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Sample records for acute aortic syndromes

  1. [Acute aortic syndrome].

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    Nienaber, Christoph A

    2016-06-01

    Acute aortic syndrome is the common denominator for acute events to the aortic wall and encompasses dissection of the aorta, intramural hematoma, formation of aortic ulcers and trauma to the aorta with an annual incidence of up to 35 cases/100.000 between 65 and 75 years of age. Both, inflammation and/or microtrauma at the level of the aortic media layer, and a genetic disposition are promoting elements of AAS, while the extent and anatomic involvement of the ascending aorta call for either surgical resection/repair in the proximal part of the aorta, or an endovascular solution for pathologies in the distal aorta; in all cases of dissection (regardless of location) reconstruction/realignment has been proven to portend better long-term outcomes (in addition to medical management of blood pressure). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Management of acute aortic syndrome.

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    Clough, Rachel E; Nienaber, Christoph A

    2015-02-01

    Acute aortic syndrome (AAS) encompasses a group of severe, life-threatening disorders of the aorta, including acute aortic dissection, intramural haematoma (IMH), and penetrating aortic ulcer (PAU). The concept of AAS was developed to enable the early identification and definitive treatment of patients with chest pain from an aortic origin. Aortic dissection is the most common form of AAS, followed by IMH and PAU. Congenital cardiovascular defects, genetic syndromes, and nonsyndromic genetic variants have all been linked with the development of AAS. The diagnosis of AAS in the clinic can be made using imaging modalities such as CT, echocardiography, and MRI. The initial management of patients with AAS is focussed on the control of blood pressure to reduce aortic wall stress. A multidisciplinary team is required to assess each patient and decide whether endovascular or open surgical treatment, or further medical management is indicated. The optimal treatment of patients with AAS remains a challenging clinical dilemma, and further studies are required to fully characterize conditions within the AAS spectrum and to design individualized, patient-centred treatment plans.

  3. Endovascular "neobranching" to manage acute aortic syndrome.

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    Vandormael, Isabelle L; Salmasi, Mohammad Y; Yeh, James S-M; Nienaber, Christoph A

    2017-08-01

    Acute aortic syndrome was coined in 2001 to describe a spectrum of acute aortic wall pathologies. The syndrome represents a cluster of aortic conditions such as aortic dissection, intramural hematoma and penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer. Acute aortic dissection is more common than the latter two pathologies with an incidence of up to 6 cases per 100,000 per year. The following report focuses on an unusual case presentation emphasizing the newest management techniques including "neobranching" whilst dealing with challenging patient anatomy and refractory hypertension. We believe this case report eventually broadens our understanding of acute aortic syndrome whilst addressing an entry tear outside the aorta by placing "neobranches". © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The role of aortic wall CT attenuation measurements for the diagnosis of acute aortic syndromes

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    Knollmann, Friedrich D., E-mail: friedrich.knollmann@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [Department of Radiology, University of California, Davis, 4860 Y Street, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Departments of Radiology and Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, 200 Lothrop Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Lacomis, Joan M.; Ocak, Iclal; Gleason, Thomas [Department of Radiology, University of California, Davis, 4860 Y Street, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Departments of Radiology and Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, 200 Lothrop Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Objectives: To determine if measurements of aortic wall attenuation can improve the CT diagnosis of acute aortic syndromes. Methods: CT reports from a ten year period were searched for acute aortic syndromes (AAS). Studies with both an unenhanced and a contrast enhanced (CTA) series that had resulted in the diagnosis of intramural hematoma (IMH) were reviewed. Diagnoses were confirmed by medical records. The attenuation of aortic wall abnormalities was measured. The observed attenuation threshold was validated using studies from 39 new subjects with a variety of aortic conditions. Results: The term “aortic dissection” was identified in 1206, and IMH in 124 patients’ reports. IMH was confirmed in 31 patients, 21 of whom had both unenhanced and contrast enhanced images. All 21 had pathologic CTA findings, and no CTA with IMH was normal. Attenuation of the aortic wall was greater than 45 HUs on the CTA images in all patients with IMH. When this threshold was applied to the new group, sensitivity for diagnosing AAS was 100% (19/19), and specificity 94% (16/17). Addition of unenhanced images did not improve accuracy. Conclusions: Measurements of aortic wall attenuation in CTA have a high negative predictive value for the diagnosis of acute aortic syndromes.

  5. Acute aortic pathology, Munchausen syndrome, and confirmation bias.

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    Gaudino, Mario; Nasso, Giuseppe; Romano, Vito; Pragliola, Claudio; Di Cesare, Alessandro; Speziale, Giuseppe; Massetti, Massimo

    2013-12-01

    Munchausen syndrome is a psychiatric disease characterized by pathological lying and malingering. Patients who are affected can set up such complex and compelling clinical scenarios that they can lead to a bias in the diagnostic process and even to unnecessary surgery. Two cases of Munchausen syndrome misrepresenting acute aortic dissection are reported. The two cases occurred at two different institutions where there was considerable expertise in the management of aortic pathology. In both patients, a wrong diagnosis of acute aortic syndrome was made, leading to unnecessary surgery. Retrospective analysis of the clinical events and the diagnostic process suggests that a confirmation bias played a major role in determining the misdiagnosis. The same mistake is likely to have occurred in the only other case reported in the literature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Abdominal Aortic Dissection with Acute Mesenteric Ischemia in a Patient with Marfan Syndrome

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    Chii-Shyan Lay

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder of connective tissue, with various complications manifested primarily in the cardiovascular system. It potentially leads to aortic dissection and rupture, these being the major causes of death. We report a patient who complained of acute abdominal pain, which presented as acute mesenteric ischemia combined with abdominal aortic dissection. Echocardiography showed enlargement of the aortic root and mitral valve prolapse. Abdominal computed tomography scan revealed acute mesenteric ischemia due to abdominal aortic dissection. Finally, the patient underwent surgery of aortic root replacement and had a successful outcome. Therefore, we suggest that for optimal risk assessment and monitoring of patients with Marfan syndrome, both aortic stiffness and the diameter of the superior mesenteric vein compared with that of the superior mesenteric artery are useful screening methods to detect acute mesenteric ischemia secondary to abdominal aortic dissection. Early diagnosis and early treatment can decrease the high mortality rate of patients with Marfan syndrome.

  7. A Case of Critical Aortic Stenosis Masquerading as Acute Coronary Syndrome

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    Siddharth A. Wayangankar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum cardiac troponins I and T are reliable and highly specific markers of myocardial injury. Studies have shown that at least 20% of patients with severe aortic stenosis have detectable serum troponins. This case report describes a patient who presented as suspected acute coronary syndrome with markedly elevated troponin levels, who was later found to have normal coronaries and critical aortic stenosis. This case highlights the need for comprehensive and accurate physical examination in patients who present with angina. Critical aortic stenosis may cause such severe subendocardial ischemia as to cause marked elevation in cardiac markers and mimic an acute coronary syndrome. Careful physical examination will lead to an earlier use of non invasive techniques, such as echocardiography to confirm the correct diagnosis and the avoidance of inappropriate treatments such as intravenous nitroglycerin and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors.

  8. The Acute aortic syndrome – what do we know and what should we know?

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    Houlind, Kim Christian

    and benign condition, this does not seem to be the case in Western populations, where the incidence is relatively lower and the prognosis closer to that of patients with AD (3). In a recent review, Nienaber and Powell added the clinical entities of leaking thoracic aneurysm and traumatic dissection...... al. International heterogeneity in diagnostic frequency and clinical outcomes of ascending aortic intramural hematoma. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2007;20:1260-8 4.Nienaber CA, Powell J. Management of Acute Aortic Syndromes. European Heart Journal 2012; 33:26-35...

  9. Management of patients with acute aortic syndrome through a regional rapid transport system.

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    Manzur, Miguel; Han, Sukgu M; Dunn, Joie; Elsayed, Ramsey S; Fleischman, Fernando; Casagrande, Yolee; Weaver, Fred A

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the outcomes of patients with acute aortic syndrome (AAS) during and after transfer to a regional aortic center by a rapid transport system. Review of patients with AAS who were transferred by a rapid transport system to a regional aortic center was performed. Data regarding demographics, diagnosis, comorbidities, transportation, and hospital course were acquired. Severity of existing comorbidities was determined by the Society for Vascular Surgery Comorbidity Severity Score (SVSCSS). The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score assessed physiologic instability on admission. Risk factors associated with system-related (transfer and hospital) mortality were identified by univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis. During a recent 18-month period (December 2013-July 2015), 183 patients were transferred by a rapid transport system; 148 (81%) patients were transported by ground and 35 (19%) by air. Median distance traveled was 24 miles (range, 3.6-316 miles); median transport time was 42 minutes (range, 10-144 minutes). Two patients died during transport, one with a type A dissection, the other of a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. There were 118 (66%) patients who received operative intervention. Median time to operation was 6 hours. Type B dissections had the longest median time to operation, 45 hours, with system-related mortality of 1.9%; type A dissections had the shortest median time, 3 hours, and a system-related mortality of 16%. Overall, system-related mortality was 15%. On univariate analysis, factors associated with system-related mortality were age ≥65 years (P = .026), coronary artery disease (P = .030), prior myocardial infarction (P = .049), prior coronary revascularization (P = .002), SVSCSS of >8 (P 10 (P = .004). Distance traveled and transport mode and duration were not associated with increased risk of system-related mortality. Only SVSCSS of >8 (odds

  10. [Prognostic value of aortic stenosis in patients after acute coronary syndrome].

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    Chumakova, O S; Selezneva, N D; Evdokimova, M A; Osmolovskaia, B S; Kochkina, M S; Aseĭcheva, O Iu; Minushkina, L O; Baklanova, T N; Talyzin, P A; Tereshchenko, S N; Dzhaiani, N A; Akatova, E V; Glezer, M G; Galiavich, A S; Zakirova, V B; Koziolova, N A; Polianskaia, E A; Iagoda, A V; Boeva, O I; Khorolets, E V; Shlyk, S V; Volkova, E G; Rodicheva, O A; Levashov, S Iu; Konstantinov, V O; Kalishevich, N B; Zateĭshchikov, D A

    2011-01-01

    With the aim to assess prevalence of aortic stenosis (AS) and prognostic value of its detection among survivors of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) we examined 851 patients included into multicenter prospective study of risk factors of serious vascular events and death after acute coronary syndrome. The patients were enrolled into the study in stable condition on 10th day after onset of myocardial infarction (MI) or unstable angina (UA). Examination involved medical history, laboratory tests and echocardiography. Afterwards all cases of death and serious vascular events were registered. Severity of AS was specified by maximal aortic flow rate: 1st degree > 2.5, 2nd degree 3.0-4.0, 3rd degree > 4.0 m/s. AS was detected in 16 patients (1.9%). AS severity was 1st, 2nd and 3rd degree in 9, 4 and 3 patients, respectively. Patients with AS were significantly older (77.4 vs. 61.3 years, p p = 0.021) and lowered renal function (66.7 vs. 34.0%, p 75 years (OR 1,395 [1.023-1.902], p = 0.036), history of CHF (1.319 [1.015-1.713], p = 0.038), history of MI (1.692 [1.320-2.170], p p = 0.012), left atrial diameter (1.024 [1.001-1.047], p = 0.037) and presence of AS (3.211 [1.742-.,916], p < 0.001). Prevalence of preexisting AS among patients who have had MI/UA is 1.9% what is similar to data of European Heart Survey ACS-II (1.8%). Presence of AS of any severity in a survivor of ACS worsens prognosis independently of other known risk factors.

  11. Chronobiology of Acute Aortic Dissection in the Marfan Syndrome (from the National Registry of Genetically Triggered Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Cardiovascular Conditions and the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection).

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    Siddiqi, Hasan K; Luminais, Steven N; Montgomery, Dan; Bossone, Eduardo; Dietz, Harry; Evangelista, Arturo; Isselbacher, Eric; LeMaire, Scott; Manfredini, Roberto; Milewicz, Dianna; Nienaber, Christoph A; Roman, Mary; Sechtem, Udo; Silberbach, Michael; Eagle, Kim A; Pyeritz, Reed E

    2017-03-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disease associated with acute aortic dissection (AAD). We used 2 large registries that include patients with MFS to investigate possible trends in the chronobiology of AAD in MFS. We queried the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection (IRAD) and the Genetically Triggered Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Cardiovascular Conditions (GenTAC) registry to extract data on all patients with MFS who had suffered an AAD. The group included 257 patients with MFS who suffered an AAD from 1980 to 2012. The chi-square tests were used for statistical testing. Mean subject age at time of AAD was 38 years, and 61% of subjects were men. AAD was more likely in the winter/spring season (November to April) than the other half of the year (57% vs 43%, p = 0.05). Dissections were significantly more likely to occur during the daytime hours, with 65% of dissections occurring from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. (p = 0.001). Men were more likely to dissect during the daytime hours (6 a.m. to 6 p.m.) than women (74% vs 51%, p = 0.01). These insights offer a glimpse of the times of greatest vulnerability for patients with MFS who suffer from this catastrophic event. In conclusion, the chronobiology of AAD in MFS reflects that of AAD in the general population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Successful management of aortic thrombi resulting in spinal cord infarction in a patient with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and acute cholecystitis

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    Izumi M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Manabu Izumi, Shoko Teraoka, Keisuke Yamashita, Kenji Matsumoto, Tomohiro Muronoi, Yoshimitsu Izawa, Chikara Yonekawa, Masaki Ano, Masayuki SuzukawaDepartment of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, JapanAbstract: A 74-year-old man with coronary artery disease was suffering from acute nonobstructive cholecystitis and was admitted to a nearby hospital. Dual antiplatelet (aspirin and ticlopidine therapy was discontinued before preparation for surgical resection of the gall bladder. During his time in hospital he was aware of lumbar pain and weakness in both legs. He was transferred to our hospital for further evaluation and therapy. Diffuse intra-aortic thrombi were revealed by computed tomography with contrast media, and magnetic resonance imaging showed spinal cord infarction. However, computed tomography scans of the descending aorta obtained 4 months before admission exhibited no signs of atherosclerotic plaques or intra-aortic thrombi. Laboratory data suggest that antiphospholipid antibody syndrome might have caused these acute multiple intra-arterial thrombi. By restarting dual antiplatelet therapy and increasing the dose of heparin (from 10,000 IU/day to 15,000 IU/day we successfully managed the patient's clinical condition and symptoms. It is important to understand that stopping antiplatelet therapy may rapidly grow thrombi in patients with a hypercoagulative state.Keywords: intra-aortic thrombus, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, spinal cord infarction

  13. Imaging of acute aortic diseases; L'imagerie de la pathologie aortique aigue

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    Semlali, S.; Ennafae, I.; Mahi, M.; Benaissa, L.; Hanine, A.; Akjouj, S.; Jidal, M.; Chaouir, S. [Service d' imagerie medicale, hopital militaire Mohamed V, CHU, Rabat (Morocco)

    2010-09-15

    We report a review of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings in acute aortic syndrome. Contrast-enhanced multidetector CT is a highly accurate imaging method for determining the cause of acute aortic syndrome. (authors)

  14. Prevalence of Acute Coronary Syndrome in Patients Suspected for Pulmonary Embolism or Acute Aortic Syndrome: Rationale for the Triple Rule-Out Concept.

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    Qahtani, Saad Al; Kandeel, Ahmed Y; Breault, Stephane; Jouannic, Anne-Marie; Qanadli, Salah D

    2015-08-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the prevalence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) among patients presenting with atypical chest pain who are evaluated for acute aortic syndrome (AAS) or pulmonary embolism (PE) with computed tomoangiography (CTA) and discuss the rationale for the use of triple rule-out (TRO) protocol for triaging these patients. This study is a retrospective analysis of patients presenting with atypical chest pain and evaluated with thoracic (CTA), for suspicion of AAS/PE. Two physicians reviewed patient files for demographic characteristics, initial CT and final clinical diagnosis. Patients were classified according to CTA finding into AAS, PE and other diagnoses and according to final clinical diagnosis into AAS, PE, ACS and other diagnoses. Four hundred and sixty-seven patients were evaluated: 396 (84.8%) patients for clinical suspicion of PE and 71 (15.2%) patients for suspicion of AAS. The prevalence of ACS and AAS was low among the PE patients: 5.5% and 0.5% respectively (P = 0.0001), while the prevalence of ACS and PE was 18.3% and 5.6% among AAS patients (P = 0.14 and P = 0.34 respectively). The prevalence of ACS and AAS among patients suspected clinically of having PE is limited while the prevalence of ACS and PE among patients suspected clinically of having AAS is significant. Accordingly patients suspected for PE could be evaluated with dedicated PE CTA while those suspected for AAS should still be triaged using TRO protocol.

  15. Management of acute aortic dissection.

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    Nienaber, Christoph A; Clough, Rachel E

    2015-02-28

    A new appraisal of the management of acute aortic dissection is timely because of recent developments in diagnostic strategies (including biomarkers and imaging), endograft design, and surgical treatment, which have led to a better understanding of the epidemiology, risk factors, and molecular nature of aortic dissection. Although open surgery is the main treatment for proximal aortic repair, use of endovascular management is now established for complicated distal dissection and distal arch repair, and has recently been discussed as a pre-emptive measure to avoid late complications by inducing aortic remodelling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pregnancy after aortic root replacement in Loeys-Dietz syndrome: High risk of aortic dissection.

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    Braverman, Alan C; Moon, Marc R; Geraghty, Patrick; Willing, Marcia; Bach, Christopher; Kouchoukos, Nicholas T

    2016-08-01

    Loeys-Dietz syndrome due to mutations in TGFBR1 and 2 is associated with early and aggressive aortic aneurysm and branch vessel disease. There are reports of uncomplicated pregnancy in this condition, but there is an increased risk of aortic dissection and uterine rupture. Women with underlying aortic root aneurysm are cautioned about the risk of pregnancy-related aortic dissection. Prophylactic aortic root replacement is recommended in women with aortopathy and aortic root dilatation to lessen the risk of pregnancy. There is limited information in the literature about the outcomes of pregnancy after root replacement in Loeys-Dietz syndrome. We present a case series of three women with Loeys-Dietz syndrome who underwent elective aortic root replacement for aneurysm disease and subsequently became pregnant and underwent Cesarean section delivery. Each of these women were treated with beta blockers throughout pregnancy. Surveillance echocardiograms and noncontrast MRA studies during pregnancy remained stable demonstrating no evidence for aortic enlargement. Despite the normal aortic imaging and careful observation, two of the three women suffered acute aortic dissection in the postpartum period. These cases highlight the high risk of pregnancy following aortic root replacement in Loeys-Dietz syndrome. Women with this disorder are recommended to be counseled accordingly. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Rarity of isolated pulmonary embolism and acute aortic syndrome occurring outside of the field of view of dedicated coronary CT angiography

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    Lee, Hwa Yeon; Song, In Sup (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology Chung-Ang Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Yoo, Seung Min; Rho, Ji Young (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology CHA Medical Univ. Hospital, Bundang (Korea, Republic of)), email: smyoo68@hanmail.net; Moon, Jae Youn; Kim, In Jai; Lim, Sang Wook; Sung, Jung Hoon; Cha, Dong Hun (Dept. of Cardiology CHA Medical Univ. Hospital, Bundang (Korea, Republic of)); White, Charles S. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore (United States))

    2011-05-15

    Background Although triple rule-out CT angiography (TRO) to simultaneously evaluate acute coronary syndrome (ACS), pulmonary embolism (PE), and acute aortic syndrome (AAS) is increasingly used in many institutions, TRO is inevitably associated with increased radiation exposure due to extended z-axis coverage compared with dedicated coronary CT angiography (DCTA). Purpose To determine the frequency of exclusion of findings of AAS, PE, and significant incidental non-cardiac pathology that may be the cause of acute chest pain when using a restricted DCTA field of view (FOV). Material and Methods We retrospectively reviewed CT images and charts of 103 patients with acute PE and 50 patients with AAS. Either non-ECG gated dedicated pulmonary or aortic CT angiography was performed using 16- or 64-slice multidetector CT (MDCT). We analyzed the incidence of isolated PE, AAS, or significant non-cardiac pathology outside of DCTA FOV (i.e. from tracheal carina to the base of heart). Results There were two cases of isolated PE (2/103, 1.9%) excluded from the FOV of DCTA. One case of PE was isolated to the subsegmental pulmonary artery in the posterior segment of the right upper lobe. In the second case, pulmonary embolism in the left main pulmonary artery was located out of the FOV of DCTA because the left main pulmonary artery was retracted upwardly by fibrotic scar in the left upper lobe due to prior tuberculosis. There was no case of AAS and significant non-cardiac pathology excluded from the FOV of DCTA. AAS (n = 50) consisted of penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (n = 7), intramural hematoma (n = 5) and aortic dissection (n = 38). Conclusion As isolated PE, AAS, and significant non-cardiac pathology outside of the DCTA FOV rarely occur, DCTA may replace TRO in the evaluation of patients with non-specific acute chest pain and a low pre-test probability of PE or aortic dissection

  18. Acute aortic dissection: be aware of misdiagnosis

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    Asteri Theodora

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute aortic dissection (AAD is a life-threatening condition requiring immediate assessment and therapy. A patient suffering from AAD often presents with an insignificant or irrelevant medical history, giving rise to possible misdiagnosis. The aim of this retrospective study is to address the problem of misdiagnosing AD and the different imaging studies used. Methods From January 2000 to December 2004, 49 patients (41 men and 8 women, aged from 18–75 years old presented to the Emergency Department of our hospital for different reasons and finally diagnosed with AAD. Fifteen of those patients suffered from arterial hypertension, one from giant cell arteritis and another patient from Marfan's syndrome. The diagnosis of AAD was made by chest X-ray, contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT, transthoracic echocardiography (TTE and coronary angiography. Results Initial misdiagnosis occurred in fifteen patients (31% later found to be suffering from AAD. The misdiagnosis was myocardial infarction in 12 patients and cerebral infarction in another three patients. Conclusion Aortic dissection may present with a variety of clinical manifestations, like syncope, chest pain, anuria, pulse deficits, abdominal pain, back pain, or acute congestive heart failure. Nearly a third of the patients found to be suffering from AD, were initially otherwise diagnosed. Key in the management of acute aortic dissection is to maintain a high level of suspicion for this diagnosis.

  19. Aortic and Mitral Calcification Is Marker of Significant Carotid and Limb Atherosclerosis in Patients with First Acute Coronary Syndrome.

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    Sannino, Anna; Losi, Maria-Angela; Giugliano, Giuseppe; Canciello, Grazia; Toscano, Evelina; Giamundo, Alessandra; Scudiero, Fernando; Brevetti, Linda; Scudiero, Laura; Prastaro, Maria; Perrino, Cinzia; Perrone-Filardi, Pasquale; Galderisi, Maurizio; Trimarco, Bruno; Esposito, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    Atherosclerosis is a systemic disease and coronary artery disease is frequently associated with peripheral artery disease. As aortic and mitral valvular calcification (VC) share some etiopathogenetic mechanisms with atherosclerosis, we analyzed the risk profile and the echocardiographic characteristics of patients admitted for first acute coronary syndrome (ACS) to investigate whether the presence of VC could be a marker of asymptomatic hemodynamically significant peripheral atherosclerosis. A total of 151 patients admitted for ACS without previous history of cardiovascular disease were consecutively enrolled. The presence of VC was identified by echocardiography; a carotid stenosis ≥50% by ultrasound identified carotid artery disease (CarAD); an ankle-brachial index ≤0.9 or ≥1.4 identified lower extremity artery disease (LEAD). Significant peripheral atherosclerosis was defined by the presence of CarAD and/or LEAD. Peripheral atherosclerosis was diagnosed in 82 (54.3%) patients; isolated CarAD in 24, isolated LEAD in 20, both diseases in 38 patients. VC was present in 103 (68.2%) patients. By multivariate analysis, age (OR = 1.059, 95% CI 1.007-1.113, P = 0.025), diabetes mellitus (OR = 5.068, 95% CI 1.480-17.351, P = 0.010), VC (OR = 7.422, 95% CI 2.421-22.880, P < 0.001), and multivessel CAD (OR = 3.317, 95% CI 1.281-8.586, P = 0.013) were the only independent predictors of having peripheral atherosclerosis. C-statistic for VC was not inferior to that obtained by age (0.728, 95% CI 0.649-0.797 vs. 0.800, 95% CI 0.727-0.861, P = 0.101) and to that obtained by the combination of multivessel CAD with diabetes (0.750; 95% CI 0.673-0.817, P = 0.635), and, furthermore, it was higher than that obtained by diabetes alone (0.620, 95% CI 0.538-0.698, P = 0.036). Ruling out the presence of significant peripheral atherosclerosis should be routinely considered in patients with ACS showing VC at echocardiography. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Acute aortic dissection: An update

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    Iván Alejandro De León Ayala

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aorta, which has a complex intrinsic biology and sophisticated mechanical properties for conducting the blood ejected from the left ventricle to the rest of the systemic arterial bed, is the largest and strongest artery in the body. It carries roughly 200 million liters of blood in an average lifetime. Any process that undermines the architecture threatens the structure, stability, and functionality of the aorta. In this regard, acute aortic dissection (AAD requires special attention because it is the most catastrophic acute illness of the aorta; it has high morbidity and mortality because of potentially fatal complications. AAD has, therefore, become an important topic of recent research, and knowledge about this disease has improved during the past few years. Up-to-date knowledge about the natural history, epidemiology, presentation, physiopathology, evolution, management, follow-up, and long-term outcomes of AAD are summarized in this review.

  1. Point-of-care echocardiography for aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism and acute coronary syndrome in patients with killer chest pain: EASY screening focused on the assessment of effusion, aorta, ventricular size and shape and ventricular asynergy.

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    Nishigami, Kazuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Focus assessed transthoracic echocardiography and focused cardiac ultrasound are point-of-care echo protocols for the evaluation of cardiac disease in the emergency room; however, these protocols may not adequately assess aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism, and acute coronary syndrome in patients with killer chest pain. Here, I present an echocardiography protocol focused on screening for these critical cardiovascular diseases. This protocol (termed EASY screening) consists of the assessment of effusion in the pericardial space, aortic abnormalities, the size and shape of the ventricles and asynergy of the left ventricle. Aortic dissection is suggested by positive findings for effusion and/or abnormal aortic findings. Pulmonary embolism is suggested by a dilated right ventricle and a D-shaped left ventricle in the short-axis view. Acute coronary syndrome is suggested by asynergy of left ventricular wall motion. EASY screening may facilitate the assessment of aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism and acute coronary syndrome in patients presenting to the emergency room with killer chest pain.

  2. Management of acute type B aortic dissection.

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    Hughes, G Chad; Andersen, Nicholas D; McCann, Richard L

    2013-03-01

    Acute type B aortic dissection (identified within 2 weeks of symptom onset), as described using the Stanford classification, involves the aorta distal to the left subclavian artery and accounts for 25%-40% of all aortic dissections. The traditional treatment paradigm of medical management for uncomplicated acute type B dissection and open surgical intervention for early or late complications of type B dissection is currently undergoing a period of evolution as a result of the influence of minimally invasive thoracic endovascular aortic repair options. Thoracic endovascular repair has replaced open surgical repair as the preferred treatment for complicated acute type B dissection, and may also prove beneficial for prophylactic repair of uncomplicated acute type B dissection for high-risk patients. This review discusses the management of acute type B aortic dissection and long-term treatment considerations. Copyright © 2013 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. RELEVANCIA DEL DIAGNÓSTICO DIFERENCIAL ENTRE EL SÍNDROME AÓRTICO AGUDO Y EL SÍNDROME CORONARIO AGUDO EN PACIENTES CON DOLOR TORÁCICO Y CRISIS HIPERTENSIVA: REVISIÓN A PROPÓSITO DE 2 CASOS / Relevance of the differential diagnosis between acute aortic syndrome and acute coronary syndrome in patients with thoracic pain and hypertensive crisis: review on 2 case reports

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    Borja Simó Sánchez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute aortic syndrome is a pathological process with low incidence compared with acute coronary syndrome, although with a worse prognosis in the short term, which is why its early diagnosis and urgent treatment are essential to the favorable evolution of thepatient. Electrocardiographic changes suggestive of myocardial ischemia, with acute evolution, are rare in acute aortic syndrome. Even in the presence of a suggestive thoracic pain and high levels of blood pressure, an adequate differential diagnosis is of utmost importance, since the administration of anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy in high doses can have a dramatic impact on patient outcome. Two cases are presented in which electrocardiographic changes determined the action to take in patients with acute aortic syndrome.

  4. Prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm and large infrarenal aorta in patients with acute coronary syndrome and proven coronary stenosis: a prospective monocenter study.

