a serious threat to global health. Cuban surveillance system for BM allowed to characterize the main epidemiological features of this group of diseases, as well as to assess the association of some variables with mortality. Results of the BM surveillance in Cuba are presented in this paper. A follow up of BM cases reported to the Institute "Pedro Kourí" by the National Bacterial Meningitis Surveillance System from 1998 to 2007 was completed. Incidence and case-fatality rate (CFR) were calculated. Univariate analysis and logistic regression were used to elucidate associated factors to mortality comparing death versus survival. Relative Risk (RR) or odds ratio and its 95% confidence interval (CI 95%) were estimated, using either a Chi-squared Test or Fisher's Exact Test as appropriate. A Holt-Winters model was used to assess seasonality. 4798 cases of BM (4.3 per 100,000 population) were reported, with a decreasing trend of the incidence. Highest incidence was observed in infants and elderly. Overall CFR reached 24.1% affecting mostly older adults. S. pneumoniae (23.6%), N. meningitidis (8.2%) and H. influenzae type b (6.0%) were the main causative agents. Males predominate in the incidence. Highest incidence and CFR were mainly clustered in the centre of the island. The univariate analysis did not show association between delayed medical consultation (RR = 1.20; CI = 1.07-1.35) or delayed hospitalization (RR = 0.98; CI = 0.87-1.11) and the fatal outcome. Logistic regression model showed association of categories housewife, pensioned, imprisoned, unemployed, S. pneumoniae and other bacteria with mortality. Seasonality during September, January and March was observed. The results of the National Program for Control and Prevention of the Neurological Infectious Syndrome evidenced a reduction of the BM incidence, but not the CFR. Multivariate analysis identified an association of mortality with some societal groups

  1. Diagnostic value of lactate, procalcitonin, ferritin, serum-C-reactive protein, and other biomarkers in bacterial and viral meningitis: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaei Dashti, Anahita; Alizadeh, Shekoofan; Karimi, Abdullah; Khalifeh, Masoomeh; Shoja, Seyed Abdolmajid

    2017-09-01

    There are many difficulties distinguishing bacterial from viral meningitis that could be reasonably solved using biomarkers. The aim of this study was to evaluate lactate, procalcitonin (PCT), ferritin, serum-CRP (C-reactive protein), and other known biomarkers in differentiating bacterial meningitis from viral meningitis in children.All children aged 28 days to 14 years with suspected meningitis who were admitted to Mofid Children's Hospital, Tehran, between October 2012 and November 2013, were enrolled in this prospective cross-sectional study. Children were divided into 2 groups of bacterial and viral meningitis, based on the results of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture, polymerase chain reaction, and cytochemical profile. Diagnostic values of CSF parameters (ferritin, PCT, absolute neutrophil count [ANC], white blood cell count, and lactate) and serum parameters (PCT, ferritin, CRP, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR]) were evaluated.Among 50 patients with meningitis, 12 were diagnosed with bacterial meningitis. Concentrations of all markers were significantly different between bacterial and viral meningitis, except for serum (P = .389) and CSF (P = .136) PCT. The best rates of area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) were achieved by lactate (AUC = 0.923) and serum-CRP (AUC = 0.889). The best negative predictive values (NPV) for bacterial meningitis were attained by ANC (100%) and lactate (97.1%).The results of our study suggest that ferritin and PCT are not strong predictive biomarkers. A combination of low CSF lactate, ANC, ESR, and serum-CRP could reasonably rule out the bacterial meningitis.

  2. Clinical features, acute complications, and outcome of Salmonella meningitis in children under one year of age in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Meng-Luen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella meningitis remains a threat to children below two years of age in both developing and developed countries. However, information on such infections has not been well characterized. We analyzed data related to twelve years of experience in order to clarify the comprehensive features of Salmonella meningitis in our patients, including admission characteristics, acute complications, and long-term outcome. Methods The records of patients with spontaneous Salmonella meningitis from 1982 to 1994 were retrospectively reviewed. The long-term outcome was prospectively determined for survivors at school age by the developmental milestones reported by their parents and detailed neurological evaluation along with intelligence, hearing, visual, speech and language assessments. Results Of the twenty-four patients, seizures were noted in fifteen (63% before admission and thirteen (54% during hospitalization. Acute complications mainly included hydrocephalus (50%, subdural collection (42%, cerebral infarction (33%, ventriculitis (25%, empyema (13%, intracranial abscess (8%, and cranial nerve palsy (8%. Three patients (13% died during the acute phase of Salmonella meningitis. The twenty-one survivors, on whom we followed up at school age, have sequelae consisting of language disorder (52%, motor disability (48%, intelligence quotient Conclusion Salmonella meningitis in neonates and infants had a wide spectrum of morbidity and acute complications, leading to a complicated hospital course and subsequently a high prevalence of permanent adverse outcome. Thus, early recognition of acute complications of Salmonella meningitis and a follow-up plan for early developmental assessment of survivors are vital.

  3. Lack of Toll-like receptor 2 results in higher mortality of bacterial meningitis by impaired host resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhland, Martin; Kress, Eugenia; Stope, Matthias B; Pufe, Thomas; Tauber, Simone C; Brandenburg, Lars-Ove

    2016-10-15

    Bacterial meningitis is - despite therapeutical progress during the last decades - still characterized by high mortality and severe permanent neurogical sequelae. The brain is protected from penetrating pathogens by both the blood-brain barrier and the innate immune system. Invading pathogens are recognized by so-called pattern recognition receptors including the Toll-like receptors (TLR) which are expressed by glial immune cells in the central nervous system. Among these, TLR2 is responsible for the detection of Gram-positive bacteria such as the meningitis-causing pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. Here, we used TLR2-deficient mice to investigate the effects on mortality, bacterial growth and inflammation in a mouse model of pneumococcal meningitis. Our results revealed a significantly increased mortality rate and higher bacterial burden in TLR2-deficient mice with pneumococcal meningitis. Furthermore, infected TLR2-deficient mice suffered from a significantly increased pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) or CCL3 chemokine expression and decreased expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines and antimicrobial peptides. In contrast, glial cell activation assessed by glial cell marker expression was comparable to wildtype mice. Taken together, the results suggest that TLR2 is essential for an efficient immune response against Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis since lack of the receptor led to a worse outcome by higher mortality due to increased bacterial burden, weakened innate immune response and reduced expression of antimicrobial peptides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Case of acute meningitis with clear cerebrospinal fluid: value of computed tomography for the diagnosis of central nervous system tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesari, V.

    1986-11-06

    The author reports a case of acute meningitis with clear cerebrospinal fluid in which extensive bacteriologic investigations were negative making the etiologic diagnosis exceedingly difficult. Initiation of empiric antituberculous therapy was rapidly followed by clinical and biological improvement, without complications, and by resolution of abnormal findings on computed tomography of the brain. On these grounds, meningitis secondary to a tuberculoma in the temporal lobe was diagnosed. The author points out that tuberculous meningitis is still a severe, potentially fatal condition; this, together with the fact that tubercle bacilli are often very scarce or absent, requires that tuberculous meningitis be routinely considered in every patient with clear cerebrospinal fluid meningitis whose condition deteriorates. Computed tomography of the brain is essential to ensure rapid diagnosis and prompt initiation of antituberculous therapy. Lastly, the author points out that nowadays herpes simplex virus encephalopathy should also be considered.

  5. Correlation between the neonatal EEG and the neurological examination in the first year of life in infants with bacterial meningitis Correlación entre el EEG neonatal y el examen neurológico en el primer año de vida en recién nacidos con meningitis bacteriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Poblano

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the contribution of neonatal electroencephalogram (EEG and its correlation with the neurological examination at age of 9 months in newborns with bacterial neonatal meningitis. METHOD: Twenty seven infants were studied with positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF culture for bacteria. We used the worse EEG result during acute phase of meningitis, and performed neurologic follow-up after discharge from hospital. Background cerebral activity was classified as normal or mildly, moderately, or markedly abnormal. Neurologic examination outcomes was classified normal, mild abnormalities, moderate abnormalities and severe abnormalities. RESULTS: EEG performed in the neonatal period during acute bacterial meningitis predicts adverse outcome early at age of 9 months, and had a significant correlation with cephalic perimeter and active tone alterations. CONCLUSION: Neonatal EEG is useful for predicting abnormal outcomes, especially cephalic perimeter and active tone abnormalities at 9 months of age in infants with bacterial neonatal meningitis.OBJETIVO: Medir la contribución del electroencefalograma (EEG neonatal y su correlación con el examen neurológico a la edad de 9 meses en recién nacidos con meningitis neonatal bacteriana. MÉTODO: Se estudió a 27 neonatos con cultivos positivos de líquido cefalorraquídeo a bacterias. Se uso el peor resultado del EEG obtenido durante el periodo agudo de la meningitis. El seguimiento neurológico se efectuó tras el egreso hospitalario. La actividad de fondo del EEG se clasificó en normal y anormal leve, moderada y severa. El examen neurológico se clasificó en normal, y anormal leve moderado y severo. RESULTADOS: El EEG realizado durante el periodo neonatal durante la fase aguda de la meningitis bacteriana predice bien un resultado adverso a la edad de 9 meses, con correlaciones significativas con el perímetro cefálico y con las alteraciones del tono activo. CONCLUSION: El EEG neonatal es

  6. Nationwide Trends in Bacterial Meningitis before the Introduction of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine-Burkina Faso, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambiré, Dinanibè; Soeters, Heidi M; Ouédraogo-Traoré, Rasmata; Medah, Isaïe; Sangare, Lassana; Yaméogo, Issaka; Sawadogo, Guetawendé; Ouédraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Hema-Ouangraoua, Soumeya; McGee, Lesley; Srinivasan, Velusamy; Aké, Flavien; Congo-Ouédraogo, Malika; Sanou, Soufian; Ba, Absatou Ky; Novak, Ryan T; Van Beneden, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Following introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine in 2006 and serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine in 2010, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) became the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in Burkina Faso. We describe bacterial meningitis epidemiology, focusing on pneumococcal meningitis, before 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) introduction in the pediatric routine immunization program in October 2013. Nationwide population-based meningitis surveillance collects case-level demographic and clinical information and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) laboratory results. Sp infections are confirmed by culture, real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR), or latex agglutination, and CSF serotyped using real-time and conventional PCR. We calculated incidence rates in cases per 100,000 persons, adjusting for age and proportion of cases with CSF tested at national reference laboratories, and case fatality ratios (CFR). During 2011-2013, 1,528 pneumococcal meningitis cases were reported. Average annual adjusted incidence rates were 26.9 (<1 year), 5.4 (1-4 years), 7.2 (5-14 years), and 3.0 (≥15 years). Overall CFR was 23% and highest among children aged <1 year (32%) and adults ≥30 years (30%). Of 1,528 cases, 1,036 (68%) were serotyped: 71% were PCV13-associated serotypes, 14% were non-PCV13-associated serotypes, and 15% were non-typeable by PCR. Serotypes 1 (45%) and 12F/12A/12B/44/46 (8%) were most common. Among children aged <1 year, serotypes 5 (15%), 6A/6B (13%) and 1 (12%) predominated. In Burkina Faso, the highest morbidity and mortality due to pneumococcal meningitis occurred among children aged <1 year. The majority of cases were due to PCV13-associated serotypes; introduction of PCV13 should substantially decrease this burden.

  7. Nationwide Trends in Bacterial Meningitis before the Introduction of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine-Burkina Faso, 2011-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinanibè Kambiré

    Full Text Available Following introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine in 2006 and serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine in 2010, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp became the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in Burkina Faso. We describe bacterial meningitis epidemiology, focusing on pneumococcal meningitis, before 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13 introduction in the pediatric routine immunization program in October 2013.Nationwide population-based meningitis surveillance collects case-level demographic and clinical information and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF laboratory results. Sp infections are confirmed by culture, real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR, or latex agglutination, and CSF serotyped using real-time and conventional PCR. We calculated incidence rates in cases per 100,000 persons, adjusting for age and proportion of cases with CSF tested at national reference laboratories, and case fatality ratios (CFR.During 2011-2013, 1,528 pneumococcal meningitis cases were reported. Average annual adjusted incidence rates were 26.9 (<1 year, 5.4 (1-4 years, 7.2 (5-14 years, and 3.0 (≥15 years. Overall CFR was 23% and highest among children aged <1 year (32% and adults ≥30 years (30%. Of 1,528 cases, 1,036 (68% were serotyped: 71% were PCV13-associated serotypes, 14% were non-PCV13-associated serotypes, and 15% were non-typeable by PCR. Serotypes 1 (45% and 12F/12A/12B/44/46 (8% were most common. Among children aged <1 year, serotypes 5 (15%, 6A/6B (13% and 1 (12% predominated.In Burkina Faso, the highest morbidity and mortality due to pneumococcal meningitis occurred among children aged <1 year. The majority of cases were due to PCV13-associated serotypes; introduction of PCV13 should substantially decrease this burden.

  8. [Basic characteristics of bacterial meningitis in patients treated at the Clinic for Infectious Diseases in Novi Sad during a 2-year period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drasković, B; Vukadinov, J; Drasković, D

    1996-01-01

    Although known for centuries, bacterial meningitis is a disease which still causes death and invalidity no matter there are modern diagnostic methods and therapeutic modalities. Our investigation included 45 patients treated for a purulent meningitis during a two-year period at the Clinic for Infectious Diseases in Novi Sad. Most patients suffered from meningococcal meningitis. The onset of the disease was sporadic, during winter and spring, and there were no contact cases. Most patients were 2-3 and 8-15 years of age. Patients with pneumococcal meningitis had the most serious clinical picture, course of the disease, laboratory results, as well as outcome of the disease.

  9. The diagnostic value of cerebrospinal fluid lactate for post-neurosurgical bacterial meningitis: a meta-analysis.

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    Xiao, Xiong; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Liwei; Kang, Peng; Ji, Nan

    2016-09-13

    Bacterial meningitis is not rare in post-neurosurgical patients. If patients are not treated promptly, the mortality rate can reach 20 to 50 %. The concentration of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate has been reported to be helpful in the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis; however, no systematic evaluations have investigated CSF from a postoperative perspective. In this study, we performed a systematic evaluation and meta-analysis of the efficacy of using CSF lactate concentrations in the diagnosis of post-neurosurgical bacterial meningitis. We retrieved studies that investigated the diagnostic value of CSF lactate for the diagnosis of post-neurosurgical bacterial meningitis by searching PubMed, EBSCO, the Cochrane Library and ClinicalTrials.gov. All these databases were searched from inception to November 2015. We used Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS), a tool for the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy, to evaluate the quality of the included studies. The Meta-DiSc 1.4 and Review Manager 5.3 software programs were used to analyze the included studies. Forest plots and summary receiver operating characteristics (SROC) curves were also drawn. Five studies, involving a total of 404 post-neurosurgical patients, were selected from 1,672 articles according to the inclusion criteria. The quality of the five included studies was assessed using QUADAS, and the related results are presented in tables. The meta-analysis revealed the following diagnostic values regarding CSF lactate for post-neurosurgical bacterial meningitis: a pooled sensitivity of 0.92 (95 % CI 0.85-0.96), a pooled specificity of 0.88 (95 % CI 0.84-0.92 with significant heterogeneity), a diagnostic odds ratio of 83.09 (95 % CI 36.83-187.46), an area under the curve (AUCSROC) of 0.9601, an SE(AUC) of 0.0122, a Q* of 0.9046 and an SE(Q*) of 0.0179. The meta-analysis indicated that the CSF lactate concentration has relatively high sensitivity and specificity for the

  10. Cerebrospinal fluid markers to distinguish bacterial meningitis from cerebral malaria in children [version 2; referees: 2 approved

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    James M. Njunge

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Few hospitals in high malaria endemic countries in Africa have the diagnostic capacity for clinically distinguishing acute bacterial meningitis (ABM from cerebral malaria (CM. As a result, empirical use of antibiotics is necessary. A biochemical marker of ABM would facilitate precise clinical diagnosis and management of these infections and enable rational use of antibiotics. Methods. We used label-free protein quantification by mass spectrometry to identify cerebrospinal fluid (CSF markers that distinguish ABM (n=37 from CM (n=22 in Kenyan children. Fold change (FC and false discovery rates (FDR were used to identify differentially expressed proteins. Subsequently, potential biomarkers were assessed for their ability to discriminate between ABM and CM using receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves. Results. The host CSF proteome response to ABM (Haemophilus influenza and Streptococcus pneumoniae is significantly different to CM. Fifty two proteins were differentially expressed (FDR<0.01, Log FC≥2, of which 83% (43/52 were upregulated in ABM compared to CM. Myeloperoxidase and lactotransferrin were present in 37 (100% and 36 (97% of ABM cases, respectively, but absent in CM (n=22. Area under the ROC curve (AUC, sensitivity, and specificity were assessed for myeloperoxidase (1, 1, and 1; 95% CI, 1-1 and lactotransferrin (0.98, 0.97, and 1; 95% CI, 0.96-1. Conclusion. Myeloperoxidase and lactotransferrin have a high potential to distinguish ABM from CM and thereby improve clinical management. Their validation requires a larger cohort of samples that includes other bacterial aetiologies of ABM.

  11. CSF LACTATE IN MENINGITIS

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    Anjampakuthikal Aboobekar Haris

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Meningitis is an infection within the subarachnoid space characterised by a CNS inflammatory reaction. It is a serious condition requiring immediate diagnosis and appropriate treatment to be started at the earliest to prevent mortality as well as irreversible neurological deficits. CSF lactate has been found useful in differentiating bacterial meningitis from viral meningitis in many studies in the western population, but studies in Indian population are limited. The aim of the study is to study whether CSF lactate can be used to distinguish bacterial from viral meningitis and to study the levels of CSF lactate in tuberculosis meningitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a descriptive study conducted in a tertiary care hospital. In this study, 78 cases of meningitis were selected. Cases are patients with bacterial, viral or tuberculosis meningitis admitted to the hospital under the Department of Medicine and Neurology. Cases are grouped into bacterial, viral and tuberculosis meningitis based on clinical picture, CSF analysis and imaging characteristics. CSF lactate estimation was done by dry chemistry method. Using appropriate statistical methods and SPSS software, CSF lactate levels were compared among these groups and analysed for any association with the final outcome. RESULTS The levels of CSF lactate in bacterial meningitis were higher than viral meningitis with a statistical significance of p 35 mg/dL for bacterial meningitis in this study was 95% and 100% respectively and the positive predictive value was 100% and the negative predictive value was 96%. The mean CSF lactate values in bacterial, viral and tuberculosis meningitis were 124.40 ± 35.85 mg/dL, 24.34 ± 6.05 mg/dL and 50.13 ± 9.89 mg/dL, respectively. CONCLUSION CSF lactate level was significantly elevated in bacterial meningitis than tuberculosis or viral meningitis and can be used as a marker for differentiating bacterial from viral meningitis.

  12. Validation of a Dutch risk score predicting poor outcome in adults with bacterial meningitis in Vietnam and Malawi.

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    Ewout S Schut

    Full Text Available We have previously developed and validated a prognostic model to predict the risk for unfavorable outcome in Dutch adults with bacterial meningitis. The aim of the current study was to validate this model in adults with bacterial meningitis from two developing countries, Vietnam and Malawi. Demographic and clinical characteristics of Vietnamese (n = 426, Malawian patients (n = 465 differed substantially from those of Dutch patients (n = 696. The Dutch model underestimated the risk of poor outcome in both Malawi and Vietnam. The discrimination of the original model (c-statistic [c] 0.84; 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 0.86 fell considerably when re-estimated in the Vietnam cohort (c = 0.70 or in the Malawian cohort (c = 0.68. Our validation study shows that new prognostic models have to be developed for these countries in a sufficiently large series of unselected patients.

  13. Community acquired bacterial meningitis in Cuba: a follow up of a decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Community acquired Bacterial Meningitis (BM) remains a serious threat to global health. Cuban surveillance system for BM allowed to characterize the main epidemiological features of this group of diseases, as well as to assess the association of some variables with mortality. Results of the BM surveillance in Cuba are presented in this paper. Methods A follow up of BM cases reported to the Institute "Pedro Kourí" by the National Bacterial Meningitis Surveillance System from 1998 to 2007 was completed. Incidence and case-fatality rate (CFR) were calculated. Univariate analysis and logistic regression were used to elucidate associated factors to mortality comparing death versus survival. Relative Risk (RR) or odds ratio and its 95% confidence interval (CI 95%) were estimated, using either a Chi-squared Test or Fisher's Exact Test as appropriate. A Holt-Winters model was used to assess seasonality. Results 4 798 cases of BM (4.3 per 100 000 population) were reported, with a decreasing trend of the incidence. Highest incidence was observed in infants and elderly. Overall CFR reached 24.1% affecting mostly older adults. S. pneumoniae (23.6%), N. meningitidis(8.2%) and H. influenzaetype b (6.0%) were the main causative agents. Males predominate in the incidence. Highest incidence and CFR were mainly clustered in the centre of the island. The univariate analysis did not show association between delayed medical consultation (RR = 1.20; CI = 1.07-1.35) or delayed hospitalization (RR = 0.98; CI = 0.87-1.11) and the fatal outcome. Logistic regression model showed association of categories housewife, pensioned, imprisoned, unemployed, S. peumoniae and other bacteria with mortality. Seasonality during September, January and March was observed. Conclusions The results of the National Program for Control and Prevention of the Neurological Infectious Syndrome evidenced a reduction of the BM incidence, but not the CFR. Multivariate analysis identified an association of

  14. Community acquired bacterial meningitis in Cuba: a follow up of a decade

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    Rodríguez Misladys

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community acquired Bacterial Meningitis (BM remains a serious threat to global health. Cuban surveillance system for BM allowed to characterize the main epidemiological features of this group of diseases, as well as to assess the association of some variables with mortality. Results of the BM surveillance in Cuba are presented in this paper. Methods A follow up of BM cases reported to the Institute "Pedro Kourí" by the National Bacterial Meningitis Surveillance System from 1998 to 2007 was completed. Incidence and case-fatality rate (CFR were calculated. Univariate analysis and logistic regression were used to elucidate associated factors to mortality comparing death versus survival. Relative Risk (RR or odds ratio and its 95% confidence interval (CI 95% were estimated, using either a Chi-squared Test or Fisher's Exact Test as appropriate. A Holt-Winters model was used to assess seasonality. Results 4 798 cases of BM (4.3 per 100 000 population were reported, with a decreasing trend of the incidence. Highest incidence was observed in infants and elderly. Overall CFR reached 24.1% affecting mostly older adults. S. pneumoniae (23.6%, N. meningitidis(8.2% and H. influenzaetype b (6.0% were the main causative agents. Males predominate in the incidence. Highest incidence and CFR were mainly clustered in the centre of the island. The univariate analysis did not show association between delayed medical consultation (RR = 1.20; CI = 1.07-1.35 or delayed hospitalization (RR = 0.98; CI = 0.87-1.11 and the fatal outcome. Logistic regression model showed association of categories housewife, pensioned, imprisoned, unemployed, S. peumoniae and other bacteria with mortality. Seasonality during September, January and March was observed. Conclusions The results of the National Program for Control and Prevention of the Neurological Infectious Syndrome evidenced a reduction of the BM incidence, but not the CFR. Multivariate analysis identified

  15. Evaluation of the line probe assay for the rapid detection of bacterial meningitis pathogens in cerebrospinal fluid samples from children.

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    Soysal, Ahmet; Toprak, Demet Gedikbasi; Türkoğlu, Salih; Bakir, Mustafa

    2017-01-11

    The aim of this study is to compare the diagnostic performance of the line probe assay (LPA) with conventional multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Streptococcus pneumoniae as well as real-time PCR for Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from children during the multicenter national surveillance of bacterial meningitis between the years 2006 and 2009 in Turkey. During the study period 1460 subjects were enrolled and among them 841 (57%) met the criteria for probable bacterial meningitis. The mean age of subjects was 51 ± 47 months (range, 1-212 months). We performed the line probe assay in 751 (89%) CSF samples of 841 probable bacterial meningitis cases, of whom 431 (57%) were negative, 127 (17%) were positive for S. pneumoniae, 53 (7%) were positive for H. influenzae type b, and 41 (5%) were positive for N. meningitidis. The LPA was positive in 19 of 23 (82%) S. pneumoniae samples, 4 of 6 (67%) N. meningitidis samples and 2 of 2 (100%) Hib samples in CSF culture-positive cases. The specificity of the LPA for all of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae type b, and N. meningitidis was 88% (95% CI: 85-91%), when using the standard PCR as a reference. The specificity of LPA for each of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae type b, and N. meningitidis was 93% (95% CI: 89-95%), 96% (95% CI: 94-98%), and 99% (95% CI: 97-99%), respectively. For all of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae type b and N. meningitidis the sensitivity of the LPA was 76% (95% CI: 70-82%) and for each of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae type b and N. meningitidis was 72% (95% CI:63-79%), 88% (95% CI: 73-95%), and 81% (95% CI:67-92%), respectively. The LPA assay can be used to detect common bacterial meningitis pathogens in CSF samples, but the assay requires further improvement.

