Sample records for acute aquatic toxicity

  1. Identifying and designing chemicals with minimal acute aquatic toxicity.

    Kostal, Jakub; Voutchkova-Kostal, Adelina; Anastas, Paul T; Zimmerman, Julie Beth


    Industrial ecology has revolutionized our understanding of material stocks and flows in our economy and society. For this important discipline to have even deeper impact, we must understand the inherent nature of these materials in terms of human health and the environment. This paper focuses on methods to design synthetic chemicals to reduce their intrinsic ability to cause adverse consequence to the biosphere. Advances in the fields of computational chemistry and molecular toxicology in recent decades allow the development of predictive models that inform the design of molecules with reduced potential to be toxic to humans or the environment. The approach presented herein builds on the important work in quantitative structure-activity relationships by linking toxicological and chemical mechanistic insights to the identification of critical physical-chemical properties needed to be modified. This in silico approach yields design guidelines using boundary values for physiochemical properties. Acute aquatic toxicity serves as a model endpoint in this study. Defining value ranges for properties related to bioavailability and reactivity eliminates 99% of the chemicals in the highest concern for acute aquatic toxicity category. This approach and its future implementations are expected to yield very powerful tools for life cycle assessment practitioners and molecular designers that allow rapid assessment of multiple environmental and human health endpoints and inform modifications to minimize hazard.

  2. Acute Toxicity and Environmental Risks of Five Veterinary Pharmaceuticals for Aquatic Macroinvertebrates.

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Hahn, Torsten; Ehrlich, Bert; Höltge, Sibylla; Kreuzig, Robert; Schulz, Ralf


    Due to the high use of antibiotics and antiparasitics for the treatment of livestock, there is concern about the potential impacts of the release of these compounds into freshwater ecosystems. In this context, the present study quantified the acute toxicity of two antibiotics (sulfadiazine and sulfadimidine), and three antiparasitic agents (flubendazole, fenbendazole, ivermectin) for nine freshwater invertebrate species. These experiments revealed a low degree of toxicity for the sulfonamide antibiotics, with limited implications in the survival of all test species at the highest test concentrations (50 and 100 mg/L). In contrast, all three antiparasitic agents indicated on the basis of their acute toxicity risks for the aquatic environment. Moreover, chronic toxicity data from the literature for antiparasitics, including effects on reproduction in daphnids, support the concern about the integrity of aquatic ecosystems posed by releases of these compounds. Thus, these pharmaceuticals warrant further careful consideration by environmental risk managers.

  3. Environmental properties of long chain alcohols. Part 1: Physicochemical, environmental fate and acute aquatic toxicity properties

    Fisk, Peter; Sanderson, Hans; Wildey, Ross


    This paper summarises the physicochemical, biodegradation and acute aquatic ecotoxicity properties of long chain aliphatic alcohols. Properties of pure compounds are shown to follow somewhat predictable trends, which are amenable to estimation by quantitative structure-activity relationships ((Q...... possible bioaccumulation potential, available data suggest that these substances are not as bioaccumulative as estimations would predict. For acute aquatic toxicity, solubility limits the possibility of effects being appropriately observed and become increasingly challenging above C12. Further, a model has...... been developed for multi-component mixtures which give an excellent account of aquatic ecotoxicity allowing for the prediction of acute effects of un-tested mixtures. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  4. Acute aquatic toxicity of tire and road wear particles to alga, daphnid, and fish.

    Marwood, Christopher; McAtee, Britt; Kreider, Marisa; Ogle, R Scott; Finley, Brent; Sweet, Len; Panko, Julie


    Previous studies have indicated that tire tread particles are toxic to aquatic species, but few studies have evaluated the toxicity of such particles using sediment, the likely reservoir of tire wear particles in the environment. In this study, the acute toxicity of tire and road wear particles (TRWP) was assessed in Pseudokirchneriella subcapita, Daphnia magna, and Pimephales promelas using a sediment elutriate (100, 500, 1000 or 10000 mg/l TRWP). Under standard test temperature conditions, no concentration response was observed and EC/LC(50) values were greater than 10,000 mg/l. Additional tests using D. magna were performed both with and without sediment in elutriates collected under heated conditions designed to promote the release of chemicals from the rubber matrix to understand what environmental factors may influence the toxicity of TRWP. Toxicity was only observed for elutriates generated from TRWP leached under high-temperature conditions and the lowest EC/LC(50) value was 5,000 mg/l. In an effort to identify potential toxic chemical constituent(s) in the heated leachates, toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) studies and chemical analysis of the leachate were conducted. The TIE coupled with chemical analysis (liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry [LC/MS/MS] and inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry [ICP/MS]) of the leachate identified zinc and aniline as candidate toxicants. However, based on the high EC/LC(50) values and the limited conditions under which toxicity was observed, TRWP should be considered a low risk to aquatic ecosystems under acute exposure scenarios.

  5. A summary of the acute toxicity of 14 phthalate esters to representative aquatic organisms

    Adams, W.J. [ABC Labs. (United States), Inc., Columbia, MO (United States); Biddinger, G.R. [Exxon Biomedical Sciences Inc., Benecia, CA (United States); Robillard, K.A.; Gorsuch, J.W. [Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY (United States)


    Acute aquatic toxicity studies were performed with 14 commercial phthalate esters and representative freshwater and marine species. The 14 esters were dimethyl phthalate; diethyl phthalate; di-n-butyl phthalate; butyl benzyl phthalate; dihexyl phthalate; butyl 2-ethylhexyl phthalate; di-(n-hexy, n-octyl, n-decyl) phthalate; di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate; diisooctyl phthalate; diisononyl phthalate; di-(heptyl, nonyl, undecyl) phthalate; diisodecyl phthalate; diundecyl phthalate; and ditridecyl phthalate. Phthalate esters with alkyl chain lengths of four carbon atoms or fewer were determined to be actually toxic at concentrations ranging from 0.21 to 377 mg/L depending on the ester and the solubility of the test chemical in water. Three was a general trend for the lower-molecular-weight phthalate esters (C{sub 1} to C{sub 4} alkyl chain lengths: dimethyl phthalate; diethyl phthalate; di-n-butyl phthalate; and butyl benzyl phthalate) to become more toxic with decreasing water solubility for all species tested. There were only minor differences in species sensitivity to each of the phthalate esters. Phthalate esters with alkyl chain lengths of six carbon atoms or more were not acutely toxic at concentrations approaching their respective aqueous solubilities. Insufficient mortality occurred to calculate either LC50 or EC50 values or acute no-observed-effect concentrations for these higher-molecular-weight phthalate esters. The lack of toxicity observed for the higher-molecular-weight phthalate esters resulted from their limited water solubility ({le}1.1 mg/L).

  6. Large decrease in acute aquatic toxicity of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in hard water and seawater by adding adsorbent.

    Oya, Masaru; Takemoto, Yuka; Ishikawa, Yusuke


    LAS (Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonate) shows relatively high aquatic toxicity in hard freshwater or seawater. In this paper, we studied the effect of adsorbent on the aquatic toxicity of LAS in hard freshwater and seawater. Daphnia magna and Artemia salina were used for acute aquatic toxicity test in freshwater and seawater, respectively. Kaolin was used as a model adsorbent and toxic surface tension (gamma(tox)) was used as an indicator of toxic condition. Results showed that the values of gamma(tox) of LAS to D. magna and A. salina were about 45-55 mN/m and 35-40 mN/m, respectively. Surface tension of LAS solution decreased and its aquatic toxicity increased with increasing the water hardness or the salinity. By adding adsorbent into the solutions, the surface activity and the aquatic toxicity were decreased greatly, and the effect of water hardness or salinity on surface tension and aquatic toxicity were removed. That is to say, the surface tension curve of soft freshwater corresponds with that of hard freshwater containing adsorbent and the surface tension curve at low salinity corresponds with that obtained for high salinity solutions containing the adsorbent. Therefore, our experimental data leads to the conclusion that the relatively high aquatic toxicity of LAS in concentrated solution of inorganic salts disappears in the presence of adsorbents. This is an important viewpoint in conducting environmental risk assessment of surfactants.

  7. Acute Toxicity of Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes to Three Aquatic Organisms

    Lungile P. Lukhele


    Full Text Available This study investigated the toxicity of double walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs to three aquatic organisms, namely, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Daphnia pulex, and Poecilia reticulata under the influence of exposure media properties specifically the ionic strength and organic matter represented by humic acid. Results indicated that ionic strength enhanced DWCNTs agglomeration whilst humic acid stabilized the CNTs and in turn inhibited the formation of aggregates. LC50s for D. pulex were higher at 2.81 and 4.45 mg/L for pristine and oxidised DWCNTs, respectively; however, P. reticulata had lower values of 113.64 mg/L and 214.0 mg/L for the same CNTs correspondingly. P. subcapitata had EC50s of 17.95 mg/L and 10.93 mg/L for the pristine and oxidised DWCNTs, respectively. In the presence of humic acid high DWCNTs acute toxicity towards D. pulex and P. reticulata was observed but ionic strength led to opposite effect irrespective of DWCNTs form. Both humic acid and ionic strength shielded the P. subcapitata from toxic effects of DWCNTs. Overall, our findings suggest that the toxicity of DWCNTs in the aquatic systems (i will be dependent on media properties and (ii is likely to proceed at different rates to organisms at different trophic levels.

  8. Ecological effects of various toxic agents on the aquatic microcosm in comparison with acute ionizing radiation

    Fuma, S. E-mail:; Ishii, N.; Takeda, H.; Miyamoto, K.; Yanagisawa, K.; Ichimasa, Y.; Saito, M.; Kawabata, Z.; Polikarpov, G.G


    The purpose of this study was an evaluation of the effect levels of various toxic agents compared with acute doses of ionizing radiation for the experimental model ecosystem, i.e., microcosm mimicking aquatic microbial communities. For this purpose, the authors used the microcosm consisting of populations of the flagellate alga Euglena gracilis as a producer, the ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila as a consumer and the bacterium Escherichia coli as a decomposer. Effects of aluminum and copper on the microcosm were investigated in this study, while effects of {gamma}-rays, ultraviolet radiation, acidification, manganese, nickel and gadolinium were reported in previous studies. The microcosm could detect not only the direct effects of these agents but also the community-level effects due to the interspecies interactions or the interactions between organisms and toxic agents. The authors evaluated doses or concentrations of each toxic agent which had the following effects on the microcosm: (1) no effects; (2) recognizable effects, i.e., decrease or increase in the cell densities of at least one species; (3) severe effects, i.e., extinction of one or two species; and (4) destructive effects, i.e., extinction of all species. The resulting effects data will contribute to an ecological risk assessment of the toxic agents compared with acute doses of ionizing radiation.

  9. Acute toxicity of anionic and non-ionic surfactants to aquatic organisms.

    Lechuga, M; Fernández-Serrano, M; Jurado, E; Núñez-Olea, J; Ríos, F


    The environmental risk of surfactants requires toxicity measurements. As different test organisms have different sensitivity to the toxics, it is necessary to establish the most appropriate organism to classify the surfactant as very toxic, toxic, harmful or safe, in order to establish the maximum permissible concentrations in aquatic ecosystems. We have determined the toxicity values of various anionic surfactants ether carboxylic derivatives using four test organisms: the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna, the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri, the microalgae Selenastrum capricornutum (freshwater algae) and Phaeodactylum tricornutum (seawater algae). In addition, in order to compare and classify the different families of surfactants, we have included a compilation of toxicity data of surfactants collected from literature. The results indicated that V. fischeri was more sensitive to the toxic effects of the surfactants than was D. magna or the microalgae, which was the least sensitive. This result shows that the most suitable toxicity assay for surfactants may be the one using V. fischeri. The toxicity data revealed considerable variation in toxicity responses with the structure of the surfactants regardless of the species tested. The toxicity data have been related to the structure of the surfactants, giving a mathematical relationship that helps to predict the toxic potential of a surfactant from its structure. Model-predicted toxicity agreed well with toxicity values reported in the literature for several surfactants previously studied. Predictive models of toxicity is a handy tool for providing a risk assessment that can be useful to establish the toxicity range for each surfactant and the different test organisms in order to select efficient surfactants with a lower impact on the aquatic environment.

  10. Handbook of acute toxicity of chemicals to fish and aquatic invertebrates : summaries of toxicity tests conducted at Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory, 1965-78

    Johnson, W. Waynon; Finley, Mack T.


    Acute toxicity is a major subject of research at Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory for evaluating the impact of toxic chemicals on fishery resources. The Laboratory has played a leading role in developing research technology for toxicity testing and data interpretation. In 1965-78, more than 400 chemicals were tested against a variety of invertebrates and fish species representative of both cold- and warm-water climates.The use of acute toxicity tests for assessing the potential hazard of chemical contaminants to aquatic organisms is well documented (Boyd 1957; Henderson et al. 1960; Sanders and Cope 1966; Macek and McAllister 1970). Static acute toxicity tests provide rapid and (within limits) reproducible concentration-response curves for estimating toxic effects of chemicals on aquatic organisms. These tests provide a database for determining relative toxicity of a large number of chemicals to a variety of species and for estimating acute effects of chemical spills on natural aquatic systems; they also assist in determining priority and design of additional toxicity studies.Acute toxicity tests usually provide estimates of the exposure concentration causing 50% mortality (LC50) to test organisms during a specified period of time. For certain invertebrates, the effective concentration is based on immobilization, or some other identifiable endpoint, rather than on lethality. The application of the LC50 has gained acceptance among toxicologists and is generally the most highly rated test for assessing potential adverse effects of chemical contaminants to aquatic life (Brungs and Mount 1978; American Institute for Biological Sciences 1978a).The literature contains numerous papers dealing with the acute toxicity of chemicals to freshwater organisms. However, there is a tremendous need for a concise compendium of toxicity data covering a large variety of chemicals and test species. This Handbook is a compilation of a large volume of acute toxicity data

  11. OECD validation study to assess intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility of the zebrafish embryo toxicity test for acute aquatic toxicity testing.

    Busquet, François; Strecker, Ruben; Rawlings, Jane M; Belanger, Scott E; Braunbeck, Thomas; Carr, Gregory J; Cenijn, Peter; Fochtman, Przemyslaw; Gourmelon, Anne; Hübler, Nicole; Kleensang, André; Knöbel, Melanie; Kussatz, Carola; Legler, Juliette; Lillicrap, Adam; Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando; Polleichtner, Christian; Rzodeczko, Helena; Salinas, Edward; Schneider, Katharina E; Scholz, Stefan; van den Brandhof, Evert-Jan; van der Ven, Leo T M; Walter-Rohde, Susanne; Weigt, Stefan; Witters, Hilda; Halder, Marlies


    The OECD validation study of the zebrafish embryo acute toxicity test (ZFET) for acute aquatic toxicity testing evaluated the ZFET reproducibility by testing 20 chemicals at 5 different concentrations in 3 independent runs in at least 3 laboratories. Stock solutions and test concentrations were analytically confirmed for 11 chemicals. Newly fertilised zebrafish eggs (20/concentration and control) were exposed for 96h to chemicals. Four apical endpoints were recorded daily as indicators of acute lethality: coagulation of the embryo, lack of somite formation, non-detachment of the tail bud from the yolk sac and lack of heartbeat. Results (LC50 values for 48/96h exposure) show that the ZFET is a robust method with a good intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility (CV30%) for some very toxic or volatile chemicals, and chemicals tested close to their limit of solubility. The ZFET is now available as OECD Test Guideline 236. Considering the high predictive capacity of the ZFET demonstrated by Belanger et al. (2013) in their retrospective analysis of acute fish toxicity and fish embryo acute toxicity data, the ZFET is ready to be considered for acute fish toxicity for regulatory purposes. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Acute aquatic toxicity of heavy fuel oils. Summary of relevant test data

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Parkerton, T.; Paumen, M.L.; Dmytrasz, B.


    This report describes the experimental procedures and results obtained in acute ecotoxicity tests on several heavy fuel oil (HFO) samples. Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of these samples were tested for toxicity to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the crustacean zooplankter (Daphnia magna) and green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum). These results assist in determining the environmental hazard from heavy fuel oil.

  13. Acute and chronic aquatic toxicity of aromatic extracts. Summary of relevant test data

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Parkerton, T.; Leon Paumen, M.; Dmytrasz, B.; Del Castillo, F.


    This report describes the experimental procedures and the results obtained in acute and chronic ecotoxicity tests on several aromatic extracts samples. The samples were tested for toxicity to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the crustacean zooplankter, Daphnia magna and the algae, Selenastrum capricornutum using water accommodated fractions. These results assist in determining the environmental hazard posed by aromatic extracts.

  14. A new mechanism of macrophyte mitigation: how submerged plants reduce malathion's acute toxicity to aquatic animals.

    Brogan, William R; Relyea, Rick A


    A growing body of evidence suggests that aquatic plants can mitigate the toxicity of insecticides to sensitive aquatic animals. The current paradigm is that this ability is driven primarily by insecticide sorption to plant tissues, especially for hydrophobic compounds. However, recent work shows that submerged plants can strongly mitigate the toxicity of the relatively hydrophilic insecticide malathion, despite the fact that this compound exhibits a slow sorption rate to plants. To examine this disparity, we tested the hypothesis that the mitigating effect of submerged plants on malathion's toxicity is driven primarily by the increased water pH from plant photosynthesis causing the hydrolysis of malathion, rather than by sorption. To do this, we compared zooplankton (Daphnia magna) survival across five environmentally relevant malathion concentrations (0, 1, 4, 6, or 36 μg L(-1)) in test containers where we chemically manipulated water pH in the absence of plants or added the submerged plant (Elodea canadensis) but manipulated plant photosynthetic activity via shading or no shading. We discovered that malathion was equally lethal to Daphnia at all concentrations tested when photosynthetically inactive (i.e. shaded) plants were present (pH at time of dosing=7.8) or when pH was chemically decreased (pH=7.7). In contrast, when photosynthetically active (i.e. unshaded) plants were present (pH=9.8) or when pH was chemically increased (pH=9.5), the effects of 4 and 6 μg L(-1) of malathion on Daphnia were mitigated strongly and to an equal degree. These results demonstrate that the mitigating effect of submerged plants on malathion's toxicity can be explained entirely by a mechanism of photosynthesizing plants causing an increase in water pH, resulting in rapid malathion hydrolysis. Our findings suggest that current ecotoxicological models and phytoremediation strategies may be overlooking a critical mechanism for mitigating pesticides.

  15. Acute toxicity of peroxy sulfonated oleic acids (PSOA) to freshwater aquatic species and sludge microflora as observed in laboratory environments.

    Solloch, Stephan; Pechacek, Nathan; Peterson, Bridget; Osorio, Magdalena; Caudill, Jeffrey


    Peroxy sulfonated oleic acids (PSOA) is a novel surfactant peracid. The commercial applications of PSOA result in the chemical primarily being disposed of via industrial waste water effluent. Given this manner of disposal, it is important to understand the aquatic hazards of the chemical to better assess the risk posed to aqueous environments. Acute aquatic toxicity laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate aquatic hazards and were conducted according to standard OECD test guidelines with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), water fleas (Daphnia magna) and algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata). In addition, microbial toxicity was evaluated in activated sludge obtained from a domestic sewage treatment facility. Lethal concentration in 50 % of test species (LC50) and effect concentration in 50 % of test species (EC50) values for PSOA ranged from 0.75 to 5.44 mg/L, representing a relatively small range spanning less than an order of magnitude. No observed effect concentration (NOEC) and lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) ranges were also relatively small, with ranges of 0.25-1.66 and 0.5-3.6 mg/L, respectively. The EC50, LOEC and NOEC values for microbial toxicity were 216, 60 and 20 mg/L, respectively. Predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC) for aqueous media were based on the 96-h LC50 (0.75 mg/L) for O. mykiss, the organism displaying the greatest sensitivity to PSOA. These values were derived for freshwater, marine water and intermittent releases to water and ranged from 7.5 × 10(-5) to 7.5 × 10(-3) mg/L. A sewage treatment plant PNEC of 2 mg/L was derived based on an activated sludge 3-h NOEC of 20 mg/L. These values, along with the anticipated environmental fate and transport for PSOA, were considered in assessing the overall aquatic risk posed by this chemical. Despite the relatively high acute aquatic hazards for PSOA, environmental modeling suggests the overall risk of PSOA to aqueous environments is low based on its

  16. Acute and chronic toxicity of tetrabromobisphenol A to three aquatic species under different pH conditions.

    He, Qun; Wang, Xinghao; Sun, Ping; Wang, Zunyao; Wang, Liansheng


    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is a well-known brominated flame retardant. It has been detected in the environment and shows high acute toxicity to different organisms at high concentrations. In this work, the effects of pH and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on the acute toxicity of TBBPA to Daphnia magna and Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri were tested, and the oxidative stress induced by TBBPA in livers of Carassius auratus was assessed using four biomarkers. The integrated biomarker response (IBR) was applied to assess the overall antioxidant status in fish livers. Moreover, fish tissues (gills and livers) were also studied histologically. The results showed that low pH and DMSO enhanced the toxicity of TBBPA. Furthermore, changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione level suggested that TBBPA generates oxidative stress in fish livers. The IBR index revealed that fish exposed to 3mg/L TBBPA experienced more serious oxidative stress than exposed to acidic or alkaline conditions. The histopathological analysis revealed lesions caused by TBBPA. This study provides valuable toxicological information of TBBPA and will facilitate a deeper understanding on its potential toxicity in realistic aquatic environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Updated species sensitivity distribution evaluations for acute and chronic lead toxicity to saltwater aquatic life.

    Church, Brian G; Van Sprang, Patrick A; Chowdhury, M Jasim; DeForest, David K


    The US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) for lead (Pb) in salt water were developed in 1984. The acute and chronic criteria are 210 and 8.1 μg/L dissolved Pb, respectively. Because data were limited in 1984, the chronic criterion was derived using an acute-to-chronic ratio, but there are now sufficient toxicity data such that an acute-to-chronic ratio is no longer needed. Based on the data now available, the proposed updated acute and chronic salt water Pb AWQC (following USEPA methods) are 100 and 10 µg/L, respectively. In the European Union, a chronic salt water predicted no-effect concentration based on the median 5th percentile hazardous concentration (HC5-50) was developed in 2008 for the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation, and Restriction of Chemicals program, which forms the basis for deriving chronic environmental quality standards for Pb in European marine waters. The salt water HC5-50 previously derived for Pb was 6.1 μg/L, whereas the proposed, updated chronic salt water HC5-50 derived following European Union methods is 11.0 µg/L. Thus, despite differences in derivation methodologies, the proposed AWQC and HC5-50 values are very consistent. Studies evaluating the effect of water quality factors on bioavailability and toxicity of Pb in salt water are limited; the effect of water quality on Pb toxicity in salt water should be considered in future studies. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;9999:1-7. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  18. Predicting acute aquatic toxicity of structurally diverse chemicals in fish using artificial intelligence approaches.

    Singh, Kunwar P; Gupta, Shikha; Rai, Premanjali


    The research aims to develop global modeling tools capable of categorizing structurally diverse chemicals in various toxicity classes according to the EEC and European Community directives, and to predict their acute toxicity in fathead minnow using set of selected molecular descriptors. Accordingly, artificial intelligence approach based classification and regression models, such as probabilistic neural networks (PNN), generalized regression neural networks (GRNN), multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPN), radial basis function neural network (RBFN), support vector machines (SVM), gene expression programming (GEP), and decision tree (DT) were constructed using the experimental toxicity data. Diversity and non-linearity in the chemicals' data were tested using the Tanimoto similarity index and Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman statistics. Predictive and generalization abilities of various models constructed here were compared using several statistical parameters. PNN and GRNN models performed relatively better than MLPN, RBFN, SVM, GEP, and DT. Both in two and four category classifications, PNN yielded a considerably high accuracy of classification in training (95.85 percent and 90.07 percent) and validation data (91.30 percent and 86.96 percent), respectively. GRNN rendered a high correlation between the measured and model predicted -log LC50 values both for the training (0.929) and validation (0.910) data and low prediction errors (RMSE) of 0.52 and 0.49 for two sets. Efficiency of the selected PNN and GRNN models in predicting acute toxicity of new chemicals was adequately validated using external datasets of different fish species (fathead minnow, bluegill, trout, and guppy). The PNN and GRNN models showed good predictive and generalization abilities and can be used as tools for predicting toxicities of structurally diverse chemical compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Toxicity of Engineered Nanoparticles to Aquatic Invertebrates

    Cupi, Denisa; Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Skjolding, Lars Michael


    ecotoxicity of aquatic invertebrates. The chapter focuses on how fullerenes affect the toxicity of other pollutants, but also reflect on the fate and behavior of C60 in the aquatic environment, as well as ecotoxicity to aquatic invertebrates. It presents the case of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs......), and considers the acute and chronic ecotoxicity. The chapter examines in more detail the processes that influence this toxicity, for example, agglomeration and aggregation, and photocatalytic activity upon exposure to UV light. It covers the longer-term effects of various nanomaterials by reviewing literature...

  20. Acute silver toxicity in aquatic animals is a function of sodium uptake rate

    Bianchini, A.; Grosell, Martin Hautopp; Gregory, S.


    -specific surface area of the gills depends on animal body mass; and (iv) the gill surface is also the major site of Na+ loss by diffusion, we hypothesized that whole body Na+ uptake rate (i.e., turnover rate) and secondarily body mass would be good predictors of acute silver toxicity. Results obtained from...... toxicological (LC50 of AgNO3) and physiological (22Na uptake rate) tests performed on juvenile fish (rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss), early juvenile and adult crayfish (Cambarus diogenes diogenes), and neonate and adult daphnids (Daphnia magna) in moderately hard water of constant quality support the above...

  1. A Market-Basket Approach to Predict the Acute Aquatic Toxicity of Munitions and Energetic Materials.

    Burgoon, Lyle D


    An ongoing challenge in chemical production, including the production of insensitive munitions and energetics, is the ability to make predictions about potential environmental hazards early in the process. To address this challenge, a quantitative structure activity relationship model was developed to predict acute fathead minnow toxicity of insensitive munitions and energetic materials. Computational predictive toxicology models like this one may be used to identify and prioritize environmentally safer materials early in their development. The developed model is based on the Apriori market-basket/frequent itemset mining approach to identify probabilistic prediction rules using chemical atom-pairs and the lethality data for 57 compounds from a fathead minnow acute toxicity assay. Lethality data were discretized into four categories based on the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals. Apriori identified toxicophores for categories two and three. The model classified 32 of the 57 compounds correctly, with a fivefold cross-validation classification rate of 74 %. A structure-based surrogate approach classified the remaining 25 chemicals correctly at 48 %. This result is unsurprising as these 25 chemicals were fairly unique within the larger set.

  2. A simultaneous multiple species acute toxicity test comparing relative sensitivities of six aquatic organisms to HgCl{sub 2}

    McCrary, J.E.; Heagler, M.G. [McNeese State Univ., Lake Charles, LA (United States). Dept. of Biological and Environmental Science


    In the last few years there has been concern in the scientific community about observed declines in some amphibian species. These population declines could be reflecting a global phenomenon due to a general class sensitivity or may be part of a natural cycle. The suggestion of an overall greater sensitivity of amphibians is not supported. Studies show that amphibians, as a class, are neither more or less susceptible than fish to environmental conditions. Mercury has been found to be one of the most toxic of the heavy metals introduced into amphibian breeding waters. Six aquatic species were simultaneously exposed in a comparative acute toxicity test with mercury chloride: three amphibians, Rana catesbeiana (bullfrog), R. clamitans (green frog), and R. sphenocephala (southern leopard frog, formally classified as R. utricularia); two fish, Gambusia affinis (mosquitofish) and Notemigonus crysoleucas (golden shiner); one aquatic aligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus (aquatic earthworm). The five test concentrations used were 1.4, 3.9, 12.0, 110.0, and 487.0 {micro}g Hg/L respectively. Ten organisms per species were randomly placed into the six test tanks (control and five concentrations), each species in a separate chamber. The resultant LC50-96hr values produced the following rank order: R. sphenocephala, 6.59 {micro}g Hg/L; R. clamitans, 14.7 {micro}g Hg/L; N. crysoleucas, 16.75 {micro}g Hg/L; L. variegatus, 43.72,ug Hg/L; G. affinis, 52.62 {micro}g Hg/L; R. catesbeiana, 63.36 {micro}g Hg/L. No general organism class sensitivity trend, for amphibians, was developed from this data, contrary to the implicit suggestions of some researchers.

  3. Handbook of acute toxicity of chemicals to fish and aquatic invertebrates : summaries of toxicity tests conducted at Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory, 1965-78

    Johnson, W. Waynon; Finley, Mack T.


    Acute toxicity is a major subject of research at Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory for evaluating the impact of toxic chemicals on fishery resources. The Laboratory has played a leading role in developing research technology for toxicity testing and data interpretation. In 1965-78, more than 400 chemicals were tested against a variety of invertebrates and fish species representative of both cold- and warm-water climates. The use of acute toxicity tests for assessing the potential hazard of chemical contaminants to aquatic organisms is well documented (Boyd 1957; Henderson et al. 1960; Sanders and Cope 1966; Macek and McAllister 1970). Static acute toxicity tests provide rapid and (within limits) reproducible concentration-response curves for estimating toxic effects of chemicals on aquatic organisms. These tests provide a database for determining relative toxicity of a large number of chemicals to a variety of species and for estimating acute effects of chemical spills on natural aquatic systems; they also assist in determining priority and design of additional toxicity studies. Acute toxicity tests usually provide estimates of the exposure concentration causing 50% mortality (LC50) to test organisms during a specified period of time. For certain invertebrates, the effective concentration is based on immobilization, or some other identifiable endpoint, rather than on lethality. The application of the LC50 has gained acceptance among toxicologists and is generally the most highly rated test for assessing potential adverse effects of chemical contaminants to aquatic life (Brungs and Mount 1978; American Institute for Biological Sciences 1978a). The literature contains numerous papers dealing with the acute toxicity of chemicals to freshwater organisms. However, there is a tremendous need for a concise compendium of toxicity data covering a large variety of chemicals and test species. This Handbook is a compilation of a large volume of acute toxicity

  4. MOAtox: A Comprehensive Mode of Action and Acute Aquatic Toxicity Database for Predictive Model Development

    tThe mode of toxic action (MOA) has been recognized as a key determinant of chemical toxicity andas an alternative to chemical class-based predictive toxicity modeling. However, the development ofquantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) and other models has been limite...

  5. Toxicity of TNT Wastewaters to Aquatic Organisms. Volume 1. Acute Toxicity of LAP Wastewater and 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene


    delivered chilled water to the headbox at a tem- perature slightly below 12C and set the thermoregulator in the heating system to maintain the...24 adjustable flow meters capable of measuring flows up to 300 mL pet minute. Water was pumped to this reservoir from a secondary reservoir equipped...reservoir returned to the secondary reservoir by gravity. The toxicant stock solution was recirculated by pump between the toxicant reservoir and a 55-gallon

  6. Toxicity of trifluoroacetate to aquatic organisms

    Berends, A.G.; Rooij, C.G. de [Solvay S.A., Brussels (Belgium); Boutonnet, J.C. [Elf Atochem, Levallois-Perret (France); Thompson, R.S. [Zeneca Ltd., Devon (United Kingdom). Brixham Environmental Lab.


    As a result of the atmospheric degradation of several hydrofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons, trifluoroacetate (TFA) will be formed. Through precipitation, TFA will enter aquatic ecosystems. To evaluate the impact on the aquatic environment, an aquatic toxicity testing program was carried out with sodium trifluoroacetate (NaTFA). During acute toxicity tests, no effects of NaTFA on water fleas (Daphnia magna) and zebra fish (Danio retrio) were found at a concentration of 1,200 mg/L. A 7-d study with duckweed (Lemna gibba Ge) revealed a NOEC of 300 mg/L. On the basis of the results of five toxicity tests with Selenastrum capricornutum, they determined a NOEC of 0.12 mg/L. However, algal toxicity tests with NaTFA and Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus subspicatus, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Eugelan gracilis, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Navicula pelliculosa, Skeletonema costatum, Anabaena flos-aquae, and Microcystis aeruginosa resulted in EC50 values that were all higher than 100 mg/L. The toxicity of TFA to S. capricornutum could be due to metabolic defluorination to monofluoroacetate (MFA), which is known to inhibit the citric acid cycle. A toxicity test with MFA and S. capricornutum revealed it to be about three orders of magnitude more toxic than TFA. However, a bioactivation study revealed that defluorination of TFA was less than 4%. On the other hand, S. capricornutum exposed to a toxic concentration of NaTFA showed a recovery of growth when citric acid was added, suggesting that TFA (or a metabolite of TFA) interferes with the citric acid cycle. A recovery of the growth of S. capricornutum was also found when TFA was removed from the test solutions. Therefore, TFA should be considered algistatic and not algicidic for S. capricornutum. On the basis of the combined results of the laboratory tests and a previously reported semi-field study, they can consider a TFA concentration of 0.10 mg/L as safe for the aquatic ecosystem.

  7. Comprehensive characterization of the acute and chronic toxicity of the neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam to a suite of aquatic primary producers, invertebrates, and fish.

    Finnegan, Meaghean C; Baxter, Leilan R; Maul, Jonathan D; Hanson, Mark L; Hoekstra, Paul F


    Thiamethoxam is a neonicotinoid insecticide used widely in agriculture to control a broad spectrum of chewing and sucking insect pests. Recent detection of thiamethoxam in surface waters has raised interest in characterizing the potential impacts of this insecticide to aquatic organisms. We report the results of toxicity testing (acute and chronic) conducted under good laboratory practices for more than 30 freshwater species (insects, molluscs, crustaceans, algae, macrophytes, and fish) and 4 marine species (an alga, a mollusc, a crustacean, and a fish). As would be anticipated for a neonicotinoid, aquatic primary producers and fish were the least sensitive organisms tested, with acute median lethal and effect concentrations (LC50/EC50) observed to be ≥80 mg/L in all cases, which far exceeds surface water exposure concentrations. Tested molluscs, worms, and rotifers were similarly insensitive (EC50 ≥ 100 mg/L), except for Lumbriculus sp., with an EC50 of 7.7 mg/L. In general, insects were the most sensitive group in the study, with most acute EC50 values  5.5 mg/L). The most sensitive chronic response was for Chironomus riparius, with a 30-d no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC; emergence) of 0.01 mg/L. Observed toxicity to the tested marine organisms was comparable to that of freshwater species. We used the reported data to construct species sensitivity distributions for thiamethoxam, to calculate 5% hazard concentrations (HC5s) for acute data (freshwater invertebrates), and compared these with measured concentrations from relevant North American surface waters. Overall, based on acute toxicity endpoints, the potential acute risk to freshwater organisms was found to be minimal (likelihood of exceeding HC5s < 1%). Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;9999:1-11. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley

  8. Whole effluent toxicity of agricultural irrigation drainwater entering Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge, NV : Acute toxicity studies with fish and aquatic invertebrates

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the acute toxicity studies conducted with samples collected from Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge. The objective of these studies was to...

  9. Acute toxicity of smoke screen materials to aquatic organisms, white phosphorus-felt, red phosphorus-butyl rubber and SGF No. 2 fog oil. Final report

    Poston, T.M.; McFadden, K.M.; Bean, R.M.; Clark, M.L.; Thomas, B.L.; Killand, B.W.; Prohammer, L.A.; Kalkwarf, D.R.


    The acute toxicity of three obscurants was determined for nine freshwater organisms. The materials tested were white phosphorus-felt smoke, red phosphorus-butyl rubber (RP-BR) smoke, and smoke generator fuel (SGF) No. 2 fog oil (bulk and vaporized). The chemistry of WP-F and RP-BR smoke in water and the resulting effects on aquatic organisms are similar. Combustion of these two obscurants and their deposition in water leads to the formation of many complex oxy-phosphoric acids. Rates of hydrolysis of these complex products to ortho-phosphate were inconsistent and unpredictable over time. These products acidify water and produce toxic effects after exhausting the buffering capacity of the water. Acute 96 hr tests using Daphnia magna with neutralized and nonneutralized exposure solutions indicated that the presence of unidentified toxic component(s) acted independently of pH. At pH levels of 6.0 to 7.0, phosphorus combustion products precipitated out of solution leading to a bimodal toxic response in extended 96-hr tests with Daphnia magna. Most components of fog oil had low solubility in water. Saturation was apparent at approximately 0.1 to 0.3 mg/L total oil. Vaporization had no demonstrable effect on the chemistry or toxicity of the fog oil. Neither the bulk fog oil nor the vaporized fog oil was acutely toxic to freshwater animals at concentrations less than 10 mg/L total oil. In oil-water mixes in excess of 1.0 mg/L total oil, fog oil quickly separated and floated to the surface. The primary hazard associated with vaporized and bulk fog oil was the physical effect of oil fouling the organisms. Photolysis increased the concentration of water-soluble components of the fog oil. Acute toxicity was demonstrated in oil-water mixes (approx.10 mg/L total oil) of photolyzed bulk and vaporized fog oil. No difference in toxicity was observed between photolyzed and non-photolyzed dilutions of OWM at comparable levels of total oil.

  10. Comparative analysis of pharmaceuticals versus industrial chemicals acute aquatic toxicity classification according to the United Nations classification system for chemicals. Assessment of the (Q)SAR predictability of pharmaceuticals acute aquatic toxicity and their predominant acute toxic mode-of-action

    Sanderson, Hans; Thomsen, Marianne


    a comprehensive database based on OECD's standardized measured ecotoxicological data and to evaluate if there is generally cause of greater concern with regards to pharmaceutical aquatic toxicological profiles relative to industrial chemicals. Comparisons were based upon aquatic ecotoxicity classification under......Pharmaceuticals have been reported to be ubiquitously present in surface waters prompting concerns of effects of these bioactive substances. Meanwhile, there is a general scarcity of publicly available ecotoxicological data concerning pharmaceuticals. The aim of this paper was to compile...... the United Nations Global Harmonized System for classification and labeling of chemicals (GHS). Moreover, we statistically explored whether the predominant mode-of-action (MOA) for pharmaceuticals is narcosis. We found 275 pharmaceuticals with 569 acute aquatic effect data; 23 pharmaceuticals had chronic...

  11. Acute toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters, to 13 aquatic species as defined in the laboratory

    Harper, David D.; Farag, Aida M.; Skaar, Don


    Water produced during coal bed natural gas (CBNG) extraction in the Powder River Structural Basin of Wyoming and Montana (USA) may contain concentrations of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) of more than 3000 mg/L. The authors evaluated the acute toxicity of NaHCO3, also expressed as bicarbonate (HCO3−), to 13 aquatic organisms. Of the 13 species tested, 7 had a median lethal concentration (LC50) less than 2000 mg/L NaHCO3, or 1300 mg/L HCO3−. The most sensitive species were Ceriodaphnia dubia, freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea), pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus). The respective LC50s were 989 mg/L, 1120 mg/L, 1249 mg/L, and 1430 mg/L NaHCO3, or 699 mg/L, 844 mg/L, 831 mg/L, and 1038 mg/L HCO3−. Age affected the sensitivity of fathead minnows, even within life stage. Two days posthatch, fathead minnows were more sensitive to NaHCO3 and HCO3− compared with 4-d-old fish, even though fish up to 14 d old are commonly used for toxicity evaluations. The authors recommend that ion toxicity exposures be conducted with organisms less than 24 h posthatch to ensure that experiments document the most sensitive stage of development. The results of the present study, along with historical and current research regarding the toxicity of bicarbonate, may be useful to establish regulatory standards for HCO3−.

  12. MOAtox: A comprehensive mode of action and acute aquatic toxicity database for predictive model development (SETAC abstract)

    The mode of toxic action (MOA) has been recognized as a key determinant of chemical toxicity and as an alternative to chemical class-based predictive toxicity modeling. However, the development of quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) and other models has been limit...

  13. Preliminary ecological risk assessment of butylparaben and benzylparaben -1. Removal efficiency in wastewater treatment, acute/chronic toxicity for aquatic organisms, and effects on medaka gene expression.

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Mikako; Hirata, Yoshiko; Nakamura, Yuki; Nakamura, Yudai; Kitani, Chise; Sekizawa, Jun; Uchida, Masaya; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Kagami, Yoshihiro; Koshio, Masaaki; Hirai, Narisato; Tatarazako, Norihisa


    Butylparaben and benzylparaben, used as preservatives mainly in cosmetic products, have recently been found to be weakly estrogenic. Batch activated-sludge treatment and batch chlorination were carried out to roughly determine the removal efficiency of a wastewater treatment plant. Combining the removal efficiency with the estimated annual consumption and the unaltered excretion ratio, the maximum predicted environmental concentration (PEC) was estimated. Conventional acute/chronic toxicity tests were conducted using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), daphnia (Daphnia magna), and green algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) for n-butylparaben, i-butylparaben, and benzylparaben. Medaka vitellogenin assays were also conducted for the three compounds and DNA microarray analysis was carried out to examine the effects of benzylparaben on gene expression. The plasma vitellogenin concentration of male medaka increased for concentrations of 200, 100, and 100 microg L(-1) n-butylparaben, i-butylparaben, and benzylparaben for 14 days, respectively, while the expression levels of genes encoding proteins such as p53, cytochrome P450 3A40, and choriogenin-L increased for concentrations higher than 4 microg L(-1) of benzylparaben. Furthermore, the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) was calculated using the lethal or effect concentration 50 (LC50 or EC50) values and no-effect concentrations (NOECs) obtained in the toxicity tests for these compounds. The maximum concentrations found in the aquatic environment or sewage effluent (MEC eff) were used to carry out preliminary environmental risk assessment. The calculated MEC/PNEC ratio suggests the necessity of further study such as a more detailed large-scale monitoring and chronic toxicity tests including reproduction inhibition and endocrine disruption.

  14. Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on an aquatic ecosystem: acute toxicity and community-level toxic impact tests of benzo[a]pyrene using lake zooplankton community.

    Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Sakamoto, Masaki; Nagata, Takamaru; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Miyabara, Yuichi; Hanazato, Takayuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Isobe, Tomohiko; Kim, Jun-Woo; Chang, Kwang-Hyeon


    We estimated acute toxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) using two cladoceran species, Ceriodaphnia reticulata and Daphnia magna, and also analyzed its impact on zooplankton community throughout an exposure experiment using small-scale mesocosms. LC(50) of B[a]P for C. reticulata and D. magna was 4.3 and 4.7 µg/l, respectively. However, individuals fed with Chlorella showed higher LC(50), 6.1 µg/l for C. reticulata and 8.0 µg/l for D. magna. In the exposure experiment, we examined the impact of B[a]P on zooplankton community using conceivable concentrations in the environment (5 and 10 µg/l) using typical zooplankton community in eutrophicated systems. Despite the residence time of B[a]P in the water column was short as impacts, suppressing cladoceran populations and inducing the dominance of rotifers particularly under high concentration (10 µg/l). Results have suggested that, even such short duration of B[a]P in the water body can have impact on zooplankton abundance and community structure. Since B[a]P easily precipitate to the bottom and rapidly disappears from the water body, careful monitoring and further assessment of the potential toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are necessary.

  15. Toxicity of fluoride to aquatic species and evaluation of toxicity modifying factors.

    Pearcy, Krysta; Elphick, James; Burnett-Seidel, Charlene


    The present study was performed to investigate the toxicity of fluoride to a variety of freshwater aquatic organisms and to establish whether water quality variables contribute substantively to modifying its toxicity. Water hardness, chloride, and alkalinity were tested as possible toxicity modifying factors for fluoride using acute toxicity tests with Hyalella azteca and Oncorhynchus mykiss. Chloride appeared to be the major toxicity modifying factor for fluoride in these acute toxicity tests. The chronic toxicity of fluoride was evaluated with a variety of species, including 3 fish (Pimephales promelas, O. mykiss, and Salvelinus namaycush), 3 invertebrates (Ceriodaphnia dubia, H. azteca, and Chironomus dilutus), 1 plant (Lemna minor), and 1 alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata). Hyalella azteca was the most sensitive species overall, and O. mykiss was the most sensitive species of fish. The role of chloride as a toxicity modifying factor was inconsistent between species in the chronic toxicity tests.

  16. Biological assays for aquatic toxicity testing

    Slabbert, JL


    Full Text Available A number of aquatic toxicity tests have been established for South African use, which include fish and Daphnia lethality tests, microbiotests, and short-term chronic tests. Studies on effluents and surface waters showed that all the tests have a...

  17. Quantum chemistry based quantitative structure-activity relationships for modeling the (sub)acute toxicity of substituted mononitrobenzenes in aquatic systems

    Zvinavashe, E.; Murk, A.J.; Vervoort, J.; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Freidig, A.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.


    Fifteen experimental literature data sets on the acute toxicity of substituted nitrobenzenes to algae (Scenedesmus obliquus, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, C. vulgaris), daphnids (Daphnia magna, D. carinata), fish (Cyprinus carpio, Poecilia reticulata), protozoa (Tetrahymena pyriformis), bacteria (Phosphoba

  18. Quantum chemistry based quantitative structure-activity relationships for modeling the (sub)acute toxicity of substituted mononitrobenzenes in aquatic systems

    Zvinavashe, E.; Murk, A.J.; Vervoort, J.; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Freidig, A.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.


    Fifteen experimental literature data sets on the acute toxicity of substituted nitrobenzenes to algae (Scenedesmus obliquus, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, C. vulgaris), daphnids (Daphnia magna, D. carinata), fish (Cyprinus carpio, Poecilia reticulata), protozoa (Tetrahymena pyriformis), bacteria

  19. Acute and chronic toxicity of imidacloprid to the aquatic invertebrates Chironomus tentans and Hyalella azteca under constant- and pulse-exposure conditions.

    Stoughton, Sarah J; Liber, Karsten; Culp, Joseph; Cessna, Allan


    The toxicity of imidacloprid, a nicotinic mimic insecticide, to the aquatic invertebrates Chironomus tentans and Hyalella azteca, was first evaluated in static 96-hour tests using both technical material (99.2% pure) and Admire, a commercially available formulated product (240 g a.i. L(-1)). The 96-h lethal concentration (LC)50 values for technical imidacloprid and Admire were 65.43 and 17.44 microg/L, respectively, for H. azteca, and 5.75 and 5.40 microg/L, respectively, for C. tentans. Admire was subsequently used in 28-day chronic tests with both species. Exposure scenarios consisted of a constant- and a pulse-exposure regime. The pulse exposure lasted for four days, after which time the animals were transferred to clean water for the remaining 24 days of the study. Assessments were made on both day 10 and day 28. In the C. tentans under constant exposure, larval growth on day 10 was significantly reduced at 3.57 microg/L imidacloprid, the lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC). The no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) and LOEC for the 28-day exposure duration (adult survival and emergence) were 1.14 and greater than 1.14 mug/L, respectively; the associated LC50 and LC25 were 0.91 and 0.59 microg/L, respectively. The LOEC for the pulse treatment was greater than 3.47 microg/L, but the day 10 LC25 was 3.03 microg/L. In the H. azteca tests, the day 10 and 28 constant exposure, as well as the day 28 pulse exposure, LOEC (survival) values were similar at 11.95, 11.46, and 11.93 microg/L, respectively. The day 10 and 28 constant exposure effective concentration (EC)25s (dry weight) were also similar, at 6.22 and 8.72 microg/L, respectively, but were higher than the pulse-exposure day 10 LOEC and EC25 (dry weight) values of 3.53 and 2.22 microg/L, respectively. Overall, C. tentans was more sensitive to acute and chronic imidacloprid exposure, but less sensitive to a single pulse, than H. azteca. Chronic, low-level exposure to imidacloprid may therefore reduce

  20. Behavioural alterations from exposure to Cu, phenanthrene, and Cu-phenanthrene mixtures: linking behaviour to acute toxic mechanisms in the aquatic amphipod, Hyalella azteca.

    Gauthier, Patrick T; Norwood, Warren P; Prepas, Ellie E; Pyle, Greg G


    Phenanthrene (PHE) and Cu are two contaminants commonly co-occurring in marine and freshwater environments. Mixtures of PHE and Cu have been reported to induce more-than-additive lethality in the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, a keystone aquatic invertebrate, yet little is understood regarding the interactive toxic mechanisms that mediate more-than-additive toxicity. Understanding the interactions among toxic mechanisms among Cu and PHE will allow for better predictive power in assessing the ecological risks of Cu-PHE mixtures in aquatic environments. Here we use behavioural impairment to help understand the toxic mechanisms of Cu, PHE, and Cu-PHE mixture toxicity in the aquatic amphipod crustacean, Hyalella azteca. Our principal objective was to link alterations in activity and ventilation with respiratory rates, oxidative stress, and neurotoxicity in adult H. azteca. Adult amphipods were used for all toxicity tests. Amphipods were tested at sublethal exposures of 91.8- and 195-μgL(-1) Cu and PHE, respectively, and a Cu-PHE mixture at the same concentrations for 24h. Neurotoxicity was measured as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, where malathion was used as a positive control. Oxidative stress was measured as reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Phenanthrene-exposed amphipods exhibited severe behavioural impairment, being hyperstimulated to the extent that they were incapable of coordinating muscle movements. In addition, respiration and AChE activity in PHE-exposed amphipods were increased and reduced by 51% and 23% respectively. However, ROS did not increase following exposure to phenanthrene. In contrast, Cu had no effect on amphipod behaviour, respiration or AChE activity, but did lead to an increase in ROS. However, co-exposure to Cu antagonized the PHE-induced reduction in ventilation and negated any increase in respiration. The results suggest that PHE acts like an organophosphate pesticide (e.g., malathion) in H. azteca following 24h sublethal

  1. [Toxicity of nitrate-N to freshwater aquatic life and its water quality criteria].

    Zhang, Ling-Song; Wang, Ye-Yao; Meng, Fan-Sheng; Zhou, Yue-Xi; Yu, Hai-Bin


    The toxicity sensitivity of different freshwater aquatic organisms was analyzed using the collected toxicity data in this paper. Three methods were used to estimate the criteria of nitrate to protect the freshwater aquatic life. The results showed that the species sensitivity to nitrate followed the order of Arthropoda > Mollusca > Chordata, and Crustacea > Insecta > Gastropoda > Bivalvia > Amphibia > Actinopterygii. Moreover, the output of assessment factor method, species sensitivity distribution method and USEPA's method was significantly different. Finally, criterias of 87.97 mg x L(-1) and 5.17 mg x L(-1) to protect aquatic life from acute and chronic toxicity were proposed using USEPA's method.

  2. Aquatic toxicity and biodegradability of advanced cationic surfactant APA-22 compatible with the aquatic environment.

    Yamane, Masayuki; Toyo, Takamasa; Inoue, Katsuhisa; Sakai, Takaya; Kaneko, Youhei; Nishiyama, Naohiro


    Cationic surfactant is a chemical substance used in hair conditioner, fabric softener and other household products. By investigating the relationship between the aquatic toxicity and the chemical structures of two types of mono alkyl cationic surfactants, alkyl trimethylammonium salts and alkyl dimethylamine salts, we have found that the C22 alkyl chain length is effective to reduce the toxicity. Besides, we have recognized that the amidopropyl functional group contributes to the enhanced biodegradability by investigating the biodegradation trend of (alkylamidopropyl)dimethylamine salt (alkyl chain length: C18). Based on these findings, we have developed mono alkyl cationic surfactant called APA-22, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]docosanamide salt. APA-22 is formed by the C22 alkyl chain, amidopropyl functional group and di-methyltertiary amine group. We evaluated the aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability of APA-22 by two standard methods (OECD Test Guideline 301B and ECETOC technical document No.28) and found that this substance was degraded rapidly in both conditions. The toxicity to algae, invertebrate and fish of this substance are evaluated by using OECD Test Guideline 201, 202 and 203, respectively. All acute toxicity values are >1 mg/L, which indicates that environmental toxicity of this substance is relatively less toxic to aquatic organism. In addition, we estimated the biodegradation pathway of APA-22 and observed the complete disappearance of APA-22 and its intermediates during the test periods. Based on the environmental data provided above, we concluded that APA22 is more compatible with the aquatic environment compared to other cationic surfactants with mono long alkyl chain.

  3. Pesticide Toxicity Index: a tool for assessing potential toxicity of pesticide mixtures to freshwater aquatic organisms

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Norman, Julia E.; Moran, Patrick W.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Stone, Wesley W.


    Pesticide mixtures are common in streams with agricultural or urban influence in the watershed. The Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) is a screening tool to assess potential aquatic toxicity of complex pesticide mixtures by combining measures of pesticide exposure and acute toxicity in an additive toxic-unit model. The PTI is determined separately for fish, cladocerans, and benthic invertebrates. This study expands the number of pesticides and degradates included in previous editions of the PTI from 124 to 492 pesticides and degradates, and includes two types of PTI for use in different applications, depending on study objectives. The Median-PTI was calculated from median toxicity values for individual pesticides, so is robust to outliers and is appropriate for comparing relative potential toxicity among samples, sites, or pesticides. The Sensitive-PTI uses the 5th percentile of available toxicity values, so is a more sensitive screening-level indicator of potential toxicity. PTI predictions of toxicity in environmental samples were tested using data aggregated from published field studies that measured pesticide concentrations and toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia in ambient stream water. C. dubia survival was reduced to ≤ 50% of controls in 44% of samples with Median-PTI values of 0.1–1, and to 0% in 96% of samples with Median-PTI values > 1. The PTI is a relative, but quantitative, indicator of potential toxicity that can be used to evaluate relationships between pesticide exposure and biological condition.

  4. Persistent toxic substances in Mediterranean aquatic species.

    Miniero, Roberto; Abate, Vittorio; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Davoli, Enrico; De Felip, Elena; De Filippis, Stefania P; Dellatte, Elena; De Luca, Silvia; Fanelli, Roberto; Fattore, Elena; Ferri, Fabiola; Fochi, Igor; Rita Fulgenzi, Anna; Iacovella, Nicola; Iamiceli, Anna Laura; Lucchetti, Dario; Melotti, Paolo; Moret, Ivo; Piazza, Rossano; Roncarati, Alessandra; Ubaldi, Alessandro; Zambon, Stefano; di Domenico, Alessandro


    Fish and fishery products may represent one of the main sources of dietary exposure to persistent toxic substances (PTSs) such as polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls; polybromodiphenyl ethers; organochlorine pesticides; perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate; and inorganic mercury and methyl mercury. In this study, PTS contamination of Mediterranean fish and crustaceans caught in Italian coastal waters was investigated in order to increase the representativeness of the occurrence database for wild species. The objectives were to verify the suitability of regulatory limits for PTSs, identify background concentrations values, if any, and examine the possible sources of variability when assessing the chemical body burdens of aquatic species. Twelve wild species of commercial interest and two farmed fish species were chosen. Excluding methyl mercury, chemical concentrations found in wild species fell generally towards the low ends of the concentration ranges found in Europe according to EFSA database and were quite lower than the tolerable maximum levels established in the European Union; farmed fish always showed contamination levels quite lower than those detected in wild species. The data obtained for wild species seemed to confirm the absence of local sources of contamination in the chosen sampling areas; however, species contamination could exceed regulatory levels even in the absence of specific local sources of contamination as a result of the position in the food web and natural variability in species' lifestyle. A species-specific approach to the management of contamination in aquatic organisms is therefore suggested as an alternative to a general approach based only on contaminant body burden. A chemical-specific analysis performed according to organism position in the food chain strengthened the need to develop this approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Toxic effect of heavy metals on aquatic environment | Baby ...

    Toxic effect of heavy metals on aquatic environment. ... International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences ... Remediation approaches such as excavation and land fill, thermal treatment, electroreclamation and soil capping have been ...

  6. Research of nickel nanoparticles toxicity with use of Aquatic Organisms

    Morgaleva, T.; Morgalev, Yu; Gosteva, I.; Morgalev, S.


    The effect of nanoparticles with the particle size Δ50=5 nm on the test function of aquatic organisms was analyzed by means of biotesting methods with the use of a complex of test-organisms representing general trophic levels. The dependence of an infusoria Paramecium caudatum chemoattractant-elicited response, unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris Beijer growth rate, Daphnia magna Straus mortality and trophic activity and Danio rerio fish kill due to nNi disperse system concentration, is estimated. It is determined that the release of chlorella into cultivated environment including nNi as a feed for daphnias raises the death rate of entomostracans. The minimal concentration, whereby an organism response to the effect of nNi is registered, depends on the type of test organism and the analysed test function. L(E)C20 is determined for all the organisms used in bioassays. L(E)C50 is estimated for Paramecium caudatum (L(E)C50 = 0.0049 mg/l), for Chlorella vulgaris Beijer (L(E)C50 = 0.529 mg/l), for Daphnia m. S (L(E)C50 > 100 mg/l) and for fish Danio rerio (L(E)C50 > 100 mg/l). According to the Globally Harmonized System hazard substance evaluation criteria and Commission Directive 93/67/EEC, nNi belongs to the “acute toxicity 1” category of toxic substances.

  7. A comparative toxicity assessment of materials used in aquatic construction.

    Lalonde, Benoit A; Ernst, William; Julien, Gary; Jackman, Paula; Doe, Ken; Schaefer, Rebecca


    Comparative toxicity testing was performed on selected materials that may be used in aquatic construction projects. The tests were conducted on the following materials: (1) untreated wood species (hemlock [Tsuga ssp], Western red cedar (Thuja plicata), red oak [Quercus rubra], Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii], red pine [Pinus resinosa], and tamarack [Larix ssp]); (2) plastic wood; (3) Ecothermo wood hemlock stakes treated with preservatives (e.g., chromated copper arsenate [CCA], creosote, alkaline copper quaternary [ACQ], zinc naphthenate, copper naphthenate, and Lifetime Wood Treatment); (4) epoxy-coated steel; (5) hot-rolled steel; (6) zinc-coated steel; and (7) concrete. Those materials were used in acute lethality tests with rainbow trout, Daphnia magna, Vibrio fischeri and threespine stickleback. The results indicated the following general ranking of the materials (from the lowest to highest LC(50) values); ACQ > creosote > zinc naphthenate > copper naphthenate > CCA (treated at 22.4 kg/m(3)) > concrete > red pine > western red cedar > red oak > zinc-coated steel > epoxy-coated steel > CCA (6.4 kg/m(3)). Furthermore, the toxicity results indicated that plastic wood, certain untreated wood species (hemlock, tamarack, Douglas fir, and red oak), hot-rolled steel, Ecothermo wood, and wood treated with Lifetime Wood Treatment were generally nontoxic to the test species.

  8. Ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles to aquatic invertebrates: a brief review and recommendations for future toxicity testing

    Baun, Anders; Hartmann, Nanna Isabella Bloch; Grieger, Khara Deanne


    Based on a literature review and an overview of toxic effects of engineered nanoparticles in aquatic invertebrates, this paper proposes a number of recommendations for the developing field of nanoecotoxicology by highlighting the importance of invertebrates as sensitive and relevant test organisms...... Daphnia magna as the test organism. To date, the limited number of studies has indicated acute toxicity in the low mgl(-1) range and higher of engineered nanoparticles to aquatic invertebrates, although some indications of chronic toxicity and behavioral changes have also been described at concentrations...... in the high mu gl(-1) range. Nanoparticles have also been found to act as contaminant carriers of co-existing contaminants and this interaction has altered the toxicity of specific chemicals towards D. magna. We recommend that invertebrate testing is used to advance the level of knowledge in nanoecotoxicology...

  9. Ranking of aquatic toxicity of esters modelled by QSAR.

    Papa, Ester; Battaini, Francesca; Gramatica, Paola


    Alternative methods like predictions based on Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSARs) are now accepted to fill data gaps and define priority lists for more expensive and time consuming assessments. A heterogeneous data set of 74 esters was studied for their aquatic toxicity, and available experimental toxicity data on algae, Daphnia and fish were used to develop statistically validated QSAR models, obtained using multiple linear regression (MLR) by the OLS (Ordinary Least Squares) method and GA-VSS (Variable Subset Selection by Genetic Algorithms) to predict missing values. An ESter Aquatic Toxicity INdex (ESATIN) was then obtained by combining, by PCA, experimental and predicted toxicity data, from which model outliers and esters highly influential due to their structure had been eliminated. Finally this integrated aquatic toxicity index, defined by the PC1 score, was modelled using only a few theoretical molecular descriptors. This last QSAR model, statistically validated for its predictive power, could be proposed as a preliminary evaluative method for screening/prioritising esters according to their integrated aquatic toxicity, just starting from their molecular structure.

  10. Toxicity of Cúspide 480SL® spray mixture formulation of glyphosate to aquatic organisms.

    Currie, Zachary; Prosser, Ryan S; Rodriguez-Gil, Jose Luis; Mahon, Kim; Poirier, Dave; Solomon, Keith R


    In 2011, an alternative formulation of glyphosate (Cúspide 480SL®) was chosen to replace Roundup-SL®, Fuete-SL®, and Gly-41® for the control of Erythroxylum coca, the source of cocaine, in Colombia. Cúspide 480SL contains the active ingredient glyphosate isopropylamine (IPA) salt, which is the same active ingredient used in previous formulations. However, Cúspide 480SL contains an alkyl polyglycoside surfactant rather than the polyethoxylated tallow amine (POEA) surfactant used in other formulations and known to be more toxic to nonprimary producing aquatic organisms than glyphosate itself. An adjuvant, Cosmo-Flux F411, and water also are added to the spray mixture before application. Aquatic ecosystems adjacent to the target coca fields might be exposed to the spray mix, placing aquatic organisms at risk. Because no toxicity data were available for spray mixture on aquatic organisms, acute toxicity tests were conducted on aquatic plants, invertebrates, and fish, by using the Cúspide 480SL spray mix as described on the label. Based on the median effective concentration (EC50) values for similar organisms, the spray mixture was less toxic to aquatic organisms than formulations previously used for the control of coca (i.e., Roundup-SL, Fuete-SL, and Gly-41). A physical effect induced by Cosmo-Flux F411 was observed in Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Hyalella azteca, causing the invertebrates to be trapped in an oily film that was present at the surface of the water. However, a hazard assessment for the Cúspide 480SL spray mix, using estimated worst-case exposure scenario concentrations and EC50 values from the toxicity tests, indicated de minimis hazard for the tested aquatic animals, with hazard quotients all <1.

  11. Haloacetic acids in the aquatic environment. Part I: macrophyte toxicity.

    Hanson, Mark L; Solomon, Keith R


    Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are contaminants of aquatic ecosystems with numerous sources, both anthropogenic and natural. The toxicity of HAAs to aquatic plants is generally uncharacterized. Laboratory tests were conducted with three macrophytes (Lemna gibba, Myriophyllum sibiricum and Myriophyllum spicatum) to assess the toxicity of five HAAs. Myriophyllum spp. has been proposed as required test species for pesticide registration in North America, but few studies have been conducted under standard test conditions. The HAAs in the present experiments were monochloroacetic acid (MCA), dichloroacetic acid (DCA), trichloroacetic acid (TCA), trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and chlorodifluoroacetic acid (CDFA). MCA was the most toxic to Myriophyllum spp. with EC50 values ranging from 8 to 12.4 mg/l depending on the endpoint, followed by DCA (EC50 range 62-722.5 mg/l), TCA (EC50 range 49.5-1702.6 mg/l), CDFA (EC50 range 105.3 to >10,000 mg/l) and with TFA (EC50 range 222.1 to 10,000 mg/l) the least toxic. Generally, L. gibba was less sensitive to HAA toxicity than Myriophyllum spp., with the difference in toxicity between them approximately threefold. The range of toxicity within Myriophyllum spp. was normally less than twofold. Statistically, plant length and node number were the most sensitive endpoints as they had the lowest observed coefficients of variation, but they were not the most sensitive to HAA toxicity. Toxicological sensitivity of endpoints varied depending on the measure of effect chosen and the HAA, with morphological endpoints usually an order of magnitude more sensitive than pigments for all plant species. Overall, mass and root measures tended to be the most sensitive indicators of HAA toxicity. The data from this paper were subsequently used in an ecological risk assessment for HAAs and aquatic plants. The assessment found HAAs to be of low risk to aquatic macrophytes and the results are described in the second manuscript of this series.

  12. Toxicity of Ordnance Wastes in Aquatic Environments


    tidal pool copepod Tigriopus californicus . Environ. Poll. 4(l):69-79. -17- Background References (Cont’d.) Osmon, J.L. and R.E. Klausmeier. 1973. The...toxicity of picric acid for the seawater copepod Tigriopus . Extremely good correlation is also obtained in comparing the toxicities of Otto fuel, Noset...Daphnia (65 ppm) and that of Tigriopus (45 ppm) appear to be the right order of magnitude when compared with results summarized by McKee and Wolf

  13. Proceedings of the 35. annual aquatic toxicity workshop

    Liber, K.; Janz, D.M. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Toxicology Centre; Burridge, L.E. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, St. Andrews, NB (Canada)] (eds.)


    This workshop on aquatic and environmental toxicology covered topics from basic aquatic toxicology to applications in environmental monitoring and protecting the health of aquatic ecosystems. It addressed issues regarding the development of regulations and guidelines, and the development of sediment and water quality criteria. The workshop emphasized an informal exchange of ideas and knowledge on the topics among interested persons from industry, governments and universities. The principles, current problems and approaches in aquatic toxicology and the biological effect on biota were also discussed. The sessions were entitled: environmental effects monitoring; endocrine modulating substances; metal, coal and diamond mining; mechanistic aspects of metal toxicity; genomics, proteomics and metabolomics in aquatic ecotoxicology; northern and Arctic ecosystems; oil sands research; general aquatic toxicology; barriers to biological recovery in metal contaminated sites; pesticides and other agricultural stressors; tools to assess toxicity and bioavailability in support of risk assessment; pharmaceuticals and personal care products; novel biological test methods; ecological risk assessment; national agri-environmental standards initiative; corroborating, extrapolating and predicting adverse effects between laboratory and field; cumulative effects assessment; advances in environmental chemistry; nanotoxicology; and sensory systems. The workshop featured 195 presentations, of which 31 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database.

  14. Proceedings of the 36. annual aquatic toxicity workshop

    Martel, L.; Triffault-Bouchet, G. [Centre d' expertise en analyse environnementale du Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada); Fournier, M. [Inst. national de la recherche scientifique, Laval, PQ (Canada). Inst. Armand Frappier; Berryman, D.; Guay, I. [Ministere du Developpement durable, de l' Environnement et des Parcs, Quebec, PQ (Canada); Campbell, P.G.C. [Quebec Univ., Quebec, PQ (Canada). Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique-Eau, Terre et Environnement; Lebeuf, M.; Couillard, C. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Mont-Joli, PQ (Canada). Inst. Maurice-Lamontagne; Parent, L. [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Pellerin, J. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada). Institut des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski; Benoit, P. [Ministere du Developpement durable, de l' Environnement et des Parcs du Quebec, Longueil, PQ (Canada); Lacroix, E. [Environment Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Burridge, L.E. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, St. Andrews, NB (Canada)] (eds.)


    This workshop was held to discuss topics related to aquatic and environmental toxicology. Principles, issues, and recent innovations in aquatic toxicology were reviewed. New developments in environmental monitoring were discussed, as well as issues related to environmental regulation. The workshop was attended by a range of stakeholders from governments, universities, and industry. The sessions were entitled: legacy contaminants 1 organics; nanotoxicology; environmental effects monitoring; oil sands; BFR and other emerging contaminants; biomarkers; neuro and endocrine disrupting compounds; remediation of degraded aquatic environments; legacy contaminants 2 hydrocarbons; waterborne and diet-borne metals; water and sediment standards and criteria; pesticides; amphibians and wildlife toxicology; cyanobacteria; amphibians and wildlife toxicology 2; environmental risk assessment; genomics, protemics, and metabolomics; contamination in the Saguenay-St. Lawrence Marine park; legacy contaminants 3 organics and metals; community level indicators; toxicity tests; toxicity mechanisms; areas of concern; general aquatic toxicology; general legacy contaminants; emerging contaminants; cyanobacteria; amphibians and wildlife toxicology 1; omics in aquatic ecotoxicology; organism or population level indicators; and toxicity tests. The workshop featured 250 presentations, of which 24 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  15. Aquatic Toxicity of the Decontamination Agent: Multipurpose (DAM) decontamination Solution


    DECONTAMINATION SOLUTION ELETI M.V. Holey •I• E LF- , C.W. Kurnas J •i W.T. Muse B RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DIRECTORATE May 1994 Approved for public release...FUNDING NUMBERS Aquatic Toxicity of the Decontaminating S.O.-2FK4 Agent: Multipurpose (DAM) Decontamination Solution 6. AUTHOR(S) Haley, M.V.; Kurnas

  16. [Acute toxicity of different type pesticide surfactants to Daphnia magna].

    Li, Xiu-huan; Li, Hua; Chen, Cheng-yu; Li, Jian-tao; Liu, Feng


    By using the standard test methods in Experimental Guideline for Environmental Safety Evaluation of Chemical Pesticide to aquatic organisms, a comparative study was conducted on the acute toxicity of 39 nonionic, 6 anionic, and 3 cationic surfactants to Daphnia magna. The acute toxicity of three cationic surfactants 1427, 1227 and C8-10 to D. magna belonged to virulent level, and the toxicity of 1427 was the highest, with the EC50 value being 0.97 x 10(-2) mg x L(-1). The acute toxicity of nonionic surfactants polyoxyethylene ether castor oil EL, Tween, and Span emulsifiers belonged to low level, but the toxicity of alkylphenol polyoxyethylene ether and fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether surfactants was relatively high, of which, AEO-7 and AEO-5 displayed high toxicity, with the EC50 value being 0.82 and 0.97 mg x L(-1), respectively. In these surfactants, the more liposolubility, the higher the toxicity was. Most of the anionic surfactants were medium in toxicity, but the acute toxicity of NNO belonged to high toxicity, with the EC50 value being 0.17 mg x L(-1).