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    Long, Anne; Bui, Huu Tri; Barbe, Coralie; Henni, Amine Hadj; Journet, Julien; Metz, Damien; Nazeyrollas, Pierre

    2010-07-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in patients with coronary heart disease. The aims of this prospective study were to evaluate the prevalence of AAA and of large abdominal aorta in patients hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome and coronary stenosis of 50% or greater. AAA ultrasound screening was prospectively performed in 306 patients after they gave informed consent. AAA and large abdominal aorta were defined by maximum anteroposterior diameter of 30 mm or greater and of 20 to 29 mm, respectively. Patient characteristics were prospectively collected. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify risk factors for AAA and large abdominal aorta. A p value Prevalence reached 7.7% in patients older than 50 years. Using stepwise logistic regression analysis, age (odds ratio [OR] 1.04. 95% confidence [CI] 1.00-1.09 per year of age, p = 0.06) and previous coronary events (OR 2.44, 95% CI 0.96-6.25, p = 0.06) showed a borderline significant association with AAA. Large infrarenal aortic diameter was observed in 32% of patients. Age (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.02-1.05 per year of age, p prevalence seems high in patients with acute coronary syndrome and proven coronary stenosis of 50% or greater. Previous coronary events and older age might be associated with higher risk of AAA, and age, male gender, and obesity are significantly associated with large infrarenal aorta. If these results are confirmed in larger studies, further guidelines concerning AAA screening in this well-defined population should be considered. Copyright (c) 2010 Annals of Vascular Surgery Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Outcomes of acute type A aortic dissection repairs in Iceland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geirsson, Arnar; Melvinsdottir, Inga Hlif; Arnorsson, Thorarinn; Myrdal, Gunnar; Gudbjartsson, Tomas

    2016-02-01

    Acute type A aortic dissection is a life-threatening disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Treatment is challenging and requires emergency surgery. This study presents for the first time the short- and long-term outcome of acute type A aortic dissection repairs in Iceland. A retrospective review of 45 patients (mean age 60.7 ± 13.9 years, 68.9% male) treated for type A aortic dissection at Landspitali University Hospital between 1992 and 2014. Data was gathered from medical records about known risk factors, presenting symptoms, type of procedure, complications and operative mortality. Out of 45 operations the majority (73.3%) was performed in the second half of the study period. Nearly all patients presented with chest pain and 46.7% were in shock on arrival. Malperfusion syndrome was apparent in 26.7% of cases. A variety of operative methods were used, including hypothermic circulatory arrest in 31.1% of the cases and one-third of patients needed aortic root replacement. Reoperation rate for postoperative bleeding was 29.3% and perioperative stroke occurred in 14.6% of patients. The 30-day mortality rate was 22.2% (10 patients) and 5- and 10-year survival was 71.4 ± 8.2% and 65.4 ± 9.4%, respectively. The short-term outcomes of surgical repair for acute type A aortic dissection in Iceland is comparable to neighbouring countries, including 30-day mortality and long-term survival. Complications, however, are common, especially reoperations for bleeding. 1Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Landspitali University Hospital, 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland. Aortic dissection type A, aortic aneurysm, open heart surgery, complications, operative mortality, survival. Correspondence: Arnar Geirsson, arnarge@landspitali.is.

  6. White blood cell and platelet count as adjuncts to standard clinical evaluation for risk assessment in patients at low probability of acute aortic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Fulvio; Cavalot, Giulia; Giachino, Francesca; Tizzani, Maria; Nazerian, Peiman; Carbone, Federica; Pivetta, Emanuele; Mengozzi, Giulio; Moiraghi, Corrado; Lupia, Enrico

    2017-08-01

    Pre-test probability assessment is key in the approach to suspected acute aortic syndromes (AASs). However, most patients with AAS-compatible symptoms are classified at low probability, warranting further evaluation for decision on aortic imaging. White blood cell count, platelet count and fibrinogen explore pathophysiological pathways mobilized in AASs and are routinely assayed in the workup of AASs. However, the diagnostic performance of these variables for AASs, alone and as a bundle, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that white blood cell count, platelet count and/or fibrinogen at presentation may be applied as additional tools to standard clinical evaluation for pre-test risk assessment in patients at low probability of AAS. This was a retrospective observational study conducted on consecutive patients managed in our Emergency Department from 2009 to 2014 for suspected AAS. White blood cell count, platelet count and fibrinogen were assayed during evaluation in the Emergency Department. The final diagnosis was obtained by computed tomography angiography. The pre-test probability of AAS was defined according to guidelines. Of 1210 patients with suspected AAS, 1006 (83.1%) were classified at low probability, and 271 (22.4%) were diagnosed with AAS. Within patients at low probability, presence of at least one alteration among white blood cell count >9*10 3 /µl, platelet count 9*10 3 /µl and platelet count 9*10 3 /µl and platelet count evaluation, white blood cell count and platelet count may be used in patients at low pre-test probability to fine-tune risk assessment of AAS.

  7. Vasopressor mechanisms in acute aortic coarctation hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salgado H.C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin II (ANG II and vasopressin (AVP act together with the mechanical effect of aortic constriction in the onset of acute aortic coarctation hypertension. Blockade of ANG II and AVP V1 receptors demonstrated that ANG II acts on the prompt (5 min rise in pressure whereas AVP is responsible for the maintenance (30-45 min of the arterial pressure elevation during aortic coarctation. Hormone assays carried out on blood collected from conscious rats submitted to aortic constriction supported a role for ANG II in the early stage and a combined role for both ANG II and AVP in the maintenance of proximal hypertension. As expected, a role for catecholamines was ruled out in this model of hypertension, presumably due to the inhibitory effect of the sinoaortic baroreceptors. The lack of afferent feedback from the kidneys for AVP release from the central nervous system in rats with previous renal denervation allowed ANG II to play the major role in the onset of the hypertensive response. Median eminence-lesioned rats exhibited a prompt increase in proximal pressure followed by a progressive decline to lower hypertensive levels, revealing a significant role for the integrity of the neuroaxis in the maintenance of the aortic coarctation hypertension through the release of AVP. In conclusion, the important issue raised by this model of hypertension is the likelihood of a link between some vascular territory - probably renal - below the coarctation triggering the release of AVP, with this vasoconstrictor hormone participating with Ang II and the mechanical effect of aortic constriction in the acute aortic coarctation hypertension

  8. Acute type A aortic dissection in a patient with paraganglioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Borrego, Andreia; Carrilho Ferreira, Pedro; Pinto, Fausto J

    2017-10-01

    Acute aortic dissection is the most common acute aortic syndrome. It is more prevalent in males and in the elderly, and has a high mortality. Hypertension is the main risk factor. Diagnosis is based on clinical features, laboratory tests and imaging exams. Treatment is usually surgical, although in some cases an endovascular approach is an alternative. Paraganglioma is an uncommon neuroendocrine tumor. Most produce catecholamines, and so usually manifest with hypertensive crisis, palpitations, headache and sweating. This tumor is diagnosed by measurement of plasma or urinary catecholamines and by computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. Surgery is the only potentially curative treatment. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. All rights reserved.

  9. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000103.htm Acute respiratory distress syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening lung ...

  10. Outcomes after treatment of acute aortic occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Varona Frolov, Serguei R; Acosta Silva, Marcela P; Volo Pérez, Guido; Fiuza Pérez, Maria D

    2015-11-01

    Acute aortic occlusion (AAO) is a rare disease with high morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to describe the results of surgical treatment of acute aortic occlusion and risk factors for mortality. Retrospective review of the clinical history of 29 patients diagnosed and operated on for AAO during 28 years. The following variables were analysed: age, sex, tabaco use, diabetes, chronic renal insufficiency, chronic heart failure, atrial fibrillation, arterial hypertension, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment, 30-day mortality and long-term survival. A univariant analysis was performed of variables related to mortality. Twenty-nine patients were included (18 male) with a mean age of 66,2 years. The aetiology was: embolism (EM) in 11 cases and Thrombosis (TR) in 18 cases. The surgical procedures performed included bilateral transfemoral thrombectomy (14 cases), aorto-bifemoral by-pass (8 cases), axilo uni/bifemoral by-pass (5 cases) and aortoiliac and renal tromboendarterectomy (2 cases). Morbidity included: renal failure (14 cases), mesenteric ischemia (4 cases), cardiac complications (7 cases), respiratory complications (5 cases) and loss of extremity (2 cases). The in-hospital mortality was 21% (EM 0%, TR 21%). The estimated survival at 1.3 and 5 years was 60, 50 and 44% respectively. Age (p=0.032), arterial hypertension (p=0.039) and aetiology of the AAO (p=0.039) were related to mortality. Acute aortic occlusion is a medical emergency with high mortality rates. Acute renal failure is the most common postoperative complication. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Histopathology of aortic complications in bicuspid aortic valve versus Marfan syndrome: relevance for therapy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Grewal (Nimrat); R. Franken (Romy); B.J.M. Mulder (Barbara); M.-J. Goumans (Marie-José); J.H.N. Lindeman (Johannes); M.R.M. Jongbloed (Monique); M.C. DeRuiter (Marco); R.J.M. Klautz (Robert); A.J.J.C. Bogers (Ad); R.E. Poelmann (Robert); A.C.G.-D. Groot (Adriana C. Gittenberger-de)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPatients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS) are more prone to develop aortic dilation and dissection compared to persons with a tricuspid aortic valve (TAV). To elucidate potential common and distinct pathways of clinical relevance, we compared the

  12. Increased aortic tortuosity indicates a more severe aortic phenotype in adults with Marfan syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, R.; Morabit, A. El; Waard, V. de; Timmermans, J.; Scholte, A.J.; Berg, M.P.; Marquering, H.; Planken, N.R.; Zwinderman, A.H.; Mulder, B.J.; Groenink, M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS) have a highly variable occurrence of aortic complications. Aortic tortuosity is often present in MFS and may help to identify patients at risk for aortic complications. METHODS: 3D-visualization of the total aorta by MR imaging was performed in 211

  13. Aortic dissection presenting as acute subtotal left main coronary artery occlusion: a case approach and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruisi, Michael; Fallahi, Arzhang; Lala, Moinakhtar; Kanei, Yumiko

    2015-05-01

    Aortic dissection is the most common fatal condition of the aorta, yet it is often missed on initial clinical presentation. Aortic dissection associated with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is relatively rare, but if it occurs, it can be diagnostically challenging, and the condition can be fatal. Here we describe a case of aortic dissection presenting as ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) managed via the transradial approach. We describe the current literature on the subject.

  14. D-dimer measurements in acute aortic dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladyslava Bazylevska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute aortic dissection (AAD is a medical emergency with significant morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis can be challenging due to the wide array of presenting symptoms and a broad differential diagnosis. Computed tomographic angiography is currently the gold standard for diagnosis of AAD. However, it carries the risk of contrast and radiation exposure and has a financial burden for patients. Multiple biomarkers have been evaluated as a screening tool for AAD. D-dimer has previously been suggested as a sole rule-out test for AAD. It is rapid and inexpensive, is widely available in the emergency rooms, and is highly sensitive for any thrombotic event. This review article evaluates the evidence for the use of D-dimer assays in the diagnosis of AAD, in differentiation of AAD from acute coronary syndromes, and in risk stratification of AAD patients.

  15. Mesenteric ischemia in acute aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orihashi, Kazumasa

    2016-05-01

    Mesenteric ischemia complicated by acute aortic dissection (AAD) is uncommon, but serious, as there is no established treatment strategy and it can progress rapidly to multi-organ failure. Diagnosing mesenteric ischemia before necrotic change is difficult, not only for primary care physicians, but even for gastrointestinal or cardiovascular surgeons as it can occur at any time during surgery. Thus, measures need to be in place at the bedside to enable us to obtain information on visceral perfusion. It is often difficult to decide which of laparotomy or aortic repair should be performed first, especially when there is associated shock or malperfusion of other vital organs. The standard surgical procedures for mesenteric ischemia are prompt revascularization of the mesenteric artery and, if needed, resection of necrotic intestine. However, the development of endovascular treatment and the introduction of hybrid ORs have improved the treatment strategies for mesenteric ischemia. This article reviews the issues of "diagnosis" in relation to the mechanism of mesenteric ischemia, and discusses the current "treatment strategies".

  16. Consumption coagulopathy in acute aortic dissection: principles of management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuyong; Han, Lu; Li, Jiachen; Gong, Ming; Zhang, Hongjia; Guan, Xinliang

    2017-06-12

    The effect of acute aortic dissection itself on coagulopathy or surgery-related coagulopathy has never been specifically studied. The aim of the present study was to perioperatively describe consumption coagulopathy in patients with acute aortic dissection. Sixty-six patients with acute type A aortic dissection were enrolled in this study from January 2015 to September 2016. Thirty-six patients with thoracic aortic aneurysms were used as a control group during the same period. Consumption coagulopathy was evaluated using standard laboratory tests, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and thromboelastograghy at five perioperative time-points. A significant reduction in clotting factors and fibrinogen was observed at the onset of acute aortic dissection. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and thromboelastograghy also revealed a persistent systemic activation of the coagulation system and the consumption of clotting factors. In contrast, although platelet counts were consistently low, we did not find that platelet function was more impaired in the acute aortic dissection group than the control group. After surgery, clotting factors and fibrinogen were more impaired than platelet function. Thus, we proposed that hemostatic therapy should focus on the rapid and sufficient supplementation of clotting factors and fibrinogen to improve consumption coagulopathy in patients with acute aortic dissection.

  17. Rupture of an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in a Young Man with Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Maria Weinkouff; Huynh, Khiem Dinh; Baandrup, Ulrik Thorngren; Nielsen, Dorte Guldbrand; Andersen, Niels Holmark

    2018-02-05

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are very rare in Marfan syndrome. We present a case with a young nonsmoking and normotensive male with Marfan syndrome, who developed an infrarenal AAA that presented with rupture to the retroperitoneal cavity causing life-threatening bleeding shock. The patient had acute aortic surgery and survived. Five months before this incident, the patient had uneventful elective aortic root replacement (ad modum David) due to an enlarged aortic root. At that time, his abdominal aorta was assessed with a routine ultrasound scan that showed a normal-sized abdominal aorta. This documents that the aneurysm had evolved very rapidly despite young age and absence of risk factors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Aortic root surgery improves long-term survival after acute type A aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysi, Ilir; Juthier, Francis; Fabre, Olivier; Fouquet, Olivier; Rousse, Natacha; Banfi, Carlo; Pinçon, Claire; Prat, Alain; Vincentelli, André

    2015-04-01

    Our objective was to analyze the long term survival of patient operated on for acute type A aortic dissection. Between 1990 and 2010, 226 patients underwent emergency surgical operation for acute type A aortic dissection. We have followed the long-term outcomes. 144 patients were operated on with a supracommissural replacement of the ascending aorta (SCR) and 82 with an aortic root surgery (ARS, including 77 Bentall procedures and 5 Tirone David operations). Aortic cross-clamp was longer in ARS group (150.8 vs. 103.6 min, p<0.0001). Overall in-hospital mortality was lower in ARS group (20% vs. 34%, p 0.03). Median follow-up was 11.6 years. 10-year survival was higher in ARS group (85.7% vs. 65.9%, p 0.03) and 10-year freedom from aortic root reoperation was significantly lower in ARS group (93.4% vs. 82.9%, p 0.02). In a multivariate analysis aortic root surgery was an independent protective factor for proximal reoperations OR 0.393, CI 95% [0.206-0.748], p=0.005. Our study suggests that complete aortic root replacement in type A aortic dissection does not burden short-term outcomes, improves long-term survivals and decreases the rate of late reoperation. Whether this approach has to be preferred in younger patient has to be demonstrated in further studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Aortic root disease in athletes: aortic root dilation, anomalous coronary artery, bicuspid aortic valve, and Marfan's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Eugene Sun

    2013-08-01

    Two professional athletes in the U.S. National Basketball Association required surgery for aortic root dilation in 2012. These cases have attracted attention in sports medicine to the importance of aortic root disease in athletes. In addition to aortic root dilation, other forms of aortic disease include anomalous coronary artery, bicuspid aortic valve, and Marfan's syndrome. In this review, electronic database literature searches were performed using the terms "aortic root" and "athletes." The literature search produced 122 manuscripts. Of these, 22 were on aortic root dilation, 21 on anomalous coronary arteries, 12 on bicuspid aortic valves, and 8 on Marfan's syndrome. Aortic root dilation is a condition involving pathologic dilation of the aortic root, which can lead to life-threatening sequelae. Prevalence of the condition among athletes and higher risk athletes in particular sports needs to be better delineated. Normative parameters for aortic root diameter in the general population are proportionate to anthropomorphic variables, but this has not been validated for athletes at the extremes of anthropomorphic indices. Although echocardiography is the favored screening modality, computed tomography (CT) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are also used for diagnosis and surgical planning. Medical management has utilized beta-blockers, with more recent use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), and statins. Indications for surgery are based on comorbidities, degree of dilation, and rate of progression. Management decisions for aortic root dilation in athletes are nuanced and will benefit from the development of evidence-based guidelines. Anomalous coronary artery is another form of aortic disease with relevance in athletes. Diagnosis has traditionally been through cardiac catheterization, but more recently has included evaluation with echocardiography, multislice CT, and MRI. Athletes with this

  20. Failure of Marfan anatomic criteria to predict risk of aortic dissection in Turner syndrome: necessity of specific adjusted risk thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maureira, Juan-Pablo; Vanhuyse, Fabrice; Lekehal, Malik; Hubert, Thierry; Vigouroux, Charlène; Mattei, Marie-Françoise; Grandmougin, Daniel; Villemot, Jean-Pierre

    2012-05-01

    Patients with Turner syndrome are prompt to develop spontaneous acute aortic dissection following insidious aortic dilatation, with abnormal cardiovascular anatomy and consequently require specific guidelines for regular surveillance since they represent a subset of high-risk young patients. We report a rare and uncommon case of spontaneous acute aortic dissection in a 48-year old female patient with Turner syndrome who was not apparently eligible for a prophylactic surgery. A CT scan showed a Stanford type A aortic dissection and was urgently referred for surgical management. We operated on the patient under deep hypothermia (18°C) and circulatory arrest with a retrograde cerebroplegia as the primary entry tear was located in the arch. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged at the eighth postoperative day. Following description of this case, special attention was paid to determine predisposing risk factors for aortic dissection to be specifically adjusted to TS patients.

  1. Acute Radiation Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Matters Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS): A Fact Sheet for the Public ... is called the radiation dose. People exposed to radiation will get ARS only if: The radiation dose ...

  2. Acute heart failure syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heart failure can be defined as a clinical syndrome in which a structural or functional cardiac abnormality impairs the capacity of the ventricle to fill or eject enough blood for the requirements of the body. Acute heart failure syndrome represents a complex, heterogeneous set of clinical conditions, all with the common.

  3. New type A dissection after acute type B aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton-Ouw, Kristofer M; Sandhu, Harleen K; Leake, Samuel S; Miller, Charles C; Afifi, Rana O; Azizzadeh, Ali; Estrera, Anthony L; Safi, Hazim J

    2017-08-17

    Aortic dissection is a dynamic process that can progress both proximal and distal to the initial entry tear. We sought to determine associations for development of proximal progression or new type A aortic dissection (NTAD) after acute type B dissection (ATBD) and its effect on survival of the patient. We reviewed all cases of acute aortic dissection that we managed from 1999 to 2014. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed to identify correlates of NTAD. Multivariable regression and proportional hazards regression analysis was done to determine the effect of dissection progression on long-term survival. Among 477 cases of ATBD managed, 19 (4.0%) patients developed NTAD during a median follow-up of 4.1 (interquartile range, 1.4-7.7) years. Median time from diagnosis of ATBD to NTAD was 124 (interquartile range, 23-1201) days. Baseline predictors for development of NTAD at initial ATBD admission included bicuspid aortic valve (P = .006) and age natural history of ATBD is such that there is a persistent risk of NTAD, with the highest risk in the first 6 months. Factors associated with NTAD include bicuspid aortic valve and young age. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair did not have a large effect on risk. Timely diagnosis and repair of NTAD are associated with good survival rates. Lifelong surveillance is warranted in all cases of descending thoracic aortic dissection regardless of initial treatment modality. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Acute aortic regurgitation due to infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M Cortés

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute aortic regurgitation (AAR due to infective endocarditis (IE is a serious disease and usually requires surgical treatment. Our study aims to compare the clinical, echocardiographic, and microbiological characteristics as well as in-hospital outcome of patients with AAR according to the severity of heart failure (HF and to evaluate predictors of in-hospital mortality in a tertiary centre. In a prospective analysis, we compared patients with NYHA functional class I-II HF (G1 vs. functional class III-IV HF (G2. From 06/92 to 07/16, 439 patients with IE were hospitalized; 86 presented AAR: (G1, 39: 45.4% y G2, 47: 54.7%. The G1 had higher prosthetic IE (43.6% vs. 17%, p 0.01. All G2 patients had dyspnoea vs. 30.8% of the G1 (p < 0.0001. There were no differences in clinical, echocardiographic and microbiological characteristics. Surgical treatment was indicated mainly due to infection extension or valvular dysfunction in G1 and HF in G2. In-hospital mortality was 15.4% vs. 27.7% (G1 and G2 respectively p NS. In multivariate analysis, health care-associated acquisition (p 0.001, negative blood cultures (p 0.004, and functional class III-IV HF (p 0.039 were in-hospital mortality predictors. One-fifth of the patients with EI had AAR. Half of them had severe HF which needed emergency surgery and the remaining needed surgery for extension of the infection and / or valvular dysfunction. Both groups remain to have high surgical and in-hospital mortality. Health care-associated acquisition, negative blood cultures and advanced HF were predictors of in-hospital mortality

  5. Emergency endovascular repair of acute descending thoracic aortic dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Anees Sharif

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad Anees Sharif, Mark Edward O’Donnell, Paul Henry Blair, Peter KennedyDepartment of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Royal Victoria Hospital, Grosvenor Road, Belfast, BT12 6BA, United KingdomBackground: Acute descending thoracic aortic dissection is a life-threatening emergency. It is not often considered as the initial diagnosis in patients presenting with epigastric pain and could easily be missed in a busy casualty department.Aim: This case report is aimed to highlight the feasibility of the technique and the need for long-term surveillance following endovascular repair of acute thoracic aortic dissection.Results: The patient presented with epigastric pain radiating to the interscapular region with a stable hemodynamic status. A computerized tomography (CT scan demonstrated type B thoracic aortic dissection of the proximal descending thoracic aorta. A successful endovascular repair was carried out with uneventful recovery and follow-up CT scan six years after stent-grafting shows satisfactory position of the stent-graft, patent false lumen in the abdominal aorta perfusing the right kidney, and progressively enlarging diameter of the abdominal aorta.Conclusion: Thoracic aortic dissection should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with epigastric and interscapular chest pain. Emergency endovascular repair of acute thoracic aortic dissection is feasible and relatively safe. Regular follow-up with CT scan is required to evaluate the long-term effi cacy and identify the need for re-intervention.Keywords: aortic, dissection, endovascular, thoracic

  6. Acute renal failure and hepatocellular damage as presenting symptoms of type II aortic dissection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jovanovic, Ivana; Tesic, Milorad; Antonijevic, Nebojsa; Menkovic, Nemanja; Paunovic, Ivana; Ristic, Arsen; Vucicevic, Vera; Vujisic-Tesic, Bosiljka

    2016-01-01

    ..., while presenting with an acute renal and hepatic failure. After initial diagnostic uncertainties, and following final diagnosis of an acute aortic dissection, this patient underwent surgical aortic valve replacement with a satisfactory outcome. Conclusion...

  7. ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics / ARDS ARDS What Is ARDS, or acute respiratory distress syndrome, is a lung condition that leads ... treat ARDS. Other Names Acute lung injury Adult respiratory distress syndrome Increased-permeability pulmonary edema Noncardiac pulmonary ...

  8. Haemolytic anaemia resulting from the surgical repair of acute type A aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Yuji; Yamamoto, Shin; Fujikawa, Takuya; Oshima, Susumu; Ono, Makoto; Sasaguri, Shiro

    2014-02-01

    Haemolytic anaemia after acute aortic dissection surgery is extremely rare. We report 4 cases of haemolytic anaemia with different aetiologies. Four patients underwent emergency operation for acute type A aortic dissection and subsequently developed haemolytic anaemia. Case 1: a 41-year old man underwent hemiarch replacement. We performed total arch replacement 3 years postoperatively, which revealed that haemolytic anaemia was induced by proximal anastomotic stenosis caused by inverted internal felt strip. Case 2: a 28-year old man diagnosed with Marfan syndrome underwent total arch replacement. Five months postoperatively, we noted severe stenosis at the previous distal anastomotic site, which caused the haemolytic anaemia, and performed descending thoracic aortic replacement for a residual dissecting aneurysm. Case 3: a 49-year old man underwent hemiarch replacement. Three years postoperatively, we performed total arch replacement for a residual dissecting aortic arch aneurysm and repaired a kinked graft responsible for haemolytic anaemia. Case 4: a 42-year old man underwent total arch replacement. Eighteen months later, we performed descending thoracic aortic replacement. We repaired a portion of the ascending aorta as haemolityc anaemia was induced by kinking of a total arch replacement redundant graft. All the haemolityc anaemia patients were successfully released after surgical reintervention.

  9. Reinforced aortic root reconstruction for acute type A aortic dissection involving the aortic root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Qing-qi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There are debates regarding the optimal approach for AAAD involving the aortic root. We described a modified reinforced aortic root reconstruction approach for treating AAAD involving the aortic root. METHODS: A total of 161 patients with AAAD involving the aortic root were treated by our modified reinforced aortic root reconstruction approach from January 1998 to December 2008. Key features of our modified approach were placement of an autologous pericardial patch in the false lumen, lining of the sinotubular junction lumen with a polyester vascular ring, and wrapping of the vessel with Teflon strips. Outcome measures included post-operative mortality, survival, complications, and level of aortic regurgitation. RESULTS: A total of 161 patients were included in the study (mean age: 43.3 1 15.5 years. The mean duration of follow-up was 5.1 1 2.96 years (2-12 years. A total of 10 (6.2% and 11 (6.8% patients died during hospitalization and during follow-up, respectively. Thirty-one (19.3% patients experienced postoperative complications. The 1-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year survival rates were 99.3%, 98%, 93.8%, and 75.5%, respectively. There were no instances of recurrent aortic dissection, aortic aneurysm, or pseudoaneurysm during the entire study period. The severity of aortic regurgitation dramatically decreased immediately after surgery (from 28.6% to 0% grade 3-4 and thereafter slightly increased (from 0% to 7.2% at 5 years and 9.1% at 10 years. CONCLUSION: This modified reinforced aortic root reconstruction was feasible, safe and durable/effective, as indicated by its low mortality, low postoperative complications and high survival rate.

  10. Evaluation of acute aortic dissection by cine-MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, H; Sugimoto, T; Okada, M

    1999-02-01

    We investigated operative indication of acute aortic dissection by analyzing the movement of the intimal flap using cine-MRI. Ten consecutive cases of acute aortic dissection diagnosed between December 1997 and September 1998 participated in this study. Six of these patients had in Stanford type A and four Stanford type B aortic dissection. The diagnosis of aortic dissection was based on demonstration of two aortic channels with each cardiac cycle. After obtaining SE(spin-echo) images, gradient echo sequences (FFE) were obtained such that the false lumen was maximally imaged and the intimal flap was depicted perpendicularly. During one RR-interval of ECG, 12 to 16 measurements were recorded and combined in a cineloop mode. We defined the intimal flap, the site of the entry and thrombosis in the false lumen, and evaluated the movement of the intimal flap as the flap movement index (FMI). Maximum and minimum aortic diameters (ADmax, ADmin), as well as maximum and minimum false lumen diameters (FDmax, FDmin) were measured. FMI was defined as[(FDmax/ADmax) - (FDmin/ADmin)]/(FDmin/ADmin) x 100(%). Total thrombosis was noted in four cases, partial thrombosis in 3, and in the remaining 3 no thrombosis of the false lumen was noted. The FMI ranged between 4% and 87% (mean 26.3 +/- 8.6%). Among the 4 cases with the large FMI of greater than 30%, 3 underwent emergency surgery and were confirmed to have no thrombosis in the false lumen. The fourth case, who had partial thrombosis, underwent medical therapy, but since complete thrombosis in the false lumen never did occur in this case, surgery became absolutely necessary. The other 6 cases with a FMI of less than 30% showed a tendency toward gradual reduction of the false lumen. FMI is a potentially useful parameter in cases with acute aortic dissection to determine whether or not emergency surgery is indicated.