  16. Multicenter Testing of the Rapid Quantification of Radical Oxygen Species in Cerebrospinal Fluid to Diagnose Bacterial Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaszewicz, Anne-Claire; Faivre, Valérie; Bout, Hélène; Gayat, Etienne; Lagergren, Tina; Damoisel, Charles; Bresson, Damien; Paugam, Catherine; Mantz, Jean; Payen, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Meningitis is a serious concern after traumatic brain injury (TBI) or neurosurgery. This study tested the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to diagnose meningitis in febrile patients several days after trauma or surgery. Methods Febrile patients (temperature > 38°C) after TBI or neurosurgery were included prospectively. ROS were measured in CSF within 4 hours after sampling using luminescence in the basal state and after cell stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). The study was conducted in a single-center cohort 1 (n = 54, training cohort) and then in a multicenter cohort 2 (n = 136, testing cohort) in the Intensive Care and Neurosurgery departments of two teaching hospitals. The performance of the ROS test was compared with classical CSF criteria, and a diagnostic decision for meningitis was made by two blinded experts. Results The production of ROS was higher in the CSF of meningitis patients than in non-infected CSF, both in the basal state and after PMA stimulation. In cohort 1, ROS production was associated with a diagnosis of meningitis with an AUC of 0.814 (95% confidence interval (CI) [0.684–0.820]) for steady-state and 0.818 (95% CI [0.655–0.821]) for PMA-activated conditions. The best threshold value obtained in cohort 1 was tested in cohort 2 and showed high negative predictive values and low negative likelihood ratios of 0.94 and 0.36 in the basal state, respectively, and 0.96 and 0.24 after PMA stimulation, respectively. Conclusion The ROS test in CSF appeared suitable for eliminating a diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. PMID:26011286

  17. Zinc metalloproteinase ZmpC suppresses experimental pneumococcal meningitis by inhibiting bacterial invasion of central nervous systems.

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    Yamaguchi, Masaya; Nakata, Masanobu; Sumioka, Ryuichi; Hirose, Yujiro; Wada, Satoshi; Akeda, Yukihiro; Sumitomo, Tomoko; Kawabata, Shigetada

    2017-05-10

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis. Here, we investigated whether pneumococcal paralogous zinc metalloproteases contribute to meningitis onset. Findings of codon-based phylogenetic analyses indicated 3 major clusters in the Zmp family; ZmpA, ZmpC, and ZmpB, with ZmpD as a subgroup. In vitro invasion assays of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMECs) showed that deletion of the zmpC gene in S. pneumoniae strain TIGR4 significantly increased bacterial invasion into hBMECs, whereas deletion of either zmpA or zmpB had no effect. In a mouse meningitis model, the zmpC deletion mutant exhibited increased invasion of the brain and was associated with increased matrix metalloproteinase-9 in plasma and mortality as compared with the wild type. We concluded that ZmpC suppresses pneumococcal virulence by inhibiting bacterial invasion of the central nervous system. Furthermore, ZmpC illustrates the evolutional theory stating that gene duplication leads to acquisition of novel function to suppress excessive mortality.

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of presepsin (sCD14-ST) for prediction of bacterial infection in cerebrospinal fluid samples from children with suspected bacterial meningitis or ventriculitis.

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    Stubljar, David; Kopitar, Andreja Natasa; Groselj-Grenc, Mojca; Suhadolc, Kristina; Fabjan, Teja; Skvarc, Miha

    2015-04-01

    Children with temporary external ventricular drains (EVD) are prone to nosocomial infections. Diagnosis of bacterial meningitis and ventriculitis in these children is challenging due to frequent blood contamination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the presence of chemical ventriculitis. The aim of this study was to compare diagnostic accuracy of presepsin (sCD14-ST), a novel biomarker of bacterial infection in CSF, to predict bacterial infection in comparison to the accuracy of established biomarkers like those demonstrated in biochemical analysis of CSF. We conducted a prospective study with 18 children with suspected bacterial meningitis or ventriculitis who had 66 episodes of disease. CSF samples were taken from external ventricular drainage. We measured presepsin in CSF, as well as CSF leukocyte count, glucose, and proteins. CSF was also taken to prove bacterial infection with culture methods or with 16S rRNA gene broad-range PCR (SepsiTest; Molzym, Germany). Infection was clinically confirmed in 57 (86%) episodes of suspected meningitis or ventriculitis. Chemical ventriculitis was diagnosed in 9 (14%) episodes of suspected meningitis or ventriculitis. Diagnostic accuracies presented as area under the curve (AUC) for sCD14-ST, leukocytes, and proteins measured in CSF were 0.877 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.793 to 0.961), 0.798 (95% CI, 0.677 to 0.920), and 0.857 (95% CI, 0.749 to 0.964), respectively. With CSF culture, we detected bacteria in 17 samples, compared to 37 detected with broad-range PCR. It was found that presepsin was present at a significantly higher level in children with clinically proven ventriculitis than in those without meningitis or ventriculitis. Diagnostic accuracies of presepsin were superior to those of leukocytes or proteins in CSF. Presepsin-guided 16S rRNA gene PCR could be used in everyday clinical practice to improve etiological diagnosis of meningitis and ventriculitis and to prescribe more appropriate antibiotics. Copyright

  19. Acute bacterial exacerbations in bronchitis and asthma.

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    Chodosh, S

    1987-04-27

    Symptomatic exacerbations are frequent problems in the management of chronic bronchitis and bronchial asthma. Identification of a bacterial etiology as the cause of specific exacerbations should be based on changes in clinical symptoms and documentation of significant bronchial bacterial flora and a neutrophilic inflammatory response. Most acute bacterial exacerbations in patients with bronchitis or asthma are caused by Hemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, or Branhamella catarrhalis. Treatment with ampicillins, synthetic tetracyclines, or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is successful in 80 to 90 percent of bacterial exacerbations. Emergence of resistant Hemophilus species and pneumococci motivates development of new orally administered antimicrobial drugs. Appropriate treatment depends on the prompt recognition that bacterial infection is present. Once instituted, antimicrobial therapy should be continued for a minimum of 10 to 14 days, which should increase the duration of the infection-free period until the next bacterial exacerbation. Adequate response should be evaluated by the return of symptoms to pre-infectious levels and by decreased sputum bacterial flora and neutrophilic inflammation.

  20. Ataxia and Its Association with Hearing Impairment in Childhood Bacterial Meningitis.

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    Roine, Irmeli; Pelkonen, Tuula; Bernardino, Luis; Leite Cruzeiro, Manuel; Peltola, Heikki; Pitkäranta, Anne

    2015-08-01

    Ataxia, deemed usually a minor sequela, follows childhood bacterial meningitis (BM) in up to 18% of cases. Although mostly transient and benign, it can predict permanent hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction. We explored the clinical meaning of ataxia by following its course in a large number of BM patients and examining its relation with hearing loss. The presence, degree (no, mild, moderate and severe) and course (transient, prolonged and late) of ataxia in BM were registered prospectively by predefined criteria. These data were compared with several patient, disease, and outcome variables including hearing loss (none, moderate, severe and profound) on day 7 of treatment and at a follow-up visit 1 month after discharge. Ataxia was present in 243 of 361 (67%) patients on day 7, being slight in 21%, moderate in 38% and severe in 41%. Its course was transient in 41%, prolonged in 24% and late in 5%, whereas 30% of the patients did not present ataxia at any time. Ataxia associated most significantly not only with several measures of BM severity and suboptimal outcome (P ataxia correlated with the extent of hearing loss (rho, 0.37; P Ataxia is more frequent and lasts longer after BM than learned from previous studies. The presence and intensity of ataxia associate with hearing loss and its magnitude.

  1. Unsuccessful validation of 2004 model for predicting academic or behavioural limitations after childhood bacterial meningitis.

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    de Jonge, R C J; Sanders, M S; Terwee, C B; Heymans, M W; Gemke, R J B J; Koomen, I; Spanjaard, L; van Furth, A M

    2013-12-01

    In 2004, a model identifying children at risk of academic or behavioural limitations after bacterial meningitis (BM) was presented. Risk factors were male gender, low birthweight, lower educational level of the father, Streptococcus pneumoniae, lower cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leucocyte count, delay between admission and start of antibiotics, dexamethasone validate that prediction model in an independent cohort. Academic or behavioural limitations were determined in 93 Dutch school-age BM survivors. Risk factors for limitations were obtained from medical files. Validation was performed by applying the model in the cohort, then assessing discrimination and goodness of fit. Multiple imputation techniques were used to deal with missing values. Although fit of the model appeared good when it came to similarity of expected and observed cases (p-value of the Hosmer-Lemeshow test 0.24-0.57), discrimination was poor. Area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operated characteristics (ROC) curve of the model was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.77-0.89) in the development cohort and 0.53 (95% CI: 0.41-0.65) in the validation cohort. External validation of the model was unsuccessful. It is not suitable for implementation in practice. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A Population-Based Acute Meningitis and Encephalitis Syndromes Surveillance in Guangxi, China, May 2007-June 2012.

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    Yihong Xie

    Full Text Available Acute meningitis and encephalitis (AME are common diseases with the main pathogens being viruses and bacteria. As specific treatments are different, it is important to develop clinical prediction rules to distinguish aseptic from bacterial or fungal infection. In this study we evaluated the incidence rates, seasonal variety and the main etiologic agents of AME, and identified factors that could be used to predict the etiologic agents.A population-based AME syndrome surveillance system was set up in Guigang City, Guangxi, involving 12 hospitals serving the study communities. All patients meeting the case definition were investigated. Blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid were tested for bacterial pathogens using culture or RT-PCR and serological tests for viruses using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Laboratory testing variables were grouped using factor analysis. Multinomial logistic regression was used to predict the etiology of AME.From May 2007 to June 2012, the annual incidence rate of AME syndrome, and disease specifically caused by Japanese encephalitis (JE, other viruses, bacteria and fungi were 12.55, 0.58, 4.57, 0.45 and 0.14 per 100,000 population, respectively. The top three identified viral etiologic agents were enterovirus, mumps virus, and JE virus, and for bacteria/fungi were Streptococcus sp., Cryptococcus neoformans and Staphylococcus sp. The incidence of JE and other viruses affected younger populations and peaked from April to August. Alteration of consciousness and leukocytosis were more likely to be caused by JE, bacteria and fungi whereas CSF inflammation was associated with bacterial/fungal infection.With limited predictive validity of symptoms and signs and routine laboratory tests, specific tests for JE virus, mumps virus and enteroviruses are required to evaluate the immunization impact and plan for further intervention. CSF bacterial culture cannot be omitted in guiding clinical decisions regarding patient treatment.

  3. A Population-Based Acute Meningitis and Encephalitis Syndromes Surveillance in Guangxi, China, May 2007- June 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Wu, Xinghua; Bi, Fuyin; Hadler, Stephen C.; Jiraphongsa, Chuleeporn; Sornsrivichai, Vorasith; Lin, Mei; Quan, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Acute meningitis and encephalitis (AME) are common diseases with the main pathogens being viruses and bacteria. As specific treatments are different, it is important to develop clinical prediction rules to distinguish aseptic from bacterial or fungal infection. In this study we evaluated the incidence rates, seasonal variety and the main etiologic agents of AME, and identified factors that could be used to predict the etiologic agents. Methods A population-based AME syndrome surveillance system was set up in Guigang City, Guangxi, involving 12 hospitals serving the study communities. All patients meeting the case definition were investigated. Blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid were tested for bacterial pathogens using culture or RT-PCR and serological tests for viruses using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Laboratory testing variables were grouped using factor analysis. Multinomial logistic regression was used to predict the etiology of AME. Results From May 2007 to June 2012, the annual incidence rate of AME syndrome, and disease specifically caused by Japanese encephalitis (JE), other viruses, bacteria and fungi were 12.55, 0.58, 4.57, 0.45 and 0.14 per 100,000 population, respectively. The top three identified viral etiologic agents were enterovirus, mumps virus, and JE virus, and for bacteria/fungi were Streptococcus sp., Cryptococcus neoformans and Staphylococcus sp. The incidence of JE and other viruses affected younger populations and peaked from April to August. Alteration of consciousness and leukocytosis were more likely to be caused by JE, bacteria and fungi whereas CSF inflammation was associated with bacterial/fungal infection. Conclusions With limited predictive validity of symptoms and signs and routine laboratory tests, specific tests for JE virus, mumps virus and enteroviruses are required to evaluate the immunization impact and plan for further intervention. CSF bacterial culture cannot be omitted in guiding clinical decisions

  4. Recent trends in pediatric bacterial meningitis in Japan--a country where Haemophilus influenzae type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae conjugated vaccines have just been introduced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinjoh, Masayoshi; Iwata, Satoshi; Yagihashi, Tatsuhiko; Sato, Yoshitake; Akita, Hironobu; Takahashi, Takao; Sunakawa, Keisuke

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the trends in incidence and the characteristics of bacterial meningitis in Japan where Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine and 7-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV7) were introduced in 2008 and 2010, respectively, which was 5-20 years after their introduction in western countries. The nationwide Japanese survey of pediatric and neonatal bacterial meningitis was performed in 2011 and 2012. We analyzed the epidemiological and clinical data, and compared the information obtained in the previous nationwide survey database. We also investigated the risk factors for disease outcome. In the 2011-2012 surveys, 357 patients were evaluated. H. influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli were the main organisms. The number of patients hospitalized with bacterial meningitis per 1000 admissions decreased from 1.31 in 2009 to 0.43 in 2012 (p meningitis also decreased from 0.66 to 0.08 (p bacterial meningitis. Earlier introduction of these vaccines may have prevented bacterial meningitis among Japanese children. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The combination of decoy receptor 3 and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 for the diagnosis of nosocomial bacterial meningitis.

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    Liu, Yong-Juan; Shao, Li-Hua; Zhang, Jian; Fu, Shan-Ji; Wang, Gang; Chen, Feng-Zhe; Zheng, Feng; Ma, Rui-Ping; Liu, Hai-Hong; Dong, Xiao-Meng; Ma, Li-Xian

    2015-03-23

    Early diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment can significantly reduce mortality of nosocomial bacterial meningitis. However, it is a challenge for clinicians to make an accurate and rapid diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. This study aimed at determining whether combined biomarkers can provide a useful tool for the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. A retrospective study was carried out. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The patients with bacterial meningitis had significantly elevated levels of the above mentioned biomarkers. The two biomarkers were all risk factors with bacterial meningitis. The biomarkers were constructed into a "bioscore". The discriminative performance of the bioscore was better than that of each biomarker, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) of 0.842 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.770-0.914; pbacterial meningitis. The combined strategy is of interest and the validation of that improvement needs further studies.

  6. Neuro-intensive treatment targeting intracranial hypertension improves outcome in severe bacterial meningitis: an intervention-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Glimåker

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of early intracranial pressure (ICP-targeted treatment, compared to standard intensive care, in adults with community acquired acute bacterial meningitis (ABM and severely impaired consciousness. DESIGN: A prospectively designed intervention-control comparison study of adult cases from September 2004 to January 2012. PATIENTS: Included patients were confirmed ABM-cases, aged 16-75 years, with severely impaired mental status on admission. Fifty-two patients, given ICP-targeted treatment at the neuro-intensive care unit, and 53 control cases, treated with conventional intensive care, were included. All the patients received intensive care with mechanical ventilation, sedation, antibiotics and corticosteroids according to current guidelines. Additional ICP-treatment in the intervention group included cerebrospinal fluid drainage using external ventricular catheters (n = 48, osmotherapy (n = 21, hyperventilation (n = 13, external cooling (n = 9, gram-doses of methylprednisolone (n = 3 and deep barbiturate sedation (n = 2 aiming at ICP 50 mmHg. MEASUREMENTS: The primary endpoint was mortality at two months and secondary endpoint was Glasgow outcome score and hearing ability at follow-up at 2-6 months. OUTCOMES: The mortality was significantly lower in the intervention group compared to controls, 5/52 (10% versus 16/53 (30%; relative risk reduction 68%; p<0.05. Furthermore, only 17 patients (32% in the control group fully recovered compared to 28 (54% in the intervention group (relative risk reduction 40%; p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Early neuro-intensive care using ICP-targeted therapy, mainly cerebrospinal fluid drainage, reduces mortality and improves the overall outcome in adult patients with ABM and severely impaired mental status on admission.

  7. Incidence, etiology, and outcome of bacterial meningitis in infants aged <90 days in the United kingdom and Republic of Ireland: prospective, enhanced, national population-based surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okike, Ifeanyichukwu O; Johnson, Alan P; Henderson, Katherine L; Blackburn, Ruth M; Muller-Pebody, Berit; Ladhani, Shamez N; Anthony, Mark; Ninis, Nelly; Heath, Paul T

    2014-11-15

    Bacterial meningitis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in young infants. Understanding the epidemiology and burden of disease is important. Prospective, enhanced, national population-based active surveillance was undertaken to determine the incidence, etiology, and outcome of bacterial meningitis in infants aged bacterial meningitis was 0.21 (n = 167; 95% CI, .18-.25). A total of 302 bacteria were isolated in 298 (82%) of the cases. The pathogens responsible varied by route of admission, gestation at birth, and age at infection. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) (150/302 [50%]; incidence, 0.16/1000 live births; 95% CI, .13-.18) and Escherichia coli (41/302 [14%]; incidence, 0.04/1000; 95% CI, .03-.06) were responsible for approximately two-thirds of identified bacteria. Pneumococcal (28/302 [9%]) and meningococcal (23/302 [8%]) meningitis were rare in the first month, whereas Listeria meningitis was seen only in the first month of life (11/302 [4%]). In hospitalized preterm infants, the etiology of both early- and late-onset meningitis was more varied. Overall case fatality was 8% (25/329) and was higher for pneumococcal meningitis (5/26 [19%]) than GBS meningitis (7/135 [5%]; P = .04) and for preterm (15/90 [17%]) compared with term (10/235 [4%]; P = .0002) infants. The incidence of bacterial meningitis in young infants remains unchanged since the 1980s and is associated with significant case fatality. Prevention strategies and guidelines to improve the early management of cases should be prioritized. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Acute neck pain in the ED: Consider longus colli calcific tendinitis vs meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Tyag K; Weis, James C

    2017-06-01

    Presented here is a rare cause of severe neck pain - acute longus colli calcific tendinitis - in a 54year old man who presented to the emergency department. The neck pain is due to inflammation caused by calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposition in the tendons on the longus colli muscles. This is non-infectious. The gold standard for diagnosis is a CT neck which best shows the calcifications in the anterior vertebral column of C1-C4, where the tendons of these muscles insert bilaterally. Longus colli calcific tendinitis is not life-threatening and patients will make a full recovery after treatment with NSAIDs. However, this condition is often confused with life-threatening conditions such as infection (meningitis or retropharyngeal abscess), intracranial hemorrhage, trauma, herniation of cervical discs, or malignancy (Estimable et al. (2015) [1]). Symptoms associated with calcific tendinitis of the longus colli muscle are non-specific and include mild fever, moderate-severe headache, neck pain, and drastically reduced range of motion of the neck. More specific symptoms are the presence of dysphagia and odynophagia. Lab findings usually are significant for mild leukocytosis, and elevated ESR and CRP. Awareness of this condition by E.D. physicians can avoid unnecessary invasive interventions, increased costs, and delays that result from incorrect diagnosis and treatment. This is a unique case in which a patient who was afebrile with a normal ESR was worked up for meningitis and an intracranial process, and also empirically treated for meningitis before finally being diagnosed with acute calcific tendinitis of the longus colli muscle in the E.D. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk of Bacterial Meningitis in Children 6 to 11 Months of Age With a First Simple Febrile Seizure: A Retrospective, Cross-sectional, Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedj, Romain; Chappuy, Hélène; Titomanlio, Luigi; Trieu, Thanh-Van; Biscardi, Sandra; Nissack-Obiketeki, Gisèle; Pellegrino, Béatrice; Charara, Oussama; Angoulvant, François; Villemeur, Thierry Billette De; Levy, Corinne; Cohen, Robert; Armengaud, Jean Baptiste; Carbajal, Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    National and international guidelines are very heterogeneous about the necessity to perform a lumbar puncture (LP) in children under 12 months of age with a first simple febrile seizure. We estimated the risk of bacterial meningitis in children aged 6 to 11 months with a first simple febrile seizure. This multicenter retrospective study was conducted in seven pediatric emergency departments (EDs) in the region of Paris, France. Visits of patients aged 6 to 11 months for a first simple febrile seizure from January 2007 to December 2011 were analyzed. Bacterial meningitis was sequentially sought for by 1) analyzing bacteriologic data at the time of the visit, 2) looking for data from a second visit to the hospital after the index visit, and 3) phone calling the child's parents to determine the symptom evolution after the index visit. Infants lost to this follow-up were searched for in a national bacterial meningitis database. From a total of 1,183,487 visits in the seven pediatric EDs, 116,503 were for children 6 to 11 months of age. From these, 205 visits were for a first simple febrile seizure. An LP was performed in 61 patients (29.8%). The outcome bacterial meningitis was ascertainable for 168 (82%) visits. No bacterial meningitis was found among these patients (95% confidence interval = 0% to 2.2%). None of the 37 infants lost to our follow-up were registered in the national database as having bacterial meningitis. Among children between 6 and 11 months of age with a first simple febrile seizure, the risk of bacterial meningitis is extremely low. These results should encourage national and international societies to either develop or endorse guidelines limiting routine LP in these infants and contribute to widely homogenized management practices. © 2015 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  10. Bacterial meningitis in Malawian adults, adolescents, and children during the era of antiretroviral scale-up and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination, 2000-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Emma C; Everett, Dean B; Mukaka, Mavuto; Bar-Zeev, Naor; Feasey, Nicholas; Jahn, Andreas; Moore, Mike; van Oosterhout, Joep J; Pensalo, Paul; Baguimira, Kenneth; Gordon, Stephen B; Molyneux, Elizabeth M; Carrol, Enitan D; French, Neil; Molyneux, Malcolm E; Heyderman, Robert S

    2014-05-01

    We documented bacterial meningitis trends among adults and children presenting to a large teaching hospital in Malawi during introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccination and the rollout of antiretroviral therapy (ART). We analyzed data from 51 000 consecutive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained from adults, adolescents, and children with suspected meningitis admitted to the Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi, between 2000 and 2012. There was a significant decline in the total number of CSF isolates over 12 years (incident rate ratio [IRR], 0.93; 95% CI, .92-.94; P bacterial meningitis in 2012 was 20 per 100,000 cases in children aged bacterial meningitis have declined in children, but not adults, coinciding with the introduction of Hib vaccination. The highly successful rollout of ART has not yet resulted in a reduction in the incidence in adults where the burden remains high. Long-term surveillance of bacterial meningitis outside of the epidemic "meningitis belt" in Africa is essential.

  11. High creatinine clearance in critically ill patients with community-acquired acute infectious meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lautrette Alexandre

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high dose of anti-infective agents is recommended when treating infectious meningitis. High creatinine clearance (CrCl may affect the pharmacokinetic / pharmacodynamic relationships of anti-infective drugs eliminated by the kidneys. We recorded the incidence of high CrCl in intensive care unit (ICU patients admitted with meningitis and assessed the diagnostic accuracy of two common methods used to identify high CrCl. Methods Observational study performed in consecutive patients admitted with community-acquired acute infectious meningitis (defined by >7 white blood cells/mm3 in cerebral spinal fluid between January 2006 and December 2009 to one medical ICU. During the first 7 days following ICU admission, CrCl was measured from 24-hr urine samples (24-hr-UV/P creatinine and estimated according to Cockcroft-Gault formula and the simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD equation. High CrCl was defined as CrCl >140 ml/min/1.73 m2 by 24-hr-UV/P creatinine. Diagnostic accuracy was performed with ROC curves analysis. Results Thirty two patients were included. High CrCl was present in 8 patients (25% on ICU admission and in 15 patients (47% during the first 7 ICU days for a median duration of 3 (1-4 days. For the Cockcroft-Gault formula, the best threshold to predict high CrCl was 101 ml/min/1.73 m2 (sensitivity: 0.96, specificity: 0.75, AUC = 0.90 ± 0.03 with a negative likelihood ratio of 0.06. For the simplified MDRD equation, the best threshold to predict high CrCl was 108 ml/min/1.73 m2 (sensitivity: 0.91, specificity: 0.80, AUC = 0.88 ± 0.03 with a negative likelihood ratio of 0.11. There was no difference between the estimated methods in the diagnostic accuracy of identifying high CrCl (p = 0.30. Conclusions High CrCl is frequently observed in ICU patients admitted with community-acquired acute infectious meningitis. The estimated methods of CrCl could be used as a screening tool to

  12. Emergency diagnosis and treatment of adult meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitch, Michael T.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2007-01-01

    Despite the existence of antibiotic therapies against acute bacterial meningitis, patients with the disease continue to suffer significant morbidity and mortality in both high and low-income countries. Dilemmas exist for emergency medicine and primary-care providers who need to accurately diagnose

  13. Time to antibiotic therapy and outcome in bacterial meningitis: a Danish population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodilsen, Jacob; Dalager-Pedersen, Michael; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Nielsen, Henrik

    2016-08-09

    Community-acquired bacterial meningitis (CABM) is a life-threatening disease and timing of antibiotic therapy remains crucial. We aimed to analyse the impact of antibiotic timing on the outcome of CABM in a contemporary cohort. We conducted a population-based cohort study based on chart reviews of all adult cases (>16 years of age) of CABM in North Denmark from 1998 to 2014 excluding patients given pre-hospital parenteral antibiotics. We used modified Poisson regression analyses to compute the adjusted risk ratio (adj. RR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for in-hospital mortality and unfavourable outcome at discharge by time after arrival to hospital to adequate antibiotic therapy. We identified 195 adults with CABM of whom 173 patients were eligible for further analyses. The median door-to-antibiotic time was 2.0 h (interquartile range (IQR) 1.0-5.5). We observed increased adjusted risk ratios for in-hospital mortality of 1.6 (95 % CI 0.8-3.2) and an unfavourable outcome at discharge of 1.5 (95 % CI 1.0-2.2, p = 0.03) when treatment delays exceeded 6 h versus treatment within 2 h of admission. These findings corresponded to adjusted risk ratios of in-hospital mortality of 1.1 per hour of delay (95 % CI 0.8-1.5) and an unfavourable outcome at discharge of 1.1 per hour of delay (95 % CI 1.0-1.3) within the first 6 h of admission. Some patients (31 %) were diagnosed after admission and had more delays in antibiotic therapy and correspondingly increased in-hospital mortality (30 vs 14 %, p = 0.01) and unfavourable outcome (62 vs 37 %, p = 0.002). Delay in antibiotic therapy was associated with unfavourable outcome at discharge.