  17. Reduction in toxicity of coking wastewater to aquatic organisms by vertical tubular biological reactor.

    Zhou, Siyun; Watanabe, Haruna; Wei, Chang; Wang, Dongzhou; Zhou, Jiti; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Masunaga, Shigeki; Zhang, Ying


    We conducted a battery of toxicity tests using photo bacterium, algae, crustacean and fish to evaluate acute toxicity profile of coking wastewater, and to evaluate the performance of a novel wastewater treatment process, vertical tubular biological reactor (VTBR), in the removal of toxicity and certain chemical pollutants. A laboratory scale VTBR system was set up to treat industrial coking wastewater, and investigated both chemicals removal efficiency and acute bio-toxicity to aquatic organisms. The results showed that chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phenol reductions by VTBR were approximately 93% and 100%, respectively. VTBR also reduced the acute toxicity of coking wastewater significantly: Toxicity Unit (TU) decreased from 21.2 to 0.4 for Photobacterium phosphoreum, from 9.5 to 0.6 for Isochrysis galbana, from 31.9 to 1.3 for Daphnia magna, and from 30.0 to nearly 0 for Danio rerio. VTBR is an efficient treatment method for the removal of chemical pollutants and acute bio-toxicity from coking wastewater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    Toussaint, M.W. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Fort Washington, MD (United States); Shedd, T.R. [Army Biomedical Research and Development Lab., Frederick, MD (United States); Schalie, W.H. van der [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Leather, G.R. [Hood Coll., Frederick, MD (United States). Dept. of Biology


    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus calyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photobacterium phosphoreum--Microtox{reg_sign} test, and a mixture of bacterial species--the Polytox{reg_sign} test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia), green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC50/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  19. Comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    Toussaint, M.W.; Shedd, T.R.; VanDerSchal, W.H.; Leather, G.R.


    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus ccalyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photo bacterium phosphoreum - Microtox test, and a mixture of bacterial species - the polytox test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriadaphnta dubia), green algae (Setenastrum capricarnutum), fathead minnows (Pimephalespromelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC5O/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  20. Acute Toxic Effect of Abamectin on Fresh-water Aquatic Animals%阿维菌素对几种淡水水生动物的急性毒性作用

    王锡珍; 陆宏达


    Objective To discuss the acute toxicity of abamectin to several aquatic animals, it can provide reference for formulating safety concentration value of abamectin on fresh-water aquatic animals. Methods The method of changing solution was used for Cladocera Crustacea with 48 h,and Allogynogenetic crucian carp fingerling (fry),Gambusia affinis,Hypophthal michthys molitrix fry,Macrobrachium nipponense ,Eriocheir sinensis, Cipangopaludina chincasis with 96 h in this experiment. For the experimental animals, every kind of animal was randomly divided into 11 groups(495 animals in each), including nine treatment groups, one control group and one ethanol (hydrotropy agent) group (15 animals in each). The clinic symptoms were observed and mortalities were recorded;median-lethal concentration with 24,48,72,96 h and safety concentration were calculated. Results During the experiment,the mortalities of all animals increased with increase of time and concentration of abamectin. As for Cladocera Crustacea,48 h LC_(50), and safety concentration were 0.000 37 and 0.000 037 mg/L,for Allogynogenetic crucian carp fry, Allogynogenetic crucian carp fingerling,Gambusia affinis,Hypophthal michthys molitrix fry,Macrobrachium nipponense, Eriocheir sinensis,Cipangopaludina chincasis,the values of 96 h LC_(50) were 0.018,0.06,0.08,0.02,0.52,0.25,0.57 mg/L and safety concentrations were 0.001 8,0.006,0.008, 0.002,0.052,0.025,0.057 mg/L,respectively. The results showed that the toxicity of abamectin to seven fresh-water aquatic animals ranked as Cladocera Crustacea,Allogynogenetic crucian carp fry,Hypophthal michthys molitrix fry, Allogynogenetic crucian carp fingerling,Gambusia affinis, Eriocheir sinensis,Macrobrachium nipponense, Cipangopaludina chincasis. Conclusion Abamectin has higher toxicity to fresh-water aquatic animals.%目的 探讨阿维菌素对几种水生动物的急性毒性作用,为制订阿维菌素对淡水水生动物安全浓度的阈值提供参考依据.方法 采用

  1. Toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid to plants and aquatic invertebrates.

    Li, Mei-Hui


    Acute toxicities of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were tested on four freshwater species and three plant species. PFOS was more toxic than PFOA for all species tested in this study. Similar time-response patterns of PFOS and PFOA toxicity were observed for each tested species. Values of the 48-h LC(50) of PFOS for all test species ranged from 27 to 233 mg/L and values of the 96-h LC(50) for three of the species ranged from 10 to 178 mg/L. Values of the 48-h LC(50) of PFOA for all test species ranged from 181 to 732 mg/L and values of the 96-h LC(50) for three of the species ranged from 337 to 672 mg/L. The most sensitive freshwater species to PFOS was green neon shrimp (Neocaridina denticulate) with a 96-h LC(50) of 10 mg/L. Of the aquatic organisms tested, the aquatic snail (Physa acuta) always has the highest resistance to PFOS or PFOA toxicity over each exposure period. Both PFOS and PFOA had no obvious adverse effect on seed germination for all three plant species. Five-day EC(50) of root elongation was more sensitive to LC(50) of seed germination in this study. Based on EC(10), EC(50), and NOECs, the 5-day root elongation sensitivity of test plants to both PFOS and PFOA was in the order of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) > pakchoi (Brassica rapa chinensis) > cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Based on the results of this study and other published literature, it is suggested that current PFOS and PFOA levels in freshwater may have no acute harmful ecological impact on the aquatic environment. However, more research on the long-term ecological effects of PFOS and PFOA on aquatic fauna are needed to provide important information to adequately assess ecological risk of PFOS and PFOA.

  2. A Bayesian network model for predicting aquatic toxicity mode ...

    The mode of toxic action (MoA) has been recognized as a key determinant of chemical toxicity but MoA classification in aquatic toxicology has been limited. We developed a Bayesian network model to classify aquatic toxicity mode of action using a recently published dataset containing over one thousand chemicals with MoA assignments for aquatic animal toxicity. Two dimensional theoretical chemical descriptors were generated for each chemical using the Toxicity Estimation Software Tool. The model was developed through augmented Markov blanket discovery from the data set with the MoA broad classifications as a target node. From cross validation, the overall precision for the model was 80.2% with a R2 of 0.959. The best precision was for the AChEI MoA (93.5%) where 257 chemicals out of 275 were correctly classified. Model precision was poorest for the reactivity MoA (48.5%) where 48 out of 99 reactive chemicals were correctly classified. Narcosis represented the largest class within the MoA dataset and had a precision and reliability of 80.0%, reflecting the global precision across all of the MoAs. False negatives for narcosis most often fell into electron transport inhibition, neurotoxicity or reactivity MoAs. False negatives for all other MoAs were most often narcosis. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was undertaken for each MoA to examine the sensitivity to individual and multiple descriptor findings. The results show that the Markov blanket of a structurally

  3. Selenium toxicity: cause and effects in aquatic birds.

    Spallholz, Julian E; Hoffman, David J


    There are several manners in which selenium may express its toxicity: (1) an important mechanism appears to involve the formation of CH(3)Se(minus sign) which either enters a redox cycle and generates superoxide and oxidative stress, or forms free radicals that bind to and inhibit important enzymes and proteins. (2) Excess selenium as selenocysteine results in inhibition of selenium methylation metabolism. As a consequence, concentrations of hydrogen selenide, an intermediate metabolite, accumulate in animals and are hepatotoxic, possibly causing other selenium-related adverse effects. (3) It is also possible that the presence of excess selenium analogs of sulfur-containing enzymes and structural proteins play a role in avian teratogenesis. L-selenomethionine is the most likely major dietary form of selenium encountered by aquatic birds, with lesser amounts of L-selenocysteine ingested from aquatic animal foods. The literature is suggestive that L-selenomethionine is not any more toxic to adult birds than other animals. L-Selenomethionine accumulates in tissue protein of adult birds and in the protein of egg white as would be expected to occur in animals. There is no suggestion from the literature that the levels of L-selenomethionine that would be expected to accumulate in eggs in the absence of environmental concentration of selenium pose harm to the developing embryo. For several species of aquatic birds, levels of Se as selenomethionine in the egg above 3 ppm on a wet weight basis result in reduced hatchability and deformed embryos. The toxicity of L-selenomethionine injected directly into eggs is greater than that found from the entry of L-selenomethionine into the egg from the normal adult diet. This suggests that there is unusual if not abnormal metabolism of L-selenomethionine in the embryo not seen when L-selenomethionine is present in egg white protein where it likely serves as a source of selenium for glutathione peroxidase synthesis in the developing

  4. Selenium toxicity: cause and effects in aquatic birds

    Spallholz, J.E.; Hoffman, D.J.


    There are several manners in which selenium may express its toxicity: (1) an important mechanism appears to involve the formation of CH3Se- which either enters a redox cycle and generates superoxide and oxidative stress, or forms free radicals that bind to and inhibit important enzymes and proteins. (2) Excess selenium as selenocysteine results in inhibition of selenium methylation metabolism. As a consequence, concentrations of hydrogen selenide, an intermediate metabolite, accumulate in animals and are hepatotoxic, possibly causing other selenium-related adverse effects. (3) It is also possible that the presence of excess selenium analogs of sulfur-containing enzymes and structural proteins play a role in avian teratogenesis. l-selenomethionine is the most likely major dietary form of selenium encountered by aquatic birds, with lesser amounts of l-selenocysteine ingested from aquatic animal foods. The literature is suggestive that l-selenomethionine is not any more toxic to adult birds than other animals. l-Selenomethionine accumulates in tissue protein of adult birds and in the protein of egg white as would be expected to occur in animals. There is no suggestion from the literature that the levels of l-selenomethionine that would be expected to accumulate in eggs in the absence of environmental concentration of selenium pose harm to the developing embryo. For several species of aquatic birds, levels of Se as selenomethionine in the egg above 3 ppm on a wet weight basis result in reduced hatchability and deformed embryos. The toxicity of l-selenomethionine injected directly into eggs is greater than that found from the entry of l-selenomethionine into the egg from the normal adult diet. This suggests that there is unusual if not abnormal metabolism of l-selenomethionine in the embryo not seen when l-selenomethionine is present in egg white protein where it likely serves as a source of selenium for glutathione peroxidase synthesis in the developing aquatic chick.

  5. Biodegradability and aquatic toxicity of quaternary ammonium-based gemini surfactants: Effect of the spacer on their ecological properties.

    Garcia, M Teresa; Kaczerewska, Olga; Ribosa, Isabel; Brycki, Bogumił; Materna, Paulina; Drgas, Małgorzata


    Aerobic biodegradability and aquatic toxicity of five types of quaternary ammonium-based gemini surfactants have been examined. The effect of the spacer structure and the head group polarity on the ecological properties of a series of dimeric dodecyl ammonium surfactants has been investigated. Standard tests for ready biodegradability assessment (OECD 310) were conducted for C12 alkyl chain gemini surfactants containing oxygen, nitrogen or a benzene ring in the spacer linkage and/or a hydroxyethyl group attached to the nitrogen atom of the head groups. According to the results obtained, the gemini surfactants examined cannot be considered as readily biodegradable compounds. The negligible biotransformation of the gemini surfactants under the standard biodegradation test conditions was found to be due to their toxic effects on the microbial population responsible for aerobic biodegradation. Aquatic toxicity of gemini surfactants was evaluated against Daphnia magna. The acute toxicity values to Daphnia magna, IC50 at 48 h exposure, ranged from 0.6 to 1 mg/L. On the basis of these values, the gemini surfactants tested should be classified as toxic or very toxic to the aquatic environment. However, the dimeric quaternary ammonium-based surfactants examined result to be less toxic than their corresponding monomeric analogs. Nevertheless the aquatic toxicity of these gemini surfactants can be reduced by increasing the molecule hydrophilicity by adding a heteroatom to the spacer or a hydroxyethyl group to the polar head groups.

  6. Reference toxicants for toxicity testing using Caenorhabditis elegans in aquatic media

    Cressman, C.P. III; Williams, P.L. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)


    Caenorhabditis elegans aquatic toxicity assays were standardized with five common reference toxicants: CdCl{sub 2}, NaCl, KCl, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), and sodium pentachlorophenate (PCP). Aquatic toxicity testing was conducted in 3 media: a standard C. elegans medium; EPA moderately hard reconstituted water; and EPA moderately hard mineral water. Test duration in each medium was 24h without a food source, and 24h and 48h with Escherichia coli strain OP50 as a food source. Each test was replicated three times with each replicate having 6 wells per concentration, 10 worms per well. LC{sub 50} values were calculated using probit analysis. The average LC{sub 50}s for each set of replications were compared to assess sensitivity and reproducibility of the data, identifying expected variation between replicate tests. These reference toxicants increase the database for C. elegans and provide a benchmark for further application.

  7. Toxicity of carbon nanotubes to freshwater aquatic invertebrates

    Mwangi, Joseph N.; Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Brunson, Eric L.; Li, Hao; Deng, Baolin


    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are hydrophobic in nature and thus tend to accumulate in sediments if released into aquatic environments. As part of our overall effort to examine the toxicity of carbon-based nanomaterials to sediment-dwelling invertebrates, we have evaluated the toxicity of different types of CNTs in 14-d water-only exposures to an amphipod (Hyalella azteca), a midge (Chironomus dilutus), an oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus), and a mussel (Villosa iris) in advance of conducting whole-sediment toxicity tests with CNTs. The results of these toxicity tests conducted with CNTs added to water showed that 1.00g/L (dry wt) of commercial sources of CNTs significantly reduced the survival or growth of the invertebrates. Toxicity was influenced by the type and source of the CNTs, by whether the materials were precleaned by acid, by whether sonication was used to disperse the materials, and by species of the test organisms. Light and electron microscope imaging of the surviving test organisms showed the presence of CNTs in the gut as well as on the outer surface of the test organisms, although no evidence was observed to show penetration of CNTs through cell membranes. The present study demonstrated that both the metals solubilized from CNTs such as nickel and the "metal-free" CNTs contributed to the toxicity.

  8. Application of Bayesian Network modeling on the stability and toxicity of engineered nanomaterials in aquatic ecosystems

    Ondiaka, M


    Full Text Available The stability of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the aquatic systems influences their eventual interactions with aquatic biota – and subsequently the observed toxic effects. Increasing data suggests that physicochemical properties of ENMs...

  9. Aquatic toxicity of airfield-pavement deicer materials and implications for airport runoff

    Corsi, S.R.; Geis, S.W.; Bowman, G.; Failey, G.G.; Rutter, T.D.


    Concentrations of airfield-pavement deicer materials (PDM) in a study of airport runoff often exceeded levels of concern regarding aquatic toxicity. Toxicity tests on Vibrio fischeri, Pimephales promelas, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (commonly known as Selenastrum capricornutum) were performed with potassium acetate (K-Ac) PDM, sodium formate (Na-For) PDM, and with freezing- point depressants (K-Ac and Na-For). Results indicate that toxicity in PDM is driven by the freezing-point depressants in all tests except the Vibrio fisheri test for Na-For PDM which is influenced by an additive. Acute toxicity end points for different organisms ranged from 298 to 6560 mg/L (as acetate) for K-Ac PDM and from 1780 to 4130 mg/L (as formate) for Na- For PDM. Chronic toxicity end points ranged from 19.9 to 336 mg/L (as acetate) for K-Ac PDM and from 584 to 1670 mg/L (as formate) for Na-For PDM. Sample results from outfalls at General Mitchell International Airport in Milwaukee, Wl (GMIA) indicated that 40% of samples had concentrations greater than the aquatic-life benchmark for K-Ac PDM. K-Ac has replaced urea during the 1990s as the most widely used PDM at GMIA and in the United States. Results of ammonia samples from airport outfalls during periods when urea-based PDM was used at GMIA indicated that41% of samples had concentrations exceeding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) 1 -h water-quality criterion. The USEPA 1-h water-quality criterion for chloride was exceeded in 68% of samples collected in the receiving stream, a result of road-salt runoff from urban influence near the airport. Results demonstrate that PDM must be considered to comprehensively evaluate the impact of chemical deicers on aquatic toxicity in water containing airport runoff. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  10. Phenol toxicity to the aquatic macrophyte Lemna paucicostata

    Park, Ji-Sook [Division of Life Science, University of Incheon, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Brown, Murray T. [School of Marine Science and Engineering, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Han, Taejun, E-mail: [Division of Life Science, University of Incheon, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Green Environmental Research, University of Incheon, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of)


    Phenol is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and a widely used reference toxicant for many bioassays. However, little information is available regarding the toxic effects of phenol on aquatic macrophytes. Seventy-two hour bioassays, with different end-points, were carried out to assess phenol toxicity in Lemna paucicostata. A concentration-dependent decline in frond multiplication and colony disintegration was observed, with 11.38 and 22.76 {mu}M phenol resulting in browning of fronds and colony disintegration, respectively. Growth of fronds, as measured by changes in surface area, was significantly inhibited with EC{sub 50} value of 2.70 {mu}M. When pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence imaging (i-PAM) was employed, the maximum quantum yield of PS II (F{sub v}/F{sub m}) significantly declined with increasing phenol concentrations with resultant EC{sub 50} of 1.91 {mu}M and coefficients of variation (CVs) generated for the EC{sub 50} values of less than 4.7%. A gradual increase in fluorescence emissions from chlorophylls a and b and pheophytin up to a concentration of 2.85 {mu}M was found but declined markedly at higher concentrations. The significant correlation between the F{sub v}/F{sub m} and surface growth rate data implies that the former is an appropriate biomarker of whole plant toxicity. Using imaging Chl a fluorescence on L. paucicostata provides a rapid, sensitive and reliable method for assessing the toxic risks posed by phenol to aquatic ecosystems and has practical applications for municipal and industrial waste water management.

  11. Acute and chronic toxicity of short chained perfluoroalkyl substances to Daphnia magna

    Barmentlo, S.H.; Stel, J.M.; van Doorn, M.; Eschauzier, C.; de Voogt, P.; Kraak, M.H.S.


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the aquatic toxicity of a C4-C6 chemistry based fluoroalkylated polymer and the perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, PFBA, PFHxA and PFOA to Daphnia magna. The acute toxicity decreased with decreasing carbon chain length, but the polymer did not show a dose related

  12. Toxicity of the veterinary sulfonamide antibiotic sulfamonomethoxine to five aquatic organisms.

    Huang, Da-Ji; Hou, Jung-Hsin; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Lai, Hong-Thih


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute and chronic toxicity of sulfamonomethoxine (SMM) to aquatic organisms to evaluate its impact at different trophic levels in the ecosystem. Regarding the growth inhibition of microalgae, SMM exhibited 72-h median effective concentration (EC50) values of 5.9mgL(-1) for freshwater Chlorella vulgaris and 9.7mgL(-1) for marine Isochrysis galbana. In a study on the cladocerans, SMM exhibited acute toxicity and 48-h median lethal concentrations of 48mgL(-1) for Daphnia magna and 283mgL(-1) for D. similis. An examination of chronic toxicity revealed that SMM inhibited the brook production of the cladocerans and exhibited 21-day EC50 values of 14.9mgL(-1) for D. magna and 41.9mgL(-1) for D. similis. This study investigated the potentially adverse effects of SMM on aquatic organisms and revealed that microalgae exhibited higher sensitivity to SMM than cladocerans did. The residue of SMM in water is recommended to be carefully evaluated to reduce ecological impacts after applied to cultured animals.

  13. Toxicity of benzotriazole and benzotriazole derivatives to three aquatic species.

    Pillard, D A; Cornell, J S; Dufresne, D L; Hernandez, M T


    Benzotriazole and its derivatives comprise an important class of corrosion inhibitors, typically used as trace additives in industrial chemical mixtures such as coolants, deicers, surface coatings, cutting fluids, and hydraulic fluids. Recent studies have shown that benzotriazole derivatives are a major component of aircraft deicing fluids (ADFs) responsible for toxicity to bacteria (Microtox). Our current research compared the toxicity of benzotriazole (BT), two methylbenzotriazole (MeBT) isomers, and butylbenzotriazole (BBT). Acute toxicity assays were used to model the response of three common test organisms: Microtox bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and water flea (Ceriodaphnia dubia). The response of all the three organisms varied over two orders of magnitude among all compounds. Vibrio fischeri was more sensitive than either C. dubia or P. promelas to all the test materials, while C. dubia was less sensitive than P. promelas. The response of test organisms to unmethylated benzotriazole and 4-methylbenzotriazole was similar, whereas 5-methylbenzotriazole was more toxic than either of these two compounds. BBT was the most toxic benzotriazole derivative tested, inducing acute toxicity at a concentration of < or = 3.3 mg/l to all organisms.

  14. Microtox aquatic toxicity of petrodiesel and biodiesel blends: the role of biodiesel's autoxidation products.

    Yassine, Mohamad H; Wu, Shuyun; Suidan, Makram T; Venosa, Albert D


    The acute Microtox toxicity of the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of six commercial soybean biodiesel/petrodiesel blends was investigated at different oil loads. We analyzed five fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), C10-C24 n-alkanes, four aromatics, methanol, and total organic carbon (TOC) content. At high oil loads, the WAFs' toxicity was significantly higher for blends containing biodiesel. At the lowest load, the WAFs' toxicity decreased almost linearly with decreasing biodiesel in the blend. At intermediate loads, the WAFs of all the blends appeared to have a similar toxicity. Analysis of WAFs confirmed the presence of autoxidation byproducts of FAMEs at high oil loads. Pure unsaturated FAMEs and n-alkanes were nontoxic when present in water at their reported solubility limits. However, 24-h equilibrated WAFs of pure FAMEs were highly toxic for C18:1 and C18:3, but not for C18:2. The authors concluded that at high oil loads, the acute toxicity of the WAFs was caused by FAMEs' autoxidation byproducts, whereas at low oil loads, the toxicity appeared to be caused primarily by the aromatic compounds present in petrodiesel. The addition of a synthetic antioxidant in biodiesel did not appear to affect the concentration of autoxidation byproducts in the WAF but resulted in a slight decrease in its toxicity. The major autoxidation byproducts identified in the WAF of commercial biodiesel were present neither in the WAFs of pure unsaturated FAMEs nor in the WAF of a different soybean biodiesel that was transesterified in our laboratory, which was nontoxic. We concluded that the process of transesterification of biodiesel might be a more critical factor in determining the aquatic toxicity of the fuel than the source of feedstock itself. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  15. Comparative toxicities of organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides to aquatic macroarthropods.

    Halstead, Neal T; Civitello, David J; Rohr, Jason R


    As agricultural expansion and intensification increase to meet the growing global food demand, so too will insecticide use and thus the risk of non-target effects. Insecticide pollution poses a particular threat to aquatic macroarthropods, which play important functional roles in freshwater ecosystems. Thus, understanding the relative toxicities of insecticides to non-target functional groups is critical for predicting effects on ecosystem functions. We exposed two common macroarthropod predators, the crayfish Procambarus alleni and the water bug Belostoma flumineum, to three insecticides in each of two insecticide classes (three organophosphates: chlorpyrifos, malathion, and terbufos; and three pyrethroids: esfenvalerate, λ-cyhalothrin, and permethrin) to assess their toxicities. We generated 150 simulated environmental exposures using the US EPA Surface Water Contamination Calculator to determine the proportion of estimated peak environmental concentrations (EECs) that exceeded the US EPA level of concern (0.5×LC50) for non-endangered aquatic invertebrates. Organophosphate insecticides generated consistently low-risk exposure scenarios (EECs0.5×LC50) to P. alleni, but not to B. flumineum, where only λ-cyhalothrin produced consistently high-risk exposures. Survival analyses demonstrated that insecticide class accounted for 55.7% and 91.1% of explained variance in P. alleni and B. flumineum survival, respectively. Thus, risk to non-target organisms is well predicted by pesticide class. Identifying insecticides that pose low risk to aquatic macroarthropods might help meet increased demands for food while mitigating against potential negative effects on ecosystem functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of pH-dependent aquatic toxicity of ionizable pharmaceuticals on risk assessments over environmental pH ranges.

    Boström, Marja Lena; Berglund, Olof


    Due to variation in pH, ionizable pharmaceuticals entering aquatic environments experience different degrees of ionization, which may affect toxicity. Using data from toxicity testing at only neutral pH may potentially under- or overestimate actual toxicity at pH ranges found in natural aquatic environments. Here we show relative pH-dependent acute toxicity to Daphnia magna for the pharmaceutical weak bases fluoxetine and sertraline, as well as the weak acids naproxen, diclofenac, ibuprofen and ketoprofen. A probabilistic modelling approach using the pH-dependent toxicity data for D. magna and an environmental pH distribution based on over 4000 European running waters from 21 countries predicted that environmental toxicity for the weak bases may be underestimated if pH 7 was assumed. The model predicted median underestimation by a factor of 3, with 90% of the model results ranging from 1 to 6. Consequently, due to the slightly basic nature of the European running waters, weak acid toxicity may be overestimated by a factor of 2. Predicted median toxicity was 0.5 of that assuming pH 7 with 90% of the results ranging from 0.03 to 5. Because aquatic pH exhibits large variation both within and between countries, we advise the use of site-specific risk assessments for ionizable pharmaceuticals in making informed water management decisions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Acute toxicity of furazolidone on Artemia salina, Daphnia magna, and Culex pipiens molestus larvae

    Macri, A.; Stazi, A.V.; Dojmi di Delupis, G.


    As a result of evidence of the ecotoxicity of nitrofurans, the acute toxicity of furazolidone was tested in vivo on two aquatic organisms, Artemia salina and Daphnia magna, which are both crustaceans. Toxicity studies were also performed on larvae of Culex pipiens molestus. Results indicated a significant toxicity of the compound on Culex pipiens and Daphnia magna, while Artemia salina proved to be the least sensitive.

  18. Pesticidal copper (I) oxide: environmental fate and aquatic toxicity.

    Kiaune, Lina; Singhasemanon, Nan


    Besides being a naturally occurring element and an essential micronutrient, copper is used as a pesticide, but at generally higher concentrations. Copper, unlike organic pesticides, does not degrade, but rather enters a complex biogeochemical cycle. In the water column, copper can exist bound to both organic and inorganic species and as free or hydrated copper ions. Water column chemistry affects copper speciation and bioavailability. In all water types (saltwater, brackish water, and freshwater), organic ligands in the water column can sequester the majority of dissolved copper, and therefore, organic ligands play the largest role in copper bioavailability. In freshwater, however, the geochemistry of a particular location, including water column characteristics such as water hardness and pH, is a significant factor that can increase copper bioavailability and toxicity. In most cases, organic ligand concentrations greatly exceed copper ion concentrations in the water column and therefore provide a large buffering capacity. Hence, copper bioavailability can be grossly overestimated if it is based on total dissolved copper (TDCu) concentrations alone. Other factors that influence copper concentrations include location in the water column, season, temperature, depth, and level of dissolved oxygen. For example, concentrations of bioavailable copper may be significantly higher in the bottom waters and sediment pore waters, where organic ligands degrade much faster and dissolved copper is constantly resuspended and recycled into the aquatic system. Aquatic species differ greatly in their sensitivity to copper. Some animals, like mollusks, can tolerate high concentrations of the metal, while others are adversely affected by very low concentrations of copper. Emerging evidence shows that very low, sublethal copper levels can adversely affect the sense of smell and behavior of fish. The developmental stage of the fish at the time of copper exposure is critical to the

  19. Aquatic toxicity testing for hazard identification of engineered nanoparticles

    Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard

    in aqueous media. Moreover, ENPs undergo time-dependent transformation processes of agglomeration, dissolution, sedimentation, and interactions with organisms and their exudates. Together, these processes challenge the establishment of traditional concentration-response data by affecting both the exposure...... to exposure control and response mechanisms in aquatic toxicity tests with ENPs are addressed through: 1) Exposure timing measures to minimize the transformation processes of ENPs during test incubation, and 2) Multi-dimensional approaches including investigations of other organisms responses than...... the traditionally applied, and determination of different exposure fractions such as the concentration of dissolved ions from ENPs and body burdens. Although these approaches are scientifically exploratory by nature, the aim is to generate data applicable for regulatory hazard identification of ENPs. The focus has...

  20. Uptake and toxicity of hexafluoroarsenate in aquatic organisms.

    Daus, Birgit; Weiss, Holger; Altenburger, Rolf


    The arsenic species hexafluoroarsenate has been described as a contaminant of surface waters of anthropogenic origin. Here, we undertake to identify the most sensitive biological receptor among several sentinel aquatic species used in eco-toxicological assessment and to understand toxicity in terms of internal dose. Therefore, a screening of short-term effects using different aquatic organisms (bacterium Vibrio fischeri, fish Danio rerio, crustacean Daphnia magna and green alga Desmodesmus subspicatus and Scenedesmus vacuolatus) was conducted. For most organisms tested, effects were not detectable even at very high hexafluoroarsenate concentrations (up to 9.6mM) and thus the ecotoxic potential was found to be low in comparison to other arsenic compounds. The only organisms showing a clear response were the unicellular green alga, e.g. S. vacuolatus with an EC(50) value of 1.12 mM (84 mg L(-1) As). A linear relationship between ambient and internal concentration was found for this organism with a slope of 1.63 x 10(-3). Therefore, the internal concentration which shows a significant effect, e.g. 20% of inhibition of reproduction, was found to occur at a relatively low internal dose of 0.98 microM. Moreover, no biotransformation products inside the algae could be detected using arsenic speciation analysis with HPLC-ICP-MS, thus biological effects must be attributed to the untransformed compound. We conclude that the very low uptake observed for hexafluoroarsenate may be interpreted as preventive against toxic effects for the organisms.

  1. Acute toxicity, haematological and histopathological assessment of ...

    Lorke's method was used for the acute oral toxicity testing. ... differential blood cell counts were determined using automated haematology analyzer. Histological examination of major organs was done using John D Bancroft manual method.

  2. Toxicity of tetramethylammonium hydroxide to aquatic organisms and its synergistic action with potassium iodide.

    Mori, Izumi C; Arias-Barreiro, Carlos R; Koutsaftis, Apostolos; Ogo, Atsushi; Kawano, Tomonori; Yoshizuka, Kazuharu; Inayat-Hussain, Salmaan H; Aoyama, Isao


    The aquatic ecotoxicity of chemicals involved in the manufacturing process of thin film transistor liquid crystal displays was assessed with a battery of four selected acute toxicity bioassays. We focused on tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH, CAS No. 75-59-2), a widely utilized etchant. The toxicity of TMAH was low when tested in the 72 h-algal growth inhibition test (Pseudokirchneriellia subcapitata, EC50=360 mg L(-1)) and the Microtox® test (Vibrio fischeri, IC50=6.4 g L(-1)). In contrast, the 24h-microcrustacean immobilization and the 96 h-fish mortality tests showed relatively higher toxicity (Daphnia magna, EC50=32 mg L(-1) and Oryzias latipes, LC50=154 mg L(-1)). Isobologram and mixture toxicity index analyses revealed apparent synergism of the mixture of TMAH and potassium iodide when examined with the D. magna immobilization test. The synergistic action was unique to iodide over other halide salts i.e. fluoride, chloride and bromide. Quaternary ammonium ions with longer alkyl chains such as tetraethylammonium and tetrabutylammonium were more toxic than TMAH in the D. magna immobilization test.

  3. Toxicity of methanol to fish, crustacean, oligochaete worm, and aquatic ecosystem.

    Kaviraj, A; Bhunia, F; Saha, N C


    Static renewal bioassays were conducted in the laboratory and in outdoor artificial enclosures to evaluate toxic effects of methanol to one teleost fish and two aquatic invertebrates and to limnological variables of aquatic ecosystem. Ninety-six-hour acute toxicity tests revealed cladoceran crustacea Moina micrura as the most sensitive to methanol (LC50, 4.82 g/L), followed by freshwater teleost Oreochromis mossambicus (LC50, 15.32 g/L) and oligochaete worm Branchiura sowerbyi (LC50, 54.89 g/L). The fish, when exposed to lethal concentrations of methanol, showed difficulties in respiration and swimming. The oligochaete body wrinkled and fragmented under lethal exposure of methanol. Effects of five sublethal concentrations of methanol (0, 23.75, 47.49, 736.10, and 1527.60 mg/L) on the feeding rate of the fish and on its growth and reproduction were evaluated by separate bioassays. Ninety-six-hour bioassays in the laboratory showed significant reduction in the appetite of fish when exposed to 736.10 mg/L or higher concentrations of methanol. Chronic toxicity bioassays (90 days) in outdoor enclosures showed a reduction in growth, maturity index and fecundity of fish at 47.49 mg/L or higher concentrations of methanol. Primary productivity, phytoplankton population, and alkalinity of water were also reduced at these concentrations. Chronic exposure to 1527.60 mg/L methanol resulted in damages of the epithelium of primary and secondary gill lamellae of the fish. The results revealed 23.75 mg/L as the no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) of methanol to freshwater aquatic ecosystem.

  4. Biotic and abiotic interactions in aquatic microcosms determine fate and toxicity of Ag nanoparticles: part 2-toxicity and Ag speciation.

    Bone, Audrey J; Colman, Benjamin P; Gondikas, Andreas P; Newton, Kim M; Harrold, Katherine H; Cory, Rose M; Unrine, Jason M; Klaine, Stephen J; Matson, Cole W; Di Giulio, Richard T


    To study the effects of complex environmental media on silver nanoparticle (AgNP) toxicity, AgNPs were added to microcosms with freshwater sediments and two species of aquatic plants (Potamogeton diversifolius and Egeria densa), followed by toxicity testing with microcosm surface water. Microcosms were designed with four environmental matrices in order to determine the contribution of each environmental compartment to changes in toxicity: water only (W), water + sediment (WS), water + plants (WP), and water + plants + sediment (WPS). Silver treatments included AgNPs with two different coatings, gum arabic (GA-AgNPs) or polyvinylpyrollidone (PVP-AgNPs), as well as AgNO(3). Water samples taken from the microcosms at 24 h postdosing were used in acute toxicity tests with two standard model organisms, early life stage zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Daphnia magna. Speciation of Ag in these samples was analyzed using Ag L3-edge X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES). Silver speciation patterns for the nanoparticle treatments varied significantly by coating type. While PVP-AgNPs were quite stable and resisted transformation across all matrices (>92.4% Ag(0)), GA-AgNP speciation patterns suggest significantly higher transformation rates, especially in treatments with plants (Ag(0) in WP and WPS, respectively) and moderately increased transformation with sediments (Ag(0)). Additionally, the presence of plants in the microcosms (with and without sediments) reduced both the concentration of Ag in the water column and toxicity for all Ag treatments. Reductions in toxicity may have been related to decreased water column concentrations as well as changes in the surface chemistry of the particles induced by organic substances released from the plants.

  5. Aquatic toxicity of the macrolide antibiotic clarithromycin and its metabolites.

    Baumann, Michaela; Weiss, Klaus; Maletzki, Dirk; Schüssler, Walter; Schudoma, Dieter; Kopf, Willi; Kühnen, Ute


    The human macrolide antibiotic clarithromycin is widespread in surface waters. Our study shows that its major metabolite 14-hydroxy(R)-clarithromycin is found in surface waters in comparable amounts. This metabolite is known to be pharmacologically active. Additionally, clarithromycin is partly metabolised to N-desmethyl-clarithromycin, which has no antimicrobial activity. For clarithromycin, some ecotoxicological studies on aquatic organisms have been published. However, many of them are not conform with the scientific principles as given in the "Technical guidance for deriving environmental quality standards" (TGD-EQS), because numerous studies were poorly documented and the methods did not contain analytical measurements confirming that the exposure concentrations were in the range of ± 20% of the nominal concentrations. Ecotoxicological effects of clarithromycin and its two metabolites on the zebrafish Danio rerio (embryo test), the microcrustacean Daphnia magna, the aquatic monocotyledonous macrophyte Lemna minor, the freshwater green alga Desmodesmus subspicatus (Chlorophyta) and the cyanobacterium Anabaena flosaquae were investigated in compliance with the TGD-EQS. Environmental risk assessment was performed using ErC10 values of Anabaena, the species most sensitive to clarithromycin and 14-hydroxy(R)-clarithromycin in our testing. Based oncomparable toxicity and similar concentrations of clarithromycin and its active metabolite 14-hydroxy(R)-clarithromycin in surface waters, an additional multiplication factor of 2 to the assessment factor of 10 on the ErC10 of clarithromycin should be used. Consequently, a freshwater quality standard of 0.130 μg L(-1) is proposed for clarithromycin as the "lead substance". Taking this additional multiplication factor of 2 into account, single monitoring of clarithromycin may be sufficient, in order to reduce the number of substances listed for routine monitoring programs.

  6. Toxicity test using medaka (Oryzias latipes) early fry and concentrated sample water as an index of aquatic habitat condition.

    Yamashita, H; Haribowo, R; Sekine, M; Oda, N; Kanno, A; Shimono, Y; Shitao, W; Higuchi, T; Imai, T; Yamamoto, K


    low or no correlation between toxicity and IBI. Even with low toxic environmental waters, toxicity test using 100-fold concentrated and medaka early fly could detect acute toxicity. The detected toxicity seemed to limit the inhabiting aquatic species in the water body.

  7. Uptake and toxic effects of surface modified nanomaterials in freshwater aquatic organisms

    Seda, Brandon Casey

    Nanomaterials are a class of materials with unique properties due to their size, and the association of these properties with the toxicity of nanomaterials is poorly understood. The present study assessed the toxic effects of stable aqueous colloidal suspensions of three distinctly different classes of nanomaterials in aquatic organisms. The fullerene, C70, was stabilized through non-covalent surface modification with gallic acid. Toxicity of C70-gallic acid was confirmed to exhibit similar toxic effects as C60-fullerene, including changes in antioxidative processes in Daphnia magna. Daphnia magna fecundity was significantly reduced in 21d bioassays at C70-gallic concentrations below quantifiable limits (0.03 mg/L C70). Antioxidant enzyme activities of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase as well as lipid peroxidation suggested that exposed organisms experienced oxidative stress. Carbon dots are a class of nanomaterials proposed for use as nontoxic alternatives to semiconductor quantum dots for photoluminescent applications, because of the difference in toxicity of their core components: carbon as opposed to heavy metals. In vivo analysis of treated organisms by confocal fluorescence microscopy revealed carbon dots were absorbed and systemically distributed regardless of particle size. The present study did not find any evidence of acute toxicity at concentrations up to 10mg/L carbon dots. These concentrations also failed to produce negative effects in Ceriodaphnia dubia bioassays to predict chronic toxicity. Carbon dots also failed to elicit developmental toxic effects in zebrafish. The toxic effects of semiconductor quantum dots have been partially attributed to the release of heavy metals with their degradation, particularly cadmium. Laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry was used to compare the uptake of cadmium, selenium and zinc in Daphnia magna treated to CdSe/ZnS quantum dots or CdCl2. These quantum dots were observed to accumulate

  8. [Acute Toxicity of Coptis chinensis Rhizome Extracts to Daphnia carinata].

    Chen, Ya-nan; Yuan, Ling


    Coptis chinensis rhizome and preparations were widely used for the treatment of fish diseases in aquaculture. the acute toxicological effect of CRE on lethal, movement and phototaxis was studied on Daphnia carinata monoclone as a test animal in the present experiment. The results showed that CRE was acute toxic to this animal and alkaloids berberine concentrations in CRE changed in the following sequence: half lethal > half inhibitory > limitable, which led to a significant change in phototaxis index of Daphnia carinata. The concentration of CRE for the significant change in phototaxis index was 4.27 mg x L(-1), which was lower than the concentration in water to cure the fish diseases and this conclusion indicated an ecological risk of this antibiotic to Daphnia carinata in aquaculture. In addition, the concentration of CRE in phototaxis index was changed from 30.62 times at 48th hour to 36.51 times at 24th hour that were lower than half lethal concentration. Detecting phototaxis index was easy and only 3 hours was required, so utilizing the quickly change of Daphnia carinata phototaxis can be an effective method to monitor the toxicity effect of CRE on Daphnia carinata. The abuse of rhizome or preparations in aquaculture might destroy the aquatic food chain, resulting in an imbalance of aquatic ecosystems.

  9. Acute-lethal toxicity (LC50) effect of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) Fresh ...


    Acute-lethal toxicity is a tool used in piscicide bio-safety assessment in fish farming prior to its proper application in ... assessment because of their effects on non-target aquatic species in fish pond. ... food fish from aquaculture for human.

  10. Predicting toxic effects of copper on aquatic biota in mineralized areas by using the Biotic Ligand Model

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Ranville, James F.; Adams, M.; Choate, LaDonna M.; Church, Stan E.; Fey, David L.; Wanty, Richard B.; Crock, James G.


    The chemical speciation of metals influences their biological effects. The Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) is a computational approach to predict chemical speciation and acute toxicological effects of metals on aquatic biota. Recently, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency incorporated the BLM into their regulatory water-quality criteria for copper. Results from three different laboratory copper toxicity tests were compared with BLM predictions for simulated test-waters. This was done to evaluate the ability of the BLM to accurately predict the effects of hardness and concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and iron on aquatic toxicity. In addition, we evaluated whether the BLM and the three toxicity tests provide consistent results. Comparison of BLM predictions with two types of Ceriodaphnia dubia toxicity tests shows that there is fairly good agreement between predicted LC50 values computed by the BLM and LC50 values determined from the two toxicity tests. Specifically, the effect of increasing calcium concentration (and hardness) on copper toxicity appears to be minimal. Also, there is fairly good agreement between the BLM and the two toxicity tests for test solutions containing elevated DOC, for which the LC50 is 3-to-5 times greater (less toxic) than the LC50 for the lower-DOC test water. This illustrates the protective effects of DOC on copper toxicity and demonstrates the ability of the BLM to predict these protective effects. In contrast, for test solutions with added iron there is a decrease in LC50 values (increase in toxicity) in results from the two C. dubia toxicity tests, and the agreement between BLM LC50 predictions and results from these toxicity tests is poor. The inability of the BLM to account for competitive iron binding to DOC or DOC fractionation may be a significant shortcoming of the BLM for predicting site- specific water-quality criteria in streams affected by iron-rich acidic drainage in mined and mineralized areas.

  11. Hydroxyaluminosilicates and acute aluminium toxicity in fish

    Exley; Pinnegar; Taylor


    The essentiality of silicon in biology might be explained in the terms of its chemistry with aluminium. In a previous study we demonstrated the elimination of acute aluminium toxicity in fish by silicon. We suggested that the reaction of silicic acid with aluminium to form hydroxyaluminosilicates reduced the biological availability, and hence toxicity, of aluminium. Though assumed in a burgeoning number of studies and contended in others this detoxification mechanism has remained unproven. Herein we have tested the toxicity of hydroxyaluminosilicates in fish and in doing so we have provided evidence which strongly supports a role for hydroxyaluminiosilicates in the elimination of acute aluminium toxicity in fish by silicon.Copyright 1997 Academic Press Limited Copyright 1997 Academic Press Limited

  12. Aquatic toxicity of cartap and cypermethrin to different life stages of Daphnia magna and Oryzias latipes.

    Kim, Younghee; Jung, Jinyong; Oh, Sorin; Choi, Kyungho


    Cartap and cypermethrin, which are among the most widely used pesticides in many countries, are considered safe because of their low mammalian toxicity and their low persistence in the environment. However, recent findings of endocrine-disrupting effects and developmental neurotoxicity have raised concerns about the potential ecological impacts of these pesticides. We evaluated the aquatic toxicity of cartap [S,S'-(2-dimethylaminotrimethylene) bis(thiocarbamate), unspecified hydrochloride] and cypermethrin [(RS)-alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl-(1RS,3RS,1RS,3SR)-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylate], both individually and combined, on different life stages of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna and a freshwater teleost, Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). The 96-hr Daphnia median effective concentrations (EC50s) for cartap and cypermethrin were 91.0 microg/L and 0.00061 microg/L, respectively. Rapid recovery of Daphnia was observed after short-term pulsed exposure to cartap and cypermethrin; there were no adverse effects on reproduction or survival 20 d after a 24 hr exposure to cartap up to 1240 microg/L and cypermethrin up to 1.9 microg/L. Chronic continuous exposure (for 21 d) of 7-d-old Daphnia to cypermethrin significantly reduced the intrinsic population growth rate in a concentration-dependent manner. However, because the intrinsic population growth rates were all above zero, populations did not decrease even at the highest experimental concentration of 200 ng/L. Exposure of Daphnia neonates (cartap or 40 microg/L of cypermethrin. The mixture of both compounds showed no synergistic toxicity. The extremely high acute-to-chronic ratio suggests that the standard acute lethal toxicity assessment might not reflect the true environmental hazards of these frequently used pesticides. Ecological hazard assessments of long-term low dose or pulsed exposures to cartap and cypermethrin may reveal more realistic consequences of these compounds in

  13. The toxicity of oxidised DWCNTs to the aquatic organisms, and related causing mechanisms

    Lukhele, LP


    Full Text Available earlier reported for the three aquatic organisms in earlier scientific reports. Finally, the paper discusses the linkage between the toxicity mechanisms and the physicochemical properties of DWCNTs, namely: agglomeration state, surface chemistry...

  14. CDP-choline: acute toxicity study.

    Grau, T; Romero, A; Sacristán, A; Ortiz, J A


    The acute toxicity of a single dose of cytidine diphosphate choline (CDP-choline, citicoline, Somazina) by different administration routes in mice and rats has been studied. LD50 values were determined according to the cumulative method by Reed-Muench for mortality rate, and Pizzi's method for calculation of standard error.

  15. Acute methanol toxicity in minipigs

    Dorman, D.C.; Dye, J.A.; Nassise, M.P.; Ekuta, J.; Bolon, B.


    The pig has been proposed as a potential animal model for methanol-induced neuro-ocular toxicosis in humans because of its low liver tetrahydrofolate levels and slower rate of formate metabolism compared to those of humans. To examine the validity of this animal model, 12 4-month-old female minipigs (minipig YU) were given a single oral dose of water or methanol at 1.0, 2.5, or 5.0 g/kg body wt by gavage (n = 3 pigs/dose). Dose-dependent signs of acute methanol intoxication, which included mild CNS depression, tremors, ataxia, and recumbency, developed within 0.5 to 2.0 hr, and resolved by 52 hr. Methanol- and formate-dosed pigs did not develop optic nerve lesions, toxicologically significant formate accumulation, or metabolic acidosis. Based on results following a single dose, female minipigs do not appear to be overtly sensitive to methanol and thus may not be a suitable animal model for acute methanol-induced neuroocular toxicosis.



    Acute And Toxicity Effect of The Aqueous Extract of Terminalia avicennioides. ACUTE TOXICITY ... that this valuable medicinal resources in plants are largely untapped because of .... Test of significance was done in rows. Same superscripts ...

  17. The Toxicity of Guanidine Nitrate to Freshwater Aquatic Organisms.


    0.002 - Epoxide Cobalt 0.0065 ɘ.002 Lindane ɘ.01 Copper 0.0035 0.008 Alpha-BHC ɘ.01 Iron 0.1 0.1 Beta-BHC ɘ.02 Lead ɘ.002 - De 1ta- BC (0.02...other fish species, aquatic invertebrates (e.g. benthic invertebrates) and at least one algal or aquatic plant species. Addi- tional studies on the

  18. Toxicity of aluminium on five aquatic invertebrates; Aluminiums toksisitet paa 5 akvatiske invertebrater

    Moe, J. [Oslo Univ. (Norway)


    The conference paper deals with the experiments done by investigating the effects from the toxicity of aluminium on aquatic invertebrates. The aim of the experiments was to compare the toxicity of unstable aluminium compounds with stable forms of aluminium. 8 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Acute inhalation toxicity of carbonyl sulfide

    Benson, J.M.; Hahn, F.F.; Barr, E.B. [and others


    Carbonyl sulfide (COS), a colorless gas, is a side product of industrial procedures sure as coal hydrogenation and gasification. It is structurally related to and is a metabolite of carbon disulfide. COS is metabolized in the body by carbonic anhydrase to hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), which is thought to be responsible for COS toxicity. No threshold limit value for COS has been established. Results of these studies indicate COS (with an LC{sub 50} of 590 ppm) is slightly less acutely toxic than H{sub 2}S (LC{sub 50} of 440 ppm).

  20. A Bayesian network model for predicting aquatic toxicity mode of action using two dimensional theoretical molecular descriptors-abstract

    The mode of toxic action (MoA) has been recognized as a key determinant of chemical toxicity but MoA classification in aquatic toxicology has been limited. We developed a Bayesian network model to classify aquatic toxicity mode of action using a recently published dataset contain...

  1. A Bayesian network model for predicting aquatic toxicity mode of action using two dimensional theoretical molecular descriptors

    The mode of toxic action (MoA) has been recognized as a key determinant of chemical toxicity, but development of predictive MoA classification models in aquatic toxicology has been limited. We developed a Bayesian network model to classify aquatic toxicity MoA using a recently pu...

  2. Abstracts of the 34. aquatic toxicity workshop : navigating new waters



    This workshop provided an opportunity to discuss current research findings in the field of aquatic toxicology and the biological effect on biota. It addressed the challenges of assessing and protecting the health of aquatic ecosystems in Canada. Topics of discussion ranged from basic aquatic toxicology to applications in environmental monitoring, setting regulations and developing criteria for sediment and water quality. The sessions were entitled: acid rain; agricultural stressors; amphibian ecotoxicology; aquaculture; aquatic ecotoxicology and human health; biological test methods development and their application; effects based pesticides research; emerging technologies for tracing contaminants; endocrine disruption; environmental/climate change in aquatic toxicology; environmental effects monitoring; environmental impacts of mercury; environmental risk assessment; Gulfs of Maine and St. Lawrence/Bay of Fundy issues; Maritimes leaders in marine ecotoxicology and prevention; metal and diamond mining; microscale ecotoxicology; multiple stressors in estuaries; municipal wastewaters and water treatment; non-lethal sampling; oil and gas development and production; parasites as indicators of contamination; persistent contaminants; sediment/soil toxicology; selenium ecotoxicology; and, stable isotopes in ecotoxicology. This book featured 162 abstracts, of which 19 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database.

  3. Aquatic toxicity and ecological risk assessment of seven parabens: Individual and additive approach.

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Tamura, Ikumi; Hirata, Yoshiko; Kato, Jun; Kagota, Keiichiro; Katsuki, Shota; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Kagami, Yoshihiro; Tatarazako, Norihisa


    In the present study, aquatic concentrations of seven parabens were determined in urban streams highly affected by treated or untreated domestic sewage in Tokushima and Osaka, Japan. The detected highest concentrations were 670, 207, and 163ngl(-1) for methylparaben, n-propylparaben, and n-butylparaben, respectively in sampling sites with watershed area of no sewer system in Tokushima. Conventional acute/chronic toxicity tests were conducted using medaka (Oryzias latipes), Daphnia magna, and Psuedokirchneriella subcapitata for four parabens, which was consistent with our previous study on three parabens, n-butylparaben, i-butylparaben, and benzylparaben. The aquatic toxicity on fish, daphnia, and algae was weaker for the parabens with a shorter alkyl chain than those with a longer alkyl chain as predicted by their hydrophobicity. Medaka vitellogenin assays and DNA microarray analysis were carried out for methylparaben and found induction of significant vitellogenin in male medaka at 630μgl(-1) of methylparaben, while the expression levels of genes encoding proteins such as choriogenin and vitellogenin increased for concentrations at 10μgl(-1) of methylparaben. Measured environmental concentrations (MECs) of seven parabens in Tokushima and Osaka were divided by predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) and hazard quotient (MEC/PNEC) was determined for individual parabens. The MEC/PNEC was highest for n-propylparaben and was 0.010 followed by n-butylparaben (max. of 0.0086) and methylparaben (max. of 0.0042). The sum of the MEC/PNEC for the seven parabens was 0.0049. Equivalence factors were assigned for each paraben on the basis of the toxicity of n-butylparaben for each species, and n-butylparaben equivalence was calculated for the measured environmental concentrations. The MEC/PNEC approach was also conducted for the n-butylparaben-based equivalence values. The maximum MEC/PNEC was 0.018, which is lower than the trigger level for further detailed study such as

  4. Influence of Lipophilicity on the Toxicity of Bisphenol A and Phthalates to Aquatic Organisms.

    Mathieu-Denoncourt, Justine; Wallace, Sarah J; de Solla, Shane R; Langlois, Valerie S


    Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates are among the most popular plasticizers used today and have been reported ubiquitously in surface water, ground water, and sediment. For aquatic organisms, BPA was the most toxic (96 h LC50s) to aquatic invertebrates (0.96-2.70 mg/L) and less toxic to fish (6.8-17.9 mg/L). The toxicity of BPA to amphibians differed among developmental stages, with embryos having an LC50 of 4.6-6.8 mg/L and juveniles 0.50-1.4 mg/L. The toxicity of phthalates is affected by aromatic ring substitution, alkyl chain length, and metabolism. The toxicity (96 h LC50s) of phthalates was similar to aquatic invertebrates (0.46-377 mg/L) and fish (0.48-121 mg/L). In general, the toxicity of phthalates appears to be highest around a log KOW of 6, which corresponds to the highest potential for bioconcentration and bioaccumulation. In conclusion, the lipophilicity of BPA and phthalates influence their toxicity to aquatic species.

  5. Toxicity of Military Unique Compounds in Aquatic Organisms: An Annotated Bibliography (Studies Published Through 1996)


    Biochemistry/Air Pollution/Soil Pollutants/Water. Haley, M. V., Checkai, R. T., Kurnas , C. W., and Wentsel, R. S. Toxicity Determination of Explosive...Membranes/Metals/Operations/Residues/Sites/Soil Surveys/ Toxicity/Water/Hazardous Materials/Contamination/Explosives/ Response. Haley, M. V., and Kurnas ... Kurnas , C. W., Chester, N. A., and Muse, W. T. Aquatic Toxicity of the Decontamination Agent: Multipurpose (DAM) Decontamination Solution. Giveth

  6. Bioassay technique using seed shrimps for comparative studies regarding the aquatic acute lethality of biodegradable lubricants.

    Tamura, S; Ezoe, S; Sasaki, C


    To evaluate the environmental load resulting from the spillage of biodegradable lubricants in aquatic systems, a comparative acute lethality test wherein an oil-water interfacial area could be examined was considered. In this study, oleic acid was employed as a model biodegradable lubricant. Measurements of the pH value and dissolved oxygen (DO) level of water during the exposure tests indicate that water degradation depends on the oil-water interfacial area, exposure duration, and water temperature. Furthermore, 72 h acute lethality tests were performed using two types of freshwater ostracods (seed shrimps) as test organisms: the large species Stenocypris hislopi and the small species Cypretta seurati. The longevity of the small species, which was physically more active, was strongly affected by water pollution. During the exposure test, the DO in water was significantly consumed by the degradation of the lubricant floating on it. Water exposed to a lubricant containing copper (Cu) demonstrated strong toxicity even after the recovery of the pH value and DO level by aging. The decrease in the DO level of water and increase in the concentration of metal compounds are dominant factors responsible for the mortality of aquatic organisms.

  7. Toxicity assessment of a complex industrial wastewater using aquatic and terrestrial bioassays Daphnia pulex and Lactuca sativa.

    Sánchez-Meza, Juan Carlos; Pacheco-Salazar, Víctor Francisco; Pavón-Silva, Thelma Beatriz; Guiérrez-García, Víctor Guadalupe; Avila-González, Clemente De Jesús; Guerrero-García, Patricia


    Aquatic and terrestrial bioassays were used to assess toxicity at several stages in an industrial wastewater treatment plant that processes 400 L/s from a complex influent formed by wastewater from 135 industries. Daphnia pulex and Lactuca sativa were used to assess and compare toxicity between the influent wastewater and effluent wastewater from an activated sludge process, and compare their relationship with physicochemical parameters of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD); Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD); Total Suspended Solids (TSS); total Nitrogen (N (N-total)), and ammonia Nitrogen (N (N - NH3)). Samples from the primary clarifiers (PC), mix liquor stage (ML) and secondary clarifiers (SC) were processed using physicochemical and bioassay test. Toxicity results with Daphnia pulex showed decreased mean values of acute Toxic Units (a.T.U.) between PC (2.1 a.T.U.) and SC (1,25 a.T.U.). Lactuca sativa showed high values of toxicity between PC and SC (3.37 and 3.32 a.T.U. respectively). Some samples exhibited higher toxicity values at the effluent stage (SC) than the influent stage (PC). The highest correlations of physicochemical properties with toxicity were obtained with COD and nitrogen compounds in effluent samples (SC), but not with influent samples (PC).

  8. Investigation of acute toxicity of pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic, 25%EC) on guppy (Poecilia reticulata, Peters, 1859).

    Lawal, M O; Samuel, O B


    Pirimiphos-methyl is a broad spectrum organophosphate insecticide and potential toxic pollutant in aquatic ecosystems. The acute toxicity of Pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic) was investigated using Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) in a 96 h static renewal laboratory bioassay. Based on probit analysis the LC50 was 0.026, 0.024, 0.022 and 0.019 ml L(-1) at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, respectively. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showed that there was significant difference (p reticulata to different concentrations of Actellic at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of exposure. Actellic insecticide is toxic to fish; therefore its indiscriminate use in aquatic environment should be discouraged.

  9. Inorganic nanomaterials in the aquatic environment: behavior, toxicity, and interaction with environmental elements

    Krzyżewska Iwona


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present characteristics, toxicity and environmental behavior of nanoparticles (NPs (silver, copper, gold, zinc oxide, titanium dioxide, iron oxide that most frequently occur in consumer products. In addition, NPs are addressed as the new aquatic environmental pollutant of the 21st century. NPs are adsorbed onto particles in the aquatic systems (clay minerals, fulvic and humic acids, or they can adsorb environmental pollutants (heavy metal ions, organic compounds. Nanosilver (nAg is released from consumer products into the aquatic environment. It can threaten aquatic organisms with high toxicity. Interestingly, copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs demonstrate higher toxicity to bacteria and aquatic microorganisms than those of nanosilver nAg. Their small size and reactivity can cause penetration into the tissues and interfere with the metabolic systems of living organisms and bacterial biogeochemical cycles. The behavior of NPs is not fully recognized. Nevertheless, it is known that NPs can agglomerate, bind with ions (chlorides, sulphates, phosphates or organic compounds. They can also be bound or immobilized by slurry. The NPs behavior depends on process conditions, i.e. pH, ionic strength, temperature and presence of other chemical compounds. It is unknown how NPs behave in the aquatic environment. Therefore, the research on this problem should be carried out under different process conditions. As for the toxicity, it is important to understand where the differences in the research results come from. As NPs have an impact on not only aquatic organisms but also human health and life, it is necessary to recognize their toxic doses and know standards/regulations that determine the permissible concentrations of NPs in the environment.

  10. Ecotoxicogenomic approaches for understanding molecular mechanisms of environmental chemical toxicity using aquatic invertebrate, Daphnia model organism.

    Kim, Hyo Jeong; Koedrith, Preeyaporn; Seo, Young Rok


    Due to the rapid advent in genomics technologies and attention to ecological risk assessment, the term "ecotoxicogenomics" has recently emerged to describe integration of omics studies (i.e., transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and epigenomics) into ecotoxicological fields. Ecotoxicogenomics is defined as study of an entire set of genes or proteins expression in ecological organisms to provide insight on environmental toxicity, offering benefit in ecological risk assessment. Indeed, Daphnia is a model species to study aquatic environmental toxicity designated in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's toxicity test guideline and to investigate expression patterns using ecotoxicology-oriented genomics tools. Our main purpose is to demonstrate the potential utility of gene expression profiling in ecotoxicology by identifying novel biomarkers and relevant modes of toxicity in Daphnia magna. These approaches enable us to address adverse phenotypic outcomes linked to particular gene function(s) and mechanistic understanding of aquatic ecotoxicology as well as exploration of useful biomarkers. Furthermore, key challenges that currently face aquatic ecotoxicology (e.g., predicting toxicant responses among a broad spectrum of phytogenetic groups, predicting impact of temporal exposure on toxicant responses) necessitate the parallel use of other model organisms, both aquatic and terrestrial. By investigating gene expression profiling in an environmentally important organism, this provides viable support for the utility of ecotoxicogenomics.

  11. Ecotoxicogenomic Approaches for Understanding Molecular Mechanisms of Environmental Chemical Toxicity Using Aquatic Invertebrate, Daphnia Model Organism

    Hyo Jeong Kim


    Full Text Available Due to the rapid advent in genomics technologies and attention to ecological risk assessment, the term “ecotoxicogenomics” has recently emerged to describe integration of omics studies (i.e., transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and epigenomics into ecotoxicological fields. Ecotoxicogenomics is defined as study of an entire set of genes or proteins expression in ecological organisms to provide insight on environmental toxicity, offering benefit in ecological risk assessment. Indeed, Daphnia is a model species to study aquatic environmental toxicity designated in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development’s toxicity test guideline and to investigate expression patterns using ecotoxicology-oriented genomics tools. Our main purpose is to demonstrate the potential utility of gene expression profiling in ecotoxicology by identifying novel biomarkers and relevant modes of toxicity in Daphnia magna. These approaches enable us to address adverse phenotypic outcomes linked to particular gene function(s and mechanistic understanding of aquatic ecotoxicology as well as exploration of useful biomarkers. Furthermore, key challenges that currently face aquatic ecotoxicology (e.g., predicting toxicant responses among a broad spectrum of phytogenetic groups, predicting impact of temporal exposure on toxicant responses necessitate the parallel use of other model organisms, both aquatic and terrestrial. By investigating gene expression profiling in an environmentally important organism, this provides viable support for the utility of ecotoxicogenomics.

  12. Ecotoxicogenomic Approaches for Understanding Molecular Mechanisms of Environmental Chemical Toxicity Using Aquatic Invertebrate, Daphnia Model Organism

    Kim, Hyo Jeong; Koedrith, Preeyaporn; Seo, Young Rok


    Due to the rapid advent in genomics technologies and attention to ecological risk assessment, the term “ecotoxicogenomics” has recently emerged to describe integration of omics studies (i.e., transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and epigenomics) into ecotoxicological fields. Ecotoxicogenomics is defined as study of an entire set of genes or proteins expression in ecological organisms to provide insight on environmental toxicity, offering benefit in ecological risk assessment. Indeed, Daphnia is a model species to study aquatic environmental toxicity designated in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development’s toxicity test guideline and to investigate expression patterns using ecotoxicology-oriented genomics tools. Our main purpose is to demonstrate the potential utility of gene expression profiling in ecotoxicology by identifying novel biomarkers and relevant modes of toxicity in Daphnia magna. These approaches enable us to address adverse phenotypic outcomes linked to particular gene function(s) and mechanistic understanding of aquatic ecotoxicology as well as exploration of useful biomarkers. Furthermore, key challenges that currently face aquatic ecotoxicology (e.g., predicting toxicant responses among a broad spectrum of phytogenetic groups, predicting impact of temporal exposure on toxicant responses) necessitate the parallel use of other model organisms, both aquatic and terrestrial. By investigating gene expression profiling in an environmentally important organism, this provides viable support for the utility of ecotoxicogenomics. PMID:26035755

  13. Multiple mitigation mechanisms: Effects of submerged plants on the toxicity of nine insecticides to aquatic animals.

    Brogan, William R; Relyea, Rick A


    Understanding the processes that regulate contaminant impacts in nature is an increasingly important challenge. For insecticides in surface waters, the ability of aquatic plants to sorb, or bind, hydrophobic compounds has been identified as a primary mechanism by which toxicity can be mitigated (i.e. the sorption-based model). However, recent research shows that submerged plants can also rapidly mitigate the toxicity of the less hydrophobic insecticide malathion via alkaline hydrolysis (i.e. the hydrolysis-based model) driven by increased water pH resulting from photosynthesis. However, it is still unknown how generalizable these mitigation mechanisms are across the wide variety of insecticides applied today, and whether any general rules can be ascertained about which types of chemicals may be mitigated by each mechanism. We quantified the degree to which the submerged plant Elodea canadensis mitigated acute (48-h) toxicity to Daphnia magna using nine commonly applied insecticides spanning three chemical classes (carbamates: aldicarb, carbaryl, carbofuran; organophosphates: malathion, diazinon, chlorpyrifos; pyrethroids: permethrin, bifenthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin). We found that insecticides possessing either high octanol-water partition coefficients (log Kow) values (i.e. pyrethroids) or high susceptibility to alkaline hydrolysis (i.e. carbamates and malathion) were all mitigated to some degree by E. canadensis, while the plant had no effect on insecticides possessing intermediate log Kow values and low susceptibility to hydrolysis (i.e. chlorpyrifos and diazinon). Our results provide the first general insights into which types of insecticides are likely to be mitigated by different mechanisms based on known chemical properties. We suggest that current models and mitigation strategies would be improved by the consideration of both mitigation models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Toxicity of Water Accommodated Fractions of Estonian Shale Fuel Oils to Aquatic Organisms.

    Blinova, Irina; Kanarbik, Liina; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Kahru, Anne


    Estonia is the worldwide leading producer of the fuel oils from the oil shale. We evaluated the ecotoxicity of water accommodated fraction (WAF) of two Estonian shale fuel oils ("VKG D" and "VKG sweet") to aquatic species belonging to different trophic levels (marine bacteria, freshwater crustaceans and aquatic plants). Artificial fresh water and natural lake water were used to prepare WAFs. "VKG sweet" (lower density) proved more toxic to aquatic species than "VKG D" (higher density). Our data indicate that though shale oils were very toxic to crustaceans, the short-term exposure of Daphnia magna to sub-lethal concentrations of shale fuel oils WAFs may increase the reproductive potential of survived organisms. The weak correlation between measured chemical parameters (C10-C40 hydrocarbons and sum of 16 PAHs) and WAF's toxicity to studied species indicates that such integrated chemical parameters are not very informative for prediction of shale fuel oils ecotoxicity.

  15. Toxicity of anthelmintic drugs (fenbendazole and flubendazole) to aquatic organisms.

    Wagil, Marta; Białk-Bielińska, Anna; Puckowski, Alan; Wychodnik, Katarzyna; Maszkowska, Joanna; Mulkiewicz, Ewa; Kumirska, Jolanta; Stepnowski, Piotr; Stolte, Stefan


    Flubendazole (FLU) and fenbendazole (FEN) belong to benzimidazoles-pharmaceuticals widely used in veterinary and human medicine for the treatment of intestinal parasites as well as for the treatment of systemic worm infections. In recent years, usage of these drugs increased, which resulted in a larger contamination of the environment and possible negative effects on biota. Hence, in our research, we investigated an aquatic ecotoxicity of these pharmaceuticals towards: marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), green algae (Scenedesmus vacuolatus), duckweed (Lemna minor) and crustacean (Daphnia magna). Ecotoxicity tests were combined with chemical analysis in order to investigate the actual exposure concentration of the compounds used in the experiment as well as to stability and adsorption studies. As a result, study evaluating sensitivity of different aquatic organisms to these compounds and new ecotoxicological data is presented. The strongest negative impact of FLU and FEN was observed to D. magna.

  16. Toxicity of Derosal (active ingredient carbendazim) to aquatic invertebrates

    Wijngaarden, R.P.A.; Crum, S.J.H.; Decraene, K.; Hattink, J.; Kammen, van A.


    Short- and long-term laboratory single species toxicity tests were performed with eleven invertebrate species and the fungicide Derosal(R) (a.i. carbendazim). Toxicity values differed widely between the tested invertebrates. The most sensitive species we found was the flatworm Dugesia lugubris (96hr

  17. Release of Metal Impurities from Carbon Nanomaterials Influences Aquatic Toxicity


    in commerce. A 10 day sediment toxicity test for survival and growth of the freshwater amphipod, Hyalella azteca , exposed to sediments amended with a...reporting on the prepared leachate water quality (Table S1), solid phase soot contaminants (Table S2), Hyalella azteca toxicity data (Table S3

  18. Acute Liver Failure Secondary to Niacin Toxicity

    Marc A. Ellsworth


    Full Text Available A 17-year-old male was transferred to the pediatric intensive care unit for evaluation of acute liver failure. He was recently released from an alcohol treatment center with acute onset of chest pain. Cardiac workup was negative but he was found to have abnormal coagulation studies and elevated liver transaminases. Other evaluations included a normal toxicology screen and negative acetaminophen level. Autoimmune and infectious workups were normal providing no identifiable cause of his acute liver failure. He initially denied any ingestions or illicit drug use but on further query he admitted taking niacin in an attempt to obscure the results of an upcoming drug test. Niacin has been touted on the Internet as an aid to help pass urine drug tests though there is no evidence to support this practice. Niacin toxicity has been associated with serious multisystem organ failure and fulminant hepatic failure requiring liver transplantation. Pediatric providers should be aware of the risks associated with niacin toxicity and other experimental medical therapies that may be described on the Internet or other nonreputable sources.

  19. Toxicities of oils, dispersants and dispersed oils to algae and aquatic plants: review and database value to resource sustainability

    Published toxicity results are reviewed for oils, dispersants and dispersed oils and aquatic plants. The historical phytotoxicity database consists largely of results from a patchwork of research conducted after oil spills to marine waters. Toxicity information is available for ...

  20. Toxicities of oils, dispersants and dispersed oils to algae and aquatic plants: review and database value to resource sustainability

    Published toxicity results are reviewed for oils, dispersants and dispersed oils and aquatic plants. The historical phytotoxicity database consists largely of results from a patchwork of research conducted after oil spills to marine waters. Toxicity information is available for ...