  11. Root replacement surgery versus more conservative management during type A acute aortic dissection repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Eusanio, Marco; Trimarchi, Santi; Peterson, Mark D; Myrmel, Truls; Hughes, G Chad; Korach, Amit; Sundt, Thoralf M; Di Bartolomeo, Roberto; Greason, Kevin; Khoynezhad, Ali; Appoo, Jehangir J; Folesani, Gianluca; De Vincentiis, Carlo; Montgomery, Daniel G; Isselbacher, Eric M; Eagle, Kim A; Nienaber, Christoph A; Patel, Himanshu J

    2014-12-01

    Aortic root management in type A acute aortic dissection is controversial. This study compared outcomes of root replacement (RR) interventions versus more conservative root (CR) management. Of 1,995 type A acute aortic dissection patients enrolled in the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection, 699 (35%) underwent RR interventions and 1,296 (65%) underwent CR management. Independent predictors of hospital and 3-year survival were identified using multivariable logistic and Cox regression models. Compared with CR patients, RR patients were younger (56.9 versus 62.3 years; p = 0.023) and more likely to present with larger root diameter (4.7 cm versus 4.0 cm; p < 0.001), Marfan syndrome (8.7% versus 2.5%; p < 0.001), aortic insufficiency (64.0% versus 50.3%; p < 0.001), and hypotension, shock, or tamponade (33.0% versus 26.5%; p = 0.003). Root replacement management did not increase hospital mortality (propensity score-adjusted odds ratio, 1.14; p = 0.674). On Kaplan-Meier analysis, 3-year survival (RR, 92.5% ± 1.7% versus CR, 91.6% ± 1.3%; log-rank p = 0.623) and freedom from aortic root reintervention (RR, 99.2% ± 0.1% versus CR, 99.3% ± 0.1%; log-rank p = 0.770) were similar. Only 2 patients (1 per group) underwent follow-up root reintervention. Propensity score-adjusted Cox regression excluded a relationship between root treatment and follow-up survival (hazard ratio, 1.5; 95% confidence interval, 0.502 to 5.010; p = 0.432). In type A acute aortic dissection patients more-extensive RR interventions are not associated with increased hospital mortality. This supports such an approach in young patients and patients with connective tissue diseases and bicuspid aortic valves. Excellent midterm survival and freedom from root reintervention in both groups suggest stable behavior of the nonreplaced aortic sinuses at 3 years. Thus, pending studies with longer follow-up, the use of aggressive RR techniques can be determined by patient-specific and

  12. Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart is accumulating irreversible damage. So time is myocardium – myocardium being the heart muscle itself,” Bolger said. At ... angina? This content was last reviewed July 2015. Heart Attack • Home • About Heart Attacks Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) ...

  13. Influence of distal entry tears in acute type B aortic dissection after thoracic endovascular aortic repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenmou; Huang, Bin; Zhao, Jichun; Ma, Yukui; Yuan, Ding; Yang, Yi; Xiong, Fei; Wang, Tiehao

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the clinical influence of distal entry tears in acute type B aortic dissection (ATBAD) after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). From August 2009 to December 2014, the clinical outcomes of 130 patients who underwent TEVAR for ATBAD were retrospectively analyzed. According to whether distal entry tears existed after TEVAR, patients were divided into group A (n = 25, absence of distal entry tears) and group B (n = 105, presence of distal entry tears). We evaluated clinical outcomes, including mortality and morbidity in early and late follow-up, as well as aortic remolding. Late aortic events were defined as aortic dissection-related events occurring >30 days from the initial TEVAR procedures, which consisted of endoleak, retrograde type A aortic dissection, aortic enlargement, late rupture, repeat dissection, and stent-induced new entry tear. The study comprised 130 patients (114 men [87.7%] and 16 women [12.3%)] with a mean age of 53.71 years. The 30-day mortality was 3.1%, and early morbidity included type I endoleak, 3.1%, organ failure, 3.8%; stroke, 3.1%; spinal cord ischemia, 0%; and early rupture 1.5%. The overall survival rate by Kaplan-Meier analysis at 1, 3, and 5 years was 93.8%, 89.5%, and 79.2%, respectively. There were no significant differences in early morbidity and 30-day mortality and late survival between group A and group B. However, group A had a significantly lower rate of late aortic events than group B (P = .028 by log-rank test). Meanwhile, group A had better aortic remolding than group B in complete thrombosis of the thoracic aorta at 12 months postoperatively (100% vs 83.5%; P = .029). This study demonstrated that TEVAR for ATBAD had low perioperative morbidity and mortality and satisfactory midterm outcome. Distal entry tears increase the occurrence of late aortic events and inhibit aortic remolding but do not have a significantly negative effect on late survival. Repairing all entry tears to restore

  14. Anaesthesia management of acute aortic dissection type B in Marfan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The natural history of pregnancy and the ability to deliver a viable fetus depends on the interaction between the pace of changes in the cardiovascular system and the advancement of pregnancy. We report the management of a type B acute aortic dissection in a woman in her 36th week of pregnancy. The anaesthesiologist ...

  15. Aortic Disease in the Young: Genetic Aneurysm Syndromes, Connective Tissue Disorders, and Familial Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cury

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many genetic syndromes associated with the aortic aneurysmal disease which include Marfan syndrome (MFS, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS, Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS, familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD, bicuspid aortic valve disease (BAV, and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD. In the absence of familial history and other clinical findings, the proportion of thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms and dissections resulting from a genetic predisposition is still unknown. In this study, we propose the review of the current genetic knowledge in the aortic disease, observing, in the results that the causative genes and molecular pathways involved in the pathophysiology of aortic aneurysm disease remain undiscovered and continue to be an area of intensive research.

  16. Clinical recognition of mid-aortic syndrome in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Dam, Kim; van der Palen, Roel L F; Tanke, Ronald B; Schreuder, Michiel F; de Jong, Huib

    2013-03-01

    Mid-aortic syndrome is characterized by narrowing of the abdominal aorta, usually with the involvement of renal arteries and other visceral branches. The combination of the presence of an abdominal bruit, diminished or absent pulsations of the lower extremities, and a blood pressure discrepancy between upper and lower extremities is the classic triad associated with mid-aortic syndrome. However, it has a wide variety of clinical symptoms, and awareness of the variable presentation can lead to early diagnosis of the vascular anomaly. We report three cases presenting at three different stages of this disease, such as hydrops fetalis, refractory hypertension, and intracerebral bleeding. In conclusion, these cases highlight the importance of blood pressure measurements in all patients and accurate physical examination for early recognition of a mid-aortic syndrome.

  17. Acute aortic dissection presenting as painless paraplegia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hdiji, Olfa; Bouzidi, Nouha; Damak, Mariem; Mhiri, Chokri

    2016-04-05

    Acute aortic dissection is an extreme emergency that is generally manifested by violent chest pain irradiating to a patient's back and abdomen. Paraplegia due to spinal cord ischemia and infarction as a presenting manifestation of aortic dissection has been found in 2 to 5% of patients. However, painless paraplegia is exceedingly rare and limited to a few case reports in the literature. We describe a new case with this unusual presentation of aortic dissection and here we emphasize that this condition must be considered in all patients with painless paraplegia. A 70-year-old Arab man with no previous known medical or surgical conditions was hospitalized for brutal heaviness of his lower limbs associated to urinary retention. A neurological examination revealed flaccid paraplegia without sensory disorder. His blood pressure and his pulse were in normal ranges. He was afebrile. His peripheral pulses were not checked. Laboratory investigations eliminated multiple organ failure. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging realized in emergency was normal. He had a cardiopulmonary arrest 1 day after his hospitalization. His autopsy report concluded a type A aortic dissection with an intimal tear at his aortic isthmus with intrapericardial rupture and extension to his intercostal and lumbar arteries. Acute aortic dissection is an extreme emergency that can lead to death unless there is an early diagnosis. It must be considered in any patient with paraplegia even painless. Clinical examination has a major role to play in diagnosing this condition. Apart from the neurological examination, palpation of peripheral pulses and blood pressure measurements in all four limbs is of paramount importance. Then further investigations must be carried out consisting of aortic angiography by computed tomography or by magnetic resonance imaging.

  18. Predicting long-term outcomes of acute aortic dissection: a focus on gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divchev, Dimitar; Najjar, Tarek; Tillwich, Falko; Rehders, Tim; Palisch, Holger; Nienaber, Christoph A

    2015-03-01

    Acute aortic disease ranks as the 19th leading cause of death with steadily increasing incidence. The prevalence of aneurysms varies depending on the localization along the aorta with a mortality of aortic rupture of around 80%. Traditionally, aortic disease affects men more frequently than women, however, with a varying gender ratio. Nevertheless, in the setting of acute aortic dissection, the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissections identified significant gender-related differences in the management of both sexes with acute aortic conditions. Current data suggest that women are at an increased risk of both dying from aortic dissection and having aorta-related complications than men. This review aims to report on current evidence of gender impact on natural history, treatment and outcomes in patients with acute aortic dissection.

  19. Hospital volumes and later year of operation correlates with better outcomes in acute Type A aortic dissection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geirsson, Arnar; Ahlsson, Anders; Franco-Cereceda, Anders

    2017-01-01

    and 30-day mortality. RESULTS: The annual number of operations increased significantly from 85 in 2005 to 150 in 2014 ( P  Chest pain was present in 85% of patients, 24% were hypotensive on presentation and 28% had malperfusion syndrome. Open distal anastomosis technique under hypothermic......OBJECTIVES: Acute Type A aortic dissection remains a life-threatening disease, but there are indications that its surgical mortality is decreasing. The aim of this report was to study how surgical mortality has changed and what influences those changes. METHODS: Nordic Consortium for Acute Type...... A Aortic Dissection is a retrospective database comprising 1159 patients (mean age 61.6 ± 12.2 years, 68% male) treated for acute Type A aortic dissection at 8 centres in Denmark, Finland, Iceland and Sweden from 2005 to 2014. Data gathered included demographics, symptoms, type of procedure, complications...

  20. Elevated troponin levels and typical chest pain: Is always acute coronary syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altug Osken

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aortic dissection is a fatal disease that must be considered in the differential diagnosis of chest pain. If the diagnosis cannot be made in early period, mortality is very high. Here, we present a case of aortic dissection, clinically mimicking acute coronary syndrome.

  1. Aortic microcalcification is associated with elastin fragmentation in Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanga, Shaynah; Hibender, Stijntje; Ridwan, Yanto; van Roomen, Cindy; Vos, Mariska; van der Made, Ingeborg; van Vliet, Nicole; Franken, Romy; van Riel, Luigi Amjg; Groenink, Maarten; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Mulder, Barbara Jm; de Vries, Carlie Jm; Essers, Jeroen; de Waard, Vivian

    2017-11-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a connective tissue disorder in which aortic rupture is the major cause of death. MFS patients with an aortic diameter below the advised limit for prophylactic surgery (MFS, and that microcalcification serves as a marker for aortic disease severity. To address this hypothesis, we analysed MFS patient and mouse aortas. MFS patient aortic tissue showed enhanced microcalcification in areas with extensive elastic lamina fragmentation in the media. A causal relationship between medial injury and microcalcification was revealed by studies in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs); elastin peptides were shown to increase the activity of the calcification marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and reduce the expression of the calcification inhibitor matrix GLA protein in human SMCs. In murine Fbn1(C1039G/+) MFS aortic SMCs, Alpl mRNA and activity were upregulated as compared with wild-type SMCs. The elastin peptide-induced ALP activity was prevented by incubation with lactose or a neuraminidase inhibitor, which inhibit the elastin receptor complex, and a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1/2 inhibitor, indicating downstream involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation. Histological analyses in MFS mice revealed macrocalcification in the aortic root, whereas the ascending aorta contained microcalcification, as identified with the near-infrared fluorescent bisphosphonate probe OsteoSense-800. Significantly, microcalcification correlated strongly with aortic diameter, distensibility, elastin breaks, and phosphorylated ERK1/2. In conclusion, microcalcification co-localizes with aortic elastin degradation in MFS aortas of humans and mice, where elastin-derived peptides induce a calcification process in SMCs via the elastin receptor complex and ERK1/2 activation. We propose microcalcification as a novel imaging marker to monitor local elastin degradation and thus predict aortic events in MFS patients. Copyright © 2017

  2. Acute Right Coronary Ostial Stenosis during Aortic Valve Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwar Umran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of acute right coronary artery stenosis developing in a patient undergoing aortic valve replacement. We present a case report with a brief overview of the literature relating to coronary artery occlusion associated with cardiac valve surgery - the theories and treatments are discussed. A 85 year-old female was admitted under the care of the cardiothoracic team with signs and symptoms of heart failure. Investigations, including cardiac echocardiography and coronary angiography, indicated a critical aortic valve stenosis. Intraoperative right ventricular failure ensued post aortic valve replacement. Subsequent investigations revealed an acute occlusion of the proximal right coronary artery with resultant absence of distal flow supplying the right ventricle. An immediate right coronary artery bypass procedure was performed with resolution of the right ventricular failure. Subsequent weaning off cardiopulmonary bypass was uneventful and the patient continued to make excellent recovery in the postoperative phase. To our knowledge this is one of the few documented cases of intraoperative acute coronary artery occlusion developing during valve surgery. However, surgeons should be aware of the potential for acute occlusion so that early recognition and rapid intervention can be instituted.

  3. Marfan's syndrome presenting with abdominal aortic aneurysm: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present the case of a 16-year old student with Marfan's syndrome and abdominal aortic aneurysm who presented with a diagnostic conundrum. He presented with a three months history of progressive painful left upper abdominal mass and back pain. It became severe in the last two weeks before presentation and was ...

  4. Acute Traumatic Aortic Disruption and Right Aortic Arch: A Fatal Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirvan Salaminia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute traumatic aortic disruption occurs after forceful deceleration and usually due to motor accidents. Only 10 % to 15 % reach a treatment facility alive and a highly suspicious state is needed for timely diagnosis. Most time they suffer multiple associated lethal injuries. Asymptomatic and isolated right aortic arch is a rare anomaly of the aorta with a prevalence of 0.5% [3]. Its diagnosis is by radiologic studies. We present this patient to remember that the incidental right aortic arch and disruption may interpreted as the left side mediastinal rotation in radiography and so inadvertently lead to late diagnosis and a futile outcome. A 24-year old man was brought to emergency room following a motor accident. He had Glascow Coma Scale Score: 14-15/15 but with stable vital signs. After primary survey chest radiography, emergency abdominal sonography (eFAST and brain CT scanning were requested. Spiral thoracoabdominal CT was also requested about seven hours after admission and when the patient entered an unstable hemodynamic phase. The primary survey was unremarkable. His chest radiography had left mediastinal rotation, which is opposite to what is seen pathologically in the condition of the traumatic aortic disruption, the right mediastinal rotation. His eFAST and brain CT were normal. The patient remained stable until seven hours after admission when the patient becomes unstable. Massive pleural effusion with aortic disruption and a right aortic arch was seen in thoracoabdominal CT. He transferred to the operation room but arrested during transfer. Massive hemothorax was seen during open cardiac massage. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was unsuccessful. This may raises that in any blunt trauma patient with highly suspicious history for the great vessel injury, it may be better to consider the spiral chest CT scanning as the primary radiologic test for evaluation of the chest trauma and not waste the time or resources with rely simply on a

  5. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SARS; Respiratory failure - SARS ... Complications may include: Respiratory failure Liver failure Heart failure ... 366. McIntosh K, Perlman S. Coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). ...

  6. Influence of meteorological factors on acute aortic events in a subtropical territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Y; Chan, Y C; Cheng, S W

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between weather changes and acute aortic events in a subtropical territory. A linear regression analysis was performed in a pan-territory epidemiological survey for a period of 10 years on the impacts of meteorological factors (ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, amount of cloud, rainfall, number of lightning strikes, presence of typhoon, and thunderstorm warning) on the daily incidences of acute aortic dissections and ruptured aortic aneurysms. Meteorological variables were retrieved on a daily basis from a well-established observatory, and the daily incidences of aortic dissections and rupture of aortic aneurysms were retrieved from the Clinical Data Analysis and Reporting System. During the study period (January 2005 to December 2014), 3878 patients were identified as having acute aortic dissections, and 1174 patients had ruptured aortic aneurysms. Corresponding averaged daily incidences were 1.06 and 0.32, respectively. The incidences of aortic dissection and ruptured aortic aneurysm in a day could be predicted by ambient temperature in degrees Celsius using the following linear regression models: (1) incidence of aortic dissection = 1.548 - 0.021 × temperature; (2) incidence of ruptured aortic aneurysm = 0.564 - 0.010 × temperature. In addition, both high atmospheric pressure and absence of thunderstorm warning are positively associated with more aortic dissections. For rupture of aortic aneurysms, high atmospheric pressure and low relative humidity were positive predictors. In multiple regression analysis, however, ambient temperature was the only significant predictor for both acute aortic dissections and ruptured aortic aneurysms. This is the first pan-territory study to show an attributable effect of ambient temperature on acute aortic events. This paper confirms that even in a subtropical country, meteorological variables were important factors influencing acute aortic

  7. Postoperative myocardial infarction in acute type A aortic dissection: A report from the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterford, Stephen D; Di Eusanio, Marco; Ehrlich, Marek P; Reece, T Brett; Desai, Nimesh D; Sundt, Thoralf M; Myrmel, Truls; Gleason, Thomas G; Forteza, Alberto; de Vincentiis, Carlo; DiScipio, Anthony W; Montgomery, Daniel G; Eagle, Kim A; Isselbacher, Eric M; Muehle, Anja; Shah, Aamir; Chou, Daisy; Nienaber, Christoph A; Khoynezhad, Ali

    2017-03-01

    Postoperative myocardial infarction remains a serious complication in cardiac surgery. The incidence and impact of this condition in acute type A aortic dissection are poorly understood. A total of 1445 patients with acute type A aortic dissection who underwent surgery were enrolled in the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection from 1996 to 2013. Individuals with preoperative myocardial infarction at hospital presentation and a history of myocardial infarction were excluded. Patients with postoperative myocardial infarction (n = 38, 2.6%) were compared with those without postoperative myocardial infarction (n = 1407, 97.4%). The postoperative myocardial infarction group was more often of white race (100% vs 90%, P = .043) with bicuspid aortic valve (15.6% vs 4.5%, P = .015). Imaging demonstrated more aortic root involvement (75.8% vs 49.5%, P = .003), pericardial effusion (65.5% vs 44.1%, P = .022), and coronary artery compromise (27.3% vs 10.2%, P = .022). Patients with postoperative myocardial infarction were more frequently hypotensive or in shock during surgery (42.9% vs 25.5%, P = .021). Patients with postoperative myocardial infarction were more likely to have undergone root replacement (54.5% vs 33.3%, P = .011), coronary artery bypass grafting (28.6% vs 7.4%, P < .001), or aortic valve replacement (40.0% vs 23.8%, P = .027), and less likely to have had complete arch replacement (2.8% vs 14.0%, P = .050). Median circulatory arrest time was higher in postoperative myocardial infarction (60 vs 38 minutes, P = .024). In-hospital mortality (57.9% vs 16.3%, P < .001) and Kaplan-Meier estimates of 5-year mortality (P = .007) were distinctly higher in postoperative myocardial infarction. Postoperative myocardial infarction is a devastating complication of type A aortic dissection repair. It is associated with bicuspid aortic valve, root involvement, pericardial effusion, and extent of surgical repair. Patients with

  8. Mitral and aortic regurgitation in Behçet's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Peńa, J M; Garcia-Alegria, J; Garcia-Fernandez, F; Arnalich, F; Barbado, F J; Vazquez, J J

    1985-01-01

    A 35-year-old man with definite Behçet's disease developed acute mitral and aortic regurgitation. Valvular disease, we believed, was another manifestation of this disease. Cardiac involvement in Behçet's disease and the role of prednisone therapy are discussed.

  9. Acute compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via, Alessio Giai; Oliva, Francesco; Spoliti, Marco; Maffulli, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is one of the few true emergencies in orthopedics and traumatology. It is a painful condition caused by the increase interstitial pressure (intracompart-mental pressure - ICP) within a closed osteofascial compartment which impair local circulation. It occurs most often in the legs, but it can affects also the arms, hands, feet, and buttocks. It usually develops after a severe injury such as fractures or crush injury, but it can also occurs after a relatively minor injury and it may be iatrogenic. Uncommon causes of ACS have been also described, that suggest surgeons to pay great attention to this serious complication. Diagnosing ACS is difficult in clinical practice, even among expert surgeons. Currently, the diagnosis is made on the basis of physical examination and repeated ICP measures. ICP higher than 30 mmHg of diastolic blood pressure is significant of compartment syndrome. Once diagnosis is made, fasciotomy to release the affected compartment should be performed as early as possible because delayed decompression would lead to irreversible ischemic damage to muscles and peripheral nerves. acute compartment syndrome is a surgical emergency. There is still little consensus among authors about diagnosis and treatment of these serious condition, in particular about the ICP at which fasciotomy is absolutely indicated and the timing of wound closure. New investigations are needed in order to improve diagnosis and treatment of ACS.

  10. Acute compartment syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via, Alessio Giai; Oliva, Francesco; Spoliti, Marco; Maffulli, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background: acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is one of the few true emergencies in orthopedics and traumatology. It is a painful condition caused by the increase interstitial pressure (intracompart-mental pressure – ICP) within a closed osteofascial compartment which impair local circulation. It occurs most often in the legs, but it can affects also the arms, hands, feet, and buttocks. It usually develops after a severe injury such as fractures or crush injury, but it can also occurs after a relatively minor injury and it may be iatrogenic. Uncommon causes of ACS have been also described, that suggest surgeons to pay great attention to this serious complication. Diagnosing ACS is difficult in clinical practice, even among expert surgeons. Currently, the diagnosis is made on the basis of physical examination and repeated ICP measures. ICP higher than 30 mmHg of diastolic blood pressure is significant of compartment syndrome. Once diagnosis is made, fasciotomy to release the affected compartment should be performed as early as possible because delayed decompression would lead to irreversible ischemic damage to muscles and peripheral nerves. Conclusion: acute compartment syndrome is a surgical emergency. There is still little consensus among authors about diagnosis and treatment of these serious condition, in particular about the ICP at which fasciotomy is absolutely indicated and the timing of wound closure. New investigations are needed in order to improve diagnosis and treatment of ACS. PMID:25878982

  11. Aortic bypass and bilateral renal autotransplantation for mid-aortic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poupalou, Anna; Salomon, Rémi; Boudjemline, Younes; Allain-Launay, Emma; Aigrain, Yves; Chardot, Christophe

    2013-09-01

    Middle aortic syndrome (MAS) is a rare condition characterized by stenosis of the proximal abdominal aorta and the origin of the renal and digestive arteries. When medical therapy and interventional radiology fail to control threatening reno-vascular arterial hypertension (AHT), surgery is required and may need several interventions, which are usually delayed until late childhood. We report on a 3-year-old girl with severe AHT (180/130 mmHg) caused by MAS. There was no evidence of generalized vascular disease or complications of AHT. AHT failed to respond to medical therapy (five drugs), endovascular dilatation, and stenting was considered unfeasible due to the complex multiple strictures. Surgery consisted of: explantation of the two kidneys; aortic bypass between the lower thoracic and lower abdominal aorta using a prosthetic graft; reimplantation of the kidneys onto the normal iliac arteries. The post-operative course was uneventful. Owing to recurrent stenosis of the re-implanted renal arteries, endoluminal dilatations were performed 4 and 5 months after surgery. Two years after surgery, the child is alive and well, off anti-hypertensive therapy, with normal blood pressure. Mild aortic syndrome can be treated with a one-stage surgical repair with aorto-aortic bypass and bilateral auto-transplantation, even in young children.

  12. Sex, pregnancy and aortic disease in Marfan syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolijn Renard

    Full Text Available Sex-related differences as well as the adverse effect of pregnancy on aortic disease outcome are well-established phenomena in humans with Marfan syndrome (MFS. The underlying mechanisms of these observations are largely unknown.In an initial (pilot step we aimed to confirm the differences between male and female MFS patients as well as between females with and without previous pregnancy. We then sought to evaluate whether these findings are recapitulated in a pre-clinical model and performed in-depth cardiovascular phenotyping of mutant male and both nulliparous and multiparous female Marfan mice. The effect of 17β-estradiol on fibrillin-1 protein synthesis was compared in vitro using human aortic smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts.Our small retrospective study of aortic dimensions in a cohort of 10 men and 20 women with MFS (10 pregnant and 10 non-pregnant confirmed that aortic root growth was significantly increased in the pregnant group compared to the non-pregnant group (0.64mm/year vs. 0.12mm/year, p = 0.018. Male MFS patients had significantly larger aortic root diameters compared to the non-pregnant and pregnant females at baseline and follow-up (p = 0.002 and p = 0.007, respectively, but no significant increase in aortic root growth was observed compared to the females after follow-up (p = 0.559 and p = 0.352. In the GT-8/+ MFS mouse model, multiparous female Marfan mice showed increased aortic diameters when compared to nulliparous females. Aortic dilatation in multiparous females was comparable to Marfan male mice. Moreover, increased aortic diameters were associated with more severe fragmentation of the elastic lamellae. In addition, 17β-estradiol was found to promote fibrillin-1 production by human aortic smooth muscle cells.Pregnancy-related changes influence aortic disease severity in otherwise protected female MFS mice and patients. There may be a role for estrogen in the female sex protective effect.

  13. Takayasu arteritis with middle aortic syndrome and mesenteric ischemia treated by aortic stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Morrissey, MD, MA, FRCSC

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old woman suffering from Takayasu arteritis presented with middle aortic syndrome consisting of abdominal pain, refractory hypertension with pulmonary edema and pleural effusions, and lower limb ischemia. She failed to improve with high-dose steroid therapy and underwent endovascular stenting of two severe stenoses in the supraceliac and infrarenal aorta. Her symptoms resolved and hypertension improved after the procedure.

  14. Influence Of Timing After Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair For Acute Type B Aortic Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyairi, Takeshi; Miyata, Hiroaki; Chiba, Kiyoshi; Nishimaki, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Yukihisa; Motomura, Noboru; Takamoto, Shinichi

    2017-12-22

    This study aimed to analyze the influence of the timing of intervention from presentation of symptoms to thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) and its relation to major complications. Data were collected from the Japan Adult Cardiovascular Surgery Database. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 680 patients who underwent TEVAR for acute and subacute type B dissection between January 2008 and January 2013. TEVAR for type B dissection was performed in 680 patients: 295 were performed within 24 hours of presentation of symptoms (hyperacute), 97 between 24 hours and 14 days (acute), and 288 between 14 days and 6 weeks (subacute). Hyperacute patients more frequently suffered immediate life-threatening complications from type B dissection such as rupture or malperfusion than acute or subacute patients (41.0% [121/295] vs 7.2% [7/97] vs 4.2% [12/288]; P < .001 and 17.3% [51/295] vs 8.3% [8/97] vs 5.6% [16/288]; P < .001, respectively). Operative mortality and severe complications including aortic dissection were more common in hyperacute patients (11.9% [35/295] vs 0% [0/97] vs 1.7% [5/288]; P < .001 and 32.5% [96/295] vs 10.3% [10/97] vs 8.3% [24/288]; P < .001, respectively) and did not differ significantly between acute and subacute patients (P = .191 and P = .553, respectively). Although TEVAR performed for aortic dissection within 24 hours of presentation of symptoms was associated worse outcomes, TEVAR between 24 hours and 14 days, as compared with TEVAR between 14 days and 6 weeks, does not appear to increase the risk of perioperative complications. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Pig specific vascular anatomy allows acute infrarenal aortic occlusion without hind limb ischemia and stepwise occlusion without clinical signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haacke, N; Unger, J K; Haidenhein, C; Russ, M; Hiebl, B; Niehues, S M

    2011-01-01

    In a porcine, aortic graft model we found 5 animals to develop and survive unnoticed, complete infrarenal aortic occlusion and 2 pigs with an acute occlusion but rather unspecific clinical symptoms. We investigated the pigs' vascular system to classify the anatomic capabilities to compensate for an acute abdominal aortic occlusion. Retrospective analysis of CT scans and clinical data to specify unexpected results in a case series of infrarenal occlusion in a porcine model. Collaborative study of experimental and clinical departments. Fifteen healthy female minipigs. All pigs underwent an infrarenal aortic graft intervention. Anesthesia and perioperative management of the animals were preformed along the standard operating procedures of the local Department of Experimental Medicine. All animals received perioperative antibiotics, ASS, and carprofen for postoperative analgesia. Arterial pressure, heart rate, body temperature, and diuresis were monitored during surgery and therapeutic interventions. Contrast media based computed tomography (CT) with total body scans were performed at 1, 4, 10, 12 weeks after surgery. Comparable scans of cardiovascular healthy subjects (humans and pigs) and patients with a Leriche's syndrome were analyzed. Neither acute (within the first 12 h after surgery) nor stepwise total aortic occlusion show unmistakable clinical signs. In pigs, the epigastric artery (EGA) - which is in connection with suprarenal lumbal arteries, subclavian and external iliac artery - is highly developed associated to the high number of mammary glands of about 7 on one side. In humans, the ratio of aortic to EGA-diameter is 1 : 0.15. In minipigs we found a ratio of 1 : 0.43 which changed during aortic occlusion resulting in a ratio of 1 : 0.58. Pigs with a slowly developing occlusion demonstrated an enlargement of the ureteric artery of about 210% completing a sufficient collateral system. While in the human Leriche's syndrome months are needed to enlarge the

  16. Multiple Ascending Aortic Mural Thrombi and Acute Necrotizing Mediastinitis Secondary to Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Kwon Chong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The formation of aortic thrombi is an extremely rare complication of acute pancreatitis. Here we report a case of acute pancreatitis complicated by a paraesophageal pseudocyst, necrotizing mediastinitis, and the formation of multiple thrombi in the ascending aorta. The patient was successfully treated by surgical therapy, which included extensive debridement of the mediastinum and removal of the aortic thrombi under cardiopulmonary bypass. Although esophageal resection was not carried out concomitantly, the lesions were resolved and the patient remained free of complications over 2 years of follow-up care.