  14. Predicting sequelae and death after bacterial meningitis in childhood: A systematic review of prognostic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemke Reinoud JBJ

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial meningitis (BM is a severe infection responsible for high mortality and disabling sequelae. Early identification of patients at high risk of these outcomes is necessary to prevent their occurrence by adequate treatment as much as possible. For this reason, several prognostic models have been developed. The objective of this study is to summarize the evidence regarding prognostic factors predicting death or sequelae due to BM in children 0-18 years of age. Methods A search in MEDLINE and EMBASE was conducted to identify prognostic studies on risk factors for mortality and sequelae after BM in children. Selection of abstracts, full-text articles and assessment of methodological quality using the QUIPS checklist was performed by two reviewers independently. Data on prognostic factors per outcome were summarized. Results Of the 31 studies identified, 15 were of moderate to high quality. Due to substantial heterogeneity in study characteristics and evaluated prognostic factors, no quantitative analysis was performed. Prognostic factors found to be statistically significant in more than one study of moderate or high quality are: complaints >48 hours before admission, coma/impaired consciousness, (prolonged duration of seizures, (prolonged fever, shock, peripheral circulatory failure, respiratory distress, absence of petechiae, causative pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae, young age, male gender, several cerebrospinal fluid (CSF parameters and white blood cell (WBC count. Conclusions Although several important prognostic factors for the prediction of mortality or sequelae after BM were identified, the inability to perform a pooled analysis makes the exact (independent predictive value of these factors uncertain. This emphasizes the need for additional well-conducted prognostic studies.

  15. Hearing impairment after childhood bacterial meningitis dependent on etiology in Luanda, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karppinen, Mariia; Pelkonen, Tuula; Roine, Irmeli; Cruzeiro, Manuel Leite; Peltola, Heikki; Pitkäranta, Anne

    2015-11-01

    Childhood bacterial meningitis (BM) damages hearing, but the potential of different agents to cause impairment in developing countries is poorly understood. We compared the extent of hearing impairment in BM caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), Streptococcus pneumoniae or Neisseria meningitidis among children aged 2 months to 13 years in Luanda, Angola. Hearing of 685 ears of 351 (78%) survivors among 723 enrolled patients was tested by brainstem-evoked response audiometry on day 7 of hospitalization. The causative agent was sought by cerebrospinal fluid culture, PCR or the latex-agglutination test. Altogether, 45 (12%) of the survivors were deaf (threshold >80 dB), and 20 (6%) had a threshold of 80 dB. The incidence of any kind of hearing loss, with ≥60 dB, was 34% with Hib, 30% with S. pneumoniae, 19% with N. meningitidis and 33% with other bacteria. Examining all ears combined and using the ≥60 dB threshold, the agents showed dissimilar harm (P=0.005), Hib being the most frequent and N. meningitidis the most infrequent cause. Compared to other agents, S. pneumoniae more often caused deafness (P=0.025) and hearing impairment at ≥60 dB (P=0.017) in infants, whereas this level of hearing loss in older survivors was most commonly caused by Hib (P=0.031). BM among children in Angola is often followed by hearing impairment, but the risk depends on the agent. S. pneumoniae is a major problem among infants, whereas Hib is mainly a risk beyond 12 months. N. meningitidis impairs hearing less frequently. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sex-based differences in adults with community-acquired bacterial meningitis: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, S P; Brouwer, M C; Bijlsma, M W; van der Ende, A; van de Beek, D

    2017-02-01

    To investigate sex-based differences in clinical features, causative pathogens, outcome and treatment of adult community-acquired meningitis. From January 2006 to July 2014, we prospectively investigated sex-based differences in clinical features, causative pathogens, outcome and treatment of adult community-acquired meningitis in a nationwide cohort study in the Netherlands. Sex was analysed along with known predictors of unfavourable outcome using logistic regression. We evaluated 1412 episodes of meningitis, 707 (50%) in men. Men more often presented with a history of remote head injury (41/667 (6%) versus 14/658 (2%) women, p 0.0002) or alcoholism (61/652 (9%) versus 21/660 (3%) women, p meningitis. Male sex is an independent risk factor for adverse outcome. It is possible that sex-based differences in immune reaction could determine a distinct response to corticosteroids. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence of MDR pathogens of bacterial meningitis in Egypt and new synergistic antibiotic combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkader, Mona M; Aboshanab, Khaled M; El-Ashry, Marwa A; Aboulwafa, Mohammad M

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was identifying bacterial pathogens involved in meningitis, studying their antibiotic resistance profiles, investigating the antibiotic resistance genes as well as evaluating the use of various antibiotic combinations. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were evaluated according to CLSI guidelines. Antibiotic combinations were evaluated by calculating the Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC) index. A total of 71 bacterial isolates were recovered from 68 culture positive CSF specimens. Sixty five of these isolates (91.5%) were recovered from single infection specimens, while 6 isolates (8.4%) were recovered from mixed infection specimens. Out of the 71 recovered isolates, 48 (67.6%) were Gram-positive, and 23 (32.4%) were Gram-negative. Thirty one of the Gram positive isolates were S. pneumoniae (64.6%, n = 48). Out of the recovered 71 isolates; 26 (36.6%) were multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates of which, 18 (69.2%) were Gram-negative and 8 (30.8%) were Gram-positive. All MDR isolates (100%) showed resistance to penicillin and ampicillin, however, they showed lower resistance to meropenem (50%), levofloxacin (50%), amikacin (48%), pipercillin-tazobactam (45.8%). Most common antibiotic resistance genes were investigated including: tem (21.1%), shv (15.8%), ctx-m (15.8%) coding for TEM-, SHV, CTX-M extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), respectively; aac(6')-I b(26.3%) coding for aminoglycoside 6'-N-acetyltransferase type Ib ciprofloxacin resistant variant; and qnrA (5.3%) gene coding for quinolone resistance. The DNA sequences of the respective resistance genes of some selected isolates were PCR amplified, analyzed and submitted to the GenBank database under the accession numbers, KX214665, KX214664, KX214663, KX214662, respectively. The FIC values for ampicillin/sulbactam plus cefepime showed either additive or synergistic effect against ten tested Gram-negative MDR isolates, while doxycycline plus levofloxacin combination revealed

  18. Prevalence of MDR pathogens of bacterial meningitis in Egypt and new synergistic antibiotic combinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona M Abdelkader

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was identifying bacterial pathogens involved in meningitis, studying their antibiotic resistance profiles, investigating the antibiotic resistance genes as well as evaluating the use of various antibiotic combinations. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were evaluated according to CLSI guidelines. Antibiotic combinations were evaluated by calculating the Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC index. A total of 71 bacterial isolates were recovered from 68 culture positive CSF specimens. Sixty five of these isolates (91.5% were recovered from single infection specimens, while 6 isolates (8.4% were recovered from mixed infection specimens. Out of the 71 recovered isolates, 48 (67.6% were Gram-positive, and 23 (32.4% were Gram-negative. Thirty one of the Gram positive isolates were S. pneumoniae (64.6%, n = 48. Out of the recovered 71 isolates; 26 (36.6% were multidrug-resistant (MDR isolates of which, 18 (69.2% were Gram-negative and 8 (30.8% were Gram-positive. All MDR isolates (100% showed resistance to penicillin and ampicillin, however, they showed lower resistance to meropenem (50%, levofloxacin (50%, amikacin (48%, pipercillin-tazobactam (45.8%. Most common antibiotic resistance genes were investigated including: tem (21.1%, shv (15.8%, ctx-m (15.8% coding for TEM-, SHV, CTX-M extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs, respectively; aac(6'-I b(26.3% coding for aminoglycoside 6'-N-acetyltransferase type Ib ciprofloxacin resistant variant; and qnrA (5.3% gene coding for quinolone resistance. The DNA sequences of the respective resistance genes of some selected isolates were PCR amplified, analyzed and submitted to the GenBank database under the accession numbers, KX214665, KX214664, KX214663, KX214662, respectively. The FIC values for ampicillin/sulbactam plus cefepime showed either additive or synergistic effect against ten tested Gram-negative MDR isolates, while doxycycline plus levofloxacin combination revealed synergism

  19. Immunohistochemical analysis of MMP-9, MMP-2 and TIMP-1, TIMP-2 expression in the central nervous system following infection with viral and bacterial meningitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Chyczewski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are capable of degrading components of the basal lamina of cerebral vessels, thereby disrupting the blood-brain barrier and inducing leukocyte recruitment. This study provides comprehensive information regarding the cell specificity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9 and their binding tissue inhibitors (TIMP-1, TIMP-2 in the central nervous system during viral and bacterial meningitis. Specifically, we evaluated the immunoreactivity of MMPs and TIMPs in various cell types in brain parenchyma and meninges obtained from autopsy tissues. We found that a higher proportion of endothelial cells were positive for MMP-9 during meningitis when compared to controls. In addition, the immunoreactivity of MMP-9 decreased and the immunoreactivity of TIMP-1 increased in astrocytes upon infection. Furthermore, the results of this study revealed that mononuclear cells were highly immunoreactive for TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and MMP-9 during viral meningitis and that the expression of TIMPs in polymorphonuclear cells was even higher during bacterial meningitis. Taken together the results of this study indicated that the central nervous system resident cells and inflammatory infiltrates contribute to MMPs activity and that the expression patterns vary between cell types and in response to viral and bacterial meningitis.

  20. Impact of an evidence-based guideline on the management of community-acquired bacterial meningitis: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costerus, J M; Brouwer, M C; Bijlsma, M W; Tanck, M W; van der Ende, A; van de Beek, D

    2016-11-01

    To study the impact of an evidence-based guideline on the management of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. We performed an interrupted time series analysis in a prospective nationwide cohort study from 2006 to 2015. The guideline stresses the importance of cranial imaging before lumbar puncture (LP) in selected patients based on clinical criteria, and early treatment with amoxicillin and a third-generation cephalosporin for adults with suspected community-acquired bacterial meningitis. The guideline was published in April 2013. We included 1326 episodes before and 210 episodes after guideline introduction. Cranial imaging was performed before LP in 497 (84%) of 591 episodes with clinical criteria warranting computed tomography (CT). The guideline did not improve this (increase of 2%; 95% confidence interval (CI), -15 to 19). Without these criteria, imaging before LP occurred in 606 (67%) of 900 episodes, also without effect of the guideline (increase of 1%; 95% CI, -25 to 28). The estimate of effect of the guideline for treatment with the recommended antibiotic regimen was an increase of 19.5% (95% CI, 13.5 to 25.5), and there was a trend towards more frequent initiation of treatment before CT. There was no association between delay in antibiotic treatment due to imaging before LP and unfavourable outcome (odds ratio, 1.14; 95% CI 0.86 to 1.52). Cranial imaging is performed before LP in the majority of patients with bacterial meningitis, irrespective of guideline indications. The guideline introduction was associated with a trend towards early initiation of treatment before imaging and with increased adherence to antibiotic policy. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Tongue and tail necrosis in an atypical case of acute steroid responsive meningitis-arteritis in a dog

    OpenAIRE

    Van Meervenne, Sofie; Declercq, Jan; Tipold, A.; Chiers, Koen; Van Soens, Iris; Van Goethem, Bart; Van Ham, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Acute steroid responsive meningitis-arteritis (SRMA) is a common neurological disorder in young dogs. Typical clinical symptoms of the acute form of SRMA are neck pain, depression and fever. This case report describes a 1.5-year-old Pointer with uncommon neurological deficits (unilateral multiple cranial nerve deficits and Homer's syndrome) and an exceptional necrosis of the tongue. This was believed to be part of the systemic vasculitis accompanying SRMA. The patient also developed tail necr...

  2. Identification of Common Bacterial Pathogens Causing Meningitis in Culture-Negative Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples Using Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Walaa Shawky; Elabd, Safia Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Background. Meningitis is a serious communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates. It is an endemic disease in Egypt caused mainly by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae. In some settings, bacterial meningitis is documented depending mainly on positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture results or CSF positive latex agglutination test, missing the important role of prior antimicrobial intake which can yield negative culture and latex agglutination test results. This study aimed to utilize molecular technology in order to diagnose bacterial meningitis in culture-negative CSF samples. Materials and Methods. Forty culture-negative CSF samples from suspected cases of bacterial meningitis were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) for the presence of lytA, bexA, and ctrA genes specific for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis, respectively. Results. Positive real-time PCR results for Streptococcus pneumoniae were detected in 36 (90%) of culture-negative CSF samples while no positive results for Haemophilus influenzae or Neisseria meningitidis were detected. Four (10%) samples were negative by real-time PCR for all tested organisms. Conclusion. The use of molecular techniques as real-time PCR can provide a valuable addition to the proportion of diagnosed cases of bacterial meningitis especially in settings with high rates of culture-negative results.

  3. Antibiotics versus placebo for acute bacterial conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Aziz; Hurwitz, Brian; van Schayck, Constant Paul; McLean, Susannah; Nurmatov, Ulugbek

    2012-09-12

    Acute bacterial conjunctivitis is an infection of the conjunctiva. Both the palpebral and the bulbar ocular conjunctival surfaces are usually affected and typically become red and inflamed. Antibiotic therapy is widely used for the treatment of acute bacterial conjunctivitis. This Cochrane Review was first published in The Cochrane Library in 1999; updated in 2006 and again in 2012. To assess the benefits and harms of antibiotic therapy in the management of acute bacterial conjunctivitis. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 7), MEDLINE (January 1950 to July 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to July 2012), OpenGrey (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe) (www.opengrey.eu/), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 18 July 2012. We included double-masked randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which any form of antibiotic treatment had been compared with placebo/vehicle in the management of acute bacterial conjunctivitis. This included topical, systemic and combination (for example, antibiotics and steroids) antibiotic treatments. Two authors (UN and SM) independently checked and reviewed the titles and abstracts of identified studies. We assessed the full text of all potentially relevant studies. We graded the included RCTs for methodological quality using Cochrane methodology. We performed data extraction in a standardised manner. We performed random-effects meta-analyses using RevMan. We identified 11 eligible RCTs which randomised a total of 3673 participants. One further trial, which was published in abstract form in 1990 but has yet to be reported fully, is currently

  4. The formyl peptide receptor like-1 and scavenger receptor MARCO are involved in glial cell activation in bacterial meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Sandra

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have suggested that the scavenger receptor MARCO (macrophage receptor with collagenous structure mediates activation of the immune response in bacterial infection of the central nervous system (CNS. The chemotactic G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR formyl-peptide-receptor like-1 (FPRL1 plays an essential role in the inflammatory responses of host defence mechanisms and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD. Expression of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin CRAMP/LL-37 is up-regulated in bacterial meningitis, but the mechanisms underlying CRAMP expression are far from clear. Methods Using a rat meningitis model, we investigated the influence of MARCO and FPRL1 on rCRAMP (rat cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide expression after infection with bacterial supernatants of Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP and Neisseria meningitides (NM. Expression of FPRL1 and MARCO was analyzed by immunofluorescence and real-time RT-PCR in a rat meningitis model. Furthermore, we examined the receptor involvement by real-time RT-PCR, extracellular-signal regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2 phosphorylation and cAMP level measurement in glial cells (astrocytes and microglia and transfected HEK293 cells using receptor deactivation by antagonists. Receptors were inhibited by small interference RNA and the consequences in NM- and SP-induced Camp (rCRAMP gene expression and signal transduction were determined. Results We show an NM-induced increase of MARCO expression by immunofluorescence and real-time RT-PCR in glial and meningeal cells. Receptor deactivation by antagonists and small interfering RNA (siRNA verified the importance of FPRL1 and MARCO for NM- and SP-induced Camp and interleukin-1β expression in glial cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated a functional interaction between FPRL1 and MARCO in NM-induced signalling by real-time RT-PCR, ERK1/2 phosphorylation and cAMP level measurement and show differences between

  5. With a little help from a computer: discriminating between bacterial and viral meningitis based on dominance-based rough set approach analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowin, Ewelina; Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska, Danuta; Słowiński, Roman; Błaszczyński, Jerzy; Michalak, Michał; Wysocki, Jacek

    2017-08-01

    Differential Diagnosis of bacterial and viral meningitis remains an important clinical problem. A number of methods to assist in the diagnoses of meningitis have been developed, but none of them have been found to have high specificity with 100% sensitivity.We conducted a retrospective analysis of the medical records of 148 children hospitalized in St. Joseph Children's Hospital in Poznań. In this study, we applied for the first time the original methodology of dominance-based rough set approach (DRSA) to diagnostic patterns of meningitis data and represented them by decision rules useful in discriminating between bacterial and viral meningitis. The induction algorithm is called VC-DomLEM; it has been implemented as software package called jMAF (http://www.cs.put.poznan.pl/jblaszczynski/Site/jRS.html), based on java Rough Set (jRS) library.In the studied group, there were 148 patients (78 boys and 70 girls), and the mean age was 85 months. We analyzed 14 attributes, of which only 4 were used to generate the 6 rules, with C-reactive protein (CRP) being the most valuable.Factors associated with bacterial meningitis were: CRP level ≥86 mg/L, number of leukocytes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ≥4481 μL, symptoms duration no longer than 2 days, or age less than 1 month. Factors associated with viral meningitis were CRP level not higher than 19 mg/L, or CRP level not higher than 84 mg/L in a patient older than 11 months with no more than 1100 μL leukocytes in CSF.We established the minimum set of attributes significant for classification of patients with meningitis. This is new set of rules, which, although intuitively anticipated by some clinicians, has not been formally demonstrated until now.

  6. Acute bacterial rhinosinusitis in adults: part I. Evaluation | Scheid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although often caused by viruses, it sometimes is caused by bacteria, a condition that is called acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. The signs and symptoms of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis and prolonged viral upper respiratory infection are similar, which makes accurate clinical diagnosis difficult. South African Family Practice Vol.

  7. Acute meningitis of piglets and mice caused by co-infected with Streptococcus suis and Aerococcus viridans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zihao; Ma, Ye; Ma, Jiale; Dong, Wenyang; Yao, Huochun

    2017-05-01

    The two opportunistic pathogens, Streptococcus suis (S. suis) and Aerococcus. viridans (A. viridans) were isolated from the brains of piglets suffered bacterial meningitis in a farm of China. The murine model has been established to evaluate the pathogenicity and symbiotic relationship of S. suis and A. viridans simultaneously infection. Our results demonstrated the ability of new serotype S. suis to cause the classical bacterial meningitis and death were greatly enhanced during co-infection with A. viridans in mice at a proportion. We also examined the distribution and titer of bacteria coinfection in organs, the titer of S. suis appeared a significant trend for an increase in the lung meanwhile the concentration titer of A. viridans maintain a low level. This is the first reported the A. viridans and S. suis coinfection cause the bacterial meningitis outbroke in the piglets and mice. Moreover, further investigation of the pathogenesis of A. viridans and S. suis is urgently needed in swine industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dexamethasone treatment and prognostic factors in community-acquired bacterial meningitis: a Danish retrospective population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodilsen, Jacob; Dalager-Pedersen, Michael; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Nielsen, Henrik

    2014-06-01

    The morbidity and mortality in community-acquired bacterial meningitis (CABM) remain substantial and treatment outcomes and predictors of a poor prognosis must be assessed regularly. We aimed to describe the outcome of patients with CABM treated with dexamethasone and to assess the performance of the Dutch Meningitis Risk Score (DMRS). We retrospectively evaluated all adults with CABM in North Denmark Region, 1998-2012. Outcomes included in-hospital mortality and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score. A GOS score of 5 was categorized as a favourable outcome and scores of 1-4 as unfavourable. We used logistic analysis to compute relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for an unfavourable outcome adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidity. We identified a total of 172 cases of CABM. In-hospital mortality was unaffected by the implementation of dexamethasone in 2003 (19% vs 20%). Dexamethasone treatment was associated with a prompt diagnosis of meningitis and a statistically insignificant decrease in the risk of an unfavourable outcome (33% vs 53%; adjusted RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.41-1.01) and in-hospital mortality (15% vs 24%; adjusted RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.35-1.48). Of the risk factors included in the DMRS, we found age and tachycardia to be significantly associated with an unfavourable outcome in the multivariate analyses. Patients treated with dexamethasone were more likely to have a favourable outcome, although statistical significance was not reached. Several parameters included in the Dutch risk score were also negative predictors in our cohort, although the entire risk score could not be validated due to a lack of data.

  9. Meningitis - pneumococcal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pneumococcal meningitis; Pneumococcus - meningitis ... Pneumococcal meningitis is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria (also called pneumococcus, or S pneumoniae ). This type of bacteria is the ...

  10. Expression of innate immune complement regulators on brain epithelial cells during human bacterial meningitis

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    Gasque Philippe

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In meningitis, the cerebrospinal fluid contains high levels of innate immune molecules (e.g. complement which are essential to ward off the infectious challenge and to promote the infiltration of phagocytes (neutrophils, monocytes. However, epithelial cells of either the ependymal layer, one of the established niche for adult neural stem cells, or of the choroid plexus may be extremely vulnerable to bystander attack by cytotoxic and cytolytic complement components. Methods In this study, we assessed the capacity of brain epithelial cells to express membrane-bound complement regulators (ie, CD35, CD46, CD55 and CD59 in vitro and in situ by immunostaining of control and meningitis human brain tissue sections. Results Double immunofluorescence experiments for ependymal cell markers (GFAP, S100, ZO-1, E-cadherin and complement regulators indicated that the human ependymal cell line model was strongly positive for CD55, CD59 compared to weak stainings for CD46 and CD35. In tissues, we found that CD55 was weakly expressed in control choroid plexus and ependyma but was abundantly expressed in meningitis. Anti-CD59 stained both epithelia in apical location while increased CD59 staining was solely demonstrated in inflamed choroid plexus. CD46 and CD35 were not detected in control tissue sections. Conversely, in meningitis, the ependyma, subependyma and choroid plexus epithelia were strongly stained for CD46 and CD35. Conclusion This study delineates for the first time the capacity of brain ependymal and epithelial cells to respond to and possibly sustain the innate complement-mediated inflammatory insult.

  11. Evaluation of duration of antibiotic therapy in neonatal bacterial meningitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, N B; Kharod, Prarthana; Kumar, Surinder

    2015-04-01

    To compare the effect of 10 days versus 14 days of antibiotic therapy in neonatal meningitis on treatment failure rate. The study was a randomized controlled trial conducted at a referral neonatal unit. The participants were 70 neonates with meningitis randomized to receive 10 days (study group) or 14 days (control group) of antibiotics. The primary outcome measure studied was treatment failure in each group within 28 days of enrolment. None of the neonates among either of the groups had occurrence of meningitis during follow-up. Occurrence of sepsis was observed after discharge in three neonates in the control group and none in the study group. Brainstem-evoked response audiometry was abnormal in one neonate in the study group. Adverse effects of drugs and neurological deficits were not observed in the study population. Short course of antibiotic therapy (10 days) is effective, with potential benefits of shorter hospital stay. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Impact of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine on bacterial meningitis in the Dominican Republic Impacto de la vacuna conjugada contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b sobre la meningitis bacteriana en la República Dominicana

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    Ellen H. Lee

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Widespread use of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib vaccines has dramatically reduced the burden of Hib disease throughout the Americas. Few studies have evaluated the impact of Hib vaccination on non-culture-confirmed disease. This study analyzed trends in probable bacterial meningitis before and after the introduction of Hib vaccine in the Dominican Republic and estimated vaccine effectiveness against Hib meningitis. METHODS: Meningitis cases among children OBJETIVOS: El uso generalizado de la vacuna contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib ha permitido reducir radicalmente la carga de enfermedad por Hib en las Américas. Pocos estudios han evaluado el impacto de la vacunación contra Hib sobre los casos no confirmados mediante cultivo. En este estudio se analizaron las tendencias en el número de casos probables de meningitis bacteriana antes y después de la introducción de la vacuna contra Hib en la República Dominicana y se estimó la eficacia de la vacuna contra la meningitis. MÉTODOS: Se identificaron los casos de meningitis en niños menores de 5 años a partir de los registros de ingreso del principal hospital pediátrico de Santo Domingo entre 1998 y 2004. Los casos de meningitis con probable etiología bacteriana se clasificaron según criterios de laboratorio; los casos confirmados contaban con cultivo bacteriano positivo o detección de antígenos específicos en el líquido cefalorraquídeo. Se calcularon las tasas de incidencia acumulada de casos confirmados y probables de meningitis en los niños que vivían en el Distrito Nacional. Los casos confirmados de meningitis por Hib se incorporaron a un estudio de casos y controles -pareados según la edad y el barrio de residencia- para calcular la eficacia de la vacuna. RESULTADOS: Antes de la introducción de la vacuna, la tasa anual de meningitis de posible etiología bacteriana era de 49 casos por 100 000 niños menores de 5 años; de los casos confirmados de

  13. [Bacterial meningitis in one month-16 year old children at three Pediatric departments in Iceland during the period 1973-2000.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóhannsdóttir, Inga María; Guðnason, Thornórólfur; Lúðvíksson, Pétur; Laxdal, Thornrœstur; Stefánsson, Magnús; Harðardóttir, Hjœrdís; Haraldsson, Asgeir

    2002-05-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a serious disease most common in children. We report the epidemiology and outcome of bacterial meningitis in children between the age of one month to 16 years admitted to three Pediatric Departments in Iceland in 1973-2000 (28 years). Information was collected retrospectively from the medical records of admitted children diagnosed with bacterial meningitis. 454 children were diagnosed; 255 boys and 199 girls; 77% were less than five years of age. Before 1989 the age specific incidence was 29/100.000/year and 12/100.000/year thereafter. The cerebral spinal fluid was culture positive in 74% but no organism was identified in 17%. The most common pathogens were N. meningitidis (44%), Hib (30%), and S. pneumoniae (7%). The incidence varied according to age. No child was diagnosed with Hib after launching of Hib vaccination in 1989. The mean age of the children increased significantly from less than two years prior to 1989 to less than three years thereafter and of children infected with N. meningitidis from around two year to three years. The mortality rate was 4,5%, none due to Hib. Fourteen percent suffered sensory-neural hearing impairment and no protective effects were seen of steroid therapy. The age specific incidence of bacterial meningitis of children in Iceland has decreased during the last decade, especially due to Hib vaccination. Further reduction can be expected by implementing general vaccination to N. meningitidis C and S. pneumoniae. Additionally, recognizing the symptoms of bacterial meningitis and starting proper therapy as soon as possible is crucial in order to minimize ominous outcome.

