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Sample records for acute atropine intoxication

  1. Tea of thornapple leaves: a rare cause of atropine intoxication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamens, D.; de Hert, S.; Vermeyen, K.

    1994-01-01

    A patient was admitted with signs of an acute psychosis. There was no clear history of drug intake nor injury. The presenting clinical symptoms were similar to those of an atropine intoxication. This was later confirmed on toxicological screening of the urine. This alkaloid was ingested by means of

  2. [Acute intoxication with fenspiride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodorowski, Zygmunt; Sein Anand, Jacek; Korolkiewicz, Roman

    2004-01-01

    According to the best of our knowledge this is the first publication in medical literature about the acute intoxication with fenspiride. The two cases of a young female patients, intoxicated with Eurespal, were described. The orthostatic hypotonia with the blood pressure about 105-115/70 mm Hg in the horizontal position and 70-80/40 mm Hg in the sitting position was dominating. The heart rate was 100-110/min. when lying and 130-140/min. when sitting. The main symptoms were probably caused by inhibition of alpha1 adrenergic receptors. Main clinical manifestations make us reconsider the opinion about safety of fenspiride especially after acute intoxication.

  3. Rhabdomyolysis following acute alcohol intoxication.

    OpenAIRE

    Hewitt, S M; Winter, R J

    1995-01-01

    The case of a fit young man who developed rhabdomyolysis after a short period of immobilization following acute alcohol intoxication is described. Rhabdomyolysis should be considered in an intoxicated patient presenting with muscle tenderness, particularly after immobilization.

  4. Clozapine Intoxication Mimicking Acute Stroke

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    Joshua D. Villarreal

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug prescribed for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. The risk of adverse hematologic, cardiovascular, and neurologic effects has tempered its use, and reports of overdoses remain rare. We report a case of accidental acute clozapine intoxication in a clozapine-naïve patient, who presented with symptoms mimicking acute stroke and later developed status epilepticus. Clozapine intoxication is a rare presentation in the emergency department with potential for iatrogenic harm if not correctly identified.

  5. Acute methaemoglobinaemia initially treated as organophosphate poisoning leading to atropine toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakhandki, Srinivas; Yahya, Mohammed; Praveen, Mudalgi

    2012-07-01

    A case of unknown compound poisoning is presented. It was initially treated as organophosphate poisoning with lack of response. A timely diagnosis of acute methaemoglobinaemia and iatrogenic atropine toxicity was made based on clinical evaluation. Treatment of methaemoglobinaemia using oral methylene blue and of atropine toxicity with supportive measures could save the patient.

  6. Successful treatment of extreme acute lead intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikler, J; Banovcin, P; Jesenak, M; Hamzikova, J; Statelova, D

    2009-03-01

    Severe acute lead intoxications are rare and are associated with accidental or purposeful ingestion. There were only few cases of severe to fatal poisonings reported in literature in children. We report a case of acute lead intoxication in a child with extremely high lead blood level of 20.4 micromol/L (422.7 microg/dL), who was treated with chelation and in whom significant organ dysfunction did not develop. Documented significant high level above 3.37 micromol/L (corresponding to 70 microg/dL) in this patient persisted for approximately 24 h. Adequate, single or combined chelatation therapy in early phase of acute lead poisoning is essential for the further patient's outcome.

  7. Spontaneous bladder rupture in acute alcohol intoxication

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    Bahjat Barakat

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous bladder rupture is a rare condition that can be followed by an acute alcohol intoxication and can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We report a case diagnosed in a alcoholic young male who was admitted to our emergency room for epigastric pain. The case demonstrates the difficulties with diagnosis and the need for physicians who work in an emergency room to be aware of this condition.

  8. Intox, detox, antidotes - Evidence based diagnosis and treatment of acute intoxications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, Andreas; Ebbecke, Martin

    2017-11-01

    Aim of this review is to describe the role of clinical toxicology in the context of acute medicine. A special focus is put on antidotes and important aspects of diagnosis and therapy of acute intoxications. The data of the annual report of GIZ-Nord Poisons Centre is analyzed concerning the following aspects: what intoxications are relevant in acute medicine, are there special aspects in therapy, e.g. antidotes, and what antidotes are relevant? More over intoxication-related fatalities are analyzed. In 2015 the poisons centre was consulted in 33,000 cases of acute intoxications. The most important groups are drugs (e.g. antidepressants, beta blockers and calcium channel blockers), chemical products (e.g. products containing surfactant, corrosive substances and toxic alcohols like methanol), plants and recreational drugs. Intoxications are relevant in acute medicine. Some substances can cause fatal intoxications. Important antidotes are naloxone for opiods, acetylcystein for paracetamol, fomepizole and ethanol for toxic alcohols and diazepam for intoxications caused by chloroquine. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Emergency Department Frequent Users for Acute Alcohol Intoxication.

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    Klein, Lauren R; Martel, Marc L; Driver, Brian E; Reing, Mackenzie; Cole, Jon B

    2018-03-01

    A subset of frequent users of emergency services are those who use the emergency department (ED) for acute alcohol intoxication. This population and their ED encounters have not been previously described. This was a retrospective, observational, cohort study of patients presenting to the ED for acute alcohol intoxication between 2012 and 2016. We collected all data from the electronic medical record. Frequent users for alcohol intoxication were defined as those with greater than 20 visits for acute intoxication without additional medical chief complaints in the previous 12 months. We used descriptive statistics to evaluate characteristics of frequent users for alcohol intoxication, as well as their ED encounters. We identified 32,121 patient encounters. Of those, 325 patients were defined as frequent users for alcohol intoxication, comprising 11,370 of the encounters during the study period. The median maximum number of encounters per person for alcohol intoxication in a one-year period was 47 encounters (range 20 to 169). Frequent users were older (47 years vs. 39 years), and more commonly male (86% vs. 71%). Frequent users for alcohol intoxication had higher rates of medical and psychiatric comorbidities including liver disease, chronic kidney disease, ischemic vascular disease, dementia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, history of traumatic brain injury, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. In this study, we identified a group of ED frequent users who use the ED for acute alcohol intoxication. This population had higher rates of medical and psychiatric comorbidities compared to non-frequent users.

  10. Emergency Department Frequent Users for Acute Alcohol Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc L. Martel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A subset of frequent users of emergency services are those who use the emergency department (ED for acute alcohol intoxication. This population and their ED encounters have not been previously described. Methods: This was a retrospective, observational, cohort study of patients presenting to the ED for acute alcohol intoxication between 2012 and 2016. We collected all data from the electronic medical record. Frequent users for alcohol intoxication were defined as those with greater than 20 visits for acute intoxication without additional medical chief complaints in the previous 12 months. We used descriptive statistics to evaluate characteristics of frequent users for alcohol intoxication, as well as their ED encounters. Results: We identified 32,121 patient encounters. Of those, 325 patients were defined as frequent users for alcohol intoxication, comprising 11,370 of the encounters during the study period. The median maximum number of encounters per person for alcohol intoxication in a one-year period was 47 encounters (range 20 to 169. Frequent users were older (47 years vs. 39 years, and more commonly male (86% vs. 71%. Frequent users for alcohol intoxication had higher rates of medical and psychiatric comorbidities including liver disease, chronic kidney disease, ischemic vascular disease, dementia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, history of traumatic brain injury, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Conclusion: In this study, we identified a group of ED frequent users who use the ED for acute alcohol intoxication. This population had higher rates of medical and psychiatric comorbidities compared to non-frequent users.

  11. Acute intoxications in two university hospitals in Burkina Faso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute intoxications in two university hospitals in Burkina Faso. ... admitted to the emergency services of the two sole University Hospitals of Ouagadougou from July 1, ... followed by chemicals, animals' toxins, food, alcohol and addictive drugs.

  12. Acute alcohol intoxication impairs segmental body alignment in upright standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafstrom, A; Patel, M; Modig, F; Magnusson, M; Fransson, P A

    2014-01-01

    Balance control when standing upright is a complex process requiring input from several partly independent mechanisms such as coordination, feedback and feedforward control, and adaptation. Acute alcohol intoxication from ethanol is recognized as a major contributor to accidental falls requiring medical care. This study aimed to investigate if intoxication at 0.06 and 0.10% blood alcohol concentration affected body alignment. Mean angular positions of the head, shoulder, hip, and knee were measured with 3D-motion analysis and compared with the ankle position in 25 healthy adults during standing with or without perturbations, and with eyes open or closed. Alcohol intoxication had significant effects on body alignment during perturbed and unperturbed stance, and on adaptation to perturbations. It induced a significantly more posterior alignment of the knees and shoulders, and a tendency for a more posterior and left deviated head alignment in perturbed stance than when sober. The impact of alcohol intoxication was most apparent on the knee alignment, where availability of visual information deteriorated the adaptation to perturbations. Thus, acute alcohol intoxication resulted in inadequate balance control strategies with increased postural rigidity and impaired adaptation to perturbations. These factors probably contribute to the increased risk of falling when intoxicated with alcohol.

  13. An acute oral intoxication with haloperidol decanoate.

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    Dekkers, Bart G J; Eck, Ruben J; Ter Maaten, Jan C; Touw, Daniël J

    2017-09-01

    Haloperidol decanoate is a typical antipsychotic drug used as maintenance therapy for schizophrenia and mood disorders formulated as an ester for intramuscular injection. Cases of oral haloperidol decanoate intoxications have not been described in literature. In this report, we present for the first time a case of an oral ingestion of haloperidol decanoate of a young woman who presented to the emergency department following an intentional oral ingestion of 1 ampoule of haloperidol decanoate 100mg. At presentation, she had a bilateral rest tremor of both hands and mild hypothermia. No other obvious signs of an intoxication were observed. She was treated with a single dose of activated charcoal and laxative and was admitted to the intensive care for rhythm monitoring and observation. During the night the QTc interval increased to 453ms, but stayed within the normal range. Haloperidol plasma levels increased as well, but also stayed within therapeutic ranges. These findings indicate that treatment with oral activated charcoal was sufficient to prevent any serious events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Acute Alcohol Intoxication: Differences in School Levels and Effects on Educational Performance

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    Van Hoof, Joris J.; Klerk, Frouktje Ade; Van der Lely, Nicolaas

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the effects of acute alcohol intoxication on adolescents' school performance. In the 2007-2015 period, 3,317 adolescents (ages 12 to 17 years) were treated for acute alcohol intoxication, and 37 adolescents were admitted to the hospital twice. Alcohol intoxication has an overrepresentation in "low" school levels. The…

  15. Acute Alcohol Intoxication : Differences in School Levels and Effects on Educational Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hoof, Joris J.; Klerk, Frouktje Ade; van der Lely, Nicolaas

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the effects of acute alcohol intoxication on adolescents' school performance. In the 2007–2015 period, 3,317 adolescents (ages 12 to 17 years) were treated for acute alcohol intoxication, and 37 adolescents were admitted to the hospital twice. Alcohol intoxication has an

  16. Hypothermia and acute alcohol intoxication in Dutch adolescents : The relationship between core and outdoor temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, Claire J.; Van Hoof, Joris J.; van der Lely, Nico

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate hypothermia and its potential association with core and outdoor temperatures in adolescents suffering from acute alcohol intoxication. Methods: Data were derived from the Dutch Pediatric Surveillance System, which monitors alcohol intoxication among all Dutch adolescents.

  17. Curative effects of Tiron on dogs with acute uranium intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yumin; Zhao Xingcheng; You Zhanyun; Wang Lihua; Yin Xieyu

    1986-01-01

    It was reported that the tiron had good therapeutic effects on small animals with acute uranium intoxication. The tiron's therapeutic effects as a first aid on large animals (38 dogs) with acute uranium poisoning are reported in this paper. Indices reflecting its effect were as follows: excretion rate of uranium from the dogs, several appropriate biochemical tests, clinical manifestations, histo-pathological changes of kidney and liver, and also the mortality of dogs. The results showed that the tiron or a combination of tiron and NaHCO 3 has a good therapeutic effect as a first aid on the dogs receiving lethal dose of uranyl nitrate

  18. Acute Intoxications Involving Synthetic Psychoactive Substances

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    Sergey A. Vasil'ev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a succinic acid derivate, a substrate metabolic agent cytoflavin in patients with acute poisoning with synthetic psychoactive drugs.Materials and methods. A retrospective evaluation of effectiveness of a combined intensive care treatment protocol for 622 patients with acute narcotic poisoning (methadone and synthetic cannabinoids was carried out. All patients were divided into two groups. The main group (112 patients, median age 38.2±12.0 years included patients who, in addition to the basic treatment, received cytoflavin by intravenous drop infusion, 20–40 ml diluted in 400–500 ml of 10% glucose, for 5 days. Patients of the reference group (510 subjects, median age 37.6±14.1 years received treatment according to the «classical scheme». In addition to conventional examination, all patients underwent duplex scanning of cerebral vessels, examination of changes in the cerebral blood circulation and electroencephalogram findings. The severity of somatic disorders was assessed using criteria of the Glasgow coma scale. The severity of the asthenic syndrome was assessed according to the MFI-20 scale.Results. Compared to patients who received a standard therapy, patients of the main group had a significantly more rapid recovery from coma (by 1.5-fold: 23.5±3.1 days, versus 15.1±3.0 days, respectively, P0.05; the duration of psychotic disorders was shorter (by 1.8-fold: 15.5±4.2 hours vs 8.3±2.5 hours., respectively, P0.05, and the intensity of asthenic syndrome (by 2.8-fold: 64.1±3.3 rel. units vs 23.0±4,9 rel. units, respectively, P0.05 was also lower.Conclusion. Inclusion of cytoflavin in a protocol of a complex treatment of patients with synthetic drugs poisoning increased the effectiveness of the therapy. Data demonstrate that inclusion of the drug can be recommended for treatment of acute synthetic narcotic poisoning. 

  19. Case report of acute vitamin D intoxication in an infant

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    Radlović Nedeljko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Vitamin D intoxication represents a rare and potentially serious pathological condition caused by the excess of calcium and phosphorus. We are presenting an infant with vitamin D intoxication due to excessive daily administration, as well as therapeutic procedures that prevented its adverse effects. Case Outline. A 1.5-month-old female infant, born at term, exclusively breastfed and without any complaints and abnormalities of physical findings, was observed due to the data that during the preceding month, by her mother’s mistake, she had received about 200,000 IU of vitamin D3. Laboratory analyses showed a high serum level of 25(OHD (>400 nmol/L and calcium (2.72 mmol/L, lowered PTH (6.6 pg/ml and high urinary calcium/creatinine ratio (1.6, while other findings, including urotract ultrasonography image, were within normal limits. Treatment based on the discontinuation of vitamin D administration, infant’s forced water intake, as well as the application of 2-month prednisolone and 4-month phenobarbitone and furosemide, resulted in complete normalization of the laboratory indicators of vitamin D overdose, as well as the prevention of its adverse effects. Conclusion. By timely recognition and adequate treatment, including triple therapy with prednisolone, phenobarbitone and furosemide, adverse effects of acute vitamin D intoxication can be prevented.

  20. Changes is radioactive iodine metabolism in acute chemical intoxications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selyutitskij, G.V.; Likhtarev, I.A.; Volkova, N.V.; Zvonova, I.A.; Ostryakova, N.I.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that the response of the endocrine system (iodine-absorbing and hormone-secreting fUnctions of the thyroid) as studied by the radioactive iodine test may be a reasonably versatile indicator of the response of the thyroid component of the endocrine system to acute intoxication of the organism. Trials of this test using seven chemical substances have confirmed that the radioiodine test is a sufficienty universal method to be used in setting sanitary and hygienic standards for permissible levels of chemical substances

  1. [Hospital morbidity and mortality of acute opiate intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larpin, R; Vincent, A; Perret, C

    1990-09-22

    The records of 188 consecutive patients admitted for acute opiate intoxication were analyzed retrospectively to evaluate the morbidity and mortality of opiates. The most frequently used of these drugs were heroin (127 cases) and methadone (41 cases). In 79 cases the opiate was associated with another psychodepressant, usually benzodiazepines, alcohol or barbiturates. Forty-seven percent of the patients were admitted in deep coma, with respiratory arrest in almost every case. The complications observed in 49 patients were: aspiration of gastric contents (n = 24), rhabdomyolysis (n = 22), often associated with myocarditis (n = 13), pulmonary edema (n = 16), convulsions (n = 10), left ventricular dysfunction (n = 5) and lesions of the peripheral nervous system (n = 4). All patients survived, except one who died of cardiac arrest before admission. It is concluded that acute opiate intoxication treated in hospital has an excellent prognosis for life provided no cardiac arrest occurs prior to admission. One quarter of the patients require prolonged stay in an intensive care unit because of complications. The other patients, even when deeply comatose on admission, spend less than 1 day in hospital owing to the specific antagonist available.

  2. Utilization of a Sobering Center for Acute Alcohol Intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Bernardin, Shannon; Carrico, Adam; Max, Wendy; Chapman, Susan

    2017-09-01

    The objective was to describe the population utilizing a sobering center for public alcohol intoxication and compare between single-visit users, repeat users, and high users. We conducted a secondary analysis of 1,271 adults cared for in a sobering center from July 2014 to June 2015. We divided the population into three groups-single use (one visit), repeat users (two to five visits), and high (six or more) users-and evaluated demographics, lifetime health diagnoses utilizing the Elixhauser Comorbidity Index, rates of public service utilization including ambulance and emergency department, and related costs. The population was primarily male, middle-aged, and ethnically diverse. Compared to single-visit users (n = 869), repeat (n = 287) and high users (n = 115) were older, were more likely to be currently homeless, and had spent more time homeless. Repeat and high users had significantly higher rates of hypertension, liver disease, diabetes, depression, psychoses, and drug abuse diagnoses compared to single-visit users. In addition to sobering visits, utilization of ambulance and ED and related costs were significantly greater for the high users compared to repeat and single-visit users. From an overall heterogeneous population, more frequent utilizers of the sobering center, both high and repeat users compared to low users, had significantly greater prevalence of chronic disorders, service utilization, and homelessness. Findings indicate that a sobering center can have a prominent role in the care for those with acute alcohol intoxication, particularly those individuals with chronic public intoxication who are likewise homeless. Further longitudinal research could offer important insights as to the population served over time, investigating changes in utilization and efforts toward health and housing stabilization. © 2017 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  3. Acute alcohol intoxication in a child following ingestion of an ethyl-alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzog, James H; Radwick, Allison

    2015-07-01

    While uncommon, ingestion of ethanol-based hand sanitizers by children may be associated with significant intoxication. We report the case of a 7-year-old with acute alcohol intoxication following hand sanitizer ingestion. Alcohol elimination in this patient followed zero-order kinetics with a clearance rate of 22.5 mg/kg/h, consistent with the limited pharmacokinetic information available for children who experience alcohol intoxication from more traditional sources.

  4. Acute interstitial nephritis with acetaminophen and alcohol intoxication

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    Alexopoulou Iakovina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis (AIN represents a growing cause of renal failure in current medical practice. While antimicrobials and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are typically associated with drug-induced AIN, few reports have been made on the involvement of other analgesics. We report our experience in managing a 17-year-old female with AIN and subsequent renal injury following an acetaminophen overdose in conjunction with acute alcohol intoxication. It is well established that acetaminophen metabolism, particularly at high doses, produces reactive metabolites that may induce renal and hepatic toxicity. It is also plausible however, that such reactive species could instead alter renal peptide immunogenicity, thereby inducing AIN. In the following report, we review a possible mechanism for the acetaminophen-induced AIN observed in our patient and also discuss the potential involvement of acute alcohol ingestion in disease onset. The objective of our report is to increase awareness of healthcare professionals to the potential involvement of these commonly used agents in AIN pathogenesis.

  5. Temporomandibular joint dislocation due to acute propranolol intoxication

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    Abbas Aghabiklooei

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abbas Aghabiklooei1, Homan Elahi2, Babak Mostafazadeh31Department of Medical Toxicology and Forensic Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2Firouzgar Hospital, Department of ENT, Tehran, Iran; 3Department of Medical Toxicology and Forensic Medicine, Shaheed Beheshty University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranAbstract: Temporomandibular joint (TMJ dislocation has not previously been reported as a complication of beta-blocker toxicity. We are reporting two cases of TMJ dislocation resulted from acute severe intoxication with pure propranolol (PPL for the first time. Bilateral TMJ dislocation happened in two patients who were admitted to intensive care unit with diagnosis of severe acute PPL toxicity. Clinical diagnosis of TMJ dislocation was obtained by physical examination. Successful reduction was performed for both patients without subsequent recurrence in two weeks following hospital discharge. Both of our subjects had no previous history of lower jaw dislocation. There was not any risk factor for dislocation such as convulsion during admission period, recent face trauma, or oral manipulation by the medical team. This study showed that TMJ dislocation may occur after severe acute PPL toxicity probably due to spastic contraction of the lateral pterygoid muscle. This is against previously mentioned hypothesis that stated masseteric muscles contraction as the main cause of a bilateral dislocated TMJ.Keywords: propranolol, toxicity, temporomandibular joint dislocation

  6. Acute Alcohol Intoxication in Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Characteristics, Recovery and Outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenen, Myrthe; de Koning, Myrthe; van der Horn, Harm; van der Naalt, Joukje; Spikman, Jacoba

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the incidence of acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) at the time of sustaining mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), describe the characteristics of this intoxicated subgroup, and evaluate recovery and outcome in comparison to sober mTBI patients. Methods. Multicenter cohort

  7. Acute Intoxication by Transdermal Opium Application in Infants: Two Case Reports

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    Iraj Sedighi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute opium intoxication is one of the most common causes of poisoning in children in Iran. Although most cases are accidental, traditional misuse of opium for symptomatic therapy of various childhood diseases also contributes to high rate of opium intoxication in Iran. Cases: Here, we report two cases of opium intoxication in infants resulted from transdermal application of opium on burned skin. To our knowledge this is the first case report of intoxication from transdermal misuse of opium. Conclusion: Health care providers should be aware about signs and symptoms of opium intoxication in children. Opium intoxication should be suspected in each child with history of a recent burn injury that presented with decreased level of consciousness.

  8. Effectiveness of chelation therapy with time after acute uranium intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingo, J.L.; Ortega, A.; Llobet, J.M.; Corbella, J.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of increasing the time interval between acute uranium exposure and chelation therapy was studied in male Swiss mice. Gallic acid, 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3- benzenedisulfonic acid (Tiron), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-AS) were administered ip at 0, 0.25, 1, 4, and 24 hr after sc injection of 10 mg/kg of uranyl acetate dihydrate. Chelating agents were given at doses equal to one-fourth of their respective LD50 values. Daily elimination of uranium into urine and feces was determined for 4 days after which time the mice were killed, and the concentration of uranium was measured in kidney, spleen, and bone. The excretion of uranium was especially rapid in the first 24 hr. Treatment with Tiron or gallic acid at 0, 0.25, or 1 hr after uranium exposure significantly increased the total excretion of the metal. In kidney and bone, only administration of Tiron at 0, 0.25, or 1 hr after uranium injection, or gallic acid at 1 hr after uranium exposure significantly reduced tissue uranium concentrations. Treatment at later times (4 to 24 hr) did not increase the total excretion of the metal and did not decrease the tissue uranium concentrations 4 days after uranyl acetate administration. The results show that the length of time before initiating chelation therapy for acute uranium intoxication greatly influences the effectiveness of this therapy

  9. Acute Alcohol Intoxication Exacerbates Rhabdomyolysis-Induced Acute Renal Failure in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jen-Pi; Lee, Chung-Jen; Subeq, Yi-Maun; Lee, Ru-Ping; Hsu, Bang-Gee

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic and nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis can lead to acute renal failure (ARF), and acute alcohol intoxication can lead to multiple abnormalities of the renal tubules. We examined the effect of acute alcohol intoxication in a rat model of rhabdomyolysis and ARF. Intravenous injections of 5 g/kg ethanol were given to rats over 3 h, followed by glycerol-induced rhabdomyolysis. Biochemical parameters, including blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cre), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), and creatine phosphokinase (CPK), were measured before and after induction of rhabdomyolysis. Renal tissue injury score, renal tubular cell expression of E-cadherin, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were determined. Relative to rats in the vehicle group, rats in the glycerol-induced rhabdomyolysis group had significantly increased serum levels of BUN, Cre, GOT, GPT, and CPK, elevated renal tissue injury scores, increased expression of NF-κB and iNOS, and decreased expression of E-cadherin. Ethanol exacerbated all of these pathological responses. Our results suggest that acute alcohol intoxication exacerbates rhabdomyolysis-induced ARF through its pro-oxidant and inflammatory effects.

  10. Bath salt intoxication causing acute kidney injury requiring hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regunath, Hariharan; Ariyamuthu, Venkatesh Kumar; Dalal, Pranavkumar; Misra, Madhukar

    2012-10-01

    Traditional bath salts contain a combination of inorganic salts like Epsom salts, table salt, baking soda, sodium metaphosphate, and borax that have cleansing properties. Since 2010, there have been rising concerns about a new type of substance abuse in the name of "bath salts." They are beta-ketone amphetamine analogs and are derivates of cathinone, a naturally occurring amphetamine analog found in the "khat" plant (Catha edulis). Effects reported with intake included increased energy, empathy, openness, and increased libido. Serious adverse effects reported with intoxication included cardiac, psychiatric, and neurological signs and symptoms. Not much is known about the toxicology and metabolism of these compounds. They inhibit monoamine reuptake (dopamine, nor epinephrine, etc.) and act as central nervous system stimulants with high additive and abuse potential because of their clinical and biochemical similarities to effects from use of cocaine, amphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine. Deaths associated with use of these compounds have also been reported. We report a case of acute kidney injury associated with the use of "bath salt" pills that improved with hemodialysis. © 2012 The Authors. Hemodialysis International © 2012 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  11. Clinical Recommendations on Emergency Medical Care Rendering to Children with Acute Intoxication

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    A. A. Baranov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the issue of intoxication in children. Acute accidental intoxication appears to be especially relevant for pediatric practice. Drugs, various chemicals frequently used in everyday life and in farming, as well as animal poisons, including snake poisons, may have a toxic effect on children. Specialists of professional associations of physicians “Russian Society of Emergency Medicine” and pediatricians “Union of Pediatricians of Russia” formulated and briefly described the main causes of acute intoxication in children, clinical manifestations and the most significant laboratory indicators of toxic manifestations for various substances, as well as therapy principles and algorithms for such conditions in compliance with principles of the evidence-based medicine. The article presents pathognomonic symptoms and peculiarities of drug intoxication, provides a description of mediator symptoms of intoxication with various substances, as well as the symptoms that may indicate toxic effect. The article contains a description of principles of correction of vital body functions, measures for removing toxic substances from the body and information on the main antidotes. Special attention is given to the most frequent types of intoxication (with organic acids, lye, naphazoline, paracetamol, snake poisons [viper bite]. The article lists stage of medical care rendering to children suffering from acute intoxication and presents prognosis and further management of pediatric patients suffering from such conditions. 

  12. An acute oral intoxication with haloperidol decanoate : A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, Bart G J; Eck, Ruben J; Ter Maaten, Jan C; Touw, Daniël J

    2017-01-01

    Haloperidol decanoate is a typical antipsychotic drug used as maintenance therapy for schizophrenia and mood disorders formulated as an ester for intramuscular injection. Cases of oral haloperidol decanoate intoxications have not been described in literature. In this report, we present for the first

  13. An Investigation of an Acute Pesticide Intoxication Outbreak; the Vali Saim COTUR RBPES, Kahramanmaras, May 2008

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    Ekrem Yildirim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: In this study, it is aimed to explain the causes of the pesticid intoxication occured in the Vali Saim COTUR Regional Boarding Primary Education School in Karacasu district of the province of Kahramanmaras in May, 2008 and what have been done after the intoxication. METHODS: In the study is an investigation of outbreak. In the study used to face-to-face interviews with patients, parents of patients, menagers and teachers of school and the records of the health foundations and school and the laboratory works. RESULTS: Cases of acute pesticide intoxication first began appearing on 5 May 2008. During the course of the pesticide intoxication 51 cases were determined, though there were no fatalities. All cases are students of the Vali Saim COTUR RBPES. It has 1695 students. All cases, 35 (68.6% were females and 16 (31.4% males, and median age 11 (min=8, max=14. Intoxication was highest level as 84.3% in cases at the age of 11. The cause of the intoxication was agriculture medicine (pesticide contamination of the school’s drinking water. CONCLUSION: In order to prevent pesticide poisoning, it is necessary to be very careful with pesticide application especially in rural areas. Substances that are least toxic to human and environment, and are licenced and most effective to pests must be used, sensitive people, especially children, must be kept away. More attempts should be made for raising the awereness of zone managers and farmers in order to prevent intoxications. Even if there is important improvement in intoxication management, the most effective method is prevention of poisoning. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(3.000: 199-206

  14. Acute alcohol intoxication in patients with mild traumatic brain injury : Characteristics, recovery, and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenen, Myrthe E.; de Koning, Myrthe E.; van der Horn, Harm J.; Roks, C.M.A.A.; Yilmaz, Tansel; van der Naalt, Joukje; Spikman, Jacoba M.

    2016-01-01

    A substantial number of patients (30% to 50%) sustains a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) while they are under the influence of alcohol. An acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) at the time of injury has been subject of research in severe TBI, but little is known about the relation between AAI and

  15. Acute Alcohol Intoxication in Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury : Characteristics, Recovery, and Outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenen, Myrthe E.; de Koning, Myrthe E.; van der Horn, Harm; Roks, Gerwin; Yilmaz, Tansel; van der Naalt, Joukje; Spikman, Jacoba M.

    2016-01-01

    A substantial number of patients (30% to 50%) sustains a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) while they are under the influence of alcohol. An acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) at the time of injury has been subject of research in severe TBI, but little is known about the relation between AAI and

  16. Bayesian pharmacokinetics of lithium after an acute self-intoxication and subsequent haemodialysis: a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerbusch, Thomas; Mathôt, Ron A. A.; Otten, Hans M. M. B.; Meesters, Eelco W.; van Kan, Hendrikus J. M.; Schellens, Jan H. M.; Beijnen, Jos H.

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of a 39-year-old male with bipolar affective disorder who was admitted to hospital with an intentional acute lithium intoxication resulting in renal insufficiency. The patient had previously been treated with lithium, risperidone, fluoxetine and lorazepam, and successfully titrated

  17. Effects of the Acute and Chronic Ethanol Intoxication on Acetate Metabolism and Kinetics in the Rat Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ya-Ju; Wu, Liang-Chih; Ke, Chien-Chih; Chang, Chi-Wei; Kuo, Jung-Wen; Huang, Wen-Sheng; Chen, Fu-Du; Yang, Bang-Hung; Tai, Hsiao-Ting; Chen, Sharon Chia-Ju; Liu, Ren-Shyan

    2018-02-01

    Ethanol (EtOH) intoxication inhibits glucose transport and decreases overall brain glucose metabolism; however, humans with long-term EtOH consumption were found to have a significant increase in [1- 11 C]-acetate uptake in the brain. The relationship between the cause and effect of [1- 11 C]-acetate kinetics and acute/chronic EtOH intoxication, however, is still unclear. [1- 11 C]-acetate positron emission tomography (PET) with dynamic measurement of K 1 and k 2 rate constants was used to investigate the changes in acetate metabolism in different brain regions of rats with acute or chronic EtOH intoxication. PET imaging demonstrated decreased [1- 11 C]-acetate uptake in rat brain with acute EtOH intoxication, but this increased with chronic EtOH intoxication. Tracer uptake rate constant K 1 and clearance rate constant k 2 were decreased in acutely intoxicated rats. No significant change was noted in K 1 and k 2 in chronic EtOH intoxication, although 6 of 7 brain regions showed slightly higher k 2 than baseline. These results indicate that acute EtOH intoxication accelerated acetate transport and metabolism in the rat brain, whereas chronic EtOH intoxication status showed no significant effect. In vivo PET study confirmed the modulatory role of EtOH, administered acutely or chronically, in [1- 11 C]-acetate kinetics and metabolism in the rat brain. Acute EtOH intoxication may inhibit the transport and metabolism of acetate in the brain, whereas chronic EtOH exposure may lead to the adaptation of the rat brain to EtOH in acetate utilization. [1- 11 C]-acetate PET imaging is a feasible approach to study the effect of EtOH on acetate metabolism in rat brain. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  18. Effects of Acute Alcohol Intoxication on Empathic Neural Responses for Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The questions whether and how empathy for pain can be modulated by acute alcohol intoxication in the non-dependent population remain unanswered. To address these questions, a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject study design was adopted in this study, in which healthy social drinkers were asked to complete a pain-judgment task using pictures depicting others' body parts in painful or non-painful situations during fMRI scanning, either under the influence of alcohol intoxication or placebo conditions. Empathic neural activity for pain was reduced by alcohol intoxication only in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC. More interestingly, we observed that empathic neural activity for pain in the right anterior insula (rAI was significantly correlated with trait empathy only after alcohol intoxication, along with impaired functional connectivity between the rAI and the fronto-parietal attention network. Our results reveal that alcohol intoxication not only inhibits empathic neural responses for pain but also leads to trait empathy inflation, possibly via impaired top-down attentional control. These findings help to explain the neural mechanism underlying alcohol-related social problems.

  19. ACUTE EXOGENOUS INTOXICATIONS WITH ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES: DURATION OF THE HOSPITAL TREATMENT AND CLINICAL CRITERIA FOR PROGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petko Marinov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Several criteria have been suggested to estimate the intoxication severity, yet so far no system of clinical criteria has been developed to determine the duration of hospitalisation. The forecast is linked to the influence of the extended corrected QT interval and GCS (Glasgow Coma Scale on the frequency of the developing acute pulmonary insufficiency and lethality. The average duration of hospital treatment is also crucial. First of all, it is determined by the intoxication severity and lasts from 3 to 26 days. The aim of this study is to develop an individual forecast about the duration of hospitalisation for patients suffering from acute exogenous intoxication with organophosphorus pesticides (OPP. Materials/Methods: The subjects are 160 patients. We use statistical regression analysis to study the significance of 5 of the most typical clinical indicators of organophosphorus intoxication on the duration of hospitalisation: type of conscience, presence of spasms, pulmonary oedema, shock and multi-organ insufficiency syndrome (MOIS. To forecast the treatment length, we obtain simplified mathematical expressions in the form of score estimates. Results: The significance of the clinical indicators “MOIS”, “conscience” and “spasm” has been confirmed. A forecast matrix that gives the opportunity to forecast the personal duration of hospital treatment for each patient has been built.

  20. The effects of acute alcohol intoxication on the cognitive mechanisms underlying false facial recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colloff, Melissa F; Flowe, Heather D

    2016-06-01

    False face recognition rates are sometimes higher when faces are learned while under the influence of alcohol. Alcohol myopia theory (AMT) proposes that acute alcohol intoxication during face learning causes people to attend to only the most salient features of a face, impairing the encoding of less salient facial features. Yet, there is currently no direct evidence to support this claim. Our objective was to test whether acute alcohol intoxication impairs face learning by causing subjects to attend to a salient (i.e., distinctive) facial feature over other facial features, as per AMT. We employed a balanced placebo design (N = 100). Subjects in the alcohol group were dosed to achieve a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.06 %, whereas the no alcohol group consumed tonic water. Alcohol expectancy was controlled. Subjects studied faces with or without a distinctive feature (e.g., scar, piercing). An old-new recognition test followed. Some of the test faces were "old" (i.e., previously studied), and some were "new" (i.e., not previously studied). We varied whether the new test faces had a previously studied distinctive feature versus other familiar characteristics. Intoxicated and sober recognition accuracy was comparable, but subjects in the alcohol group made more positive identifications overall compared to the no alcohol group. The results are not in keeping with AMT. Rather, a more general cognitive mechanism appears to underlie false face recognition in intoxicated subjects. Specifically, acute alcohol intoxication during face learning results in more liberal choosing, perhaps because of an increased reliance on familiarity.

  1. Lithium Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lithium has been commonly used for the treatment of several mood disorders particularly bipolar disorder in the last 60 years. Increased intake and decreased excretion of lithium are the main causes for the development of lithium intoxication. The influence of lithium intoxication on body is evaluated as two different groups; reversible or irreversible. Irreversible damage is usually related with the length of time passed as intoxicated. Acute lithium intoxication could occur when an overdose of lithium is received mistakenly or for the purpose of suicide. Patients may sometimes take an overdose of lithium for self-medication resulting in acute intoxication during chronic, while others could develop chronic lithium intoxication during a steady dose treatment due to a problem in excretion of drug. In such situations, it is crucial to be aware of risk factors, to recognize early clinical symptoms and to conduct a proper medical monitoring. In order to justify or exclude the diagnosis, quantitative evaluation of lithium in blood and toxicologic screening is necessary. Following the monitoring schedules strictly and urgent intervention in case of intoxication would definitely reduce mortality and sequela related with lithium intoxication. In this article, the etiology, frequency, definition, clinical features and treatment approaches to the lithium intoxication have been briefly reviewed.

  2. Acute wood or coal exposure with carbon monoxide intoxication induces sister chromatid exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, S.; Vatansever, S.; Cefle, K.; Palanduz, S.; Guler, K.; Erten, N.; Erk, O.; Karan, M.A.; Tascioglu, C. [University of Istanbul, Istanbul (Turkey). Istanbul Faculty of Medicine

    2002-07-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the genotoxic effect of acute overexposure to combustion products originating from coal or wood stoves in patients presenting with acute carbon monoxide intoxication. The authors analyzed the frequency of sister chromatid exchange and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration in 20 consecutive patients without a history of smoking or drug use who had been treated in the Emergency Care Unit of Istanbul Medical Faculty due to acute carbon monoxide intoxication. All of these cases were domestic accidents due to dysfunctioning coal or wood stoves. The results were compared with a control group of 20 nonsmoking, nondrug-using healthy individuals matched for age, sex, and absence of other chemical exposure. It was concluded that acute exposure to combustion products of wood or coal is genotoxic to DNA. Potential causes of genotoxicity include known mutagenic compounds present in coal or wood smoke and ash, oxygen radicals formed during combustion, as well as hypoxic and reperfusion injury mechanisms initiated by carbon monoxide intoxication.

  3. ACUTE NARCOTIC DRUG INTOXICATIONS: ETIOLOGY, SEX/AGE DISTRIBUTION AND CLINICAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petko Marinov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Poisoning with drugs is a serious medical and social problem worldwide. Retrospective analysis of acute poisoning with narcotic drugs had been performed in Varna region for 25 years (1991-2015. Material and Methods: The number of patients received hospital treatment after poisonings with narcotic substances was 677, which represented 3.9% of all acute exogenous intoxications. Results: Narcotic poisonings were more common in men – 546 (80.6%, than in women – 131 (19.4 %. The ratio male/ female was 4.17:1. The largest number of intoxications were in the age group up to 24 years – 1123 (66%, and only 2.65% of patients were over 45 years. Death was registered in 6 (0.9% patients.

  4. Atropa belladonna intoxication: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdai, Mohamed Adnane; Labib, Smael; Chetouani, Khadija; Harandou, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    Atropa belladonna is a poisonous plant also called deadly nightshade. Its roots, leaves and fruits contain alkaloids: atropine, hyocyamine and scopolamine. The risk of poisoning in children is important because of possible confusion with other berries. Atropa belladonna acute intoxication is a severe condition, it's should be considered in the presence of anti-cholinergic toxidrome, the differential diagnosis include other plants or psychoactive drugs containing atropine. The treatment is mainly symptomatic including gastrointestinal decontamination with activated charcoal. In severe cases, physostigmine can be used as an antidote. We report the case of 11 year old girl with Atropa belladonna poisoning which was administrated in a therapeutic purpose as a remedy to jaundice. The child presented essentially a central anti-cholinergic syndrome. She was admitted in the intensive care unit, the progression was favorable with symptomatic treatment.

  5. Seizures in patients with acute pesticide intoxication, with a focus on glufosinate ammonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S; Kim, D E; Park, S Y; Gil, H W; Hong, S Y

    2018-04-01

    The incidence and clinical aspects of seizures remain to be elucidated in patients with acute pesticide intoxication. The present study included subjects who ingested pesticide with the intention of committing suicide and were treated at Soonchunhyang University Hospital (Cheonan, Korea) between January 2011 and December 2014. We analyzed the incidence and characterized the type and frequency of seizure, from the medical records of 464 patients with acute pesticide intoxication, according to the pesticide class. The effect of seizure on the clinical outcome was assessed. The incidence of seizure was 31.5% in patients who ingested glufosinate ammonium {2-amino-4-[hydroxyl (methyl) phosphinoyl] butyrate; ammonium DL-homoalanin-4-yl (methyl) phosphinate}, followed by those who ingested pyrethroid (5.9%) or glycine derivatives (5.4%). All of the seizures developed between 12 and 24 h of pesticide ingestion and had ceased by 72 h after seizure initiation, following treatment with antiseizure medication. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures were the most commonly observed (85.7% of the cases). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the effect of seizure on mortality was not statistically significant. In conclusion, glufosinate ammonium herbicide is the most common seizurogenic pesticide class. Seizure itself was not a risk factor for mortality in patients with acute glufosinate ammonium intoxication.

  6. Toxicoproteomic assessment of liver responses to acute pyrrolizidine alkaloid intoxication in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Hong; Tai, William Chi-Shing; Khan, Imran; Lu, Cheng; Lu, Yao; Wong, Wing-Yan; Chan, Wood-Yee; Wendy Hsiao, Wen-Luan; Lin, Ge

    2018-04-03

    A toxicoproteomic study was performed on liver of rats treated with retrorsine (RTS), a representative hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid at a toxic dose (140 mg/kg) known to cause severe acute hepatotoxicity. By comparing current data with our previous findings in mild liver lesions of rats treated with a lower dose of RTS, seven proteins and three toxicity pathways of vascular endothelial cell death, which was further verified by observed sinusoidal endothelial cell losses, were found uniquely associated with retrorsine-induced hepatotoxicity. This toxicoproteomic study of acute pyrrolizidine alkaloid intoxication lays a foundation for future investigation to delineate molecular mechanisms of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-induced hepatotoxicity.

  7. PROTEOSE INTOXICATIONS AND INJURY OF BODY PROTEIN : V. THE INCREASE IN NON-PROTEIN NITROGEN OF THE BLOOD IN ACUTE INFLAMMATORY PROCESSES AND ACUTE INTOXICATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, J V; Whipple, G H

    1918-08-01

    Sterile abscess formation in the dog is accompanied by a large increase in output of urinary nitrogen and also by a small but definite increase in the blood non-protein nitrogen. All this nitrogenous material of course is derived from body protein injury and autolysis. Septic inflammation in the dog (pleurisy, pneumonia, peritonitis, etc.) likewise shows a distinct rise in the blood non-protein nitrogen. This rise is not often so great as that frequently observed in the intoxication of intestinal obstruction. Many acute infections in man (septicemia, peritonitis, pneumonia, etc.) show a definite rise in the non-protein nitrogen and urea nitrogen of the blood; some cases show a very great rise above normal (over 100 mg. of non-protein nitrogen per 100 cc. of blood). There may be no anatomical change in the kidney beyond the familiar picture of cloudy swelling. This does not exclude the possibility of some transient functional derangement of the kidney epithelium. Certain obscure intoxications in man may show a considerable rise in the non-protein nitrogen of the blood, indicating a large amount of protein disintegration. These findings must be taken into account in any clinical analysis and interpretation of high non-protein nitrogen of the blood in pathological conditions.

  8. A study on the porphirin metabolism in rats in conditions of acute uranium intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khadzhirusev, S.; Pavlova, V.; Mikhajlov, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    The changes of urine porphyrin content are studied in albino rats with experimental acute uranium intoxication (single intraperitoneal injection of uranyl acetate, 7.0 mg/kg bodyweight). The observations have been conducted in the course of 10 days. It is found that both in control and in treated animals the urine is practically free from uroporphyrin. The delta-aminolevulinic acid content varied within broad limits, but the differences from control animals is statistically insignificant. A significant increase in urine porphobilinogen is observed, with a maximum on the second and eigth day after treatment. Coproporphyrin was significantly reduced since the first day of the experiment. All these changes seem to be due to impaired excretory capacity of the kidneys against the background of developing nitrogen retention and overall intoxication of the animal organism. Another possible explanation is that uranyl acetate inhibits some enzymes responsible for the transformation of porphobilinogen into uroporphyrin. (Ch.K.)

  9. Polypharmacy May Be the Cause of Acute Lithium Intoxication at the Second Day of Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tursun Irfan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lithium is frequently used as a mood stabilizer in patients with mood disorders. Lithium has a narrow therapeutic index and high toxicity. Predisposing factors for intoxication are advanced age, diet disturbances, comorbid medical conditions affecting heart, kidneys or central nervous system and polypharmacy. CASE REPORT: Here we present a case of a 74-year-old woman with a history of Parkinson’s disease, hypertension and bipolar disorder. She was using quetiapine, valsartan with hydrochlorothiazide and levodopa with carbidopa. She presented with altered mental status and muscle rigidity. The patient was admitted with acute lithium intoxication after her second dose of treatment. Blood lithium level increased to 3.58 mEq/L. The woman was hospitalized in the Internal Medicine Intensive Care Unit. With hydration, her symptoms resolved and her lithium level returned to normal after 118 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Prescribing physicians and emergency room physicians should be aware of conditions which may cause a decreased threshold for intoxication.

  10. Acute lead intoxication in a female battery worker: Diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadjichristodoulou Christos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lead is a significant occupational and environmental hazard. Battery industry is one of the settings related to lead intoxication. Published information on the use of oral chelating agents for the treatment of anaemia in the context of acute lead intoxication is limited. The patient was a 33 year immigrant female worker in a battery manufacture for 3 months. She complained for malaise that has been developed over the past two weeks. Pallor of skin and conjunctiva was the only sign found in physical examination. The blood test on admission revealed normochromic anaemia. Endoscopic investigation of the gastrointestinal system was negative for bleeding. The bone marrow biopsy was unrevealing. At baseline no attention has been paid to patient's occupational history. Afterwards the patient's occupational history has been re-evaluated and she has been screened for lead intoxication. The increased levels of the lead related biomarkers of exposure and effect confirmed the diagnosis. The patient received an oral chelating agent and an improvement in clinical picture, and levels of haematological and lead related biochemical parameters have been recorded. No side effect and no rebound effect were observed. This case report emphasizes the importance of the occupational history in the context of the differential diagnosis. Moreover, this report indicates that lead remains a significant occupational hazard especially in the small scale battery industry

  11. Acute lead intoxication in a female battery worker: Diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dounias, George; Rachiotis, George; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2010-07-07

    Lead is a significant occupational and environmental hazard. Battery industry is one of the settings related to lead intoxication. Published information on the use of oral chelating agents for the treatment of anaemia in the context of acute lead intoxication is limited. The patient was a 33 year immigrant female worker in a battery manufacture for 3 months. She complained for malaise that has been developed over the past two weeks. Pallor of skin and conjunctiva was the only sign found in physical examination. The blood test on admission revealed normochromic anaemia. Endoscopic investigation of the gastrointestinal system was negative for bleeding. The bone marrow biopsy was unrevealing.At baseline no attention has been paid to patient's occupational history. Afterwards the patient's occupational history has been re-evaluated and she has been screened for lead intoxication. The increased levels of the lead related biomarkers of exposure and effect confirmed the diagnosis. The patient received an oral chelating agent and an improvement in clinical picture, and levels of haematological and lead related biochemical parameters have been recorded. No side effect and no rebound effect were observed. This case report emphasizes the importance of the occupational history in the context of the differential diagnosis. Moreover, this report indicates that lead remains a significant occupational hazard especially in the small scale battery industry.

  12. Acute fish liver intoxication induced blisters formation and generalized skin peeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Hao; Lu, Chun-Wei; Chung, Wen-Hung; Ho, Hsin-Chun

    2018-02-01

    Acute fish liver intoxication, including hypervitaminosis A and hypervitaminosis D, may result from the ingestion of certain fish livers. The typical symptoms of hypervitaminosis A include nausea, headache, blurred vision, and cutaneous manifestations, such as flushing, vesicles formation, and desquamation. Hypervitaminosis D may result in hypercalcemia. We report a case of acute fish liver intoxication with systemic and cutaneous manifestations. A 63-year-old male presented to the clinic with generalized desquamation and multiple clear-fluid filled flaccid vesicles after eating approximately two fist-sized portions (about 300-400 g) of cooked seerfish (Scomberomorus spp.) liver. Laboratory examination showed a high serum level of vitamin A and D, and hypercalcemia. Fish liver consumption from particular fish may result in acute hypervitaminosis A and D. In patients with skin detachment or blister formation, headache, drowsiness, and other symptoms and signs consistent with hypervitaminosis A and/or hypercalcemia, a history of fish intake should be sought, and a serum level of vitamin A and D should be measured.

  13. [Evaluation of selected socioeconomic factors in patients with acute ethanol intoxication and alcohol withdrawal syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukasik-Głębocka, Magdalena; Sommerfeld, Karina

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol is commonly overused psychoactive substance in Poland and all around the world. It causes addiction, which occurs as a result of its chronic administration. One of the main symptoms of addiction is hunger due to psychoactive substance that prevents interruption of its adoption and contributes to relapse drinking. Acute poisoning with ethyl alcohol and alcohol withdrawal syndrome are diseases causing a potential danger to life. The prevalence of use and abuse of alcoholic beverages is a potential risk, causing health problems, including permanent damage of the central and peripheral nervous system and socio-economic problems. The aim of this study is to analyze certain aspects of the socio-economic situation of the patients hospitalized in the Department of Toxicology in Raszeja City Hospital in Poznan due to acute ethanol intoxication or alcohol withdrawal syndrome in 2010. 299 patients history was evaluated, among which 161 were treated for acute intoxication with ethanol and 138 due to alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Objects of interest were elements of subjective tests including: marital status of patients, their education and professional activity and the problem of homelessness. The study group consisted of 299 patients in age from 16 to 77 years, hospitalized in the Department of Toxicology in Raszeja City Hospital in Poznan due to acute ethanol intoxication or alcohol withdrawal syndrome. It was found that the largest group consisted of patients remaining married (42.81%) and unmarried (30.43%). Alcohol abuse affects people of all levels of education. In the present study, most patients had a vocational education (37.79%) and medium (23.08%). Patients were analyzed in terms of economic activity, among which about 40% were unemployed. In the whole group more than 10% of those were homeless. Ethyl alcohol intoxication and alcohol withdrawal represents a significant hazard. As a result of reliance, patients lose control of alcohol consumption and they

  14. Blood, urine, and hair kinetic analysis following an acute lead intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, G; Keutgens, A; Schoofs, R; Kotolenko, S; Denooz, R; Charlier, C

    2011-01-01

    A case of lead exposure resulting from the accidental ingestion of a lead-containing solution is reported. Because of clinical management rapidly performed through chelation therapy by 2,3-dimercaptopropane sulfonate sodium and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid, blood lead levels of this 51-year-old patient were moderate (412.9 μg/L) and no clinical symptoms were observed. Numerous blood and urine samples were collected for kinetic analysis of lead elimination. However, we report the first case in which hair samples were analyzed to determine the excretion level of lead after acute intoxication.

  15. Acute Cerebellitis Following Opium Intoxication: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firozeh Hosseini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Acute cerebellitis (AC is a rare potentially life-threatening condition in children. Some viral infections, vaccines and neuroimmunologic disorders are the most common causes of AC. Opium poisoning is an unusual cause of this condition. Case presentation A 2-year-old girl was referred with loss of consciousness. She was ataxic just a few minutes after opium ingestion and after 1 hour, she became unconscious. We only found pinpoint pupils. After naloxone drip, her condition had been better but she was still obtunded and her urine was positive for opium products (morphine. MRI of the brain showed marked bilateral cerebellar swelling that respond to high-dose steroid dramatically. Conclusion This case shows that opium intoxication should be considered as a rare cause of acute cerebellitis in children.

  16. Acute carbon monoxide intoxication : the relation between MR findings and clinical outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jin Bae; Jeong, Hae Woong; Kim, Ki Nam; Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Chang Soo

    1999-01-01

    To analyse MR findings of various involving sites and the relation between such findings and clinical outcome, the authors retrospectively reviewed MR images of acute carbon monoxide intoxication. In 12 patients, MR images obtained from several hours to 12 days after acute carbon monoxide intoxication were reviewed. The images were analysed with regard to involved sites, symmetricity, signal intensity, and the presence or absence of hemorrhage, and the relationship between MR findings and clinical outcome; the presence of delayed encephalopathy was then determined. The globus pallidus(n=9), white matter(n=3), [centrum semiovale(n=2), periventricular white matter(n=1)] and gyrus(n=6) [inferior temporal gyrus(n=2), cingulate gyrus(n=1), precentral gyrus(n=1), hippocampal gyrus(n=1), parahippocampal gyrus(n=1)] were typically involved, and there was also involvenent of the corpus callosum(n=3), thalamus(n=2) and midbrain(n=2). All lesions of the globus pallidus, thalamus, midbrain and temporal lobe were bilaterally symmetric. In all these cases, subtle or prominent low signal intensity was seen on spin-echo T1WI, and high signal intensity on PDWI and T2WI. Some lesions of the globus pallidus(n=1), thalamus(n=1) and midbrain(n=1) were associated with hemorrhage, which occurred during the early subacute stage and was seen on high/low signal intensity T1/T2WI images. Acute cerebral(n=1) and cerebellar(n=1) infarctions were also seen. Cerebral white matter involvement correlated with poor clinical outcome, and in two cases, delayed encephalopathy developed. In these cases of acute carbon monoxide intoxication, the globus pallidus, white matter, cortex and hippocampus were frequently involved, and there was also involvement of various sites such as the corpus callosum, thalamus and midbrain. Lesions of the temporal lobe, thalamus and midbrain were bilaterally symmetric. The involvement of cerebral white matter and the presence of delayed encephalopathy can influence

  17. Study on alkaline and acid phosphatase activity in acute uranium intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokova, N.V.; Pavlova, V.B.; Stancheva, Yu.A.; Khadzhirusev, S.B.; Kiradzhiev, G.D.

    1975-01-01

    The protective potential of diethyl barbituric acid sodium salt is studied, in comparison with that of acetazolamide, on kidneys under acute uranium intoxication. Experiments involved rats given intraperitoneal injections with uranyl acetate on 12 successive days up to a total dose of 0.5, 2.0 or 7.0 mg/kg. The resulting effects are measured by chemical assays of serum and urine for alkaline and acid phosphatase and histochemical assays for phosphatase activities in kidneys, kinetics being followed over a 30-day period after total dose administration. Protection of kidneys from toxic uranium effects was found to be of about the same degree with sodium diethyl barbiturate as with acetazolamide. (A.B.)

  18. MR imaging of brain tissue changes in acute and chronic solvent intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinck, P.A.; Nilsen, G.; Kvaerness, J.

    1988-01-01

    Acute and chronic intoxication with solvents is found both as an occupational hazard and as self-inflicted in addicts to solvent. Objective demonstration of such brain tissue changes is difficult with conventional imaging methods, and in most cases findings are negative. In a preliminary study, the brains of eight patients (aged 28-62 years) exposed to aggressive solvents for 1-27 years were examined with magnetic resonance imaging. All of the patients showed brain atrophy of varying extent, and seven of eight patients (all except the youngest and least exposed) had brain lesions that somewhat resembled dymyelinating changes (focal and confluent periventricular and deep white matter lesions, brain stem and cerebellar lesions); one patient showed cloudy, poorly defined lesions

  19. Motor performance during and following acute alcohol intoxication in healthy non-alcoholic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Buch; Jakobsen, Johannes Klitgaard; Andersen, Henning

    2007-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse has adverse effects on skeletal muscle, and reduced muscle strength is frequently seen in chronic alcoholics. In this study the acute effects of moderate alcohol intoxication on motor performance was evaluated in 19 non-alcoholic healthy subjects (10 women, 9 men......). A randomised double-blinded placebo controlled design was applied to subjects receiving alcohol in juice and pure juice at two separate test periods. Isokinetic and isometric muscle strength and endurance were determined before, during, 24 and 48 h after the ingestion of alcohol in juice and juice (placebo......). To detect a reduced activation of the central motor pathways superimposed external electrical stimulations during voluntary contractions were applied. Creatine kinase (CK) was measured to detect any alcohol-induced changes in sarcolemmal integrity. No change was seen in isokinetic as well as in isometric...

  20. A Heart too Drunk to Drive; AV Block following Acute Alcohol Intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Stigt, Arthur H; Overduin, Ruben J; Staats, Liza C; Loen, Vera; van der Heyden, Marcel A G

    2016-02-29

    Acute excessive alcohol consumption is associated with heart rhythm disorders like atrial fibrillation but also premature ventricular contractions, collectively known as the "holiday heart syndrome". More rarely but clinically significant are reports of atrioventricular (AV) conduction disturbances in binge drinkers with no underlying heart disease or chronic alcohol consumption. To obtain better insights into common denominators and the potential underlying mechanisms we collected and compared individual case reports of AV block following acute alcohol intoxication in otherwise healthy people. By screening PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus and JSTOR, fifteen cases were found of which eight were sufficiently documented for full analysis. Blood alcohol levels ranged from 90 to 958 mg/dl (19 to 205 mM). Second and third degree AV block was observed most (6/8) albeit that in two of these patients a vagal stimulus led to deterioration from first into higher order AV block. In all cases, patients reverted to normal sinus rhythm upon becoming sober again. Mildly lowered body temperature (35.9 ± 0.5°C) was observed but can be excluded as a major cause of conduction blockade. We hypothesize that ethanol induced partial inhibition of calcium and potentially also sodium currents in conductive tissue structures may be one of the mechanisms of conduction slowing and block that may become exaggerated upon increased vagal tone. An impairment of gap junction function cannot be excluded as a contributing factor. In conclusion, cases of documented alcohol induced AV block are very rare but events can occur at relatively low serum alcohol levels which should prompt to awareness of this phenomenon in alcohol intoxicated patients.

  1. Acute metformin intoxication: 2012 experience of Emergency Departement of Lodi, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquistapace, Giulia; Rossi, Marco; Garbi, Mara; Cosci, Pablo; Canetta, Ciro; Manelli, Anna; Ricevuti, Giovanni

    2014-10-01

    Background: Metformin is a biguanide antihyperglycemic agent that decreases insulin resistance. It is removed through renal mechanisms and its clearance is reduced in renal failure. Metformin ingestion should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of any patient with metabolic acidosis and increased lactate level. Hemodialysis and continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) are both efficient methods to treat metformin intoxication and correct metabolic abnormalities. Patient 1: A 63-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus presented to emergency department (ED) of Lodi (Italy) for dyspnea. He also reported having diarrhea for 10 days. Initial investigations revealed metabolic acidosis with hyperlactatemia and hypoglycemia (54 mg/dL), metformin concentration was 41 μg/mL (normal value <4 μg/mL). His hemodynamic condition became rapidly unstable and hypotension worsened despite CVVH being performed. Death occurred in 24 h. Patient 2: A 76-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus presented to ED of Lodi for dyspnea. He referred a recent surgery amputation of the left foot's fifth phalanx for osteomyelitis, in levofloxacin therapy. Initial investigations revealed metabolic acidosis with hyperlactatemia and severe hypoglycemia (20 mg/dL). Two hemodialysis sessions were performed with complete normalization of the serum concentration of metformin. In our two cases the genesis of metformin intoxication was clear, powered by acute renal failure, but less obvious was the etiology of acute renal damage responsible for metformin accumulation. Damage due to renal hypoperfusion or the direct toxic effect of metformin should be considered. Additionally, for the second patient, we can also hypothesize that interstitial nephritis was exacerbated by levofloxacin.

  2. Selenium intoxication with selenite broth resulting in acute renal failure and severe gastritis

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    Kamble P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential trace element in human and animal nutrition. It is also widely utilized in industrial processes. Reports of acute selenium toxicity in humans are rare. We report a case of a 23-year-old female who consumed about 100 mL of liquid selenite broth and presented with severe nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, hematemesis and acute renal failure (ARF. The serum selenium level was significantly increased. Gastro-duodenoscopy revealed severe corrosive gastritis. Renal biopsy showed features of acute tubular necrosis (ATN, affecting primarily the proximal tubules. The patient was managed with gastric lavage, blood transfusions, infusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP and platelet concentrates and hemo-dialysis. The patient was discharged five weeks after admission and her renal functions reco-vered completely by eight weeks after admission. She continues to be on regular follow-up for any possible sequelae of mucosal corrosive damage. This case highlights a case of selenium intoxication from selenite broth resulting in ARF and corrosive gastritis. The recovery was complete.

  3. [Acute ethanol intoxication among children and adolescents. A retrospective analysis of 173 patients admitted to a university children hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöberl, S; Nickel, P; Schmutzer, G; Siekmeyer, W; Kiess, W

    2008-01-01

    In the last time the alcohol consumption among children and adolescents is a big theme in all kind of media. The ethanol consumption among children and adolescents has risen during the last years, but also new hazardous drinking patterns like "binge-drinking" are increasing. These drinking episodes are responsible for many hospital presentations of children and adolescents with acute ethanol intoxication. This study is a retrospective analysis of 173 patients admitted to the university children hospital of Leipzig due to acute ethanol intoxication during the period 1998-2004. Investigated parameters were: socio-demographic factors, clinical presentation and management as well as quantity and type of alcohol. During the years 1998-2004 the rate of alcohol intoxicated patients in this study increased, from 1998-2003 at about 171.4%. Totally 173 patients with an average age of 14.5 years were admitted to the university children hospital. There were significantly more boys than girls. The mean blood alcohol concentration of these patients was 1.77%. Some of the patients had severe symptoms. 62 were unconscious, 2 were in coma and at least 3 patients had to be ventilated. A difference between socioeconomic groups could be observed by comparing the different school types. 44.8% of the patients went to the middle school. Furthermore 17 patients of this study had mental disorders or psychosocial problems and were therefore in psychological or psychiatric treatment. In this study a significant influence of social classes or psychosocial problems on alcohol consumption such as binge-drinking leading to acute ethanol intoxication could not be found. Alarming is the increasing number of ethanol intoxicated patients, the young age, the high measured blood ethanol concentrations and the severe symptoms of these patients. This is the reason why early and intensive prevention strategies are required.

  4. Acute heroin intoxication in a baby chronically exposed to cocaine and heroin: a case report

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    Pichini Simona

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Acute intoxication with drugs of abuse in children is often only the tip of the iceberg, actually hiding chronic exposure. Analysis using non-conventional matrices such as hair can provide long-term information about exposure to recreational drugs. Case presentation We report the case of a one-month-old Caucasian boy admitted to our pediatric emergency unit with respiratory distress and neurological abnormalities. A routine urine test was positive for opiates, suggesting an acute opiate ingestion. No other drugs of misuse, such as cocaine, cannabis, amphetamines or derivatives, were detected in the baby's urine. Subsequently, hair samples from the baby and the parents were collected to evaluate the possibility of chronic exposure to drug misuse by segmental analysis. Opiates and cocaine metabolites were detected in hair samples from the baby boy and his parents. Conclusions In light of these and previous results, we recommend hair analysis in babies and children from risky environments to detect exposure to heroin and other drug misuse, which could provide the basis for specific social and health interventions.

  5. [A case of favourable outcome of severe acute intoxication with an animal poison after a bite by the monocled cobra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livanov, G A; Batotsyrenkov, B V; Lodiagin, A N; Andrianov, A Iu; Kuznetsov, O A; Loladze, A T; Baranov, D V

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a case of severe acute intoxication with an animal poison after a bite by the monocled cobra. Combined treatment including artificial lung ventilation, infusion-detoxication and desensitizing (hormonal) therapy, hemosorption, correction of metabolic disorders with cytoflavin, antibacterial therapy had positive effect on the patient's condition and ensured the favourable outcome ofpotentially lethal poisoning without the use ofa specific anti-snake venom serum.

  6. Alcohol acute intoxication before sepsis impairs the wound healing of intestinal anastomosis: rat model of the abdominal trauma patient

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    Morais Pedro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Most trauma patients are drunk at the time of injury. Up to 2% of traumatized patients develop sepsis, which considerably increases their mortality. Inadequate wound healing of the colonic repair can lead to postoperative complications such as leakage and sepsis. Objective To assess the effects of acute alcohol intoxication on colonic anastomosis wound healing in septic rats. Methods Thirty six Wistar rats were allocated into two groups: S (induction of sepsis and AS (alcohol intake before sepsis induction. A colonic anastomosis was performed in all groups. After 1, 3 or 7 days the animals were killed. Weight variations, mortality rate, histopathology and tensile breaking strength of the colonic anastomosis were evaluated. Results There was an overall mortality of 4 animals (11.1%, three in the group AS (16.6% and one in the S group (5.5%. Weight loss occurred in all groups. The colon anastomosis of the AS group didn’t gain strength from the first to the seventh postoperative day. On the histopathological analysis there were no differences in the deposition of collagen or fibroblasts between the groups AS and S. Conclusion Alcohol intake increased the mortality rate three times in septic animals. Acute alcohol intoxication delays the acquisition of tensile strength of colonic anastomosis in septic rats. Therefore, acute alcohol intoxication before sepsis leads to worse prognosis in animal models of the abdominal trauma patients.

  7. A study of the alkaline and acid phosphatase activities in acute uranium intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokova, N.; Pavlova, V.; Stancheva, Yu.; Khadzhirusev, S.; Kiradzhiev, G.

    1975-01-01

    Comparative study of the ability of the sodium salt of diethylbarbituric acid and acetazolamide to protect the kidneys is conducted under conditions of acute uranium intoxication in rats. The parameters studied are alkaline and acid phosphatase activities in the serum and urine and phosphatase activity in the kidneys (histochemically as described by Gomori) followed up until the 30th day after the total uranyl acetate dose was reached (2 or 7 mg per kg bodyweight). Either compound exerted only minor effect on serum alkaline phosphatase activity. Sodium diethylbarbiturate induced distinct fluctuations in urinary alkaline phosphatase activity throughout the entire study period, but the differences never reached statistical significance. Acetazolamide caused essential decrease in urinary alkaline phosphatase activity. In either case renal tissue protection from the action of the uranyl ion may be suggested. This assumption is supported by the histochemical analysis. The compounds appeared to have no effect on serum acid phosphatase activity which showed high variability both in control and in treated rats. (Ch.K.)