  17. Incidence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome after endovascular aortic repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De La Motte, L; Vogt, K; Jensen, Leif Panduro

    2011-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of the post-implantation syndrome/systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) after endovascular aortic repair. METHODS: All patients, undergoing elective primary endovascular repair of an asymptomatic infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm...... of the contrast media used, type of groin access, adjunctive procedures and duration of surgery. In total, 11 (28%) patients in the SIRS group and 4 (15%) patients in the non-SIRS group underwent re-interventions. Median follow-up period was 26 (range 20-32) months. Thirty-day mortality did not differ...... in the groups (3% in the SIRS group vs. none in the non-SIRS group). CONCLUSION: The high incidence of SIRS after EVAR is unexpected considering the minimally invasive procedure. Further studies on the cause of this response and measures to attenuate the response seem appropriate....

  18. Need for Limb Revascularization in Patients with Acute Aortic Dissection is Associated with Mesenteric Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton-Ouw, Kristofer M; Sandhu, Harleen K; Leake, Samuel S; Jeffress, Katherine; Miller, Charles C; Durham, Christopher A; Nguyen, Tom C; Estrera, Anthony L; Safi, Hazim J; Azizzadeh, Ali

    2016-10-01

    Acute aortic dissection (AAD) can cause limb ischemia due to branch vessel occlusion. A minority of patients have persistent ischemia after central aortic repair and require peripheral arterial revascularization. We investigated whether the need for limb revascularization is associated with adverse outcomes. We reviewed our cases of AAD from 2000 to 2014 and identified patients with malperfusion syndromes (coronary, cerebral, spinal, visceral, renal, or peripheral ischemia). Patients with DeBakey I/II (Stanford type A) dissection had urgent open repair of the ascending aorta. Patients with DeBakey III (Stanford type B) dissection were initiated on anti-impulse medical therapy and had either open aortic repair or thoracic endovascular aortic repair for malperfusion syndromes. Patients with persistent lower limb ischemia after aortic repair usually had either extra-anatomic bypass grafting or iliac stenting. Some DeBakey III patients had peripheral revascularization without central aortic repair. We performed univariate and multivariate analysis to determine the effects of need for limb revascularization and clinical outcomes. We treated 1,015 AAD patients (501 [49.4%] DeBakey I/II and 514 [50.6%] DeBakey III) with a mean age of 59.7 ± 14.5 years (67.5% males). Aortic repair was performed in all DeBakey I/II patients and in 103 (20.0%) DeBakey III patients. Overall 30-day mortality was 11.3%. Lower limb ischemia was present in 104 (10.3%) patients and was more common in DeBakey I/II compared with DeBakey III dissections (65.4% vs. 34.6%; odds ratio [OR] 2.1, confidence interval [CI] 1.4-3.2; P = 0.001). Among the 40 patients who required limb revascularization, there was no difference in need for revascularization between DeBakey I/II and III patients. Patients requiring limb revascularization were more likely to have mesenteric ischemia compared with the rest of the cohort in both DeBakey I/II (P = 0.037) and DeBakey III dissections (P mesenteric ischemia

  19. Metabolic syndrome and acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolasevic, I; Milic, S; Orlic, L; Poropat, G; Jakopcic, I; Franjic, N; Klanac, A; Kristo, N; Stimac, D

    2016-07-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of metabolic syndrome on the course of acute pancreatitis determined by disease severity, the presence of local and systemic complications and survival rate. 609 patients admitted to our hospital in the period from January 1, 2008 up to June 31, 2015 with the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis were analyzed. The diagnosis and the severity of acute pancreatitis were made according to the revised Atlanta classification criteria from 2012. Of 609 patients with acute pancreatitis, 110 fulfilled the criteria for metabolic syndrome. Patients with metabolic syndrome had statistically significantly higher incidence of moderately severe (38.2% vs. 28.5%; p=0.05) and severe (22.7% vs. 12.8%; p=0.01) acute pancreatitis in comparison to those without metabolic syndrome, while patients without metabolic syndrome had higher incidence of mild acute pancreatitis in comparison to those patients with metabolic syndrome (58.7% vs. 39.1%; ppancreatitis. Comparing survival rates, patients suffering from metabolic syndrome had a higher death rate compared to patients without metabolic syndrome (16% vs. 4.5%; ppancreatitis, as well as higher mortality rate. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Acute catatonic syndrome after neuroleptic malignant syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjelloun, G; Jehel, L; Abgrall, G; Pelissolo, A; Allilaire, Jf

    2005-01-01

    We report the case of a young woman who deve-loped catatonic syndrome a few days after neuroleptic mali-gnant syndrome (NMS), arising the problem of the chronology of both affections. A 20-year old woman with an history of bipolar disorder, experienced an acute manic syndrome that made hospitalization necessary. Fourteen days after loxa-pine prescription, the patient developed a NMS (DSM IV criteria) dyskinesia, dysphagia, fever and alteration of cons-ciousness. Hepatic transaminases and muscular enzymes increased. Neuroleptic was immediately interrupted and benzodiazepines (Lorazepam) was started. Biological parameters were normalized after 7 days, hyperpyrexia decreased and extrapyramidal symptoms disappeared but manic symptoms persisted. Two weeks later, the patient presented nega-tivism, rigidity of the four limb, catalepsia and hyperpyrexia. She also had been anxious for death and presented auditory hallucinations. Bacteriological samples and computed tomography were normal. This catatonic symptoms did not decreased and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) was necessary. After six ECT, she started standing up, walking, taking food and speaking. After 12 ECT, the clinical state was the same as it was before the acute episod. The patient was then treated with valproate and lorazepam for anxiety symptoms. Acute catatonie, a rare and life-threatening acute syndrome was described in psychosis before the advent of neuroleptic drugs. It's characterized by hyperexia, stupor alternated with exctement, rigidity. Many etiolologic factors have been reported for this affection: psychogenic, organic or toxic. Neuroletic malignant syndrome is a potentially fatal complication of neuroleptic treatment occuring in about 1% of patients treated with neuroleptic. This syndrome is characterised by consciousness alteration, extrapyramidal symptoms, autonomic and thermic disorders. Similar clinical and biological features in catatonia and neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) suggest a

  1. Losartan reduces aortic dilatation rate in adults with Marfan syndrome: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenink, M.; Hartog, A.W. den; Franken, R.; Radonic, T.; Waard, V. de; Timmermans, J.; Scholte, A.J.; Berg, M.P van den; Spijkerboer, A.M.; Marquering, H.A.; Zwinderman, A.H.; Mulder, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    AIM: Patients with Marfan syndrome have an increased risk of life-threatening aortic complications, mostly preceded by aortic dilatation. Treatment with losartan, an angiotensin-II receptor-1 blocker, may reduce aortic dilatation rate in Marfan patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this multicentre,

  2. Losartan reduces aortic dilatation rate in adults with Marfan syndrome : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenink, Maarten; den Hartog, Alexander W.; Franken, Romy; Radonic, Teodora; de Waard, Vivian; Timmermans, Janneke; Scholte, Arthur J.; van den Berg, Maarten P.; Spijkerboer, Anje M.; Marquering, Henk A.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Aim Patients with Marfan syndrome have an increased risk of life-threatening aortic complications, mostly preceded by aortic dilatation. Treatment with losartan, an angiotensin-II receptor-1 blocker, may reduce aortic dilatation rate in Marfan patients. Methods and results In this multicentre,

  3. Acute aortic dissection in patient with suspected pheochromocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lešanović Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aortic dissection is one of the most fatal vascular emergencies. Almost 40% of the patients do not reach hospital in time while more than quarter die in the first 24 hours after the dissection begins. Case Report: A 37-year old man was admitted to our hospital with severe anterior chest pain which had lasted for over a week. Suspected aortic dissection was rapidly confirmed using imaging modalities - MDCT chest scan and TTE, followed by an urgent surgical management - Bentall procedure. MDCT chest scan also discovered adrenal incidentaloma defined as malignant, pheochromocytoma like mass. Due to the critical state of the patient, there was not enough time for further endocrinologic testing. Discussion and conclusion: When treating patients with pheochromocytoma and acute aortic disection, it is crucial to obtain a stable hemodynamic state before the surgery, since they can trigger a severe hypertensive crisis due to high levels of cathecholamines induced chronic vasoconctriction. The most vulnerable periods are the induction of anesthesia and perioperative hemodynamic oscillations, so treating patients with short acting alpha- 1 adrenergic blocking agents preoperatively has proven to be helpful - Phentolamine. Both dissection of aorta and pheochromocytoma present challenges for anesthesiologists and early recognition of symptoms is essential in establishing the diagnosis and reducing the mortality rate.

  4. Relation between thoracic aortic inflammation and features of plaque vulnerability in the coronary tree in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. An FDG-positron emission tomography and optical coherence tomography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taglieri, Nevio; Ghetti, Gabriele; Saia, Francesco; Bacchi Reggiani, Maria Letizia; Rapezzi, Claudio [Alma Mater Studiorum Universita di Bologna, Istituto di Cardiologia, Dipartimento di Medicina Specialistica, Diagnostica e Sperimentale, Bologna (Italy); Nanni, Cristina; Bonfiglioli, Rachele; Lima, Giacomo Maria; Fanti, Stefano [Alma Mater Studiorum Universita di Bologna, Istituto di Medicina Nucleare, Dipartimento di Medicina Specialistica, Diagnostica e Sperimentale, Bologna (Italy); Marco, Valeria [CLI Foundation, Rome (Italy); Prati, Francesco [CLI Foundation, Rome (Italy); Ettore Sansavini Health Science Foundation, GVM Care and Research, Cotignola (Italy)

    2017-10-15

    To evaluate the relationship between aortic inflammation as assessed by {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET) and features of plaque vulnerability as assessed by frequency domain-optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). We enrolled 30 consecutive non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. All patients underwent three-vessel OCT before intervention and {sup 18}F-FDG-PET before discharge. Univariable and C-reactive protein (CRP)-adjusted linear regression analyses were performed between features of vulnerability [namely:lipid-rich plaques with and without macrophages and thin cap fibroatheromas (TCFA)] and {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in both ascending (AA) and descending aorta (DA) [measured either as averaged mean and maximum target-to-blood ratio (TBR) or as active slices (TBR{sub max} ≥ 1.6)]. Mean age was 62 years, and 26 patients were male. On univariable linear regression analysis TBR{sub mean} and TBR{sub max} in DA was associated with the number of lipid-rich plaques (β = 4.22; 95%CI 0.05-8.39; p = 0.047 and β = 3.72; 95%CI 1.14-6.30; p = 0.006, respectively). TBR{sub max} in DA was also associated with the number of lipid-rich plaques containing macrophages (β = 2.40; 95%CI 0.07-4.72; p = 0.044). A significant CRP adjusted linear association between the TBR{sub max} in DA and the number of lipid-rich plaques was observed (CRP-adjusted β = 3.58; 95%CI -0.91-6.25; p = 0.01). TBR{sub max} in DA showed a trend towards significant CRP-adjusted association with number of lipid-rich plaques with macrophages (CRP-adjusted β = 2.30; 95%CI -0.11-4.71; p = 0.06). We also observed a CRP-adjusted (β = 2.34; 95%CI 0.22-4.47; p = 0.031) linear association between the number of active slices in DA and the number of lipid-rich plaques. No relation was found between FDG uptake in the aorta and the number of TCFAs. In patients with first NSTEACS{sup ,} {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in

  5. Aortic plaque rupture in the setting of acute lower limb ischemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, David H

    2012-02-01

    Acute aortic plaque rupture is an uncommon cause of acute lower limb ischemia. The authors report sequence computed tomographic imaging of a distal aortic plaque rupture in a young man with bilateral lower limb complications. Clinical awareness, prompt recognition and imaging, and appropriate treatment of this uncommon condition are necessary to improve patient outcomes.

  6. Acute Aortic Dissection Presenting Exclusively as Lower Extremity Paresthesias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Gibney

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available History of Present Illness: A 45-year-old male presented with left-lower extremity numbness for 3 hours. He denied chest pain, shortness of breath, back pain, or pain to his leg. On physical examination, he was noted to have a normal cardiac exam without murmurs and normal breath sounds, but had no palpable femoral or dorsalis pedis pulse on the left lower extremity. His extremity examination showed normal range of motion, full strength to both lower extremities, but subjective decreased sensation over the entire left lower extremity in all dermatomes. Significant findings: Chest x-ray and CT angiogram was performed to evaluate his thoracic and abdominal vasculature. Chest x-ray did not show any significant widening of the mediastinum. The CT angiogram demonstrated an intimal tear along the aortic arch separating a true and false aortic lumen, consistent with an acute aortic dissection. The true lumen (highlighted in blue in images 1-5 can be identified by continuity with an undissected part of the aorta1. While the false lumen (highlighted in red in images 1-5 can be identified by its crescent shape and larger cross-sectional area.1 Discussion: The classic acute aortic dissection patient presents with sudden onset, tearing chest pain radiating to the back. Inconsistent blood pressure in the extremities is often found, along with diminished or absent peripheral pulses and widened mediastinum on chest x-ray. Painless dissection rarely occurs (6.4% of cases, and is more often found in older patients and is associated with higher mortality.2 Although rare, isolated lower limb findings such as ischemia or paresthesias are noted to occur in about 10% of cases.2 When aortic dissection presents solely with extremity complaints, the diagnosis is often missed.3 CT Angiography is the ideal imaging modality to confirm the diagnosis and classification. Imaging can be obtained in stable patients in conjunction with emergent surgical consultation, pain

  7. Large aortic aneurysm and dissection in a patient with Marfan's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pivatto Júnior

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Marfan’s syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder of connective tissue affecting approximately1 in5000 people. In individuals with this syndrome, more than 90% of deaths from known causes result from cardiovascular complications, such as aortic dissection, aortic regurgitation, and congestive cardiac failure. In this report, we present a patient with a large symptomatic aortic aneurysm and chronic dissection, severe aortic regurgitation and cardiomegaly, treated successfully with resection of the proximal aorta and placement of a mechanic aortic valved graft.

  8. Risk factors of pre-operational aortic rupture in acute and subacute Stanford type A aortic dissection patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuo-Dong; Liu, Yang; Zhu, Jiang; Wang, Jun; Lu, Fang-Lin; Han, Lin; Xu, Zhi-Yun

    2017-12-01

    Aortic rupture is one of the main causes of early death in acute and subacute Stanford type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) patients. This study aimed to analyze potential risk factors for pre-operational aortic rupture in ATAAD patients. We retrospectively reviewed aortic dissection cases treated between May 2013 and May 2016 in Changhai Hospital, Shanghai. A total of 329 patients with ATAAD were included in the final analysis, and 31 patients died of aortic rupture before surgery. Clinical data on basic characteristics, clinical presentation, and biochemical measurements for all 329 patients were analyzed. The in-hospital aortic rupture rate was 9.4% (31/329), and the rupture accounted for 47% (31/66) of all in-hospital deaths of ATAAD patients. Patients who experienced rupture were significantly older (P0.7 ng/mL (OR: 9.28; 95% CI, 1.72-50.06; P=0.010), and D-dimer level ≥10 µg/mL (OR: 13.37; 95% CI, 2.18-81.97; P=0.005). Aortic rupture accounted for 47% of all in-hospital deaths among patient with ATAAD. Shock, pain requiring medication, a troponin level >0.7 ng/mL and a D-dimer level ≥10 µg/mL are independent risk factors for aortic rupture in these patients.

  9. Valve Sparing Aortic Root Replacement in Children with Loeys-Dietz Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Tae Sim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder that is characterized by aggressive arterial and aortic disease, often involving the formation of aortic aneurysms. We describe the cases of two children with LDS who were diagnosed with aortic root aneurysms and successfully treated by valve-sparing aortic root replacement (VSRR with a Valsalva graft. VSRR is a safe and suitable operation for children that avoids prosthetic valve replacement.

  10. Hybrid Treatment of Acute Abdominal Aortic Thrombosis Presenting with Paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzarone, Matteo; De Troia, Alessandro; Iazzolino, Luigi; Nabulsi, Bilal; Tecchio, Tiziano

    2016-05-01

    Acute thrombotic or embolic occlusion of the abdominal aorta is a rare vascular emergency associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Classically, the clinical presentation is a severe peripheral ischemia with bilateral leg pain as the predominant feature. Aortic occlusion presenting as an isolated acute onset of paraplegia due to spinal cord ischemia is very rare and requires improved awareness to prevent adverse outcomes associated with delayed diagnosis. We report the case of a 54-year-old man who presented with sudden paraplegia due to the thrombotic occlusion of the infrarenal aorta involving the first segment of the common iliac arteries on both sides; emergent transperitoneal aorto iliac thrombectomy combined with the endovascular iliac kissing-stent technique were performed achieving perioperative complete regression of the symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Determination of entry site for acute type A aortic dissection by initial enhanced CT-scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mase, Takenori; Narumiya, Chihiro; Aoyama, Takahiko; Nagata, Yoshihisa [Aichi Medical Univ., Nagakute (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-01-01

    Acute type A aortic dissection presents a surgical emergency because conservative therapy is not effective in the majority of instances. Enhanced CT-scan of the chest is commonly available and is considered to be an optimal diagnostic method for this disease. The operative strategy is to resect the primary tear to close the entry site of the aortic dissection and replace it with a tubular Dacron graft. Therefore, the existence of the entry site is important in determining the operative procedure. Based on the numerical value of the enhanced CT-scan inspection, the present study seeks to preoperatively identify the location of the presumed entry site in aortic dissection. From May 1996 to June 1999, 21 consecutive patients (Marfan's syndrome excluded) with acute type A aortic dissection underwent surgical treatment. Nineteen patients were preoperatively examined by enhanced CT-scan: 11 men and 8 women, with a mean age of 61 years. CT-scan slices used for early diagnosis were of the ascending aorta, aortic arch, descending aorta, and thoracoabdominal aorta. The largest diameters of the whole and true lumen were measured from cross-sectional aortic images with a personal computer, and the areas of the whole and true lumen were obtained by the manual tracing method. The true ratio was calculated for the largest diameter and area of the whole lumen. The nineteen patients were divided into two groups according to the location of the entry site based on the operating views. Seven patients with the entry site in the ascending aorta were classified as group A, and twelve patients with the entry site further in the aortic arch and descending aorta were classified as group B. Comparisons were performed by non-parametric analysis. Moreover, a discriminant analysis was applied to evaluate the classification between the two groups. The ratio of the largest diameter of the true lumen in group A at the level of the ascending and descending aorta was significantly greater than

  12. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Confalonieri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Since its first description, the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS has been acknowledged to be a major clinical problem in respiratory medicine. From July 2015 to July 2016 almost 300 indexed articles were published on ARDS. This review summarises only eight of them as an arbitrary overview of clinical relevance: definition and epidemiology, risk factors, prevention and treatment. A strict application of definition criteria is crucial, but the diverse resource-setting scenarios foster geographic variability and contrasting outcome data. A large international multicentre prospective cohort study including 50 countries across five continents reported that ARDS is underdiagnosed, and there is potential for improvement in its management. Furthermore, epidemiological data from low-income countries suggest that a revision of the current definition of ARDS is needed in order to improve its recognition and global clinical outcome. In addition to the well-known risk-factors for ARDS, exposure to high ozone levels and low vitamin D plasma concentrations were found to be predisposing circumstances. Drug-based preventive strategies remain a major challenge, since two recent trials on aspirin and statins failed to reduce the incidence in at-risk patients. A new disease-modifying therapy is awaited: some recent studies promised to improve the prognosis of ARDS, but mortality and disabling complications are still high in survivors in intensive care.

  13. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sílvia Valente Barbas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper, based on relevant literature articles and the authors' clinical experience, presents a goal-oriented respiratory management for critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS that can help improve clinicians' ability to care for these patients. Early recognition of ARDS modified risk factors and avoidance of aggravating factors during hospital stay such as nonprotective mechanical ventilation, multiple blood products transfusions, positive fluid balance, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and gastric aspiration can help decrease its incidence. An early extensive clinical, laboratory, and imaging evaluation of “at risk patients” allows a correct diagnosis of ARDS, assessment of comorbidities, and calculation of prognostic indices, so that a careful treatment can be planned. Rapid administration of antibiotics and resuscitative measures in case of sepsis and septic shock associated with protective ventilatory strategies and early short-term paralysis associated with differential ventilatory techniques (recruitment maneuvers with adequate positive end-expiratory pressure titration, prone position, and new extracorporeal membrane oxygenation techniques in severe ARDS can help improve its prognosis. Revaluation of ARDS patients on the third day of evolution (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA, biomarkers and response to infection therapy allows changes in the initial treatment plans and can help decrease ARDS mortality.

  14. Clinical and genetic aspects of Marfan syndrome and familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst-Hofstee, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    This thesis concerns the clinical and genetic aspects of familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections, in particular in Marfan syndrome. It includes the Dutch multidisciplinary guidelines for diagnosis and management of Marfan syndrome. These guidelines contain practical directions for

  15. Stent-Graft Relining in a Patient with Acute Aortic Aneurysm and a Completely Migrated Endograft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Jayandiran; Yazicioglu, Ceyhan; Omar, Mahad; Veller, Martin G.

    2017-01-01

    Stent-graft migration and type I endoleaks are associated with a higher rate of reintervention and increased mortality and morbidity. This article describes a patient presented with an infrarenal aortic stent-graft which had migrated into the aortic sac with loss of all aortic neck attachment. The acutely expanding abdominal aortic aneurysm was treated by placing a second modular endograft within and above the migrated stentgraft. The patient returned 36 months later, with features of an acute myocardial infarction, severe bilateral lower limb ischemia, and renal failure. He was too ill for intervention and demised within 48 hours. PMID:29267621

  16. Life-threatening subdural hematoma after aortic valve replacement in a patient with Heyde syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Tetsuro; Hamasaki, Azumi; Ohba, Eiichi; Yamashita, Atsushi; Hayashi, Jun; Sadahiro, Mitsuaki

    2017-08-08

    Heyde syndrome is known as a triad of calcific aortic stenosis, anemia due to gastrointestinal bleeding from angiodysplasia, and acquired type 2A von Willebrand disease. This acquired hemorrhagic disorder is characterized by the loss of the large von Willebrand factor multimers due to the shear stress across the diseased aortic valve. The most frequently observed type of bleeding in these patients is mucosal or skin bleeding, such as epistaxis, followed by gastrointestinal bleeding. On the other hand, intracranial hemorrhage complicating Heyde syndrome is extremely rare. A 77-year-old woman presented to our hospital with severe aortic stenosis and severe anemia due to gastrointestinal bleeding and was diagnosed with Heyde syndrome. Although aortic valve replacement was performed without recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding, postoperative life-threatening acute subdural hematoma occurred with a marked midline shift. Despite prompt surgical evacuation of the hematoma, she did not recover consciousness and she died 1 month after the operation. Postoperative subdural hematoma is rare, but it should be kept in mind as a devastating hemorrhagic complication, especially in patients with Heyde syndrome.

  17. Decreased Aortic Elasticity in Children With Marfan Syndrome or Loeys-Dietz Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, Yohei; Motoki, Noriko; Tada, Akira; Yamazaki, Shoko; Hachiya, Akira; Matsuzaki, Satoshi; Kamiya, Motoko; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Kosho, Tomoki; Inaba, Yuji

    2016-10-25

    The characteristics of aortic elasticity are unclear in children with connective tissue disorders (CTDs) such as Marfan syndrome (MFS) and Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS), especially in those with a non-dilated aortic root (AoR). This study evaluated the aortic elasticity properties of pediatric MFS and LDS patients with either dilated or non-dilated AoR.Methods and Results:The 31 children with MFS or LDS were classified into dilated (Z score of AoR diameter ≥2.5; n=17) or non-dilated (Z score of AoR diameter elasticity parameters of distensibility, strain, and stiffness index at the levels of the AoR, sinotubular junction, ascending aorta, and descending aorta. Aortic distensibility and strain were significantly lower in both test groups than in controls at the AoR level. The Z score of AoR diameter significantly correlated with aortic distensibility (R=-0.63, Pelasticity at the level of the AoR may be decreased in children with MFS or LDS even before AoR dilatation progresses. Less aortic distensibility and CTD type are considered important parameters in estimating AoR dilatation in these patients. (Circ J 2016; 80: 2369-2375).

  18. Progressive Supranuclear Palsy-like Syndrome After Aortic Aneurysm Repair: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirisha Nandipati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The syndrome of progressive supranuclear palsy‐like syndrome is a rare complication of ascending aortic aneurysm repair. We report two patients with videos and present a table of prior reported cases. To our knowledge there is no previously published video of this syndrome. The suspected mechanism is brainstem injury though neuroimaging is often negative for an associated infarct. We hope our report will increase recognition of this syndrome after aortic surgery, especially in patients with visual complaints.

  19. Acute type B aortic dissection complicated by visceral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Frederik H W; Patel, Himanshu J; Upchurch, Gilbert R; Williams, David M; Montgomery, Daniel G; Gleason, Thomas G; Braverman, Alan C; Sechtem, Udo; Fattori, Rossella; Di Eusanio, Marco; Evangelista, Arturo; Nienaber, Christoph A; Isselbacher, Eric M; Eagle, Kim A; Trimarchi, Santi

    2015-04-01

    Acute type B aortic dissection (ABAD) can lead to visceral malperfusion, a potentially life-threatening complication. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presentation, management, and outcomes of ABAD patients with visceral ischemia who are enrolled in the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection. Patients with ABAD enrolled in the registry between 1996 and 2013 were identified and stratified based on presence of visceral ischemia at admission. Demographics, medical history, imaging results, management, and outcomes were compared for patients with versus without visceral ischemia. A total of 1456 ABAD patients were identified, of which 104 (7.1%) presented with visceral ischemia. Preoperative limb ischemia (28% vs 7%, P < .001) and acute renal failure (41% vs 14%, P < .001) were more common among patients with visceral ischemia. Endovascular treatment and surgery were offered to 49% and 30% of the visceral ischemia cohort, respectively; remaining patients were managed conservatively. The in-hospital mortality was 30.8% for patients with visceral ischemia and 9.1% for those without visceral ischemia (odds ratio [OR] 4.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8-7.0, P < .0001). Mortality rates were similar after surgical and endovascular management of visceral ischemia (25.8% and 25.5%, respectively, P = not significant). Among the visceral ischemia group, medical management was a predictor of mortality in multivariate analysis (OR, 5.91; 95% CI, 1.2-31.0; P = .036). Patients with ABAD complicated by visceral ischemia have a high risk of mortality. We observed similar outcomes for patients treated by endovascular management versus surgery, whereas medical management was an independent predictor of mortality. Early diagnosis and intervention for visceral ischemia seems to be crucial. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. hypertensive intracranial bleed due to mid aortic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poovazhagi, Varadarajan; Pauline, Leema; Balakrishnan, N

    2014-03-01

    The authors describe an 11-y-old child with intracranial bleed due to malignant hypertension. Child presented with hypertension, right hemiparesis, feeble femoral pulses and lower limb blood pressure less than the upper limb. CT angiogram revealed narrowing of the abdominal aorta with thinned out left renal artery and hypoplasia of the left kidney. A diagnosis of Mid aortic syndrome was arrived at. CT brain revealed left ganglio capsular bleed. Child was treated with antihypertensives and steriods in view of suspected Takayasu arteritis. Child recovered with minimal hemiparesis and is being followed up.