  1. Laboratory evaluation of Ethiopian local plant Phytolacca dodecandra extract for its toxicity effectiveness against aquatic macroinvertebrates.

    Karunamoorthi, K; Bishaw, D; Mulat, T


    In this study, we evaluated the toxicity effectiveness of berries crude extract of Endod [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Phytolacca dodecandra] against aquatic macroinvertebrates Baetidae (Mayflies) and Hydropsychidae (Caddisflies), under laboratory conditions. In Ethiopia, toxic plant, berries of Phytolacca dodecandra are being commonly used for washing clothes and to control fresh water snails. Macroinvertebrates are useful biological indicators of change in the aquatic ecosystems. The present study clearly revealed that the LC50 and LC90 values for berries crude extract of Phytolacca dodecandra against Baetidae were 181.94 and 525.78 mg/l and lethal doses (LC50 and LC90) required for Hydropsychidae were 1060.69 and 4120.4 mg/l respectively. The present investigation demonstrated that Baetidae was more susceptible than Hydropsychidae, even at shorter exposure period of 2 h. From our preliminary investigation the toxicity effectiveness of crude extracts of Phytolacca dodecandra has been clearly shown. In addition, it requires further explorations which address both the toxicity activity and the active principles that are responsible for its toxicity effectiveness. Ultimately, the release/introduction of Phytolacca dodecandra plant berries extracts into the river/streams leads to disruption of food chain in the aquatic ecosystem. Therefore, at this moment preserving the aquatic ecosystem is extremely essential and inevitable.

  2. Three dimensional quantitative structure-toxicity relationship modeling and prediction of acute toxicity for organic contaminants to algae.

    Jin, Xiangqin; Jin, Minghao; Sheng, Lianxi


    Although numerous chemicals have been identified to have significant toxicological effect on aquatic organisms, there is still lack of a reliable, high-throughput approach to evaluate, screen and monitor the presence of organic contaminants in aquatic system. In the current study, we proposed a synthetic pipeline to automatically model and predict the acute toxicity of chemicals to algae. In the procedure, a new alignment-free three dimensional (3D) structure characterization method was described and, with this method, several 3D-quantitative structure-toxicity relationship (3D-QSTR) models were developed, from which two were found to exhibit strong internal fitting ability and high external predictive power. The best model was established by Gaussian process (GP), which was further employed to perform extrapolation on a random compound library consisting of 1014 virtually generated substituted benzenes. It was found that (i) substitution number can only exert slight influence on chemical׳s toxicity, but low-substituted benzenes seem to have higher toxicity than those of high-substituted entities, and (ii) benzenes substituted by nitro group and halogens exhibit high acute toxicity as compared to other substituents such as methyl and carboxyl groups. Subsequently, several promising candidates suggested by computational prediction were assayed by using a standard algal growth inhibition test. Consequently, four substituted benzenes, namely 2,3-dinitrophenol, 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline, 1,2,3-trinitrobenzene and 3-bromophenol, were determined to have high acute toxicity to Scenedesmus obliquus, with their EC50 values of 2.5±0.8, 10.5±2.1, 1.4±0.2 and 42.7±5.4μmol/L, respectively.

  3. Reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine (Prozac) submitted to ionizing radiation to Vibrio fischeri

    Santos, Dymes R.A.; Garcia, Vanessa S.G.; Vilarrubia, Anna C.S.; Borrely, Sueli I., E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The constant use of pharmaceutical drugs by great part of the population and its continuous input into the environment creates a growing need of investigating its presence, behavior and the effects on aquatic biota, as well as new ways to treat wastewater containing such substances. The fluoxetine hydrochloride (FH) present in the drug Prozac is an active ingredient used in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders. Generally, these compounds enter the aquatic environment by sewage collectors systems after undergoing prior treatment in sewage treatment plants (STPs) or without any treatment. This study focused on evaluating the reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical FH, under its manipulated formula, for the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. It was also evaluated the acute toxicity of the aqueous solution containing the FH after its exposition to ionizing radiation from industrial electron accelerator. It was performed acute toxicity tests lasting 15 minutes, where the average EC (50) of the non-irradiated CF water solution was approximately 0.68 mg L-1. While the CF water solution irradiated with 1 kGy, 2.5 kGy, 7.5 kGy and 10 kGy, presented an average EC(50) 1.63 mg.L{sup -1}, 2.34 mg.L{sup -1}, 2.35 mg.L{sup -1} and 1.80 mg.L{sup -1}, respectively, showing a notable reduction of the acute toxicity for this organism. (author)

  4. Degradation and aquatic toxicity of naphthenic acids in oil sands process-affected waters using simulated wetlands.

    Toor, Navdeep S; Franz, Eric D; Fedorak, Phillip M; MacKinnon, Michael D; Liber, Karsten


    Oil sands process-affected waters (OSPWs) produced during the extraction of bitumen at the Athabasca Oil Sands (AOS) located in northeastern Alberta, Canada, are toxic to many aquatic organisms. Much of this toxicity is related to a group of dissolved organic acids known as naphthenic acids (NAs). Naphthenic acids are a natural component of bitumen and are released into process water during the separation of bitumen from the oil sand ore by a caustic hot water extraction process. Using laboratory microcosms as an analogue of a proposed constructed wetland reclamation strategy for OSPW, we evaluated the effectiveness of these microcosms in degrading NAs and reducing the aquatic toxicity of OSPW over a 52-week test period. Experimental manipulations included two sources of OSPW (one from Syncrude Canada Ltd. and one from Suncor Energy Inc.), two different hydraulic retention times (HRTs; 40 and 400 d), and increased nutrient availability (added nitrate and phosphate). Microcosms with a longer HRT (for both OSPWs) showed higher reductions in total NAs concentrations (64-74% NAs reduction, p100% v/v) independent of HRT. However, EC20s from separate Microtox® bioassays were relatively unchanged when comparing the input and microcosm waters at both HRTs over the 52-week study period (p>0.05), indicating that some sub-lethal toxicity persisted under these experimental conditions. The present study demonstrated that given sufficiently long HRTs, simulated wetland microcosms containing OSPW significantly reduced total NAs concentrations and acute toxicity, but left behind a persistent component of the NAs mixture that appeared to be associated with residual chronic toxicity.

  5. Acute toxic neuropathy mimicking guillain barre syndrome

    Muhammed Jasim Abdul Jalal


    Full Text Available Case: A 30 year old male presented with numbness of palms and soles followed by weakness of upper limbs and lower limbs of 5 days duration, which was ascending and progressive. Three months back he was treated for oral and genital ulcers with oral steroids. His ulcers improved and shifted to indigenous medication. His clinical examination showed polyneuropathy. CSF study did not show albuminocytological dissociation. Nerve conduction study showed demyelinating polyneuropathy. His blood samples and the ayurvedic drug samples were sent for toxicological analysis. Inference: Acute toxic neuropathy - Arsenic

  6. Aquatic Toxicity Screening of an ACWA Secondary Waste, GB-Hydrolysate


    toxicity the bioassay must include a minimum of four dilutions exhibiting a dose response, plus a control consisting of V.fischeri bioluminescent...typically used in the preliminary screening process and is not intended to be a substitute for risk assessment. This system assigns a score (0-9; 9 being...Aquatic Toxicological Research with Organophosphate Insecticides. Ecotoxicology Environmental Saf 1991, 21 (3), pp 266-274. 10. Maas, J.L. Toxicity of

  7. Aquatic toxicity testing of liquid hydrophobic chemicals – Passive dosing exactly at the saturation limit

    Stibany, Felix; Nørgaard Schmidt, Stine; Schäffer, Andreas


    The aims of the present study were (1) to develop a passive dosing approach for aquatic toxicity testing of liquid substances with very high Kow values and (2) to apply this approach to the model substance dodecylbenzene (DDB, Log Kow = 8.65). The first step was to design a new passive dosing for...

  8. Methotrexate-induced acute toxic leukoencephalopathy

    Parag R Salkade


    Full Text Available Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is one of the most common malignancies of childhood, which is treated with high doses of methotrexate (MTX, as it crosses the blood-brain barrier and can be administered intravenously and via intrathecal route to eradicate leukemic cells from central nervous system (CNS. Additionally, high doses of MTX not only prevent CNS recurrence but also hematologic relapses. Although, standard treatment protocol for ALL includes multimodality therapy, MTX is usually associated with neurotoxicity and affects periventricular deep white matter region. Methotrexate-induced ′acute toxic leukoencephalopathy′ has varying clinical manifestations ranging from acute neurological deficit to seizures or encephalopathy. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI is widely available and routinely used in clinical practice to identify acute stroke and also to distinguish acute stroke from non-stroke like conditions. We report a local teenage Chinese girl who developed 2 discrete episodes of left upper and lower limb weakness with left facial nerve paresis after receiving the 2 nd and 3 rd cycle of high dose of intravenous and intrathecal methotrexate, without having cranial irradiation. After each episode of her neurological deficit, the DW-MRI scan showed focal restricted diffusion in right centrum semiovale. Her left sided focal neurological deficit and facial nerve paresis almost completely subsided on both these occasions within 3 days of symptom onset. Follow-up DW-MRI, after her neurological recovery, revealed almost complete resolution of previously noted restricted diffusion in right centrum semiovale, while the lesion was not evident on concurrent T2W (T2-weighted and FLAIR (Fluid-Attenuated Inversion recovery sequences, nor showed any post contrast enhancement on post gadolinium enhanced T1W (T1-weighted sequences. No residual neurological deficit or intellectual impairment was identified on clinical follow up

  9. Methotrexate-induced acute toxic leukoencephalopathy.

    Salkade, Parag R; Lim, Teh Aun


    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is one of the most common malignancies of childhood, which is treated with high doses of methotrexate (MTX), as it crosses the blood-brain barrier and can be administered intravenously and via intrathecal route to eradicate leukemic cells from central nervous system (CNS). Additionally, high doses of MTX not only prevent CNS recurrence but also hematologic relapses. Although, standard treatment protocol for ALL includes multimodality therapy, MTX is usually associated with neurotoxicity and affects periventricular deep white matter region. Methotrexate-induced 'acute toxic leukoencephalopathy' has varying clinical manifestations ranging from acute neurological deficit to seizures or encephalopathy. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) is widely available and routinely used in clinical practice to identify acute stroke and also to distinguish acute stroke from non-stroke like conditions. We report a local teenage Chinese girl who developed 2 discrete episodes of left upper and lower limb weakness with left facial nerve paresis after receiving the 2 nd and 3 rd cycle of high dose of intravenous and intrathecal methotrexate, without having cranial irradiation. After each episode of her neurological deficit, the DW-MRI scan showed focal restricted diffusion in right centrum semiovale. Her left sided focal neurological deficit and facial nerve paresis almost completely subsided on both these occasions within 3 days of symptom onset. Follow-up DW-MRI, after her neurological recovery, revealed almost complete resolution of previously noted restricted diffusion in right centrum semiovale, while the lesion was not evident on concurrent T2W (T2-weighted) and FLAIR (Fluid-Attenuated Inversion recovery) sequences, nor showed any post contrast enhancement on post gadolinium enhanced T1W (T1-weighted) sequences. No residual neurological deficit or intellectual impairment was identified on clinical follow up over a 2 year

  10. Acute Toxicity of Four Organophosphorus Pesticide Products


    Acute toxicity of phoxim,acephate,isofenphos-methyl and isocarbophos on male SD rats of clean grade was carried out by gastric lavage method at room temperature of 18℃. These rats are 4 to 5 months old with body weight of 180 to 220 kg. The results indicate that the orders of the toxicity of these four pesticides on SD rats are isofenphos-methyl,isocarbophos,acephate,phoxim. We found that the median lethal concentration of phoxim in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 3. 892 g /kg,3. 051 g /kg,2. 618 g /kg and 2. 458 g /kg respectively; the median lethal concentration of isofenphos-methyl in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 0. 015 g /kg,0. 013g /kg,0. 012g /kg and 0. 011 g /kg respectively; the median lethal concentration of isocarbophos in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 0. 049 g /kg,0. 046 g /kg,0. 043 g /kg,0. 041 g /kg respectively; and the median lethal concentration of acephate in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 0. 137 g /kg,0. 113 g /kg,0. 100 g /kg,0. 085 g /kg respectively. Finally,we evaluated the characteristics of toxicity effect and safe concentration of these pesticides to SD rats.

  11. Joint toxicity of mixtures of groups of organic aquatic pollutants to the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    Hermens, J.L.M.; Leeuwangh, Peter; Musch, Aalt


    In this study acute lethal concentrations (LC50) to the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) were determined for mixtures of 4 groups of aquatic pollutants. The groups were composed of 11 nonreactive, nonionized organic chemicals, 11 chloroanilines, 11 chlorophenols, and 9 reactive organic halides. Earlier s

  12. Meta-analysis of aquatic chronic chemical toxicity data

    Chronic toxicity data from the open literature and from tests submitted for pesticide registration were extracted and assembled into a database, AquaChronTox, with a flexible search interface. Data were captured at a treatment and, when available, replicate level to support conc...

  13. Acute toxicity evaluation of cutting fluids used in manufacturing processes to Poecilia reticulata and Daphnia magna

    William Gerson Matias


    Full Text Available Grinding operations are very significant among the manufacturing processes of the metal-mechanic industry. In conventional grinding, cutting fluids are of great concern for improving productivity, but also for being hazardous to the environment. In order to contribute to the knowledge of the actual toxic effects of these products in aquatic environments, the present work assesses the toxicity potential through acute toxicity tests of three different kinds of cutting fluids, with three different usage times. The tests were carried out using the fish Poecilia reticulate and the microcrustacean Daphnia magna as test organisms. These tests made it possible to determine the Median Lethal Concentration (LC50 for the fish and the Median Effective Concentration (EC50 for the microcrustacean. The results indicate that, after storage, the toxicity potential of cutting fluids decreases. However, in the three situations investigated, the product presented a high toxicity potential, which reinforces the need of special care in its handling, usage and disposal.

  14. Establishment of quality assurance procedures for aquatic toxicity testing with the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Freeman, M.N.; Marse, T.J.; Williams, P.L. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Environmental Health Science Program


    In this study initial data were generated to develop laboratory control charts for aquatic toxicity testing using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Tests were performed using two reference toxicants: CdCl{sub 2} and CuCl{sub 2}. All tests were performed for 24 h without a food source and of 48 h with a food source in a commonly used nematode aquatic medium. Each test was replicated 6 times with each replicate having 6 wells per concentration with 10 {+-} 1 worms per well. Probit analysis was used to estimate LC{sub 50} values for each test. The data were used to construct a mean ({bar x}) laboratory control chart for each reference toxicant. The coefficient of variation (CV) for three of the four reference toxicant tests was less than 20%, which demonstrates an excellent degree of reproducibility. These CV values are well within suggested standards for determination of organism sensitivity and overall test system credibility. A standardized procedure for performing 24 h and 48 h aquatic toxicity studies with C. elegans is proposed.

  15. Evaluation of the detoxication efficiencies for acrylonitrile wastewater treated by a combined anaerobic oxic-aerobic biological fluidized tank (A/O-ABFT) process: Acute toxicity and zebrafish embryo toxicity.

    Na, Chunhong; Zhang, Ying; Deng, Minjie; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo; Zhang, Yaobin


    Acrylonitrile (ACN) wastewater generated during ACN production has been reported to be toxic to many aquatic organisms. However, few studies have evaluated toxicity removal of ACN wastewater during and after the treatment process. In this study, the detoxication ability of an ACN wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was evaluated using Daphnia magna, Danio rerio and zebrafish embryo. This ACN WWTP has a combined anaerobic oxic-aerobic biological fluidized tank (A/O-ABFT) process upgraded from the traditional anaerobic oxic (A/O) process. Moreover, the potential toxicants of the ACN wastewaters were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The raw ACN wastewater showed high acute and embryo toxicity. 3-Cyanopyridine, succinonitrile and a series of nitriles were detected as the toxic contributors of ACN wastewater. The A/O process was effective for the acute and embryo toxicity removal, as well as the organic toxicants. However, the A/O effluent still showed acute and embryo toxicity which was attributed by the undegraded and the newly generated toxicants during the A/O process. The residual acute and embryo toxicity as well as the organic toxicants in the A/O effluent were further reduced after going through the downstream ABFT process system. The final effluent displayed no significant acute and embryo toxicity, and less organic toxicants were detected in the final effluent. The upgrade of this ACN WWTP results in the improved removal efficiencies for acute and embryo toxicity, as well as the organic toxicants.

  16. Toxicity of five antibiotics and their mixtures towards photosynthetic aquatic organisms: implications for environmental risk assessment.

    González-Pleiter, Miguel; Gonzalo, Soledad; Rodea-Palomares, Ismael; Leganés, Francisco; Rosal, Roberto; Boltes, Karina; Marco, Eduardo; Fernández-Piñas, Francisca


    The individual and combined toxicities of amoxicillin, erythromycin, levofloxacin, norfloxacin and tetracycline have been examined in two organisms representative of the aquatic environment, the cyanobacterium Anabaena CPB4337 as a target organism and the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata as a non-target organism. The cyanobacterium was more sensitive than the green alga to the toxic effect of antibiotics. Erythromycin was highly toxic for both organisms; tetracycline was more toxic to the green algae whereas the quinolones levofloxacin and norfloxacin were more toxic to the cyanobacterium than to the green alga. Amoxicillin also displayed toxicity to the cyanobacterium but showed no toxicity to the green alga. The toxicological interactions of antibiotics in the whole range of effect levels either in binary or multicomponent mixtures were analyzed using the Combination Index (CI) method. In most cases, synergism clearly predominated both for the green alga and the cyanobacterium. The CI method was compared with the classical models of additivity Concentration Addition (CA) and Independent Action (IA) finding that CI could accurately predict deviations from additivity. Risk assessment was performed by calculating the ratio between Measured Environmental Concentration (MEC) and the Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC). A MEC/PNEC ratio higher than 1 was found for the binary erythromycin and tetracycline mixture in wastewater effluents, a combination which showed a strong synergism at low effect levels in both organisms. From the tested antibiotic mixtures, it can be concluded that certain specific combinations may pose a potential ecological risk for aquatic ecosystems with the present environmentally measured concentrations.

  17. Aquatic toxicity structure-activity relationships for the zwitterionic surfactant alkyl dimethyl amine oxide to several aquatic species and a resulting species sensitivity distribution.

    Belanger, Scott E; Brill, Jessica L; Rawlings, Jane M; McDonough, Kathleen M; Zoller, Ann C; Wehmeyer, Kenneth R


    Amine oxide (AO) is a cationically charged surfactant at environmental pH and has previously been assessed in the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) High Production Volume (HPV) chemicals program. Typical of cationic chemicals, AO is highly aquatically toxic. In this study we vastly improve the knowledge of AO toxicity by developing acute Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSARs) for an alga (Desmodesmus subspicatus), an invertebrate (Daphnia magna) and a fish (Danio rerio) using the appropriate array of OECD Test Guidelines. A chronic toxicity QSAR was also determined for the most sensitive taxon, Desmodesmus. Pure AO spanning the chain lengths of C8 to C16 were tested individually with trace analytical confirmation of exposures in all tests. The QSARs were all of high quality (R(2) 0.92-0.98) with slopes ranging from -0.338 to -0.484. QSARs were then used to normalize toxicity outcomes for a larger, previously published data set used in HPV, European REACH (Registration, Evaluation, and Authorization of Chemicals), and peer reviewed publications. Two additional species, Lemna gibba (macrophyte) and Ankistrodesmus falcatus (alga) were studied in exposures to dodecyl (C12) AO to provide sufficient taxonomic diversity to conduct a Species Sensitivity Distribution (SSD) analysis. The SSD 5th percentile hazardous concentration (HC5) to C12 AO was found to be 0.052mg/L which is similar to an existing AO 28-d, 3-community periphyton community bioassay normalized to C12 AO (No-observed-effect-concentration or NOEC=0.152mg/L). The statistical properties of the SSD was probed suggesting that new studies of additional taxa would be required that were at least 10-fold more sensitive than the most sensitive taxon to move the HC5 lower by a factor of 3. The overall AO hazard assessment suggests a large margin of safety relative to published environmental exposure data.

  18. Acute toxic effects of two lampricides on twenty-one freshwater invertebrates

    Rye, Robert P.; King, Everett Louis


    We conducted laboratory static bioassays to determine acute toxicity of two lampricides -- a 70% 2-aminoethanol salt of 5,2'dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide (Bayer 73) and a mixture containing 98% 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and 2% Bayer 73 (TFM-2B) -- to 21 freshwater invertebrates. LC50 values were determined for 24-h exposure periods at 12.8 C. Organisms relatively sensitive to Bayer 73 were a turbellarian (Dugesia tigrina), aquatic earthworms (Tubifex tubifex and Lumbriculus inconstans), snails (Physa sp.) and (Pleurocera sp.), a clam (Eliptio dilatatus), blackflies (Simulium sp.), leeches (Erpobdellidae), and a daphnid (Daphnia pulex). The invertebrates most sensitive to TFM-2B were turbellarians, aquatic earthworms (Tubifex), snails (Physa), blackflies, leeches, and burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia sp.). Bayer 73 was generally much more toxic to the test organisms than TFM-2B. At lampricidal concentrations, TFM-2B was more highly selective than Bayer 73 against larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus).

  19. The acute toxicity of major ion salts to Ceriodaphnia dubia: I. ...

    The ions Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO42-, and HCO3-/CO32- (referred to as “major ions”) are present in all fresh waters and are physiologically required by aquatic organisms, but can be increased to harmful levels by a variety of anthropogenic activities that speed geochemical weathering or otherwise introduce or concentrate ions. While toxicity of these ions to aquatic organisms has been previously shown, it is also known that their toxicity can vary depending on the concentrations of other co-occurring anions, and understanding these relationships is key to predicting toxicity and establishing appropriate environmental limits. In this paper we conduct a series of experiments with Ceriodaphnia dubia to evaluate the acute toxicity of all twelve major ionsalts (pairing one of the cations with one of the anions) and to determine how toxicity of these salts varies as a function of background water chemistry. All salts except CaSO4 and CaCO3 were acutely toxic to C. dubia below saturation, with the lowest LC50s found for K salts. Of the remaining salts, all but CaCl2 showed some degree of decreased toxicity as the ionic content of the background water increased. Experiments that independently varied Ca:Mg ratio, Na:K ratio, Cl:SO4 ratio, and alkalinity/pH were used to show that Ca concentration was the primary factor influencing the toxicities of Na and Mg salts. In contrast, the toxicities of K salts were primarily influenced by the concentration of Na. Th

  20. Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves

    Juheini Amin


    Full Text Available Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves. Preminelary experiment showed that ethanolic extract ofgandarusa leaves (Justicia gendarussa Burm. could decreased uric acid blood level on rats. The aim of this experimentwas to determine of the value LD50 and liver function based on activities of aminotransferase. Animals test which wereused in this experiment were 50 males and 50 females white mice. They were divided into 5 groups. Group 1 as controlgroup was given aquadest. Group 2-5 were treated by ethanolic extract of gandarusa leaves with dosage 4, 8, 16, and 32g/kg bw. The LD50 value was determined by the amount of death in group during 24 hours after giving a single dose oftest substance. The result showed that the highest dose was practically non toxic with LD50 value of 31.99 g/kg bw(male groups and 27.85 g/kg bw (female groups. Measurement of aminotransferase activity was done by usingcolorimetric method. The result of ANOVA analysis for liver function showed that the giving test substance 4 g/kg bw–16 g/kg bw was not significantly different between treated groups and control group.

  1. Acute and chronic toxicity of selected disinfection byproducts to Daphnia magna, Cyprinodon variegatus, and Isochrysis galbana.

    Fisher, Daniel; Yonkos, Lance; Ziegler, Gregory; Friedel, Elizabeth; Burton, Dennis


    Ballast water treatment has become a major issue in the last decade due to the problem of invasive species transported and released by the uptake and discharge of ballast water for shipping operations. One of the important issues considering ballast water treatment is to determine whether treated ballast water, once discharged, is safe to the aquatic environment. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) Marine Environmental Protection Committee (MEPC) has determined that prior to approval of a ballast water management system, aquatic toxicity data must be available for both the active substance and relevant byproducts. Many proposed ballast water treatment systems use chlorine as the active ingredient. Although there are sufficient toxicity data concerning active substances such as chlorine, there are limited toxicity data concerning disinfection (halogenated) byproducts including dibromochloromethane, four haloacetic acids and sodium bromate. Acute and chronic toxicity were determined for these disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Acute toxicity values ranged from 96-h LC50s of 46.8 mg/l for Daphnia magna for both dibromochloromethane and sodium bromate to a 96-h LC50 of 376.4 mg/l for Cyprinodon variegatus for tribromoacetic acid. Acute Isochrysis galbana population growth effect values ranged from a 72-h EC10 of 39.9 mg/l for dichloroacetic acid to a 72-h EC50 of 15,954 mg/l for sodium bromate. Chronic toxicity mortality/reproduction effects values for D. magna ranged from a 21-d IC25 of 160.9 mg/l for tribromoacetic acid to a 21-d LOEC of 493.0 mg/l for trichloroacetic acid. Chronic toxicity mortality/growth values for C. variegatus ranged from a 32-d IC25 of 246.8 mg/l for trichloroacetic acid to a 32-d LOEC of 908.1 mg/l for tribromoacetic acid. I. galbana 96-h chronic population growth effects values ranged from an EC10 of 38.5 mg/l for trichloroacetic acid to an LOEC of 500.0 mg/l for tribromoacetic acid. Acute to chronic ratios for all of these

  2. Determination of leachate toxicity through acute toxicity using Daphnia pulex and Anaerobic Toxicity Assays

    Patricia Torres Lozada


    Full Text Available The municipal solid waste (MSW of large cities, in particular in developing countries, is mainly disposed of in landfills (LFs, whose inadequate management generates the emission of greenhouse gases and the production of leachates with high concentrations of organic and inorganic matter and occasionally heavy metals. In this study, the toxicity of the leachates from an intermediate-age municipal landfill was evaluated by ecotoxicity and anaerobic digestion tests. The acute toxicity assays with Daphnia pulex presented a toxic unit (TU value of 49.5%, which indicates that these leachates should not be directly discharged into water sources or percolate into the soil because they would affect the ecosystems served by these waters. According to statistical analyses, the leachate toxicity is mainly associated with the inorganic fraction, with chlorides, calcium hardness and calcium having the greatest influence on the toxicity. The anaerobic toxicity assays showed that in the exposure stage, the methanogenic activity exceeded that of the control, which suggests that the anaerobic bacteria easily adapted to the leachate. Therefore, this treatment could be an alternative to mitigate the toxicity of the studied leachates. The inhibition presented in the recovery stage, represented by a reduction of the methanogenic activity, could arise because the amount of supplied substrate was not enough to fulfill the carbon and nutrient requirements of the bacterial population present.

  3. Predicting aquatic toxicities of chemical pesticides in multiple test species using nonlinear QSTR modeling approaches.

    Basant, Nikita; Gupta, Shikha; Singh, Kunwar P


    In this study, we established nonlinear quantitative-structure toxicity relationship (QSTR) models for predicting the toxicities of chemical pesticides in multiple aquatic test species following the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) guidelines. The decision tree forest (DTF) and decision tree boost (DTB) based QSTR models were constructed using a pesticides toxicity dataset in Selenastrum capricornutum and a set of six descriptors. Other six toxicity data sets were used for external validation of the constructed QSTRs. Global QSTR models were also constructed using the combined dataset of all the seven species. The diversity in chemical structures and nonlinearity in the data were evaluated. Model validation was performed deriving several statistical coefficients for the test data and the prediction and generalization abilities of the QSTRs were evaluated. Both the QSTR models identified WPSA1 (weighted charged partial positive surface area) as the most influential descriptor. The DTF and DTB QSTRs performed relatively better than the single decision tree (SDT) and support vector machines (SVM) models used as a benchmark here and yielded R(2) of 0.886 and 0.964 between the measured and predicted toxicity values in the complete dataset (S. capricornutum). The QSTR models applied to six other aquatic species toxicity data yielded R(2) of >0.92 (DTF) and >0.97 (DTB), respectively. The prediction accuracies of the global models were comparable with those of the S. capricornutum models. The results suggest for the appropriateness of the developed QSTR models to reliably predict the aquatic toxicity of chemicals and can be used for regulatory purpose.

  4. Acute toxicity and repellent activity of the Origanum scabrum Boiss. & Heldr. (Lamiaceae) essential oil against four mosquito vectors of public health importance and its biosafety on non-target aquatic organisms.

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Benelli, Giovanni


    The recent outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika virus highlighted the pivotal importance of mosquito vector control in tropical and subtropical areas worldwide. However, mosquito control is facing hot challenges, mainly due to the rapid development of pesticide resistance in Culicidae and the limited success of biocontrol programs on Aedes mosquitoes. In this framework, screening botanicals for their mosquitocidal potential may offer effective and eco-friendly tools in the fight against mosquitoes. In the present study, the essential oil (EO) obtained from the medicinal plant Origanum scabrum was analyzed by GC-MS and evaluated for its mosquitocidal and repellent activities towards Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. GC-MS analysis showed a total of 28 compounds, representing 97.1 % of the EO. The major constituents were carvacrol (48.2 %) and thymol (16.6 %). The EO was toxic effect to the A. stephensi, A. aegypti, C. quinquefasciatus, and C. tritaeniorhynchus larvae, with LC50 of 61.65, 67.13, 72.45, and 78.87 μg/ml, respectively. Complete ovicidal activity was observed at 160, 200, 240, and 280 μg/ml, respectively. Against adult mosquitoes, LD50 were 122.38, 134.39, 144.53, and 158.87 μg/ml, respectively. In repellency assays, the EOs tested at 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm(2) concentration of O. scabrum gave 100 % protection from mosquito bites up to 210, 180, 150, and 120 min, respectively. From an eco-toxicological point of view, the EO was tested on three non-target mosquito predators, Gambusia affinis, Diplonychus indicus, and Anisops bouvieri, with LC50 ranging from 4162 to 12,425 μg/ml. Overall, the EO from O. scabrum may be considered as a low-cost and eco-friendly source of phytochemicals to develop novel repellents against Culicidae.

  5. Comparison of metal toxic impacts between aquatic and terrestrial organisms: is the free ion concentration a sufficient descriptor?

    Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Larsen, Henrik Fred


    Characterization of metal toxic impacts in comparative risk assessment and life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) should take into account metal speciation and interactions with soil/water organic constituents, because these mechanisms control metal bioavailability and may influence their toxic...... to be a sufficient indicator of metal toxicity for both aquatic and terrestrial species. With the aim of deriving extrapolations to predict terrestrial toxic impacts of metals from aquatic effect data, we compared copper toxicity of aquatic organisms with that of terrestrial organisms, testing the hypothesis...... that the free metal ion is an appropriate “general”descriptor of metal toxicity. Results for 128 laboratory tests on Daphnia magna exposed to copper ions (Cu2+) in water show that variation of several orders of magnitude are observed between the toxicity tests. These variations may be a result of the inability...


    吴昊; 江敏; 彭章晓; 何琳


    Ivermectin (IVM) is a widely applied veterinary pharmaceutical which is used in large amount to treat livestock. It has been a potential environmental problem, that the drug often appears intact in the metabolite of livestock, and its transport from soil to surface water via runoff. In natural environment, dissipation is relatively slow, and the residues can cause mortality in a diverse range of invertebrates. So ivermectin may destroy the aquatic ecosystems. To evaluate the potential toxicity of ivermectin to aquatic organisms, we simulated a natural riverway environment when monitoring the degradation speed of it, and then chose seven aquatic organisms which take up different ecological riche to test acute toxicity by national standard metords. The results displayed that the degradation of Ivermectin (IVM) in water environment was slow, and the degradation rate of IVM in sediment was only 28.3% of 70 days' experiment under 25 °C. The results showed no obviously toxicity to Photobacterium phosphoreum and the 96h EC50 to Chlorella vulgaris was 19.80 mg/L, it did not exhibit high toxicity. But the toxicity of IVM to Brachydanio rerio, Gambusia affinis, Carassius auratus, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Daphnia magnet were relatively higher, and date was 40.48 u.g/L (96h LC50), 34.81 ug/L (96h LC50), 13.79 ng/L (96h LC50), 7.87 ug/L (96h LC50) and 4.81 ng/L (24h LC50) respectively. IVM would influence the aqua-biology obviously when the drug residue appeared in water environment, so it is necessary to learn more on ivermectin.%伊维菌素作为一种高效的抗寄生虫兽药,在畜禽业有着广泛的应用.但药物随着畜禽动物的代谢产物的排放而进入自然生态系统也成为逐渐显现的环境问题.由于药物具有在自然环境中难以快速降解和对水生枝角类高毒性的特点,因此流入天然水体的伊维菌素存在着影响水生态平衡的风险.为了比较全面评估药物对水生动物潜在的毒害作用,研究

  7. Acute toxicity of fire-retardant and foam-suppressant chemicals to yalella azteca (Saussure)

    McDonald, Susan F.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Heisinger, James F.


    Acute toxicity tests were conducted with Hyalella azteca Saussure (an amphipod) exposed in soft and hard waters to three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F) and two foam suppressants (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Silv-Ex). The chemicals were slightly to moderately toxic to amphipods. The most toxic chemical to amphipods in soft and hard water was Phos-Chek WD-881 (96-h mean lethal concentration [LC50] equal to 10 mg/L and 22 mg/L, respectively), and the least toxic chemical to amphipods in soft water was Fire-Trol GTS-R (96-h LC50 equal to 127 mg/L) and in hard water was Fire-Trol LCG-R (96-h LC50 equal to 535 mg/L). Concentrations of ammonia in tests with the three fire retardants and both water types were greater than reported LC50 values and probably were the major toxic component. Estimated un-ionized ammonia concentrations near the LC50 were frequently less than the reported LC50 ammonia concentrations for amphipods. The three fire retardants were more toxic in soft water than in hard water even though ammonia and un-ionized ammonia concentrations were higher in hard water tests than in soft water tests. The accidental entry of fire-fighting chemicals into aquatic environments could adversely affect aquatic invertebrates, thereby disrupting ecosystem function.

  8. Formulations for aircraft and airfield deicing and anti-icing: aquatic toxicity and biochemical oxygen demand

    Ferguson, Lee; Corsi, Steven R.; Geis, Steven W.; Anderson, Graham; Joback, Kevin; Gold, Harris; Mericas, Dean; Cancilla, Devon A.


    The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) has sponsored research on environmental characteristics of aircraft and pavement deicers and anti-icers focusing primarily on biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and aquatic toxicity of formulated products and individual chemical components of formulations. This report presents a background of issues leading to this research, objectives of this document, and a description of the efforts and findings of this research.

  9. Toxicity of Zinc on Growth of an Aquatic Macrophyte, Ipomoea Aquatica Forsk

    Laitonjam Bedabati Chanu; Abhik Gupta


    The effects of different concentrations of Zn on growth of an aquatic macrophyte, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. were studied. Fresh weight, dry weight, shoot length, root length, number of nodes, development of leaves, and chlorophyll and carotene contents were the different growth parameters considered. Toxicity symptoms like browning and decaying of roots could be observed in plants treated at 22.7 mg L-1 Zn as early as 3rd day of experiment while yellowing of older leaves appeared during the lat...

  10. The mechanisms of nickel toxicity in aquatic environments: an adverse outcome pathway analysis.

    Brix, Kevin V; Schlekat, Christian E; Garman, Emily R


    Current ecological risk assessment and water quality regulations for nickel (Ni) use mechanistically based, predictive tools such as biotic ligand models (BLMs). However, despite many detailed studies, the precise mechanism(s) of Ni toxicity to aquatic organisms remains elusive. This uncertainty in the mechanism(s) of action for Ni has led to concern over the use of tools like the BLM in some regulatory settings. To address this knowledge gap, the authors used an adverse outcome pathway (AOP) analysis, the first AOP for a metal, to identify multiple potential mechanisms of Ni toxicity and their interactions with freshwater aquatic organisms. The analysis considered potential mechanisms of action based on data from a wide range of organisms in aquatic and terrestrial environments on the premise that molecular initiating events for an essential metal would potentially be conserved across taxa. Through this analysis the authors identified 5 potential molecular initiating events by which Ni may exert toxicity on aquatic organisms: disruption of Ca(2+) homeostasis, disruption of Mg(2+) homeostasis, disruption of Fe(2+/3+) homeostasis, reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative damage, and an allergic-type response of respiratory epithelia. At the organ level of biological organization, these 5 potential molecular initiating events collapse into 3 potential pathways: reduced Ca(2+) availability to support formation of exoskeleton, shell, and bone for growth; impaired respiration; and cytotoxicity and tumor formation. At the level of the whole organism, the organ-level responses contribute to potential reductions in growth and reproduction and/or alterations in energy metabolism, with several potential feedback loops between each of the pathways. Overall, the present AOP analysis provides a robust framework for future directed studies on the mechanisms of Ni toxicity and for developing AOPs for other metals. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;9999:1-10. © 2016 SETAC.

  11. Review of reproductive and developmental toxicity induced by organotins in aquatic organisms and experimental animals

    Hirose, A.; Takagi, A.; Nishimura, T.; Kanno, J.; Ema, M. [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)


    Widespread use of organotins has caused increasing amounts to be released into the environment. The most important non-pesticidal route of entry of organotins into the environment is through leaching of organotin-stabilized PVC in water, and the use in antifouling agents, resulting in the introduction of organotin into the aquatic environment. Data are available regarding the detection of butyltins and phenyltins in aquatic marine organisms and marine products. Food chain bioamplification of butyltin in oysters, mud crabs, marine mussels, chinook salmons, dolphins, tunas, and sharks and of phenyltin in carps and horseshoe crabs has been reported. These findings indicate that organotins accumulate in the food chain and are bioconcentrated, and that humans can be exposed to organotins via seafood. The levels of organotin compounds in seafood are not considered to be sufficiently high to affect human health. However, Belfroid et al. (2000) noted that more research on residual TBT levels in seafood was needed before a definitive conclusion on possible health risks could be drawn. Although the toxicity of organotins has been extensively reviewed, the reproductive and developmental toxicity of organotins is not well understood. We summarized the data of the studies on reproductive and developmental toxicity of organotins in aquatic organisms and experimental animals.


    І. Hrytsyniak


    Full Text Available Purpose. The consequence of human impact of the ecosystems of water bodies are as a rule the input of xenobiotics of various natures or the excess of the natural level of biogenic trace elements that ultimately leads to negative changes in the structure of aquatic biota communities, disturbances of vital activity processes of some flora and fauna species. The consequences of these processes are presented as a reduction in the productivity of water bodies, impoverishment of their species variety, and subsequently as an unsuitability of water bodies for fisheries related activities. Study, analysis and generalization of information concerning the pathways of toxicants input into water bodies, their behavior in hydroecosystems, possible effects on aquatic organisms of different trophic levels have an important theoretical and practical value. Behavioral, physiological, biochemical, cytological, histological and genetic reactions can serve as a basis for the adoption of necessary measures aimed at improving the ecological state of water bodies or preventing and avoiding potential hazards to aquatic populations. The aim of this work is an analysis and synthesis of the available literature data about the role of a relatively poorly studied trace element molybdenum in hydroecosystems, its biological importance and toxic effect for aquatic organisms. Findings. The data containing in the article were obtained based on reviewing existing publications of domestic and foreign authors. In particular, they describe hydrochemical properties of molybdenum and its compounds, possible sources of input into water bodies, pathways of element migration. A brief description of the identification and control methods for the element content in aquatic environment is presented. Biophilic properties of molybdenum for aquatic flora and fauna as well as the impact on their productive parameters are described. The data regarding the bioaccumulation potential of molybdenum

  13. An antidote for acute cocaine toxicity.

    Treweek, Jennifer B; Janda, Kim D


    Not only has immunopharmacotherapy grown into a field that addresses the abuse of numerous illicit substances, but also the treatment methodologies within immunopharmacotherapy have expanded from traditional active vaccination to passive immunization with anti-drug monoclonal antibodies, optimized mAb formats, and catalytic drug-degrading antibodies. Many laboratories have focused on transitioning distinct immunopharmacotherapeutics to clinical evaluation, but with respect to the indication of cocaine abuse, only the active vaccine TA-CD, which is modeled after our original cocaine hapten GNC, has been carried through to human clinical trials. The successful application of murine mAb GNC92H2 to the reversal of cocaine overdose in a mouse model prompted investigations of human immunoglobulins with the clinical potential to serve as cocaine antidotes. We now report the therapeutic utility of a superior clone, human mAb GNCgzk (K(d) = 0.18 nM), which offers a 10-fold improvement in cocaine binding affinity. The GNCgzk manifold was engineered for rapid cocaine clearance, and administration of the F(ab')₂ and Fab formats even after the appearance of acute behavioral signs of cocaine toxicity granted nearly complete prevention of lethality. Thus, contrary to the immunopharmacotherapeutic treatment of drug self-administration, minimal antibody doses were shown to counteract the lethality of a molar excess of circulating cocaine. Passive vaccination with drug-specific antibodies represents a viable treatment strategy for the human condition of cocaine overdose.

  14. Acute and chronic toxicity of lead in water and diet to the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Brunson, E.L.; Ingersoll, C.G.


    We evaluated the influence of waterborne and dietary lead (Pb) exposure on the acute and chronic toxicity of Pb to the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Test solutions were generated by a modified diluter with an extended (24-h) equilibration period. Acute (96-h) toxicity of Pb varied with water hardness in the range of 71 to 275 mg/L as CaCO3, despite similar dissolved Pb concentrations. Acute toxicity was greatest in soft test water, with less than 50% survival at the lowest dissolved Pb concentration (151 ??g/L). Survival also was significantly reduced in medium-hardness water but not in hard test water. In chronic (42-d) studies, amphipods were exposed to waterborne Pb and fed either a control diet or a diet equilibrated with waterborne Pb levels. For animals fed the control diet, the median lethal concentration (LC50) for Pb was 24 ??g/L (as dissolved Pb), and significant reductions in survival occurred at 16 ??g/L. Exposure to Pb-treated diets significantly increased toxicity across a wide range of dissolved Pb concentrations, with a LC50 of 16 ??g/L and significant reductions in growth and reproduction at 3.5 ??g/L. Significant effects on growth and reproduction occurred at dissolved Pb concentrations close to the current U.S. chronic water-quality criterion. Our results suggest that both aqueous- and dietary-exposure pathways contribute significantly to chronic Pb exposure and toxic effects in aquatic biota. ?? 2005 SETAC.

  15. Acute Toxicity Prediction in Multiple Species by Leveraging Mechanistic ToxCast Mitochondrial Inhibition Data and Simulation of Oral Bioavailability.

    Bhhatarai, Barun; Wilson, Daniel M; Bartels, Michael J; Chaudhuri, Shubhra; Price, Paul S; Carney, Edward W


    There is great interest in assessing the in vivo toxicity of chemicals using nonanimal alternatives. However, acute mammalian toxicity is not adequately predicted by current in silico or in vitro approaches. Mechanisms of acute toxicity are likely conserved across invertebrate, aquatic, and mammalian species, suggesting that dose-response concordance would be high and in vitro mechanistic data could predict responses in multiple species under conditions of similar bioavailability. We tested this hypothesis by comparing acute toxicity between rat, daphnia, and fish and by comparing their respective acute data to inhibition of mitochondria membrane potential (MMP) using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ToxCast in vitro high-throughput screening data. Logarithmic scatter plots of acute toxicity data showed a clear relationship between fish, daphnia, and intravenous rat but not oral rat data. Similar plots versus MMP showed a well-delineated upper boundary for fish, daphnia, and intravenous data but were scattered without an upper boundary for rat oral data. Adjustments of acute oral rat toxicity values by simulating fractional absorption and CYP-based metabolism as well as removing compounds with hydrolyzable linkages or flagged as substrates for glucuronidation delineated an upper boundary for rat oral toxicity versus MMP. Mitochondrial inhibition at low concentrations predicted highly acutely toxic chemicals for fish and daphnia but not the rat where toxicity was often attenuated. This use of a single high-throughput screening assay to predict acute toxicity in multiple species represents a milestone and highlights the promise of such approaches but also the need for refined tools to address systemic bioavailability and the impact of limited absorption and first pass metabolism.

  16. Acute oral toxicity of chemicals in terrestrial life stages of amphibians: Comparisons to birds and mammals.

    Crane, Mark; Finnegan, Meaghean; Weltje, Lennart; Kosmala-Grzechnik, Sylwia; Gross, Melanie; Wheeler, James R


    Amphibians are currently the most threatened and rapidly declining group of vertebrates and this has raised concerns about their potential sensitivity and exposure to plant protection products and other chemicals. Current environmental risk assessment procedures rely on surrogate species (e.g. fish and birds) to cover the risk to aquatic and terrestrial life stages of amphibians, respectively. Whilst a recent meta-analysis has shown that in most cases amphibian aquatic life stages are less sensitive to chemicals than fish, little research has been conducted on the comparative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages. Therefore, in this paper we address the questions "What is the relative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages to acute chemical oral exposure when compared with mammals and birds?" and "Are there correlations between oral toxicity data for amphibians and data for mammals or birds?" Identifying a relationship between these data may help to avoid additional vertebrate testing. Acute oral amphibian toxicity data collected from the scientific literature and ecotoxicological databases were compared with toxicity data for mammals and birds. Toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages are generally sparse, as noted in previous reviews. Single-dose oral toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages were available for 26 chemicals and these were positively correlated with LD50 values for mammals, while no correlation was found for birds. Further, the data suggest that oral toxicity to terrestrial amphibian life stages is similar to or lower than that for mammals and birds, with a few exceptions. Thus, mammals or birds are considered adequate toxicity surrogates for use in the assessment of the oral exposure route in amphibians. However, there is a need for further data on a wider range of chemicals to explore the wider applicability of the current analyses and recommendations.

  17. Acute and chronic toxicity of emerging contaminants, alone or in combination, in Chlorella vulgaris and Daphnia magna.

    Pablos, María Victoria; García-Hortigüela, Pilar; Fernández, Carlos


    This work presents the toxicity results of different compounds classified as emerging contaminants on primary producers and primary consumers in the aquatic compartment. The objectives were to (1) obtain acute and chronic toxicity results for algae and Daphnia magna using standardised or currently used tests, (2) study the relationship between the effects on the impaired feeding rate for daphnia and the effects of reproduction and (3) examine the responses on daphnia and algae after binary combinations of environmentally relevant compounds and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Toxicity data on personal care products (PCPs), not reported in the scientific literature up to now, are presented. The results confirmed that the Daphnia feeding bioassay can be a sensitive, ecologically relevant endpoint to detect sublethal effects and could complement the information obtained with the reproduction test on Daphnia. The results also suggested that the concomitant occurrence of PFOS and other emerging contaminants in the aquatic compartment could affect the toxicity of some compounds according to their lipophilicity.

  18. Toxicity of the mixture of selected antineoplastic drugs against aquatic primary producers.

    Elersek, Tina; Milavec, Sara; Korošec, Maša; Brezovsek, Polona; Negreira, Noelia; Zonja, Bozo; de Alda, Miren López; Barceló, Damià; Heath, Ester; Ščančar, Janez; Filipič, Metka


    The residues of antineoplastic drugs are considered as new and emerging pollutants in aquatic environments. Recent experiments showed relatively high toxicity of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), imatinib mesylate (IM), etoposide (ET) and cisplatin (CP) that are currently among most widely used antineoplastic drugs, against phytoplankton species. In this study, we investigated the toxic potential of the mixture of 5-FU + IM + ET against green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and cyanobacterium Synechococcus leopoliensis, and the stability and sorption of these drugs to algal cells. Toxic potential of the mixture was predicted by the concepts of 'concentration addition' and 'independent action' and compared to the experimentally determined toxicity. In both test species, the measured toxicity of the mixture was at effects concentrations EC10-EC50 higher than the predicted, whereas at higher effect concentration (EC90), it was lower. In general, P. subcapitata was more sensitive than S. leopoliensis. The stability studies of the tested drugs during the experiment showed that 5-FU, IM and CP are relatively stable, whereas in the cultures exposed to ET, two transformation products with the same mass as ET but different retention time were detected. The measurements of the cell-linked concentrations of the tested compounds after 72 h exposure indicated that except for CP (1.9 % of the initial concentration), these drugs are not adsorbed or absorbed by algal cells. The results of this study showed that in alga and cyanobacteria exposure to the mixture of 5-FU + ET + IM, in particular at low effect concentration range, caused additive or synergistic effect on growth inhibition, and they suggest that single compound toxicity data are not sufficient for the proper toxicity prediction for aquatic primary producers.

  19. Decreases in surface activities and aquatic toxicities of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate and alcohol ethoxylates during biodegradation.

    Oya, Masaru; Hisano, Noriko


    We discussed the relation between aquatic toxicity and interfacial activity during biodegradation with using LAS (Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonate) and AE (Alcohol Ethoxylate). The change of death rate of Daphnia magna, surface tension, concentration of surfactant, and biodegradation by oxygen demand during biodegradation were measured. As a result, a rapid decrease in toxicity and rapid increase in surface tension were observed within the time before biodegradation based on oxygen demand started to increase. These rapid changes in toxicity and surface tension occurred due to the structural change of surfactant molecules in the primary biodegradation process, which was confirmed by HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) analysis. We also performed re-addition test to study the effects of acclimatization since it takes an important role on boidegradation, and found that the acclimatization significantly accelerated the primary biodegradation, which were indicated by increase in surface tension and decrease in aquatic toxicity. These results show that the environmental risk of surfactants should be considered not only with the biodegradation based on oxygen demand but also with the decrease of interfacial activity through the primary biodegradation process.

  20. [Use of dinoflagellates as a metal toxicity assessment tool in aquatic system].

    Yuan, Li-juan; He, Meng-chang


    Although dinoflagellates have been used to assess biological toxicity of contaminants, this method still lacks of corresponding toxicity assessment standard. This study appraised the toxicity of selected heavy metals to dinoflagellates based on the dinoflagellates bioluminescence with QwikLite developed by the United States Navy. The results show that single heavy metal biological toxicity is in the order: Hg2+ > Cu2+ > Cd2+ > As5+ > Pb2+ > Cr6+; Two, three and four heavy metal mixture experiments show synergism primarily, antagonism is in minority. pH has not remarkable effect on dinoflagellates, they can be applied directly in natural water, but pH influence Hg2+ and Cu2+ toxicity greatly, eliminating the influence of pH is essential when doing these two kind of ions measurements. The nutrients has little influence on dinoflagellates, change in COD has obvious effect on the response relationships between dinoflagellates and Hg2+ or CU2+. Metal toxicity assessment using dinoflagellates shows great sensitivity, narrow response scope and high stability. Dinoflagellates are good species for heavy metal biological toxicity test in aquatic system.

  1. Evaluation of antibacterial activity and acute toxicity of the ...



    Jun 3, 2008 ... Susceptibility test, acute toxicity test and phytochemical screening ... man to fight various human and animal diseases has made plants a sine qua ... alternatives in the treatment of infectious diseases since pathogens of have ...

  2. Acute toxicity of monocalm 400sl (monocrotophos) and profenalm ...



    Mar 6, 2014 ... Elsewhere, fish behaviours such as slow opercular movements, loss ... Key words: Acute toxicity, LC50, monocrotophos, profenofos, Oreochromis niloticus. INTRODUCTION. In order to reduce food shortage, according to the.

  3. Environmental behavior of the chiral insecticide fipronil: Enantioselective toxicity, distribution and transformation in aquatic ecosystem.

    Qu, Han; Ma, Rui-Xue; Liu, Dong-Hui; Gao, Jing; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Peng


    The enantioselective environmental behaviors of the chiral insecticide fipronil and its metabolites in lab-scale aquatic ecosystems were studied and the toxicity of fipronil enantiomers and the metabolites to non-target organisms Lemna minor (L. minor) and Anodonta woodiana (A. woodiana) was also investigated in this work. Water-sediment, water-L. minor, water-A. woodiana, and water-sediment-L. minor-A. woodiana ecosystems were set up and exposed to fipronil through a 90-day period. The results showed fipronil could be degraded significantly faster (half-life of 4.6 days) in the complex water-sediment-L. minor-A. woodiana ecosystem. A. woodiana played a crucial role in the dissipation of fipronil, and the microorganisms in the sediment also made great contribution to the degradation of fipronil in aquatic ecosystems. All the three metabolites fipronil desulfinyl, fipronil sulfide and fipronil sulfone were detected in the ecosystems and were more persistent than fipronil. Enantioselective degradation of fipronil was observed with S-fipronil being preferentially degraded in sediment and L. minor, while R-fipronil was metabolized preferentially in A. woodiana. EC50 for L. minor was obtained using 7-day exposure, and for A. woodiana was obtained using 72-h exposure. S-fipronil was more toxic to A. woodiana, while R-fipronil showed higher toxicity to L. minor. Moreover, the three metabolites were found more toxic than fipronil indicating significant environment risks due to their persistence. The present study might have important implications for the risk assessment of fipronil and its metabolites in real aquatic environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enantioselective toxicities of chiral ionic liquids 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium lactate to aquatic algae.

    Chen, Hui; Zou, Yuqin; Zhang, Lijuan; Wen, Yuezhong; Liu, Weiping


    With the wide application of chiral ionic liquids (CILs) as green solvents, their threats to the aquatic environment cannot be ignored. Thus, risk assessment and the prospective design of inherently safe CILs have become more urgent. However, whether enantioselectivity is a feature of the aquatic toxicity of CILs is poorly understood. Herein, we describe the first investigation into the ecotoxicities of CILs toward green algae Scenedesmus obliquus and Euglena gracilis. A series of methylimidazolium lactic ionic liquids, which cation parts with different alkyl chains and anion part is enantiomers of lactate, are used as representative CILs. The results of S. obliquus showed that the EC50 value of L-(+)-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium lactate (L-(+)-EMIM L) was more than 5000 μM, while the EC50 value of D-(-)-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium lactate (D-(-)-EMIM L) was 2255.21 μM. Such a distinct difference indicates the enantioselective toxicity of CILs to algae. This enantioselectivity initially persisted with increasing carbon chain length, but no longer exhibited when with greater carbon chain lengths, due to changes in the toxicity weightings of the cation parts. Further research showed that the enantioselective effects of CILs resulted from the differences in the production of reactive oxygen species, the damage to cell membrane integrity and cell wall after exposure to CILs. Results from this study showed that monitoring for the racemate CILs will give an inadequate or misleading environmental risk assessment. Thus, we should improve our ability to predict their effects in natural environments. In the meantime, non-selective use of CILs will do harm to aquatic organisms. Therefore, to minimize their potential for environmental impact, the enantioselective toxicities of CILs with short alkyl chains should be taken into consideration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Naphthenic acids degradation and toxicity mitigation in tailings wastewater systems and aquatic environments: a review.

    Kannel, Prakash R; Gan, Thian Y


    Naphthenic acids, NAs (classical formula C(n)H(2n+z)O(2), where n is the carbon numbers, z represents zero or negative even integers), found in oil sands process waters (OSPWs), are toxic to aquatic environments depending upon several factors such as pH, salinity, molecular size and chemical structure of NAs. Among various available methods, biodegradation seems to be generally the most cost-effective method for decreasing concentrations of NAs (n ≤ 21) and reducing their associated toxicity in OSPW, however the mechanism by which the biodegradation of NAs occurs are poorly understood. Ozonation is superior over biodegradation in decreasing higher molecular weight alkyl branched NAs (preferentially, n ≥ 22, -6 ≥ z ≥ -12) as well as enabling accelerated biodegradation and reducing toxicity. Photolysis (UV at 254 nm) is effective in cleaving higher molecular weight NAs into smaller fragments that will be easier for microorganisms to degrade, whereas photocatalysis can metabolize selective NAs (0 ≥ z ≥ -6) efficiently and minimize their associated toxicity. Phytoremediation is applicable for metabolizing specific NAs (O(2), O(3), O(4), and O(5) species) and minimizing their associated toxicities. Petroleum coke (PC) adsorption is effective in reducing the more structurally complex NAs (preferentially 12 ≥ n ≥ 18 and z = -10, -12) and their toxicity in OSPWs, depending upon the PC content, pH and temperature. Several factors have influence on the degradation of NAs in OSPWs and aquatic environments, which include molecular mass and chemical structure of NAs, sediment structure, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, and bacteria types.

  6. Development and application of a multimetal multibiotic ligand model for assessing aquatic toxicity of metal mixtures.

    Santore, Robert C; Ryan, Adam C


    A multimetal, multiple binding site version of the biotic ligand model (mBLM) has been developed for predicting and explaining the bioavailability and toxicity of mixtures of metals to aquatic organisms. The mBLM was constructed by combining information from single-metal BLMs to preserve compatibility between the single-metal and multiple-metal approaches. The toxicities from individual metals were predicted by assuming additivity of the individual responses. Mixture toxicity was predicted based on both dissolved metal and mBLM-normalized bioavailable metal. Comparison of the 2 prediction methods indicates that metal mixtures frequently appear to have greater toxicity than an additive estimation of individual effects on a dissolved metal basis. However, on an mBLM-normalized basis, mixtures of metals appear to be additive or less than additive. This difference results from interactions between metals and ligands in solutions including natural organic matter, processes that are accounted for in the mBLM. As part of the mBLM approach, a technique for considering variability was developed to calculate confidence bounds (called response envelopes) around the central concentration-response relationship. Predictions using the mBLM and response envelope were compared with observed toxicity for a number of invertebrate and fish species. The results show that the mBLM is a useful tool for considering bioavailability when assessing the toxicity of metal mixtures.

  7. Amiodarone-induced acute lung toxicity in an ICU setting.

    Skroubis, G; Skroubis, T; Galiatsou, E; Metafratzi, Z; Karahaliou, A; Kitsakos, A; Nakos, G


    Amiodarone is a highly effective antiarrhythmic drug, albeit notorious for its serious pulmonary toxicity. The incidence of amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity (APT) appears to be 1% per year (1). We report a case of very acute APT in a man suffering from postoperative atrial fibrillation.

  8. 40 CFR 799.9120 - TSCA acute dermal toxicity.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true TSCA acute dermal toxicity. 799.9120 Section 799.9120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES...) Preparations. Healthy young adult animals are acclimatized to the laboratory conditions for at least 5...

  9. 40 CFR 799.9110 - TSCA acute oral toxicity.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true TSCA acute oral toxicity. 799.9110 Section 799.9110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... Part 792—Good Laboratory Practice Standards. (3) Test procedures—(i) Preparations. Healthy young...

  10. Arsenic toxicity in mammals and aquatic animals: a comparative biochemical approach.

    Ventura-Lima, Juliane; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Monserrat, José M


    Arsenic (As) is a widespread pollutant in the world and its toxicity is related to its chemical form, with inorganic forms being considered more toxic than the organic form, and huge differences in effects and processes of metabolism. This paper reviews the potential biochemical mechanisms of uptake of arsenic by aquaporins, capacity for metabolism and cellular efflux of As. It is known that As can affect signaling pathways since it can activate proteins such as ERK2, p38 and JNK, as shown in mammals. A comparison between phosphorylation sites of these proteins is presented in order to determine whether the same effect triggered by As in mammals might be observed in aquatic animals. The toxicity resulting from As exposure is considered to be linked to an imbalance between pro-oxidant and antioxidant homeostasis that results in oxidative stress. So, present review analyzes examples of oxidative stress generation by arsenic. Biotransformation of As is a process where firstly the arsenate is converted into arsenite and then transformed into mono-, di-, and trimethylated products. In the methylation process, the role of the omega isoform of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) is discussed. In addition, a phylogenetic tree was constructed for aquaporin proteins of different species, including aquatic animals, taking into account their importance in trivalent arsenic uptake.

  11. Toxic effects of traditional Ethiopian fish poisoning plant Milletia ferruginea (Hochst) seed extract on aquatic macroinvertebrates.

    Karunamoorthi, K; Bishaw, D; Mulat, T


    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the toxic effects of traditional Ethiopian fish poisoning plant Birbira [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Milletia ferruginea] seed extract on aquatic macroinvertebrates, Baetidae (Mayflies) and Hydropsychidae (Caddisflies), under laboratory conditions. In Ethiopia, toxic plant; Milletia ferruginea pulverized seeds have been used for fish poisoning since time immemorial. Macroinvertebrates are important biological indicators of alteration in the natural water sources. Milletia ferruginea seed extract was applied at concentrations of 125, 250, 500 1000 and 2000 ppm on Hydropsychididae whereas Baetidae were exposed at various concentrations viz., 31.25, 62.5, 125, 250 & 500 ppm. Milletia ferruginea seeds crude extract of lethal doses (LCso and LC90) required for Baetidae 49.29 mg/l and 172.52 mg/l were respectively and the respective doses (LC50 and LC90) against Hydropsychidae were 679.64 mg/l and 2383.93 mg/l. The present investigation end result demonstrated that Milletia ferruginea seed extracts were extremely toxic to Baetidae than Hydropsychididae. As a result, application of Milletia ferruginea seed extracts into the rivers/streams for fish poisoning possibly leads to contamination and disruption of food chain in the aquatic ecosystem. Therefore, the concerned authorities should launch appropriate awareness campaign among the local inhabitants and fisherman about adverse effect of Birbira seed extracts. Furthermore, providing alternative ecofriendly techniques for fish harvesting may possibly bring constructive out come in the near future.

  12. Toxic Effects of Nickel Oxide Bulk and Nanoparticles on the Aquatic Plant Lemna gibba L.

    Abdallah Oukarroum


    Full Text Available The aquatic plant Lemna gibba L. was used to investigate and compare the toxicity induced by 30 nm nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO-NPs and nickel(II oxide as bulk (NiO-Bulk. Plants were exposed during 24 h to 0–1000 mg/L of NiO-NPs or NiO-Bulk. Analysis of physicochemical characteristics of nanoparticles in solution indicated agglomerations of NiO-NPs in culture medium and a wide size distribution was observed. Both NiO-NPs and NiO-Bulk caused a strong increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS formation, especially at high concentration (1000 mg/L. These results showed a strong evidence of a cellular oxidative stress induction caused by the exposure to NiO. Under this condition, NiO-NPs and NiO-Bulk induced a strong inhibitory effect on the PSII quantum yield, indicating an alteration of the photosynthetic electron transport performance. Under the experimental conditions used, it is clear that the observed toxicity impact was mainly due to NiO particles effect. Therefore, results of this study permitted determining the use of ROS production as an early biomarker of NiO exposure on the aquatic plant model L. gibba used in toxicity testing.

  13. Toxic effects of nickel oxide bulk and nanoparticles on the aquatic plant Lemna gibba L.

    Oukarroum, Abdallah; Barhoumi, Lotfi; Samadani, Mahshid; Dewez, David


    The aquatic plant Lemna gibba L. was used to investigate and compare the toxicity induced by 30 nm nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO-NPs) and nickel(II) oxide as bulk (NiO-Bulk). Plants were exposed during 24 h to 0-1000 mg/L of NiO-NPs or NiO-Bulk. Analysis of physicochemical characteristics of nanoparticles in solution indicated agglomerations of NiO-NPs in culture medium and a wide size distribution was observed. Both NiO-NPs and NiO-Bulk caused a strong increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, especially at high concentration (1000 mg/L). These results showed a strong evidence of a cellular oxidative stress induction caused by the exposure to NiO. Under this condition, NiO-NPs and NiO-Bulk induced a strong inhibitory effect on the PSII quantum yield, indicating an alteration of the photosynthetic electron transport performance. Under the experimental conditions used, it is clear that the observed toxicity impact was mainly due to NiO particles effect. Therefore, results of this study permitted determining the use of ROS production as an early biomarker of NiO exposure on the aquatic plant model L. gibba used in toxicity testing.

  14. The biotic ligand model approach for addressing effects of exposure water chemistry on aquatic toxicity of metals: Genesis and challenges

    A major uncertainty in many aquatic risk assessments for toxic chemicals is the aggregate effect of the physicochemical characteristics of exposure media on toxicity, and how this affects extrapolation of laboratory test results to natural systems. A notable example of this is h...

  15. The biotic ligand model approach for addressing effects of exposure water chemistry on aquatic toxicity of metals: Genesis and challenges

    A major uncertainty in many aquatic risk assessments for toxic chemicals is the aggregate effect of the physicochemical characteristics of exposure media on toxicity, and how this affects extrapolation of laboratory test results to natural systems. A notable example of this is h...

  16. Case Comparison of Response To Aquatic Exercise: Acute versus Chronic Conditions.

    Mobily, Kenneth E.; Mobily, Paula R.; Lessard, Kerry A.; Berkenpas, Molly S.


    Describes the effects of individualized aquatic exercise programs on people with knee impairments. An adolescent athlete with an acute injury demonstrated significant functional improvement. A 33-year-old with arthritis demonstrated only marginal progress. Comparison of cases relative to valid data collection methods and response to aquatic…

  17. Acute toxicity of mixture of acetaminophen and ibuprofen to Green Neon Shrimp, Neocaridina denticulate.

    Sung, Hung-Hung; Chiu, Yuh-Wen; Wang, Shu-Yin; Chen, Chien-Min; Huang, Da-Ji


    In recent years, numerous studies have indicated that various long-term use drugs, such as antibiotics or analgesics, not only cannot be completely decomposed via sewage treatment but also exhibit biological toxicity if they enter the environment; thus, the release of these drugs into the environment can damage ecological systems. This study sought to investigate the acute toxicity of two commonly utilized analgesics, ibuprofen (IBU) and acetaminophen (APAP), to aquatic organisms after these drugs have entered the water. To address this objective, the acute toxicity (median lethal concentration, LC₅₀, for a 96-h exposure) of IBU alone, APAP alone, and mixtures containing different ratios of IBU and APAP in green neon shrimp (Neocaridina denticulata) were measured. The results of four tests revealed that the 96-h LC₅₀ values for IBU and APAP alone were 6.07 mg/L and 6.60 mg/L, respectively. The 96-h LC₅₀ for a 1:1 mixture of IBU and APAP was 6.23 mg/L, and the toxicity of this mixture did not significantly differ from the toxicity of either drug alone (pneon shrimp.


    Zholobova I. S.


    Full Text Available In the work, we present the results of the investigation of acute toxicity of bio humates obtained by the method vermicultivation on laboratory animals. In the diets of farm animals and Pets to fill in the missing nutrients in the past years, we had an extensive use of various feed additives. Among them, mineral (macro - and micronutrients, protein and fat supplements, vitamins, biostimulants, complex natural compounds (sapropel, peat, synthetic products (enzymes, hormones, antibiotics, adaptogens, antioxidants. The search for new ways of improvement and increase of efficiency of agricultural animals using feed additives with high demands on ecology of meat and dairy foods naturally led to increased studies on the use in livestock farming of water-soluble alkaline salts of natural humic acids - humates. Their environmental safety and the unique ability to improve metabolism and increase energy cells very positively manifested in living organisms. Numerous studies Russian and foreign scientists installed a high efficiency natural humates as biostimulators and immunomodulators in animal husbandry and veterinary medicine. Accumulated extensive experimental material, proving that the use of humates leads to faster growth of animals, reducing morbidity and mortality, increase the body's resistance to toxins in feed and resistance to adverse environmental conditions. Improving with the help of humates ecological purity of the ecosystems "water — soil — plant", as well as the health of birds, animals and fish will ultimately lead to strengthen health and to prolong human life as a consumer of agricultural products. Currently, the livestock market is intensively increasing the humates produced in Russia and abroad from brown coal, peat, sapropel. A special place among them has been occupied by the newest formulations because of a unique combination of safety, efficiency, and value, which, thanks to its amazing properties to increase energy cells

  19. Acute toxicity of pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin to Hyalella azteca.

    Morrison, Shane A; McMurry, Scott T; Smith, Loren M; Belden, Jason B


    Fungicide application rates on row crop agriculture have increased across the United States, and subsequently, contamination of adjacent wetlands can occur through spray drift or field runoff. To investigate fungicide toxicity, Hyalella azteca amphipods were exposed to 2 fungicide formulations, Headline and Stratego, and their active strobilurin ingredients, pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin. Water-only exposures resulted in similar median lethal concentration (LC50; 20-25 µg/L) values for formulations and strobilurin ingredients, suggesting that toxicity is due to strobilurin ingredients. These values were below concentrations that could occur following spray drift over embedded cropland wetlands. When fungicides were added to overlying water of sediment-water microcosms, toxicity was reduced by 500% for Headline and 160% for Stratego, compared with water-only exposures, based on the total amount of fungicide added to the systems. In addition, when fungicides were added to sediment prior to the addition of water, the reduction in toxicity was even greater, with no toxicity occurring at environmentally relevant levels. Differences in toxicity among exposure groups were explained by dissipation from water as toxicity values based on measured water concentrations were within 20% between all systems. The present study reinforces previous studies that Headline and Stratego are toxic to nontarget aquatic organisms. However, the presence of sediment is likely to ameliorate some toxicity of fungicide formulations, especially if spraying occurs prior to wetland inundation.

  20. Toxicity assessment of arsenic and cobalt in the presence of aquatic humic substances of different molecular sizes.

    Watanabe, Cláudia Hitomi; Monteiro, Adnivia Santos Costa; Gontijo, Erik Sartori Jeunon; Lira, Vivian Silva; Bueno, Carolina de Castro; Kumar, Nirmal Tej; Fracácio, Renata; Rosa, André Henrique


    The release of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems can be influenced by humic acids. In this study, toxicity tests using environmentally relevant concentrations of arsenic and cobalt were conducted both in the presence and absence of aquatic humic substances (AHS) and the fractions of different molecular sizes in the range of (100kDa) using the microcrustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia. AHS together with arsenic reduced the toxicity, and the toxicity decreased in fractions of larger molecular size AHS. Despite the presence of cobalt, the reduction in toxicity was not observed and that depended on the molecular size of AHS. There was a trend of enhanced toxicity for Co in fractions of larger molecular sizes, opposed to that found for arsenic. Thus, the humic substances alter toxicity of trace elements, and this effect varies depending on the size of the humic substances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Using a holistic approach to assess the impact of engineered nanomaterials inducing toxicity in aquatic systems.