  8. Ultrastructural changes in lung tissue after acute lead intoxication in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczynska, Katarzyna; Walski, Michał; Szereda-Przestaszewska, Małgorzata

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary toxicity of lead was studied in rats after an intraperitoneal administration of lead acetate at a dose of 25 mg/kg. Three consecutive days of treatment increased lead content in the whole blood to 2.1 µg/dl and in lung homogenate it attained 9.62 µg/g w.w. versus control values of 0.17 µg/dl and 0.78 µg/g w.w., respectively. At the ultrastructural level, the effects of lead toxicity were observed in lung capillaries, interstitium, epithelial cells and alveolar lining layer. Accumulation of aggregated platelets, leucocytic elements and monocytes was found within capillaries. Interstitium comprised a substantial number of collagen, elastin filaments and lipofibroblasts. Lamellar bodies of type II pneumocytes contained phospolipid lamellae, which stratified into an irregular arrangement. Pulmonary alveoli were filled with macrophages. The extracellular lining layer of lung alveoli was partially destroyed. This study provided evidence that acute lead intoxication affects the whole lung parenchyma and by impairing production of the surfactant might disturb the regular respiratory function.

  9. Content of carbon monoxide in the tissues of rats intoxicated with carbon monoxide in various conditions of acute exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokal, J.A.; Majka, J.; Palus, J.

    1984-12-01

    Tissue carbon monoxide (CO) content was investigated in rats severely intoxicated with CO under various exposure conditions: 1% CO for 4 min, 0.4% CO for 40 min and 0.12% CO for 12 h. Extravascular CO was determined in the heart and skeletal muscles immediately after termination of exposure, and carboxymyoglobin (MbCO) percent saturation was calculated. Total brain CO was estimated immediately after termination of exposure and after the time periods of restitution. After the same exposure conditions, MbCO percent saturation was higher in the heart than in skeletal muscle. In both types of muscle, saturation on myoglobin (Mb) with CO depended on blood carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) level and not on the duration of exposure. The time course of CO elimination was the same for blood and brain, irrespective of CO exposure conditions. The results obtained showed that acute CO intoxication induced by long duration exposures did not involve CO accumulation in the tissues.

  10. Rat liver mitochondrial damage under acute or chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication: Protection by melatonin and cranberry flavonoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheshchevik, V.T.; Lapshina, E.A.; Dremza, I.K.; Zabrodskaya, S.V.; Reiter, R.J.; Prokopchik, N.I.; Zavodnik, I.B.

    2012-01-01

    In current societies, the risk of toxic liver damage has markedly increased. The aim of the present work was to carry out further research into the mechanism(s) of liver mitochondrial damage induced by acute (0.8 g/kg body weight, single injection) or chronic (1.6 g/ kg body weight, 30 days, biweekly injections) carbon tetrachloride – induced intoxication and to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the antioxidant, melatonin, as well as succinate and cranberry flavonoids in rats. Acute intoxication resulted in considerable impairment of mitochondrial respiratory parameters in the liver. The activity of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) decreased (by 25%, p 4 displayed obvious irreversible impairments. Long-term melatonin administration (10 mg/kg, 30 days, daily) to chronically intoxicated rats diminished the toxic effects of CCl 4 , reducing elevated plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin concentration, prevented accumulation of membrane lipid peroxidation products in rat liver and resulted in apparent preservation of the mitochondrial ultrastructure. The treatment of the animals by the complex of melatonin (10 mg/kg) plus succinate (50 mg/kg) plus cranberry flavonoids (7 mg/kg) was even more effective in prevention of toxic liver injury and liver mitochondria damage. Highlights: ► After 30-day chronic CCl 4 intoxication mitochondria displayed considerable changes. ► The functional parameters of mitochondria were similar to the control values. ► Melatonin + succinate + flavonoids prevented mitochondrial ultrastructure damage. ► The above complex enhanced regenerative processes in the liver.

  11. [Can one talk of benzodiazepine "drunkenness"? About acute benzodiazepine intoxication, without suicidal or mortiferous tendencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menecier, P; Texier, M A; Las, R; Ploton, L

    2012-02-01

    When we refer to "drunkenness", more often than not, we think of alcohol or cannabis being the instigator rather than pharmacological drugs, even if outside the toxic origins, "drunkenness" may also occur without any substance intake: one can be drunk on love, poetry, music and even mania. Benzodiazepine "drunkenness" is not a classical notion in medicine. But the concept of addictology allows one to enlarge different approaches and to consider the relationship with psychoactive substances according to the same references. So, in a single fashion, between use and misuse, is it possible to resort to the same concepts for pharmacological drugs, including "drunkenness"? Any intake of a psychoactive substance, limited in time, which will take the consumer some time to recover from, can be called simple use, intoxication or drunkenness. Intoxication is rather a classical medical concept linked with poisoning, and hence the toxicological aspects prevail particularly through the concept of a toxidrome. However, little research has been done on "drunkenness" in other medical aspects, neither psychological aspects nor sociological aspects. If poisoning is defined as soon as a poison is introduced into the body, the intoxication arises after a threshold (that toxicology usually defines), but no means are available to measure the onset of the inebriation, neither any ingested amounts nor any toxic concentration in the body. It is hard to define "drunkenness" simply. At first, it is most often seen as a pathology in medicine, unlike in every day life. "Drunkenness" can be the result of physiological disturbances, notably through the effects of substances and can therefore be the manifestation of a cerebral dysfunction. Alternatively, it can arise from a variation of emotional or sensorial stimuli. If the feelings associated with drunkenness are positive and pleasant a repetition will occur in the search to reproduce enjoyable effects in reference to neurophysiological models

  12. Primary Screening for Proteins Differentially Expressed in the Myocardium of a Rat Model of Acute Methamphetamine Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqiang Qu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of myocardial injury induced by the cardiovascular toxicity of methamphetamine (MA has been shown to depend on alterations in myocardial proteins caused by MA. Primary screening of the expression of myocardial proteins in a rat model of MA intoxication was achieved by combining two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analyses, which revealed a total of 100 differentially expressed proteins. Of these, 13 displayed significantly altered expression. Moreover, Western blotting and real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses of several relative proteins demonstrated that acute MA intoxication lowers protein expression and mRNA transcription of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 and NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 10. In contrast, MA intoxication elevated the protein expression and mRNA transcription of heat shock protein family B (small member 1. By combining behavioral assessments of experimental rat models with the histological and pathological changes evident in cardiomyocytes, a mechanism accounting for MA myocardial toxicity was suggested. MA alters the regulation of gene transcription and the subsequent expression of certain proteins that participate in myocardial respiration and in responding to oxidative stress, resulting in myocardial dysfunction and structural changes that affect the functioning of the cardiovascular system.

  13. Rat liver mitochondrial damage under acute or chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication: Protection by melatonin and cranberry flavonoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheshchevik, V.T. [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Department of Biochemistry, Yanka Kupala Grodno State University, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Lapshina, E.A.; Dremza, I.K.; Zabrodskaya, S.V. [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Reiter, R.J. [Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, University of Texas Health Science Center, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229–3900 (United States); Prokopchik, N.I. [Grodno State Medical University, Gorkogo - 80, 230015 Grodno (Belarus); Zavodnik, I.B., E-mail: zavodnik_il@mail.ru [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Department of Biochemistry, Yanka Kupala Grodno State University, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus)

    2012-06-15

    In current societies, the risk of toxic liver damage has markedly increased. The aim of the present work was to carry out further research into the mechanism(s) of liver mitochondrial damage induced by acute (0.8 g/kg body weight, single injection) or chronic (1.6 g/ kg body weight, 30 days, biweekly injections) carbon tetrachloride – induced intoxication and to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the antioxidant, melatonin, as well as succinate and cranberry flavonoids in rats. Acute intoxication resulted in considerable impairment of mitochondrial respiratory parameters in the liver. The activity of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) decreased (by 25%, p < 0.05). Short-term melatonin treatment (10 mg/kg, three times) of rats did not reduce the degree of toxic mitochondrial dysfunction but decreased the enhanced NO production. After 30-day chronic intoxication, no significant change in the respiratory activity of liver mitochondria was observed, despite marked changes in the redox-balance of mitochondria. The activities of the mitochondrial enzymes, succinate dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as that of cytoplasmic catalase in liver cells were inhibited significantly. Mitochondria isolated from the livers of the rats chronically treated with CCl{sub 4} displayed obvious irreversible impairments. Long-term melatonin administration (10 mg/kg, 30 days, daily) to chronically intoxicated rats diminished the toxic effects of CCl{sub 4}, reducing elevated plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin concentration, prevented accumulation of membrane lipid peroxidation products in rat liver and resulted in apparent preservation of the mitochondrial ultrastructure. The treatment of the animals by the complex of melatonin (10 mg/kg) plus succinate (50 mg/kg) plus cranberry flavonoids (7 mg/kg) was even more effective in prevention of toxic liver injury and liver mitochondria damage

  14. Alteration of glutamate/GABA balance during acute alcohol intoxication in rats: effect of Xingnaojing injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jingjing; Yao, Limei; Yang, Lei; Zhao, Wei; Shi, Si; Cai, Qingyan; Chen, Dingsheng; Li, Weirong; Wang, Qi

    2015-05-26

    Xingnaojing Injection (XNJI) is a modern Chinese formula came from famous Chinese medicine An Gong Niu Huang Pill. XNJI has been used for treatment of cerebral diseases and stroke in China, and is approved by the State Food and Drug Administration of China for the treatment of acute alcohol intoxication (AAI). XNJI belongs to the ethnopharmacological family of medicines. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of the XNJI effect on AAI. To investigate the effects of XNJI on glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and related receptor in lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) of AAI rat. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with microdialysis probes in LHA. Rats were randomly divided into control, model, 1.36mg/kg XNJI, 0.68mg/kg XNJI and 0.34mg/kg XNJI groups. During microdialysis, baseline samples were collected from 1h to 2.5h; thereafter, the rats were given an intraperitoneal injection of 52% ethanol, 5.2g/kg, or saline for control group. Twenty minutes later, three doses of XNJI was given by unilateral injection respectively, while saline for control and model groups, and samples were collected for the next 4h. The extracellular glutamate and GABA levels were measured in the LHA by a high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLU). The expression levels of related receptors N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NR) subunit NR2A, NR2B and GABAA were analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Ethanol (5.2g/kg) significantly decreased the extracellular levels of glutamate and increased extracellular GABA in LHA. On the other hand ethanol significantly decreased NR2A and NR2B mRNAs expression, and increase GABAA mRNA expression. XNJI could increase the extracellular level of glutamate and decrease that of GABA; moreover, induced an increase in NR2A and NR2B mRNA expression, and a decrease in GABAA mRNA expression in LHA. The current changes in glutamate, GABA and mRNA expressions of related

  15. Acute cadmium intoxication induces alpha-class glutathione S-transferase protein synthesis and enzyme activity in rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casalino, Elisabetta; Sblano, Cesare; Calzaretti, Giovanna; Landriscina, Clemente

    2006-01-01

    Acute cadmium intoxication affects glutathione S-transferase (GST) in rat liver. It has been found that 24 h after i.p. cadmium administration to rats, at a dose of 2.5 mg CdCl 2 kg -1 body weight, the activity of this enzyme in liver cytosol increased by 40%. A less stimulatory effect persisted till 48 h and thereafter the enzyme activity normalized. Since, GST isoenzymes belong to different classes in mammalian tissues, we used quantitative immunoassays to verify which family of GST isoenzymes is influenced by this intoxication. Only alpha-class glutathione S-transferase (α-GST) proteins were detected in rat liver cytosol and their level increased by about 25%, 24 h after cadmium treatment. No pi-GST isoforms were found in liver cytosol from either normal or cadmium-treated rats. Co-administration of actinomycin D with cadmium normalized both the protein level and the activity of α-GST, suggesting that some effect occurs on enzyme transcription of these isoenzymes by this metal. On the other hand, it seems unlikely that the stimulatory effect is due to the high level of peroxides caused by lipid peroxidation, since Vitamin E administration strongly reduced the TBARS level, but did not cause any GST activity decrease

  16. Acute alcohol intoxication, diffuse axonal injury and intraventricular bleeding in patients with isolated blunt traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukawa, Hidetoshi; Shinoda, Masaki; Fujii, Motoharu; Takahashi, Osamu; Murakata, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Daisuke

    2013-01-01

    The influence of blood alcohol level (BAL) on outcome remains unclear. This study investigated the relationships between BAL, type and number of diffuse axonal injury (DAI), intraventricular bleeding (IVB) and 6-month outcome. This study reviewed 419 patients with isolated blunt traumatic brain injury. First, it compared clinical and radiological characteristics between patients with good recovery and disability. Second, it compared BAL among DAI lesions. Third, it evaluated the correlation between the BAL and severity of IVB, number of DAI and corpus callosum injury lesions. Regardless of BAL, older age, male gender, severe Glasgow Coma Scale score (injury lesions. Acute alcohol intoxication was not associated with type and number of DAI lesion, IVB and disability. This study suggested that a specific type of traumatic lesion, specifically lesion on genu of corpus callosum and IVB, might be more vital for outcome.

  17. Diagnosing and quantification of acute alcohol intoxication. Comparison of dual-energy CT with biochemical analysis. Initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkusuz, H.; Abbas Raschidi, B.; Keese, D.; Kromen, W.; Bauer, R.W.; Vogl, T.J.; Namgaladze, D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the correlation between fat content of an acute alcohol intoxication and the difference of computer tomography attenuation value in dual-energy CT in comparison to biochemical triglyceride analysis and to evaluate qualitatively the value of DECT in the diagnosis of fatty liver caused by ethanol-dosage in rats. Materials and Methods: DECT at 140 kV and 80 kV was performed on 20 rats before and two days after the administration of 3 ml of 50 % ethanol. The CT attenuation value in the livers at 140 kV, 80 kV and the differences between them in Hounsfield units (ΔH) were collected. Parts of the liver (100 mg) were measured in biochemical triglyceride analysis as the reference standard. A blood sample was also taken to measure specific liver enzymes. Results: Linear correlation between biochemical triglyceride analysis and CT density of ΔH was found (r = 0.949). 140 kV attenuation data were between 44 HU and 61.3 HU, 80 kV attenuation data were between 58.4 HU and 64.7 HU, and ΔH data were between 3.4 HU and 14.4 HU (p ≤ 0.037). The biochemical triglyceride analysis data were between 7.1 mg/g and 41.1 mg/g. The hepatic enzymes serum aspartate (ASAT) aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) were elevated in all rats. ASAT correlated directly with ΔHU (r = -0.86). Conclusion: DECT provides a non-invasive method to determine and evaluate hepatic fat content after acute alcohol intoxication. It provides the possibility to detect and quantify the hepatic fat content of liver graft. (orig.)

  18. Cerebrospinal Fluid Indices in Acute Drug Intoxication; Do They Predict the Patients’ Outcome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Farsinejad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In some intoxicated patients, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF is examined due to the prolonged loss of consciousness, focal neurologic findings, and fever of unknown origin. We aimed to evaluate the probable relationship between the different toxicity causes and the CSF indices in poisoned patients and determine if they could predict the patients’ outcome. Methods: All patients who had been admitted to the toxicology intensive care unit of Loghman-Hakim hospital between March 2006 and March 2011 and had undergone lumbar puncture (LP were included into this retrospective study. The patients’ demographic data and results of CSF evaluation (level of glucose, lactate dehydrogenase, protein, and white blood cells in CSF fluid were evaluated. The data was analyzed using SPSS software version 17. Results: A total of 111 patients were evaluated. Mean age of the patients was 37±15 years. Thirteen (11.7% had deceased. No relation was found between the cause of poisoning (medication involved and the changes in CSF indices. A statistically significant difference was found between the survivors and non-survivors in terms of CSF protein, LDH, and WBC. However, such a difference was not detected between these two groups regarding CSF glucose. Conclusion: In intoxicated patients with prolonged decreased level of consciousness or prolonged fever, early evaluation of CSF can help early diagnosis of complications such as meningitis and prompt treatment. Also, high level of protein, LDH, and WBC in the CSF can predict higher mortality rates in these patients.

  19. Reverse amblyopia with atropine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainline, Bryan C; Sprunger, Derek C; Plager, David A; Neely, Daniel E; Guess, Matthew G

    2009-01-01

    Occlusion, pharmacologic pernalization and combined therapy have been documented in controlled studies to effectively treat amblyopia with few complications. However, there remain concerns about the effectiveness and complications when, as in this case, there are not standardized treatment protocols. A retrospective chart review of 133 consecutive patients in one community based ophthalmology practice treated for amblyopia was performed. Treatments evaluated were occlusion only, atropine penalization, and combination of occlusion and atropine. Reverse amblyopia was defined as having occured when the visual acuity of the sound eye was 3 LogMar units worse than visual acuity of the amblyopia eye after treatment. Improvement in vision after 6 months and 1 year of amblyopia therapy was similar among all three groups: 0.26 LogMar lines and 0.30 in the atropine group, 0.32 and 0.34 in the occlusion group, and 0.24 and 0.32 in the combined group. Eight (6%) patients demonstrated reverse amblyopia. The mean age of those who developed reverse amblyopia was 3.5 years, 1.5 years younger than the mean age of the study population, 7/8 had strabismic amblyopia, 6/8 were on daily atropine and had a mean refractive error of +4.77 diopters in the amblyopic eye and +5.06 diopters in the sound eye. Reverse amblyopia did not occur with occlusion only therapy. In this community based ophthalmology practice, atropine, patching, and combination therapy appear to be equally effective modalities to treat ambyopia. Highly hyperopic patients under 4 years of age with dense, strabismic amblyopia and on daily atropine appeared to be most at risk for development of reverse amblyopia.

  20. An acute case of intoxication with cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in recreational water in Salto Grande Dam, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannuzzi, Leda; Sedan, Daniela; Echenique, Ricardo; Andrinolo, Dario

    2011-01-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms and hepatotoxic microcystins (MCs) usually occur in summer, constituting a sanitary and environmental problem in Salto Grande Dam, Argentina. Water sports and recreational activities take place in summer in this lake. We reported an acute case of cyanobacterial poisoning in Salto Grande dam, Argentina, which occurred in January 2007. Accidentally, a young man was immersed in an intense bloom of Microcystis spp. A level of 48.6 μg·L(-1) of microcystin-LR was detected in water samples. Four hours after exposure, the patient showed nausea, abdominal pain and fever. Three days later, dyspnea and respiratory distress were reported. The patient was hospitalized in intensive care and diagnosed with an atypical pneumonia. Finally, a week after the exposure, the patient developed a hepatotoxicosis with a significant increase of hepatic damage biomarkers (ALT, AST and γGT). Complete recovery took place within 20 days. This is the first study to show an acute intoxication with microcystin-producing cyanobacteria blooms in recreational water.

  1. Effects of acute alcohol intoxication on automated processing: evidence from the double-step paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstius, Christian; Radach, Ralph; Lang, Alan R

    2012-02-01

    Reflexive and voluntary levels of processing have been studied extensively with respect to possible impairments due to alcohol intoxication. This study examined alcohol effects at the 'automated' level of processing essential to many complex visual processing tasks (e.g., reading, visual search) that involve ongoing modifications or reprogramming of well-practiced routines. Data from 30 participants (16 male) were collected in two counterbalanced sessions (alcohol vs. no-alcohol control; mean breath alcohol concentration = 68 mg/dL vs. 0 mg/dL). Eye movements were recorded during a double-step task where 75% of trials involved two target stimuli in rapid succession (inter-stimulus interval [ISI]=40, 70, or 100 ms) so that they could elicit two distinct saccades or eye movements (double steps). On 25% of trials a single target appeared. Results indicated that saccade latencies were longer under alcohol. In addition, the proportion of single-step responses and the mean saccade amplitude (length) of primary saccades decreased significantly with increasing ISI. The key novel finding, however, was that the reprogramming time needed to cancel the first saccade and adjust saccade amplitude was extended significantly by alcohol. The additional time made available by prolonged latencies due to alcohol was not utilized by the saccade programming system to decrease the number of two-step responses. These results represent the first demonstration of specific alcohol-induced programming deficits at the automated level of oculomotor processing.

  2. Acute unintentional intoxication with paraffin in a 25-year old patient - clinical case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibishev, Andon; Simonovska, Natasa

    2014-08-01

    "Fire-breathing" or "fire-eating" is a special kind of street art where the acts are always stunning, spectacular and amazing. People exhibiting this kind of show are professionals, not rare amateurs, who use different kind of fuels, usually hydrocarbons, in order to produce a pillar of fire. Intoxications caused by ingestion or inhalation of liquid paraffin, used as a fuel while performing, are numerous and various. We present a clinical case report of a 25-year old, previously healthy, amateur "fire-breather". During October, 2010 this young men arrived at the Emergency Unit of the University Clinic for toxicology and Urgent Internal Medicine in a severe clinical condition, after his unsuccessful attempt to perform real "fire-breathing". He had fever, strong headaches, mild abdominal and chest pain and he also had difficulties breathing and persistent dry cough. The patient was extremely dyspneic with peripheral cyanosis and shortness of breath. "Fire-breathers" must be viewed as a population at risk of paraffin-induced pneumonia, which has low mortality rate, but still is related with numerous and various chronic complications. Our patient was first in a life threatening, extremely serious clinical condition which was urgently treated with appropriate vigorous and effective therapy. This therapeutic protocol led to successful full recovery of these young men, who luckily didn't exhibit any chronic complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  3. Post-exposure administration of diazepam combined with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition stops seizures and modulates neuroinflammation in a murine model of acute TETS intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vito, Stephen T.; Austin, Adam T.; Banks, Christopher N.; Inceoglu, Bora; Bruun, Donald A.; Zolkowska, Dorota; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Rogawski, Michael A.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Lein, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) is a potent convulsant poison for which there is currently no approved antidote. The convulsant action of TETS is thought to be mediated by inhibition of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA A R) function. We, therefore, investigated the effects of post-exposure administration of diazepam, a GABA A R positive allosteric modulator, on seizure activity, death and neuroinflammation in adult male Swiss mice injected with a lethal dose of TETS (0.15 mg/kg, ip). Administration of a high dose of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip) immediately following the second clonic seizure (approximately 20 min post-TETS injection) effectively prevented progression to tonic seizures and death. However, this treatment did not prevent persistent reactive astrogliosis and microglial activation, as determined by GFAP and Iba-1 immunoreactivity and microglial cell morphology. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects and to increase survival in mice intoxicated with other GABA A R antagonists. The sEH inhibitor TUPS (1 mg/kg, ip) administered immediately after the second clonic seizure did not protect TETS-intoxicated animals from tonic seizures or death. Combined administration of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip) and TUPS (1 mg/kg, ip, starting 1 h after diazepam and repeated every 24 h) prevented TETS-induced lethality and influenced signs of neuroinflammation in some brain regions. Significantly decreased microglial activation and enhanced reactive astrogliosis were observed in the hippocampus, with no changes in the cortex. Combining an agent that targets specific anti-inflammatory mechanisms with a traditional antiseizure drug may enhance treatment outcome in TETS intoxication. - Highlights: • Acute TETS intoxication causes delayed and persistent neuroinflammation. • Diazepam given post-TETS prevents lethal tonic seizures but not neuroinflammation. • A soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor alters

  4. Characterization of the psychological, physiological and EEG profile of acute betel quid intoxication in naïve subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Peter G; Chou, Tung-Shan; Shen, Tsu-Wang

    2011-01-01

    Betel quid use and abuse is wide spread in Asia but the physiological basis of intoxication and addiction are unknown. In subjects naïve to the habit of betel quid intoxication, the psychological and physiological profile of intoxication has never been reported. We compared the effect of chewing gum or chewing betel quid, and subsequent betel quid intoxication, on psychological assessment, prospective time interval estimation, numerical and character digit span, computerized 2 choice tests and mental tasks such as reading and mathematics with concurrent monitoring of ECG, EEG and face temperature in healthy, non-sleep deprived, male subjects naïve to the habit of chewing betel quid. Betel quid intoxication, dose dependently induced tachycardia (max 30 bpm) and elevated face temperature (0.7°C) (Pbetel quid intoxication. Betel quid intoxication strongly influenced the psychological aspects of perception such as slowing of the prospective perception of passage of a 1 minute time interval in 8 subjects (Pbetel quid intoxication in 10 subjects. The prevalence of betel quid consumption across a range of social and work settings warrants greater investigation of this widespread but largely under researched drug.

  5. Characterization of the Psychological, Physiological and EEG Profile of Acute Betel Quid Intoxication in Naïve Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Peter G.; Chou, Tung-Shan; Shen, Tsu-Wang

    2011-01-01

    Betel quid use and abuse is wide spread in Asia but the physiological basis of intoxication and addiction are unknown. In subjects naïve to the habit of betel quid intoxication, the psychological and physiological profile of intoxication has never been reported. We compared the effect of chewing gum or chewing betel quid, and subsequent betel quid intoxication, on psychological assessment, prospective time interval estimation, numerical and character digit span, computerized 2 choice tests and mental tasks such as reading and mathematics with concurrent monitoring of ECG, EEG and face temperature in healthy, non-sleep deprived, male subjects naïve to the habit of chewing betel quid. Betel quid intoxication, dose dependently induced tachycardia (max 30 bpm) and elevated face temperature (0.7°C) (Pchewing gum (max 12 bpm and 0.3°C) in 12 subjects. Gross behavioral indices of working memory such as numerical or character digit span in 8 subjects, or simple visual-motor performance such as reaction speed or accuracy in a two choice scenario in 8 subjects were not affected by betel quid intoxication. Betel quid intoxication strongly influenced the psychological aspects of perception such as slowing of the prospective perception of passage of a 1 minute time interval in 8 subjects (Pincreased arousal (Pchewing gum by betel quid intoxication in 10 subjects. The prevalence of betel quid consumption across a range of social and work settings warrants greater investigation of this widespread but largely under researched drug. PMID:21909371

  6. Relationship between exposure duration, carboxyhemoglobin, blood glucose, pyruvate and lactate and the severity of intoxication in 39 cases of acute carbon monoxide poisoning in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokal, J.A.; Kralkowska, E.

    1985-08-01

    The relationship between exposure duration, COHb, blood glucose, pyruvate and lactate and the severity of intoxication was investigated in a group of 39 cases of acute CO poisoning treated in the Clinical Toxicology Center in Lodz, Poland. On the basis of clinical criteria the patients were classified into cases of mild, moderate, severe and very severe CO poisoning. COHb and carbohydrate metabolites were estimated in venous blood taken immediately after admission of the patient to hospital prior to treatment. The severity of intoxication did not correlate with blood COHb; variation in exposure duration seems to be responsible for this phenomenon. Severe and very severe poisonings were associated with longer exposures and were accompanied by a markedly higher blood lactate level, compared to mild and moderate cases. Blood pyruvate depended less than lactate on the severity of intoxication. Blood glucose depended neither on exposure duration nor on the severity of intoxication. Among the carbohydrate metabolic parameters studied, blood lactate determination can be helpful in the evaluation of the severity of CO poisoning in man.

  7. Protective effect of treatment with thiamine or benfotiamine on liver oxidative damage in rat model of acute ethanol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portari, Guilherme Vannucchi; Ovidio, Paula Payão; Deminice, Rafael; Jordão, Alceu Afonso

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate possible beneficial effects of treatment with thiamine or benfotiamine in an animal model of acute ethanol intoxication. Thirty male Wistar rats were separated at random into three groups of 10 animals each: Ethanol (E), Ethanol treated with thiamine (T) and Ethanol treated with benfotiamine (BE). Rats were gavaged with single dose of ethanol (5g/kg, 40% v:v). After 30min of ethanol gavage the animals were treated with thiamine or benfotiamine. Six hours after first gavage, the animals were euthanized and blood and liver samples were collected for ethanol and oxidative stress biomarkers quantification. Serum ethanol levels were higher in animals treated with thiamine or benfotiamine while hepatic alcohol levels were higher in animals of the group treated with benfotiamine comparing to controls or thiamine treated groups. The lipid peroxidation biomarkers were diminished for the groups treated with thiamine or benfotiamine comparing to E animals. Concerning protein oxidative damage parameters, they were enhanced for animals treated with benfotiamine in relation to other groups. In conclusion, the treatment with thiamine or benfotiamine even 30min after the massive dose of ethanol has proven to be beneficial against liver damage. Improved results were obtained with benfotiamine in relation to oxidative damage from aqueous compartments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing the effect of patterns of cocaine and alcohol use on the risk of adverse acute cocaine intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara; Brugal, M Teresa; Barrio, Gregorio; Castellano, Yolanda; Domingo-Salvany, Antonia; Espelt, Albert; Bravo, M Jose; de la Fuente, Luis

    2012-06-01

    Although, in the laboratory, most acute adverse effects of cocaine are dose-dependent and alcohol potentiates some of these effects, there are few observational studies, and scarce awareness that the risk of acute cocaine intoxication (ACI) can increase as the amounts of cocaine and alcohol consumed increase. Our objectives were to assess if the risk of ACI increases with the level cocaine use, both in chronic and binge use; and also to determine whether it increases when a cocaine binge is combined with binge drinking or with regular excessive drinking. Hypotheses were evaluated using logistic regression and case-crossover analyses in a sample of 720 young regular cocaine users who did not regularly use heroin, recruited at drug scenes in 2004-2006. All data on ACI, predictor and confounding variables were obtained through a computer-assisted personal interview. The annual prevalence of ACI was 21%. In the last year 10.3% of the participants reported cocaine binges (≥ 0.5 g in 4 h). ACI risk increased considerably in the 4 h following a cocaine binge (odds ratio = 34.6; 95% confidence interval 11.5-170.8). Also, it increased with increases in the average level of cocaine used over a long period and when users regularly drank excessively. Finally, the results suggest that the high risk of ACI associated with cocaine binge may increase even more when combined with binge drinking. Awareness of the dose-dependent effect of cocaine on ACI risk, as well as the possible synergistic effect of alcohol, ought to be incorporated into preventive and care strategies. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  9. Accidental epidural injection of Atropine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udayan Bakshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrathecal injection of drugs for anesthesia, regional analgesia, and chronic pain management are common practice now. Local anesthetic, adjuvants, and opioids are in common use. Human error in the Operation Theater and the Intensive Care Unit setup is also known and reported, due to stress and overwork. A case of unintentional atropine injection intrathecally, which was closely observed for any untoward effects, is reported here.

  10. Assessment of Health Care and Economic Costs Due to Episodes of Acute Pesticide Intoxication in Workers of Rural Areas of the Coquimbo Region, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Santana, Muriel; Iglesias-Guerrero, Juan; Castillo-Riquelme, Marianela; Scheepers, Paul T J

    2014-12-01

    The increase in agricultural activity that Chile experienced in the past 20 years resulted in a boost in the use of pesticides. Despite pesticides' productivity benefits, they caused health problems such as the increased frequency of episodes of acute poisoning, which constitutes a relevant problem in terms of occupational health. The Chilean authorities require several preventive measures at workplaces, which are not always implemented, increasing the risk of intoxications in farmers. So far in Chile, there are no studies concerning the public health care expenses associated with acute work-related pesticide intoxications. From the societal perspective, there are costs involved if the worker needs to take sick leave and families incur costs to take care of their sick members. This study aimed to determine the costs associated with health care services used by people who suffered from work-related acute pesticide poisoning, as well as the economic costs for the families of the workers involved, and finally the costs of these episodes for the employer/industrial sector. This study considered a 3-year period (January 2009 to December 2011). Three sources of data were reviewed: reported cases at the Regional Health Authority, for the profile of the intoxications; registers of patients attended in public hospitals, for data on costs of health care services; and public information of living conditions nationwide. The overall costs of a single case depend on the severity of intoxication, days of sick leave, and type of health care needed. Most cases (77%) would be ambulatory and would be assisted at an emergency room, with an average cost of US $330 per case. Those cases that might need hospitalization (23%) and, therefore, more days off work have an average cost of US $1158 per case. Taking into account the number of patients reported each year in the country, the cost per annum would be about US $185,000, but considering the underreporting of intoxications and

  11. Cytokine Changes following Acute Ethanol Intoxication in Healthy Men: A Crossover Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudan Prasad Neupane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is a known modulator of the innate immune system. Owing to the absence of human studies, alcohol’s effect on circulating cytokine profile remains unclear. We investigated the effect of acute high dose alcohol consumption on systemic cytokine release. After an overnight fasting, alcohol-experienced healthy male volunteers (N=20 aged 25–45 years were given oral ethanol in the form of vodka (4.28 mL/kg which they drank over a period of 30 minutes reaching peak blood alcohol concentration of 0.12% (SD 0.028. Blood samples were obtained prior to alcohol intake as well as 2, 7, and 12 hours thereafter. Serum levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ, MCP-1, and TNF-α were determined by the multibead-based assay. Baseline cytokine levels were not related to BMI, hepatic parameters, electrolytes, glucose, or morning cortisol levels. Within 2 hours of alcohol intake, levels of IL-1Ra were elevated and remained so throughout the assessment period (p for trend = 0.015. In contrast, the levels of the chemokine MCP-1 dropped acutely followed by steadily increasing levels during the observation period (p<0.001. The impact of sustained elevated levels of MCP-1 even after the clearance of blood alcohol content deserves attention.

  12. Effect of acute and delayed hyperbaric oxygen therapy on cyanide whole blood levels during acute cyanide intoxication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson-Smith, P; Jansen, E C; Hilsted, Linda Maria

    2011-01-01

    and the subsequent formation of cyanocobalamin measured by a spectrophotometer. Results showed that whole-blood-cyanide concentration in Group 1 controls and acute HBO2 initially rose and then fell towards zero. In rats treated with delayed HBO2, the reduction in whole-blood-cyanide concentration was significantly...

  13. Encephalopathy in acute liver failure resulting from acetaminophen intoxication: new observations with potential therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusilow, Saul W; Cooper, Arthur J L

    2011-11-01

    Hyperammonemia is a major contributing factor to the encephalopathy associated with liver disease. It is now generally accepted that hyperammonemia leads to toxic levels of glutamine in astrocytes. However, the mechanism by which excessive glutamine is toxic to astrocytes is controversial. Nevertheless, there is strong evidence that glutamine-induced osmotic swelling, especially in acute liver failure, is a contributing factor: the osmotic gliopathy theory. The object of the current communication is to present evidence for the osmotic gliopathy theory in a hyperammonemic patient who overdosed on acetaminophen. Case report. Johns Hopkins Hospital. A 22-yr-old woman who, 36 hrs before admission, ingested 15 g acetaminophen was admitted to the Johns Hopkins Hospital. She was treated with N-acetylcysteine. Physical examination was unremarkable; her mental status was within normal limits and remained so until approximately 72 hrs after ingestion when she became confused, irritable, and agitated. She was intubated, ventilated, and placed on lactulose. Shortly thereafter, she was noncommunicative, unresponsive to painful stimuli, and exhibited decerebrate posturing. A clinical diagnosis of cerebral edema and increased intracranial pressure was made. She improved very slowly until 180 hrs after ingestion when she moved all extremities. She woke up shortly thereafter. Despite the fact that hyperammonemia is a major contributing factor to the encephalopathy observed in acute liver failure, the patient's plasma ammonia peaked when she exhibited no obvious neurologic deficit. Thereafter, her plasma ammonia decreased precipitously in parallel with a worsening neurologic status. She was deeply encephalopathic during a period when her liver function and plasma ammonia had normalized. Plasma glutamine levels in this patient were high but began to normalize several hours after plasma ammonia had returned to normal. The patient only started to recover as her plasma glutamine began

  14. Characterization of the psychological, physiological and EEG profile of acute betel quid intoxication in naïve subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G Osborne

    Full Text Available Betel quid use and abuse is wide spread in Asia but the physiological basis of intoxication and addiction are unknown. In subjects naïve to the habit of betel quid intoxication, the psychological and physiological profile of intoxication has never been reported. We compared the effect of chewing gum or chewing betel quid, and subsequent betel quid intoxication, on psychological assessment, prospective time interval estimation, numerical and character digit span, computerized 2 choice tests and mental tasks such as reading and mathematics with concurrent monitoring of ECG, EEG and face temperature in healthy, non-sleep deprived, male subjects naïve to the habit of chewing betel quid. Betel quid intoxication, dose dependently induced tachycardia (max 30 bpm and elevated face temperature (0.7°C (P<0.001 above the effects observed in response to chewing gum (max 12 bpm and 0.3°C in 12 subjects. Gross behavioral indices of working memory such as numerical or character digit span in 8 subjects, or simple visual-motor performance such as reaction speed or accuracy in a two choice scenario in 8 subjects were not affected by betel quid intoxication. Betel quid intoxication strongly influenced the psychological aspects of perception such as slowing of the prospective perception of passage of a 1 minute time interval in 8 subjects (P<0.05 and perceived increased arousal (P<0.01 and perceived decreased ability to think (P<0.05 in 31 subjects. The EEG spectral profile recorded from mental states associated with open and closed eyes, and mental tasks such as reading and eyes closed mental arithmetic were significantly modified (P<0.05 relative to chewing gum by betel quid intoxication in 10 subjects. The prevalence of betel quid consumption across a range of social and work settings warrants greater investigation of this widespread but largely under researched drug.

  15. Opioid intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... easily result in intoxication. The provider prescribes a sleep medicine (sedative) in addition to the opioid. The provider ... an opioid with certain other drugs, such as sleep medicines or alcohol Taking the opioid in ways not ...

  16. Marijuana intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Intoxication - marijuana (cannabis); Pot; Mary Jane; Weed; Grass; Cannabis ... drugs that have more serious side effects than marijuana. These side effects may include: Sudden high blood pressure with headache ...

  17. Content of atropine and scopolamine in poisonous solanaceae plants from Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Javor Kac; Uroš Klančar; Aleš Mlinarič; Aleš Krbavčič

    2006-01-01

    Background: Some species from the Solanaceae family are still the cause of serious poisoning among youth in Slovenia. Usually intoxication is due to abuse of these plants to provoke hallucinations. There is still not enough data about the alkaloid content of these plants growing in Slovenia.Methods: Different plant samples were analyzed for the content of atropine and scopolamine with capillary electrophoresis after solid phase extraction of alkaloids. Plants were gathered from different area...

  18. How CAGE, RAPS4QF and AUDIT can help practitioners for patients admitted with acute alcohol intoxication in emergency departments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges eBrousse

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To help clinicians to identify the severity of Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD from optimal thresholds found for recommended scales. Especially, taking account of the high prevalence of alcohol dependence among patients admitted to the Emergency Department (ED for acute alcohol intoxication (AAI, we propose to define thresholds of severity of dependence based on the AUDIT score.Methods: All patients admitted to the ED with AAI (blood alcohol level >0.8g/L, in a two-month period, were assessed using the CAGE, RAPS-QF and AUDIT, with the alcohol dependence/abuse section of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI used as the gold standard. To explore the relation between the AUDIT and the MINI the sum of the positive items on the MINI (dependence as a quantitative variable and as an ordinal parameter were analyzed. From the threshold score (TS found for each scale we proposed intervals of severity of Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs. Results: The mean age of the sample (122 males, 42 females was 46 years. Approximately 12 % of the patients were identified with alcohol abuse and 78 % with dependence (DSM-IV. Cut points were determined for the AUDIT in order to distinguish mild and moderate dependence from severe dependence. A strategy of intervention based on levels of severity of AUD was proposed. Conclusion: Different thresholds proposed for the CAGE, RAPS4-QF and AUDIT could be used to guide the choice of intervention for a patient: brief intervention, brief negotiation interviewing or longer more intensive motivational intervention.

  19. Content of atropine and scopolamine in poisonous solanaceae plants from Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javor Kac

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some species from the Solanaceae family are still the cause of serious poisoning among youth in Slovenia. Usually intoxication is due to abuse of these plants to provoke hallucinations. There is still not enough data about the alkaloid content of these plants growing in Slovenia.Methods: Different plant samples were analyzed for the content of atropine and scopolamine with capillary electrophoresis after solid phase extraction of alkaloids. Plants were gathered from different areas of Slovenia between April and September 2004.Results: Results were compared and possible correlations between the alkaloid content and species, plant parts, growth conditions, and time of harvest were suggested. Atropine and scopolamine contents were assessed in deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna L., thorn apple (Datura stramonium L., scopolia (Scopolia carniolica Jacq. and angel trumpet. The common name angel trumpet is used for Datura inoxia Mill. as well as for different Brugmansia Pers. species. The most intriguing results were the variable alkaloid content in various Brugmansia species and generally great differences in alkaloid content among various plants and their plant parts.Conclusions: All investigated plants have noticeable atropine and/or scopolamine content. The content is variable between various plants and their plant parts and therefore special care should be taken in cases of possible intoxication. It was shown that smaller or greater amounts of ingested drug can cause the same level of intoxication due to the variability in alkaloid content.

  20. Brain fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (¹⁸FDG PET) in patients with acute thallium intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C H; Lin, K J; Wang, H M; Kuo, H C; Chuang, W L; Weng, Y H; Shih, T S; Huang, C C

    2013-03-01

    Thallium toxicity induces cellular injury through impaired Na-K-ATPase activity. The aim of this study was to investigate functional imaging and the long-term clinical-imaging correlations of thallium toxicity. We measured thallium concentrations in blood, urine, stools, and hair of a 48-year-old woman and a 52-year-old man (patients 1 and 2) in the first 3 months after exposure to thallium containing water, and studied their neuropsychological functions. Using fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)FDG PET) scans, we examined the brain involvement and correlated the image findings with the clinical presentations. On the 1st, 30th, and 61st days after exposure, the thallium concentrations in patient 1 were 2056, 311, and 7.5 μg/L in the blood, and 11400, 4570, and 36.4 μg/L in the urine. The concentrations in patient 2 were 956, 235, and 15.6 μg/L in the blood, and 11900, 2670, and 101 μg/L in the urine. On the 40th, 50th and 89th days after exposure, the thallium concentration in the stools were 21.6, 3.6, and 0.35 μg/g in patient 1, and 22.2, 3.2, and 0.37 μg/g in patient 2. Executive function, perceptual motor speed, and learning memory were initially abnormal but recovered particularly within the first year. The first (18)FDG PET studies of both patients disclosed a decreased uptake of glucose metabolism in the cingulate gyrus, bilateral frontal, and parietal lobes 2-5 months after exposure. The follow-up (18)FDG PET scan of patient 2 revealed a partial recovery. This study indicates that damage to the central nervous system after acute thallium poisoning may be reversible after a long-term follow-up. Brain (18)FDG PET demonstrated the brain involvement and was correlated with cognitive impairment.

  1. Neurological aspects of lead intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehner, H

    1980-05-08

    This study gives a survey over the medical and scientific literature on lead intoxications, which were published until 1979. Neurologic aspects are of particular interest. At present dramatic cases of lead intoxications occur only rarely. However, there are numerous studies about cases of chronical, partly subclinical intoxications. This chronical type of lead intoxication can become manifest clinically as relatively vague symptoms, for example vertigos, insomnia, headaches and weakness. Contrary to this, serious encephalopathies, even with fatal outcome, and polyneuropathies with typical paresis of the radial nerve are preferably observed in acute lead intoxications. Besides the numerous sources of intoxication, also the different opinions found in literature are discussed, concerning the effects of lead on the human body. The fact that there are differing opinions about the limiting value of the blood-lead level at which intoxication symptoms have to be expected, becomes apparent when the determined blood-lead level values are compared and evaluated. Besides the description of general intoxication effects, the discussion of the neurologic aspects found in literature - not only those concerning the central, but also the peripheral system - are preferably concerned. Reports about neuropsychical alterations due to lead exposure, which are mainly found in children, supplement the numerous descriptions of the macroscopic and microscopic alterations of the nervous system provoked by lead. Finally the therapeutic and prophylactic measures given in the literature are discussed.

  2. Post-exposure administration of diazepam combined with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition stops seizures and modulates neuroinflammation in a murine model of acute TETS intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vito, Stephen T., E-mail: stvito@ucdavis.edu [Department of Entomology, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Austin, Adam T., E-mail: aaustin@ucdavis.edu [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California-Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Banks, Christopher N., E-mail: Christopher.Banks@oehha.ca.gov [Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Inceoglu, Bora, E-mail: abinceoglu@ucdavis.edu [Department of Entomology, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Bruun, Donald A., E-mail: dabruun@ucdavis.edu [Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Zolkowska, Dorota, E-mail: dzolkowska@gmail.com [Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of California-Davis, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Tancredi, Daniel J., E-mail: djtancredi@ucdavis.edu [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California-Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Rogawski, Michael A., E-mail: rogawski@ucdavis.edu [Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of California-Davis, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Hammock, Bruce D., E-mail: bdhammock@ucdavis.edu [Department of Entomology, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Lein, Pamela J., E-mail: pjlein@ucdavis.edu [Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) is a potent convulsant poison for which there is currently no approved antidote. The convulsant action of TETS is thought to be mediated by inhibition of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA{sub A}R) function. We, therefore, investigated the effects of post-exposure administration of diazepam, a GABA{sub A}R positive allosteric modulator, on seizure activity, death and neuroinflammation in adult male Swiss mice injected with a lethal dose of TETS (0.15 mg/kg, ip). Administration of a high dose of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip) immediately following the second clonic seizure (approximately 20 min post-TETS injection) effectively prevented progression to tonic seizures and death. However, this treatment did not prevent persistent reactive astrogliosis and microglial activation, as determined by GFAP and Iba-1 immunoreactivity and microglial cell morphology. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects and to increase survival in mice intoxicated with other GABA{sub A}R antagonists. The sEH inhibitor TUPS (1 mg/kg, ip) administered immediately after the second clonic seizure did not protect TETS-intoxicated animals from tonic seizures or death. Combined administration of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip) and TUPS (1 mg/kg, ip, starting 1 h after diazepam and repeated every 24 h) prevented TETS-induced lethality and influenced signs of neuroinflammation in some brain regions. Significantly decreased microglial activation and enhanced reactive astrogliosis were observed in the hippocampus, with no changes in the cortex. Combining an agent that targets specific anti-inflammatory mechanisms with a traditional antiseizure drug may enhance treatment outcome in TETS intoxication. - Highlights: • Acute TETS intoxication causes delayed and persistent neuroinflammation. • Diazepam given post-TETS prevents lethal tonic seizures but not neuroinflammation. • A soluble epoxide hydrolase

  3. Refractory reverse amblyopia with atropine penalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Ajit Patil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological penalization with atropine has been shown to be equally effective as conventional occlusion therapy in the treatment of amblyopia in children. Reverse amblyopia of the sound eye with atropine penalization has been reported before, but is more common in cases where the effect is augmented with optical penalization and is mostly reversible. We report a case of reverse amblyopia with atropine penalization, in a 4-year-old girl, which was refractory to treatment. This report highlights the need for strict monitoring of the vision in the sound eye and regular follow-up in children undergoing amblyopia treatment.

  4. Effects of topiramate and other anti-glutamatergic drugs on the acute intoxicating actions of ethanol in mice: modulation by genetic strain and stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chyan; Holmes, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Compounds with anti-glutamatergic properties currently in clinical use for various indications (e.g., Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, psychosis, mood disorders) have potential utility as novel treatments for alcoholism. Enhanced sensitivity to certain acute intoxicating effects (ataxia, sedative) of alcohol may be one mechanism by which anti-glutamatergic drugs modulate alcohol use. We examined the effects of six compounds (memantine, dextromethorphan, haloperidol, lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, topiramate) on sensitivity to acute intoxicating effects of ethanol (ataxia, hypothermia, sedation/hypnosis) in C57BL/6J mice. Analysis of topiramate was extended to determine the influence of genetic background (via comparison of the 129S1, BALB/cJ, C57BL/6J, DBA/2J inbred strains) and prior stress history (via chronic exposure of C57BL/6J to swim stress) on topiramate's effects on ethanol-induced sedation/hypnosis. Results showed that one N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, memantine, but not another, dextromethorphan, potentiated the ataxic but not hypothermic or sedative/hypnotic effects of ethanol. Haloperidol increased ethanol-induced ataxia and sedation/hypnosis to a similar extent as the prototypical NMDAR antagonist MK-801. Of the anticonvulsants tested, lamotrigine accentuated ethanol-induced sedation/hypnosis, while oxcarbazepine was without effect. Topiramate was without effect per se under baseline conditions in C57BL/6J, but had a synergistic effect with MK-801 on ethanol-induced sedation/hypnosis. Comparing inbred strains, topiramate was found to significantly potentiated ethanol's sedative/hypnotic effects in BALB/cJ, but not 129S1, C57BL/6J or DBA/2J strains. Topiramate also increased ethanol-induced sedation/hypnosis in C57BL/6J after exposure to chronic stress exposure. Current data demonstrate that, with the exception of MK-801 and haloperidol, the compounds tested had either no significant or assay-selective effects on sensitivity to acute

  5. Clinical and laboratory parameters in dapsone acute intoxication Parâmetros clínicos e laboratoriais na intoxicação aguda pela dapsona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Zilda N Carrazza

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the severity of dapsone (DDS acute intoxication – an uncommon medical event – using clinical and laboratory parameters. METHODS: Two hundred and seventy four patients with acute DDS intoxication, aged 1 month to 50 years old, were studied and classified into four age groups. Clinical evaluation was assessed through a protocol and correlated with laboratory parameters. Spectrophotometric methods were used to analyze methemoglobinemia (MHbp and dapsonemia (DDSp. RESULTS: The most prevalent clinical sign of intoxication was cyanosis, seen in 65.7% of the patients and in 100% of children less than 5 years of age. According to laboratory criteria, MHbp-related severe clinical intoxication was seen in 56.2% and DDSp-related occurred in 58% of the patients. Regarding DDSp, intoxication was considered severe when 20 tablets (100 mg each were ingested, a median of 29 mug/ml. Regarding MHbp, intoxication was severe when 7.5 tablets were ingested, a median of 38% of the total Hb. The correlation between MHbp and DDSp was statistically significant (n=144, r=0.32, pOBJETIVO: Definir a gravidade da intoxicação aguda por dapsona (DDS – uma ocorrência médica não usual – usando parâmetros clínicos e laboratoriais. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 274 pacientes intoxicados por DDS, divididos em quatro grupos etários; as idades variaram de um mês a 50 anos. A avaliação clínica foi efetuada por meio de um questionário e correlacionada com parâmetros laboratoriais. A metemoglobinemia (MHbp e a dapsonemia (DDSp foram analisadas por métodos espectrofotométricos. RESULTADOS: O sinal clínico mais prevalente da intoxicação foi a cianose, presente em 65,7% dos pacientes e em 100% das crianças menores de 5 anos. A intoxicação grave, definida laboratorialmente, de acordo com a MHb ocorreu em 56,2% dos pacientes e, de acordo com a DDSp, em 58%. A intoxicação foi grave, de acordo com a DDSp, quando houve a ingestão mediana de 20

  6. Pesticide use, erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase level and self-reported acute intoxication symptoms among vegetable farmers in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neupane, Dinesh; Jors, E.; Brandt, L.

    2014-01-01

    : The majority of pesticides used were WHO class II, classified as moderately hazardous. The mean numbers of personal protective equipment used by farmers were 2.22 (95% CI: 1.89; 2.54). Out of five hygienic practices asked, farmers followed 3.63 (95% CI: 3.40; 3.86) hygienic practices on the average. Farmers...... of healthy individuals. A lower mean haemoglobin-adjusted AChE level was seen among farmers compared to the controls. The use of highly toxic pesticides, inadequate use of personal protective equipment and poor hygienic practices might explain the reason for symptoms of pesticide intoxication and a lower ACh...

  7. MRI findings in 6 cases of children by inadvertent ingestion of diphenoxylate-atropine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Lianxiang [Shandong University School of Medicine, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute , No. 44 West Wenhua Road, Jinan 250012 (China); Lin Xiangtao, E-mail: yishui1982@126.com [Shandong University School of Medicine, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, No. 44 West Wenhua Road, Jinan 250012 (China); Cao Jinfeng [Shandong University School of Medicine, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute , No. 44 West Wenhua Road, Jinan 250012 (China); Wang Xueyu [Division of Pediatrics, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Shandong University, No. 324 Jingwu Road, Jinan 250021 (China); Wu Lebin [Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, No. 324 Jingwu Road, Jinan 250021 (China)

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: Compound diphenoxylate (diphenoxylate-atropine) poisoning can cause toxic encephalopathy in children, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain in this condition has not been reported. This study is to analyze brain MRI findings and to investigate the relations between MRI features and possible pathophysiological changes in children. Methods: Six children accidentally swallowed compound diphenoxylate, 4 males, 2 females, aged 20-46 months, average 33 months. Quantity of ingested diphenoxylate-atropine was from 6 to 30 tablets, each tablet contains diphenoxylate 2.5 mg and atropine 0.025 mg. These patients were referred to our hospital within 24 h after diphenoxylate-atropine ingestion, and underwent brain MRI scan within 24-72 h after emergency treatment. The characteristics of conventional MRI were analyzed. Results: These pediatric patients had various symptoms of opioid intoxication and atropine toxicity. Brain MRI showed abnormal low signal intensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI) and abnormal high signal intensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging in bilateral in all cases; abnormal high signal intensity on T1WI, T2WI and FLAIR in 4 cases. Encephalomalacia was observed in 3 cases during follow-up. Conclusion: In the early stage of compound diphenoxylate poisoning in children, multiple extensive edema-necrosis and hemorrhagic-necrosis focus were observed in basic nucleus, pallium and cerebellum, these resulted in the corresponding brain dysfunction with encephalomalacia. MRI scan in the early stage in this condition may provide evidences of brain impairment, and is beneficial for the early diagnosis, treatment and prognosis assessment.

  8. MRI findings in 6 cases of children by inadvertent ingestion of diphenoxylate-atropine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lianxiang; Lin, Xiangtao; Cao, Jinfeng; Wang, Xueyu; Wu, Lebin

    2011-09-01

    Compound diphenoxylate (diphenoxylate-atropine) poisoning can cause toxic encephalopathy in children, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain in this condition has not been reported. This study is to analyze brain MRI findings and to investigate the relations between MRI features and possible pathophysiological changes in children. Six children accidentally swallowed compound diphenoxylate, 4 males, 2 females, aged 20-46 months, average 33 months. Quantity of ingested diphenoxylate-atropine was from 6 to 30 tablets, each tablet contains diphenoxylate 2.5mg and atropine 0.025 mg. These patients were referred to our hospital within 24h after diphenoxylate-atropine ingestion, and underwent brain MRI scan within 24-72 h after emergency treatment. The characteristics of conventional MRI were analyzed. These pediatric patients had various symptoms of opioid intoxication and atropine toxicity. Brain MRI showed abnormal low signal intensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI) and abnormal high signal intensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging in bilateral in all cases; abnormal high signal intensity on T1WI, T2WI and FLAIR in 4 cases. Encephalomalacia was observed in 3 cases during follow-up. In the early stage of compound diphenoxylate poisoning in children, multiple extensive edema-necrosis and hemorrhagic-necrosis focus were observed in basic nucleus, pallium and cerebellum, these resulted in the corresponding brain dysfunction with encephalomalacia. MRI scan in the early stage in this condition may provide evidences of brain impairment, and is beneficial for the early diagnosis, treatment and prognosis assessment. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. MRI findings in 6 cases of children by inadvertent ingestion of diphenoxylate-atropine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Lianxiang; Lin Xiangtao; Cao Jinfeng; Wang Xueyu; Wu Lebin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Compound diphenoxylate (diphenoxylate-atropine) poisoning can cause toxic encephalopathy in children, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain in this condition has not been reported. This study is to analyze brain MRI findings and to investigate the relations between MRI features and possible pathophysiological changes in children. Methods: Six children accidentally swallowed compound diphenoxylate, 4 males, 2 females, aged 20-46 months, average 33 months. Quantity of ingested diphenoxylate-atropine was from 6 to 30 tablets, each tablet contains diphenoxylate 2.5 mg and atropine 0.025 mg. These patients were referred to our hospital within 24 h after diphenoxylate-atropine ingestion, and underwent brain MRI scan within 24-72 h after emergency treatment. The characteristics of conventional MRI were analyzed. Results: These pediatric patients had various symptoms of opioid intoxication and atropine toxicity. Brain MRI showed abnormal low signal intensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI) and abnormal high signal intensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging in bilateral in all cases; abnormal high signal intensity on T1WI, T2WI and FLAIR in 4 cases. Encephalomalacia was observed in 3 cases during follow-up. Conclusion: In the early stage of compound diphenoxylate poisoning in children, multiple extensive edema-necrosis and hemorrhagic-necrosis focus were observed in basic nucleus, pallium and cerebellum, these resulted in the corresponding brain dysfunction with encephalomalacia. MRI scan in the early stage in this condition may provide evidences of brain impairment, and is beneficial for the early diagnosis, treatment and prognosis assessment.

  10. Ammonia intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessman, S.P.; Pal, N.

    1982-01-01

    Data is presented which shows that there is a relation between ammonia concentration in the blood and state of consciousness. The concentrations of GTP and ATP also relate both to the ammonia concentration in blood and the state of consciousness. The rate of protein synthesis in the brain as measured by the percent of intracellular counts that are incorporated into protein is also related to ammonia concentration. These findings of energy depletion and depressed synthesis resulting from energy depletion suggest that the primary lesion in ammonia intoxication involves the Krebs cycle. The greater effect of ammonia on GTP than on ATP metabolism supports the view that the primary site of action of ammonia is at the glutamate dehydrogenase-ketoglutarate reduction step - and is consistent with previous work on this subject. (H.K.)

  11. Paradoxical effect of salbutamol in a model of acute organophosphates intoxication in guinea pigs: role of substance P release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, Jaime; Segura, Patricia; Vargas, Mario H; Arreola, José Luis; Flores-Soto, Edgar; Montaño, Luis M

    2007-04-01

    Organophosphates induce bronchoobstruction in guinea pigs, and salbutamol only transiently reverses this effect, suggesting that it triggers additional obstructive mechanisms. To further explore this phenomenon, in vivo (barometric plethysmography) and in vitro (organ baths, including ACh and substance P concentration measurement by HPLC and immunoassay, respectively; intracellular Ca2+) measurement in single myocytes) experiments were performed. In in vivo experiments, parathion caused a progressive bronchoobstruction until a plateau was reached. Administration of salbutamol during this plateau decreased bronchoobstruction up to 22% in the first 5 min, but thereafter airway obstruction rose again as to reach the same intensity as before salbutamol. Aminophylline caused a sustained decrement (71%) of the parathion-induced bronchoobstruction. In in vitro studies, paraoxon produced a sustained contraction of tracheal rings, which was fully blocked by atropine but not by TTX, omega-conotoxin (CTX), or epithelium removal. During the paraoxon-induced contraction, salbutamol caused a temporary relaxation of approximately 50%, followed by a partial recontraction. This paradoxical recontraction was avoided by the M2- or neurokinin-1 (NK1)-receptor antagonists (methoctramine or AF-DX 116, and L-732138, respectively), accompanied by a long-lasting relaxation. Forskolin caused full relaxation of the paraoxon response. Substance P and, to a lesser extent, ACh released from tracheal rings during 60-min incubation with paraoxon or physostigmine, respectively, were significantly increased when salbutamol was administered in the second half of this period. In myocytes, paraoxon did not produce any change in the intracellular Ca2+ basal levels. Our results suggested that: 1) organophosphates caused smooth muscle contraction by accumulation of ACh released through a TTX- and CTX-resistant mechanism; 2) during such contraction, salbutamol relaxation is functionally antagonized by the

  12. Optimization of perfusion studies using Atropine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, A.N.; Valle, V.M.; Montoya, M.J.; Eskenazi, E.S.; Montiel, M.L.; Cueto, C.C.

    2002-01-01

    The studies of myocardial perfusion require an adequate stress; exercise or pharmacological. Every day, more pharmacological studies are performed, specially in some group of patients (women, AMI, etc). There some drugs that are used for this purpose, as adenosine and dobutamine. However, their cost and the lack of availability and infrastructure in our country do not allow there routinely use. We performed dipyridamol as a pharmacological stress, however in some patients there is a doubt regarding if the pharmacological effect was adequate. Atropine is a drug that is frequently used for different purpose and it is well know its tachycardic response. We present and alternative technique, using dipyridamol-atropine as a protocol of stress perfusion study. Our goal was to correlate the standard dipyridamol -thallium perfusion study and the dipyridamol -atropine-perfusion in patients with chronic coronary disease. We evaluated 6 patients (5 males) with stable angina and chronic coronary disease. A standard dipyridamol-thallium study was performed in all of them. Dipyridamole was administered intravenously at a rate of 0.14 mg/kg/min over 6 min for a total of 0.84 mg/kg body weight. Blood pressure, heart rate, EKG and symptoms were monitored before, during and after the pharmacological infusion. Two minutes after the infusion was completed, the radiotracer was injected intravenously. In the next 6 months, without any modification of the clinical situation (symptoms and therapy) a new dipyridamol study was performed, using 1 mg of atropine after the administration of dipyridamol. There were no differences in the collateral effects and we observed and average increase of 30% in the heart rate in relation with the study using dipyridamol alone. The addition of atropine to the standard dipyridamol perfusion study is safe, cheaper and improved the detection of perfusion defects in patients with coronary artery disease

  13. [Deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) intoxication in a 2-year-old child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffargue, F; Oudot, C; Constanty, A; Bedu, A; Ketterer-Martinon, S

    2011-02-01

    Plant intoxications account for 5% of all intoxication cases according to French anti-poison centers. We report an uncommon case of intoxication with deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) in a 2-year-old child. The child presented at the ER with an atropinic syndrome, both central and peripheral, after ingestion of wild berries a few hours before. The fruit and leaves brought in by the mother allowed the anti-poison center to identify belladonna, in agreement with clinical findings. The child was kept in the intensive care unit for 48 h and progression was favorable with symptomatic treatment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Baclofen Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Bor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Baclofen is a β-(ρ-chlorophenyl derivative of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA and is usually prescribed for spasticity of spinal cord origin, intractable hiccup, trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm, and tardive dyskinesia. The usual recommended daily dose ranges from 40-80 mg, and the total dose should not exceed 80 mg per day. A 41 year old woman using baclofen for migraine therapy intended suicide after a bitter headache attack by taking 37 tablets, 10 mg in each. On arrival to emergency room, she was conscious and co-operable, but somnolent, her pupils were normoisocoric and light reflex was intact bilaterally. On her follow up, respiratory insufficiency and unconsciousness was observed so she was entubated orotracheally and transferred to intensive care unit (ICU for advanced tests and therapy. No pathology was determined on cranial CT. On ICU follow up, she was unconscious and mechanically ventilated, her Glasgow Coma Scale was 3/15 (E1M1VE and pupils were mid-dilated with no light reflex. Since she was again conscious, oriented and co-operable on 19th hour of arrival to ICU and 20th hour of arrival to emergency room, spontaneous breathing trials was started. Extubation was carried out on her 31th hour of arrival to ICU and 32th hour of arrival to emergency room. In conclusion; since baclofen overdose may cause deep coma, it should also be included in differential diagnosis. According to our opinion, performing diagnostic toxicological tests is not always possible that’s why history and physical examination is fundamental in case of baclofen intoxication and we can get good results by giving frequent neurological examination, supportive and extracorporeal therapy in such a case.

  15. Individual prolactin reactivity modulates response of nucleus accumbens to erotic stimuli during acute cannabis intoxication: an fMRI pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androvicova, R; Horacek, J; Tintera, J; Hlinka, J; Rydlo, J; Jezova, D; Balikova, M; Hlozek, T; Miksatkova, P; Kuchar, M; Roman, M; Tomicek, P; Tyls, F; Viktorinova, M; Palenicek, T

    2017-07-01

    Self-report studies indicate that cannabis could increase sexual desire in some users. We hypothesized that intoxication increases activation of brain areas responsive to visual erotica, which could be useful in the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder, a condition marked by a lack of sexual desire. The aim of this study is to assess the aphrodisiacal properties of cannabis. We conducted an open-randomized study with 21 heterosexual casual cannabis users. A 3T MRI was used to measure brain activation in response to erotic pictures. Blood samples were collected to determine the serum levels of cannabinoids, cortisol and prolactin. Participants were grouped according to whether they had ever experienced any aphrodisiacal effects during intoxication (Group A) or not (Group non-A). Intoxication was found to significantly increase activation in the right nucleus accumbens in the Group A while significantly decreasing activation in the Group non-A. There was also a significant interaction between the group and intoxication, with elevated prolactin in the Group non-A during intoxication. No intoxication-related differences in subjective picture evaluations were found. Cannabis intoxication increases activation of the right nucleus accumbens to erotic stimuli. This effect is limited to users whose prolactin is not elevated in response to intoxication. This effect may be useful in the treatment of low sexual desire.

  16. Therapy for influenza and acute respiratory viral infection in young and middle-aged schoolchildren: Effect of Ingavirin® on intoxication, fever, and catarrhal syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Farber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the clinical results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled multicenter phase III study evaluating the clinical efficacy and safety of Ingavirin® capsules 30 mg at a daily dose of 60 mg for the treatment of influenza and other acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI in 7–12-year-old children.The study included 310 children of both sexes. The study participants took Ingavirin® 60 mg/day or placebo for 5 days. The drug was shown to be effective in normalizing temperature and alleviating intoxication and catarrhal syndromes just at day 3 of therapy. Ingavirin® was demonstrated to considerably reduce the risk of bacterial complications of ARVI/influenza, which require antibiotic therapy, which is important for clinical use in children. This clinical trial has shown the high safety and tolerance of the drug. Ingavirin® contributes to accelerated virus elimination, shorter disease duration, and lower risk of complications.

  17. Liver, plasma and erythrocyte levels of thiamine and its phosphate esters in rats with acute ethanol intoxication: a comparison of thiamine and benfotiamine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portari, Guilherme Vannucchi; Vannucchi, Helio; Jordao, Alceu Afonso

    2013-03-12

    Thiamine and benfotiamine are vitamin B1 and pro-vitamin B1 substances, respectively. Vitamin B1 plays an essential role in energy metabolism, and its deficiency leads to neurologic and cardiovascular pathologies, as seen in alcoholics. This study presents new data about the effects of thiamine hydrochloride or benfotiamine treatment given to rats with acute alcohol intoxication, on the distribution of thiamine and its phosphate esters in liver, plasma and erythrocytes. The treatments were effective in increasing thiamine levels in plasma, erythrocytes and liver cells. The benfotiamine-treated group had its total plasma thiamine increased by 100%. In erythrocytes, thiamine levels were 4- and 25-fold higher in the groups treated with thiamine and benfotiamine, respectively, compared with the untreated groups. Liver thiamine was increased by 60% in the treated groups compared with the untreated groups. Thus, we verified the high bioavailability especially of benfotiamine within 6h of ethanol administration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Abuse, dependence and intoxication of substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Kiyoshi

    2015-09-01

    As for substance-related disorders, there were several differences between ICD-10 and DSM-IV, however, the concept of "dependence" had been essential for both criteria. DSM-5 published in 2013 had erased dependence. This confuses us. It is important to recognize dependence again. "Abuse" is the self-intake behavior of drug against the social norms. Repeated abuse results in dependence. Dependence is a state of loss of control against drug use due to craving. Abuse can produce "acute intoxication", and repeated abuse under dependence can produce "chronic intoxication". It is important to understand abuse, dependence and "intoxication" based on their relationship from the point of time course.