  1. Decreased aortic growth and middle aortic syndrome in patients with neuroblastoma after radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, Elizabeth J. [Harvard University, Department of Radiology, Mount Auburn Hospital, Cambridge, MA (United States); University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Tong, Ricky T. [Stanford University, Department of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Gillis, Amy M.; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiation Oncology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Henning, Tobias D.; Boddington, Sophie; Sha, Vinil; Gooding, Charles; Coakley, Fergus V.; Daldrup-Link, Heike [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Weinberg, Vivian A. [University of California, San Francisco, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Biostatistics Core, San Francisco, CA (United States); Matthay, Katherine [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Pediatrics, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Long-term CT follow-up studies are required in pediatric patients who have received intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) to assess vascular toxicities and to determine the exact complication rate. To analyze with CT the effects of radiation therapy (RT) on the growth of the aorta in neuroblastoma patients. Abdominal CT scans of 31 patients with intraabdominal neuroblastoma (stage II-IV), treated with RT (20 IORT{+-}EBRT, 11 EBRT alone), were analyzed retrospectively. The diameter of the abdominal aorta was measured before and after RT. These data were compared to normal and predicted normal aortic diameters of children, according to the model of Fitzgerald, Donaldson and Poznanski (aortic diameter in centimeters = 0.844+0.0599 x age in years), and to the diameters of a control group of children who had not undergone RT. Statistical analyses for the primary aims were performed using the chi-squared test, t-test, Mann-Whitney test, nonparametric Wilcoxon matched-pairs test and analysis of variance for repeated measures. Clinical files and imaging studies were evaluated for signs of late vascular complications of neuroblastoma patients who had received RT. The mean diameter before and after RT and the growth of the aorta were significantly lower than expected in patients with neuroblastoma (P<0.05 for each) and when compared to the growth in a control group with normal and nonirradiated aortas. Among the patients who had received RT, there was no difference due to the type of RT. Seven patients from the IORT{+-}EBRT group developed vascular complications, which included hypertension (five), middle aortic syndrome (two), death due to mesenteric ischemia (one) and critical aortic stenosis, which required aortic bypass surgery (two). Patients with neuroblastoma who had received RT showed impaired growth of the abdominal aorta. Significant long-term vascular complications occurred in seven patients who received IORT

  2. Risk factors for prolonged mechanical ventilation after total aortic arch replacement for acute DeBakey type I aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Nan; Chen, Lei; Ge, Yi-Peng; Zhu, Jun-Ming; Liu, Yong-Min; Zheng, Jun; Liu, Wei; Ma, Wei-Guo; Sun, Li-Zhong

    2014-09-01

    EuroSCORE II is an objective risk scoring model. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of EuroSCORE II in the prediction of prolonged mechanical ventilation following total aortic arch replacement for acute DeBakey type I aortic dissection and evaluate the risk factors for prolonged mechanical ventilation. Between February 2009 to February 2012, data from 240 patients who underwent total aortic arch replacement for acute DeBakey type I aortic dissection were collected retrospectively. Mechanical ventilation after the surgery longer than 48 hours was defined as postoperative prolonged mechanical ventilation. EuroSCORE II was applied to predict prolonged mechanical ventilation. A C statistic (receiver operating characteristic curve) was used to test discrimination of the model. Calibration was assessed with a Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistic. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify the final risk factors of prolonged mechanical ventilation. The overall mortality was 10%. The mean length of mechanical ventilation after total aortic arch replacement was 42.72 ± 51.45 hours. Total 74 patients needed prolonged mechanical ventilation. EuroSCORE II showed poor discriminatory ability (C statistic 0.52) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow, pmechanical ventilation. On multivariate analysis, independent risk factors for postoperative prolonged mechanical ventilation were age ≥ 48.5 years (pmechanical ventilation following total aortic arch replacement for acute DeBakey type I aortic dissection. Preoperative high level of leukocyte, age and surgical period from symptom onset are risk factors for prolonged mechanical ventilation. Copyright © 2014 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pathogenetic Basis of Aortopathy and Aortic Valve Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-19

    Aortopathies; Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm; Aortic Valve Disease; Thoracic Aortic Disease; Thoracic Aortic Dissection; Thoracic Aortic Rupture; Ascending Aortic Disease; Descending Aortic Disease; Ascending Aortic Aneurysm; Descending Aortic Aneurysm; Marfan Syndrome; Loeys-Dietz Syndrome; Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome; Shprintzen-Goldberg Syndrome; Turner Syndrome; PHACE Syndrome; Autosomal Recessive Cutis Laxa; Congenital Contractural Arachnodactyly; Arterial Tortuosity Syndrome

  4. Unusual presenting of acute aortic dissection due to penetrating atheromatous ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atas, Halil; Durmus, Erdal; Sunbul, Murat; Birkan, Yasar; Ozben, Beste

    2014-07-01

    Penetrating atheromatous ulcer (PAU) is an atherosclerotic ulcer penetrating the internal elastic lamina of the aortic wall causing a hematoma within the media layer of aorta. They are commonly located in the descending aorta of the elderly and hypertensive patients. They may rarely be complicated by aortic dissection. We report a relative young normotensive patient presenting with acute aortic dissection due to PAU located in the ascending aorta.

  5. Fertile eunuch syndrome in association with biventricular noncompaction, bicuspid aortic valve, severe aortic stenosis, and talipes equinovarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Kazim Serhan; Osmonov, Damirbek; Altay, Servet; Gungor, Baris; Eren, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium is a congenital cardiomyopathy characterized by prominent ventricular trabeculations and deep intertrabecular recesses. In most cases, noncompaction is an isolated disease confined to the left ventricular myocardium. Fertile eunuch syndrome is a hypogonadotropic hormonal disorder in which the levels of testosterone and follicle-stimulating hormone are low. We report a case of biventricular noncompaction in association with bicuspid aortic valve and severe aortic stenosis in a 42-year-old man who was diagnosed with talipes equinovarus and fertile eunuch syndrome during childhood.

  6. Depression following acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Terese Sara Hoej; Maartensson, Solvej; Ibfelt, Else Helene

    2016-01-01

    .8 % developed a recurrent depression. Most patient characteristics (demographic factors, socioeconomic status, psychosocial factors, health-related behavioural factors, somatic comorbidities, and severity of acute coronary syndrome) were significantly associated with increased HRs for both early and later...... depressions. Prior depression modified most of these associations in such a way that the association was attenuated in patients with a prior depression. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that first time and recurrent depression following acute coronary syndrome have different risk profiles. This is important......PURPOSE: Depression is common following acute coronary syndrome, and thus, it is important to provide knowledge to improve prevention and detection of depression in this patient group. The objectives of this study were to examine: (1) whether indicators of stressors and coping resources were risk...

  7. Beta-blockers for preventing aortic dissection in Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyun-Kyoung; Lawrence, Kendra Ak; Musini, Vijaya M

    2017-11-07

    Marfan syndrome is a hereditary disorder affecting the connective tissue and is caused by a mutation of the fibrillin-1 (FBN1) gene. It affects multiple systems of the body, most notably the cardiovascular, ocular, skeletal, dural and pulmonary systems. Aortic root dilatation is the most frequent cardiovascular manifestation and its complications, including aortic regurgitation, dissection and rupture are the main cause of morbidity and mortality. To assess the long-term efficacy and safety of beta-blocker therapy as compared to placebo, no treatment or surveillance only in people with Marfan syndrome. We searched the following databases on 28 June 2017; CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded and the Conference Proceeding Citation Index - Science in the Web of Science Core Collection. We also searched the Online Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease (OMMBID), ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) on 30 June 2017. We did not impose any restriction on language of publication. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of at least one year in duration assessing the effects of beta-blocker monotherapy compared with placebo, no treatment or surveillance only, in people of all ages with a confirmed diagnosis of Marfan syndrome were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts for inclusion, extracted data and assessed trial quality. Trial authors were contacted to obtain missing data. Dichotomous outcomes will be reported as relative risk and continuous outcomes as mean differences with 95% confidence intervals. We assessed the quality of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. One open-label, randomised, single-centre trial including 70 participants with Marfan syndrome (aged 12 to 50 years old) met the inclusion criteria. Participants were randomly assigned to

  8. Hypereosinophilic syndrome mimicking acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulkit Chhabra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES is a heterogeneous group of disorders with peripheral blood hypereosinophilia and eosinophil-mediated organ involvement. It may be primary, secondary, or idiopathic. In very rare cases, HES can be familial occurring as an autosomal dominant disorder. Cardiac involvement usually presents as heart failure, intracardiac thrombus, arrhythmias, and rarely as acute coronary syndrome (ACS and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging has emerged as a diagnostic modality in diagnosis of eosinophilic endomyocardial disease. We report a case of a young male with familial HES presenting as ACS and discuss diagnostic and therapeutic clinical management.

  9. Early Outcomes of Acute Retrograde Dissection From the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauta, Foeke J H; Kim, Joon Bum; Patel, Himanshu J; Peterson, Mark D; Eckstein, Hans-Henning; Khoynezhad, Ali; Ehrlich, Marek P; Eusanio, Marco Di; Corte, Alessandro Della; Montgomery, Daniel G; Nienaber, Christoph A; Isselbacher, Eric M; Eagle, Kim A; Sundt, Thoralf M; Trimarchi, Santi

    2017-01-01

    To provide data on the management and outcomes of patients with acute retrograde aortic dissection (AD) originating from a tear in the descending aorta with extension into the aortic arch or ascending aorta. All patients enrolled in the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection from 1996-2015 were reviewed. Retrograde AD was defined by primary tear in the descending aorta with proximal extension into the arch or ascending aorta. Primary end points were in-hospital management strategy and mortality. We identified 101 patients with retrograde AD (67 men; 63.2 ± 14.0 years). During index hospitalization, medical (MED), open surgical (SURG), and endovascular (ENDO) therapies were undertaken in 44, 33, and 22 patients, respectively. The SURG group presented with larger ascending aorta (P = 0.04) and more frequent ascending aortic involvement (81.8% [27/33] vs 22.7% [15/66], P < 0.001) compared with the MED and ENDO groups. Early mortality rate was 9.1% (4/44), 18.2% (6/33), and 13.6% (3/22), for the MED, SURG, and ENDO groups (P = 0.51), respectively. A favorable early mortality rate was observed in patients with retrograde extension limited to the arch (8.6% [5/58]) vs into the ascending aorta (18.6% [8/43], P = 0.14). Early mortality rate of patients with retrograde AD with primary tear in the descending aorta (12.9% [13/101]) was significantly lower than those with classic type A AD presenting with primary tear in the ascending aorta (20.0% [195/977], P = 0.001). A subset of patients with acute retrograde AD originating from primary tear in the descending aorta might be managed less invasively with acceptable early results, particularly among those with proximal extension limited to the arch. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ischemia-modified albumin in acute aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbarouni, Eftihia; Georgiadou, Panagiota; Marathias, Aikaterini; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Geroulanos, Stefanos; Voudris, Vassilis

    2010-01-01

    Acute aortic dissection (AOD) is associated with high mortality and early diagnosis and treatment are essential. Ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) is a marker of myocardial ischemia whereas cardiac enzymes are released when myocardial necrosis occurs. We investigated, for the first time, whether IMA increases in AOD either at presentation or after surgery. We studied 46 consecutive patients with documented AOD; we also evaluated 13 consecutive patients with dilated ascending aortas scheduled for elective surgery and admitted for preoperative coronary angiography; 46 age-matched normal subjects served as controls. Only patients with acute onset of symptoms were included. We evaluated IMA, cardiac enzymes, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and D-dimers on admission, 24  hr post-operatively and 4 days post-operatively. Duration from symptom onset to the first sample was 23±17  hr. IMA did not differ between patients with AOD at presentation (93±19  U/ml), patients with chronic aneurysms (90±14  U/ml) and normal controls (91±9  U/ml). In addition, IMA did not change significantly after surgical repair. IMA, at baseline, however, correlated positively with time from symptom onset as well as CRP levels (P=0.05 and P=0.007, respectively). IMA is not elevated in AOD when blood sampling is performed within 23±17  hr after symptom onset nor increases after surgery. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Acute coronary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Have plenty of fruits, veggies, whole grains, and lean meats. Try to limit foods high in cholesterol ... et al. 2014 AHA/ACC guideline for the management of patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary ...

  12. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome- SARS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome- SARS · PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 3 · Global pattern of SARS epidemic · Slide 5 · SARS – clinical features ... SARS virus · SARS – Koch´Postulates proved. SARS – virus jumps species · How infectious is SARS virus · SARS – Global Distribution- 10th July 2003.

  13. Aortic biomechanics by magnetic resonance: early markers of aortic disease in Marfan syndrome regardless of aortic dilatation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixido-Tura, Gisela; Redheuil, Alban; Rodríguez-Palomares, Jose; Gutiérrez, Laura; Sánchez, Violeta; Forteza, Alberto; Lima, Joao A C; García-Dorado, David; Evangelista, Artur

    2014-01-15

    Previous studies demonstrated the usefulness of MRI in the evaluation of aortic biomechanics in Marfan patients with aortic dilatation. However, these parameters have not been well studied in earlier stages of aortic disease. The present work aimed to study aortic biomechanics: aortic distensibility (AD) and pulse wave velocity (PWV), by MRI in Marfan patients without advanced aortic disease. Eighty consecutive Marfan patients were compared with 36 age- and sex-matched controls. MRI images at the level of ascending, descending and abdominal aorta were used to determine AD and PWV. Marfan patients (27 men; age: 32.0 ± 10.5 years; mean aortic root diameter: 37.2 ± 4.6mm) had lower AD at all levels (ascending 2.6 ± 2.1 vs. 6.2 ± 3.7 mm Hg(-1)·10(-3), pbiomechanics compared with controls. Z-score for ascending ADbiomechanics by MRI were abnormal in the entire aorta in Marfan patients. Moreover, Marfan patients without dilated aortic root showed clear impairment of aortic biomechanics, which suggests that they may be used as early markers of aortic involvement in these patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. ACUTE COMPARTMENT SYNDROME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    student's MNEMONIC 5ps of ACS). The clinical diagnosis can be confirmed by compartment pressure measurements (2,6,7) and the treatment is urgent decompression by fasciotomy. Patients with compartment syndrome should be treated with utmost urgency, constant monitoring, and early decompression with appropriate ...

  15. Unusual presentation of aortic dissection: Post-coital acute paraplegia with renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinith P Galabada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 45-year-old chronic smoker who presented with acute paraplegia occurring during coitus and subsequently developed acute renal failure (ARF requiring dialysis. He had absent peripheral pulses in the lower limbs with evidence of acute ischemia. Doppler study showed dissecting aneurysm of thoracic aorta, thrombotic occlusion of the distal aorta from L1 level up to bifurcation and occlusion of the right renal artery by a thrombus that was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging of the spine. He was not subjected to any vascular intervention as his lower limbs were not salvageable due to delay in the diagnosis. Post-coital aortic dissection and aortic dissection presenting with acute paraplegia and ARF are very rare. This is probably the first case report with post-coital acute aortic dissection presenting with paraplegia and ARF. This case emphasizes the importance of a careful examination of peripheral pulses in patients presenting with ARF and paraplegia.

  16. Unusual presentation of aortic dissection: post-coital acute paraplegia with renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galabada, Dinith P; Nazar, Abdul L M

    2014-09-01

    We report the case of a 45-year-old chronic smoker who presented with acute paraplegia occurring during coitus and subsequently developed acute renal failure (ARF) requiring dialysis. He had absent peripheral pulses in the lower limbs with evidence of acute ischemia. Doppler study showed dissecting aneurysm of thoracic aorta, thrombotic occlusion of the distal aorta from L1 level up to bifurcation and occlusion of the right renal artery by a thrombus that was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging of the spine. He was not subjected to any vascular intervention as his lower limbs were not salvageable due to delay in the diagnosis. Post-coital aortic dissection and aortic dissection presenting with acute paraplegia and ARF are very rare. This is probably the first case report with post-coital acute aortic dissection presenting with paraplegia and ARF. This case emphasizes the importance of a careful examination of peripheral pulses in patients presenting with ARF and paraplegia.

  17. Kabuki syndrome in a girl with mosaic 45,X/47,XXX and aortic coarctation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ping; Lin, Shuan-Pei; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Chern, Schu-Rern; Wang, Wayseen

    2008-06-01

    To describe the clinical findings of a patient with mosaic 45,X/47,XXX and aortic coarctation. Descriptive case study. Tertiary medical center. A 6-year-old girl with stigmata of Turner syndrome, aortic coarctation, patent ductus arteriosus, and a peculiar facial appearance. None. Cytogenetic analysis. The patient manifested a characteristic Kabuki syndrome facial appearance with long palpebral fissures, everted lateral third of lower eyelids, arched eyebrows, a depressed nasal tip, large dysplastic ears and epicanthic folds. She had undergone cardiac surgery for treatment of aortic coarctation and patent ductus arteriosus. Cytogenetic analysis of the blood lymphocytes revealed a karyotype of mos 45,X,9ph [35 cells]/47,XXX,9ph [5 cells]. This is the first report of mosaic 45,X/47,XXX associated with Kabuki syndrome. We emphasize that Kabuki syndrome, a peculiar facial appearance and aortic coarctation, should be considered in girls with sex chromosome abnormalities.

  18. Aortic dimensions in girls and young women with turner syndrome: a magnetic resonance imaging study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleemann, Line; Mortensen, Kristian H; Holm, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the dimensions of the thoracic aorta and the predictors of aortic dimensions in girls and young women with Turner syndrome (TS). A cross-sectional study was performed at a secondary care center. The study compared 41 TS patients with 50 healthy age-matched control.......03). The presence of bicuspid aortic valves correlated at the descending part of the aorta (R = 0.38; p girls or young TS patients. The BSA predicted aortic size at all positions. The prevalence of aortic dilation and aneurysm was lower...... in this population of girls and younger women with TS than in older TS populations....

  19. Mutations in the TGF-beta repressor SKI cause Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome with aortic aneurysm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doyle, Alexander J.; Doyle, Jefferson J.; Bessling, Seneca L.; Maragh, Samantha; Lindsay, Mark E.; Schepers, Dorien; Gillis, Elisabeth; Mortier, Geert; Homfray, Tessa; Sauls, Kimberly; Norris, Russell A.; Huso, Nicholas D.; Leahy, Dan; Mohr, David W.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Scott, Alan F.; Destrée, Anne; Hennekam, Raoul C.; Arn, Pamela H.; Curry, Cynthia J.; van Laer, Lut; McCallion, Andrew S.; Loeys, Bart L.; Dietz, Harry C.

    2012-01-01

    Elevated transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta signaling has been implicated in the pathogenesis of syndromic presentations of aortic aneurysm, including Marfan syndrome (MFS) and Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS)(1-4). However, the location and character of many of the causal mutations in LDS intuitively

  20. Hybrid treatment of penetrating aortic ulcer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, Juan Antonio Herrero; Martins-Romeo, Daniela de Araujo; Escudero, Carlos Caparros; Falcon, Maria del Carmen Prieto; Batista, Vinicius Bianchi, E-mail: jaherrero5@hotmail.com [Unidade de Gestao Clinica (UGC) de Diagnostico por Imagem - Hosppital Universitario Virgen Macarena, Sevilha (Spain); Vazquez, Rosa Maria Lepe [Unit of Radiodiagnosis - Hospital Nuestra Senora de la Merced, Osuna, Sevilha (Spain)

    2015-05-15

    Penetrating atherosclerotic aortic ulcer is a rare entity with poor prognosis in the setting of acute aortic syndrome. In the literature, cases like the present one, located in the aortic arch, starting with chest pain and evolving with dysphonia, are even rarer. The present report emphasizes the role played by computed tomography in the diagnosis of penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer as well as in the differentiation of this condition from other acute aortic syndromes. Additionally, the authors describe a new therapeutic approach represented by a hybrid endovascular surgical procedure for treatment of the disease. (author)

  1. Acute pulmoner embolism mimicking acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulya Avcı Demir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and electocardiographic (ECG features in pulmonary embolism (PE lack of specificity and may mimic an acute coronary syndrom (ACS. We here report a case of a 56-year-old woman presenting with chest pain secondary to pulmonary artery embolism which was initially diagnosed as ACS due to electrocardiographic changes and raised troponin. PE presenting with negative T-wave inversion can mimic ACS and misdirect the diagnostic approach. Simultaneous T-wave inversions in anterior and inferior leads are important clues suggesting PE. Most common ECG findings in PE are anteroseptal T-wave inversion/ST-elevation or depression along with complete or incomplete right bundle branch block, sinus tachycardia, low QRS-complex voltage, an S1Q3T3 pattern, and right axis deviation. The reasons for the ECG changes that seem like ischemia are sudden RV strain, hypoxemia and the release of catecholamines. So we have to be aware that PE can present as acute coronary syndrome with ECG changes preoccupy ischemia

  2. D-dimer and BNP levels in acute aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbarouni, Eftihia; Georgiadou, Panagiota; Marathias, Aikaterini; Geroulanos, Stefanos; Kremastinos, Dimitrios Th

    2007-11-15

    Early diagnosis and treatment are pivotal for patients with acute aortic dissection (AAD). D-dimer is a rule-out diagnostic test for pulmonary embolism but there is evidence that it may also be applicable to AAD. We evaluated plasma D-dimer, white cell blood count (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in 18 consecutive patients with established AAD, 21 consecutive patients with dilated ascending aortas scheduled for elective surgery and 8 normal subjects. Patients with AAD had significantly higher elevated D-dimer, compared to chronic aneurysms and normal controls (pD-dimer level higher than 700 ng/ml had a sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 59% for diagnosis of AAD. The WBC count was also significantly increased compared to the other groups (pD-dimer can be used as a 'rule-out' test in patients with suspected AAD and seems useful in the discrimination between AAD and chronic uncomplicated aneurysms, unlike CRP and BNP plasma levels.

  3. Massive thoracoabdominal aortic thrombosis in a patient with iatrogenic Cushing syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hun; Choi, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Young-Min; Kang, Joon Tae; Chae, Seung Seok; Kim, Bo-Bae; Ki, Young-Jae; Kim, Jin Hwa; Chung, Joong-Wha; Koh, Young-Youp

    2014-01-01

    Massive thoracoabdominal aortic thrombosis is a rare finding in patients with iatrogenic Cushing syndrome in the absence of any coagulation abnormality. It frequently represents an urgent surgical situation. We report the case of an 82-year-old woman with massive aortic thrombosis secondary to iatrogenic Cushing syndrome. A follow-up computed tomography scan showed a decreased amount of thrombus in the aorta after anticoagulation therapy alone.

  4. Upper gastrointestinal obstruction secondary to aortoduodenal syndrome owing to a noninflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cahill, Kevin

    2012-01-31

    Aortoduodenal syndrome is a rare complication of an abdominal aortic aneurysm wherein the aneurysm sac obstructs the patient\\'s duodenum. It presents with the symptoms of an upper gastrointestinal tract obstruction and requires surgical intervention to relieve it. Previously, gastric bypass surgery was advocated, but now aortic replacement is the mainstay of treatment. We report a case of a 67-year-old woman whose aortoduodenal syndrome was successfully managed and review the literature on this topic.

  5. Goldenhar syndrome with right circumflex aortic arch, severe coarctation and vascular ring in a twin pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Malakan Rad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Goldenhar syndrome (GS or oculo-auriculo-vertebral dysplasia (OAVD, involves a wide variety of organ systems. Cardiovascular anomalies are among the frequent malformations. The purpose of this report is to introduce a male case of a dizygotic twin pregnancy with GS and right circumflex aortic arch (RCAA, severe coarctation, hypoplastic aortic arch, aberrant right subclavian artery, vascular ring, bilateral renal artery stenosis, and mild Dandy-Walker syndrome. The embryology of RCAA and coarctation is revisited.

  6. Goldenhar syndrome with right circumflex aortic arch, severe coarctation and vascular ring in a twin pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Elaheh Malakan

    2014-09-01

    Goldenhar syndrome (GS) or oculo-auriculo-vertebral dysplasia (OAVD), involves a wide variety of organ systems. Cardiovascular anomalies are among the frequent malformations. The purpose of this report is to introduce a male case of a dizygotic twin pregnancy with GS and right circumflex aortic arch (RCAA), severe coarctation, hypoplastic aortic arch, aberrant right subclavian artery, vascular ring, bilateral renal artery stenosis, and mild Dandy-Walker syndrome. The embryology of RCAA and coarctation is revisited.

  7. Massive Thoracoabdominal Aortic Thrombosis in a Patient with Iatrogenic Cushing Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Hun; Choi, Dong Hyun; Lee, Young Min; Kim, Bo Bae; Ki, Young Jae; Kim, Jin Hwa; Chung, Joong Wha; Koh, Young Youp [Chosun University School of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Joon Tae; Chae, Seung Seok [Dept. of nternal Medicine, Mokpo Jung-Ang General Hospital, Mokpo (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Massive thoracoabdominal aortic thrombosis is a rare finding in patients with iatrogenic Cushing syndrome in the absence of any coagulation abnormality. It frequently represents an urgent surgical situation. We report the case of an 82-year-old woman with massive aortic thrombosis secondary to iatrogenic Cushing syndrome. A follow-up computed tomography scan showed a decreased amount of thrombus in the aorta after anticoagulation therapy alone.

  8. Absence of the aortic valve associated with hypoplastic left-sided heart syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atik Edmar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report we describe the twelveth case in the literature of absence of the aortic valve cusps, associated with hypoplastic left-sided heart syndrome in a neonate. Clinical and hemodynamic conditions in our patient resemble the classical features of this syndrome except for a greater development of the ascending aorta and the left ventricular cavity, due to aortic insufficiency. A patch was unsuccessfully inserted at the aortic annulus to exclude the left ventricle from the circulation. In addition the Norwood operation was performed.

  9. Interrupted aortic arch type B in A patient with cat eye syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belangero, Sintia Iole Nogueira; Bellucco, Fernanda Teixeira da Silva; Cernach, Mirlene C S P; Hacker, April M; Emanuel, Beverly S; Melaragno, Maria Isabel

    2009-05-01

    We report a patient with cat eye syndrome and interrupted aortic arch type B, a typical finding in the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Chromosomal analysis and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) showed a supernumerary bisatellited isodicentric marker chromosome derived from chromosome 22. The segment from 22pter to 22q11.2 in the supernumerary chromosome found in our patient does not overlap with the region deleted in patients with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. However, the finding of an interrupted aortic arch type B is unusual in CES, although it is a frequent heart defect in the 22q11 deletion syndrome.

  10. Peripartum type B aortic dissection in patients with Marfan syndrome who underwent aortic root replacement: a case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayama, S; Takeda, N; Iriyama, T; Inuzuka, R; Maemura, S; Fujita, D; Yamauchi, H; Nawata, K; Bougaki, M; Hyodo, H; Shitara, R; Nakayama, T; Komatsu, A; Nagamatsu, T; Osuga, Y; Fujii, T

    2017-03-11

    To investigate pregnancy outcomes, especially the risk of pregnancy-related aortic dissection (AD), in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS) after prophylactic aortic root replacement (ARR). Retrospective case series study. Tertiary perinatal care centre at a university hospital. Pregnant women fulfilling the revised Ghent nosology (2010) criteria for MFS who were managed at our institute. The pregnancy outcomes of all patients with MFS managed at our institute between 1982 and September 2016 were reviewed retrospectively based on medical records. Obstetrical management and complication including the incidence of AD throughout the peripartum period. Among 22 patients (28 pregnancies) who had been managed as potential MFS or related disorders, 14 (17 pregnancies) fulfilled the revised Ghent nosology (2010) criteria for MFS and were enrolled in this study. Five patients (five pregnancies) had received ARR before conception: three (60%) developed type B aortic dissection [AD(B)] during the peripartum period, compared with only one of 10 patients (12 pregnancies) without ARR (P MFS patients after prophylactic ARR are still at high risk of AD(B) during the peripartum period. Careful pre-pregnancy counselling and multidisciplinary care throughout the peripartum period are essential for the management of MFS, even after surgical repair of an ascending aortic aneurysm. MFS patients after prophylactic ARR are still at high risk of type B aortic dissection during the peripartum period. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  11. Hybrid Strategy for Residual Arch and Thoracic Aortic Dissection following Acute Type A Aortic Dissection Repair

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    Sidharth Viswanathan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive dilatation of the false lumen in the arch and descending aorta has been encountered in one-third of survivors as a late sequelae following repair of ascending aortic dissection. Conventional treatment for the same requiring cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest is associated with high morbidity and mortality especially in the elderly cohort of patients. Herein we report a case of symptomatic progressive aneurysmal dilatation of residual arch and descending thoracic aortic dissection following repair of type A aortic dissection, successfully treated by total arch debranching and ascending aortic prosthesis to bicarotid and left subclavian bypass followed by staged retrograde aortic stent-graft deployment. This case report with relevant review of the literature highlights this clinical entity and the present evidence on its appropriate management strategies. Close surveillance is mandatory following surgical repair of type A aortic dissection and hybrid endovascular procedures seem to be the most dependable modality for salvage of patients detected to have progression of residual arch dissection.