  14. Canadian guidelines for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To provide a clinical summary of the Canadian clinical practice guidelines for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) that includes relevant considerations for family physicians. Quality of evidence Guideline authors performed a systematic literature search and drafted recommendations. Recommendations received both strength of evidence and strength of recommendation ratings. Input from external content experts was sought, as was endorsement from Canadian medical societies (Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada, Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Canadian Society of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians, and the Family Physicians Airways Group of Canada). Main message Diagnosis of ABRS is based on the presence of specific symptoms and their duration; imaging or culture are not needed in uncomplicated cases. Treatment is dependent on symptom severity, with intranasal corticosteroids (INCSs) recommended as monotherapy for mild and moderate cases, although the benefit might be modest. Use of INCSs plus antibiotics is reserved for patients who fail to respond to INCSs after 72 hours, and for initial treatment of patients with severe symptoms. Antibiotic selection must account for the suspected pathogen, the risk of resistance, comorbid conditions, and local antimicrobial resistance trends. Adjunct therapies such as nasal saline irrigation are recommended. Failure to respond to treatment, recurrent episodes, and signs of complications should prompt referral to an otolaryngologist. The guidelines address situations unique to the Canadian health care environment, including actions to take during prolonged wait periods for specialist referral or imaging. Conclusion The Canadian guidelines provide up-to-date recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of ABRS that reflect an evolving understanding of the disease. In addition, the guidelines offer useful tools to help

  15. Isolated Torticollis May Present as an Atypical Presentation of Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Chirurgi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bacterial meningitis is a life-threatening medical emergency that requires urgent diagnosis and treatment. Diagnosis is infrequently missed if the patient presents with the classic symptoms of fever, headache, rash, nuchal rigidity, or Kernig or Brudzinski sign. However, it may be less obvious in neonates, elderly, or immunocompromised patients. Meningitis which presents as isolated torticollis, without any other signs or symptoms, is exceedingly rare. Objective. To identify an abnormal presentation of meningitis in an adult immunocompromised patient. Case Report. We present a case of an adult diabetic male who presented multiple times to the ED with complaint of isolated torticollis, who ultimately was diagnosed with bacterial meningitis. Conclusion. We propose that in the absence of sufficient explanation for acute painful torticollis in an immunocompromised adult patient, further evaluation, possibly including a lumbar puncture may be warranted.

  16. Perfil etiológico das meningites bacterianas em crianças Etiological profile of bacterial meningitis in children

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    Orlando C. Mantese

    2002-12-01

    meningite bacteriana continua tendo uma importante mortalidade entre as crianças, principalmente quando causada pelo pneumococo.Objective: To determine the etiologic profile and analyze some epidemiological aspects of children with bacterial meningitis admitted to a public teaching hospital. Methods: A prospective study was conducted on children with clinical and laboratory diagnosis of bacterial meningitis, admitted to Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, from January 1987 to January 2001. Patients with meningitis associated with trauma, intracranial devices or malformations of the neural tube, and tuberculosis, were not included in the study. Results: From a total of 415 children with bacterial meningitis, the etiologic agent was detected in 315 (75.9%: Haemophilus influenzae b in 54.2%, meningococci in 20.6%, pneumococci in 18.1% and other agents, in 6.9%. Previous antibiotic treatment, observed in 47.2% of the cases, led to a significant decrease in positive blood cultures (from 50.8% to 38.7% and in cerebrospinal fluid cultures (from 71.7% to 57.6%. Among children younger than 48 months Haemophilus influenzae b was predominant, particularly when compared to meningococci. The overall mortality was 10.1%, with a significant difference between the rates of pneumococcal (17.5% and meningococcal meningitis (4.6%. Conclusions: Children affected by Haemophilus influenzae b and by pneumococci were younger than those with meningitis caused by meningococci. The blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid culture remains an important laboratory tool for etiologic diagnosis, despite the negative impact caused by antibiotic previous treatment. The agents most commonly detected were Haemophilus influenzae b, meningococci and pneumococci. Bacterial meningitis continues to present an important mortality among children, particularly when caused by pneumococci.

  17. Meningeal inflammation and demyelination in a patient clinically diagnosed with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshihara, Hiroshi; Oguchi, Kenya; Takei, Yo-ichi; Kitazawa, Kazuo; Higuchi, Kayoko; Ohara, Shinji

    2014-11-15

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and multiple sclerosis (MS) are both CNS inflammatory demyelinating diseases with overlapping clinical features. A case is reported of a 51-year-old female who presented with headache, progressive aphasia and hemiparesis without preceding infection or vaccination. Brain MRI revealed multiple, often confluent, subcortical white matter lesions without enhancement, affecting predominantly the left cerebral hemisphere. CSF examination failed to reveal oligoclonal bands. Brain biopsy revealed both pathological features of ADEM and findings are consistent with the early stage of MS, including meningeal B and T lymphocytic infiltration, perivenular demyelination, subpial demyelination and discrete confluent plaque-like foci of demyelination. Steroid treatment resulted in remarkable clinical and radiological improvement and there has been no recurrence in six years of follow-up. This case highlights the difficulties in differentiating between ADEM and the first attack of MS and further suggests that ADEM and the early stage of MS, and its tumefactive variant, may have a common underlying pathologic mechanism, which may have a therapeutic implication in treating these diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Post-infective transverse myelitis following Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis with radiological features of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: a case report

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    Williams Thomas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Post-infectious autoimmune demyelination of the central nervous system is a rare neurological disorder typically associated with exanthematous viral infections. We report an unusual presentation of the condition and a previously undocumented association with Streptococcus pneumonia meningitis. Case presentation A 50-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our facility with an acute myelopathy three days after discharge following acute Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis. Imaging studies of the spine ruled out an infective focus and no other lesions were seen within the cord. Diffuse, bilateral white matter lesions were seen within the cerebral hemispheres, and our patient was diagnosed as having a post-infective demyelination syndrome that met the diagnostic criteria for an acute transverse myelitis. Our patient clinically and radiologically improved following treatment with steroids. Conclusions The novel association of a Streptococcus pneumoniae infection with post-infectious autoimmune central nervous system demyelination should alert the reader to the potentially causative role of this common organism, and gives insights into the pathogenesis. The unusual dissociation between the clinical presentation and the location of the radiological lesions should also highlight the potential for the condition to mimic the presentation of others, and stimulates debate on the definitions of acute transverse myelitis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and their potential overlap.

  19. Post-infective transverse myelitis following Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis with radiological features of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Post-infectious autoimmune demyelination of the central nervous system is a rare neurological disorder typically associated with exanthematous viral infections. We report an unusual presentation of the condition and a previously undocumented association with Streptococcus pneumonia meningitis. Case presentation A 50-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our facility with an acute myelopathy three days after discharge following acute Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis. Imaging studies of the spine ruled out an infective focus and no other lesions were seen within the cord. Diffuse, bilateral white matter lesions were seen within the cerebral hemispheres, and our patient was diagnosed as having a post-infective demyelination syndrome that met the diagnostic criteria for an acute transverse myelitis. Our patient clinically and radiologically improved following treatment with steroids. Conclusions The novel association of a Streptococcus pneumoniae infection with post-infectious autoimmune central nervous system demyelination should alert the reader to the potentially causative role of this common organism, and gives insights into the pathogenesis. The unusual dissociation between the clinical presentation and the location of the radiological lesions should also highlight the potential for the condition to mimic the presentation of others, and stimulates debate on the definitions of acute transverse myelitis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and their potential overlap. PMID:22992300

  20. Acute Meningitis on Account of Orbital Bone Fracture: A Case Report

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    Zahra Arab-Mazar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae is a gram-positive pathogen bacteria which causes a variety of diseases, including otitis media, bacteremia, and meningitis.Cases Report: A 19-year-old man with paroxysm was admitted to emergency department of hospital. He was diagnosed with S. pneumoniae meningitis on the basis of an analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid and blood culture.Conclusion: We present a rare case of meningitis. The treatment was successful by just relying on the antibiogram test results. Vancomycin treatment was discontinued, and the patient fully recovered with Ceftriaxone

  1. Pediatric Acute Bacterial Sinusitis: Diagnostic and Treatment Dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Andrea; England, Jasmin; Gausche-Hill, Marianne

    2015-11-01

    Acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS) is a common complication of a simple upper respiratory infection. Acute bacterial sinusitis and an upper respiratory infection, however, have different management plans. This article will help clinicians establish when a diagnosis of ABS can be made based on the latest guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics. Also covered will be the pathophysiology of ABS, the role of diagnostic imaging, the recognition of complications of ABS, and treatment options.

  2. Prevention of meningeal relapses in acute lymphoblastic leukemia; Zapobieganie wznowom oponowym w ostrej bialaczce limfoblastycznej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armata, J. [Polsko-Amerykanski Instytut Pediatrii, Collegium Medicum, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland)

    1993-12-31

    The paper describes modern methods of preventing meningeal leukemia which, in view of the noxiousness of skull radiotherapy, increasingly restrict the use of this method in a growing number of children.(author) 25 refs, 3 tabs

  3. Evaluation of an Internally Controlled Multiplex Tth Endonuclease Cleavage Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (TEC-LAMP Assay for the Detection of Bacterial Meningitis Pathogens

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    Owen Higgins

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial meningitis infection is a leading global health concern for which rapid and accurate diagnosis is essential to reduce associated morbidity and mortality. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP offers an effective low-cost diagnostic approach; however, multiplex LAMP is difficult to achieve, limiting its application. We have developed novel real-time multiplex LAMP technology, TEC-LAMP, using Tth endonuclease IV and a unique LAMP primer/probe. This study evaluates the analytical specificity, limit of detection (LOD and clinical application of an internally controlled multiplex TEC-LAMP assay for detection of leading bacterial meningitis pathogens: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae. Analytical specificities were established by testing 168 bacterial strains, and LODs were determined using Probit analysis. The TEC-LAMP assay was 100% specific, with LODs for S. pneumoniae, N. meningitidis and H. influenzae of 39.5, 17.3 and 25.9 genome copies per reaction, respectively. Clinical performance was evaluated by testing 65 archived PCR-positive samples. Compared to singleplex real-time PCR, the multiplex TEC-LAMP assay demonstrated diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 92.3% and 100%, respectively. This is the first report of a single-tube internally controlled multiplex LAMP assay for bacterial meningitis pathogen detection, and the first report of Tth endonuclease IV incorporation into nucleic acid amplification diagnostic technology.

  4. Targets for adjunctive therapy in pneumococcal meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barichello, Tatiana; Collodel, Allan; Generoso, Jaqueline S; Simões, Lutiana R; Moreira, Ana Paula; Ceretta, Renan A; Petronilho, Fabrícia; Quevedo, João

    2015-01-15

    Pneumococcal meningitis is a severe infectious disease of the central nervous system (CNS) and a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The inflammatory reaction to the disease contributes to neuronal injury and involves the meninges, the subarachnoid space and the brain parenchymal vessels. Bacterial pathogens may reach the blood-brain barrier and be recognized by antigen-presenting cells through the binding of Toll-like receptors, triggering an inflammatory cascade. This in turn produces cytokines and chemokines, increases adhesion molecule expression and attracts leukocytes from the blood. This cascade leads to lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial damage and blood-brain barrier permeability. In spite of effective antibacterial treatments, approximately one third of survivors suffer from long-term sequelae, such as hearing loss, cerebral palsy, seizures, hydrocephaly or cognitive impairment. This review summarizes the information on targets of adjuvant treatments of acute pneumococcal meningitis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Non-Type B Haemophilus Influenzae Meningitis: A Case Report

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    Fatma Deniz Aygun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Haemophilus influenza is one of the most common cause of bacterial meningitis in children. H.influenzae, especially type b (Hib serotype causes invasive infections in children under five years of age. The widespread use of Hib conjugate vaccines has led to a dramatic decline in the incidence of invasive Hib infections. But, the invasive diseases are still reported, particularly nontypeable H. influenzae (noncapsulated remain as an important pathogen. However, there is no evidence that nontypeable H. influenzae infections have increased in frequency. Nontypeable H. Ižnfluenzae serotype is encountered as a cause of acute bacterial meningitis among all ages. In this paper, we present to draw attention to the causative bacterium, in a case of bacterial meningitis caused by nontypeable H. influenzae infection in a child immunized with Hib vaccine.

  6. Assessment of healthcare delivery in the early management of bacterial meningitis in UK young infants: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okike, Ifeanyichukwu O; Ladhani, Shamez N; Anthony, Mark; Ninis, Nelly; Heath, Paul T

    2017-08-21

    To define early presenting features of bacterial meningitis in young infants in England and to review the adequacy of individual case management as compared with relevant national guidelines and an expert panel review. Retrospective medical case note review and parental recall using standardised questionnaires. England and Wales. Infants aged management. The median time from onset of first symptoms to first help was 5 hours (IQR: 2-12) and from triage to receipt of first antibiotic dose was 2.0 hours (IQR: 1.0-3.3), significantly shorter in infants with fever or seizures at presentation compared with those without (1.7 (IQR: 1.0-3.0) vs 4.2 (IQR: 1.8-6.3) hours, p=0.02). Overall, 26 (39%) infants had a poor outcome in terms of death or neurological complication; seizures at presentation was the only significant independent risk factor (OR, 7.9; 95% CI 2.3 to 207.0). For cases in hospital already, the median time from onset to first dose of antibiotics was 2.6 (IQR: 1.3-9.8) hours, and 12/31 (39%) of infants had serious neurological sequelae at hospital discharge. Hearing test was not performed in 23% and when performed delayed by ≥4 weeks in 41%. In young infants, the non-specific features associated with bacterial meningitis appear to show no progression from onset to admission, whereas there were small but significant differences in the proportion of infants with more specific symptoms at hospital admission compared with at the onset of the illness, highlighting the difficulties in early recognition by parents and healthcare professionals alike. A substantial proportion of infants received inappropriate prehospital and posthospital management. We propose a targeted campaign for education and harmonisation of practice with evidence-based management algorithms. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Procalcitonin as a Diagnostic and Prognostic Factor for Tuberculosis Meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jinseung; Kim, Si Eun; Park, Bong Soo; Shin, Kyong Jin; Ha, Sam Yeol; Park, JinSe; Kim, Sung Eun; Park, Kang Min

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose We investigated the potential role of serum procalcitonin in differentiating tuberculosis meningitis from bacterial and viral meningitis, and in predicting the prognosis of tuberculosis meningitis. Methods This was a retrospective study of 26 patients with tuberculosis meningitis. In addition, 70 patients with bacterial meningitis and 49 patients with viral meningitis were included as the disease control groups for comparison. The serum procalcitonin level was measured ...

  8. An Unexpected Cause of Bradycardia in a Patient with Bacterial Meningitis

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    Petros Ioannou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sinus bradycardia which is a sinus rhythm with a resting heart rate of less than 60 bpm is caused by intrinsic cardiac disorders like sick sinus syndrome or inferior myocardial infarction, metabolic and environmental causes (such as hypothyroidism and electrolyte disorders, medications (such as beta-blockers and amiodarone, infection (such as myocarditis, increased intracranial pressure, and toxic exposure, while it can sometimes be a normal phenomenon, especially during sleep, in athletes, and during pregnancy. Symptomatic sinus bradycardia should warrant a thorough work-up in order to identify any reversible causes; otherwise, placement of a permanent pacemaker could be needed. We present the case of a patient who was admitted due to confusion and fever and was found to have pneumococcal meningitis and bacteremia, and during his hospital stay he developed symptomatic sinus bradycardia that was of intractable cause and persistent. Placement of a permanent pacemaker was chosen until the night staff of the hospital discovered by chance the neglected cause of his bradycardia.

  9. Enterobacteriaceae meningitis in adults: a review of 20 consecutive cases 1977-1997

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Eva; Møller, Kirsten; Skinhøj, Peter

    1999-01-01

    consecutive cases of Enterobacteriaceae meningitis admitted to the Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, during the years 1977-97. They comprised 1.5% of all cases of acute bacterial meningitis admitted to the department. All of the patients were either elderly and/or had 1 or more...... underlying diseases and predisposing factors. The clinical presentation and cerebrospinal fluid findings were not different from that of acute bacterial meningitis in general. The mortality rate was 40% and correlated with simultaneous bacteraemia. Complications were seen in a further 30% of patients and 25......Enterobacteriaceae are not a frequent cause of meningitis in adults and are seen mainly in neurosurgical patients and on occasion in elderly and debilitated patients. Consequently, most series studied have been small and selected. In order to obtain a clearer clinical picture, we reviewed 20...

  10. The characteristics of post-neurosurgical bacterial meningitis in elective neurosurgery in 2012: A single institute study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Runfa; Hao, Shuyu; Hou, Zonggang; Gao, Zhixian; Liu, Baiyun

    2015-12-01

    Most post-neurosurgical meningitis research has been focused on large cohorts with numerous cases followed over several years. However, the characteristics of post-neurosurgical meningitis in an entire single year are still unclear, and knowledge of these characteristics might influence the selection of appropriate antibiotics and therapeutic strategies for the successful management of this disease. Our aim is to obtain a better understanding of post-neurosurgical meningitis over a single entire year. Patients with positive meningitis cultures after neurosurgical operations in our hospital during the entire year of 2012 were included in the analysis. We report demographic characteristics, morbidity during different seasons, clinical and bacteriological profiles, sensitivity to antibiotics and causes of the post-neurosurgical meningitis infections in our cohort. Of the 6407 patients who underwent neurosurgical procedures during the study period, 146 developed post-neurosurgical meningitis and the overall incidence of meningitis was 2.28%. The incidence of meningitis was significantly higher in patients who underwent surgery in the autumn and winter than spring or summer (p=0.000). The most common organisms causing meningitis were Gram-positive bacteria, followed by the Klebsiella and Baumannii species. Compound sulfamethoxazole (52.6%) and vancomycin (10.5%) were the most active antibiotics against Gram-positive bacteria strains, whereas meropenem (43.8%) and polymyxin (18.8%) were active against Gram-negative bacillus strains. Post-neurosurgical meningitis usually occurs in the autumn and winter of the year in our hospital. Gram-positive organisms, which are sensitive to compound sulfamethoxazole and vancomycin, are the most common causative pathogens of post-neurosurgical meningitis in the northern mainland of China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of internally controlled duplex real-time NASBA diagnostics assays for the detection of microorganisms associated with bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Eoin; Coughlan, Helena; Higgins, Owen; Boo, Teck Wee; Cormican, Martin; Barrett, Louise; Smith, Terry J; Reddington, Kate; Barry, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Three duplex molecular beacon based real-time Nucleic Acid Sequence Based Amplification (NASBA) assays have been designed and experimentally validated targeting RNA transcripts for the detection and identification of Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae respectively. Each real-time NASBA diagnostics assay includes an endogenous non-competitive Internal Amplification Control (IAC) to amplify the splice variant 1 mRNA of the Homo sapiens TBP gene from human total RNA. All three duplex real-time NASBA diagnostics assays were determined to be 100% specific for the target species tested for. Also the Limits of Detection (LODs) for the H. influenzae, N. meningitidis and S. pneumoniae duplex real-time NASBA assays were 55.36, 0.99, and 57.24 Cell Equivalents (CE) respectively. These robust duplex real-time NASBA diagnostics assays have the potential to be used in a clinical setting for the rapid (bacterial meningitis in humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Patterns of Local and Systemic Cytokines in Bacterial Meningitis and its Relation with Severity and Long-Term Sequelae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdomo-Celis, Federico; Torres, Miguel A.; Ostos, Henry; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Molano, Víctor; Durán, Luis F.; González, Guillermo; Narváez, Carlos F.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis (BM) is a pyogenic infection present in the subarachnoid space, potentially fatal and frequently associated with neurological sequelae. During BM, cytokines (CTs) are locally produced. We sought to determine the CTs’ clinical role as disease severity predictors in adults, which is not completely clear. Using a bead-based flow cytometric assay, levels of six CTs were determined in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma from 18 adult BM patients and 19 uninfected controls. Long-term neurological sequelae were evaluated using the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS). All evaluated CTs were higher in CSF than in plasma, and the levels of CSF interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α and plasma IL-10 and IL-12p70 were significantly higher in patients with severe sepsis than with sepsis, suggesting an association with clinical severity. There was a strong negative correlation between CSF IL-6 and plasma IL-12p70 with GOS score, supporting the possible role of these CTs in the development of neurological long-term sequelae. These findings could be helpful to identify candidates to receive neuroprotective treatments and early physiotherapy schemes. PMID:26715831

  13. Meningitis - meningococcal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meningococcal meningitis; Gram negative - meningococcus ... Meningococcal meningitis is caused by the bacteria Neisseria meningitidis (also known as meningococcus). Meningococcus is the most common cause ...

  14. Development of Real-Time PCR Methods for the Detection of Bacterial Meningitis Pathogens without DNA Extraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeni Vuong

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis (Nm, Haemophilus influenzae (Hi, and Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp are the lead causes of bacterial meningitis. Detection of these pathogens from clinical specimens using traditional real-time PCR (rt-PCR requires DNA extraction to remove the PCR inhibitors prior to testing, which is time consuming and labor intensive. In this study, five species-specific (Nm-sodC and -ctrA, Hi-hpd#1 and -hpd#3 and Sp-lytA and six serogroup-specific rt-PCR tests (A, B, C, W, X, Y targeting Nm capsular genes were evaluated in the two direct rt-PCR methods using PerfeCTa and 5x Omni that do not require DNA extraction. The sensitivity and specify of the two direct rt-PCR methods were compared to TaqMan traditional rt-PCR, the current standard rt-PCR method for the detection of meningitis pathogens. The LLD for all 11 rt-PCR tests ranged from 6,227 to 272,229 CFU/ml for TaqMan, 1,824-135,982 for 5x Omni, and 168-6,836 CFU/ml for PerfeCTa. The diagnostic sensitivity using TaqMan ranged from 89.2%-99.6%, except for NmB-csb, which was 69.7%. For 5x Omni, the sensitivity varied from 67.1% to 99.8%, with three tests below 90%. The sensitivity of these tests using PerfeCTa varied from 89.4% to 99.8%. The specificity ranges of the 11 tests were 98.0-99.9%, 97.5-99.9%, and 92.9-99.9% for TaqMan, 5x Omni, and PerfeCTa, respectively. PerfeCTa direct rt-PCR demonstrated similar or better sensitivity compared to 5x Omni direct rt-PCR or TaqMan traditional rt-PCR. Since the direct rt-PCR method does not require DNA extraction, it reduces the time and cost for processing CSF specimens, increases testing throughput, decreases the risk of cross-contamination, and conserves precious CSF. The direct rt-PCR method will be beneficial to laboratories with high testing volume.

  15. Bilateral Renal Cortical Necrosis in Meningococcal Meningitis

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    C. Kennedy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial meningitis is a relatively common infection of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and leptomeninges. The clinical picture evolves rapidly and, if treatment is delayed, can result in a variety of long-term sequelae, including death. Acute kidney injury in the setting of bacterial meningitis usually results from hypotension and volume depletion and resolves with appropriate treatment. Meningococcaemia with profound hypotension, and/or disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC may very rarely lead to bilateral renal cortical necrosis. In this context, renal recovery is extremely unlikely. We present two cases of meningococcaemia complicated by bilateral renal cortical necrosis and, ultimately, end stage kidney disease. We also present a review of the literature on the subject. The cases outline the importance of early aggressive intervention by a multidisciplinary team.