    He, Xiaojia; Aker, Winfred G; Leszczynski, Jerzy; Hwang, Huey-Min


    In this report, we critically reviewed selected intrinsic physicochemical properties of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and their role in the interaction of the ENMs with the immediate surroundings in representative aquatic environments. The behavior of ENMs with respect to dynamic microenvironments at the nano-bio-eco interface level, and the resulting impact on their toxicity, fate, and exposure potential are elaborated. Based on this literature review, we conclude that a holistic approach is urgently needed to fulfill our knowledge gap regarding the safety of discharged ENMs. This comparative approach affords the capability to recognize and understand the potential hazards of ENMs and their toxicity mechanisms, and ultimately to establish a quantitative and reliable system to predict such outcomes.

  2. Identifying the causes of oil sands coke leachate toxicity to aquatic invertebrates.

    Puttaswamy, Naveen; Liber, Karsten


    A previous study found that coke leachates (CL) collected from oil sands field sites were acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia; however, the cause of toxicity was not known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to generate CL in the laboratory to evaluate the toxicity response of C. dubia and perform chronic toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) tests to identify the causes of CL toxicity. Coke was subjected to a 15-d batch leaching process at pH 5.5 and 9.5. Leachates were filtered on day 15 and used for chemical and toxicological characterization. The 7-d median lethal concentration (LC50) was 6.3 and 28.7% (v/v) for pH 5.5 and 9.5 CLs, respectively. Trace element characterization of the CLs showed Ni and V levels to be well above their respective 7-d LC50s for C. dubia. Addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid significantly (p ≤ 0.05) improved survival and reproduction in pH 5.5 CL, but not in pH 9.5 CL. Cationic and anionic resins removed toxicity of pH 5.5 CL only. Conversely, the toxicity of pH 9.5 CL was completely removed with an anion resin alone, suggesting that the pH 9.5 CL contained metals that formed oxyanions. Toxicity reappeared when Ni and V were added back to anion resin-treated CLs. The TIE results combined with the trace element chemistry suggest that both Ni and V are the cause of toxicity in pH 5.5 CL, whereas V appears to be the primary cause of toxicity in pH 9.5 CL. Environmental monitoring and risk assessments should therefore focus on the fate and toxicity of metals, especially Ni and V, in coke-amended oil sands reclamation landscapes.

  3. Acute toxicity and toxic interaction of chromium and nickel to common guppy Poecilia reticulata (Peters)

    Khangarot, B.S.; Ray, P.K. (Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow (India))


    The acute toxicity of heavy metals in combination to the common guppy has been reported. Information on the combined effects of chromium and nickel to fish is rather scarce. Toxicity of nickel and chromium to fish is generally low. These two elements are usually less toxic than silver, cadmium, copper and thallium; depending on test conditions, these may also be less hazardous than zinc, lead and arsenic. The present study was undertaken to investigate the acute toxicity of Ni and Cr singly and the toxic interaction of these two metal ions on survival of the common guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Peters). This species was selected for static bioassays because it can be easily cultured and raised under laboratory conditions through a complete life cycle, and it is one of the most common fish used for laboratory toxicity studies.

  4. Non-infectious chemotherapy-associated acute toxicities during childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Müller, Klaus; Mogensen, Signe Sloth; Mogensen, Pernille Rudebeck; Wolthers, Benjamin Ole; Stoltze, Ulrik Kristoffer; Tuckuviene, Ruta; Frandsen, Thomas


    During chemotherapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, all organs can be affected by severe acute side effects, the most common being opportunistic infections, mucositis, central or peripheral neuropathy (or both), bone toxicities (including osteonecrosis), thromboembolism, sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, endocrinopathies (especially steroid-induced adrenal insufficiency and hyperglycemia), high-dose methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity, asparaginase-associated hypersensitivity, pancreatitis, and hyperlipidemia. Few of the non-infectious acute toxicities are associated with clinically useful risk factors, and across study groups there has been wide diversity in toxicity definitions, capture strategies, and reporting, thus hampering meaningful comparisons of toxicity incidences for different leukemia protocols. Since treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia now yields 5-year overall survival rates above 90%, there is a need for strategies for assessing the burden of toxicities in the overall evaluation of anti-leukemic therapy programs. PMID:28413626

  5. Acute and chronic toxicity of the benzoylurea pesticide, lufenuron, in the fish, Colossoma macropomum.

    Rafaela Leão Soares, Priscila; Lucas Corrêa de Andrade, André; Pinheiro Santos, Thamiris; Caroline Barros Lucas da Silva, Stephannie; Freitas da Silva, Jadson; Rodrigues Dos Santos, Amanda; Hugo Lima da Silva Souza, Elton; Magliano da Cunha, Franklin; Wanderley Teixeira, Valéria; Sales Cadena, Marilia Ribeiro; Bezerra de Sá, Fabrício; Bezerra de Carvalho Júnior, Luiz; Gonçalves Cadena, Pabyton


    Lufenuron is a benzoylurea insecticide that interfere in chitin synthesis in insects. Although lufenuron is widely used in agriculture and aquaculture, rare are studies described that relates to possible toxic effects in fish. This work aimed to evaluate acute and chronic toxic effects of benzoylurea pesticide (lufenuron) on biological parameters of Colossoma macropomum (Tambaqui). In the acute test, juveniles of Tambaqui were divided into control group and five experimental groups with exposure from 0.1 to 0.9 mg/L of lufenuron for 96 h. Animals were also submitted to chronic toxicity test for four months in concentrations of 0.1 and 0.3 mg/L of lufenuron, the concentration used in the treatment of ectoparasites in fish and 50% of LC50 96 h, respectively. The presence of hemorrhages was observed in eyes, fins and operculum of fish exposed to 0.7 and 0.9 mg/L of lufenuron. Histological analysis showed changes in the morphology of fish gills submitted to acute toxicity test, as lamellar aneurysm and blood congestion inside lamellae. Lufenuron promoted damage in fish retina as in ability to respond to stimuli in photoreceptors and in ON-bipolar cells in acute test. In chronic test, blood glucose analysis and morphometric parameters showed no significant differences (p > 0.05). In general, Tambaqui exhibited behaviors associated with stress when exposed to lufenuron. Thus, lufenuron showed several toxic effects in relation to biological parameters in Tambaqui. This concerns about the use and discard of lufenuron, and indicates the requirement of environmental actions to prevent potential contamination of aquatic biota.

  6. Acute toxicity of fire control chemicals to Daphnia magna (Straus) and Selenastrum capricornutum (Printz).

    McDonald, S F; Hamilton, S J; Buhl, K J; Heisinger, J F


    Acute toxicity tests were conducted exposing Daphnia magna Straus (daphnid) in soft and hard reconstituted waters (hardness 42 and 162 mg/liter as CaCO3, respectively), and Selenastrum capricornutum Printz (algae) in ASTM algal assay medium (hardness 15 mg/liter as CaCO3) to fire retardants Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F, and foam suppressants Phos-Check WD-881 and Silv-Ex. The chemicals were slightly toxic to practically harmless to daphnids and moderately toxic to algae. Water quality did not consistently alter the toxicity of the test chemicals to daphnids. The most toxic chemical to daphnids was Silv-Ex (48-hr EC50 7 mg/liter in soft and hard waters), whereas the least toxic chemical to daphnids was Fire-Trol LCG-R (48-hr EC50 848 mg/liter in soft water, 813 mg/liter in hard water). The most toxic chemical to algae was Fire-Trol LCG-R (96-hr IC50 10 mg/liter), and the least toxic chemical was Phos-Chek D75-F (96-hr IC50 79 mg/liter). Un-ionized ammonia concentrations near the EC50 or IC50 value in tests with the Fire-Trol compounds were frequently equal to or above reported LC50 un-ionized ammonia concentrations. Un-ionized ammonia concentrations in tests with Phos-Chek D75-F were low, thus other toxic components present in the compounds probably contributed to the toxicity. When compared to the daphnids tested in ASTM soft water, the Fire-Trol compounds were most toxic to algae, whereas Phos-Chek D75-F and the foam suppressants were most toxic to daphnids. The results of these tests are comparable to those obtained from research conducted in other laboratories with the same species and similar chemicals. Accidental entry of fire-fighting chemicals into aquatic environments could adversely affect algae and aquatic invertebrates, thus disrupting ecosystem function.

  7. Unexpected toxicity to aquatic organisms of some aqueous bisphenol A samples treated by advanced oxidation processes.

    Tišler, Tatjana; Erjavec, Boštjan; Kaplan, Renata; Şenilă, Marin; Pintar, Albin


    In this study, photocatalytic and catalytic wet-air oxidation (CWAO) processes were used to examine removal efficiency of bisphenol A from aqueous samples over several titanate nanotube-based catalysts. Unexpected toxicity of bisphenol A (BPA) samples treated by means of the CWAO process to some tested species was determined. In addition, the CWAO effluent was recycled five- or 10-fold in order to increase the number of interactions between the liquid phase and catalyst. Consequently, the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis indicated higher concentrations of some toxic metals like chromium, nickel, molybdenum, silver, and zinc in the recycled samples in comparison to both the single-pass sample and the photocatalytically treated solution. The highest toxicity of five- and 10-fold recycled solutions in the CWAO process was observed in water fleas, which could be correlated to high concentrations of chromium, nickel, and silver detected in tested samples. The obtained results clearly demonstrated that aqueous samples treated by means of advanced oxidation processes should always be analyzed using (i) chemical analyses to assess removal of BPA and total organic carbon from treated aqueous samples, as well as (ii) a battery of aquatic organisms from different taxonomic groups to determine possible toxicity.

  8. Toxicity of the fluoroquinolone antibiotics enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin to photoautotrophic aquatic organisms.

    Ebert, Ina; Bachmann, Jean; Kühnen, Ute; Küster, Anette; Kussatz, Carola; Maletzki, Dirk; Schlüter, Christoph


    The present study investigated the growth inhibition effect of the fluoroquinolone antibiotics enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin on four photoautotrophic aquatic species: the freshwater microalga Desmodesmus subspicatus, the cyanobacterium Anabaena flos-aquae, the monocotyledonous macrophyte Lemna minor, and the dicotyledonous macrophyte Myriophyllum spicatum. Both antibiotics, which act by inhibiting the bacterial DNA gyrase, demonstrated high toxicity to A. flos-aquae and L. minor and moderate to slight toxicity to D. subspicatus and M. spicatum. The cyanobacterium was the most sensitive species with median effective concentration (EC50) values of 173 and 10.2 µg/L for enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, respectively. Lemna minor proved to be similarly sensitive, with EC50 values of 107 and 62.5 µg/L for enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, respectively. While enrofloxacin was more toxic to green algae, ciprofloxacin was more toxic to cyanobacteria. Calculated EC50s for D. subspicatus were 5,568 µg/L and >8,042 µg/L for enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, respectively. These data, as well as effect data from the literature, were compared with predicted and reported environmental concentrations. For two of the four species, a risk was identified at ciprofloxacin concentrations found in surface waters, sewage treatment plant influents and effluents, as well as in hospital effluents. For ciprofloxacin the results of the present study indicate a risk even at the predicted environmental concentration. In contrast, for enrofloxacin no risk was identified at predicted and measured concentrations.

  9. Use of the aquatic plant Elodea canadensis to assess toxicity and genotoxicity of Yenisei River sediments.

    Zotina, Tatiana A; Trofimova, Elena A; Medvedeva, Marina Yu; Dementyev, Dmitry V; Bolsunovsky, Alexander Ya


    The toxicity, cytotoxicity, and genotoxicity of bulk sediments from the Yenisei River (Siberia, Russia) were estimated in laboratory bioassays based on several endpoints in the aquatic plant Elodea canadensis. The bottom sediment samples were collected in the Yenisei River upstream and downstream of the sources of chemical and radioactive contamination. The testing revealed different sensitivities of Elodea endpoints to the quality of the bottom sediment: weight of shoots Elodea) was the highest in sediments with chemical pollution, whereas the highest inhibition of toxicity endpoints (shoot and root length) occurred in sediments with the highest level of radioactive pollution. The extreme response of Elodea endpoints to the quality of certain sediment samples may be regarded as related to the possible presence of unknown toxicants. The results show that E. canadensis can be used as an indicator species in laboratory contact testing of bottom sediment. The responses of shoot and root length growth endpoints of Elodea can be recommended as basic sensitivity indicators of bottom sediment toxicity. Analysis of cells carrying abnormal chromosomes in the apical root meristem of Elodea can be performed optionally in the same test to assess the genotoxicity of sediments.

  10. Biodegradation and aquatic toxicity of surfactants. Kaimen kasseizai no seibunkaisei oyobi suisei seibutsu ni taisuru tokusei

    Kikuchi, M. (The Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection, Tokyo (Japan))


    This paper describes biodegradation, toxicity, and harmfulness to aquatic life of surfactants as starting materials for household synthetic detergents. The JIS and the chemicals examination law determine that linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) has good biodegradation, which is removed at a rate of more than 90% in sewage treatment plants as a methylene blue activated substance (MBAS). Too high concentration in a biodegradable surfactant makes decomposition more difficult to occur. A homolog with larger number of carbons in the alkyl group in LAS and an isomer attached with sulfophenyl groups are decomposed more preferentially. The larger the number of carbons in LAS, the toxicity becomes stronger. Increase in hardness of test water increases the toxicity. Rainbow trouts, exposed to surfactants for an extended period of time, emerge with the effect therefrom at lower concentrations. The effect of the toxicity varies depending on difference in growth stages and types of fishes. Algae get their growth impaired at higher concentrations, but may get it accelerated on occasion at lower concentrations. Fishes show changes in motion and in such a structure as gills. 31 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Review of Quantitative Structure - Activity Relationships for Acute Mammalian Toxicity

    Iglika Lessigiarska


    Full Text Available This paper reviews Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR models for acute mammalian toxicity published in the last decade. A number of QSAR models based on cytotoxicity data from mammalian cell lines are also included because of their possible use as a surrogate system for predicting acute toxicity to mammals. On the basis of the review, the following conclusions can be made: i a relatively small number of models for in vivo toxicity are published in the literature. This is due to the nature of the endpoint - acute systemic toxicity is usually related to whole body phenomena and therefore is very complex. The complexity of the mechanisms involved leads to difficulties in the QSAR modelling; ii most QSAR models identify hydrophobicity as a parameter of high importance for the modelled toxicity. In addition, many models indicate the role of the electronic and steric effects; iii most of the literature-based models are restricted to single chemical classes. Models based on more heterogeneous data sets are those incorporated in expert systems. In general, the QSAR models for mammalian toxicity identified in this review are considered useful for investigating the mechanisms of toxicity of defined chemical classes. However, for predictive purposes in the regulatory assessment of chemicals most of the models require additional information to satisfy internationally agreed validation principles. In addition, the development of new models covering larger chemical domains would be useful for the regulatory assessment of chemicals.

  12. The relationship between metal toxicity and biotic ligand binding affinities in aquatic and soil organisms: a review.

    Ardestani, Masoud M; van Straalen, Nico M; van Gestel, Cornelis A M


    The biotic ligand model (BLM) is a theoretical, potentially mechanistic approach to assess metal bioavailability in soil and aquatic systems. In a BLM, toxicity is linked to the fraction of biotic ligand occupied, which in turn, depends on the various components of the solution, including activity of the metal. Bioavailability is a key factor in determining toxicity and uptake of metals in organisms. In this study, the present status of BLM development for soil and aquatic organisms is summarized. For all species and all metals, toxicity was correlated with the conditional biotic ligand binding constants. For almost all organisms, values for Ag, Cu, and Cd were higher than those for Zn and Ni. The constants derived for aquatic systems seem to be equally valid for soil organisms, but in the case of soils, bioavailability from the soil solution is greatly influenced by the presence of the soil solid phase.

  13. Investigation of Acute Toxicity Diazinon, Deltamethrin, Butachlor and pretilachlor on Zebra Cichlid (Cryptoheros nigrofasciatus

    Ali Sadeghi


    Full Text Available Background: The presence of pesticide due to the huge demand for agricultural purposes is very prevalent in surface waters of Iran. These pesticides could finally accumulate in aquatic ecosystems and have been proved to have toxic effects on aquatic animals. The aim of this study was to assess the acute toxicity of Diazinon, Deltamethrin, Butachlor and Pretilachlor on Zebra Cichlid (Cryptoheros nigrofasciatus. Methods: Fish samples were exposed to different concentrations of Diazinon (60% (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 ppm, Deltamethrin (2.5% (0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.10, 0.20 and 0.40 ppm, butachlor (60% (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 ppm and pretilachlor (50% (0, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 ppm for 96 h within the 100 L glass aquaria and cumulative mortality of Zebra Cichlid fish was calculated in 24-h interval. Results: The very low LC50 obtained for diazinon (5.06±0.37 ppm, deltamethrin (0.15±0.39 ppm, butachlor (8.93±0.26 ppm and pretilachlor (20.72±0.58 ppm indicated that these are highly toxic chemicals. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that deltamethrin and pretilachlor had the lowest and highest rate of mortality on the Zebra Cichlid respectively.

  14. Acute Toxicity of a Heavy Metal Cadmium to an Anuran, the Indian Skipper Frog Rana cyanophlyctis

    Ajai Kumar Srivastav


    Full Text Available Background: There has been increasing awareness throughout the world regarding the remarkable decrease in amphibian population. For such amphibian population decline several causes have been given. Cadmium, a heavy metal is released both from natural sources (leaching of cadmium rich soils and anthropogenic activities to the aquatic and terrestrial environments. This study evaluated the toxicity of heavy metal cadmium to Indian skipper frog Rana cyanophlyctis. Methods: For the determination of LC50 values for cadmium, four-day static renewal acute toxicity test was used. Five replicates each containing ten frogs were subjected to each concentration of cadmium chloride (15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 mg/L. At different exposure periods (24, 48, 72 and 96 h, the mortality of the frog was subjected to Probit analysis with the POLO-PC software (LeOra Software to calculate the LC50 and 95% confidence level. Results: The LC50 values of cadmium chloride for the frog R. cyanophlyctis at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h are 32.586, 29.994, 27.219 and 23.048 mg/L, respectively. The results have been discussed with the toxicity reported for other aquatic vertebrate --fish. Conclusion: Cadmium caused mortality to the frog and this could be one of the reasons for population decline of frogs which inhabit water contaminated with heavy metals.

  15. Acute toxicity of organic solvents on Artemia salina

    Barahona-Gomariz, M.V.; Sanz-Barrera, F.; Sanchez-Fortun, S. (Complutense Univ. of Madrid (Spain))


    Organic solvents can make their way into the environment as industrial wastes and components of pesticide formulation. In laboratory bioassays, the use of organic formulations. In laboratory bioassays, the use of organic solvents is often unavoidable, since many pesticides and organic pollutants have low water solubility and must be dissolved in organic solvents prior to addition into experimental systems. In the toxicant bioassays, invertebrates with special reference to aquatic arthropod species are of recent interest as test models due to the need for developing nonmammalian test systems. Toxic effects of organic solvents have been tested with a few aquatic species, but information on the comparative toxicity of solvents towards Artemia salina is not available. Artemia salina have, within recent years, gained popularity as test organisms for short-term toxicity testing. Because Artemia salina exhibit rapid development and growth within 48 hr after hatch, their potential as a model organism for toxicology screening has been considered. To do this, synchronous populations of Artemia salina at different development intervals must be available.

  16. Acute Toxicity Comparison of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Various Freshwater Organisms

    Eun Kyung Sohn


    Full Text Available While the commercialization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs is rapidly expanding, the environmental impact of this nanomaterial is not well understood. Therefore, the present study evaluates the acute aquatic toxicity of SWCNTs towards two freshwater microalgae (Raphidocelis subcapitata and Chlorella vulgaris, a microcrustacean (Daphnia magna, and a fish (Oryzias latipes based on OECD test guidelines (201, 202, and 203. According to the results, the SWCNTs inhibited the growth of the algae R. subcapitata and C. vulgaris with a median effective concentration (EC50 of 29.99 and 30.96 mg/L, respectively, representing “acute category 3” in the Globally Harmonized System (GHS of classification and labeling of chemicals. Meanwhile, the acute toxicity test using O. latipes and D. magna did not show any mortality/immobilizing effects up to a concentration of 100.00 mg/L SWCNTs, indicating no hazard category in the GHS classification. In conclusion, SWCNTs were found to induce acute ecotoxicity in freshwater microalgae, yet not in D. magna and medaka fish.

  17. Low malathion concentrations influence metabolism in Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae in acute and chronic toxicity tests

    Débora Rebechi


    Full Text Available Low malathion concentrations influence metabolism in Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae in acute and chronic toxicity tests. Organophosphate compounds are used in agro-systems, and in programs to control pathogen vectors. Because they are continuously applied, organophosphates often reach water sources and may have an impact on aquatic life. The effects of acute and chronic exposure to the organophosphate insecticide malathion on the midge Chironomus sancticaroli are evaluated. To that end, three biochemical biomarkers, acetylcholinesterase (AChE, alpha (EST-α and beta (EST-β esterase were used. Acute bioassays with five concentrations of malathion, and chronic bioassays with two concentrations of malathion were carried out. In the acute exposure test, AChE, EST-α and EST-β activities declined by 66, 40 and 37%, respectively, at 0.251 µg L-1 and more than 80% at 1.37, 1.96 and 2.51 µg L-1. In chronic exposure tests, AChE and EST-α activities declined by 28 and 15% at 0.251 µg L-1. Results of the present study show that low concentrations of malathion can influence larval metabolism, indicating high toxicity for Chironomus sancticaroli and environmental risk associated with the use of organophosphates.

  18. Acute toxicity comparison of single-walled carbon nanotubes in various freshwater organisms.

    Sohn, Eun Kyung; Chung, Young Shin; Johari, Seyed Ali; Kim, Tae Gyu; Kim, Jin Kwon; Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Yong Hwa; Kang, Sung Wook; Yu, Il Je


    While the commercialization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is rapidly expanding, the environmental impact of this nanomaterial is not well understood. Therefore, the present study evaluates the acute aquatic toxicity of SWCNTs towards two freshwater microalgae (Raphidocelis subcapitata and Chlorella vulgaris), a microcrustacean (Daphnia magna), and a fish (Oryzias latipes) based on OECD test guidelines (201, 202, and 203). According to the results, the SWCNTs inhibited the growth of the algae R. subcapitata and C. vulgaris with a median effective concentration (EC50) of 29.99 and 30.96 mg/L, respectively, representing "acute category 3" in the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) of classification and labeling of chemicals. Meanwhile, the acute toxicity test using O. latipes and D. magna did not show any mortality/immobilizing effects up to a concentration of 100.00 mg/L SWCNTs, indicating no hazard category in the GHS classification. In conclusion, SWCNTs were found to induce acute ecotoxicity in freshwater microalgae, yet not in D. magna and medaka fish.

  19. The acute toxic effects of imidazolium-based ionic liquids with different alkyl-chain lengths and anions on zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Zhang, Cheng; Zhu, Lusheng; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Zhou, Tongtong; Xu, Yaqi; Cheng, Chao


    With the increasing applications of ionic liquids (ILs), the toxicity of ILs has drawn increasing attention in recent years, especially the influences of different anions and alkyl-chain lengths on the acute toxicity to aquatic organisms. We performed a study on the acute toxicity of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate ([Cnmim]NO3 (n=2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12)), 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium ILs ([C6mim]R (R=Cl(-), Br(-), BF4(-), PF6(-))) to zebrafish (Danio rerio). We also evaluated the sensibility of the investigated animals and the stability of ILs in water via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, Agilent 1260, Agilent Technologies Inc., USA) to prove the reliability of the present study. The results illustrated that the test zebrafish (Danio rerio) were sensitive to the reference toxicant and that the investigated ILs in water were stable. The 50% lethal concentration (LC50) was used to represent the acute toxicity to zebrafish (Danio rerio). The present study showed that the highest toxic IL is [C12mim]NO3 and the lowest toxic IL is [C2mim]NO3 on Danio rerio. The LC50s for ILs with different anions had similar values. Accordingly, we believe that ILs with different alkyl-chain lengths cause greater effects than other anions on acute toxicity to aquatic organisms. Furthermore, the present study can also provide scientific methods for future studies to select and assess ILs.

  20. Comparison of R-metalaxyl and rac-metalaxyl in acute, chronic, and sublethal effect on aquatic organisms: Daphnia magna, Scenedesmus quadricanda, and Danio rerio.

    Yao, Kun; Zhu, Lin; Duan, Zhenghua; Chen, Zhongzhi; Li, Yan; Zhu, Xiaoshan


    Chiral pesticides are used widely in the world, and at present, older racemic products are being replaced by enantiopure products because of accelerated development of asymmetry synthesis techniques. Pesticides as xenobiotic released into environment impose a great stress on nontarget organisms. Although it is a necessary procedure for pesticides to have a registration based on toxicological data from nontarget organism, until now ecological risk assessment about metalaxyl only depend on racemic products. Hence, we investigated the acute, chronic, and sublethal toxicity of R-metalaxy and rac-metalaxyl on aquatic organisms such as D. magna (Daphnia magna), algae (Scenedesmus quadricanda), and adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). The results showed a significant difference in toxicity between R-metalaxyl and rac-metalaxyl. R-Metalaxy was about 20-fold more toxic to algae than rac-metalaxyl with IC(50) of 222.89 +/- 1.18 mg/L and 19.95 +/- 1.12 mg/L, respectively. Similarly, R-metalaxyl was about fourfold toxic to D. magna than rac-metalaxyl according to the individual 24-h-LC(50) values, and sixfold toxic than rac-metalaxyl based on 24-h-EC(50) values. In the light of 48-h-LC(50) and EC(50), this difference in toxicity was more significant. As for adult zebrafish, there was no pronounced difference in acute toxicity, in addition, at sublethal level a different pattern in inducing Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity between them was found. In general, R-metalaxyl seemed more toxic to aquatic organisms than rac-metalaxyl. Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Aquatic toxicity of dyes before and after photo-Fenton treatment.

    de Luna, Luis A V; da Silva, Thiago H G; Nogueira, Raquel F Pupo; Kummrow, Fábio; Umbuzeiro, Gisela A


    This study evaluated the ecotoxicity of five dyes to freshwater organisms before and during their photo-Fenton degradation. EC50 (48h) of the five tested dyes ranged from of 6.9 to >1000mgL(-1) for Daphnia similis. In the chronic tests IC50 (72h) varied from 65 to >100mgL(-1) for Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and IC50 (8 days) from 0.5 to 410mgL(-1) for Ceriodaphnia dubia. Toxicity tests revealed that although the applied treatment was effective for decolorization of the dye, the partial mineralization may be responsible for the presence of degradation products which can be either more toxic than the original dye, as is the case of Vat Green 3 and Reactive Black 5, lead to initially toxic products which may be further degraded to non toxic products (acid Orange 7 and Food Red 17), or generate non toxic products as in the case of Food Yellow 3. The results highlighted the importance of assessing both acute and chronic toxicity tests of treated sample before effluent discharge.

  2. A mechanism for acute aluminium toxicity in fish.

    Exley, C; Chappell, J S; Birchall, J D


    Aluminium is acutely toxic to fish in acid waters. The gill is the principal target organ and death is due to a combination of ionoregulatory, osmoregulatory and respiratory dysfunction. The toxic mechanism has hitherto received little direct consideration and is unknown. In this paper the mechanism of acute aluminium toxicity is approached from a chemical perspective. Symptomatic evidence of toxicity is taken from the literature and combined with our own research to elucidate a biochemically sound model to describe a possible mechanism of acute aluminium toxicity in fish. The proposed model delineates the chemical conditions immediately adjacent to the gill surface and emphasizes their importance in aluminium's toxic mode of action. The mechanism is shown to be bipartite. Aluminium binding to functional groups both apically located at the gill surface and intracellularly located within lamellar epithelial cells disrupts the barrier properties of the gill epithelium. The concomitant iono- and osmoregulatory dysfunction results in accelerated cell necrosis, sloughing and death of the fish. The mechanism of epithelial cell death is proposed as a general mechanism of aluminium-induced accelerated cell death.

  3. Ceriodaphnia dubia as a potential bio-indicator for assessing acute aluminum oxide nanoparticle toxicity in fresh water environment.

    Sunandan Pakrashi

    Full Text Available Growing nanomaterials based consumer applications have raised concerns about their potential release into the aquatic ecosystems and the consequent toxicological impacts. So environmental monitoring of the nanomaterials in aqueous systems becomes imperative. The current study reveals the potential of Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia as a bio-indicator for aluminum oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water aquatic ecosystem where it occupies an important ecological niche as a primary consumer. This study aims to investigate the aluminium oxide nanoparticle induced acute toxicity on Ceriodaphnia dubia in a freshwater system. The bioavailability of the aluminum oxide nanoparticles has been studied with respect to their aggregation behavior in the system and correlated with the toxicity endpoints. The oxidative stress generated by the particles contributed greatly toward their toxicity. The crucial role of leached aluminium ion mediated toxicity in the later phases (48 h and 72 h in conjunction with the effects from the nano-sized particles in the initial phases (24 h puts forth the dynamics of nanotoxicity in the test system. The internalization of nanoparticles (both gross and systemic uptake as substantiated through the transmission electron microscopy (TEM and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectral (ICP-OES analysis was another major contributor toward acute toxicity. Concluding the present study, Ceriodaphnia dubia can be a promising candidate for bio-monitoring the aluminium oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water system.

  4. Comparative Aquatic Toxicity of Gold Nanoparticles and Ionic Gold Using a Species Sensitivity Distribution Approach

    Tarryn L. Botha


    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles (nAu are used in drug delivery systems allowing for targeted cellular distribution. The effects of increased use and release of nanoparticles into the environment are not well known. A species sensitivity distribution (SSD allows for the ecotoxicological hazard assessment of a chemical based on single species toxicity tests. Aquatic toxicity needs to be related to particle characterization in order to understand the effects. The behaviour of nAu in the medium changed as the concentration increased. The toxic potential of ionic gold and nAu was expressed as a hazardous concentration where 5% of species will be harmed (HC5. The HC5 for nAu was much higher (42.78 mg/L compared to the ionic gold (2.44 mg/L. The differences between the hazard potentials of nAu and ionic gold were attributed to the nAu not releasing any Au ions into solution during the exposures and following an aggregation theory response. Exposures to ionic gold on the other hand followed a clear dose dependent response based on the concentration of the ionic metal. Although SSDs present an indication of the relative hazard potential of nanoparticles, the true worth can only be achieved once other nanoparticle characteristics and their behavior in the environment are also considered.

  5. Acute and Sub-Acute Toxicity Evaluation of the Methanolic Extract of Alstonia scholaris Stem Bark

    Idris Bello


    Full Text Available Alstonia scholaris has been used by traditional medicine practitioners since the medieval ages for the treatment of diseases. The aim of this research was to evaluate the acute and sub-acute oral toxicity of its methanolic extract. The acute toxicity test was conducted using Sprague Dawley (SD rats. The methanolic extract of Alstonia scholaris stem bark (ASME was administrated in a single dose of 2000 mg/kg via oral gavage; and the animals were observed for any behavioral changes or mortality. In the sub-acute toxicity study, SD rats received three doses of ASME (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg for 28 days via oral gavage. During these 28 days of treatment, the rats were observed weekly for toxicity symptoms. Following the 28-day treatment, the rats were sacrificed for hematological, biochemical and histopathology studies. In the acute toxicity study, Alstonia scholaris was found to be non-toxic at a dose of 2000 mg/kg b.w. In the sub-acute toxicity study, significant variations in body weight, hematological and biochemical parameters were observed in the experimental groups at the dose of 500 and 1000 mg/kg with the death of two female rats being recorded at the highest dose (1000 mg/kg b.w.. Histopathological studies revealed slight degeneration (lesion and centrilobular necrosis in the liver, which was most expressed in the highest-dose group. These results demonstrate that, while a single dose and short term oral intake of Alstonia scholaris bark extract caused no toxicity up to a dose of 2000 mg/kg b.w., toxic effects manifested in the long term treatment at the highest dose (500 and 1000 mg/kg. The long-term toxic effect was found to be associated with alterations in hematological compositions and end-organ damage to the liver. Thus, prolonged use of high doses of ASME orally should be discouraged and lower doses encouraged.

  6. The impact of size on the fate and toxicity of nanoparticulate silver in aquatic systems.

    Angel, Brad M; Batley, Graeme E; Jarolimek, Chad V; Rogers, Nicola J


    The increased use of silver nanomaterials presents a risk to aquatic systems due to the high toxicity of silver. The stability, dissolution rates and toxicity of citrate- and polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were investigated in synthetic freshwater and natural seawater media, with the effects of natural organic matter investigated in freshwater. When sterically stabilised by the large PVP molecules, AgNPs were more stable than when charge-stabilised using citrate, and were even relatively stable in seawater. In freshwater and seawater, citrate-coated AgNPs (Ag-Cit) had a faster rate of dissolution than PVP-coated AgNPs (Ag-PVP), while micron-sized silver exhibited the slowest dissolution rate. However, similar dissolved silver was measured for both AgNPs after 72h in freshwater (500-600μgL(-1)) and seawater (1300-1500μgL(-1)), with higher concentrations in seawater attributed to chloride complexation. When determined on a mass basis, the 72-h IC50 (inhibitory concentration giving 50% reduction in algal growth rate) for Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Phaeodactylum tricornutum and the 48-h LC50 for Ceriodaphnia dubia exposure to Ag(+) (1.1, 400 and 0.11μgL(-1), respectively), Ag-Cit (3.0, 2380 and 0.15μgL(-1), respectively) and Ag-PVP (19.5, 3690 and 2.0μgL(-1), respectively) varied widely, with toxicity in the order Ag(+)>Ag-Cit>Ag-PVP. Micron-sized silver treatments elicited much lower toxicity than ionic Ag(+) or AgNP to P. subcapitata. However, when related to the dissolved silver released from the nanoparticles the toxicities were similar to ionic silver treatments. The presence of natural organic matter stabilised the particles and reduced toxicity in freshwater. These results indicate that dissolved silver was responsible for the toxicity and highlight the need to account for matrix components such as chloride and organic matter in natural waters that influence AgNP fate and mitigate toxicity.

  7. Butachlor-induced acute toxic hepatitis.

    Daryani, Nasser Ebrahimi; Hosseini, Parviz; Bashashati, Mohammad; Haidarali, Mona; Sayyah, Alireza


    Butachlor is a highly effective herbicidal substance widely used by farmers. We report a 60-year-old man with exfoliative dermatitis, jaundice, increase in liver enzymes and eosinophilia one day after accidental dermal exposure to butachlor toxin. The diagnostic workup showed no other cause and liver histology was consistent with substance-induced toxic hepatitis. Within two weeks of conservative therapy, his liver function tests returned to normal.

  8. Comparative Toxicity Assessment of Nanosilver on Three Daphnia Species in Acute, Chronic and Multi-Generation Experiments

    Völker, Carolin; Boedicker, Cathinka; Daubenthaler, Jan; Oetken, Matthias; Oehlmann, Jörg


    The antibacterial properties of nanosilver have led to a versatile application spectrum including medical purposes and personal care products. However, the increasing use of nanosilver has raised concerns about its environmental impacts. Long-term exposure studies with aquatic invertebrates are essential to assess possible adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, acute (48 h), chronic (21 d) and long-term effects of nanosilver (primary size 15 nm) on five successive generations of three Daphnia species (D. magna, D. pulex, and D. galeata) were investigated. Acute EC50 values of nanosilver were 121 µg Ag L−1 for D. magna being the least sensitive species and 8.95 and 13.9 µg Ag L−1 for D. pulex and D. galeata, respectively. Chronic exposure provided EC10 values of 0.92 µg Ag L−1 for D. magna showing the most sensitive chronic reaction and 2.25 and 3.45 µg Ag L−1 for D. pulex and D. galeata, respectively. Comparative exposure to AgNO3 revealed a generally higher toxicity of the soluble form of silver. The multi-generation experiments resulted in effects on the population level for all tested species. Exposure of D. magna indicated an increased toxicity of nanosilver in the fifth generation of animals exposed to 10 µg Ag L−1. Neonates from pre-exposed parental daphnids did not completely recover when transferred into clean water. Exposure of D. pulex and D. galeata revealed not only increasing toxicity in some generations, but also greater tolerance to nanosilver. This study contributes to the assessment of the risk potential of nanosilver on aquatic ecosystems. It shows that effects of nanosilver vary within one genus and change with exposure duration. Therefore, long-term studies considering different aquatic species are needed to better understand the possible effects of nanosilver on aquatic ecosystems. PMID:24116021

  9. Acute and late toxicity in radical radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    Josifovski Tatjana


    Full Text Available Introduction. Although radical radiotherapy has proved to be a successful method in prostate cancer treatment, the conventional (box technique can result in significant adverse events. Objective. The objective of our study was to estimate the frequency, type and severity of acute and late toxicity in radical radiotherapy of prostate cancer. Methods. In a clinical retrospective study, we included 283 patients with histologically confirmed prostate cancer. All our patients received radical, conventional radiotherapy using the four-field technique. The study was performed at the Radiotherapy Department of the Institute for Oncology and Radiology of Serbia between January 1991 and December 2005. During regular follow-up, we analyzed the frequency, type and severity of acute and late toxicity. Results. Two thirds (71% of our patients had acute toxicity of at least one organ within the radiation field. Most frequent complication was radiation dermatitis (10.5%, and enteritis (9%, cystitis (6% and proctitis (2.5%. Acute adverse events were mostly low grade (I and II, 28-61%. Late complications were registered in 20.5% of patients. Skin fibrosis was most frequent (12%. Chronic proctitis was detected in 4% and urethral stricture in 4.5% of our patients. All late complications were low grade. Conclusion. Treatment tolerance of radical radiotherapy is relatively good. Although most patients develop acute toxicity, it is commonly low grade and requires the interruption of radiotherapy treatment in 20% of patients only. Late toxicity is rarer than acute and, in most cases, it does not affect the quality of life.

  10. Aquatic toxicity testing of silver nanoparticles – a matter of timing

    Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Engelbrekt, Christian

    In recent years, the ecotoxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been studied intensively due to their high toxicity and extensive use in consumer products. However, the field of aquatic nanotoxicology is generally challenged by poor reproducibility, lack of dose-response relationships......, and difficulties in controlling and/or describing the characteristics of the tested NPs. These issues may be related to the widespread approach of using freshly prepared stock solutions for ecotoxicity testing, as the introduction of NPs into aqueous media initiates time-dependent processes that possibly interfere......NPs with a nominal size of 30 nm, the resulting dose-response relationships from tests without (A) and with (B) the pre-suspension step are illustrated in figure 1. Without the pre-suspension step, poorly reproducible results were obtained and it was not possible to produce comparable EC50 values from the three test...

  11. Use of the Biotic Ligand Model to predict metal toxicity to aquatic biota in areas of differing geology

    Smith, Kathleen S.


    This work evaluates the use of the biotic ligand model (BLM), an aquatic toxicity model, to predict toxic effects of metals on aquatic biota in areas underlain by different rock types. The chemical composition of water, soil, and sediment is largely derived from the composition of the underlying rock. Geologic source materials control key attributes of water chemistry that affect metal toxicity to aquatic biota, including: 1) potentially toxic elements, 2) alkalinity, 3) total dissolved solids, and 4) soluble major elements, such as Ca and Mg, which contribute to water hardness. Miller (2002) compiled chemical data for water samples collected in watersheds underlain by ten different rock types, and in a mineralized area in western Colorado. He found that each rock type has a unique range of water chemistry. In this study, the ten rock types were grouped into two general categories, igneous and sedimentary. Water collected in watersheds underlain by sedimentary rock has higher mean pH, alkalinity, and calcium concentrations than water collected in watersheds underlain by igneous rock. Water collected in the mineralized area had elevated concentrations of calcium and sulfate in addition to other chemical constituents. Miller's water-chemistry data were used in the BLM (computer program) to determine copper and zinc toxicity to Daphnia magna. Modeling results show that waters from watersheds underlain by different rock types have characteristic ranges of predicted LC 50 values (a measurement of aquatic toxicity) for copper and zinc, with watersheds underlain by igneous rock having lower predicted LC 50 values than watersheds underlain by sedimentary rock. Lower predicted LC 50 values suggest that aquatic biota in watersheds underlain by igneous rock may be more vulnerable to copper and zinc inputs than aquatic biota in watersheds underlain by sedimentary rock. For both copper and zinc, there is a trend of increasing predicted LC 50 values with increasing dissolved


    Hildebrando Ayala


    Full Text Available The aquatic ecotoxicological determination of phytonematicide products using the zooplanktonic cladoceran Daphnia magna is important for environmental risk assessment. Evaluations were made of the acute median lethal concentration (LC50 of phenyl quinoline on D. magna, that was 4.12 ug i.a. L-1 at 48 h of exposure. The chronic effects of phenyl quinoline in the mortality rate of the cladoceran D. magna at 17 d of exposure, with 0.18 ug ai L-1 of LOEC (Lowest Observed Effect Concentration and 0.072 ug ai L-1 of NOEC (No Observed Effect Concentration were determined. Evaluations of the chronic effect of phenyl quinoline on three parameters of growth of D. magna (total length, antenna length and caudal length to 17 d of exposure, only showed significant differences in length of the antenna between the control and 0.072 ug ai L-1 been this the value of LOEC and thus the lower concentration 0.0288 ug ai L-1, the NOEC value for phenyl quinoline. The ratio between acute and chronic toxicity (RAC for the relationship showed acute 48 h exposure on mortality NOEC 17 d a value of 57.22, and for the ratio of acute NOEC on of the length of the antenna to 17 d was a value of 143. The environmental risk assessment (ERA shows that the PEC (Probable Effect Concentration / PNEC (Predicted No-Effect Concentration for acute assay was 582 524 and for the PEC / PNEC for chronic test was 83 333 333. These results demonstrate that phenyl quinoline has a high impact on aquatic biota represented by the trophic level that belongs to D. magna, and therefore shows that the substance is a candidate for a comprehensive ecotoxicological assessment.

  13. Influences of sediment geochemistry on metal accumulation rates and toxicity in the aquatic oligochaete Tubifex tubifex

    Mendez-Fernandez, L; M. de Jonge; Bervoets, L.


    Metal bioaccumulation and toxicity in the aquatic oligochaete Tubifex tubifex exposed to three metal-contaminated field-sediments was studied in order to assess whether sediment-geochemistry (AVS, TOC) plays a major role in influencing these parameters, and to assess if the biodynamic concept can be used to explain observed effects in T. tubifex tissue residues and/or toxicity. An active autotomy promotion was observed in three studied sediments at different time points and reproduction impai...

  14. Acute and chronic toxicity of veterinary antibiotics to Daphnia magna

    Wollenberger, Leah; Halling-Sørensen, B.; Kusk, Kresten Ole


    The acute and chronic toxicity of nine antibiotics used both therapeutically and as growth promoters in intensive farming was investigated on the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna. The effect of the antibiotics metronidazole (M), olaquindox (OL), oxolinic acid (OA), oxytetracycline (OTC), strep...

  15. Acute aqueous toxicities of diesel-biodiesel blends

    Hollebone, B.P.; Ho, N.; Landriault, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Science and Technology Branch, Environmental Science and Technology Centre; Harrison, S. [Science Applications International Corp., SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Doe, K.; Jackman, P. [Environment Canada, Moncton, NB (Canada). Toxicology Laboratory, Environmental Science Centre


    The renewed interest in biodiesels as a new transportation fuel was discussed. Although there are several advantages to using biodiesels, their environmental behaviours and effects need to be evaluated along with the risks associated with their use, such as accidental releases of these biodiesels to the environment. The wide variability of biodiesels may result in different toxicological impacts, depending on the fuel feedstock. This study evaluated the aqueous effects of biodiesels from several commonly available feedstocks and their blends with petroleum diesel. Since most of the commercial uses of these products are currently focused on road-use, this study focused on the effects of these fuels in fresh-water. Biodiesels derived from soy, canola and waste restaurant oil feedstocks were used in the study. The acute toxicities of these biodiesels and biodiesel/petroleum diesel fuel blends were reported for 3 test species used by Environment Canada for toxicological evaluation, notably rainbow trout, the water flea, and a luminescent bacterium. The correlations between acute toxicity, water accommodated fractions (WAF) concentrations and fuel property data were examined. The study revealed that biodiesel is significantly less acutely toxic than petroleum diesels in potential ecological impacts. However, the biodiesel-diesel blends were found to be more acutely toxic than a linear dilution model predicts. 11 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs.

  16. Acute and subchronic toxicity studies of kernel extract of Sclerocarya ...


    evaluation was done by oral feeding of the rats with the seed kernel extract daily at doses .... Significantly different from the control (P < 0.05) using one way analysis of variance. Subchronic ... acute toxicity did not produce any grossly negative behavioural changes such .... against garlic-induced oxidative stress. Journal of ...

  17. The development of an aquatic toxicity index as a tool in the operational management of water quality in the Olifants River (Knsger National Park)

    Wepener, V.; Euler, N.; J.H.J. van Vuren; H.H. du Preez; Astri Kohler


    The development of an aquatic toxicity index and its application is described. In this index the protection of aquatic life is always referred to in terms of toxic effects of different water quality variables to fish, as health indicators of the aquatic ecosystem. The final index score is produced by means of standard additive techniques as well as by using the water quality variable giving the lowest index score (minimum operator). The minimum operator is employed in order not to conceal imp...

  18. The toxicity of herbicides to non-target aquatic plants and algae: assessment of predictive factors and hazard.

    Cedergreen, Nina; Streibig, Jens C


    Widely used herbicides sometimes inadvertently contaminate surface waters. In this study we evaluate the toxicity of herbicides to aquatic plants and algae and relate it to environmental herbicide concentrations and exposure scenarios, herbicide formulation and mode of action. This was done experimentally for ten herbicides, using the aquatic macrophyte Lemna minor L. and the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (Korshikov) Hindak, supplemented with a database study comprising algae toxicity data for 146 herbicides. The laboratory study showed that herbicide formulations in general did not enhance herbicide efficacy in the aquatic environment. The Roundup formulation of glyphosate proved to be the only exception, decreasing the EC(50) of the technical product for both L. minor and P. subcapitata approximately fourfold. Comparison of the sensitivity of L. minor and P. subcapitata revealed up to 1000-fold higher sensitivity of L. minor for the herbicides categorized as weak acids (pK(a) action, was significantly more toxic than another. Synthetic auxins were the exception as they are virtually non-toxic to unicellular algae. There was no strong correlation between toxicity to algae and K(ow) of the herbicides, not even within groups having the same site of action. Evaluating all data, few herbicides were toxic at concentrations below 1 microg l(-1), which is the 99.9th percentile of the herbicide concentrations measured in the Danish surveillance programme. Joint action of several herbicides cannot however be excluded.

  19. The effects of water quality and age on the acute toxicity of copper to the Florida apple snail, Pomacea paludosa.

    Rogevich, E C; Hoang, T C; Rand, G M


    Copper (Cu)-containing compounds have been used in Florida as fungicides, herbicides, and soil amendments, resulting in elevated Cu in the aquatic ecosystem. The Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa), a key species in south Florida, may be adversely affected by Cu. Water-quality parameters, such as hardness, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), pH, and alkalinity, affect metal bioavailability and toxicity in aquatic organisms; however, it is uncertain to what extent these factors affect Cu toxicity in the Florida apple snail. The research presented here characterized the acute (96-hour) toxicity of Cu in water to the Florida apple snail at various life stages and under different water-quality parameters. Cu was more toxic to juvenile than adult apple snails. There was no difference between the 96-hour LC(50) at pH 5.5 and 6.5; however, the 96-hour LC(50 )values at pH 7.5 and 8.5 were greater than at lower pHs. The decrease in Cu(2+) above pH 7, as predicted by the MINTEQ model, accounted for the pH effect. Cu toxicity decreased as DOC increased from 0.2 to 30 mg/L. Unlike other aquatic organisms, hardness had no effect on Cu toxicity to the Florida apple snail, suggesting another mechanism of toxicity. Whole-body tissue analysis indicated that the lethal body burden of 120-day-old snails exposed to Cu for 4 days was 30 mg/kg Cu dry weight. Multiple regression analysis indicated that Cu toxicity was a function of organism age, DOC, and pH.

  20. Biodegradation and toxicity of vegetable oils in contaminated aquatic environments: Effect of antioxidants and oil composition.

    Salam, Darine A; Suidan, Makram T; Venosa, Albert D


    Antioxidants may affect the oxidative rate of vegetable oils determining their fate and impact in contaminated aquatic media. In previous studies, we demonstrated the effectiveness of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), one of the most used antioxidants in edible oils, in enhancing the biodegradation of glyceryl trilinoleate, a pure triacylglycerol of cis,cis-9,12-octadecadienoic acid (C18:2 delta), through retarding its oxidative polymerization relatively to the oil with no added antioxidant. In this study, the effect of BHT on the biodegradation and toxicity of purified canola oil, a mixed-acid triacylglycerol with high C18:1 content, was investigated in respirometric microcosms and by use of the Microtox® assay. Investigations were carried out in the absence and presence (200 mg kg(-1)) of the antioxidant, and at an oil loading of 0.31 L m(-2) (333 gal acre(-1)). Substantial oil mineralization was achieved after 16 weeks of incubation (>77%) and was not significantly different (p>0.05) between the two BHT treatments, demonstrating an important role of the oil fatty acid composition in determining the potency of antioxidants and, consequently, the fate of spilled vegetable oils. Furthermore, for both treatments, toxicity was measured at early stages of the experiments and disappeared at a later stage of incubation. The observed transient toxicity was associated with the combined effect of toxic biodegradation intermediates and autoxidation products. These results were supported by the gradual disappearance of BHT in the microcosms initially supplemented with the antioxidant, reaching negligible amounts after only 2 weeks of incubation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Microbial community-level toxicity testing of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates in aquatic microcosms.

    Brandt, Kristian K; Jørgensen, Niels O G; Nielsen, Tommy H; Winding, Anne


    Complex microbial communities may serve as ideal and ecologically relevant toxicity indicators. We here report an assessment of frequently used methods in microbial ecology for their feasibility to detect toxic effects of the environmentally important surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) on microbial communities in lake water and treated waste water. The two microbial communities were evaluated for changes in community structure and function over a period of 7 weeks in replicated aquatic microcosms amended with various levels of LAS (0, 0.1, 1, 10 or 100 mg l(-1)) and inorganic nutrients. In general, the two communities behaved similarly when challenged with LAS. Following lag periods of 1-3 weeks, LAS was degraded to non-toxic substances. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene fragments and [3H]leucine incorporation were the most sensitive assays with effect levels of 0-1 and 1-10 mg LAS l(-1), respectively. Community-level physiological profiles and pollution-induced community tolerance determinations using Biolog microplates demonstrated less sensitivity with effect levels of 10-100 mg LAS l(-1). Total cell counts and net uptake of inorganic N and P were unaffected even at 100 mg LAS l(-1). Interestingly, different microbial communities developed in some replicate microcosms, indicating the importance of stochastic events for community succession. We conclude that microbial community-level toxicity testing holds great promise and suggest a polyphasic approach involving a range of independent methods targeting both the structure and function of the tested microbial communities.

  2. Toxicities of Oils, Dispersants and Dispersed Oils to Aquatic Plants: Summary and Database Value to Resource Sustainability

    Understanding the phytotoxicities of crude and dispersed oils is important for near-shore ecosystem management, particularly post-oil spills. One source of information is toxicity data summaries which are scattered and outdated for aquatic plants and petrochemicals. As a resu...

  3. Effects of triclosan on aquatic invertebrates in tropics and the influence of pH on its toxicity on microalgae

    Khatikarn, Jidapa; Satapornvanit, Kriengkrai; Price, Oliver R.; Den Brink, van Paul J.


    The antimicrobial triclosan (TCS) has been detected in household wastewaters (untreated and treated) and receiving environments across the globe. The toxic effects of TCS on temperate standard aquatic test organisms have been widely reported with microalgae being the most sensitive. However,

  4. Effects of triclosan on aquatic invertebrates in tropics and the influence of pH on its toxicity on microalgae

    Khatikarn, Jidapa; Satapornvanit, Kriengkrai; Price, Oliver R.; Den Brink, van Paul J.


    The antimicrobial triclosan (TCS) has been detected in household wastewaters (untreated and treated) and receiving environments across the globe. The toxic effects of TCS on temperate standard aquatic test organisms have been widely reported with microalgae being the most sensitive. However, envi

  5. Toxicities of Oils, Dispersants and Dispersed Oils to Aquatic Plants: Summary and Database Value to Resource Sustainability

    Understanding the phytotoxicities of crude and dispersed oils is important for near-shore ecosystem management, particularly post-oil spills. One source of information is toxicity data summaries which are scattered and outdated for aquatic plants and petrochemicals. As a resu...

  6. Evaluation of the effect of water type on the toxicity of nitrate to aquatic organisms.

    Baker, Josh A; Gilron, Guy; Chalmers, Ben A; Elphick, James R


    A suite of acute and chronic toxicity tests were conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of freshwater organisms to nitrate (as sodium nitrate). Acute exposures with rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) and amphipods (Hyalella azteca), as well as chronic exposures with H. azteca (14-d survival and growth), midges (Chironomus dilutus; 10-d survival and growth), daphnids (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 7-d survival and reproduction), and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas; 7-d survival and growth) were used to determine sublethal and lethal effect concentrations. Modification of nitrate toxicity was investigated across a range of ionic strengths, created through the use of very soft water, and standard preparations of synthetic soft, moderately-hard and hard dilution waters. The most sensitive species tested were C. dubia and H. azteca, in soft water, with reproduction and growth IC25 values of 13.8 and 12.2 mg/L NO3-N, respectively. All of the organisms exposed to nitrate demonstrated significantly reduced effects with increasing ionic strength associated with changes in water type. Possible mechanisms responsible for the modifying effect of increasing major ion concentrations on nitrate toxicity are discussed.

  7. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity of Brazilian red propolis in rats.

    da Silva, Rafaela Oliveira; Andrade, Valléria Matos; Bullé Rêgo, Ester Seixas; Azevedo Dória, Grace Anne; Santos Lima, Bruno Dos; da Silva, Francilene Amaral; de Souza Araújo, Adriano Antunes; de Albuquerque Júnior, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcanti; Cordeiro Cardoso, Juliana; Zanardo Gomes, Margarete


    Propolis is a bee product widely used in folk medicine due to its numerous pharmacological properties. However, samples from different regions can differ in chemical composition, effectiveness, and side effects. Despite the widespread use of Brazilian red propolis, which is an isoflavone-rich variety, its toxicity has not been carefully studied. To assess the acute and sub-acute toxicity of the hydroethanolic extract of red propolis (HERP) administered orally to rats. HERP for the acute (300mg/kg) and sub-acute (10, 100 and 200mg/kg) toxicity studies was administered orally to rats according to OECD Guidelines 420 and 407, respectively. Clinical signs were identified, and hematological and biochemical analyses were performed. Water and food uptake as well as body and organ weights of animals were recorded. The acute study revealed no lethal effects at 300mg/kg of HERP, but toxic signs were observed, as HERP had an LD50 of more than 300mg/kg, indicating a warning. The most toxic signals in sub-acute studies were observed in males at a dose of 200mg/kg HERP. These results suggest estrogen-like activity, possibly from the isoflavones in HERP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of the toxicity of fluids employed in the metallic tool industrial machining using aquatic ecotoxicology;Avaliacao da toxicidade de fluidos de usinagem atraves da ecotoxicologia aquatica

    Coelho, Ricardo dos Santos


    Eco toxicological analyses have being used to monitor environmental samples, industrial effluents and complex substances. With the objective to analyze the toxicity of cutting fluids used in the machinery industry, acute toxicity test with species of three different trophic levels: Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia similis, Daphnia laevis e Danio rerio, were performing. The samples of fluids were analyzed by COD, phenol, pH, color, density and surfactants. The physical and chemical parameters are the according with the brazilian law, CONAMA 357 (D.O.U. 2005). The results of the toxicity tests showed that the cutting fluids have high toxicity to the organisms used in this study and the gamma radiation treatment was not efficient to decrease the matrix. The biodegradation in soil demonstrated be effective to the cutting fluids and the indigenous bacteria were identified and isolated to possible treatment of soils contaminated with these kinds of substances. The monitoring and management of residues of cutting fluids are necessary to preservation of aquatic live, in consequence of their high toxicity. (author)

  9. Effect of solcoseryl on antitumour action and acute toxicity of some antineoplastic drugs.

    Danysz, A; Sołtysiak-Pawluczuk, D; Czyzewska-Szafran, H; Jedrych, A; Jastrzebski, Z


    The in vivo effect of Solcoseryl on the antitumour activity and acute toxicity of some antineoplastic drugs was examined. It was found that Solcoseryl does not inhibit the antineoplastic effectiveness of the drugs against transplantable P 388 leukaemia in mice. Studies of the effect of Solcoseryl on acute toxicity of selected antineoplastic drugs in mice revealed that the biostimulator could exert a modifying influence. The prior administration of Solcoseryl significantly decreases the acute toxicity of methotrexate but has no effect on acute toxicity of 5-fluorouracil, increases the acute toxicity of bleomycin and vinblastine and has no effect on acute toxicity of methotrexate and mitoxantron. On the other hand, Solcoseryl administered simultaneously with the antineoplastic drugs increases acute toxicity of 5-fluorouracil, bleomycin and mitoxantron. The protective effect of the biostimulator noted exclusively against acute toxicity of 5-fluorouracil was also observed after multiple administration of this anticancer drug.

  10. Biodegradability and toxicity of sulphonate-based surfactants in aerobic and anaerobic aquatic environments.

    García, M T; Campos, E; Marsal, A; Ribosa, I


    Four types of commonly used sulphonate-based surfactants (alkane sulphonates, alpha-olefin sulphonates, sulphosuccinates and methyl ester sulphonates) were tested for their aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability as well as for their toxicity to Daphnia magna and Photobacterium phosphoreum to assess the effect of the surfactant structure on those properties. Aerobic biodegradation was evaluated by means of the CO2 headspace test and anaerobic biodegradation was assessed by a method based on the ECETOC test. All the surfactants tested were readily biodegraded under aerobic conditions. No clear effect of the surfactant structures on the toxicity to the aquatic organisms tested was found. The most significant differences in the surfactants studied were observed in their behaviour under anaerobic conditions. Alkane sulphonates, alpha-olefin sulphonates and methyl ester sulphonates were not mineralized in lab anaerobic digesters despite the fact that the last one showed a certain degree of primary degradation. Nevertheless, these surfactants did not significantly inhibit methanogenic activity at concentrations up to 15 g surfactant/kg dry sludge, a concentration that is much higher than the expected concentrations of these surfactants in real anaerobic digesters. Sulphosuccinates showed a high level of primary biodegradation in anaerobic conditions. However, linear alkyl sulphosuccinates were completely mineralized whereas branched alkyl sulphosuccinates achieved percentages of ultimate biodegradation < or =50%.

  11. Acute and subchronic dermal toxicity of nanosilver in guinea pig

    Arbabi Bidgoli S


    Full Text Available M Korani1, SM Rezayat1,2,4, K Gilani3, S Arbabi Bidgoli4, S Adeli11Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences; 2Department of Nanotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technology in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences; 3Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences; 4Department of Toxicology & Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAUPS, Tehran, IranAbstract: Silver has been used as an antimicrobial agent for a long time in different forms, but silver nanoparticles (nanosilver have recently been recognized as potent antimicrobial agents. Although nanosilver is finding diverse medical applications such as silver-based dressings and silver-coated medical devices, its dermal and systemic toxicity via dermal use has not yet been identified. In this study, we analyzed the potential toxicity of colloidal nanosilver in acute and subchronic guinea pigs. Before toxicity assessments, the size of colloidal nanosilver was recorded in sizes <100 nm by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. For toxicological assessments, male guinea pigs weighing 350 to 400 g were exposed to two different concentrations of nanosilver (1000 and 10,000 µg/mL in an acute study and three concentrations of nanosilver (100, 1000, and 10,000 µg/mL in a subchronic study. Toxic responses were assessed by clinical and histopathologic parameters. In all experimental animals the sites of exposure were scored for any type of dermal toxicity and compared with negative control and positive control groups. In autopsy studies during the acute test, no significant changes in organ weight or major macroscopic changes were detected, but dose-dependent histopathologic abnormalities were seen in skin, liver, and spleen of all test groups. In addition, experimental animals subjected to subchronic tests showed greater

  12. The acute effect of moderate intensity aquatic exercise on coagulation factors in haemophiliacs.

    Beltrame, Luis Gustavo Normanton; Abreu, Laurinda; Almeida, Jussara; Boullosa, Daniel Alexandre


    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyse the acute effect of aquatic exercise on haemostasis in persons with haemophilia. Ten adult haemophiliacs (8 type A, 2 type B) familiarized with aquatic training performed a 20-min exercise session in a swimming pool at an intensity of ~70% maximum heart rate (HR). Blood samples were collected immediately after the training session. The haemostatic parameters selected for analyses were factor VIII (FVIII), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and fibrinogen. There were unclear effects of the exercise bout on FVIII and APTT, with a possibly beneficial effect on PT (-11·4%; 90% confidence interval: -26·1;3·3%), and a trivial change on fibrinogen levels. It was found an association between the mean rise in HR during exercise and the decrement in PT after exercise (r = 0·729; P = 0·026). The greater changes were observed in the patients diagnosed with a moderate level of haemophilia. It is concluded that a short bout of moderate intensity of aquatic exercise may have a positive influence on PT in adults with haemophilia with greater changes in those individuals exhibiting a greater rise in HR during exercise. This may be an important issue to the haemostatic control of haemophiliacs in clinical settings. Further studies are warranted for testing the influence of different aquatic exercise intensities on haemostasis.

  13. Understanding Dissolved and Colloidal Metal Transport and Transformation - Pathways for Aquatic Toxicity

    Kimball, B. A.; Besser, J. M.


    Hundreds of miles of streams in the western United States are affected by the release of metals from weathering of mineralized bedrock and mine wastes. In many cases, historical mining has accelerated these weathering processes and increased concentrations of metals in affected streams. Copper and zinc are two metals that affect aquatic health in such streams. Aquatic toxicity from copper and zinc is thought to be related principally to their dissolved concentrations. But there are alternative pathways that may lead to toxicity. Movement of many metals associated with mine drainage is affected by iron colloidal solids. The initial precipitation of iron hydroxides results in nanometer-sized colloids that subsequently aggregate to form a continuum of particle sizes from about one nanometer to greater than one micrometer. This behavior makes the popular or legal definition of dissolved metals at 0.45 micrometers meaningless in streams affected by mine drainage. Ultrafiltration, using tangential-flow across 10,000-Dalton membranes, provides a means to understand dissolved and colloidal metal concentrations. When ultrafiltration is combined with methods to determine mass loading, it is possible to quantify sources and chemical reactions affecting metals. For example, results from a mass-loading study in Mineral Creek, Colorado, indicate that copper and zinc are contributed to the stream from both mined and unmined sources. As the pH of Mineral Creek changes in response to both neutral and acidic inflows, copper was repeatedly transferred between dissolved and colloidal phases through sorption reactions. When the colloidal phase was dominant, the total load of copper consistently decreased because the colloids are entrained by algae on cobbles and strained by the streambed during hyporheic exchange. Zinc load also decreased during transport, but this was a result of the physical process of water exchange with the hyporheic zone, and not a result of colloidal

  14. Multispecies QSAR modeling for predicting the aquatic toxicity of diverse organic chemicals for regulatory toxicology.

    Singh, Kunwar P; Gupta, Shikha; Kumar, Anuj; Mohan, Dinesh


    The research aims to develop multispecies quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) modeling tools capable of predicting the acute toxicity of diverse chemicals in various Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) recommended test species of different trophic levels for regulatory toxicology. Accordingly, the ensemble learning (EL) approach based classification and regression QSAR models, such as decision treeboost (DTB) and decision tree forest (DTF) implementing stochastic gradient boosting and bagging algorithms were developed using the algae (P. subcapitata) experimental toxicity data for chemicals. The EL-QSAR models were successfully applied to predict toxicities of wide groups of chemicals in other test species including algae (S. obliguue), daphnia, fish, and bacteria. Structural diversity of the selected chemicals and those of the end-point toxicity data of five different test species were tested using the Tanimoto similarity index and Kruskal-Wallis (K-W) statistics. Predictive and generalization abilities of the constructed QSAR models were compared using statistical parameters. The developed QSAR models (DTB and DTF) yielded a considerably high classification accuracy in complete data of model building (algae) species (97.82%, 99.01%) and ranged between 92.50%-94.26% and 92.14%-94.12% in four test species, respectively, whereas regression QSAR models (DTB and DTF) rendered high correlation (R(2)) between the measured and model predicted toxicity end-point values and low mean-squared error in model building (algae) species (0.918, 0.15; 0.905, 0.21) and ranged between 0.575 and 0.672, 0.18-0.51 and 0.605-0.689 and 0.20-0.45 in four different test species. The developed QSAR models exhibited good predictive and generalization abilities in different test species of varied trophic levels and can be used for predicting the toxicities of new chemicals for screening and prioritization of chemicals for regulation.


    Anurag Payasi


    Full Text Available The study was performed to assess the acute dermal toxicity of TroisTM in Newzealand white rabbit. Test substance was applied as such to the shaven skin of group of rabbits at the dose of 2000 mg/Kg body weight. Control group of animals were similarly treated but only with base. Following dosing up to 14 days the rabbits were observed for mortality and clinical sign of toxicity. No visible signs of toxicity after treatment were observed on the animals of both control and treated animals up to 14 days. Various haematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated and found to be in the normal limit, which indicates that no sign of toxicity in NewZealand white rabbits after 14 days treatment in respect to control group, proving safety of TroisTM in topical application.

  16. Phototransformation of Amlodipine in Aqueous Solution: Toxicity of the Drug and Its Photoproduct on Aquatic Organisms

    Marina DellaGreca


    Full Text Available The phototransformation of amlodipine in water was investigated under various conditions. A quantum yield ΦS2.2×10−4 and a half-life time t1/2 0.419 days were calculated when the drug in water (10−4 M was exposed to sunlight. The only photoproduct found was its pyridine derivative. Formation of this product was explained on the basis of a radical cation intermediate. The acute and chronic toxicity of the drug and its photoproduct were evaluated on different organisms of the freshwater chain (Brachionus calyciflorus, Thamnocephalus platyurus, Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia. The photoproduct exhibited a stronger toxic potential than the parent drug on the long time for C. dubia.

  17. Acute dysprosium toxicity to Daphnia pulex and Hyalella azteca and development of the biotic ligand approach.

    Vukov, Oliver; Smith, D Scott; McGeer, James C


    The toxicological understanding of rare earth elements (REEs) in the aquatic environment is very limited but of increasing concern. The objective of this research is to compare the toxicological effect of the REE dysprosium to the freshwater invertebrates Daphnia pulex and Hyalella azteca and in the more sensitive organism, understand the toxicity modifying influence of Ca, Na, Mg, pH and dissolved organic matter (DOM). Standard methods (Environment Canada) were followed for testing and culture in media of intermediate hardness (60mg CaCO3 mg/L) at pH 7.8 with Ca at 0.5, Na 0.5, Mg 0.125 (mM) and 23°C. Acute toxicity tests were done with azteca and D. pulex revealed Hyalella to be 1.4 times more sensitive than Daphnia. Additions of Ca and Na but not Mg provided significant protection against Dy toxicity to Hyalella. Similarly, low pH was associated with reduction in toxicity. Exposures which were pH buffered with and without MOPS were significantly different and indicated that MOPS enhanced Dy toxicity. DOM also mitigated Dy toxicity. Biotic ligand based parameters (LogK values) were calculated based on free ion relationships as determined by geochemical equilibrium modeling software (WHAM ver. 7.02). The logK value for Dy(3+) toxicity to Hyalella was 7.75 while the protective influence of Ca and Na were 3.95 and 4.10, respectively. This study contributes data towards the development of site specific water quality guidelines and criteria for Dy and possibly REEs in general and offers insight into the complex bio-geochemical nature of this element.

  18. Toxicities of oils, dispersants and dispersed oils to algae and aquatic plants: review and database value to resource sustainability.

    Lewis, Michael; Pryor, Rachel


    Phytotoxicity results are reviewed for oils, dispersants and dispersed oils. The phytotoxicity database consists largely of results from a patchwork of reactive research conducted after oil spills to marine waters. Toxicity information is available for at least 41 crude oils and 56 dispersants. As many as 107 response parameters have been monitored for 85 species of unicellular and multicellular algae, 28 wetland plants, 13 mangroves and 9 seagrasses. Effect concentrations have varied by as much as six orders of magnitude due to experimental diversity. This diversity restricts phytotoxicity predictions and identification of sensitive species, life stages and response parameters. As a result, evidence-based risk assessments for most aquatic plants and petrochemicals and dispersants are not supported by the current toxicity database. A proactive and experimentally-consistent approach is recommended to provide threshold toxic effect concentrations for sensitive life stages of aquatic plants inhabiting diverse ecosystems.