  12. Outcome of aortic surgery in patients with Loeys-Dietz syndrome primarily treated as having Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenhoff, Florian S; Mueller, Christoph; Czerny, Martin; Matyas, Gabor; Kadner, Alexander; Schmidli, Juerg; Carrel, Thierry

    2014-09-01

    Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is characterized by acute aortic dissection (AAD) at aortic diameters below thresholds for intervention in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS). The aim was to evaluate the outcome of LDS patients primarily treated as having MFS. We analysed 68 consecutive patients who underwent surgery between 1995 and 2007 under the assumption of having MFS before retrospectively being screened for LDS when genetic testing became available. These patients were followed up until 2013, and underwent a total of 115 aortic surgeries. Genetic testing was performed in 76% of the patients. Sixty per cent of these patients were positive for FBN1 mutations associated with MFS, 20% had no FBN1 mutation and 17% harboured TGFBR1/2 mutations associated with LDS. Mean follow-up was 12.7 ± 7 years. All-cause 30-day, 6-month and 1-year mortality rates were 2.9, 4.4 and 7.3%, respectively. Interestingly, initial presentation with AAD did not differ between LDS and MFS (33 vs 37%, P = 0.48) nor did long-term mortality compared with MFS patients (11 vs 16%, P = 1.0) or within MFS subgroups (FBN1 positive 13%, P = 1.0; FBN1 negative 10%, P = 1.0; not tested 25%, P = 0.62). There was no difference in the need for secondary total arch replacement between LDS and MFS patients (11 vs 14%, P = 1.0), nor within MFS subgroups (FBN1 positive 16%, P = 1.0; FBN1 negative 10%, P = 1.0; not tested 13%, P = 1.0). Total aortic replacement became necessary in 22% of LDS compared with 12% of MFS patients (P = 0.6) and did not differ significantly between MFS subgroups. Although early surgical intervention in LDS is warranted to avoid AAD, the current data suggest that once the diseased segment is repaired, there seems to be no additional burden in terms of mortality or reoperation rate compared with that in MFS patients, with or without confirmed FBN1 mutation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All

  13. Urgent Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation in Patients With Severe Aortic Stenosis and Acute Heart Failure: Procedural and 30-Day Outcomes.

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    Landes, Uri; Orvin, Katia; Codner, Pablo; Assali, Abid; Vaknin-Assa, Hana; Schwartznberg, Shmuel; Levi, Amos; Shapira, Yaron; Sagie, Alexander; Kornowski, Ran

    2016-06-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is recommended for patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS) who are at prohibitive/high risk for surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). Patients with severe AS may experience acute decompensated heart failure (HF) that is resistant to medical therapy. We report our TAVI experience in treating patients with unstable AS who require urgent intervention for their aortic valve disease. Patients were restrictively included in the urgent TAVI registry if they were admitted with acute refractory and persistent HF despite medical therapy and had TAVI performed during the same hospital stay. All others were included in the elective TAVI group. Between November 2008 and April 2015, 410 consecutive patients underwent TAVI at our centre-27 (6.6%) urgently. Patients operated on urgently were more likely to be frail and carry higher SAVR mortality risk based on The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Predicted Risk of Mortality/logistic EuroSCORE (LES) measures. Pulmonary edema was the most common clinical presentation. Preprocedural assessment used fewer imaging modalities, yet implantation success remained high and reached 96.3% using an additional valve (valve-within-valve) required in 3 patients, with no difference in periprocedural complications according to the Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 definitions. Although 30-day functional capacity was reduced, patients had similar 30-day mortality and major adverse cardiovascular event rates compared with patients who underwent elective TAVI. Short-term outcome after urgent TAVI appears to be reasonable. For patients with severe AS who experience acute decompensated HF that is recalcitrant to optimal medical therapy and who are at high risk with SAVR, urgent TAVI may be a viable treatment strategy. Larger prospective studies and data on long-term outcomes are needed. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Coronary ostial involvement in acute aortic dissection: detection with 64-slice cardiac CT.

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    Ryan, E Ronan

    2012-02-01

    A 41-year-old man collapsed after lifting weights at a gym. Following admission to the emergency department, a 64-slice cardiac computed tomography (CT) revealed a Stanford Type A aortic dissection arising from a previous coarctation repair. Multiphasic reconstructions demonstrated an unstable, highly mobile aortic dissection flap that extended proximally to involve the right coronary artery ostium. Our case is an example of the application of electrocardiogram-gated cardiac CT in directly visualizing involvement of the coronary ostia in acute aortic dissection, which may influence surgical management.

  15. Long-term outcomes after immediate aortic repair for acute type A aortic dissection complicated by coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukube, Takuro; Haraguchi, Tomonori; Okada, Yasushi; Matsukawa, Ritsu; Kozawa, Shuichi; Ogawa, Kyoichi; Okita, Yutaka

    2014-09-01

    The management of acute type A aortic dissection complicated by coma remains controversial. We previously reported an excellent rate of recovery of consciousness provided aortic repair was performed within 5 hours of the onset of symptoms. This study evaluates the early and long-term outcomes using this approach. Between August 2003 and July 2013, of the 241 patients with acute type A aortic dissection brought to the Japanese Red Cross Kobe Hospital and Hyogo Emergency Medical Center, 30 (12.4%) presented with coma; Glasgow Coma Scale was less than 11 on arrival. Surgery was performed in 186 patients, including 27 (14.5%) who were comatose. Twenty-four comatose patients underwent successful aortic repair immediately (immediate group). Their mean age was 71.0 ± 11.1 years, Glasgow Coma Scale was 6.5 ± 2.4, and prevalence of carotid dissection was 79%. For brain protection, deep hypothermia with antegrade cerebral perfusion was used, and postoperative induced hypothermia was performed. Neurologic evaluations were performed using the Glasgow Coma Scale, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and modified Rankin Scale. In the immediate group, the time from the onset of symptoms to arrival in the operating theater was 222 ± 86 minutes. Hospital mortality was 12.5%. Full recovery of consciousness was achieved in 79% of patients in up to 30 days. Postoperative Glasgow Coma Scale and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale improved significantly when compared with the preoperative score (P patients. The mean follow-up period was 56.5 months, and the cumulative survival was 48.2% after 10 years. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis indicated that immediate repair (hazard ratio, 4.3; P = .007) was the only significant predictor of postoperative survival over a 5-year period. The early and long-term outcomes as a result of immediate aortic repair for acute type A aortic dissection complicated by coma were satisfactory. Copyright © 2014 The American

  16. High homocysteine and low folate concentrations in acute aortic dissection.

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    Sbarouni, Eftihia; Georgiadou, Panagiota; Analitis, Antonis; Chaidaroglou, Antigoni; Marathias, Aikaterini; Degiannis, Demitris; Voudris, Vassilis

    2013-09-20

    Biomarkers for monitoring progression and prognosis of thoracic aneurysm are of great interest. Homocysteine (Hcy) induces elastolysis in arterial media and may directly affect fibrillin-1 or collagen whereas lipoprotein (Lp) (a) inhibits elastolysis by reducing activation of matrix metallopeptidase-9. We studied 31 consecutive patients with acute aortic dissection (AAD) admitted for emergency surgery (group I, 60 ± 13 years old, 25 men), 30 consecutive patients with chronic aneurysms of the ascending aorta (group II, 67 ± 12 years old, 24 men) and 20 healthy controls (group III, 58 ± 15 years old, 14 men). We evaluated Hcy, folate, B12, Lp(a) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism at baseline. Hcy, folate and B12 differed significantly among the 3 studied groups (P=0.016, P=0.004 and P=0.001, respectively). The levels of Hcy and B12 were significantly higher in group I compared to both groups II and III (P=0.05 and P=0.002, P<0.001 and P=0.017, respectively) and without significant differences between groups II and III (P=0.083 and P=0.124). Folate was significantly lower in group I compared to both groups II and III (P=0.001 and P=0.006, respectively) and without marked difference between groups II and III (P=0.409). No significant difference was found in serum levels of Lp (a) (P=0.074) or among the frequency of MTHFR C677T genotypes. Patients with AAD present with higher Hcy and lower folate compared to both chronic aneurysms and controls. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Acute aortic dissection type A discloses Corpus alienum

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    Kolat Philipp

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report an unusual case of an aortic type A dissection with a corpus alienum which compresses the right ventricle. The patient successfully underwent an aortic root replacement in deep hypothermia with re-implantation of the coronary arteries using a modified Bentall procedure and the resection of the corpus alienum. Intraoperative finding reveals 3 greatly adhered gauze compresses, which were most likely forgotten in the operation 34 years ago.

  18. Successful staged operation for acute type A aortic dissection with paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Takashi; Abe, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Tokuichiro; Makuuchi, Haruo

    2013-06-01

    A 75-year-old man presented with both paraplegia and acute occlusion of the abdominal aorta at onset. Extraanatomical bypass was performed following spinal drainage. After 3 days, the ascending aorta replaced under cardiopulmonary bypass using the extraanatomical bypass graft for arterial cannulation. The abdominal aorta was replaced after 6 months. A staged operation is one of the options for acute aortic dissection with paraplegia and acute occlusion of the abdominal aorta.

  19. Evidence for and risks of endovascular treatment of asymptomatic acute type B aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Rachel E; Nienaber, Christoph A

    2017-04-01

    Acute aortic dissection is a challenging disease to manage. Type B aortic dissection has traditionally been divided temporally into acute and chronic cases but more recently this classification has been modified to include a sub-acute phase. Computed tomography is the imaging technique used most frequently in diagnosis and management. Active management of blood pressure is essential and should include beta-blockade unless contraindicated. In-hospital outcomes are generally acceptable in patients with medically managed acute uncomplicated type B aortic dissection, with up to 90% of patients surviving to hospital discharge but by 5 years up to 50% of patients are dead with a significant proportion dying from aortic rupture. The aim of endovascular repair is to treat the complications of the dissection, induce aortic remodeling and false lumen thrombosis and it has been shown to result in good long-term outcomes. Stent graft placement however is associated with an incidence of death, stroke, paraplegia and retrograde type A dissection. Some experts now advocate high intensity imaging in the first 14 days to detect development of complications early in the disease course, with planned elective treatment in the subacute phase.

  20. Aortic Aneurysm Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... connective tissue disorders, such as Marfan syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, get thoracic aortic aneurysms. Signs and symptoms ... connective tissue disorders, such as Marfan syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, can also increase your risk for aortic ...

  1. Novel SMAD3 Mutation in a Patient with Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome with Significant Aortic Aneurysm

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    Kristi K. Fitzgerald

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aneurysms-osteoarthritis syndrome (AOS caused by haploinsufficiency of SMAD3 is a recently described cause of syndromic familial thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection (TAAD. We identified a novel SMAD3 mutation in a patient with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS who developed progressive aortic aneurysm requiring surgical replacement of the neoaortic root, ascending aorta, and proximal aortic arch. Family screening for the mutation revealed that his father, who has vascular and skeletal features of AOS, and his brother, who is asymptomatic, also have the pathogenic mutation. This is the first case report of a SMAD3 mutation in a patient with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. This case highlights the importance of genetic testing for known causes of aneurysm in patients with congenital heart disease who develop aneurysmal disease as it may significantly impact the management of those patients and their family members.

  2. Aortic calcification and renal cysts demonstrated by CT in a teenager with Alagille syndrome

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    Pombo, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital Juan Canalejo, La Coruna (Spain); Isla, C. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital Juan Canalejo, La Coruna (Spain); Gayol, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital Juan Canalejo, La Coruna (Spain); Bargiela, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital Juan Canalejo, La Coruna (Spain)

    1995-06-01

    Alagille syndrome, or arteriohepatic dysplasia, is a disorder characterized by paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts, peculiar facies and skeletal anomalies. We report a typical case of this syndrome in an 18-year-old girl, in whom abdominal CT showed bilateral renal cysts and aortic wall calcification, findings unreported in the radiological literature. (orig.)

  3. Risk factors and early outcomes of acute renal injury after thoracic aortic endograft repair for type B aortic dissection

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    Luo S

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Songyuan Luo,* Huanyu Ding,* Jianfang Luo, Wei Li, Bing Ning, Yuan Liu, Wenhui Huang, Ling Xue, Ruixin Fan, Jiyan Chen Cardiology Department, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coronary Heart Disease Prevention, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR has become an emerging treatment modality for acute type B aortic dissection (TBAD patients in recent years. The risk factors and impacts of acute kidney injury (AKI after percutaneous TEVAR, however, have not been widely established.Methods: We retrospectively studied the clinical records of 305 consecutive patients who admitted to our institution and had TEVAR for TBAD between December 2009 and June 2013. The patients were routinely monitored for their renal functions preoperatively until 7 days after TEVAR. The Kidney Disease Improving Global Guidelines (KDIGO criteria were used for AKI.Results: Of the total 305 consecutive patients, 84 (27.5% developed AKI after TEVAR, comprising 66 (21.6% patients in KDIGO stage 1, 6 (2.0% patients in stage 2 and 12 (3.9% patients in stage 3. From the logistic regression analysis, systolic blood pressure (SBP on admission >140 mmHg (odds ratio [OR], 2.288; 95% CI, 1.319–3.969 and supra-aortic branches graft bypass hybrid surgery (OR, 3.228; 95% CI, 1.526–6.831 were independent risk factors for AKI after TEVAR. Local anesthesia tended to be a protective factor (OR, 0.563; 95% CI, 0.316–1.001. The preoperative renal function, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker or statin administration, volume of contrast agent, range of TBAD and false lumen involving renal artery were not associated with post-operation AKI. The in-hospital mortality and major adverse events were markedly increased with the occurrence of AKI (7.1% vs 0.9%, P=0

  4. Delayed Surgery for Aortic Dissection after Intravenous Thrombolysis in Acute Ischemic Stroke

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    Nari Choi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of aortic dissection masquerading as acute ischemic stroke followed by intravenous thrombolysis. A 59-year-old man presented with dizziness. After examination, the patient had a seizure with bilateral Babinski signs. Soon after identifying multiple acute infarctions in both hemispheres on diffusion-weighted brain magnetic resonance (MR imaging, tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA was administered. Both common carotid arteries were invisible on MR angiography, and subsequent chest computed tomography revealed an aortic dissection. The emergency operation was delayed for 13 hours due to t-PA administration. The patient died of massive bleeding.

  5. Acute Aortic Dissection Mimicking STEMI in the Catheterization Laboratory: Early Recognition Is Mandatory

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    Alessio Arrivi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary malperfusion due to type A aortic dissection is a life-threatening condition where timely recognition and treatment are mandatory. A 77-year-old woman underwent an acute evolving type A aortic dissection mimicking acute myocardial infarction. Two pathophysiologic mechanisms are discussed: either thrombosis migrating from a previously treated giant aneurism of proximal left anterior descending or a local arterial complication due to left main stenting. Recognition of these occurrences in the catheterization laboratory is important to look immediately for surgery.

  6. Double valve replacement for acute spontaneous left chordal rupture secondary to chronic aortic incompetence

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    McLenachan Jim

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 54 years old male with undiagnosed chronic calcific degenerative aortic valve incompetence presented with acute left anterior chordae tendinae rupture resulting in severe left heart failure and cardiogenic shock. He was successfully treated with emergency double valve replacement using mechanical valves. The pathogenesis of acute rupture of the anterior chordae tendinae, without any evidence of infective endocarditis or ischemic heart disease seems to have been attrition of the subvalvular mitral apparatus by the chronic regurgitant jet of aortic incompetence with chronic volume overload. We review the literature with specific focus on the occurrence of this unusual event.

  7. [Acute type B aortic dissection: prognosis after initial conservative treatment and predictive factors for a complicated course].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, T; Nguyen, T; Gysi, J; Kipfer, B; Sigurdsson, G; Schaffner, T; Schüpbach, P; Althaus, U

    1997-09-06

    Today there is still debate concerning the optimal mode of treatment for type B dissection of the aorta. Controversies are mainly due to discordant results regarding survival following medical or surgical treatment. We assessed the early and long-term outcome of acute dissection of the descending aorta after initial conservative treatment. Between 1980 and 1995, 225 patients were hospitalized in the medical or surgical department of our institution with the diagnosis of acute type B aortic dissection. 38 patients (16.8%) underwent replacement of the descending aorta within the first week after hospital admission. Primary indications for immediate surgery were rupturing aneurysm in 15 patients, extensive dilatation of the descending aorta in 13, distal malperfusion in 8, and pseudocoarctation syndrome with uncontrollable hypertension in 2. All other patients (n = 187) underwent primary conservative treatment in the intensive care unit, which included appropriate antihypertensive medication. Hospital mortality during and after initial conservative treatment was 17.6% (33/187 patients). Main causes of death were rupture in 14 patients, intestinal malperfusion in 13 and cardiac failure in 3, whereas in 3 patients the cause of death could not be determined. Nine additional patients had to be referred for early surgery during the initial hospitalization because of contained rupture (n = 4), rapidly increasing size of the aorta (n = 2) and suspected intestinal ischemia (n = 3). Hospital mortality after early surgery was 21% (8/38 patients) for the overall time period. After hospital discharge from the initial acute dissection, surgery for chronic dissection was performed in 47 patients, mainly because of expanding descending aortic aneurysm. Hospital mortality was 8% in these patients (4/47). Actuarial survival rates after primary conservative therapy were 76 +/- 5% and 50 +/- 7% after 5 and 8 years respectively. Currently, surgery for acute type B dissection is limited

  8. Fatal Case of Type A Aortic Dissection Presenting As Acute Renal Failure

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    Fuat Ozkan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aortic dissection is a life-threatening illness requiring early diagnosis and treatment. Uncommon early presentations mimicking various illnesses can delay diagnosis. Acute renal failure (ARF is an uncommon complication of type A aortic dissection (AAD. Presentation with ARF is associated with an increased risk of in-hospital death and persistence of renal dysfunction at midterm follow-up in type B aortic dissection, but not AAD. We report a case of a type A aortic dissection complicated by ARF, with a fatal outcome. A 56-year-old male was transferred to the emergency service with anuria and rapid deterioration of renal function. Computed tomography showed type A aortic dissection with near-complete collapse of the true lumen at the level of the renal arteries and complicated with left renal infarct. Because of deterioration of his general condition during hemodialysis, he was treated with supportive measures including ventilatory support. He died two days after admission. Aortic dissection initially mimicking ARF is rare. Accurate early diagnosis of aortic dissection with indeterminate presentation is crucial. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2014; 3(4.000: 254-256

  9. Stanford-A acute aortic dissection, inflammation, and metalloproteinases: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifani, Noemi; Proietta, Maria; Tritapepe, Luigi; Di Gioia, Cira; Ferri, Livia; Taurino, Maurizio; Del Porto, Flavia

    2015-01-01

    Acute aortic dissection (AAD) is a life-threatening disease with an incidence of about 2.6-3.6 cases per 100,000/year. Depending on the site of rupture, AAD is classified as Stanford-A when the ascending aortic thoracic tract and/or the arch are involved, and Stanford-B when the descending thoracic aorta and/or aortic abdominal tract are targeted. It was recently shown that inflammatory pathways underlie aortic rupture in both type A and type B Stanford AAD. An immune infiltrate has been found within the middle and outer tunics of dissected aortic specimens. It has also been observed that the recall and activation of macrophages inside the middle tunic are key events in the early phases of AAD. Macrophages are able to release metalloproteinases (MMPs) and pro-inflammatory cytokines which, in turn, give rise to matrix degradation and neoangiogenesis. An imbalance between the production of MMPs and MMP tissue inhibitors is pivotal in the extracellular matrix degradation underlying aortic wall remodelling in dissections occurring both in inherited conditions and in atherosclerosis. Among MMPs, MMP-12 is considered a specific marker of aortic wall disease, whatever the genetic predisposition may be. The aim of this review is, therefore, to take a close look at the immune-inflammatory mechanisms underlying Stanford-A AAD.

  10. Singleton Merten Syndrome: A Rare Cause of Early Onset Aortic Stenosis

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    Harshavardhan Ghadiam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Singleton Merten syndrome (SMS is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder with variable expression. Its characteristic features include abnormal aortic calcification, abnormal ossification of extremities, and dental anomalies. We present a young man with dyspnea who was noted to have aortic stenosis in the background of glaucoma, psoriasis, dental anomalies, hand and foot deformities, Achilles tendinitis, osteopenia, and nephrolithiasis. The conglomeration of features led to the diagnosis of SMS. His mother had a very similar phenotype.

  11. Complete Resolution of a Large Bicuspid Aortic Valve Thrombus with Anticoagulation in Primary Antiphospholipid Syndrome

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    Rayan Jo Rachwan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Native aortic valve thrombosis in primary antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS is a rare entity. We describe a 38-year-old man who presented with neurological symptoms and a cardiac murmur. Transthoracic echocardiography detected a large bicuspid aortic valve thrombus. Laboratory evaluation showed the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. Anticoagulation was started, and serial echocardiographic studies showed complete resolution of the aortic valve vegetation after 4 months. The patient improved clinically and had no residual symptoms. This report and review of the literature suggests that vegetations in APLS can be treated successfully with conservative treatment, regardless of their size.

  12. Recovery of Renal Function after Prolonged Anuria in Acute Suprarenal Aortic Occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongkind, Vincent; Kievit, Jur K; Wiersema, Arno M

    2016-01-01

    Acute suprarenal aortic occlusion is a rare but often catastrophic event. Despite immediate treatment, mortality and morbidity are high. We present a case of acute suprarenal aortic occlusion presenting with renal failure and dyspnea but without lower limb ischemia. Diagnosis was initially not taken in consideration. The patient required hemodialysis and temporary mechanical ventilation. After 13 days, an abdominal ultrasound was performed which revealed thrombosis of the suprarenal abdominal aorta. Suprarenal aortic thrombectomy was performed followed by aortobi-iliac bypass grafting. Diuresis returned 4 hr after surgery, and the patient fully recovered. Thorough review of the literature revealed only 8 cases of acute suprarenal aortic occlusion. Only 3 patients survived. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of acute suprarenal occlusion, in which renal function could be restored after a 14-day period of anuria. The case illustrates that in select cases with prolonged acute renal failure aortorenal revascularization can be performed successfully. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Feasibility and accuracy of bedside transthoracic echocardiography in diagnosis of acute proximal aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczyk, Dorota; Nycz, Krzysztof

    2015-03-25

    The purpose of the present study was to establish the accuracy of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in diagnosis of acute type A aortic dissection in comparison to computed tomography (CT), with reference to the intraoperative image. The retrospective analysis included 178 patients referred to the cardiac surgery unit in our center due to acute type A dissection between 01-01-2008 and 31-12-2013, who underwent both TTE and CT. Intraoperative image was considered as a reference. Statistical analysis did not show any significant differences between computed tomography and echocardiography in the detection of the proximal aortic dissection. In patients with aortic valve abnormalities, procedure of choice was replacement by a composite graft (77,59%), whereas patients with a normal image of aortic valve were more likely to have the valve sparing procedure (50,88%). The R-Spearman statistics shows a strong positive correlation between maximum diameter of ascending aorta measured by TTE and CT (cc 0.869) and TTE and intraoperative measurement (cc 0.844). Our data confirm that transthoracic echocardiography is a reliable method for diagnosis of proximal aortic dissection. TTE provides a reliable value of maximum diameter of the ascending aorta in comparison to both CT and direct intraoperative measurement. Moreover, transthoracic echocardiography gives the additional information that influences the operative technique of choice and identifies the high-risk patients (cardiac tamponade, severe aortic dilatation, severe aortic regurgitation). Our retrospective analysis confirms the pivotal role of TTE in the evaluation of the patients with suspected proximal aortic dissection in emergency room setting.

  14. Endovascular repair or medical treatment of acute type B aortic dissection? A comparison

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    Chemelli-Steingruber, I. [Department of Radiology, Innsbruck Medical University (Austria); Chemelli, A. [Department of Radiology, Innsbruck Medical University (Austria)], E-mail: andreas.chemelli@i-med.ac.at; Strasak, A. [Department of Medical Statistics, Informatics and Health Economics, Innsbruck Medical University (Austria); Hugl, B. [Department of Vascular Surgery, Innsbruck Medical University (Austria); Hiemetzberger, R. [Department of Cardiology, Innsbruck Medical University (Austria); Jaschke, W.; Glodny, B.; Czermak, B.V. [Department of Radiology, Innsbruck Medical University (Austria)

    2010-01-15

    Introduction: The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the outcome of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) to that of medical therapy in patients with acute type B aortic dissection (TBD). Materials and methods: From July 1996 to April 2008, 88 patients presenting with acute TBD underwent either TEVAR (group A, n = 38) or medical therapy (group B, n = 50). Indications for TEVAR were intractable pain, aortic branch compromise resulting in end-organ ischemia, rapid aortic dilatation and rupture. Follow-up was performed postinterventionally, at 3, 6 and 12 months and yearly thereafter and included clinical examinations and computed tomography (CT), as well as aortic diameter measurements and assessment of thrombosis. Results: Mean follow-up was 33 months in group A and 36 months in group B. The overall mortality rate was 23.7% in group A and 24% in group B, where 4 patients died of late aortic rupture. In group A, complications included 9 endoleaks and 4 retrograde type A dissections, 3 patients were converted to open surgery and 2 needed secondary intervention. None of the patients developed paraplegia. In group B, 4 patients were converted to open surgery and 2 to TEVAR. The maximal aortic diameter increased in both groups. Regarding the extent of thrombosis, our analyses showed slightly better overall results after TEVAR, but they also showed a tendency towards approximation between the two groups during follow-up. Conclusion: TEVAR is a feasible treatment option in acute TBD. However, several serious complications may occur during and after TEVAR and it should therefore be reserved to patients with life-threatening symptoms.

  15. Aortic aneurysm and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in Marfan syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujoy Ghosh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The combination of Marfan syndrome with lymphoma is extremely rare. This report describes a case of Marfan syndrome who presented with chest discomfort and was diagnosed to have an aortic aneurysm and an additional incidental mediastinal mass that on further investigation turned out to be a diffuse large B cell lymphoma. We have suggested a hypothesis which can explain the occurrence of lymphoma in Marfan syndrome.

  16. Endovascular stent graft treatment of acute thoracic aortic transections due to blunt force trauma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bjurlin, Marc A

    2012-02-01

    Endovascular stent graft treatment of acute thoracic aortic transections is an encouraging minimally invasive alternative to open surgical repair. Between 2006 and 2008, 16 patients with acute thoracic aortic transections underwent evaluation at our institution. Seven patients who were treated with an endovascular stent graft were reviewed. The mean Glasgow Coma Score was 13.0, probability of survival was .89, and median injury severity score was 32. The mean number of intensive care unit days was 7.7, mean number of ventilator support days was 5.4, and hospital length of stay was 10 days. Mean blood loss was 285 mL, and operative time was 143 minutes. Overall mortality was 14%. Procedure complications were a bleeding arteriotomy site and an endoleak. Endovascular treatment of traumatic thoracic aortic transections appears to demonstrate superior results with respect to mortality, blood loss, operative time, paraplegia, and procedure-related complications when compared with open surgical repair literature.

  17. Medical image of the week: acute aortic dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desai H

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. An 85-year-old gentleman with the past medical history significant for hypertension, smoking, and coronary artery disease presented to the emergency department (ED with complains of sudden onset of chest pain. His pain was described as squeezing and radiating to the back, associated with nausea and vomiting. His chest pain improved with nitroglycerin in ED. Chest x-ray showed a tortuous aortic knob and widened mediastinum. He underwent a CT angiogram, which showed, Stanford Type B aortic dissection, from distal aortic arch to renal arteries (Figure 1. He was managed in the hospital conservatively with tight blood pressure control given the type of dissection and no surgical intervention was done. He was uneventfully discharged with follow up arranged with vascular surgery. Aortic dissection is classified by Stanford Criteria as Type A which involves the ascending aorta and arch and Type B when it involves the descending aorta. Type A dissection is a ...