  16. Lack of Proinflammatory Cytokine Interleukin-6 or Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-1 Results in a Failure of the Innate Immune Response after Bacterial Meningitis

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    Lea-Jessica Albrecht

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most frequent pathogen that causes bacterial meningitis is the Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. By entering the brain, host cells will be activated and proinflammatory cytokines like interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α are released. The goal of the current study was to examine the interaction between IL-6 and TNFR1 as receptor for TNF-α and the innate immune response in vivo in a model of Streptococcus pneumoniae-induced meningitis. For the experiments IL-6−/−, TNFR1−/−, and TNFR1-IL-6−/− KO mice were used. Our results revealed higher mortality rates and bacterial burden after infection in TNFR1−/−, IL-6−/−, and TNFR1-IL-6−/− mice and a decreased immune response including lower neutrophil infiltration in the meninges of TNFR1−/− and TNFR1-IL-6−/− mice in contrast to IL-6−/− and wild type mice. Furthermore, the increased mortality of TNFR1−/− and TNFR1-IL-6−/− mice correlated with decreased glial cell activation compared to IL-6−/− or wild type mice after pneumococcal meningitis. Altogether, the results show the importance of TNFR1 and IL-6 in the regulation of the innate immune response. The lack of TNFR1 and IL-6 results in higher mortality by weakened immune defence, whereas the lack of TNFR1 results in more severe impairment of the innate immune response than the lack of IL-6 alone.

  17. Progress towards meningitis prevention in the conjugate vaccines era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Aparecida Borges Laval

    Full Text Available Acute bacterial meningitis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among children less than five years old. Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis are the most important agents of bacterial meningitis in developing countries. The development of the conjugate vaccines in the beginning of the 90's, especially type b H. influenzae (Hib, and more recently the heptavalent pneumococcal and the serogroup C meningococcal vaccines, have contributed directly to changes in the epidemiological profile of these invasive diseases (direct effect and of their carriage status (indirect effect. We review the impact of the Hib conjugate vaccine in Latin American countries, where this vaccine has been implemented, and the potential of pneumococcal and meningococcal conjugate vaccines for the reduction of meningitis worldwide. We also address constraints for the development and delivery of these vaccines and review new candidate state-of-the-art vaccines. The greatest challenge, undoubtedly, is to implement these vaccines worldwide, especially in the developing regions.

  18. Prevalence of acute respiratory bacterial pathogens in children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted in Gondar, North-Western Ethiopia, during 1997-1998 to determine the prevalence of bacterial etiologic agents of acute respiratory infection (ARI) in children. A total of 390 subjects were studied out of which 63% were cases from Gondar Hospital and Gondar Health Center and the rest (37%) were ...

  19. Attenuation of the bacterial load in blood by pretreatment with granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor protects rats from fatal outcome and brain damage during Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Christian T; Lundgren, Jens D; Lund, Søren Peter

    2004-01-01

    A model of pneumococcal meningitis in young adult rats receiving antibiotics once the infection was established was developed. The intent was to mimic clinical and histopathological features of pneumococcal meningitis in humans. The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate whether medical...... of meningitis result in reduced risks of death and brain damage. This beneficial effect is most likely achieved through improved control of the systemic disease....... to the infection compared to that for untreated rats (P = 0.039 by the log rank test). The improved outcome was associated with reduced signs of cerebral cortical damage (P = 0.008). Furthermore, the beneficial effects of G-CSF were associated with reduced bacterial loads in the cerebrospinal fluid (median, 1.1 x...... postinfection did not alter the clinical or histological outcome relative to that for non-G-CSF-treated rats. The magnitude of bacteremia and pretreatment with G-CSF were found to be prognostic factors for both outcome and brain damage. In summary, elevated neutrophil levels prior to the development...

  20. Chronic Meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle

    2000-07-01

    Treatment of chronic meningitis depends on the underlying cause. Once a specific cause has been established, appropriate targeted therapy is initiated. When the cause is unknown, a decision must be made whether to employ empiric therapy while the diagnostic evaluation is ongoing. This decision is based on three factors: 1) the clinical status of the patient; 2) the most likely cause based on demographic, historical, examination, and initial laboratory data; and 3) the risk-to-benefit ratio of the proposed treatment regimen. Initial efforts focus on deciding whether the meningitis is infectious or noninfectious. When a decision is made to start empiric therapy, antituberculous treatment is generally given for several weeks to judge therapeutic response. Patients who do not respond to antituberculous therapy are next treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics for unusual bacterial pathogens such as Actinomyces (penicillin), the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (ceftriaxone), Brucella (doxycycline plus rifampin), or Francisella tularensis (streptomycin plus gentamicin). Antifungal therapy is generally reserved for patients who are at particular risk for mycotic infection (owing to underlying immunosuppression or an extraneural infection site). Finally, empiric glucocorticoids are generally reserved for patients with consistently negative culture results and a probable noninfectious cause.

  1. Emergency management in bacterial meningitis and sepsis: application of real time-polymerase chain reaction and FilmArray technology performed directly on cerebrospinal fluid and blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loria Bianchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Bacterial meningitis and sepsis are medical emergencies where tests with a high sensitivity and short turn around time (TAT are crucial for an early targeted therapy. Aim of this study was the evaluation of an optimal diagnostic strategy for infectious meningitis/sepsis management, assessing seven methods: cerebrospinal fluid (CSF physical-chemical examination, CSF cultural tests (CCT, Gram stained smears (GSS, CSF latex agglutination test (CLAT, blood culture (BC, Real-Time (RT-PCR and FilmArray Technology (FAT performed directly on CSF/blood. Materials and Methods. Samples of CSF (240, blood (180 and cavitary fluids (9 were tested by commercial RT-PCR (Eurospital and Liferiver kits and traditional methods. Positive samples (BC and RT-PCR were tested by FAT (Blood Culture Identification Panel, Biofire, Salt Lake City, UT, USA performed directly on CSF, blood and cavitary fluids. Results. In CSF, GSS, CLAT, CCT, RT-PCR and FAT sensitivity was 41%, 35%, 41%, 100% and 62,5%, respectively. In blood, BC, RT-PCR and FAT sensitivity was 96%, 70% and 44%, respectively. TAT was 48-96 hrs, 3 hrs and 1 hr and NPV was 98%, 89% and 57%, respectively. Conclusions. For sepsis management, RT-PCR is faster than BC (3 hrs vs 24-72 hrs, but limited by a low overall sensitivity (70%, due to the low number of detectable pathogens; FAT, performed directly on positive BC should replace biochemical identification (Vitek 2, Biomérieux Marcy-l’Étoile, France reducing TAT (1 hr vs 12 hrs. For meningitis management, RT-PCR is the most sensitive and rapid method used in routine and emergency regimen. It is cost effective and it represents the gold standard for diagnosis and follow-up of patients under treatment. For meningitis management, FAT, with a higher sensitivity and rapidity and an easier and objective interpretation, should replace CLAT and GSS in emergency regimen.

  2. [Group A streptococcal meningitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouhadi, Z; Sadiki, H; Lehlimi, M; Honsali, Z; Najib, J; Zerouali, K; Belabess, H; Mdaghri, N

    2012-12-01

    An increased incidence and severity of invasive group A streptococcus (GAS) infections over the past decade have been reported by several authors, but GAS remains an uncommon cause of bacterial meningitis. The aim of this study was to describe and analyze the clinical and biological data of GAS meningitis by reporting 10 new cases of pediatric GAS meningitis and making a literature review. The mean age of patients, seven girls and three boys, was 3 years. There was a history of preexisting or concomitant community-acquired infection in five patients over 10. The outcome was fatal in two cases. All patients received an initial empirical antimicrobial therapy with a third generation cephalosporin switched in six cases to amoxicillin. The prognosis for this type of streptococcal meningitis is usually good, but death may occur even in children without any identified risk factor for severe infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Fungal Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis Fungal Meningitis Language: English Spanish Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... the brain or spinal cord. Investigation of Fungal Meningitis, 2012 In September 2012, the Centers for Disease ...

  4. Frequency of Pathogenic Paediatric Bacterial Meningitis in Mozambique: The Critical Role of Multiplex Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction to Estimate the Burden of Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhantumbo, Aquino Albino; Cantarelli, Vlademir Vicente; Caireão, Juliana; Munguambe, Alcides Moniz; Comé, Charlotte Elizabeth; Pinto, Gabriela do Carmo; Zimba, Tomás Francisco; Mandomando, Inácio; Semá, Cynthia Baltazar; Dias, Cícero; Moraes, Milton Ozório; Gudo, Eduardo Samo

    2015-01-01

    Background In Sub-Saharan Africa, including Mozambique, acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) represents a main cause of childhood mortality. The burden of ABM is seriously underestimated because of the poor performance of culture sampling, the primary method of ABM surveillance in the region. Low quality cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples and frequent consumption of antibiotics prior to sample collection lead to a high rate of false-negative results. To our knowledge, this study is the first to determine the frequency of ABM in Mozambique using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and to compare results to those of culture sampling. Method Between March 2013 and March 2014, CSF samples were collected at 3 regional hospitals from patients under 5 years of age, who met World Health Organization case definition criteria for ABM. Macroscopic examination, cytochemical study, culture, and qPCR were performed on all samples. Results A total of 369 CSF samples were collected from children clinically suspected of ABM. qPCR showed a significantly higher detection rate of ABM-causing pathogens when compared to culture (52.3% [193/369] versus 7.3% [27/369], p = 0.000). The frequency of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, group B Streptococci, and Neisseria meningitidis were 32.8% (121⁄369), 12.2%, (45⁄369), 3.0% (16⁄369) and 4.3% (11⁄369), respectively, significantly higher compared to that obtained on culture (p < 0.001 for each). Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that culture is less effective for the diagnosis of ABM than qPCR. The common use of culture rather than qPCR to identify ABM results in serious underestimation of the burden of the disease, and our findings strongly suggest that qPCR should be incorporated into surveillance activities for ABM. In addition, our data showed that S. pneumoniae represents the most common cause of ABM in children under 5 years of age. PMID:26393933

  5. A Rare Case of Pediatric Lumbar Spinal Ependymoma Mimicking Meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekuma, Ezeali Mike; Ito, Kiyoshi; Chiba, Akihiro; Hara, Yosuke; Kanaya, Kohei; Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Ohaegbulam, Samuel; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2017-04-01

    Spontaneous acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from lumbar ependymoma in children is rare. We report a case of a 14-year-old boy who developed sudden radicular low back pain while playing baseball. He was initially managed conservatively in a local hospital for suspected lumbar disc herniation, but he later developed meningeal symptoms and fever before being referred to our hospital. He underwent a diagnostic lumbar puncture in the emergency department; his cerebrospinal fluid suggested an SAH. Physical examination showed meningeal signs and cauda equina features. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis was negative for bacterial meningitis. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass characterized as a hemorrhagic lesion. The patient had an emergent evacuation of the mass through the posterior approach. Postoperatively, his symptoms resolved completely. The histologic diagnosis was, surprisingly, an ependymoma (World Health Organization grade II). This case is particularly interesting because of its rarity in children, and its pattern of presentation. Although bacterial or viral meningitis is the most frequent cause of meningeal features in children, SAH from a hemorrhagic spinal tumor should be considered. Ultimately, a high index of suspicion is needed for prompt diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Listeria monocytogenes Meningitis in Adults: The Czech Republic Experience

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    Olga Dzupova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Listeria monocytogenes (LM is currently the third most frequent pathogen of bacterial meningitis in adults. Methods. A prospective study of patients with LM meningitis in a Czech tertiary care hospital, carried out from 1997 to 2012. Results. Thirty-one patients were diagnosed with LM meningitis, which was 7% of a total of 440 adult patients with acute bacterial meningitis (ABM over a 16-year period. Their median age was 63 years, range 26–80 years. Nineteen patients (61% had underlying immunocompromising comorbidity; 15 patients (48% were older than 65 years. Fourteen patients (45% had arterial hypertension. The typical triad of fever, neck stiffness, and altered mental status was present in 21 patients (68%. The median count of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF leukocytes was 680/L, protein level 2.6 g/L, and glucose ratio 0.28. Four patients (13% died, and nine (29% survived with moderate to severe sequelae. Conclusion. LM meningitis is known to affect immunosuppressed and elderly patients. Arterial hypertension seems to be another important predisposing factor. Clinical symptoms, CSF findings, and disease outcomes, did not significantly differ from other community-acquired ABM in our study, although the CSF leukocyte count was lower. Ampicillin showed good clinical and bacteriological efficacy in the majority of patients.

  7. Campylobacter Fetus Meningitis in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Samkar, Anusha; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter fetus is a rare cause of bacterial meningitis. Little is known about the clinical characteristics, predisposing factors and outcome of C fetus meningitis in adults. We report cases of C fetus meningitis in a nationwide cohort study of adult bacterial meningitis patients in the Netherlands and performed a review of the literature. Two patients with C fetus meningitis were identified from January 2006 through May 2015. The calculated annual incidence was 0.02 per million adults. Combined with the literature, we identified 22 patients with a median age of 48 years. An immunocompromised state was present in 16 patients (73%), mostly due to alcoholism (41%) and diabetes mellitus (27%). The source of infection was identified in 13 out of 19 patients (68%), consisting of regular contact with domestic animals in 5 and working on a farm in 4. Recurrent fever and illness was reported in 4 patients (18%), requiring prolonged antibiotic treatment. Two patients died (9%) and 3 survivors (15%) had neurological sequelae. C fetus is a rare cause of bacterial meningitis and is associated with an immunocompromised state. Based on the apparent slow clinical response seen in this limited number of cases, the authors of this study recommend a prolonged course of antimicrobial therapy when C fetus is identified as a causative agent of bacterial meningitis. Cases appeared to do best with carbapenem therapy. PMID:26937916

  8. Treatment of acute cryptococcal meningitis in HIV infected adults, with an emphasis on resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Derek; Dlamini, Sipho; Paul, Navin; Dedicoat, Martin

    2008-10-08

    Despite the advent and increasingly wide availability of antiretroviral therapy, cryptococcal meningitis (CM) remains a significant cause of mortality and morbidity amongst individuals with HIV infection in resource-limited settings. The ideal management of CM remains unclear. The aim of this review is to assess the evidence for deciding on which antifungal regimen to use as well as other modalities of management to utilise especially resource poor settings in order to achieve the best possible outcome and enable an individual with CM to survive their acute illness and benefit from antiretroviral therapy. To determine the most effective initial and consolidation treatment strategy for CM in HIV infected adults. The Cochrane HIV/AIDS group search strategy was used. Key words in the search included, meningitis, cryptococcus neoformans, treatment, trial, human immunodeficiency virus, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, antifungal agents, amphotericin, flucytosine, fluconazole, azole, lumbar puncture, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure and acetazolamide. Randomised of HIV-infected adults with a first episode of CM diagnosed on CSF examination, by India ink staining, CSF culture or cryptococcal antigen testing. Data were extracted using standardised forms and analysed using Rev Man 4.2.7 software. Six studies are included in the review. Five of the studies compared antifungal treatments and one study addressed lowering intracranial pressure. This study was stopped early due to excess adverse effects. The results of the other five studies as summarised as follows.Mayanja-Kizza 1998 compared fluconazole to fluconazole with 5 flucytosine. The dose of fluconazole used 200mg initially is lower than the recommended initial dose of 400mg. No survival advantage was found with the use of 5 flucytosine in addition to fluconazole.Two studies Brouwer 2004 and van der Horst 1997 compared Amphotericin (AmB) to AmB with 5 flucytosine. Both drugs were given at currently recommended

  9. Etiologia e evolução das meningites bacterianas em centro de pediatria Etiology and evolution of bacterial meningitis in a pediatric center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta M.C. Romanelli

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: determinar a prevalência dos agentes etiológicos das meningites bacterianas em serviço de referência, no atendimento de doenças infecciosas para o estado de Minas Gerais, e verificar a resposta ao tratamento utilizado.Métodos: estudo descritivo em que foram incluídas todas as crianças com diagnóstico provável de meningite, admitidas na instituição no período de junho a novembro/99.Resultados: obteve-se 210 casos de meningite, sendo 111 casos de etiologia bacteriana (52,9%. Destes, 52 casos foram diagnósticos prováveis (por alteração do liquor rotina e 59 com diagnósticos de certeza (por cultura e/ou isolamento de antígeno. Os principais agentes isolados foram, em ordem decrescente, H. influenzae, N. meningitidis e S. pneumoniae. O tratamento inicial para a faixa etária de três meses a cinco anos foi ampicilina e cloranfenicol, sendo posteriormente restrito para penicilina em casos de meningococo e pneumococo, e para cloranfenicol nos casos de H. influenzae. A mudança para antimicrobiano de maior espectro foi realizada com base em dados clínicos ou laboratoriais, não havendo isolamento de microorganismo resistente.Conclusões: o acompanhamento do perfil epidemiológico das meningites deve ser contínuo, e cada serviço deve se basear em dados locais para direcionar a terapia antimicrobiana. A monitorização contínua dos agentes prevalentes em cada instituição e de sua resistência é fundamental para a escolha antimicrobiana, atuando com menor interferência na colonização individual, sem contribuir para a crescente resistência dos agentes responsáveis pelas infecções meníngeas.Objective: to establish the prevalence of the etiological agents of bacterial meningitis in a reference center for the treatment of infectious diseases in the state of Minas Gerais. Methods: descriptive study including all children with probable diagnosis of meningitis between June/1999 and November/1999.Results: there were 210

  10. Clinical significance of cerebrospinal fluid inhibitory titers of antibiotics, based on pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameters, in the treatment of bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Yoshiro; Kitazato, Miyoshi; Morita, Takashi; Mizunaga, Shingo; Mitsuyama, Junichi

    2009-08-01

    The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inhibitory titer (CSF-IT) of an antibiotic, which can be used to estimate the duration of time above the agent's MIC in the CSF, was introduced as one of the indices to evaluate the effectiveness of antibiotic selection in treating bacterial meningitis. The CSF-IT was determined via a microdilution method. A suspension of the causative organism was added to a tube containing twofold diluted CSF and double-concentrated Mueller-Hinton broth with supplement. The CSF-IT was determined by the maximum point without turbidity of medium after overnight incubation at 37 degrees C. Concerning the strain of beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae (BLNAR), the killing rates of both meropenem and piperacillin were compared in an in vitro pharmacokinetic (PK) model, in which human pharmacokinetics in CSF were simulated. Organisms recovered from the CSF in 37 treated clinical cases of bacterial meningitis were H. influenzae, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Neisseria meningitidis; in these cases, the CSF-IT ranged from 1: 8 to as high as 1: 4 096. In the in vitro PK model, the concentrations of both drugs were higher than the MICs over a period of 24 h; however, the killing rate of piperacillin was higher than that of meropenem, and bacterial regrowth was observed after the administration of meropenem. A CSF-IT value higher than 1: 32 indicates that the antibiotic concentration in the CSF exceeds the MIC for 24 h. The effect of piperacillin on BLNAR depends not only on the time above MIC of 24 h but also on the maximum concentration in the CSF.

  11. Blockade of NMDA receptor subtype NR2B prevents seizures but not apoptosis of dentate gyrus neurons in bacterial meningitis in infant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Täuber Martin G

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excitotoxic neuronal injury by action of the glutamate receptors of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA subtype have been implicated in the pathogenesis of brain damage as a consequence of bacterial meningitis. The most potent and selective blocker of NMDA receptors containing the NR2B subunit is (R,S-alpha-(4-hydroxyphenyl-beta-methyl-4-(phenylmethyl-1-piperid inepropanol (RO 25-6981. Here we evaluated the effect of RO 25-6981 on hippocampal neuronal apoptosis in an infant rat model of meningitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Animals were randomized for treatment with RO 25-6981 at a dosage of either 0.375 mg (15 mg/kg; n = 28 or 3.75 mg (150 mg/kg; n = 15 every 3 h or an equal volume of sterile saline (250 μl; n = 40 starting at 12 h after infection. Eighteen hours after infection, animals were assessed clinically and seizures were observed for a period of 2 h. At 24 h after infection animals were sacrificed and brains were examined for apoptotic injury to the dentate granule cell layer of the hippocampus. Results Treatment with RO 25-6981 had no effect on clinical scores, but the incidence of seizures was reduced (P Conclusions Treatment with a highly selective blocker of NMDA receptors containing the NR2B subunit failed to protect hippocampal neurons from injury in this model of pneumococcal meningitis, while it had some beneficial effect on the incidence of seizures.

  12. Community-acquired Haemophilus influenzae meningitis in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, M. C.; van de Beek, D.; Heckenberg, S. G. B.; Spanjaard, L.; de Gans, J.

    2007-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is an uncommon cause of bacterial meningitis in adults. This report describes a prospective evaluation of 16 episodes of community-acquired H. influenzae meningitis in a nationwide study on bacterial meningitis. Predisposing conditions were present in eight (50%) of the 16

  13. Incorporation of real-time PCR into routine public health surveillance of culture negative bacterial meningitis in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Claudio T; Fukasawa, Lucila O; Gonçalves, Maria G; Salgado, Maristela M; Shutt, Kathleen A; Carvalhanas, Telma R; Ribeiro, Ana F; Kemp, Brigina; Gorla, Maria C O; Albernaz, Ricardo K; Marques, Eneida G L; Cruciano, Angela; Waldman, Eliseu A; Brandileone, M Cristina C; Harrison, Lee H

    2011-01-01

    Real-time (RT)-PCR increases diagnostic yield for bacterial meningitis and is ideal for incorporation into routine surveillance in a developing country. We validated a multiplex RT-PCR assay for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae in Brazil. Risk factors for being culture-negative, RT-PCR positive were determined. The sensitivity of RT-PCR in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was 100% (95% confidence limits, 96.0%-100%) for N. meningitidis, 97.8% (85.5%-99.9%) for S. pneumoniae, and 66.7% (9.4%-99.2%) for H. influenzae. Specificity ranged from 98.9% to 100%. Addition of RT-PCR to routine microbiologic methods increased the yield for detection of S. pneumoniae, N. meningitidis, and H. influenzae cases by 52%, 85%, and 20%, respectively. The main risk factor for being culture negative and RT-PCR positive was presence of antibiotic in CSF (odds ratio 12.2, 95% CI 5.9-25.0). RT-PCR using CSF was highly sensitive and specific and substantially added to measures of meningitis disease burden when incorporated into routine public health surveillance in Brazil.

  14. Iatrogenic meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Genaro Mutarelli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Iatrogenic meningitis can be caused by a number of mechanisms. The recent case reports of fungal meningitis after application of epidural methylprednisolone caused warning in the medical community. Cases were caused by contaminated lots of methylprednisolone from a single compounding pharmacy. Several medications can cause meninigitis by probable hypersensitivity mechanism. Neurologists should be alert to the recent description of the use of lamotrigine and development of aseptic meningitis.

  15. Iatrogenic meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Genaro Mutarelli; Tarso Adoni

    2013-01-01

    Iatrogenic meningitis can be caused by a number of mechanisms. The recent case reports of fungal meningitis after application of epidural methylprednisolone caused warning in the medical community. Cases were caused by contaminated lots of methylprednisolone from a single compounding pharmacy. Several medications can cause meninigitis by probable hypersensitivity mechanism. Neurologists should be alert to the recent description of the use of lamotrigine and development of aseptic meningitis.

  16. Meningeal chloroma (granulocytic sarcoma) in acute lymphoblastic leukemia mimicking a falx meningioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jung Yong; Kwon, Seong Oh; Shin, Moon Soo; Kang, Shin Heh; Kim, Young Rae

    2002-10-01

    Isolated chloromas (granulocytic sarcomas) are rare tumors. Chloromas are masses composed of immature granulocytic cells. Granulocytic sarcoma occurs primarily in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia and may also arise in patients with other myeloproliferative disorders, but rarely in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). When dural-based, granulocytic sarcoma may be indistinguishable from meningioma radiologically. We now describe one patient affected by ALL with isolated granulocytic sarcoma mimicking a falx meningioma as initial CNS relapses. These unusual clinical manifestation and radiological finding in ALL should be considered as recurrence of leukemia. Early detection and antileukemic treatment of granulocytic sarcoma are necessarily important for favorable prognosis.

  17. Avaliação e acompanhamento audiológico após meningite bacteriana Audiological assessment and follow-up post bacterial meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA INÊS VIEIRA COUTO

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available A deficiência auditiva é uma das sequelas da meningite bacteriana que ocorre com maior frequência em crianças. Este estudo descreve o perfil audiológico (periférico e central de crianças internadas com diagnóstico de meningite bacteriana. Nas 89 crianças que compareceram ao seguimento audiológico após a alta hospitalar e foram submetidas aos testes audiológicos, os resultados evidenciaram que 85,4% apresentaram acuidade auditiva normal em ambas orelhas, 10,1% apresentaram deficiência auditiva neurossensorial bilateral e 4,5% apresentaram deficiência auditiva neurossensorial unilateral. Nos testes que avaliaram as habilidades de processamento auditivo, os resultados mostraram que 10% dessas crianças apresentaram alteração no desempenho de localização auditiva e de reconhecimento de sentenças com mensagem competitiva ipsilateral.Hearing loss is the more frequent sequel of bacterial meningitis in children. This study describes the audiological profile (peripheric and central of 89 children admitted to the hospital wards with the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. Those children attended audiological follow up, after their hospital descharge, and were submitted to audiological tests. The results showed that 85.4% among them presented normal hearing in both ears 10.1% presented bilateral neurosensorial hearing loss and 4.5% presented unilateral neurosensorial hearing loss. The results from the auditory processing skills assessment showed that 10% of those children presented auditory localization and recognition of sentences with competitive messages (Paediatric Sentences Identification - ipsilateral disorders.