  19. Miniaturising acute toxicity and feeding rate measurements in Daphnia magna.

    Grintzalis, Konstantinos; Dai, Wenkui; Panagiotidis, Konstantinos; Belavgeni, Alexia; Viant, Mark R


    Phenotypic markers of animal health form an essential component of regulatory toxicology. Immobilisation of neonate water fleas - Daphnia magna - as a surrogate measure of their mortality following exposure to a chemical for 24-48h forms the basis of the internationally utilised OECD acute toxicity test 202. A second important marker of animal physiology and health is feeding rate, which in Daphnia is determined by measuring the algae feeding rate. Given the widespread use of OECD test 202 for acute toxicity as well as the quantification of feeding rate in toxicological studies of daphniids, significant benefits could result from miniaturising this assay. In particular, miniaturisation would use fewer animals, less media and chemicals, less laboratory space and make the tests more compatible with automation, and therefore could result in considerable time savings. Furthermore, miniaturising phenotypic markers to the ultimate level of a single animal per well would facilitate multiple measurements of other phenotypic markers, such as behavioural responses, which could be integrated at the individual level. In this study we used a wide range of exposure vessels to evaluate the impacts of systematically varying total media volume, surface to volume ratio and animal density for the acute toxicity testing of cadmium. We demonstrate that Daphnia acute toxicity tests using single animals within 24- or 48-well plates produce equivalent results as for traditional test configurations, for different chemicals. Considering algae feeding rates by Daphnia, we studied the impacts of varying algae concentration, total volume and animal density. After having demonstrated that multiwell plates can again yield equivalent test results as traditional experimental setups, we used miniaturised test vessels to show the impact of metals on the feeding activity on daphniids for both neonates and adult animals. Overall we confirm the feasibility of a multiwell approach for Daphnia toxicity


    K. Samraj*, K. Kanagavalli , P. Sathiya Rajeswaran and P. Parthiban


    Full Text Available Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH is a common progressive disease among men, with an incidence that is high among elderly. Velvanga parpam (VP has been employed as traditional remedy for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH which is a herbo mineral formulation. As a mandate, steps were taken to evaluate safety profile of VP in rats and mice following OECD guidelines. Acute toxicity studies, different doses of VP were administered orally to rats once daily for one week. Sub-acute toxicity studies were carried in four different groups in which VP was administrated orally to rats once daily for 28 days in various doses ranging from 2.5, 5, 10 Mg/kg for mice respectively. Detailed hematological, biochemical, necropsy and histopathological evaluation of organs was performed for all animals. The VP was well tolerated and no toxic manifestations were seen in any animal. Histopathological analysis revealed that Spleen, Testes, Pancreas, Lung, Liver, Brain, Heart, Stomach, Intestine, Bone, Ovary, and Kidney tissues of treated groups did not show any signs of toxicity. Mortality observed in highdose. The VP was found to be safe in animals. No toxic effect was observed up to 5mg/kg of Velvanga parpam in acute and sub-acute toxicity studies.

  1. The development of an aquatic toxicity index as a tool in the operational management of water quality in the Olifants River (Knsger National Park

    V. Wepener


    Full Text Available The development of an aquatic toxicity index and its application is described. In this index the protection of aquatic life is always referred to in terms of toxic effects of different water quality variables to fish, as health indicators of the aquatic ecosystem. The final index score is produced by means of standard additive techniques as well as by using the water quality variable giving the lowest index score (minimum operator. The minimum operator is employed in order not to conceal important water quality information. The aquatic toxicity index development has been linked to toxicological data, international water quality standards and South African guidelines. The index provides valuable information concerning toxic effects of a specific variable on fish should the threshold level for normal maintanence of aquatic life be exceeded. This index is intended as an aid in the interpretation of water quality information in order to facilitate management decisions.

  2. Cannabidiol Rescues Acute Hepatic Toxicity and Seizure Induced by Cocaine

    Luciano Rezende Vilela


    Full Text Available Cocaine is a commonly abused illicit drug that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The most severe and common complications are seizures, ischemic strokes, myocardial infarction, and acute liver injury. Here, we demonstrated that acute cocaine intoxication promoted seizure along with acute liver damage in mice, with intense inflammatory infiltrate. Considering the protective role of the endocannabinoid system against cell toxicity, we hypothesized that treatment with an anandamide hydrolysis inhibitor, URB597, or with a phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD, protects against cocaine toxicity. URB597 (1.0 mg/kg abolished cocaine-induced seizure, yet it did not protect against acute liver injury. Using confocal liver intravital microscopy, we observed that CBD (30 mg/kg reduced acute liver inflammation and damage induced by cocaine and prevented associated seizure. Additionally, we showed that previous liver damage induced by another hepatotoxic drug (acetaminophen increased seizure and lethality induced by cocaine intoxication, linking hepatotoxicity to seizure dynamics. These findings suggest that activation of cannabinoid system may have protective actions on both liver and brain induced by cocaine, minimizing inflammatory injury promoted by cocaine, supporting its further clinical application in the treatment of cocaine abuse.

  3. Acute toxicity of uranium hexafluoride, uranyl fluoride and hydrogen fluoride

    Just, R.A.


    Uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) released into the atmosphere will react rapidly with moisture in the air to form the hydrolysis products uranyl fluoride (UO/sub 2/F/sub 2/) and hydrogen fluoride (HF). Uranium compounds such as UF/sub 6/ and UO/sub 2/F/sub 2/ exhibit both chemical toxicity and radiological effects, while HF exhibits only chemical toxicity. This paper describes the development of a methodology for assessing the human health consequences of a known acute exposure to a mixture of UF/sub 6/, UO/sub 2/F/sub 2/, and HF. 4 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Protection against oxaliplatin acute neurosensory toxicity by venlafaxine.

    Durand, Jean-Philippe; Brezault, Catherine; Goldwasser, François


    Venlafaxine (Effexor; Wyeth Lederlé) has previously shown therapeutic effects for the management of chronic and neuropathic pains. We report here the efficacy of venlafaxine upon acute neurosensory symptoms secondary to oxaliplatin toxicity. A dose of 50 mg of venlafaxine was given orally at the beginning of the oxaliplatin infusion. Patients did not experience any or very low paresthesias, even in the cold. As the results were very dramatic and reproducible, we propose that venlafaxine may be of use in the daily management of oxaliplatin-related neurosensory toxicity.

  5. Standardizing acute toxicity data for use in ecotoxicology models: influence of test type, life stage, and concentration reporting.

    Raimondo, Sandy; Vivian, Deborah N; Barron, Mace G


    Ecotoxicological models generally have large data requirements and are frequently based on existing information from diverse sources. Standardizing data for toxicological models may be necessary to reduce extraneous variation and to ensure models reflect intrinsic relationships. However, the extent to which data standardization is necessary remains unclear, particularly when data transformations are used in model development. An extensive acute toxicity database was compiled for aquatic species to comprehensively assess the variation associated with acute toxicity test type (e.g., flow-through, static), reporting concentrations as nominal or measured, and organism life stage. Three approaches were used to assess the influence of these factors on log-transformed acute toxicity: toxicity ratios, log-linear models of factor groups, and comparison of interspecies correlation estimation (ICE) models developed using either standardized test types or reported concentration type. In general, median ratios were generally less than 2.0, the slopes of log-linear models were approximately one for well-represented comparisons, and ICE models developed using data from standardized test types or reported concentrations did not differ substantially. These results indicate that standardizing test data by acute test type, reported concentration type, or life stage may not be critical for developing ecotoxicological models using large datasets of log-transformed values.

  6. Proceedings of the twentieth annual aquatic toxicity workshop. Comptes rendus du vingtieme colloque annuel de toxicologie aquatique

    Coillie, R. van; Roy, Y.; Bois, Y.; Campbell, P.G.C.; Lundahl, P.; Martel, L.; Michaud, M.; Riebel, P.; Thellen, C. (eds.)


    A workshop was held as part of a continuing series of meetings on toxicity testing methods and pathways of contaminants in the aquatic environment. Papers were presented at the workshop on topics including biodegradation of contaminants, ecological assessments of priority substances, micro-scale bioassays, mercury in the northern aquatic environment, ecotoxicological risk assessment, bioaccumulation of contaminants, effects assessment, the St. Lawrence River Action Plan, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, industrial effluents and environment management, microcosms and mesocosms, and biomarkers. Separate abstracts have been prepared for five papers from this workshop.

  7. Impact of environmentally based chemical hardness on uranium speciation and toxicity in six aquatic species.

    Goulet, Richard R; Thompson, Patsy A; Serben, Kerrie C; Eickhoff, Curtis V


    Treated effluent discharge from uranium (U) mines and mills elevates the concentrations of U, calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfate (SO4 (2-) ) above natural levels in receiving waters. Many investigations on the effect of hardness on U toxicity have been experiments on the combined effects of changes in hardness, pH, and alkalinity, which do not represent water chemistry downstream of U mines and mills. Therefore, more toxicity studies with water chemistry encountered downstream of U mines and mills are necessary to support predictive assessments of impacts of U discharge to the environment. Acute and chronic U toxicity laboratory bioassays were realized with 6 freshwater species in waters of low alkalinity, circumneutral pH, and a range of chemical hardness as found in field samples collected downstream of U mines and mills. In laboratory-tested waters, speciation calculations suggested that free uranyl ion concentrations remained constant despite increasing chemical hardness. When hardness increased while pH remained circumneutral and alkalinity low, U toxicity decreased only to Hyalella azteca and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Also, Ca and Mg did not compete with U for the same uptake sites. The present study confirms that the majority of studies concluding that hardness affected U toxicity were in fact studies in which alkalinity and pH were the stronger influence. The results thus confirm that studies predicting impacts of U downstream of mines and mills should not consider chemical hardness. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:562-574. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  8. Acute toxicity of intravenously administered titanium dioxide nanoparticles in mice.

    Jiaying Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With a wide range of applications, titanium dioxide (TiO₂ nanoparticles (NPs are manufactured worldwide in large quantities. Recently, in the field of nanomedicine, intravenous injection of TiO₂ nanoparticulate carriers directly into the bloodstream has raised public concerns on their toxicity to humans. METHODS: In this study, mice were injected intravenously with a single dose of TiO₂ NPs at varying dose levels (0, 140, 300, 645, or 1387 mg/kg. Animal mortality, blood biochemistry, hematology, genotoxicity and histopathology were investigated 14 days after treatment. RESULTS: Death of mice in the highest dose (1387 mg/kg group was observed at day two after TiO₂ NPs injection. At day 7, acute toxicity symptoms, such as decreased physical activity and decreased intake of food and water, were observed in the highest dose group. Hematological analysis and the micronucleus test showed no significant acute hematological or genetic toxicity except an increase in the white blood cell (WBC count among mice 645 mg/kg dose group. However, the spleen of the mice showed significantly higher tissue weight/body weight (BW coefficients, and lower liver and kidney coefficients in the TiO₂ NPs treated mice compared to control. The biochemical parameters and histological tissue sections indicated that TiO₂ NPs treatment could induce different degrees of damage in the brain, lung, spleen, liver and kidneys. However, no pathological effects were observed in the heart in TiO₂ NPs treated mice. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous injection of TiO₂ NPs at high doses in mice could cause acute toxicity effects in the brain, lung, spleen, liver, and kidney. No significant hematological or genetic toxicity was observed.

  9. An evaluation of acute toxicity of colloidal silver nanoparticles.

    Maneewattanapinyo, Pattwat; Banlunara, Wijit; Thammacharoen, Chuchaat; Ekgasit, Sanong; Kaewamatawong, Theerayuth


    Tests for acute oral toxicity, eye irritation, corrosion and dermal toxicity of colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were conducted in laboratory animals following OECD guidelines. Oral administration of AgNPs at a limited dose of 5,000 mg/kg produced neither mortality nor acute toxic signs throughout the observation period. Percentage of body weight gain of the mice showed no significant difference between control and treatment groups. In the hematological analysis, there was no significant difference between mice treated with AgNPs and controls. Blood chemistry analysis also showed no differences in any of the parameter examined. There was neither any gross lesion nor histopathological change observed in various organs. The results indicated that the LD(50) of colloidal AgNPs is greater than 5,000 mg/kg body weight. In acute eye irritation and corrosion study, no mortality and toxic signs were observed when various doses of colloidal AgNPs were instilled in guinea pig eyes during 72 hr observation period. However, the instillation of AgNPs at 5,000 ppm produced transient eye irritation during early 24 hr observation time. No any gross abnormality was noted in the skins of the guinea pigs exposed to various doses of colloidal AgNPs. In addition, no significant AgNPs exposure relating to dermal tissue changes was observed microscopically. In summary, these findings of all toxicity tests in this study suggest that colloidal AgNPs could be relatively safe when administered to oral, eye and skin of the animal models for short periods of time.

  10. Acute Oral Toxicity and Kinetic Behaviors of Inorganic Layered Nanoparticles

    Jin Yu


    Full Text Available Layered double hydroxide (LDH nanoparticles, also known as anionic clays, have attracted a great deal of interest for their potential as delivery carriers. Recent studies showed that LDH nanoparticles can efficiently deliver drugs or bioactive molecules into cells, which are highly related to their endocytic pathway. However, the efficient cell permeation capacity of LDH may also raise concern about their toxicity potential. In this study, the acute oral toxicity of LDH nanoparticles was assessed, and their kinetic behaviors, such as plasma concentration-time curve, tissue distribution, and excretion, were also evaluated in mice. No significant effects of oral LDH nanoparticles on behaviors, body weight gain, survival rate, and organosomatic index were observed up to the dose of 2000 mg/kg for 14 days. Serum biochemical parameters did not significantly increase, indicating that LDH nanoparticles did not cause acute liver or kidney injury. Plasma concentration of LDH nanoparticles rapidly decreased within 30 min depending on exposure doses, but they did not accumulate in any specific organ. Their excretion via urine and feces was observed within 24 h. These findings suggest that LDH nanoparticles do not exhibit acute oral toxicity and favorable kinetic behaviors in mice and, therefore, will be promising candidates for biological and pharmaceutical applications.

  11. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity profile of Acorus calamus (Sweet flag) in rodents

    Arunachalam Muthuraman; Nirmal Singh


    Objective: To determine the acute and sub-acute oral toxicity profile of the hydroalcoholic extract of Acorus calamus (HAE-AC) in mice and rats respectively. Methods: In acute toxicity study, mice were assessed to any alteration of general behavior and mortality rate within 24 h. Further, in sub-acute toxicity study, rats were used for assessment of mortality, body weight, hematological, biochemical and histopathological changes. Results: Single oral administrations of the HAE-AC 2500-10000 mg/kg induced increase in general behavioral abnormalities in mice. The mortality rate also increased with increasing dosage (median lethal dose; LD50 = 5 070.59 mg/kg). Daily single oral doses of HAE-AC 200, 500 and 1 000 mg/kg were observed to be well tolerated behaviorally after 28 days of dosing and induced no significant changes in body and organs weights of rats. Further, a mild rise in the levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and histopatholological changes in liver tissue was noted at 1000 mg/kg dose of HAE-AC. Conclusions: Overall, the findings of this study indicate that, HAE-AC is non-toxic and has at high dose, a mild but acceptable toxicity potential.

  12. Acute and delayed toxicities of total body irradiation

    Deeg, H.J.


    Total body irradiation is being used with increasing frequency for the treatment of lymphopoietic malignancies and in preparation for marrow transplantation. Acute toxicities include reversible gastroeneritis, mucositis, myelosuppression alopecia. As the success of treatment improves and more patients become long-term survivors, manifestations of delayed and chronic toxicity become evident. These include impairment of growth and development, gonadal failure and sterility, cataract formation and possibly secondary malignancies. The contribution of total body irradiation to the development of pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis is still poorly understood. Some of these changes are reversible or correctable, whereas others are permanent. Nevertheless, until equally effective but less toxic regimens become available, total body irradiation appears to be the treatment of choice to prepare patients with leukemia for marrow transplantation.

  13. Variation in sensitivity of aquatic species to toxicants: Practical consequences for effect assessment of chemical substances

    Vaal, M.A.; Van Leeuwen, C.J.; Hoekstra, J.A.; Hermens, J.L.M.


    This study addresses the relation between the sensitivity of aquatic species and mode of action of different classes or organic chemicals. The authors analyzed large data sets of ecotoxicological information to reveal the interspecies variation in sensitivity, to relate this variation to the compounds' mode of action, and to explain the observed patterns using general biological information. Here the authors present a general framework and recommendations for risk assessment procedures. The authors recommend the use of toxicologically based classification schemes at an early stage of the risk assessment procedure. Screening programs are most efficiently run when only one species per compound is tested to prioritize substances. The toxicity of compounds belonging to the class of nonpolar narcotics is highly predictable and shows little interspecies variation. For these compounds quantitative structure-activity relationships (WSARs) can be used to estimate effect levels. Most effort should be put into testing reactive compounds and compounds with a specific mode of action as toxicity to some species can be 10{sup 5}--10{sup 6} times higher compared with less sensitive species. The use of assessment factors in effect assessment procedures may lead to an underestimation of effects on the more sensitive species. For many priority pollutants there is little information on their ecotoxicity. Predictive techniques are needed to compensate for this lack of data. Knowledge of the relation between modes of action of compounds and interspecies variation in sensitivity should be integrated in risk assessment procedures in order to make more efficient use of the limited financial resources available.

  14. Acute dysprosium toxicity to Daphnia pulex and Hyalella azteca and development of the biotic ligand approach

    Vukov, Oliver, E-mail: [Biology Department, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3C5 (Canada); Smith, D. Scott [Chemistry Department, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3C5 (Canada); McGeer, James C. [Biology Department, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3C5 (Canada)


    The toxicological understanding of rare earth elements (REEs) in the aquatic environment is very limited but of increasing concern. The objective of this research is to compare the toxicological effect of the REE dysprosium to the freshwater invertebrates Daphnia pulex and Hyalella azteca and in the more sensitive organism, understand the toxicity modifying influence of Ca, Na, Mg, pH and dissolved organic matter (DOM). Standard methods (Environment Canada) were followed for testing and culture in media of intermediate hardness (60 mg CaCO{sub 3} mg/L) at pH 7.8 with Ca at 0.5, Na 0.5, Mg 0.125 (mM) and 23 °C. Acute toxicity tests were done with <24 h old neonates for 48 h in the case of D. pulex and with 2–9 days old offspring for 96 h tests with Hyalella. The potential protective effect of cationic competition was tested with Ca (0.5–2.0 mM), Na (0.5–2.0 mM) and Mg (0.125–0.5 mM). The effect of pH (6.5–8.0) and Suwannee River DOM complexation (at dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations of 9 and 13 mg C/L) were evaluated. Dissolved Dy concentrations were lower than total (unfiltered) indicating precipitation, particularly at higher concentrations. Acute toxicity of Dy to H. azteca and D. pulex revealed Hyalella to be 1.4 times more sensitive than Daphnia. Additions of Ca and Na but not Mg provided significant protection against Dy toxicity to Hyalella. Similarly, low pH was associated with reduction in toxicity. Exposures which were pH buffered with and without MOPS were significantly different and indicated that MOPS enhanced Dy toxicity. DOM also mitigated Dy toxicity. Biotic ligand based parameters (Log K values) were calculated based on free ion relationships as determined by geochemical equilibrium modeling software (WHAM ver. 7.02). The log K value for Dy{sup 3+} toxicity to Hyalella was 7.75 while the protective influence of Ca and Na were 3.95 and 4.10, respectively. This study contributes data towards the development of site specific

  15. A microcosm system to evaluate the toxicity of the triazine herbicide simazine on aquatic macrophytes

    Vervliet-Scheebaum, Marco, E-mail: marco.vervliet@biologie.uni-freiburg.d [Plant Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Schaenzlestr. 1, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Straus, Alain [Plant Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Schaenzlestr. 1, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Tremp, Horst [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University Koblenz-Landau, Fortstr. 7, 76829 Landau (Germany); Hamer, Mick [Ecological Sciences, Syngenta Crop Protection AG, Jealott' s Hill International Research Centre, Bracknell, Berkshire RG42 6EY (United Kingdom); Maund, Stephen J. [Ecological Sciences, Syngenta Crop Protection AG, 4002 Basel (Switzerland); Wagner, Edgar [Plant Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Schaenzlestr. 1, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Schulz, Ralf [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University Koblenz-Landau, Fortstr. 7, 76829 Landau (Germany)


    This study evaluates the effects of the triazine herbicide simazine in an outdoor pond microcosm test system that contained two submerged rooted species (Myriophyllum spicatum and Elodea canadensis) and two emergent rooted species (Persicaria amphibia and Glyceria maxima) over a period of 84 days. Simazine was applied to the microcosms at nominal concentrations of 0.05, 0.5 and 5 mg/L. General biological endpoints and physiological endpoints were used to evaluate herbicide toxicity on macrophytes and the algae developing naturally in the system. Concentration-related responses of macrophytes and algae were obtained for the endpoints selected, resulting in a no observed ecologically adverse effect concentration (NOEAEC) at simazine concentrations of 0.05 mg active ingredient/L after 84 days. E. canadensis was the most negatively affected species based on length increase, which was consistently a very sensitive parameter for all macrophytes. The experimental design presented might constitute a suitable alternative to conventional laboratory single-species testing. - Simazine at concentrations of 0.05 mg/L does not cause long-term negative effects to aquatic macrophytes or algae.

  16. Predicting changes in aquatic toxicity of chemicals resulting from solvent or dispersant use as vehicle.

    Kikuchi, Mikio; Nakagawa, Masamitsu; Tone, Suguru; Saito, Hotaka; Niino, Tatsuhiro; Nagasawa, Natsumi; Sawai, Jun


    The influence of two vehicles (N,N-dimethylformamide [DMF] as solvent and polyoxyethylene hydrogenated castor oil [HCO-40] as a dispersant) on the acute toxicity of eight hydrophobic chemicals with a non-specific mode of action to Daphnia magna was investigated according to the OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, No. 202. An increased 48-h EC50 value for D. magna or reduced toxicity resulting from the addition of HCO-40 to the test medium was observed for five of the eight chemicals examined. Each of eight chemicals was dissolved in water at a concentration of either 10 mg/L or 1.0 mg/L, with or without DMF or HCO-40. Silicone film as a model of a biological membrane was then immersed in each solution, and the concentration of each chemical in the water was monitored until equilibrium was reached for each test substance, after which the adsorbed amount of each chemical was determined. The amounts of p-pentylphenol and four other substances with log Pow (1-octanol/water partition coefficient) values greater than 3.4 adsorbed onto the silicone film decreased with increasing concentrations of HCO-40. However, 3-chloro-4-fluoronitrobenzene and two other substances with log Pow values less than 2.6 demonstrated no changes in adsorption with either increasing HCO-40 concentration or the addition of DMF. The reduced adsorption in the presence of a vehicle on the silicone film correlated closely with changes in toxicity. These results indicate that the methodology developed in this study enables the prediction of changes in toxicity resulting from the addition of vehicles to a test system.

  17. Acute and subacute toxicity of {sup 18F}-FDG

    Dantas, Danielle M.; Silva, Natanael G. da; Manetta, Ana Paula; Osso Junior, Joao A., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Before initiating clinical trials of a new drug, it is necessary to perform a battery of safety tests, for evaluating the risk in humans. Radiopharmaceuticals must be tested taking into account its specificity, duration of treatment and especially the toxicity of both, the unlabelled molecule and its radionuclide, apart from impurities emanating from radiolysis. In Brazil the production of radiopharmaceuticals was not regulated until the end of 2009, when ANVISA established the Resolutions No. 63, which refers to the Good Manufacturing Practices of radiopharmaceuticals and No. 64 which seeks the registration of radiopharmaceuticals. Nowadays IPEN produces one of the most important radiopharmaceutical for nuclear medicine, the {sup 18}F-FDG, which is used in the diagnosis. The objective of this study is to assess systemic toxicity (acute / subacute) of {sup 18}F-FDG in an in vivo test system, as recommended by the RDC No. 64. In acute tests the administration occurred on the first day, healthy rats were observed for 14 days reporting their clinical signs and water consumption, and on the 15th day they were euthanized and necropsied. The assay of subacute toxicity observations were made over a period of 28 days and the first dose was administered at the beginning of the test and after a fortnight a second dose was administered. The parameters evaluated were the necropsy, histopathology of target organs, hematology studies and liver and kidney function. The results are being processed and evaluated. Initial observations did not show any acute toxicity in animals when compared to control animals. (author)

  18. Artemia salina acute immobilization test: a possible tool for aquatic ecotoxicity assessment.

    Kalčíková, Gabriela; Zagorc-Končan, Jana; Zgajnar Gotvajn, Andreja


    Despite the fact that the marine crustacean Artemia salina is extensively used in ecotoxicology, there is still a lack of information about its sensitivity to commonly used chemicals. In the presented study, acute toxicity of 18 commonly used chemicals - including organic solvents, industrial chemicals, metals and inorganic compounds - to A. salina was evaluated. A. salina showed a range of sensitivities to tested chemicals. Regarding all of the investigated organics, phenolic compounds expressed the highest toxicity to A. salina. Nitrite and mercury were the most toxic inorganic substances applied in the study. On the other hand, dimethyl sulfoxide, nitrate and ammonium were the least toxic. The possibility to use A. salina for interspecies correlation was assessed by comparison of sensitivities of different organisms (bacteria, fish, crustacean) to organic compounds. Correlation between various species was observed, especially between A. salina and fish. Due to the strong relation between toxicity and the logarithm of the octanol/water partition coefficient logP(OW,) lipophilicity was found to be the main factor influencing toxicity of the chosen organic compounds. No significant correlation between toxicity to A. salina and physico-chemical parameters of metals was observed.

  19. Safety studies of homoeopathic drugs in acute, sub-acute and chronic toxicity in rats

    Surender Singh


    Full Text Available Background: Homoeopathic drugs are frequently recommended in day to day life as therapeutic agents by homoeopathic practitioners. However, safety of homoeopathic drugs remains a challenge because of the high variability of chemical components involved. Aim: The objective of the present study was to investigate the acute, subacute, and chronic oral toxicity of different homoeopathic drugs (Ferrum phosphoricum 3X, Ferrum phosphoricum 6X, Calcarea phosphoricum 6X, and Magnesium phosphoricum 6X in experimental models. Materials and Methods: In acute oral toxicity study, homoeopathic drugs were administered orally at 2000mg/kg body weight, and animals were observed for toxic symptoms till 10 days as per the OECD guidelines. For subacute and chronic toxicity study, homoeopathic drugs were administered for 28 and 180 days, respectively, as per the OECD guidelines. At the end of 28 and 180 days, the animals were sacrificed and toxicity parameters were assessed. Histopathological evaluation of different organs was also performed to assess any toxicity. Results: In acute toxicity study, no mortality was found at a dose of 2000 mg/kg which indicates that oral LD50of homoeopathic drugs were more than 2000 mg/kg. The administration of drugs at a dose of 70 mg/kg body weight for 28 and 180 days did not produce any significant change in haematological and biochemical parameters of male and female rats as compared to normal control group. No pathological changes were observed in histology of various organs of treated rats as compared to normal control animals. Conclusion: These homoeopathic drugs are safe & produce no toxicity when administered for longer duration.

  20. Acute oral and percutaneous toxicity of pesticides to mallards: Correlations with mammalian toxicity data

    Hudson, R.H.; Haegele, M.A.; Tucker, R.K.


    Acute oral (po) and 24-hr percutaneous (perc) LD50 values for 21 common pesticides (19 anticholinesterases, of which 18 were organophosphates, and one was a carbamate; one was an organochlorine central nervous system stimulant; and one was an organonitrogen pneumotoxicant) were determined in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Three of the pesticides tested were more toxic percutaneously than orally. An index to the percutaneous hazard of a pesticide, the dermal toxicity index (DTI = po LD50/perc LD50 ? 100), was also calculated for each pesticide. These toxicity values in mallards were compared with toxicity data for rats from the literature. Significant positive correlations were found between log po and log percutaneous LD50 values in mallards (r = 0.65, p 0.10). Variations in percutaneous methodologies are discussed with reference to interspecies variation in toxicity values. It is recommended that a mammalian DTI value approaching 30 be used as a guideline for the initiation of percutaneous toxicity studies in birds, when the po LD50 and/or projected percutaneous LD50 are less than expected field exposure levels.

  1. Data on acute toxicity of the progestin STS 557.

    Hillesheim, H G; Hoffmann, H


    In mice and rabbits of both sexes the acute toxicity of STS 557 (17 alpha-cyanomethyl-17 beta-hydroxy-estra-4, 9-dien-3-one) was determined after its oral or parenteral (i.p., s.c.) administration. In rabbits increasing lethality was observed following STS 557 suspended in tylose solution at the dose range of 1.0 to 3.0 g/kg p.o. or i.p. The approximate LD50-values were 1.0 to 1.5 g/kg for the i.p. route and 1.0 to 2.0 g/kg for the oral route. Levonorgestrel injected i.p. did not cause any lethality up to the dose of 3.0 g/kg. After oral or s.c. administration to mice, doses of 4.0 g/kg STS 557 were well tolerated. A dose-related toxicity occurred only after i.p. doses between 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg (STS 557), and between 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg (levonorgestrel), respectively. Using an oily vehicle for the oral route in mice, the lethal threshold dose for STS 557 was lowered to about 2.0 g/kg. In conclusion, a low oral acute toxicity was determined for STS 557 corresponding to that of other progestagens like levonorgestrel or norethisterone.

  2. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity, and Acute Oral Toxicity of Gynura bicolor

    Wuen Yew Teoh


    Full Text Available Gynura bicolor (Compositae which is widely used by the locals as natural remedies in folk medicine has limited scientific studies to ensure its efficacy and nontoxicity. The current study reports the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, cytotoxicity, and acute oral toxicity of crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water of G. bicolor leaves. Five human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, SW480, Caco-2, and HCT 116, one human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7, and one human normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of G. bicolor. The present findings had clearly demonstrated that ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor with the highest total phenolic content among the extracts showed the strongest antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging assay and metal chelating assay, possessed cytotoxicity, and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death, especially towards the HCT 116 and HCT-15 colon cancer cells. The acute oral toxicity study indicated that methanol extract of G. bicolor has negligible level of toxicity when administered orally and has been regarded as safe in experimental rats. The findings of the current study clearly established the chemoprevention potential of G. bicolor and thus provide scientific validation on the therapeutic claims of G. bicolor.

  3. Acute toxicity of TBT and IRGAROL in Artemia salina.

    Panagoula, Bakoulia; Panayiota, Marcouli; Iliopoulou-Georgudaki, Joan


    A 24-hour LC(50) bioassay method was carried out to study acute toxicity of Tributyltin (TBT) and IRGAROL (C(11)H(19)N(5)S) in Artemia salina. Five graded levels of both biocides were tested. According to the range test, the doses of TBT were 11.6 ng x l(-1), 21.0 ng x l(-1), 37.3 ng x l(-1), 65.2 ng x l(-1), and 116.5 ng x l(-1), and for IRGAROL were 1.0 mg x l(-1), 1.8 mg x l(-1), 3.2 mg x l(-1), 5.6 mg x l(-1), and 10 mg x l(-1). The determined LC(50) values were 41.41 ng x l(-1) and 1.62 mg x l(-1) respectively. These results indicate that in this system TBT is acutely more toxic than IRGAROL; however, both are proven environmentally toxic substances.

  4. Acute oral toxicities of wildland fire control chemicals to birds

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hill, E.F.


    Wildland fire control chemicals are released into the environment by aerial and ground applications to manage rangeland, grassland, and forest fires. Acute oral 24 h median lethal dosages (LD50) for three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R?, Phos-Chek D-75F?, and Fire-Trol LCG-R?) and two Class A fire suppressant foams (Silv-Ex? and Phos-Chek WD881?) were estimated for northern bobwhites, Colinus virginianus, American kestrels, Falco sparverius, and red-winged blackbirds, Agelaius phoeniceus. The LD50s of all chemicals for the bobwhites and red-winged blackbirds and for kestrels dosed with Phos-Chek WD881? and Silv-Ex? were above the predetermined 2000 mg chemical/kg body mass regulatory limit criteria for acute oral toxicity. The LD50s were not quantifiable for kestrels dosed with Fire-Trol GTS-R?, Phos-Chek D-75F?, and Fire-Trol LCG-R? because of the number of birds which regurgitated the dosage. These chemicals appear to be of comparatively low order of acute oral toxicity to the avian species tested.

  5. Study on the Acute Toxicity and Genetics Toxicity of Bensulfuronk-methyl on Danio rerio%苄嘧磺隆对斑马鱼的急性毒性和遗传毒性研究



    [Objective] The aim was to study the effect of bensulfuron-methyl herbicide on acute toxicity and genetics toxicity of Danio rerio. [Method] Median lethal concentration was calculated by acute toxicity test, and analyzing the herbicide whether existing in potential toxicity to aquatic organisms or not. Based on the study of acute toxicity, genetics toxicity was carried out, by calculating the micronucleus rate to judge bensulfuron-methyl herbicide whether existing in potential toxicity or not. [Result] The LD50 (24 h and 48 h) of bensulfuron-methyl herbicide are 0.698 ml/L and 0.637 ml/L respectively, the safe concentration was 0.159 ml/L. The results on the effects of micronucleus (MN) in erythrocytes of Danio rerio induced by bensulfuron-methyl at different times and different concentrations showed that the MN rate of control group was 0.010 3%, the highest MN rate of experimental group reached to 0.372%, it also indicated that bensulfuron-methyl herbicide had genetics toxicity to Danio rerio. At the same detection time, there was dose-effect relationship of MN rate in erythrocytes between treatment and control groups with different concentrations. In the same treatment group, the MN rate in erythrocytes reached to peak value at 24 h, and decreased at 48 h and 72 h with the infection time was prolonged. [Conclusion] The study provides some basis for scientifically selecting and reasonably using herbicide.

  6. Factors influencing the partitioning and toxicity of nanotubes in the aquatic environment.

    Kennedy, Alan J; Hull, Matthew S; Steevens, Jeffery A; Dontsova, Katerina M; Chappell, Mark A; Gunter, Jonas C; Weiss, Charles A


    Carbon nanotubes (NTs) may be among the most useful engineered nanomaterials for structural applications but could be difficult to study in ecotoxicological evaluations using existing tools relative to nanomaterials with a lower aspect ratio. Whereas the hydrophobicity and van der Waals interactions of NTs may suggest aggregation and sedimentation in aquatic systems, consideration regarding how engineered surface modifications influence their environmental fate and toxicology is needed. Surface modifications (e.g., functional groups and coatings) are intended to create conditions to make NTs dispersible in aqueous suspension, as required for some applications. In the present study, column stability and settling experiments indicated that raw, multiwalled NTs (MWNTs) settled more rapidly than carbon black and activated carbon particles, suggesting sediment as the ultimate repository. The presence of functional groups, however, slowed the settling of MWNTs (increasing order of stability: hydroxyl > carboxyl > raw), especially in combination with natural organic matter (NOM). Stabilized MWNTs in high concentrations of NOM provided relevance for water transport and toxicity studies. Aqueous exposures to raw MWNTs decreased Ceriodaphnia dubia viability, but such effects were not observed during exposure to functionalized MWNTs (> 80 mg/L). Sediment exposures of the amphipods Leptocheirus plumulosus and Hyalella azteca to different sizes of sediment-borne carbon particles at high concentration indicated mortality increased as particle size decreased, although raw MWNTs induced lower mortality (median lethal concentration [LC50], 50 to >264 g/kg) than carbon black (LC50, 18-40 g/kg) and activated carbon (LC50, 12-29 g/kg). Our findings stress that it may be inappropriate to classify all NTs into one category in terms of their environmental regulation.

  7. Non-animal Replacements for Acute Toxicity Testing.

    Barker-Treasure, Carol; Coll, Kevin; Belot, Nathalie; Longmore, Chris; Bygrave, Karl; Avey, Suzanne; Clothier, Richard


    Current approaches to predicting adverse effects in humans from acute toxic exposure to cosmetic ingredients still heavily necessitate the use of animals under EU legislation, particularly in the context of the REACH system, when cosmetic ingredients are also destined for use in other industries. These include the LD50 test, the Up-and-Down Procedure and the Fixed Dose Procedure, which are regarded as having notable scientific deficiencies and low transferability to humans. By expanding on previous in vitro tests, such as the animal cell-based 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) assay, this project aims to develop a truly animal-free predictive test for the acute toxicity of cosmetic ingredients in humans, by using human-derived cells and a prediction model that does not rely on animal data. The project, funded by Innovate UK, will incorporate the NRU assay with human dermal fibroblasts in animal product-free culture, to generate an in vitro protocol that can be validated as an accepted replacement for the currently available in vivo tests. To date, the project has successfully completed an assessment of the robustness and reproducibility of the method, by using sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) as a positive control, and displaying analogous results to those of the original studies with mouse 3T3 cells. Currently, the testing of five known ingredients from key groups (a surfactant, a preservative, a fragrance, a colour and an emulsifier) is under way. The testing consists of initial range-finding runs followed by three valid runs of a main experiment with the appropriate concentration ranges, to generate IC50 values. Expanded blind trials of 20 ingredients will follow. Early results indicate that this human cell-based test holds the potential to replace aspects of in vivo animal acute toxicity testing, particularly with reference to cosmetic ingredients. 2015 FRAME.

  8. [Acute and chronic toxicity of saponins from Argania spinosa].

    Alaoui, K; Belabbes, M; Cherrah, Y; Hassar, M; Charrouf, Z; Amarouch, H; Roquebert, J


    We evaluated the acute and chronic experimental toxicity of a water extract of saponins from Argania spinosa following oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration in mice (Iops Ofa) and rats (Wistar). The DL50 obtained were 79 mg/kg for the i.p. route and 1,300 mg/kg for the oral route. For the chronic toxicity studies, we administred 100 and 200 mg/kg orally once a day during a 3 month period. There was a decrease in blood sugar in the third month of each therapy. Blood creatinine levels increased, thus evoking a renal pathology. A slight increase in transaminases levels was not significatif. Hematologic parameters were unchanged during the treatment and the histopathologic study showed hepatic glycogen decrease and a focal renal tube deterioration.

  9. Acute Warfarin Toxicity as Initial Manifestation of Metastatic Liver Disease

    Varalaxmi Bhavani Nannaka


    Full Text Available Near complete infiltration of the liver secondary to metastasis from the head and neck cancer is a rare occurrence. The prognosis of liver failure associated with malignant infiltration is extremely poor; the survival time of patients is extremely low. We present a case of acute warfarin toxicity as initial manifestation of metastatic liver disease. Our patient is a 64-year-old woman presenting with epigastric pain and discomfort, found to have unrecordable International Normalized Ratio. She rapidly deteriorated with acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, profound shock requiring high dose vasopressor infusion, severe coagulopathy, worsening liver enzymes with worsening of lactic acidosis and severe metabolic abnormalities, and refractory to aggressive supportive care and died in less than 48 hours. Autopsy revealed that >90% of the liver was replaced by tumor masses.

  10. Preliminary acute toxicity study on imidacloprid in Swiss albino mice

    Preeti Bagri


    Full Text Available Aim: To ascertain the maximum tolerated dose (MTD and to investigate the acute oral toxic effects of imidacloprid towards Swiss albino male mice.Materials and Methods: The MTD of imidacloprid was determined in pilot dose range finding study following the standard method. Animals were observed for toxic signs and symptoms after oral administration of MTD of imidacloprid in single dose. The body weights of animals were recorded on alternate day. Animals were sacrificed on 14th day and changes in hematological parameters (Hb, TEC, TLC and DLC and morphometric measurements (length, breadth, thickness and weight of various body organs (heart, liver, spleen, kidney, testis and epididymis were examined. The student's t-test was applied to statistically analyze the results.Results: The MTD of imidacloprid was determined to be 110 mg/kg body weight. The sign and symptoms of acute toxicity were ataxia, rigidity and fasciculation of muscles, protrusion of eye ball and tremors of head. Imidacloprid treatment resulted in decreased body weight gain as compared to the control group. The changes in hematological parameters were not significant between imidacloprid treated and control groups. Also the values of relative organ weights and morphometric measurements of various body organs did not differ significantly between the control and imidacloprid treated animals.Conclusions: MTD of imidacloprid in Swiss albino male mice through oral route was determined for the first time. Study revealed a non-toxic effect of imidacloprid on body weight, relative organs weight, hematological parameters and morphometric measurements of various body organs in mice.

  11. Acute and subacute oral toxicity of periodate salts in rats.

    Lent, Emily May; Crouse, Lee C B; Eck, William S


    Periodate salts are being developed as potential replacements for perchlorate due to potential health hazards associated with exposure to perchlorate. The aim of this study was to investigate acute and subacute effects of periodate salts in rats. Acute oral toxicity of potassium and sodium periodate was determined using the Sequential Stage-Wise Probit method. The LD50 for potassium periodate was 732 (95% CI = 539-838, slope = 13.4) and 685 mg/kg (95% CI = 580-809, slope = 10.6) for females and males, respectively. The LD50 for sodium periodate was 318 (95% CI = 292-347, slope = 24.3) and 741 mg/kg (95% CI = 704-779, slope = 31.2) for females and males, respectively. In the subacute study, rats were administered sodium periodate at five doses (1/16 LD50 up to LD50) or distilled water for 14-days via oral gavage. Female rats in the 318 mg/kg-day group and male rats in the 185, 370, and 741 mg/kg-day groups exhibited moribundity, kidney toxicity, uremia, and a stress response. BMDL10s of 17.2 and 33.7 mg/kg-day were derived for females and males, respectively. Comparison with the NOAEL for perchlorate-induced thyroid toxicity in rats (0.009 mg/kg-day) suggests sodium periodate is less toxic than perchlorate on a subacute basis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Development of aquatic life criteria for nitrobenzene in China.

    Yan, Zhen-guang; Zhang, Zhi-sheng; Wang, Hong; Liang, Feng; Li, Ji; Liu, Hong-ling; Sun, Cheng; Liang, Li-jun; Liu, Zheng-tao


    Nitrobenzene is a toxic pollutant and was the main compound involved in the Songhuajiang accident in 2007, one of the largest water pollution accidents in China in the last decade. No aquatic life criteria for nitrobenzene have previously been proposed. In this study, published toxicity data of nitrobenzene to Chinese aquatic species were gathered, and six resident Chinese aquatic organisms were used in toxicity tests to supplement the existing toxicity data for nitrobenzene. Seventeen genuses mean acute values, three genuses mean chronic values to freshwater aquatic animals, and six genus toxicity values to aquatic plants were collected in total. A criterion maximum concentration of 0.018 mg/L and a criterion continuous concentration of 0.001 mg/L were developed based on these data, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. These criteria may be useful in the determination of water quality standard of nitrobenzene. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Examining the joint toxicity of chlorpyrifos and atrazine in the aquatic species: Lepomis macrochirus, Pimephales promelas and Chironomus tentans

    Tyler Mehler, W.; Schuler, Lance J. [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, IL 62901-6511 (United States); Lydy, Michael J. [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, IL 62901-6511 (United States)], E-mail:


    The joint toxicity of chlorpyrifos and atrazine was compared to that of chlorpyrifos alone to discern any greater than additive response using both acute toxicity testing and whole-body residue analysis. In addition, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition and biotransformation were investigated to evaluate the toxic mode of action of chlorpyrifos in the presence of atrazine. The joint toxicity of atrazine and chlorpyrifos exhibited no significant difference in Lepomis macrochirus compared to chlorpyrifos alone; while studies performed with Pimephales promelas and Chironomus tentans, did show significant differences. AChE activity and biotransformation showed no significant differences between the joint toxicity of atrazine and chlorpyrifos and that of chlorpyrifos alone. From the data collected, the combination of atrazine and chlorpyrifos pose little additional risk than that of chlorpyrifos alone to the tested fish species. - The joint toxicity between atrazine and chlorpyrifos caused greater than additive responses in invertebrates, but the interactions in vertebrates was less pronounced.

  14. Effect of acute exposure to cadmium on the expression of heat-shock and hormone-nuclear receptor genes in the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius

    Planello, R.; Martinez-Guitarte, J.L. [Grupo de Biologia y Toxicologia Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, UNED, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Morcillo, G., E-mail: [Grupo de Biologia y Toxicologia Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, UNED, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain)


    Cadmium is a widespread and highly toxic pollutant of particular ecotoxicological relevance for aquatic ecosystems where it accumulates. To identify biomarkers for ecotoxicity monitoring, the effect of cadmium on the expression of different genes related to the stress response as well as to the ecdysone hormone-signalling pathway was studied in the aquatic larvae of Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae), a standard test organism in aquatic toxicology testing. Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was used to evaluate the effects of acute and short-term cadmium exposures (10 mM CdCl{sub 2}, 12 h and 24 h) on the expression of hsp70, hsc70, hsp90 and hsp40 genes, as well as on that of the ecdysone hormonal-receptor genes (EcR and usp). A significant 3-fold increase in the level of hsp70 gene transcripts was induced by the treatment, whereas neither the other stress genes tested (hsp90 and hsp40) nor the constitutive form of hsp70, hsc70, was affected in the larvae exposed to cadmium. These results show that hsp70 is differentially activated to other environmentally regulated heat-shock genes, and constitutes a biomarker of exposure to this toxic metal. In addition, we also found that cadmium is able to alter the expression of the ecdysone receptor gene (EcR), whose mRNA level is significantly increased whereas usp levels remained unaltered. This finding, evidenced for the first time in invertebrates, supports the view that cadmium has the ability to mimic the effect of the hormone by the activation of the ecdysone nuclear receptor, which may partly explain the endocrine disruption capability that has been previously suggested for this toxic metal. Our research adds to the growing evidence implicating heavy metals, and cadmium in particular, as potential endocrine disruptive agents and may have significant implications for ecological risk assessment of endocrine-disrupting compounds in invertebrates.

  15. Evaluation of acute and sub-acute toxicity of Pinus eldarica bark extract in Wistar rats

    Akram Ghadirkhomi


    Full Text Available Objective: Pinus eldarica (P. eldarica is one of the most common pines in Iran which has various bioactive constituents and different uses in traditional medicine. Since there is no documented evidence for P. eldarica safety, the acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark were investigated in male and female Wistar rats in this study. Materials and Methods: In the acute study, a single dose of extract (2000 mg/kg was orally administered and animals were monitored for 7 days. In the sub-acute study, repeated doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day of the extract were administered for 28 days and biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Our results showed no sign of toxicity and no mortality after single or repeated administration of P. eldarica. The median lethal dose (LD50 of P. eldarica was determined to be higher than 2000 mg/kg. The mean body weight and most of the biochemical and hematological parameters showed normal levels.  There were only significant decreases in serum triglyceride levels at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of the extract in male rats (pConclusion: Oral administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark may be considered as relatively non-toxic particularly at the doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg.

  16. Acute toxicity bioassay of dimethoate on freshwater airbreathing catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch).

    Pandey, Rakesh K; Singh, Ram N; Singh, Sarika; Singh, Narendra N; Das, Vijai K


    Pesticides are chemicals used for pest control in the agricultural fields. They finally reach the surrounding water bodies through surface runoff affecting the aquatic fauna. Dimethoate is frequently used organophosphate pesticide due to its high effectiveness and rapid breakdown into environmentally safe products. A 96 hr static acute toxicity test was carried out to determine the LC50 value of dimethoate, on the freshwater airbreathing catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch). The fish were exposed to 7 different concentrations of dimethoate (2.50, 2.75, 3.00, 3.25, 3.50, 3.75 and 4.00 mg l(-1)) for toxicity bioassay. Control (0.00 mg l(-1)) was also carried out. The data were subjected to Finney's Probit analysis and processed with Trimmed Spearman-Karber statistical software. The LC50 values for dimethoate for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr were 3.38, 3.23, 3.08 and 2.98 mg l(-1), respectively. At higher concentration of dimethoate (3.25 mg l(-1) and above) the fish showed uncoordinated behaviour such as erratic and jerky swimming, attempt to jump out of water, frequent surfacing and gulping of air, decrease in opercular movement and copious secretion of mucus all over the body.

  17. Toxic effect of a marine bacterium on aquatic organisms and its algicidal substances against Phaeocystis globosa.

    Qiuchan Yang

    Full Text Available Harmful algal blooms have caused enormous damage to the marine ecosystem and the coastal economy in China. In this paper, a bacterial strain B1, which had strong algicidal activity against Phaeocystis globosa, was isolated from the coastal waters of Zhuhai in China. The strain B1 was identified as Bacillus sp. on the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequence and morphological characteristics. To evaluate the ecological safety of the algicidal substances produced by strain B1, their toxic effects on marine organisms were tested. Results showed that there were no adverse effects observed in the growth of Chlorella vulgaris, Chaetoceros muelleri, and Isochrystis galbana after exposure to the algicidal substances at a concentration of 1.0% (v/v for 96 h. The 48h LC50 values for Brachionus plicatilis, Moina mongolica Daday and Paralichthys olivaceus were 5.7, 9.0 and 12.1% (v/v, respectively. Subsequently, the algicidal substances from strain B1 culture were isolated and purified by silica gel column, Sephadex G-15 column and high-performance liquid chromatography. Based on quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and PeakView Software, the purified substances were identified as prolyl-methionine and hypoxanthine. Algicidal mechanism indicated that prolyl-methionine and hypoxanthine inhibited the growth of P. globosa by disrupting the antioxidant systems. In the acute toxicity assessment using M. mongolica, 24h LC50 values of prolyl-methionine and hypoxanthine were 7.0 and 13.8 g/L, respectively. The active substances produced by strain B1 can be considered as ecologically and environmentally biological agents for controlling harmful algal blooms.

  18. Effects of acute gamma-irradiation on the aquatic microbial microcosm in comparison with chemicals

    Fuma, Shoichi, E-mail: fuma@nirs.go.j [Environmental Radiation Effects Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Kiriko; Yanagisawa, Kei [Environmental Radiation Effects Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Doi, Kazutaka; Kawaguchi, Isao [Regulatory Sciences Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Tanaka, Nobuyuki [Environmental Chemistry Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Inamori, Yuhei [Faculty of Symbiotic Systems Science, Fukushima University, 1 Kanayagawa, Fukushima 960-1296 (Japan); Polikarpov, Gennady G. [The A.O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of Southern Seas, Sevastopol 99011 (Ukraine)


    Effects of acute gamma-irradiation were investigated in the aquatic microcosm consisting of green algae (Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp.) and a blue-green alga (Tolypothrix sp.) as producers; an oligochaete (Aeolosoma hemprichi), rotifers (Lecane sp. and Philodina sp.) and a ciliate protozoan (Cyclidium glaucoma) as consumers; and more than four species of bacteria as decomposers. At 100 Gy, populations were not affected in any taxa. At 500-5000 Gy, one or three taxa died out and populations of two or three taxa decreased over time, while that of Tolypothrix sp. increased. This Tolypothrix sp. increase was likely an indirect effect due to interspecies interactions. The principal response curve analysis revealed that the main trend of the effects was a dose-dependent population decrease. For a better understanding of radiation risks in aquatic microbial communities, effect doses of gamma-rays compared with copper, herbicides and detergents were evaluated using the radiochemoecological conceptual model and the effect index for microcosm.

  19. Acute and subchronic toxicity of hydroxylammonium nitrate in Wistar rats

    An Hui; Liu Jinyi; Yang Lujun; Liu Shengxue; Zhou Yanhong; Yang Huan; Jia Qingjun; Cui Zhihong; Cao Jia


    Hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) is a major constituent in a class of liquid monopropellants and is extensively used in nuclear industry and space propulsion. Previous toxicological studies have focused on oral, inhalation and dermal routes of exposure to HAN-based propellant blends. In this study, acute and subchronic toxicity of HAN in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injections were evaluated. In this acute study, doses of HAN at 115, 125, 135, 147, 160 or 174 mg/kg were administered. No adverse effects were observed during a 14-day period and at gross histopathological examination. In the subchronic study, HAN at 7, 14 or 28 mg/kg were administered for 13 weeks. The treatment with HAN caused significant changes in the weight of spleen, in the level of hematological parameters, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, uric acid and carbondioxidecombining power and histopathological damages of the lung, liver, spleen and kidney. Overall, the study suggests that 13-week HAN treatment caused abnormal hematological changes and tissue lesions, and the risk of toxicity to mammals is not negligible.

  20. Stereotactic radiotherapy of meningiomas. Symptomatology, acute and late toxicity

    Henzel, M.; Gross, M.W.; Failing, T.; Strassmann, G.; Engenhart-Cabillic, R. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Gisssen (Germany); Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Marburg Univ. (Germany); Hamm, K.; Surber, G.; Kleinert, G. [Dept. of Stereotactic Neurosurgery and Radiosurgery, Helios Klinikum Erfurt (Germany)


    Background and purpose: stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is well established in the treatment of skull base meningiomas, but this therapy approach is limited to small tumors only. The fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) offers an alternative treatment option. This study aims at local control, symptomatology, and toxicity. Patients and methods: between 1997-2003, 224 patients were treated with SRT (n= 183), hypofractionated SRT (n = 30), and SRS (n = 11). 95/224 were treated with SRT/SRS alone. 129/224 patients underwent previous operations. Freedom from progression and overall survival, toxicity, and symptomatology were evaluated systematically. Additionally, tumor volume (TV) shrinkage was analyzed three-dimensionally within the planning system. Results: the median follow-up was 36 months (range, 12-100 months). Overall survival and freedom from progression for 5 years were 92.9% and 96.9%. Quantitative TV reduction was 26.2% and 30.3% 12 and 18 months after SRT/SRS (p < 0.0001). 95.9% of the patients improved their symptoms or were stable. Clinically significant acute toxicity (CTC III ) was rarely seen (2.5%). Clinically significant late morbidity (III -IV ) or new cranial nerve palsies did not occur. Conclusion: SRT offers an additional treatment option of high efficacy with only few side effects. In the case of large tumor size (> 4 ml) and adjacent critical structures (< 2 mm), SRT is highly recommended. (orig.)

  1. Water Spinach, Ipomoea aquatic (Convolvulaceae, Ameliorates Lead Toxicity by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis.

    Saikat Dewanjee

    Full Text Available Ipomoea aquatica (Convolvulaceae, an aquatic edible plant, is traditionally used against heavy metal toxicity in India. The current study intended to explore the protective role of edible (aqueous extract of I. aquatica (AEIA against experimentally induced Pb-intoxication.The cytoprotective role of AEIA was measured on mouse hepatocytes by cell viability assay followed by Hoechst staining and flow cytometric assay. The effect on ROS production, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, intracellular redox status were measured after incubating the hepatocytes with Pb-acetate (6.8 μM along with AEIA (400 μg/ml. The effects on the expressions of apoptotic signal proteins were estimated by western blotting. The protective role of AEIA was measured by in vivo assay in mice. Haematological, serum biochemical, tissue redox status, Pb bioaccumulation and histological parameters were evaluated to estimate the protective role of AEIA (100 mg/kg against Pb-acetate (5 mg/kg intoxication.Pb-acetate treated hepatocytes showed a gradual reduction of cell viability dose-dependently with an IC50 value of 6.8 μM. Pb-acetate treated hepatocytes exhibited significantly enhanced levels (p < 0.01 of ROS production, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation with concomitant depletion (p < 0.01 of antioxidant enzymes and GSH. However, AEIA treatment could significantly restore the aforementioned parameters in murine hepatocytes near to normalcy. Besides, AEIA significantly reversed (p < 0.05-0.01 the alterations of transcription levels of apoptotic proteins viz. Bcl 2, Bad, Cyt C, Apaf-1, cleaved caspases [caspase 3, caspase 8 and caspase 9], Fas and Bid. In in vivo bioassay, Pb-acetate treatment caused significantly high intracellular Pb burden and oxidative pressure in the kidney, liver, heart, brain and testes in mice. In addition, the haematological and serum biochemical factors were changed significantly in Pb-acetate-treated animals. AEIA treatment restored

  2. Acute oral toxicity of the herbicide BUREX EKO in pheasants.

    Legáth, J; Mlynarcíková, H; Svický, E; Lenhardt, L; Kacmár, P; Benová, K; Kovác, G


    The aim of this study was to determine the acute LD50, clinical symptoms and pathological changes of acute BUREX EKO intoxication in pheasants according to OECD No 205. Medium lethal dose (LD50) of BUREX EKO in pheasant is 3.84 ml/kg body weight with the upper level of reliability 4.50 ml and lower level of reliability 3.27 ml/kg body weight. As far as the calculation to the effective substance is concerned it is 1077 mg of chloridazone per kg body weight with the interval of reliability from 919 to 1263 mg/kg body weight. Calculated the effective substance of chloridazone (3.84 ml is LD50 of BUREX EKO which contains 1077 mg of chloridazone) BUREX EKO can be classified as the moderately toxic substance to pheasants. There were following clinical symptoms of the BUREX EKO intoxication in pheasants: apathy, drowsiness, incapability to move, ruffled feathers, slight diarrhoea, strenuous respiration, tonico-clonical cramps before death, decease with the head expressively bent rearwards. There was a relatively fast beginning of rigor mortis in dead pheasants. Pathologico-anatomical dissection of the pheasants obtained under conditions of acute intoxication did not reveal any changes on the organs of both experimental and control pheasants which would be immediately connected with the effect of the administered substance. Hyperaemia was recorded by histologico-pathological investigation of the liver and kidneys. No changes on the brain and intestine wall were recorded.

  3. Neutral red uptake cytotoxicity tests for estimating starting doses for acute oral toxicity tests.

    Stokes, William S; Casati, Silvia; Strickland, Judy; Paris, Michael


    In vitro cytotoxicity assays can be used as alternative toxicity tests to reduce the total number of animals needed for acute oral toxicity tests. This unit describes two methods for determining the in vitro cytotoxicity of test substances using neutral red uptake (NRU) and using the in vitro data to determine starting doses for in vivo acute oral systemic toxicity tests, e.g., the up-and-down procedure or the acute toxic class method. The use of the NRU methods to determine starting doses for acute oral toxicity tests may reduce the number of animals required, and for relatively toxic substances, this approach may also reduce the number of animals that die or require humane euthanasia due to severe toxicity. An interlaboratory validation study has demonstrated that the methods are useful and reproducible for these purposes. Two standardized protocols provide details for performing NRU tests with rodent and human cells.

  4. Influence of developmental stage, salts and food presence on various end points using Caenorhabditis elegans for aquatic toxicity testing

    Donkin, S.G.; Williams, P.L. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)


    This study used a randomized block design to investigate the importance of several variables in using the free-living soil nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, for aquatic toxicity testing. Concentration-response data were obtained on nematodes of various developmental stages exposed to four metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, and Hg) and a water-soluble organic toxicant, sodium pentachlorophenate (PCP), under conditions of varied solvent medium (with or without salts and with or without a bacterial food source). The end points measured were 24- and 96-h mortality LC50 value, as well as development of larval stages to adulthood and evidence of reproduction. The results suggest that nematodes of various ages respond similarity to a given toxicant for all end points measured, although adults cultured from eggs appeared more sensitive than adults cultured from dauer larvae. The most important environmental variable in determining toxicity was the medium in which the tests were conducted. The presence of potassium and sodium salts in the medium significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the toxicity of many test samples. The presence of bacteria had little effect on 24-h tests with salts, but was important in 96-h survival and development. Based on sensitivity and ease of handling, adults cultured from eggs are recommended in both 24h and 96-h tests.

  5. Acute toxicity and sublethal effects of gallic and pelargonic acids on the zebrafish Danio rerio.

    Techer, Didier; Milla, Sylvain; Fontaine, Pascal; Viot, Sandrine; Thomas, Marielle


    Gallic and pelargonic acids are naturally found in a variety of plants and food products. Despite their extensive use in man-made applications, little is known regarding their potential risks to aquatic vertebrates. The aim of this work was to assess the acute toxicity of these polyphenolic and fatty acid compounds to the zebrafish. In order to get insights into sublethal effects, the enzyme activity of usual biomarkers related to oxidative stress and biotransformation were also assessed in fish. These latter included total superoxide dismutase, catalase as well as total glutathione peroxidase for antioxidant defence mechanisms and glutathione S-transferase for biotransformation related enzyme. Gallic acid was practically non-toxic (96-h lethal concentration (LC50) > 100 mg/L) whereas pelargonic acid was slightly toxic (96-h LC50 of 81.2 mg/L). Moreover, biomarker analyses indicated enhanced superoxide dismutase activity in fish exposed to 20, 40 and 100 mg/L of gallic acid compared to control. A dose-dependent induction of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase was reported following gallic acid exposure at the tested concentrations of 10, 20 and 40 mg/L, with the exception of 100 mg/L of substance where basal activity levels were reported. In the case of pelargonic acid, there was no change in antioxidant enzyme activity while an inhibition of glutathione S-transferase was observed from organisms exposed to 45, 58 and 76 mg/L of test solution. The results concerning sublethal effects on biological parameters of zebrafish highlighted thereby the need for further investigations following chronic exposure to both organic acids.

  6. Relatively spared central multifocal electroretinogram responses in acute quinine toxicity

    Saeed, Muhammad Usman; Noonan, Carmel; Hagan, Richard; Brown, Malcolm


    A 71-year-old man was investigated with electrodiagnostic testing 4 months after a deliberate quinine overdose. Initially he was admitted to intensive care unit with visual acuity (VA) of perception of light in both eyes. VA recovered to 6/6 right eye and 6/12 left eye, though severely constricted fields were noted. Slow stimulus (base period of 83 ms) multifocal electroretinogram (ERG) showed electronegative responses outside the inner 5 degrees, with a reduced but electropositive response seen in this central area. It appears that in this case of bilaterally negative ERGs that the macula/fovea (which has a vascular supply through the choroid) is relatively spared as is seen in bilateral vascular electronegative ERGs. This may indicate that quinine toxicity to the retina may be secondary to effects similar to vascular occlusion or severe ischemia during the acute phase of quinine poisoning. PMID:22693278

  7. Environmental Quality Research-Fate of Toxic Jet Fuel Components in Aquatic Systems


    literature suggests that the maximum growt rate of Chlorella vulgaris is almost certainly between 1.5 and 2.5 days at water temperatures near 25°C...and D.A. Bengtson. 1980. Nutrition in aquatic toxicology: diet quality of geographical strains of brine shrimp, Artemia app. Proc. Symp. physiologique sur le d6veloppement d’Artemia salina Leach. Archs. Zool. exp. gen. 99: 1-134. Goulden, C.E. and L.L. Hornig. 1980. The nutrition of

  8. Evaluation of acute and sub-acute toxicity of Pinus eldarica bark extract in Wistar rats

    Ghadirkhomi, Akram; Safaeian, Leila; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Agha Ghazvini, Mohammad Reza; Rezaei, Parisa


    Objective: Pinus eldarica (P. eldarica) is one of the most common pines in Iran which has various bioactive constituents and different uses in traditional medicine. Since there is no documented evidence for P. eldarica safety, the acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark were investigated in male and female Wistar rats in this study. Materials and Methods: In the acute study, a single dose of extract (2000 mg/kg) was orally administered and animals were monitored for 7 days. In the sub-acute study, repeated doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day) of the extract were administered for 28 days and biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Our results showed no sign of toxicity and no mortality after single or repeated administration of P. eldarica. The median lethal dose (LD50) of P. eldarica was determined to be higher than 2000 mg/kg. The mean body weight and most of the biochemical and hematological parameters showed normal levels. There were only significant decreases in serum triglyceride levels at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of the extract in male rats (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively) and in monocyte counts at the highest dose of the extract in both male and female rats (p<0.05). Mild inflammation was also found in histological examination of kidney and liver tissues at the highest dose of extract. Conclusion: Oral administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark may be considered as relatively non-toxic particularly at the doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg. PMID:27761426

  9. Effect of age and body weight on toxicity and survival in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia

    Løhmann, Ditte J A; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Ha, Shau-Yin


    Treatment for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia is very toxic and the association between outcome and age and Body Mass Index is unclear. We investigated effect of age and Body Mass Index on toxicity and survival in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. We studied all patients who completed first indu...

  10. Mustard gas toxicity: the acute and chronic pathological effects.

    Ghabili, Kamyar; Agutter, Paul S; Ghanei, Mostafa; Ansarin, Khalil; Shoja, Mohammadali M


    Ever since it was first used in armed conflict, mustard gas (sulfur mustard, MG) has been known to cause a wide range of acute and chronic injuries to exposure victims. The earliest descriptions of these injuries were published during and in the immediate aftermath of the First World War, and a further series of accounts followed the Second World War. More recently, MG has been deployed in warfare in the Middle East and this resulted in large numbers of victims, whose conditions have been studied in detail at hospitals in the region. In this review, we bring together the older and more recent clinical studies on MG toxicity and summarize what is now known about the acute and chronic effects of the agent on the eyes, skin, respiratory tract and other physiological systems. In the majority of patients, the most clinically serious long-term consequences of MG poisoning are on the respiratory system, but the effects on the skin and other systems also have a significant impact on quality of life. Aspects of the management of these patients are discussed.

  11. Acute toxicity evaluation for quinolone antibiotics and their chlorination disinfection processes.

    Li, Min; Wei, Dongbin; Du, Yuguo


    Acute toxicity of 21 quinolone antibiotics was monitored using photobacterium Vibrio fischeri assay. The minimum IC20 (inhibitory concentration for 20% luminescence elimination) was obtained at the least 18.86μmol/L for the tested quinolones. A quantitative structure-activity relationship model was established to investigate the possible mechanism for the acute toxicity. The critical physicochemical descriptors, describing σ and π atom electronegativity, implied that the electron transfer might occur between the quinolones and photobacterium V. fischeri. Although the quinolones exhibited limited acute toxicity to photobacterium, toxicity elevation was detected after their chlorination. Hence, chlorination disinfection treatment of quinolone-containing water should be of concerns.

  12. Toxicity of two imidazolium ionic liquids, [bmim][BF4] and [omim][BF4], to standard aquatic test organisms: Role of acetone in the induced toxicity.

    Tsarpali, Vasiliki; Dailianis, Stefanos


    The main goal of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs), [bmim][BF4] (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) and [omim][BF4] (1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate), in battery of standard aquatic toxicity test organisms. Specifically, exposure of the algae Scenedesmus rubescens, crustaceans Thamnocephalus platyurus and Artemia franciscana, rotifers Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus plicatilis and bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis to different concentrations of [bmim][BF4], [omim][BF4] and/or a binary mixture of [bmim][BF4]-[omim][BF4] (1:1) with or without acetone (carrier solvent), revealed that solvent can differentially mediate ILs' toxic profile. Acetone's ability to differentially affect ILs' cation's alkyl chain length, as well as the hydrolysis of [BF4(-)] anions was evident. Given that the toxic potency of the tested ILs seemed to be equal or even higher (in some cases) than those of conventional organic solvents, the present study revealed that the characterization of imidazolium-based ILs as "green solvents" should not be generalized, at least in case of their natural occurrence in mixtures with organic solvents, such as acetone.

  13. Statistically validated QSARs, based on theoretical descriptors, for modeling aquatic toxicity of organic chemicals in Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow).

    Papa, Ester; Villa, Fulvio; Gramatica, Paola


    The use of Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships in assessing the potential negative effects of chemicals plays an important role in ecotoxicology. (LC50)(96h) in Pimephales promelas (Duluth database) is widely modeled as an aquatic toxicity end-point. The object of this study was to compare different molecular descriptors in the development of new statistically validated QSAR models to predict the aquatic toxicity of chemicals classified according to their MOA and in a unique general model. The applied multiple linear regression approach (ordinary least squares) is based on theoretical molecular descriptor variety (1D, 2D, and 3D, from DRAGON package, and some calculated logP). The best combination of modeling descriptors was selected by the Genetic Algorithm-Variable Subset Selection procedure. The robustness and the predictive performance of the proposed models was verified using both internal (cross-validation by LOO, bootstrap, Y-scrambling) and external statistical validations (by splitting the original data set into training and validation sets by Kohonen-artificial neural networks (K-ANN)). The model applicability domain (AD) was checked by the leverage approach to verify prediction reliability.

  14. Reduction of acute toxicity and genotoxicity of dye effluent using Fenton-coagulation process.

    Zhang, Jing; Chen, Shuo; Zhang, Ying; Quan, Xie; Zhao, Huimin; Zhang, Yaobin


    Dye wastewater exhibits significant ecotoxicity even though its physico-chemical parameters meet the discharge standards. In this work, the acute toxicity and genotoxicity of dye effluent were tested, and the Fenton-coagulation process was carried out to detoxify this dye effluent. The acute toxicity was evaluated according to the mortality rate of zebrafish, and genotoxicity was evaluated by micronucleus (MN) and comet assays. Removal of color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) was also investigated. The results indicated that the dye effluent showed strong acute toxicity and genotoxicity to zebrafish. After 4h of treatment by Fenton-coagulation process, the dye effluent exhibited no significant acute toxicity and genotoxicity to zebrafish. In addition, its COD was less than 50mg/L, which met the discharge standard. It demonstrates that Fenton-coagulation process can comprehensively reduce the acute toxicity and genotoxicity as well as the COD of the dye effluent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. An "assemblage toxicity index" to improve characterization of effects of atrazine on aquatic plant communities

    Aquatic risk assessments are made uncertain by the use of measures of effect for only one level of effect and by the use of only one percentile in sensitivity distributions for the variation of this measure of effect across an assemblage of taxa. This leaves undefined the severi...

  16. An "assemblage toxicity index" to improve characterization of effects of atrazine on aquatic plant communities

    Aquatic risk assessments are made uncertain by the use of measures of effect for only one level of effect and by the use of only one percentile in sensitivity distributions for the variation of this measure of effect across an assemblage of taxa. This leaves undefined the severi...