  18. Acute hypotension induced by aortic clamp vs. PTH provokes distinct proximal tubule Na+ transporter redistribution patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leong, Patrick K K; Yang, Li E; Lin, Harrison W

    2004-01-01

    in renal cortical membranes fractionated on sorbitol density gradients. Aortic clamp-induced acute hypotension (from 100 +/- 3 to 78 +/- 2 mmHg) provoked a 62% decrease in urine output and a significant decrease in volume flow from the proximal tubule detected as a 66% decrease in endogenous lithium......-density membranes enriched in apical markers. PTH at much lower doses (

  19. Characteristic Morphologies of the Bicuspid Aortic Valve in Patients with Genetic Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Talha; Poterucha, Joseph T; Olson, Timothy M; Johnson, Jonathan N; Craviari, Cecilia; Nienaber, Thomas; Palfreeman, Jared; Cetta, Frank; Hagler, Donald J

    2017-11-28

    In patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), complications including progressive aortic stenosis and aortic dilatation develop over time. The morphology of cusp fusion is one of the determinants of the type and severity of these complications. We present the association of morphology of cusp fusion in BAV patients with distinctive genetic syndromes. The Mayo Clinic echocardiography database was retrospectively reviewed to identify patients (age ≤ 22 years) diagnosed with BAV from 1990 to 2016. Cusp fusion morphology was determined from the echocardiographic studies, while coexisting cardiac defects and genetic syndromes were determined from chart review. A total of 1,037 patients with BAV were identified: 550 (53%) had an isolated BAV, 299 (29%) had BAV and a coexisting congenital heart defect, and 188 (18%) had BAV and a coexisting genetic syndrome or disorder. There were no differences in distribution of morphology across the three groups. However, right-noncoronary (RN) cusp fusion was the predominant morphology associated with Down syndrome (P = .002) and right-left (RL) cusp fusion was the predominant morphology associated with Turner syndrome (P = .02), DiGeorge syndrome (P = .02), and Shone syndrome (P = .0007), when compared with valve morphology in patients with isolated BAV. Isolated BAV patients with RN cusp fusion had larger ascending aorta diameter (P = .001) and higher number of patients with ≥ moderate aortic regurgitation (P = .02), while those with RL cusp fusion had larger sinus of Valsalva diameter (P = .0006). Morphological subtypes of BAV are associated with different genetic syndromes, suggesting distinct perturbations of developmental pathways in aortic valve malformation. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging 4-D flow-based analysis of aortic hemodynamics in Turner syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Raoul [University Medical Center Heidelberg, Department of Congenital Heart Disease and Pediatric Cardiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Neu, Marie [University Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology/Hemostaseology, Mainz (Germany); Hirtler, Daniel [University of Freiburg, Department of Congenital Heart Defects and Pediatric Cardiology, Heart Center, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Gimpel, Charlotte [Center for Pediatrics, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Department of General Pediatrics, Adolescent Medicine and Neonatology, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Markl, Michael [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, McCormick School of Engineering, Chicago, IL (United States); Geiger, Julia [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); University Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2017-04-15

    Cardiovascular surveillance is important in Turner syndrome because of the increased risk of aortic dilation and dissection with consecutively increased mortality. To compare 4-D flow MRI for the characterization of aortic 3-D flow patterns, dimensions and vessel wall parameters in pediatric patients with Turner syndrome and age-matched controls. We performed 4-D flow MRI measuring in vivo 3-D blood flow with coverage of the thoracic aorta in 25 patients with Turner syndrome and in 16 female healthy controls (age mean ± standard deviation were 16 ± 5 years and 17 ± 4 years, respectively). Blood flow was visualized by time-resolved 3-D path lines. Visual grading of aortic flow in terms of helices and vortices was performed by two independent observers. Quantitative analysis included measurement of aortic diameters, quantification of peak systolic wall shear stress, pulsatility index and oscillatory shear index at eight defined sites. Patients with Turner syndrome had significantly larger aortic diameters normalized to BSA, increased vortices in the ascending aorta and elevated helix flow in the ascending and descending aorta compared to controls (all P<0.03). Patients with abnormal helical or vortical flow in the ascending aorta had significantly larger diameters of the ascending aorta (P<0.03). Peak systolic wall shear stress, pulsatility index and oscillatory shear index were significantly lower in Turner patients compared to controls (p=0.02, p=0.002 and p=0.01 respectively). Four-dimensional flow MRI provides new insights into the altered aortic hemodynamics and wall shear stress that could have an impact on the development of aortic dissections. (orig.)

  1. How I do it: transapical cannulation for acute type-A aortic dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexiou Christos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aortic dissection is the most frequently diagnosed lethal disease of the aorta. Half of all patients with acute type-A aortic dissection die within 48 hours of presentation. There is still debate as to the optimal site of arterial cannulation for establishing cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with type-A aortic dissection. Femoral artery cannulation with retrograde perfusion is the most common method but because of the risk of malperfusion of vital organs and atheroembolism related to it different sites such as the axillary artery, the innominate artery and the aortic arch are used. Cannulation of these sites is not without risks of atheroembolism, neurovascular complications and can be time consuming. Another yet to be popularised option is the transapical aortic cannulation (TAC described in this article. TAC consists of the insertion of the arterial cannula through the apex of the left ventricle and the aortic valve to lie in the sinus of Valsalva. Trans-oesophageal guidance is necessary to ensure correct placement of the cannula. TAC is an excellent method of establishing cardiopulmonary bypass as it is quick, provides a more physiological method of delivering antegrade arterial flow and is the only method to assure perfusion of the true lumen.

  2. Prognostic Implications of Acute Renal Failure after Surgery for Type A Acute Aortic Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Fabrizio; Morgante, Alessandro; Ceresa, Fabrizio; Salamone, Giovanni; Patanè, Francesco

    2015-06-01

    "Type A" acute aortic dissection (AAAD) is the most challenging among the emergency operations in cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the role of acute renal failure (ARF) in postoperative survival of patients operated for AAAD. From February 2010 to April 2012, 37 consecutive patients were operated at our department for AAAD. We studied our population by subdividing the patients within groups according to the presence of ARF requiring continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) and according to hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) times and degrees. The overall 30-day mortality was 27% (50% group A with ARF, 13% group B no ARF). Acute renal failure requiring CVVH was 37.8%. Multivariate analysis revealed a significant association with 30-day mortality (odds ratio 6.6 and p = 0.020). Preoperative oliguria [urine output less than 30 ml/h (odds ratio 4.7 p = 0.039)], CPB greater than 180 minutes (odds ratio 6.5 p = 0.023) and postoperative bleeding requiring a surgical reopening (odds ratio 12.2 and p = 0.021) were the variables significantly associated with acute kidney injury. The data obtained from our analysis bring out the high incidence of renal injuries after surgery for AAAD, and indicate a negative impact on renal injuries of a preoperative oliguria, longer Cardiopulmonary bypass (CBP)/HCA times, and postoperative bleeding requiring a surgical revision. Our data also suggest a better 30-day survival and better renal outcomes in case of shorter HCA and lesser degree of hypothermia. The option of lesser and shorter hypothermia may be very useful, especially for the elderly patients and octogenarians.

  3. Acute compartment syndrome caused by uncontrolled hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Anar; Amin, Hari; Salzman, Matthew; Morgan, Farah

    2017-06-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is increased tissue pressure exceeding perfusion pressure in a closed compartment resulting in nerve and muscle ischemia. Common precipitating causes are crush injuries, burns, substance abuse, osseous or vascular limb trauma. This is a case of 42year old female with history of hypothyroidism who presented to emergency room with acute onset of severe pain and swelling in right lower extremity. Physical examination was concerning for acute compartment syndrome of right leg which was confirmed by demonstration of elevated compartmental pressures. No precipitating causes were readily identified. Further laboratory testing revealed uncontrolled hypothyroidism. Management included emergent fasciotomy and initiating thyroid hormone replacement. This case represents a rare association between acute compartment syndrome and uncontrolled hypothyroidism. We also discuss the pathogenesis of compartment syndrome in hypothyroid patients and emphasize the importance of evaluating for less common causes, particularly in setting of non-traumatic compartment syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Postoperative peri-axillary seroma following axillary artery cannulation for surgical treatment of acute type A aortic dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsanos Konstantinos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The arterial cannulation site for optimal tissue perfusion and cerebral protection during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB for surgical treatment of acute type A aortic dissection remains controversial. Right axillary artery cannulation confers significant advantages, because it provides antegrade arterial perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass, and allows continuous antegrade cerebral perfusion during hypothermic circulatory arrest, thereby minimizing global cerebral ischemia. However, right axillary artery cannulation has been associated with serious complications, including problems with systemic perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass, problems with postoperative patency of the artery due to stenosis, thrombosis or dissection, and brachial plexus injury. We herein present the case of a 36-year-old Caucasian man with known Marfan syndrome and acute type A aortic dissection, who had direct right axillary artery cannulation for surgery of the ascending aorta. Postoperatively, the patient developed an axillary perigraft seroma. As this complication has, not, to our knowledge, been reported before in cardiothoracic surgery, we describe this unusual complication and discuss conservative and surgical treatment options.

  5. Relation of left ventricular free wall rupture and/or aneurysm with acute myocardial infarction in patients with aortic stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikh, Irtiza N.; Roberts, William C.

    2017-01-01

    This minireview describes 6 previously reported patients with left ventricular free wall rupture and/or aneurysm complicating acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients with aortic stenosis. The findings suggest that left ventricular rupture and/or aneurysm is more frequent in patients with AMI associated with aortic stenosis than in patients with AMI unassociated with aortic stenosis, presumably because of retained elevation of the left ventricular peak systolic pressure after the appeara...

  6. Management of severe asymmetric pectus excavatum complicating aortic repair in a patient with Marfan's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Jonathan C; Marcuzzi, Danny; Peterson, Mark D; Ko, Michael A

    2016-05-01

    We describe the case of a 28-year old man with Marfan's syndrome and severe pectus excavatum who required an aortic root replacement for an ascending aortic aneurysm. There was a near-vertical angulation of the sternum that presented challenges with opening and exposure of the heart during aortic surgery. Furthermore, removal of the sternal retractor after aortic repair resulted in sudden loss of cardiac output. A Ravitch procedure was then performed to successfully close the chest without further cardiovascular compromise. We propose that patients with a severe pectus excavatum and mediastinal displacement seen on preoperative CT scanning should be considered for simultaneous, elective repair. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  7. Biomarkers in Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Loria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evaluation of patients who present to the hospital with acute undifferentiated chest pain or other symptoms and signs suggestive of Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS is often a clinical challenge.The initial assessment, requiring a focused history (including risk factors analysis, a physical examination, an electrocardiogram (EKG and serum cardiac marker determination, is time-consuming and troublesome. Recent investigations have indicated that increases in biomarkers of necrosis, inflammation, ischemia and myocardial stretch may provide earlier assessment of overall patient risk, help in identifying the adequate diagnostic and therapeutic management for each patient and allow for prevention of substantial numbers of new events.Approach and Content: The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the characteristics of several biomarkers that may have potential clinical utility to identify ACS patients. Patho-physiology, analytical and clinical characteristics have been evaluated for each marker, underlying the properties for potential routine clinical use.Summary: The biomarkers discussed in this review are promising and might lead to improved diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with ACS, however their clinical application requires further studies. It is important to define their clinical role as diagnostic markers, their predictive value and the specificity, standardization and detection limits of the assays.

  8. Acute cerebellar ataxia, acute cerebellitis, and opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Jay; Mitchell, Wendy G

    2012-11-01

    Acute cerebellar ataxia and acute cerebellitis represent a process characterized by parainfectious, postinfectious, or postvaccination cerebellar inflammation. There is considerable overlap between these entities. The mildest cases of acute cerebellar ataxia represent a benign condition that is characterized by acute truncal and gait ataxia, variably with appendicular ataxia, nystagmus, dysarthria, and hypotonia. It occurs mostly in young children, presents abruptly, and recovers over weeks. Neuroimaging is normal. Severe cases of cerebellitis represent the other end of the spectrum, presenting with acute cerebellar signs often overshadowed by alteration of consciousness, focal neurological deficits, raised intracranial pressure, hydrocephalus, and even herniation. Neuroimaging is abnormal and the prognosis is less favorable than in acute cerebellar ataxia. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis may be confused with acute cerebellitis when the clinical findings are predominantly cerebellar, but lesions on neuroimaging are usually widespread. Paraneoplastic opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome is often initially misdiagnosed as acute cerebellar ataxia, but has very specific features, course, and etiopathogensis.

  9. Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome With Valvular Vegetations in Acute Q Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Million, Matthieu; Thuny, Franck; Bardin, Nathalie; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Edouard, Sophie; Bessis, Simon; Guimard, Thomas; Weitten, Thierry; Martin-Barbaz, François; Texereau, Michèle; Ayouz, Khelifa; Protopopescu, Camelia; Carrieri, Patrizia; Habib, Gilbert; Raoult, Didier

    2016-03-01

    Coxiella burnetii endocarditis is considered to be a late complication of Q fever in patients with preexisting valvular heart disease (VHD). We observed a large transient aortic vegetation in a patient with acute Q fever and high levels of IgG anticardiolipin antibodies (IgG aCL). Therefore, we sought to determine how commonly acute Q fever could cause valvular vegetations associated with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, which would be a new clinical entity. We performed a consecutive case series between January 2007 and April 2014 at the French National Referral Center for Q fever. Age, sex, history of VHD, immunosuppression, and IgG aCL assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were tested as potential predictors. Of the 759 patients with acute Q fever and available echocardiographic results, 9 (1.2%) were considered to have acute Q fever endocarditis, none of whom had a previously known VHD. After multiple adjustment, very high IgG aCL levels (>100 immunoglobulin G-type phospholipid units; relative risk [RR], 24.9 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 4.5-140.2]; P = .002) and immunosuppression (RR, 10.1 [95% CI, 3.0-32.4]; P = .002) were independently associated with acute Q fever endocarditis. Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome with valvular vegetations in acute Q fever is a new clinical entity. This would suggest the value of systematically testing for C. burnetii in antiphospholipid-associated cardiac valve disease, and performing early echocardiography and antiphospholipid dosages in patients with acute Q fever. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Effects of Gender on Outcomes and Survival Following Repair of Acute Type A Aortic Dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Brian D.; Stamou, Sotiris C.; Kouchoukos, Nicholas T.; Lobdell, Kevin W.; Hagberg, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated gender-related differences in early and late outcomes following type A dissection diagnosis. However, it is widely unknown whether gender affects early clinical outcomes and survival after repair of type A aortic dissection. The goal of this study was to compare the early and late clinical outcomes in women versus men after repair of acute type A aortic dissections. Between January 2000 and October 2010 a total of 251 patients from four academic medical centers underwent repair of acute type A aortic dissection. Of those, 79 were women and 172 were men with median ages of 67 (range, 20–87 years) and 58 years (range, 19–83 years), respectively (p actuarial survival were compared between the groups. Operative mortality was not significantly influenced by gender (19% for women vs. 17% for men, p = 0.695). There were similar rates of hemodynamic instability (12% for women vs. 13% men, p = 0.783) between the two groups. Actuarial 10-year survival rates were 58% for women versus 73% for men (p = 0.284). Gender does not significantly impact early clinical outcomes and actuarial survival following repair of acute type A aortic dissection. PMID:26060379

  11. A Clinical Approach to the Acute Cardiorenal Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentzer, Jacob C; Chawla, Lakhmir S

    2015-10-01

    Acute kidney injury is a frequent complication of acute heart failure syndromes, portending an adverse prognosis. Acute cardiorenal syndrome represents a unique form of acute kidney injury specific to acute heart failure syndromes. The pathophysiology of acute cardiorenal syndrome involves renal venous congestion, ineffective forward flow, and impaired renal autoregulation caused by neurohormonal activation. Biomarkers reflecting different aspects of acute cardiorenal syndrome pathophysiology may allow patient phenotyping to inform prognosis and treatment. Adjunctive vasoactive, neurohormonal, and diuretic therapies may relieve congestive symptoms and/or improve renal function, but no single therapy has been proved to reduce mortality in acute cardiorenal syndrome. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Evaluation of acute compartment syndrome of extremities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    presenting with clinically suspected acute compartment syndrome were studied. These were divided into two age related groups: ... compartment syndrome in children; Acute compartment syndrome and fasciotomy. INTRODUCTIONᴪ ... immobilization, wound management, numbers of surgical procedures until definitive ...

  13. Independent risk factors for hypoxemia after surgery for acute aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Wei; Yang, Hai-Qin; Chi, Yi-Fan; Niu, Zhao-Zhuo; Lin, Ming-Shan; Long, Sun

    2015-08-01

    To determine risk factors associated with postoperative hypoxemia after surgery for acute type A aortic dissection. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 192 patients with acute type A aortic dissection who underwent surgery in Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Medical College of Qingdao University, Qingdao, China between January 2007 and December 2013. Patients were divided into hypoxemia group (n=55) [arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ≤ 200 mm Hg] and non-hypoxemia group (n=137) [PaO2/FiO2 > 200 mm Hg]. Perioperative clinical data were analyzed and compared between the 2 groups. The incidence of postoperative hypoxemia after surgery for acute aortic dissection was 28.6% (55/192). Perioperative death occurred in 13 patients (6.8%). Multivariate regression identified body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg/m2 (OR=21.929, p=0.000), deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) (OR=11.551, p=0.000), preoperative PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 300 mm Hg (OR=7.830, p=0.000) and blood transfusion > 6U in 24 hours postoperatively (OR=12.037, p=0.000) as independent predictors of postoperative hypoxemia for patients undergoing Stanford A aortic dissection surgery. Our study demonstrated that BMI > 25 kg/m2, DHCA, preoperative PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 300 mm Hg, and blood transfusion in 24 hours postoperatively > 6U were independent risk factors of the hypoxemia after acute type A aortic dissection aneurysm surgery.

  14. [Aortic root dilatation rate in pediatric patients with Marfan syndrome treated with losartan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariucci, Elisabetta; Guidarini, Marta; Donti, Andrea; Lovato, Luigi; Wischmeijer, Anita; Angeli, Emanuela; Gargiulo, Gaetano D; Picchio, Fernando M; Bonvicini, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Medical therapy with angiotensin II receptor blockers/angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and/or beta-blockers was reported to reduce aortic root dilatation rates in pediatric patients with Marfan syndrome. No data are available in the literature on losartan effects after 3 years of therapy. The aim of our study was to establish whether losartan reduces aortic root dilatation rates in pediatric patients with Marfan syndrome in the mid and long term. This is a retrospective analysis of 38 pediatric patients with Marfan syndrome followed at the Marfan Clinic of S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital of the University of Bologna (Italy). Aortic diameters were measured at sinuses of Valsalva and proximal ascending aorta with transthoracic echocardiography. After a mean follow-up of 4.5 ± 2.5 years (range 2-9 years), aortic root z score at sinuses of Valsalva and proximal ascending aorta remained stable. The average annual rate of change in aortic root z score was -0.1 ± 0.4 and 0 ± 0.3 at sinuses of Valsalva and proximal ascending aorta, respectively. The mean dose of losartan was 0.7 ± 0.3 mg/kg/day. Three patients were non-responders, probably because of late beginning or low dose of therapy. Eight patients underwent cardiac surgery (aortic root surgery in 5 and mitral valve repair in 3), all of them started losartan later in life. Despite the retrospective design of the study and the small sample size, a beneficial effect of losartan therapy was observed in pediatric patients with Marfan syndrome in the mid and long term. Late beginning or low doses of losartan can turn off the effects of therapy.

  15. Elevated expression levels of lysyl oxidases protect against aortic aneurysm progression in Marfan syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busnadiego, O.; Gorbenko del Blanco, D.; González-Santamaría, J.; Habashi, J.P.; Calderon, J.F.; Sandoval, P.; Bedja, D.; Guinea-Viniegra, J.; Lopez-Cabrera, M.; Rosell-Garcia, T.; Snabel, J.M.; Hanemaaijer, R.; Forteza, A.; Dietz, H.C.; Egea, G.; Rodriguez-Pascual, F.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS) are at high risk of life-threatening aortic dissections. The condition is caused by mutations in the gene encoding fibrillin-1, an essential component in the formation of elastic fibers. While experimental findings in animal models of the disease have shown the

  16. Aortic root pathology in Marfan syndrome increases the risk of migraine with aura

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppen, H.; Vis, J. C.; Gooiker, D. J.; Knudsen, S.; Bouma, B. J.; Tijssen, J. G. P.; de Mol, B. A. J. M.; Mulder, B. J. M.; Russell, M. B.; Ferrari, M. D.

    2012-01-01

    To assess the lifetime prevalence of migraine in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS) and to investigate a history of aortic root replacement (AR) as a possible risk factor. In a multicentre study 123 MFS patients (n = 52 with AR, n = 71 without AR), 82 age- and sex-matched controls and 51 patients

  17. Middle aortic syndrome as a cause of heart failure in children and its management.

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, S; Goswami, B; Ghosh, D C; Sen Gupta, A N

    1981-01-01

    Two cases of middle aortic syndrome in children are described along with two other cases reported earlier. In childhood, this disease may present as incipient or overt cardiac failure. Surgical treatment should be undertaken based on an objective assessment of the severity of the stricture and after taking into account the future growth of the child.

  18. Exploring novel treatments to prevent aortic aneurysm growth in Marfan syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hibender, S.

    2016-01-01

    Widening of the aorta (aneurysm) may occur during ageing or in patients with genetic predisposition, such as in Marfan Syndrome (MFS). Aneurysm growth eventually leads to aortic rupture and death. Currently no pharmacological treatment is present to combat aneurysm growth. In this thesis, treatment

  19. Acute resistance exercise using free weights on aortic wave reflection characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu Lun; Gerhart, Hayden; Mayo, Xián; Kingsley, J Derek

    2018-01-01

    Aortic wave reflection characteristics such as the augmentation index (AIx), wasted left ventricular pressure energy (ΔE w ) and aortic haemodynamics, such as aortic systolic blood pressure (ASBP), strongly predict cardiovascular events. The effects of acute resistance exercise (ARE) using free-weight exercises on these characteristics are unknown. Therefore, we sought to determine the effects of acute free-weight resistance exercise on aortic wave reflection characteristics and aortic haemodynamics in resistance-trained individuals. Fifteen young, healthy resistance-trained (9 ± 3 years) individuals performed two randomized sessions consisting of an acute bout of free-weight resistance exercise (ARE) or a quiet control (CON). The ARE consisted of three sets of 10 repetitions at 75% one repetition maximum for squat, bench press and deadlift. In CON, the participants rested in the supine position for 30 min. Measurements were made at baseline before sessions and 10 min after sessions. A two-way ANOVA was used to compare the effects of condition across time. There were no significant interactions for aortic or brachial blood pressures. Compared to rest, there were significant increases in augmentation pressure (rest: 5·7 ± 3·0 mmHg; recovery: 10·4 ± 5·7 mmHg, P = 0·002), AIx (rest: 116·8 ± 4·2%; recovery: 123·2 ± 8·4%, P = 0·002), AIx normalized at 75 bpm (rest: 5·2 ± 7·6%; recovery: 27·3 ± 13·2%, P<0·0001), ΔE w (rest: 1215 ± 674 dynes s cm -2 ; recovery: 2096 ± 1182 dynes s cm -2 , P = 0·008), and there was a significant decrease in transit time of the reflected wave (rest: 150·7 ± 5·8 ms; recovery 145·5 ± 5·6 ms, P<0·001) during recovery from ARE compared to CON. These data suggest that ARE using free-weight exercises may have no effect on aortic and brachial blood pressure but may significantly alter aortic wave reflection characteristics. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and

  20. Cine-CMR partial voxel segmentation demonstrates increased aortic stiffness among patients with Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Parmanand; Almarzooq, Zaid; Codell, Noel C F; Wang, Yi; Roman, Mary J; Devereux, Richard B; Weinsaft, Jonathan W

    2017-04-01

    Standard cine-cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is commonly used to evaluate cardiac structure, geometry and function. Prior studies have shown that automated segmentation via partial voxel interpolation (PVI) accurately quantifies phantom-based cardiac chamber volumes and necropsy left ventricular myocardial mass. Despite this, the applicability and usefulness of PVI in the determination of physiologic parameters of the aorta such as aortic stiffness has yet to be investigated. Routine CMR was conducted with a 1.5T (GE) scanner with pulse sequences similar to that of standard CMR (parameters: TR 3.4 msec, TE 1.14 msec, flip angle 60°, temporal resolution ~30-40 msec). Views were obtained in standard cardiac-oriented longitudinal or axial views (2, 3 and 4 chambers). Within non-dilated regions of the descending thoracic aorta, aortic area was quantified via a novel PVI automated process (LV-METRIC), which discerns relative amounts of blood pool in each voxel. Aortic stiffness, as calculated from brachial artery pulse pressure and aortic area at maximal and minimal dimensions, was evaluated in 60 total segments (one segment per patient). All segments were in the descending aorta and were not aneurysmal. Sixty patients in total were studied, including 50 that had genetically-related aortic disorder [35 bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), 15 Marfan syndrome (MFS)]. Ten normal controls without aortic disease were included for comparison purposes. All patients (n=60) had evaluable CMR images for assessment of the descending aorta with use of automated segmentation. Patients with BAV and MFS were similar to controls in age, systolic blood pressure, brachial artery pulse pressure, smoking status or hypercholesterolemia (all P=NS). There were more women (PMFS cohort compared to BAV and controls. Descending aortic area in either systole (maximal) or diastole (minimal) was similar among all three cohorts. However, change in aortic area (ΔArea) throughout the cardiac cycle

  1. Acute compartment syndrome in haemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Merchan, E Carlos

    2013-10-01

    Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is characterized by an increase in pressure (intramuscular pressure) within a muscle compartment, which reduces capillary perfusion threatening tissue survival. Persistence of this increased pressure for a few hours will result in necrosis of muscle and nerve tissue, with contracture in the affected limb and permanent loss of function. For that reason, early treatment and diagnosis of ACS is fundamental. Diagnosis should be based on physical examination (pain on stretching the involved muscles) and on an objective measurement of the limb perfusion pressure (DBP minus intramuscular pressure) within the affected compartment. To obtain a reliable clinical diagnosis, the patient must be evaluated every 1-2  h. In children and in unconscious patients, where the level of pain cannot be appropriately determined, an accurate clinical diagnosis is unfeasible, hence the importance of measuring compartment pressure. A fasciotomy should be performed when the limb perfusion pressure is less than 30  mmHg when averaged over a 12-h period (monitored every 1-2  h). Only 16 studies have been published on haemophilic patients with ACS, which report on a total of 34 cases. If symptoms or pressure measurements are suggestive of ACS, an extensive fasciotomy will be required. Unfortunately, fasciotomy is not exempt from complications such as the need of subsequent surgery because of a delay in wound healing, the need of a skin graft, pain, cosmetic problems, nerve injury, permanent muscle weakness and chronic venous insufficiency. Overlooked compartment syndrome remains one of most common causes of malpractice lawsuits. In haemophilia, adequate substitution of coagulation factor must be the first step. The main principle of surgical treatment is an extensive fasciotomy.

  2. Acute aortic dissection in a young healthy athlete with androgenic anabolic steroid use: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barman M, Djamel B, Mathews J

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute aortic dissection can occur at the time of intense physical exertion in strength-trained athletes like weight lifters, bodybuilders, throwers, and wrestlers. Rapid rise in blood pressure and history of hypertension are the most common causes of aortic dissection in athletes. It is a very tragic event because of its high mortality rate of about 32% in young patients. We report a case of aortic dissection in a young weightlifter with a history of anabolic steroid usage with an extensive intimal tear of the aorta at Sino tubular junction and arch. All athletes must be assessed for predisposing factors for aortic dissection, and all patients should be encouraged to undergo appropriate diagnostic studies, like echocardiography and blood pressure monitoring while weightlifting to recognize possible predisposing factors for aortic dissection. Athletes who do have a problem should be encouraged to avoid or limit their exercise or activity by their cardiologist. It is vital that this disastrous event be prevented in young people. In conclusion, although a rare occurrence, AD should be considered in symptomatic patients with any family history of early cardiac deaths, a history suggestive of a connective tissue disorder (that is, multiple joint surgeries or who practice weightlifting.

  3. Bicuspid Aortic Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    aortic valvular disease, endocarditis, ascending aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection.1-4 There is also an association of BAV with coarctation of...for aortic aneurysm , patients with BAV appear to have additional risks for aortic disease. Nistri et al.12 reported significant aortic root...Congenital heart disease in patients with Turner’s syndrome. Italian study group for Turner syndrome (ISGTS). J Pediatr 1998; 133:688-692. 7. Schmid

  4. Three-year-old child with middle aortic syndrome treated by endovascular stent implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moszura, Tomasz; Goreczny, Sebastian; Dryzek, Pawel; Niwald, Marek

    2013-04-01

    Middle aortic syndrome (MAS) is an extremely rare anomaly and represents both a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, particularly in young children. A case of a 3.5 year-old child with MAS and arterial hypertension is reported, where owing to the patient's young age and the length of the hypoplastic aortic segment, surgical correction with end-to-end anastomosis was not feasible. Instead of palliative bypass grafting between the thoracic and abdominal aorta, successful percutaneous balloon angioplasty and stenting of the lesion was performed with the assistance of three-dimensional rotational angiography.