  18. Acute Bacterial Parotitis in Intensive Care Patients: Four Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cetin Kursad Akpinar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute Bacterial Parotitis (ABP is an infection seen in very early and old ages. The infection can be prevented by sufficient fluid support, mouth hygiene, oral feeding and avoiding multiple medication use. Parotis ultrasonography can be used for diagnosis. Acute Bacterial Parotitis can be treated in a short time and free of problems with early diagnosis and appropriate antibiotics. Mortality can be seen in cases which are late diagnosed and which are resistant to antibiotic treatment. This article presents four case reports over the age of 65 with a diagnosis of ABP, who are monitored in the intensive care. It is thought that the first case developed ABP because of multiple medication use, liquid restriction and oral feeding difficulty, the second case because of oral feeding difficulty, the third case because of bad mouth hygiene, dementia and not getting enough liquid and the fourth case because of oral feeding difficulty. If the cases with the stated risk factors are carefully followed, intensive care hospitalization period will not be prolonged and mortality rates will not increase.

  19. PARACENTRAL ACUTE MIDDLE MACULOPATHY ASSOCIATED WITH BILATERAL OPTIC DISK SWELLING AND MENINGITIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenyang; Faith, Parker; Pakzad-Vaezi, Kaivon; Chu, Zhongdi; Wang, Ruikang K; Mudumbai, Raghu C; Rezaei, Kasra A

    2017-11-22

    To present a novel case of paracentral acute middle maculopathy associated with bilateral optic disk swelling. Retrospective case report. A 67-year-old woman presented with sudden onset of central vision loss and subsequent bilateral optic disk edema, retinal vessel attenuation, and anterior uveitis. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed signs of inflammation. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography demonstrated the pathognomonic hyperreflectivity of the middle retinal layers consistent with paracentral acute middle maculopathy. Swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography with custom vessel analysis demonstrated a 18.3% decrease in the deep retinal vascular density and 2.4 times increase in absent flow area in the affected eye compared with the fellow eye. This case demonstrates a novel association between paracentral acute middle maculopathy and bilateral optic disk swelling secondary to central nervous system inflammation and possible infection. Although spectral domain optical coherence tomography is valuable in detecting paracentral acute middle maculopathy, optical coherence tomography angiography with vessel analysis can provide additional insight into the disease mechanism.

  20. Recurrent Meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Jon; Galen, Benjamin T

    2017-07-01

    Recurrent meningitis is a rare clinical scenario that can be self-limiting or life threatening depending on the underlying etiology. This review describes the causes, risk factors, treatment, and prognosis for recurrent meningitis. As a general overview of a broad topic, the aim of this review is to provide clinicians with a comprehensive differential diagnosis to aide in the evaluation and management of a patient with recurrent meningitis. New developments related to understanding the pathophysiology of recurrent meningitis are as scarce as studies evaluating the treatment and prevention of this rare disorder. A trial evaluating oral valacyclovir suppression after HSV-2 meningitis did not demonstrate a benefit in preventing recurrences. The data on prophylactic antibiotics after basilar skull fractures do not support their use. Intrathecal trastuzumab has shown promise in treating leptomeningeal carcinomatosis from HER-2 positive breast cancer. Monoclonal antibodies used to treat cancer and autoimmune diseases are new potential causes of drug-induced aseptic meningitis. Despite their potential for causing recurrent meningitis, the clinical entities reviewed herein are not frequently discussed together given that they are a heterogeneous collection of unrelated, rare diseases. Epidemiologic data on recurrent meningitis are lacking. The syndrome of recurrent benign lymphocytic meningitis described by Mollaret in 1944 was later found to be closely related to HSV-2 reactivation, but HSV-2 is by no means the only etiology of recurrent aseptic meningitis. While the mainstay of treatment for recurrent meningitis is supportive care, it is paramount to ensure that reversible and treatable causes have been addressed for further prevention.

  1. Grepafloxacin in Patients with Acute Bacterial Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis - a Question of Speed in Bacterial Killing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome J Schentag

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize the population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral grepafloxacin in patients with acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (ABECB, with particular attention to the speed of bacterial killing. This was possible because the study design incorporated daily cultures of the patients’ sputum.

  2. Cryptococcal Meningitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-03-16

    Mar 16, 1974 ... Cryptococcal Meningitis. A CASE TREATED WITH 5-FLUOROCYTOSINE. 555. E. W. VAN DEN ENDE, J. A. HAMMOND, R. L. AMOILS. SUMMARY. Cryptococcal meningitis occurred in an elderly Coloured woman in the Northern Cape. She presented with symp- toms and signs suggestive of encephalitis 4 ...

  3. Toothpick meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Zhou, MD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A 66-year-old male with a history of hypertension, back pain, diverticulosis and anal fistula presents with acute onset syncopal episodes, worsening back pain, and altered mental status. The patient exhibited considerable leukocytosis but was hemodynamically stable. CT imaging of the head revealed a gas pattern in the posterior fossa and velum interpositum. CT imaging of the abdomen and pelvis revealed a needle-like foreign body traversing the left sacrum to the sigmoid colon. A lumbar puncture revealed meningitis. Flexible sigmoidoscopies were performed without successful visualization of the foreign body. An explorative laparoscopy was successfully performed, enabling retrieval of what was determined to be a wooden toothpick. The patient remained hemodynamically stable with persistent altered mental status and was eventually discharged after completion of antibiotics on day 47 of hospitalization. This case illustrates a rare complication of ingesting a sharp foreign body that was identified by CT of the brain and abdomen/pelvis with successful surgical repair.

  4. Types, Risk Factors, Clinical symptoms and Diagnostic Tests of Acute Adult Meningitis in Northern Iran During 2006-2012

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Babamahmoodi, Farhang; Nikkhah, Attieh

    2015-01-01

    .... The aim of this study was to assess types, risk factors, clinical symptoms and diagnostic tests of meningitis in hospitalized patients of Mazandaran University of medical sciences hospitals during 2006-2012...

  5. Aseptic meningitis and viral myelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, David N

    2008-08-01

    Meningitis and myelitis represent common and very infrequent viral infections of the central nervous system, respectively. The number of cases of viral meningitis that occurs annually exceeds the total number of meningitis cases caused by all other etiologies combined. Focal central nervous system infections, such as occur in the spinal cord with viral myelitis, are much less common and may be confused with noninfectious disorders that cause acute flaccid paralysis. This article reviews some of the important clinical features, epidemiology, diagnostic approaches, and management strategies for patients with aseptic meningitis and viral myelitis. Particular focus is placed on the diseases caused by enteroviruses, which as a group account for most aseptic meningitis cases and many focal infections of the spinal cord.

  6. Ventricular Pneumocephalus with Meningitis after Lumbar Nerve Root Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Ahn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar nerve root block is a common modality used in the management of radiculopathy. Its complications are rare and usually minor. Despite its low morbidity, significant acute events can occur. Pneumocephalus is an accumulation of air in the intracranial space. It indicates a violation of the dura or the presence of infection. The object of this report is to describe the case of a patient with intraventricular pneumocephalus and bacterial meningitis after lumbar nerve root block. A 70-year-old female was brought into emergency department with severe headache and vomiting which developed during her sleep. She had received lumbar nerve block for her radiculopathy one day before her presentation. Cranial computed tomography scan revealed a few hypodense lesions in her left lateral ventricle frontal horn and basal cistern indicating ventricular pneumocephalus. Five hours later, she developed sudden hearing loss. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed bacterial meningitis, and she was treated with high dose steroid and antibiotics. However, her impaired hearing as a sequela from meningitis was persistent, and she is still in follow-up. Intracranial complications of lumbar nerve root block including meningitis and pneumocephalus can occur and should be considered as high-risk conditions that require prompt intervention.

  7. Escherichia coli Meningitis after Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in an Infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgurhan, Gamze; Vermezoglu, Oznur; Ocal Topcu, Didem; Karbuz, Adem; Vehapoglu, Aysel; Hacihamdioglu, Bulent

    2016-01-01

    Although rotavirus gastroenteritis is quite common in the pediatric population, secondary bacterial sepsis following rotavirus infection is a rare clinical entity. Gram-negative bacilli are the fifth most common cause of meningitis in infants but this infection rarely occurs after gastroenteritis. Here, we report a 2.5-month-old infant who developed Escherichia coli (E. coli) meningitis after acute rotavirus gastroenteritis. The 2.5-month-old male infant with fever, vomiting, and watery diarrhea that started 1 day earlier was admitted to the hospital. Rotavirus antigen in stool sample was positive. He was hospitalized, and fever was measured at 39.5°C on the second day. Lumbar puncture was done for suspicion of meningitis, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings suggested meningitis. Intravenous vancomycin and cefotaxime were started empirically. Since E. coli reproduction was seen in blood culture and CSF culture, treatment was continued with cefotaxime. The patient was discharged with minimal midlevel hydrocephalus findings in cranial ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging following 21 days of antibiotics treatment. Septicemia development following rotavirus gastroenteritis is an extremely rare clinical condition. It is vital to start prompt antibiotic treatment as soon as the diagnosis of secondary bacterial infection is made because of high mortality and morbidity rates.

  8. Escherichia coli Meningitis after Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in an Infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Ozgurhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although rotavirus gastroenteritis is quite common in the pediatric population, secondary bacterial sepsis following rotavirus infection is a rare clinical entity. Gram-negative bacilli are the fifth most common cause of meningitis in infants but this infection rarely occurs after gastroenteritis. Here, we report a 2.5-month-old infant who developed Escherichia coli (E. coli meningitis after acute rotavirus gastroenteritis. The 2.5-month-old male infant with fever, vomiting, and watery diarrhea that started 1 day earlier was admitted to the hospital. Rotavirus antigen in stool sample was positive. He was hospitalized, and fever was measured at 39.5°C on the second day. Lumbar puncture was done for suspicion of meningitis, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF findings suggested meningitis. Intravenous vancomycin and cefotaxime were started empirically. Since E. coli reproduction was seen in blood culture and CSF culture, treatment was continued with cefotaxime. The patient was discharged with minimal midlevel hydrocephalus findings in cranial ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging following 21 days of antibiotics treatment. Septicemia development following rotavirus gastroenteritis is an extremely rare clinical condition. It is vital to start prompt antibiotic treatment as soon as the diagnosis of secondary bacterial infection is made because of high mortality and morbidity rates.

  9. Syphilitic aseptic meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meningitis - syphilitic; Neurosyphilis - syphilitic meningitis ... Syphilitic meningitis is a form of neurosyphilis . This condition is a life-threatening complication of syphilis infection. Syphilis is ...

  10. Bakteriel meningitis i Danmark 2002 og 2003. Landsdaekkende registrering baseret på laboratoriedata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Christian N; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Bangsborg, Jette Marie

    2007-01-01

    Notification of bacterial meningitis (BM) is likely to be incomplete, and a recent Danish study indicated that unbalanced notification may bias expected aetiology of BM. Therefore the Danish Bacterial Meningitis Group initiated a national registration of culture-positive BM....

  11. Procalcitonin as a Diagnostic and Prognostic Factor for Tuberculosis Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinseung; Kim, Si Eun; Park, Bong Soo; Shin, Kyong Jin; Ha, Sam Yeol; Park, JinSe; Kim, Sung Eun

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose We investigated the potential role of serum procalcitonin in differentiating tuberculosis meningitis from bacterial and viral meningitis, and in predicting the prognosis of tuberculosis meningitis. Methods This was a retrospective study of 26 patients with tuberculosis meningitis. In addition, 70 patients with bacterial meningitis and 49 patients with viral meningitis were included as the disease control groups for comparison. The serum procalcitonin level was measured in all patients at admission. Differences in demographic and laboratory data, including the procalcitonin level, were analyzed among the three groups. In addition, we analyzed the predictive factors for a prognosis of tuberculosis meningitis using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) at discharge, and the correlation between the level of procalcitonin and the GCS score at discharge. Results Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that a low level of procalcitonin (≤1.27 ng/mL) independently distinguished tuberculosis meningitis from bacterial meningitis. The sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing tuberculosis meningitis from bacterial meningitis were 96.2% and 62.9%, respectively. However, the level of procalcitonin in patients with tuberculosis meningitis did not differ significantly from that in patients with viral meningitis. In patients with tuberculosis meningitis, a high level of procalcitonin (>0.4 ng/mL) was a predictor of a poor prognosis, and the level of procalcitonin was negatively correlated with the GCS score at discharge (r=-0.437, p=0.026). Conclusions We found that serum procalcitonin is a useful marker for differentiating tuberculosis meningitis from bacterial meningitis and is also valuable for predicting the prognosis of tuberculosis meningitis. PMID:27165424

  12. Epidemiology of bacterial meningitis among children in Brazil, 1997-1998 Epidemiologia de meningites bacterianas entre crianças no Brasil, 1997 a 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora PL Weiss

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To document the incidence and the descriptive epidemiology of bacterial meningitis among individuals under age 20 in a geographically defined region in Brazil during the two-year period immediately preceding the introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib vaccines into the national immunization program of Brazil. METHODS: Population-based epidemiological study of all cases of bacterial meningitis reported among residents of Campinas, Brazil, under age 20 (n=316,570 during the period of 1997-98, using comprehensive surveillance records compiled by the Campinas Health Department from cases reported among hospital inpatients, outpatients, emergency room visits, death certificates, and autopsy reports. RESULTS: The incidence of bacterial meningitis (n=274 was 334.9, 115 and 43.5 cases/10(5 person-years (pys for residents of Campinas under age 1, 5 and 20, respectively. All cases were hospitalized, with an average length of stay of 12 days. Documented prior antibiotic use was 4.0%. The case-fatality rate of bacterial meningitis in individuals under age 20 was 9% (24/274 with 75% of deaths occurring in children under the age of five. The incidence of Hib meningitis (n=26 was 62.8 and 17 cases/10(5 pys in children age OBJETIVO: Documentar a incidência e a epidemiologia descritiva de meningites bacterianas entre pessoas com idade inferior a 20 anos em uma região geográfica definida do Brasil. O período foi de dois anos, imediatamente anterior à introdução da vacina contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib, no Programa Nacional de Imunização do Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo epidemiológico populacional dos casos de meningites bacterianas notificados entre residentes em Campinas, SP, Brasil, com idade inferior a 20 anos (n=316.570, entre 1997 e 1998. Baseia-se em dados de notificação da vigilância epidemiológica da Secretaria Municipal de Saúde de Campinas, relatados entre casos provenientes de pacientes hospitalizados

  13. Meningitis - H. influenzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. influenzae meningitis; H. flu meningitis; Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis ... H. influenzae meningitis is caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b bacteria. This illness is not the same as the flu ( influenza ), ...

  14. Changes in the incidence of pneumonia, bacterial meningitis, and infant mortality 5 years following introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in a "3+0" schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Blette, Bryan; Briceño, Rafaela; Alemán, Jorge; Hudgens, Michael G; Moreno, Gilberto; Ordoñez, Ana; Rocha, Julio; Weber, David J; Amaya, Erick

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae causes about 826,000 deaths of children in the world each year and many health facility visits. To reduce the burden of pneumococcal disease, many nations have added pneumococcal conjugate vaccines to their national immunization schedules. Nicaragua was the first country eligible for GAVI Alliance funding to introduce the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in 2010, provided to infants at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. The goal of this study was to evaluate the population impact of the first five years of the program. Numbers of visits for pneumonia, pneumonia-related deaths, and bacterial meningitis in both children and adults, and infant deaths between 2008 and 2015 were collected from all 107 public health facilities in León Department. Vital statistics data provided additional counts of pneumonia-related deaths that occurred outside health facilities. Adjusted incidence rates and incidence rate ratios (IRRa) in the vaccine (2011-2015) and pre-vaccine periods (2008-2010) were estimated retrospectively using official population estimates as exposure time. The IRRa for pneumonia hospitalizations was 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.66, 0.75) for infants, and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.99) for one year-olds. The IRRa for post-neonatal infant mortality was 0.56 (95% CI: 0.41, 0.77). In the population as a whole, ambulatory visits and hospitalizations for pneumonia, as well as pneumonia-related mortality and rates of bacterial meningitis were lower in the vaccine period. During the first five years of program implementation, reductions were observed in health facility visits for pneumonia in immunized age groups and infant mortality, which would be hard to achieve with any other single public health intervention. Future study is warranted to understand whether the lack of a booster dose (e.g., at 12 months) may be responsible for the small reductions in pneumonia hospitalizations observed in one year-olds as compared to infants.

  15. Changes in the incidence of pneumonia, bacterial meningitis, and infant mortality 5 years following introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in a "3+0" schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blette, Bryan; Briceño, Rafaela; Alemán, Jorge; Hudgens, Michael G.; Moreno, Gilberto; Ordoñez, Ana; Rocha, Julio; Weber, David J.; Amaya, Erick

    2017-01-01

    Background Streptococcus pneumoniae causes about 826,000 deaths of children in the world each year and many health facility visits. To reduce the burden of pneumococcal disease, many nations have added pneumococcal conjugate vaccines to their national immunization schedules. Nicaragua was the first country eligible for GAVI Alliance funding to introduce the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in 2010, provided to infants at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. The goal of this study was to evaluate the population impact of the first five years of the program. Methods Numbers of visits for pneumonia, pneumonia-related deaths, and bacterial meningitis in both children and adults, and infant deaths between 2008 and 2015 were collected from all 107 public health facilities in León Department. Vital statistics data provided additional counts of pneumonia-related deaths that occurred outside health facilities. Adjusted incidence rates and incidence rate ratios (IRRa) in the vaccine (2011–2015) and pre-vaccine periods (2008–2010) were estimated retrospectively using official population estimates as exposure time. Results The IRRa for pneumonia hospitalizations was 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.66, 0.75) for infants, and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.99) for one year-olds. The IRRa for post-neonatal infant mortality was 0.56 (95% CI: 0.41, 0.77). In the population as a whole, ambulatory visits and hospitalizations for pneumonia, as well as pneumonia-related mortality and rates of bacterial meningitis were lower in the vaccine period. Conclusions During the first five years of program implementation, reductions were observed in health facility visits for pneumonia in immunized age groups and infant mortality, which would be hard to achieve with any other single public health intervention. Future study is warranted to understand whether the lack of a booster dose (e.g., at 12 months) may be responsible for the small reductions in pneumonia hospitalizations observed

  16. Changes in the incidence of pneumonia, bacterial meningitis, and infant mortality 5 years following introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in a "3+0" schedule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Becker-Dreps

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae causes about 826,000 deaths of children in the world each year and many health facility visits. To reduce the burden of pneumococcal disease, many nations have added pneumococcal conjugate vaccines to their national immunization schedules. Nicaragua was the first country eligible for GAVI Alliance funding to introduce the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13 in 2010, provided to infants at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. The goal of this study was to evaluate the population impact of the first five years of the program.Numbers of visits for pneumonia, pneumonia-related deaths, and bacterial meningitis in both children and adults, and infant deaths between 2008 and 2015 were collected from all 107 public health facilities in León Department. Vital statistics data provided additional counts of pneumonia-related deaths that occurred outside health facilities. Adjusted incidence rates and incidence rate ratios (IRRa in the vaccine (2011-2015 and pre-vaccine periods (2008-2010 were estimated retrospectively using official population estimates as exposure time.The IRRa for pneumonia hospitalizations was 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.66, 0.75 for infants, and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.99 for one year-olds. The IRRa for post-neonatal infant mortality was 0.56 (95% CI: 0.41, 0.77. In the population as a whole, ambulatory visits and hospitalizations for pneumonia, as well as pneumonia-related mortality and rates of bacterial meningitis were lower in the vaccine period.During the first five years of program implementation, reductions were observed in health facility visits for pneumonia in immunized age groups and infant mortality, which would be hard to achieve with any other single public health intervention. Future study is warranted to understand whether the lack of a booster dose (e.g., at 12 months may be responsible for the small reductions in pneumonia hospitalizations observed in one year-olds as compared to

  17. High-throughput sequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons characterizes bacterial composition in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with purulent meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aicui Liu,1,2,* Chao Wang,1,2,* Zhijuan Liang,3 Zhi-Wei Zhou,4 Lin Wang,1,2 Qiaoli Ma,1,2 Guowei Wang,1,2 Shu-Feng Zhou,4 Zhenhai Wang1,2 1Neurology Center, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia; 2Key Laboratory of Brain Diseases of Ningxia, Yinchuan, Ningxia; 3Department of Neurology, The First People’s Hospital of Lanzhou, Lanzhou, Gansu, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Purulent meningitis (PM is a severe infectious disease that is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. It has been recognized that bacterial infection is a major contributing factor to the pathogenesis of PM. However, there is a lack of information on the bacterial composition in PM, due to the low positive rate of cerebrospinal fluid bacterial culture. Herein, we aimed to discriminate and identify the main pathogens and bacterial composition in cerebrospinal fluid sample from PM patients using high-throughput sequencing approach. The cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected from 26 PM patients, and were determined as culture-negative samples. The polymerase chain reaction products of the hypervariable regions of 16S rDNA gene in these 26 samples of PM were sequenced using the 454 GS FLX system. The results showed that there were 71,440 pyrosequencing reads, of which, the predominant phyla were Proteobacteria and Firmicutes; and the predominant genera were Streptococcus, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, and Neisseria. The bacterial species in the cerebrospinal fluid were complex, with 61.5% of the samples presenting with mixed pathogens. A significant number of bacteria belonging to a known pathogenic potential was observed. The number of operational taxonomic units for individual samples ranged from six to 75 and there was a comparable difference in the species diversity that

  18. Antibiotikavalg ved purulent meningitis uden bakteriologisk diagnose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, H B

    1989-01-01

    A case of meningitis in a 16 month old boy caused by Hemophilus influenzae resistant to ampicillin is presented. The question is raised whether a third generation cephalosporin such as cefotaxime should be the drug of choice in the treatment of bacterial meningitis with unknown etiology...

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid inflammatory markers in patients with Listeria monocytogenes meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, Merel M.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Geldhoff, Madelijn; Seron, Mercedes Valls; Houben, Judith; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes meningitis is the third most common cause of bacterial meningitis and is associated with high rates of mortality and unfavorable outcome. We analyzed 101 cytokines, chemokines and complement factors in CSF of adult patients with Listeria meningitis included in a prospective

  20. Pneumococcal meningitis in adults: new approaches to management and prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weisfelt, Martijn; de Gans, Jan; van der Poll, Tom; van de Beek, Diederik

    2006-01-01

    Since the virtual eradication of meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae type B by vaccination in the developed world, pneumococcal meningitis has become the leading cause of bacterial meningitis beyond the neonatal period. Clinical and experimental research has increased our knowledge about the

  1. Meningitis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Meningitis KidsHealth / For Parents / Meningitis What's in this article? ... the Doctor? Print en español Meningitis What Is Meningitis? Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, the ...

  2. Bacterial Meningitis after Cochlear Implantation among Children without Polyvalent Conjugate Vaccine: A Brief Report of an Iranian Cohort Study on 371 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Afsharpaiman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regarding risk of bacterial meningitis (BM after Cochlear implantation (CI, it was suggested to receive polyvalent conjugate vaccine. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of BM post CI in child recipients who do not receive polyvalent vaccine. Methods: We enrolled 371 children who had received cochlear implants from 2007 to 2010. None of them received pre or post implantation polyvalent conjugate vaccine for BM. We followed all of them for BM for 2 years after implantation. Results: We detected only one female case of BM (0.3% of patients with the age of 24 months. The mean age of noninfected children was 36.7 ± 23.2 months. The education level of parents was "college level or higher" in less than half of them, and about 65% of patients were products of consanguineous marriage. Conclusions: Our findings indicated that the incidence of BM was not higher in our cochlear implanted children who did not receive immunization than patients from countries in which routine vaccination is done. We suggest that although proper immunization is recommended before surgery, this procedure could be performed without vaccination, especially in developing countries that face financial problems for preparing vaccines.