  17. Toxicity of the Cyclic Nitramine Energetic Material CL-20 to Aquatic Receptors


    MATERIAL CL-20 TO AQUATIC RECEPTORS Mark V. Haley John S. Anthony Emily A. Davis Carl W. Kurnas Roman G. Kuperman Ronald T. Checkai RESEARCH AND...GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Haley, Mark V.; Anthony, John S.; Davis, Emily A.; Kurnas , Carl W.; Kuperman

  18. Amines and amine-related compounds in surface waters: a review of sources, concentrations and aquatic toxicity.

    Poste, Amanda E; Grung, Merete; Wright, Richard F


    This review compiles available information on the concentrations, sources, fate and toxicity of amines and amine-related compounds in surface waters, including rivers, lakes, reservoirs, wetlands and seawater. There is a strong need for this information, especially given the emergence of amine-based post-combustion CO2 capture technologies, which may represent a new and significant source of amines to the environment. We identify a broad range of anthropogenic and natural sources of amines, nitrosamines and nitramines to the aquatic environment, and identify some key fate and degradation pathways of these compounds. There were very few data available on amines in surface waters, with reported concentrations often below detection and only rarely exceeding 10 μg/L. Reported concentrations for seawater and reservoirs were below detection or very low, while for lakes and rivers, concentrations spanned several orders of magnitude. The most prevalent and commonly detected amines were methylamine (MA), dimethylamine (DMA), ethylamine (EA), diethylamine (DEA) and monoethanolamine (MEAT). The paucity of data may reflect the analytical challenges posed by determination of amines in complex environmental matrices at ambient levels. We provide an overview of available aquatic toxicological data for amines and conclude that at current environmental concentrations, amines are not likely to be of toxicological concern to the aquatic environment, however, the potential for amines to act as precursors in the formation of nitrosamines and nitramines may represent a risk of contamination of drinking water supplies by these often carcinogenic compounds. More research on the prevalence and toxicity of amines, nitrosamines and nitramines in natural waters is necessary before the environmental impact of new point sources from carbon capture facilities can be adequately quantified.

  19. Metal toxicity differently affects the Iris pseudacorus-arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi symbiosis in terrestrial and semi-aquatic habitats.

    Wężowicz, K; Turnau, K; Anielska, T; Zhebrak, I; Gołuszka, K; Błaszkowski, J; Rozpądek, P


    Phytoremediation offers an environmental friendly alternative to conventional cleanup techniques. In this study, mycorrhizal fungi isolated from the roots of Mentha longifolia grown in the basin of the Centuria River (S Poland) were used. Iris pseudacorus was grown in substratum from an industrial waste, enriched in Pb, Fe, Zn, and Cd in a terrestrial and water-logged habitat. Plant yield and photosynthetic performance was the highest in the aquatic environment; however, the presence of toxic metals (TM) negatively affected photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry as shown by the JIP test. Fungi colonization and Cd accumulation within plant tissues was decreased. In the terrestrial habitat, neither arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) nor metal toxicity affected plant growth, although metal uptake, Cd in particular, as well as photosynthesis were affected. Inoculated plants accumulated significantly more Cd, and photosynthesis was downregulated. The results presented in this study clearly indicate that the I. pseudacorus-AMF symbiosis adapts itself to the presence of toxic metals in the environment, optimizing resource supply, energy fluxes, and possibly stress tolerance mechanisms. Plant/AMF consortia grown in terrestrial and water-logged habitats utilize different strategies to cope with metal toxicity. The use of AMF in improving the phytoremediation potential of I. pseudacorus needs, however, further research.

  20. Water quality and aquatic toxicity data of 2002 spring thaw conditions in the upper Animas River watershed, Silverton, Colorado

    Fey, D.L.; Wirt, L.; Besser, J.M.; Wright, W.G.


    This report presents hydrologic, water-quality, and biologic toxicity data collected during the annual spring thaw of 2002 in the upper Animas River watershed near Silverton, Colorado. The spring-thaw runoff is a concern because elevated concentrations of iron oxyhydroxides can contain sorbed trace metals that are potentially toxic to aquatic life. Water chemistry of streams draining the San Juan Mountains is affected by natural acid drainage and weathering of hydrothermal altered volcanic rocks and by more than a century of mining activities. The timing of the spring-thaw sampling effort was determined by reviewing historical climate and stream-flow hydrographs and current weather conditions. Twenty-one water-quality samples were collected between 11:00 AM March 27, 2002 and 6:00 PM March 30, 2002 to characterize water chemistry at the A-72 gage on the upper Animas River below Silverton. Analyses of unfiltered water at the A-72 gage showed a relation between turbidity and total-recoverable iron concentrations, and showed diurnal patterns. Copper and lead concentrations were related to iron concentrations, indicating that these elements are probably sorbed to colloidal iron material. Calcium, strontium, and sulfate concentrations showed overall decreasing trends due to dilution, but the loads of those constituents increased over the sampling period. Nine water-quality samples were collected near the confluence of Mineral Creek with the Animas River, the confluence of Cement Creek with the Animas River, and on the upper Animas River above the confluence with Cement Creek (three samples at each site). A total of six bulk water-toxicity samples were collected before, during, and after the spring thaw from the Animas River at the A-72 gage site. Toxicity tests conducted with the bulk water samples on amphipods did not show strong differences in toxicity among the three sampling periods; however, toxicity of river water to fathead minnows showed a decreasing trend

  1. Acute toxicity effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate on sperm vitality, kinematics and fertilization success in zebrafish

    Xia, Jigang; Niu, Cuijuan


    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has emerged as one of the most concerning contaminants in recent years. This study aimed to investigate the acute toxicity effect of PFOS on sperm viability, kinematics and fertilization success in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Sperm were activated in aqueous media containing a range of PFOS concentrations (0, 0.09, 0.9 and 9 mg/L). Viabilities and kinematics of the sperm exposed to different PFOS treatments were assessed via computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) at 20, 40 60 and 80 s after activation. PFOS exposure decreased the percentage of motile sperm, the curvilinear velocity (VCL), and the mean angular displacement (MAD) of spermatozoa, but showed no influence on the straight-line velocity (VSL) or the angular path velocity (VAP). Furthermore, a significant decrease in fertilization success was observed in spermatozoa that were exposed to 0.9 mg/L PFOS or more. These findings indicate that PFOS pollution in natural aquatic environment may be a potential threaten to successful reproduction of fish.

  2. Acute toxicity effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate on sperm vitality, kinematics and fertilization success in zebrafish

    Xia, Jigang; Niu, Cuijuan


    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has emerged as one of the most concerning contaminants in recent years. This study aimed to investigate the acute toxicity effect of PFOS on sperm viability, kinematics and fertilization success in zebrafish ( Danio rerio). Sperm were activated in aqueous media containing a range of PFOS concentrations (0, 0.09, 0.9 and 9 mg/L). Viabilities and kinematics of the sperm exposed to different PFOS treatments were assessed via computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) at 20, 40, 60, and 80 s after activation. PFOS exposure decreased the percentage of motile sperm, the curvilinear velocity (VCL), and the mean angular displacement (MAD) of spermatozoa, but showed no influence on the straight-line velocity (VSL) or the angular path velocity (VAP). Furthermore, a significant decrease in fertilization success was observed in spermatozoa that were exposed to 0.9 mg/L PFOS or more. These findings indicate that PFOS pollution in natural aquatic environment may be a potential threaten to successful reproduction of fish.

  3. Anabolic responses to acute and chronic resistance exercise are enhanced when combined with aquatic treadmill exercise.

    Lambert, Brad S; Shimkus, Kevin L; Fluckey, James D; Riechman, Steven E; Greene, Nicholas P; Cardin, Jessica M; Crouse, Stephen F


    Aquatic treadmill (ATM) running may simultaneously promote aerobic fitness and enhance muscle growth when combined with resistance training (RT) compared with land-treadmill (LTM) running. Therefore, we examined acute and chronic physiological responses to RT, concurrent RT-LTM, and concurrent RT-ATM. Forty-seven untrained volunteers (men: n = 23, 37 ± 11 yr, 29.6 ± 4.6 kg/m(2); women: n = 24, 38 ± 12 yr, 27.53 ± 6.4 kg/m(2)) from the general population were tested for V̇o2max, body composition, and strength before and after training. All groups performed 12 wk of RT (2 wk, 3 × 8-12 sets at 60 to approximately 80% 1-repetition maximum). The RT-LTM and RT-ATM groups also performed 12 wk of LTM or ATM training (2 wk immediately post-RT and 1 wk in isolation, 60-85% V̇o2max, 250-500 kcal/session). Additionally, 25 subjects volunteered for muscle biopsy prior to and 24 h post-acute exercise before and after training. Stable isotope labeling (70% (2)H2O, 3 ml/kg) was utilized to quantify 24 h post-exercise myofibrillar fractional synthesis rates (myoFSR). Mixed-model ANOVA revealed that RT-ATM but not RT-LTM training produced greater chronic increases in lean mass than RT alone (P exercise elicited higher 24-h myoFSRs compared with RT (+5.68%/day, P exercise and training elicit greater skeletal muscle anabolism than RT alone or RT-LTM.

  4. Natural and active chemical remediation of toxic metals, organics, and radionuclides in the aquatic environment

    McPherson, G.; Pintauro, P.; O`Connor, S. [and others


    This project focuses on the chemical aspects of remediation, with the underlying theme that chemical remediation does occur naturally. Included are studies on the fate of heavy metal and organic contaminants discharged into aquatic environments; accurate assay metal contaminants partitioned into soils, water and tissue; development of novel polymeric membranes and microporous solids for the entrapment of heavy metals; and the development of hybrid chemo-enzymatic oxidative schemes for aromatics decontamination. 49 refs.

  5. Effects of acute {gamma}-irradiation on community structure of the aquatic microbial microcosm

    Fuma, Shoichi, E-mail: fuma@nirs.go.j [Environmental Radiation Effects Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Takeda, Hiroshi [Environmental Radiation Effects Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Doi, Kazutaka; Kawaguchi, Isao [Regulatory Sciences Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Shikano, Shuichi [Center for Northeast Asian Studies, Tohoku University, 41 Kawauchi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8576 (Japan); Tanaka, Nobuyuki [Marine Environment Section, Water and Soil Environment Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Inamori, Yuhei [Faculty of Symbiotic Systems Science, Fukushima University, 1 Kanayagawa, Fukushima 960-1296 (Japan)


    To characterise indirect effects of ionising radiation on aquatic microbial communities, effects of acute {gamma}-irradiation were investigated in a microcosm consisting of populations of green algae (Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp.) and a blue-green alga (Tolypothrix sp.) as producer; a ciliate protozoan (Cyclidium glaucoma), rotifers (Lecane sp. and Philodina sp.) and an oligochaete (Aeolosoma hemprichi) as consumer; and more than four species of bacteria as decomposers. Population changes in the constituent organisms were observed over 160 days after irradiation. Prokaryotic community structure was also examined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rDNA. Principle response curve analysis revealed that the populations of the microcosm as a whole were not significantly affected at 100 Gy while they were adversely affected at 500-5000 Gy in a dose-dependent manner. However, some effects on each population, including each bacterial population detected by DGGE, did not depend on radiation doses, and some populations in the irradiated microcosm were larger than those of the control. These unexpected results are regarded as indirect effects through interspecies interactions, and possible mechanisms are proposed originating from population changes in other organisms co-existing in the microcosm. For example, some indirect effects on consumers and decomposers likely arose from interspecies competition within each trophic level. It is also likely that prey-predator relationships between producers and consumers caused some indirect effects on producers.

  6. Rosette nanotubes show low acute pulmonary toxicity in vivo

    W Shane Journeay


    Full Text Available W Shane Journeay1, Sarabjeet S Suri1, Jesus G Moralez2, Hicham Fenniri2, Baljit Singh11Immunology Research Group, Toxicology Graduate Program and Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B4, Canada; 2National Institute of Nanotechnology, National Research Council (NINT-NRC and Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2M9, CanadaAbstract: Nanotubes are being developed for a large variety of applications ranging from electronics to drug delivery. Common carbon nanotubes such as single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes have been studied in the greatest detail but require solubilization and removal of catalytic contaminants such as metals prior to being introduced to biological systems for medical application. The present in vivo study characterizes the degree and nature of inflammation caused by a novel class of self-assembling rosette nanotubes, which are biologically inspired, naturally water-soluble and free of metal content upon synthesis. Upon pulmonary administration of this material we examined responses at 24 h and 7d post-exposure. An acute inflammatory response is triggered at 50 and 25 μg doses by 24 h post-exposure but an inflammatory response is not triggered by a 5 μg dose. Lung inflammation observed at a 50 μg dose at 24 h was resolving by 7d. This work suggests that novel nanostructures with biological design may negate toxicity concerns for biomedical applications of nanotubes. This study also demonstrates that water-soluble rosette nanotube structures represent low pulmonary toxicity, likely due to their biologically inspired design, and their self-assembled architecture.Keywords: nanotoxicology, biocompatibility, nanomedicine, pulmonary drug delivery, lung inflammation


    Xiu Wen P'ng, Gabriel Akyirem Akowuah and Jin Han Chin*


    Full Text Available Clinacanthus nutans Lindau (Family: Acanthaceae has attracted public interest recently due to its high medicinal values for the treatment of cancer, inflammation and various skin problems. This study was aimed to determine the oral LD50 value of the methanol leaves extract of C. nutans and identify the targeted organs in mice. This acute oral toxicity study was conducted in accordance to OECD 423 guidelines by using male Swiss albino mice weighing 25-35 g. First group was served as control group which received distilled water (vehicle while second and third group were orally treated with single daily dose of 0.9 g/kg and 1.8 g/kg of methanol leaves extract of C. nutans, respectively. All the animals were closely observed for 14 days. Body weight for each mouse was recorded at day-0, day-3, day-7 and day-14. Relative organ weights for liver, kidney, spleen, lung and heart were also determined. All the results were presented as mean ± standard deviation and analyzed using Dunnett’s Test after ANOVA test. From the results obtained, no mortality was observed in both treatment groups either post 24 hours or 14 days of oral administration of C. nutans. Body weight for each mouse and relative organ weight showed insignificant difference when compared to the control group. In conclusion, acute exposure of 1.8 g/kg of C. nutans was safe in male mice without causing any adverse effects or mortality. The oral LD50 of methanol leaves extract of C. nutans was suggested to be greater than 1.8 g/kg bw in male mice.

  8. A toxicidade em ambientes aquáticos: discussão e métodos de avaliação Toxicity in aquatic environments: discussion and evaluation methods

    Carla Regina Costa


    Full Text Available Aquatic toxicity tests are assays performed with different aquatic organisms of different ecological organization levels. Such tests are a source of information on the toxicity of a given substance or wastewater under controlled conditions, and they complement the physico-chemical analyses. Moreover, they allow one to evaluate the risks resulting from the presence of toxic substances in the environment. Algae, crustaceans, fishes and bacteria are frequently used in toxicity tests. In this work, we will present the main aspects related to the aquatic toxicity tests and a discussion of their applicability will also be presented.

  9. Interactive toxicity of major ion salts: Comparisons among species and between acute and chronic endpoints

    Increased concentrations of major ions (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, SO4, HCO3) in freshwater systems can result from a variety of anthropogenic activities, and can adversely affect aquatic organisms if the increase is sufficiently severe. Laboratory tests have indicated that the toxicity...

  10. Acute toxicity and chemical evaluation of coking wastewater under biological and advanced physicochemical treatment processes.

    Dehua, Ma; Cong, Liu; Xiaobiao, Zhu; Rui, Liu; Lujun, Chen


    This study investigated the changes of toxic compounds in coking wastewater with biological treatment (anaerobic reactor, anoxic reactor and aerobic-membrane bioreactor, A1/A2/O-MBR) and advanced physicochemical treatment (Fenton oxidation and activated carbon adsorption) stages. As the biological treatment stages preceding, the inhibition effect of coking wastewater on the luminescence of Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Nov. Q67 decreased. Toxic units (TU) of coking wastewater were removed by A1/A2/O-MBR treatment process, however approximately 30 % TU remained in the biologically treated effluent. There is a tendency that fewer and fewer residual organic compounds could exert equal acute toxicity during the biological treatment stages. Activated carbon adsorption further removed toxic pollutants of biologically treated effluent but the Fenton effluent increased acute toxicity. The composition of coking wastewater during the treatment was evaluated using the three-dimensional fluorescence spectra, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The organic compounds with high polarity were the main cause of acute toxicity in the coking wastewater. Aromatic protein-like matters in the coking wastewater with low biodegradability and high toxicity contributed mostly to the remaining acute toxicity of the biologically treated effluents. Chlorine generated from the oxidation process was responsible for the acute toxicity increase after Fenton oxidation. Therefore, the incorporation of appropriate advanced physicochemical treatment process, e.g., activated carbon adsorption, should be implemented following biological treatment processes to meet the stricter discharge standards and be safer to the environment.

  11. Comparison of organics and heavy metals acute toxicities to Vibrio fischeri

    Yang Xuepeng


    Full Text Available Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition has been widely used to test acute toxicities of metals and organics contaminants. However, the differences of metals and organics acute toxicities to V. fischeri have not been compared. Here, four heavy metals (Zn2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, Cr6+ and five organics (phenol, benzoic acid, p-hydroxy benzoic acid, nitro-benzene and benzene acute toxicities to V. fischeri were investigated. Heavy metals toxicities to V. fischeri were increased along with the reaction time, while the organics toxicities kept the same level in different reaction times. In order to explain the difference, the relative cell death rate of V. fischeri was detected. In metals toxicities tests, the bioluminescence inhibition rate of V. fischeri was found to be significantly higher than the relative cell death rate (P<0.05, while for the organics toxicities tests, the cell death rate was similar to the bioluminescence inhibition rate. These results indicated that organics acute toxicities to V. fischeri could reflect the death of cell, but metals acute toxicities to V. fischeri may not lead to the death of cell, just represent the bioluminescence inhibition.

  12. Toxicological evaluation of ferrous N-carbamylglycinate chelate: Acute, Sub-acute toxicity and mutagenicity.

    Wan, Dan; Zhou, Xihong; Xie, Chunyan; Shu, Xugang; Wu, Xin; Yin, Yulong


    Iron is an essential trace element that is vital important in various biological process. A deficiency in iron could induce public health problem e.g. anaemia, while an overload could induce ROS production, lipid peroxidation and DNA bases modifications. In the present study, a new iron fortifier was synthesized, and its acute/sub-acute toxicity was investigated. According to the improved Karber's method, the median lethal dose (LD50) of the ferrous N-carbamylglycinate in SD rat was 3.02 g/kg and the 95% confidence intervals were between 2.78 and 3.31 g/kg. No biologically significant or test substance-related differences were observed in body weights, feed consumption, clinical signs, organ weights, histopathology, ophthalmology, hematology, and clinical chemistry parameters in any of the treatment groups of ferrous N-carbamylglycinate at target concentrations corresponding to 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg/day for 28 days. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for ferrous N-carbamylglycinate was at least 600 mg/kg b.w. day in rats. In addition, no evidence of mutagenicity was found, either in vitro in bacterial reverse mutation assay or in vivo in mice bone marrow micronucleus assay and sperm shape abnormality assay. On the basis of our findings, we conclude that ferrous N-carbamylglycinate is a low-toxic substance with no genotoxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Toxicity on aquatic organisms exposed to secondary effluent disinfected with chlorine, peracetic acid, ozone and UV radiation.

    da Costa, Juliana Berninger; Rodgher, Suzelei; Daniel, Luiz Antonio; Espíndola, Evaldo Luiz Gaeta


    The toxic potential of four disinfectant agents (chlorine, ozone, peracetic acid and UV radiation), used in the disinfection of urban wastewater, was evaluated with respect to four aquatic organisms. Disinfection assays were carried out with wastewater from the city of Araraquara (São Paulo State, Brazil), and subsequently, toxicity bioassays were applied in order to verify possible adverse effects to the cladocerans (Ceriodaphnia silvestrii and Daphnia similis), midge larvae Chironomus xanthus and fish (Danio rerio). Under the experimental conditions tested, all the disinfectants were capable of producing harmful effects on the test organisms, except for C. xanthus. The toxicity of the effluent to C. silvestrii was observed to increase significantly as a result of disinfection using 2.5 mg L(-1) chlorine and 29.9 mg L(-1) ozone. Ozonation and chlorination significantly affected the survival of D. similis and D. rerio, causing mortality of 60 to 100 % in comparison to the non-disinfected effluent. In experiments with effluent treated with peracetic acid (PAA) and UV radiation, a statistically significant decrease in survival was only detected for D. rerio. This investigation suggested that the study of the ideal concentrations of disinfectants is a research need for ecologically safe options for the treatment of wastewater.

  14. Evaluation of CADASTER QSAR models for the aquatic toxicity of (benzo)triazoles and prioritisation by consensus prediction.

    Cassani, Stefano; Kovarich, Simona; Papa, Ester; Roy, Partha Pratim; Rahmberg, Magnus; Nilsson, Sara; Sahlin, Ullrika; Jeliazkova, Nina; Kochev, Nikolay; Pukalov, Ognyan; Tetko, Igor; Brandmaier, Stefan; Durjava, Mojca Kos; Kolar, Boris; Peijnenburg, Willie; Gramatica, Paola


    QSAR regression models of the toxicity of triazoles and benzotriazoles ([B]TAZs) to an alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), Daphnia magna and a fish (Onchorhynchus mykiss), were developed by five partners in the FP7-EU Project, CADASTER. The models were developed by different methods - Ordinary Least Squares (OLS), Partial Least Squares (PLS), Bayesian regularised regression and Associative Neural Network (ASNN) - by using various molecular descriptors (DRAGON, PaDEL-Descriptor and QSPR-THESAURUS web). In addition, different procedures were used for variable selection, validation and applicability domain inspection. The predictions of the models developed, as well as those obtained in a consensus approach by averaging the data predicted from each model, were compared with the results of experimental tests that were performed by two CADASTER partners. The individual and consensus models were able to correctly predict the toxicity classes of the chemicals tested in the CADASTER project, confirming the utility of the QSAR approach. The models were also used for the prediction of aquatic toxicity of over 300 (B)TAZs, many of which are included in the REACH pre-registration list, and were without experimental data. This highlights the importance of QSAR models for the screening and prioritisation of untested chemicals, in order to reduce and focus experimental testing. 2013 FRAME.

  15. Toxicity of certain heavy metals on fish in the aquatic environment

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — On the earth's crust there are 59 heavy metals of which 17 are considered toxic to biological communities. Here in Alaska, we have thus far considered the following...

  16. On-site toxicity of irrigation drainwater from Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge to aquatic organisms

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The toxicity of water from seven locations in the Stillwater Wildlife Management Area was evaluated in a series of on-site tests conducted over a 10 day period with...


    The Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) which provides the basis for assessing and managing toxic substances in Canada, is being revised. Several new mandates have been introduced in the Act...


    The Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) which provides the basis for assessing and managing toxic substances in Canada, is being revised. Several new mandates have been introduced in the Act...


    Napan, K.


    Full Text Available Methomyl is a chemical compound acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that acts by contact system and is one of the most widely used chemicals such as insecticide-acaricide for control of a wide range of agricultural pests. The following study aims to assess the acute toxicity of methomyl on introduced fish Poecilia latipinna (Lesueur 1821 (Poecilidae at 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of exposure. Bioassays were carried out with 5 levels and 4 treatments, temperature was 21.8 ° C ± 1, pH 7.34 ± 0.31, conductivity 0.54 mS ± 0.03, and average dissolved solutes in the middle 267.39 mg.L-1. The data obtained during tests were evaluated using the statistical method analytic Probit ver. 1.5. The results of the median Lethal Concentration (LC of methomyl on P. latipinna were: 2 h = 13.95 mg IA.L-1, 4 h 50 =10.39 mg IA.L-1, 6 h = 8.12 mg IA.L-1, 8 h = 5.81 mg IA.L-1, 24 h 3.99 mg IA.L-1, 48 h = 2.61 mg IA.L-1, 72 h = 2.24 mg IA.L-1 and finally 96 h = 2.08 IA.L mg-1. At the highest concentration was observed a change of skin color intensity of silver to black.

  20. Evaluation of an automated luminescent bacteria assay for in situ aquatic toxicity determination

    López Roldán, Ramón; Kazlauskaite, Laura; Ribó, Joan; Riva Juan, Mª del Carmen; González, Susana; Cortina Pallás, José Luís


    A new system for monitoring toxicity TOXcontrol® (MicroLAN BV, The Netherlands) has been used to assess the toxicity of a selection of priority or emergent compounds in the laboratory. In this study, inhibition curves and EC50 – Effective Concentration causing 50% inhibition – of selected compounds (including pesticides, pharmaceuticals, surfactants and metals commonly detected in surface or drinking waters) were determined. This new technology is based on the measurement of Vibrio fischeri b...

  1. Spinosad toxicity to Simulium spp. larvae and associated aquatic biota in a coffee-growing region of Veracruz State, Mexico.

    Infante-Rodríguez, Dennis A; Novelo-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo; Mercado, Gabriel; Williams, Trevor


    Spinosad is a naturally derived insecticide that has shown potential as a mosquito larvicide. To determine the activity of spinosad against blackflies, late-instar larvae from a community comprising Simulium triittatum (63.6%) and seven other species, including three known vectors of onchocerciasis in Mexico (S. metallicum, S. ochraceum, and S. callidum), were subjected to concentration-mortality laboratory bioassays following World Health Organization guidelines. Cephalic capsule measurements confirmed the relatively homogeneous distribution of experimental larvae. The 50% lethal concentration of spinosad was estimated at 1.48 ppm spinosad (95% confidence interval: 1.07-2.33) for a 10-min exposure period, whereas larvae treated with 0.05 ppm of the organophosphate temephos experienced 61% mortality. Immature aquatic insects were identified to genus and tested for their susceptibility to spinosad in the laboratory. After exposure to 12 ppm spinosad for 10 min, ephemeropterans, odonates, trichopterans, and hemipterans did not experience significantly increased mortality over that of untreated controls, whereas a significant increase in mortality was observed in spinosad-treated Plecoptera (P < 0.001). Tilapia and trout fry exposed to 12 ppm spinosad for 10 min did not experience increased mortality at 24-h postexposure over that of the controls. We conclude that spinosad is less toxic than temephos to these blackfly species, but is likely to have a low impact on nontarget members of the aquatic community.

  2. Toxic effects of crude-oil-contaminated soil in aquatic environment on Carassius auratus and their hepatic antioxidant defense system

    WANG Yuanyuan; ZHOU Qixing; PENG Shengwei; MA Lena Q; NIU Xiaowei


    Under the indoor simulant conditions, toxic effects of crude-oil-contaminated soil which was put into aquatic environment on the young fishes Carassius auratus and their hepatic antioxidant system after a 20-d exposure were investigated. Results showed that the relationship between the mortality of C. auratus and the exposed doses could be divided to 3 phases: fishes exposed to the low dose groups (0.5--5.0 g/L) were dead due to the ingestion of crude-oil-contaminated soils in aquatic environment; at the medium dose groups (5.0--25.0 g/L) fishes were dead due to the penetration of toxic substances; at the high dose groups (25.0--50.0 g/L) fishes were dead due to environmental stress. The highest mortality and death speed were found in the 1.0 g/L dose group, and the death speed was sharply increased in the 50.0 g/L dose group in the late phase of the exposure. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the content of malaondialdehyde (MDA) in the hepatic tissues of C. auratus were induced significantly. The activity of SOD was first increased and then decreased, and was significantly inhibited in the 50.0 g/L dose group. The activity of CAT was highly induced, and restored to a little more than the control level when the exposed doses exceeded 10.0 g/L. The activity of GST was the most sensitive, it was significantly induced in all dose groups, and the highest elevation was up to 6 times in the 0.5 g/L dose group compared with the control. The MDA content was significantly elevated in the 50.0 g/L dose group, and the changes of the MDA content were opposite with the changes of the GST activity.

  3. Adjuvant chemotherapy and acute toxicity in hypofractionated radiotherapy for early breast cancer

    Kouloulias, Vassilis; Zygogianni, Anna; Kypraiou, Efrosini; Georgakopoulos, John; Thrapsanioti, Zoi; Beli, Ivelina; Mosa, Eftychia; Psyrri, Amanta; Antypas, Christos; Armbilia, Christina; Tolia, Maria; Platoni, Kalliopi; Papadimitriou, Christos; Arkadopoulos, Nikolaos; Gennatas, Costas; Zografos, George; Kyrgias, George; Dilvoi, Maria; Patatoucas, George; Kelekis, Nikolaos; Kouvaris, John


    AIM: To evaluate the effect of chemotherapy to the acute toxicity of a hypofractionated radiotherapy (HFRT) schedule for breast cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 116 breast cancer patients with T1, 2N0Mx. The patients received 3-D conformal radiotherapy with a total physical dose of 50.54 Gy or 53.2 Gy in 19 or 20 fractions according to stage, over 23-24 d. The last three to four fractions were delivered as a sequential tumor boost. All patients were monitored for acute skin toxicity according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. The maximum monitored value was taken as the final grading score. Multivariate analysis was performed for the contribution of age, chemotherapy and 19 vs 20 fractions to the radiation acute skin toxicity. RESULTS: The acute radiation induced skin toxicity was as following: grade I 27.6%, grade II 7.8% and grade III 2.6%. No significant correlation was noted between toxicity grading and chemotherapy (P = 0.154, χ2 test). The mean values of acute toxicity score in terms of chemotherapy or not, were 0.64 and 0.46 respectively (P = 0.109, Mann Whitney test). No significant correlation was also noted between acute skin toxicity and radiotherapy fractions (P = 0.47, χ2 test). According to univariate analysis, only chemotherapy contributed significantly to the development of acute skin toxicity but with a critical value of P = 0.05. However, in multivariate analysis, chemotherapy lost its statistical significance. None of the patients during the 2-years of follow-up presented any locoregional relapse. CONCLUSION: There is no clear evidence that chemotherapy has an impact to acute skin toxicity after an HFRT schedule. A randomized trial is needed for definite conclusions. PMID:25405195

  4. Effect of olive mill wastewaters on the oxygen consumption by activated sludge microorganisms: an acute toxicity test method.

    Paixão, S M; Anselmo, A M


    The test for inhibition of oxygen consumption by activated sludge (ISO 8192-1986 (E)) was evaluated as a tool for assessing, the acute toxicity of olive mill wastewaters (OMW). According to the ISO test, information generated by this method may be helpful in estimating the effect of a test material on bacterial communities in the aquatic environment, especially in aerobic biological treatment systems. However, the lack of standardized bioassay methodology for effluents imposed that the test conditions were modified and adapted. The experiments were conducted in the presence or absence of an easily biodegradable carbon source (glucose) with different contact times (20 min and 24 h). The results obtained showed a remarkable stimulatory effect of this effluent to the activated sludge microorganisms. In fact, the oxygen uptake rate values increase with increasing effluent concentrations and contact times up to 0.98 microl O(2) h(-1) mg(-1) dry weight for a 100% OMW sample, 24 h contact time, with blanks exhibiting an oxygen uptake rate of ca. 1/10 of this value (0.07-0.10). It seems that the application of the ISO test as an acute toxicity test for effluents should be reconsidered, with convenient adaptation for its utilization as a method of estimating the effect on bacterial communities present in aerobic biological treatment systems.

  5. Biotic ligand modeling approach: Synthesis of the effect of major cations on the toxicity of metals to soil and aquatic organisms.

    Ardestani, Masoud M; van Straalen, Nico M; van Gestel, Cornelis A M


    The biotic ligand model (BLM) approach is used to assess metal toxicity, taking into account the competition of other cations with the free metal ions for binding to the biotic ligand sites of aquatic and soil organisms. The bioavailable fraction of metals, represented by the free metal ion, is a better measure than the total concentration for assessing their potential risk to the environment. Because BLMs are relating toxicity to the fraction of biotic ligands occupied by the metal, they can be useful for investigating factors affecting metal bioaccumulation and toxicity. In the present review, the effects of major cations on the toxicity of metals to soil and aquatic organisms were comprehensively studied by performing a meta-analysis of BLM literature data. Interactions at the binding sites were shown to be species- and metal-specific. The main factors affecting the relationships between toxicity and conditional binding constants for metal binding at the biotic ligand appeared to be Ca(2+) , Mg(2+) , and protons. Other important characteristics of the exposure medium, such as levels of dissolved organic carbon and concentrations of other cations, should also be considered to obtain a proper assessment of metal toxicity to soil and aquatic organisms.

  6. Including Bioconcentration Kinetics for the Prioritization and Interpretation of Regulatory Aquatic Toxicity Tests of Highly Hydrophobic Chemicals.

    Kwon, Jung-Hwan; Lee, So-Young; Kang, Hyun-Joong; Mayer, Philipp; Escher, Beate I


    Worldwide, regulations of chemicals require short-term toxicity data for evaluating hazards and risks of the chemicals. Current data requirements on the registration of chemicals are primarily based on tonnage and do not yet consider properties of chemicals. For example, short-term ecotoxicity data are required for chemicals with production volume greater than 1 or 10 ton/y according to REACH, without considering chemical properties. Highly hydrophobic chemicals are characterized by low water solubility and slow bioconcentration kinetics, which may hamper the interpretation of short-term toxicity experiments. In this work, internal concentrations of highly hydrophobic chemicals were predicted for standard acute ecotoxicity tests at three trophic levels, algae, invertebrate, and fish. As demonstrated by comparison with maximum aqueous concentrations at water solubility, chemicals with an octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) greater than 10(6) are not expected to reach sufficiently high internal concentrations for exerting effects within the test duration of acute tests with fish and invertebrates, even though they might be intrinsically toxic. This toxicity cutoff was explained by the slow uptake, i.e., by kinetics, not by thermodynamic limitations. Predictions were confirmed by data entries of the OECD's screening information data set (SIDS) (n = 746), apart from a few exceptions concerning mainly organometallic substances and those with inconsistency between water solubility and Kow. Taking error propagation and model assumptions into account, we thus propose a revision of data requirements for highly hydrophobic chemicals with log Kow > 7.4: Short-term toxicity tests can be limited to algae that generally have the highest uptake rate constants, whereas the primary focus of the assessment should be on persistence, bioaccumulation, and long-term effects.

  7. The oxidative toxicity of Ag and ZnO nanoparticles towards the aquatic plant Spirodela punctuta and the role of testing media parameters: Conference paper

    Thwala, Melusi


    Full Text Available The toxicity effects of silver (nAg) and zinc oxide (nZnO) engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) on the duckweed Spirodela punctuta were studied to investigate the potential risks posed by these ENPs towards higher aquatic plants. The influence of media...

  8. The oxidative toxicity of Ag and ZnO nanoparticles towards the aquatic plant Spirodela punctuta and the role of testing media parameters

    Thwala, Melusi


    Full Text Available The toxicity effects of silver (nAg) and zinc oxide (nZnO) engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) on the duckweed Spirodela punctuta were studied to investigate the potential risks posed by these ENPs towards higher aquatic plants. The influence of media...

  9. Developmental toxicity, acute toxicity and mutagenicity testing in freshwater snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) exposed to chromium and water samples.

    Tallarico, Lenita de Freitas; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Hamada, Natália; Grazeffe, Vanessa Siqueira; Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Okazaki, Kayo; Granatelli, Amanda Tosatte; Pereira, Ivana Wuo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Bragança; Nakano, Eliana


    A protocol combining acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and mutagenicity analysis in freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata for application in ecotoxicological studies is described. For acute toxicity testing, LC50 and EC50 values were determined; dominant lethal mutations induction was the endpoint for mutagenicity analysis. Reference toxicant potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was used to characterize B. glabrata sensitivity for toxicity and cyclophosphamide to mutagenicity testing purposes. Compared to other relevant freshwater species, B. glabrata showed high sensitivity: the lowest EC50 value was obtained with embryos at veliger stage (5.76mg/L). To assess the model applicability for environmental studies, influent and effluent water samples from a wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Gastropod sensitivity was assessed in comparison to the standardized bioassay with Daphnia similis exposed to the same water samples. Sampling sites identified as toxic to daphnids were also detected by snails, showing a qualitatively similar sensitivity suggesting that B. glabrata is a suitable test species for freshwater monitoring. Holding procedures and protocols implemented for toxicity and developmental bioassays showed to be in compliance with international standards for intra-laboratory precision. Thereby, we are proposing this system for application in ecotoxicological studies.

  10. Cross-Sector Review of Drivers and Available 3Rs Approaches for Acute Systemic Toxicity Testing

    Seidle, Troy; Robinson, Sally; Holmes, Tom; Creton, Stuart; Prieto, Pilar; Scheel, Julia; Chlebus, Magda


    Acute systemic toxicity studies are carried out in many sectors in which synthetic chemicals are manufactured or used and are among the most criticized of all toxicology tests on both scientific and ethical grounds. A review of the drivers for acute toxicity testing within the pharmaceutical industry led to a paradigm shift whereby in vivo acute toxicity data are no longer routinely required in advance of human clinical trials. Based on this experience, the following review was undertaken to identify (1) regulatory and scientific drivers for acute toxicity testing in other industrial sectors, (2) activities aimed at replacing, reducing, or refining the use of animals, and (3) recommendations for future work in this area. PMID:20484382

  11. Acute toxicity and effect of some petroleum hydrocarbon on the metabolic index in Etroplus suratensis

    Ansari, Z.A.; Farshchi, P.

    Acute toxicity (LC sub(50)) and effect of some petroleum hydrocarbons (Toluene, Quinoline, Pyridine and Naphthalene) on the metabolic index (oxygen consumption rate) of an estuarine fish. Etroplus suratensis is reported. The LC sub(50) values were...

  12. Consensus definitions of 14 severe acute toxic effects for childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Barzilai, Shlomit


    Although there are high survival rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, their outcome is often counterbalanced by the burden of toxic effects. This is because reported frequencies vary widely across studies, partly because of diverse definitions of toxic effects. Using the Delphi...... method, 15 international childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia study groups assessed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia protocols to address toxic effects that were to be considered by the Ponte di Legno working group. 14 acute toxic effects (hypersensitivity to asparaginase, hyperlipidaemia, osteonecrosis......, thromboembolism, and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia) that are serious but too rare to be addressed comprehensively within any single group, or are deemed to need consensus definitions for reliable incidence comparisons, were selected for assessment. Our results showed that none of the protocols addressed all 14...

  13. The Acute Toxicity of Major Ion Salts to Ceriodaphnia dubia: I. Influence of background water chemistry.

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset provides concentration-response data and associated general chemistry conditions for 26 experiments consisting of 149 tests regarding the acute toxicity...

  14. Metal and pharmaceutical mixtures: Is ion loss the mechanism underlying acute toxicity and widespread additive toxicity in zebrafish?

    Alsop, Derek, E-mail:; Wood, Chris M.


    Highlights: •Zebrafish larvae were used to test the acute toxicity of contaminant mixtures. •Interactions were observed between metals, ammonia and pharmaceuticals. •Larval Na{sup +} loss was observed with exposure to all acutely toxic contaminants tested. •Water quality criteria should recognize the toxic interactions between contaminants. -- Abstract: The acute toxicities and mechanisms of action of a variety of environmental contaminants were examined using zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio; 4–8 days post fertilization). Toxic interactions were observed between metals. For example, the addition of a sublethal level of nickel (15% of the LC{sub 50}, one third of the LC{sub 01}) to all copper treatments decreased the copper 96 h LC{sub 50} by 58%, while sublethal copper exposure (6% of the copper LC{sub 50}, 13% of the LC{sub 01}) decreased the cadmium 96 h LC{sub 50} by 47%. Two predictive models were assessed, the concentration addition (CA) model, which assumes similar mechanisms of action, and the independent action (IA) model, which assumes different mechanisms of action. Quantitative comparisons indicated the CA model performed better than the IA model; the latter tended to underestimate combined toxicity to a greater extent. The effects of mixtures with nickel or ammonia were typically additive, while mixtures with copper or cadmium were typically greater than additive. Larvae exposed to cadmium, copper or nickel experienced whole body ion loss. Decreases were greatest for Na{sup +} followed by K{sup +} (as high as 19% and 9%, respectively, in 24 h). Additive toxicity between copper and other pharmaceutical compounds such as fluoxetine (Prozac™), β-naphthoflavone, estrogen and 17α-ethinylestradiol were also observed. Similar to metals, acutely toxic concentrations of fluoxetine, β-naphthoflavone and ammonia all decreased whole body Na{sup +} and K{sup +}. Overall, whole body Na{sup +} loss showed the greatest correlation with mortality across a

  15. Understanding how data triangulation identifies acute toxicity of novel psychoactive drugs.

    Wood, D M; Dargan, P I


    Over the last decade, there has been an increase in the availability and use of novel psychoactive substances (also known as "legal highs"). There is limited information available on the potential acute toxicity (harms) associated with the use of these novel psychoactive substances. Gold standard evidence, such as animal studies or human clinical trials, is rarely available to users or healthcare professionals. However, it is possible to use triangulation of data on the acute toxicity from multiple sources to describe the overall pattern of toxicity associated with a novel psychoactive substance. In this review, we will describe these potential data sources, which include self-reported toxicity on internet discussion fora, data from sub-population user surveys, data from regional and national poisons information services and published case reports and case series. We will then describe how pattern of acute toxicity associated with the use of the cathinone mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) was established using triangulation of these different data sources.

  16. Benzoic Acid Interactions Affect Aquatic Properties and Toxicity of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles.

    Wang, Zhuang; Fang, Hao; Wang, Se


    Effects of benzoic acid (BA) on physicochemical properties and ecotoxicities of CuO nanoparticles (CuONPs) in model aqueous media were studied. The CuONPs had larger hydrodynamic sizes and higher surface zeta potentials during 96 h of settling in the presence of BA than when the BA were not present. BA interaction with CuONPs is shown to promote dissolved Cu release from CuONPs in a dose-dependent manner. The contribution of free Cu(2+)-ions to growth inhibition toxicity of the CuONP suspensions at a toxicologically relevant concentration for the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus was around 22 %, indicating that dissolved fraction was not the major source of toxicity of CuONPs. The toxicity of CuONPs increased as the BA concentration increased. BA significantly altered total antioxidant capacity of CuONPs-exposed algal cells. The mechanism of the BA effect on the CuONPs toxicity may be mainly associated with degree of agglomeration, dissolved Cu, and particle-induced oxidative stress.

  17. QSAR models for predicting in vivo aquatic toxicity of chlorinated alkanes to fish

    Zvinavashe, E.; Berg, H. van den; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Vervoort, J.; Freidig, A.; Murk, A.J.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.


    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models are expected to play a crucial role in reducing the number of animals to be used for toxicity testing resulting from the adoption of the new European Union chemical control system called Registration, Evaluation, and Authorization of Chemica

  18. Arsenic toxicity to cladocerans isolated and associated with iron: implications for aquatic environments



    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Arsenic is an ametal ubiquitous in nature and known by its high toxicity. Many studies have tried to elucidate the arsenic metabolism in the cell and its impact to plants, animals and human health. In aqueous phase, inorganic arsenic is more common and its oxidation state (As III and As V depends on physical and chemical environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate toxicity of arsenic to Daphnia similis and Ceriodaphnia silvestrii, isolated and associated with iron. The results showed differences in toxicity of As III and As V to both species. Effective concentration (EC50 mean values were 0.45 mg L-1 (As III and 0.54 mg L-1 (As V for D. similis, and 0.44 mg L-1 (As III and 0.69 mg L-1 (As V for C. silvestrii. However, As V IC25 mean value was 0.59 mg L-1, indicating that C. silvestrii has mechanisms to reduce arsenic toxicity. On the other hand, when associated with iron at 0.02 and 2.00 mg L-1, EC50 values decreased for D. similis (0.34 and 0.38 mg L-1 as well as C. silvestrii (0.37 and 0.37 mg L-1, showing synergistic effect of these substances.

  19. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity assessment of the hydroalcoholic extract of Withania somnifera roots in Wistar rats.

    Prabu, P C; Panchapakesan, S; Raj, C David


    Withania somnifera is a widely used medicinal plant for several disorders. Toxicity studies on Withania somnifera are not available. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of Withania somnifera root extract in Wistar rats were evaluated in the present study. In the acute toxicity study, WSR extract was administered to five rats at 2000 mg/kg, once orally and were observed for 14 days. No toxic signs/mortality were observed. In the sub-acute study, WSR extract was administered once daily for 28 days to rats at 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, orally. No toxic signs/mortality were observed. There were no significant changes (P < 0.05) in the body weights, organ weights and haemato-biochemical parameters in any of the dose levels. No treatment related gross/histopathological lesions were observed. The present investigation demonstrated that the no observed adverse effect level was 2000 mg/kg body weight per day of hydroalcoholic extract of W. somnifera in rats and hence may be considered as non-toxic.

  20. The role of metabolism in the toxicity of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and its degradation products to the aquatic amphipod Hyalella azteca.

    Sims, Jerre G; Steevens, Jeffery A


    Toxicological data on the effects of the explosive, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and its degradation products suggests an unpredictable toxicological response in aquatic organisms. Several studies suggest TNT becomes more toxic as it degrades while others suggest TNT becomes less toxic. This study focused on the toxicity of TNT and several degradation products as well as the role of oxidative metabolism in the toxicity of TNT. The aquatic invertebrate Hyalella azteca was used to evaluate the toxicity of TNT and four of its degradation products. The most reduced degradation product, 2,4-diamino, 6-nitrotoluene (2,4-DANT) was the most toxic to H. azteca. However, 2,4-DANT was only a minor metabolite in H. azteca. The influence of metabolism on the toxicokinetics of TNT was assessed indirectly through the use of a CYP450 inducer and inhibitor. Treatment of organisms with beta-napthoflavone (BNF), a CYP450 inducer, increased the toxicity of TNT and increased the rate of elimination and metabolism of TNT. Similar to BNF, organisms treated with clotrimazole (CTZ), a CYP450 inhibitor, resulted in increased toxicity and TNT metabolism. It is likely the ability to metabolize or bioactivate TNT to a more reactive intermediate plays a significant role in the sensitivity of organisms to TNT.

  1. The toxic effects of l-Cysteine-capped cadmium sulfide nanoparticles on the aquatic plant Spirodela polyrrhiza

    Khataee, Alireza; Movafeghi, Ali; Nazari, Fatemeh; Vafaei, Fatemeh; Dadpour, Mohammad Reza; Hanifehpour, Younes; Joo, Sang Woo


    Plants play an important role in the fate of nanoparticles in the environment through their uptake, bioaccumulation, and transfer to trophic chains. However, the impacts of nanoparticles on plants as essential components of all ecosystems are not well documented. In the present study, the toxic effects of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles on Spirodela polyrrhiza as an aquatic higher plant species were studied. l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles were synthesized using hydrothermal method and their characteristics were determined by XRD, SEM, HR-TEM, and FT-IR techniques. The diameter of majority of synthesized nanoparticles was about 15-20 nm. Subsequently, the uptake of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles by the plant species was confirmed using epifluorescence microscopy. The activity of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase as antioxidant enzymes was assayed and the relative frond number was calculated in the presence of different concentrations of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles. The obtained results revealed the toxic effects of the synthesized nanoparticles on S. polyrrhiza, leading to growth reduction and significant changes in antioxidant enzymes' activity.

  2. The toxic effects of l-Cysteine-capped cadmium sulfide nanoparticles on the aquatic plant Spirodela polyrrhiza

    Khataee, Alireza, E-mail: [University of Tabriz, Research Laboratory of Advanced Water and Wastewater Treatment Processes, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Movafeghi, Ali [University of Tabriz, Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nazari, Fatemeh [University of Tabriz, Research Laboratory of Advanced Water and Wastewater Treatment Processes, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vafaei, Fatemeh [University of Tabriz, Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dadpour, Mohammad Reza [University of Tabriz, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hanifehpour, Younes; Joo, Sang Woo, E-mail: [Yeungnam University, School of Mechanical Engineering (Korea, Republic of)


    Plants play an important role in the fate of nanoparticles in the environment through their uptake, bioaccumulation, and transfer to trophic chains. However, the impacts of nanoparticles on plants as essential components of all ecosystems are not well documented. In the present study, the toxic effects of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles on Spirodela polyrrhiza as an aquatic higher plant species were studied. l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles were synthesized using hydrothermal method and their characteristics were determined by XRD, SEM, HR-TEM, and FT-IR techniques. The diameter of majority of synthesized nanoparticles was about 15–20 nm. Subsequently, the uptake of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles by the plant species was confirmed using epifluorescence microscopy. The activity of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase as antioxidant enzymes was assayed and the relative frond number was calculated in the presence of different concentrations of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles. The obtained results revealed the toxic effects of the synthesized nanoparticles on S. polyrrhiza, leading to growth reduction and significant changes in antioxidant enzymes’ activity.Graphical Abstract.

  3. Proteomics in aquatic amphipods: can it be used to determine mechanisms of toxicity and interspecies responses after exposure to atrazine?

    Ralston-Hooper, Kimberly J; Sanchez, Brian C; Adamec, Jiri; Sepúlveda, María S


    Proteomics has gained popularity in the field of ecotoxicology as a holistic tool for unraveling novel mechanisms of toxicity and elucidating subtle effects of contaminant exposure. The holoarctic amphipod Diporeia spp. is declining at precipitous rates in the Great Lakes, and we are evaluating the use of the well-studied amphipod model Hyalella azteca as a surrogate for Diporeia spp. This article presents proteomics data from both amphipod species exposed to atrazine (ATZ) and one of its metabolites, desethylatrazine (DEA; 3 and 30 µg/L for 21 and 42 d). We used a proteomics approach to determine whether these two species of amphipods responded similarly to the same chemicals and to understand better the mechanisms of toxicity of ATZ and DEA in aquatic invertebrates. We observed disruption in energy production and mitochondrial function as well as hormesis in exposed organisms. In addition, we identified a two proteins (GAPDH and HSP 90 kDa) that have been linked to hormonal disruptions, suggesting potential endocrine disruption. Finally, we found that H. azteca and Diporeia spp. responded with similar proteomic profiles after ATZ and DEA exposure, suggesting that H. azteca may be used as a surrogate model organism for Diporeia spp.

  4. Effect of Fenton treatment on the aquatic toxicity of bisphenol A in different water matrices

    Arslan-Alaton, Idil; Aytac, Ece; Kusk, Kresten Ole


    products. For this purpose, BPA was subjected to Fenton treatment in the growth medium of the test organisms employed as well as in real lake water. Treatment results indicated that BPA removals were fast and complete within less than a minute, whereas total organic carbon (TOC) removals were rather......Battery tests serve as integral tools to decide whether a treatment process is ecotoxicologically safe or not. In the present study, a battery of toxicity tests was employed to elucidate the toxicity of the potential endocrine-disrupting pollutant bisphenol A (BPA) and its advanced oxidation...... incomplete, speaking for the accumulation of refractory degradation products. The presence of chloride and/or natural organic matter influenced H2O2 consumption rates and the treatment performance of the Fenton's reagent as well. The sensitivity of the selected test organisms for BPA and its Fenton treatment...

  5. Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome presenting as acute respiratory distress and cor pulmonale.

    Zaki, S A; Shanbag, P; Chavan, V; Shenoy, P


    We describe a 7-year-old boy with staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome who presented with acute respiratory distress and cor pulmonale. We wish to highlight this unusual presentation as the diagnosis of toxic shock syndrome depends chiefly on a high degree of clinical suspicion. Early diagnosis and prompt institution of appropriate therapy will significantly reduce morbidity and mortality.

  6. Adjuvant radiotherapy for endometrial cancer--a comparative review of radiotherapy technique with acute toxicity.

    Koh, Y V; Tang, J I; Choo, B A; Koh, M S; Lee, K M


    The addition of pelvic radiotherapy to brachytherapy (EBRT-BT) in early-stage endometrial cancer is controversial and may cause unnecessary toxicity. The incidence of acute toxicity of EBRT-BT will have an impact on clinical decision and patient compliance but is currently poorly understood. This study compares the acute toxicities of EBRT-BT versus BT alone. Seventy-nine patients with FIGO Stage IA-II endometrial cancer who underwent adjuvant radiotherapy, (EBRT-BT or BT alone) from 2001 to 2011 were included in the study. Medical records of these patients were reviewed retrospectively and toxicity graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4.0. Patients were followed up for at least three months post-treatment to assess resolution of toxicity. The mean age of the study group was 60.6 years. Median follow-up was four years. Forty patients received EBRT-BT. There was a 37% increase in Grade 1-3 diarrhea with the addition of pelvic radiotherapy (OR 18.67, p < 0.0005) and a 34% increase in lethargy (p < 0.0005). There was also an increased occurrence of genitourinary and skin toxicities. Two patients in the EBRT-BT group required hospitalisation for severe diarrhea and three patients were unable to complete the treatment. All acute toxicities had resolved by three months post treatment. EBRT-BT causes significantly more acute toxicities compared to BT alone. Patients should be informed of this during counselling.

  7. Acute toxicity of copper oxide nanoparticles to Daphnia magna under different test conditions

    Thit, Amalie; Huggins, Krista; Selck, Henriette


    The acute toxicity of monodispersed 6 nm and Daphnia magna was assessed using 48 h immobilization tests. CuSO4 was used as a reference. Four different exposure conditions were tested, to study whether the toxicity of the nanoparticle...

  8. Acute methaemoglobinaemia initially treated as organophosphate poisoning leading to atropine toxicity

    Srinivas Kakhandki


    Full Text Available A case of unknown compound poisoning is presented. It was initially treated as organophosphate poisoning with lack of response. A timely diagnosis of acute methaemoglobinaemia and iatrogenic atropine toxicity was made based on clinical evaluation. Treatment of methaemoglobinaemia using oral methylene blue and of atropine toxicity with supportive measures could save the patient.

  9. Nanosilica and Polyacrylate/Nanosilica: A Comparative Study of Acute Toxicity.

    Niu, Ying-Mei; Zhu, Xiao-Li; Chang, Bing; Tong, Zhao-Hui; Cao, Wen; Qiao, Pei-Huan; Zhang, Lin-Yuan; Zhao, Jing; Song, Yu-Guo


    We compared the acute toxicity of nanosilica and polyacrylate/nanosilica instillation in Wistar rats (n = 60). Exposure to nanosilica and polyacrylate/nanosilica showed a 30% mortality rate. When compared with saline-treated rats, animals in both exposure groups exhibited a significant reduction of PO2 (P polyacrylate/nanosilica and nanosilica is likely to cause multiple organ toxicity.

  10. Ecotoxicogenomic Approaches for Understanding Molecular Mechanisms of Environmental Chemical Toxicity Using Aquatic Invertebrate, Daphnia Model Organism

    Hyo Jeong Kim; Preeyaporn Koedrith; Young Rok Seo


    Due to the rapid advent in genomics technologies and attention to ecological risk assessment, the term “ecotoxicogenomics” has recently emerged to describe integration of omics studies (i.e., transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and epigenomics) into ecotoxicological fields. Ecotoxicogenomics is defined as study of an entire set of genes or proteins expression in ecological organisms to provide insight on environmental toxicity, offering benefit in ecological risk assessment. Indeed, Da...

  11. Environmental Quality Research - Fate of Toxic Jet Fuel Components in Aquatic Systems


    Analysis (Hydrocarbon) Toxicity Fuels, Jet Artemia salina uels r olbl trct ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse oIde If necessary and identify by block number...effect of the fuel water solib•,% extzract (WSF) on the hatchability of Artemia salina eggs. JF-4 sarnriles frorr, iilcrent sources were shown to...Bioassay Control Sample 14 3 Effect of Storage on JP-4 WSF Hydrocarbons 15 4 Effect of Seawator Salinity on Hatch Efficiency of Artemia salina Eggs 17 5

  12. Synergistic effect of piperonyl butoxide on acute toxicity of pyrethrins to Hyalella azteca.

    Giddings, Jeffrey; Gagne, James; Sharp, Janice


    A series of acute toxicity tests with the amphipod Hyalella azteca was performed to quantify the synergistic effect of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) on pyrethrin toxicity. Concentrations of PBO <4 µg/L caused no toxicity enhancement, whereas toxicity increased with PBO concentrations between 4 µg/L and 15 µg/L. Additive toxicity calculations showed that true synergism accounted for an increase in pyrethrin toxicity (decrease in median lethal concentration) of 1.4-fold to 1.6-fold and varied only slightly between 4 µg/L and 15 µg/L PBO, whereas direct toxicity of PBO accounted for an additional increase in mixture toxicity (up to 3.2-fold) that was proportional to PBO concentration. The results can be used to assess the risk of measured or predicted co-occurring concentrations of PBO and pyrethrins in surface waters. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2111-2116. © 2016 SETAC.

  13. Comparative acute toxicity of DDT metabolites among American and European species of planarians.

    Bonner, J C; Wells, M R


    1. DDT metabolism in a North American species of planarian leads to the formation of metabolites more toxic than the parent compound. 2. The increased toxicity of DDT metabolites is similar to acute toxicity data reported previously in a European species. 3. It is suggested that planarians lack a direct mechanism for DDT detoxification, since two North American and one European species are known to metabolize DDT initially to DDE and DDD.

  14. Toxic metals in aquatic plants surviving in surface water polluted by copper mining industry.

    Samecka-Cymerman, A; Kempers, A J


    Concentrations of the metals Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn, as well as the macronutrients N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S were measured in water, sediments, and the aquatic macrophytes Potamogeton pectinatus and Myriophyllum spicatum, growing in surface water receiving sewages and solid wastes from a copper smelter and a copper ore processing factory located in the Legnica-Glogow copper district in Southwest Poland. The deposition of mineral wastes in this area belong to the largest repository in Europe. The plants were able to survive at heavily contaminated sites. The concentrations of Cd (up to 0.6-1.7 microg/L in water and up to 10.1-12.9 mg/kg in sediments), Cu (up to 29-48 microg/L in water and up to 4.6-5.6g/kg in sediments), Pb (up to 1.5-2.2 g/kg in sediments), and Zn (up to 167-200 microg/L in water and up to 1.4-1.8 g/kg in sediments) seriously exceeded background values. P. pectinatus was able to survive tissue concentrations (in mg/kg) of up to 920 Cu, 6240 Mn, 98 Co, and 59 Ni, while M. spicatum survived tissue concentrations up to 1040 Cu, 6660 Mn, and 57 Co for. Enrichment ratios of elements in plant tissue and in water were much higher than those between plant tissue and sediments.

  15. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    Chapet, Olivier, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); EMR3738, Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie [Pole Information Médicale Evaluation Recherche, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon (France); Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); EA SIS, Université de Lyon, Lyon (France); Faix, Antoine [Department of Urology, Clinique Beausoleil, Montpellier (France); Ruffion, Alain [Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Department of Urology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Jalade, Patrice [Department of Medical Physics, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Fenoglietto, Pascal [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France); Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Azria, David [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France)


    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity.

  16. A review on the toxicity and non-target effects of macrocyclic lactones in terrestrial and aquatic environments.

    Lumaret, Jean-Pierre; Errouissi, Faiek; Floate, Kevin; Römbke, Jörg; Wardhaugh, Keith


    The avermectins, milbemycins and spinosyns are collectively referred to as macrocyclic lactones (MLs) which comprise several classes of chemicals derived from cultures of soil micro-organisms. These compounds are extensively and increasingly used in veterinary medicine and agriculture. Due to their potential effects on non-target organisms, large amounts of information on their impact in the environment has been compiled in recent years, mainly caused by legal requirements related to their marketing authorization or registration. The main objective of this paper is to critically review the present knowledge about the acute and chronic ecotoxicological effects of MLs on organisms, mainly invertebrates, in the terrestrial and aquatic environment. Detailed information is presented on the mode-of-action as well as the ecotoxicity of the most important compounds representing the three groups of MLs. This information, based on more than 360 references, is mainly provided in nine tables, presenting the effects of abamectin, ivermectin, eprinomectin, doramectin, emamectin, moxidectin, and spinosad on individual species of terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates as well as plants and algae. Since dung dwelling organisms are particularly important non-targets, as they are exposed via dung from treated animals over their whole life-cycle, the information on the effects of MLs on dung communities is compiled in an additional table. The results of this review clearly demonstrate that regarding environmental impacts many macrocyclic lactones are substances of high concern particularly with larval instars of invertebrates. Recent studies have also shown that susceptibility varies with life cycle stage and impacts can be mitigated by using MLs when these stages are not present. However information on the environmental impact of the MLs is scattered across a wide range of specialised scientific journals with research focusing mainly on ivermectin and to a lesser extent on abamectin

  17. Principal component and causal analysis of structural and acute in vitro toxicity data for nanoparticles.

    Wang, Xue Z; Yang, Yang; Li, Ruifa; McGuinnes, Catherine; Adamson, Janet; Megson, Ian L; Donaldson, Kenneth


    Structure toxicity relationship analysis was conducted using principal component analysis (PCA) for a panel of nanoparticles that included dry powders of oxides of titanium, zinc, cerium and silicon, dry powders of silvers, suspensions of polystyrene latex beads and dry particles of carbon black, nanotubes and fullerene, as well as diesel exhaust particles. Acute in vitro toxicity was assessed by different measures of cell viability, apoptosis and necrosis, haemolytic effects and the impact on cell morphology, while structural properties were characterised by particle size and size distribution, surface area, morphology, metal content, reactivity, free radical generation and zeta potential. Different acute toxicity measures were processed using PCA that classified the particles and identified four materials with an acute toxicity profile: zinc oxide, polystyrene latex amine, nanotubes and nickel oxide. PCA and contribution plot analysis then focused on identifying the structural properties that could determine the acute cytotoxicity of these four materials. It was found that metal content was an explanatory variable for acute toxicity associated with zinc oxide and nickel oxide, while high aspect ratio appeared the most important feature in nanotubes. Particle charge was considered as a determinant for high toxicity of polystyrene latex amine.

  18. Behavior persistence in defining threshold switch in stepwise response of aquatic organisms exposed to toxic chemicals.

    Ren, Zongming; Li, Shangge; Zhang, Tingting; Qi, Luhuizi; Xing, Na; Yu, Huimin; Jian, Jinfeng; Chon, Tae-Soo; Tang, Bo


    As a characteristic in bacterial colony, persistence model described the dynamics of two subpopulations (normal (n) and persister (p)). In order to illustrate the switch of "Threshold" in the stepwise behavior responses of organisms, it is hypothesized that total behavior (Bt) of organisms consists of two types in behavior tendency, intoxication (Bp) and normal/recovery behavior (Bn). Both Bp and Bn could be concurrently affected by environmental stress E, and behavior response modes (M) are decided by the relationship between E and toxicity threshold of test organisms (Ti). The results suggested stress constant λ was decided by the constant rates gnE,gpE, an and ap. Due to different stress constant λ, the behavior responses of indicators showed great difference in different M, which included 'safe mode' (Ms), 'acclimation mode' (Mac), 'adjustment mode' (Maj) and 'toxic effect' (Mte). Usually, Bt during Ms could maintain around 0.8, and Mte would happen once it is lower than 0.2. According to the relationship between Bt values and E changes in 7 Majs, behavior persistence relying on adjustment could reflect the behavior homeostasis of organisms under environmental stress and be regarded as a threshold switch for the stepwise behavior responses. The mathematical analysis of behavior persistence allows making a quantitative prediction on environment assessment that would promote the emergence of persistence, as well as evaluating its ecological implications.

  19. Acute toxicity of combined photon IMRT and carbon ion boost for intermediate-risk prostate cancer - Acute toxicity of 12C for PC

    Nikoghosyan, Anna V.; Herfarth, Klaus; Didinger, Bernd; Muenter, Marc W.; Jensen, Alexandra D.; Debus, Juergen (Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany)), e-mail:; Schulz-Ertner, Daniela (Radiological Inst. (Medical Care Unit), Markus Hospital, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)); Jaekel, Oliver (Dept. of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Centre of the Univ. Hospital Heidelberg (Germany)); Hoess, Angelika; Haberer, Thomas (Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Centre of the Univ. Hospital Heidelberg (Germany))


    Background. Carbon ion (12C) therapy in the treatment of prostate cancer (PC) might result in an improved outcome as compared to low linear energy transfer irradiation techniques. In this study, we present the first interim report of acute side effects of the first intermediate-risk PC patients treated at the GSI (Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung) and the Univ. of Heidelberg in an ongoing clinical phase I/II trial using combined photon intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and 12C carbon ion boost. Material and methods. Fourteen patients (planned accrual: 31 pts) have been treated within this trial so far. IMRT is prescribed to the median PTV at a dose of 30 x 2 Gy; 12C boost is applied to the prostate (GTV) at a dose of 6 x 3 GyE using raster scan technique. Safety margins added to the clinical target volume were determined individually for each patient based on five independent planning computed tomography (CT)-scans. Acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity was assessed and documented according to the CTCAE Version 3.0. Results. Radiotherapy was very well tolerated without any grade 3 or higher toxicity. Acute anal bleeding grade 2 was observed in 2/14 patients. Rectal tenesmus grade 1 was reported by three other patients. No further GI symptoms have been observed. Most common acute symptoms during radiotherapy were nocturia and dysuria CTC grade 1 and 2 (12/14). There was no severe acute GU toxicity. Conclusion. The combination of photon IMRT and carbon ion boost is feasible in patients with intermediate-risk PC. So far, the treatment has been well tolerated. Acute toxicity rates were in good accordance with data reported for high dose IMRT alone

  20. Organic contaminants in Great Lakes tributaries: Prevalence and potential aquatic toxicity

    Baldwin, Austin K.; Corsi, Steven R.; De Cicco, Laura A.; Lenaker, Peter L.; Lutz, Michelle A; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Richards, Kevin D.


    Organic compounds used in agriculture, industry, and households make their way into surface waters through runoff, leaking septic-conveyance systems, regulated and unregulated discharges, and combined sewer overflows, among other sources. Concentrations of these organic waste compounds (OWCs) in some Great Lakes tributaries indicate a high potential for adverse impacts on aquatic organisms. During 2010–13, 709 water samples were collected at 57 tributaries, together representing approximately 41% of the total inflow to the lakes. Samples were collected during runoff and low-flow conditions and analyzed for 69 OWCs, including herbicides, insecticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, plasticizers, antioxidants, detergent metabolites, fire retardants, non-prescription human drugs, flavors/fragrances, and dyes. Urban-related land cover characteristics were the most important explanatory variables of concentrations of many OWCs. Compared to samples from nonurban watersheds ( 15% urban land cover) had nearly four times the number of detected compounds and four times the total sample concentration, on average. Concentration differences between runoff and low-flow conditions were not observed, but seasonal differences were observed in atrazine, metolachlor, DEET, and HHCB concentrations. Water quality benchmarks for individual OWCs were exceeded at 20 sites, and at 7 sites benchmarks were exceeded by a factor of 10 or more. The compounds with the most frequent water quality benchmark exceedances were the PAHs benzo[a]pyrene, pyrene, fluoranthene, and anthracene, the detergent metabolite 4-nonylphenol, and the herbicide atrazine. Computed estradiol equivalency quotients (EEQs) using only nonsteroidal endocrine-active compounds indicated medium to high risk of estrogenic effects (intersex or vitellogenin induction) at 10 sites. EEQs at 3 sites were comparable to values reported in effluent. This multifaceted study is the largest, most comprehensive assessment of the

  1. Acute toxicity resulting from human exposures to military smokes

    Hulst, M. van; Langenberg, J.P.; Klerk, W.P.C. de; Alblas, M.J.


    The toxicity of smoke-generating ammunition can be established by looking at the complete hand grenade or only at the smoke composition. In this paper both approaches are described. The toxicity of a signalling smoke was assessed as a complete smoke hand grenade whereas for a 76 mm screening smoke

  2. Determination of acute toxicity and the effects of sub-acute concentrations of CuO nanoparticles on blood parameters in Rutilus rutilus

    Abdolreza Jahanbakhshi


    Full Text Available Objective(s:Copper oxidenanoparticles have different industrial applications so it is inevitable that nanoparticulate products finally find their way into aquatic ecosystems. Nevertheless there is little information available about their effects on some of edible fish. The present study aims to determine the acute toxicity and evaluate the effect of two sub-acute concentrations (50 and 70% 96 h LC50 of CuO-NPs on some hematological and biochemical parameters of R. rutilus. Materials and Methods:225 healthy specimen of R. rutilus (mean weight 5.52±1.2 g; mean length 6.20±0.2 cm were transported to the laboratory. In order to prepare the stock solution, CuO-NPs was dispersed in pure water with ultrasonication (50-60 kHz for 15 min every day before dosing. At first, R. rutilus was exposed to CuO-NPs to determine the lethal concentration (LC50 value. Following acute test, fish were treated with sub-acute concentrations of CuO-NPs (50 and 70% 96 h-LC50 at with one control group (no CuO-NPs for a week to determine the changes in the level of some plasma hematological and biochemical parameters. Results:The 96 h-LC50 values of CuO-NPs was 2.19±0.003 mg/l. R. rutilus exhibited significantly lower RBC count, Hb and Hct values and a significant increase in the WBC numbers, MCH, MCHC and MCV indices (p

  3. Acute toxicity testing of chemicals-Opportunities to avoid redundant testing and use alternative approaches.

    Creton, Stuart; Dewhurst, Ian C; Earl, Lesley K; Gehen, Sean C; Guest, Robert L; Hotchkiss, Jon A; Indans, Ian; Woolhiser, Michael R; Billington, Richard


    Assessment of the acute systemic oral, dermal, and inhalation toxicities, skin and eye irritancy, and skin sensitisation potential of chemicals is required under regulatory schemes worldwide. In vivo studies conducted to assess these endpoints can sometimes be associated with substantial adverse effects in the test animals, and their use should always be scientifically justified. It has been argued that while information obtained from such acute tests provides data needed to meet classification and labelling regulations, it is of limited value for hazard and risk assessments. Inconsistent application of in vitro replacements, protocol requirements across regions, and bridging principles also contribute to unnecessary and redundant animal testing. Assessment of data from acute oral and dermal toxicity testing demonstrates that acute dermal testing rarely provides value for hazard assessment purposes when an acute oral study has been conducted. Options to waive requirements for acute oral and inhalation toxicity testing should be employed to avoid unnecessary in vivo studies. In vitro irritation models should receive wider adoption and be used to meet regulatory needs. Global requirements for sensitisation testing need continued harmonisation for both substance and mixture assessments. This paper highlights where alternative approaches or elimination of tests can reduce and refine animal use for acute toxicity requirements.