  19. GHB Pharmacology and Toxicology: Acute Intoxication, Concentrations in Blood and Urine in Forensic Cases and Treatment of the Withdrawal Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busardò, Francesco P.; Jones, Alan W.

    2015-01-01

    The illicit recreational drug of abuse, γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a potent central nervous system depressant and is often encountered during forensic investigations of living and deceased persons. The sodium salt of GHB is registered as a therapeutic agent (Xyrem®), approved in some countries for the treatment of narcolepsy-associated cataplexy and (Alcover®) is an adjuvant medication for detoxification and withdrawal in alcoholics. Trace amounts of GHB are produced endogenously (0.5-1.0 mg/L) in various tissues, including the brain, where it functions as both a precursor and a metabolite of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Available information indicates that GHB serves as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the GABAergic system, especially via binding to the GABA-B receptor subtype. Although GHB is listed as a controlled substance in many countries abuse still continues, owing to the availability of precursor drugs, γ-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (BD), which are not regulated. After ingestion both GBL and BD are rapidly converted into GHB (t½ ~1 min). The Cmax occurs after 20-40 min and GHB is then eliminated from plasma with a half-life of 30-50 min. Only about 1-5% of the dose of GHB is recoverable in urine and the window of detection is relatively short (3-10 h). This calls for expeditious sampling when evidence of drug use and/or abuse is required in forensic casework. The recreational dose of GHB is not easy to estimate and a concentration in plasma of ~100 mg/L produces euphoria and disinhibition, whereas 500 mg/L might cause death from cardiorespiratory depression. Effective antidotes to reverse the sedative and intoxicating effects of GHB do not exist. The poisoned patients require supportive care, vital signs should be monitored and the airways kept clear in case of emesis. After prolonged regular use of GHB tolerance and dependence develop and abrupt cessation of drug use leads to unpleasant

  20. Acute Organophosphate Poisonings: Therapeutic Dilemmas and New Potential Therapeutic Agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vucinic, S.; Jovanovic, D.; Vucinic, Z.; Todorovic, V.; Segrt, Z.

    2007-01-01

    It has been six decades since synthesis of organophosphates, but this chapter has not yet come to a closure. Toxic effects of organophosphates are well known and the current therapeutic scheme includes supportive therapy and antidotes. There is a dilemma on whether and when to apply gastric lavage and activated charcoal. According to Position Statement (by EAPCCT) it should be applied only if the patient presents within one hour of ingestion, with potentially lethal ingested dose. Atropine, a competitive antagonist of acetylcholine at m-receptors, which antagonizes bronchosecretion and bronchoconstriction, is the corner stone of acute organophosphate poisoning therapy. There were many attempts to find a more efficient drug, including glycopyrrolate which has been used even in clinical trials, but it still can not replace atropine. The only dilemma about atropine usage which still exists, concerns usage of high atropine dose and scheme of application. The most efficient atropinization is achieved with bolus doses of 1-2mg of atropine i.v push, with repeating the dose on each 5 minutes until signs of atropinization are registered. Diazepam, with its GABA stabilizing effect, reduces central nervous system damage and central respiratory weakness. Oximes reactivate phosphorylated acetylcholinesterase, which still has not gone ageing, reducing acetylcholine concentration and cholinergic crisis. These effects are clearly demonstrated in experimental conditions, but the clinical significance of oximes is still unclear and there are still those who question oxime therapy. For those who approve it, oxime dosage, duration of therapy, the choice of oxime for certain OP is still an open issue. We need new, more efficient antidotes, and those that are in use are only the small part of the therapy which could be used. Experimental studies show favorable therapeutic effect of many agents, but none of them has been introduced in standard treatment of OPI poisoning in the last 30

  1. [Research on whether atropine can be substituted by the powerful cycloplegic cyclopentolate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiang-tao

    2012-09-01

    For a long time, atropine eye ointment has been widely used as the cycloplegic for children's optometry in China, while internationally, cyclopentolate gutta is widely used as the first choice for cycloplegic. In recent years, 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride ocular humor has been introduced to our country. This effective and powerful cycloplegic has already been paid close attention to by domestic pedo-ophthalmologists. According to a serious of studies both home and abroad on the therapeutic effects of the own control drugs, the cycloplegia effect of cyclopentolate is close to the atropine. Cyclopentolate can be widely used for the cycloplegia before optometry for the Chinese children. However, the effect of cyclopentolate is still not as good as atropine. So, for the children with farsightedness within 7 years old, all esotropia children, Am children, and children who suffer from decreased vision acuteness and needs to be excluded from accommodative myopia, atropine eye ointment should be routinely used for cycloplegia before optometry. In this article, we also discuss the medication dosage, medication method, possible drug adverse reactions of cyclopentolate humor ocular and the coping measures at the same time.

  2. Sublingual atropine for the treatment of severe and hyoscine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comley C, Galletly C, Ash D. Use of atropine eye drops for clozapine induced hypersalivation. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2000 ; 34(6):1033-. 1034. 6. Sharma A, Ramaswamy S, Dahl E, Dewan V. Intraoral application of atropine sulphate ophthalmic solution for clozapine-induced sialorrhea. Ann Pharmacother 2004 ; 38(9):1538.

  3. Intoxication with metallic mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichte, B.; Assmann, H.; Ritzau, F.

    1984-01-01

    Intoxications by metallic mercury are extremely rare. Report of a patient, who tried to commit suicide by subcutaneous injection of 500 g of metallic mercury. He died 16 months later in the course of the intoxication. A short review is given of effects and reactions of metallic mercury in the human organism. (orig.) [de

  4. Intoxication with metallic mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichte, B.; Ritzau, F.; Assmann, H.

    1984-02-01

    Intoxications by metallic mercury are extremely rare. Report is given of a patient who tried to commit suicide by subcutaneous injection of 500 g of metallic mercury. He died 16 months later in the course of the intoxication. A short review is given of effects and reactions of metallic mercury in the human organism.

  5. Intoxication with metallic mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichte, B.; Assmann, H.; Ritzau, F.

    1984-02-01

    Intoxications by metallic mercury are extremely rare. Report is given of a patient, who tried to commit suicide by subcutaneous injection of 500 g of metallic mercury. He died 16 months later in the course of the intoxication. A short review is given of effects and reactions of metallic mercury in the human organism.

  6. Effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored emergency-room intervention among adolescents admitted to hospital due to acute alcohol intoxication: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurdak, M.; Wolstein, J.; Kuntsche, E.N.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and test the effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored intervention for adolescents hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication in eight cities in Germany between December 2011 and May 2012 against a similar, non-motive-tailored intervention. In a randomized

  7. Acute Intoxication following Dimethyltryptamine Ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Kristan V.; Wiegand, Timothy J.; Gorodetsky, Rachel M.

    2018-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic tea that is most commonly comprised of the vine Banisteriopsis caapi alone or in combination with other plants such as Psychotria viridis. This concoction results in an orally active form of dimethyltryptamine (DMT), a hallucinogenic amine. Despite use in South America as a medicinal agent and component in religious ceremonies, interest in its recreational use and spiritual effects has led to increased use in the United States. We describe a unique case following ingestion of ayahuasca tea in a patient with history of schizophrenia resulting in personal injury and property damage. A review of ayahuasca toxicity and evaluation of serious adverse effects is also presented. PMID:29682363

  8. Acute Intoxication following Dimethyltryptamine Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew H. Bilhimer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic tea that is most commonly comprised of the vine Banisteriopsis caapi alone or in combination with other plants such as Psychotria viridis. This concoction results in an orally active form of dimethyltryptamine (DMT, a hallucinogenic amine. Despite use in South America as a medicinal agent and component in religious ceremonies, interest in its recreational use and spiritual effects has led to increased use in the United States. We describe a unique case following ingestion of ayahuasca tea in a patient with history of schizophrenia resulting in personal injury and property damage. A review of ayahuasca toxicity and evaluation of serious adverse effects is also presented.

  9. Barbiturate intoxication and overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... users who do not know these combinations can lead to coma or death Experienced users who use them on purpose to alter their consciousness Symptoms Symptoms of barbiturate intoxication and overdose include: Altered level of consciousness Difficulty ...

  10. Total gastrectomy due to ferric chloride intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, A Mesut; Abramson, Leonardo; Vera, Raúl A; Duza, Guillermo E; Palermo, Mariano

    2015-09-01

    The ferric chloride intoxication is frequently caused by accident. Its toxicity is generally underrated, which can lead to fatal evolution or irreversible consequences. In this case, the caustic condition of the substance is related to the toxic properties of iron. A 36-year-old male patient arrives by ambulance indicating sensory deterioration. He presents erosive injuries in the buccal cavity and in the oropharynx, brownish teeth and metabolic acidosis. Toxicology tests and ferritin blood dosage are requested, which show a result from 1400 mg/dl. The symptoms are interpreted as acute iron intoxication. Due to the unfavorable evolution of his condition, an abdominal and pelvic CT scan are performed, which show extensive pneumoperitoneum and free fluid in the abdominal cavity. An exploratory laparotomy, a total gastrectomy with esophagostomy and feeding jejunostomy, washing and drainage due to perforated gastric necrosis caused by caustic ingestion are performed. In our country, there is a high rate of intoxication caused by iron compounds, although it is not statistically measured. Nevertheless, the ferric chloride intoxication is extremely infrequent. The ingestion of this product leads to complications, which are associated with the iron concentration and its condition as a caustic agent. The surgical indications in the presence of intoxication caused by iron compounds are: stomach evacuation of iron, gastric necrosis, perforation or peritonitis and stenosis. Early or prophylactic gastrectomy is contraindicated. However, if complications that require immediate surgical intervention arise, there should be no hesitation and the corresponding procedure should be performed.

  11. Intoxication with natural sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropilova, D.; Toropila, M.; Tomko, M.; Takac, L.; Fric, M.

    2015-01-01

    The authors of this article deal with intoxication of the organism with natural resources. As objects of our interest we chose some interchangeable types of fungi which cause severe intoxication of gastrointestinal tract: Scleroderma citrinum, Boletus luridus var. rubriceps (Maire) Dermek, Boletus satanas, Agaricus xanthodermus and poisonous plants affect mainly digestive tract such as Sambucus nigra L. (elderberry). Sambucus ebulus L. (European dwarf elder), Viburnum lantana L. (wayfaring tree), Viburnum opulus (guelder-rose), Rhamnus cathartica (purging buckthorn).

  12. Atropine exposure in adolescence predispose to adult memory loss ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Atropine, drug abuse, adolescence, adulthood, memory loss. INTRODUCTION ... Hence, more attention and focus are on ... that PFC deal with logical reasoning and executive ... to make their own decisions of the arms to follow.

  13. Comparison of Current Recommended Regimens of Atropinization in Organophosphate Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Connors, Nicholas J.; Harnett, Zachary H.; Hoffman, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Atropine is the mainstay of therapy in organophosphate (OP) toxicity, though research and consensus on dosing is lacking. In 2004, as reported by Eddleston et al. (J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 42(6):865-75, 2004), they noted variation in recommended regimens. We assessed revisions of original references, additional citations, and electronic sources to determine the current variability in atropine dosing recommendations. Updated editions of references from Eddleston et al.’s work, texts of Internal ...

  14. Fatal cocaine intoxication in a body packer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajković Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. ‘Body packer’ syndrome with severe intoxication or sudden death may happen in persons who smuggle drugs in their body cavities. In case of lethal outcome when carrying cocaine, it is important, but sometimes difficult to determine whether death was due to intoxication or due to other causes. Therefore, it is necessary not only to quantify cocaine and its metabolites in biological material, but also based on their distribution in body fluids and tissues to conclude whether it is acute intoxication. We described a well-documented case of fatal poisoning in a body packer and post mortem distribution of the drug in biological samples. Case report. A 26-year-old man was brought to hospital with no vital signs. Resuscitation measures started at once, but with no success. Autopsy revealed 66 packets of cocaine in his digestive tract, one of which was ruptured. Hyperemia of the most of all internal organs and pulmonary and brain edema were found. High concentrations of cocaine, its metabolites benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester, as well as cocaine adulteration levamisole were proven in the post mortem blood and tissues by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MC method with selective-ion monitoring. Conclusion. The ratio of cocaine and its metabolites concentrations in the brain and blood obtained by LC-MS method can be used for forensic confirmation of acute intoxication with cocaine.

  15. Comparison of current recommended regimens of atropinization in organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Nicholas J; Harnett, Zachary H; Hoffman, Robert S

    2014-06-01

    Atropine is the mainstay of therapy in organophosphate (OP) toxicity, though research and consensus on dosing is lacking. In 2004, as reported by Eddleston et al. (J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 42(6):865-75, 2004), they noted variation in recommended regimens. We assessed revisions of original references, additional citations, and electronic sources to determine the current variability in atropine dosing recommendations. Updated editions of references from Eddleston et al.'s work, texts of Internal and Emergency Medicine, and electronic resources were reviewed for atropine dosing recommendations. For comparison, recommendations were assessed using the same mean dose (23.4 mg) and the highest dose (75 mg) of atropine as used in the original paper. Recommendations were also compared with the dosing regimen from the World Health Organization (WHO). Thirteen of the original recommendations were updated and 15 additional references were added giving a convenience sample of 28. Sufficient information to calculate time to targeted dose was provided by 24 of these samples. Compared to 2004, current recommendations have greatly increased the speed of atropinization with 13/24 able to reach the mean and high atropine dose within 30 min compared to 1/36 in 2004. In 2004, there were 13 regimens where the maximum time to reach 75 mg was over 18 h, whereas now, there are 2. While only one recommendation called for doubling the dose for faster escalation in 2004, 15 of the 24 current works include dose doubling. In 2004, Eddleston et al. called for an evidence-based guideline for the treatment of OP poisoning that could be disseminated worldwide. Many current recommendations can adequately treat patients within 1 h. While the WHO recommendations remain slow to treat patients with OP poisoning, other authorities are close to a consensus on rapid atropinization.

  16. THE ROLE OF ENTEROSORBENTS IN TREATMENT OF ENDOGENOUS INTOXICATION SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    N. I. Ursova

    2012-01-01

    Usage of enterosorbents in treatment of almost all types of acute and chronic disorders accompanied with endogenous intoxication syndrome takes on special significance. The critical point of endogenous intoxication pathogenesis is dysfunction of microbiocenosis and intestinal barrier. The necessity of enterosorbents usage is very high due to their efficacy, safety and wide availability. Smectite dioctaedric (diosmectite), which has been successfully used in clinical practice for a long period...

  17. Thallium intoxication. Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojáková, Michaela; Žigrai, Miroslav; Karaman, Andrej; Plačková, Silvia; Klepancová, Petra; Hrušovský, Štefan

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of serious voluntary intoxication by laboratory thallium monobromate combined with alcohol intake by a 24-years old man. The diagnosis of thallium intoxication was based on history, nonspecific but typical clinical symptoms including gastrointestinal complaints, painful polyneuropathy, alopecia, and confirmed by the finding of increased thallium concentration in the urine. The treatment, performed at the due time, consisted of decontamination of the stomach by irrigation, administration of active charcoal and Prussian blue, correction of water and mineral dysbalance, symptomatic treatment, and led to complete recovery.

  18. LABORATORY EXAMINATION IN NERVE AGENT INTOXICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Bajgar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of nerve agent intoxication is based on anamnestic data, clinical signs and laboratory examination. For acute poisoning, cholinesterase activity in the blood (erythrocyte AChE, plasma/serum BuChE is sensitive, simple and most frequent laboratory examination performed in biochemical laboratories. Specialized examinations to precise treatment (reactivation test or to make retrospective diagnosis (fluoride induced reactivation etc. can be conducted. Other sophisticated methods are available, too.

  19. Effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored emergency-room intervention among adolescents admitted to hospital due to acute alcohol intoxication - A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurdak, Mara; Wolstein, Jörg; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and test the effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored intervention for adolescents hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication in eight cities in Germany between December 2011 and May 2012 against a similar, non-motive-tailored intervention. In a randomized controlled trial, 254 adolescents received a psychosocial intervention plus motive-tailored (intervention group; IG) or general exercises (control group; CG). Adolescents in the IG received exercises in accordance with their drinking motives as indicated at baseline (e.g. alternative ways of spending leisure time or dealing with stress). Exercises for the CG contained alcohol-related information in general (e.g. legal issues). The data of 81 adolescents (age: M = 15.6, SD = 1.0; 42.0% female) who participated in both the baseline and the follow-up were compared using ANOVA with repeated measurements and effect sizes (available case analyses). Adolescents reported lower alcohol use at the four-week follow-up independently of the kind of intervention. Significant interaction effects between time and IG were found for girls in terms of drinking frequency (F = 7.770, p effect sizes of drinking frequency (d = - 1.18), binge drinking (d = - 1.61) and drunkenness (d = - 2.87) were much higher than the .8 threshold for large effects. Conducting psychosocial interventions in a motive-tailored way appears more effective for girls admitted to hospital due to alcohol intoxication than without motive-tailoring. Further research is required to address the specific needs of boys in such interventions. (German Clinical Trials Register, DRKS ID: DRKS00005588).

  20. Lipid Therapy for Intoxications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robben, Joris Henricus; Dijkman, Marieke Annet

    This review discusses the use of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) in the treatment of intoxications with lipophilic agents in veterinary medicine. Despite growing scientific evidence that ILE has merit in the treatment of certain poisonings, there is still uncertainty on the optimal composition of

  1. Lipid Therapy for Intoxications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robben, Joris Henricus; Dijkman, Marieke Annet

    2017-01-01

    This review discusses the use of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) in the treatment of intoxications with lipophilic agents in veterinary medicine. Despite growing scientific evidence that ILE has merit in the treatment of certain poisonings, there is still uncertainty on the optimal composition of

  2. Driving While Intoxicated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, John

    Alcohol intoxication increases the risk of highway accidents, the relative risk of crash probability increasing as a function of blood alcohol content (BAC). Because alcohol use is more prevalent than use of other drugs, more is known about the relationship between alcohol use and driving. Most states presume a BAC of .10% to be evidence of drunk…

  3. Efficacy of atropine and anisodamine eye drops for adolescent pseudomyopia

    OpenAIRE

    Hui-Jie Wang

    2017-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect and local influence of atropine and anisodamine eye drops on adolescent pseudomyopia. METHODS:Totally 110 cases of juvenile pseudomyopia were randomly divided into two groups, the control group was given 10g/L atropine sulfate eye gel, and the observation group was treated with 5g/L raceanisodamine eye drops. The efficacy of two methods, the changes of axial length and intraocular pressure before and after treatment, and the incidence of adverse reactions were co...

  4. An overview of exposure to ethanol-containing substances and ethanol intoxication in children based on three illustrated cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam Lun Hon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol addiction and intoxication are major health problems worldwide. Acute alcohol intoxication is well reported in adults and adolescents but less frequently reported in children of younger ages. We report three anonymized cases of pediatric ethanol exposure and illustrate the different mechanisms of intoxication. In all cases, a focused history is the key to prompt diagnosis and timely management. Physicians should be aware of this potential poison in children presented with acute confusional or encephalopathic state. In contrast, neonates with ethanol intoxication may present with nonspecific gastrointestinal symptomatology. Urgent exclusion of sepsis, electrolyte imbalance, drug intoxication, and surgical abdominal condition is critical. Using these illustrated cases, we performed a narrative literature review on issues of exposure to ethanol-containing substances and ethanol intoxication in children. In conclusion, a high level of suspicion and interrogation on ethanol or substance use are essential particularly in the lactating mother for an accurate and timely diagnosis of ethanol intoxication to be made.

  5. Influence of atropine and loperamide on reduced intestinal transit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of Calotropis procera latex alone and in the presence of loperamide and atropine on intestinal transit in rats were determined to elucidate the action of C. procera on intestinal transit. Six groups of rats containing ten rats per group were used. Each rat in the control group (I) received 0.5 ml of normal saline.

  6. [Intoxication of botulinum toxin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudzicka, Aleksandra

    2015-09-01

    Botulinum toxin is an egzotoxin produced by Gram positive bacteria Clostridium botulinum. It is among the most potent toxins known. The 3 main clinical presentations of botulism are as follows: foodborne botulism, infant botulism and wound botulism. The main symptom of intoxication is flat muscles paralysis. The treatment is supportive care and administration of antitoxin. In prevention the correct preparing of canned food is most important. Botulinum toxin is accepted as a biological weapon. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  7. Intoxication experiments with beryllium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucurescu, I.; Stan, T.

    1990-01-01

    The changes in the particular number of animals in two groups of 40 rats each subjected to intoxication experiments with beryllium sulphate was investigated. The two investigations had very different characteristics. In the case of chronic intoxication there was a marked lethality over given time intervals. In the case of subacute intoxication the number of animals decreased with time. It was found empirically that this change can be described by an exponential relationship which lends itself to statistical interpretation. (author)

  8. Clinical effects of detomidine with or without atropine used for arthrocentesis in horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Diana L.

    1993-01-01

    The effectiveness of detomidine with or without atropine sulfate premedication in producing sedation and analgesia for arthrocentesis was studied in 12 horses. The effects were evaluated by monitoring heart and respiratory rates, borborygmi, distance from the lower lip to the floor, systolic blood pressure, and response to needle insertion. Either atropine or saline (as a placebo) was administered immediately prior to detomidine. All drugs were administered intravenously. Measurements were taken prior to drug injection and at 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60, 120, 180 and 240 minutes postinjection. Detomidine with atropine resulted in significantly higher heart rates than detomidine without atropine for the three hours of observation. Borborygmi were significantly decreased for four hours following detomidine with atropine and for three hours following detomidine without atropine, when compared to preinjection levels. Systolic blood pressure was significantly increased for 15 minutes following detomidine and atropine compared to the preinjection level. The head was markedly lowered for 60 minutes with either treatment. Atropine prevented the bradyarrhythmia and bradycardia induced by detomidine, but it induced a tachycardia. A satisfactory response for needle insertion and adequate synovial fluid aspiration was achieved in 95% of the trials with detomidine, with or without atropine sulfate premedication. The results suggest that, although atropine prevents bradyarrhythmia and bradycardia following detomidine, administering detomidine without atropine is satisfactory for arthrocentesis in untrained horses. PMID:17424223

  9. [Intoxications with plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Jacqueline; Reichert, Cornelia

    2009-05-01

    Ingestions of plants rarely lead to life-threatening intoxications. Highly toxic plants, which can cause death, are monkshood (Aconitum sp.), yew (Taxus sp.) and autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale). Lethal ingestions of monkshood and yew are usually suicides, intoxications with autumn crocus are mostly accidental ingestions of the leaves mistaken for wild garlic (Allium ursinum). Severe intoxications can occur with plants of the nightshade family like deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), angel's trumpet (Datura suaveolens) or jimsonweed (Datura stramonium). These plants are ingested for their psychoactive effects. Ingestion of plant material by children most often only causes minor symptoms or no symptoms at all, as children usually do not eat great quantities of the plants. They are especially attracted by the colorful berries. There are plants with mostly cardiovascular effects like monkshood, yew and Digitalis sp. Some of the most dangerous plants belong to this group. Plants of the nightshade family cause an anticholinergic syndrome. With golden chain (Laburnum anagyroides), castor bean (Ricinus communis) and raw beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) we see severe gastrointestinal effects. Autumn crocus contains a cell toxin, colchicine, which leads to multiorgan failure. Different plants are irritative or even caustic to the skin. Treatment is usually symptomatic. Activated charcoal is administered within one hour after ingestion (1 g/kg). Endoscopic removal of plant material can be considered with ingestions of great quantities of highly toxic plants. Administration of repeated doses of charcoal (1-2 g/h every 2-4 hours) may be effective in case of oleander poisoning. There exist only two antidotes: Anti-digoxin Fab fragments can be used with cardenolide glycoside-containing plants (Digitalis sp., Oleander). Physostigmine is the antidote for severe anticholinergic symptoms of the CNS. Antibodies against colchicine, having been developed in France, are not available at

  10. Bipallidal haemorrhage after ethylene glycol intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caparros-Lefebvre, D.; Policard, J.; Rigal, M. [CHU Pointe a Pitre, Service de Neurologie, Lille (France); Sengler, C. [CHU Pointe a Pitre, Laboratoire de Pharmaco-Toxicologie, Guadeloupe (France); Benabdallah, E. [CHU Pointe a Pitre, Service de Radiologie, Guadeloupe (France); Colombani, S. [Centre d' Imagerie medicale, Martinique (France)

    2005-02-01

    Acute or subacute bipallidal lesion, an uncommon radiological feature produced by metabolic disorders or poisoning, has never been attributed to ethylene glycol (EG) intoxication. This 50-year-old Afro-Caribbean alcoholic man had unexplained loss of consciousness. Blood tests showed osmolar gap. Drug screening was positive for EG at 6.06 mmol/l. Brain CT revealed bilateral pallidal haemorrhage. Pallidal haematoma, which could be related to deposition of oxalate crystals issued from EG metabolism, should lead to toxicological screening. (orig.)

  11. Bipallidal haemorrhage after ethylene glycol intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caparros-Lefebvre, D.; Policard, J.; Rigal, M.; Sengler, C.; Benabdallah, E.; Colombani, S.

    2005-01-01

    Acute or subacute bipallidal lesion, an uncommon radiological feature produced by metabolic disorders or poisoning, has never been attributed to ethylene glycol (EG) intoxication. This 50-year-old Afro-Caribbean alcoholic man had unexplained loss of consciousness. Blood tests showed osmolar gap. Drug screening was positive for EG at 6.06 mmol/l. Brain CT revealed bilateral pallidal haemorrhage. Pallidal haematoma, which could be related to deposition of oxalate crystals issued from EG metabolism, should lead to toxicological screening. (orig.)

  12. Chelation in metal intoxication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaseth, Jan; Skaug, Marit Aralt; Cao, yang

    2015-01-01

    The present review provides an update of the general principles for the investigation and use of chelating agents in the treatment of intoxications by metals. The clinical use of the old chelators EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetate) and BAL (2,3-dimercaptopropanol) is now limited due to the incon......The present review provides an update of the general principles for the investigation and use of chelating agents in the treatment of intoxications by metals. The clinical use of the old chelators EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetate) and BAL (2,3-dimercaptopropanol) is now limited due...... to the inconvenience of parenteral administration, their own toxicity and tendency to increase the neurotoxicity of several metals. The hydrophilic dithiol chelators DMSA (meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid) and DMPS (2,3-dimercapto-propanesulphonate) are less toxic and more efficient than BAL in the clinical treatment...... of heavy metal poisoning, and available as capsules for oral use. In copper overload, DMSA appears to be a potent antidote, although d-penicillamine is still widely used. In the chelation of iron, the thiols are inefficient, since iron has higher affinity for ligands with nitrogen and oxygen, but the new...

  13. Unpacking intoxication, racialising disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mel Y

    2015-06-01

    This article examines concepts whose strictly medical applications have only partly informed their widespread use and suggests that demonstrably shared logics motivate our thinking across domains in the interest of a politically just engagement. It considers exchanges between the culturally complex concepts of 'toxicity' and 'intoxication', assessing the racialised conditions of their animation in several geopolitically--and quite radically--distinct scenarios. First, the article sets the framework through considering the racial implications of impairment and disability language of 'non-toxic' finance capital in the contemporary US financial crisis. Shifting material foci from 'illiquid financial bodies' to opiates while insisting that neither is 'more' metaphorically toxic than the other, the article turns to address the role of opium and temporality in the interanimations of race and disability in two sites of 19th-century British empire: Langdon Down's clinic for idiocy, and China's retort on opium to Queen Victoria. The article concludes with a provocation that suggests yet another crossing of borders, that between researcher and researched: 'intoxicated method' is a hypothetical mode of approach that refuses idealised research positions by 'critically disabling' the idealised cognitive and conceptual lens of analysis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Immediate and Long-Term Outcome of Acute H2S Intoxication Induced Coma in Unanesthetized Rats: Effects of Methylene Blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonobe, Takashi; Chenuel, Bruno; Cooper, Timothy K; Haouzi, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Acute hydrogen sulfide (H2S) poisoning produces a coma, the outcome of which ranges from full recovery to severe neurological deficits. The aim of our study was to 1--describe the immediate and long-term neurological effects following H2S-induced coma in un-anesthetized rats, and 2--determine the potential benefit of methylene blue (MB), a compound we previously found to counteract acute sulfide cardiac toxicity. NaHS was administered IP in un-sedated rats to produce a coma (n = 34). One minute into coma, the rats received MB (4 mg/kg i.v.) or saline. The surviving rats were followed clinically and assigned to Morris water maze (MWM) and open field testing then sacrificed at day 7. Sixty percent of the non-treated comatose rats died by pulseless electrical activity. Nine percent recovered with neurological deficits requiring euthanasia, their brain examination revealed major neuronal necrosis of the superficial and middle layers of the cerebral cortex and the posterior thalamus, with variable necrosis of the caudate putamen, but no lesions of the hippocampus or the cerebellum, in contrast to the typical distribution of post-ischemic lesions. The remaining animals displayed, on average, a significantly less effective search strategy than the control rats (n = 21) during MWM testing. Meanwhile, 75% of rats that received MB survived and could perform the MWM test (Pcoma, spatial search patterns were used less frequently than in control animals. A small percentage of rats presented necrotic neuronal lesions, which distribution differed from post-ischemic lesions. MB dramatically improved the immediate survival and spatial search strategy in the surviving rats.

  15. Immediate and Long-Term Outcome of Acute H2S Intoxication Induced Coma in Unanesthetized Rats: Effects of Methylene Blue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Sonobe

    Full Text Available Acute hydrogen sulfide (H2S poisoning produces a coma, the outcome of which ranges from full recovery to severe neurological deficits. The aim of our study was to 1--describe the immediate and long-term neurological effects following H2S-induced coma in un-anesthetized rats, and 2--determine the potential benefit of methylene blue (MB, a compound we previously found to counteract acute sulfide cardiac toxicity.NaHS was administered IP in un-sedated rats to produce a coma (n = 34. One minute into coma, the rats received MB (4 mg/kg i.v. or saline. The surviving rats were followed clinically and assigned to Morris water maze (MWM and open field testing then sacrificed at day 7.Sixty percent of the non-treated comatose rats died by pulseless electrical activity. Nine percent recovered with neurological deficits requiring euthanasia, their brain examination revealed major neuronal necrosis of the superficial and middle layers of the cerebral cortex and the posterior thalamus, with variable necrosis of the caudate putamen, but no lesions of the hippocampus or the cerebellum, in contrast to the typical distribution of post-ischemic lesions. The remaining animals displayed, on average, a significantly less effective search strategy than the control rats (n = 21 during MWM testing. Meanwhile, 75% of rats that received MB survived and could perform the MWM test (P<0.05 vs non-treated animals. The treated animals displayed a significantly higher occurrence of spatial search than the non-treated animals. However, a similar proportion of cortical necrosis was observed in both groups, with a milder clinical presentation following MB.In conclusion, in rats surviving H2S induced coma, spatial search patterns were used less frequently than in control animals. A small percentage of rats presented necrotic neuronal lesions, which distribution differed from post-ischemic lesions. MB dramatically improved the immediate survival and spatial search strategy in the

  16. Seizure disorders and anemia associated with chronic borax intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, A. S.; Prichard, J. S.; Freedman, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    During the course of investigation of two infants with seizure disorders it was discovered that both had been given large amounts of a preparation of borax and honey which resulted in chronic borate intoxication. In one child a profound anemia developed as well. The symptoms of chronic borate intoxication are different from those of the acute poisoning with which we are more familiar. The borax and honey preparations are highly dangerous and should no longer be manufactured or distributed for sale. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2 PMID:4691106

  17. THE ROLE OF ENTEROSORBENTS IN TREATMENT OF ENDOGENOUS INTOXICATION SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Ursova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Usage of enterosorbents in treatment of almost all types of acute and chronic disorders accompanied with endogenous intoxication syndrome takes on special significance. The critical point of endogenous intoxication pathogenesis is dysfunction of microbiocenosis and intestinal barrier. The necessity of enterosorbents usage is very high due to their efficacy, safety and wide availability. Smectite dioctaedric (diosmectite, which has been successfully used in clinical practice for a long period of time, is of an increased interest among the natural enterosorbents. The main quality of diosmectite is its restoration effect on the microbiocenisis and intestinal barrier function, and with a high degree of evidence-based efficacy and safety.

  18. Chelation in Metal Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaran J.S. Flora

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Chelation therapy is the preferred medical treatment for reducing the toxic effects of metals. Chelating agents are capable of binding to toxic metal ions to form complex structures which are easily excreted from the body removing them from intracellular or extracellular spaces. 2,3-Dimercaprol has long been the mainstay of chelation therapy for lead or arsenic poisoning, however its serious side effects have led researchers to develop less toxic analogues. Hydrophilic chelators like meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid effectively promote renal metal excretion, but their ability to access intracellular metals is weak. Newer strategies to address these drawbacks like combination therapy (use of structurally different chelating agents or co-administration of antioxidants have been reported recently. In this review we provide an update of the existing chelating agents and the various strategies available for the treatment of heavy metals and metalloid intoxications.

  19. Resource utilization and outcomes of intoxicated drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Robert A; Nichols, Pamela A; Snavely, Theresa M; Camera, Lindsay J; Mauger, David T

    2010-08-05

    The high risk behavior of intoxicated drivers, impaired reaction time, lack of seat belt use, and increased incidence of head injury raises questions of whether pre-hospital use of alcohol leads to a higher injury severity score and worse clinical outcomes. We therefore compared intoxicated and non-intoxicated drivers of motor vehicle crashes with respect to outcome measurements and also describe the resources utilized to achieve those outcomes at our Level 1 trauma center. Retrospective descriptive study (Jan 2002-June 2007) of our trauma registry and financial database comparing intoxicated drivers with blood alcohol levels (BAC) > 80 mg/dl (ETOH > 80) with drivers who had a BAC of 0 mg/dl (ETOH = 0). Drivers without a BAC drawn or who had levels ranging from 1 mg/dL to 80 mg/dL were excluded. Data was collected on demographic information (age, gender, injury severity score or ISS), outcome variables (mortality, complications, ICU and hospital LOS, ventilator days) and resource utilization (ED LOS, insurance, charges, costs, payments). p 80; stratified chi square. Out of 1732 drivers, the combined study group (n = 987) of 623 ETOH = 0 and 364 ETOH > 80 had a mean age of 38.8 +/- 17.9, ISS of 18.0 +/- 12.1, and 69.8%% male. There was no difference in ISS (p = 0.67) or complications (p = 0.38). There was a trend towards decreased mortality (p = 0.06). The ETOH = 0 group had more patients with a prolonged ICU LOS (>/= 5 days), ventilator days (>/= 8 days), and hospital LOS (> 14 days) when compared to the ETOH > 80 group (p 80 group tended to be self pay (4.9% vs. 0.7%, p pay, less likely to have charges > $50K, and less likely to pay >/= 90% of the charges. Further research using multivariable analysis is needed to determine if these apparent outcomes differences are driven by acute intoxication, and the tendency for endotracheal intubation and ICU admission, rather than injury severity.

  20. Associations between bar patron alcohol intoxication and tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossheim, Matthew E; Thombs, Dennis L; O'Mara, Ryan J; Bastian, Nicholas; Suzuki, Sumihiro

    2013-11-01

    To examine the event-specific relationship between alcohol intoxication and nighttime tobacco smoking among college bar patrons. In this secondary analysis of existing data, we examined event-specific associations between self-report measures of tobacco smoking and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) readings obtained from 424 patrons exiting on-premise drinking establishments. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, acute alcohol intoxication was positively associated with same-night incidents of smoking tobacco, adjusting for the effects of established smoking practices and other potential confounders. This investigation is the first known study using data collected in an on-premise drinking setting to link alcohol intoxication to specific incidents of tobacco smoking.

  1. The role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling pathway in cardiotoxicity of acute lead intoxication in vivo and in vitro rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mushtaq A; Maayah, Zaid H; Bakheet, Saleh A; El-Kadi, Ayman O; Korashy, Hesham M

    2013-04-05

    ability of AhR antagonist, resveratrol, to significantly inhibit the Pb(2+)-modulated effect on β-MHC and α-MHC mRNAs. It was concluded that acute lead exposure induced cardiotoxicity through AhR/CYP1A1-mediated mechanism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficacy of atropine and anisodamine eye drops for adolescent pseudomyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Jie Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the effect and local influence of atropine and anisodamine eye drops on adolescent pseudomyopia. METHODS:Totally 110 cases of juvenile pseudomyopia were randomly divided into two groups, the control group was given 10g/L atropine sulfate eye gel, and the observation group was treated with 5g/L raceanisodamine eye drops. The efficacy of two methods, the changes of axial length and intraocular pressure before and after treatment, and the incidence of adverse reactions were compared. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in cure rate between the two groups(χ2=0.533, P=0.465, but the effective rate of observation group was significantly better than the control group(χ2=3.907, P=0.048. Compared with the same group before treatment, the length of the axial length of the two groups increased in different degrees,and the increase value of the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group, the difference was statistically significant(PP>0.05. The intraocular pressure of the two groups was significantly lower than that of the same group before treatment, and the difference between the two groups after treatments was not statistically significant(P >0.05. The incidence of adverse reactions in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group(χ2=18.939, PCONCLUSION: Anisodamine eye drops in the treatment of juvenile pseudomyopia has obvious curative effect, its efficacy and safety are better than atropine eye gel.

  3. Predictors of Poor Prognosis in Aluminum Phosphide Intoxication

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    Fakhredin Taghaddosi Nejad

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aluminum phosphide as a fumigant is extensively used for wheat preservation from rodents and bugs especially in silos worldwide. There is increasing number of acute intoxication with this potentially lethal compound because of its easy availability. We have tried to locate predictors of poor prognosis in patients with aluminum phosphide intoxication in order to find patients who need more strict medical cares. Methods: All cases of aluminum phosphide intoxication that had been referred to our hospital during April 2008 to March 2010 were studied by their medical dossiers. Pertinent data including vital signs, demographic features, clinical and lab findings, and incidence of any complication were collected and analyzed by the relevant statistical methods. Results: Sixty seven cases of aluminum phosphide intoxication were included in the study. 44.8% of them were male. 97% of cases were suicidal. Mean amount of ingestion was 1.23+/- 0.71 tablets. Mortality rate was 41.8%. ECG abnormality and need for mechanical ventilation had negative relation with outcome. Conclusion: Correlation between some findings and complications with outcome in aluminum phosphide intoxication can be used as guidance for risk assessment and treatment planning in the patients.

  4. Obstrucción aguda de la vía respiratoria superior y rabdomiolisis luego de intoxicación por tintura para el cabello Acute upper respiratory obstruction and rhabdomiolysis due to intoxication with a hair dye

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    Claudia Arroyave

    2004-09-01

    the airway involvement the patient presented acute pulmonary edema and subsequently pneumonia that required antibioticotherapy. Additionally, she had severe rhabdomyolysis that was treated with adequate fluid administration to avoid alterations in renal function. She remained at hospital for ten days and was discharged in good condition. We review the possible pathophysiologic mechanisms, the clinical manifestations and the treatment of paraphenylenediamine intoxication because this compound was the most important cause of the clinical manifestations of our patient.

  5. Delayed Encephalopathy of Carbon Monoxide Intoxication and Treatment with Hyperbaric Oxygen: A Case Report

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    Fatma Polat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Delayed encephalopathy (DE is a neuropsychiatric syndrome that can arise generally within 20 days of acute carbon monoxide (CO intoxication after apparent recovery and involves variable degrees of cognitive deficits, personality changes, movement disorders and focal neurologic deficits. We report a 35-year-old female patient with delayed encephalopathy due to CO intoxication, presenting with cognitive impairment and mild parkinsonism despite receiving hyberbaric oxigen therapy (HBO. Magnetic resonance imaging showed abnormal signal intensity and decreased diffusivity at both caudate nuclei and globus pallidus. She continued to receive additional HBO therapy and complete recovery was reached within six months. The positive effect of early HBO therapy of selected patients in reversing the acute effects of CO intoxication is appearant. We here also review the beneficial effect of HBO in preventing or limitating the late neurocognitive deficits associated with severe CO intoxication

  6. PROTEOSE INTOXICATIONS AND INJURY OF BODY PROTEIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, J. V.; Whipple, G. H.

    1918-01-01

    Sterile abscess formation in the dog is accompanied by a large increase in output of urinary nitrogen and also by a small but definite increase in the blood non-protein nitrogen. All this nitrogenous material of course is derived from body protein injury and autolysis. Septic inflammation in the dog (pleurisy, pneumonia, peritonitis, etc.) likewise shows a distinct rise in the blood non-protein nitrogen. This rise is not often so great as that frequently observed in the intoxication of intestinal obstruction. Many acute infections in man (septicemia, peritonitis, pneumonia, etc.) show a definite rise in the non-protein nitrogen and urea nitrogen of the blood; some cases show a very great rise above normal (over 100 mg. of non-protein nitrogen per 100 cc. of blood). There may be no anatomical change in the kidney beyond the familiar picture of cloudy swelling. This does not exclude the possibility of some transient functional derangement of the kidney epithelium. Certain obscure intoxications in man may show a considerable rise in the non-protein nitrogen of the blood, indicating a large amount of protein disintegration. These findings must be taken into account in any clinical analysis and interpretation of high non-protein nitrogen of the blood in pathological conditions. PMID:19868253

  7. Atropine and glycopyrrolate do not support bacterial growth-safety and economic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittzes, Balazs; Weiling, Zsolt; Batai, Istvan Zoard; Kerenyi, Monika; Batai, Istvan

    2016-12-01

    Evaluation of bacterial growth in atropine and glycopyrrolate. Laboratory investigation. Standard microbiological methods were used to evaluate the impact of atropine and glycopyrrolate on the growth of Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Bacterial count was checked at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 24 hours. Atropine or glycopyrrolate did not support the growth of the above bacteria at any examined time at room temperature. Glycopyrrolate killed all of the examined strains (P < .05), whereas in atropine, only the clinical isolates of Staphylococcus and Acinetobacter were killed (P < .05). Drawing up atropine or glycopyrrolate at the beginning of the operating list and use within 24 hours if needed are a safe practice and do not pose infection hazard. We can also reduce hospital costs if we do not throw away these unused syringes following each case. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of atropine to reduce mucosal eversion during intestinal resection and anastomosis in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrodnia, Marta; Hauptman, Joe; Walshaw, Richard

    2003-01-01

    To determine whether atropine altered the degree of mucosal eversion during jejunal resection and anastomosis in the dog. Part I: Prospective, blinded, randomized, controlled study using a therapeutic dose (0.04 mg/kg systemic) of atropine. Part II: Prospective, unblinded, assigned, controlled study using a pharmacologic (0.04 mg/kg local arterial) dose of atropine. Part I: Twenty-two young adult female Beagle dogs used during a nonsurvival third-year veterinary student surgical laboratory (small intestinal resection and anastomosis). Part II: Ten young adult female Beagle dogs used immediately after completion of a nonsurvival third-year veterinary student orthopedic surgical laboratory. Part I: Dogs were randomly assigned to receive either atropine (0.04 mg/kg), or an equal volume of saline, given intramuscularly (premedication) and again intravenously prior to intestinal resection. Part II: In each dog, atropine (0.04 mg/kg)/saline was alternately given in the proximal/distal jejunum. Part I: There was no clinically or statistically significant difference between systemic atropine and saline solution on the degree of jejunal mucosal eversion after resection. Part II: There was a statistically significant decrease in jejunal mucosal eversion with atropine compared with saline solution when injected into a local jejunal artery. Systemic atropine (0.04 mg/kg) does not alter the degree of jejunal mucosal eversion during resection and anastomosis. Jejunal intraarterial atropine (0.04 mg/kg) reduced jejunal mucosal eversion during resection and anastomosis. The clinical usefulness and consequences of jejunal arterial atropine administration to reduce mucosal eversion remain to be determined. Copyright 2003 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons

  9. Gender, age, and educational level attribute to blood alcohol concentration in hospitalized intoxicated adolescents: A cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zanten, Eva; van der Ploeg, Tjeerd; van Hoof, Joris Jasper; van der Lely, Nicolaas

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of adolescents hospitalized with acute alcohol intoxication, mainly because of severe reduced consciousness, is increasing. However, the characteristics of these adolescents are mainly unidentified. In this clinical research, we aimed to identify factors that attribute to

  10. Effect of Intensive Atropine Doses (Rapid Incremental Loading and Titration for Management of Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning: a Case Series

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    Abu Saleh Ahmed

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:Acute poisoning with organophosphorus (OP pesticides is a common method of suicide and entails considerable mortality in Bangladesh. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects and outcomes of a protocol for treatment of OP poisoning that included titrated incremental atropine as loading dose and slow infusion for maintenance.  Methods:In this prospective descriptive case series, definitive OP poisoned patients were enrolled in an adult medicine unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital from April 2006 to April 2007. Clinical examinations were done as soon as the patient entered the ward. Patient’s demographics, comorbid conditions and the occurrence of specific clinical outcomes including death, need for assisted ventilation and clinical complications were recorded. The patients were treated according to the protocol. Results: A total of 56 patients were enrolled over the study period. The median age of the study population was 22.5 years. Most patients were men (67.8%. The most common clinical presentation was miosis (58.9%. In total, 11 patients died (19.6%. Intermediate syndrome developed in 12 patients (21.4% and 6 of them died. Assisted ventilation was required in 16 cases (28.5. Patients with diastolic blood pressure ≤ 70 mmHg and/or GCS ≤ 10 were significantly less likely to survive (P = 0.02, 0.006, respectively. Moreover, early respiratory failure (P < 0.001 and the need for assisted ventilation (P < 0.001 were significantly higher among deceased cases. The mortality rate in this study was similar to previous studies. The frequency of atropine toxicity in the present study (1.8% was considerably lower than conventional regimen used in previous studies. Conclusion:Using the new protocol, lower rate of atropine toxicity developed in victims. Hence, the new protocol appears to be safer and its effectiveness should be further evaluated in case control studies in Bangladesh.    How to cite this article: Ahmed AS

  11. Inhaled Loxapine for Agitation in Intoxicated Patients: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncero, Carlos; Ros-Cucurull, Elena; Palma-Álvarez, Raúl Felipe; Abad, Alfonso Carlos; Fadeuilhe, Christian; Casas, Miquel; Grau-López, Lara

    Episodes of agitation are frequent in intoxicated patients who have a substance use disorder, a psychiatric disorder or both (dual diagnosis). For managing the agitation, it is necessary to act promptly in a safe environment and addressing any underlying etiology. Inhaled loxapine improves symptoms of agitation in adults with psychiatric disorders (eg, schizophrenia) within 10 minutes of administration. Recently, some reports have documented the usefulness of loxapine in dual diagnoses patients with agitation. However, the efficacy of loxapine in intoxicated patients has not been deeply addressed. This report describes a case series of 12 patients (with addiction or dual disorder) who received inhaled loxapine for symptoms of psychomotor agitation during intoxication with different substances (eg, alcohol, cannabis, or cocaine) at 1 center in Spain. Data from 12 patients were reviewed, 5 patients were attended at the emergency room, 4 at the addiction and dual diagnosis unit, and 3 were treated during hospitalization for detoxification. All patients were under effects of substances. They had substance use disorder (including cannabis, cocaine, alcohol, hypnotics, and hallucinogens), and almost all (90%) presented 1 or more psychiatric disorders. One dose of inhaled loxapine was effective in 9 patients (75%), and in 3 patients, a second dose was required. Only mild dizziness was reported in 1 patient after the second dose. The acute agitation was effectively and quickly managed with inhaled loxapine in all intoxicated patients and enabled the appropriate clinical evaluation of the agitated state and the patient's management.

  12. Sudden onset unexplained encephalopathy in infants: think of cannabis intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavi, Eran; Rekhtman, David; Berkun, Yackov; Wexler, Isaiah

    2016-03-01

    The use of cannabis as both a therapeutic agent and recreational drug is common, and its availability is increasing as a result of legalization in many countries. Among older children, the manifestations of cannabis intoxication are numerous and include both neurological and systemic manifestations that are frequently non-specific. There have been only a few reports detailing cannabis intoxication in infants and toddlers. We describe three infants who presented to the emergency department with encephalopathic signs without prominent systemic manifestations. During the initial interview of caregivers, no history of exposure to neurotoxic agents was obtained. All three patients were subsequently diagnosed with cannabis intoxication based on urine toxic screens for delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The infants recovered with supportive care that included fluids and monitoring. The non-specific symptomatology of cannabis intoxication in infants together with the wide differential for unexplained acute onset encephalopathy may delay diagnosis and lead to inappropriate procedures and interventions such as antimicrobial treatments and imaging studies. Healthcare personnel of emergency rooms, urgent care centers, and general clinics should be aware of the potential risk of cannabis ingestion in young infants. A thorough medical history and toxic screen are warranted in all infants with unexplained decreased sensorium.

  13. Tardily accelerated neurologic deterioration in two-step thallium intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Hiroshi; Mukai, Yoshiyuki; Nishiyama, Shuhei; Takeshita, Takayuki; Tateyama, Maki; Takeda, Atsushi; Aoki, Masashi

    2016-12-01

    Thallium intoxication was reported in cases with accidental ingestion, suicide attempt, and criminal adulteration. Reported cases were mostly one-time ingestion, therefore, the clinical course of divisional ingestion has not been fully known. Here, we report a case with two-step thallium intoxication manifesting as tardily accelerated neurologic deterioration. A 16-year-old adolescent was cryptically poisoned with thallium sulfate twice at an interval of 52days. After the first ingestion, neurologic symptoms including visual loss, myalgia, and weakness in legs developed about 40days after the development of acute gastrointestinal symptoms and alopecia. After the second ingestion, neurologic symptoms deteriorated rapidly and severely without gastrointestinal or cutaneous symptoms. Brain magnetic resonance imaging exhibited bilateral optic nerve atrophy. Nerve conduction studies revealed severe peripheral neuropathies in legs. Thallium intoxication was confirmed by an increase in urine thallium egestion. Most of the neurologic manifestations ameliorated in two years, but the visual loss persisted. The source of thallium ingestion was unraveled afterward because a murder suspect in another homicidal assault confessed the forepast adulteration. This discriminating clinical course may be attributable to the cumulative neurotoxicity due to the longer washout-time of thallium in the nervous system than other organs. It is noteworthy that the divisional thallium intoxication may manifest as progressive optic and peripheral neuropathy without gastrointestinal or cutaneous symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Intentional paracetamol intoxication in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschops, L.L.; Bisschops, W.A.; Vroegop, M.P.; Rossum, L.K. van; Kramers, C.

    2011-01-01

    As paracetamol is widely used and easily available acetaminophen auto-intoxication is frequently seen. In the majority of patients no complications will occur, but in a small group it may lead to liver damage and death. Children are less susceptible to complications than adults. Cornerstone of

  15. Efficacy of antidotes (midazolam, atropine and HI-6) on nerve agent induced molecular and neuropathological changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RamaRao, Golime; Afley, Prachiti; Acharya, Jyothiranjan; Bhattacharya, Bijoy Krishna

    2014-04-04

    Recent alleged attacks with nerve agent sarin on civilians in Syria indicate their potential threat to both civilian and military population. Acute nerve agent exposure can cause rapid death or leads to multiple and long term neurological effects. The biochemical changes that occur following nerve agent exposure needs to be elucidated to understand the mechanisms behind their long term neurological effects and to design better therapeutic drugs to block their multiple neurotoxic effects. In the present study, we intend to study the efficacy of antidotes comprising of HI-6 (1-[[[4-(aminocarbonyl)-pyridinio]-methoxy]-methyl]-2-[(hydroxyimino) methyl] pyridinium dichloride), atropine and midazolam on soman induced neurodegeneration and the expression of c-Fos, Calpain, and Bax levels in discrete rat brain areas. Therapeutic regime consisting of HI-6 (50 mg/kg, i.m), atropine (10 mg/kg, i.m) and midazolam (5 mg/kg, i.m) protected animals against soman (2×LD50, s.c) lethality completely at 2 h and 80% at 24 h. HI-6 treatment reactivated soman inhibited plasma and RBC cholinesterase up to 40%. Fluoro-Jade B (FJ-B) staining of neurodegenerative neurons showed that soman induced significant necrotic neuronal cell death, which was reduced by this antidotal treatment. Soman increased the expression of neuronal proteins including c-Fos, Bax and Calpain levels in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex and cerebellum regions of the brain. This therapeutic regime also reduced the soman induced Bax, Calpain expression levels to near control levels in the different brain regions studied, except a mild induction of c-Fos expression in the hippocampus. Rats that received antidotal treatment after soman exposure were protected from mortality and showed reduction in the soman induced expression of c-Fos, Bax and Calpain and necrosis. Results highlight the need for timely administration of better antidotes than standard therapy in order to prevent the molecular and biochemical changes and

  16. Effect of atropine, norepinephrine and phenylephrine on cerebral oxygenation and cardiac output during anesthesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmar, A.F.; Poterman, Marieke; Mooyaart, E.A.; Struys, Michel; Scheeren, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background:  Induction of general anesthesia often induces unwanted hypotension which is commonly treated with vasoactive medication to restore an appropriate blood pressure. Phenylephrine, norepinephrine and atropine are commonly used agents for this purpose with different physiological effects.

  17. Clinical effects of detomidine with or without atropine used for arthrocentesis in horses

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Diana L.

    1993-01-01

    The effectiveness of detomidine with or without atropine sulfate premedication in producing sedation and analgesia for arthrocentesis was studied in 12 horses. The effects were evaluated by monitoring heart and respiratory rates, borborygmi, distance from the lower lip to the floor, systolic blood pressure, and response to needle insertion. Either atropine or saline (as a placebo) was administered immediately prior to detomidine. All drugs were administered intravenously. Measurements were ta...

  18. MERCURY INTOXICATION IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA

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    M. S. Khan, S. A. Khan, Z. I. Chaudhary, M. N. Khan,1 A. Aslam , K. Ashraf2, R. M. Ayyub and M. F. Rai.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present project was carried out to study the effects of acute and chronic mercury intoxication in Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella. For acute phase experiment, 48 fish were divided into four equal groups (A, B, C and D. Groups B, C and D were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose as 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mg/L, respectively, while group A acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from the fish after 48 and 96 hours for pathological studies. For chronic phase, 72 fish were divided into five groups (E, F, G, H and I, containing 12 fish each except group E which contained 24 fish. Groups F, G, H and I were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose of 0.3 mg/L for 4, 8, 12 and 16 days, respectively, while group E acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from each group (F, G, H and I after 4, 8, 12 and 16 days respectively for pathological studies. During chronic phase in the treatment groups normal histology of epidermis was disturbed with increased number of immature cells. Overall, skin layers were atrophied and withered. Histopathology of gills showed hyperplasia of epithelial cells of gill filaments, fusion of secondary lamellae giving a club shaped appearance of filaments and contraction and sloughing of respiratory epithelium in groups F, G, H and I. Histopathological examination of kidneys also showed a wide range of toxicity lesions and destruction in treatment groups (F, G, H and I. Disintegration and disorganization of cells of both renal and haemopoitic systems including dilatation of capillaries and thickening of basal lumen were observed. Mild to sever tubular epithelial degeneration, karyolysis, dilation and shrinkage of Bowman’s capsule and glomerulus were also observed. In chronic phase experiment, fish showed clinical signs including restlessness, difficult breathing, fin flickering and jerky movements. Suppressed growth rate was also observed in treatment groups (F, G, H and I. During acute phase, after 48 hours, these

  19. Carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication: Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez Gomez, S.; Aguilera Navarro, J.M.; Gonzalez Garcia, A.; Gonzalez Marcos, J.R.; Fernandez Cruz, J.

    1993-01-01

    We present a case of acute carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication in a previously healthy 13-year-old girl, who was found in the bathroom, unconscious and with the gas-burning hot water thank operating. The neuroradiological study showed bilateral, symmetrical cortical and subcortical parietooccipital and temporal lesions as well as damage to the basal lymph nodes. These lesions were related to the anoxic situation induced by this type of intoxication. Clinicoradiological follow-up included CT and MR sequences over a period of 10 months. In this cases, we stress the greater sensitivity of MR in the early detection of the characteristic lesions in this situation and we analyze the evolution of the process. (Author)

  20. Use of atropine in patients with submaximal heart rate during exercise myocardial perfusion SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, Andrea; Foerster, James; Sciammarella, Maria G; Suey, Cathy; Hayes, Sean W; Friedman, John D; Berman, Daniel S

    2003-01-01

    Failure to reach 85% of maximal predicted heart rate (MPHR) during exercise may render a myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (MPS) study nondiagnostic for ischemia detection. Although commonly used to increase heart rate (HR) during dobutamine stress, the administration of atropine for patients failing to achieve 85% of MPHR during exercise performed for MPS is still infrequent. Patients undergoing dual-isotope MPS were considered candidates for the study when, during exercise treadmill testing, they had less than 85% of MPHR and were unable to continue because of fatigue, without an ischemic response. Forty-seven patients (aged 65.3 +/- 12.5 years, 78.7% men) received atropine (0.6-1.2 mg). Maximal HR achieved before and after atropine was 118.0 +/- 14.8 beats/min (76.3% +/- 6.2% of MPHR) and 146.4 +/- 12.6 beats/min (94.4% +/- 8.1% of MPHR), respectively (P < .001). Of patients, 44 (93.6%) reached at least 85% of MPHR after atropine and had diagnostic MPS studies. After atropine, arrhythmias occurred in 14 patients (29.8%) and other minor side effects in 1 (2.1%). Atropine allows patients initially failing to achieve 85% of MPHR during exercise to increase HR and have a diagnostic MPS study, without major complications. It may provide an alternative to pharmacologic stress for patients with a blunted HR response to exercise.

  1. [Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papyshev, I P; Astashkina, O G; Tuchik, E S; Nikolaev, B S; Cherniaev, A L

    2013-01-01

    Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication remains a topical problem in forensic medical science and practice. We investigated materials obtained in the course of forensic medical expertise of the cases of fatal opium intoxication. The study revealed significant differences between myoglobin levels in blood, urine, myocardium, and skeletal muscles. The proposed approach to biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication enhances the accuracy and the level of evidence of expert conclusions.

  2. The parasympatholytic effects of atropine sulfate and glycopyrrolate in rats and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, M E; Vizzutti, D; Morck, D W; Cox, A K

    1994-01-01

    Nine groups of rats (n = 5 per group) received an intramuscular (IM) injection of one of the following drugs or drug combinations: saline, atropine (0.05 mg/kg), glycopyrrolate (0.5 mg/kg), ketamine:xylazine (85:15 mg/kg), ketamine:detomidine (60:10 mg/kg), atropine:ketamine:xylazine (0.05: 85:15 mg/kg), glycopyrrolate: ketamine:xylazine (0.5:85:15 mg/kg), atropine:ketamine:detomidine (0.05: 60:10 mg/kg) or glycopyrrolate: ketamine:detomidine (0.5:60:10). Similarly six groups of rabbits (n = 5) received an IM injection of either saline, atropine (0.2 mg/kg), atropine (2 mg/kg), glycopyrrolate (0.1 mg/kg), ketamine:xylazine (35:10 mg/kg) or glycopyrrolate:ketamine:xylazine (0.1:35:10 mg/kg). In rats, atropine sulfate (0.05 mg/kg) and glycopyrrolate (0.5 mg/kg) produced an increase in heart rate for 30 and 240 min, respectively. In rabbits atropine sulfate at either 0.2 or 2.0 mg/kg did not induce a significant increase in heart rate, but glycopyrrolate (0.1 mg/kg) elevated the heart rate above saline treated animals for over 50 min. Both atropine and glycopyrrolate provided protection against a decrease in heart rate in rats anesthetized with ketamine: xylazine (85:15 mg/kg) or ketamine: detomidine (60:10 mg/kg); however, glycopyrrolate was significantly more effective in maintaining the heart rate within the normal range. Glycopprrolate also prevented a decrease in heart rate in rabbits anesthetized with ketamine:xylazine (35:5 mg/kg). Neither glycopyrrolate nor atropine influenced respiration rate, core body temperature or systolic blood pressure when used alone or when combined with the injectable anesthetic. Glycopyrrolate is an effective anticholinergic agent in rabbits and rodents and more useful as a preanesthetic agent than atropine sulfate in these animals. PMID:7889456

  3. Lead and zinc intoxication in companion birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschner, Birgit; Poppenga, Robert H

    2009-01-01

    Although the toxicity of lead and zinc to birds is widely recognized by veterinarians and bird owners, these metals are frequently found in the environments of pet and aviary birds, and intoxications are common. Clinical signs exhibited by intoxicated birds are often nonspecific, which makes early diagnosis difficult. Fortunately, lead and zinc analyses of whole blood and serum or plasma, respectively, are readily available and inexpensive; elevated concentrations can confirm intoxication. Once diagnosed, intoxication can be effectively treated by (1) preventing further exposure, (2) administering chelating drugs, and (3) providing symptomatic and supportive care.

  4. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate and cocaine intoxication in a Danish child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Knegt, Victoria Elizabeth; Breindahl, Torben; Harboe, Kirstine Moll

    2016-01-01

    GHB intoxication must be considered in children with coma and a suspicion of drug intoxication. Furthermore, mixed intoxication with several substances and the possibility of unpredictable symptom profiles should be anticipated to ensure optimal symptomatic treatment of patients....

  5. WILD HONEY INTOXICATION: CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munire Babayigit

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wild honey intoxication (WHI is a rare disease that results from consuming honey produced by Rhododendron polen feeded bees. WHI develops due to grayanotoxin (GT that it contains. WHI might present with mild symptoms of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and neurological systems or might also present in a life threatining form with AV block and cardiovascular collaps. In this report we aimed to present clinical presentation and treatment of a case of WHI. [J Contemp Med 2013; 3(3.000: 197-199

  6. Incorporation of DL-methionine /sup 3/H into the rat brain in the course of triethyl tin sulphate intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozik, M B; Ozarzewska, E; Piechowski, A [Akademia Medyczna, Poznan (Poland)

    1976-01-01

    The incorporation of DL-methionine /sup 3/H into the rat brain in the course of acute edema caused by the triethyl tin sulphate (TET) was investigated by autoradiography. The results indicate that TET intoxication effects in lower incorporation of methionine into the experimental rat brain in comparison to that in normal animals. The changes in dynamics of DL-methionine /sup 3/H incorporation after TET intoxication are presented. The possible pathogenetic mechanism of the observed changes is discussed.

  7. The Effect of Atropine on Post-ECT Bradycardia in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Farashbandi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is utilized for treatment of a range of psychiatric disorders including major depressive disorder (MDD. One of the major complications in using ECT is cardiovascular problems i.e., bradycardia. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of atropine on the pulse rate (PR of the patients under treatment with ECT. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 30 patients with diagnosis of MDD who received atropine before ECT treatment (control group were compared with 30 patients with the same diagnosis without receiving atropine (experimental group under ECT treatment. Both groups received ECT under the same term and condition. The PR of the patients were recorded 7 times (twice before anesthesia and ECT and 5 fixed one min intervals immediately after receiving ECT; for 10 sessions of treatment with ECT (3 times a week. The results were analyzed using repeated measure analysis of variance. The PR under 50 was the cut off point for differentiating the patients suffering from bradycardia and those without it. Results: Slight increment in PRs for experimental group (patient who did not receive atropine in contrast to control group were observed, but it did not reach a statistically significant level. The gender (male/female did not have different PR. The age of the patients and initial PR (regarded as co-variances did not show significant effect on PR for total sample. Conclusion: There seems to be not necessary to use atropine treatment for depressed patients receiving ECT.

  8. Alcohol intoxication in the context of major public holidays, sporting and social events: a time-series analysis in Melbourne, Australia, 2000-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Belinda; Matthews, Sharon; Livingston, Michael; Jayasekara, Harindra; Smith, Karen

    2013-04-01

    To assess the relationship between ambulance attendances, emergency department (ED) presentations and hospital admissions for acute alcohol intoxication and the timing of public holidays, sporting and social events. Time-series analysis was used to explore trends in intoxication in the context of major events. Population of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia between 2000 and 2009. All patients attended by ambulance, presenting to hospital EDs, or admitted to hospital who were classified as acutely alcohol intoxicated. Analysis of daily numbers of presentations for acute alcohol intoxication associated with major events were undertaken, including lead and lag effects. Analyses controlled for day of week and month of year to address temporal and seasonal variations. Alcohol intoxication presentations were significantly elevated the day before all public holidays, with intoxication cases on the day of public holidays only higher on New Year's Day (ambulance 6.57, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 3.4-9.74; ED 3.34, 95% CI: 1.28-5.4) and ANZAC Day (ambulance 3.71, 95% CI: 0.68-6.75). The Australian Football League (AFL) Grand Final (ED 2.37, 95% CI: 0.55-4.19), Commonwealth Games (ED 2.45, 95% CI: 0.6-4.3) and Melbourne Cup Day (ambulance 6.14, 95% CI: 2.42-9.85) represented the sporting events with significant elevations in acute intoxication requiring medical attention. The last working day before Christmas was the only social event where a significant increase in acute intoxication occurred (ambulance 8.98, 95% CI: 6.8-11.15). Acute alcohol intoxication cases requiring ambulance, emergency department and hospital in-patient treatment increase substantially on the day preceding public holidays and other major social events. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium, L. var. strumarium) intoxication in swine: review and redefinition of the toxic principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, B P; Cole, R J; Gosser, H S

    1981-05-01

    Cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) fed to feeder pigs was associated with acute to subacute hepatotoxicosis. Cotyledonary seedings fed at 0.75% to 3% of body weight or ground bur fed at 20% to 30% of the ration caused acute depression, convulsions, and death. Principle gross lesions were marked serofibrinous ascites, edema of the gallbladder wall, and lobular accentuation of the liver. Acute to subacute centrilobular hepatic necrosis was present microscopically. The previously reported toxic principle, hydroquinone, was not recovered from the plant or bur of X. strumarium. Authentic hydroquinone administered orally failed to produce lesions typical of cocklebur intoxication but did produce marked hyperglycemia. Carboxyatractyloside recovered from the aqueous extract of X. strumarium and authentic carboxyatractyloside, when fed to pigs, caused signs and lesions typical of cocklebur intoxication. Marked hypoglycemia and elevated serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and serum isocitric dehydrogenase concentrations occurred in pigs with acute hepatic necrosis that had received either cocklebur seedlings, ground bur or carboxyatractyloside.