  3. Persistent strongyloidiasis complicated by recurrent meningitis in an HTLV seropositive Peruvian migrant resettled in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Montagnani, Francesca; Tordini, Giacinta; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Bisoffi, Zeno; Bartoloni, Alessandro; De Luca, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    We describe a case of persistent strongyloidiasis complicated by recurrent meningitis, in a human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) seropositive Peruvian migrant adult resettled in Italy. He was admitted with signs and symptoms of acute bacterial meningitis, reporting four other meningitis episodes in the past 6 years, with an etiological diagnosis of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecium in two cases. He had been previously treated with several antihelmintic regimens not including ivermectin, without eradication of strongyloidiasis, and he had never been tested for HTLV before. During the described episode, the patient was treated for meningitis with broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy and 200 μg/kg/dose oral ivermectin once daily on day 1, 2, 15 and 16 with full recovery and no further episodes of meningitis. The presented case underlines several critical points concerning the management of poorly known neglected diseases such as strongyloidiasis and HTLV infection in low-endemic areas. Despite several admissions for meningitis and strongyloidiasis, the parasitic infection was not adequately treated and the patient was not previously tested for HTLV. The supply of ivermectin and the choice of treatment scheme was challenging since ivermectin is not approved in Italy and there are no standardized guidelines for the treatment of severe strongyloidiasis in HTLV seropositive subjects. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  4. Persistent Strongyloidiasis Complicated by Recurrent Meningitis in an HTLV Seropositive Peruvian Migrant Resettled in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Montagnani, Francesca; Tordini, Giacinta; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Bisoffi, Zeno; Bartoloni, Alessandro; De Luca, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of persistent strongyloidiasis complicated by recurrent meningitis, in a human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) seropositive Peruvian migrant adult resettled in Italy. He was admitted with signs and symptoms of acute bacterial meningitis, reporting four other meningitis episodes in the past 6 years, with an etiological diagnosis of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecium in two cases. He had been previously treated with several antihelmintic regimens not including ivermectin, without eradication of strongyloidiasis, and he had never been tested for HTLV before. During the described episode, the patient was treated for meningitis with broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy and 200 μg/kg/dose oral ivermectin once daily on day 1, 2, 15 and 16 with full recovery and no further episodes of meningitis. The presented case underlines several critical points concerning the management of poorly known neglected diseases such as strongyloidiasis and HTLV infection in low-endemic areas. Despite several admissions for meningitis and strongyloidiasis, the parasitic infection was not adequately treated and the patient was not previously tested for HTLV. The supply of ivermectin and the choice of treatment scheme was challenging since ivermectin is not approved in Italy and there are no standardized guidelines for the treatment of severe strongyloidiasis in HTLV seropositive subjects. PMID:25846292

  5. [Evaluation of the concentration of cerebrospinal fluid ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in patients with purulent, bacterial meningitis--own observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepa, Lucjan

    2012-01-01

    THE AIM of the study was evaluation of usefulness of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) concentration assessment in adults with purulent, bacterial meningoencephalitis. The investigation was performed in 14 subjects hospitalized at the Department of Infectious Diseases of Medical University of Silesia in Bytom from 2007 - 2009 due to purulent, bacterial meningoencephalitis. All patients were divided into to groups according to the severity of their clinical condition: I group - very severe course of the disease, II group - moderate and mild course of the disease. In all individuals CSF CNTF concentration was evaluated during the first 24 hours of hospitalization. Mean CSF CNTF concentration in patients in very severe clinical condition (group I) was 14,73 pg/ mL compared to 6,79 pg/mL in subjects of group II with moderate and mild course of disease. The difference between CSF mean concentration of this cytokine was statistically significant (p CNTF concentrations and other CSF inflammatory parameters. Control assays performed in 4 patients from group I revealed evident decrease of CSF CNTF level in fatal course of the disease. In survivals with recovery CSF concentration of this cytokine was only slightly decreased compared to initial level. CONCLUSIONS. The obtained results indicate the usefulness of CSF CNTF concentration assessment in estimation of severity of the patient's clinical condition. The level of this cytokine concentration also seems to be helpful as prognostic marker in purulent, bacterial meningoencephalitis.

  6. Imaging findings of the orbital and intracranial complications of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankbaar, J W; van Bemmel, A J M; Pameijer, F A

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: In patients with acute bacterial rhinosinusitis severe orbital and intracranial complications can occur. This review will illustrate the anatomic relationship between the paranasal sinuses and the orbital and intracranial compartments. Subsequently, the spectrum of orbital and

  7. New diagnostic biomarker in acute diarrhea due to bacterial infection in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan M. Al-Asy

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Both serum PCT and sTREM-1 are valuable in the early diagnosis of acute bacterial infection-induced diarrhea in children, and there was markedly higher diagnostic discriminatory power for sTREM-1.

  8. Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Piotrowska, Anna

    The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiology of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2014. In the last three years in Poland, about 3000 cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis of viral or bacterial etiology were recorded annually. Assessment of the epidemiological situation of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2014, was based on the results of the analysis of epidemiological reports sent to the NIZP-PZH by the Regional Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations published in the annual bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Preventive immunizations in Poland in 2014”. In 2014 in Poland 3488 cases of bacterial meningitis and/or encephalitis were recorded. Almost 61.3% of these were viral infections. In 2014, in comparison to 2013, a 1.1% increase in the number of cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis was observed and 91% with viral etiology.

  9. Imaging findings of the orbital and intracranial complications of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis

    OpenAIRE

    Dankbaar, J. W.; van Bemmel, A J M; Pameijer, F. A.

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: In patients with acute bacterial rhinosinusitis severe orbital and intracranial complications can occur. This review will illustrate the anatomic relationship between the paranasal sinuses and the orbital and intracranial compartments. Subsequently, the spectrum of orbital and intracranial complications of rhinosinusitis and related imaging findings will be discussed and illustrated by case material from daily practice. TEACHING POINTS: • Acute bacterial rhinosinusitis can cause s...

  10. Microbial causes of complicated acute bacterial rhinosinusitis and implications for empirical antimicrobial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, M S; Nix, P; Koukkoullis, A; Sandoe, J

    2016-02-01

    Very little up-to-date information is available on the microbiology of complicated acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. Reliable microbiology testing is necessary to inform current empirical antimicrobial treatments. This study was conducted in response to recent US guidelines on antimicrobial treatments for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. It aimed to describe the pathological micro-organisms involved in complicated acute bacterial rhinosinusitis in the UK and their antimicrobial susceptibility. This study collected retrospective data on cases of complicated acute bacterial rhinosinusitis with sinogenic orbital and/or intracranial infections from 2007 to 2012. Bacteria identified in paranasal sinus pus were compared with those identified in orbital and/or intracranial infections. Streptococcus anginosus group bacteria were isolated from 61.3 per cent of paranasal sinus pus samples, 83.3 per cent of orbital infections and 77.8 per cent of intracranial infections. All S anginosus isolates were sensitive to penicillin; no penicillin-resistant organisms were isolated. S anginosus was the predominant organism isolated from complicated acute bacterial rhinosinusitis samples at our UK centre. S anginosus is sensitive to penicillin, suggesting that penicillin can be used as an appropriate first-line empirical antibiotic for uncomplicated acute bacterial rhinosinusitis.

  11. Leukemic meningitis involving the cauda equina: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Hyun; Kim, Ho Kyun; Lee, Young Hwan [School of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-15

    The CNS involvement by leukemia may either be meningeal or parenchymal, although meningeal infiltration of leukemic cells, known as leukemic meningitis is more common. We report a case of leukemic meningitis involving the cauda equina in a patient with an acute lymphoblastic crisis which transformed from the chronic phase of chronic myeloid leukemia. An MR image revealed diffuse enlargement and peripheral ring enhancement of the nerve roots of the cauda equina.

  12. Bacterial Diversity in Oral Samples of Children in Niger with Acute Noma, Acute Necrotizing Gingivitis, and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmann, Benoît; Baratti-Mayer, Denise; Gizard, Yann; Mombelli, Andrea; Pittet, Didier; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Background Noma is a gangrenous disease that leads to severe disfigurement of the face with high morbidity and mortality, but its etiology remains unknown. Young children in developing countries are almost exclusively affected. The purpose of the study was to record and compare bacterial diversity in oral samples from children with or without acute noma or acute necrotizing gingivitis from a defined geographical region in Niger by culture-independent molecular methods. Methods and Principal Findings Gingival samples from 23 healthy children, nine children with acute necrotizing gingivitis, and 23 children with acute noma (both healthy and diseased oral sites) were amplified using “universal” PCR primers for the 16 S rRNA gene and pooled according to category (noma, healthy, or acute necrotizing gingivitis), gender, and site status (diseased or control site). Seven libraries were generated. A total of 1237 partial 16 S rRNA sequences representing 339 bacterial species or phylotypes at a 98–99% identity level were obtained. Analysis of bacterial composition and frequency showed that diseased (noma or acute necrotizing gingivitis) and healthy site bacterial communities are composed of similar bacteria, but differ in the prevalence of a limited group of phylotypes. Large increases in counts of Prevotella intermedia and members of the Peptostreptococcus genus are associated with disease. In contrast, no clear-cut differences were found between noma and non-noma libraries. Conclusions Similarities between acute necrotizing gingivitis and noma samples support the hypothesis that the disease could evolve from acute necrotizing gingivitis in certain children for reasons still to be elucidated. This study revealed oral microbiological patterns associated with noma and acute necrotizing gingivitis, but no evidence was found for a specific infection-triggering agent. PMID:22413030

  13. Bacterial diversity in oral samples of children in niger with acute noma, acute necrotizing gingivitis, and healthy controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Bolivar

    Full Text Available Noma is a gangrenous disease that leads to severe disfigurement of the face with high morbidity and mortality, but its etiology remains unknown. Young children in developing countries are almost exclusively affected. The purpose of the study was to record and compare bacterial diversity in oral samples from children with or without acute noma or acute necrotizing gingivitis from a defined geographical region in Niger by culture-independent molecular methods.Gingival samples from 23 healthy children, nine children with acute necrotizing gingivitis, and 23 children with acute noma (both healthy and diseased oral sites were amplified using "universal" PCR primers for the 16 S rRNA gene and pooled according to category (noma, healthy, or acute necrotizing gingivitis, gender, and site status (diseased or control site. Seven libraries were generated. A total of 1237 partial 16 S rRNA sequences representing 339 bacterial species or phylotypes at a 98-99% identity level were obtained. Analysis of bacterial composition and frequency showed that diseased (noma or acute necrotizing gingivitis and healthy site bacterial communities are composed of similar bacteria, but differ in the prevalence of a limited group of phylotypes. Large increases in counts of Prevotella intermedia and members of the Peptostreptococcus genus are associated with disease. In contrast, no clear-cut differences were found between noma and non-noma libraries.Similarities between acute necrotizing gingivitis and noma samples support the hypothesis that the disease could evolve from acute necrotizing gingivitis in certain children for reasons still to be elucidated. This study revealed oral microbiological patterns associated with noma and acute necrotizing gingivitis, but no evidence was found for a specific infection-triggering agent.

  14. Bacterial diversity in oral samples of children in niger with acute noma, acute necrotizing gingivitis, and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolivar, Ignacio; Whiteson, Katrine; Stadelmann, Benoît; Baratti-Mayer, Denise; Gizard, Yann; Mombelli, Andrea; Pittet, Didier; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Noma is a gangrenous disease that leads to severe disfigurement of the face with high morbidity and mortality, but its etiology remains unknown. Young children in developing countries are almost exclusively affected. The purpose of the study was to record and compare bacterial diversity in oral samples from children with or without acute noma or acute necrotizing gingivitis from a defined geographical region in Niger by culture-independent molecular methods. Gingival samples from 23 healthy children, nine children with acute necrotizing gingivitis, and 23 children with acute noma (both healthy and diseased oral sites) were amplified using "universal" PCR primers for the 16 S rRNA gene and pooled according to category (noma, healthy, or acute necrotizing gingivitis), gender, and site status (diseased or control site). Seven libraries were generated. A total of 1237 partial 16 S rRNA sequences representing 339 bacterial species or phylotypes at a 98-99% identity level were obtained. Analysis of bacterial composition and frequency showed that diseased (noma or acute necrotizing gingivitis) and healthy site bacterial communities are composed of similar bacteria, but differ in the prevalence of a limited group of phylotypes. Large increases in counts of Prevotella intermedia and members of the Peptostreptococcus genus are associated with disease. In contrast, no clear-cut differences were found between noma and non-noma libraries. Similarities between acute necrotizing gingivitis and noma samples support the hypothesis that the disease could evolve from acute necrotizing gingivitis in certain children for reasons still to be elucidated. This study revealed oral microbiological patterns associated with noma and acute necrotizing gingivitis, but no evidence was found for a specific infection-triggering agent.

  15. Elevated soluble urokinase receptor values in CSF, age and bacterial meningitis infection are independent and additive risk factors of fatal outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzanakaki, G; Paparoupa, M; Kyprianou, M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential role of cerebrospinal fluid soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) level, infection and age as risk factors for fatal outcome in patients suspected of having meningitis and/or bacteraemia on admission to hospital. A total of 545 cerebrospinal...... fluid samples from patients with clinically suspected meningitis were sent to the Hellenic National Meningitis Reference Laboratory. Ten of 545 (1.83%) patients died. Analysis by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve revealed that both suPAR and age were significant for prediction of fatal...... outcome. Patients with levels of suPAR above the cut-off values and age ≥51 years, or patients in which either Neisseria meningitis or Streptococcus pneumoniae were detected were categorized as high risk patients. The combination of the above three predictors (suPAR, age and infectious agent...

  16. Severe renal failure in acute bacterial pyelonephritis: Do not forget corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sqalli Tarik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute renal failure (ARF is a rare complication of acute pyelonephritis in adult immunocompetent patients. Recovery of renal function usually occurs if antibiotics are promptly initiated. However, long-term consequences of renal scarring due to acute pyelonephritis are probably underestimated, and some patients present with prolonged renal failure despite adequate antibiotic therapy. We report two cases of severe ARF complicating bacterial pyelonephritis successfully treated with corticosteroids in association with conventional antibiotics.

  17. Presentation And Outcome Of Pyogenic Meningitis In Children: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the morbidity and mortality patterns of children admitted for bacterial meningitis at the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi. Design: Retrospective, descriptive. Patients and Methods: The medical records of 31 children treated for bacterial meningitis from January 1998 to December ...

  18. Meningeal hemangiopericytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-zhi YANG

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the clinical, neuroimaging and pathological features of meningeal hemangiopericytoma.  Methods One case of meningeal hemangiopericytoma was reported, and the relevant literatures were also reviewed.  Results A 40-year-old male had caught a headache for about 3 months with muscle weakness in the left limb, and became progressively serious for 2 weeks. Brain MRI displayed a space-occupying lesion in the right temporal lobe with equal signals in T1WI, mixed signals in T2WI and obvious enhancements. In surgery, the tumor was found to be located in the cranial fossa, and was completely removed. The tumor was large, with rich blood supply, and had no capsule. In histology, the neoplasm was composed of dense spindle cells with mild atypia. The boundary of the tumor cells was unclear. The nuclei were circular, oval or spindle with obvious mitoses (4/10 HPF. There were plenty of thick-wall blood vessels and blood sinuses with characteristic "staghorn" shape. In immunohistochemistry, CD34 and vimentin (Vim were positive, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA was focally positive and Ki-67 labeling index was 17%-20%. Postoperative radiotherapy was adopted and no relapse was found during the 20-month follow-up period. Conclusions The meningeal hemangiopericytoma is easy to be misdiagnosed as meningioma, however, the prognosis of meningeal hemangiopericytoma is quite worse, thus the differential diagnosis is very important. A clear diagnosis often depends on pathological examination. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.03.011

  19. Dexamethasone treatment in adults with pneumococcal meningitis: risk factors for death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weisfelt, M.; van de Beek, D.; de Gans, J.

    2006-01-01

    In experimental meningitis, adjunctive treatment with steroids reduces cerebrospinal fluid inflammation and thereby improves neurological outcome. On the basis of these findings, several clinical trials have assessed treatment with adjunctive steroids in bacterial meningitis, with conflicting

  20. Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing with electrokinetics enhanced biosensors for diagnosis of acute bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Lu, Yi; Gau, Vincent; Liao, Joseph C; Wong, Pak Kin

    2014-11-01

    Rapid pathogen detection and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) are required in diagnosis of acute bacterial infections to determine the appropriate antibiotic treatment. Molecular approaches for AST are often based on the detection of known antibiotic resistance genes. Phenotypic culture analysis requires several days from sample collection to result reporting. Toward rapid diagnosis of bacterial infection in non-traditional healthcare settings, we have developed a rapid AST approach that combines phenotypic culture of bacterial pathogens in physiological samples and electrochemical sensing of bacterial 16S rRNA. The assay determines the susceptibility of pathogens by detecting bacterial growth under various antibiotic conditions. AC electrokinetic fluid motion and Joule heating induced temperature elevation are optimized to enhance the sensor signal and minimize the matrix effect, which improve the overall sensitivity of the assay. The electrokinetics enhanced biosensor directly detects the bacterial pathogens in blood culture without prior purification. Rapid determination of the antibiotic resistance profile of Escherichia coli clinical isolates is demonstrated.

  1. Imaging findings of the orbital and intracranial complications of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankbaar, J W; van Bemmel, A J M; Pameijer, F A

    2015-10-01

    In patients with acute bacterial rhinosinusitis severe orbital and intracranial complications can occur. This review will illustrate the anatomic relationship between the paranasal sinuses and the orbital and intracranial compartments. Subsequently, the spectrum of orbital and intracranial complications of rhinosinusitis and related imaging findings will be discussed and illustrated by case material from daily practice. • Acute bacterial rhinosinusitis can cause severe orbital and intracranial complications. • If orbital or intracranial complications are suspected, cross-sectional imaging is mandatory. • Infection can spread from the ethmoid sinus to the orbit through the lamina papyracea. • Frontal sinusitis can spread intracranially through dehiscences or osteomyelitis. • Radiologists must recognize imaging findings of complications of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis.

  2. Chemokines CXCL10, CXCL11, and CXCL13 in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, non-polio enterovirus aseptic meningitis, and neuroborreliosis: CXCL10 as initial discriminator in diagnostic algorithm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maric, Lorna Stemberger; Lepej, Snjezana Zidovec; Gorenec, Lana; Grgic, Ivana; Trkulja, Vladimir; Rode, Oktavija Dakovic; Roglic, Srdan; Grmoja, Tonci; Barisic, Nina; Tesovic, Goran

    2017-12-29

    We investigated potential diagnostic usefulness of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of chemokines CXCL10, CXCL11, and CXCL13 in pediatric patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) (n = 23), non-polio enterovirus aseptic meningitis (NPEV AM) (n = 20), and neuroborreliosis (NB) (n = 21) and children with acute infectious diseases with neurological symptoms but with excluded neuroinfection/neuroinflammation (controls, n = 20). CSF levels of CXCL10 and CXCL11 were higher in patients with NPEV AM than those in other children, and CXCL10 levels showed a high discriminative potential (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, ROC, 0.982) with high specificity and sensitivity (both 95%). CSF levels of CXCL13 were higher in NB patients than those in other children; however, discriminative potential (area under ROC curve 0.814) and diagnostic properties were moderate (sensitivity 67%, specificity 97%). Data suggest usefulness of chemokine quantification as a diagnostic aid in children with suspected ADEM, NPEV AM, or NB.

  3. Estimating costs of care for meningitis infections in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Allison; Jit, Mark; Lauer, Jeremy; Blommaert, Adriaan; Ozawa, Sachiko; Stack, Meghan; Murray, Jillian; Hutubessy, Raymond

    2015-05-07

    Meningitis infections are often associated with high mortality and risk of sequelae. The costs of treatment and care for meningitis are a great burden on health care systems, particularly in resource-limited settings. The objective of this study is to review data on the costs of care for meningitis in low- and middle-income countries, as well as to show how results could be extrapolated to countries without sound data. We conducted a systematic review of the literature from six databases to identify studies examining the cost of care in low- and middle-income countries for all age groups with suspected, probable, or confirmed meningitis. We extracted data on treatment costs and sequelae by infectious agent and/or pathogen, where possible. Using multiple regression analysis, a relationship between hospital costs and associated determinants was investigated in order to predict costs in countries with missing data. This relationship was used to predict treatment costs for all 144 low- and middle-income countries. The methodology of conducting a systematic review, extrapolating, and setting up a standard database can be used as a tool to inform cost-effectiveness analyses in situations where cost of care data are poor. Both acute and long-term costs of meningitis could be extrapolated to countries without reliable data. Although only bacterial causes of meningitis can be vaccine-preventable, a better understanding of the treatment costs for meningitis is crucial for low- and middle-income countries to assess the cost-effectiveness of proposed interventions in their country. This cost information will be important as inputs in future cost-effectiveness studies, particularly for vaccines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Meningite bacteriana neonatal: estudo prospectivo da evolução a longo prazo de 55 crianças Neonatal bacterial meningitis: prospective study of the long term outcome of 55 children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Jornada Krebs

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas prospectivamente 55 crianças que apresentaram meningite bacteriana no período neonatal, com o objetivo da analisar a frequência e o tipo de sequelas neurológicas. Todas as crianças nasceram a termo, sendo 38 do sexo masculino e 17 do feminino; a idade de início da doença variou de 3 a 28 dias. Os principais agentes etiológicos foram as enterobactérias. O tempo médio de seguimento foi 5 anos. A frequência de sequelas neurológicas foi 67,3%, representadas principalmente pelo atraso do desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor (58,2%, hidrocefalia (45,5% e convulsões (34,5%. As alterações motoras graves ocorreram em 23,6% dos pacientes (tetraplegia, diplegia, hemiparesia e ataxia. As convulsões na fase aguda da doença e a cultura positiva do líquido cefalorraqueano estiveram associadas significativamente com a presença de sequelas. Na avaliação do desempenho escolar, realizada em 25 crianças, observaram-se dificuldades na aprendizagem em 48% dos casos, associadas significativamente à deficiência mental.Fifty-five infants who presented bacterial neonatal meningitis were prospectively studied to analyze the frequency and the type of sequelae. All the infants were full term newborns.There were 38 boys and 17 girls; the age of disease onset varied from 3 to 28 days. The causative organism was represented mainly by enterobacteriae. The median time of follow-up was 5 years. The frequency of neurologic sequelae was 63.7%, represented mainly by neuropsychomotor development delay (58.2%, hydrocephaly (45.5% and convulsions (34.5%. Severe motor abnormalities ocurred in 23.6% of children (quadriplegia, diplegia, hemiparesia and ataxia. Convulsions in the acute phase of the disease and the positive cerebrospinal fluid culture were highly associated to sequelae. The school performance, obtained in 25 children, showed presence of disabilities in 48% of cases, which were significantly associated to mental retardation.

  5. Effectiveness, tolerability and safety of azithromycin 1% in DuraSite® for acute bacterial conjunctivitis

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikh, Aziz

    2010-01-01

    Susannah McLean, Aziz SheikhCentre for Population Health Sciences: GP Section, Allergy and Respiratory Research Group, University of Edinburgh, Medical School, Edinburgh, United KingdomPurpose: Bacterial eye infections are commonly treated with topical antibiotics, despite limited evidence of effectiveness. Azithromycin 1% in DuraSite® is a new formulation of azithromycin in a gel polymer designed for use in acute bacterial conjunctivitis.Methods: We conducted systematic searches of t...

  6. Effectiveness, tolerability and safety of azithromycin 1% in DuraSite? for acute bacterial conjunctivitis

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, Susannah; Sheikh, Aziz

    2010-01-01

    Purpose:Bacterial eye infections are commonly treated with topical antibiotics, despite limited evidence of effectiveness. Azithromycin 1% in DuraSite® is a new formulation of azithromycin in a gel polymer designed for use in acute bacterial conjunctivitis.Methods:We conducted systematic searches of the Cochrane Database of Clinical Trials, PubMed and Google Scholar to find randomized controlled trials of “azithromycin DuraSite®”. These searches of published literature were supplemented with ...

  7. Identification of potential metabolic biomarkers of cerebrospinal fluids that differentiate tuberculous meningitis from other types of meningitis by a metabolomics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yi-Ning; Huang, Hai-Jun; Song, Wen-Yuan; Tong, Yong-Xi; Yang, Dan-Hong; Wang, Ming-Shan; Huang, Yi-Cheng; Chen, Mei-Juan; Zhang, Jia-Jie; Ren, Ze-Ze; Zheng, Wei; Pan, Hong-Ying

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is caused by tuberculosis infection of of the meninges, which are the membrane systems that encircle the brain, with a high morbidity and mortality rate. It is challenging to diagnose TBM among other types of meningitis, such as viral meningitis, bacterial meningitis and cryptococcal meningitis. We aimed to identify metabolites that are differentially expressed between TBM and the other types of meningitis by a global metabolomics analysis. The cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) from 50 patients with TBM, 17 with viral meningitis, 17 with bacterial meningitis, and 16 with cryptococcal meningitis were analyzed using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS). A total of 1161 and 512 features were determined in positive and negative electrospray ionization mode, respectively. A clear separation between TBM and viral, bacterial or cryptococcal meningitis was achieved by orthogonal projections to latent structures-discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA) analysis. Potential metabolic markers and related pathways were identified, which were mainly involved in the metabolism of amino acid, lipids and nucleosides. In summary, differential metabolic profiles of the CSF exist between TBM and other types of meningitis, and potential metabolic biomarkers were identified to differentiate TBM from other types of meningitis. PMID:29245963

  8. Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the maxillary antrum and orbit presenting as acute bacterial orbital cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, S. P.; Lloyd, I. C.; Anderson, H.; Joyce, P. W.; Pace-Balzan, A.