  4. Implementing Lecane quadridentata acute toxicity tests to assess the toxic effects of selected metals (Al, Fe and Zn).

    Guzmán, Félix Torres; González, Francisco Javier Avelar; Martínez, Roberto Rico


    An environmental study revealed that three metals (Al, Fe and Zn) are common in the San Pedro River (SPR) (Aguascalientes, Mexico). Regrettably, in many samples the concentrations of these metals exceeded the maximum allowed toxicant concentrations levels as defined in by Mexican legislation. The highest concentrations of the three metals were found during the 2005 dry season, with elevated Al concentrations present along the entire river. Not surprisingly, the highest concentrations for all three metals came from locations adjacent to industrial areas. Estimates of the contribution of these metals to total toxicity revealed that these three metals are important contaminants of the river and responsible for most of the lethal toxicity found in environmental samples. To assess the importance of these reports, we conducted acute toxicity tests to determine LC50 for Al, Fe and Zn on the freshwater rotifer Lecane quadridentata. This permitted us to estimate the contribution of these metals to total toxicity during 2005-2006. Based on LC50 values, all three metals should be considered very toxic, with the zinc LC50 value (0.12 mg L(-1)) making it the most toxic metal for L. quadridentata. This approach can be applied to other sites with similar concentrations of these metals. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Toxicity of five forest insecticides to cutthroat trout and two species of aquatic invertebrates

    Woodward, D.F.; Mauck, W.L.


    The Northern Rocky Mountain region has had scattered infestation of the western spruce budworm Christoneura occidentalis since the early 1900's (U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (USDA) 1976b). On the basis of aerial surveys in 1975, TUNNOCK et al. (1976), estimated that budworm defoliation occurred on 2,278,804 acres of six National Forests in Montana. Since the use of DDT was banned in 1972, there has been a need to develop alternative insecticides with the efficacy of DDT but without its environmental risk. These insecticides must be effective in controlling the budworm, but should not persist in the environment or be toxic to other organisms. The organophosphate and carbamate insecticides are relatively nonpersistent and generally present only a moderate hazard to fish when applied according to label recommendations. The USDA Forest Service has been investigating the effectiveness of these two classes of insecticides against the budworm, and the Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has been cooperating with the Forest Service conducted pilot control projects in eastern Montana in 1975 and 1976 to determine the efficacy and environmental impact of acephate, carbaryl, and trichlorfon in controlling the western budworm (USDA 1976 b). In 1975, a similar type project was carried out in Maine with aminocarb, fenitrothion, and trichlorfon (USDA 1976 a).Acephate, fenitrothion, and trichlorfon (organophosphate insecticides) and aminocarb and carbaryl (carbamate insecticides) were selected for toxicity tests against cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki), a stonefly (Pteronarcella badia), and a freshwater amphipod (Gammarus pseudolimnaeus) edemic in streams of the northern Rocky Mountains. Populations of cutthroat trout inhabit lakes and streams in the Rocky Mountains which include some of the most pristine habitat and fisheries in North America. Pteronarcella and Gammarus provide forage for cutthroat trout and feed on decaying

  6. Improving the reliability of aquatic toxicity testing of hydrophobic chemicals via equilibrium passive dosing - A multiple trophic level case study on bromochlorophene.

    Stibany, Felix; Ewald, Franziska; Miller, Ina; Hollert, Henner; Schäffer, Andreas


    The main objective of the present study was to improve the reliability and practicability of aquatic toxicity testing of hydrophobic chemicals based upon the model substance bromochlorophene (BCP). Therefore, we adapted a passive dosing format to test the toxicity of BCP at different concentrations and in multiple test systems with aquatic organisms of various trophic levels. At the same time, the method allowed for the accurate determination of exposure concentrations (i.e., in the presence of exposed organisms; Ctest) and freely dissolved concentrations (i.e., without organisms present; Cfree) of BCP in all tested media. We report on the joint adaptation of three ecotoxicity tests - algal growth inhibition, Daphnia magna immobilization, and fish-embryo toxicity - to a silicone O-ring based equilibrium passive dosing format. Effect concentrations derived by passive dosing methods were compared with corresponding effect concentrations derived by standard co-solvent setups. The passive dosing format led to EC50-values in the lower μgL(-1) range for algae, daphnids, and fish embryos, whereas increased effect concentrations were measured in the co-solvent setups for algae and daphnids. This effect once more shows that passive dosing might offer advantages over standard methods like co-solvent setups when it comes to a reliable risk assessment of hydrophobic substances. The presented passive dosing setup offers a facilitated, practical, and repeatable way to test hydrophobic chemicals on their toxicity to aquatic organisms, and is an ideal basis for the detailed investigation of this important group of chemicals.

  7. Modelling acute oral mammalian toxicity. 1. Definition of a quantifiable baseline effect.

    Koleva, Yana K; Cronin, Mark T D; Madden, Judith C; Schwöbel, Johannes A H


    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) provide a useful tool to define a relationship between chemical structure and toxicity and allow for the prediction of the toxicity of untested chemicals. QSAR models based upon an anaesthetic or narcosis mechanism represent a baseline, or minimum, toxicity, i.e. unless a chemical acts by another, more specific, mechanism, its toxicity will be predicted by such models. The aim of this investigation was to develop baseline models for the acute toxicity of chemicals to mammals (rat and mouse) following the oral route of administration. The availability of such baseline toxicity models for mammalian species can provide a probe for testing new chemicals with respect to their molecular mechanism of toxicity. Multiple-regression type structure-toxicity relationships were derived . (i.e., from oral log LD(50)(-1) data for mammalian species (rat and mouse) and the 1-octanol/water partition coefficient (log P) of classic non-polar narcotics). Subsequently, these models were used to distinguish between reactive chemicals of different mechanistic domains and baseline toxic chemicals. Comparison of measured toxicity data for oral rat and mouse LD(50) with predictions from baseline QSAR provides a means of identifying mechanistic categories and for categorising more specific acute mechanisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Acute and Subacute Oral Toxicity of Periodate in Rats


    Inflammation - Minimal, Subacute Necrosis, glandular stomach - Minimal Testes (Required) Degeneration - Mild, Germinal Epithelium Thymus (Required...diagnosed separately). Necrosis, glandular stomach- Minimal, Acute Testes (Required) Degeneration - Mild, Germinal Epithelium Thymus (Required...Stomach (Required) Necrosis, glandular stomach - :tvfinimal, Acute Testes (Required) Degeneration - Mild, Germinal Epithelium Thymus (Required) Atrophy

  9. Prediction of acute inhalation toxicity using in vitro lung surfactant inhibition

    Sørli, Jorid Birkelund; Huang, Yishi; Da Silva, Emilie


    numbers and amounts and exhibit great variety. Therefore, an alternative method to screen for acute inhalation toxicity is needed. The aim of our study was to determine if inhibition of lung surfactant by impregnation products in vitro could accurately predict toxicity in vivo in mice. We tested 21...... the chemical composition of the products and induction of toxicity. The currently accepted method for determination of acute inhalation toxicity is based on experiments on animals; it is time-consuming, expensive and causes stress for the animals. Impregnation products are present on the market in large...... impregnation products using the constant flow through set-up of the constrained drop surfactometer to determine if they inhibited LS function or not. The same products were tested in a mouse inhalation bioassay to determine their toxicity in vivo. The sensitivity was 100%, i.e. the in vitro method predicted...

  10. Comparison of Acute Toxicity of Algal Metabolites Using Bioluminescence Inhibition Assay

    Hansa Jeswani


    Full Text Available Microalgae are reported to degrade hazardous compounds. However, algae, especially cyanobacteria are known to produce secondary metabolites which may be toxic to flora, fauna and human beings. The aim of this study was selection of an appropriate algal culture for biological treatment of biomass gasification wastewater based on acute toxicity considerations. The three algae that were selected were Spirulina sp., Scenedesmus abundans and a fresh water algal consortium. Acute toxicity of the metabolites produced by these algal cultures was tested at the end of log phase using the standard bioluminescence inhibition assay based on Vibrio fischeri NRRLB 11174. Scenedesmus abundans and a fresh water algal consortium dominated by cyanobacteria such as Phormidium, Chroococcus and Oscillatoria did not release much toxic metabolites at the end of log phase and caused only about 20% inhibition in bioluminescence. In comparison, Spirulina sp. released toxic metabolites and caused 50% bioluminescence inhibition at 3/5 times dilution of the culture supernatant (EC50.

  11. Antibiotics and sweeteners in the aquatic environment: biodegradability, formation of phototransformation products, and in vitro toxicity.

    Bergheim, Marlies; Gminski, Richard; Spangenberg, Bernd; Debiak, Malgorzata; Bürkle, Alexander; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker; Kümmerer, Klaus; Gieré, Reto


    In the present study, in vitro toxicity as well as biopersistence and photopersistence of four artificial sweeteners (acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharine, and sucralose) and five antibiotics (levofloxacin, lincomycin, linezolid, marbofloxacin, and sarafloxacin) and of their phototransformation products (PTPs) were investigated. Furthermore, antibiotic activity was evaluated after UV irradiation and after exposure to inocula of a sewage treatment plant. The study reveals that most of the tested compounds and their PTPs were neither readily nor inherently biodegradable in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)-biodegradability tests. The study further demonstrates that PTPs are formed upon irradiation with an Hg lamp (UV light) and, to a lesser extent, upon irradiation with a Xe lamp (mimics sunlight). Comparing the nonirradiated with the corresponding irradiated solutions, a higher chronic toxicity against bacteria was found for the irradiated solutions of linezolid. Neither cytotoxicity nor genotoxicity was found in human cervical (HeLa) and liver (Hep-G2) cells for any of the investigated compounds or their PTPs. Antimicrobial activity of the tested fluoroquinolones was reduced after UV treatment, but it was not reduced after a 28-day exposure to inocula of a sewage treatment plant. This comparative study shows that PTPs can be formed as a result of UV treatment. The study further demonstrated that UV irradiation can be effective in reducing the antimicrobial activity of antibiotics, and consequently may help to reduce antimicrobial resistance in wastewaters. Nevertheless, the study also highlights that some PTPs may exhibit a higher ecotoxicity than the respective parent compounds. Consequently, UV treatment does not transform all micropollutants into harmless compounds and may not be a large-scale effluent treatment option.

  12. Toxic effects of selenium and copper on the planarian, Dugesia dorotocephala

    Rauscher, J.D.


    Aquatic toxicologists have become increasingly concerned with the effects of sublethal concentrations of toxicants on aquatic organisms. Sublethal effects of toxicants on freshwater invertebrates were reviewed. Selenium (Se) and copper (Cu) are both essential trace elements and toxicants. Se has been reported to alter the toxicity of heavy metals. Planarians, Dugesia dorotocephala, were used as test animals. The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) acute toxicity of Se on planarians and the effect of the number of planarians per test chamber, (2) interaction of the acute toxicity of Se and Cu on planarians, and (3) sublethal effects of Se and Cu on planarians.

  13. Acute toxicity of polyacrylamide flocculants to early life stages of freshwater mussels.

    Buczek, Sean B; Cope, W Gregory; McLaughlin, Richard A; Kwak, Thomas J


    Polyacrylamide has become an effective tool for reducing construction-related suspended sediment and turbidity, which are considered to have significant adverse impacts on aquatic ecosystems and are a leading cause of the degradation of North American streams and rivers. However, little is known about the effects of polyacrylamide on many freshwater organisms, and prior to the present study, no information existed on the toxicity of polyacrylamide compounds to native freshwater mussels (family Unionidae), one of the most imperiled faunal groups globally. Following standard test guidelines, we exposed juvenile mussels (test duration 96 h) and glochidia larvae (test duration 24 h) to 5 different anionic polyacrylamide compounds and 1 non-ionic compound. Species tested included the yellow lampmussel (Lampsilis cariosa), an Atlantic Slope species that is listed as endangered in North Carolina; the Appalachian elktoe (Alasmidonta raveneliana), a federally endangered Interior Basin species; and the washboard (Megalonaias nervosa), a common Interior Basin species. We found that median lethal concentrations (LC50s) of polyacrylamide ranged from 411.7 to >1000 mg/L for glochidia and from 126.8 to >1000 mg/L for juveniles. All LC50s were orders of magnitude greater (2-3) than concentrations typically recommended for turbidity control (1-5 mg/L), regardless of their molecular weight or charge density. The results demonstrate that the polyacrylamide compounds tested were not acutely toxic to the mussel species and life stages tested, indicating minimal risk of short-term exposure from polyacrylamide applications in the environment. However, other potential uses of polyacrylamide in the environment (e.g., wastewater treatment, paper processing, mining, algae removal) and their chronic or sublethal effects remain uncertain and warrant additional investigation. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;9999:1-7. Published 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is

  14. Acute and sub-acute toxicity studies of aqueous and methanol extracts of Nelsonia campestris in rats

    Janet Mobolaji Olaniyan; Hadiza Lami Muhammad; Hussaini Anthony Makun; Musa Bola Busari; Abubakar Siddique Abdullah


    Objective: To evaluate the acute and sub-acute toxicity of aqueous and methanol ex-tracts of Nelsonia campestris (N. campestris) in rats. Methods: Acute oral toxicity study of aqueous and methanol extracts was carried out by administration of 10, 100, 1 000, 1 600, 2 900 and 5 000 mg/kg body weight of N. campestris extracts to rats in the respective groups. Sub-acute toxicity study was conducted by oral administration of the extracts at daily doses of 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg body weight to another group of rats for 28 days, while rats in the control group received 0.5 mL of normal saline. Results: The LD50 of the N. campestris extracts in rats was determined to be greater than 5 000 mg/kg body weight. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the test groups administered with aqueous and methanol extracts in relation to the control group for serum electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl−, HCO3−), serum albumin, total and conjugated bili-rubin. Similarly, mean organ-to-body weight ratio and all haematological parameters (white blood cell, red blood cell, mean cell volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume) evaluated were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from the control. There was a significant increase (P Conclusions: Intake of high doses of this plant extracts may exhibit mild organ toxicity.

  15. Endocrine modulation and toxic effects of two commonly used UV screens on the aquatic invertebrates Potamopyrgus antipodarum and Lumbriculus variegatus

    Schmitt, Claudia [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Department Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60323 Frankfurt (Germany)], E-mail:; Oetken, Matthias; Dittberner, Olaf; Wagner, Martin; Oehlmann, Joerg [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Department Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60323 Frankfurt (Germany)


    The two UV screens 3-benzylidene-camphor (3-BC) and 3-(4'-methylbenzylidene)-camphor (4-MBC) were tested regarding their toxicity and estrogenic activity. The Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) and two sediment assays with the freshwater invertebrates Lumbriculus variegatus and Potamopyrgus antipodarum were performed. In the YES, both substances activated the human estrogen receptor {alpha} with EC{sub 50} values of 44.2 {mu}M for 3-BC and 44.3 {mu}M for 4-MBC, whereby 4-MBC attained only 8% of the maximal response of 17{beta}-estradiol. For P. antipodarum embryo production increased after exposure to both substances (EC{sub 50} of 4.60 {mu}M 4-MBC = 1.17 mg kg{sup -1} dw) while mortality increased at high concentrations. The reproduction of L. variegatus was decreased by 3-BC with an EC{sub 50} of 5.95 {mu}M (=1.43 mg kg{sup -1} dw) and also by 4-MBC, where no EC{sub 50} could be calculated. While reproduction decreased, the worms' weight increased after exposure to 3-BC with an EC{sub 50} of 26.9 {mu}M (= 6.46 mg kg{sup -1} dw), hence the total biomass remained unaffected. - UV screens can have a significant impact on reproduction and development of aquatic invertebrates.

  16. Comparative acute toxicity of local detergents (Omo and Ariel on fingerlings of the Clarias gariepinus♀ x Heterobranchus longifilis♂ hybrid

    Christopher B. Ndome


    Full Text Available The acute toxicity of local detergents - Omo detergent (Unilever Nigeria Plc. and Arieldetergent (Procter & Gamble Nigeria Limited - were compared using fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus ♀ xHeterobranchus longifilis ♂ hybrid (Heteroclarias, in a 96 hour bioassay. After a series of range findingtests, the fishes were exposed to concentrations of 0.00 ppm, 20 ppm, 30ppm, 40 ppm, 45 ppm and 50ppm of each detergent for 96 hours. The Median Lethal Concentrations (LC50 values for the detergentsranged between 33.03–35.19 ppm and 37.43–39.79 ppm for Omo and Ariel, respectively. Manifestationtimes decreased from 62–14 and 70–14 hours; overturning times decreased from 80–16 and 92–20hours, while survival times decreased from 96–17 and 96–23 hours for Omo and Ariel, respectively, withincreasing concentrations of the toxicants. Respiratory disturbances, loss of righting balance, lethargyand sudden fish death were observed in the exposed fishes. There was a strong concentration-mortalityrelationship for toxicants, yielding a strong positive correlation co-efficient, r2, of 0.9925 and 0.9882,respectively for Omo and Ariel detergents. The t-test analysis showed significant difference (p 0.05 recorded in other concentrations. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05in overturning and survival times of Omo and Ariel detergents in all the concentrations. The presentstudy shows that Omo detergent with a lesser mean LC50 value of 34.11 ± 1.08 could be more toxic thanAriel with a mean LC50 value of 36.66 ± 1.1. Although there was no statistically significant deferencebetween their LC50s (p > 0.05, it was concluded that effluents containing these detergents must not bedischarged indiscriminately into water bodies in order to avoid harm to fish and other aquatic life.

  17. An ecological risk assessment of the acute and chronic toxicity of the herbicide picloram to the threatened bull trout (salvelinus confluentus) and the rainbow trout (onchorhyncus mykiss)

    Fairchild, J.F.; Feltz, K.P.; Sappington, L.C.; Allert, A.L.; Nelson, K.J.; Valle, J.


    We conducted acute and chronic toxicity studies of the effects of picloram acid on the threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and the standard coldwater surrogate rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Juvenile fish were chronically exposed for 30 days in a proportional flow-through diluter to measured concentrations of 0, 0.30, 0.60, 1.18, 2.37, and 4.75 mg/L picloram. No mortality of either species was observed at the highest concentration. Bull trout were twofold more sensitive to picloram (30-day maximum acceptable toxic concentration of 0.80 mg/L) compared to rainbow trout (30-day maximum acceptable toxic concentration of 1.67 mg/L) based on the endpoint of growth. Picloram was acutely toxic to rainbow trout at 36 mg/L (96-h ALC50). The acute:chronic ratio for rainbow trout exposed to picloram was 22. The chronic toxicity of picloram was compared to modeled and measured environmental exposure concentrations (EECs) using a four-tiered system. The Tier 1, worst-case exposure estimate, based on a direct application of the current maximum use rate (1.1 kg/ha picloram) to a standardized aquatic ecosystem (water body of 1-ha area and 1-m depth), resulted in an EEC of 0.73 mg/L picloram and chronic risk quotients of 0.91 and 0.44 for bull trout and rainbow trout, respectively. Higher-tiered exposure estimates reduced chronic risk quotients 10-fold. Results of this study indicate that picloram, if properly applied according to the manufacturer's label, poses little risk to the threatened bull trout or rainbow trout in northwestern rangeland environments on either an acute or a chronic basis. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  18. Acute toxicity, lipid peroxidation and ameliorative properties of ...



    Jan 29, 2014 ... The lethal toxicity and lipid peroxidation studies of Alstonia boonei on alloxan induced diabetic rats were analysed. ... carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism (Sky, 2000;. Rother ..... as safe (GRAS) (Lorke, 1984). However ...

  19. Alternative approaches for identifying acute systemic toxicity: Moving from research to regulatory testing.

    Hamm, Jon; Sullivan, Kristie; Clippinger, Amy J; Strickland, Judy; Bell, Shannon; Bhhatarai, Barun; Blaauboer, Bas; Casey, Warren; Dorman, David; Forsby, Anna; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Gehen, Sean; Graepel, Rabea; Hotchkiss, Jon; Lowit, Anna; Matheson, Joanna; Reaves, Elissa; Scarano, Louis; Sprankle, Catherine; Tunkel, Jay; Wilson, Dan; Xia, Menghang; Zhu, Hao; Allen, David


    Acute systemic toxicity testing provides the basis for hazard labeling and risk management of chemicals. A number of international efforts have been directed at identifying non-animal alternatives for in vivo acute systemic toxicity tests. A September 2015 workshop, Alternative Approaches for Identifying Acute Systemic Toxicity: Moving from Research to Regulatory Testing, reviewed the state-of-the-science of non-animal alternatives for this testing and explored ways to facilitate implementation of alternatives. Workshop attendees included representatives from international regulatory agencies, academia, nongovernmental organizations, and industry. Resources identified as necessary for meaningful progress in implementing alternatives included compiling and making available high-quality reference data, training on use and interpretation of in vitro and in silico approaches, and global harmonization of testing requirements. Attendees particularly noted the need to characterize variability in reference data to evaluate new approaches. They also noted the importance of understanding the mechanisms of acute toxicity, which could be facilitated by the development of adverse outcome pathways. Workshop breakout groups explored different approaches to reducing or replacing animal use for acute toxicity testing, with each group crafting a roadmap and strategy to accomplish near-term progress. The workshop steering committee has organized efforts to implement the recommendations of the workshop participants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influences of water chemistry on the acute toxicity of lead to Pimephales promelas and Ceriodaphnia dubia.

    Mager, Edward M; Esbaugh, Andrew J; Brix, Kevin V; Ryan, Adam C; Grosell, Martin


    The acute toxicity of lead (Pb) was examined for fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas; 96-h) and daphnids (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 48-h) in waters modified for hardness (as CaSO₄), dissolved organic carbon (DOC; as Aldrich humic acid) and alkalinity (as NaHCO₃) for parameterization of an acute freshwater biotic ligand model (BLM). Additionally, acute (96-h) and chronic (30-d) bioassays were performed for P. promelas to more clearly define the influence of pH (5.5-8.3) on Pb toxicity as modified by addition of HCl or NaOH using an automated titration system. Results indicate that Ca(2+) is protective against acute Pb toxicity to P. promelas but not C. dubia. Strong protection was afforded by DOC and NaHCO(3) against acute Pb toxicity to P. promelas, whereas milder protection was observed for C. dubia with both parameters. Dissolved Pb LC50s from the P. promelas pH bioassays revealed a complex effect of pH on Pb toxicity, likely explained in part by Pb speciation and the competitive interaction of H(+) with ionic Pb(2+). Chronic pH bioassays also demonstrated that 30-d growth is not impaired in fathead minnows at relevant Pb concentrations. The findings reported herein suggest that development of separate BLMs for P. promelas and C. dubia should be considered.

  1. Acute Toxicity and Ecological Risk Assessment of Benzophenone and N,N-Diethyl-3 Methylbenzamide in Personal Care Products

    Hong-Qin Sun


    Full Text Available Benzophenone (BP and N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET are two chemicals often used in personal care products (PCPs. There is a lack of systematic ecotoxicological evaluations about the two chemicals to aquatic organisms. In the present study, the acute toxic effects on Chlorella vulgaris, Daphnia Magana, and Brachydanio rerio were tested and the ecotoxicological risks were evaluated. For BP, the 96-h half-maximal effective concentration (EC50 on C. vulgaris was 6.86 mg/L; the 24-h median lethal concentration (LC50 on D. magana was 7.63 mg/L; the 96-h LC50 on B. rerio was 14.73 mg/L. For DEET, those were 270.72 mg/L, 40.74 mg/L, and 109.67 mg/L, respectively. The mixture toxicity of BP and DEET, on C. vulgaris, D. magana, and B. rerio all showed an additive effect. The induced predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs for BP and DEET by assessment factor (AF method are 0.003 mg/L and 0.407 mg/L, respectively. Both are lower than the concentrations detected from environment at present, verifying that BP and DEET are low-risk chemicals to the environment.

  2. A Selective Bioreduction of Toxic Heavy Metal Ions from Aquatic Environment by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    A. M. Rahatgaonkar


    Full Text Available The need to remove or recover metal ions from industrial wastewater has been established in financial as well as environmental terms. This need has been proved financially in terms of cost saving through metal reuse or sale and environmentally as heavy metal toxicity can affect organisms throughout the food chain, including humans. Bioremediation of heavy metal pollution remains a major challenge in environmental biotechnology. Current removal strategies are mainly based on bioreduction of Co++, Ni++, Cu++ and Cd++ to their metallic forms by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in buffered aqueous solution. The rate of biotransformation was significantly influenced by pH of aqueous solution, concentration of biomass and hardness of water. All reaction conditions were optimized and maximum reduction of Co++, Cd++, Ni++ and Cu++ were observed as 80%, 63%, 50%, and 44% respectively. Unreacted Co++, Cd++, Ni++metal ions were extracted by 8-hydroxyquinoline and Cu++ by diethylthio carbamate in CHCl3 at different pH. Furthermore, the concentrations of unreacted metal ions were established spectrophotometrically.

  3. Acute toxicity tests on raw leachate from a Malaysian dumping site.

    Sujá, Fatihah; Yusof, Arij; Osman, Md Anuar


    Leachate samples collected from the Ampar Tenang open dumping site at Dengkil, Malaysia, were analyzed for acute toxicity. Two in vivo toxicity tests, Acute Oral Toxicity (AOT) and Primary Skin Irritation (PSI), were performed using Sprague Dawley rats and New Zealand Albino rabbits, respectively. The leachate samples were also analyzed chemically for nitrate and phosphate, ammonia-nitrogen, Kjeldahl-nitrogen and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). Results from both the AOT and PSI tests showed that the leachate did not contribute to acute toxicity. The AOT test yielded a negative result: no effect was observed in at least half of the rat population. The PSI test on rabbits produced effects only at a leachate concentration of 100%. However, the skin irritation was minor, and the test returned a negative result. The four chemical tests showed high levels of nutrient pollution in the leachate. The nitrate and phosphate concentrations were 2.1 mg/L and 23.6 mg/L, respectively. Further, the ammonia-nitrogen concentration was 1,000 mg NH(3)-N/L the Kjeldahl-nitrogen level was 446 mg NH(3)-N/L, and the Chemical Oxygen Demand was 1,300 mg/L. The in vivo toxicity and chemical analyses showed that the leachate is polluted but not acutely toxic to organisms.

  4. Structure activity relationship, acute toxicity and cytotoxicity of antimycobacterial neolignan analogues.

    de Souza, Ana Olívia; Alderete, Joel Bernabé; Minarini, Paulo Roberto Regazi; da Silva Melo, Patrícia; Ferreira, Iasmin; Barata, Lauro Euclides Soares; Silva, Célio Lopes


    The study's aims were to evaluate the antimycobacterial activity of 13 synthetic neolignan analogues and to perform structure activity relationship analysis (SAR). The cytotoxicity of the compound 2-phenoxy-1-phenylethanone (LS-2, 1) in mammalian cells, such as the acute toxicity in mice, was also evaluated. The extra and intracellular antimycobacterial activity was evaluated on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Cytotoxicity studies were performed using V79 cells, J774 macrophages and rat hepatocytes. Additionally, the in-vivo acute toxicity was tested in mice. The SAR analysis was performed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Among the 13 analogues tested, LS-2 (1) was the most effective, showing promising antimycobacterial activity and very low cytotoxicity in V79 cells and in J774 macrophages, while no toxicity was observed in rat hepatocytes. The selectivity index (SI) of LS-2 (1) was 91 and the calculated LD50 was 1870 mg/kg, highlighting the very low toxicity in mice. SAR analysis showed that the highest electrophilicity and the lowest molar volume are physical-chemical characteristics important for the antimycobacterial activity of the LS-2 (1). LS-2 (1) showed promising antimycobacterial activity and very weak cytotoxicity in cell culture, as well as an absence of toxicity in primary culture of hepatocytes. In the acute toxicity study there was an indication of absence of toxicity on murine models, in vivo. © 2011 The Authors. JPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  5. Acute and chronic toxicity of sediment samples from Guanabara Bay (RJ during the rainy period

    Luciane Alves Maranho


    Full Text Available Guanabara Bay is a marine-estuarine environment of high ecological and socio-economic importance, subject to a variety of environmental impacts. Sediment is the eventual repository for most substances introduced into water bodies and may, therefore, provide an integrated measure of the environmental quality, which can be assessed by many different approaches. In this project, the quality of sediments from Guanabara Bay was evaluated by the ecotoxicological approach: whole-sediment toxicity tests, using Tiburonella viscana, and porewater, elutriate and sediment-water interface chronic toxicity tests, using embryos of Lytechinus variegatus, were applied. Sediments were collected at 14 sampling stations, distributed across the bay. Chronic tests showed significant toxicity in most of the sediment samples. Sediments from stations 1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12 and 15 showed acute toxicity as well. The results of the different tests were well correlated, and their integration showed that the sediments analyzed were considered unsuitable for aquatic life, resulting in the environmental degradation of Guanabara Bay. In this context, the control of pollution sources and multi-purpose management are required to improve the environmental quality.A Baía de Guanabara é um ambiente marinho-estuarino de grande relevância ecológica e sócio-econômica, e sujeita a uma ampla gama de impactos ambientais. O sedimento é o principal destino para a maioria das substâncias introduzidas nos corpos d'água, podendo fornecer uma medida integrada da qualidade ambiental, a qual pode ser avaliada por várias abordagens. Neste projeto, a qualidade de sedimentos da Baía de Guanabara foi por uma abordagem ecotoxicológica, por meio de testes de toxicidade aguda de sedimento integral, utilizando Tiburonella viscana, e testes de toxicidade crônica de água intersticial, elutriato e interface sedimento-água, utilizando embriões de Lytechinus variegatus. Os sedimentos foram

  6. Copper and zinc, but not other priority toxic metals, pose risks to native aquatic species in a large urban lake in Eastern China.

    Fu, Zhiyou; Wu, Fengchang; Chen, Lulu; Xu, Bingbing; Feng, Chenglian; Bai, Yingchen; Liao, Haiqing; Sun, Siyang; Giesy, John P; Guo, Wenjing


    Over the past 20 years, global production of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) rank in the top three compared to other metals such as Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, As and Hg. However, due to the potential for exposure and toxicity to humans, more attention of environmental pollution was paid to other metals such as Cd and Hg. Aquatic organisms are sensitive to Cu and Zn. Even though internal concentrations of these required elements are homeostatically controlled, toxic effects can occur at the fish gill surface. In this work, concentrations in surface waters and toxic effects of Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd, As, Hg were determined and risk of various metals in Tai Lake, China were evaluated using both risk quotients and joint probability distributions. Two transition metals, Cu and Zn posed the greatest risks to aquatic organisms while measured concentrations of other metals were less than thresholds for adverse effects. Approximately 99.9% and 50.7% of the aquatic organisms were predicted to be affected by Cu and Zn in surface water of Tai Lake respectively. Our results highlight ecological risks of Cu and Zn in water of a typical, large, urban lake in Eastern China, which was ignored in the past. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Severe Acute Pulmonary Toxicity Associated with Brentuximab in a Patient with Refractory Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

    Yasmin Sabet


    Full Text Available Acute pulmonary toxicity associated with brentuximab appears to be a rare but serious adverse effect that can be potentially fatal. We report the case of a twenty-nine-year-old female with Hodgkin’s lymphoma who was treated with brentuximab and later presented with severe acute pulmonary toxicity; she improved after the discontinuation of brentuximab and administration of antibiotics and glucocorticoid therapy. Currently there is very little data in the literature in regard to the clinical manifestations and characteristics of patients taking brentuximab and the potential development of acute severe pulmonary toxicity, as well as the appropriate therapeutic approach, making this particular case of successful treatment and resolution unique.

  8. Acute and Subchronic Toxicity of Inhaled Toluene in Male ...

    The effects of exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are of concern to the EPA, are poorly understood, in part because of insufficient characterization of how human exposure duration impacts VOC effects. Two inhalation studies with multiple endpoints, one acute and one subchronic, were conducted to seek effects of the VOC, toluene, in rats and to compare the effects between acute and subchronic exposures. Adult male Long-Evans rats were exposed to toluene vapor (n = 6 per group) at a concentration of 0 or l 019 ± 14 ppm for 6 h in the acute study and at 0 ± 0, 10 ± 1.4, 97 ± 7, or 995 ± 43 ppm for 6 h/d, 5 d/week for 13 weeksin the subchronic study. For the acute study, brains were dissected on ice within 30 min of the end of exposure, while for the subchronic study, brains were dissected 18 h after the last exposure. Frontal cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, and striatum were assayed for a variety of oxidative stress (OS) parameters including total aconitase (TA), protein carbonyls, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GRD), glutathione transferase (GST), y-­glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidants (TAS), NADPH quinone oxidoreductase- 1 (NQO1 ), and NADH ubiquinone reductase (UBIQ-RD) activities using commercially available kits. Following acute exposure, UBIQ-RD, GCS and GRD were increased significantly only in the cerebellum, while TAS was increased in frontal cortex. On the other

  9. Characterisation of acute toxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress posed by textile effluent on zebrafish

    Wenjuan Zhang; Wei Liu; Jing Zhang; Huimin Zhao; Yaobin Zhang; Xie Quan; Yihe Jin


    Textile industries are important sources of toxic discharges and contribute enormously to water deterioration,while little attention has been paid to the toxicity of textile effluents in discharge regulation.Bioassays with zebrafish were employed to evaluate the toxicity of wastewater samples collected from different stages at a textile factory and sewage treatment plants (STPs).Physico-chemical parameters,acute toxicity,genotoxicity and oxidative stress biomarkers were analyzed.The wastewater samples from bleaching,rinsing and soaping of the textile factory exhibited high acute toxicity and genotoxicity.The coexisting components of dye compounds,as assistants and oxidants,seemed to cause some effect on the toxic response.After treatment employing the anoxic-oxic (A/O) process in STPs,the color and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) were reduced by 40% and 84%,respectively,falling within the criteria of the Chinese Sewage Discharge Standard.In contrast,increases in acute toxicity and genotoxicity were observed in the anaerobic tank,indicating the formation of toxic intermediates.The genotoxicity of the effluent of the STP was not significantly different from that of the influent,suggesting the wastewater treatment processes were not effective in removing the genotoxicity of the dye wastewater.Results indicated that the effluent contains pro-oxidants since the activities of glutathione (GSH),malondialdehyde (MDA),and total anti-oxidation capacity (T-AOC) were all elevated.In addition,decreases in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S transferase (GST) activities observed can be interpreted as a cytotoxicity sign due to an over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS).The results of the present study suggest that the STPs were not capable of reducing the toxicity of wastewater sufficiently.Further treatment is needed to remove the potential risks posed by textile effluent to ecosystems and human health,and employing a toxicity index is necessary for

  10. Acute toxicity of metals and reference toxicants to a freshwater ostracod, Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 and correlation to EC{sub 50} values of other test models

    Khangarot, B.S., E-mail: [Ecotoxicology Division, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (Formerly: Industrial Toxicology Research Centre), Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India); Das, Sangita [Ecotoxicology Division, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (Formerly: Industrial Toxicology Research Centre), Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India)


    The ostracod Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 static bioassay test on the basis of a 48 h of 50% of immobilization (EC{sub 50}) has been used to measure the toxicity of 36 metals and metalloids and 12 reference toxicants. Among the 36 metals and metalloids, osmium (Os) was found to be the most toxic in the test while boron (B), the least toxic. The EC{sub 50} values of this study revealed positive linear relationship with the established test models of cladoceran (Daphnia magna), sludge worm (Tubifex tubifex), chironomid larvae (Chironomus tentans), protozoan (Tetrahymena pyriformis), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), and aquatic macrophyte duckweed (Lemna minor). Correlation coefficients (r{sup 2}) for 17 physicochemical properties of metals or metal ions and EC{sub 50}s (as pM) were examined by linear regression analysis. The electronegativity, ionization potential, melting point, solubility product of metal sulfides (pK{sub sp}), softness parameter and some other physicochemical characteristics were significantly correlated with EC{sub 50}s of metals to C. subglobosa. The reproducibility of toxicity test was determined using 12 reference toxicants. The coefficient of variability of the EC{sub 50}s ranged from 6.95% to 55.37% and variability was comparable to that noticed for D. magna and other aquatic test models. The study demonstrated the need to include crustacean ostracods in a battery of biotests to detect the presence of hazardous chemicals in soils, sewage sludges, sediments and aquatic systems.

  11. Inhibition effect of glyphosate on the acute and subacute toxicity of cadmium to earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Zhou, Chui-Fan; Wang, Yu-Jun; Sun, Rui-Juan; Liu, Cun; Fan, Guang-Ping; Qin, Wen-Xiu; Li, Cheng-Cheng; Zhou, Dong-Mei


    The acute and subacute toxicities of cadmium (Cd) to earthworm Eisenia fetida in the presence and absence of glyphosate were studied. Although Cd is highly toxic to E. fetida, the presence of glyphosate markedly reduced the acute toxicity of Cd to earthworm; both the mortality rate of the earthworms and the accumulation of Cd decreased with the increase of the glyphosate/Cd molar ratio. The subcellular distribution of Cd in E. fetida tissues showed that internal Cd was dominant in the intact cells fraction and the heat-stable proteins fraction. The presence of glyphosate reduced the concentration of Cd in all fractions, especially the intact cells. During a longer period of exposure, the weight loss of earthworm and the total Cd absorption was alleviated by glyphosate. Thus, the herbicide glyphosate can reduce the toxicity and bioavailability of Cd in the soil ecosystems at both short- and long-term exposures.

  12. Metal uptake and acute toxicity in zebrafish: Common mechanisms across multiple metals

    Alsop, Derek, E-mail: [Department of Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1 (Canada); Wood, Chris M. [Department of Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1 (Canada)


    All metals tested reduced calcium uptake in zebrafish larvae. However, it was whole body sodium loss that was functionally related to toxicity. The zebrafish larvae acute toxicity assay save time, space and resources. - Abstract: Zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio) were used to examine the mechanisms of action and acute toxicities of metals. Larvae had similar physiological responses and sensitivities to waterborne metals as adults. While cadmium and zinc have previously been shown to reduce Ca{sup 2+} uptake, copper and nickel also decreased Ca{sup 2+} uptake, suggesting that the epithelial transport of all these metals is through Ca{sup 2+} pathways. However, exposure to cadmium, copper or nickel for up to 48 h had little or no effect on total whole body Ca{sup 2+} levels, indicating that the reduction of Ca{sup 2+} uptake is not the acute toxic mechanism of these metals. Instead, mortalities were effectively related to whole body Na{sup +}, which decreased up to 39% after 48 h exposures to different metals around their respective 96 h LC50s. Decreases in whole body K{sup +} were also observed, although they were not as pronounced or frequent as Na{sup +} losses. None of the metals tested inhibited Na{sup +} uptake in zebrafish (Na{sup +} uptake was in fact increased with exposure) and the observed losses of Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} were proportional to the ionic gradients between the plasma and water, indicating diffusive ion loss with metal exposure. This study has shown that there is a common pathway for metal uptake and a common mechanism of acute toxicity across groups of metals in zebrafish. The disruption of ion uptake accompanying metal exposure does not appear to be responsible for the acute toxicity of metals, as has been previously suggested, but rather the toxicity is instead due to total ion loss (predominantly Na{sup +}).

  13. Towards Global QSAR Model Building for Acute Toxicity: Munro Database Case Study

    Swapnil Chavan


    Full Text Available A series of 436 Munro database chemicals were studied with respect to their corresponding experimental LD50 values to investigate the possibility of establishing a global QSAR model for acute toxicity. Dragon molecular descriptors were used for the QSAR model development and genetic algorithms were used to select descriptors better correlated with toxicity data. Toxic values were discretized in a qualitative class on the basis of the Globally Harmonized Scheme: the 436 chemicals were divided into 3 classes based on their experimental LD50 values: highly toxic, intermediate toxic and low to non-toxic. The k-nearest neighbor (k-NN classification method was calibrated on 25 molecular descriptors and gave a non-error rate (NER equal to 0.66 and 0.57 for internal and external prediction sets, respectively. Even if the classification performances are not optimal, the subsequent analysis of the selected descriptors and their relationship with toxicity levels constitute a step towards the development of a global QSAR model for acute toxicity.

  14. Acute Toxicity of Amorphous Silica Nanoparticles in Intravenously Exposed ICR Mice

    Yang Yu; Yang Li; Wen Wang; Minghua Jin; Zhongjun Du; Yanbo Li; Junchao Duan; Yongbo Yu; Zhiwei Sun


    This study aimed to evaluate the acute toxicity of intravenously administrated amorphous silica nanoparticles (SNPs) in mice. The lethal dose, 50 (LD50), of intravenously administrated SNPs was calculated in mice using Dixon's up-and-down method (262.45±33.78 mg/kg). The acute toxicity was evaluated at 14 d after intravenous injection of SNPs at 29.5, 103.5 and 177.5 mg/kg in mice. A silicon content analysis using ICP-OES found that SNPs mainly distributed in the resident macrophages of the l...

  15. Acute toxicity of lanthanum to fish Danio rerio and Poecilia reticulata

    Stanislava Mácová


    Full Text Available Lanthanides are widely used in industry as well as medicine, where serve as contrast agents in imaging methods and techniques. Due to these facts, lanthanides can become significant pollutants of living environment. In our work, we were focused in investigation of toxicity of lanthanum on juvenile stages of two fish species- Danio rerio and Poecilia reticulata and embryonic stages of D. rerio. The 96hLC50 values were 156.33 ± 5.59 mg.l–1 for juvenile D. rerio and 128.38 ± 5.29 mg.l–1 for juvenile P. reticulata. The 144hLC50 for embryonic stages of D. rerio was 152.98 ± 8.06 mg.l–1. Results of toxicity tests indicate possible toxicity of lanthanum in the case of presence in aquatic environment.

  16. Hypofractionated IMRT of the Prostate Bed After Radical Prostatectomy: Acute Toxicity in the PRIAMOS-1 Trial

    Katayama, Sonja, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Striecker, Thorbjoern; Kessel, Kerstin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Sterzing, Florian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Habl, Gregor [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Edler, Lutz [Department of Biostatistics, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, Juergen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Herfarth, Klaus [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany)


    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy as primary treatment for prostate cancer is currently being investigated in large phase 3 trials. However, there are few data on postoperative hypofractionation. The Radiation therapy for the Prostate Bed With or Without the Pelvic Lymph Nodes (PRIAMOS 1) trial was initiated as a prospective phase 2 trial to assess treatment safety and toxicity of a hypofractionated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of the prostate bed. Methods and Materials: From February to September 2012, 40 patients with indications for adjuvant or salvage radiation therapy were enrolled. One patient dropped out before treatment. Patients received 54 Gy in 18 fractions to the prostate bed with IMRT and daily image guidance. Gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicities (according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0) were recorded weekly during treatment and 10 weeks after radiation therapy. Results: Overall acute toxicity was favorable, with no recorded adverse events grade ≥3. Acute GI toxicity rates were 56.4% (grade 1) and 17.9% (grade 2). Acute GU toxicity was recorded in 35.9% of patients (maximum grade 1). Urinary stress incontinence was not influenced by radiation therapy. The incidence of grade 1 urinary urge incontinence increased from 2.6% before to 23.1% 10 weeks after therapy, but grade 2 urge incontinence remained unchanged. Conclusions: Postoperative hypofractionated IMRT of the prostate bed is tolerated well, with no severe acute side effects.

  17. Acute toxicity assessment of ANAMMOX substrates and antibiotics by luminescent bacteria test.

    Ding, Shuang; Wu, Junwei; Zhang, Meng; Lu, Huifeng; Mahmood, Qaisar; Zheng, Ping


    Acute toxicities of anaerobic ammonia oxidation (ANAMMOX) substrates and four antibiotics from pharmaceutical wastewaters on ANAMMOX process were reported. Individual and joint acute toxicity assays were performed using 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50). Results showed that IC50 values and their 95% confidence interval of ammonium chloride (A), sodium nitrite (B), penicillin G-Na (C), polymyxin B sulfate (D), chloramphenicol (E) and kanamycin sulfate (F) were 2708.9 (2247.9-3169.9), 1475.4 (1269.9-1680.9), 5114.4 (4946.4-5282.4), 10.2 (1.8-18.6), 409.9 (333.7-486.1) and 5254.1 (3934.4-6573.8) mgL(-1) respectively, suggesting toxicities were in the order of D>E>B>A>C>F. Joint acute toxicities of bicomponent mixtures A and B, C and D, C and F, D and F were independent; D and E, E and F were additive while C and E were synergistic. Joint acute toxicities of multicomponent mixtures were synergistic or additive. Luminescent bacteria test is an easy and robust method for forecasting the feasibility of ANAMMOX process for pharmaceutical wastewater treatment.

  18. Evaluation of the importance of astrocytes when screening for acute toxicity in neuronal cell systems.

    Woehrling, E K; Hill, E J; Coleman, M D


    Reliable, high throughput, in vitro preliminary screening batteries have the potential to greatly accelerate the rate at which regulatory neurotoxicity data is generated. This study evaluated the importance of astrocytes when predicting acute toxic potential using a neuronal screening battery of pure neuronal (NT2.N) and astrocytic (NT2.A) and integrated neuronal/astrocytic (NT2.N/A) cell systems derived from the human NT2.D1 cell line, using biochemical endpoints (mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) depolarisation and ATP and GSH depletion). Following exposure for 72 h, the known acute human neurotoxicants trimethyltin-chloride, chloroquine and 6-hydroxydopamine were frequently capable of disrupting biochemical processes in all of the cell systems at non-cytotoxic concentrations. Astrocytes provide key metabolic and protective support to neurons during toxic challenge in vivo and generally the astrocyte containing cell systems showed increased tolerance to toxicant insult compared with the NT2.N mono-culture in vitro. Whilst there was no consistent relationship between MMP, ATP and GSH log IC(50) values for the NT2.N/A and NT2.A cell systems, these data did provide preliminary evidence of modulation of the acute neuronal toxic response by astrocytes. In conclusion, the suitability of NT2 neurons and astrocytes as cell systems for acute toxicity screening deserves further investigation.

  19. 40 CFR 799.9130 - TSCA acute inhalation toxicity.


    ... toxicity test—(1) Principle of the test method. Several groups of experimental animals are exposed to the...) Definitions. The definitions in section 3 of TSCA and the definitions in 40 CFR Part 792—Good Laboratory Practice Standards apply to this section. The following definitions also apply to this section....

  20. The acute toxicity of lead nitrate on Daphnia magna Straus



    Dec 3, 2008 ... toxic metals in the environment via transfer from natural and/or anthropogenic ... and used as a standard bioindicator organisms for both water and .... dation of water quality requires detailed knowledge of the state of an ...

  1. Acute toxicity studies of aqueous stem bark extract of Ximenia ...



    May 16, 2008 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 7 (10), pp. ... Full Length Research Paper ... histopathological examination did not show any significant (P<0.05) damage as a result of the extract ... that the fruits contain hydrocyanic acid which is toxic. .... lesions in the organs could suggest the level of safety of.

  2. Draft Test Guideline: Fish Acute Toxicity Test, Freshwater And Marine

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  3. Acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in Wistar rats.

    Lagarto, Alicia; Bueno, Viviana; Guerra, Isbel; Valdés, Odalys; Vega, Yamile; Torres, Leonid


    We have studied the acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in male and female Wistar rats. A single acute C. officinalis extract dose of 2000 mg/kg dissolved in distilled water was administered by oral gavage for acute toxicity. Subchronic doses of 50, 250 and 1000 mg/kg/day were administered in drinking water. The major toxicological endpoints examined included animal body weight, water and food intake, selected tissue weights, and histopathological examinations. In addition, we examined blood elements: hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count, total and differential leukocyte count and blood clotting time and blood chemistry: glucose, total cholesterol, urea, total proteins, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). In the acute study, there were no mortality and signs of toxicity. In the subchronic study, several of the blood elements were significantly affected in males and females after 90 days; hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes and blood clotting time. For blood chemistry parameters, ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase were affected. Histopathological examination of tissues showed slight abnormalities in hepatic parenchyma that were consistent with biochemical variations observed. These studies indicate that the acute and subchronic toxicities of C. officinalis extract are low.

  4. Acute oral toxicity of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia in mice

    Sim, K. S.; A M Sri Nurestri; Sinniah, S. K.; Kim, K. H.; Norhanom, A. W.


    Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia, belonging to the botanical family Cactaceae, have been traditionally used by the locals in Malaysia for treatment of various ailments. The current study reports the outcome of acute oral toxicity investigation of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia, on ICR mice. No mortalities or evidence of adverse effects have been observed in ICR mice following acute oral administration at the highest dose of 2500 mg/ kg crude extracts of Pereskia bleo and Pereski...

  5. Toward a comparative overview of dependence potential and acute toxicity of psychoactive substances used nonmedically.

    Gable, R S


    A procedure is outlined for comparing dependence potential and acute toxicity across a broad range of abused psychoactive substances. Tentative results, based on an extensive literature review of 20 substances, suggested that the margin of safety ("therapeutic index") varied dramatically between substances. Intravenous heroin appeared to have the greatest risk of dependence and acute lethality; oral psilocybin appeared to have the least. Hazards due to behavioral deficits, perceptual distortion, or chronic illness were not factored into the assessments.

  6. Evaluation of acute toxicity and teratogenic effects of plant growth regulators by Daphnia magna embryo assay.

    Wang, Kai-Sung; Lu, Chi-Yuan; Chang, Shih-Hsien


    This study selected common plant growth regulators (Atonik, Cytokinin, Ethephon, Gibberellic acid and Paclobutrazol) to investigate their biological toxicity to the waters of the important biological indicator Daphnia magna. The methods used in this study included traditional neonate acute toxicity test, new Daphnia embryo toxicity test, and teratogenic embryo test. The study concluded that the acute toxicity of the five PGRs to Daphnia neonate had EC(50) value range of 1.9-130.5 mg l(-1), while acute toxicity of PGRs on Daphnia embryo had EC(50) value range of 0.2-125 mg l(-1); the Daphnia embryos' LOEC values (0.05-48 mg l(-1)) for the five PGRs were lower than embryo EC(50) values. The toxic ratios of 48 h EC(50) (neonate)/48 h LOEC (embryo) for 5 PGRs were 19-512 times. The study found that teratogenic effects of Paclobutrazol and Cytokinin induced in embryo were higher than those of most other PGRs. Microscopic observation of the teratogenic effects showed that all 5 PGRs induced malformations of the second antenna, rostrum, Malpighian tube, sensory bristles, and tail spine as well as function loss and death.

  7. Cytotoxicity and Oral Acute Toxicity Studies of Lantana camara Leaf Extract

    Badakhshan Mahdi Pour


    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of Lantana camara methanol extract. Methods: In order to evaluate the toxicity of Lantana camara, the acute toxicity of the methanolic extract on adult mice and cytotoxicity test on Vero cell line were investigated. A fixed large dose of 2 g/kg body weight of L. camara leaf extract was administrated by a single oral gavage according to the OECD procedure. Results: In 2 weeks, L. camara leaf extract showed no obvious acute toxicity. While female mice lost body weight after being treated with single dose of leaf extract in acute toxicity test, male ones lost organ mass, particularly for heart and kidney. The biochemical liver function tests showed significantly elevated TBIL and ALT in the L. camara leaf extract treated female mice group compared with the control group. Cytotoxicity effect of leaf extract of L. camara was estimated through a MTT assay. Cytotoxicity tests on Vero cell line disclosed that leaf extract at concentrations up to 500 µg/mL inhibited the growth of cells 2.5 times less than did Triton 100× 1%. More interestingly, the cytotoxicity initiated to decline at elevated concentrations of this extract. Conclusions: The results of both tests confirm that L. camara shows a pro toxic effect.

  8. Acute toxicity of diphacinone in Northern bobwhite: Effects on survival and blood clotting

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Horak, Katherine E.; Warner, Sarah E.; Johnston, John J.


    The anticoagulant rodenticide diphacinone was slightly toxic (acute oral LD50 2014 mg/kg) to Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) in a 14-day acute toxicity trial. Precise and sensitive assays of blood clotting (prothrombin time, Russell?s Viper venom time, and thrombin clotting time) were adapted for use in quail, and this combination of assays is recommended to measure the effects of anticoagulant rodenticides. A single oral sublethal dose of diphacinone (434 mg/kg body weight) prolonged clotting time at 48 h post-dose compared to controls. At 783 mg/kg (approximate LD02), clotting time was prolonged at both 24 and 48 h post-dose. Prolongation of in vitro clotting time reflects impaired coagulation complex activity, and was detected before overt signs of toxicity were apparent at the greatest dosages (2868 and 3666 mg/kg) in the acute toxicity trial. These clotting time assays and toxicity data will assist in the development of a pharmacodynamic model to predict toxicity, and also facilitate rodenticide hazard and risk assessments in avian species.

  9. Acute toxicity, mutagenicity, and estrogenicity of bisphenol-A and other bisphenols.

    Chen, Min-Yu; Ike, Michihiko; Fujita, Masanori


    Although abundant data are available on the toxicity of bisphenol-A (2,2-bis (4-hydroxydiphenyl)propane; BPA), little is known about the toxicities of the structurally similar compounds, namely bisphenols (BPs). A variety of BPs were examined for their acute toxicity against Daphnia magna, mutagenicity, and estrogenic activity using the Daphtoxkit (Creasel Ltd.), the umu test system, and the yeast two-hybrid system, respectively, in comparison with BPA. BPA was moderately toxic to D. magna (48-h EC50 was 10 mg/l) according to the current U.S. EPA acute toxicity evaluation standard, and it was weakly estrogenic with 5 orders of magnitude lower activity than that of the natural estrogen 17 beta-estradiol in the yeast screen, while no mutagenicity was observed. All seven BPs tested here showed moderate to slight acute toxicity, no mutagenicity, and weak estrogenic activity as well as BPA. Some of the BPs showed considerably higher estrogenic activity than BPA, and others exhibited much lower activity. Among the tested BPs, two compounds, i.e., bisphenol-S (bis(4-hydroxydiphenyl)sulfone) and bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)sulfide, have never been reported for their estrogenic activity previously.


    S. Thillaivanan*, K. Kanagavalli , P. Sathiyarajeswaran and P. Parthiban


    Full Text Available Herbal medicines have been broadly used in developed countries hence they are natural and comparatively safe. They contain plant materials as their pharmacologically active components. Infertility is one of the most extremely tragic all over the world. Despite recent advances in the treatment of male infertility, the problem has not been satisfactorily tackled. The male infertility is mainly due to an inadequate number of spermatozoa in the semen, the failure of the spermatozoa to move with sufficient vigor towards their goal. Aim of the study is to evaluate the acute and sub-acute toxicity of the spermatogenic siddha drug Isappukol Chooranam (IC (siddha drug.For acute studies, different doses of IC were administered orally to rats once daily for one week. Forsub-acute studies, different doses of IC were administered orally to rats once daily for 28 days in various doses at 50,100,200 mg/kg of body weight. Detailed hematological, biochemical, necropsy and Histopathological evaluation of organs was performed for all animals. Histopathological analysis revealed that Spleen, Testes, Pancreas, Lung, Liver, Brain, Heart, Stomach, Intestine, Bone, Ovary, and Kidney tissues of treated groups did not show any signs of toxicity. No impairment in hepatic, renal, haemopoietic functions were observed throughout the study. No mortality was observed up to 200 mg/kg of body weight in acute and sub-acute toxicity studies.


    Nonylphenol is a toxic breakdown product of nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPE) surfactants. NPE surfactants are used in industrial cleaning applications and pesticide formulations. EPA published a draft ambient water quality criteria document for nonylphenol in January 2004. This document contains ambient water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic organisms and their uses. Acute and chronic criteria recommendations have been developed for the protection of aquatic life in both freshwater and saltwater. These criteria are published pursuant to Section 304 (a) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) and serve as technical information for States for establishing criteria within their State Water Quality Standards.

  12. The implementation of an aquatic toxicity index as a water quality monitoring tool in the Olifants River (Kruger National Park

    V. Wepener


    Full Text Available Large sets of water quality data can leave water quality managers and decision-makers totally overwhelmed. In order to convey the interpretation of the data in a simplified and understandable manner, the water quality results from bi-monthly surveys undertaken at seven different sampling sites in the Letaba, Olifants, and Selati rivers over a two year period (February 1990 to April 1992 were reduced to index values, using a water quality index. The water quality index (Aquatic Toxicity Index or ATI revealed spatial and temporal trends. The higher index values, recorded for the sampling sites towards the eastern part of the Kruger National Park (KNP, revealed that the water quality was better than the quality measured in the Olifants River on the western bound-ary. The lowest index values were calculated for the Selati River, with index values consistently below 50. Index values indicate that the water quality in the Selati River was unsuitable for supporting normal physiological processes in fish. The water quality of the Selati River had an immediate impact on the water quality of the Olifants River directly below the confluence. Lower index values recorded at sites further downstream was also attributed to the influence of the Selati River since there are no known point sources of contaminants within the boundaries of the KNP. The index scores also elucidated temporal trends with lower scores evident during winter months. This was due to reduced flow in the Olifants River and a greater contribution of contaminated water from the Selati River. Index values increased following the first seasonal rains due to a dilution effect. Very low index values were recorded at certain sites during flood periods due to increased turbidity, reduced oxygen, and increased metal concentrations.

  13. Acute toxicity of Roundup® herbicide to three life stages of the freshwater shrimp Caridina nilotica (Decapoda: Atyidae)

    Mensah, P. K.; Muller, W. J.; Palmer, C. G.

    Glyphosate based herbicides, including Roundup®, are frequently used in the chemical control of weeds and invading alien plant species in South Africa. These herbicides ultimately get into water courses directly or indirectly through processes such as drifting, leaching, surface runoff and foliar spray of aquatic nuisance plants. Despite their widespread use, no water quality guideline exists to protect indigenous South African freshwater organisms from the toxic effects of these herbicides. The toxicity of the herbicide Roundup® was assessed using three different life stages of the freshwater shrimp Caridina nilotica, a prevalent species in South African freshwater ecosystems. Neonate (7 dph and 40 dph) shrimps were exposed to varying concentrations (1.5-50 mg/L acid equivalence (a.e.)) of the herbicide in 48 and 96 h acute toxicity tests in order to determine the most sensitive life-stage. The results showed neonates to be more sensitive to Roundup® than both juveniles and adults with mean 96 h LC 50 values of 2.5, 7.0 and 25.3 mg/L a.e. respectively. The estimated 96 h LC 50 of neonates is much lower than the application rate (20-30 mg/L a.e.), although the application’s impact will depend on the dilution rate of the applied concentration in the environment. All three life-stages of unexposed animals exhibited active and coordinated movement but exposed shrimps were erratic and slow in their movements, with neonates showing most of these behavioral irregularities. This study shows that low levels of the herbicide Roundup® may adversely affect C. nilotica health and survival. Thus, the herbicide should be carefully managed to minimize any negative impact on non-target freshwater organisms.

  14. A comparative study of the acute toxicity of the herbicide atrazine to cladocerans Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia silvestrii and Macrothrix flabelligera

    Raquel Aparecida Moreira


    Full Text Available AIM: In this study we compared the sensitivity of three species of Cladocera, Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia silvestrii and Macrothrix flabelligera, to the commercial product of the herbicide Atrazine, the Atrazine Atanor 50 SC® (500 g/L, widely used on crops in Brazil. METHODS: Acute toxicity tests were performed at the nominal atrazine concentrations 2.25, 4.5, 9.0, 18.0, 36 and 72 mg L-1, on C. silvestrii and M. flabelligera and at 2.25, 4.5, 9.0, 18.0, 36, 72 and 144 mg L-1 on D. magna. The range of concentrations tested was established in a series of preliminary tests. RESULTS: The toxicity tests showed that the two species naturally occurring in water bodies in Brazil were more susceptible than Daphnia magna. The effective concentrations of Atrazine Atanor 50 SC® (EC50- 48 h to the species M. flabelligera, C. silvestrii and D. magna were 12.37 ± 2.67 mg L-1, 14.30 ± 1.55 mg L-1 and 50.41 ± 2.64 mg L-1, respectively. Furthermore, when EC50 observed here for M. flabelligera and C. silvestrii were compared with published values of EC50 or LC50 (mg L-1 for various aquatic organisms exposed to atrazine, it was seen that these two cladocerans were the most sensitive to the herbicide. CONCLUSIONS: Considering these results and the broad distribution of C. silvestrii and M. flabelligera in tropical and subtropical regions, it is concluded that these native species would be valuable test organisms in ecotoxicological tests, for the monitoring of toxic substances in tropical freshwaters.

  15. Computational Chemistry-based Acute Aquatic Toxicity Mode of Action Assignment

    The ability to determine the mode of action (MOA) for a diverse group of chemicals is a critical part of ecological risk assessment and chemical regulation. However, existing MOA assignment approaches in ecotoxicology have been limited to a relatively few MOAs, have high uncertai...

  16. Acute toxicity of double-walled carbon nanotubes to three aquatic organisms

    Lukhele, LP


    Full Text Available contained prepared nutrient stock solutions for the culturing medium, matrix dissolving medium, algal beads, and plastic long cells. In our tests, the long cells were replaced with glass Erlenmeyer flasks. Algal culturing medium (2 L) was prepared by adding... 20mL of nutrient stock solution A and adding 2mL (each) of nutrient stock solutions B, C, and D. The medium was aerated and set aside.The P. subcapitata culture was prepared by first dissolving the alginatematrix (used to form the beads) in matrix...

  17. Computational Chemistry-based Acute Aquatic Toxicity Mode of Action Assignment

    The ability to determine the mode of action (MOA) for a diverse group of chemicals is a critical part of ecological risk assessment and chemical regulation. However, existing MOA assignment approaches in ecotoxicology have been limited to a relatively few MOAs, have high uncertai...

  18. Acute Toxicity of Sodium Fluorescein to Ashy Pebblesnails Fluminicola fuscus

    Stockton, Kelly A.; Moffitt, Christine M.; Blew, David L.; Farmer, C. Neil


    Water resource agencies and groundwater scientists use fluorescein dyes to trace ground water flows that supply surface waters that may contain threatened or endangered mollusk species. Since little is known of the toxicity of sodium fluorescein to mollusks, we tested the toxicity of sodium fluorescein to the ashy pebblesnail Fluminicola fuscus. The pebblesnail was selected as a surrogate test species for the threatened Bliss Rapid snail Taylorcocha serpenticola that is endemic to the Snake River and its tributaries in the Hagerman Valley, Idaho. In laboratory tests, we expose replicated groups of snails to a series of concentrations of fluorescein in a static 24 h exposure at 15 degrees C. Following the exposure, we removed snails, rinsed them, and allowed a 48 h recovery in clean water before recording mortality. We estimated 377 mg/L as the median lethal dose. Mortality to snails occurred at concentrations well above those expected in test wells during the monitoring efforts.

  19. Assessment of Acute Toxicity of Hexachloroethane in Laboratory Animals


    camphoraceous odor, readily sublimes without meltinq and is solubl,: in alcohol. benzene, chloroform, ether and oil: insoluble in water. It is used as a explosives, as ý camphor suostitute in celluloid, and as a rubber vulcanizing accelerator.’ It is used in veterinary practice as an anthelminthic...moderately toxic orally, produced reversible eye irritation and little or no skin irritation. Although it sublimes at room temperature

  20. Methods of acute biological assays in guinea-pigs for the study of toxicity and innocuity of drugs and chemicals


    In this study, 602 samples were tested by the following assays performed at the animal facilities (Cedeme) of the Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP): 385 for dermal irritability, 90 for ocular irritability (discontinued in 1995), 31 for systemic toxicity by injection, 26 for oral acute toxicity, 15 for toxicity by intracutaneous injection, 15 for skin sensitization, 15 for toxicity of serum and vaccines for human use, 14 for toxicity by intramuscular implantation, 7 for pyrogens, 2 for...


    Patrycja Zagata


    Full Text Available Paramecium bursaria is an unicellular organism, widely distributed in the freshwater environment, where heavy metals are common contaminants. The ciliates, also including Paramecium bursaria, are a very abundant group in aquatic ecosystems, what makes them effective biological indicators of water pollutants. Paramecium bursaria is the only Paramecium which has evolved a mutualistic relationship with algae and it harbors these endosymbionts in its own cytoplasm. The algae are also very effective bioindicators of some pollutants because of their ability to biosorption and bioaccumulation of heavy metals. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of two metals’ compounds: nickel chloride (NiCl2 and zinc chloride (ZnCl2 to Paramecium bursaria and its endosymbionts. The ciliates were incubated in solutions with 5x10-8 to 5x10-2g/dm3 of NiCl2 and with 5x10-8 to 5x10-2g/dm3 of ZnCl2, at the temperature of 180C, in the light/dark conditions (12L/12D. Microscopic observations of cell divisions rate, cell shape changes as well as the swimming behavior, were conducted after 24, 48, 72 and 120 hours of incubation in the tested solutions and were compared to the control sample. Microscopic observations revealed the lethal doses for both compounds, for nickel chloride 5x10-5g/dm3 and for zinc chloride 5x10-3. These observations also revealed that in lesser concentrations than the lethal one, the slowdown and characteristic movements occur after metal addition. The PEA measurements of Fv/Fm parameter were carried out within 4 days, the first one after 24 hours of incubations. The results of this investigation has given us a view of a fluorescence efficiency by revealing that both compounds solutions can have the stimulating effect on Photosystem II, because the lowest fluorescence efficiency was measured in control samples.

  2. Acute, Multiple-Dose Dermal and Genetic Toxicity of Nu-3: A Novel Antimicrobial Agent

    Juan Sun


    Full Text Available Nu-3 [butyl-phosphate-5-thymidine-3-phosphate-butyl] is a modified nucleotide that has been shown to have antimicrobial activity against a range of bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, data on the toxicological profile of Nu-3 are still lacking. In the present study, the toxicity of Nu-3 was evaluated by the following studies: acute oral toxicity, dermal and mucous membrane irritation, multiple-dose toxicity and genotoxicity in vivo and vitro. The acute oral toxicity test in mice showed that Nu-3 had an LD50 of 2001mg/kg body weight. The irritation tests on rats revealed that Nu-3 was not irritant, with an irritation scoring of 0. The multiple-dose toxicity study in rats showed that Nu-3 did not cause significant changes in histology, selected serum chemistry, and hematological parameters compared to the controls. Rats administrated with multiple-doses of Nu-3 showed no visible toxic symptoms. Both in vitro and in vivo, Nu-3 exhibited no notable genetic toxicity. Overall, the data suggest that Nu-3 is hypotoxic or nontoxic antimicrobial compound that warrants being further developed for treating Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.

  3. Acute tier-1 and tier-2 effect assessment approaches in the EFSA Aquatic Guidance Diocument: are they sufficiently protective for insecticides?

    Wijngaarden, van R.P.A.; Maltby, L.; Brock, T.C.M.


    BACKGROUND The objective of this paper is to evaluate whether the acute tier-1 and tier-2 methods as proposed by the Aquatic Guidance Document recently published by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) are appropriate for deriving regulatory acceptable concentrations (RACs) for insecticides. Th

  4. Factors influencing acute and late toxicity in the era of adjuvant hypofractionated breast radiotherapy.

    De Santis, M C; Bonfantini, F; Di Salvo, F; Dispinzieri, M; Mantero, E; Soncini, F; Baili, P; Sant, M; Bianchi, G; Maggi, C; Di Cosimo, S; Agresti, R; Pignoli, E; Valdagni, R; Lozza, L


    To evaluate toxicity in breast cancer patients treated with anthracycline and taxane based chemotherapy and whole breast hypofractionated radiotherapy, and to identify the risk factors for toxicity. 537 early breast cancer patients receiving hypofractionated radiotherapy after conservative surgery were enrolled from April 2009 to December 2014, in an Italian cancer institute. The dose was 42.4 Gy in 16 daily fractions, 2.65 Gy per fraction. The boost to the tumor bed was administered only in grade III breast cancer patients and in patients with close or positive margins. Acute and late toxicity were prospectively assessed during and after radiotherapy according to RTOG scale. The impact of patients clinical characteristics, performed treatments and dose inhomogeneities on the occurrence of an higher level of acute skin toxicity and late fibrosis has been evaluated by univariate and multivariate analysis. The mean age was 74 (range 46-91 yrs). 27% of patients received boost. 22% of cases (n = 119) received also chemotherapy. The median follow-up was 32 months. G1 and G2/G3 acute skin toxicity were 61.3% and 20.5% and G1 and G2/G3 late fibrosis 12.6% and 4.3% respectively. Chemotherapy (p = 0.04), diabetes (p = 0.04) and boost administration (p breast volume (p = 0.05), dose inhomogeneities (p skin reaction at the univariate analysis, but only the boost administration (p = 0.02), at multivariate analysis. The results of our study, according to the large randomized trials, confirmed that hypofractionated whole breast irradiation is safe, and only the boost administration seems to be an important predictor for toxicity. Chemotherapy does not impact on acute and late skin toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of natural organic matter (NOM) from various sources and implications for ameliorative effects on metal toxicity to aquatic biota.