  10. Comparison of sugammadex and neostigmine–atropine on intraocular pressure and postoperative effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Hakimoğlu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During surgery, changes in intraocular pressure (IOP can be observed resulting from several factors, such as airway manipulations and drugs used. We aimed to investigate the effects of sugammadex and neostigmine on IOP, hemodynamic parameters, and complications after extubation. Our study comprised 60 patients, aged 18–65 years, with a risk status of the American Society of Anesthesiologists I–II who underwent arthroscopic surgery under general anesthesia. The patients were randomly assigned into two groups. At the end of the surgery, the neuromuscular block was reversed using neostigmine (50 μg/kg plus atropine (15 μg/kg in Group 1, and sugammadex (4 mg/kg in Group 2. Neuromuscular blockade was monitored using acceleromyography and a train-of-four mode of stimulation. IOP was measured before induction and at 30 seconds, 2 minutes, and 10 minutes after extubation. A Tono-Pen XL applanation tonometer was used to measure IOP. This showed that elevation in IOP of patients reversed using sugammadex was similar to that recorded in patients reversed using neostigmine–atropine. When heart rate was compared, there was a significant difference between basal values and those obtained at 30 seconds and 10 minutes after extubation in the neostigmine–atropine group. Extubation time (time from withdrawal of anesthetic gas to extubation was significantly shorter in the sugammadex group (p = 0.003 than in the neostigmine–atropine group. The postextubation IOP values of the sugammadex group were similar to the neostigmine–atropine group. Extubation time (time from withdrawal of anesthetic gas to extubation was significantly shorter in the sugammadex group (p = 0.003 than in the neostigmine–atropine group.

  11. Comparison of sugammadex and neostigmine-atropine on intraocular pressure and postoperative effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimoğlu, Sedat; Tuzcu, Kasım; Davarcı, Işıl; Karcıoğlu, Murat; Ayhan Tuzcu, Esra; Hancı, Volkan; Aydın, Suzan; Kahraman, Hilal; Elbeyli, Ahmet; Turhanoğlu, Selim

    2016-02-01

    During surgery, changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) can be observed resulting from several factors, such as airway manipulations and drugs used. We aimed to investigate the effects of sugammadex and neostigmine on IOP, hemodynamic parameters, and complications after extubation. Our study comprised 60 patients, aged 18-65 years, with a risk status of the American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II who underwent arthroscopic surgery under general anesthesia. The patients were randomly assigned into two groups. At the end of the surgery, the neuromuscular block was reversed using neostigmine (50 μg/kg) plus atropine (15 μg/kg) in Group 1, and sugammadex (4 mg/kg) in Group 2. Neuromuscular blockade was monitored using acceleromyography and a train-of-four mode of stimulation. IOP was measured before induction and at 30 seconds, 2 minutes, and 10 minutes after extubation. A Tono-Pen XL applanation tonometer was used to measure IOP. This showed that elevation in IOP of patients reversed using sugammadex was similar to that recorded in patients reversed using neostigmine-atropine. When heart rate was compared, there was a significant difference between basal values and those obtained at 30 seconds and 10 minutes after extubation in the neostigmine-atropine group. Extubation time (time from withdrawal of anesthetic gas to extubation) was significantly shorter in the sugammadex group (p = 0.003) than in the neostigmine-atropine group. The postextubation IOP values of the sugammadex group were similar to the neostigmine-atropine group. Extubation time (time from withdrawal of anesthetic gas to extubation) was significantly shorter in the sugammadex group (p = 0.003) than in the neostigmine-atropine group. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  12. Evaluation of Atropine as an Anticholinergic in Buffalo Calves (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Singh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Twelve experimental trials were undertaken on clinically healthy male buffalo calves. Atropine was administered @ 0.04 mg/kg, IM. Atropine produced ataxia in all the animals. Muzzle, mouth and nostrils became dry at 37.5±4.924 minute and again became wet at 246.3±28.00 minute of its administration. No analgesia was observed. Heart rate, pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure increased significantly without any significant variations in central venous pressure.

  13. Bacterial Intoxication Evokes Cellular Senescence with Persistent DNA Damage and Cytokine Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blazkova, Hana; Krejcikova, Katerina; Moudry, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    to such intoxication are mechanistically incompletely understood. Here we show that both normal and cancer cells (BJ, IMR-90 and WI-38 fibroblasts, HeLa and U2-OS cell lines) that survive the acute phase of intoxication by Haemophilus ducreyi CDT possess the hallmarks of cellular senescence. This characteristic...... mechanistically underlie the 'distended' morphology evoked by CDTs. Finally, the activation of the two anti-cancer barriers, apoptosis and cellular senescence, together with evidence of chromosomal aberrations (micronucleation) reported here, support the emerging genotoxic and potentially oncogenic effects...

  14. Illicit Opioid Intoxication: Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fareed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Opioid intoxications and overdose are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Opioid overdose may occur in the setting of intravenous or intranasal heroin use, illicit use of diverted opioid medications, intentional or accidental misuse of prescription pain medications, or iatrogenic overdose. In this review, we focused on the epidemiology of illict opioid use in the United States and on the mechanism of action of opioid drugs. We also described the signs and symptoms, and diagnoses of intoxication and overdose. Lastly, we updated the reader about the most recent recommendations for treatment and prevention of opioid intoxications and overdose.

  15. Accidental intoxication with Veratrum album.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobosch, T; Binscheck, T; Martens, F; Lampe, D

    2008-01-01

    A 49-year-old man consumed two glasses (approximately 2 x 20 mL) of a beverage containing yellow gentian (Gentiana lutea). Shortly after ingestion, he developed nausea, vomiting, and oral paraesthesia. On admission to the hospital he suffered from severe bradycardia (35 beats/min) and hypotension (50/30 mm Hg), and he was treated with activated charcoal, antiemetics (metoclopramide, ondansetron), atropine, and intravenous electrolytic solution. The initial suspicion of Veratrum poisoning could be confirmed by identifying protoveratrines A (ProA) and protoveratrine B (ProB) in a sample from the beverage as well as in the patients serum by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS). The yellow-colored beverage contained 25% ethanol (by headspace gas chromatography), 20.4 mg/L ProA, and 13.7 mg/L ProB. The serum concentration of ProA was 1162 ng/L and ProB was 402 ng/L. Veratridine, cevadine, and jervine were not detected, neither in the beverage nor in the serum sample. The lower limits of quantitation for all compounds is 10 microg/L (S/N > 10, beverage) and 100 ng/L (S/N > 10, serum). After treatment, the patient completely recovered from the symptoms within 24 h and was discharged from the hospital. The analytical method described was developed for the simultaneous identification and quantitation of five Veratrum alkaloids. The method is based on a liquid-liquid extraction followed by LC-MS-MS analysis. The time needed for analysis was 6 min.

  16. The early alterations in some enzymatic activity, blood glucose and liver glycogen levels induced by atropine injection and whole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Fattah, K.I.; El-Sayed, N.M.; Abou-Safi, H.M.; Hussain, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    Detecting the early physiological and biochemical changes in the biological material after exposure to gamma irradiation is very helpful in the techniques of protection against radiation. The present work was designed for detecting the early changes in plasma phosphatases, transaminases, glucose and liver glycogen levels after irradiation and the role of atropine injected before irradiation on these parameters. Rats were divided into four groups: control. injected (i. m.) with atropine (0.5 mg/100 g B.Wt), irradiated at 6 Gy, and injected with atropine before irradiation. Plasma was collected at 1.3 and 5 hr after radiation exposure. Results showed that atropine exerted some amelioration during the first three hours, mainly, on acid phosphatase and GPT activities and on glucose and liver glycogen one hour only post irradiation. Generally, the limited radioprotective role of atropine is related, to its physiological mechanism in the body

  17. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice: Effects of penicillamine, dimercaptosuccinic acid and related compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, O.; Nielsen, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    The antidotal efficacies of chelators during acute cadmium intoxication has previously been examined in experiments where both a soluble cadmium salt and the chelator were administered parenterally. In the present study, PA, DMSA and related compounds were studied as oral antidotes during oral CdCl 2 intoxication. According to the antagonistic effects noted on mortality, peristaltic toxicity and intestinal cadmium uptake, the relative efficacies of the compounds tested were: DMSA>PAD>DMPS>MSA>PA>NAPA. None of the chelators induced major changes in the organ distribution of absorbed cadmium, in particular no increased cerebral deposition of cadmium. This study indicates that, in oral cadmium intoxication in humans, orally administered DMSA would be likely to offer protection against the local toxicity of cadmium in the gastrointestinal tract as well as to reduce the risk of systemic toxicity of absorbed cadmium. (author)

  18. Effect of low-dose atropine administration on dobutamine dose requirement in horses anesthetized with detomidine and halothane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, A B; Keegan, R D; Greene, S A

    1997-12-01

    To determine whether a low dose of atropine is associated with decreased requirement for cardiovascular supportive treatment in horses given detomidine prior to maintenance of general anesthesia with halothane. 3 groups of 10 healthy horses. Detomidine (20 micrograms/kg of body weight, i.m.) was administered to all 30 horses. Then, 10 horses received atropine (0.006 mg/kg, i.v.) 1 hour after detomidine administration, 10 horses received atropine (0.012 mg/kg, i.m.) at the time of detomidine administration, and 10 horses served as a control group. Heart rate was measured prior to detomidine administration and at fixed intervals throughout anesthesia. The dobutamine infusion rate necessary to maintain mean arterial blood pressure between 70 and 80 mm of Hg was recorded. Systemic blood pressures, end-tidal halothane, end-tidal CO2, and arterial blood gas tensions were measured at fixed intervals. Mean heart rate was higher among horses receiving atropine i.v. or i.m., compared with that in control horses. Horses that received atropine i.v. had higher systemic arterial blood pressure and required a lower dobutamine infusion rate than did horses of the other groups. Detomidine-treated, halothane-anesthetized horses given atropine i.v. required less dobutamine, compared with horses receiving or not receiving atropine i.m. Complications, such as colic and dysrhythmias, from use of higher doses of atropine, were not observed at this lower dose of atropine. i.v. administration of a low dose of atropine prior to induction of general anesthesia may result in improved blood pressure in horses that have received detomidine before anesthesia with halothane.

  19. Comparative study between atropine and hyoscine-N-butylbromide for reversal of detomidine induced bradycardia in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, E L M; Teixeira Neto, F J; Sá, P A; Pignaton, W; Garofalo, N A

    2011-05-01

    Bradycardia may be implicated as a cause of cardiovascular instability during anaesthesia. Hyoscine would induce positive chronotropism of shorter duration than atropine, without adversely impairing intestinal motility in detomidine sedated horses. Ten minutes after detomidine (0.02 mg/kg bwt, i.v.), physiological saline (control), atropine (0.02 mg/kg bwt) or hyoscine (0.2 mg/kg bwt) were randomly administered i.v. to 6 horses, allowing one week intervals between treatments. Investigators blinded to the treatments monitored cardiopulmonary data and intestinal auscultation for 90 min and 24 h after detomidine, respectively. Gastrointestinal transit was assessed for 96 h via chromium detection in dry faeces. Detomidine significantly decreased heart rate (HR) and cardiac index (CI) from baseline for 30 and 60 min, respectively (control). Mean ± s.d. HR increased significantly 5 min after atropine (79 ± 5 beats/min) and hyoscine (75 ± 8 beats/min). After this time, HR was significantly higher after atropine in comparison to other treatments, while hyoscine resulted in intermediate values (lower than atropine but higher than controls). Hyoscine and atropine resulted in significantly higher CI than controls for 5 and 20 min, respectively; but this effect coincided with significant hypertension (mean arterial pressures >180 mmHg). Auscultation scores decreased from baseline in all treatments. Time to return to auscultation scores ≥12 (medians) did not differ between hyoscine (4 h) and controls (4 h) but atropine resulted in significantly longer time (10 h). Atropine induced colic in one horse. Gastrointestinal transit times did not differ between treatments. Hyoscine is a shorter acting positive chronotropic agent than atropine, but does not potentiate the impairment in intestinal motility induced by detomidine. Because of severe hypertension, routine use of anticholinergics combined with detomidine is not recommended. Hyoscine may represent an alternative to

  20. Permanent alterations in muscarinic receptors and pupil size produced by chronic atropinization in kittens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.L.; Redburn, D.A.; Harwerth, R.S.; Maguire, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    Chronic mydriasis was induced in six kittens (four monocular, two binocular) and two adult cats (both monocular) by the daily topical application of atropine. Both the kittens and the adult cats were atropinized for a 13-week period with the treatment regimen beginning at the time of eye opening for the kittens. Pupil size measurements, obtained 1 year after the atropinization were discontinued, revealed that, although the pupils of the adult cats were normal, the pupils of the kittens' treated eyes were consistently smaller than pupils in control eyes. The status of the muscarinic receptors in the kittens' irides was investigated using 3 H-QNB binding assays. In comparison with iris muscle homogenates from the control eyes, those from the treated eyes demonstrated an eightfold increase in the number of receptor binding sites. The results indicate that pupil size can be altered permanently by chronic mydriasis initiated early in the life of a kitten and that the permanent change in pupil size may result, in part, from a type of permanent supersensitivity response in the muscle following chronic blockade of muscarinic transmission by atropine

  1. Enhanced accumulation of atropine in Atropa belladonna transformed by Rac GTPase gene isolated from Scoparia dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Kyouhei; Lee, Jung-Bum; Yamamura, Yoshimi; Kurosaki, Fumiya

    2013-12-01

    Leaf tissues of Atropa belladonna were transformed by Sdrac2, a Rac GTPase gene, that is isolated from Scoparia dulcis, and the change in atropine concentration of the transformants was examined. Re-differentiated A. belladonna overexpressing Sdrac2 accumulated considerable concentration of atropine in the leaf tissues, whereas the leaves of plants transformed by an empty vector accumulated only a very low concentration of the compound. A. belladonna transformed by CASdrac2, a modified Sdrac2 of which translate was expected to bind guanosine triphosphate (GTP) permanently, accumulated very high concentrations of atropine (approximately 2.4-fold excess to those found in the wild-type plant in its natural habitat). In sharp contrast, the atropine concentration in transformed A. belladonna prepared with negatively modified Sdrac2, DNSdrac2, expected to bind guanosine diphosphate instead of GTP, was very low. These results suggested that Rac GTPases play an important role in the regulation of secondary metabolism in plant cells and that overexpression of the gene(s) may be capable of enhancing the production of natural products accumulated in higher plant cells.

  2. Intravenous and inhalation toxicokinetics of sarin stereoisomers in atropinized guinea pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit, W.E.T.; Langenberg, J.P.; Trap, H.C.; Wiel, H.J. van der; Helmich, R.B.; Helden, H.P.M. van; Benschop, H.P.

    2000-01-01

    We report the first toxicokinetic studies of (±)-sarin. The toxicokinetics of the stereoisomers of this nerve agent were studied in anesthetized, atropinized, and restrained guinea pigs after intravenous bolus administration of a dose corresponding to 0.8 LD50 and after nose-only exposure to vapor

  3. Development of the intoxicated personality scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Rose Marie; Brinkman, Craig S; Miller, Ashlin; Doolittle, James J

    2015-01-01

    To develop the Intoxicated Personality Scale (IPS). Data were collected from 436 college students via an online survey. Through an iterative measurement development process, the resulting IPS was created. The 5 subscales (Good Time, Risky Choices, Risky Sex, Emotional, and Introvert) of the IPS positively related to alcohol consumption, alcohol problems, drinking motives, alcohol expectancies, and personality. The results suggest that the Intoxicated Personality Scale may be a useful tool for predicting problematic alcohol consumption, alcohol expectancies, and drinking motives.

  4. Amitriptyline Intoxication Responded to Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güldem Turan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The most severe effects in amitriptiline intoxications are related with central nervous system and cardiovascular system. Amitriptiline intoxication especially with high doses has severe cardiac effects and can result in cardiac arrest. Most favorable responses can be achieved with efficient and prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We wanted to present a case ingested high dose of amitriptiline for attempt to suicide and responded to prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

  5. Utility of atropine in patients under beta-blocker effect during exercise stress echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munera, Ana G; Restrepo, Gustavo; Aristizabal, Dagnovar; Cubides, Carlos A

    2006-01-01

    The objective is to assess the usefulness of adding atropine 0.5 to 1.0 mg by intravenous injection during peak exercise in patients under beta-blocker effect that are subjected to exercise stress echocardiography. Population: exercise stress echocardiography was performed in 73 patients receiving beta-blocking agents with basal heart rate below 60 beats per minute (BPM). Two groups were established at random: group I (18 patients that did not receive atropine during maximal exercise) and group II (50 patients from whom 28 received 0.5 mg atropine IV 30 seconds to one minute before concluding the exercise and 22 patients who received 1.0 mg atropine IV 30 seconds to one minute before its conclusion). From a demographic point of view, there were no differences between the two groups. Mean age was 59 ± 10.8 years (57% male). Most of the patients received metoprolol (87%) and no significant statistical differences in relation with the doses were found in these two groups. At the end of the exercise, the patients had a mean heart rate of 84% from their maximal heart rate (MHR). The values post-exercise were 76% at 30 seconds, 68% at 60 sec., 62% at 90 sec., and 59% of the maximal heart rate at 120 sec. When comparing the percentage of the maximal heart rate achieved in maximal exercise and the one observed during the first 120 sec. after exercise, no statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion: during the performance of stress exercise echocardiography, the administration of intravenous atropine was of no use for incrementing the peak heart rate post-exercise in patients with significant beta-blocker effect (basal heart rate < 60 BPM)

  6. Effects of ethanol intoxication on speech suprasegmentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollien, Harry; Dejong, Gea; Martin, Camilo A.; Schwartz, Reva; Liljegren, Kristen

    2001-12-01

    The effects of ingesting ethanol have been shown to be somewhat variable in humans. To date, there appear to be but few universals. Yet, the question often arises: is it possible to determine if a person is intoxicated by observing them in some manner? A closely related question is: can speech be used for this purpose and, if so, can the degree of intoxication be determined? One of the many issues associated with these questions involves the relationships between a person's paralinguistic characteristics and the presence and level of inebriation. To this end, young, healthy speakers of both sexes were carefully selected and sorted into roughly equal groups of light, moderate, and heavy drinkers. They were asked to produce four types of utterances during a learning phase, when sober and at four strictly controlled levels of intoxication (three ascending and one descending). The primary motor speech measures employed were speaking fundamental frequency, speech intensity, speaking rate and nonfluencies. Several statistically significant changes were found for increasing intoxication; the primary ones included rises in F0, in task duration and for nonfluencies. Minor gender differences were found but they lacked statistical significance. So did the small differences among the drinking category subgroups and the subject groupings related to levels of perceived intoxication. Finally, although it may be concluded that certain changes in speech suprasegmentals will occur as a function of increasing intoxication, these patterns cannot be viewed as universal since a few subjects (about 20%) exhibited no (or negative) changes.

  7. Erythrocyte fluorescence and lead intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K G

    1976-01-01

    Blood samples from people exposed to inorganic lead were examined by fluorescence microscopy for excess erythrocyte porphyrin. With continued lead absorption, fluorescent erythrocytes appeared in the circulation of workers handling this metal or its compounds, and they progressively increased in number and brilliance. These changes ensued if the blood lead concentration was maintained above 2-42 mumol/l (50 mug/100 ml), and preceded any material fall in the haemoglobin value. At one factory, 62-5% of 81 symptomless workers showed erythrocyte fluorescence attributable to the toxic effects of lead. Excess fluorocytes were found in blood samples from a child with pica and three of her eight siblings. These four were subsequently shown to have slightly increased blood lead concentrations (2-03 to 2-32 mumol/l). Fluorescence microscopy for excess erythrocyte porphyrin is a sensitive method for the detection of chronic lead intoxication. A relatively slight increase in the blood lead is associated with demonstrabel changes in erythrocyte porphyrin content. The procedure requires little blood, and may be performed upon stored samples collected for lead estimation. The results are not readily influenced by contamination, and provide good confirmatory evidence for the absorption of biochemically active lead. PMID:963005

  8. Investigating global trends in paraquat intoxication research from 1962 to 2015 using bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, Sa'ed H

    2018-06-01

    Paraquat is considered to be the main pesticide involved in accidental and intentional poisoning, and is responsible for a high rate of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to present a comprehensive bibliometric analysis of paraquat intoxication-related research. Data was retrieved in March 2017 from the Scopus database. An overview of the research on paraquat intoxication was presented alongside the information related to several bibliometric indicators, such as research trends, countries with their h-index, collaboration, hot issues, top-cited publications, journals, and institutions. There were 1971 publications related to paraquat intoxication in the Scopus database that were published between 1966 and 2015. There was increasing research output in the field of paraquat intoxication during the period 2006-2015. The USA published the highest number of publications (n = 338), followed by Japan with 228 publications, and China with 159 publications. The USA and the UK achieved the greatest h-index values (h-index values of 49 and 31, respectively). The USA also achieved the highest number of publications involving international collaboration, with 55 publications, followed by the UK, with 18 publications. The most prevalent topics in this field were "acute paraquat intoxication," "toxic effects of paraquat to the lung," and "mechanism of paraquat toxicity." Although a substantial amount of research has been produced on paraquat intoxication for most developed countries, there are research gaps regarding the international research agenda in this research area. The findings could be applied for prioritizing and organizing future research efforts related to paraquat toxicity. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Evaluation of Suicide and Intoxication Cases Admitted to our Newly Opened Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalan Muhammedoğlu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the suicide and intoxication cases between April 2011 and April 2013. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed hospital records of patients who were admitted to our intensive care unit due to suicide and intoxication. The age, sex, intoxication causes, laboratory analyses, treatment refusal rates, and the prognosis were evaluated. Results: A total of 308 patients (105 males, 203 females were admitted to the intensive care unit. The mean age of the patients was 27.45±10.26 years (males: 28.70±9.86 years, females: 26.80±10.43 years. There were only 4 patients over 65 years of age. 275 patients had drug intoxication (antidepressant drug, pain killer, antibiotic, etc. and 33 patients had other causes of intoxication. When analyzing the prognosis; a total of 234 patients were discharged after initial treatment and 57 patients were discharged due to treatment refusal. 15 patients were referred for inpatient psychiatric treatment, 1 patient to the Alcohol and Drug Addiction Treatment Center (AMATEM and 1 patient was referred to İstanbul University Medical Faculty due to acute hepatic failure. Conclusion: The patients admitted to our intensive care unit due to suicide and intoxications were mainly females (65.9% and individuals of young age (median age: 27.45 years. Female patients had used antidepressants for suicide attempts and males had used antiflu-acetaminophen combinations. No mortality was observed. (The Me­di­cal Bul­le­tin of Ha­se­ki 2014; 52:153-7

  10. Minimizing E-factor in the continuous-flow synthesis of diazepam and atropine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédard, Anne-Catherine; Longstreet, Ashley R; Britton, Joshua; Wang, Yuran; Moriguchi, Hideki; Hicklin, Robert W; Green, William H; Jamison, Timothy F

    2017-12-01

    Minimizing the waste stream associated with the synthesis of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and commodity chemicals is of high interest within the chemical industry from an economic and environmental perspective. In exploring solutions to this area, we herein report a highly optimized and environmentally conscious continuous-flow synthesis of two APIs identified as essential medicines by the World Health Organization, namely diazepam and atropine. Notably, these approaches significantly reduced the E-factor of previously published routes through the combination of continuous-flow chemistry techniques, computational calculations and solvent minimization. The E-factor associated with the synthesis of atropine was reduced by 94-fold (about two orders of magnitude), from 2245 to 24, while the E-factor for the synthesis of diazepam was reduced by 4-fold, from 36 to 9. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Atropine’s Effects upon the Heart and Its Systemic Output,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    peripheral nerve endings, the concentration of acetylcholine found in the brain appeared low.100 To further lend credence to Heinekamp’s hypothesis, Molenaar ... MOLENAAR , PC. and R.L. POLAK. Stimulation by atropine of acetylcholine release and synthesis in cortical slices from rat brain. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 40:406...William Heinman Medical Books , Ltd., London, 1973, p 536-537. 329. SCHERLAG, B.J., R. LAZZARA, and R.H. HELFONT. Differentiation of A-V junctional

  12. Effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Andrade

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats. Sixteen cats were randomly divided equally into two groups: amitraz group - animals received 1.5% amitraz at 1mg/kg IV; and the control group - animals without amitraz. Physiological parameters from blood, cardiorespiratory system, and sedation indicators were quantified over time up to 360 minutes. Blood profile, urea, creatinine, alananine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not affected by amitraz. Sedation, loss of reflexes, hypothermia, bradycardia, bradyarrhythmia, hypotension, bradypnea, mydriasis, besides transitory hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia and decrease of cortisol levels were observed in cats experimentally exposed to amitraz. The alpha2-adrenergic effects induced by amitraz intoxication in cats are very similar to the same effects reported in others species, contributing with more information about this type of intoxication to veterinary toxicology.

  13. Adolescent alcohol intoxication in the dutch hospital Departments of Pediatrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, J.J. van; Lely, N. van der; Pereira, R.R.; Dalen, W.E. van

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to investigate the number and characteristics of adolescent alcohol intoxication cases in hospital Departments of Pediatrics. The study also analyzes drinking patterns and intoxication characteristics. Method: Data were collected using the Dutch Pediatric

  14. Treatment of theophylline intoxication using continuous venovenous haemofiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeijers, J.J.; Verhoeven, C.L.; Boersma, H.H.; van Mook, W.N.K.A

    2008-01-01

    Theophylline intoxication can cause serious complications such as seizures, cardiac arrhythmias and eventually cardiac arrest. Because of these potentially life-threatening clinical manifestations of theophylline intoxication, treatment methods that rapidly eliminate the drug are essential. These

  15. Chronic lead intoxication; Chronische Bleiintoxikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieseler, B.; Leng, G. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hygiene; Lenz, S.; Schultz, C. [Klinikum Remscheid GmbH, Remscheid (Germany); Wilhelm, M. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hygiene, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin

    1999-02-01

    The case of a female 68 years old patient is described. Here, a chronic lead intoxication was diagnosed after a two year old medical history with increasing attacks of colic-like abdominal pain often described as life-threatening. After repeated hospitalizations and intensive search for the cause of the symptoms, porphyria and anemia was found to be a sign of a chronic lead poisoning. The blood lead concentrations were always about a level of 600 {mu}g/L. The source of exposure could not be found by now. Neither home inspection nor environmental investigations have shown a recent source of lead intake by the patient. However, a possible occupational source of lead exposure at a blast furnace was established by anamnesis for 1952 to 1962. Thus, osteoporosis induced lead mobilisation was suspected. Noticeable are the results of the six abdominal survey radiographies taken during hospitalization within one year; three radiographies were taken following clinical admission and three before discharge of the patient. In comparison, the course shows a chronic relapsing alimentary supply from metallic particles of unknown genesis. The patient was treated with the sodium salt of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propansulfonic acid (DMPS, Dimaval{sup TM}). She was free of complain afterwards. Following therapy, the blood lead concentrations fell under a level of 400 {mu}m/L, but after several weeks the lead level raised up to the original level of 600 {mu}g/L. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wird eine 68jaehrige Patientin vorgestellt, bei der nach fast zweijaehriger Krankengeschichte, die gekennzeichnet war durch rezidivierende, teils als lebensbedrohlich geschilderte Bauchkoliken, eine chronische Bleiintoxikation diagnostiziert wurde. Erst nach wiederholten stationaeren Krankenhausaufenthalten mit intensiver Suche nach der Krankheitsursache wurden das Krankheitsbild und die Laborwerte durch Zusatzuntersuchungen ergaenzt, so dass sich in der festgestellten Porphyrie und Anaemie die Diagnose der

  16. Fatal alcohol intoxication in women: A forensic autopsy study from Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straka Lubomir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plenty of information related to alcoholism can be found in the literature, however, the studies have mostly dealt with the predominance of male alcoholism and data related to addiction in women are desperately scarce and difficult to find. Basic demographic data focusing on the impact of acute alcohol intoxication on the circumstances of death and social behaviour in the alcohol addicted female population are needed especially in the prevention of alcohol related mortality. Methods A retrospective forensic autopsy study of all accidental deaths due to alcohol intoxication over a 12-year period was performed in order to evaluate the locations, circumstances, mechanisms and causes of death. Results A sample of 171 cases of intoxicated women who died due to blood alcohol concentration (BAC equal to or higher than 2 g/kg was selected. Among them 36.26% (62/171 of women died due to acute alcohol intoxication (AAI. We noted an increase in the number of deaths in women due to AAI from 2 in 1994 up to 5 in 2005 (an elevation of 150% between the years 1994-2005. The age structure of deaths in women due to BAC and AAI followed the Gaussian distribution with a dominant group of women aged 41-50 years (45.16% and 35.09% respectively. The most frequent place of death (98% among women intoxicated by alcohol was their own home. The study suggests a close connection between AAI and violence against women. Conclusions The increasing number of cases of death of women suffering from AAI has drawn attention to the serious problem of alcoholism in women in the Slovak Republic during the process of integration into "western" lifestyle and culture.

  17. Fatal pesticide intoxication - case report of a 2 patients

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    Jędrzej Tkaczyk

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides is a collective term for a group of chemicals used predominantly in agriculture and against vectors in vectorborne diseases such as malaria, filariasis, etc. Organophosphates (OP have become nowadays the most widely used pesticides among the world. However, they are very highly toxic to humans. Poisoning with OP is a life - threatening condition. It is responsible for the symptoms due to a cholinergic effects. The Acetylcholinesterase (ACHE enzyme inhibition leads to an acetylcholine accumulation, which causes symptoms such as diarrhea, sweating, vomiting, small pupils, muscle tremors, increased saliva and tears production and confusion. Other type of pesticides are also common used in agriculture. Glyphosate is a broad‐spectrum systemic herbicide used to kill weeds. It is promoted by the manufacturer as having no risks to human health. We present two patients with a fatal pesticide poisoning. First patient drank OP agent, which was decanted in a non-original bottle. Despite the intensive treatment, including high doses of atropine, and toxogonine, patient died after 6 days due to acute respiratory failure. The second one, tried to commit suicide by drinking 2 glasses of a pesticide called ‘Roundap’ (glyphosate. Short time after admission to a hospital, a myocardial infarction occurred. The patient died the same day, due to a cardiac arrest.

  18. A comparative study of clonidine versus a combination of diazepam and atropine for premedication in orthopaedic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaurasia S

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Sixty patients in the age group of 18-60 years of A.S.A. Grade I/II risk, scheduled for elective orthopaedic surgeries under general anaesthesia were studied for pre-medication with either oral clonidine or with combination of effects of diazepam & atropine. Patients in Group A (clonidine group received tablet clonidine 100 mcg (1 tablet if less than 50 kg in weight and 200 mcg if weighing more than 50 kg two hours before surgery. Patients in Group B (Diazepam-atropine group received one tablet of Diazepam (10 mg orally two hours before surgery and injection atropine-sulphate 0.01 mg/kg half an hour preoperatively by intramuscular route. In our study, the sedative and anti-sialogogue effects of clonidine were comparable to those of diazepam-atropine combination, which are commonly used premedicants. The anti-anxiety effect of clonidine was found to be better than that of diazepam-atropine combination. Clonidine also proved to be a better agent for the attenuation of pressor response to laryngoscopy and intubation. Thus, oral clonidine is a better premedicant compared to atropine-diazepam combination. Also, it is a more acceptable agent because of its oral route of administration.

  19. Interaction of aconitine with bovine serum albumin and effect of atropine sulphate and glycyrrhizic acid on the binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yun; Cui Lijian; Wang Jianming; Huo Kun; Chen Chen; Zhan Wenhong; Wang Yongli

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of aconitine with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and effect of atropine sulphate and glycyrrhizic acid on binding constant, binding sites, and conformation were studied in an aqueous buffer solution (pH 7.40) by ultraviolet absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The study results show that aconitine quenched the endogenous fluorescence of BSA via a dynamic quenching procedure. Predominant intermolecular forces between aconitine and BSA were hydrophobic interactions, which stabilized the complex of aconitine–BSA. The distance between the donor and acceptor was 2.62 nm. The conformation of BSA was investigated by synchronous fluorescence techniques, indicating that the microenvironment around tryptophan (Trp) residues was changed. Furthermore, with the addition of atropine sulphate or glycyrrhizic acid, binding constant and the number of binding sites of aconitine to BSA were decreased, and the conformation had no change, which provide an important theoretical support for aconitine detoxification by atropine sulphate and glycyrrhizic acid. - Highlights: ► Effect of atropine or glycyrrhizic acid on aconitine–BSA binding. ► UV–vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques used. ► Aconitine quenched BSA fluorescence via dynamic quenching with r=2.62 nm. ► Atropine sulphate and glycyrrhizic acid decreased K A and n of aconitine–BSA. ► Support for aconitine detoxification by atropine and glycyrrhizic acid.

  20. Systemic delivery of atropine sulfate by the MicroDose Dry-Powder Inhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, T E; Venkataramanan, R; Hoffman, R M; George, M P; Petrov, A; Richards, T; Zhang, S; Choi, J; Gao, Y Y; Oakum, C D; Cook, R O; Donahoe, M

    2013-02-01

    Inhaled atropine is being developed as a systemic and pulmonary treatment for the extended recovery period after chemical weapons exposure. We performed a pharmacokinetics study comparing inhaled atropine delivery using the MicroDose Therapeutx Dry Powder Inhaler (DPIA) with intramuscular (IM) atropine delivery via auto-injector (AUTO). The MicroDose DPIA utilizes a novel piezoelectric system to aerosolize drug and excipient from a foil dosing blister. Subjects inhaled a 1.95-mg atropine sulfate dose from the dry powder inhaler on one study day [5 doses × 0.4 mg per dose (nominal) delivered over 12 min] and received a 2-mg IM injection via the AtroPen® auto-injector on another. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamic response, and safety were studied for 12 hr. A total of 17 subjects were enrolled. All subjects completed IM dosing. One subject did not perform inhaled delivery due to a skin reaction from the IM dose. Pharmacokinetic results were as follows: area under the curve concentration, DPIA=20.1±5.8, AUTO=23.7±4.9 ng hr/mL (means±SD); maximum concentration reached, DPIA=7.7±3.5, AUTO=11.0±3.8 ng/mL; time to reach maximum concentration, DPIA=0.25±0.47, AUTO=0.19±0.23 hr. Pharmacodynamic results were as follows: maximum increase in heart rate, DPIA=18±12, AUTO=23±13 beats/min; average change in 1-sec forced expiratory volume at 30 min, DPIA=0.16±0.22 L, AUTO=0.11±0.29 L. The relative bioavailability for DPIA was 87% (based on output dose). Two subjects demonstrated allergic responses: one to the first dose (AUTO), which was mild and transient, and one to the second dose (DPIA), which was moderate in severity, required treatment with oral and intravenous (IV) diphenhydramine and IV steroids, and lasted more than 7 days. Dry powder inhalation is a highly bioavailable route for attaining rapid and consistent systemic concentrations of atropine.

  1. Secondary acute pneumonias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.C.; Rybakova, N.I.; Vinner, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Pathological changes, promoting the development of secondary pneumonias, are investigated. To this group belong: blood circulation disturbance in small circle, bronchial passability disturbance, aspiration of liquids, gases and vapors, infections and purulent processes, intoxications, injuries, operative interference. Roetgenologic symptomatics of each secondary acute pneumonia form is presented in detail

  2. Atropinic burden of prescriptions forms in patients with Alzheimer disease: a cross-sectional study in a French PharmacoVigilance Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montastruc, François; Rouanet, Sarah; Gardette, Virginie; Rousseau, Vanessa; Bagheri, Haleh; Montastruc, Jean-Louis

    2015-07-01

    Atropinic drugs in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) can decrease the effects of anticholinesterase drugs and/or induce adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Several atropinic risk scales defining an atropinic burden of drugs were proposed but were little used in AD patients. All ADRs' notifications of AD patients registered in the Midi-Pyrénées PharmacoVigilance Database between 1999 and 2013 were analyzed using Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS) and Anticholinergic Duran's list. The primary objective was to quantify atropinic burden in AD patients and the secondary one to investigate associated factors. Among the 475 notifications, at least one atropinic drug was found in 282 notifications (59.4%) according to ADS and 214 (45.1%) according to Duran. Mean number of atropinics per notifications was 0.9 ± 0.9 (ADS) and 0.7 ± 0.9 (Duran). Mean atropinic burden per notifications was 1.2 ± 1.5 (ADS) and 0.9 ± 1.3 (Duran). Atropinic burden ≥ 3 was found in 87 notifications (18.2%) according to ADS and 50 (10.5%) according to Duran. There was no association between atropinic burden and age of patients. The number of drugs is associated to a high atropinic burden. The present work found an association between an atropinic drug and an anticholinesterase agent in around 1 out of 2 AD patients and a clinically significant atropinic burden (≥ 3) in around 1 to 2 AD patients out of 10. The benefit harm balance of atropinic drugs must be discussed before each prescription in AD patients.

  3. Identification and initial management of intoxication by alcohol and other drugs in the pediatric emergency room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Gatti Pianca

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To review the screening, diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of intoxication by alcohol and other drugs in children and adolescents in the emergency scenario. Data source: This was a narrative literature review. Data summary: The detection of this problem in the emergency room can be a challenge, especially when its assessment is not standardized. The intentional and episodic use of large amounts of psychoactive substances by adolescents is a usual occurrence, and unintentional intoxication is more common in children younger than 12 years. The clinical picture in adolescents and children differs from that in adults and some particularities are important in the emergency scenario. After management of the acute condition, interventions targeting the adolescent at risk may be effective. Conclusion: The diagnosis and treatment of intoxication by alcohol and other drugs in adolescents and children in the emergency scenario requires a systematic evaluation of the use of these drugs. There are few specific treatments for intoxication, and the management comprehends support measures and management of related clinical complications.

  4. Physiologic effects of prolonged conducted electrical weapon discharge in ethanol-intoxicated adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscati, Ronald; Ho, Jeffrey D; Dawes, Donald M; Miner, James R

    2010-06-01

    This study examines the physiologic effects of prolonged conducted electrical weapon (CEW) exposure on alcohol-intoxicated adult subjects. Adult volunteers were recruited at a TASER International training conference. All subjects ingested mixed drinks until clinical intoxication or until a minimum breath alcohol level of 0.08 mg/dL was achieved. Blood samples for venous pH, Pco(2), bicarbonate, and lactate were measured in all subjects at baseline, immediately after alcohol ingestion, immediately after exposure to a 15-second TASER X26 discharge (Taser International Inc, Scottsdale, AZ), and 24 hours post-alcohol ingestion. Laboratory values were compared at sampling times using repeated-measure analysis of variance. A focused analysis comparing time points within groups was then performed using paired t tests. Twenty-two subjects were enrolled into the study. There was a decrease in pH and bicarbonate and an increase in lactate after alcohol ingestion. There was a further increase in lactate and drop in pH after CEW exposure. No subject experienced a significant adverse event. All values had returned to baseline levels at 24 hours except lactate, which demonstrated a small but clinically insignificant increase. Prolonged continuous CEW exposure in the setting of acute alcohol intoxication has no clinically significant effect on subjects in terms of markers of metabolic acidosis. The acidosis seen is consistent with what occurs with ethanol intoxication or moderate exertion. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification and initial management of intoxication by alcohol and other drugs in the pediatric emergency room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianca, Thiago Gatti; Sordi, Anne Orgle; Hartmann, Thiago Casarin; von Diemen, Lisia

    To review the screening, diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of intoxication by alcohol and other drugs in children and adolescents in the emergency scenario. This was a narrative literature review. The detection of this problem in the emergency room can be a challenge, especially when its assessment is not standardized. The intentional and episodic use of large amounts of psychoactive substances by adolescents is a usual occurrence, and unintentional intoxication is more common in children younger than 12 years. The clinical picture in adolescents and children differs from that in adults and some particularities are important in the emergency scenario. After management of the acute condition, interventions targeting the adolescent at risk may be effective. The diagnosis and treatment of intoxication by alcohol and other drugs in adolescents and children in the emergency scenario requires a systematic evaluation of the use of these drugs. There are few specific treatments for intoxication, and the management comprehends support measures and management of related clinical complications. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Severe Valproic Acid Intoxication Responding to Hemodialysis

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    Ali Ertuğ Arslanköylü

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Valproic acid is a commonly used antiepileptic drug which causes intoxication easily due to its narrow therapeutic window. Here, we present a child with valproic acid poisoning who responded to hemodialysis. A 14-year-old male patient with epilepsy and mental motor retardation was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit due to valproic acid intoxication. Plasma valproic acid level was 710 µg/mL. The patient’s vital signs were stable and a decrease was observed in the valproic acid and ammonia levels with supportive treatment at the beginning. On the third day of the admission, hemodynamic and mental status of the patient deteriorated, plasma ammonia and lactate levels elevated, thus, we decided to perform hemodialysis. After hemodialysis, the patient’s hemodynamic status and mental function improved in conjunction with the reduction in valproic acid, ammonia and lactate levels. Thus he was transferred to the pediatric ward. Hemodialysis may be considered an effective treatment choice for severe valproic acid intoxication. Here, it was shown that hemodialysis may also be effective in patients with deteriorated general status under supportive treatment in the late phase of valproic acid intoxication.

  7. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF DRUG INTOXICATION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cheraghali M. Taymori

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Unintentional drug intoxication is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality in young children. In order to study the epidemiological pattern of childhood drug poisoning in Golestan province, all cases diagnosed with poisoning from 1997 to 2002 in the only pediatric hospital in province were recruited. During this period 563 cases of poisoned children were hospitalized in Taleqani hospital, of these 305 cases were due to drug poisoning. Opium was responsible for more than half of the poisoning cases, and 91% of deaths, among drug intoxicated children. Metoclopramide, benzodiazepines, tricyclic antidepressants and anticonvulsants were among the other frequent causes of poisoning. Neurological symptoms were the most prominent symptoms of poisoning and more than 80% of cases showed some neurological symptoms. Mortality rate among the cases was 3.6% and of total of 11 deaths, 10 were poisoned with opium. About 61% of cases were hospitalized between 24-48 hrs. Most of the poisoning cases in young children were unintentional and in many cases, their parents played a critical role in their intoxication. This role specially is crucial in infants and children under one year of age. Parents in Golestan province use opium widely for symptomatic treatment of routine illnesses in their young children and overdose of opium may cause severe intoxication and even death of the child.

  8. Consequences of 40 Years' Dioxin Intoxication

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pelclová, D.; Fenclová, Z.; Dubská, Z.; Malík, J.; Navrátil, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 5 (2009), s. 494-494 ISSN 1556-3650. [The International Congress of the European Association of Poison Centres and Clinical Toxicologists /29./. 12.05.2009-15.05.2009, Stockholm] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : dioxins * intoxication Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  9. Atropinic burden of drugs during pregnancy and psychological development of children: a cohort study in the EFEMERIS database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beau, Anna-Belle; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Lacroix, Isabelle; Montastruc, François; Hurault-Delarue, Caroline; Damase-Michel, Christine

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effect of in utero exposure to drugs with atropinic properties on infant psychological development using atropinic burden (AB) scales. Women from the EFEMERIS cohort, a French database including prescribed and dispensed reimbursed drugs during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes, delivering between 2004 and 2010 were included (n = 43 740). Each drug was classified as having no (score = 0), few (score = 1) or strong (score = 3) atropinic properties. AB per woman was calculated by adding the atropinic scores of drugs prescribed during pregnancy. AB was categorized as exposure or no exposure. Secondary analyses were performed by dividing the exposure into four scores = [0], [1-8], [9-17] and [≥18]. Data for psychological development were extracted from children's medical certificates completed at 9 and 24 months. Thirty-four% (n = 14 925) of women received at least one atropinic drug during pregnancy. Women with AB ≥1 were older and received more drugs during pregnancy than unexposed women. At 24 months, more infants of mothers with AB ≥1 had difficulties to 'name a picture' (ORa , 1.18, 95% CI 1.03, 1.36) and to 'understand instructions' (ORa , 1.61, 95% CI 1.13, , 2.30]) compared with infants of unexposed women. Analyses of four groups of exposure and analyses excluding women receiving psychotropics led to similar results. The study showed significant association between in utero exposure to drugs with atropinic properties and fewer infant cognitive acquisitions at 24 months. Further exploring the potential effect of simultaneous use of drugs with atropinic effects among pregnant women will bring into consideration whether such prescriptions could be inappropriate for the child. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  10. Original Article. Protection studies of new bis quaternary 2-(hydroxyimino-N-(pyridin-3yl acetamide derivatives (HNK-series oximes against acute poisoning by dichlorvos (DDVP in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Pravin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The available antidotal therapy against acute poisoning by organophosphates involves the use of atropine alone or in combination with one of the oximes, e.g. 2-PAM, Obidoxime, TMB-4 or HI-6. Each of these oximes has some limitation, raising the question of the universal antidotal efficacy against poisoning by all OPs/nerve agents. In the present study, newly synthesized bis quaternary 2-(hydroxyimino-N-(pyridin-3yl acetamide derivatives (HNK-series oximes were evaluated for their antidotal efficacy against DDVP intoxicated Swiss mice, in terms of the Protection Index (PI and AChE reactivation in brain and serum. The inhibition concentration (IC50 was determined in brain and serum after optimizing the time point for maximum inhibition (60 min post DDVP exposure. AChE reactivation efficacy of the HNK series was evaluated at IC50 and compared with 2-PAM. HNK-102 showed a ~2 times better Protection Index (PI as compared to 2-PAM against DDVP toxicity. IC50 at 60 min DDVP post exposure was found to be approximately one fifth and one half of the LD50 dose for brain and serum AChE, respectively. Out of three HNK oximes, HNK-102 & 106 at 0.20 LD50 dose significantly reactivated DDVP intoxicated brain AChE (p<0.05 as compared to 2-PAM at double IC50 dose of DDVP. In light of double PI and higher AChE reactivation, HNK 102 was found to be a better oxime than 2-PAM in the treatment of acute poisoning by DDVP.

  11. Atropine and ODQ antagonize tetanic fade induced by L-arginine in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Cruciol-Souza

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Although it has been demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO released from sodium nitrite induces tetanic fade in the cat neuromuscular preparations, the effect of L-arginine on tetanic fade and its origin induced by NO have not been studied in these preparations. Furthermore, atropine reduces tetanic fade induced by several cholinergic and anticholinergic drugs in these preparations, whose mechanism is suggested to be mediated by the interaction of acetylcholine with inhibitory presynaptic muscarinic receptors. The present study was conducted in cats to determine the effects of L-arginine alone or after pretreatment with atropine or 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazole [4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ on neuromuscular preparations indirectly stimulated at high frequency. Drugs were injected into the middle genicular artery. L-arginine (2 mg/kg and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP; 16 µg/kg induced tetanic fade. The Nw-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG; 2 mg/kg alone did not produce any effect, but reduced the tetanic fade induced by L-arginine. D-arginine (2 mg/kg did not induce changes in tetanic fade. The tetanic fade induced by L-arginine or SNAP was reduced by previous injection of atropine (1.0 µg/kg or ODQ (15 µg/kg. ODQ alone did not change tetanic fade. The data suggest that the NO-synthase-GC pathway participates in the L-arginine-induced tetanic fade in cat neuromuscular preparations. The tetanic fade induced by L-arginine probably depends on the action of NO at the presynaptic level. NO may stimulate guanylate cyclase increasing acetylcholine release and thereby stimulating presynaptic muscarinic receptors.

  12. Post-exposure treatment with nasal atropine methyl bromide protects against microinstillation inhalation exposure to sarin in guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che, Magnus M.; Conti, Michele; Chanda, Soma; Boylan, Megan; Sabnekar, Praveena; Rezk, Peter; Amari, Ethery; Sciuto, Alfred M.; Gordon, Richard K.; Doctor, Bhupendra P.; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the protective efficacy of nasal atropine methyl bromide (AMB) which does not cross the blood-brain barrier against sarin inhalation exposure. Age and weight matched male guinea pigs were exposed to 846.5 mg/m 3 sarin using a microinstillation inhalation exposure technique for 4 min. The survival rate at this dose was 20%. Post-exposure treatment with nasal AMB (2.5 mg/kg, 1 min) completely protected against sarin induced toxicity (100% survival). Development of muscular tremors was decreased in animals treated with nasal AMB. Post-exposure treatment with nasal AMB also normalized acute decrease in blood oxygen saturation and heart rate following sarin exposure. Inhibition of blood AChE and BChE activities following sarin exposure was reduced in animals treated with nasal AMB, indicating that survival increases the metabolism of sarin or expression of AChE. The body weight loss of animals exposed to sarin and treated with nasal AMB was similar to saline controls. No differences were observed in lung accessory lobe or tracheal edema following exposure to sarin and subsequent treatment with nasal AMB. Total bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) protein, a biomarker of lung injury, showed trends similar to saline controls. Surfactant levels post-exposure treatment with nasal AMB returned to normal, similar to saline controls. Alkaline phosphatase levels post-exposure treatment with nasal AMB were decreased. Taken together, these data suggest that nasal AMB blocks the copious airway secretion and peripheral cholinergic effects and protects against lethal inhalation exposure to sarin thus increasing survival.

  13. Musculus gastrocnemius tetanus kinetics in alcohol-intoxicated rats with experimentally-induced hindlimb vascular ischemia under conditions of low-frequence muscle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Melnychuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol intoxication and ischemic injury of skeletal muscles often accompany each other. It is shown that patients hospitalized with chronic alcoholism develop muscle fatigue. Skeletal muscle dysfunction in alcohol-dependent patients is caused by ethanol-associated myofibrillar atrophy and metabolic disbalance, while compression-ischemic lesions result from unconsciousness of the patient, in case of taking the critical alcohol dose. Therefore, the aim of this study is to discover typical m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. tetanic kinetics changes in alcohol intoxicated rats with experimentally induced vascular ischemia of hindlimb muscles under conditions of low-frequency progressive muscle fatigue. Experiments were carried out on 10 young male Wistar rats (149.5 ± 5.8 g kept under standard vivarium conditions and diet. The investigation was conducted in two phases: chronic (30 days and acute (3 hours experiment. All surgical procedures were carried out aseptically under general anesthesia. Ishemic m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. tetanic kinetic changes and force productivity in alcohol intoxicated rats were investigated in the isometric mode, with direct electrical stimulation. The fatigue of m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. was evaluated by three characteristic criteria: the first sag effect, the secondary force rise, the second sag effect. There have been 10 similar experiments: 5 series in each study group with 10 tetanic runs in each series. The highest amplitude of the native m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. tetanus relative to isoline was taken as 100% force response. The same pattern of m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. low-frequency fatigue development was found in both rat groups under study. It is evidenced by the absence of substantial m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. tetanus kinetics differences in alcohol intoxicated rats, compared with non-alcohol intoxicated rats during fatigue test. However, the appreciable m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. tetanic force reduction

  14. Experimental lead intoxication in dogs: a comparison of blood lead and urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid following intoxication and chelation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R A; Selby, L A; Zumwalt, R W

    1978-01-01

    Intravenous lead administration to dogs produced an acute syndrome of lead intoxication charcterized by depression, vomiting, anorexia and weight loss. The effect of chelation therapy with calcium disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate, penicillamine or both was determined by serially monitoring changes in blood lead and urine delta-aminolevulinic acid. Following therapy, blood lead values were significantly lower in chelated dogs than non-treated lead exposed dogs on days 7 and 10. Urine delta-aminolevulinic acid at day 7 was significantly higher in untreated lead exposed dogs than in other groups. There was no significant difference in blood lead or urine delta-aminolevulinic acid between lead intoxicated dogs which underwent the indicated chelation therapy protocols. There was, however, a trend for higher urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid excretion in those intoxicated dogs undergoing calcium disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate therapy as opposed to those undergoing penicilamine therapy. There was no significant correlation between blood lead and urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid previous to lead exposure. However, after lead exposure significant correlation was present at days 4, 7, 10 and 14. Certain lead exposed dogs following chelation therapy were noted to have normal blood lead levels but elevated urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid suggesting that blood lead does not always correlate with metabolic effects of lead in the body. Urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid was therefore recommended as an additional laboratory parameter which improved assessment of lead exposure in dogs, particularly in determining adequacy of chelation therapy. PMID:667707

  15. Investigating and comparing effects of atropine and physostigmine in peripheral pain examination due to formalin injection on rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Pourahmadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There areseveral neurotransmittersat feel the pain and processing nervoussystem, and until now cholinergic system has not been well studied in this field. The purpose of this research is investigating effects of atropine and physostigmine on the response of formalin pain test. We divided 50 male wistar head rats into 5 groups , first group ( saline normal injection 5 µ , second group ( 1% formalin injection into 50 µ , third group ( physostigmine injection 0/1 mg / kg , fourth group (atropine injection 2 mg / kg , fifth group ( atropine injection 2 mg / kg and physostigmine 0/1 mg/kg , after formalin injection , the animals were placed inside mirror pain machine and it was recorded pain response at the time ranges 0-5 and 15-45 . Results investigated with spss software and ANOVA and Duncan’s test. Formalin injection causes pain response in both time ranges. Atropine injection alone had no effect on pain response. Physostigmine effect alone, with a significant reduction (p< 0/05 in the number of foot motions in both stage and duration causesof licking and biting in the 15-45 minutes stage . Atropine and physostigmine injections in fifth group cause significant reduction in the number of foot motions and duration of licking and biting in the time range of 15-45 minutes.Perhaps there is a close relationship between cholinergic system and peripheral pain that can be taken through the action of muscarinic receptors.

  16. Clinical study of a new therapy for nerve agent poisoning: Ascending dose tolerance study of HI-6 + atropine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, J.G.; Bailey, D.G.; Madill, H.D.; Spence, J.D.

    1993-05-13

    HI-6 was rapidly absorbed from an IM injection site. Maximum HI-6 plasma concentrations of 1.88, 4.96, 8.31 15.0 ug/ml were found 28-36 min after administration and maintained above 4 ug/ml concentration for 0, 39, 112 172.5 min following administration of 62.5, 125, 250 or 500 mg HI-6 + atropine (2 mg), respectively. The calculated half life of HI-6 was 78.2 min following 62.5 mg HI-6 + atropine dose and approximately 64-67 min following 125-500 mg HI-6 + atropine doses. Approximately 50 % of the total dose of HI-6 was eliminated unchanged in the urine. There were significant changes (p < 0.05) in AST, CPK, creatinine and gamma GT following the 500 mg HI-6 + atropine dose but they were not considered to be clinically significant. Urinalysis, hematology and semen analysis over the 24 hr observation period was uneventful. There were no clinically significant changes in heart rate or ECG trace, respiration or blood pressure, visual and mental acuity following HI-6 + atropine.

  17. Lead Intoxication in Children in Birmingham

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, P. R.; Astley, R.; Raine, D. N.

    1973-01-01

    Of 38 children investigated between 1966 and 1971 who had a blood lead concentration greater than 37 μg/100 ml eight had encephalopathy and one died; all these eight had a blood lead concentration of 99 μg/100 ml or above. Blood lead levels are related to haemoglobin concentrations and anaemia is common in children with blood lead concentrations of 37-60 μg/100 ml, levels previously accepted as harmless. Children with blood lead concentrations greater than 60 μg/100 ml show radiological evidence of lead intoxication, and treatment for this should be considered when blood lead concentration exceeds 37 μg/100 ml. Children presenting with unexplained encephalopathy should be radiographed for evidence of lead intoxication. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 1 PMID:4691065

  18. Fetal brain damage following maternal carbon monoxide intoxication: an experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginsberg, M D; Myers, R E

    1974-01-01

    Techniques of fetal monitoring, including fetal blood sampling in utero, were employed to study the physiological effects of acute maternal carbon monoxide intoxication on nine term-pregnant female rhesus monkeys exposed to 0.1 to 0.3% inspired carbon monoxide over 1 to 3 hr. The mothers tolerated carboxyhemoglobin levels exceeding 60% without clinical sequelae, whereas the fetuses promptly developed profound hypoxia upon exposure of the mothers to CO. The fetal COHb levels rose only gradually over 1 to 3 hr, and thus contributed only slightly to the development of early fetal hypoxia. The fetal hypoxia was associated with bradycardia, hypotension, and metabolic and respiratory acidosis. Severity of intrauterine hypoxia was closely correlated with the appearance of brain damage. Brain swelling associated with hemorrhagic necrosis of the cerebral hemispheres (severe brain damage) appeared only in fetuses whose arterial oxygen content was reduced below 1.0 ml/100 ml for at least 45 min during the maternal CO intoxication.

  19. Theobromine intoxication in a red fox and a European badger in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, D S; Galgan, V; Schubert, B; Segerstad, C H

    2001-04-01

    A red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and a European badger (Meles meles) were found dead on a golf-course in October 1997 near Stockholm (Sweden). At necropsy, both animals were obese and the main finding was acute circulatory collapse. Theobromine intoxication was suspected as chocolate waste was available at a nearby farm and no other cause of death could be detected. Gastric contents and samples of liver from both animals were analyzed by reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography for the presence of methylxanthines. Theobromine and caffeine were detected in gastric contents and theobromine was identified in the liver samples from both animals. This appears to be the first report of theobromine intoxication in the red fox and the European badger.

  20. High mortality due to accidental salinomycin intoxication in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashrafihelan Javad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In February 2012, 100% mortality was reported in a herd with 79 local sheep that were kept around of Abhar, Northwest of Iran. The ration for adult sheep was daily mixed (40 kg straw, 25 kg wheat and 2 kg Vit-C premix and accidentally 1 500 g of salinomycin (Salinomycin 12% Premix; Aras Bazar Laboratories, Iran had been added to the ration (22388 mg/kg = 22388 ppm and overnight was fed to herd. At the morning, 78 sheep were founded dead and one of them showed convulsive seizures. Postmortem examination revealed pulmonary congestion and edema, hemorrhages in abomasum, large pale kidney and white streak lines in myocardium. Main histopathologic lesions were extensive subepicardial and intercardiomyofibers hemorrhages, extensive cardiomyolysis and myocarditis in heart, severe hyperemia and extensive acute tubular necrosis (ATN in kidneys and focal necrosis and retention of bile cholangitis in the liver. In this study, on the basis of the history, observation of the ionophore remnant in the ration, clinical signs, gross and histopathological findings, acute salinomycin intoxication is definitely diagnosed.

  1. [Intoxications specific to the Aquitaine region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédry, R; Gromb, S

    2009-07-01

    Some intoxications are more specifically linked to the Aquitaine region than to other regions of France, due to environmental circumstances (fauna, flora, climate) or traditional activities (gastronomy). Three types of intoxications are particular in this area. Pine processionary caterpillar envenomations (Thaumetopoea pityocampa), a Southern Europe pinewood parasite, are frequently encountered in the Landes' forest. They are responsible of ocular and/or skin lesions with urticaria or contact dermatitis, seldom associated with immediate IgE hypersensitivity. According to the south Atlantic coastal region geology and the marine streams, venomous marine animals are mainly located in Charente-Maritime for jellyfish, in Gironde and in Landes for weeverfish and in Atlantic Pyrenees for sea anemone. Usually not dangerous, first-aid workers treat most cases of these envenomations. Some endemic mushrooms (Tricholoma auratum) which grow on the dunes of the Atlantic coastal region, are usually considered as very good comestibles, but were recently responsible for serious intoxications: T.auratum was responsible of several cases of rhabdomyolysis, without neurological involvement, nor renal or hepatic lesion. Three deaths were notified. Animal studies confirmed the responsibility of the mushrooms.

  2. A Case of Bilateral Pigment Dispersion Syndrome Following Many Years of Uninterrupted Treatment With Atropine 1% for Bilateral Congenital Cataracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzi, Corrado; Mohamed-Noriega, Jibran; Murdoch, Ian

    2017-10-01

    Describe an unusual case of bilateral pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) following years of uninterrupted treatment with atropine 1% for bilateral congenital cataracts, speculate on potential mechanisms leading to this condition. This is a case report. A 45-year-old white patient on long-term treatment with atropine 1% ointment since his infancy for bilateral congenital cataracts developed PDS with secondary ocular hypertension. The patient showed all the hallmarks of PDS with secondary ocular hypertension. An anterior segment Swept-Source optical coherence tomography was obtained to review the iris profile. The patient showed good pressure response to topical prostaglandin therapy. This is the second case report of PDS in a patient with chronic use of topical atropine. The proposed mechanisms for pigment dispersion are discussed and the possibility raised of dispersion being a potential side effect of the drug.

  3. Effect of sugammadex versus neostigmine/atropine combination on postoperative cognitive dysfunction after elective surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batistaki, C; Riga, M; Zafeiropoulou, F; Lyrakos, G; Kostopanagiotou, G; Matsota, P

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of sugammadex and neostigmine/atropine on postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) in adult patients after elective surgery. A randomised, double-blind controlled trial was carried out on 160 American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I to III patients who were >40 years. The Mini-Mental State Evaluation, clock-drawing test and the Isaacs Set test were used to assess cognitive function at three timepoints: 1) preoperatively, 2) one hour postoperatively, and 3) at discharge. The anaesthetic protocol was the same for all patients, except for the neuromuscular block reversal, which was administered by random allocation using either sugammadex or neostigmine/atropine after the reappearance of T2 in the train-of-four sequence. POCD was defined as a decline ≥1 standard deviation in ≥2 cognitive tests. The incidence of POCD was similar in both groups at one hour postoperatively and at discharge (28% and 10%, in the neostigmine group, 23% and 5.4% in the sugammadex group, P =0.55 and 0.27 respectively). In relation to individual tests, a significant decline of clock-drawing test in the neostigmine group was observed at one hour postoperatively and at discharge. For the Isaacs Set test, a greater decline was found in the sugammadex group. These findings suggest that there are no clinically important differences in the incidence of POCD after neostigmine or sugammadex administration.

  4. Atropine use may lead to post-operative respiratory acidosis in neonates receiving ductal ligation: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Szu-Ling; Lin, Wen-Li; Weng, Chien-Hsiang; Wu, Shye-Jao; Tsai, Hsin-Jung; Wang, Shwu-Meei; Peng, Chun-Chih; Chang, Jui-Hsing

    2018-04-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is one of the most common cardiac conditions in preterm infants. Closure of the PDA in symptomatic patients can be achieved medically or surgically. Atropine is commonly administered in general anesthesia as a premedication in this age group but with limited evidence addressing the effect of its use. Our study examined the association of the use of atropine as a premedication in PDA ligation and the risk of post-operative respiratory complications. This retrospective cohort study included 150 newborns who have failed medical treatment for PDA and received PDA ligation during 2008-2012 in a single tertiary medical center. Ninety-two of them (61.3%) received atropine as premedication for general anesthesia while 58 (38.7%) did not. Post-operative respiratory condition, the need of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the presence of bradycardia were measured. Patients with atropine use were associated with increased odds of respiratory acidosis in both univariate analysis (22.9% vs 7.3%; OR = 3.785, 95% CI = 1.211-11.826, p = 0.022) and multivariate analysis (OR = 4.030, 95% CI = 1.230-13.202, p = 0.021), with an even higher odds of respiratory acidosis in patients receiving both atropine and ketamine. The use of atropine as premedication in general anesthesia for neonatal PDA ligation is associated with higher risk of respiratory acidosis, which worsens with the combined use of ketamine. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. [Acute caffeine intoxication after intake of 'herbal energy capsules'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, H.E.; Landstra, A.M.; Luin, M. van; Setten, P.A. van

    2008-01-01

    Two males, 15 and 17 years old respectively, presented at the Emergency Department complaining of cramping abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting after ingestion of energy capsules. Physical examination revealed sinus tachycardia and slight abdominal pain. Laboratory examination showed substantial

  6. Intravenously administered oxotremorine and atropine, in doses known to affect pain threshold, affect the intraspinal release of acetylcholine in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Höglund, A Urban

    2002-01-01

    muscarinic agonists and antagonists modify nociceptive threshold by affecting intraspinal release of acetylcholine (ACh). Catheters were inserted into the femoral vein in rats maintained on isoflurane anaesthesia for administration of oxotremorine (10-300 microg/kg) and atropine (0.1, 10, 5000 microg...

  7. Quantitative coronary angiography in the estimation of the functional significance of coronary stenosis: correlations with dobutamine-atropine stress test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.P. Baptista da Silva (José); M. Arnese (Mariarosaria); J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos); P.M. Fioretti (Paolo); D.T.J. Keane (David); J. Escaned (Javier); C. di Mario (Carlo); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); H. Boersma (Eric)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive value of quantitative coronary angiography in the assessment of the functional significance of coronary stenosis as judged from the development of left ventricular wall motion abnormalities during dobutamine-atropine

  8. Chronic lead intoxication affects glial and neural systems and induces hypoactivity in adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansar, Wafa; Ahboucha, Samir; Gamrani, Halima

    2011-10-01

    Lead is an environmental toxin and its effects are principally manifested in the brain. Glial and neuronal changes have been described during development following chronic or acute lead intoxication, however, little is known about the effects of chronic lead intoxication in adults. In this study we evaluated immunohistochemically the glial and dopaminergic systems in adult male Wistar rats. 0.5% (v/v) lead acetate in drinking water was administrated chronically over a 3-month period. Hypertrophic immunoreactive astrocytes were observed in the frontal cortex and other brain structures of the treated animals. Analysis of the astroglial features showed increased number of astrocyte cell bodies and processes in treated rats, an increase confirmed by Western blot. Particular distribution of glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity was observed within the blood vessel walls in which dense immunoreactive glial processes emanate from astrocytes. Glial changes in the frontal cortex were concomitant with reduced tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neuronal processes, which seem to occur as a consequence of significantly reduced dopaminergic neurons within the nucleus of origin in the substantia nigra. These glial and neuronal changes following lead intoxication may affect animal behavior as evidenced by reduced locomotor activity in an open field test. These findings demonstrate that chronic lead exposure induces astroglial changes, which may compromise neuronal function and consequently animal behavior. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Treatment of ibuprofen intoxication in a dog via therapeutic plasma exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Stuart; Ryan, Kirk A; Davis, Jennifer L; Acierno, Mark

    2017-07-01

    To describe the treatment of ibuprofen intoxication with therapeutic plasma exchange in a dog (TPE). A 13-year-old male neutered mixed breed dog presented after ingesting approximately 200 mg/kg of ibuprofen. Treatment consisted of supportive medical therapy with IV fluids, gastrointestinal protectants, antiemetics and prostaglandin analogs, and TPE. A cycle of TPE was performed over 180 minutes, achieving 1.5 plasma volume exchanges. During therapy, heparinized blood and effluent samples were collected. Ibuprofen concentrations were determined in the samples by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Post TPE, the dog was continued on supportive medical therapy and was discharged 96 hours after the overdose. This report describes the use of TPE as an adjunct for ibuprofen intoxication. An 85% reduction in plasma ibuprofen concentration occurred and recovery from a potentially lethal ingestion of ibuprofen was achieved with TPE and supportive care. TPE should be considered when presented with acute ibuprofen intoxication due to the rapid and efficacious nature of therapy. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  10. Psychiatric and Medical Management of Marijuana Intoxication in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui, Quan M.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We use a case report to describe the acute psychiatric and medical management of marijuana intoxication in the emergency setting. A 34-year-old woman presented with erratic, disruptive behavior and psychotic symptoms after recreational ingestion of edible cannabis. She was also found to have mild hypokalemia and QT interval prolongation. Psychiatric management of cannabis psychosis involves symptomatic treatment and maintenance of safety during detoxification. Acute medical complications of marijuana use are primarily cardiovascular and respiratory in nature; electrolyte and electrocardiogram monitoring is indicated. This patient’s psychosis, hypokalemia and prolonged QTc interval resolved over two days with supportive treatment and minimal intervention in the emergency department. Patients with cannabis psychosis are at risk for further psychotic sequelae. Emergency providers may reduce this risk through appropriate diagnosis, acute treatment, and referral for outpatient care. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(3:414–417.