    1991-01-01

    Orbital involvement by plasma cell tumours is rare. Orbital tumours do not generally present as an acute orbital inflammatory disease in adults, though tumours such as rhabdomyosarcoma may cause clinical signs similar to an acute orbital cellulitis in children. We describe a patient with bacterial orbital cellulitis and sinusitis who was found to have an extra-medullary plasmacytoma of the maxillary antrum and orbit and coexisting testicular seminoma. Images PMID:1854702

  9. Group A Streptococcal meningitis in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Marjolein J; Brouwer, Matthijs C; Bovenkerk, Sandra; Man, Wing Kit; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2015-07-01

    We report on the incidence, clinical characteristics, and bacterial genotype of group A streptococcal (GAS) meningitis in the Netherlands. We assessed the incidence, clinical characteristics, and outcome of patients with GAS meningitis from a nationwide cohort study of adults with community-acquired bacterial meningitis in the Netherlands from 2006 to 2013. GAS was identified in 26 of 1322 patients with community-acquired bacterial meningitis (2%); 9 cases (35%) occurred in the first four months of 2013. GAS meningitis was often preceded by otitis or sinusitis (24 of 26 [92%]) and a high proportion of patients developed complications during clinical course (19 of 26 [73%]). Subdural empyema occurred in 8 of 26 patients (35%). Nine patients underwent mastoidectomy and in 5 patients neurosurgical evacuation of the subdural empyema was performed. Five of 26 patients (19%) died and 11 of 21 surviving patient had neurologic sequelae (52%). Infection with the emm1 and cc28 GAS genotype was associated with subdural empyema (both 4 of 6 [67%] vs. 2 of 14 [14%]; P = 0.037). GAS meningitis is an uncommon but severe disease. Patients are at risk for empyema, which is associated with infection with the emm1 and cc28 genotype. Copyright © 2015 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Spontaneous pneumorrhachis and transverse myelitis complicating purulent meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchra Amara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumorrhachis is the presence of air in the spinal canal; mostly, it has an iatrogenic origin. The association of this entity with spontaneous pneumomediastinum without any pneumothorax is rarely reported in the literature. The spontaneous resorption is the usual evolution. The association to acute transverse myelitis is discussed by the authors. The patient is a 21-year-old male with pneumorrhachis associated to a spontaneous pneumomediastinum was admitted at the emergency department for bacterial meningitis. The antibiotherapy has marked the clinical profile by disappearance of the meningeal signs in the 48 h after admission. In contrast, the neurological symptoms were of marked aggravation by appearance of a tetraparesis with a respiratory distress syndrome having required artificial ventilation. The computed tomography (CT scan showed a typical hypodensity corresponding to paramedullary air extending to several thoracic segments. The spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a high cervical medullary edema without signs of compression. The patient died within 15 days with a profile of vasoparalysis resistant to vasoactive drugs. Pneumomediastinum associated to pneumorrhachis and transverse myelitis complicating purulent meningitis is a rare entity. Although the usual evolution is favorable, the occurrence of serious complications is possible.

  11. Outbreak of Enterovirus - 71 Meningitis in Calicut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CK Sasidharan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Enterovirus 71(EV 71 causes wide spectrum of infections ranging from asymptomatic conditions to clinical syndromes like diarrhea, rash, hand-foot-and mouth disease (HFMD, herpangina, aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis, acute flaccid paralysis, bulbar and brainstem encephalitis Guillain Barre syndrome, pulmonary haemorrhage. This study deals with an outbreak of aseptic meningitis in children caused by EV 71 virus. Methods: The authors report an outbreak of aseptic meningitis in children in and around Calicut in June 2008. Clinical and laboratory study was done in collaboration with National Centre for Disease Control, New Delhi. 149 children with aseptic meningitis were studied and followed up from June 2008 to May 2009. Result: All children had clinical features suggestive of aseptic meningitis and serology showed the rising antibody titre against EV 71 virus infection. CSF analysis also showed four fold rise in antibodies in one and ≥ 1:2 neutralising antibodies titer against EV- 71 in four samples indicating meningitis due to EV-71. Conclusion: EV 71 was identified as the causative agent of the outbreak of aseptic meningitis in the study and the fact that the EV 71 infection has evolved from minor illness like HFMD to major illness like aseptic meningitis from the same locality is truly alarming.

  12. 75 FR 52755 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin... infections (ABSSSI), impetigo, and minor cutaneous abscesses. FDA's thinking in this area has evolved in...-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The definitions of ABSSSI and the designs of ABSSSI clinical trials were...

  13. 77 FR 59929 - Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis in Patients With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Exacerbations of... Disease: Developing Antimicrobial Drugs for Treatment.'' This guidance addresses FDA's current thinking regarding the overall development program and clinical trial designs for drugs to support an indication for...

  14. 77 FR 61417 - Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Sinusitis: Developing Drugs for Treatment; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... current thinking regarding the overall development program and clinical trial designs for drugs to support... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Sinusitis... CFR 10.115). The guidance represents the Agency's current thinking on developing drugs for the...

  15. Acute bacterial infections of the lower respiratory tract in children from low-income countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleer, A; Wolf, B.H.M.

    Acute bacterial infection of the lower respiratory tract is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children and is responsible for 4 million childhood deaths each year. Most of these deaths are caused by pneumonia and occur in the youngest children in the poorest parts of the world. Severe

  16. Uit de Cochrane Library: Marginaal grotere genezingskans door antibioticabehandeling bij acute bacteriële conjunctivitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamerlynck, J. V. T. H.; Rietveld, R. P.; Hooft, L.

    2007-01-01

    Acute bacterial conjunctivitis is one of the most frequently encountered ocular disorders in primary care. It is frequently self-limiting, and the widespread use of broad-spectrum antibiotics has led to concerns regarding antibiotic resistance. Therefore, a Cochrane systematic review of 5 randomised

  17. Value of Bacterial Lysates in Prevention of Acute Respiratory Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Ye. Abaturov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The problem of acute respiratory infectious and inflammatory diseases in children is considered in the article. The functions of nonspecific defense system are described, and there is also given a detailed description of drugs used for the pathogenic treatment of respiratory infections — immunotropic agents of bacterial lysates, particularly Broncho-munal®.

  18. Cryptococcal meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DING Wen-ting

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is a kind of encapsulated fungal organism that widely exists in the nature. Because of its neurotropic nature, the central nervous system becomes its major target organ. Cryptococcus neoformans can use "transcellular pathway", "paracellular pathway" and "Trojan horse approach" to cross blood-brain barrier, and then make the devastating diffusion. Despite antifungal therapy, the mortality rate remains between 10% and 25% in patients with cryptococcal meningitis (CM and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, and at least one-third of patients have experienced failure of antifungal therapy. Consequently, it is very important for us to understand the pathogenesis of CM, to diagnose as soon as possible and to explore more reasonable treatment.

  19. Effectiveness, tolerability and safety of azithromycin 1% in DuraSite® for acute bacterial conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susannah McLean

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Susannah McLean, Aziz SheikhCentre for Population Health Sciences: GP Section, Allergy and Respiratory Research Group, University of Edinburgh, Medical School, Edinburgh, United KingdomPurpose: Bacterial eye infections are commonly treated with topical antibiotics, despite limited evidence of effectiveness. Azithromycin 1% in DuraSite® is a new formulation of azithromycin in a gel polymer designed for use in acute bacterial conjunctivitis.Methods: We conducted systematic searches of the Cochrane Database of Clinical Trials, PubMed and Google Scholar to find randomized controlled trials of “­azithromycin DuraSite®”. These searches of published literature were supplemented with searches for unpublished trials and trials in progress.Results: We found six reports of randomized controlled trials investigating the role of azithromycin 1% in DuraSite® for the management of acute bacterial conjunctivitis. The quality of these trials was judged to be moderate to high. These trials assessed effectiveness, tolerability and safety outcomes, but we found no trials looking at cost-effectiveness. DuraSite® is a relatively stable formulation and so azithromycin 1% in DuraSite® has a simpler dosing schedule than other available topical antibiotics. It appears to be similar to other topical antibiotics in its effectiveness, but minor side effects are quite common.Conclusion: Acute bacterial conjunctivitis is a relatively mild, typically self-limiting, infection. Antibiotics should seldom be required. If, however, a decision to prescribe antibiotics is made, azithromycin 1% in DuraSite® is likely to be broadly comparable in its effectiveness to most other antibiotics used to treat acute bacterial conjunctivitis. Further research is needed to determine its cost-effectiveness.Keywords: conjunctivitis, bacterial eye infection, azithromycin 1% in DuraSite®

  20. Infectious meningitis and encephalitis in adults in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodilsen, Jacob; Storgaard, Merete; Larsen, Lykke

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To monitor epidemiological trends of infectious meningitis (bacterial and viral) and encephalitis in Denmark. METHODS: Nation-wide prospective observational study of all cases with proven community-acquired infectious meningitis and encephalitis in adults treated in all departments...... of infectious diseases in Denmark from 1st of January 2015 to 30th of June 2016. We included data on symptoms, aetiology, treatment and outcome assessed by the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) 30-days after discharge. GOS 1-4 was categorised as unfavourable outcome. RESULTS: During 18 months of observation, we...... identified 252 cases of viral meningitis (3.6/100,000/year), 214 cases of bacterial meningitis (3.1/100,000/year), and 96 cases of infectious encephalitis (1.4/100,000/year). In bacterial meningitis, Streptococcus pneumoniae was most frequent (n=101) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (n=24) and β...

  1. Association of clinical signs and symptoms with bacterial findings in acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmu, Arto A I; Herva, Elja; Savolainen, Heljä; Karma, Pekka; Mäkelä, P Helena; Kilpi, Terhi M

    2004-01-15

    In acute otitis media (AOM), a means of prediction of the bacterial pathogen based on symptoms and signs would be valuable in selecting appropriate antimicrobial treatment. Children in the control arm (n=831) in the Finnish Otitis Media Vaccine Trial were prospectively observed in a study clinic setting from the age of 2 to 24 months. In patients with AOM, myringotomy with aspiration was performed, and middle ear fluid samples were cultured for bacterial pathogens. Symptoms and signs of respiratory infections were thoroughly recorded. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Haemophilus influenzae were the most common bacterial pathogens. Pneumococcal AOM was associated with more-severe AOM characterized by fever and earache. AOM due to H. influenzae was associated with eye symptoms and findings. Accurate prediction of a bacterial cause of infection based on symptoms and signs of AOM was not possible, but a specific cause was predicted in some situations, with a high probability of applicability to clinical practice.

  2. Streptococcus gallolyticus meningitis in adults: report of five cases and review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Samkar, A.; Brouwer, M. C.; Pannekoek, Y.; van der Ende, A.; van de Beek, D.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the incidence and patient characteristics of Streptococcus gallolyticus meningitis. We identified S. gallolyticus meningitis in a nationwide cohort of patients with community-acquired bacterial meningitis, and performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of all reported adult cases in

  3. Hearing loss in post-meningitis patients in Komfo Anokye Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meningitis is one of the infective disorders which can complicate with hearing loss. This study evaluates the incidence of hearing loss in patients who had suffered from a bacterial meningitis infection. The aim of this study was to find out the incidence rate of hearing loss in patients after recovering from meningitis.

  4. Acute bacterial rhinosinusitis and its complications in our pediatric otolaryngological department between 1997 and 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultész, Monika; Csákányi, Zsuzsanna; Majoros, Tatjana; Farkas, Zsolt; Katona, Gábor

    2009-11-01

    A retrospective survey of the number, age, gender, month of admission, type of persistent acute bacterial rhinosinusitis and case history of pediatric patients who did not respond to conservative therapy, and of those who suffered from complications of acute sinusitis. The case charts of all children (rhinosinusitis that within 14-26 days against the course of appropriate conservative therapy have not recovered and complications of acute sinusitis were subjected to a retrospective review. Of the 339 patients 182 were admitted with persistent acute bacterial rhinosinusitis and did not respond to conservative therapy and 157 children were diagnosed with secondary complications of acute sinusitis. Males predominated overall (54.8%). The most endangered age range was between 3 and 6 years. The highest number of admissions occurred in March. The maxillary sinus was most frequently involved. Orbital complications were observed in 150 patients: 126 cases of preseptal cellulitis, 9 of orbital cellulitis, 4 of subperiosteal abscess, and 11 of orbital abscess. Further two children were diagnosed with intracranial complications, four patients presented with osteomyelitis and the remaining one exhibited mucocele. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most commonly cultured pathogen. There were no mortalities, and morbidity occurred in only two cases. The topicality and importance of this subject are illustrated by taking into account of two cases. The complications of acute rhinosinusitis are challenging, but the prognosis can be favorable. Early diagnosis and surgical drainage procedures in conjunction with aggressive medical management remain the standard of care for these critically ill patients.

  5. Evaluation of procalcitonin and neopterin level in serum of patients with acute bacterial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Pourakbari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fever as a common presenting complaint in pediatric patients can be due to various causes. Differentiating bacterial infection from other causes is important because the prompt use of antibiotics is critical in bacterial infection. Traditional markers of infection such as BT and WBC count may be unspecific and culture may be late or absent. CRP and Procalcitonin (PCT have been considered to evaluate the evolution of infections and sepsis in patients presenting with SIRS. Neopterin has also been proposed to aid in the diagnosis of bacterial infection. In this study, we compared the value of the serum PCT, neopterin level, and WBC count for predicting bacterial infection and outcome in children with fever. METHODS: 158 pediatric (2-120-month-old patients suspected to have acute bacterial infection, based on clinical judgment in which other causes of SIRS were ruled out were included in the study. WBC count with differential was determined and PCT and neopterin levels were measured. RESULTS: PCT level was higher in bacterial infection and patients who were complicated or expired. CONCLUSION: Rapid PCT test is superior to neopterin and WBC count for anticipating bacterial infection, especially in ED where prompt decision making is critical. ABBREVIATIONS: BT, body temperature; WBC, white blood cell; PCT, procalcitonin; CRP, C-reactive protein; SIRS, systemic inflammatory response syndrome; ED, emergency department.

  6. Chest physiotherapy in children with acute bacterial pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieselotte Corten

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pneumonia is the single leading cause of death in children younger than 5 years of age. Chest physiotherapy is often prescribed as an additional therapy in children with pneumonia. Different chest physiotherapy techniques are available that aim to improve airway clearance, gas exchange and reduce the work of breathing. However, it is unclear if these techniques are effective in this population.Objective: The present review aimed to determine the efficacy of different chest physiotherapy techniques compared with no physiotherapy or other chest physiotherapy treatments in hospitalised children with bacterial pneumonia.Method: Six electronic databases (PubMed, Medline, Cochrane Library, PEDro, CINAHL and Africa-wide information, clinicaltrials.gov and pactr.org were searched for eligible studies.Results: Two randomised controlled trials and one ongoing study were identified. Neither completed trial reported differences between the control and intervention groups, although one study reported a longer duration of coughing (p = 0.04 and rhonchi (p = 0.03 in the intervention group.Conclusion: Because of the limited number of included articles and different presentations of outcome measures, we could not reject or accept chest physiotherapy as either an effective or harmful treatment option in this population.

  7. Meningitis Myths and Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May 2014) 14 Adult Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Infographic Meningitis Myths and Facts Myth: Meningococcal disease is easy ... infected person, such as shaking hands. Fact: Meningococcal meningitis is spread through air droplets and direct contact ...

  8. Meningitis - gram-negative

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... life-threatening illness. Prevention Prompt treatment of related infections may reduce the risk of meningitis. Alternative Names Gram-negative meningitis Images Central nervous system and peripheral nervous ...

  9. Role of Probiotics in Optimizing the Causal Treatment for Acute Bacterial Rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Popovych

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with one of the most common ENT diseases — rhinosinusitis, in particular of bacterial origin. The basic principles of diagnosis and treatment of this disease, according to current recommendations (EP3OS, 2012 edition, are provided. It is proved that antibiotic therapy with almost all groups of antibiotics indicated in acute bacterial rhinosinusitis is associated in up to 25 % of cases by complications, the most common of which is antibiotic-associated diarrhea. For the prevention and treatment of this complication, it is recommended to administer probiotics (class Ib, level of evidence A, in particular Subalinum.

  10. Are nasopharyngeal cultures useful in diagnosis of acute bacterial sinusitis in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Nader; Hoberman, Alejandro; Colborn, D Kathleen; Kearney, Diana H; Jeong, Jong H; Kurs-Lasky, Marcia; Barbadora, Karen A; Bowen, A'delbert; Flom, Lynda L; Wald, Ellen R

    2013-12-01

    The diagnosis of acute bacterial sinusitis can be challenging because symptoms of acute sinusitis and an upper respiratory tract infection (URI) overlap. A rapid test, if accurate in differentiating sinusitis from URI, could be helpful in the diagnostic process. We examined the utility of nasopharyngeal cultures in identifying the subgroup of children with a clinical diagnosis of acute sinusitis who are least likely to benefit from antimicrobial therapy (those with completely normal sinus radiographs). Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 204 children meeting a priori clinical criteria for acute sinusitis. All children had sinus X-rays at the time of diagnosis. To determine if negative nasopharyngeal culture results could reliably identify the subgroup of children with normal radiographs, we calculated negative predictive values and negative likelihood ratios. Absence of pathogens in the nasopharynx was not helpful in identifying this low-risk subgroup.

  11. [Laboratory diagnosis of lymphocytic meningitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marí, José María Navarro; Ruiz, Mercedes Pérez; Anza, Diego Vicente

    2010-01-01

    Lymphocytic meningitis, mainly those with an acute and benign course, are caused by viruses. In our area, the most commonly involved agents are enteroviruses, herpes simplex, varicella zoster and Toscana viruses. Nucleic acids amplification techniques (NAAT) are the methods of choice to diagnose viral meningitis from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. They are more rapid and sensitive, and indeed, they are not influenced by the viability of the virus in the clinical specimen as traditional methods are. The development of commercial equipments, the degree of automation, and the use of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems are the most important premises to choose the molecular method in each laboratory. Recently, commercial kits of real-time PCR are available for the detection of enteroviruses and herpesviruses, which are the most frequently viruses involved in meningitis. Although NAAT from the clinical sample have replaced cell culture for diagnostic purposes, the combination of both methods remain useful. When the detection of the causal agent from the CSF sample is not possible, other specimens (pharyngeal exudates, stools) or serological methods can be used. Serology is the reference method for meningitis caused by West Nile virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, which are less frequently detected in our area. 2010 Elsevier España S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. [Aseptic meningitis during Sweet syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balass, S; Duparc, A; Zaïd, S; Bularca, S; Modiano, Ph

    2005-12-01

    Sweet syndrome is a neutrophilic skin disease that can involve extracutaneous signs. Here we describe a case of aseptic meningitis, a rare potential extracutaneous sign of Sweet syndrome. A 42-year-old man was hospitalized for non-pruritic maculoerythematous skin lesions of the legs and back with subsequent myalgia. A histology specimen taken from a skin lesion revealed an acute neutrophilic disease consistent with Sweet syndrome. Marked inflammation and cholestasis were observed. Systemic corticosteroid therapy was given and resulted in good clinical and laboratory response. Two weeks later, in a setting of gradual dosage reduction, the patient was hospitalized for intense headaches associated with meningeal irritation in an inflammatory context. Liver function tests were again abnormal. We concluded on a diagnosis of Sweet syndrome complicated by aseptic meningitis and hepatic sites. Investigation for underlying disease, particularly digestive or hematologic, was negative. A favorable outcome was achieved following administration of higher doses of systemic corticosteroids. Aseptic meningitis constitutes an extracutaneous localization of Sweet syndrome. A multidisciplinary approach and exclusion of infectious origin are required in order to institute systemic corticosteroid therapy.

  13. Epidemiology of neonatal meningitis in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Said, Mahmoud F; Bessisso, Mohammed S; Janahi, Mohammad A; Habob, Lina H; El-Shafie, Sittana S

    2002-07-01

    Neonatal meningitis is responsible for thousands of neonatal deaths annually all over the world. Our study was conducted to determine the epidemiology, management and best preventive measures for neonatal meningitis in Qatar. A retrospective study reviewed the records of bacterial meningitis patients under the age of one month. The study was carried out at Hamad Medical Hospital, the only hospital that provides health care at Qatar and the study period was between January 1998 to December 2000. Thirteen patients were included. Sixty percent of patients had early onset meningitis. Causative organisms were group B Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas species, Neisseria meningitidis, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Flavibacterium meningococcus septicum. A bacterial resistance to the usual combination of ampicillin and gentamicin were noticed (as initial treatment before culture sensitivity results), which affected negatively on some patients. Complications of cerebral palsy, mental retardation and epilepsy occurred in 3 patients (23%). None of the patients died during the study period. Emphasis is placed on the importance of correct early diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic therapy. It is suggested that the identification and appropriate treatment of any maternal bacterial infection is an important measure in preventing neonatal sepsis and meningitis.

  14. Recurrent meningitis in a child with IgG3 subclass deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehapoglu, Aysel; Ozgurhan, Gamze; Demir, Aysegul Dogan; Uzuner, Selcuk; Nursoy, Mustafa Atilla; Turkmen, Serdar

    2014-08-01

    Recurrent meningitis is an uncommon life-threatening condition. Here, the case of a 6-year-old boy is reported who had two episodes of meningitis with an IgG3 subclass deficiency. The boy had aseptic meningitis at the age of 3 years, followed by bacterial meningitis at the age of 4 years. Primary immunoglobulin deficiencies are a group of disorders associated with an increased incidence and/or severity of infection. Recurrent infections, sinusitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia are the most frequently observed illnesses in patients with IgG subclass deficiencies, of which an IgG3 subclass deficiency is the most common, especially in adults. Although cases of recurrent viral or bacterial meningitis have been reported, herein a patient is presented with recurrence of aseptic and bacterial meningitis 1 year after the initial episode. Some researchers recommend that all children with episodes of recurrent meningitis should be screened for primary immunoglobulin or complement deficiencies.

  15. Drug induced aseptic meningitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2013-09-29

    Sep 29, 2013 ... Drug induced aseptic meningitis can mimic an infectious process as well as meningitis secondary to systemic disorders for which treatment of these drugs were used. 6,9,10. Drug-induced aseptic meningitis may develop in a pa- tient who initially was able to tolerate the causative drug. The patients in our ...

  16. SECRETOLYTIC THERAPY EFFICIENCY FOR COMPLEX TREATMENT OF ACUTE BACTERIAL SINUSITIS FOR STAY IN CHILDREN PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.L. Soldatskiy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the effectiveness of combined plant based preparation for complex therapy of in patient children with acute bacterial sinusitis. The main patient group was comprised of 75 patients that received traditional treatment with additional secretolytic therapy, the control group consisted of 83 children (the groups were statistically comparable. According to the research data, prescribing the medication improves treatment efficiency on a statistically valid level: fewer procedures are needed for pus evacuation, and clinical recovery is faster. It should be noted that treatment efficiency is not dependant on which secretolytic form is used — pills or drops.Key words: acute bronchial sinusitis; childhood.

  17. TOPICAL ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS IN ACUTE BACTERIAL RHINOSINUSITIS IN INFANTS AT THE AGE UNDER ONE YEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Dobretsov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The data on acute bacterial rhinosinusitis in children at the age under 1 year of life as one of the most difficult for diagnostics and treatment disorder are shown in this article. One of the main methods of treatment of this disease is usage of antibacterial agents — both systemic and topical. However choice of such drugs is complicated due to the age limits. Topical nasal spray with wide spectrum of bactericidal activity can be indicated in patients since birth. It significantly increases the efficacy of treatment and decreases the risk of complications. That is why it can be recommended for acute rhinosinusitis treatment in children of such age group.

  18. Picornaviruses in cerebrospinal fluid of children with meningitis in Luanda, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelkonen, Tuula; Roine, Irmeli; Anjos, Elizabete; Kaijalainen, Svetlana; Roivainen, Merja; Peltola, Heikki; Pitkäranta, Anne

    2012-07-01

    Human enteroviruses are the most common cause of viral meningitis. Viral-bacterial interaction may affect the clinical course and outcome of bacterial meningitis. In Africa, viruses might be responsible for 14-25% of all meningitis cases. However, only few studies from Africa have reported detection of viruses in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or mixed viral-bacterial infections of the central nervous system (CNS). The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of picornaviruses in the CSF of children suffering from meningitis in Luanda, Angola. The study included 142 consecutive children enrolled in a prospective study of bacterial meningitis in Luanda between 2005 and 2006, from whom a CSF sample was available. CSF samples were obtained at hospital admission, stored in a deep-freeze, and transported to Finland for testing by real-time PCR for picornaviruses. Enteroviruses were detected in 4 (3%) of 142 children with presumed bacterial meningitis. A 5-month-old girl with rhinovirus and Haemophilus influenzae meningitis recovered uneventfully. An 8-year-old girl with human enterovirus and pneumococcal meningitis developed no sequelae. A 2-month-old girl with human enterovirus and malaria recovered quickly. A 7-month-old girl with human enterovirus was treated for presumed tuberculous meningitis and survived with severe sequelae. Mixed infections of the CNS with picornaviruses and bacteria are rare. Detection of an enterovirus does not affect the clinical picture and outcome of bacterial meningitis. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Neonatal meningitis complicating with pneumocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Kumari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumocephalus is a rare condition characterized by the presence of gas within the cranial cavity. This gas may arise either from a trauma, a tumor, a surgical, or a diagnostic procedure or occasionally from an infection. Pneumocephalus as a complication of bacterial meningitis, in absence of trauma or a procedure, is extremely rare, particularly in a newborn. A case of pneumocephalus occurring in a baby, suffering from neonatal meningitis, acquired probably through unsafe cutting and tying of the cord, is reported here. Cutting, tying, and care of the umbilical cord is of utmost importance to prevent neonatal infection as the same is a potential cause of serious anaerobic infections, besides tetanus.

  20. Effect of platelet-activating factor antagonists (BN-52021, WEB-2170, and BB-882) on bacterial translocation in acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, L J; Sampietre, S N; Assis, R S; Knowles, C H; Leite, K R; Jancar, S; Monteiro Cunha, J E; Machado, M C

    2001-01-01

    Bacterial translocation is an important source of pancreas infection in acute pancreatitis. The effect of platelet-activating factor (PAF) in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis has been proved in various studies. The aim of this study was to determine whether potent PAF antagonists influence bacterial translocation in