    Al-Reasi, Hassan A; Wood, Chris M; Smith, D Scott


    Natural organic matter (NOM), expressed as dissolved organic carbon (DOC in mgCL(-1)), is an ubiquitous complexing agent in natural waters, and is now recognized as an important factor mitigating waterborne metal toxicity. However, the magnitude of the protective effect, judged by toxicity measures (e.g. LC50), varies substantially among different NOM sources even for similar DOC concentrations, implying a potential role of NOM physicochemical properties or quality of NOM. This review summarizes some key quality parameters for NOM samples, obtained by reverse osmosis, and by using correlation analyses, investigates their contribution to ameliorating metal toxicity towards aquatic biota. At comparable and environmentally realistic DOC levels, molecular spectroscopic characteristics (specific absorbance coefficient, SAC, and fluorescence index, FI) as well as concentrations of fluorescent fractions obtained from mathematical mixture resolution techniques (PARAFAC), explain considerable variability in the protective effects. NOM quality clearly influences the toxicity of copper (Cu) and lead (Pb). NOM quality may also influence the toxicity of silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd) and inorganic mercury (Hg), but as yet insufficient data are available to unequivocally support the latter correlations between toxicity reduction and NOM quality predictors. Cu binding capacities, protein-to-carbohydrate ratio, and lipophilicity, show insignificant correlation to the amelioration offered by NOMs, but these conclusions are based on data for Norwegian NOMs with very narrow ranges for the latter two parameters. Certainly, various NOMs alleviate metal toxicity differentially and therefore their quality measures should be considered in addition to their quantity.

  6. Acute bilateral ureteral obstruction secondary to guaifenesin toxicity.

    Cockerill, Patrick A; de Cógáin, Mitra R; Krambeck, Amy E


    Several medications or their metabolites have been associated with urolithiasis, although overall they remain an infrequent cause of urolithiasis. Guaifenesin stones were originally reported as complexed with ephedrine, and subsequent reports have demonstrated pure guaifenesin stones, occurring after long term abuse. We report a case of a 23-year-old male who ingested a large, one time dose of guaifenesin, resulting in acute bilateral ureteral obstruction, which, to our knowledge, is the first such reported case in the literature.

  7. Acute Liver Toxicity due to Efavirenz/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir

    Rashmee Patil


    Full Text Available The fixed-dose combination of Efavirenz/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir is a first-line agent for the treatment of HIV; however few cases have reported hepatotoxicity associated with the drug. We report a case of Efavirenz/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir-associated hepatotoxicity presenting mainly with hepatocellular injury characterized by extremely elevated aminotransferase levels, which resolved without acute liver failure or need for liver transplant referral.

  8. Duration of Acute and Chronic Toxicity Testing in Animals (ICH S4A and S4B)

    Spindler, Per; Van Cauteren, Herman


    To support approval of pharmaceuticals for long term use in humans it is required that product safety is supported by acute and chronic toxicity studies in rodents and non-rodents. The duration of acute toxicity studies (S4A) and chronic rodent studies (S4B) were harmonised between the three ICH ...

  9. Toxicity and transfer of polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated silver nanowires in an aquatic food chain consisting of algae, water fleas, and zebrafish

    Chae, Yooeun; An, Youn-Joo, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Trophic transfer of silver nanowires (AgNWs) was studied in an aquatic food chain. • The transfer of AgNWs from algae to fish via water fleas was observed. • Toxicity of long AgNWs on aquatic organisms is higher than that of short ones. • AgNWs damage the gut of water fleas and may cause undernourishment. • Quantity of lipid droplets increased with increasing exposure concentration. - Abstract: Nanomaterials of various shapes and dimensions are widely used in the medical, chemical, and electronic industries. Multiple studies have reported the ecotoxicological effects of nanaoparticles when released in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems; however, information on the toxicity of silver nanowires (AgNWs) to freshwater organisms and their transfer through the food webs is limited. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the toxicity of 10- and 20-μm-long AgNWs to the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the water flea Daphnia magna, and the zebrafish and study their movement through this three-species food chain using a variety of qualitative and quantitative methods as well as optical techniques. We found that AgNWs directly inhibited the growth of algae and destroyed the digestive organs of water fleas. The results showed that longer AgNWs (20 μm) were more toxic than shorter ones (10 μm) to both algae and water fleas, but shorter AgNWs were accumulated more than longer ones in the body of the fish. Overall, this study suggests that AgNWs are transferred through food chains, and that they affect organisms at higher trophic levels, potentially including humans. Therefore, further studies that take into account environmental factors, food web complexity, and differences between nanomaterials are required to gain better understanding of the impact of nanomaterials on natural communities and human health.

  10. Evaluation the protective effect of diphenhydramine against acute toxicity induced by levamisole in male mice

    M.Y. Matti


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of different doses of diphenhydramine against acute toxicosis with Levamisole. The Mechanism of levamisole induced acute toxicity and that of protective effect of diphenhydramine against Levamisole toxicosis also examined on the level of cholinesterase (ChE activity. Subcutanous injection of 100mg/kg levamisole in male mice with induced cholinergic over stimulation and death in 100% of animals. The Toxicosis was not related to the significantly decreased in plasma, red blood cells and brain ChE activity. Injection low dose of diphenhydramin 2.5mg/kg S.C. 15 min before levamisole produced protective effect against acute toxicity with levamisole. Significantly decreased the severity of toxicosis and increased survival rates to 100%. Diphenhydramine at low dose alone or with acute dose of levamisole did not Produced Significantly inhibition in ChE activity.The data suggested that the toxic effect of Levamisole was not related to inhibition of ChE. The low dose of diphenhydramine protected mice from Levamisole toxicity. The antidoatal effect of diphenhydramine not at the level of protection from ChE inhibition. There was no adverse interaction between two drugs.


    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental stressors is poorly understood. To investigate the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we examined the effects of acute exposure by oral gavage of the volatile organic solvent toluene (0.00, 0.3...


    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental exposures is poorly understood. To investigate-the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we examined the effects of an acute exposure to the volatile organic compound, toluene (0.0 or 1.0 g/kg), i...

  13. Development of a standard acute dietary toxicity test for the silkworm (Bombyx mori L.)

    Sun, X.; Valk, H.; Jiang, H.; Wang, X.; Yuan, S.; Zhang, Y.; Roessink, I.; Gao, X.


    Larvae of the silkworm (Bombyx mod L.) may be exposed to pesticide residues on the leaves of their food plant, the mulberry tree (Morus spp.), which can lead to adverse effects on silk production. A new acute dietary toxicity test method was evaluated as the basis for pesticide risk assessment. A se


    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental stressors is poorly understood. To investigate the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we examined the effects of acute exposure by oral gavage of the volatile organic solvent toluene (0.00, 0.3...


    Walker, Calvin C., James T. Winstead, Steven S. Foss, Janis C. Kurtz, James Watts, Jeanne E. Scott and William S. Fisher. In press. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Brevetoxin to Oysters and Grass Shrimp (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November ...

  16. Acute Oral Toxicity Potential of 4-Nitrophenyl Methkyl Phenyl Phosphinate.


    methyl phenyl phosphinate Chemical Abstract Service Registry No.: None Molecular structure: C Ii NO P 13 12 4 .0 0~ NO., CH3 o o...C 56.33 56.17 H 4.36 4.28 N 5.05 5.14 P 11.17 11.25 2. Chemical Name: Polysorbate 80 (Tween 80) Chemical Abstract Service Registry No.: 9005-65-6...administration particularly in chronic toxicity studies in experimental data. 3. Chemical Name: Citric Acid, monohydrate Chemical Abstract Service

  17. Safety assessment of methanol extract of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus): acute and subchronic toxicity studies.

    Hor, Sook Yee; Ahmad, Mariam; Farsi, Elham; Yam, Mun Fei; Hashim, Mohd Akmal; Lim, Chung Pin; Sadikun, Amirin; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini


    Recently, the fruits of Hylocereus polyrhizus, known as red dragon fruit, have received much attention from growers worldwide. However, there is little toxicological information regarding the safety of repeated exposure to these fruits. The present study evaluated the potential toxicity of a methanol extract of H. polyrhizus fruit after acute and subchronic administration in rats. In the acute toxicity study, single doses of fruit extract (1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg) were administered to rats by oral gavage, and the rats were then monitored for 14 days. In the subchronic toxicity study, the fruit extract was administered orally to rats at doses of 1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. There was no mortality or signs of acute or subchronic toxicity. There was no significant difference in body weight, relative organ weight or hematological parameters in the subchronic toxicity study. Biochemical analysis showed some significant changes, including creatinine, globulin, total protein and urea levels. No abnormality of internal organs was observed between treatment and control groups. The lethal oral dose of the fruit extract is more than 5000 mg/kg and the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of the extract for both male and female rats is considered to be 5000 mg/kg per day for 28 days. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Acute and late toxicity in prostate cancer patients treated by dose escalated intensity modulated radiation therapy and organ tracking

    Behrensmeier Frank


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report acute and late toxicity in prostate cancer patients treated by dose escalated intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT and organ tracking. Methods From 06/2004 to 12/2005 39 men were treated by 80 Gy IMRT along with organ tracking. Median age was 69 years, risk of recurrence was low 18%, intermediate 21% and high in 61% patients. Hormone therapy (HT was received by 74% of patients. Toxicity was scored according to the CTC scale version 3.0. Median follow-up (FU was 29 months. Results Acute and maximal late grade 2 gastrointestinal (GI toxicity was 3% and 8%, late grade 2 GI toxicity dropped to 0% at the end of FU. No acute or late grade 3 GI toxicity was observed. Grade 2 and 3 pre-treatment genitourinary (GU morbidity (PGUM was 20% and 5%. Acute and maximal late grade 2 GU toxicity was 56% and 28% and late grade 2 GU toxicity decreased to 15% of patients at the end of FU. Acute and maximal late grade 3 GU toxicity was 8% and 3%, respectively. Decreased late ≥ grade 2 GU toxicity free survival was associated with higher age (P = .025, absence of HT (P = .016 and higher PGUM (P Discussion GI toxicity rates after IMRT and organ tracking are excellent, GU toxicity rates are strongly related to PGUM.

  19. Critique on the use of the standardized avian acute oral toxicity test for first generation anticoagulant rodenticides

    Vyas, Nimish B.; Rattner, Barnett A.


    Avian risk assessments for rodenticides are often driven by the results of standardized acute oral toxicity tests without regards to a toxicant's mode of action and time course of adverse effects. First generation anticoagulant rodenticides (FGARs) generally require multiple feedings over several days to achieve a threshold concentration in tissue and cause adverse effects. This exposure regimen is much different than that used in the standardized acute oral toxicity test methodology. Median lethal dose values derived from standardized acute oral toxicity tests underestimate the environmental hazard and risk of FGARs. Caution is warranted when FGAR toxicity, physiological effects, and pharmacokinetics derived from standardized acute oral toxicity testing are used for forensic confirmation of the cause of death in avian mortality incidents and when characterizing FGARs' risks to free-ranging birds.

  20. Acute Toxicity-Supported Chronic Toxicity Prediction: A k-Nearest Neighbor Coupled Read-Across Strategy.

    Chavan, Swapnil; Friedman, Ran; Nicholls, Ian A


    A k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classification model was constructed for 118 RDT NEDO (Repeated Dose Toxicity New Energy and industrial technology Development Organization; currently known as the Hazard Evaluation Support System (HESS)) database chemicals, employing two acute toxicity (LD50)-based classes as a response and using a series of eight PaDEL software-derived fingerprints as predictor variables. A model developed using Estate type fingerprints correctly predicted the LD50 classes for 70 of 94 training set chemicals and 19 of 24 test set chemicals. An individual category was formed for each of the chemicals by extracting its corresponding k-analogs that were identified by k-NN classification. These categories were used to perform the read-across study for prediction of the chronic toxicity, i.e., Lowest Observed Effect Levels (LOEL). We have successfully predicted the LOELs of 54 of 70 training set chemicals (77%) and 14 of 19 test set chemicals (74%) to within an order of magnitude from their experimental LOEL values. Given the success thus far, we conclude that if the k-NN model predicts LD50 classes correctly for a certain chemical, then the k-analogs of such a chemical can be successfully used for data gap filling for the LOEL. This model should support the in silico prediction of repeated dose toxicity.

  1. Acute Toxicity-Supported Chronic Toxicity Prediction: A k-Nearest Neighbor Coupled Read-Across Strategy

    Swapnil Chavan


    Full Text Available A k-nearest neighbor (k-NN classification model was constructed for 118 RDT NEDO (Repeated Dose Toxicity New Energy and industrial technology Development Organization; currently known as the Hazard Evaluation Support System (HESS database chemicals, employing two acute toxicity (LD50-based classes as a response and using a series of eight PaDEL software-derived fingerprints as predictor variables. A model developed using Estate type fingerprints correctly predicted the LD50 classes for 70 of 94 training set chemicals and 19 of 24 test set chemicals. An individual category was formed for each of the chemicals by extracting its corresponding k-analogs that were identified by k-NN classification. These categories were used to perform the read-across study for prediction of the chronic toxicity, i.e., Lowest Observed Effect Levels (LOEL. We have successfully predicted the LOELs of 54 of 70 training set chemicals (77% and 14 of 19 test set chemicals (74% to within an order of magnitude from their experimental LOEL values. Given the success thus far, we conclude that if the k-NN model predicts LD50 classes correctly for a certain chemical, then the k-analogs of such a chemical can be successfully used for data gap filling for the LOEL. This model should support the in silico prediction of repeated dose toxicity.

  2. Human solvent exposure. Factors influencing the pharmacokinetics and acute toxicity

    Bælum, Jesper


    exposed to mixtures of solvents experience an increased frequency of work related irritative and neurological symptoms although the exposure has been far below the occupational exposure limits. A series of controlled human exposure studies was carried out. Different groups of persons were exposed...... to the most frequent solvent, toluene. Toluene in alveolar air and the urinary excretion of the metabolites were measured and the acute effects of toluene were assessed by the performance in a series of test of the perceptual and psychomotor functions as well as a standardized registration of annoyance...

  3. Chemical and physical characteristics of cellulose insulation particulates, and evaluation of potential acute pulmonary toxicity.

    Morgan, Daniel L; Su, Yin-Fong; Dill, Jeffrey A; Turnier, John C; Westerberg, R Bruce; Smith, Cynthia S


    During installation of cellulose insulation (CI) in new and older houses, significant quantities of airborne material are generated. This study characterized the chemical and physical properties, and potential acute pulmonary toxicity of CI. CI from four manufacturers was analyzed for inorganic additives and trace element impurities. Aerosols were generated and size fractionated. The number and size of fibrous and nonfibrous particles in the respirable fractions were determined. Respirable CI particulates were intratracheally instilled in rats (5 mg/kg) to evaluate potential pulmonary toxicity. CI samples were similar in composition with small differences due primarily to fire retardants. Less than 0.1% of CI was respirable and contained few fibers. Acute exposure to CI caused transient inflammation in the lungs and increased 4-hydroxyproline. Microscopic evaluation revealed a minimal to mild, non-progressing granulomatous pneumonitis. Low concentrations of respirable particles were found in CI aerosols. Particles consisted primarily of fire retardants with few fibers, and caused mild pulmonary toxicity in rats.

  4. Acute toxicity and hepatotoxicokinetic studies of Tamarindus indica extract.

    Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Ngene, Augustine A; Anaga, Aruh O; Chigor, Vincent N; Henrietta, Igbinosa I; Okoh, Anthony I


    Tamarindus indica is widely used as a food and beverage and in traditional medicine. The apparent lack of dose standardization in herbal medicine necessitates the evaluation of the lethality T. indica on Artemia salina nauplii and chicken embryos via in vitro and in vivo techniques. Furthermore, hepatotoxicokinetics of the crude extract and fractions on Wister rats was also assessed. At concentrations of 200, 20 and 2 µg/mL, crude extract and fractions showed brine shrimp death percentages ranging from 86.70% to 3.30% and the sub-fractions showed death percentage ranges of 46.70% to 3.30%. Calculated LD₅₀ values ranged from 832 µg/mL to 5,019 µg/mL. Dosing Wister rats with 25% and 50% concentration of LD₅₀ determined for crude extract and fractions on chicken embryos showed an elevation in the ALT and AST levels in the serum. Brine shrimps and chicken embryos showed a positive correlation, with R² values of 0.541 and 0.588 (P ≤ 0.05) for fractions and subfractions, respectively, as media for the lethality assay. Dose standardization in folk herbal medicine is imperative as T. indica used as food and medicine has been shown to be toxic at high doses. Brine shrimp and chicken embryos may be comparably used as medium for toxicity assay.

  5. Acute oral toxicity of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia in mice

    K S Sim


    Full Text Available Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia, belonging to the botanical family Cactaceae, have been traditionally used by the locals in Malaysia for treatment of various ailments. The current study reports the outcome of acute oral toxicity investigation of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia, on ICR mice. No mortalities or evidence of adverse effects have been observed in ICR mice following acute oral administration at the highest dose of 2500 mg/ kg crude extracts of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia. This is the first report on the acute oral toxicity of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia and the findings of this study are in agreement with those of in vitro experiments and thus provide scientific validation on the use of the leaves of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia.

  6. [Clinical and immunological features of acute hepatitis B in patients with concomitant chronic toxic liver damage].

    Furyk, E; Ryabokon, E


    The article presents information obtained during the survey in 64 patients with acute hepatitis B. We show that acute hepatitis B in patients with concomitant chronic toxic liver characterized by a marked imbalance of cytokine status due to a lower level of interleukin-2 and a higher content of interleukin-8, the highest levels of nitrite content, spontaneous oxidative modifications of blood proteins and the lowest content of L -arginine in the blood serum in the dynamics of disease compared with patients without this concomitant factor. In the period of convalescence these changes in patients with acute hepatitis B with concomitant chronic toxic liver characterized combined with higher cytolysis of liver cells, often circulating in the blood of HBsAg seroconversion and less frequently with the advent of anti-HBeAg.

  7. Effects of musical cadence in the acute physiologic adaptations to head-out aquatic exercises.

    Barbosa, Tiago M; Sousa, Vítor F; Silva, António J; Reis, Vítor M; Marinho, Daniel A; Bragada, José A


    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationships between musical cadence and the physiologic adaptations to basic head-out aquatic exercises. Fifteen young and clinically healthy women performed, immersed to the breast, a cardiovascular aquatic exercise called the "rocking horse." The study design included an intermittent and progressive protocol starting at a 90 b.min(-1) rhythm and increasing every 6 minutes, by 15 b.min(-1), up to 195 b.min(-1) or exhaustion. The rating of perceived effort (RPE) at the maximal heart rate achieved during each bout (HRmax), the percentage of the maximal theoretical heart rate estimated (%HRmax), and the blood lactate concentration ([La-]) were evaluated. The musical cadence was also calculated at 4 mmol.L(-1) of blood lactate (R4), the RPE at R4 (RPE@R4), the HR at R4 (HR@R4), and the %HRmax at R4 (%HRmax@R4). Strong relationships were verified between the musical cadence and the RPE (R2 = 0.85; p musical cadence created an increase in the physiologic response. Therefore, instructors must choose musical cadences according to the goals of the session they are conducting to achieve the desired intensity.

  8. Acute and subacute oral toxicity of Litsea elliptica Blume essential oil in rats

    Siti Balkis BUDIN; Seri Masran SITINOR AIN; Baharuddin OMAR; Izatus Shima TAIB; Othman HIDAYATULFATHI


    Litsea elliptica Blume has been traditionally used to treat headache,fever,and stomach ulcer,and has also been used as an insect repellent.The acute and subacute toxicities of L.el/iptica essential oil were evaluated orally by gavage in female Sprague-Dawley rats.For the acute toxicity study,L.e//iptica essential oil was administered in doses from 500 to 4000 mg/kg (single dose),and in the subacute toxicity test,the following doses were used:125,250,and 500 mg/kg,for 28 consecutive days.In the acute toxicity study,L.elliptica essential oil caused dose-dependent adverse behaviours and mortality.The median lethal dose value was 3488.86 mg/kg and the acute non-observed-adversed-effect level value was found to be 500 mg/kg.The subacute toxicity study of L.elliptica essential oil did not reveal alterations in body weight,and food and water consumptions.The haematological and biochemical analyses did not show significant differences between control and treated groups in most of the parameters examined,except for the hemoglobin,mean cell hemoglobin concentration,mean cell volume,mean cell hemoglobin,serum albumin,and serum sodium.However,these differences were still within the normal range.No abnormalities or histopathological changes were observed in the liver,pancreatic islet of Langerhans,and renal glomerulous and tubular cells of all treated groups.In conclusion,L.el/iptica essential oil can be classified in the U group,which is defined as a group unlikely to present an acute hazard according to World Health Organization (WHO) classification.

  9. Toxicity of Nitrate-N to Freshwater Aquatic Life and Its Water Quality Criteria%硝酸盐对淡水水生生物毒性及水质基准推导

    张铃松; 王业耀; 孟凡生; 周岳溪; 于海斌


    为推导保护淡水水生生物的NO3-水质基准,收集了NO3-的水生生物毒性数据,然后分析了不同水生生物类群的毒性敏感性,并分别采用评价因子法、毒性百分数排序法和物种敏感度分布法进行基准值推导.结果表明,不同生物类群的水生生物对NO3-毒性的敏感性存在明显差异,其敏感性排序为节肢动物门>软体动物门>脊索动物门;甲壳纲>昆虫纲>腹足纲>双壳>两栖纲>辐鳍纲.3种基准计算方法得到的基准值存在一定差异,最终推荐采用毒性百分数排序法得出的87.97mg·L-1和5.17 mg·L-1为现阶段NO3-(以N计)的水质急性毒性和慢性毒性基准值.%The toxicity sensitivity of different freshwater aquatic organisms was analyzed using the collected toxicity data in this paper.Three methods were used to estimate the criteria of nitrate to protect the freshwater aquatic life.The results showed that the species sensitivity to nitrate followed the order of Arthropoda > Mollusca > Chordata,and Crustacea > Insecta > Gastropoda > Bivalvia >Amphibia > Actinopterygii.Moreover,the output of assessment factor method,species sensitivity distribution method and USEPA's method was significantly different.Finally,criterias of 87.97 mg·L-1 and 5.17 mg· L-1 to protect aquatic life from acute and chronic toxicity were proposed using USEPA's method.

  10. Toxicity of TNT Wastewaters to Aquatic Organisms. Volume 2. Acute Toxicity of Condensate Wastewater and 2,4-Dinitrotoluene


    condensate wastewater. Fourteen-day static algal assays, performed with Selenastrum capricornutum, Anabaena flos- aguae , Microcystis aeruginosa, and...days ......... ...................... 44 17 Effect of 2,4-DNT on Population Growth of A. flos- aguae and N. pelliculosa Exposed under Static Conditions...stand until the aqueous and benzene fractions separated. The aqueous fractions were drawn off, and benzene residues in those fractions removed by heating

  11. Acute toxicity of butachlor and atrazine to freshwater green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and cladoceran Daphnia carinata.

    He, Hongzhi; Yu, Jing; Chen, Guikui; Li, Wenyang; He, Jinbo; Li, Huashou


    Both single and joint toxicity of atrazine and butachlor to freshwater green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and cladoceran Daphnia carinata isolated from South China were investigated in the present study. The 96 h-EC(50) values of atrazine and butachlor to S. obliquus were 0.0147 and 2.31 mg L(-1), while the 48 h-LC(50) values to D. carinata were 60.6 and 3.40 mg L(-1), respectively. These results suggest that atrazine could be highly toxic to S. obliquus and slightly toxic to D. carinata, while butachlor exhibits moderate toxicity to both organisms. The additive indexes of atrazine and butachlor mixtures were -2.68 (-3.02 to -2.32) to S. obliquus and 0.054 (-0.025 to 0.238) to D. carinata, respectively. Therefore, the joint action of two herbicides was significant antagonism to S. obliquus, while significant synergism was not shown to D. carinata. Moreover, significant linear correlation between the natural logarithm of herbicide concentrations and growth rates of alga S. obliquus was observed. Taken together, it is the first study reporting the toxicity endpoints for mixture of atrazine and butachlor against S. obliquus and D. carinata isolated from south China. The present results would be helpful to provide data to assess the ecological risk of both herbicides to aquatic organisms.

  12. Release of copper from sintered tungsten-bronze shot under different pH conditions and its potential toxicity to aquatic organisms.

    Thomas, Vernon G; Santore, Robert C; McGill, Ian


    Sintered tungsten-bronze is a new substitute for lead shot, and is about to be deposited in and around the wetlands of North America. This material contains copper in the alloyed form of bronze. This in vitro study was performed according to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service criteria to determine the dissolution rate of copper from the shot, and to assess the toxic risk that it may present to aquatic organisms. The dissolution of copper from tungsten-bronze shot, pure copper shot, and glass beads was measured in a buffered, moderately hard, synthetic water of pH 5.5, 6.6, and 7.8 over a 28-day period. The dissolution of copper from both the control copper shot and the tungsten-bronze shot was affected significantly by the pH of the water and the duration of dissolution (all p valuestungsten bronze shot was 30 to 50 times lower than that from the copper shot, depending on pH (ptungsten-bronze shot after 28 days was 0.02 microg/L at pH 7.8, and 0.4 microg/L at pH 5.6, using a loading and exposure scenario specific in a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service protocol. Ratio Quotient values derived from the highest EEC observed in this study (0.4 microg/L), and the copper toxic effect levels for all aquatic species listed in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ambient water quality criteria database, were all far less than the 0.1 criterion value. Given the conditions stipulated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, heavy loading from discharged tungsten-bronze shot would not pose a toxic risk to potable water, or to soil. Consequently, it would appear that no toxic risks to aquatic organisms will attend the use of tungsten-bronze shot of the approved composition. Given the likelihood that sintered tungsten-bronze of the same formula will be used for fishing weights, bullets, and wheel balance weights, it is expected that the use of this new material in these applications will not be associated with toxic risks to aquatic life.

  13. Acute and chronic toxicity of sodium sulfate to four freshwater organisms in water-only exposures.

    Wang, Ning; Dorman, Rebecca A; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Hardesty, Doug K; Brumbaugh, William G; Hammer, Edward J; Bauer, Candice R; Mount, David R


    The acute and chronic toxicity of sulfate (tested as sodium sulfate) was determined in diluted well water (hardness of 100 mg/L and pH 8.2) with a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 2-d and 7-d exposures), a midge (Chironomus dilutus; 4-d and 41-d exposures), a unionid mussel (pink mucket, Lampsilis abrupta; 4-d and 28-d exposures), and a fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; 4-d and 34-d exposures). Among the 4 species, the cladoceran and mussel were acutely more sensitive to sulfate than the midge and fathead minnow, whereas the fathead minnow was chronically more sensitive than the other 3 species. Acute-to-chronic ratios ranged from 2.34 to 5.68 for the 3 invertebrates but were as high as 12.69 for the fish. The fathead minnow was highly sensitive to sulfate during the transitional period from embryo development to hatching in the diluted well water, and thus, additional short-term (7- to 14-d) sulfate toxicity tests were conducted starting with embryonic fathead minnow in test waters with different ionic compositions at a water hardness of 100 mg/L. Increasing chloride in test water from 10 mg Cl/L to 25 mg Cl/L did not influence sulfate toxicity to the fish, whereas increasing potassium in test water from 1 mg K/L to 3 mg K/L substantially reduced the toxicity of sulfate. The results indicate that both acute and chronic sulfate toxicity data, and the influence of potassium on sulfate toxicity to fish embryos, need to be considered when environmental guidance values for sulfate are developed or refined.

  14. Rapid screening of aquatic toxicity of several metal-based nanoparticles using the MetPLATE Trade-Mark-Sign bioassay

    Pokhrel, Lok R.; Silva, Thilini [Department of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614 (United States); Dubey, Brajesh, E-mail: [Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); El Badawy, Amro M. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Tolaymat, Thabet M. [USEPA, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Laboratory, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45224 (United States); Scheuerman, Phillip R. [Department of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614 (United States)


    Current understanding of potential toxicity of engineered nanomaterials to aquatic microorganisms is limited for risk assessment and management. Here we evaluate if the MetPLATE Trade-Mark-Sign test can be used as an effective and rapid screening tool to test for potential aquatic toxicity of various metal-based nanoparticles (NPs). The MetPLATE bioassay is a heavy metal sensitive test based on {beta}-galactosidase activity in Escherichia coli. Five different types of metal-based NPs were screened for toxicity: (1) citrate coated nAg (Citrate-nanosilver), (2) polyvinylpyrrolidone coated nAg (PVP-nAg), (3) uncoated nZnO, (4) uncoated nTiO{sub 2} and (5) 1-Octadecylamine coated CdSe Quantum Dots (CdSe QDs); and compared with their corresponding ionic salt toxicity. Citrate-nAg was further fractionated into clean Citrate-nAg, unclean Citrate-nAg and permeate using a tangential flow filtration (TFF) system to eliminate residual ions and impurities from the stock Citrate-nAg suspension and also to differentiate between ionic- versus nano-specific toxicity. Our results showed that nAg, nZnO and CdSe QDs were less toxic than their corresponding ionic salts tested, while nano- or ionic form of TiO{sub 2} was not toxic as high as 2.5 g L{sup -1} to the MetPLATE Trade-Mark-Sign bacteria. Although coating-dependent toxicity was noticeable between two types of Ag NPs evaluated, particle size and surface charge were not adequate to explain the observed toxicity; hence, the toxicity appeared to be material-specific. Overall, the toxicity followed the trend: CdCl{sub 2} > AgNO{sub 3} > PVP-nAg > unclean Citrate-nAg > clean Citrate-nAg > ZnSO{sub 4} > nZnO > CdSe QDs > nTiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2}. These results indicate that an evaluation of {beta}-galactosidase inhibition in MetPLATE Trade-Mark-Sign E. coli can be an important consideration for rapid screening of metal-based NP toxicity, and should facilitate ecological risk assessment of these emerging contaminants. - Highlights

  15. The Acute Oral Toxicity of Commonly Used Pesticides in Iran, to Honeybees (Apis Mellifera Meda

    Rasuli Farhang


    Full Text Available The honey bee is credited with approximately 85% of the pollinating activity necessary to supply about one-third of the world’s food supply. Well over 50 major crops depend on these insects for pollination. The crops produce more abundantly when honey bees are plentiful. Worker bees are the ones primarily affected by pesticides. Poisoning symptoms can vary depending on the developmental stage of the individual bee, and the kind of chemical employed. The oral toxicity of these insecticides: (phosalone and pirimicarb, acaricide (propargite, insecticide and acaricide (fenpropathrin, fungicides, and bactericides (copper oxychloride and the Bordeaux mixture, were evaluated for the purposes of this research. The results showed that fenpropathrin had high acute oral toxicity (LC50-24h and LC50-48 were 0.54 and 0.3 ppm, respectively. Propargite had 7785 ppm (active ingredient for LC50-24h and 6736 ppm (active ingredient for LC50-48h in honeybees and is therefore, non-toxic to Apis mellifera. On the other hand, copper oxychloride had minimum acute oral toxicity to honeybees (LC50-24h and LC50-48 were 4591.5 and 5407.9 ppm, respectively and was therefore considered non-toxic. Also, the Bordeaux mixture was safe to use around honeybees. Phosalone and primicarb were considered highly and moderately toxic to honeybees, respectively.

  16. Metallothionein does not sequester arsenic(III) ions in condition of acute arsenic toxicity.

    Garla, Roobee; Ganger, Renuka; Mohanty, Biraja P; Verma, Shivcharan; Bansal, Mohinder P; Garg, Mohan L


    The major cause of toxicity of trivalent arsenicals is due to their interaction with the sulfhydryl groups in proteins. Because of its high content, Metallothionein (MT) provides one of the most favorable conditions for the binding of As(III) ions to it. MT has long been anticipated for providing resistance in case of arsenic (As) toxicity with similar mechanism as in case of cadmium toxicity. The present study investigates whether the sequestration of As ions by MT is one of the mechanisms in providing protection against acute arsenic toxicity. A rat model study on the metal stoichiometric analysis of MT1 isoform isolated from the liver of arsenic treated, untreated and zinc treated animals has been carried out using the combination of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The results revealed the absence of arsenic bound MT1 in the samples isolated from arsenic treated animals. Although, both Cu and Zn ions were present in MT1 samples isolated from all the treatment groups. Moreover, only partially metallated MT1 with varying number of Zn ions were observed in all the groups. These results suggest that the role of MT during acute arsenic toxicity is different from its already established role in case of cadmium toxicity.

  17. Assessment of mechanisms of metal-induced reproductive toxicity in aquatic species as a biomarker of exposure

    Anderson, M.; George, W.; Preslan, J. [and others


    This project discusses the following studies: identification and quantitation of heavy metals and petroleum products present in Bayou Trepagnier relative to control sites; assessment of the uptake and bioaccumulation of metals and organic contaminants of interest in aquatic species; establishment and use of polarographic methods for use in metal speciation studies to identify specific chemical forms present in sediments, waters and organism; and evaluation of contaminants on reproductive function of aquatic species as potential biomarkers of exposure. 14 refs.

  18. Comparative and combined acute toxicity of butachlor, imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos on earthworm, Eisenia fetida.

    Chen, Chen; Wang, Yanhua; Zhao, Xueping; Wang, Qiang; Qian, Yongzhong


    Various pesticides have become widespread contaminants of soils due to their large applications in agriculture and homes. An earthworm assay was used to assess the acute toxicity of butachlor, imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos with different modes of action. Ecotoxicities of these pesticides were compared for earthworm Eisenia fetida separately and in combination in artificial soil and contact filter paper tests. Imidacloprid was the most toxic for E. fetida with LC₅₀ (lethal concentration 50) values three orders magnitude lower than that of butachlor and chlorpyrifos in both tests. The toxicity of the mixtures was compared to that predicted by the concentration addition (CA) model. According to the CA model, the observed toxicities of all binary mixtures were less than additive. However, for all the mixtures in 14 d artificial soil test, and mixtures of butachlor plus chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid plus chlorpyrifos in 48 h contact filter paper test, the difference in toxicity was less than 30%, hence it was concluded that the mixtures conformed to CA. The combined effects of the pesticides in contact filter paper tests were not consistent with the results in artificial soil toxicity tests, which may be associated with the interaction of soil salts with the pesticides. The CA model provides estimates of mixture toxicity that did not markedly underestimate the measured toxicity, and therefore the CA model is the most suitable to use in ecological risk assessments of the pesticides.

  19. Joint acute toxicity of the herbicide butachlor and three insecticides to the terrestrial earthworm, Eisenia fetida.

    Wang, Yanhua; Cang, Tao; Yu, Ruixian; Wu, Shenggan; Liu, Xinju; Chen, Chen; Wang, Qiang; Cai, Leiming


    The herbicide butachlor and three insecticides phoxim, chlorpyrifos, and lambda-cyhalotrhin are widely used pesticides with different modes of action. As most previous laboratory bioassays for these pesticides have been conducted solely based on acute tests with a single compound, only limited information is available on the possible combined toxicity of these common chemicals to soil organisms. In this study, we evaluated their mixture toxicity on the terrestrial earthworm, Eisenia fetida, with binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures. Two different types of bioassays were employed in our work, including a contact filter paper toxicity test and a soil toxicity test. Mixture toxicity effects were assessed using the additive index method. For all of the tested binary mixtures (butachlor-phoxim, butachlor-chlorpyrifos, and butachlor-lambda-cyhalothrin), significant synergistic interactions were observed after 14 days in the soil toxicity assay. However, greater additive toxicity was found after 48 h in the contact toxicity bioassay. Most of the ternary and quaternary mixtures exhibited significant synergistic effects on the worms in both bioassay systems. Our findings would be helpful in assessing the ecological risk of these pesticide mixtures to soil invertebrates. The observed synergistic interactions underline the necessity to review soil quality guidelines, which are likely underestimating the adverse combined effects of these compounds.

  20. Are WWTPs effluents responsible for acute toxicity? Seasonal variations of sediment quality at the Bay of Cádiz (SW, Spain).

    Maranho, L A; Garrido-Pérez, M C; Baena-Nogueras, R M; Lara-Martín, P A; Antón-Martín, R; DelValls, T A; Martín-Díaz, M L


    Adverse effects of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on sediment quality at the Bay of Cádiz (SW, Spain) were evaluated by a battery of acute bioassays and chemical contamination. Five sites directly affected by WWTPs effluents and one control site were chosen. Results evidenced clear deterioration of ecological sediment quality parameters and possible effects on aquatic communities towards WWTPs areas. Acute toxicity and chemical contamination varied significantly across the studied sites and differed between winter and summer seasons. The Bay of Cádiz is contaminated by PAHs, metals, detergents (SAS) and pharmaceutical products. Principal Component Analyses indicated metals, SAS and pharmaceutical products as the major environmental stresses. Sea-urchin embryo-larval and microalgae growth rate were the most sensitive bioassays to evaluate resuspension of contaminants (elutriate) from bulk sediment. Amphipods mortality and Microtox(®) solid phase test bioassays were recommended to evaluate bulk sediment quality. Therefore, the use of multiple-bioassays, sensitive to sediment pollution, may provide complementary information to diagnose environmental factors that can impair aquatic communities. The battery of bioassays is recommended to assess and monitor marine sediments directly affected by a mixture of contaminants released from WWTPs.

  1. Acute toxic responses of the freshwater planarian, Dugesia dorotocephala, to methylmercury

    Best, J.B.; Morita, M.; Ragin, J.; Best, J. Jr.


    Toxic responses of planaria to various aquatic habitat concentrations of methylmercury chloride (MMC) were investigated. One hundred percent lethality occurred within 5 h in 2 ppM MMC, 24 h in 1 ppM MMC, and 5 days in 0.5 ppM MMC. No deaths occurred in 0.2 ppM MMC over a 10 day period, however, non-lethal toxic responses were observed. Varying degrees of head resorption, progressing caudally from the snout were observed. With continuing exposure, partial head regeneration and recovery toward more normal appearance occurred by 10 days. Teratogenic effects were observed in surgical decapitation experiments. Head regeneration was retarded in 0.1 and 0.2 ppM MMC. Malformations, visible lesions, or gross behavioral abnormalities were produced by 2 week exposure of planaria to concentrations of 20 ppB MMC or lower. (RJC)

  2. Acute toxicity of vipoxin and its components: is the acidic component an “inhibitor” of PLA2 toxicity?

    Stoykova, Silviya; Goranova, Yana; Mitewa, Mariana; Petrova, Svetla


    Vipoxin is a heterodimeric neurotoxin isolated from the venom of the Bulgarian long-nosed viper Vipera ammodytes meridionalis. Vipoxin represents a noncovalent association of two subunits – a basic and toxic phospholipase A2 enzyme, and an acidic non-enzymatic component (vipoxin's acidic component). It was postulated that the phospholipase A2 subunit was more toxic than the whole vipoxin complex and the function of the acidic component was to reduce the enzymatic and toxic activities of the basic phospholipase A2. In the present study, we report new data on the acute toxicity (LD50) of vipoxin and its individual separated components. Vipoxin LD50 (mice, i.p. and i.v.) values were found to be 0.7–1.2 mg/kg b.w. (i.p.) and 0.9–1.3 mg/kg b.w. (i.v.). The established LD50 values for the separated pure phospholipase A2 subunit are higher – 10.0–13.0 mg/kg b.w (i.p.) and 2.2–3.0 mg/kg b.w. (i.v.), i.e. the individual phospholipase A2 subunit displays less toxic activity than vipoxin, contrary to the data published in the literature. The reconstituted vipoxin complex (obtained after preliminary incubation of pure separated phospholipase A2 and acidic component showed enzyme activity and toxicity comparable to that of the native vipoxin complex. Addition of acidic component to the phospholipase A2 subunit showed a positive effect on the enzymatic activity, reaching maximal enzyme reaction rate of acidic component to phospholipase A2 molar ratio of 0.8:1 on using 4-nitro-3-octanoyloxy-benzoic acid as substrate. For the first time we showed that the acidic subunit was absolutely required for the toxic activity of vipoxin. Based on the obtained results, we assume that the function of the acidic component is to stabilize the neurotoxin's quaternary structure, required for its toxic and enzymatic activities, similarly to the role of the acidic component of crotoxin. PMID:23554559

  3. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in a Patient With Refractory Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Secondary to Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.


    life support (ECLS) in adults with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has increased markedly during the past few years after suc- cessful...Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in a Patient With Refractory Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Secondary to Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Christy...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in a Patient With Refractory Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Secondary to

  4. The value of brain CT findings in acute methanol toxicity

    Taheri, Morteza Sanei [Department of Radiology, Shohada Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Poison Control Center, Loghman-Hakim Poison Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail:; Moghaddam, Hossein Hassanian [Poison Control Center, Loghman-Hakim Poison Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moharamzad, Yashar; Dadgari, Shahrzad [Department of Radiology, Shohada Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nahvi, Vahideh [Poison Control Center, Loghman-Hakim Poison Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Objective: Due to depressant effects of methanol on the central nervous system, brain computed tomography (CT) scan has been introduced as a diagnostic device in methanol intoxication. The authors aimed to present brain CT findings in patients with acute methanol intoxication and to determine signs associated with death. Materials and methods: This cohort study involved 42 consecutive patients with acute methanol intoxication. Inclusion criteria were consisted of characteristic clinical presentation of methanol poisoning, and metabolic acidosis with increased anion and osmolar gaps. Brain CT scans without contrast medium were obtained. To determine the association between the CT findings and death, the chi-square test or the Fisher's exact test, odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. Results: Twenty-eight patients (66.6%) had a total of 55 abnormal findings on brain CT, in which bilateral putaminal hypodense lesions was the most common manifestation (27 cases, 96.4%). Putaminal hemorrhage with varying degrees was observed in 7 patients (25%). Six patients (21.4%) had low attenuation lesions in the subcortical white matter of the insula. A significant association was observed between putaminal hemorrhage (OR = 8, 95% CI = 1.187-53.93, P = 0.018) and subcortical necrosis of the insula (OR = 11, 95% CI = 1.504-80.426, P = 0.007) with death. Conclusion: In addition to clinical and laboratory findings, presence of putaminal hemorrhage and insular subcortex white matter necrosis are associated with a poor clinical outcome in patients with methanol poisoning.

  5. Helical tomotherapy in the treatment of pediatric malignancies: a preliminary report of feasibility and acute toxicity

    Beltrán César


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiation therapy plays a central role in the management of many childhood malignancies and Helical Tomotherapy (HT provides potential to decrease toxicity by limiting the radiation dose to normal structures. The aim of this article was to report preliminary results of our clinical experience with HT in pediatric malignancies. Methods In this study 66 consecutive patients younger than 14 years old, treated with HT at our center between January 2006 and April 2010, have been included. We performed statistical analyses to assess the relationship between acute toxicity, graded according to the RTOG criteria, and several clinical and treatment characteristics such as a dose and irradiation volume. Results The median age of patients was 5 years. The most common tumor sites were: central nervous system (57%, abdomen (17% and thorax (6%. The most prevalent histological types were: medulloblastoma (16 patients, neuroblastoma (9 patients and rhabdomyosarcoma (7 patients. A total of 52 patients were treated for primary disease and 14 patients were treated for recurrent tumors. The majority of the patients (72% were previously treated with chemotherapy. The median prescribed dose was 51 Gy (range 10-70 Gy. In 81% of cases grade 1 or 2 acute toxicity was observed. There were 11 cases (16,6% of grade 3 hematological toxicity, two cases of grade 3 skin toxicity and one case of grade 3 emesis. Nine patients (13,6% had grade 4 hematological toxicity. There were no cases of grade 4 non-hematological toxicities. On the univariate analysis, total dose and craniospinal irradiation (24 cases were significantly associated with severe toxicity (grade 3 or more, whereas age and chemotherapy were not. On the multivariate analysis, craniospinal irradiation was the only significant independent risk factor for grade 3-4 toxicity. Conclusion HT in pediatric population is feasible and safe treatment modality. It is characterized by an acceptable level of


    In this research, we analyzed the enantiomer-specific toxicity of fipronil using two aquatic invertebrate species. Acute toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia (water flea) indicated that the (+) enantiomer was significantly more toxic than the (-) enantiomer, with about a 3-fold differ...

  7. Assessment of toxicity of radioactively contaminated sediments of the Yenisei River for aquatic plants in laboratory assay

    Zotina, T.; Trofimova, E.; Medvedeva, M.; Bolsunovsky, A. [Institute of Biophysic SB RAS (Russian Federation)


    The Yenisei River has been subjected to radioactive contamination due to the operation of the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (Rosatom) (MCC) producing weapon-grade plutonium for more than fifty years (1958-2010). As a result, high activities of long-lived artificial radionuclides (Cs-137, Pu-238, 239, 241, Am-241) were deposited in sediments of the river. Bottom sediments of the Yenisei River downstream of the Krasnoyarsk city are also polluted with heavy metals because of industrial discharges and from the water catchment area. The purpose of this research was to estimate the ability of submersed macrophytes Elodea canadensis and Myriophyllum spicatum to serve as indicators of toxicity of bottom sediments of the Yenisei River. Activities of artificial radionuclides in the biomass of aquatic plants sampled in the Yenisei River upstream of the MCC were below detection limit (< 0.5 Bq/kg of dry mass for Cs-137). The activities of artificial radionuclides in the biomass of macrophytes sampled in the Yenisei River in the vicinity of the MCC in autumn 2012 were (Bq/kg of dry mass): 67±4 for Co-60, 16±2 for Cs-137, and 8±1 for Eu-152. For eco-toxicological experiments, top 20-cm layers of bottom sediments (BS) were collected from the Yenisei River at three sites in the vicinity of the MCC (No. 2-4) and at one site upstream of the MCC (No. 1). Samples of sediments contained natural isotope K-40 (240-330 Bq/kg, fresh mass) and artificial radionuclides: Co-60 (up to 70 Bq/kg), Cs-137 (0.8-1400 Bq/kg), Eu-152, 154 (up to 220 Bq/kg), Am-241 (up to 40 Bq/kg). The total activity concentration of radionuclides measured on an HPGe-Gamma-spectrometer (Canberra, U.S.) in samples of BS No. 1-4 was 330, 500, 880 and 1580 Bq/kg of fresh mass, respectively. Apical shoots of submersed macrophytes were planted in sediments (6-9 shoots per sediment sub-sample in three replicates). Endpoints of shoot and root growth were used as toxicity indicators; the number of cells with chromosome


    Deka Manalisha


    Full Text Available Clitoria ternatea has been using since the ancient times for its medicinal values. Almost all the parts of the plant have medicinal property. The root of the plant is reported to have anti diarrheal, Anti histamic, cholinergic activity etc. Traditionally the root has been using for the treatment of many diseases like leucorrhoea, diarrhea, urinary problems, diuretic, impotency, stomach trouble etc. The present study was designed to investigate the preliminary phytochemical analysis and acute oral toxicity of the root of the plant. The shed dried materials were grinded and used in the study. The preliminary phytochemical analysis was done by following standard protocols. For acute oral toxicity study, methanolic extract of the root was used. The extract was prepared by standard protocol. The preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of proteins, carbohydrates, glycosides, resins, saponin, flavonoid, alkaloids, steroids and phenol. The acute oral toxicity study showed no mortality up to a dose of 3000 mg per kg body weight. The presence of plant chemicals revealed the medicinal values and the non toxic property of the plant indicated the value of the plant as medicine. Thus we can conclude that, the root of the plant can be used as a safe drug against many diseases.

  9. Assessment of acute toxicity of carbofuran in Macrobrachium olfersii (Wiegmann, 1836) at different temperature levels.

    Barbieri, Edison; Moreira, Priscila; Luchini, Luiz Alberto; Hidalgo, Karla Ruiz; Muñoz, Alejandro


    Carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate; C12H15NO3) is one of the most toxic carbamate pesticides. For acute toxicity of carbofuran, juveniles of Macrobrachium olfersii were exposed to different concentrations of carbofuran using the static renewal method at different temperature levels (15, 20 and 25°C) at pH 7.0. The main purpose of the present study was to detect the acute toxicity of carbofuran to M. olfersii and investigate its effects on oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion; these tests have not been carried out in this species before. First, the acute toxicity - median lethal concentration - of carbofuran to M. olfersii for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h was examined, which resulted in the following values: 1.64, 1.22, 0.86 and 0.42 mg L(-1), respectively. Furthermore, we also found that carbofuran caused an inhibition in oxygen consumption of 60.6, 65.3 and 66.2% with respect to the control. In addition, after separate exposures to carbofuran, elevations in ammonium excretion were more than 500% with respect to the control.

  10. Acute and subacute toxicity evaluation of ethanolic extract from fruits of Schinus molle in rats.

    Ferrero, Adriana; Minetti, Alejandra; Bras, Cristina; Zanetti, Noelia


    Ethanolic and hexanic extracts from fruits and leaves of Schinus molle showed ability to control several insect pests. Potential vertebrate toxicity associated with insecticidal plants requires investigation before institutional promotion. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity of ethanolic extracts from fruits of Schinus molle in rats. The plant extract was added to the diet at 2g/kg body weight/day during 1 day to evaluate acute toxicity and at 1g/kg body weight/day during 14 days to evaluate subacute toxicity. At the end of the exposure and after 7 days, behavioral and functional parameters in a functional observational battery and motor activity in an open field were assessed. Finally, histopathological examinations were conducted on several organs. In both exposures, an increase in the arousal level was observed in experimental groups. Also, the landing foot splay parameter increased in the experimental group after acute exposure. Only the subacute exposure produced a significant increase in the motor activity in the open field. All these changes disappeared after 7 days. None of the exposures affected the different organs evaluated. Our results suggest that ethanolic extracts from fruits and leaves of Schinus molle should be relatively safe to use as insecticide.


    Deka Manalisha


    Full Text Available Mucuna Pruriens Linn. is an annual, climbing shrub which has an important place among aphrodisiac herbs in India since the ancient times. The plant has been using traditionally for many medicinal purposes such as Infertility, Parkinson’s disease, Loss of libido, Antioxidant, Anti venom, Anti microbial etc. The present study was carried out to investigate the preliminary phytochemical analysis and acute oral toxicity of the seeds of M.pruriens on albino mice. Matured seeds of M.pruriens were dried in shed and grinded in a mechanical grinder. The preliminary phytochemical analysis was done by following standard protocols. For acute oral toxicity study, methanolic extract of the seeds were used. The extract was prepared in a Soxlet apparatus. The preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of protein, carbohydrates, glycosides, alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids, phenols and tannins. The acute oral toxicity study showed no mortality up to a dose of 4000 mg per kg body weight. The presence of plant chemicals revealed the medicinal values and the non toxic property of the plant indicated the value of the plant as medicine. Thus, we can conclude that, the seed of the plant can be used as a safe drug against many diseases.

  12. Cross-species evaluation of molecular target sequence and structural conservation as a line of evidence for identification of susceptible taxa to inform derivation of aquatic life criteria

    The 1985 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidelines for Deriving Aquatic Life Criteria (ALC) require acute and chronic toxicity testing with a fixed list of taxa that cover aquatic organisms from vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. In considering Guideline revision...

  13. Potential risk of acute toxicity induced by AgI cloud seeding on soil and freshwater biota.

    Fajardo, C; Costa, G; Ortiz, L T; Nande, M; Rodríguez-Membibre, M L; Martín, M; Sánchez-Fortún, S


    Silver iodide is one of the most common nucleating materials used in cloud seeding. Previous cloud seeding studies have concluded that AgI is not practically bioavailable in the environment but instead remains in soils and sediments such that the free Ag amounts are likely too low to induce a toxicological effect. However, none of these studies has considered the continued use of this practice on the same geographical areas and thus the potential cumulative effect of environmental AgI. The aim of this study is to assess the risk of acute toxicity caused by AgI exposure under laboratory conditions at the concentration expected in the environment after repeated treatments on selected soil and aquatic biota. To achieve the aims, the viability of soil bacteria Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas stutzeri and the survival of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans exposed to different silver iodide concentrations have been evaluated. Freshwater green algae Dictyosphaerium chlorelloides and cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa were exposed to silver iodide in culture medium, and their cell viability and photosynthetic activity were evaluated. Additionally, BOD5 exertion and the Microtox® toxicity test were included in the battery of toxicological assays. Both tests exhibited a moderate AgI adverse effect at the highest concentration (12.5µM) tested. However, AgI concentrations below 2.5µM increased BOD5. Although no impact on the growth and survival endpoints in the soil worm C. elegans was recorded after AgI exposures, a moderate decrease in cell viability was found for both of the assessed soil bacterial strains at the studied concentrations. Comparison between the studied species showed that the cyanobacteria were more sensitive than green algae. Exposure to AgI at 0.43μM, the reference value used in monitoring environmental impact, induced a significant decrease in photosynthetic activity that is primarily associated with the respiration (80% inhibition) and, to a lesser

  14. In vivo dosimetry and acute toxicity in breast cancer patients undergoing intraoperative radiotherapy as boost

    Lee, Jason Joon Bock; Choi, Jin Hyun; Lee, Ik Jae; Park, Kwang Woo; Kim, Kang Pyo; Kim, Jun Won [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sung Gwe; Jeong, Joon [Dept. of Surgery, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To report the results of a correlation analysis of skin dose assessed by in vivo dosimetry and the incidence of acute toxicity. This is a phase 2 trial evaluating the feasibility of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) as a boost for breast cancer patients. Eligible patients were treated with IORT of 20 Gy followed by whole breast irradiation (WBI) of 46 Gy. A total of 55 patients with a minimum follow-up of 1 month after WBI were evaluated. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter (OSLD) detected radiation dose delivered to the skin during IORT. Acute toxicity was recorded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.0. Clinical parameters were correlated with seroma formation and maximum skin dose. Median follow-up after IORT was 25.9 weeks (range, 12.7 to 50.3 weeks). Prior to WBI, only one patient developed acute toxicity. Following WBI, 30 patients experienced grade 1 skin toxicity and three patients had grade 2 skin toxicity. Skin dose during IORT exceeded 5 Gy in two patients: with grade 2 complications around the surgical scar in one patient who received 8.42 Gy. Breast volume on preoperative images (p = 0.001), ratio of applicator diameter and breast volume (p = 0.002), and distance between skin and tumor (p = 0.003) showed significant correlations with maximum skin dose. IORT as a boost was well-tolerated among Korean women without severe acute complication. In vivo dosimetry with OSLD can help ensure safe delivery of IORT as a boost.

  15. [Acute toxicity by methotrexate used for abortion purpose. Case report].

    Estrada-Altamirano, Ariel; Chacón-Solís, Rogerio Armando; Hernández-Pacheco, José Antonio; Belmont-Gómez, Aurora; Valenzuela-Jirón, Arlen; Carvajal-Valencia, Javier Andrés; Maya-Quiñones, José Luis


    We report the case of a 16 years old female patient, with a pregnancy history of 11.4 weeks by ultrasound and intrauterine fetal death. In a private clinic were prescribed methotrexate 500 mg intramuscular single dose, and vaginal misoprostol. She had a clinical feature of five days of evolution characterized by fever of 39 degrees C, nausea, general attack and vomiting. The initial diagnosis was severe sepsis secondary to septic abortion, oral candidiasis and acute poisoning by methotrexate. After that, she was referred to the Instituto Nacional de Perinatologia, where stayed with fever for four days, and was managed with hydration, antibiotics, folinic acid and alkalizing. Her recovery was gradual. She was discharged after 12 days with significant clinical improvement. The literature review describes that the use of methotrexate for abortion purpose with therapeutic-dose presents a similar adverse effects to those found in our patient, however there are no case reports that describe the use of this drug in macrodosis for the same purpose, and their cytotoxic effects. We present this case because the patient used a macrodosis of this antimetabolite and due to the premature and empirical management with folinic acid, joined with alkalinization of urine, is the ideal treatment and as it is illustrated in our case.

  16. Acute behavioral toxicity of carbaryl and propoxur in adult rats.

    Ruppert, P H; Cook, L L; Dean, K F; Reiter, L W


    Motor activity and neuromotor function were examined in adult CD rats exposed to either carbaryl or propoxur, and behavioral effects were compared with the time course of cholinesterase inhibition. Rats received an IP injection of either 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8 mg/kg propoxur or 0, 4, 8, 16 or 28 mg/kg carbaryl in corn oil 20 min before testing. All doses of propoxur reduced 2 hr activity in a figure-eight maze, and crossovers and rears in an open field. For carbaryl, dosages of 8, 16 and 28 mg/kg decreased maze activity whereas 16 and 28 mg/kg reduced open field activity. In order to determine the time course of effects, rats received a single IP injection of either corn oil, 2 mg/kg propoxur or 16 mg/kg carbaryl, and were tested for 5 min in a figure-eight maze either 15, 30, 60, 120 or 240 min post-injection. Immediately after testing, animals were sacrificed and total cholinesterase was measured. Maximum effects of propoxur and carbaryl on blood and brain cholinesterase and motor activity were seen within 15 min. Maze activity had returned to control levels within 30 and 60 min whereas cholinesterase levels remained depressed for 120 and 240 min for propoxur and carbaryl, respectively. These results indicate that both carbamates decrease motor activity, but behavioral recovery occurs prior to that of cholinesterase following acute exposure.

  17. Acute isoniazid toxicity and the need for adequate pyridoxine supplies.

    Morrow, Lee E; Wear, Robert E; Schuller, Dan; Malesker, Mark


    A 25-year-old, 54-kg Hispanic man who had recently started multidrug therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis presented in status epilepticus after ingesting 9 g of isoniazid in a suicide attempt. Successful management of this patient required collaboration between several institutions to provide the large amount of necessary intravenous pyridoxine. Ultimately, this single overdose depleted the supply of intravenous pyridoxine for a significant region of the state of Nebraska. Isoniazid is commonly used to treat tuberculosis, but it is encountered relatively infrequently as the cause of an acute overdose. Severe isoniazid overdoses may present as seizure activity that is refractory to conventional antiepileptic therapy. Although intravenous pyridoxine is an effective antidote for isoniazid overdoses in patients presenting with status epilepticus, this agent has few indications and is typically stocked in limited quantities. In regions with large populations of patients who receive antituberculosis therapy, collaborative networks must be created to ensure that adequate supplies of intravenous pyridoxine (> or = 20 g) are available for effective treatment of isoniazid poisonings.

  18. Acute and sub acute toxicity and efficacy studies of Hippophae rhamnoides based herbal antioxidant supplement

    Rashid Ali


    Conclusion: The data obtained indicate no toxicity of this antioxidant supplement up to the highest dose studied. Efficacy in terms of increased bioavailability of vitamin A and C in human volunteers indicates the clinical usefulness of the supplement.

  19. Estimation of toxicity using a Java based software tool

    A software tool has been developed that will allow a user to estimate the toxicity for a variety of endpoints (such as acute aquatic toxicity). The software tool is coded in Java and can be accessed using a web browser (or alternatively downloaded and ran as a stand alone applic...

  20. Estimation of toxicity using a Java based software tool

    A software tool has been developed that will allow a user to estimate the toxicity for a variety of endpoints (such as acute aquatic toxicity). The software tool is coded in Java and can be accessed using a web browser (or alternatively downloaded and ran as a stand alone applic...

  1. Reduced Acute Bowel Toxicity in Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    Samuelian, Jason M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Callister, Matthew D., E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Ashman, Jonathan B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Young-Fadok, Tonia M. [Division of Colorectal Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Borad, Mitesh J. [Division of Hematology-Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Gunderson, Leonard L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)


    Purpose: We have previously shown that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can reduce dose to small bowel, bladder, and bone marrow compared with three-field conventional radiotherapy (CRT) technique in the treatment of rectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to review our experience using IMRT to treat rectal cancer and report patient clinical outcomes. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of patients with rectal cancer who were treated at Mayo Clinic Arizona with pelvic radiotherapy (RT). Data regarding patient and tumor characteristics, treatment, acute toxicity according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v 3.0, tumor response, and perioperative morbidity were collected. Results: From 2004 to August 2009, 92 consecutive patients were treated. Sixty-one (66%) patients were treated with CRT, and 31 (34%) patients were treated with IMRT. All but 2 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. There was no significant difference in median dose (50.4 Gy, CRT; 50 Gy, IMRT), preoperative vs. postoperative treatment, type of concurrent chemotherapy, or history of previous pelvic RT between the CRT and IMRT patient groups. Patients who received IMRT had significantly less gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Sixty-two percent of patients undergoing CRT experienced {>=}Grade 2 acute GI side effects, compared with 32% among IMRT patients (p = 0.006). The reduction in overall GI toxicity was attributable to fewer symptoms from the lower GI tract. Among CRT patients, {>=}Grade 2 diarrhea and enteritis was experienced among 48% and 30% of patients, respectively, compared with 23% (p = 0.02) and 10% (p = 0.015) among IMRT patients. There was no significant difference in hematologic or genitourinary acute toxicity between groups. In addition, pathologic complete response rates and postoperative morbidity between treatment groups did not differ significantly. Conclusions: In the management of rectal cancer, IMRT is associated with a

  2. Helical tomotherapy in cervical cancer patients. Simultaneous integrated boost concept: technique and acute toxicity

    Marnitz, Simone; Stromberger, Carmen; Kawgan-Kagan, Michael; Wlodarczyk, Waldemar; Jahn, Ulrich; Budach, Volker [Dept. of Radiooncology, Charite - Univ. Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Schneider, Achim; Koehler, Christhardt [Dept. of Gynecology Charite - Univ. Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Ulrich, Uwe [Dept. of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Martin Luther Hospital, Berlin (Germany)


    Purpose: To evaluate the acute toxicity of simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) technique for dose escalation with helical tomotherapy (HT) in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer. Patients and Methods: 20 patients (FIGO IB1 pN1-IIIB) underwent primary chemoradiation. Prior to chemoradiation, a laparoscopic pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy was performed. A boost region was defined using titanium clips during staging for planning target volume (PTV-B). Patients were treated with five weekly fractions of 1.8 Gy to a total dose of 50.4 Gy to the tumor region and the pelvic (para-aortic) lymph node region (PTV-A), and five weekly fractions of 2.12 Gy to a total dose of 59.36 Gy to the PTV-B. Chemotherapy consisted of weekly cisplatin 40 mg/m{sup 2}. 19 patients underwent brachytherapy. Dose-volume histograms were evaluated and acute gastrointestinal (GI), genitourinary (GU), and hematologic toxicity were documented (CTCAE v3.0). Results: Pelvic and para-aortic lymph node metastases were confirmed in nine and four patients, respectively. Five patients refused laparoscopic staging. The mean volume of PTV-A and PTV-B was 1,570 {+-} 404 cm{sup 3} and 341 {+-} 125 cm{sup 3}, respectively. The mean dose to the bladder, rectum, and small bowel was 47.85 Gy, 45.76 Gy, and 29.71 Gy, respectively. No grade 4/5 toxicity was observed. Grade 2/3 hematologic toxicity occurred in 50% of patients and 5% experienced grade 3 diarrhea. There was no grade 3 GU toxicity. 19 patients underwent curettage 6-9 weeks after chemoradiation without any evidence of tumor. Conclusion: The concept of SIB for dose escalation in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer is feasible with a low rate of acute toxicity. Whether dose escalation can translate into improved outcome will be assessed after a longer follow-up. (orig.)

  3. Intensity modulated whole pelvic radiotherapy in patients with cervix cancer: analysis of acute toxicity

    Choi, Young Min; Lee, Hyung Sik; Hur, Won Joo; Cha, Moon Seok; Kim, Hyun Ho [School of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate acute toxicities in cervix cancer patients receiving intensity modulated whole pelvic radiation therapy (IM-WPRT). Between August 2004 and April 2006, 17 patients who underwent IM-WPRT were analysed. An intravenous contrast agent was used for radiotherapy planning computed tomography (CT). The central clinical target volume (CTV) included the primary tumor, uterus, vagina, and parametrium. The nodal CTV was defined as the lymph nodes larger than 1 cm seen on CT and the contrased-enhanced pelvic vessels. The planning target volume (PTV) was the 1-cm expanded volume around the central CTV, except for a 5-mm expansion from the posterior vagina, and the nodal PTV was defined as the nodal CTV plus a 1.5 cm margin. IM-WPRT was prescribed to deliver a dose of 50 Gy to more than 95% of the PTV. Acute toxicity was assessed with common toxicity criteria up to 60 days after radiotherapy. Grade 1 nausea developed in 10 (58.9%) patients, and grade 1 and 2 diarrhea developed in 11 (64.7%) and 1 (5.9%) patients, respectively. No grade 3 or higher gastrointestinal toxicity was seen. Leukopenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia occurred in 15 (88.2%). 7 (41.2%), and 2 (11.8%) patients, respectively, as hematologic toxicities. Grade 3 leukopenia developed in 2 patients who were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. IM-WPRT can be a useful treatment for cervix cancer patients with decreased severe acute toxicities and a resultant improved compliance to whole pelvic irradiation.

  4. Correlation between TCDD acute toxicity and aryl hydrocarbon receptor structure for different mammals.

    Wang, Yonghua; Wang, Qiuying; Wu, Bing; Li, Yi; Lu, Guanghua


    The 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxicity has large species differences, and TCDD exerts its toxicity by binding into aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). In this study, we applied bioinformatics approaches to quantitatively analyze the correlation between TCDD acute toxicity and AHRs. Seven mammalian AHRs were chosen as target receptors. Low conserved functional domains of AHRs were identified and quantitatively characterized. Linear regression was applied to determine the relationships of different mammalian AHRs and TCDD LD(50) values. The results indicated that ligand binding domain and glutamine-rich domain of mammalian AHRs showed a low degree of conservation. Based on previous literatures, the number of glutamine residues (NOQ) and binding free energy with TCDD were applied to quantitatively represent the differences of glutamine-rich domain and ligand binding domain, respectively. Then, regression equations between studied mammalian AHR structures and TCDD LD(50) were constructed, and high linear correlation was found (R(2)=0.986). This study indicated that mammalian differences of TCDD acute toxicity might be partly determined by the differences of glutamine-rich domain and ligand binding domain of AHR, which provides a potential insight to analyze the species differences of TCDD toxicity.

  5. Acute and Chronic Oral Toxicity of a Partially Purified Plaunotol Extract from Croton stellatopilosus Ohba

    Chatchai Chaotham


    Full Text Available Plaunotol, an acyclic diterpenoid with highly effective antigastric ulcer properties, has been commercially isolated from leaves of Croton stellatopilosus Ohba. This Thai medicinal plant was traditionally used in the form of crude extracts, suggesting that it is possible to administer these plaunotol-containing extracts without toxicity. To confirm its safety, the oral toxicity of a partially purified plaunotol extract (PPE was evaluated in vivo. The PPE was simply prepared by 95% ethanol reflux extraction followed by hexane partition. The obtained extract was analyzed and found to contain 43% w/w of plaunotol and another compound, likely a fatty acid-plaunotol conjugate that is considered a major impurity. Oral administration of PPE to ICR mice and Wistar rats was conducted to evaluate acute and chronic toxicity of the plaunotol extract, respectively. The acute toxicity study demonstrated that PPE was practically nontoxic based on its high median lethal dose value (LD50=10.25 g/kg. The chronic toxicity studies also showed the absence of mortality and clinical symptoms in all rats treated with 11–1,100 mg/kg/day of PPE during a 6-month period. Histopathological and hematological analyses revealed that altered liver and kidney function and increased blood platelet number, but only at the high doses (550–1,100 mg/kg/day. These results suggest that PPE is potentially safe for further development as a therapeutic agent in humans.

  6. Acute toxicity of live and decomposing green alga Ulva (Enteromorpha) prolifera to abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    WANG Chao; YU Rencheng; ZHOU Mingjiang


    From 2007 to 2009, large-scale blooms of green algae (the so-called "green tides")occurred every summer in the Yellow Sea, China. In June 2008, huge amounts of floating green algae accumulated along the coast of Qingdao and led to mass mortality of cultured abalone and sea cucumber. However, the mechanism for the mass mortality of cultured animals remains undetermined. This study examined the toxic effects of Ulva (Enteromorpha) prolifera, the causative species of green tides in the Yellow Sea during the last three years. The acute toxicity of fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent of U. prolifera to the cultured abalone Haliotis discus hannai were tested. It was found that both fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent had toxic effects to abalone, and decomposing algal effluent was more toxic than fresh culture medium. The acute toxicity of decomposing algal effluent could be attributed to the ammonia and sulfide presented in the effluent, as well as the hypoxia caused by the decomposition process.

  7. Acute and Subchronic Toxic Effects of the Fruits of Physalis peruviana L.

    Basak Ozlem Perk


    Full Text Available The fruit of Physalis peruviana L. (PPL has been traditionally used as antispasmodic, diuretic, antiseptic, sedative, and analgesic all over the world. We aimed to perform qualitative content analysis of the fruits of PPL and to clarify the in vitro genotoxicity and in vivo acute and subchronic toxicity of the fruit. Lyophilized fruit juice does not induce genetic damage. In the acute toxicity studies, LD50 value of the fruit was found to be more than 5000 mg kg−1 for both sexes. According to the subchronic toxicity studies, hepatic, renal, and hematological toxic effects were not induced in both sexes. Plasma troponin I (only in the group treated with 5000 mg kg−1 of lyophilized fruit juice and troponin T levels were significantly increased in male groups treated with lyophilized fruit juice compared to the control group. Furthermore, potassium level was significantly increased in the male group treated with 5000 mg kg−1 of lyophilized fruit juice. These findings were considered to indicate the myocardial damage particularly in the male group treated with 5000 mg kg−1 of lyophilized fruit juice. In conclusion, lyophilized fruit juice of PPL is shown to induce cardiac toxicity only at high doses and in male gender.

  8. Emergency planning and the acute toxic potency of inhaled ammonia.

    Michaels, R A


    Ammonia is present in agriculture and commerce in many if not most communities. This report evaluates the toxic potency of ammonia, based on three types of data: anecdotal data, in some cases predating World War 1, reconstructions of contemporary industrial accidents, and animal bioassays. Standards and guidelines for