  11. Attention to advertising and memory for brands under alcohol intoxication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund; Jeppesen, Heine B.; Scholderer, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    of alcohol while viewing the ad. This paper examines the effect of alcohol intoxication on attention to and memory for advertisements in two experiments. Study 1 used a forced exposure manipulation and revealed increased attention to logos under alcohol intoxication consistent with the psychopharmacological...... prediction that alcohol intoxication narrows attention to the more salient features in the visual environment. Study 2 used a voluntary exposure manipulation in which ads were embedded in a magazine. The experiment revealed that alcohol intoxication reduces voluntary attention to ads and leads...... to a significant reduction in memory for the viewed ads. In popular terms consuming one or two beers reduces brand recall from 40 to 36% while being heavily intoxicated further reduces brand recall to 17%....

  12. Impairment of autophagy: From hereditary disorder to drug intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aki, Toshihiko; Funakoshi, Takeshi; Unuma, Kana; Uemura, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    At first, the molecular mechanism of autophagy was unveiled in a unicellular organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast), followed by the discovery that the basic mechanism of autophagy is conserved in multicellular organisms including mammals. Although autophagy was considered to be a non-selective bulk protein degradation system to recycle amino acids during periods of nutrient starvation, it is also believed to be an essential mechanism for the selective elimination of proteins/organelles that are damaged under pathological conditions. Research advances made using autophagy-deficient animals have revealed that impairments of autophagy often underlie the pathogenesis of hereditary disorders such as Danon, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's diseases, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. On the other hand, there are many reports that drugs and toxicants, including arsenic, cadmium, paraquat, methamphetamine, and ethanol, induce autophagy during the development of their toxicity on many organs including heart, brain, lung, kidney, and liver. Although the question as to whether autophagic machinery is involved in the execution of cell death or not remains controversial, the current view of the role of autophagy during cell/tissue injury is that it is an important, often essential, cytoprotective reaction; disturbances in cytoprotective autophagy aggravate cell/tissue injuries. The purpose of this review is to provide (1) a gross summarization of autophagy processes, which are becoming more important in the field of toxicology, and (2) examples of important studies reporting the involvement of perturbations in autophagy in cell/tissue injuries caused by acute as well as chronic intoxication

  13. Addition of atropine to submaximal exercise stress testing in patients evaluated for suspected ischaemia with SPECT imaging: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manganelli, Fiore; Sauro, Rosario; Di Lorenzo, Emilio; Rosato, Giuseppe; Spadafora, Marco; Varrella, Paola; Peluso, Giuseppina; Daniele, Stefania; Cuocolo, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of the addition of atropine to exercise testing in patients who failed to achieve their target heart rate (HR) during stress myocardial perfusion imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The study was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled design. Patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease who failed to achieve a target HR (≥85% of maximal predicted HR) during exercise SPECT imaging were randomized to receive intravenous atropine (n = 100) or placebo (n = 101). The two groups of patients did not differ with respect to demographic or clinical characteristics. A higher proportion of patients in the atropine group achieved the target HR compared to the placebo group (60% versus 3%, p < 0.0001). SPECT imaging was abnormal in a higher proportion of patients in the atropine group as compared to the placebo group (57% versus 42%, p < 0.05). Stress-induced myocardial ischaemia was present in more patients in the atropine group as compared to placebo (47% versus 29%, p < 0.01). In both groups of patients, no major side effects occurred. The addition of atropine at the end of exercise testing is more effective than placebo in raising HR to adequate levels, without additional risks of complications. The use of atropine in patients who initially failed to achieve their maximal predicted HR is associated with a higher probability of achieving a diagnostic myocardial perfusion study. (orig.)

  14. A multidisciplinary overview of intoxicating snuff rituals in the western hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Smet, P A

    1985-03-01

    Part one of the paper discusses ethnobotanical, chemical and general pharmacological aspects of intoxicating snuff rituals in the western hemisphere. Four categories of ritual snuff ingredients arise from this multidisciplinary approach: It is well established that the plant contains one or more psychoactive principles and the Indian use of the plant as a ritual snuff ingredient is confirmed or quite probable: Anadenanthera, Erythroxylum, Nicotiana, Virola; It is well established that the plant contains one or more psychoactive principles, but the Indian use of the plant as a ritual snuff ingredient is not well recorded or even unlikely: Banisteriopsis, Cannabis, Datura, Ilex guayusa; The Indian use of the plant as a ritual snuff ingredient is confirmed or quite probable, but it is not well established that the plant contains one or more psychoactive principles: Justicia pectoralis, Pagamea macrophylla, Tanaecium nocturnum; The Indian use of the plant as a ritual snuff ingredient is not well recorded, and it is not well established that the plant contains one or more psychoactive principles: Acorus calamus, Capsicum, Macquira sclerophylla, Piper interitum. Part two of the paper discusses the nasal pharmacokinetics and efficacy of possible ritual snuff constituents. The literature yields convincing clinical evidence that atropine, cocaine, nicotine and scopolamine are effective following nasal application, but experimental confirmation of the efficacy of nasal tryptamine alkaloids is still awaited. In self-experiments, 6.4 mg/kg of caffeine produced substantial plasma levels via the nasal route, but 0.5 mg/kg of harmine did not produce measurable plasma levels, when taken as a nasal powder. Without additional experiments, it is difficult to give a definite explanation for this negative result.

  15. Colchicine intoxication: a report of two suicide cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erden A

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abdulsamet Erden,1 Hatice Karagoz,1 Hasan Hüseyin Gümüscü,1 Samet Karahan,1 Mustafa Basak,1 Fatma Aykas,1 Kadir Bulut,1 Ali Cetinkaya,1 Deniz Avci,1 Orhan Kürsat Poyrazoglu2 1Internal Medicine Department, 2Gastroenterology Department, Kayseri Training and Research Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey Abstract: Colchicine, an old and well-known drug, is an alkaloid extracted from Colchicum autumnale and related species. Colchicine inhibits the deposition of uric acid crystals and is an inhibitor of mitosis. Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, with a massive loss of fluid and electrolytes are the first clinical symptoms of colchicine poisoning. Stomach lavage and rapid gastric decontamination with activated charcoal are crucial. An acute dose of about 0.8 mg/kg of colchicine is presumed to be fatal. We report the clinical outcomes of two different cases of colchicine intoxication for attempted suicide. The dose required for morbidity or mortality varies significantly. The dose of 1 mg/kg in the first case was directly related with mortality, while the dose of 0.2 mg/kg in the second was related with survival. The other difference between the patients was the time of arrival to hospital after ingestion. This period was 4 hours for case 1 and only 1, hour for case 2. The initiation of treatment later than 2 hours after ingestion of colchicine may significantly impair treatment because the absorption time for colchicine after oral administration is about 30–120 minutes. The rising lactate level and high anion gap metabolic acidosis in our patient (case 1 were attributed to lactic acidosis, so hemodialysis was performed, and the duration of hemodialysis was prolonged. Lactic acidosis in the first case was one of the reasons for mortality. The most important parameters which define the chance of survival are the dose of ingested drugs and the arrival time to hospital after ingestion. The patients must be monitored closely for lactic acidosis

  16. Acute vergiftigingen bij mens en dier. Jaaroverzicht 2005-2006. Nationaal Vergiftigingen Informatie Centrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velzen AG van; Gorcum TF van; Riel AJHP van; Meulenbelt J; Vries I de; VIC

    2007-01-01

    In 2005 the National Poisons Information Centre (NVIC) received 36,375 enquiries and in 2006, 37,088, all on acute intoxications of humans and animals. These enquiries concerned about 50,000 exposures to chemical substances per year. More than half of these intoxications were due to a medication

  17. Two Fatal Intoxications Involving Butyryl Fentanyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poklis, Justin; Poklis, Alphonse; Wolf, Carl; Hathaway, Cindie; Arbefeville, Elise; Chrostowski, Leszek; Devers, Kelly; Hair, Laura; Mainland, Mary; Merves, Michele; Pearson, Julia

    2016-01-01

    We present the case histories, autopsy findings and toxicology findings of two fatal intoxications involving the designer drug, butyryl fentanyl. The quantitative analysis of butyryl fentanyl in postmortem fluids and tissues was performed by an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. In the first case, butyryl fentanyl was the only drug detected with concentrations of 99 ng/mL in peripheral blood, 220 ng/mL in heart blood, 32 ng/mL in vitreous humor, 590 ng/mL in gastric contents, 93 ng/g in brain, 41 ng/g in liver, 260 ng/mL in bile and 64 ng/mL in urine. The cause of death was ruled fatal intoxication by butyryl fentanyl. In the second case, butyryl fentanyl was detected along with acetyl fentanyl, alprazolam and ethanol. The butyryl fentanyl concentrations were 3.7 ng/mL in peripheral blood, 9.2 ng/mL in heart blood, 9.8 ng/mL in vitreous humor, 4,000 ng/mL in gastric contents, 63 ng/g in brain, 39 ng/g in liver, 49 ng/mL in bile and 2 ng/mL in urine. The acetyl fentanyl concentrations were 21 ng/mL in peripheral blood, 95 ng/mL in heart blood, 68 ng/mL in vitreous humor, 28,000 ng/mL in gastric contents, 200 ng/g in brain, 160 ng/g in liver, 330 ng/mL in bile and 8 ng/mL in urine. In addition, the alprazolam concentration was 40 ng/mL and the ethanol concentration was 0.11 g/dL, both measured in peripheral blood. The cause of death in the second case was ruled a mixed drug intoxication. In both cases, the manner of death was accident. PMID:27339481

  18. Changes in the nervous system state and peripheral blood parameters under benzene intoxication during an experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Orujov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Benzene is a widely spread chemical health risk factor. Our research goal was to examine the nervous system state and the blood system state under benzene intoxication during an experiment. An acute experiment was performed on 45 white mice with 5-fold poisoning with benzene; a chronic one was performed on 72 rabbits being under inhalation exposure to benzene during 4 months, its concentrations increasing and fluctuating. We determined the following blood parameters: number of reticulocytes, eosinophils, basocytes, and erythrocytes; erythrocytes sedimentation rate; blood clotting period; blood clot retraction; plasma re-calcification period; plasma tolerance to heparin; prothrombin time; prothrombin index; fibrinogen concentration; blood fibrinolytic activity; acetylcholine and choline esterase contents. We also determined adrenalin, noradrenalin, dopamine, and dihydroxyphenylalanine contents in urine. Acute experiments results revealed that one-time exposure to benzene exerted a narcotic effect on the central nervous system which had an excitation phase and inhibition phase. Under a repeat exposure to benzene animals' drug intoxication was shorter. And here neutrophils / leucocytes gradient first increased to 139.5 % from its standards value and then when down under consequent intoxications. We detected relevant changes in morphological picture of animals' peripheral blood and their central and vegetative nervous system under chronic exposure to intermittent and increasing benzene concentrations. So, our research revealed that effects exerted by benzene in small concentrations led to apparent shifts in white blood and catecholamines (adrenalin, noradrenalin, dopamine, and dihydroxyphenylalanine. We also detected certain signs that cate-cholamines endogenous reserves (dihydroxyphenylalanine were depleted and, and also signs of eosinophils-basocytes disso-ciation; such prognostic signs were considered to be unfavorable as it was exactly at that

  19. Intoxicação aguda por aldrin: relação dos níveis séricos com efeitos tóxicos no homem Acute intoxication by aldrin: relationship between clinical signs and serum levels in man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Andrade Carvalho

    1990-02-01

    inseticida.In the attempt to correlate clinical findings with serum levels of aldrin, sixteen patients were followed-up after acute intoxication by this agent. Eight of them, males and females, aged from 1 to 37 years, presented no or light symptoms (some discomfort and nausea. The serum of one of these patients was found to contain 16.6 ppb of aldrin and that of another, 1.41 ppb of dieldrin. A group of five patients, aged from two to 30 years, showed symptoms of moderate severity, reporting nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, dyspnea, sweating, mild jerking, rise in blood pressure and convulsions. Of these cases, two were accidental and three were attempted suicides, the majority achieving complete recovery within 24 hours. Serum levels of aldrin were between 6.98 ppb and 26.3 ppb and of dieldrin between 82.00 and 314.18 ppb. We found three severe cases, aged from 21 to 35 years, two attempted suicides and one occupational case. Two of these patients died and one of them presented hypothermia, coma, absence of reflexes and generalized convulsions, and another presented abdominal pain, paleness, sweating, cold extremities, dyspnea, hyperthermia and generalized convulsions. In the first one that died the serum levels were: of aldrin 30.00 ppb and of dieldrin 720 ppb. In the other levels of 747.3 ppb of aldrin and 1,314.00 ppb of dieldrin were found. The third had less serious symptoms and presented serum levels of aldrin of 31.05 ppb and of dieldrin 147.11 ppb. These data seem to indicate that the serum levels of aldrin or of its metabolite dieldrin do not show great correlation between clinical signs and acute toxicity, because patients were found that presented serious symptoms, such as convulsions, without presenting other prior clinical signs and in whom the blood levels of aldrin and dieldrin were found to be as low as 7.2 ppb and 90.40 ppb, respectively. The lethal blood levels were 700 ppb of aldrin and raged from 720 ppb to 1,314.00 ppb of dieldrin.

  20. Enhancement of the Inhibitor Efficiency of Atropine Methochloride in Corrosion Control of Mild Steel in Sulphuric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abida Begum

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition efficiency and synergistic behaviour of 10-4 M Atropine methochloride was carried out using mass loss and polarisation methods in the presence of (i metal ions, Ni2+ and Cu2+ between 10-2 M to 10-6 M concentrations, (ii different concentrations of metal ions and 10-3 M I-, 10-3 M Cl- and 10-3 M Br- solutions and (iii different metal ions, 10-3M I- and at three different temperatures. The analysis reveals that the inhibition efficiency of Atropine methochloride was maximum at 10-2 M in 5 hours of immersion period. Halides decreased the corrosion rate of mild steel in Sulphuric acid. The decrease is maximum with 10-3 M I-. As the temperature increased from 298K to 308K, the inhibition efficiency gradually decreased. The inhibitor was found to be effective up to 303K

  1. Mortality supposedly due to intoxication by pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Heliotropium indicum in a horse population in Costa Rica: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Weeren, P R; Morales, J A; Rodríguez, L L; Cedeño, H; Villalobos, J; Poveda, L J

    1999-04-01

    This article describes a case of massive mortality among horses which was probably due to intoxication by pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Heliotropium indicum. Over 4 years more than 75% of a population of about 110 horses on a farm in Costa Rica died after showing nervous neurological symptoms. Two clinical manifestations were encountered, an acute and a chronic one, both with a fatal outcome. Pathological findings in 2 horses coincided with those reported in the literature for intoxication by pyrrolizidine alkaloids and were not specific for VEE. However Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) was the main differential diagnosis and could not completely be excluded because this disease was endemic in the region and VEE titres were found to be high. Taxonomic and toxicological investigations implicated Heliotropium indicum as the most probable principal cause of the intoxication.

  2. [Effect of the chelator Zn-DTPA on the excretion of lead in lead intoxication mice detected with ICP-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Lu, Kai-zhi; Zhou, Qi; Wang, Qiong; Zeng, Yu-liang; Yin, Hong-jun; He, Xuan-hui; Tian, Ying; Dong, Jun-Xing

    2014-11-01

    To study the lead excretion effect of the chelator Zn-DTPA on the lead intoxication mice, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was applied to detect the lead content of biological samples. The acute lead intoxication mice model was established by injecting lead acetate intraperitoneally with the dose of 1 mg. Zn-DTPA was administered intraperitoneally to mice once daily for five consecutive days 4 h after intoxication. Control group, model group, combination of Zn-DTPA and Ca-DTPA group were evaluated at the same time. The urine was collected every day. The mice were sacrificed in batches in the 2rd, 4th, 6th day. Biological samples including urine, whole blood, femur and brain were prepared and nitrated. Lead concentration was detected by ICP-MS. The result showed that Zn-DTPA could increase lead content in urine markedly and reduce lead content in blood, femur and brain.

  3. Use of atropine to predict the accommodative component in esotropia with hypermetropia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir Kothari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This cohort study included children with esotropia and hypermetropia of ≥ +2.0 diopters (D. The deviation was measured at presentation, under atropine cycloplegia and 3 months after full refractive correction. Of 44 children with a mean age of 5.2 ± 2.4 years, 25 were males. Eighteen (41% had fully refractive accommodative esotropia (RAE, 10 (23% had partial accommodative esotropia (PAE, and 5 (11% had nonaccommodative esotropia (NAE. Eleven (25% had convergence excess (CE. Under cycloplegia, all with RAE and RAE with CE had orthotropia. There was no significant change in the deviation in the patients with NAE. The deviation under cycloplegia and that with full refractive correction in PAE and PAE with CE (with +3.0 D addition were not different. The intraclass correlation coefficient for deviation under cycloplegia and after full refractive correction (+3.0 D addition for CE was 0.89. It was concluded that ocular deviation under cycloplegia can help to predict the accommodative component in esotropia with hypermetropia.

  4. Highly sensitive determination of atropine using cobalt oxide nanostructures: Influence of functional groups on the signal sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soomro, Razium Ali, E-mail: raziumsoomro@gmail.com [Interface Analysis Centre, School of Physics, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, 76080 (Pakistan); Nafady, Ayman [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, Sohag (Egypt); Hallam, Keith Richard [Interface Analysis Centre, School of Physics, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Jawaid, Sana [National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, 76080 (Pakistan); Al Enizi, Abdullah [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Sherazi, Syed Tufail Hussain; Sirajuddin [National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, 76080 (Pakistan); Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain [Dr M.A. Kazi Institute of Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, 76080 (Pakistan); Willander, Magnus [Department of Science and Technology, Campus Norrkoping, Linkoping University, SE-60174, Norrkoping (Sweden)

    2016-12-15

    This study describes sensitive determination of atropine using glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) modified with Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures. The as-synthesised nanostructures were grown using cysteine (CYS), glutathione (GSH) and histidine (HYS) as effective templates under hydrothermal action. The obtained morphologies revealed interesting structural features, including both cavity-based and flower-shaped structures. The as-synthesised morphologies were noted to actively participate in electro-catalysis of atropine (AT) drug where GSH-assisted structures exhibited the best signal response in terms of current density and over-potential value. The study also discusses the influence of functional groups on the signal sensitivity of atropine electro-oxidation. The functionalisation was carried with the amino acids originally used as effective templates for the growth of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures. The highest increment was obtained when GSH was used as the surface functionalising agent. The GSH-functionalised Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}-modified electrode was utilised for the electro-chemical sensing of AT in a concentration range of 0.01–0.46 μM. The developed sensor exhibited excellent working linearity (R{sup 2} = 0.999) and signal sensitivity up to 0.001 μM of AT. The noted high sensitivity of the sensor is associated with the synergy of superb surface architectures and favourable interaction facilitating the electron transfer kinetics for the electro-catalytic oxidation of AT. Significantly, the developed sensor demonstrated excellent working capability when used for AT detection in human urine samples with strong anti-interference potential against common co-existing species, such as glucose, fructose, cysteine, uric acid, dopamine and ascorbic acid. - Highlights: • Template-assisted growth of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures. • Shape-dependent electro-catalysis of atropine. • Effect of functionalisation of signal sensitivity.

  5. Effect of dorsal hippocampal lesion compared to dorsal hippocampal blockade by atropine on reference memory in vision deprived rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhume, R A; Noronha, A; Nagwekar, M D; Mascarenhas, J F

    1989-10-01

    In order to study the primacy of the hippocampus in place learning function 24 male adult albino rats were hippocampally-lesioned in dorsal hippocampus involving fornical damage (group I); sham operated for comparison with group I (group II); cannulated for instillation of atropine sulphate in the same loci as group I (group III); and cannulated for instillation of saline which served as control for group III (group IV). All the animals were enucleated and their reference memory (long-term memory) was tested, using open 4-arm radial maze. There was loss of reference memory in groups I and III. However, hippocampally-lesioned animals, showed recovery of reference memory deficit within a short period of 10 days or so. Whereas atropinized animals showed persistent reference memory deficit as long as the instillation effect continued. The mechanism involved in the recovery of reference memory in hippocampally-lesioned animals and persistent deficit of reference memory in atropinized animals has been postulated to explain the primacy of hippocampus in the place learning function under normal conditions.

  6. Acute health problems due to recreational drug use in patients presenting to an urban emergency department in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Liakoni, Evangelia; Dolder, Patrick C.; Rentsch, Katharina; Liechti, Matthias E.

    2015-01-01

    QUESTIONS UNDER STUDY: To describe acute toxicity of recreational drugs including novel psychoactive substances. METHODS: We included all cases presenting at the emergency department (ED) of the University Hospital of Basel, Switzerland, between October 2013 and September 2014 with acute toxicity due to self-reported recreational drug use or with symptoms/signs consistent with acute toxicity. Isolated ethanol intoxications were excluded. Intoxications were confirmed with immunoassa...

  7. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effect...

  8. 7 CFR 500.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or a narcotic drug, is prohibited. (b... USNA property is prohibited. (c) The sale of alcoholic beverages on the grounds of the USNA is...

  9. [Functional state of vision system under chronic mercury intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iablonskaia, D A; Mishchenko, T S; Lakhman, O L; Rukavishnikov, V S; Malyshev, V V

    2010-01-01

    Examination of chronic mercury intoxication patients in distant (post-contact) period revealed marked vision disorders and inhibited neuro-conductivity--inhibited neuronal structures of retina and optic nerve.

  10. The Price of Eternal Vigilance: Women and Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle McClellan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Price of Eternal Vigilance: Women and Intoxication by Michelle McClellan. The author argues that the “cultural meaning of intoxication is shaped profoundly by the reality that we seem to only hear about it from women who have given it up.” This is a problem when it obscures the reasons why women seek out alcohol. Resisting the seemingly inevitable trajectory of addiction and recovery narratives, McClellan introduces the concepts of “dry” and “wet” feminism to draw attention to both the cultural expectations women face and the ways that intoxication might serve as a form of resistance. By refusing to see intoxication as a sort of false consciousness from which women must awake, McClellan demonstrates that it reflects female ambivalence about mothering, sexuality, and pleasure itself.

  11. Comparison of the treatment effects of methoxamine and combining methoxamine with atropine infusion to maintain blood pressure during spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery: a double blind randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X-J; Zheng, M; Tian, G; Zhong, H-Y; Zou, X-J; Jian, D-L

    2016-01-01

    Hypotension is a common complication of spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery. Atropine is a vagus nerve blocker that can antagonize vagus excitation to mitigate the reflex bradycardia. We aimed to assess the effect of methoxamine-atropine therapy in treating spinal anesthesia hypotension for cesarean section. This is a double-blind randomized controlled study. Women under spinal anesthesia for elective caesarean delivery received boluses of methoxamine 2 mg alone (Group M, n = 40), or with addition of atropine 0.1 mg (Group MA1, n = 40), atropine 0.2 mg (Group MA2, n = 40) or atropine 0.3 mg (Group MA3, n = 40) upon a maternal systolic pressure ≤ 80% of baseline. The primary endpoint was systolic blood pressure and the secondary endpoints were maternal heart rates, instant neonatal heart rates, umbilical artery pH and umbilical artery base excess. Changes in systolic blood pressure were similar among the four groups. The incidences of bradycardia in groups M and MA1 were significantly higher than those in group MA2 and MA3. The fetal heart rates after delivery in groups MA2 and MA3 were higher than those in group M and MA1 but within the normal range. The acid-base status had no difference in the four groups. Methoxamine-atropine combination has a similar efficacy to methoxamine alone but has an increased hemodynamic stability and a less adverse effect occurrence.

  12. A Methanol Intoxication Outbreak From Recreational Ingestion of Fracking Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collister, David; Duff, Graham; Palatnick, Wesley; Komenda, Paul; Tangri, Navdeep; Hingwala, Jay

    2017-05-01

    Single-patient methanol intoxications are a common clinical presentation, but outbreaks are rare and usually occur in settings in which there is limited access to ethanol and methanol is consumed as a substitute. In this case report, we describe an outbreak of methanol intoxications that was challenging from a public health perspective and discuss strategies for managing such an outbreak. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Carbon dioxide poisoning: a literature review of an often forgotten cause of intoxication in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permentier, Kris; Vercammen, Steven; Soetaert, Sylvia; Schellemans, Christian

    2017-12-01

    The goal of this article was to provide an overview of the literature available on carbon dioxide intoxication. Articles were included based on their focus on medical or physiological effects of carbon dioxide. Studies related to decompression sickness were excluded. Mechanisms of carbon dioxide poising (both as an asphyxiant and as a toxicant) were described. Our review suggested that precautions are needed when handling dry ice or while working in confined spaces. Pre-hospital responders also need to pay attention for the possible diagnosis of CO 2 intoxication for their own safety. When confronted with a victim, he/she should be removed from the dangerous area as fast as possible and oxygen should be administered. Without adequate treatment, victims may show acute reduced cognitive performance, respiratory failure, and circulatory arrest. Therefore, carbon dioxide poisoning is a rare but not to miss diagnosis in the emergency department.

  14. Acute vergiftigingen bij mens en dier. Jaaroverzicht 2002. Nationaal Vergiftigingen Informatie Centrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorcum TF van; Velzen AG van; Riel AJHP van; Meulenbelt J; Vries I de; NVIC

    2003-01-01

    The National Poisons Information Centre (NVIC) of the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) provides information on acute intoxications by telephone, 24 hours a day, to physicians, veterinarians, pharmacists and government institutions such as regional health authorities,

  15. Features and Prognostic Factors for Elderly With Acute Poisoning in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hui Hu

    2010-02-01

    Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that elderly patients with acute poisoning had a mortality rate of 9.6%. Suicide attempts resulted in more serious complications. The risk factors for mortality were herbicide intoxication, hypotension and respiratory failure.

  16. Inventarisatie van acute intoxicaties bij dieren in de periode van 1 februari 1992 tot 30 juni 1992

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hontelez W; Meulenbelt J

    1993-01-01

    From 1 February 1992 till 30 June a study was conducted to gain clearer insight into the nature, circumstances, causes and effects of acute intoxications in animals. The methods of treatment used were also studied. In case of intoxications in domestic animals one animal is usually involved.

  17. Diphenyl Ditelluride Intoxication Triggers Histological Changes in Liver, Kidney, and Lung of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Cristina Almeida da Luz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tellurium compounds may be cytotoxic to different cells types. Thus, this work evaluated the effect of diphenyl ditelluride ((PhTe2, an organotellurium commonly used in organic synthesis, on the morphology of liver, kidney, and lung. Adult mice were acutely (a subcutaneous single dose: 250 μmol/kg or subchronically (one daily subcutaneous dose: 10 or 50 μmol/kg for 7 and 14 days exposed to (PhTe2. Afterwards, the histological analyses of liver, kidney, and lungs were performed. Liver histology revealed that the hepatocytes of mice subchronically exposed to (PhTe2 presented cytoplasmic vacuolization, hydropic degeneration, and hyperchromatic nuclei. Subchronic exposure to 50 μmol/kg (PhTe2 also caused hepatic necrosis. Microvesicular and macrovesicular steatosis were identified in liver of mice acutely exposed to (PhTe2. Acute and subchronic intoxication with (PhTe2 induced changes on epithelial cells of renal tubules, namely, loss of brush border and cytoplasmatic vacuolization. Atrophy and hypertrophy, cast proteinaceous formation, and acute tubular necrosis were also identified in renal tissue. Mice subchronically exposed to 50 μmol/kg (PhTe2 developed intra-alveolar edema and alveolar wall congestion in some areas of lungs. Acute exposure to (PhTe2 did not cause histological changes in lungs. Our data show that (PhTe2 may be considered a histotoxic agent for liver, kidney, and lung.

  18. Dipyrone in association with atropine inhibits the effect on gastric emptying induced by hypoglycemia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F. Collares

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Atropine (AT and dipyrone (Dp induce a delay of gastric emptying (GE of liquids in rats by inhibiting muscarinic receptors and activating β2-adrenergic receptors, respectively. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of pretreatment with AT and Dp, given alone or in combination, on the effect of hypoglycemia in the liquid GE in rats. Male Wistar adult rats (280-310 g were pretreated intravenously with AT, Dp, AT plus Dp or their vehicle and then treated 30 min later with iv insulin or its vehicle (n=8-10 animals/group. Thirty min after treatment, GE was evaluated by determining, in awake rats, the percent gastric retention (%GR of a saline meal labeled with phenol red administered by gavage. The results indicated that insulin induced hypoglycemia in a dose-dependent manner resulting in a significant reduction in %GR of liquid only at the highest dose tested (1 U/kg. Pretreatment with AT significantly increased %GR in the rats treated with 1 U/kg insulin. Surprisingly, after pretreatment with AT, the group treated with the lowest dose of insulin (0.25 U/kg displayed significantly lower %GR compared to its control (vehicle-treated group, which was not seen in the non-pretreated animals. Pretreatment with Dp alone at the dose of 40 mg/kg induced an increase in %GR in both vehicle and 0.25 U/kg-treated rats. A higher dose of Dp alone (80 mg/kg significantly reduced the effect of a marked hypoglycemia induced by 1 U/kg of insulin on GE while in combination with AT the effect was completely abolished. The results with AT suggest that moderate hypoglycemia may render the inhibitory mechanisms of GE ineffective while Dp alone and in combination with AT significantly overcame the effect of hypoglycemia on GE.

  19. Subjective aggression during alcohol and cannabis intoxication before and after aggression exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa Fernandes Perna, E B; Theunissen, E L; Kuypers, K P C; Toennes, S W; Ramaekers, J G

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol and cannabis use have been implicated in aggression. Alcohol consumption is known to facilitate aggression, whereas a causal link between cannabis and aggression has not been clearly demonstrated. This study investigated the acute effects of alcohol and cannabis on subjective aggression in alcohol and cannabis users, respectively, following aggression exposure. Drug-free controls served as a reference. It was hypothesized that aggression exposure would increase subjective aggression in alcohol users during alcohol intoxication, whereas it was expected to decrease subjective aggression in cannabis users during cannabis intoxication. Heavy alcohol (n = 20) and regular cannabis users (n = 21), and controls (n = 20) were included in a mixed factorial study. Alcohol and cannabis users received single doses of alcohol and placebo or cannabis and placebo, respectively. Subjective aggression was assessed before and after aggression exposure consisting of administrations of the point-subtraction aggression paradigm (PSAP) and the single category implicit association test (SC-IAT). Testosterone and cortisol levels in response to alcohol/cannabis treatment and aggression exposure were recorded as secondary outcome measures. Subjective aggression significantly increased following aggression exposure in all groups while being sober. Alcohol intoxication increased subjective aggression whereas cannabis decreased the subjective aggression following aggression exposure. Aggressive responses during the PSAP increased following alcohol and decreased following cannabis relative to placebo. Changes in aggressive feeling or response were not correlated to the neuroendocrine response to treatments. It is concluded that alcohol facilitates feelings of aggression whereas cannabis diminishes aggressive feelings in heavy alcohol and regular cannabis users, respectively.

  20. Association of renal function and symptoms with mortality in star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Choon-Bing; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Tsui, Huan-Wen; Yang, Po-Jen; Lee, Kuo-Hsin; Hsu, Chih-Wei; Tsai, I-Ting

    2017-08-01

    Star fruit (SF) is a commonly available fruit produced and eaten in tropical and subtropical countries. Since 1993, various reports have described neurotoxicity after eating SF, but this clinical condition remains unfamiliar. We aimed to describe this clinical entity, the role of renal dysfunction in this disorder, treatment strategies, and prognosis of patients with SF intoxication. We conducted a search of PubMed and Google Scholar databases from 1993 to 2016. We included reports describing patients with a clear history of SF ingestion with acute symptoms. We described the demographic characteristics, reported SF intake, treatments used, and outcomes. We reviewed totally 126 patients (male:female = 1.5:1) from 33 articles with mean age 54.4 ± 11 (range: 30-84). The most common symptom was hiccups (65%), whereas confusion and seizure were the most common symptoms associated with mortality (42% and 61%, respectively). Pre-intoxication renal function also affected mortality. While there was no mortality in patients with normal renal function (NRF), the mortality of patients among reported cases with chronic renal insufficiency and end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis were 36% and 27%, respectively. With the inclusion of patients reported to have NRF, the overall mortality was 24%. Consistently, the number of SF consumed was substantially higher in the patients with NRF than those with renal functional impairment. The most common treatment strategy was hemodialysis (59%). Patients with impaired renal function were at higher risks of SF intoxication. Severe neurologic symptoms mandate immediate medical intervention because of the association between their occurrence and high mortalities. Toxin removal through dialysis, rather than symptomatic relief, seems to be beneficial to patient survival. Early and continuous dialysis appears to alleviate severe symptoms and prevent symptom rebounds.

  1. ACUTE TOXICITY STUDIES AND ANTIDOTAL THERAPY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACUTE TOXICITY STUDIES AND ANTIDOTAL THERAPY OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF JATROPHA CURCAS SEEDS IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS. ... with the aim of investigating the toxicity of the ethanol seed extract of JC in rats, mice, and chicks; and also to use conventional antidotes to treat intoxication in rats due to ...

  2. Acute brain herniation from lead toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Sheldon; Tarrago, Rod

    2006-12-01

    A 4-year-old black boy was admitted to the hospital with vomiting, low-grade fever, and dehydration that were thought to be caused by viral gastroenteritis. He proceeded over the next 12 hours to rapidly deteriorate with brain herniation leading to brain death. The ultimate cause of death was found to be acute lead intoxication from a swallowed foreign body.

  3. Attention to advertising and memory for brands under alcohol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orquin, Jacob L; Jeppesen, Heine B; Scholderer, Joachim; Haugtvedt, Curtis

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to discover new possibilities for advertising in uncluttered environments marketers have recently begun using ambient advertising in, for instance, bars and pubs. However, advertising in such licensed premises have to deal with the fact that many consumers are under the influence of alcohol while viewing the ad. This paper examines the effect of alcohol intoxication on attention to and memory for advertisements in two experiments. Study 1 used a forced exposure manipulation and revealed increased attention to logos under alcohol intoxication consistent with the psychopharmacological prediction that alcohol intoxication narrows attention to the more salient features in the visual environment. Study 2 used a voluntary exposure manipulation in which ads were embedded in a magazine. The experiment revealed that alcohol intoxication reduces voluntary attention to ads and leads to a significant reduction in memory for the viewed ads. In popular terms consuming one or two beers reduces brand recall from 40 to 36% while being heavily intoxicated further reduces brand recall to 17%.

  4. Attention to advertising and memory for brands under alcohol intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orquin, Jacob L.; Jeppesen, Heine B.; Scholderer, Joachim; Haugtvedt, Curtis

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to discover new possibilities for advertising in uncluttered environments marketers have recently begun using ambient advertising in, for instance, bars and pubs. However, advertising in such licensed premises have to deal with the fact that many consumers are under the influence of alcohol while viewing the ad. This paper examines the effect of alcohol intoxication on attention to and memory for advertisements in two experiments. Study 1 used a forced exposure manipulation and revealed increased attention to logos under alcohol intoxication consistent with the psychopharmacological prediction that alcohol intoxication narrows attention to the more salient features in the visual environment. Study 2 used a voluntary exposure manipulation in which ads were embedded in a magazine. The experiment revealed that alcohol intoxication reduces voluntary attention to ads and leads to a significant reduction in memory for the viewed ads. In popular terms consuming one or two beers reduces brand recall from 40 to 36% while being heavily intoxicated further reduces brand recall to 17%. PMID:24723899

  5. Imaging study of brain damage from methanol intoxication of wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Chengfu; Liu Yimin; Yang Yi; Shi Jing; Wu Yihang; Zhang Weisen; Mao Xiaofen; Luo Jing

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the imaging of CT and MRI in brain damage caused by methanol intoxication from false wine, and to study the relations between imaging manifestation and different degrees of the methanol intoxication. Method: Thirty nine cases with methanol intoxication from false wine were retrospectively reported, The latent period of these patients was 0-4 days, and the average latent period of these patients was 0.5 days, All cases were performed by serology examination, brain CT scan, and four cases performed by MRI scan after average 2.5 days (range, 1-6 days) the onset of methanol intoxication. Results: Six cases showed hyperintense signals in bilateral putamen, two cases also showed hyperintense signals in biolateral subcortex white substance regions. Four cases showed hyperintense signals in unilateral internal capsule. One case showed hyperintense changess in subcortex white substance regions. Our study showed the positive correlation between CT features and the amount of methanol and stage of clinic manifestation(χ 2 =4.232, P 2 =0.001, P>0.05). Conclusions: MRI was better than CT in finding early brain damage caused by methanol intoxication from false wine. The characteristic finding changes of the patients was showed mainly in in bilateral putamen, Prognosis for the patients combined with subcortex white substance lesion wasn't hopeful. (authors)

  6. Oleander intoxication in New World camelids: 12 cases (1995-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozikowski, Tania A; Magdesian, K Gary; Puschner, Birgit

    2009-08-01

    To characterize the clinical and clinicopathologic effects and evaluate outcome associated with oleander toxicosis in New World camelids. Retrospective case series. 11 llamas and 1 alpaca. Medical records from a veterinary medical teaching hospital from January 1, 1995, to December 31, 2006, were reviewed. Records of all New World camelids that had detectable amounts of oleandrin in samples of serum, urine, or gastrointestinal fluid were included in the study. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate the history, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic data, and outcome of affected camelids. 11 llamas and 1 alpaca met the inclusion criteria of the study. Either oleander plants were present where the camelids resided (n = 7) or oleander plant material was identified in the hay fed to the camelids (5). One llama was dead on arrival at the hospital, and another was euthanized upon admission because of financial concerns. Of the 10 treated camelids, 9 had evidence of acute renal failure, 7 had gastrointestinal signs, and 4 had cardiac dysrhythmias on initial evaluation. The overall mortality rate was 25%, but the mortality rate for the 10 camelids that were medically treated was 10%. In New World camelids, oleander intoxication was associated with a triad of clinical effects (ie, renal, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular dysfunction). Oleander intoxication often represented a herd problem but carried a fair to good prognosis if treated promptly. Oleander toxicosis should be considered a differential diagnosis in sick camelids.

  7. Epileptic seizures, coma and EEG burst-suppression from suicidal bupropion intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Anna Hiro; Schu, Ulrich; Maier, Tanja; Knake, Susanne; Rosenow, Felix

    2017-03-01

    Bupropion, an amphetamine-like dual mechanism drug, is approved and increasingly used for the treatment of major depression, and its use is associated with a dose-dependent risk of epileptic seizures. Suicide attempts are frequent in major depression and often an overdose of the drugs available is ingested. Therefore, it is important to be aware of the clinical course, including EEG and neurological symptoms, as well as treatment and prognosis of bupropion intoxication. We report on the clinical and EEG course of a women who ingested 27 g of bupropion in a suicide attempt. Myoclonic seizures were followed by generalized tonic-clonic seizures and coma associated with EEG burst-suppression and brief tonic seizures. Active carbon and neuro-intensive care treatment, including respiratory support, were given. Within three days, the patient returned to a stable clinical condition with a mildly encephalopathic EEG. In conclusion, bupropion intoxication requires acute intensive care treatment and usually has a good prognosis, however, misinterpretation of the clinical and EEG presentation may lead to errors in management.

  8. Paraquat intoxication and associated pathological findings in three dogs in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June H. Williams

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat is a bipyridylium non-selective contact herbicide commonly used worldwide. When ingestion occurs by humans and animals either accidentally, intentionally or maliciously, paraquat selectively accumulates in the lungs resulting in the production of oxygen-free radicals, causing membrane damage and cell death. Intoxicated subjects typically show progressive and fatal pulmonary haemorrhage, collapse and oedema. In individuals surviving the acute phase, pulmonary fibrosis develops. Gastrointestinal-, renal- and central nervous system clinical signs may also occur. Owing to the lack of effective treatment and absence of an antidote, the prognosis is poor. The clinical presentation, clinicopathological findings and treatment are briefly described of three dogs from one South African household, intoxicated with paraquat. Macroscopic and microscopic lesions in one dog that was necropsied, as well as pulmonary ultrastructure are detailed and illustrated for academic reference. All dogs presented with tachypnoea and dyspnoea 2–3 days after accidental paraquat ingestion. Treatment was aimed at reducing gastrointestinal absorption, enhancing elimination by diuresis and avoiding further oxidative damage by administration of antioxidants. All dogs, however, became progressively hypoxic despite treatment and were euthanised. Paraquat toxicity should be a differential diagnosis in dogs with unexplained progressive respiratory and gastrointestinal signs and renal failure. The local veterinary profession should be aware of accidental or intentional paraquat toxicity of animals. Existing literature, variations possible in canine clinical signs, measured parameters, lesions, as well as possible treatments, promising experimental antidotes and management options are discussed.

  9. Association between chewing-stimulated salivary flow under the effects of atropine and mixing ability assessed using a color-changeable chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Chieko; Kanazawa, Manabu; Hama, Yohei; Komagamine, Yuriko; Minakuchi, Shunsuke

    2017-10-01

    To assess the time course of chewing-stimulated salivary flow after oral atropine administration, and determine the association between chewing-stimulated salivary flow and mixing ability using color-changeable chewing gum in dentate adults. Ten healthy dentate adults were administered 1mg oral atropine to induce mouth dryness. The subjects' chewing-stimulated salivary flow was assessed using the Saxon test. They were then asked to rinse their mouth with tap water for 15s, and to chew on color-changeable chewing gum for 60s at a constant rate of 60 cycles per min. This procedure was performed before, and at 10-min intervals for up to 120min after the atropine administration. The experiment was repeated after 1 week. Steel's test was used to compare the chewing-stimulated salivary flow rates at each time point after atropine administration with the baseline value. The effect of the stimulated salivary flow rates on the degree of color change was analyzed using linear mixed effects models, with the stimulated salivary flow rates as fixed factors and subjects as the random factor. Chewing-stimulated salivary flow showed a significant decrease from 50 to 120min after oral atropine administration (Pchewing-stimulated salivary flow had a significant effect on the color change of the color-changeable chewing gum (Pchewing gum and chewing-stimulated salivary flow in dentate subjects. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Beryllium poisonings; Les intoxications par le beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alibert, S.

    1959-03-15

    This note reports a bibliographical study of beryllium toxicity. Thus, this bibliographical review addresses and outlines aspects and issues like aetiology, cases of acute poisoning (cutaneous manifestations, pulmonary manifestations), chronic poisoning (cutaneous, pulmonary and bone manifestations), excretion and localisation, and prognosis.

  11. Effects of alcohol intoxication on parenting behavior in interactions with child confederates exhibiting normal or deviant behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, A R; Pelham, W E; Atkeson, B M; Murphy, D A

    1999-06-01

    Experimental analogue methods were used to study how acute alcohol intoxication in parents influences their perceptions of and reactions to child behaviors, as well as their strategies for management of those behaviors. All participating parents had a grade school-aged son, but in half the cases this target child had a diagnosed externalizing disorder, whereas for the remaining half neither the target son nor any other offspring of the parents evidenced any psychopathology. Equal numbers of married fathers, married mothers, and single mothers from each of these groups received either alcoholic or nonalcoholic beverages prior to videotaped interactions with male child confederates who, depending on condition, enacted behaviors characteristic of either normal boys or boys with attention deficit hyperactivity/conduct/oppositional defiant disorders (ADHD/CD/ODD). Results indicated that intoxicated parents rated their ADHD/CD/ODD child partners as less deviant than did sober parents. Alcohol intoxication caused all participant groups to exhibit less attention and productive work and more commands, indulgences, and off-task talk in the interactions. Implications for better understanding of the role of psychosocial factors in the correlation between adult drinking problems and childhood behavior disorders are discussed.

  12. [Development of a prediabetic state under chronic alcohol intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voĭtenko, V V; Konopel'niuk, V V; Savchuk, O M; Ostapchenko, L I

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the changes in key parameters of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, which correspond to the clinical picture that accompanies the development of prediabetic condition on the background of chronic alcohol intoxication. From the analysis of glycemic curves obtained during the insulin-glucose test, a speed of glucose uptake by peripheral tissues increased at the 1st day (1.5 fold) and the third day (1.3 fold) of administration of alcohol solution. At the later periods, at 7 and 11 days of ethanol administration, a decreased rate of glucose uptake in animals with chronic alcohol intoxication was detected. We also detected an increased content of serotonin in the blood serum and a decreased (1.2 fold) serotonin content in rat brain during the whole period of development of chronic alcohol intoxication.

  13. Metal intoxication of atmospheric precipitations near coal power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwapulinski, J.; Zielonka, U.; Kwapulinska, G.; Nowak, B.

    1989-01-01

    Intoxication of atmospheric precipitation near power stations is presented. The migration of some metals in air is described by intoxication coefficient, which in 1981 for Pb changed from 2.25 to 2.96, for Cd from 1.92 to 3.0, for Cu from 2.31 to 4.44, for Fe from 2.78 to 3.95, and for Mn from 1.77 to 3.76. The coefficient value defines potential ecotoxicity of a given metal in the region investigated. Rain or snow intoxication by Pb, Cu, Cd, Fe and Mn, depending o their amount, is described by equation y=ax b . (author). 4 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  14. Radioisotope examination of kidney function in lead intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimentova, G.; Buchancova, J.; Galikova, E.; Lepej, J.

    1982-01-01

    The renal function was assessed of 12 patients with professional lead intoxication by radioisotope examination methods. In six patients changes on the radionephrographic curve were observed, showing flattening and shift of the peak of the curve, and prolongation of the secretory and excretory phases. The phase scintiscan displayed a slowed down uptake of the radioactive substance and pathological persistance of activity in the kidneys. The impairment of renal functions proved to be reversible. The authors consider rad+oisotope examinations to be an appropriate approach permitting evaluation of renal functions during lead intoxication, as well as helping to assess the deployment of persons who had suffered from intoxication, to workplaces where there is danger of exposure to lead. (author)

  15. Patterns of substance abuse and intoxication among murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarvis, R M

    1994-01-01

    A series of 100 murderers was examined to discern patterns of substance abuse and intoxication in relation to homicidal events. More than half of the study subjects were found to be actively abusing drugs at the time of their crime, and almost half were intoxicated. Alcohol was the drug most often abused. Demographic and other discriminating factors were utilized to examine the hypothesis that murderers do not constitute a homogeneous population and that subgroups differ in their abuse patterns. Cluster analytic techniques were applied to the study population. Utilizing a set of 13 proximate causal factors, a typology of seven distinct homicide profiles was created. Two of the seven profiles exhibited extremely high abuse and intoxication rates, three others intermediate rates, and two profiles very low rates. Moreover, different substances were prime offenders in different profiles. These findings demonstrate that substance abuse is an important etiological contributor in some types of murderer but not in all types.

  16. The effect of oral castor oil on the disposition of methyprylon in intoxicated dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwilt, P R; Pankaskie, M C; Mitala, J J

    1982-07-01

    Clinical observations indicate that large oral doses of castor oil are effective in reducing the time of coma resulting from acute intoxication with lipophilic drugs. It has been further suggested that the rate of removal of these drugs from the body is increased by castor oil. In order to investigate the effect of castor oil on the disposition of lipophilic drugs, five dogs were given toxic doses of methyprylon by intravenous infusion. Each dog was treated with a large oral dose of castor oil in a cross-over fashion. No significant difference was observed in the sleep times of the dogs treated with castor oil, or in the methyprylon pharmacokinetics compared to controls. It was concluded that castor oil does not affect the disposition of methyprylon.

  17. Evaluation of Cholinesterase Activities During in Vivo Intoxication Using an Electrochemical Sensor Strip – Correlation With Intoxication Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Zdarova-Karasova

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cholinesterase activity in blood of laboratory rats was monitored. Rats were intoxicated with paraoxon at dosis of 0 – 65 – 125 – 170 – 250 – 500 nmol. The 250 nmol dose was found to be the LD50. An electrochemical sensor was found useful to provide information about cholinesterase activity. The decrease of cholinesterase activity was correlated to intoxication symptoms and mortality level. It was found that the symptoms of intoxication are not observed while at least 50% of cholinesterase activity in blood remains. The minimal cholinesterase activity essential to survival is around 10%, when compared with the initial state. No changes in levels of low moleculary weight antioxidants were observed.

  18. Acute organophosphorus poisoning complicated by acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankaj, Madhu; Krishna, Kavita

    2014-07-01

    We report a case of 30 year old alcoholic male admitted with vomiting, drowsiness, limb weakness and fasciculations after alleged history of consumption of 30 ml of chlorpyriphos insecticide. He had low serum cholinesterase levels. With standard treatment for organophosphorus poisoning (OPP), he improved gradually until day 5, when he developed neck and limb weakness and respiratory distress. This intermediate syndrome was treated with oximes, atropine and artificial ventilation. During treatment, his ECG showed fresh changes of ST elevation. High CPK & CPK-MB levels, septal hypokinesia on 2D echo suggested acute coronary syndrome. Coronary angiography was postponed due to his bedridden and obtunded status. The patient finally recovered fully by day 15 and was discharged. Acute coronary syndrome is a rare occurrence in OP poisoning. The present case thus emphasises the need for careful electrocardiographic and enzymatic monitoring of all patients of organophosphorus poisoning to prevent potential cardiac complication which can prove fatal.

  19. Respiratory depression in the intoxicated trauma patient: are opioids to blame?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Eleni; Barton, Cassie A; Mah, Nathan D; Ran, Ran; Hendrickson, Robert G; Watters, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    Providing effective pain management to acutely intoxicated trauma patients represents a challenge of balancing appropriate pain management with the risk of potential respiratory depression from opioid administration. The objective of this study was to quantify the incidence of respiratory depression in trauma patients acutely intoxicated with ethanol who received opioids as compared with those who did not and identify potential risk factors for respiratory depression in this population. Retrospective medical record review was conducted for subjects identified via the trauma registry who were admitted as a trauma activation and had a detectable serum ethanol level upon admission. Risk factors and characteristics compared included demographics, Injury Severity Score, Glasgow Coma Score, serum ethanol level upon arrival, urine drug screen results, incidence of respiratory depression, and opioid and other sedative medication use. A total of 233 patients were included (78.5% male). Patients who received opioids were more likely to have a higher Injury Severity Score and initial pain score on admission as compared with those who did not receive opioids. Blood ethanol content was higher in patients who did not receive opioids (0.205 vs 0.237 mg/dL, P = .015). Patients who did not receive opioids were more likely to be intubated within 4 hours of admission (1.7% vs 12.1%, P = .02). Opioid administration was not associated with increased risk of respiratory depression (19.7% vs 22.4%, P = .606). Increased cumulative fentanyl dose was associated with increased risk of respiratory depression. Increased cumulative fentanyl dose, but not opioid administration alone, was found to be a risk factor for respiratory depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigation of in vivo toxicity of hydroxylamine sulfate and the efficiency of intoxication treatment by α-tocopherol acetate and methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodanchuk, Mykola G; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Prodanchuk, Georgiy M; Tsakalof, Andreas K

    2013-11-01

    Investigation of hydroxylamine sulfate toxicity mechanism in vivo and estimation of α-tocopherol acetate and methylene blue efficiency in poisoning treatments. In vivo experiments were conducted on 102 Wistar Han rats. The experiments investigated the hematotoxic and oxidative stress effects of hydroxylamine sulfate in acute and subacute toxicity treatment of animals. Electron Spin Resonance was used for quantitative determination of blood and liver tissue parameters alterations after intoxication. The osmotic fragility of erythrocytes, lipid peroxidation intensity and level of SH-groups in liver of rats were determined by established biochemical assays. Hydroxylamine sulfate cause an acute hematotoxicity and oxidative stress in vivo as demonstrated by the appearance of free oxidized iron in blood, reduced glutathione content and increased lipid peroxidation in liver. The experimental studies showed the formation of Hb-NO, MetHb in erythrocytes and as well of stable complex of reduced iron (Fe(2+)) with hydroxylamine sulfate. Methylene blue treatment does not reduce the Hb-NO or MetHb levels in intoxicated animals while administration of α-tocopherol acetate reduces substantially lipid peroxidation. Oxidative stress is a key mechanism of acute hematotoxicity caused by hydroxylamine sulfate. Methylene blue is not suitable antidote in case of hydroxylamine intoxication. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Liver Injury by Carbon Tetrachloride Intoxication in 16 Patients Treated with Forced Ventilation to Accelerate Toxin Removal via the Lungs: A Clinical Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Teschke

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 is an efficient but highly toxic solvent, used in households and commercially in the industry under regulatory surveillance to ensure safety at the working place and to protect the workers’ health. However, acute unintentional or intentional intoxications by CCl4 may rarely occur and are potentially life-threatening. In this review article, therapy options are discussed that are based on a literature review of traditional poisoning cases and the clinical experience with 16 patients with acute poisoning by CCl4. Among various therapy options, the CO2-induced hyperventilation therapy will be considered in detail as the most promising approach. This special therapy was developed because only around 1% of the intoxicating CCl4 is responsible for the liver injury after conversion to toxic radicals via microsomal cytochrome P450 2E1 whereas 99% of the solvent will leave the body unchanged by exhalation. Therefore, to enhance CCl4 elimination through the lungs, CO2 is added to the inspiration air at a flow rate of 2–3 L min−1 in order to achieve hyperventilation with a respiratory volume of 25–30 L min−1. Under this therapy, the clinical course was favorable in 15/16 patients, corresponding to 93.8%. In essence, patients with acute CCl4 intoxication should be treated by forced ventilation.

  2. The Effect of Alcohol Intoxications on Hematological Parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to the accessibility of alcohol, people around the world become readily intoxicated with it and in turn, it produces protease devastating effects in the human system. This study investigates the hematological effects of alcohol in albino rats grouped into three (A, B and C). Group A and B served as test while C served as ...

  3. Phenytoin intoxication with no symptoms correlated with serum drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In high-dose intake of phenytoin, which is used frequently to treatepilepsy, nystagmus, diplopia, nausea-vomiting, lethargy, confusion, seizure, and coma can be observed. In recent studies on phenytoin intoxication, in which seizure and coma were observed in drug levels greater than 50 ug/mL. The serum phenytoin level ...

  4. Chronic intoxication with copper in sheep: prophylaxis and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomov, A

    1964-01-01

    In the period 1961-1962 chronic intoxication of sheep with copper was observed on 7 farms, the number of sheep totaling about 9000. In one of the flocks intoxication occurred after feeding the sheep for a long time with aftermath collected from orchards which had been sprinkled with copper compounds. The aftermath was proven to contain from 11 to 17 mg. per cent of copper. The other flocks were put to pasture in vineyards after the grapes had been gathered. Intoxication in these flocks was caused by vineleaves. No accumulation of copper through the soil was established in the investigated fresh grass found in the vineyards and which the sheep had also grazed. From 36 to 81 mg. per cent of copper was established in the livers of dead sheep. In order to protect the sheep from this intoxication, 100-200 mg. of ammonium or sodium molybdate and 5-10 g. of sodium sulfate were used in the case of each sheep daily for 2-3 weeks. The concentrated fodder of the sheep was moistened with an aqueous solution of these compounds. A very good prophylactic effect was obtained. At the same time oats, maize, oilcakes and others, which constitute a fodder rich in fats, were eliminated from the food rations of the sheep. The above substances, given at larger doses simultaneously with vitamin B/sub 12/ were also used for the treatment of diseased sheep, and of 10 ill sheep, 7 recovered.

  5. Circumvention of Learning Increases Intoxication Efficacy of Nematicidal Engineered Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, Olena R; Manchery, Cyril; Haskell, Evan C; Blanar, Christopher A; Smith, Robert P

    2016-03-18

    Synthetic biology holds promise to engineer systems to treat diseases. One critical, yet underexplored, facet of designing such systems is the interplay between the system and the pathogen. Understanding this interplay may be critical to increasing efficacy and overcoming resistance against the system. Using the principles of synthetic biology, we engineer a strain of Escherichia coli to attract and intoxicate the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Our bacteria are engineered with a toxin module, which intoxicates the nematode upon ingestion, and an attraction module, which serves to attract and increase the feeding rate of the nematodes. When independently implemented, these modules successfully intoxicate and attract the worms, respectively. However, in combination, the efficacy of our bacteria is significantly reduced due to aversive associative learning in C. elegans. Guided by mathematical modeling, we dynamically regulate module induction to increase intoxication by circumventing learning. Our results detail the creation of a novel nematicidal bacterium that may have application against nematodes, unravel unique constraints on circuit dynamics that are governed by C. elegans physiology, and add to the growing list of design and implementation considerations associated with synthetic biology.

  6. 30 CFR 57.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 57.20001 Section 57.20001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  7. 30 CFR 56.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 56.20001 Section 56.20001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Miscellaneous...

  8. Mass-media publicity campaign on driving while intoxicated.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesemann, P.

    1986-01-01

    Mass media publicity campaigns against driving while intoxicated have been conducted in the netherlands for a number of years. A new, more aggressive approach was introduced in 1984 with the slogan "alcohol ..... all too easily a crime". Goals of this campaign were (1) internationalization of the

  9. Heart Rate Variability in Children with Tricyclic Antidepressant Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ener Cagri Dinleyici

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate HRV in children requiring intensive care unit stays due to TCA poisoning between March 2009 and July 2010. In the time-domain nonspectral evaluation, the SDNN (P<0.001, SDNNi (P<0.05, RMSDD (P<0.01, and pNN50 (P<0.01 were found to be significantly lower in the TCA intoxication group. The spectral analysis of the data recorded during the first 5 minutes after intensive care unit admission showed that the values of the nLF (P<0.05 and the LF/HF ratio (P=0.001 were significantly higher in the TCA intoxication group, while the nHF (P=0.001 values were significantly lower. The frequency-domain spectral analysis of the data recorded during the last 5 minutes showed a lower nHF (P=0.001 in the TCA intoxication group than in the controls, and the LF/HF ratio was significantly higher (P<0.05 in the intoxication group. The LF/HF ratio was higher in the seven children with seizures (P<0.001. These findings provided us with a starting point for the value of HRV analysis in determining the risk of arrhythmia and convulsion in TCA poisoning patients. HRV can be used as a noninvasive testing method in determining the treatment and prognosis of TCA poisoning patients.

  10. Skeletal alterations in case of chronic exogenous intoxications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zedgenidze, G.A.; Kishkovskij, A.N.; Elashov, Yu.G.

    1984-01-01

    A roentgenologic picture of characteristic bone alterations observed in chronic intoxications with phosphorus, lead, fluorine or their compounds is presented. Precise diagnosis of the disease, correct interpretation of roentgenologically revealed injuries become possible only with account of the corresponding analysis data and general clinical examination of a patient

  11. Alcohol Intoxication Impact on Outcome from Traumatic Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    12. Impact of alcohol intoxication on outcome from hemorrhagic shock. VII Congreso Internacional en Adicciones y 5 Curso de Actualización en ... Adicciones : de la Ciencia Básica a la Clínica. Saturday, April 29th, 2006. Guadalajara, Mexico . 13. Contribution of soft tissue trauma to pro

  12. The Impact of Behavioral Signs of Intoxication on Bartender Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsite, Billie; Klear, Lacey; Rosenberg, Harold

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to assess whether the serving practices of a sample of bartenders in an American university town would vary as a function of the number of behavioral cues of intoxication displayed by apparently real patrons (who were actually experimental confederates). Method: We trained two male and three female…

  13. Portrayal of Alcohol Intoxication on YouTube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Brian A.; Colditz, Jason B.; Pang, Kevin C.; Jackson, Kristina M.

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to characterize the content of leading YouTube videos related to alcohol intoxication and to examine factors associated with alcohol intoxication in videos that were assessed positively by viewers. Methods We systematically captured the 70 most relevant and popular videos on YouTube related to alcohol intoxication. We employed an iterative process to codebook development which resulted in 42 codes in 6 categories: video characteristics, character socio-demographics, alcohol depiction, degree of alcohol use, characteristics associated with alcohol, and consequences of alcohol. Results There were a total of 333,246,875 views for all videos combined. While 89% of videos involved males, only 49% involved females. The videos had a median of 1646 (IQR 300-22,969) “like” designations and 33 (IQR 14-1,261) “dislike” designations each. Liquor was most frequently represented, followed by beer and then wine/champagne. Nearly one-half (44%) of videos contained a brand reference. Humor was juxtaposed with alcohol use in 79% of videos, and motor vehicle use was present in 24%. There were significantly more likes per dislike, indicating more positive sentiment, when there was representation of liquor (29.1 vs. 11.4, p = .008), brand references (32.1 vs. 19.2, p = .04), and/or physical attractiveness (67.5 vs. 17.8, p < .001). Conclusions Internet videos depicting alcohol intoxication are heavily viewed. Nearly half of these videos involve a brand-name reference. While these videos commonly juxtapose alcohol intoxication with characteristics such as humor and attractiveness, they infrequently depict negative clinical outcomes. The popularity of this site may provide an opportunity for public health intervention. PMID:25703135

  14. Abnormal temperature control after intoxication with short-acting barbiturates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villota, E D; Mosquera, J M; Shubin, H; Weil, M H

    1981-09-01

    Changes in rectal and toe temperatures were measured in 16 patients who had been intoxicated with short-acting barbiturates. The lowest temperatures observed in the group of 16 patients averaged 35.5 +/- 2.0 degrees C. In 11 patients, the interval between intoxication and admission was documented. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.83) between the time of estimated intoxication and hypothermia. Patients who were admitted soon after the ingestion of the barbiturates had the lowest rectal temperatures. These observations indicate that hypothermia is a usual clinical sign in the initial period after intoxication with a short-acting barbiturate. Except for 2 patients, rectal temperature exceeded 38 degrees C during the interval of recovery with the maximum rectal temperature averaging 39.0 +/- 0.8 degrees C. Hyperthermia was not related to infection of the airways, lungs, urinary tract, or bloodstream. In 11 patients, pathogenic organisms were recovered from the airway and/or urine, but there was no difference in the highest rectal temperature in these patients (39.0 +/- 0.9 degrees C) when compared with 5 patients from whom no pathogenic organisms were recovered (39.2 +/- 0.7 degrees C). Accordingly, there was no evidence that hyperthermia was due to infection. The skin temperatures of the ventrum of the first toe were not typically decreased during hypothermia. To the contrary, increases in skin temperatures were often observed during hypothermia. These observations provide evidence of altered thermoregulation with increased surface heat loss accounting for the hypothermia in the early course and heat conservation with hyperthermia during the later course of intoxication by short-acting barbiturates.

  15. Portrayal of alcohol intoxication on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Brian A; Colditz, Jason B; Pang, Kevin C; Jackson, Kristina M

    2015-03-01

    We aimed to characterize the content of leading YouTube videos related to alcohol intoxication and to examine factors associated with alcohol intoxication in videos that were assessed positively by viewers. We systematically captured the 70 most relevant and popular videos on YouTube related to alcohol intoxication. We employed an iterative process to codebook development which resulted in 42 codes in 6 categories: video characteristics, character socio demographics, alcohol depiction, degree of alcohol use, characteristics associated with alcohol, and consequences of alcohol. There were a total of 333,246,875 views for all videos combined. While 89% of videos involved males, only 49% involved females. The videos had a median of 1,646 (interquartile range [IQR] 300 to 22,969) "like" designations and 33 (IQR 14 to 1,261) "dislike" designations each. Liquor was most frequently represented, followed by beer and then wine/champagne. Nearly one-half (44%) of videos contained a brand reference. Humor was juxtaposed with alcohol use in 79% of videos, and motor vehicle use was present in 24%. There were significantly more likes per dislike, indicating more positive sentiment, when there was representation of liquor (29.1 vs. 11.4, p = 0.008), brand references (32.1 vs. 19.2, p = 0.04), and/or physical attractiveness (67.5 vs. 17.8, p < 0.001). Internet videos depicting alcohol intoxication are heavily viewed. Nearly, half of these videos involve a brand-name reference. While these videos commonly juxtapose alcohol intoxication with characteristics such as humor and attractiveness, they infrequently depict negative clinical outcomes. The popularity of this site may provide an opportunity for public health intervention. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  16. Sanctified madness: the God-intoxicated saints of Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinis, A

    1985-01-01

    The saintly madman is a familiar character in South Asia. To outer appearances he is no different from a lunatic, but the mad saint comes to be revered because his idiocy is popularly believed to arise from a different cause than ordinary madness. The common psychopath neglects social conventions because his consciousness is dimmed by incapacity; the saintly madman also breaches convention, but does so because his heightened consciousness has liberated him from the bonds of convention that entrap ordinary people. In the terms of Hinduism, he has tasted the divine nectar of God-realization and has returned to the human realm intoxicated by the experience. In this paper two popular God intoxicated saints of Bengal are discussed. The question is posed whether 'God intoxication' can be considered a culture-bound syndrome of Bengal. The concept of 'culture bound syndrome' is found to be too narrow to encompass the most significant issues to arise from reflection on the characteristics of the God intoxicated. These larger issues have to do with the relationship between cultural practices and models and mental states (whether deviant, as implied by the term 'syndrome' although deviance does not always carry the negative connotation implicit in 'syndrome', or normal). It is suggested that all cultures culture a limited range of mental states and thus the questions posed by the notion of culture bound syndromes are subsumed by larger questions about the relationship of all mind-states to the socio-cultural environment which conditions them. The conclusion is that God intoxication is indeed a uniquely Bengali mental condition, with variants throughout South Asia and kinship to other mystical states, but that the concept of 'syndrome' is not useful.

  17. Efficacy of antidotes (midazolam, atropine and HI-6) on nerve agent induced molecular and neuropathological changes

    OpenAIRE

    RamaRao, Golime; Afley, Prachiti; Acharya, Jyothiranjan; Bhattacharya, Bijoy Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent alleged attacks with nerve agent sarin on civilians in Syria indicate their potential threat to both civilian and military population. Acute nerve agent exposure can cause rapid death or leads to multiple and long term neurological effects. The biochemical changes that occur following nerve agent exposure needs to be elucidated to understand the mechanisms behind their long term neurological effects and to design better therapeutic drugs to block their multiple neurotoxic ef...

  18. Purity determination of 60Co gamma irradiated atropine sulphate by different analytical techniques (Preprint No. RA.05)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balan, N.; Sharma, G.; Gopal, N.G.S.

    1989-01-01

    Some of the results obtained, employing high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are reported and some other methods to determine the purit y of radiation sterilized atropine sulphate in solid (I) and in aqueous solutions (0.1 per cent to 1.0 per cent w/v) (II) are also described. (I) and (II) were irradiated to graded doses of 10-100kGy and 5-20kGy respectively. The purity of irradiated sample (I) vis-a-vis unirradiated was determined using non aqueous potentiometric titration, thin layer chromatography, uv-vis spectrophotometry, HPLC and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Purity of (II) was examined only by HPLC vis-a-vis unirradiated aqueous solution. (author). 3 figs

  19. Effect of a mixture of pyridostigmine and atropine on forced expiratory volume (FEV1), and serum cholinesterase activity in normal subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B F; Gefke, Kaj; Mosbech, H

    1985-01-01

    injection with a decrease to 27 +/- 5% (mean +/- SEM) of the original activity. Forced expiratory volume in the first 1s (FEV1) was measured at fixed time intervals for 90 min. No decrease in FEV1 was observed; on the contrary, there was a small increase. We conclude that atropine effectively antagonizes...

  20. Combinations of ketamine and atropine are neuroprotective and reduce neuroinflammation after a toxic status epilepticus in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhote, Franck; Carpentier, Pierre; Barbier, Laure; Peinnequin, André; Baille, Valérie; Pernot, Fabien; Testylier, Guy; Beaup, Claire; Foquin, Annie

    2012-01-01

    Epileptic seizures and status epilepticus (SE) induced by the poisoning with organophosphorus nerve agents (OP), like soman, are accompanied by neuroinflammation whose role in seizure-related brain damage (SRBD) is not clear. Antagonists of the NMDA glutamate ionotropic receptors are currently among the few compounds able to arrest seizures and provide neuroprotection even during refractory status epilepticus (RSE). Racemic ketamine (KET), in combination with atropine sulfate (AS), was previously shown to counteract seizures and SRBD in soman-poisoned guinea-pigs. In a mouse model of severe soman-induced SE, we assessed the potentials of KET/AS combinations as a treatment for SE/RSE-induced SRBD and neuroinflammation. When starting 30 min after soman challenge, a protocol involving six injections of a sub-anesthetic dose of KET (25 mg/kg) was evaluated on body weight loss, brain damage, and neuroinflammation whereas during RSE, anesthetic protocols were considered (KET 100 mg/kg). After confirming that during RSE, KET injection was to be repeated despite some iatrogenic deaths, we used these proof-of-concept protocols to study the changes in mRNA and related protein contents of some inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in cortex and hippocampus 48 h post-challenge. In both cases, the KET/AS combinations showed important neuroprotective effects, suppressed neutrophil granulocyte infiltration and partially suppressed glial activation. KET/AS could also reduce the increase in mRNA and related pro-inflammatory proteins provoked by the poisoning. In conclusion, the present study confirms that KET/AS treatment has a strong potential for SE/RSE management following OP poisoning. The mechanisms involved in the reduction of central neuroinflammation remain to be studied. -- Highlights: ► During soman-induced status epilepticus, ketamine-atropine limit brain damage. ► Molecular neuroinflammatory response is strongly decreased. ► Glial activation is

  1. Combinations of ketamine and atropine are neuroprotective and reduce neuroinflammation after a toxic status epilepticus in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhote, Franck [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); Carpentier, Pierre; Barbier, Laure [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); Peinnequin, André [Département Effets biologiques des rayonnements, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); Baille, Valérie; Pernot, Fabien; Testylier, Guy; Beaup, Claire; Foquin, Annie [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); others, and

    2012-03-01

    Epileptic seizures and status epilepticus (SE) induced by the poisoning with organophosphorus nerve agents (OP), like soman, are accompanied by neuroinflammation whose role in seizure-related brain damage (SRBD) is not clear. Antagonists of the NMDA glutamate ionotropic receptors are currently among the few compounds able to arrest seizures and provide neuroprotection even during refractory status epilepticus (RSE). Racemic ketamine (KET), in combination with atropine sulfate (AS), was previously shown to counteract seizures and SRBD in soman-poisoned guinea-pigs. In a mouse model of severe soman-induced SE, we assessed the potentials of KET/AS combinations as a treatment for SE/RSE-induced SRBD and neuroinflammation. When starting 30 min after soman challenge, a protocol involving six injections of a sub-anesthetic dose of KET (25 mg/kg) was evaluated on body weight loss, brain damage, and neuroinflammation whereas during RSE, anesthetic protocols were considered (KET 100 mg/kg). After confirming that during RSE, KET injection was to be repeated despite some iatrogenic deaths, we used these proof-of-concept protocols to study the changes in mRNA and related protein contents of some inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in cortex and hippocampus 48 h post-challenge. In both cases, the KET/AS combinations showed important neuroprotective effects, suppressed neutrophil granulocyte infiltration and partially suppressed glial activation. KET/AS could also reduce the increase in mRNA and related pro-inflammatory proteins provoked by the poisoning. In conclusion, the present study confirms that KET/AS treatment has a strong potential for SE/RSE management following OP poisoning. The mechanisms involved in the reduction of central neuroinflammation remain to be studied. -- Highlights: ► During soman-induced status epilepticus, ketamine-atropine limit brain damage. ► Molecular neuroinflammatory response is strongly decreased. ► Glial activation is

  2. Lead intoxication due to ayurvedic medications as a cause of abdominal pain in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Varun; Midha, Vandana; Mahajan, Ramit; Narang, Vikram; Wander, Praneet; Sood, Ridhi; Sood, Ajit

    2017-02-01

    Though a majority of cases of lead intoxication come from occupational exposures, traditional and folk remedies have also been reported to contain toxic amounts of lead. We present a large series of patients with lead poisoning due to intake of Ayurvedic medicines, all of whom presented with unexplained abdominal pain. This was a retrospective, observational case series from a tertiary care center in India. The charts of patients who underwent blood lead level (BLL) testing as a part of workup for unexplained abdominal pain between 2005 and 2013 were reviewed. The patients with lead intoxication (BLLs >25 μg/dl) were identified and demographics, history, possible risk factors, clinical presentation and investigations were reviewed. Treatment details, duration, time to symptomatic recovery, laboratory follow-up and adverse events during therapy were recorded. BLLs were tested in 786 patients with unexplained abdominal pain and high levels were identified in 75 (9.5%) patients, of which a majority (73 patients, 9.3%) had history of Ayurvedic medication intake and only two had occupational exposure. Five randomly chosen Ayurvedic medications were analyzed and lead levels were impermissibly high (14-34,950 ppm) in all of them. Besides pain in abdomen, other presenting complaints were constipation, hypertension, neurological symptoms and acute kidney injury. Anemia and abnormal liver biochemical tests were observed in all the 73 patients. Discontinuing the Ayurvedic medicines and chelation with d-penicillamine led to improvement in symptoms and reduction in BLLs in all patients within 3-4 months. The patients presenting with severe recurrent abdominal pain, anemia and history of use of Ayurvedic medicines should be evaluated for lead toxicity. Early diagnosis in such cases can prevent unnecessary investigations and interventions, and permits early commencement of the treatment.

  3. Effect of chronic lead intoxication on the distribution and elimination of amoxicillin in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Ahmed M; Abu-Basha, Ehab A; Youssef, Salah A H; Amer, Aziza M; Murphy, Patricia A; Hauck, Catherine C; Gehring, Ronette; Hsu, Walter H

    2013-01-01

    A study of amoxicillin pharmacokinetics was conducted in healthy goats and goats with chronic lead intoxication. The intoxicated goats had increased serum concentrations of liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase), blood urea nitrogen, and reactivated δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase compared to the controls. Following intravenous amoxicillin (10 mg/kg bw) in control and lead-intoxicated goats, elimination half-lives were 4.14 and 1.26 h, respectively. The volumes of distribution based on the terminal phase were 1.19 and 0.38 L/kg, respectively, and those at steady-state were 0.54 and 0.18 L/kg, respectively. After intramuscular (IM) amoxicillin (10 mg/kg bw) in lead-intoxicated goats and control animals, the absorption, distribution, and elimination of the drug were more rapid in lead-intoxicated goats than the controls. Peak serum concentrations of 21.89 and 12.19 μg/mL were achieved at 1 h and 2 h, respectively, in lead-intoxicated and control goats. Amoxicillin bioavailability in the lead-intoxicated goats decreased 20% compared to the controls. After amoxicillin, more of the drug was excreted in the urine from lead-intoxicated goats than the controls. Our results suggested that lead intoxication in goats increases the rate of amoxicillin absorption after IM administration and distribution and elimination. Thus, lead intoxication may impair the therapeutic effectiveness of amoxicillin.

  4. Gender differences in natural language factors of subjective intoxication in college students: an experimental vignette study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Ash; Schlauch, Robert C; Bartholow, Bruce D; Sher, Kenneth J

    2013-12-01

    Examining the natural language college students use to describe various levels of intoxication can provide important insight into subjective perceptions of college alcohol use. Previous research (Levitt et al., Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2009; 33: 448) has shown that intoxication terms reflect moderate and heavy levels of intoxication and that self-use of these terms differs by gender among college students. However, it is still unknown whether these terms similarly apply to other individuals and, if so, whether similar gender differences exist. To address these issues, the current study examined the application of intoxication terms to characters in experimentally manipulated vignettes of naturalistic drinking situations within a sample of university undergraduates (n = 145). Findings supported and extended previous research by showing that other-directed applications of intoxication terms are similar to self-directed applications and depend on the gender of both the target and the user. Specifically, moderate intoxication terms were applied to and from women more than men, even when the character was heavily intoxicated, whereas heavy intoxication terms were applied to and from men more than women. The findings suggest that gender differences in the application of intoxication terms are other-directed as well as self-directed and that intoxication language can inform gender-specific prevention and intervention efforts targeting problematic alcohol use among college students. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  5. Heme synthesis in the lead-intoxicated mouse embryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, G B; Maes, J

    1978-02-01

    Incorporation of /sup 55/Fe and of (/sup 14/C) glycine was studied in control embryos and mothers and in those which had received lead in the diet from day 7 of pregnancy. Incorporation of Fe into heme of embryonic liver which increases markedly for controls on day 17 of pregnancy was depressed greatly and showed no such increase in lead-intoxicated embryos. These embryos were retarded in growth but had normal heme concentrations in body and liver. Incorporation of glycine into embryonic heme and proteins was not affected. Data on incorporation in the mothers are also presented. It is thought that the impaired synthesis of heme in lead-intoxicated embryos limits their body growth during the late phase of pregnancy.

  6. Correlation between some parameters of lead absorption and lead intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, H. A.

    1971-01-01

    Waldron, H. A. (1971).Brit. J. industr. Med.,28, 195-199. Correlation between some parameters of lead absorption and lead intoxication. Use has been made of data collected over a number of years from workers exposed to a lead hazard in a motor-car factory. The correlations between various parameters of lead absorption and lead intoxication were computed, including blood and urine lead concentrations, urinary coproporphyrin, ALA and PBG concentrations, and haemoglobin concentration. In all, 15 correlation coefficients were calculated, of which only six showed a statistically significant result (i.e., Plead and urine lead (r = 0·38, Plead and coproporphyrin (r = 0·42, Plead and ALA (r = 0·43, Plead and PBG (r = 0·19, P<0·05). PMID:5572689

  7. Misleading Gastrointestinal Symptoms: The Ongoing Story of Chronic Lead Intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Guilherme; Lopes, Susana; Peixoto, Armando

    2016-10-01

    Inorganic lead intoxication has emerged as an important and challenging clinical problem owing to increased awareness of lead and enhanced surveillance of exposed individuals. However, recognition may not be very difficult when there is an obvious history of exposure. Our interest began a few years ago when we could trace an outbreak, following a patient who was admitted with colickly abdominal pain, convulsions, and coma. After that, 16 more cases were identified and characterized. All patients recovered completely after adequate chelation therapy. Although the clinical picture of lead intoxication is pleomorphic, the increased awareness of gastroenterologists in this subject may possibly bring chronically complaining difficult patients to an earlier, unexpected, and fairly treatable disease.

  8. Catatonic syndrome associated with lead intoxication: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modabbernia, Mohammad Jafar; Mirsafa, Ali Reza; Modabbernia, Amirhossein; Pilehroodi, Farhad; Shirazi, Maryam

    2009-08-11

    Little is known about catatonia associated with lead intoxication. A retired printing house worker man presented with one week history of refusal to eat and mutism. He was treated with possible diagnosis of catatonia with administration of Lorazepam 3 mg P.O. daily. Significant improvement occurred after 48 hours. In further examinations, there was no evidence of physical and mental disorders while impairment in neuropsychiatry test, identification of Dohle body, basophilic stippling and toxic granulation in peripheral blood smear and blood lead level of 12.8 mug/dl were recorded. Possibly, lead intoxication results in changes in neurotransmitter system that leads to catatonia. Lorazepam improves patient's condition through changes in this system.

  9. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate imaging in acute renal failure associated with nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, R.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1986-01-01

    Technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-PYP) imaging was performed in five patients with acute renal failure associated with nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis. Four patients had phencyclidine intoxication and one had viral pneumonia. During the acute phase, marked uptake of pyrophosphate was seen in all patients in several muscle groups, but always in the thigh adductors. The results show that phencyclidine intoxication can result in diffuse muscle uptake of Tc-PYP without overt evidence of muscle injury. Tc-PYP imaging may provide a clue to the cause of acute renal failure in patients with suspected rhabdomyolysis in whom elevations of serum creatine phosphokinase concentrations are equivocal

  10. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate imaging in acute renal failure associated with nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, R.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1986-10-01

    Technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-PYP) imaging was performed in five patients with acute renal failure associated with nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis. Four patients had phencyclidine intoxication and one had viral pneumonia. During the acute phase, marked uptake of pyrophosphate was seen in all patients in several muscle groups, but always in the thigh adductors. The results show that phencyclidine intoxication can result in diffuse muscle uptake of Tc-PYP without overt evidence of muscle injury. Tc-PYP imaging may provide a clue to the cause of acute renal failure in patients with suspected rhabdomyolysis in whom elevations of serum creatine phosphokinase concentrations are equivocal.

  11. Inhaled Loxapine for Agitation in Intoxicated Patients: A Case Series

    OpenAIRE

    Roncero, Carlos; Ros-Cucurull, Elena; Palma-Álvarez, Raúl Felipe; Abad, Alfonso Carlos; Fadeuilhe, Christian; Casas, Miquel; Grau-López, Lara

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Episodes of agitation are frequent in intoxicated patients who have a substance use disorder, a psychiatric disorder or both (dual diagnosis). For managing the agitation, it is necessary to act promptly in a safe environment and addressing any underlying etiology. Inhaled loxapine improves symptoms of agitation in adults with psychiatric disorders (eg, schizophrenia) within 10 minutes of administration. Recently, some reports have documented the usefulness of loxapine in dual diagn...

  12. Artificial sweeteners, caffeine, and alcohol intoxication in bar patrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossheim, Matthew E; Thombs, Dennis L

    2011-10-01

    Previous laboratory research on alcohol absorption has found that substitution of artificially sweetened alcohol mixers for sucrose-based mixers has a marked effect on the rate of gastric emptying, resulting in elevated blood alcohol concentrations. Studies conducted in natural drinking settings, such as bars, have indicated that caffeine ingestion while drinking is associated with higher levels of intoxication. To our knowledge, research has not examined the effects of alcohol mixers that contain both an artificial sweetener and caffeine, that is, diet cola. Therefore, we assessed the event-specific association between diet cola consumption and alcohol intoxication in bar patrons. We sought to determine whether putative increases in blood alcohol, produced by accelerated gastric emptying following diet cola consumption, as identified in the laboratory, also appear in a natural setting associated with impaired driving. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from 2 nighttime field studies that collected anonymous information from 413 randomly selected bar patrons in 2008 and 2010. Data sets were merged and recoded to distinguish between energy drink, regular cola, diet cola, and noncaffeinated alcohol mixers. Caffeinated alcohol mixers were consumed by 33.9% of the patrons. Cola-caffeinated mixed drinks were much more popular than those mixed with energy drinks. A large majority of regular cola-caffeinated mixed drink consumers were men (75%), whereas diet cola-caffeinated mixed drink consumers were more likely to be women (57%). After adjusting for the number of drinks consumed and other potential confounders, number of diet cola mixed drinks had a significant association with patron intoxication (β = 0.233, p 0.05). Caffeine's effect on intoxication may be most pronounced when mixers are artificially sweetened, that is, lack sucrose which slows the rate of gastric emptying of alcohol. Risks associated with on-premise drinking may be reduced by greater

  13. Unusual pattern of leukoencephalopathy after morphine sulphate intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanan, R.; Stockhausen, H.B. von; Petersen, B. [Children' s Hospital, University of Wuerzburg (Germany); Solymosi, L.; Warmuth-Metz, M. [Department for Neuroradiology, University of Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2000-11-01

    We report a 14-year-old girl with an unusual pattern of leukoencephalopathy after intentional intoxication with morphine sulphate tablets. Toxicological analysis showed exceedingly high levels of morphine and its metabolites. MRI disclosed a leukoencephalopathy with high signal from the centrum semiovale, corpus callosum and cerebellar white matter on T2-weighted images. These findings could be only partially explained by a hypoxic-ischaemic event; neurotoxic effects must be considered in this atypical leukoencephalopathy. (orig.)

  14. Intoxication par la paraphényléne-diamine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    9 mars 2011 ... remède contre la douleur par Averbukh [8], ou contre la constipation par Schemesh [9], mais l´utilisation à des fins autolytique reste toujours prédominante. Le tableau clinique de l´intoxication à ... une anurie ayant nécessité le recours à l´hémodialyse. Ce taux de survenue d´IRA anurique est relativement ...

  15. Unusual pattern of leukoencephalopathy after morphine sulphate intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanan, R.; Stockhausen, H.B. von; Petersen, B.; Solymosi, L.; Warmuth-Metz, M.

    2000-01-01

    We report a 14-year-old girl with an unusual pattern of leukoencephalopathy after intentional intoxication with morphine sulphate tablets. Toxicological analysis showed exceedingly high levels of morphine and its metabolites. MRI disclosed a leukoencephalopathy with high signal from the centrum semiovale, corpus callosum and cerebellar white matter on T2-weighted images. These findings could be only partially explained by a hypoxic-ischaemic event; neurotoxic effects must be considered in this atypical leukoencephalopathy. (orig.)

  16. Hemorheological changes and hematometric erythrocyte characteristics in rats after sodium nitrite intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Ivan; Gluhcheva, Yordanka; Petrova, Emilia; Antonova, Nadia

    2014-05-01

    Sodium nitrite (NaNO2) is a precursor to a variety of organic compounds (pharmaceuticals, dyes and pesticides), but it is best known as a food additive. The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of acute (i.p.) treatment of Wistar rats with NaNO2 (at the dose of 50 mg/kg b.w.) on the blood rheological properties and erythrocyte hematometric indices (Hb, HCT, RBC, MCV, RDW, MCH, MCHC). The significant differences were not found in the whole blood viscosity (WBV) values of the control and NaNO2-treated groups. The changes in the erythrocyte hematometric indices were statistically significant for RDW, MCHC and MCH at the 1st hour, five- and ten days after NaNO2 administration. Interestingly, at the day 5th of the NaNO2 treatment we obtained statistically significant lower values for the RBC count, Hb, HCT, RDW, as well as elevated indices MCV (no statistically significant), MCH, MCHC. The results obtained indicate that hemorheological and hematometric parameters examined should be monitored in cases of acute exposure to nitrites — for the purposes of clinical toxicology. The quantitative values of hematometric indices reported in our experimental model could be suitable for predicting NaNO2 intoxication and methemoglobinemia in animals and humans.

  17. Deleterious effects of magnesium intoxication upon the domestic broiler chick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.R.

    1984-01-01

    Dietary levels of 0.6 to 0.8% magnesium in a corn-soy basal were rachitogenic. These rickets appeared most like phosphorus deficiency. Bone Ca/P ratios were numerically quite low implying a lack of transformation from amorphous calcium phosphate to hydroxyapatite. Bone alkaline phosphatase activity was elevated. Additional dietary phosphorus ameliorated, but could not overcome the rachitogenic effects of magnesium. Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD), induced by elevated dietary P, was decreased by high levels of dietary Mg, but with no decrease in plasma phosphorus. Anticoccidial ionophores fed in conjunction with a moderate dietary challenge of Mg (0.48%) produced no clear changes in plasma calcium or Mg, but did interact to reduce body weight. The diarrhea caused by magnesium intoxication is not due to hyperosmotic loads of Mg per se. Rather, Cl was observed to be the major ionic constituent of the gut osmotic load implying different gut ionic fluxes in control versus magnesium intoxicated chicks. These data imply that the cathartic action of Mg is due to hypersecretion of the gut. Effects mediated or modified by the CNS changed in magnesium intoxicated chicks. Such chicks appeared cold and stayed near the heat. When startled, they exhibited extreme avoidance behavior and seizures similar to epilepsy and/or Cl deficiency. Brain tissue Mg content did not concomitantly increase. Whether these effects are due to central signals is unclear.

  18. Severe hypertriglyceridemia and colchicine intoxication following suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev S

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Shaul Lev,1 David Snyder,2 Carmil Azran,3 Victor Zolotarsky,1 Arik Dahan4 1Intensive Care Unit, Rabin Medical Center, Petah-Tikva, 2Sackler School of Medicine NY/American Program, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, 3Clinical Pharmacy, Herzliya Medical Center, Herzliya, 4Department of Clinical Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel Abstract: Colchicine overdose is uncommon but potentially life threatening. Due to its serious adverse systemic effects, overdose must be recognized and treated. We report a case of an 18-year-old female who ingested 18 mg (~0.4 mg/kg of colchicine in a suicide attempt. The patient’s clinical manifestations included abdominal cramps, vomiting, pancytopenia, hypocholesterolemia, and rhabdomyolysis. Two unique manifestations of toxicity in this patient were profound and persistent, severe hypertriglyceridemia and electrolyte imbalance, mainly hypophosphatemia, with no other evident cause except the colchicine intoxication. Following intensive supportive treatment, including ventilator support, N-acetylcysteine, granulocyte colony stimulating factor, electrolyte repletion, and zinc supplementation, the patient made a complete recovery. Colchicine intoxication is a severe, life-threatening situation that should be followed closely in intensive care units. Severe changes in body functions can rapidly develop, as previously described in the literature. To our knowledge, this extremely elevated triglyceride level has never been reported without the administration of propofol, and requires further evaluation. Keywords: colchicine, intoxication, hypophosphatemia, hypertriglyceridemia 

  19. Peganum harmala L. Intoxication in a Pregnant Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Adnane Berdai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Peganum harmala L. is a plant widely distributed in the Mediterranean region. It is commonly used in traditional medicine in Morocco as sedative and abortifacient but exposes users to the risk of overdose and poisoning. The pharmacologically active compounds of this plant include a number of β-carboline and quinazoline alkaloids responsible of its pharmacological and toxicological effects. We report the case of a 24-year-old woman, 22 weeks pregnant, intoxicated with the seeds of Peganum harmala L. On admission, she had disturbance of consciousness, uterine contraction, and oliguria. Laboratory tests revealed renal failure and liver injury, and she benefited then from hemodialysis. During hospitalization, she was intubated after deterioration of consciousness and presented a spontaneous expulsion of the fetus. After extubation, she kept unusual sequelae: cerebellar ataxia and peripheral polyneuropathy. Physicians in regions using Peganum harmala L. as traditional medicine must be able to detect symptoms of its toxicity, in order to establish early gastrointestinal decontamination. The prognosis of this intoxication is variable; most cases can be managed successfully; but in high doses of intoxication, evolution can be fatal.

  20. [Risk of acute hepatic insufficiency in children due to chronic accidental overdose of paracetamol (acetaminophen)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hameleers-Snijders, P.; Hogeveen, M.; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Kramers, C.; Draaisma, J.M.T.

    2007-01-01

    Two girls aged 4 and 3 years, respectively, experienced acute liver failure due to accidental ingestion of supratherapeutic doses of paracetamol (90 mg/kg/day or more). Recognition of chronic paracetamol intoxication as a cause of acute hepatic failure is often delayed. It is important to consider

  1. Organophosphorus poisoning (acute).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Peter G

    2011-05-17

    Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by organophosphorus pesticides or organophosphate nerve agents can cause acute parasympathetic system dysfunction, muscle weakness, seizures, coma, and respiratory failure. Prognosis depends on the dose and relative toxicity of the specific compound, as well as pharmacokinetic factors. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for acute organophosphorus poisoning? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 62 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: activated charcoal (single or multiple doses), alpha(2) adrenergic receptor agonists, atropine, benzodiazepines, butyrylcholinesterase replacement therapy, cathartics, extracorporeal clearance, gastric lavage, glycopyrronium bromide (glycopyrrolate), ipecacuanha (ipecac), magnesium sulphate, milk or other home remedy immediately after ingestion, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, organophosphorus hydrolases, oximes, removing contaminated clothes and washing the poisoned person, and sodium bicarbonate.

  2. Drunk, but not blind: the effects of alcohol intoxication on change blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colflesh, Gregory J H; Wiley, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    Alcohol use has long been assumed to alter cognition via attentional processes. To better understand the cognitive consequences of intoxication, the present study tested the effects of moderate intoxication (average BAC between .071 and .082) on attentional processing using complex working memory capacity (WMC) span tasks and a change blindness task. Intoxicated and sober participants were matched on baseline WMC performance, and intoxication significantly decreased performance on the complex span tasks. Surprisingly, intoxication improved performance on the change blindness task. The results are interpreted as evidence that intoxication decreases attentional control, causing either a shift towards more passive processing and/or a more diffuse attentional state. This may result in decreased performance on tasks where attentional control or focus are required, but may actually facilitate performance in some contexts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. When Do Friends Prevent Friends from Hooking Up Intoxicated? An Examination of Sex Differences and Hypothetical Intoxication in Peer Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Matthew W; Menegatos, Lisa; Roberto, Anthony J

    2017-08-01

    Despite the risks involved when mixing alcohol with casual sexual activity, the majority of college students engage in hookups, and the majority of those hookups involve alcohol. This study focused on the protective role college students' peers can play and the situational factors that might influence their willingness to intervene when a close friend is about to hook up intoxicated. Drawing on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study investigated differences in students' (N = 1270) attitudes, norms, perceived behavioral control, and intentions to persuade a close friend not to engage in a hypothetical drunken hookup using a 2 (friend sex) × 2 (participant sex) × 2 (sober/intoxicated) factorial design. Results indicated significant differences in the TPB variables. Participants intended to intervene with female friends, but not male friends, and women were more likely to intervene than men. Participants in the sober condition had stronger intentions to intervene than those in the intoxicated condition, but this effect was driven by increases in men's intentions when sober. Implications for theory and prevention programming are discussed.

  4. Utility of 2-Pyridine Aldoxime Methyl Chloride (2-PAM) for Acute Organophosphate Poisoning: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenberg, Adam; Benabbas, Roshanak; deSouza, Ian S; Conigliaro, Alyssa; Paladino, Lorenzo; Warman, Elliot; Sinert, Richard; Wiener, Sage W

    2018-03-01

    Organophosphates (OP) account for the majority of pesticide-related unintentional or intentional poisonings in lower- and middle-income countries. The therapeutic role of atropine is well-established for patients with acute OP poisoning. The benefit of adding 2-pyridine aldoxime methyl chloride (2-PAM), however, is controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials (RCT) to compare 2-PAM plus atropine in comparison to atropine alone for acute OP poisoning. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and SCOPUS up to March 2017. The Cochrane review handbook was used to assess the risk of bias. Data were abstracted and risk ratios (RR) were calculated for mortality, rate of intubation, duration of intubation, intermediate syndrome, and complications such as hospital-acquired infections, dysrhythmias, and pulmonary edema. We found five studies comprising 586 patients with varying risks of bias. The risk of death (RR = 1.5, 95% CI 0.9-2.5); intubation (RR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.6); intermediate syndrome (RR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.6); complications (RR = 1.2, 95% CI 0.8-1.8); and the duration of intubation (mean difference 0.0, 95% CI - 1.6-1.6) were not significantly different between the atropine plus 2-PAM and atropine alone. Based on our meta-analysis of the available RCTs, 2-PAM was not shown to improve outcomes in patients with acute OP poisoning.

  5. Optimizing the Treatment of Acute Duct-Destructive Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhakiev, Bazylbek S.; Karsakbayev, Uteugali G.; Kelimberdiev, Mersaid S.; ?uhamedgalieva, Bodagoz M.; K?nonenko, Aleksander F.

    2016-01-01

    The search for new methods for treating duct-destructive pancreatitis is a relevant problem. Endogenous intoxication and oxidative stress that accompany acute pancreatitis often progress even after surgery, which forces one to search for additional possibilities of preventing these severe consequences. This research studied the effect of small…

  6. An unusual case of organophosphate intoxication of a worker in a plastic bottle recycling plant: an important reminder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C L; Chuang, H Y; Chang, C Y; Liu, S T; Wu, M T; Ho, C K

    2000-11-01

    A young man was sent to our emergency unit because he had suffered from vomiting and cold sweating for 2 days. At the time he was admitted, he had no acute abdominal pains or gastrointestinal symptoms, and a physical examination revealed nothing but a faster heart rate and moist, flushing skin. The patient had worked for 6 years at a plastic bottle-recycling factory, but none of his co-workers had the same symptoms. Nevertheless, because the plant also recycled pesticide bottles, we suspected organophosphate pesticide intoxication. The patient's plasma acetylcholinesterase level was checked, revealing 1498.6 microU/L (normal range: 2,000-5, 000) on the first day and 1,379 microU/L on the second day. Upon questioning, the patient recalled that one of his shoe soles had been damaged and that his foot had been wet from walking all day in rain collected on the factory floor on the day that his symptoms first occurred. We conducted a study in the change of preshift and postshift acetylcholinesterase levels among six of his co-workers on a rainy day. We used the Wilcoxon signed rank test to compare the preshift and postshift plasma acetylcholinesterase levels; no significant difference was revealed (p = 0.600), leaving contamination via the damaged shoe sole suspect. We reviewed the literature on organophosphate intoxication; pesticide bottle-recycling factories were reported to be at a low risk of organophosphate toxicity in the working environment. However, because the potential risk of intoxication is still present, protective equipment such as clothing, gloves, and water-proof shoes should be worn, and employees should be educated on the potential risks.

  7. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and Pelger-Huët anomaly associated with colchicine intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baris Malbora

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Colchicine is frequently used in the treatment of familial Mediterranean fever (FMF. First symptoms of colchicine intoxication are gastrointestinal disturbances, such as abdominal cramps, diarrhea, pancytopenia and so on. Herein, we report a female FMF patient with pancytopenia and hemophagocytic lymphohitiocytosis (HLH, following colchicine intoxication for committing suicide. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a patient with HLH associated with colchicine intoxication.

  8. Fatal intoxication with 3-methyl-N-methylcathinone (3-MMC) and 5-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran (5-APB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, Piotr; Zuba, Dariusz; Byrska, Bogumiła

    2014-12-01

    The emergence of a large number of new psychoactive substances (NPSs) in recent years poses a serious problem to clinical and forensic toxicologists. Here we report a patient who administrated ca. 500mg of 3-MMC (3-methyl-N-methylcathinone) and 400mg of 5-APB (5-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran) in combination with 80g of ethyl alcohol. The clinical manifestations included agitation, seizures, hypertension, tachycardia, hyperthermia and bradycardia. The patient did not recover and died around 4h after the use of drugs. The cause of death was acute cardiovascular collapse that occurred following mixed intoxication with NPSs and alcohol. Toxicological analysis of post-mortem blood revealed 3-MMC and 5-APB in concentrations of 1.6μg/mL and 5.6μg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the serum alcohol concentration was 1.4g/L in ante-mortem sample collected 1h after admission to the hospital. This is the first report on blood concentration of 3-MMC and 5-APB in fatal intoxication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fatal manganese intoxication due to an error in the elaboration of Epsom salts for a liver cleansing diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Baltasar; Casalots-Casado, Jaume; Quintana, Salvador; Arroyo, Amparo; Martín-Fumadó, Carles; Galtés, Ignasi

    2012-11-30

    We describe the case of a 50-year-old man with a fatal intoxication after accidental massive oral ingestion of manganese. The patient presented with lethargy, diffuse abdominal pain, vomiting, and profuse diarrhea after ingesting Epsom salts (magnesium sulfate heptahydrate) during a liver cleansing diet. Despite intensive care management with intubation, prone position ventilation, continuous venovenous hemofiltration, and multiple transfusions, he progressed to refractory shock with multiple organ dysfunction resulting in death within 72 h. Similar patients arrived at several hospitals with identical epidemiology (all had ingested the same salt obtained in the same place). Clinical and forensic investigations (X-ray diffraction) discovered that the supplier had mistakenly prepared the salts with hydrated manganese sulfate instead of magnesium sulfate heptahydrate. The results enabled the other patients to be successfully treated for hydrated manganese sulfate intoxication with life support in the intensive care unit and chelation therapy (EDTA). We describe the clinical presentation of acute manganese poisoning and alert professionals to the risk of an increasingly popular diet. This case demonstrates the importance of collaboration between clinicians, pathologists, and forensic scientists to resolve a difficult-to-diagnose case. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of the effects of atropine and labetalol on trigeminocardiac reflex-induced hemodynamic alterations during percutaneous microballoon compression of the trigeminal ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Yu; Luo, Chiao-Fen; Hsu, Yi-Chun; Chen, Jyi-Feng; Day, Yuan-Ji

    2012-12-01

    A significant abrupt drop in heart rate is the most frequent complication during percutaneous microballoon compression of the trigeminal ganglion. It is suggested that co-activation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems plays an important role in this occurrence. We hypothesized that not only atropine, but also labetalol might be effective in preventing this cardiovascular reflex during percutaneous microballoon compression of the trigeminal ganglion. Patients who underwent percutaneous microballoon compression for trigeminal neuralgia between September 2007 and December 2009 were prospectively evaluated. The relationship between the hemodynamic changes and intraoperative use of atropine (0.01 mg/kg) or labetalol (0.05 mg/kg) was compared. One-way analysis of variance with Bartlett's and Tukey's post-tests was used, and a value of p compression for trigeminal neuralgia were studied, of whom 38 received atropine before ganglion compression, 36 received labetalol, and 45 received normal saline as a control. Of the patients who received normal saline, 31.3% had moderate bradycardia (heart rate compression. Of the patients who received labetalol, 16.7% had moderate bradycardia, 5.6% had severe bradycardia, and 2.8% had arrhythmia. Systemic blood pressure was markedly elevated straight after compression in all groups and tended to normalize 3 minutes afterwards. Both atropine and labetalol were able to lower the frequency of bradycardia. Neither of them could abolish episodes of bradycardia during the procedure. Patients receiving labetalol before microballoon compression were subject to a smaller change in hemodynamics. Our findings verified that the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems may be involved in the complex interneuronal interaction of the trigeminocardiac reflex. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Clinical value of atropine-four minutes adenosine stressed 99Tcm-MIBI myocardial perfusion imaging in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Xulan; Zhang Baoniu; Jiang Sufang; Liang Hongwei; Liu Jun; Gao Guizhu; Ding Minghui; Hou Junfu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic efficacy of atropine-4 min adenosine stressed 99 Tc m -methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) myocardial perfusion imaging in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: A total of 56 patients were divided into atropine-4 min adenosine stress (research group) and 6 min adenosine infusion (control group). The sex, age, the severity of CAD (judged by coronary, angiography) and associated symptoms were matched between the 2 groups. In research group, 0.5 mg atropine was injected intravenously 10 min before adenosine infusion. Adenosine was infused at a rate of 0.14 mg·kg -1 ·min -1 intravenously for 4 min and 6 min in research and control groups. At 3 min after adenosine infusion, 740 MBq 99 Tc m -MIBI was injected. SPECT myocardial imaging was obtained 1.5 h later. A rest myocardial perfusion imaging was performed on the following day. Results: (1) In research group and control group, the sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy was 85%, 6/8, 82% and 86%, 5/7, 82%, respectively (χ 2 0.05). (2)The sensitivity of the adenosine test for detection of single vessel, two vessels, three vessels disease were 6/7, 8/9, 3/4 and 7/8, 7/8, 4/5 in research group and control group, respectively(χ 2 0.05). (3) Side affects occurred in 82% of the patients in the research group and in 89% of the patients in the control group. The incidence of side effects in the two groups was not significantly different besides chest depression (43% and 68%, χ 2 =4.000, <0.05). Conclusions: Atropine-4 min adenosine infusion, in combination with perfusion tomography, has similar diagnostic efficacy for CAD to the 6 min protocol, and has lower incidence of chest depression than the standard 6 min infusion. (authors)

  12. Radioimmunoassay of serum digoxin levels in digitalis intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendt, G.

    1981-01-01

    For 101 hospitalized patients where clinical symptoms of a glucosidine intoxication as a consequence of oral digoxin treatment were noted, serum digoxin levels were determined using a RIA kit of the Boehringer company (I-125 tracer, solid phase tube separation technique) on a fasted stomach prior to oral drug administration. An ECG was performed simultaneously and in addition kidney function parameters and electrolyte levels were determined. An anamnesis and clinical examination of the patients were also conducted. Interferences in the RIA method and gastro-intestinal illness resulting in changes in resorption behaviour were excluded. The group of patients showed collectively an average serum digoxin level of 2.9 +- 0.9 ng/ml with a range from 1.8 to 6.8 ng/ml, which was statistically significantly higher than the average value for 101 patients receiving long-term oral medication but without symptoms of glycosidine intoxication. According to the manufacture's specifications for the RIA kit, values > 2.0 ng/ml are considered as toxic, with values between 1.6 and 2.0 ng/mg falling into a ''grey zone''. A correlation was found between toxic serum values with changes in ECG pattern and subjective clinical symptoms of intoxication. A limitation of kidney function was responsible for the high serum glycoside levels in 62% of the patients. It was shown that the differing response of patients towards digitalis medication, above all in the case of long-term therapy, warrants an RIA determination of serum glycoside values in order to adjust the digoxin dose to individual requirements. (orig./MG) [de

  13. New Direction Treatment in Antidote Treatment of OPC Intoxications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dishovsky, C.

    2007-01-01

    The toxic effect of organophosphorus compounds (OPC) is based on inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), enzyme which plays an important physiological role in the cholinergic nervous system. The drug therapy on intoxication with OPC included mainly combination of cholinesterase reactivators and cholinolytics. There is no single AChE reactivator having the ability to sufficiently reactivate inhibited enzyme due to the high variability of chemical structure of the inhibitors. The classic oximes have antidote effect against intoxication with sarin, Vx and tabun, but are not effective against soman. HI-6 (Bulgarian ampoule form T oxidin ) has an effect against sarin, soman and Vx, and to a lesser degree against tabun. In order to improve the treatment of poisoning with highly toxic OPC, in ours laboratory we synthesized a variety of mono- and dioximes. We use different numbers of pyridinium or heterocyclic rings, different length and shape of the connecting chain between pyridinium or pyridinium-heterocyclic rings; different number and position of the oxime groups at the pyridinium rings and others. The investigations of some authors and our research showed that the compounds which present a combination between HI-6 and TMB-4 have a better antidote activity against tabun intoxications. The important finding of this study is that we synthesized complex compounds, reactivators of cholinesterase activity (including HI-6) with AMP / ATP and polycarboxilats, which have prolonged action in organism compared with original oximes. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that they are eliminated more slowly. The antidotal efficacy of these compounds after soman poisoning in rats was similar like that of the original oximes. The same tendency showed and the other pharmacological (blood pressure, EKG, breathing, neuromuscular transmission), and biochemical (ChE) investigations. (author)

  14. CIRCULATORY FAILURE DURING NON-INHALED FORMS OF CYANIDE INTOXICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haouzi, Philippe; Tubbs, Nicole; Rannals, Matthew D.; Judenherc-Haouzi, Annick; Cabell, Larry A.; McDonough, Joe A.; Sonobe, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to determine how circulatory failure develops following systemic administration of potassium cyanide (KCN). We used a non-inhaled modality of intoxication, wherein the change in breathing pattern would not influence the diffusion of CN into the blood, akin to the effects of ingesting toxic levels of CN. In a group of 300–400 g rats, CN-induced coma (CN IP, 7 mg/kg) produced a central apnea within 2–3 minutes along with a potent and prolonged gasping pattern leading to auto-resuscitation in 38% of the animals. Motor deficits and neuronal necrosis were nevertheless observed in the surviving animals. To clarify the mechanisms leading to potential auto-resuscitation versus asystole, 12 urethane-anesthetized rats were then exposed to the lowest possible levels of CN exposure that would lead to breathing depression within 7–8 minutes; this dose averaged 0.375 mg/kg/min iv. At this level of intoxication, a cardiac depression developed several minutes only after the onset of the apnea, leading to cardiac asystole as PaO2 reached value around 15 Torr, unless breathing was maintained by mechanical ventilation or through spontaneous gasping. Higher levels of KCN exposure in 10 animals provoked a primary cardiac depression, which led to a rapid cardiac arrest by pulseless electrical activity despite the maintenance of PaO2 by mechanical ventilation. These effects were totally unrelated to the potassium contained in KCN. It is concluded that circulatory failure can develop as a direct consequence of CN induced apnea but in a narrow range of exposure. In this “low” range, maintaining pulmonary gas exchange after exposure, through mechanical ventilation (or spontaneous gasping) can reverse cardiac depression and restore spontaneous breathing. At higher level of intoxication, cardiac depression is to be treated as a specific and spontaneously irreversible consequence of CN exposure, leading to a pulseless electrical activity. PMID:27513083

  15. Driving intoxicated: is hospital admission protective against legal ramifications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Susannah Mary; Murry, Jason Steven; Truitt, Michael Seth; Dunn, Ernest Lewis

    2013-12-01

    According to the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, in 2010, 10,228 people were killed in alcohol-impaired driving crashes. Daily, intoxicated drivers are seen in trauma centers across the country. At our trauma center, we sought to determine the number of drivers who had a documented elevation in their blood alcohol content (BAC) and compare this with county police records to evaluate how many charges for driving while intoxicated (DWI) were issued. A retrospective chart review was performed for trauma admissions during a 3-year period. Patients with a BAC of less than 0.08 g/dL were excluded. Only documented drivers were included. This group of intoxicated drivers was then compared against public records from the Dallas County for any record of a charge of DWI. During a 3-year period, from 2009 to 2011, 118 drivers had a confirmed BAC above the legal limit of 0.08 g/dL. Average BAC level was 0.218 g/dL. Injuries varied widely between patients with an average Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 11. Extremity fractures were seen in 27%, facial fractures were seen in 16%, and intracranial hemorrhage was seen in 7%. Forty-eight percent of the patients were admitted to the intensive care unit initially, with an average length of intensive care unit stay of 1.5 days (range, 0-25 days). Only 18% of our patients (21) received a charge of DWI. Four patients were charge with related offenses. A motor vehicle accident may be protective against the legal ramifications of drinking and driving. Less than 20% of patients who were driving under the influence incurred any legal repercussion. Deterrents that prevent law enforcement from being able to obtain evidence needed for prosecution should be eliminated. Health care providers and law enforcement agencies should work as a team to help mitigate the incidence of drunk driving and its burden on society. Epidemiologic study, level III.

  16. Correction of Oxygen Transport and Metabolic Disturbances in Acute Poisoning by Neurotropic Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Livanov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to examine the capacities of pharmacological correction of impairments in oxygen-transporting systems and metabolic processes with perfluorane and cytoflavin in critically ill patients with acute intoxication with neurotropic poisons.Subjects and methods. Metabolic sequels of severe hypoxia, free radical processes, and endogenous intoxications were studied in 62 patients with the severest acute intoxication with neurotropic poisons.Results. The studies have established that hypoxia and metabolic changes lead to the development of endotoxicosis. Intensifying endotoxicosis in turn enhances hypoxic lesion. Thus, the major task of intensive care is to restore oxygen delivery and to diminish metabolic disturbances and endotoxicosis. Ways of correcting hypoxia and metabolic disturbances are considered in the severe forms of acute poisoning. 

  17. The effects of oxotremorine, epibatidine, atropine, mecamylamine and naloxone in the tail-flick, hot-plate, and formalin tests in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulu, Thomas D; Kanui, Titus I; Towett, Philemon K; Maloiy, Geoffrey M; Abelson, Klas S P

    2014-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a promising animal model for the study of pain mechanisms, therefore a thorough characterization of this species is essential. The aim of the present study was to establish the naked mole-rat as a model for studying the cholinergic receptor system in antinociception by investigating the involvement of muscarinic, nicotinic and opioid receptors in nociceptive tests in this species. The effects of systemic administration of the muscarinic receptor agonist oxotremorine and the nicotinic receptor agonist epibatidine were investigated in the tail-flick, the hot-plate, and the formalin tests. The effects of co-administration of the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine, the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine, and the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone were also investigated. Oxotremorine and epibatidine induced a significant, dose-dependent antinociceptive effect in the tail-flick, hot-plate, and formalin tests, respectively. The effects of oxotremorine and epibatidine were blocked by atropine and mecamylamine, respectively. In all three nociceptive tests, naloxone in combination with oxotremorine or epibatidine enhanced the antinociceptive effects of the drugs. The present study demonstrated that stimulation of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors produces antinociceptive effects in the naked-mole rat. The reversal effect of atropine and mecamylamine suggests that this effect is mediated by cholinergic receptors. As naloxone increases the antinociceptive effects of cholinergic agonists, it is suggested that the cholinergic antinociception acts via a gateway facilitated by opioid receptor blockage; however, the precise interaction between these receptor systems needs further investigation.

  18. Pregnenolone can protect the brain from cannabis intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, Monique; Vitiello, Sergio; Bellocchio, Luigi; Hébert-Chatelain, Etienne; Monlezun, Stéphanie; Martin-Garcia, Elena; Kasanetz, Fernando; Baillie, Gemma L; Panin, Francesca; Cathala, Adeline; Roullot-Lacarrière, Valérie; Fabre, Sandy; Hurst, Dow P; Lynch, Diane L; Shore, Derek M; Deroche-Gamonet, Véronique; Spampinato, Umberto; Revest, Jean-Michel; Maldonado, Rafael; Reggio, Patricia H; Ross, Ruth A; Marsicano, Giovanni; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo

    2014-01-03

    Pregnenolone is considered the inactive precursor of all steroid hormones, and its potential functional effects have been largely uninvestigated. The administration of the main active principle of Cannabis sativa (marijuana), Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), substantially increases the synthesis of pregnenolone in the brain via activation of the type-1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor. Pregnenolone then, acting as a signaling-specific inhibitor of the CB1 receptor, reduces several effects of THC. This negative feedback mediated by pregnenolone reveals a previously unknown paracrine/autocrine loop protecting the brain from CB1 receptor overactivation that could open an unforeseen approach for the treatment of cannabis intoxication and addiction.

  19. Intranasal Fentanyl Intoxication Leading to Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzycki, Shannon; Yarema, Mark; Dunham, Michael; Sadrzadeh, Hossein; Tremblay, Alain

    2016-06-01

    Increasing rates of opioid abuse, particularly fentanyl, may lead to more presentations of unusual effects of opioid toxicity. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is a rare complication of fentanyl overdose. A 45-year-old male presented in hypoxic respiratory failure secondary to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage requiring intubation. Comprehensive drug screening detected fentanyl without exposure to cocaine. Further history upon the patient's recovery revealed exposure to snorted fentanyl powder immediately prior to presentation. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is a potential, though rare, presentation of opioid intoxication. Recognition of less common complications of opioid abuse such as diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is important in proper management of overdoses.

  20. Heart Rate Variability in Children with Tricyclic Antidepressant Intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Dinleyici, Ener Cagri; Kilic, Zubeyir; Sahin, Sabiha; Tutuncu-Toker, Rabia; Eren, Makbule; Yargic, Zeynel Abidin; Kosger, Pelin; Ucar, Birsen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate HRV in children requiring intensive care unit stays due to TCA poisoning between March 2009 and July 2010. In the time-domain nonspectral evaluation, the SDNN (P < 0.001), SDNNi (P < 0.05), RMSDD (P < 0.01), and pNN50 (P < 0.01) were found to be significantly lower in the TCA intoxication group. The spectral analysis of the data recorded during the first 5 minutes after intensive care unit admission showed that the values of the nLF (P < 0.05) and the LF/...

  1. Chelation therapy in intoxications with mercury, lead and copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, yang; Skaug, Marit Aralt; Andersen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    In the present review we provide an update of the appropriate use of chelating agents in the treatment of intoxications with compounds of mercury, lead and copper. The relatively new chelators meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and 2,3-dimercapto-propanesulphonate (DMPS) can effectively...... mobilize deposits of mercury as well as of lead into the urine. These drugs can be administered orally and have relatively low toxicity compared to the classical antidote dimercaptopropanol (BAL). d-Penicillamine has been widely used in copper overload, although 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid...

  2. Hepatopancreatic intoxication of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide on albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Elhalwagy, Manal EA; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Nahas, AA; Ziada, Reem M; Mohamady, Aziza H

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the known adverse effects of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide, little is known about its hepatopancreatic intoxication effects. The present study was carried out to elucidate sub-chronic effect of Karat 2.5% EC formulation of lambda cyhalothrin on male albino rats. Methods: To explore the effects of exposure to lambda cyhalothrin on rats and its mechanism, low (1/40 of LD50, 5 mg/kg/day) and high dose (1/4 of LD50, 50 mg/kg/day) lambda cyhalothrin were applied to rats via dr...

  3. Clinical and pathological studies on intoxication in horses from freshly cut Jimson weed (Datura stramonium-contaminated maize intended for ensiling : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Binev

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous intoxication in 34 horses after ingesting freshly harvested maize that was to be used for ensiling and heavily contaminated with young Datura stramonium plants, is described. The clinical status of all horses was monitored for 7 days, and included body (rectal temperature, respiratory and heart rates, colour and moistness of visible mucosae, changes in pupil size, appetite, thirst, general behaviour, locomotion, sensory perceptions, urination and defaecation. The intoxication was accompanied by altered clinical status, namely mild hyperthermia, tachycardia, polypnoea, dyspnoea and shallow breathing, mydriasis, dry oral, rectal, vaginal and nasal mucosae, acute gastric dilatation and severe intestinal gas accumulation, anorexia to complete refusal of feed, decreased or absent thirst, absence of defaecation and urination. As a result of the treatment, the clinical parameters normalised between days 2 and 5. Necropsies and pathological studies were performed on two horses that died, revealing toxic liver dystrophy, cardiac lesions and substantial dystrophic and necrotic processes in the kidneys. The observed clinical signs, the pathomorphological changes and the applied therapy could be used in the diagnosis, differential diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of Jimson weed intoxication.

  4. Acute Respiratory Failure in Acute Poisoning by Neutrotropic Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Lodyagin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of methods for diagnosing and treating critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF in acute poisoning by neurotropic substances. Subjects and methods. Two hundred and thirty-three patients with acute severe intoxication with neurotropic poisons were examined. All the patients were admitted for toxic-hypoxic coma and ARF; in this connection all the patients underwent artificial ventilation (AV. The patients were divided into 3 groups: 1 those in whom the traditional treatments (AV, detoxifying therapy, and infusional and cardiotropic support could restore the basic parameters of vital functions, as judged from the recovered oxygenation index; these patients had no metabolic shifts; 2 those who had signs of pulmonary hyperhydration, low cardiac output and moderate metabolic disorders, as suggested by elevated lactate levels; 3 seriously ill patients in whom the interval between the time of poisoning to care delivery was more than 20 hours; the patients of this group had the most significant metabolic disorders. Results. Correction of ARF in critically ill patients with acute poisoning should include, in addition to the rational parameters of AV and detoxifying therapy, agents for targeted therapy for sequels of hypoxia and energy deficiency states. For maximally rapid and effective oxygen transport recovery, the addition of perfluorane to the complex therapy cardinally improves the results of treatment and reduces mortality rates. Conclusion. The complexity of the pathogenesis of ARF and its sequels is a ground for diagnosing and correcting not only ventilation disturbances, but also pulmonary microcirculatory disorders and metabolic disturbances. Key words: acute intoxication with neu-rotropic poisons, acute respiratory failure, pulmonary hyperhydration, hypoxia, metabolic disturbances.

  5. A case of acute hepatitis following mad honey ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Sari Dogan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute hepatitis is characterized by liver inflammation and liver cell necrosis. The most frequently observed underlying cause thereof is viruses, but various other causes, such as alcohol, medication, or toxins may also lead thereto.In this paper, a case of acute hepatitis presenting with bradycardia, hypotension, and a prominent increase in liver enzymes following mad honey ingestion is discussed. Since there are only few cases of acute hepatitis following mad honey ingestion in the literature, we want to present this subject matter. Keywords: Mad honey poisoning, Mad honey intoxication, Bradycardia, Hypotension, Acute hepatitis

  6. Regulatory Self-efficacy as a Moderator of Peer Socialization Relating to Italian Adolescents' Alcohol Intoxication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabaglietti, E.; Burk, W.J.; Giletta, M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated regulatory self-efficacy (RSE) as a predictor of friendship and adolescent alcohol intoxication and as a moderator of peer socialization processes related to alcohol intoxication. The longitudinal sample included 457 Italian adolescents (262 females and 195 males)

  7. 49 CFR 384.221 - Out-of-service regulations (intoxicating beverage).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Out-of-service regulations (intoxicating beverage...) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... Compliance by States § 384.221 Out-of-service regulations (intoxicating beverage). The State shall adopt, and...

  8. Identification and initial management of intoxication by alcohol and other drugs in the pediatric emergency room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Gatti Pianca

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: The diagnosis and treatment of intoxication by alcohol and other drugs in adolescents and children in the emergency scenario requires a systematic evaluation of the use of these drugs. There are few specific treatments for intoxication, and the management comprehends support measures and management of related clinical complications.

  9. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy may overcome nitric oxide blockage during cyanide intoxication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polzik, Peter; Hansen, Marco Bo; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the effects of a blockade of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis on hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) therapy during cyanide (CN) intoxication. METHODS: 39 anesthetized female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to CN intoxication (5.4 mg/kg intra-arterially) with or without previous nitric oxide...

  10. Current status of rodenticide intoxication in Brazil: a preliminary survey from 2009 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Papini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical control of rodents with anticoagulant products, especially derivatives of the coumarin chemical group, is legally authorised in Brazil. These products provide effective control and are safe for humans. However, the use of illegal 'rodenticides' has increased in many Brazilian cities recently, accompanied by increased numbers of suicides, homicides, and intoxications. The National Toxicology Information System (Sinitox registers the number of rodenticide intoxications, including suicides, but does not differentiate between the legal and illegal rodenticides. Intoxications by rodenticides outnumber those by illicit drugs and pesticides. A survey of data from 2005-2011 revealed an average of about 3,800 intoxications per year, about 60% of which were suicides. Many of these intoxications probably involved illegal rodenticides, some with unknown chemical compositions, which confound the data on rodenticide intoxication. This evaluation of Sinitox data highlighted the need to ensure the proper use of the term 'rodenticide' when registering intoxication cases. Intoxication by-products that are not rodenticides, but are erroneously used for this purpose, should be classified separately to improve the quality of information.

  11. Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) intoxication: an important cause of consciousness disturbance in patients with renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-Tung; Chen, Yung-Chang; Fang, Ji-Tseng; Huang, Chiu-Ching

    2002-05-01

    Star fruit intoxication is a rare cause of consciousness disturbance in patients with renal failure. Most cases in the literature are uremic patients on maintenance dialysis. We present a patient with chronic renal failure, who was not on dialysis program yet, suffered from star fruit intoxication with presentation of consciousness disturbance and successfully managed by a session of hemodialysis.

  12. Haemodialysis followed by continuous veno-venous haemodiafiltration in lithium intoxication; a model and a case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meertens, John H J M; Jagernath, Danny R; Eleveld, Douglas J; Zijlstra, Jan G; Franssen, Casper F M

    2009-01-01

    For severe lithium intoxication haemodialysis is recommended to lower serum lithium levels rapidly. Frequently, serum lithium levels rebound after dialysis and repeated dialysis is needed. This is the first report of an adult patient with severe lithium intoxication who underwent haemodialysis (HD)

  13. Intoxicated workers: findings from a national Australian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidd, Ken; Roche, Ann M; Buisman-Pijlman, Femke

    2011-09-01

    To identify prevalence of alcohol and drug use and intoxication at work. A total of 9,828 Australian workers ≥14 years old. Australia 2007. Work-place alcohol use and drug use, intoxication at work, industry and occupation of employment. Secondary analysis of a large nationally representative survey involving descriptive and weighted multivariate logistic regressions. Differential patterns were identified by drug type, worker characteristics and occupational setting, controlling for demographic variables. Nearly 9% of workers surveyed (8.7%) usually drank alcohol at work and 0.9% usually used drugs at work. Attending work under the influence of alcohol was more prevalent (5.6%) than attending work under the influence of drugs (2.0%), and significantly more likely among young, male, never married workers with no dependent children. Hospitality industry workers were 3.5 times more likely than other workers to drink alcohol and two to three times more likely to use drugs at work or attend work under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Other high-risk industries and occupations included construction, financial services, tradespersons and unskilled workers. More than one in 20 Australian workers admit to having worked under the influence of alcohol and almost one in 50 report attending work under the influence of psychoactive drugs. The rates are higher for some industries, such as the hospitality industry, than others. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Clinical prognosis of patients with diagnosed chronic solvent intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juntunen, J; Antti-Poika, M; Tola, S; Partanen, T

    1982-05-01

    The clinical symptoms and signs of 80 patients with chronic organic solvent intoxication were evaluated after 3-9 years (mean 5.8 years) of follow-up. Thirty-one of the patients had slight clinical neurological signs at the time of diagnosis while the rest of the patients had only neurophysiological or psychological disturbances. The most common subjective symptoms were headache, tiredness and memory disturbances. Of the clinical signs, disturbances occurred frequently in cerebellar functions, gait and station and fine motorics. In addition, psycho-organic alteration and neurasthenic signs were often found. After the follow-up clinical signs of impairment in the nervous system were present in 42 cases. At the group level, the subjective symptoms decreased during the follow-up but the objective clinical signs increased and worsened. Only the prognosis of disturbances in gait and station correlated with the duration and intensity of exposure. The present results emphasize the great difficulties arising in occupational neurology regarding chronic organic solvent intoxications. No clear-cut clinical picture exists and reliable estimation of prognosis in general cannot be made on the basis of the present knowledge.

  15. DO SOBER EYEWITNESSES OUTPERFORM ALCOHOL INTOXICATED EYEWITNESSES IN A LINEUP?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Fahlke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although alcohol intoxicated eyewitnesses are common, there are only a few studies in the area. The aim of the current study is to investigate how different doses of alcohol affect eyewitness lineup identification performance. The participants (N = 123 were randomly assigned to a 3 [Beverage: control (0.0 g/kg ethanol vs. lower (0.4 g/kg ethanol vs. higher alcohol dose (0.7 g/kg ethanol] X 2 (Lineup: target-present vs. target-absent between-subject design. Participants consumed two glasses of beverage at an even pace for 15 minutes. Five minutes after consumption the participants witnessed a film depicting a staged kidnapping. Seven days later, the participants returned to the laboratory and were asked to identify the culprit in a simultaneous lineup. The result showed that overall, the participants performed better than chance; however, their lineup performance was poor. There were no significant effects of alcohol intoxication with respect to performance, neither in target-present nor target-absent lineups. The study’s results suggest that eyewitnesses who have consumed a lower (0.4 g/kg ethanol or a higher (0.7 g/kg ethanol dose of alcohol perform at the same level as sober eyewitnesses in a lineup. The results are discussed in relation to the alcohol myopia theory and suggestions for future research are made.

  16. [Minoxidil intoxication, the pharmacological agent of a hair lotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprahamian, A; Escoda, S; Patteau, G; Merckx, A; Chéron, G

    2011-12-01

    Accidental intoxications in children are frequent but most of them are without serious consequences. We describe herein the case of a young girl who drank 100 mg of a topical hair lotion with minoxidil. On arrival, she had no symptoms except flush on the face and ears. Four and half hours after ingestion, tachycardia appeared with a pulse above 170 beats per min with hypotension at 76/24 mmHg. The heart rate remained between 170 and 190 beats per min for 12 h and then lowered to between 140 and 160 beats per min. Thirty-six hours after ingestion, the heart beat was at 140 beats per min. Minoxidil is a strong vasodilator used first in the 1970s for severe hypertension. It produces hypotension by direct arteriolar vasodilatation. Only a few cases of minoxidil intoxication have been described in the literature, including only one pediatric case. This young boy had only tachycardia of 160 beats per min for 40 h. Most serious cases have been described in adults. They suffered long-lasting tachycardia, hypotension, and ECG changes. Most patients need a bolus of normal saline fluid and some with hemodynamic problems need vasoactive drugs such as dopamine and/or phenylephrine. All patients need to be under medical supervision for a long time because of the product's very long action. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Hepatopancreatic intoxication of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide on albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhalwagy, Manal Ea; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Nahas, A A; Ziada, Reem M; Mohamady, Aziza H

    2015-01-01

    Despite the known adverse effects of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide, little is known about its hepatopancreatic intoxication effects. The present study was carried out to elucidate sub-chronic effect of Karat 2.5% EC formulation of lambda cyhalothrin on male albino rats. To explore the effects of exposure to lambda cyhalothrin on rats and its mechanism, low (1/40 of LD50, 5 mg/kg/day) and high dose (1/4 of LD50, 50 mg/kg/day) lambda cyhalothrin were applied to rats via drinking water for 3 months. Blood samples were collected monthly, and the animals were dissected for liver and pancreas's examination at the end of the experiment. Lambda cyhalothrin administration was associated with the elevation in lipid peroxidation marker, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduction in SH-protein a major marker for antioxidant, as well as basel paraoxonase (PON) in both treated groups throughout the experimental periods. In addition, significant elevations in liver enzymes alanin amino transferase, (ALT), and aspartate amino transferase (AST), as well as plasma acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glucose level. While, significant reduction in insulin level through the experimental periods. Results of histopathological and histochemical studies showed that lambda cyhalothrin exposure induces liver and pancreatic tissues damage and depletion in glycogen content was pronounced in liver of both treated groups. In conclusion subchronic intoxication with lambda cyhalothrin formulation induced remarkable changes in the examined parameters.

  18. Intoxications aigues aux organophosphores chez la femme enceinte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhoumi, Mohamed Hafed; Bannour, Badra; Barhoumi, Tarek; Jouini, Rami; Marwene, Nadia; Fatnassi, Mohamed Ridha

    2016-01-01

    Les intoxications aiguës par les pesticides organophosphorés (OP) au cours de la grossesse sont des événements rares, peu décrites dans la littérature. A travers cette étude rétrospective, nous rapportons les résultats de sept cas d’ingestion suicidaire d’OP chez des femmes enceintes. Cette intoxication était le plus souvent grave. En effet, cinq des sept parturientes avaient un Glasgow initial des cas elle était défavorable pour le fœtus (mort fœtal in utéro). Deux mécanismes peuvent expliquer ces complications fœtales. Le premier est l’hypoxie fœtale associée ou non à un état de choc qui peuvent se traduire au niveau du RCF par une tachycardie ou des décélérations et aboutir ainsi à un décès in utero. Le deuxième mécanisme est le passage de ces pesticides à travers la barrière placentaire, ce qui pose un risque potentiel pour le fœtus par altération des systèmes enzymatiques des microsomes. PMID:28293343

  19. The delphic oracle and the ethylene-intoxication hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J; Lehoux, D

    2007-01-01

    An interdisciplinary team of scientists--including an archeologist, a geologist, a chemist, and a toxicologist--has argued that ethylene intoxication was the probable cause of the High Priestess of Delphi's divinatory (mantic) trances. The claim that the High Priestess of Delphi entered a mantic state because of ethylene intoxication enjoyed widespread reception in specialist academic journals, science magazines, and newspapers. This article uses a similar interdisciplinary approach to show that this hypothesis is implausible since it is based on problematic scientific and textual evidence, as well as a fallacious argument. The main issue raised by this counterargument is not that a particular scientific hypothesis or conjecture turned out to be false. (This is expected in scientific investigation.) Rather, the main issue is that it was a positivist disposition that originally led readers to associate the evidence presented in such a way that it seemed to point to the conclusion, even when the evidence did not support the conclusion. We conclude by observing that positivist dispositions can lead to the acceptance of claims because they have a scientific form, not because they are grounded in robust evidence and sound argument.

  20. Clinical and Pathological Findings on Intoxication by Yellow Phosphorus After Ingesting Firework Cracker: A Rare Case of Autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkmen Şamdanci, Emine; Çakir, Ebru; Şahin, Nurhan; Elmali, Candan; Sayin, Sadegül

    2016-01-01

    Yellow phosphorus is a toxic substance used in the production of firework cracker, fireworks, ammunition and agricultural dung. When ingested, it shows its effects mainly in the liver, the kidneys, and the brain. A four-year-old girl had died as a result of acute hepatic failure caused by ingesting a firework cracker. The case showed high levels of hepatic enzymes, along with non-specific signs such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Autopsy revealed diffuse microvesicular steatosis in the liver and disseminated degeneration in the proximal tubules of the kidneys. In cases with concomitant hepatorenal failure and cardiovascular collapse, death is inevitable. However, when only hepatic failure develops, hepatic transplantation may be lifesaving. Although intoxication from ingesting yellow phosphorus has a very high rate of mortality, forensic cases are extremely rare in the literature.

  1. Assessment of hepatoprotective role of Eucalyptus tereticornis leaf extract in Rattus norvegicus after vanadium intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, Prabhu N.; Shukla, Aparna; Saxena, Nishi; Arya, Jyoti

    2010-01-01

    The protective effect of Eucalyptus tereticornis leaf extract and its potency has been compared with Liv.52 following V 2 O 5 , induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. LD 50 estimated for V 2 O 5 , was 69.6 mg/kg b.wt. The administered doses of V 2 O 5 , were LD 50 /10 th for acute and 1/7 th , 1/14 th and 1/21 th of sublethal dose for subacute (7, 14 and 21 ds) respectively. Body weight, liver weight and hepatosomatic index were assessed. Hepatotoxicity was assessed in terms of hepatic total proteins, total lipids and total cholesterol. V 2 O 5 intoxication significantly increased liver weight, hepatosomatic index, total lipids and total cholesterol, while significantly decreased body weight and total proteins. Pretreatment with dose of 100 mg/kg b.wt of Eucalyptus tereticornis leaf extract and 0.125 ml/kg b.wt. of Liv.52 syrup restored the increased liver weight, hepatosomatic index, total lipids and total cholesterol and decreased parameters like body weight and total proteins toward normalcy. The results reveal that Eucalyptus tereticornis leaf extract modulates V 2 O 5 toxicity like well known hepatoprotectant, however the modulation is less than Liv.52. (author)

  2. CLINICAL PROFILE OF CHILDREN PRESENTING WITH INTOXICATION ON EMERGENCY DEPARTEMENT SOETOMO HOSPITAL IN 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Dharmawati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute poisoning in children is an important pediatric emergency and is a world wide problem, the majority of these poisoning incidents are unintentional and preventable. Based on data from WHO, the mortality of children under 4 years varies between 0.3–7% per 100,000 population in some countries in the world. The incidence, clinical profile and the type of poison and the output of poisoning cases in children in Surabaya until now there is no definitive data. The objective of the study was to study the clinical profile and outcome of childhood poisoning and intoxication in Soetomo hospital. Method: Design used in the study was a retrospective study done in children between 1 month and 18 years old of age who were admitted in emergency departement Soetomo hospital with diagnosis of acute poisoning between January until Desember 2012. Patients were profiled according to age, sex, poison consume and outcome. Result: There were 12 patients enrolled in the study. Male: female ratio was 2:1. The mean age of presentation was 53 months. Hydrocarbon poisoning was the commonest poisoning seen in (41.7% patients followed by organophospat (33.3% poisoning. During treatment, 58.3% received antibiotics, 25% patients who poisoning with organophosphat received antidots and 50% from all sample received antagonist histamin H2 because of stomached. Overall survival was 91,6%. Discussion: Hydrocarbon is the commonest agent involved in childhood poisoning. Overall, the outcome is good with 91,6% survival in our hospital.

  3. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet İbrahim Turan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of death following attempted suicide and accidental exposures. Although clinical presentation depends on the duration and the intensity of exposure, the assessment of the severity of intoxication is difficult. A small percentage of patients who show complete initial recovery may develop delayed neurological deficits. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning is a rare and poor prognosis neurologic disorders and there is no specific treatment. We present a case with early onset of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning with typical cranial imaging findings in a child with atypical history and clinical presentation.

  4. Plasma carnitine concentrations after chronic alcohol intoxication 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Kępka

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carnitine transports fatty acids from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial matrix, where the fatty acids are oxidized. Chronic alcohol consumption reduces the concentration of carnitine and interferes with oxidative processes occurring in the cell.Aim: The assessment of carnitine concentrations in plasma of chronically intoxicated alcohol dependent persons in a 49-day abstinence period.Material/Methods: The study included 31 patients (5 women and 27 men aged from 26 to 60 years (44.6± 8.9 and 32 healthy subjects (15 women and 17 men aged 22-60 years (39.8± 9.4. The patients’ alcohol dependence ranged from 2 to 30 years (13.6± 7.5. Examined subjects consumed 75-700 g of ethanol/day (226.9± 151.5. Plasma concentrations of free and total carnitine were measured three times: at the first (T0, 30th (T30 and 49th (T49 day of hospital detoxification. Free (FC and total (TC carnitine were determined by the spectrophotometric method. Plasma acylcarnitine (AC concentration was calculated from the difference between TC and FC; then the AC/FC ratio was calculated. To determine statistically significant differences for related variables, Student’s t-test was used.Results: At T0, alcoholics had significantly lower concentration of FC and TC (p < 0.05 in plasma, as compared to the control group. In comparison to controls, at T30, plasma TC and FC (p < 0.01 as well as AC (p < 0.001 were reduced. The lowest concentration of TC, FC and AC (p < 0.001was found at T49. The ratio of AC/FC at T0 had a tendency to be higher in alcoholics than in the control group (p = 0.05, whereas at T49 it was significantly lower in alcoholics as compared to the control subjects (p < 0.05.Conclusions: Chronic alcohol intoxication causes a plasma deficiency of carnitine. Forty-nine days of abstinence showed a significant decrease in the concentration of TC, FC and AC. Further research is necessary to clarify whether a low level of plasma carnitine

  5. [Carbohydrates metabolism disturbances when simulating prenatal alcohol intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurch, N M; Vysokogorskiĭ, V E

    2013-01-01

    The influence of prenatal alcohol intoxication on carbohydrate metabolism markers has been investigated at different terms of postnatal offspring development (15, 30 and 60 days). Plasma glucose decreased as compared with the same in control group was detected. In the liver homogenates an increase of phosphorylase activity and a decrease of glucose-6-phosphatase, aldolase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities were found. These changes were accompanied by the incease in the lactate/pyruvate index attributed to increased lactate content in the liver tissue. The obtained data indicate essential disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism markers in prenatal alcoholized offspring, which include stable hypoglycemia, suppression of glycolytic and pentosephosphate pathways of glucose metabolism and lactate accumulation in the liver.

  6. Lead intoxication under environmental hypoxia impairs oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrizzi, Antonela R; Fernandez-Solari, Javier; Lee, Ching M; Martínez, María Pilar; Conti, María Ines

    2014-01-01

    We have reported that chronic lead intoxication under hypoxic environment induces alveolar bone loss that can lead to periodontal damage with the subsequent loss of teeth. The aim of the present study was to assess the modification of oral inflammatory parameters involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis in the same experimental model. In gingival tissue, hypoxia increased inducible nitric oxid synthase (iNOS) activity (p lead decreased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) content (p lead and PGE2 content was increased by both lead and hypoxia (p lead under hypoxic conditions. Results suggest a wide participation of inflammatory markers that mediate alveolar bone loss induced by these environmental conditions. The lack of information regarding oral health in lead-contaminated populations that coexist with hypoxia induced us to evaluate the alteration of inflammatory parameters in rat oral tissues to elucidate the link between periodontal damage and these environmental conditions.

  7. [Fatal flecainide intoxication in a 17-year-old girl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokter, M; Talarico, G; Armbrust, S; Below, E; Bockholdt, B

    2018-05-01

    A 17-year-old girl was found vomiting and somnolent at home and was taken to a hospital. The girl initially presented with ventricular tachycardia with broad QRS complexes which was very difficult to control. During the course a subsequent cardiogenic shock developed and despite exhaustion of all therapeutic options the fatal outcome could not be averted. The medicolegal autopsy revealed no evidence of any form of violence but the signs of medical treatment. Furthermore, no pathology of internal organs was detected. The toxicological analyses revealed a lethal intoxication with flecainide as the cause of death. The investigations of the police indicated that the girl took flecainide in suicidal intention.

  8. Salicylate removal by charcoal heamoperfusion in experimental intoxication in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookings, C.H.; Ramsey, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The removal of salicylate by extracorporeal circulation of blood through a column of encapsulated charcoal (haemoperfusion) has been studied experimentally in intoxicated dogs (greyhounds). The average time taken to reduce the whole blood salicylate level to one-half of the initial equilibrium level in 30 kg dogs was 2 hrs. A half-life of 3 hrs is predicted for salicylate removal by haemoperfusion in a 70 kg man and this rate of removal is shown to be comparable to that reported for haemodialysis. No unacceptable adverse physiological, biochemical, or haematological effects were found to result from haemoperfusion. The possible use of this technique in the management of severe salicylate poisoning in man is discussed. Haemoperfusion is foreseen as providing a method of rapid removal of salicylate in circumstances where forced diuresis is contra-indicated or inadequate and haemodialysis is not readily available. (orig.) [de

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Chronic Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durak, A. C.; Coskun, A.; Yikilmaz, A.; Erdogan, F.; Mavili, E.; Guven, M. [Hospital of Erciyes Univ., Kayseri (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: To define the cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of the chronic stage of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in patients with and without neuropsychiatric sequelae. Material and Methods: Eight patients who had neither symptoms nor neurological sequelae and eight patients with neuropsychiatric sequelae were included in the study. Patients aged between 9 to 57 (mean 32.2 years). All patients had been comatose at initial admittance and awoke after normobaric 100% oxygen therapy within 1-7 days. In this study, the patients were being examined with routine cranial MRI between 1 and 10 years (mean 3.4 years) after exposure to CO. Results: The most common finding was bilateral symmetric hyperintensity of the white matter, which was more significant in the centrum semiovale, with relative sparing of the temporal lobes and anterior parts of the frontal lobes on T2-weighted and FLAIR images in all patients. Cerebral cortical atrophy was seen in 10 patients; mild atrophy of cerebellar hemispheres in 8; and vermian atrophy in 11. Corpus callosum was atrophic in one patient. Bilateral globus pallidus lesions were seen in three patients. The lesions were hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted and FLAIR images. Conclusion: Patients with severe CO intoxication may develop persistent cerebral changes independently of their neuropsychiatric findings in the chronic stage. They may present with characteristic MRI findings as described here, even if asymptomatic. The history of CO exposure is therefore helpful for recognizing and interpreting the MRI findings of chronic stage CO intoxication.

  10. Foodborne infections and intoxications in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polański, Piotr; Ostrek, Joanna; Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to assess the epidemiological situation of food poisonings and infections in Poland in 2013. The evaluation was based on the analysis of information from reports of epidemiological investigations in outbreaks of food poisonings and infections, submitted by the sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology, NIZP-PZH annual bulletins (Czarkowski MP et al. "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland", 2006-2013. Warsaw, NIPH-NIH and GIS). In 2013 a further decrease in the number of infections and intoxications with bacterial etiology and an increase in the infections of viral etiology was observed. Furthermore 2013 is another year with low number of cases of trichinellosis (9 cases in total). In 2013 a total number of 491 foodborne infections and intoxications outbreaks were reported in which there were 29,179 persons exposed and 5,664 (including 2 193 children up to 14 years of age) persons ill. Hospitalization was required for 1,445 persons. The most frequent etiological agent in those outbreaks was Salmonella spp.--which was responsible for 36,3% of outbreaks and 21,5% of cases. Viruses were responsible for 29,7 of outbreaks and 45,7 cases, in 19,3% of outbreaks no etiological agent was established. Like in 2012 the most frequent vehicle were dishes made from eggs and milk combined with eggs (9,4% of outbreaks). In 65% of outbreaks reported no vehicle could be found. Moreover in 2013 a total number of 3 outbreaks in which more than 100 cases were reported. The increase in the number of foodborne outbreaks of viral etiology shows the need of adjustment some aspects of epidemiological investigations especially such features as: laboratory conformation of etiological agent of ill persons as well as persons involved in the food processing and meals preparing and the aspect of food samples testing.

  11. Foodborne infections and intoxications in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrek, Joanna; Baumann-Popczyk, Anna; Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to assess the epidemiological situation of foodborne infections and intoxications in Poland in 2012. The evaluation was based on analysis of information from reports of epidemiological investigations in foodborne outbreaks, submitted by the sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology, NIZP-PZH annual bulletins (Czarkowski MP et al. "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland", 2006-2012. Warsaw, NIPH-NIH and CSI). In Poland in 2012 there was observed decrease in the number of infections intoxications both of bacterial and viral origin. It was recorded only one case of trichinellosis. There were reported 491 outbreaks of foodborne poisonings or infections included 5 774 people, among them 718 children 1-14 years old. Out of them 1 364 people were hospitalized. Unlike last year, the predominant etiological agent in those outbreaks were zoonotic Salmonella serotypes which caused 38.1% outbreaks and 26.7% outbreak cases. The viruses have caused 27.1% of outbreaks and 36.2% of cases. In 23.8% of outbreaks etiological agent has not been established. Most often the settings of an outbreak was a private household - 236 outbreaks and a hospital (84 outbreaks). As in previous years, the most common vehicle of infection were foods prepared with milk and eggs -11.8% of outbreaks and egg dishes - 9.0%. In 57.6% of oubreaks vehicle of infection has not been established. Among outbreaks reported in 2012, there were 4 which involved more than 100 people. In 163 outbreaks of food items had been tested and in 33% of them the results were positive. The increasing negative results of bacteriological examinations of food items, suggested necessity to start testing food contamination with viruses.

  12. Peripheral markers of oxidative stress in chronic mercuric chloride intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez L.L.P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the time course changes in peripheral markers of oxidative stress in a chronic HgCl2 intoxication model. Twenty male adult Wistar rats were treated subcutaneously daily for 30 days and divided into two groups of 10 animals each: Hg, which received HgCl2 (0.16 mg kg-1 day-1, and control, receiving the same volume of saline solution. Blood was collected at the first, second and fourth weeks of Hg administration to evaluate lipid peroxidation (LPO, total radical trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP, and superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and catalase (CAT. HgCl2 administration induced a rise (by 26% in LPO compared to control (143 ± 10 cps/mg hemoglobin in the second week and no difference was found at the end of the treatment. At that time, GST and GPx were higher (14 and 24%, respectively in the Hg group, and Cu,Zn-SOD was lower (54% compared to control. At the end of the treatment, Cu,Zn-SOD and CAT were higher (43 and 10%, respectively in the Hg group compared to control (4.6 ± 0.3 U/mg protein; 37 ± 0.9 pmol/mg protein, respectively. TRAP was lower (69% in the first week compared to control (43.8 ± 1.9 mM Trolox. These data provide evidence that HgCl2 administration is accompanied by systemic oxidative damage in the initial phase of the process, which leads to adaptive changes in the antioxidant reserve, thus decreasing the oxidative injury at the end of 30 days of HgCl2 administration. These results suggest that a preventive treatment with antioxidants would help to avoid oxidative damage in subjects with chronic intoxication.

  13. COMPARISON OF THREE SHORT-TERM IMMOBILIZATION REGIMES IN WILD VERREAUX'S SIFAKAS (PROPITHECUS VERREAUXI): KETAMINE-XYLAZINE, KETAMINE-XYLAZINE-ATROPINE, AND TILETAMINE-ZOLAZEPAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Andrea; Razafimanantsoa, Léonard; Fichtel, Claudia; Kappeler, Peter M

    2015-09-01

    Although research on lemurid primates in Madagascar has been ongoing for several decades, reports on different drug regimes to immobilize wild lemurs are limited. This study compares the efficacy, reliability, and side effects of ketamine-xylazine, ketamine-xylazine-atropine, and tiletamine-zolazepam immobilization in wild Verreaux's sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi). In the course of a long-term study in Kirindy Forest, western Madagascar, eight animals each received a mixture of ketamine (5.32±1.71 mg/kg) and xylazine (0.56±0.19 mg/kg) (KX; 7 males, 1 female) and ketamine (6.58±1.36 mg/kg), xylazine (1.28±0.28 mg/kg), and atropine (0.013±0.003 mg/kg) (KXA; 5 males, 3 females), respectively, and 14 individuals received tiletamine-zolazepam (7.73±1.37 mg/kg) (TZ; 9 males, 5 females). Induction was smooth in all protocols, but showed considerable variation in duration when animals had received KXA. Immobilization as well as recovery lasted significantly longer with TZ than with KX (Pimmobilized with TZ. Heart rate measurement at 10 min after onset of complete immobilization yielded significantly higher values if the animals had been immobilized with TZ compared to KX (Pimmobilized animals, whereas immobilization with TZ resulted in an increase in heart rate. The results suggest that KX produces good, but short, immobilization in Verreaux's sifakas at approximately 5 mg/kg ketamine and 0.5 mg/kg xylazine and a smoother and shorter recovery phase than 5 to 10 mg/kg TZ, whereas adding atropine to KX did not provide any benefits.

  14. Salade malade: malignant ventricular arrhythmias due to an accidental intoxication with Aconitum napellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijters, B J; Verbunt, R J A M; Hoogsteen, J; Visser, R F

    2008-01-01

    Intoxication with Aconitum napellus is rare in our regions. Aconite alkaloids can cause ventricular arrhythmia by a prolonged activation of sodium channels. Because the margin of safety is low between the analgesic and toxic dose, intoxication is not rare when Aconite is used in herbal medicine. We present a case in which a 39-year-old male was accidentally intoxicated with Aconite. Even though no antidote or adequate therapy is available he was successfully resuscitated. (Neth Heart J 2008;16:96-9.).

  15. Drinking game participation, gender performance and normalization of intoxication among Nigerian university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka Dumbili

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: DGs appear to normalize heavy drinking and the culture of intoxication on this campus. Measures to monitor alcohol sales outlets around campuses and interventions that target students' leisure spaces should be developed.

  16. Adolescent alcohol intoxication in the dutch hospital departments of pediatrics: A 2-year comparison study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, J.J. van; Lely, N. van der; Bouthoorn, S.H.; Dalen, W.E. van; Pereira, R.R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To monitor the prevalence of, and the circumstances leading to, adolescent alcohol intoxication admissions in Dutch hospital departments of pediatrics. Methods: Data were collected in 2007 and 2008, using the Dutch Pediatric Surveillance System, in which pediatricians received

  17. Is Central Europe Safe from Environmental Lead Intoxications? A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelclová, Daniela; Šťastná, Jana; Vlčková, Štěpánka; Vlček, Kamil; Urban, Michal; Laštovková, Andrea; Doležel, Zdeněk

    2016-06-01

    Preventive measures in Central Europe were successful in suppressing both occupational and environmental lead exposure so that they did not constitute a severe public health problem. However, rare lead intoxications still appear. We report on lead intoxication in four family members where the source was removed lead ceiling paint. The symptoms of the lead intoxication started several weeks after removal and the inhalational exposure to the minimum dust residues lasted for more than three months before the poisoning was diagnosed. Father developed anaemia and saturnine colics. He and his two daughters received antidotal treatment which had to be repeated in the children. Finally, all recovered completely.Lead intoxication may be easily overlooked due to the unspecific symptoms. It is necessary to think of this rare poisoning which may be caused by old paints, historical ceramics and lead shots, in addition to commercial products imported from abroad. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.

  18. [How to distinguish between illness, injury or intoxication in the emergency unit?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nore, A K; Ommundsen, O E; Steine, S

    2001-03-30

    Clinical judgement of intoxicated patients is difficult. In the emergency department of the inner city of Oslo this is done every day. During a one-year period from 1998-99, a group of 429 first-time admitted intoxicated patients were included in a study. The patients and the method of observation are described. 75% of the patients were men; 45% reported to have consumed alcohol only, while 10% had taken a heroin overdose. The rest had used various combinations of legal and illegal drugs. Female patients were younger than male patients (29 versus 36 years, p intoxicated only on alcohol were on the average older than patients who had taken drugs (38 versus 31 years, p intoxicated patients.

  19. Ultrastructural changes in the liver following chronic experimental intoxication with benzine and ethyline vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonek, J.; Przybylowski, J.; Gryzbek, H.; Podolecki, A.; Pacholek, A.

    1978-01-01

    The livers of two groups of rabbits exposed to longer lasting intoxidation, one with benzine vapors and the other one with ethyline vapors, were subjected to examination in an electron microscope twice; immediately after the completion of intoxication and then 3 months later. In both groups there were found: dilatation of the perinuclear spaces, a symptom of nucleolus segregation, dilation of the ergastoplasm, features of cristolysis of mitochondria and the absence of glycogen. These changes were more intensive in the animals intoxicated with ethyline. 3 months after the completion of the process of petrol intoxication the following was observed: persistence of the majority of the changes as well as accumulation of glycogen and hypertrophy of the smooth endoplasmatic reticulum. These changes were more intensified in animals intoxicated with ethyline.

  20. EFFECTS OF THE LITHIUM – CONTAINING SORBENT ON TERMS OF BEHAVIORAL REACTIONS UNDER CHRONIC ALCOHOL INTOXICATION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kotlyarova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithium preparations are widely used for stabilize mood in case of bipolar affective disorder. Currently neuroprotective and neuroregenerative effects of lithium are of interest as in case of acute brain injury, also in chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia, alcoholism, Alzheimer disease, etc. [1–5]. In clinical practice use of lithium preparations is limited due to difficult adjustment of drug dosage, necessity of monitoring its concentration in blood, side effects development as a result of accumulation of lithium in a body. For the purpose of improvement of pharmacologic properties lithium is combined with other agents (for example modifying sorbent thus it can produce longer-term and more harmless (less side reactions effect in the long view. Lithium immobilization on sorption basis will allow to use sorbent as detoxicant and carrying agent of drugs to body. The purpose of the work is studying the effect of the lithium – containing sorbent on terms of behavioral reactions under chronic alcohol intoxication model.Materials and methods. During the work we used nonlinear mice – males, which weight 25–30 g (180 animals. Chronic alcohol intoxication was precipitated via 40% proof spirit injections (oral supplementation in quantity of 3 g/kg during 2 weeks, additionally mice drunk 5% proof spirit from drinking bowl. Each experimental group consisted of 10 animals. Study drugs were inserted inside while ethanol injecting. Control animals were inserted 0,9% salin solution. Emotional state of animals was assessed through forced swim test, short – term memory assessment was performed through conditioned passive avoidance reflex. Effect of chronic alcohol intoxication on the parameters of conditioned reflex activity was measured every 7 days.Results. It was found that the investigated lithium-containing sorbent increases: the number of mice are trained passive avoidance reflex, remembering percent of electric shock

  1. Épidémiologie de l'intoxication par envenimation chez les enfants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: L'intoxication par envenimation est l'ensemble des manifestations locales et générales induites par la pénétration dans l'organisme d'une substance toxique produite par un animal venimeux. Le but de notre travail était d'étudier les signes cliniques des intoxications par envenimation chez les enfants de 0 à 15 ...

  2. A Retrospective Analysis of Pediatric Patients Admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Service for Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Metin Uysalol; Ezgi Paslı Uysalol; Gamze Varol Saraçoğlu; Semra Kayaoğlu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study is to analyze the general aspects of cases with carbon monoxide intoxication in order to improve the approach to future patients. Material and Methods: The hospital records of 84 children (mean age 4.71±2.64 years; 48 male, 36 female) who had been admitted to Paediatric Emergency Department for carbon monoxide intoxication between October 2007 and February 2009, were retrospectively evaluated in a descriptive analysis.Results: The source of carbon monoxide into...

  3. Efficacy of the Tertiary Oxime Monoisonitrosoacetone (MINA) Against Lethal Sarin Intoxication in the Guinea Pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    Sarin 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Intoxication in the Guinea Pig 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Koplovitz, I and...efficacy of MINA as a treatment for lethal sarin (GB) intoxication in guinea pigs . Male animals were challenged subcutaneously (s.c.) with 2 LD50s...oximes that are readily able to enter the brain. 15. SUBJECT TERMS oximes, brain, sarin, reactivation, nerve agents, guinea pigs 16. SECURITY

  4. Intoxication as Feminist Pleasure: Drinking, Dancing, and Un-Dressing with/for Jenni Rivera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yessica Garcia Hernandez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In "Intoxication as Feminist Pleasure: Drinking, Dancing, and Un-Dressing with/for Jenni Rivera," Yessica Garcia Hernandez presents a subculture of unabashed, unambivalent, and unapologetic “wet” feminism. During the concerts of the Chicana singer, Jenni Rivera, intoxication is divorced from the pressures of respectability by both Rivera and her fans, who continue to celebrate the singer and her name brand tequila even after her death.

  5. Comparison between patient characteristics and cranial MR findings in chronic thinner intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchino, Akira; Kato, Akira; Yoshikai, Tomonori; Kudo, Sho; Yuzuriha, Takefumi; Hiejima, Shigeto; Murakami, Masaru; Endoh, Koichi; Takashima, Yuki

    2002-01-01

    Chronic thinner intoxication is one of the most serious social problems among teenagers and young adults in Japan. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical characteristics of patients with thinner intoxication who had positive MR findings. During the past 4 years, cranial MR imaging of 85 patients (51 males and 34 females) with chronic thinner intoxication was done at a national psychiatric hospital. The MR imaging was performed on a 1.0-T scanner with use of standard pulse sequences including fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR). The established characteristic MR findings of chronic thinner intoxication were observed in 8 of the 85 patients: 4 males and 4 females. The female patients tended toward emaciation and were approximately 5 years younger than the male patients. Six of the 8 patients had severe neurological symptoms such as cerebellar ataxia and decreased visual acuity. In contrast, only 3 of 77 (4%) patients with normal MR findings had mild neurological abnormalities such as tremor. If patients with chronic thinner intoxication have significant neurological symptoms, MR imaging should be performed for evaluation of brain abnormalities. Emaciated female patients may be particularly vulnerable to neurological damage caused by thinner intoxication. (orig.)

  6. Pathophysiological Features of Endogenous Intoxication in Pregnant Women with Arterial Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Kabanova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the nature and specific features of development of endogenous intoxication in pregnant women with arterial hypertension. Subjects and materials. Humoral extracellular fluid volume regulation, partial renal functions, placental hormonal function, membranous lipid peroxidation activity, antiradical defense, the parameters of central hemodynamics, endogenous intoxication, and a biochemical coagulogram were studied and differential blood count with the leukocytic ratio indices was estimated in 172 pregnant females with arterial hypertension and 54 healthy pregnant ones in the third trimester. The statistical package «Stadia» was applied. Results. Arterial hypertension caused by pregnancy was ascertained to involve pathogenetically different types: low-, normal-, and high-renin ones. In pregnant women with arterial hypertension, the general pathogenetic homeostatic changes were placental hormonal imbalance, activated membranous lipid peroxidation, impaired lymph outflow, sodium and water retention, hepatic and renal failure, and endogenous intoxication. Conclusion. Placental ischemia appearing as placental hormonal imbalance (extrarenal pressor system was accompanied by a compensatory humoral response: arterial hypertension and metabolic disturbances. Changes in medium-weight molecule 280, leukocytic intoxication index, erythrocytic sorption capacity, and Paramecium test, by confirming the presence of endogenous intoxication in pregnant females with arterial hypertension, were caused by a type of arterial hypertension (by the hemodynamic profile and the type of impaired partial renal functions. Key words: pregnancy, arterial hypertension, endogenous intoxication.

  7. HIV risk behaviors and alcohol intoxication among injection drug users in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Tomás D; Robles, Rafaela R; Sahai, Hardeo; Colón, Hector M; Reyes, Juan C; Marrero, C Amalia; Calderón, José M; Shepard, Elizabeth W

    2004-12-07

    This paper reports results of an analysis of the association between alcohol intoxication and injection and sexual HIV risk behaviors among 557 Hispanic heroin and cocaine injectors, not in treatment, who were recruited in poor communities in Puerto Rico. Subjects were part of a longitudinal prevention-intervention study aimed at reducing drug use and HIV risk behaviors. Participants reported a high prevalence of co-occurring conditions, particularly symptoms of severe depression (52%) and severe anxiety (37%), measured by Beck's Depression Index and Beck's Anxiety Index, respectively. Alcohol intoxication during the last 30 days was reported by 18% of participants. Associations were found between alcohol intoxication and both injection and sexual risk behaviors. In the bivariate analysis, subjects reporting alcohol intoxication were more likely to inject three or more times per day, pool money to buy drugs, share needles, and share cotton. They were also significantly more likely to have a casual or paying sex partner and to have unprotected sex with these partners. After adjustment, sharing needles and cotton, having sex with a paying partner or casual partner, and exchanging sex for money or drugs were significantly related to alcohol intoxication. HIV prevention programs, to be effective, must address alcohol intoxication and its relation to injection and sexual risk behaviors as a central issue in HIV prevention among drug injectors.

  8. Intoxication due to Papaver rhoeas (Corn Poppy: Five Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Kemal Günaydın

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In this paper, we aimed to present five Papaver rhoeas intoxication cases, which is very rare in the literature. Case 1. A 35-year-old female patient was admitted to our emergency room with the complaints of nausea, restlessness, and dyspnea developing 3 hours after eating Papaver rhoeas. On physical examination, her general condition was moderate; she was conscious and the vital findings were normal. The pupils were myotic. She was transferred to the toxicology intensive care unit as she experienced a generalized tonic clonic seizure lasting for three minutes. Case 2. A 41-year-old female patient was brought to our emergency room by 112 ambulance as she had contractions in her arms and legs, unconsciousness, and foam coming from her mouth two hours after Papaver rhoeas ingestion. On physical examination, she was confused, the pupils were myotic, and she was tachycardic. Arterial blood gases analysis revealed lactic acidosis. Case 3. A 38-year-old female patient was admitted to our emergency room with complaints of nausea and vomiting two hours after ingestion of Papaver rhoeas. Her physical examination and tests were normal. Case 4. A 34-year-old male patient was admitted to our emergency room with complaints of numbness and loss of power in his arms and legs one hour after Papaver rhoeas ingestion. He was hospitalized at the toxicology intensive care unit for follow-up and treatment. Dyspnea and bradycardia developed on the follow-up. The oxygen saturation without oxygen support was 90%. ECG revealed sinus bradycardia. The cardiac enzymes did not increase. Case 5. A 42-year-old female patient was brought to our emergency room by 112 ambulance with contractions in her arms and legs and unconsciousness two hours after Papaver rhoeas ingestion. On her physical examination, she was confused and the pupils were myotic. Arterial blood gases analysis revealed lactic acidosis. Conclusion. All patients were followed up for a few days and

  9. Lead intoxication in dogs: risk assessment of feeding dogs trimmings of lead-shot game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgåsen, Helga R; Ørnsrud, Robin; Knutsen, Helle K; Bernhoft, Aksel

    2016-07-25

    Expanding lead-based bullets, commonly used for hunting of big game, produce a scattering of lead particles in the carcass around the wound channel. Trimmings around this channel, which are sometimes fed to dogs, may contain lead particles. The aim of this study was to assess potential health effects of feeding dogs such trimmings. Lead ingestion most commonly causes gastrointestinal and neurological clinical signs, although renal, skeletal, haematological, cardiovascular and biochemical effects have also been reported. Experimental data indicate that a daily dose of around 1 mg lead as lead acetate/kg body weight for ten days may be considered as a Lowest Observed Effect Level in dogs. Acute toxicity documentation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicates 300 mg/kg body weight as the lowest dose of lead acetate causing death in dogs after oral ingestion. Our assessment suggests that dogs fed trimmings of lead-shot game may be affected by the amounts of lead present, and that even deadly exposure could occasionally occur. The intestinal absorption of lead from bullets was assumed to be 10-80 % of that of lead acetate, reflecting both the variability in particle size and uncertainty about the bioavailability of metallic lead in dogs. Despite data gaps, this study indicates that feeding dogs trimmings of lead-shot game may represent a risk of lead intoxication. More research is needed to assess the exact consequences, if lead-based bullets are still to be used. Meanwhile, we recommend that trimmings close to the wound channel should be made inaccessible to dogs, as well as to other domestic or wild animals.

  10. Acute vergiftigingen bij mens en dier - Jaaroverzicht 2004 - Nationaal Vergiftigingen Informatie Centrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorcum TF van; Velzen AG van; Riel AJHP van; Meulenbelt J; Vries I de; NVIC

    2005-01-01

    The National Poisons Information Centre (NVIC) of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) was consulted in 2004 more frequently about acute intoxications than in 2003, representing an increase of about 6%. In 2004, over 35,000 enquiries were received about more than

  11. Acute Alcohol Effects on Repetition Priming and Word Recognition Memory with Equivalent Memory Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Suchismita; Bates, Marsha E.

    2006-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication effects on memory were examined using a recollection-based word recognition memory task and a repetition priming task of memory for the same information without explicit reference to the study context. Memory cues were equivalent across tasks; encoding was manipulated by varying the frequency of occurrence (FOC) of words…

  12. Different approaches to acute organophosphorus poison treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurulain, Syed Muhammad

    2012-07-01

    Organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) have a wide variety of applications and are a serious threat for self-poisoning, unintentional misuse, terrorist attack, occupational hazard and warfare attack. The present standard treatment has been reported to be unsatisfactory. Many novel approaches are being used and tested for acute organophosphorus (OP) poison treatment. The bioscavenger concept captured high attention among the scientific community during the last few decades. Other approaches like alkalinisation of blood plasma/serum and use of weak inhibitors against strong inhibitors, though it showed promising results, did not get such wide attention. The introduction of a novel broad-spectrum oxime has also been in focus. In this mini-review, an update of the overview of four different approaches has been discussed. The standard therapy that is atropine+oxime+benzodiazepine along with supportive measures will continue to be the best option with only the replacement of a single oxime to improve its broad-spectrum efficacy.

  13. Common hand sanitizer may distort readings of breathalyzer tests in the absence of acute intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed S; Wilson, Michael P; Castillo, Edward M; Witucki, Peter; Simmons, Todd T; Vilke, Gary M

    2013-02-01

    The use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers has recently become widespread. To the authors' knowledge, no previous study has examined whether application of ethanol-based hand sanitizers by the person operating a common breathalyzer machine will affect the accuracy of the readings. This was a prospective study investigating whether the use of hand sanitizer applied according to manufacturer's recommendations (Group I), applied improperly at standard doses (Group II), or applied improperly at high doses (Group III) had an effect on breathalyzer readings of individuals who had not ingested alcohol. The participants of the prospective study were divided into three groups to assess the effect of hand sanitizer on breathalyzer readings. Group I used one pump (1.5 mL) of hand sanitizer (Purell), allowing the hands to dry per manufacturer's recommendations; Group II used one pump (1.5 mL), without allowing the hands to dry; and Group III used two pumps (3 mL), without allowing the hands to dry. Breathalyzer measures for each group are presented as medians with interquartile ranges (IQR) and ranges. Differences between each sequential group (I vs. II and II vs. III) were assessed using a Mann-Whitney U-test (p hand sanitizer may cause false-positive readings with a standard hospital breathalyzer when the operator uses the hand sanitizer correctly. The breathalyzer readings are further elevated if more sanitizer is used or if it is not allowed to dry appropriately. © 2013 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  14. Acute Cannabis Intoxication and the Brain's Response to Visual Erotica: An Fmri Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Androvičová, R.; Horáček, J.; Tintěra, J.; Rydlo, J.; Ježová, D.; Balíková, M.; Hložek, T.; Mikšátková, P.; Kuchař, M.; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Roman, M.; Tomíček, P.; Viktorínová, M.; Tylš, F.; Páleníček, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 5 (2017), e253-e253 ISSN 1743-6095. [Congress of the World Association for Sexual Health /23./. 28.05.2017-31.05.2017, Prague] Grant - others:GA MV(CZ) VG20122015080; GA MZd NT13145; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1611 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : fMRI * cannabis * sexuality Subject RIV: FH - Neurology http://www.jsm.jsexmed.org/article/S1743-6095(17)30689-6/pdf

  15. [Lead intoxication in a group of workers in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willi, R F; Felgenhauer, N; Eyer, F; Buters, J T; Zilker, T

    2009-12-01

    Seventeen East-European workers with a suspected lead-intoxication presented themselves to the Department of Toxicology. All of them had worked on the renovation of pylons of a high-tension line. The old paint, known to contain lead was removed with needle descalers. The patients had blood lead concentrations between 325 and 1124 microg/l, but no specific symptoms. The workers neglected the protective measures at their working-place. 12 of 17 workers had lead-concentrations above 400 microg/l (Reference lead-concentration above 700 microg/l were treated with the chelating agent meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) 3 x 200 mg/d for nine days. The patients with lead concentrations between 400 and 700 microg/l were treated which DMSA 3 x 100 mg/d. After the DMSA-treatment the lead-concentrations had dropped (p lead concentration in their blood due to occupational exposure. The high blood lead levels showed that the workers had not been protected adequately. This examplifies that occupational lead exposure still occurs, also in Germany. By patients with unspecific symptoms connected with lead exposure a biomonitoring for lead is necessary.

  16. Role of the thalamic parafascicular nucleus cholinergic system in the modulation of acute corneal nociception in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeal Tamaddonfard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects of microinjections of acetylcholine (a cholinergic agonist, physostigmine (a cholinesterase inhibitor, atropine (an antagonist of muscarinic cholinergic receptors and hexamethonium (an antagonist of nicotinic cholinergic receptors into the parafascicular nucleus of thalamus on the acute corneal nociception in rats. Acute corneal nociception was induced by putting a drop of 5 M NaCl solution onto the corneal surface of the eye and the number of eye wipes was counted during the first 30s. Both acetylcholine and physostigmine at the same doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 μg significantly (P < 0.05 reduced the number of eye wipes. The intensity of corneal nociception was not changed when atropine and hexamethonium were used alone. Atropine (4 μg, but not hexamethonium (4 μg significantly (P < 0.05 prevented acetylcholine (2 μg- and physostigmine (2 μg-induced antinociceptive effects. The results indicated that at the level of the parafascicular nucleus of thalamus, the muscarinic cholinergic receptors might be involved in the antinociceptive effects of acetylcholine and physostigmine.

  17. Accelerated Intoxication of GABAergic Synapses by Botulinum Neurotoxin A Disinhibits Stem Cell-Derived Neuron Networks Prior to Network Silencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-23

    administered BoNT can lead to central nervous system intoxication is currently being debated. Recent findings in vitro and in vivo suggest that BoNT...Literature 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Accelerated intoxication of GABAergic synapses by botulinum neurotoxin A disinhibits 5a...April 2015 Published: 23 April 2015 Citation: Beske PH, Scheeler SM, AdlerM and McNutt PM (2015) Accelerated intoxication of GABAergic synapses by

  18. Can Intoxication Status Be Used as a Prediction Tool for Manner of Death?: A Comparison of the Intoxication Status in Violent Suicides and Homicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, D Kimberley; Hargrove, Veronica M

    2017-03-01

    Determining the manner of death in medicolegal death investigations can be difficult. The investigator relies on many facets of death investigation, including the circumstances of death and autopsy examination. A study was designed to analyze whether the intoxication status of the decedent could be used as another tool in death investigations. The intoxication status of violent (nonoverdose or poisoning) suicides and homicides was retrospectively reviewed and compared. A total of 625 deaths were identified, including 366 suicides and 259 homicides. Age, sex, cause of death, and intoxication status, including the specific drugs present, were analyzed. Gunshot wounds were the most common cause of death in both groups, with hanging being the second most common cause in suicides and sharp force injuries in homicides. Analysis found that although the overall intoxication status for suicides versus homicides did not differ significantly, certain drugs were more prevalent in one group over the other. Specifically, illicit drugs, that is, heroin, cocaine, and methamphetamine, were more likely to be present in homicides, whereas antidepressants or antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, and zolpidem were more common in suicides.

  19. Boletus edulis Nitrite Reductase Reduces Nitrite Content of Pickles and Mitigates Intoxication in Nitrite-intoxicated Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Tian, Guoting; Feng, Shanshan; Wong, Jack Ho; Zhao, Yongchang; Chen, Xiao; Wang, Hexiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-10-08

    Pickles are popular in China and exhibits health-promoting effects. However, nitrite produced during fermentation adversely affects health due to formation of methemoglobin and conversion to carcinogenic nitrosamine. Fruiting bodies of the mushroom Boletus edulis were capable of inhibiting nitrite production during pickle fermentation. A 90-kDa nitrite reductase (NiR), demonstrating peptide sequence homology to fungal nitrite reductase, was isolated from B. edulis fruiting bodies. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme was 45 °C and 6.8, respectively. B. edulis NiR was capable of prolonging the lifespan of nitrite-intoxicated mice, indicating that it had the action of an antidote. The enzyme could also eliminate nitrite from blood after intragastric administration of sodium nitrite, and after packaging into capsule, this nitrite-eliminating activity could persist for at least 120 minutes thus avoiding immediate gastric degradation. B. edulis NiR represents the first nitrite reductase purified from mushrooms and may facilitate subsequent applications.

  20. Analysis of patients presenting to the emergency department with carbon monoxide intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim Yurtseven

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Carbon monoxide is a potentially fatal form of poisoning. The exact incidence is unclear, due to cases being undiagnosed or reported as fewer than the real number. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT is of proven efficacy in the treatment of CO intoxication.The purpose of this study was to describe the general characteristics of carbon monoxide (CO intoxications presenting to the emergency department and to investigate troponin I values and the effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT in these patients. Material and methods: Patients presenting to the emergency department with CO intoxication over one year and patients with such intoxications receiving HBOT were examined retrospectively. Results: One hundred seventy-one patients were included; 140 (81.9% were poisoned by stoves, 18 (10.5% by hot water boilers and 10 in (5.8% by fires. COHb levels were normal in 49 of the 163 patients whose values were investigated, and were elevated in 114 patients. Mean COHb value was 16.6. Troponin I values were investigated in 112 patients. These were normal in 86 patients and elevated in 26. Mean troponin I value was 0.38 ng/ml. One hundred twenty-three of the 171 patients in the study were discharged in a healthy condition after receiving normobaric oxygen therapy, while 48 patients received HBOT. Forty-two (87.5% of the patients receiving HBOT were discharged in a healthy condition while sequelae persisted in five (10.4%. One patient died after 15 session of HBOT. Conclusion: Although elevated carboxyhemoglobin confirms diagnosis of CO intoxication, normal levels do not exclude it. Troponin I levels may rise in CO intoxication. No significant relation was observed between carboxyhemoglobin and receipt of HBOT. A significant correlation was seen, however, between troponin I levels and receipt of HBOT. Keywords: Carbon monoxide intoxication, Hyperbaric oxygen, Troponin I, Echocardiography

  1. State and local law enforcement agency efforts to prevent sales to obviously intoxicated patrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Kathleen M; Toomey, Traci L; Nelson, Toben F; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Erickson, Darin J

    2014-04-01

    Alcohol sales to intoxicated patrons are illegal and may lead to public health issues such as traffic crashes and violence. Over the past several decades, considerable effort has been made to reduce alcohol sales to underage persons but less attention has been given to the issue of sales to obviously intoxicated patrons. Studies have found a high likelihood of sales to obviously intoxicated patrons (i.e., overservice), but little is known about efforts by enforcement agencies to reduce these sales. We conducted a survey of statewide alcohol enforcement agencies and local law enforcement agencies across the US to assess their strategies for enforcing laws prohibiting alcohol sales to intoxicated patrons at licensed alcohol establishments. We randomly sampled 1,631 local agencies (1,082 participated), and surveyed all 49 statewide agencies that conduct alcohol enforcement. Sales to obviously intoxicated patrons were reported to be somewhat or very common in their jurisdiction by 55 % of local agencies and 90 % of state agencies. Twenty percent of local and 60 % of state agencies reported conducting enforcement efforts to reduce sales to obviously intoxicated patrons in the past year. Among these agencies, fewer than half used specific enforcement strategies on at least a monthly basis to prevent overservice of alcohol. Among local agencies, enforcement efforts were more common among agencies that had a full-time officer specifically assigned to carry out alcohol enforcement efforts. Enforcement of laws prohibiting alcohol sales to obviously intoxicated patrons is an underutilized strategy to reduce alcohol-related problems, especially among local law enforcement agencies.

  2. Overserving and Allowed Entry of Obviously Alcohol-Intoxicated Spectators at Sporting Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgán, Tobias H; Durbeej, Natalie; Holder, Harold D; Gripenberg, Johanna

    2018-02-01

    Alcohol intoxication among spectators at sporting events and related problems, such as violence, are of great concern in many countries around the world. However, knowledge is scarce about whether or not alcohol is served to obviously intoxicated spectators at licensed premises inside and outside the sporting arenas, and if obviously intoxicated spectators are allowed entrance to these events. The objective of this study was therefore to examine the occurrences of overserving at licensed premises inside and outside arenas, and of allowed entry of obviously intoxicated spectators into arenas. An observational study assessing the rate of denied alcohol service and denied entry to arenas of trained professional actors portraying a standardized scene of obvious alcohol intoxication (i.e., pseudo-patrons) was conducted. The scene was developed by an expert panel, and each attempt was monitored by an observer. The settings were 2 arenas hosting matches in the Swedish Premier Football League in the largest city in Sweden and 1 arena in the second largest city, including entrances and licensed premises inside and outside the arenas. The rates of denied alcohol service were 66.9% at licensed premises outside the arenas (n = 151) and 24.9% at premises inside the arenas (n = 237). The rate of denied entry to the arenas (n = 102) was 10.8%. Overserving and allowed entry of obviously alcohol-intoxicated spectators are problematic at sporting events in Sweden and may contribute to high overall intoxication levels among spectators. The differences in server intervention rates indicate that serving staff at licensed premises inside the arenas and entrance staff are not likely to have been trained in responsible beverage service. This result underscores the need for server training among staff at the arenas. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  3. A rat model of nerve agent exposure applicable to the pediatric population: The anticonvulsant efficacies of atropine and GluK1 antagonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Steven L., E-mail: stevenmiller17@gmail.com [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Program in Neuroscience, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Vassiliki, E-mail: vanderjaska@usuhs.edu [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Department of Psychiatry, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Program in Neuroscience, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Figueiredo, Taiza H., E-mail: taiza.figueiredo.ctr@usuhs.edu [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Prager, Eric M., E-mail: eric.prager683@gmail.com [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Program in Neuroscience, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Almeida-Suhett, Camila P., E-mail: camilapalmeida@gmail.com [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Program in Neuroscience, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Apland, James P., E-mail: james.p.apland.civ@mail.mil [Neurotoxicology Branch, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); and others

    2015-04-15

    Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) after nerve agent exposure induces status epilepticus (SE), which causes brain damage or death. The development of countermeasures appropriate for the pediatric population requires testing of anticonvulsant treatments in immature animals. In the present study, exposure of 21-day-old (P21) rats to different doses of soman, followed by probit analysis, produced an LD{sub 50} of 62 μg/kg. The onset of behaviorally-observed SE was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in brain AChE activity; rats who did not develop SE had significantly less reduction of AChE activity in the basolateral amygdala than rats who developed SE. Atropine sulfate (ATS) at 2 mg/kg, administered 20 min after soman exposure (1.2 × LD{sub 50}), terminated seizures. ATS at 0.5 mg/kg, given along with an oxime within 1 min after exposure, allowed testing of anticonvulsants at delayed time-points. The AMPA/GluK1 receptor antagonist LY293558, or the specific GluK1 antagonist UBP302, administered 1 h post-exposure, terminated SE. There were no degenerating neurons in soman-exposed P21 rats, but both the amygdala and the hippocampus were smaller than in control rats at 30 and 90 days post-exposure; this pathology was not present in rats treated with LY293558. Behavioral deficits present at 30 days post-exposure, were also prevented by LY293558 treatment. Thus, in immature animals, a single injection of atropine is sufficient to halt nerve agent-induced seizures, if administered timely. Testing anticonvulsants at delayed time-points requires early administration of ATS at a low dose, sufficient to counteract only peripheral toxicity. LY293558 administered 1 h post-exposure, prevents brain pathology and behavioral deficits. - Highlights: • The LD{sub 50} of soman was determined in postnatal-day-21 rats. • Rats with no seizures after 1.2XLD{sub 50} soman had less reduction of AChE in the amygdala. • Atropine sulfate (ATS) at 2 mg/kg, given at 20 min after

  4. A rat model of nerve agent exposure applicable to the pediatric population: The anticonvulsant efficacies of atropine and GluK1 antagonists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Steven L.; Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Vassiliki; Figueiredo, Taiza H.; Prager, Eric M.; Almeida-Suhett, Camila P.; Apland, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) after nerve agent exposure induces status epilepticus (SE), which causes brain damage or death. The development of countermeasures appropriate for the pediatric population requires testing of anticonvulsant treatments in immature animals. In the present study, exposure of 21-day-old (P21) rats to different doses of soman, followed by probit analysis, produced an LD 50 of 62 μg/kg. The onset of behaviorally-observed SE was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in brain AChE activity; rats who did not develop SE had significantly less reduction of AChE activity in the basolateral amygdala than rats who developed SE. Atropine sulfate (ATS) at 2 mg/kg, administered 20 min after soman exposure (1.2 × LD 50 ), terminated seizures. ATS at 0.5 mg/kg, given along with an oxime within 1 min after exposure, allowed testing of anticonvulsants at delayed time-points. The AMPA/GluK1 receptor antagonist LY293558, or the specific GluK1 antagonist UBP302, administered 1 h post-exposure, terminated SE. There were no degenerating neurons in soman-exposed P21 rats, but both the amygdala and the hippocampus were smaller than in control rats at 30 and 90 days post-exposure; this pathology was not present in rats treated with LY293558. Behavioral deficits present at 30 days post-exposure, were also prevented by LY293558 treatment. Thus, in immature animals, a single injection of atropine is sufficient to halt nerve agent-induced seizures, if administered timely. Testing anticonvulsants at delayed time-points requires early administration of ATS at a low dose, sufficient to counteract only peripheral toxicity. LY293558 administered 1 h post-exposure, prevents brain pathology and behavioral deficits. - Highlights: • The LD 50 of soman was determined in postnatal-day-21 rats. • Rats with no seizures after 1.2XLD 50 soman had less reduction of AChE in the amygdala. • Atropine sulfate (ATS) at 2 mg/kg, given at 20 min after soman, blocked

  5. Some characteristics of acute poisoning with psychoactive substances in the period of socioeconomic transition 1990-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliev, Y T; Akabaliev, V H; Avgarska, L P

    2001-01-01

    Although scarce, the data about acute poisonings with psycho-active substances during the period of socioeconomic crisis in Bulgaria indicate the appearance and increase of the use of inhalants, prescribed and over-the-counter medications and the increase of acute poisoning rate with heroin. To ascertain some characteristics of acute poisonings with psycho-active substances in Plovdiv region from 01.01.1990 to 31.12.2000. The whole caseload of 571 acute poisonings with psycho-active substances in Plovdiv region (8.8% of the population of the country) between 1990 and 2000, treated in the only Clinic of Toxicology in the region is studied retrospectively. The variables gender, age, type of psycho-active substance (DSM-IV criteria), grade of severity, duration of use, times of poisoning and some differences between alcohol and opioid poisonings are investigated. Acute poisoning with psycho-active substances are 5.43% of all intoxications. The moderate grade of severity (48.5%), alcohol (62.8%) and opioid (15.3%) intoxications, debut poisoning (86.8%) and poisonings occurring in the initial period of use predominate. An increase of acute poisonings with psycho-active substances in the last third of the studied period (1990-2000) is established--severe forms (2.59 times) and recidivistic intoxication (4 times). Alcohol and opioid poisonings predominate among severe intoxications. The hospital stay is relatively short--1.75 +/- 0.67 and hospital lethality is 1.6%. 1. The moderate grade of severity, alcohol and opioid intoxications (especially in the severe grade cases), occurrence in the initial period of use and relatively short hospital stay predominate in acute poisonings with psycho-active substances in the period of socioeconomic crisis. Hospital lethality (1.6%) is ascertained only in severe alcohol intoxication. 2. An increase of acute poisonings with psycho-active substances--severe forms, mild forms and recidivistic intoxications is established in the last

  6. Clinical Laboratory Tests in Some Acute Exogenous Poisonings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufkova, Stoilka G; Yankov, Ivan V; Paskaleva, Diana A

    2017-09-01

    There is no specific toxicological screening of clinical laboratory parameters in clinical toxicology when it comes to acute exogenous poisoning. To determine routine clinical laboratory parameters and indicators for assessment of vital functions in patients with acute intoxications. One hundred and fifty-three patients were included in the present study. They were hospitalized in the Department of Clinical Toxicology at St. George University Hospital, Plovdiv for cerebral toxicity inducing medication (n = 45), alcohol (n = 40), heroin abuse (n = 33). The controls were 35. The laboratory tests were conducted in compliance with the standards of the clinical laboratory. We used the following statistical analyses: analysis of variance (the ucriterion of normal distribution, the Student's t-test, dispersion analysis based on ANOVA) and non-parametric analysis. Based on the routine hematological parameters with statistically significant changes in three groups of poisoning are: red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin (except alcohol intoxication) and leukocytes. We found statistically significant changes in serum total protein, sodium and bilirubin. The highest statistical significance is the increased activity of AST and ALT. We present a model for selection of clinical laboratory tests for severe acute poisoning with modern equipment under standardized conditions. The results of the study suggest that the clinical laboratory constellation we used can be used as a mandatory element in the diagnosis of moderate and severe intoxication with the mentioned toxic substances.

  7. ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS: THERAPEUTICAL TACTICS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Surkov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute intestinal infections are quite common among children. Their clinical presentations include intoxication syndrome (drowsiness, low appetite, fever etc, infectious toxic syndrome (toxicosis with exicosis, neurotoxicosi, hypovolemic or infectious-toxic shockand diarrhea syndrome. Sometimes intestinal infections can be quite severe and even lethal. However disease duration and outcome depend on timelines and adequacy of prescribed treatment. Main guidelines of intestinal infections treatment include probiotics. That is why the right choice of probiotics is important for a pediatrician. The article contains basic information upon etiopathogenesis, classification, diagnostic criteria and acute pediatric intestinal infections treatment guidelines.Key words: acute intestinal infections, etiopathogenesis, diagnostic criteria, treatment, probiotics, children. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. — 2011; 10 (6: 141–147

  8. The effect of lead intoxication on endocrine functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumouchtsis, K K; Doumouchtsis, S K; Doumouchtsis, E K; Perrea, D N

    2009-02-01

    Studies on the effects of lead on the endocrine system are mainly based on occupationally lead-exposed workers and experimental animal models. Although evidence is conflicting, it has been reported that accumulation of lead affects the majority of the endocrine glands. In particular, it appears to have an effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis causing blunted TSH, GH, and FSH/LH responses to TRH, GHRH, and GnRH stimulation, respectively. Suppressed GH release has been reported, probably caused by reduced synthesis of GHRH, inhibition of GHRH release or reduced somatotrope responsiveness. Higher levels of PRL in lead intoxication have been reported. In short-term lead-exposed individuals, high LH and FSH levels are usually associated to normal testosterone concentrations, whereas in long-term exposed individuals' low testosterone levels do not induce high LH and FSH concentrations. These findings suggest that lead initially causes some subclinical testicular damage, followed by hypothalamic or pituitary disturbance when longer periods of exposure take place. Similarly, lead accumulates in granulosa cells of the ovary, causing delays in growth and pubertal development and reduced fertility in females. In the parenchyma of adrenals histological and cytological changes are demonstrated, causing changes in plasma basal and stress-mediated corticosterone concentrations and reduced cytosolic and nuclear glucocorticoid receptor binding. Thyroid hormone kinetics are also affected. Central defect of the thyroid axis or an alteration in T4 metabolism or binding to proteins may be involved in derangements in thyroid hormone action. Lead toxicity involves alterations on calcitropic hormones' homeostasis, which increase the risk of skeletal disorders.

  9. Occupational pesticide intoxications among farmers in Bolivia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huici Omar

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticide use and its consequences are of concern in Bolivia due to an intensive and increasing use. Methods To assess the magnitude and reasons for occupational pesticide intoxication, a cross-sectional study with interviews and blood-tests was performed among 201 volunteer farmers from 48 villages in the temperate and subtropical valleys in the eastern part of the Andes Mountains in Bolivia. Of these 171 male farmers using pesticides in their agricultural production were used in the statistical analysis, including linear- and logistic regression analysis. Results This study documented a frequent use of the most toxic pesticides among farmers who have had almost no instructions in how to use pesticides and protect themselves against the dangers of intoxication, reflected in the hazardous practices used when handling pesticides. Symptoms of intoxications were common in connection with spraying operations. The risk of experiencing symptoms and the serum cholinesterase activity were influenced by whether or not organophosphates were used and the number of times sprayed. The experience of symptoms was moreover influenced by the hygienic and personal protective measures taken during spraying operations while this had no influence on the serum cholinesterase level. Conclusion The study showed that occupational pesticide intoxications were common among farmers and did depend on multiple factors. Pesticide use is probably one of the largest toxicological problems in Bolivia, and a coordinated action by authorities, society and international bodies is needed to limit the number of intoxications and the environmental pollution.

  10. Inhibition of renal Na+/H+ exchange in cadmium-intoxicated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Do Whan; Chung, Jin Mo; Kim, Jee Yeun; Kim, Kyoung Ryong; Park, Yang Saeng

    2005-01-01

    Chronic exposure to cadmium (Cd) results in bicarbonaturia, leading to metabolic acidosis. To elucidate the mechanism(s) by which renal bicarbonate reabsorption is inhibited, we investigated changes in renal transporters and enzymes associated with bicarbonate reabsorption in Cd-intoxicated rats. Cd intoxication was induced by subcutaneous injections of CdCl 2 (2 mg Cd/kg per day) for 3 weeks. Cd intoxication resulted in a significant reduction in V max of Na + /H + antiport with no changes in K Na in the renal cortical brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Western blotting of BBM proteins and indirect immunohistochemistry in renal tissue sections, using an antibody against Na + /H + exchange-3 (NHE3), showed a diminished expression of NHE3 protein in the BBM. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that NHE3 mRNA expression was reduced in the renal cortex. The activity of carbonic anhydrase IV (CA IV) in BBM was not changed. The protein abundance of Na + -HCO 3 - cotransporter-1 (NBC1) in whole kidney membrane fractions was slightly attenuated, whereas that of the Na + -K + -ATPase α-subunit was markedly elevated in Cd-intoxicated animals. These results indicate that Cd intoxication impairs NHE3 expression in the proximal tubule, thereby reducing the capacity for bicarbonate reabsorption, leading to bicarbonaturia in an intact animal

  11. A Retrospective Analysis of Pediatric Patients Admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Service for Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

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    Metin Uysalol

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study is to analyze the general aspects of cases with carbon monoxide intoxication in order to improve the approach to future patients. Material and Methods: The hospital records of 84 children (mean age 4.71±2.64 years; 48 male, 36 female who had been admitted to Paediatric Emergency Department for carbon monoxide intoxication between October 2007 and February 2009, were retrospectively evaluated in a descriptive analysis.Results: The source of carbon monoxide intoxication was heaters, waterheaters and fi re in 82.1%, 7.1% and 6% of cases, respectively. There was a statistically signifi cant difference between the carboxyhemoglobin levels of the patients according to the clinical classifi cation (p<0.05. The intoxication caused by heaters was observed signifi cantly in November, December and January (p<0.001, between 16:00-24:00 hours (p<0.001 and among more than one member of a family (p<0.001. A medium level correlation was detected between the treatment approach and clinical classifi cation (r=0.50, p<0.001. Conclusion: Carbon monoxide intoxication, in the presented series, was found to develop accidentally; mostly in the Winter season; during night hours when the family members gathered together. The carboxyhemoglobin levels were appropriate with the developing clinical findings. Carboxyhemoglobin level solely was not enough for achieving the diagnosis and planning the treatment.

  12. Plotting of Ethylene Glycol Blood Concentrations Using Linear Regression before and during Hemodialysis in a Case of Intoxication and Pharmacokinetic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngho

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. As blood concentration measurement of commonly abused alcohol is readily available, the equation was proposed in previous publication to predict the change of their concentration. The change of ethylene glycol (EG) concentrations was studied in a case of intoxication to estimate required time for hemodialysis (HD) using linear regression. Case Report. A 55-year-old female with past medical history of seizure disorder, bipolar disorder, and chronic pain was admitted due to severe agitation. The patient was noted to have metabolic acidosis with elevated anion gap and acute kidney injury, which prompted blood concentration measurement of commonly abused alcohol. Her initial EG concentration was 26.45 mmol/L. Fomepizole therapy was initiated, soon followed by HD to enhance clearance. Discussion. Plotting of natural logarithm of EG concentrations over time showed that EG elimination follows first-order kinetics and predicts the change of its concentration well. Pharmacokinetic review revealed minimal elimination of EG by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) which could be related to genetic predisposition for ADH activity and home medications as well as presence of propylene glycol. Pharmacokinetics of EG is relatively well studied with published parameters. Consideration and application of pharmacokinetics could assist in management of EG intoxication including HD planning.

  13. A rat model of nerve agent exposure applicable to the pediatric population: The anticonvulsant efficacies of atropine and GluK1 antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Steven L; Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Vassiliki; Figueiredo, Taiza H; Prager, Eric M; Almeida-Suhett, Camila P; Apland, James P; Braga, Maria F M

    2015-04-15

    Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) after nerve agent exposure induces status epilepticus (SE), which causes brain damage or death. The development of countermeasures appropriate for the pediatric population requires testing of anticonvulsant treatments in immature animals. In the present study, exposure of 21-day-old (P21) rats to different doses of soman, followed by probit analysis, produced an LD50 of 62μg/kg. The onset of behaviorally-observed SE was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in brain AChE activity; rats who did not develop SE had significantly less reduction of AChE activity in the basolateral amygdala than rats who developed SE. Atropine sulfate (ATS) at 2mg/kg, administered 20 min after soman exposure (1.2×LD50), terminated seizures. ATS at 0.5mg/kg, given along with an oxime within 1 min after exposure, allowed testing of anticonvulsants at delayed time-points. The AMPA/GluK1 receptor antagonist LY293558, or the specific GluK1 antagonist UBP302, administered 1h post-exposure, terminated SE. There were no degenerating neurons in soman-exposed P21 rats, but both the amygdala and the hippocampus were smaller than in control rats at 30 and 90days post-exposure; this pathology was not present in rats treated with LY293558. Behavioral deficits present at 30 days post-exposure, were also prevented by LY293558 treatment. Thus, in immature animals, a single injection of atropine is sufficient to halt nerve agent-induced seizures, if administered timely. Testing anticonvulsants at delayed time-points requires early administration of ATS at a low dose, sufficient to counteract only peripheral toxicity. LY293558 administered 1h post-exposure, prevents brain pathology and behavioral deficits. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. ACUTE POISONING WITH BENZODIAZEPINES AND OTHER HYPNOTICS: ETIOLOGIC CAUSE, SEX/AGE DISTRIBUTION AND CLINICAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petko Marinov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Poisoning with drugs occupies a leading position among the causes of acute intoxications. Etiological distribution of medicated poisoning in different countries, even if they are adjacent, is different. In the most studies it was reported that the highest incidence of poisoning is with benzodiazepines or other psychoactive drugs. A retrospective analysis of acute poisoning with benzodiazepines and other hypnotic drugs in the Varna region for 25 years period – from 1991 to 2015 was carried out. Material and Methods: The number of patients who received hospital treatment after poisoning with benzodiazepines is 1741, and those with other hypnotics is 293, representing respectively 26.37% and 4.44% of all drug intoxications. Results: The share of poisoning with benzodiazepines and hypnotics compared to all acute intoxications is 11.66%. They are more common in women – 1566 (77%. Men are 468 (23%, the ratio of men to women was 3.34:1. The largest number of intoxications is in the age group up to 24 years - 1123 (55.2%, and only 4.1% of patients over 60 years. Intentional suicide attempts are 1896 (93.2%. Death is registered in 8 (0.4% patients.

  15. [PREVENTION AND CORRECTION OF PULMONARY COMPLICATIONS FOR SEVERE ACUTE PANCREATITIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorkiv, M B

    2015-06-01

    Increased of proinflammatory cytokines levels, including interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) on severe acute pancreatitis causes vasodilatation, increased permeability of the wall, accumulation of fluid in lung tissue and pleural sinuses. Transudate from acute parapancreatyc clusters of hot liquid and abdomen falls into the chest cavity through microscopic defects in the diaphragm due to the formation of pathological pleural-peritoneal connections or the relevant pressure gradient between the abdominal and pleural cavities. Remediation and removal of acute parapancreatyc clusters combined with the use of a multicomponent drug infusion therapy Cytoflavin provide a reduction in the frequency of pulmonary complications of acute pancreatitis from 48.3 to 31.0%. Use of the drug Cytoflavin reduces the severity of endogenous intoxication and mortality from acute lung injury from 12.9 to 6.1%.

  16. [Biodistribution and Postmortem Redistribution of Emamectin Benzoate in Intoxicated Mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei-wei; Lin, Yu-cai; Lu, Yan-xu

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the lethal blood level, the target organs and tissues, the toxicant storage depots and the postmortem redistribution in mice died of emamectin benzoate poisoning. The mice model of emamectin benzoate poisoning was established via intragastric injection. The main poisoning symptoms and the clinical death times of mice were observed and recorded dynamically in the acute poisoning group as well as the sub-acute poisoning death group. The pathological and histomorphological changes of organs and tissues were observed after poisoning death. The biodistribution and postmortem redistribution of emamectin benzoate in the organs and tissues of mice were assayed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at 0h, 24h, 48h and 72h after death. The lethal blood concentrations and the concentrations of emamectin benzoate were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at different time points after death. The symptoms of nervous and respiratory system were observed within 15-30 min after intragastric injection. The average time of death was (45.8 ± 7.9) min in the acute poisoning group and (8.0 ± 1.4) d in the sub-acute poisoning group, respectively. The range of acute lethal blood level was 447.164 0-524.463 5 mg/L. The pathological changes of the organs and tissues were observed via light microscope and immunofluorescence microscope. The changes of emamectin benzoate content in the blood, heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney and brain of poisoning mice showed regularity within 72 h after death (P emamectin benzoate poisoning include heart, liver, kidney, lung, brain and contact position (stomach). The toxicant storage depots are kidney and liver. There is emamectin benzoate postmortem redistribution in mice.

  17. A Case Report of Successful Kidney Donation After Brain Death Following Nicotine Intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, M; Helanterä, I; Kalliomäki, J; Savikko, J; Parry, M; Lempinen, M

    Nicotine intoxication is a rare cause of death and can lead to brain death after respiratory arrest and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. To our knowledge, no previous reports regarding organ donation after nicotine intoxication have been described. We present a successful case of kidney donation after brain death caused by subcutaneous nicotine overdose from liquid nicotine from an e-cigarette cartridge in an attempted suicide. Both kidneys were transplanted successfully with immediate graft function, and both recipients were discharged at postoperative day 9 with normal plasma creatinine levels. Graft function has remained excellent in follow-up. This case suggests that kidneys from a donor with fatal nicotine intoxication may be successfully used for kidney transplantation in the absence of other contraindications for donation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Intoxication after Extreme Oral Overdose of Quetiapine to Attempt Suicide: Pharmacological Concerns of Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Müller

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic approved for the treatment of patients with psychotic disorders. Since approvement several case reports about intoxication with quetiapine were linked mainly with tachycardia, QTc-prolongation, somnolence, and hyperglycemia. Here, we present the first case report of an intoxication with an extreme overdose of quetiapine (36 g, ingested by a 32-year-old female (62 kg bodyweight to attempt suicide. Symptoms associated with intoxication were coma without arterial hypotension, persistent tachycardia, hyperglycemia, and transient hypothyreoidism. QTc-interval was moderately extended. Management consisted of intubation for airway protection, gastric lavage, the use of activated charcoal, i.v. saline, and observation for 17 hours on an intensive care unit. Despite the extremely high dose of quetiapine, the patient recovered completely without residual symptoms.

  19. Life-threatening intoxication with methylene bis(thiocyanate: clinical picture and pitfalls. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnuelle Peter

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methylene bis(thiocyanate (MBT is a microbiocidal agent mainly used in industrial water cooling systems and paper mills as an inhibitor of algae, fungi, and bacteria. Case presentation We describe the first case of severe intoxication following inhalation of powder in an industrial worker. Profound cyanosis and respiratory failure caused by severe methemoglobinemia developed within several minutes. Despite immediate admission to the intensive care unit, where mechanical ventilation and hemodialysis for toxin elimination were initiated, multi-organ failure involving liver, kidneys, and lungs developed. While liver failure was leading, the patient was successfully treated with the MARS (molecular adsorbent recirculating system procedure. Conclusion Intoxication with MBT is a potentially life-threatening intoxication causing severe methemoglobinemia and multi-organ failure. Extracorporeal liver albumin dialysis (MARS appears to be an effective treatment to allow recovery of hepatic function.

  20. The benzodiazepine/GABA receptor complex during severe ethanol intoxication and withdrawal in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmingsen, R.; Braestrup, C.; Nielsen, M.; Barry, D.I.

    1982-01-01

    The benzodiazepine/GABA (gammaaminobutyric acid) receptor complex was investigated during severe ethanol intoxication and withdrawal in the rat. The intragastric intubation technique was used to establish physical ethanol dependence in the animals. Cerebral cortex from male Wistar rats was studied 1) after 31/2 days of severe ethanol intoxication, 2) during the ethanol withdrawal reaction and 3) in a control group. The effect of GABA-ergic activation by muscimol and THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazole(5,4-c)pyridin-3-01) on 3 H-diazepam binding was unchanged during ethanol intoxication and withdrawal, as was the affinity constant (Ksub(D)) and the maximal number of binding sites (Bsub(max)) for 3 H-flunitrazepam. In conclusion, the benzodiazepine/GABA receptor complex is unlikely to play any causual part in physical ethanol dependence. (author)

  1. Intoxication by star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) in 32 uraemic patients: treatment and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Miguel Moyses; da Costa, José Abrão Cardeal; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Netto, Joaquim Coutinho; Nakagawa, Beatriz; Dantas, Marcio

    2003-01-01

    Clinical symptoms and outcomes of uraemic patients ingesting star fruit are quite variable and may progress to death. The purpose of the present report was to discuss the neurotoxic effects of star fruit intoxication in uraemic patients and to present the efficacy of different therapeutic approaches. We studied a total of 32 uraemic patients who had ingested star fruit. Before the intoxication episodes, 20 patients were on regular haemodialysis, eight were on peritoneal dialysis and four were not yet undergoing dialysis. Two patients were analysed retrospectively from their charts, 17 were directly monitored by our clinic and 13 were referred by physicians from many areas throughout the country, allowing us to follow their outcome from a distance. Intoxicated patients were given different therapeutic approaches (haemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and supportive treatment), and their outcomes were analysed. The most common symptoms were persistent and intractable hiccups in 30 patients (93.75%), vomiting in 22 (68.7%), variable degrees of disturbed consciousness (mental confusion, psychomotor agitation) in 21 (65.6%), decreased muscle power, limb numbness, paresis, insomnia and paresthesias in 13 (40.6%) and seizures in seven (21.8%). Patients who were promptly treated with haemodialysis, including those with severe intoxication, recovered without sequelae. Patients with severe intoxication who were not treated or treated with peritoneal dialysis did not survive. Haemodialysis, especially on a daily basis, is the ideal treatment for star fruit intoxication. In severe cases, continuous methods of replacement therapy may provide a superior initial procedure, since rebound effects are a common event. Peritoneal dialysis is of no use as a treatment, especially when consciousness disorders ensue.

  2. Can Urtica dioica supplementation attenuate mercury intoxication in Wistar rats?

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    Wafa Siouda

    2015-12-01

    supplemented rats. Conclusion: Nettle leaves have not only played a clear protective role during Hg intoxication, but it also enhanced hepatic, renal and testicular GSH level of Wistar rats.

  3. Can Urtica dioica supplementation attenuate mercury intoxication in Wistar rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siouda, Wafa; Abdennour, Cherif

    2015-12-01

    protective role during Hg intoxication, but it also enhanced hepatic, renal and testicular GSH level of Wistar rats.

  4. Acute toxicity of high doses of the glycoalkaloids, alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine, in the Syrian Golden hamster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Søren; Schrøder, Malene; Stewart, Derek

    2008-01-01

    Sprouted, stressed, or spoiled potato tubers have reportedly led to human acute intoxication, coma, and death when consumed in high amounts. These effects have been attributed to glycoalkaloids (GAs), primarily alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine, naturally present in all potatoes. The level of GAs...

  5. Effects of mixing alcohol with caffeinated beverages on subjective intoxication : A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, Sarah; Verster, Joris C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241442702; Alford, Chris; Scholey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that mixing alcohol with energy drinks or other caffeinated beverages may alter the awareness of (or 'mask') intoxication. The proposed reduction in subjective intoxication may have serious consequences by increasing the likelihood of engaging in potentially dangerous

  6. Features of Cytokine Regulation in Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Depending on Severity of Endogenous Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Todoriko

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions. Comprehensive assessment of integral indices of endogenous intoxication and level of certain pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the blood plasma of patients with MDR TB shows a moderate endogenous intoxication, break down of the cellular component of the immune reactivity due to the formation of conditions for the development of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance, with further growth of cytotoxic hypoxia and activation of systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Analysis of plasma concentration of IL-6, IL-10 and IL-18 in patients with multidrug-resistance proved, that their level depends on the nature of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance.

  7. Hepatic mitochondrial and microsomal recovery of rats intoxicated with CCl/sub 4/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, T.; Hirai, Y.; Koga, N.; Tomokuni, K.

    1983-01-01

    The hepatic mitochondrial and microsomal recovery of rats intoxicated with CCl/sub 4/ was investigated with specific reference to the oxygen utilization of liver slices. In control rats, the major oxygen utilization of the liver slices was attributed to mitochondrial particles. Since the mitochondrial oxygen utilization was inhibited by cyanide, the microsomal oxygen utilization was induced by NADPH and phenobarbital (a substrate for microsomal mixed function oxidase). Changes in oxygen utilization were observed in the recovery course of rats intoxicated with CCl/sub 4/, and the recovery of mitochondria was found to be faster than that of microsomes. A sex difference was present in the recovery mechanism of the microsomes.

  8. Effects of Lead Intoxication on Intervertebral Disc (Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Ye. Maltseva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of experimental study of the effectы of lead intoxication on the intervertebral disc of laboratory rats. It was revealed that in lead intoxication degenerative disorders occur in all parts of the intervertebral disc of rats, affecting both the structure of the annulus fibrosus and the nucleus pulposus. At the same time degenerative changes of the annulus fibrosus can be expressed in disturbance of foliation, due to the appearance of cracks in plates and between them, banding of collagen fibers, reducing the density of fibrochondrocytes. In the nucleus pulposus fragmentation of syncytium structure occurs as well as disturbance of the interconnection between notochordal cells.

  9. Hyperventilation with Maintenance of Isocapnia. An "Old New" Method in Carbon Monoxide Intoxication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Sein Anand

    Full Text Available Exposure to carbon monoxide (CO is among the most common causes of acute and chronic poisonings worldwide. The crucial point of treatment of such acute poisonings is to eliminate CO from the body as fast as possible. There are currently two approaches to the management of the CO intoxication: hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HOT and normobaric oxygen therapy (NOT. HOT is highly effective and capable of achieving the CO elimination half-time (T½ as low as 15 minutes. Unfortunately this method is expensive and not always readily available. The elimination of CO with the use of NOT (T½~70 min is slower, but treatment can be started even on the site of the exposure and continued while the patient is transported to a hospital. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a method using therapeutic hyperventilation with maintenance of isocapnia (IH in the elimination of CO in volunteers exposed to CO and to compare selected gasometric and respiratory parameters during IH with the values obtained during hyperventilation with pure oxygen ("non-isocapnic hyperventilation"-NIH.The study involved 13 healthy, chronically-smoking volunteers. Each of them participated in two independent hyperventilation tests: IH and NIH. The levels of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb and selected gasometric, cardiac and respiratory parameters were measured at 0, 10 and 20 minutes during both tests. Among 13 volunteers (8 women and 5 men the initial COHb level was 5.0±1.5% (mean±SD before the IH tests and 5.1±1.9% before the NIH tests (p>0.05. After 20 minutes of the procedures the mean COHb level was 2.9±0.9% for IH and 3.6±1.2% for NIH (p<0.01. The T½ of COHb was 29.6±12.2 min and 47.3±19.2 min respectively (p<0.01. After 10 minutes of NIH respiratory alkalosis was noted in 11 participants (84.6%. Such problem was not seen during the IH procedures. No serious adverse effects were recorded during either IH or NIH. Mild symptoms such as: dyspnea, headache and

  10. Death in head-down position in a heavily intoxicated obese man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Donno, A; De Fazio, A; Greco, M G; Introna, F; Maglietta, R A G

    2008-07-01

    diagnostic features of positional asphyxia and possible relevant co-causes of death, with an emphasis on the combined role of acute alcoholic intoxication and obesity in the hastened demise of a subject in the head-down position.

  11. Acute fluoride poisoning alters myocardial cytoskeletal and AMPK signaling proteins in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneerselvam, Lakshmikanthan; Raghunath, Azhwar; Perumal, Ekambaram

    2017-02-15

    Our previous findings revealed that increased oxidative stress, apoptosis and necrosis were implicated in acute fluoride (F - ) induced cardiac dysfunction apart from hypocalcemia and hyperkalemia. Cardiac intermediate filaments (desmin and vimentin) and cytoskeleton linker molecule vinculin plays an imperative role in maintaining the architecture of cardiac cytoskeleton. In addition, AMPK is a stress activated kinase that regulates the energy homeostasis during stressed state. The present study was aimed to examine the role of cytoskeletal proteins and AMPK signaling molecules in acute F - induced cardiotoxicity in rats. In order to study this, male Wistar rats were treated with single oral doses of 45 and 90mg/kgF - for 24h. Acute F - intoxicated rats showed declined cytoskeletal protein expression of desmin, vimentin and vinculin in a dose dependent manner compared to control. A significant increase in phosphorylation of AMPKα (Thr172), AMPKß1 (Ser108) and Acetyl-coA carboxylase (ACC) (Ser79) in the myocardium and associated ATP deprivation were found in acute F - intoxicated rats. Further, ultra-structural studies confirmed myofibril lysis with interruption of Z lines, dilated sarcoplasmic reticulum and damaged mitochondrion were observed in both the groups of F - intoxicated rats. Taken together, these findings reveal that acute F - exposure causes sudden heart failure by altering the expression of cytoskeletal proteins and AMPK signaling molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cannabidiol Rescues Acute Hepatic Toxicity and Seizure Induced by Cocaine

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    Luciano Rezende Vilela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine is a commonly abused illicit drug that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The most severe and common complications are seizures, ischemic strokes, myocardial infarction, and acute liver injury. Here, we demonstrated that acute cocaine intoxication promoted seizure along with acute liver damage in mice, with intense inflammatory infiltrate. Considering the protective role of the endocannabinoid system against cell toxicity, we hypothesized that treatment with an anandamide hydrolysis inhibitor, URB597, or with a phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD, protects against cocaine toxicity. URB597 (1.0 mg/kg abolished cocaine-induced seizure, yet it did not protect against acute liver injury. Using confocal liver intravital microscopy, we observed that CBD (30 mg/kg reduced acute liver inflammation and damage induced by cocaine and prevented associated seizure. Additionally, we showed that previous liver damage induced by another hepatotoxic drug (acetaminophen increased seizure and lethality induced by cocaine intoxication, linking hepatotoxicity to seizure dynamics. These findings suggest that activation of cannabinoid system may have protective actions on both liver and brain induced by cocaine, minimizing inflammatory injury promoted by cocaine, supporting its further clinical application in the treatment of cocaine abuse.

  13. Acute diarrhea in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radlović Nedeljko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute diarrhea (AD is the most frequent gastroenterological disorder, and the main cause of dehydration in childhood. It is manifested by a sudden occurrence of three or more watery or loose stools per day lasting for seven to 10 days, 14 days at most. It mainly occurs in children until five years of age and particularly in neonates in the second half-year and children until the age of three years. Its primary causes are gastrointestinal infections, viral and bacterial, and more rarely alimentary intoxications and other factors. As dehydration and negative nutritive balance are the main complications of AD, it is clear that the compensation of lost body fluids and adequate diet form the basis of the child’s treatment. Other therapeutic measures, except antipyretics in high febrility, antiparasitic drugs for intestinal lambliasis, anti-amebiasis and probiotics are rarely necessary. This primarily regards uncritical use of antibiotics and intestinal antiseptics in the therapy of bacterial diarrhea. The use of antiemetics, antidiarrhetics and spasmolytics is unnecessary and potentially risky, so that it is not recommended for children with AD.

  14. EFFECT OF ACUTE RENAL FAILURE ON KIDNEY AMIDINOTRANSFERASE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelenka Nikolic

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available L-Arginine-:glycine amidinotransferase (EC 2.1.4.1 catalyzes the transfer of an amidino group from arginine to glycine to form guanidinoacetate, precursor in creatine synthesis. The kidneys are major site of the creatine synthesis and primary target organs for mercury toxicity. In evaluation of molecular mechanisms of mercury chloride intoxication relating to creatine metabolism we have investigated the enzyme activity in kidney tissue after mercury chloride administration. Acute renal failure was induced by i.p administration of mercury chloride in a dose of 3 mg/kg to male Spraque Dawley rats weighing about 200 g. The results of our study indicate an acute renal failure 24 hours after mercury chloride administration. Urea and creatinine levels in blood plasma were significantly elevated compared to control group (p<0.001. Amidinotransferase activity in kidney tissue was depressed, while, in plasma of intoxicated rats activity of enzyme was increased (p<0.001. The obtained results indicate that mercury chloride has strong nephrotoxic effect. Depressed amidinotransferase activity and decreased production of guanidinoacetate, initial product in creatine synthesis, may be implicated in neurotoxicity, cardiotoxicity and muscle damage in mercury intoxication, because creatine and its phosphorylated form creatine phosphate play an important role in the energy metabolism.

  15. The value of brain CT findings in acute methanol toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheri, Morteza Sanei; Moghaddam, Hossein Hassanian; Moharamzad, Yashar; Dadgari, Shahrzad; Nahvi, Vahideh

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Due to depressant effects of methanol on the central nervous system, brain computed tomography (CT) scan has been introduced as a diagnostic device in methanol intoxication. The authors aimed to present brain CT findings in patients with acute methanol intoxication and to determine signs associated with death. Materials and methods: This cohort study involved 42 consecutive patients with acute methanol intoxication. Inclusion criteria were consisted of characteristic clinical presentation of methanol poisoning, and metabolic acidosis with increased anion and osmolar gaps. Brain CT scans without contrast medium were obtained. To determine the association between the CT findings and death, the chi-square test or the Fisher's exact test, odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. Results: Twenty-eight patients (66.6%) had a total of 55 abnormal findings on brain CT, in which bilateral putaminal hypodense lesions was the most common manifestation (27 cases, 96.4%). Putaminal hemorrhage with varying degrees was observed in 7 patients (25%). Six patients (21.4%) had low attenuation lesions in the subcortical white matter of the insula. A significant association was observed between putaminal hemorrhage (OR = 8, 95% CI = 1.187-53.93, P = 0.018) and subcortical necrosis of the insula (OR = 11, 95% CI = 1.504-80.426, P = 0.007) with death. Conclusion: In addition to clinical and laboratory findings, presence of putaminal hemorrhage and insular subcortex white matter necrosis are associated with a poor clinical outcome in patients with methanol poisoning.

  16. Intoxication following minor stabs from the spines of a porcupine fish.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorcum, Teetske F van; Janse, Max; Leenders, Marianne E C; Vries, Irma de; Meulenbelt, Jan

    2006-01-01

    We report an unusual intoxication by tetrodotoxin (TTX). A curator of an aquarium sustained minor punctures in his finger from the spines of a porcupine fish during an autopsy of a dead porcupine fish. He developed paresthesias, numbness, paresis, dizziness and headache. The death of the fish might

  17. Are restrained eaters accurate monitors of their intoxication? Results from a field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Laura J; Crowther, Janis H; Olds, R Scott; Smith, Kathryn E; Ridolfi, Danielle R

    2013-04-01

    Brief interventions encourage college students to eat more before drinking to prevent harm (Dimeff et al., 1999), although many women decrease their caloric intake (Giles et al., 2009) and the number of eating episodes (Luce et al., 2012) prior to drinking alcohol. Participants were 37 undergraduate women (24.3% Caucasian) who were recruited from a local bar district in the Midwest. This study examined whether changes in eating after intending to drink interacted with dietary restraint to predict accuracy of one's intoxication. Results indicated that changes in eating significantly moderated the relationship between dietary restraint and accuracy of one's intoxication level. After eating more food before intending to drink, women higher in restraint were more likely to overestimate their intoxication than women lower in restraint. There were no differences between women with high levels and low levels of dietary restraint in the accuracy of their intoxication after eating less food before intending to drink. Future research would benefit from examining interoceptive awareness as a possible mechanism involved in this relationship. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Fasting ameliorates metabolism, immunity, and oxidative stress in carbon tetrachloride-intoxicated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Km; Saleh, Ea

    2014-12-01

    Fasting has been recently discovered to improve overall health, but its beneficial effects in the presence of hepatic insufficiency have not been proven. The influence of fasting on the metabolism, immunological aspects, and oxidative stress of 40 male carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-intoxicated Wistar rats was investigated in the present study. The rats were divided into four groups, including a placebo group, CCl4-intoxicated rats, which were injected subcutaneously with 1.0 ml/kg of CCl4 solution, a fasting group, which was fasted 12 h/day for 30 days, and a fourth group, which was injected with CCl4 and fasted. The metabolism, immunity, and oxidative stress improved in CCl4-intoxicated rats fasted for 12 h/day for 30 days, as evidenced in significant increase (p fasting improved metabolism, immunity, and oxidative stress in CCl4-intoxicated rats. Thus, fasting during Ramadan is safe for patients with hepatic disorders, as the prophet Mohammed (S) said "Keep the fast, keep your health". © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Comparative Hepatoprotective Activity of Ethanolic Extracts of Cuscuta australis against Acetaminophen Intoxication in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folarin, Rachael O; Omirinde, Jamiu O; Bejide, Ronald; Isola, Tajudeen O; Usende, Levi I; Basiru, Afisu

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the comparative hepatoprotective activity of crude ethanol extracts of Cuscuta australis against acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication. Thirty-six rats were randomly divided into six groups of 6 replicates: Group 1 which served as control received water. Group 2 was orally administered 835 mg/kg body wt. of paracetamol on day 8. Groups 3 and 4 were orally administered ethanolic extracts of the seed of Cuscuta australis in doses of 125 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg, respectively, for 7 days and then intoxicated as in Group 2 on the 8th day. Groups 5 and 6 received similar oral doses of Cuscuta australis stem extracts for 7 days and then intoxicated as in Groups 3 and 4. Group 2 rats showed severe periportal hepatic necrosis, significantly elevated serum hepatic injury markers, markedly increased lipid peroxidation, and decreased hepatic antioxidant enzymes activities. Remarkably, Cuscuta australis (seed and stem) extract pretreatments in Groups 3, 4, 5, and 6, most especially, the stem extract pretreatment in Groups 5 and 6, improved better the hepatic histoarchitecture, the hepatocellular, and the oxidative stress injury markers in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusively, ethanol extractions of Cuscuta australis stem appear to protect the liver from acetaminophen intoxication better than the seed counterpart.

  20. Brain MR finding of {beta}-fluoroethyl acetate rodenticide intoxication: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Young; Jung, Cheol Kyu; Lee, Seung Ro; Park, Dong Woo [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    {beta}-fluoroethyl acetate rodenticide intoxication can manifest as several different clinical abnormalities such as respiratory, neurologic, cardiologic and fluid-electrolyte problems. We report here on the MR findings of a case that showed symmetric cytotoxic edema in the while matter of the cerebral hemispheres after the ingestion of {beta} - fluoroethyl acetate rodenticide by a woman who was attempting suicide.

  1. Hazards of Secondary Bromadiolone Intoxications Evaluated using High-performance Liquid Chromatography with Electrochemical Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Kizek

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This study reported on the possibility of intoxications of non-target wild animalsassociated with use of bromadiolone as the active component of rodenticides withanticoagulation effects. A laboratory test was done with earthworms were exposed tobromadiolone-containing granules under the conditions specified in the modified OECD207 guideline. No mortality of earthworms was observed during the fourteen days longexposure. When the earthworms from the above test became a part of the diet of commonvoles in the following experiment, no mortality of consumers was observed too. However,electrochemical analysis revealed higher levels of bromadiolone in tissues fromearthworms as well as common voles compared to control animals. There were determinedcomparable levels of bromadiolone in the liver tissue of common voles after primary(2.34±0.10 μg/g and secondary (2.20±0.53 μg/g intoxication. Therefore, the risk ofsecondary intoxication of small mammalian species feeding on bromadiolone-containing earthworms is the same as of primary intoxication through baited granules. Bromadiolone bio-accumulation in the food chain was monitored using the newly developed analytical procedure based on the use of a liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detector (HPLC-ED. The HPLC-ED method allowed to determine the levels of bromadiolone in biological samples and is therefore suitable for examining the environmental hazards of this substance.

  2. Drunk and disorganised: relationships between bar characteristics and customer intoxication in European drinking environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Karen; Quigg, Zara; Bellis, Mark A; Calafat, Amador; van Hasselt, Ninette; Kosir, Matej; Voorham, Lotte; Goossens, Ferry X; Duch, Mariangels; Juan, Montse

    2012-11-12

    Preventing alcohol-related harm in drinking environments is a growing international priority. Factors relating to the physical, social and staffing environments in bars can contribute to increased alcohol consumption and harm. Understanding the relationships between such factors and intoxication in European drinking environments is critical to developing appropriate interventions. We undertook a quantitative observational study in 60 bars in four European cities, in The Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain and the UK (n = 237 observational visits). Using a structured observational schedule, researchers recorded characteristics of the bar environment and rated customer intoxication levels. All physical bar characteristics showed associations with intoxication before interactions between them were controlled for. Hierarchical modelling found significant independent associations between intoxication and use of plastic glassware, promotion of non-alcoholic drinks (often energy drinks), permissive environments, poor washroom facilities, the presence of a dance floor, customer sexual activity/competitiveness and later observational time. Findings suggest that prevention efforts should focus on raising and enforcing managerial standards in bars. While harm reduction measures such as plastic glassware are often promoted for high risk bars, such measures are inadequate to address public health concerns and insufficient to demonstrate social responsibility.

  3. Ricinus communis intoxications in human and veterinary medicine-a summary of real cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worbs, Sylvia; Köhler, Kernt; Pauly, Diana; Avondet, Marc-André; Schaer, Martin; Dorner, Martin B; Dorner, Brigitte G

    2011-10-01

    Accidental and intended Ricinus communis intoxications in humans and animals have been known for centuries but the causative agent remained elusive until 1888 when Stillmark attributed the toxicity to the lectin ricin. Ricinus communis is grown worldwide on an industrial scale for the production of castor oil. As by-product in castor oil production ricin is mass produced above 1 million tons per year. On the basis of its availability, toxicity, ease of preparation and the current lack of medical countermeasures, ricin has gained attention as potential biological warfare agent. The seeds also contain the less toxic, but highly homologous Ricinus communis agglutinin and the alkaloid ricinine, and especially the latter can be used to track intoxications. After oil extraction and detoxification, the defatted press cake is used as organic fertilizer and as low-value feed. In this context there have been sporadic reports from different countries describing animal intoxications after uptake of obviously insufficiently detoxified fertilizer. Observations in Germany over several years, however, have led us to speculate that the detoxification process is not always performed thoroughly and controlled, calling for international regulations which clearly state a ricin threshold in fertilizer. In this review we summarize knowledge on intended and unintended poisoning with ricin or castor seeds both in humans and animals, with a particular emphasis on intoxications due to improperly detoxified castor bean meal and forensic analysis.

  4. Women's condom use assertiveness and sexual risk-taking: effects of alcohol intoxication and adult victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Susan A; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H; Morrison, Diane M; Zawacki, Tina; Davis, Kelly Cue; Hessler, Danielle M

    2008-09-01

    This experiment examined relationships among adulthood victimization, sexual assertiveness, alcohol intoxication, and sexual risk-taking in female social drinkers (N=161). Women completed measures of sexual assault and intimate partner violence history and sexual assertiveness before random assignment to 1 of 4 beverage conditions: control, placebo, low dose (.04%), or high dose (.08%). After drinking, women read a second-person story involving a sexual encounter with a new partner. As protagonist of the story, each woman rated her likelihood of condom insistence and unprotected sex. Victimization history and self-reported sexual assertiveness were negatively related. The less sexually assertive a woman was, the less she intended to insist on condom use, regardless of intoxication. By reducing the perceived health consequences of unprotected sex, intoxication indirectly decreased condom insistence and increased unprotected sex. Findings extend previous work by elucidating possible mechanisms of the relationship between alcohol and unprotected sex - perceived health consequences and situational condom insistence - and support the value of sexual assertiveness training to enhance condom insistence, especially since the latter relationship was robust to intoxication.

  5. Is gender a risk factor for pesticide intoxications among farmers in Bolivia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Hay-Younes, Jasmin; Condarco, Madelaine A

    2013-01-01

    This study compares gender differences regarding knowledge, practice, and symptoms of intoxication when handling pesticides in farming. Data were gathered in La Paz County, Bolivia, in 2008 and 2009. Poor knowledge on safe handling, hazardous working practices, and use of very toxic pesticides were...... symptoms. To minimize this gap, education and agricultural services should be made more accessible to female farmers in Bolivia....

  6. Investigation of Evolved Paraoxonase-1 Variants for Prevention of Organophosphorous Pesticide Compound Intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-04

    intoxication David G. Mata, Peter E. Rezk, Praveena Sabnekar, Douglas M. Cerasoli and Nageswararao Chilukuri Physiology & Immunology Branch...phone number Nageswararao Chilukuri Physiology & Immunology Branch, Research Division, US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, 3100...are a benefit to society through increasing food production, preserving produce, and combating insect infestations. However, due to their inherent

  7. Compliance with the Legislation on Alcohol Serving and Selling and Alcohol Intoxications in Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, Joris Jasper; Boeynaems, Gerben; van der Lely, Nicolaas

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: study the relation between compliance to the legal age limits for alcohol sales and alcohol intoxication in adolescents. Methods: from 2007 till 2012 we collected data on adolescents, with a positive BAC, treated in a hospital. Within the Dutch Pediatric Surveillance System (NSCK),

  8. Oral administration of piperine for the control of aflatoxin intoxication in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagini, Thalita B; Silva, Robson E; Castro, Isabela S; Soares, Breno A; Lima, Marco E F; Brito, Marilene F; Mazur, Carlos; Direito, Glória M; Danelli, Maria das Graças M

    2010-04-01

    Aflatoxins are mycotoxins that have important toxic effects on human and animal health, even if consumed at low doses. The oral administration of piperine (1.12 mg/kg) during 23 days in rats seemingly interfered with the toxicity of aflatoxins, decreasing hepatic injuries and the leukocyte depletion in experimentally intoxicated animals.

  9. Effects of lead intoxication on intercellular junctions and biochemical alterations of the renal proximal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Moreno, L G; Quintanar-Escorza, M A; González, S; Mondragón, R; Cerbón-Solorzáno, J; Valdés, J; Calderón-Salinas, J V

    2009-10-01

    Lead intoxication is a worldwide health problem which frequently affects the kidney. In this work, we studied the effects of chronic lead intoxication (500 ppm of Pb in drinking water during seven months) on the structure, function and biochemical properties of rat proximal tubule cells. Lead-exposed animals showed increased lead concentration in kidney, reduction of calcium and amino acids uptake, oxidative damage and glucosuria, proteinuria, hematuria and reduced urinary pH. These biochemical and physiological alterations were related to striking morphological modifications in the structure of tubule epithelial cells and in the morphology of their mitochondria, nuclei, lysosomes, basal and apical membranes. Interestingly, in addition to the nuclei, inclusion bodies were found in the cytoplasm and in mitochondria. The epithelial cell structure modifications included an early loss of the apical microvillae, followed by a decrement of the luminal space and the respective apposition and proximity of apical membranes, resulting in the formation of atypical intercellular contacts and adhesion structures. Similar but less marked alterations were observed in subacute lead intoxication as well. Our work contributes in the understanding of the physiopathology of lead intoxication on the structure of renal tubular epithelial cell-cell contacts in vivo.

  10. Drink Specials and the Intoxication Levels of Patrons Exiting College Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thombs, Dennis L.; Dodd, Virginia; Porkorny, Steven B.; Omli, Morrow R.; O'Mara, Ryan; Webb, Monica C.; Lacaci, Diana M.; Werch, Chad

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether drink specials independently increase patrons' risk of achieving a high level of intoxication upon exiting drinking establishments. Methods: In a campus community, data were collected from exiting patrons (N=291) via sidewalk interviews and breath tests on 6 nights of 2 consecutive semesters. Results: A…

  11. Brain reactivity to alcohol and cannabis marketing during sobriety and intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Fernandes Perna, Elizabeth B; Theunissen, Eef L; Kuypers, Kim P C; Evers, Elisabeth A; Stiers, Peter; Toennes, Stefan W; Witteman, Jurriaan; van Dalen, Wim; Ramaekers, Johannes G

    2017-05-01

    Drugs of abuse stimulate striatal dopamine release and activate reward pathways. This study examined the impact of alcohol and cannabis marketing on the reward circuit in alcohol and cannabis users while sober and intoxicated. It was predicted that alcohol and cannabis marketing would increase striatal activation when sober and that reward sensitivity would be less during alcohol and cannabis intoxication. Heavy alcohol (n = 20) and regular cannabis users (n = 21) participated in a mixed factorial study involving administration of alcohol and placebo in the alcohol group and cannabis and placebo in the cannabis group. Non-drug users (n = 20) served as between group reference. Brain activation after exposure to alcohol and cannabis marketing movies was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging and compared between groups while sober and compared with placebo while intoxicated. Implicit alcohol and cannabis cognitions were assessed by means of a single-category implicit association test. Alcohol and cannabis marketing significantly increased striatal BOLD activation across all groups while sober. Striatal activation however decreased during intoxication with alcohol and cannabis. Implicit associations with cannabis marketing cues were significantly more positive in alcohol and cannabis users as compared with non-drug using controls. Public advertising of alcohol or cannabis use elicits striatal activation in the brain's reward circuit. Reduction of marketing would reduce brain exposure to reward cues that motivate substance use. Conversely, elevated dopamine levels protect against the reinforcing potential of marketing. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Inhibiting oral intoxication of botulinum neurotoxin A by carbohydrate receptor mimics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) cause the disease botulism manifested by flaccid paralysis that could be fatal to humans and animals. Oral ingestion of the toxin with contaminated food is one of the most common routes of BoNT intoxication, where BoNT assembles with several auxiliary proteins to surviv...

  13. Experience and prospects of studying of a intoxication syndrome in an infectious pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Pak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of unity of initiation mechanisms of pathological changes in the organism is presented a system view at development of intoxication syndrome as an influence of key pathogenic factors of agents and as a complex cascade of pathophysiological, biochemical, structural, functional and others reactions of biological system.

  14. Discerning suicide in drug intoxication deaths: Paucity and primacy of suicide notes and psychiatric history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Eric D.; Connery, Hilary S.; D’Onofrio, Gail; Gunnell, David J.; Miller, Ted R.; Nolte, Kurt B.; Kaplan, Mark S.; Kapusta, Nestor D.; Lilly, Christa L.; Nelson, Lewis S.; Putnam, Sandra L.; Stack, Steven; Värnik, Peeter; Webster, Lynn R.; Jia, Haomiao

    2018-01-01

    Objective A paucity of corroborative psychological and psychiatric evidence may be inhibiting detection of drug intoxication suicides in the United States. We evaluated the relative importance of suicide notes and psychiatric history in the classification of suicide by drug intoxication versus firearm (gunshot wound) plus hanging/suffocation—the other two major, but overtly violent methods. Methods This observational multilevel (individual/county), multivariable study employed a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) to analyze pooled suicides and undetermined intent deaths, as possible suicides, among the population aged 15 years and older in the 17 states participating in the National Violent Death Reporting System throughout 2011–2013. The outcome measure was relative odds of suicide versus undetermined classification, adjusted for demographics, precipitating circumstances, and investigation characteristics. Results A suicide note, prior suicide attempt, or affective disorder was documented in less than one-third of suicides and one-quarter of undetermined deaths. The prevalence gaps were larger among drug intoxication cases than gunshot/hanging cases. The latter were more likely than intoxication cases to be classified as suicide versus undetermined manner of death (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 41.14; 95% CI, 34.43–49.15), as were cases documenting a suicide note (OR, 33.90; 95% CI, 26.11–44.05), prior suicide attempt (OR, 2.42; 95% CI, 2.11–2.77), or depression (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.38 to 1.88), or bipolar disorder (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.10–1.81). Stratification by mechanism/cause intensified the association between a note and suicide classification for intoxication cases (OR, 45.43; 95% CI, 31.06–66.58). Prior suicide attempt (OR, 2.64; 95% CI, 2.19–3.18) and depression (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.17–1.87) were associated with suicide classification in intoxication but not gunshot/hanging cases. Conclusions Without psychological/psychiatric evidence

  15. Discerning suicide in drug intoxication deaths: Paucity and primacy of suicide notes and psychiatric history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockett, Ian R H; Caine, Eric D; Connery, Hilary S; D'Onofrio, Gail; Gunnell, David J; Miller, Ted R; Nolte, Kurt B; Kaplan, Mark S; Kapusta, Nestor D; Lilly, Christa L; Nelson, Lewis S; Putnam, Sandra L; Stack, Steven; Värnik, Peeter; Webster, Lynn R; Jia, Haomiao

    2018-01-01

    A paucity of corroborative psychological and psychiatric evidence may be inhibiting detection of drug intoxication suicides in the United States. We evaluated the relative importance of suicide notes and psychiatric history in the classification of suicide by drug intoxication versus firearm (gunshot wound) plus hanging/suffocation-the other two major, but overtly violent methods. This observational multilevel (individual/county), multivariable study employed a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) to analyze pooled suicides and undetermined intent deaths, as possible suicides, among the population aged 15 years and older in the 17 states participating in the National Violent Death Reporting System throughout 2011-2013. The outcome measure was relative odds of suicide versus undetermined classification, adjusted for demographics, precipitating circumstances, and investigation characteristics. A suicide note, prior suicide attempt, or affective disorder was documented in less than one-third of suicides and one-quarter of undetermined deaths. The prevalence gaps were larger among drug intoxication cases than gunshot/hanging cases. The latter were more likely than intoxication cases to be classified as suicide versus undetermined manner of death (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 41.14; 95% CI, 34.43-49.15), as were cases documenting a suicide note (OR, 33.90; 95% CI, 26.11-44.05), prior suicide attempt (OR, 2.42; 95% CI, 2.11-2.77), or depression (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.38 to 1.88), or bipolar disorder (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.10-1.81). Stratification by mechanism/cause intensified the association between a note and suicide classification for intoxication cases (OR, 45.43; 95% CI, 31.06-66.58). Prior suicide attempt (OR, 2.64; 95% CI, 2.19-3.18) and depression (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.17-1.87) were associated with suicide classification in intoxication but not gunshot/hanging cases. Without psychological/psychiatric evidence contributing to manner of death classification, suicide by

  16. LACTIC ACIDOSIS: A RARE MANIFESTATION OF SYNTHETIC MARIJUANA INTOXICATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antill, T; Jakkoju, A; Dieguez, J; Laskhmiprasad, L

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids are designer drugs that mimic the effect of cannabis, which has become popular with young drug users. These drugs have a similar chemical structure and pharmacologic effects as marijuana, but seem to be more potent. These substances have been banned by the US Drug Enforcement Agency in 2010. Prior to 2010, these drugs were perceived as "safer" by the general population. Synthetic cannabinoids cause effects similar to marijuana making the subjects euphoric. However, they act as full, rather than partial, agonist at the receptor sites causing more severe side effects such as severe agitation, seizures, acute renal failure, and lactic acidosis.

  17. "Combined Occlusion and Atropine Therapy" Versus "Augmented Part-Time Patching" in Children with Refractory/Residual Amblyopia: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Virender; Mittal, Vaibhev; Gupta, Varun; Gunturu, Rekha; Kekunnaya, Ramesh; Chandrasekharan, Anjali; Chabblani, Preeti Patil; Rao, Harsha L

    2016-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of combined occlusion and atropine therapy (COAT) and augmented part-time patching for the treatment of unilateral refractory/residual amblyopia. This retrospective study evaluated children between 4 and 11 years with refractory/residual amblyopia who were treated with either additional atropine (COAT group) or increased hours of patching (augmented group). Data were collected on improvement in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA; logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR] units) at each follow-up visit. There were 19 children in the COAT group and 17 children in the augmented group. The baseline BCVA of the amblyopic eye was 0.79 ± 0.36 logMAR in the COAT group and 0.72 ± 0.26 logMAR in augmented group. Children were statistically significantly younger in the COAT group (6.4 ± 2.2 years) compared to the augmented group (8.6 ± 3.3 years, P = 0.02). The mean duration of follow-up was statistically significantly longer in the augmented group (20.2 COAT group; 13.9 months augmented group) (P = 0.03). Compliance was similar in both groups. LogMAR BCVA (adjusted for difference in age and baseline BCVA) was statistically significantly better in the COAT group (0.56 ± 0.04) compared to the augmented group (0.80 ± 0.04) at 3 months (P = 0.000); 6 months (COAT group, 0.50 ± 0.04 vs. augmented group, 0.74 ± 0.04; P = 0.04) and at 1 year (COAT group, 0.42 ± 0.04 vs. augmented group, 0.67 ± 0.04, P = 0.000). There was statistically significantly greater improvement in logMAR BCVA at 6 months in COAT group (0.26 ± 0.15) compared to the augmented group (0.02 ± 0.14), (P = 0.0002). Age, gender, pretreatment BCVA, duration of follow-up, or compliance to patching did not affect improvement in BCVA. COAT may result in greater improvement in BCVA than augmented part-time patching in children with unilateral residual/refractory amblyopia.

  18. “Combined Occlusion and Atropine Therapy” Versus “Augmented Part-Time Patching” in Children with Refractory/Residual Amblyopia: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Virender; Mittal, Vaibhev; Gupta, Varun; Gunturu, Rekha; Kekunnaya, Ramesh; Chandrasekharan, Anjali; Chabblani, Preeti Patil; Rao, Harsha L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the efficacy of combined occlusion and atropine therapy (COAT) and augmented part-time patching for the treatment of unilateral refractory/residual amblyopia. Methodology: This retrospective study evaluated children between 4 and 11 years with refractory/residual amblyopia who were treated with either additional atropine (COAT group) or increased hours of patching (augmented group). Data were collected on improvement in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA; logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR] units) at each follow-up visit. Results: There were 19 children in the COAT group and 17 children in the augmented group. The baseline BCVA of the amblyopic eye was 0.79 ± 0.36 logMAR in the COAT group and 0.72 ± 0.26 logMAR in augmented group. Children were statistically significantly younger in the COAT group (6.4 ± 2.2 years) compared to the augmented group (8.6 ± 3.3 years, P = 0.02). The mean duration of follow-up was statistically significantly longer in the augmented group (20.2 COAT group; 13.9 months augmented group) (P = 0.03). Compliance was similar in both groups. LogMAR BCVA (adjusted for difference in age and baseline BCVA) was statistically significantly better in the COAT group (0.56 ± 0.04) compared to the augmented group (0.80 ± 0.04) at 3 months (P = 0.000); 6 months (COAT group, 0.50 ± 0.04 vs. augmented group, 0.74 ± 0.04; P = 0.04) and at 1 year (COAT group, 0.42 ± 0.04 vs. augmented group, 0.67 ± 0.04, P = 0.000). There was statistically significantly greater improvement in logMAR BCVA at 6 months in COAT group (0.26 ± 0.15) compared to the augmented group (0.02 ± 0.14), (P = 0.0002). Age, gender, pretreatment BCVA, duration of follow-up, or compliance to patching did not affect improvement in BCVA. Conclusions: COAT may result in greater improvement in BCVA than augmented part-time patching in children with unilateral residual/refractory amblyopia. PMID:27162453

  19. [EFFECT OF 4-METHYLPYRAZOLE ON IMMUNE RESPONSE, FUNCTION OF Th1 AND Th2 LYMPHOCYTES, AND CYTOKINE CONCENTRATION IN RAT BLOOD AFTER ACUTE METHANOL POISONING].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabrodskii, P F; Maslyakov, V V; Gromov, M S

    2016-01-01

    It was established in experiments on noninbred albino rats that the acute intoxication with methanol (1.0 LD50) decreased cellular and humoral immune responses, Th2-lymphocyte activity (to a greater extent as compared to the function of Th1 cells), reduced the blood concentration of immunoregulatory (IFN-g, IL-2, IL-4) and proinflammatory (TNF, IL-1b, IL-6) cytokines on the average by 36.5% (p Methanol antidote 4-methylpyrazole (non-competitive inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase) administered upon acute intoxication with methanol at a dose of 1.0 DL50 partially reduces the intoxication-induced suppression of humoral and cellular immune response, activity of T-helper cells, and production of IL-4 and restores blood levels of TNF, IL-1b, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-2, IL-6 to the control values.

  20. Acute effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate, on cardiovascular parameters in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Itoh, Takeo, E-mail: titoh@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Shiraishi, Hiroaki [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Maeno, Yoshitaka [Department of Forensic Medical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Arima, Yosuke; Torikoshi, Aiko; Namera, Akira [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Makita, Ryosuke [Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hiroshima Cosmopolitan University, Hiroshima (Japan); Yoshizumi, Masao [Department of Cardiovascular Physiology and Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Nagao, Masataka [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2013-10-01

    The organophosphorus compound sarin irreversibly inhibits acetylcholinesterase. We examined the acute cardiovascular effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate (BIMP), in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats. Intravenous administration of BIMP (0.8 mg/kg; the LD50 value) induced a long-lasting increase in blood pressure and tended to increase heart rate. In rats pretreated with the non-selective muscarinic-receptor antagonist atropine, BIMP significantly increased both heart rate and blood pressure. In atropine-treated rats, hexamethonium (antagonist of ganglionic nicotinic receptors) greatly attenuated the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure without changing the BIMP-induced increase in heart rate. In rats treated with atropine plus hexamethonium, intravenous phentolamine (non-selective α-adrenergic receptor antagonist) plus propranolol (non-selective β-adrenergic receptor antagonist) completely blocked the BIMP-induced increases in blood pressure and heart rate. In atropine-treated rats, the reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine (1 mg/kg) induced a transient increase in blood pressure, but had no effect on heart rate. These results suggest that in anaesthetized rats, BIMP induces powerful stimulation of sympathetic as well as parasympathetic nerves and thereby modulates heart rate and blood pressure. They may also indicate that an action independent of acetylcholinesterase inhibition contributes to the acute cardiovascular responses induced by BIMP. - Highlights: • A sarin-like agent BIMP markedly increased blood pressure in anaesthetized rats. • Muscarinic receptor blockade enhanced the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure. • Ganglionic nicotinic receptor blockade attenuated the BIMP-induced response. • Blockade of α- as well as β-receptors attenuated the BIMP-induced response.

  1. Acute effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate, on cardiovascular parameters in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Itoh, Takeo; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Maeno, Yoshitaka; Arima, Yosuke; Torikoshi, Aiko; Namera, Akira; Makita, Ryosuke; Yoshizumi, Masao; Nagao, Masataka

    2013-01-01

    The organophosphorus compound sarin irreversibly inhibits acetylcholinesterase. We examined the acute cardiovascular effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate (BIMP), in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats. Intravenous administration of BIMP (0.8 mg/kg; the LD50 value) induced a long-lasting increase in blood pressure and tended to increase heart rate. In rats pretreated with the non-selective muscarinic-receptor antagonist atropine, BIMP significantly increased both heart rate and blood pressure. In atropine-treated rats, hexamethonium (antagonist of ganglionic nicotinic receptors) greatly attenuated the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure without changing the BIMP-induced increase in heart rate. In rats treated with atropine plus hexamethonium, intravenous phentolamine (non-selective α-adrenergic receptor antagonist) plus propranolol (non-selective β-adrenergic receptor antagonist) completely blocked the BIMP-induced increases in blood pressure and heart rate. In atropine-treated rats, the reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine (1 mg/kg) induced a transient increase in blood pressure, but had no effect on heart rate. These results suggest that in anaesthetized rats, BIMP induces powerful stimulation of sympathetic as well as parasympathetic nerves and thereby modulates heart rate and blood pressure. They may also indicate that an action independent of acetylcholinesterase inhibition contributes to the acute cardiovascular responses induced by BIMP. - Highlights: • A sarin-like agent BIMP markedly increased blood pressure in anaesthetized rats. • Muscarinic receptor blockade enhanced the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure. • Ganglionic nicotinic receptor blockade attenuated the BIMP-induced response. • Blockade of α- as well as β-receptors attenuated the BIMP-induced response

  2. [Case report: kleptomania and other psychiatric symptoms after carbon monoxide intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürlek Yüksel, Ebru; Taşkin, E Oryal; Yilmaz Ovali, Gülgün; Karaçam, Melek; Esen Danaci, Ayşen

    2007-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication is usually a serious condition, which can result in neurological disturbances or death. In some patients with CO intoxication, but not usually, a biphasic pattern can be seen. In this condition, after antitoxic treatment, patients may completely recover and after a short recovery period, neurological and/or psychiatric symptoms appear again. This condition is known as delayed encephalopathy and its occurrence rate is between 0.06% and 11.8%. Herein, we report a case with delayed encephalopathy after CO intoxication, which began with neurological symptoms and continued with obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, kleptomania, and psychotic disorder. The 41-year-old female patient had no psychiatric or neurological symptoms or disorders prior to CO intoxication. Increased signal intensity changes in the basal region of the left temporal lobe (including the cortex and subcortical white matter), globus pallidus (bilateral), and cerebellar cortical and subcortical white matter (bilaterally symmetrical) was detected on axial T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, there were atrophic changes in both cerebellar hemispheres. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of kleptomania described after CO intoxication in the literature. We discuss the organic etiology of kleptomania and the other psychiatric symptoms of this patient in the light of recent research. We concluded that the kleptomania seen in this patient was related to concurrent lesions in the temporal lobe and globus pallidus; in other words, her kleptomania may have been related to dysfunction simultaneously seen in both the temporolimbic and frontal-subcortical circuits.

  3. High-dose alcohol intoxication differentially modulates cognitive subprocesses involved in response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Schulz, Tom; Lenhardt, Martin; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Beste, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Aside from well-known physiological effects, high-dose alcohol intoxication (a.k.a. binge drinking) can lead to aversive social and legal consequences because response inhibition is usually compromised under the influence of alcohol. Although the behavioral aspects of this phenomenon were reported on extensively, the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms mediating this disinhibition are unclear. To close this gap, we used both behavioral and neurophysiological measures (event-related potentials, ERPs) to investigate which subprocesses of response inhibition are altered under the influence of high-dose alcohol intoxication. Using a within-subject design, we asked young healthy participants (n = 27) to complete a GO/NOGO task once sober and once intoxicated (approximately 1.2‰). During intoxication, high-dose alcohol effects were highest in a condition where the participants could not rely on automated stimulus-response mapping processes during response inhibition. In this context, the NOGO-P3 (ERP), that likely depends on dopaminergic signaling within mesocorticolimbic pathways and is thought to reflect motor inhibition and/or the evaluation of inhibitory processes, was altered in the intoxicated state. In contrast to this, the N2 component, which largely depends on nigrostriatal dopamine pathways and is thought to reflect inhibition on a pre-motor level, was not altered. Based on these results, we demonstrate that alcohol-induced changes of dopaminergic neurotransmission do not exert a global effect on response inhibition. Instead, changes are highly subprocess-specific and seem to mainly target mesocorticolimbic pathways that contribute to motor inhibition and the evaluation of such. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Lead intoxication: a summary of the clinical presentation among Thai patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj; Suwansaksri, Jamsai

    2006-08-01

    Lead is an important toxic metal found in industrial communities. Due to the industrialization in the recent decade in Thailand, lead intoxication as a toxicant-related disorder becomes a new public health problem. A retrospective study on clinical presentation of hospitalized patients with diagnosis of lead intoxication during year 1990-1999 in King Chulalongkorn Memorial hospital, the largest Thai Red Cross Society Hospital, was performed. All 14 cases diagnosed with lead intoxication were identified in our series. Average age of the subjects was 25.55 +/- 21.93 years old. Male predominance was detected in our series (male:female = 12:2). Two main groups of subjects as; (1) childhood aged below 10 years old (male:female = 4:2) and (2) adult aged between 24 and 60 years old (n = 8, all male), can be identified. For the first group, the clinical presentations were convulsion (n = 3), unexplained anemia (n = 1), attention deficit (n = 1) and asymptomatic (n = 1), respectively. All of the subjects in this group presented the history of living at the old battery plant area. Five of the six cases came from the same village. For the second group, the clinical presentations were unexplained abdominal pain (n = 5), chronic renal failure (n = 1), unexplained anemia (n = 1) and asymptomatic (n = 1), respectively. Most of the subjects (75%) in this group presented the history of working in the battery plant for more than 10 years. Another case presented the history of gunshot and residual bullet in the bone marrow. The other one left is an interesting case with the history of prolonged usage of ritual pill and holy paper incineration. Like other studies, battery plant had strong relation with the lead intoxication. Although the total identified cases are rather few, there may be more undetected asymptomatic lead intoxication cases in the community. Specific control of lead resulted from battery plant and monitoring of the workers as public health strategies are still

  5. [Metabolic disturbances and ways of their pharmacological correction in acute poisoning with ethanol in patients with chronic alcoholism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livanov, G A; Lodyagin, A N; Lubsanova, S V; Kovalenko, A L; Batotsyrenov, B V; Sergeev, O A; Loladze, A T; Andrianov, A Yu

    2015-01-01

    To study an influence of chronic alcoholism on the clinical course and severity of metabolic disturbances in patients with acute poisoning with ethanol and to improve the treatment. Authors examined 93 patients stratified into three groups (acute poisoning with ethanol in patients with chronic alcoholism, without chronic alcoholism and those treated with reamberin). The presence of chronic alcoholism significantly augmented metabolic disturbances and influenced the disturbance of oxygen-transport function and free-radical processes in patients with acute intoxication with ethanol. Using of reamberin in the complex intensive therapy led to the decrease in metabolic disorders, which improved the clinical course of acute poisoning with ethanol in patients with chronic alcoholism.

  6. Endotoxicosis as the Contents of Posresuscitative Disease in Acute Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. A. Luzhnikov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the specific features of the diagnosis and treatment of endothoxicosis as a manifestation of postresus-citative disease in acute exogenous poisoning.Subjects and methods. Clinical, laboratory, and statistical methods of the diagnosis of endotoxicosis complicating the course of acute poisoning by narcotics, psychopharmacological agents, and cauterants, as well as complex physicochemical detoxification were applied to 554 patients.Results. The study pathology has been ascertained to have 3 developmental stages — from functional (primary to developed and terminal clinical and laboratory manifestations as multiple organ dysfunctions. The best therapeutic results are achieved by effective therapeutic measures just in early-stage endotoxicosis, by substantially reducing the rates of death and pneumonia and the time of the latter’s resolution. The major contribution to the reduction in the rate of death due acute poisoning is associated with physicochemical detoxification that considerably lessens the influence of the intoxication factors of postresuscitative disease.Conclusion. When diagnosing endotoxicosis in patients with acute endogenous intoxication, it is necessary to keep in mind a whole spectrum of typical changes in endotoxicosis markers and homeostatic parameters: hematologi-cal, blood rheological, lipid peroxidation/antioxidative systems, which should be timely corrected by the basic efferent artificial detoxification techniques (hemosorption, hemodiafiltration, hemofiltration, by compulsorily employing physio-and chemohemotherapy (laser-ultraviolet hemotherapy, sodium hypochlorite infusion. 

  7. The Psychological Status of Patients with Acute Mandibular Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Pudov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to define the specific features of the psychological status of patients with acute mandibular injury, to compare a psychological reaction to injury in different age groups and in persons with signs of alcohol addiction. Subjects and methods. The study enrolled 37 patients of both sexes over 15 years of age. The patients were distributed by age and chronic alcohol intoxication. Psychological parameters were determined using personality questionnaires: Spielberg-Hanin, Zung, GHQ-28, and Wein ones. Results. The patients with mandibular injury were found to have higher levels of situational and personality anxiety. A state of depression as a response to acute mandibular injury of reactive genesis was found in 29.8% of cases. Autonomic dysfunction occurred in 62.2% of the patients with mandibular fractures. Occult pathopsychological states were detected in 35.1% of the study group patients. Conclusion. The main found peculiarities of the psychological status of the patients with acute mandibular injury were high anxiety and the considerable incidence of autonomic dysfunction syndrome. There were no great age differences in psychological status and the direction of reactions. The patients with chronic alcohol intoxication more frequently developed a depressive state, but the autonomic dysfunction syndrome was just less often encountered and pathopsychological states were less frequently found. Key words: acute low anxiety depression alcohol abuse, psychological status.

  8. Therapeutic potency of bee pollen against biochemical autistic features induced through acute and sub-acute neurotoxicity of orally administered propionic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salem, Huda S; Bhat, Ramesa Shafi; Al-Ayadhi, Laila; El-Ansary, Afaf

    2016-04-23

    It is now well documented that postnatal exposure to certain chemicals has been reported to increase the risk of autism spectrum disorder. Propionic acid (PA), as a metabolic product of gut microbiotaandas a commonly used food additive, has been reported to mediate the effects of autism. Results from animal studies may help to identify environmental neurotoxic agents and drugs that can ameliorate neurotoxicity and may thereby aid in the treatment of autism. The present study investigated the ameliorative effects of natural bee pollen against acute and sub-acute brain intoxication induced by (PA) in rats. Twenty-four young male Western Albino ratswere enrolled in the present study. They were classified into four equal groups, eachwith6 rats. The control group received only phosphate buffered saline; the oral buffered PA-treated groups (II and III) received a neurotoxic dose of 750 mg/kg body weight divided in 3 dose of 250 mg/kg body weight/day serving asthe acute group and 750 mg/kg body weight divided in 10 equal dose of 75 mg/kg body weight/day as the sub-acute group. The fourth group received 50 mg bee pollen for 30 days after PA-acute intoxication. The obtained data showed that the PA-treated groups demonstrated multiple signs of brain toxicity, as indicated by a depletion of serotonin (5HT), dopamine and nor-adrenaline, together withan increase in IFN-γ and caspase 3. Bee pollen was effective in ameliorating the neurotoxic effect of PA. All measured parameters demonstrated minimal alteration in comparison with thecontrol animal than did those of acute and sub-acute PA-treated animals. In conclusion, bee pollen demonstrates anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects while ameliorating the impaired neurochemistry of PA-intoxicated rats.

  9. An In Vivo Study on Intoxicating Effects of Nerium oleander Water Based Extract on Multiorgans of Wistar Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muddasir Hassan Abbasi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to find histological changes in the extrahepatic organs, hepatic iron deposition, and gene expression of some iron regulatory proteins in rats after sterile muscle abscess during the acute intoxication of Nerium oleander leaves decoction. 10 ml/kg of the leaves extract was injected intramuscularly in Wistar rats (200–225 g, n=4. Control animals received saline injection of matched volume. Animals were anesthetized and sacrificed after 3, 6, 12, and 24 h after administration of decoction. Lungs, kidney, spleen, and liver were extracted and processed for histopathological examination while portion of liver tissue was proceeded for iron regulatory gene expression quantification. Sections of all studied organs were found with signs of cellular dysfunction with infiltration of variety of leucocytes. In the lungs section at 3 h time point mononuclear cell infiltrates were observed while in alveolar tissue at 24 h time point dilation and even collapse in some of the alveoli were evident. In kidney sections distortion of renal tubules and epithelial cells with shrinkage of glomeruli was noted at all studied time points. In the splenic section of 12 h time point, degeneration, depopulation, and shrinkage of white pulp have been noted. Distension of the red pulp along with activation of splenic follicles was evident after 24 h onset of APR. Significant changes in the expression of acute phase cytokine and iron regulatory genes were noted. IL-6 and Hepc gene expression were strongly upregulated up to 12 h whereby Tf gene expression showed an early upregulation at 3 h time point followed by downregulation on later points while Hjv gene expression showed an overall downregulation at all study time points compared to control. It is concluded that inherent toxins present in the N. oleander can induce acute phase response and cause severe histological changes in the organs and marked changes in the regulation of iron

  10. Is there a role for progesterone in the management of acute organophosphate poisoning during pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadeh, Mostafa; Nasrabadi, Zeynab Nasri; Sheikhazadi, Ardeshir; Abbaspour, Abdollah; Vasigh, Shayesteh; Yousefinejad, Vahid; Marashi, Sayed Mahdi

    2013-06-01

    Organophosphates are commonly used pesticides and cause about one million unintentional and 2 million suicidal exposures with up to 300,000 fatalities every year around the world. Toxicity of organophosphates is due to inhibition cholinesterase activity and prolonging the effects of acetylcholine in the receptor site. Clinical features of organophosphate poisoning are defecation, urination, miosis, bronchorrhea, emesis, lacrimation and salivation. Spontaneous abortion reported some when in pregnant patients. Intravenous administration of benzodiazepines, atropine and pralidoxime is the formal treatment of this toxicity. Atropine and pralidoxime have been assigned to pregnancy class C by the FDA and should be recommended for use in pregnant women clinically suffer organophosphate poisoning. Benzodiazepines have been assigned to pregnancy class D and should be avoided during pregnancy. Clinical experiments suggest transplacental transfer of organophosphates is possible, and fetal sensitivity is probable, but a single acute overdose most likely don't make any physical deformities, therefore termination of pregnancy is not imperative. Nonetheless, no definite strategy focused on maintaining pregnancy. Here we propose an idea that in any female case of acute organophosphate poisoning in childbearing range of age, maternal serum Beta-HCG should be tested for pregnancy and prophylactic progesterone should be used in pregnant cases of organophosphate poisoning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cardiac Arrest After Status Epilepticus: Bupropion and Ecstasy Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zübeyde Tuba Duran

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bupropion is a monocyclic antidepressant that has been known to cause seizures in high therapeutic doses or acute high doses. Bupropion is a selective norepinephrine, dopamine and minimally serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Overdose of bupropion may lead to recurrent seizures, hypoxia and death. It is important to be aware in terms of bradycardia-asystole as a significant consequence of seizure and hypoxia. Patients using high dose of bupropion should be closely monitored in terms of cardiological and neurological. In this study, we presented a 19 year-old female patient who did not have previous history of epilepsy but who used oral bupropion to reduce nicotine addiction. A status epilepticus and cardiac arrest developed in a case receiving 1,8 g bupropion for suicide. 3.4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA and benzodiazepine were detected in urine sample. We did not find any cases in the literature related to MDMA and bupropion overdose. Therefore, we presented this rare case.

  12. [The "dental amalgam syndrome" - an environmental somatization Syndrome? A comparison between chronic carbon monoxide intoxication and illness related to dental amalgam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, T

    2001-01-01

    In 1940, during World War II, restrictions in import of petroleum products to Sweden necessitated the use of producer gas in motor traffic. In the following years, the incidence of acute carbon monoxide intoxications raised steeply. However, many patients with minor but longstanding exposition to producer gas exhibited a neurastenic syndrome (fatigue, headaches and vertigo) thought to be specific. In Stockholm, an epidemic of this syndrome can afterwards be traced to the personal conviction of an internist who also had an important influence on various authorities, leading to a forceful campaign to the public about the dangers of using producer gas. After some years, the frequency and even the existence of a chronic carbon monoxide intoxication was called in question and at the end of the war that diagnosis lost its actuality. In Sweden, oral galvanism attributed to dental amalgam was discussed in mass media in the 1970s, not least by evidence given by some well-known personalities. In the 1980s, the frequency of illness attributed to dental amalgam increased to an important epidemic. The question of the dangers of mercury released from amalgam fillings is still an important issue of debate among dentists and physicians, although the majority remains sceptical. Also medical authorities have found little evidence of the importance of dental amalgam toxicity. A patients organisation, Tandvårdsskadeförbundet, seems to have played a significant part in the acceptance of the syndrome among laymen. Thus, various psychosocial factors seem to have played a role in both syndromes which could thus be conceived as environmental somatization syndromes.

  13. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on whole blood cyanide concentrations in carbon monoxide intoxicated patients from fire accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson-Smith, Pia; Jansen, Erik C; Hilsted, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and carbon monoxide (CO) may be important components of smoke from fire accidents. Accordingly, patients admitted to hospital from fire accidents may have been exposed to both HCN and CO. Cyanide (CN) intoxication results in cytotoxic hypoxia leading to organ dysfunction...... and animal experiments have shown that in rats exposed to CN intoxication, HBO can increase the concentration of CN in whole blood....

  14. Vitamin D and Risk for Vitamin A Intoxication in an 18-Month-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Talarico

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An 18-month-old boy presented with abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and poor appetite for 6 days. He had been given a multivitamin preparation once daily, containing 50.000 IU of vitamin D and 10.000 IU of vitamin A for a wide anterior fontanelle for about three months. He presented with hypercalcemia, low levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH, and very high serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD levels. Renal ultrasound showed nephrocalcinosis. He did not have sign or symptom of vitamin A intoxication. Patient was successfully treated with intravenous hydration, furosemide, and prednisolone. With treatment, serum calcium returned rapidly to the normal range and serum 25-OHD levels were reduced progressively. In conclusion the diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency rickets without checking 25-OHD levels may cause redundant treatment that leads to vitamin D intoxication (VDI.

  15. Foodborne botulinum type E intoxication associated with dried bean curd: first case report in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lung-Shiang; Wang, Yi-Mei; Lin, Chin-Hsien

    2011-06-01

    Botulism type E intoxication is a rare condition among human botulism. We aim to describe a first case of botulism type E intoxication in Taiwan. We report a 36-year-old young man with foodborne botulism type E associated with commercially vacuum packaged dried bean curd. He developed bilateral ptosis, diplopia and dysphagia 4 days after taking the dried bean curd. Electrophysiologic findings demonstrated waxing responses to 3 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation and decreased compound muscle action potentials on peripheral nerve conduction study. A bioassay for botulism in mice demonstrated that the patient had botulism caused by type E botulinum toxin. Antibodeis to C. botulinum type E were identified from his serum, confirming the diagnosis. This is the first known case of foodborne type E botulism in Taiwan. The potential source of this foodborne botulism should consider contaminated food made of soy beans.

  16. "Tampering to Death": A Fatal Codeine Intoxication Due to a Homemade Purification of a Medical Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Paolo; Pigaiani, Nicola; Cecchetto, Giovanni; Montisci, Massimo; Gottardo, Rossella; Viel, Guido; Pascali, Jennifer Paola; Tagliaro, Franco

    2017-11-01

    Many homemade tamper processes of medical codeine formulations are available on selected "forums" on the Internet, where recreational codeine users claim to be able to purify codeine by removing additives, such as acetaminophen, to avoid or limit adverse effects. In this work, it is reported and discussed a fatal case of codeine intoxication. The findings of objects such as jars, filters, and tablets, and amounts of unknown liquid material at the death scene investigation suggested a fatal codeine intoxication after the tampering procedure called "cold water extraction." Toxicological results obtained from the analysis of both the nonbiological material and the body fluids of the decedent integrated with the information collected at the death scene investigation confirmed the above-mentioned hypothesis. This report underlines the importance of a tight interconnection between criminalistics and legal medicine to strengthen the identification of the cause of death and the reconstruction of the event. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Profile of users intoxicated by drugs of abuse and association with death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Margarete dos Reis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to characterize the profile of users intoxicated by drugs of abuse reported to a center of information and toxicological assistance and related this to the occurrence of deaths. Methods: study of case series reported in the 2010-2011 biennium after active case finding. Data were obtained from epidemiological records filed in the center and submitted to univariate analysis, with chi-squared test and Fischer test. Results: three hundred and thirty nine cases were found, most were men (87.3%, with basic education (61.0% and elderly (37.2%. Alcohol use (83.8% and chronic intoxications (89.9% were predominant. Clinical complications were present in most medical diagnoses (63.4%. However, mortality was higher in the event deferral by cold and fire weapons. Conclusion: the consumption of drugs of abuse influences morbidity and mortality, particularly in men aged at 60 years or above and with low level of education.

  18. Profile of users intoxicated by drugs of abuse and association with death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Margarete dos Reis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to characterize the profile of users intoxicated by drugs of abuse reported to a center of information and toxicological assistance and related this to the occurrence of deaths. Methods: study of case series reported in the 2010-2011 biennium after active case finding. Data were obtained from epidemiological records filed in the center and submitted to univariate analysis, with chi-squared test and Fischer test. Results: three hundred and thirty nine cases were found, most were men (87.3%, with basic education (61.0% and elderly (37.2%. Alcohol use (83.8% and chronic intoxications (89.9% were predominant. Clinical complications were present in most medical diagnoses (63.4%. However, mortality was higher in the event deferral by cold and fire weapons. Conclusion: the consumption of drugs of abuse influences morbidity and mortality, particularly in men aged at 60 years or above and with low level of education.

  19. Occupational pesticide intoxications among farmers in Bolivia: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Morant, Rafael Cervantes; Aguilar, Guido Condarco

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pesticide use and its consequences are of concern in Bolivia due to an intensive and increasing use. METHODS: To assess the magnitude and reasons for occupational pesticide intoxication, a cross-sectional study with interviews and blood-tests was performed among 201 volunteer farmers...... from 48 villages in the temperate and subtropical valleys in the eastern part of the Andes Mountains in Bolivia. Of these 171 male farmers using pesticides in their agricultural production were used in the statistical analysis, including linear- and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: This study...... spraying operations while this had no influence on the serum cholinesterase level. CONCLUSION: The study showed that occupational pesticide intoxications were common among farmers and did depend on multiple factors. Pesticide use is probably one of the largest toxicological problems in Bolivia...

  20. Evaluating the Intoxicating Degree of Liquor Products with Combinations of Fusel Alcohols, Acids, and Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Xie

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of fusel alcohols on the intoxicating degree of liquor products, formulated liquors (FLs were prepared by blending 1-propanol, isobutanol, and isoamyl alcohol with ethanol, organic acids, and corresponding ethyl esters to simulate the formula of traditional Chinese liquors. The prepared FLs were submitted for evaluation of their intoxicating degree (ID. The results showed that the fusel alcohols had a biphasic effect on the IDs of the FLs, depending on the comprehensive coordination of the characteristic minor components. The importance of the suitable ratio of alcohols/acids/esters (RAAE on the IDs was also revealed. Under an optimal ratio level, the fusel alcohols exhibited negligible effects on the IDs of the FLs. Moreover, the ratio of isoamyl alcohol to isobutanol (IA/IB showed a strong positive correlation to the IDs of the FLs. This study lays a foundation for the potential application in producing low-ID liquor.