  5. Pitfalls of stenting coarctation of an angulated right circumflex aortic arch in Goldenhar syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Elaheh Malakan; Mortezaeian, Hojjat; Pouraliakbar, Hamid Reza; Hijazi, Ziyad M

    2017-01-01

    We report stenting of coarctation of an angulated right circumflex aortic arch (RCAA) using four Cheatham Platinum stents in a child with Goldenhar syndrome. Difficulties in measuring the accurate length of the curved and narrowed transverse aortic arch marked discrepancy between the luminal diameters of the long narrow transverse arch and wide descending thoracic aorta, increased displacement force caused by the 90° bend between the two parts resulted in repeated stent migrations. We discuss the tips to avoid distal stent migration in the setting of an angulated RCAA.

  6. Pitfalls of stenting coarctation of an angulated right circumflex aortic arch in Goldenhar syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Malakan Rad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report stenting of coarctation of an angulated right circumflex aortic arch (RCAA using four Cheatham Platinum stents in a child with Goldenhar syndrome. Difficulties in measuring the accurate length of the curved and narrowed transverse aortic arch marked discrepancy between the luminal diameters of the long narrow transverse arch and wide descending thoracic aorta, increased displacement force caused by the 90° bend between the two parts resulted in repeated stent migrations. We discuss the tips to avoid distal stent migration in the setting of an angulated RCAA.

  7. Predictors of poor blood pressure control assessed by 24 hour monitoring in patients with type B acute aortic dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delsart P

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pascal Delsart1, Marco Midulla2, Jonathan Sobocinski3, Charles Achere4, Stephan Haulon3, Gonzague Claisse1, Claire Mounier-Vehier11Vascular Medicine and Hypertension Department, Cardiology Hospital, CHRU Lille, 2Radiology and Cardiovascular Imaging Department, Cardiology Hospital, CHRU Lille, 3Vascular Surgery Department, Cardiology Hospital, CHRU Lille, 4Cardiology Department, Cardiology Hospital, CHRU Lille, FranceAbstract: The chronic management of post-acute aortic dissection (AD of the descending aorta (Type B is based on optimal control of blood pressure (BP, with a target BP < 135/80 mmHg. The aim of our study was to determine and verify effective blood pressure control with an objective measurement method and to identify predicting factors.Methods: We collected data from 26 patients hospitalized in the acute phase of a Type B AD between 2006 and 2009. Two groups were defined according to 24 hour BP monitoring results at follow-up. Group 1 consisted of patients with a controlled BP (< 130/80 mmHg, and Group 2 consisted of patients with an uncontrolled BP.Results: Thirty four percent of patients showed an uncontrolled BP at checkup. Vascular history before AD (P = 0.06, high baseline BP trend (P = 0.01 for systolic and P = 0.08 for diastolic, and greater diameter of the descending aorta (P = 0.02 were associated with poor BP control.Conclusion: Prognosis after AD is associated with BP control. Therefore, 24 hour BP monitoring can be made.Keywords: acute aortic syndrome, blood pressure monitoring, hypertension

  8. Mutations in the TGF-β Repressor SKI Cause Shprintzen-Goldberg Syndrome with Aortic Aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Alexander J.; Doyle, Jefferson J.; Bessling, Seneca L.; Maragh, Samantha; Lindsay, Mark E.; Schepers, Dorien; Gillis, Elisabeth; Mortier, Geert; Homfray, Tessa; Sauls, Kimberly; Norris, Russell A.; Huso, Nicholas D.; Leahy, Dan; Mohr, David W.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Scott, Alan F.; Destrée, Anne; Hennekam, Raoul C.; Arn, Pamela H.; Curry, Cynthia J.; Van Laer, Lut; McCallion, Andrew S.; Loeys, Bart L.; Dietz, Harry C.

    2012-01-01

    Increased transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling has been implicated in the pathogenesis of syndromic presentations of aortic aneurysm, including Marfan syndrome (MFS) and Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS)1-4. However, the location and character of many of the causal mutations in LDS would intuitively infer diminished TGF-β signaling5. Taken together, these data have engendered controversy regarding the specific role of TGF-β in disease pathogenesis. Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome (SGS) has considerable phenotypic overlap with MFS and LDS, including aortic aneurysm6-8. We identified causative variation in 10 patients with SGS in the proto-oncogene SKI, a known repressor of TGF-β activity9,10. Cultured patient dermal fibroblasts showed enhanced activation of TGF-β signaling cascades and increased expression of TGF-β responsive genes. Morpholino-induced silencing of SKI paralogs in zebrafish recapitulated abnormalities seen in SGS patients. These data support the conclusion that increased TGF-β signaling is the mechanism underlying SGS and contributes to multiple syndromic presentations of aortic aneurysm. PMID:23023332

  9. Successful repair of mesenteric ischemia in acute type A aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisata, Yoichi; Matsumaru, Ichiro; Yokose, Shogo; Hazama, Shiro

    2016-02-01

    A 64-year-old man with acute type A aortic dissection had superior mesenteric artery occlusion and marked metabolic acidosis. By an emergency laparotomy, bypass grafting from the left external iliac artery to the superior mesenteric artery was performed with great saphenous vein. After deep sedation and antihypertensive management in the intensive care unit, the acidosis resolved, and central repair was carried out. At 10 months postoperatively, his course has been uneventful without mesenteric complications. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Acute pulmonary edema due to stress cardiomyopathy in a patient with aortic stenosis: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Monika F

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Stress cardiomyopathy is a condition of chest pain, breathlessness, abnormal heart rhythms and sometimes congestive heart failure or shock precipitated by intense mental or physical stress. Case presentation A 64-year-old male with a known diagnosis of moderate-to-severe aortic stenosis and advised that valve replacement was not urgent, presented with acute pulmonary edema following extraordinary mental distress. The patient was misdiagnosed as having a "massive heart attack" and...

  11. Cardiorenal Syndrome in Acute Heart Failure Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sarraf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Impaired cardiac function leads to activation of the neurohumoral axis, sodium and water retention, congestion and ultimately impaired kidney function. This sequence of events has been termed the Cardiorenal Syndrome. This is different from the increase in cardiovascular complications which occur with primary kidney disease, that is, the so-called Renocardiac Syndrome. The present review discusses the pathogenesis of the Cardiorenal Syndrome followed by the benefits and potential deleterious effects of pharmacological agents that have been used in this setting. The agents discussed are diuretics, aquaretics, natriuretic peptides, vasodilators, inotropes and adenosine α1 receptor antagonists. The potential role of ultrafiltration is also briefly discussed.

  12. Risk factors for hypoxemia following surgical repair of acute type A aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nan; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Weiguo; Shang, Wei; Zheng, Jun; Sun, Lizhong

    2017-02-01

    To identify the risk factors for hypoxaemia following surgical repair of acute type A aortic dissection. This was a retrospective study of patients treated between October 2013 and December 2014 at the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Anzhen Hospital, China. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed on the clinical data of 160 patients with acute type A dissection and who underwent ascending aortic and arch replacement under deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Hypoxaemia occurred in 30% (48/160) of patients (age: 49 ± 7.9 years; 40 males, 83.3%). The duration of ventilation and the lengths of intensive care unit and hospital stays were significantly longer in patients with hypoxemia (77.9 ± 56.0 vs 16.5 ± 11.5 h, P 15 000/μl (odds ratio, 9.79; 95% CI, 2.47-38.87; P = 0.001); and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest time >25 min (odds ratio, 3.26; 95% CI, 1.18-8.99; P = 0.023). Time from symptom onset to surgery ≤72 h, preoperative PaO2/FiO2 ≤300, white blood cell count >15 000/μl and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest time >25 min were found to be independently associated with hypoxaemia after surgery for acute type A aortic dissection.

  13. Interrupted Aortic Arch Type B in A Patient with Cat Eye Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Belangero, Sintia Iole Nogueira; Bellucco, Fernanda Teixeira da Silva; Cernach, Mirlene C. S. P.; Hacker, April M.; Emanuel, Beverly S.; Melaragno, Maria Isabel

    2009-01-01

    We report a patient with cat eye syndrome and interrupted aortic arch type B, a typical finding in the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Chromosomal analysis and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) showed a supernumerary bisatellited isodicentric marker chromosome derived from chromosome 22. The segment from 22pter to 22q11.2 in the supernumerary chromosome found in our patient does not overlap with the region deleted in patients with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. However, the finding of an in...

  14. Techniques of Proximal Root Reconstruction and Outcomes Following Repair of Acute Type A Aortic Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Tyler M; Stamou, Sotiris C; Kouchoukos, Nicholas T; Lobdell, Kevin W; Khabbaz, Kamal; Patzelt, Lawrence H; Hagberg, Robert C

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the early and late outcomes of different techniques of proximal root reconstruction during the repair of acute Type A aortic dissection, including aortic valve (AV) resuspension, aortic valve replacement (AVR), and a root replacement procedure. All patients who underwent acute Type A aortic dissection repair between January 2000 and October 2010 at four academic institutions were compiled from each institution's Society of Thoracic Surgeons Database. This included 189 patients who underwent a concomitant aortic valve (AV) procedure; 111, 21, and 57 patients underwent AV resuspension, AVR, and the Bentall procedure, respectively. The median age of patients undergoing a root replacement procedure was significantly younger than the other two groups. Early clinical outcomes and 10-year actuarial survival rates were compared. Trends in outcomes and surgical techniques throughout the duration of the study were also analyzed. The operative mortality rates were 17%, 29%, and 18%, for AV resuspension, AVR, and root replacement, respectively. Operative mortality (p = 0.459) was comparable between groups. Hemorrhage related re-exploration did not differ significantly between groups (p = 0.182); however, root replacement procedures tended to have decreased rates of bleeding when compared to AVR (p = 0.067). The 10-year actuarial survival rates for the AV resuspension, Bentall, and AVR groups were 72%, 56%, and 36%, respectively (log-rank p = 0.035). The 10-year actuarial survival was significantly lower in those receiving AVR compared to those receiving root replacement procedures or AV resuspension. Operative mortality was comparable between the three groups.

  15. Combined venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and transcatheter aortic valve implantation for the treatment of acute aortic prosthesis dysfunction in a high-risk patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergolini, Amedeo; Zampi, Giordano; Tinti, Maria Denitza; Polizzi, Vincenzo; Pino, Paolo Giuseppe; Pontillo, Daniele; Musumeci, Francesco; Luzi, Giampaolo

    2016-01-01

    We describe the case of a patient with acute bioprosthesis dysfunction in cardiogenic shock, in whom hemodynamic support was provided by venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and successfully treated by transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Serum Biomarker Identification by Mass Spectrometry in Acute Aortic Dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Ren

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Aortic dissection (AD is also known as intramural hematoma. This study aimed to screen peripheral blood biomarkers of small molecule metabolites for AD using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS. Methods: Sera from 25 healthy subjects, 25 patients with well-established AD, and 25 patients with well-established hypertension were investigated by HPLC-MS to detect metabolites, screen differentially expressed metabolites, and analyze metabolic pathways. Results: Twenty-six and four metabolites were significantly up- and down-regulated in the hypertensive patients compared with the healthy subjects; 165 metabolites were significantly up-regulated and 109 significantly down-regulated in the AD patients compared with the hypertensive patients. Of these metabolites, 35 were up-regulated and 105 down-regulated only in AD patients. The metabolites that were differentially expressed in AD are mainly involved in tryptophan, histidine, glycerophospholipid, ether lipid, and choline metabolic pathways. As AD alters the peripheral blood metabolome, analysis of peripheral blood metabolites can be used in auxiliary diagnosis of AD. Conclusion: Eight metabolites are potential biomarkers for AD, 3 of which were differentially expressed and can be used for auxiliary diagnosis of AD and evaluation of treatment effectiveness.

  17. Hybrid Completion of Aortic Repair after Type A Aortic Dissection in a Patient with Marfan's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Terri-Ann Teisha; Yeh, James Shue-Min; Kourliouros, Antonios; Nienaber, Christoph A

    2017-01-01

    Medicine and engineering are in collaboration to assist in the tackling of daunting surgical techniques which are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, in exchange for minimally invasive approaches with lower procedural risk. Endovascular procedures in general have already reduced the risk of surgery by limiting the extent of open surgery and often replacing it with purely percutaneous or hybrid procedures. Here, we describe a patient who had complex staged surgery with open repair of a proximal portion of a type A aortic dissection followed by a staged endovascular reconstruction of the arch and descending aorta by means of a fenestrated stent-graft to secure the left subclavian artery and the posterior cerebral circulation.

  18. Impact of Retrograde Arch Extension in Acute Type B Aortic Dissection on Management and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauta, Foeke J H; Tolenaar, Jip L; Patel, Himanshu J; Appoo, Jehangir J; Tsai, Thomas T; Desai, Nimesh D; Montgomery, Daniel G; Mussa, Firas F; Upchurch, Gilbert R; Fattori, Rosella; Hughes, G Chad; Nienaber, Christoph A; Isselbacher, Eric M; Eagle, Kim A; Trimarchi, Santi

    2016-12-01

    Optimal management of acute type B aortic dissection with retrograde arch extension is controversial. The effect of retrograde arch extension on operative and long-term mortality has not been studied and is not incorporated into clinical treatment pathways. The International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection was queried for all patients presenting with acute type B dissection and an identifiable primary intimal tear. Outcomes were stratified according to management for patients with and without retrograde arch extension. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed. Between 1996 and 2014, 404 patients (mean age, 63.3 ± 13.9 years) were identified. Retrograde arch extension existed in 67 patients (16.5%). No difference in complicated presentation was noted (36.8% vs 31.7%, p = 0.46), as defined by limb or organ malperfusion, coma, rupture, and shock. Patients with or without retrograde arch extension received similar treatment, with medical management in 53.7% vs 56.5% (p = 0.68), endovascular treatment in 32.8% vs 31.1% (p = 0.78), open operation in 11.9% vs 9.5% (p = 0.54), or hybrid approach in 1.5% vs 3.0% (p = 0.70), respectively. The in-hospital mortality rate was similar for patients with (10.7%) and without (10.4%) retrograde arch extension (p = 0.96), and 5-year survival was also similar at 78.3% and 77.8%, respectively (p = 0.27). The incidence of retrograde arch dissection involves approximately 16% of patients with acute type B dissection. In the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection, this entity seems not to affect management strategy or early and late death. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Aortic and pulmonary artery calcification: An unusual manifestation of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitra Venkatesh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS at times complicates monochorionic twin gestations, resulting in conditions ranging from discordant sizes to fetal demise of one baby. Various types of cardiac defects have been described in the recipient twin of this syndrome. Isolated great artery calcification, i.e. aortic and pulmonary artery calcification is one such uncommon condition associated with TTTS. Calcification of the walls of great vessels may be due to chronic vascular injury sustained as a result of circulatory volume overload in the recipient twin. It may also cause severe systemic hypertension and cardiomyopathy. An accurate diagnosis is important for an optimal follow-up and appropriate genetic counseling. We report a case of aortic and pulmonary artery calcification in association with TTTS.

  20. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty in acute ischemic syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Suryapranata (Haryanto)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractAcute myocardial ischemic syndromes are apparently related to the underlying pathophysiology leading to the clinical instability. Depending on the completeness and the duration of blood deprivation, different clinical syndromes result, such as sudden death, acute transmural

  1. Extended versus limited arch replacement in acute Type A aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Magnus; Trimarchi, Santi; Patel, Himanshu J; Di Eusanio, Marco; Greason, Kevin L; Peterson, Mark D; Fattori, Rossella; Hutchison, Stuart; Desai, Nimesh D; Korach, Amit; Montgomery, Daniel G; Isselbacher, Eric M; Nienaber, Christoph A; Eagle, Kim A; Bartnes, Kristian; Myrmel, Truls

    2017-12-01

    The recommended extent of surgical resection and reconstruction of the arch in acute DeBakey Type I aortic dissection is an ongoing controversy. However, several recent reports indicate a trend towards a more extensive arch operation in several institutions. We have analysed the recent data from the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection to assess the choice of procedure over time and to evaluate the surgical outcome in a 'real-world' database. Our aim was to compare short- and mid-term outcomes of limited repairs versus complete arch surgery. Of the 1241 patients included in the 'Interventional Cohort' of the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection from March 1996 to March 2015, 907 underwent ascending aortic or hemiarch replacement (Group A) and 334 had extended arch replacement (Group B). An extended resection was a surgeon's 'judgement call'. Logistic regression analysis, propensity-adjusted multivariable comparisons and Kaplan-Meier curves were used for analyses. Overall in-hospital mortality was 14.2% with no difference between groups (Group A 13.1%, Group B 17.1%). Coma/altered consciousness (odds ratio 3.16, 95% confidence interval 1.60-6.25, P = 0.001), hypotension, tamponade or shock (2.03, 1.11-3.73, P = 0.022) and any pulse deficit (1.92, 1.04-3.54, P = 0.038) were predictors of in-hospital mortality in a propensity score-adjusted multivariable analysis. Overall 5-year survival was 69.4% in the ascending group and 73.1% in the total arch group (P = 0.83 by Kaplan-Meier analysis). For survivors of the index hospitalization, the 5-year freedom from death, aortic rupture and reintervention were 71.1% in Group A and 76.4% in Group B (P = 0.54 by Kaplan-Meier analysis). Selective, or 'surgeon's choice', extended arch replacement had no discernible acute downside compared with less extensive surgery. Whether extended arch replacement improves the prognosis beyond 5 years remains to be settled.

  2. Incidence of acute cardiorenal syndrome type 3 in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Malleshappa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of acute renocardiac syndrome (cardiorenal syndrome type 3) and its outcome in a suburban population in India. In an observational study, 100 patients admitted with acute kidney injury were evaluated. Acute renocardiac syndrome was documented in 29%. Acute gastroenteritis (46%) was the leading cause of acute kidney injury. Cardiogenic pulmonary edema (56%) was the most common cause of acute cardiac dysfunction. Only 42% of the patients with acute renocardiac syndrome had complete recovery of kidney function. Requirement of renal replacement therapy was found to be significantly high in patients with acute renocardiac syndrome (43% versus 9% in those with AKI and no cardiorenal syndrome) and was associated with high rate of mortality (17%). This study shows that the incidence of acute renocardiac syndrome is high and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Hence, there is a need for primordial prevention and early intervention on large scale.

  3. Aortic dissection-induced acute flaccid paraplegia treated with cerebrospinal fluid drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Leal Adam

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute aortic dissection is a life-threatening event in which prompt and correctdiagnosis is associated with better outcomes. In most cases, there is chestor back pain. However, in rare cases, patients have little or no pain andother symptoms are more conspicuous at presentation. The autors reportsthe case of a 47-year-old female patient who sought medical attention forsudden-onset paraplegia. The physical examination was normal except forbilateral lower limb flaccid paralysis, with abolition of deep tendon reflexes andparaesthesia in both feet. Computed tomography showed aortic dissection,with partial thrombosis of the false lumen, starting after the emergence of theleft subclavian artery and extending, toward the bifurcation of the aorta, to theleft iliac artery. After cerebrospinal fluid drainage, the evolution was favorable.

  4. Presentation, Diagnosis, and Outcomes of Acute Aortic Dissection: 17-Year Trends From the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Linda A; Awais, Mazen; Woznicki, Elise M; Suzuki, Toru; Trimarchi, Santi; Evangelista, Arturo; Myrmel, Truls; Larsen, Magnus; Harris, Kevin M; Greason, Kevin; Di Eusanio, Marco; Bossone, Eduardo; Montgomery, Daniel G; Eagle, Kim A; Nienaber, Christoph A; Isselbacher, Eric M; O'Gara, Patrick

    2015-07-28

    Diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of acute aortic dissection (AAS) are changing. This study examined 17-year trends in the presentation, diagnosis, and hospital outcomes of AAD from the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection (IRAD). Data from 4,428 patients enrolled at 28 IRAD centers between December 26, 1995, and February 6, 2013, were analyzed. Patients were divided according to enrollment date into 6 equal groups and by AAD type: A (n = 2,952) or B (n = 1,476). There was no change in the presenting complaints of severe or worst-ever pain for type A and type B AAD (93% and 94%, respectively), nor in the incidence of chest pain (83% and 71%, respectively). Use of computed tomography (CT) for diagnosis of type A increased from 46% to 73% (p < 0.001). Surgical management for type A increased from 79% to 90% (p < 0.001). Endovascular management of type B increased from 7% to 31% (p < 0.001). Type A in-hospital mortality decreased significantly (31% to 22%; p < 0.001), as surgical mortality (25% to 18%; p = 0.003). There was no significant trend in in-hospital mortality in type B (from 12% to 14%). Presenting symptoms and physical findings of AAD have not changed significantly. Use of chest CT increased for type A. More patients in both groups were managed with interventional procedures: surgery in type A and endovascular therapy in type B. A significant decrease in overall in-hospital mortality was seen for type A but not for type B. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Lemierre’s Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul N. Hein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lemierre’s syndrome is an infectious disease defined by the presence of septic thrombophlebitis with associated embolic phenomenon, most commonly to the lungs. Here we present two cases from a single institution of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS developing as a result of Lemierre’s syndrome in previously healthy young adult men. ARDS can occur as a consequence of pulmonary septic emboli and sepsis, both of which are well-described consequences of Lemierre’s syndrome. We describe important diagnostic and management considerations in the care of patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure and Lemierre’s syndrome. Essential components of management include prompt antibiotic therapy, lung-protective ventilation strategies, and supportive care.

  6. Influence of distal extension of false lumen on adverse aortic events after TEVAR in patients with acute type B aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhan-kui; Wang, Ya; Wang, Xiao-zeng; Jing, Quan-min; Han, Ya-ling

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the clinical outcomes influenced by distal extension of false lumen in acute type B aortic dissection (TBAD) patients following thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). From April 2002 to January 2013, 264 TBAD patients treated with TEVAR were retrospectively enrolled. The IIIa group exhibited a distal false lumen above the diaphragm (n = 70), and the IIIb group exhibited a distal false lumen under the diaphragm (n = 194). The morphological characteristics and adverse events (30-day and >30 days) were recorded and evaluated. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the demographics, comorbidity profiles, or initial feature of computed tomography angiography. The incidence of true lumen compression and branch involvement were significantly increased in the IIIb group compared with the IIIa group (8.6% vs. 25.3%, respectively; 15.7% vs. 36.1%, respectively, both P  0.05). Log-rank tests also indicated there was no significant difference. There was no significant difference between the IIIa and IIIb groups in the 5-year morality and adverse aortic events following TEVAR. The distal extension of false lumen prior to TEVAR does not influence the long-term morality and adverse aortic events in acute TBAD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Acute cardiac failure in neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sparrow, Patrick

    2012-02-03

    We present a case of rapid onset acute cardiac failure developing as part of neuroleptic malignant syndrome in a 35-year-old woman following treatment with thioridazine and lithium. Post mortem histology of cardiac and skeletal muscle showed similar changes of focal cellular necrosis and vacuolation suggesting a common disease process.

  8. Editorial: Acute compartment syndrome | Gakuu | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Orthopaedic Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 2 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Editorial: Acute compartment syndrome. LN Gakuu. Abstract. No abstract.

  9. PARACENTRAL ACUTE MIDDLE MACULOPATHY IN SUSAC SYNDROME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Ali S; Viswanathan, Deepa; Williams, David; Davies, Peter

    2017-10-09

    To present the first reported case of paracentral acute middle maculopathy in association with Susac syndrome. Case report. A young female patient presented with unilateral sudden loss of vision of her right eye to count fingers. There were numerous cotton wool spots in a multifocal pattern concentrated around the right macula and optic disk. Clinical examination and spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging were consistent with paracentral acute middle maculopathy, and fluorescein angiography showed features of retinal arteriole vasculitis. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated multiple white matter lesions in a pericallosal distribution. High-dose corticosteroid therapy was commenced, and visual acuity gradually improved to 6/6 corrected. The patient reported hearing impairment and was diagnosed with Susac syndrome for which she has responded extremely well to long-term immunosuppressive therapy. Paracentral acute middle maculopathy can occur in association with Susac syndrome. Susac syndrome may present only with multifocal retinal ischemia, and such patients with paracentral acute middle maculopathy should be checked for characteristic magnetic resonance imaging lesions and hearing loss.

  10. central hospital with acute coronary syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge about coronary artery disease among patients admitted to Aseer central hospital with acute coronary syndrome. Abdullah S. Assiri. Department of Internal Medicine. College of Medicine & Medical Sciences. King Khalid University. Interventional Cardiology Consultant and Chief of Cardiology. Aseer Central ...

  11. Acute Interstitial Pneumonia (Hamman-Rich Syndrome as a Cause of Idiopathic Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackrapong Bruminhent

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hamman-Rich syndrome, also known as acute interstitial pneumonia, is a rare and fulminant form of idiopathic interstitial lung disease. It should be considered as a cause of idiopathic acute respiratory distress syndrome. Confirmatory diagnosis requires demonstration of diffuse alveolar damage on lung histopathology. The main treatment is supportive care. It is not clear if glucocorticoid therapy is effective in acute interstitial pneumonia. We report the case of a 77-year-old woman without pre-existing lung disease who initially presented with mild upper respiratory tract infection and then progressed to rapid onset of hypoxic respiratory failure similar to acute respiratory distress syndrome with unknown etiology. Despite glucocorticoid therapy, she did not achieve remission and expired after 35 days of hospitalization. The diagnosis of acute interstitial pneumonia was supported by the histopathologic findings on her lung biopsy.

  12. Emergency endovascular treatment of acute aortic diseases; Endovaskulaere Behandlung akuter Erkrankungen der thorakalen Aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitton, M.B.; Herber, S.; Thelen, M. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie; Schmiedt, W.; Neufang, A. [Klinik fuer Herz-, Thorax- und Gefaesschirurgie, Johannes Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz (Germany); Dueber, C. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Klinikum Mannheim GmbH (Germany)

    2002-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the safety and efficacy of emergency treatment of acute aortic diseases with endovascular stent grafts. Methods: In 11 patients (median age 55 years, range 18 - 85) with acute complications of descending aortic diseases endovascular emergency treatment was performed: traumatic aortic rupture (n = 4), penetrating ulcer with aortobronchial fistula or hematothorax (n = 4), acute type B dissection (n = 2, one with penetration, one with subacute mesenteric ischemia), and symptomatic aneurysm of the thoracic aorta (n = 1) with pain and diameter progression. 15 stent grafts were implanted (Talent n = 11, Vanguard/Stentor n = 4). Stent extension was necessary in 4 cases. In 2 cases graft extension was done during the first procedure (due to distal migration and due to the total length of the aortic aneurysm). In 2 cases graft extension was performed 5 days (due to a new aortic ulcer at the proximal stent struts) and 5 months after the initial procedure (recurrent aortobronchial fistula due to aneurysm progression). 14 of 15 implantations required general anesthesia, one symptomatic thoracic aneurysm was performed in local anesthesia and sedation. Results: 14 of 15 graft procedures were performed using the femoral or iliac approach. One procedure required aortofemoral bypass grafting due to extensive arteriosclerotic stenosis and the stent graft was inserted via the bypass graft. The orifice of the subclavian artery was crossed with bare stent struts in 4 cases without neurological complications. Median follow-up is 27 months (range 6 to 72 months). In traumatic aortic ruptures, immediate sealing of bleeding was achieved and follow-up is inconspicuous at a maximum of 72 months. In cases of aortobronchial fistulas, follow-up is satisfactory (maximum 72 months) despite the necessity for reintervention and graft extension. In one acute type B dissection retrograde dissection of the aortic arch occurred during stent release with stable disease during

  13. Rare spinal cord infarction in a patient with acute type B aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Yuji; Nishina, Takeshi; Ueda, Yuichi

    2017-06-01

    A 69-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with acute epigastric discomfort and subsequent paraplegia. Computed tomography revealed acute type B aortic dissection with a thrombosed false lumen. Magnetic resonance imaging did not reveal spinal cord infarction. Paraplegia resolved completely within 1 h. However, on the following day, the patient developed motor impairment in the left leg, sensory disorder of the bilateral legs and urinary retention. The symptoms gradually improved with conservative medical therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging on hospitalization Day 20 revealed spinal cord infarction limited to the right posterior area at level T7/T8 and the conus medullaris. The patient was discharged 44 days after admission. The presented case is notable for its atypical presentation of spinal cord infarction resulting from acute aortic dissection. The aetiology of neurological symptoms, especially that of lower extremity monoplegia, remained undiagnosed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  14. CASE OF EFFECTIVE REPERFUSION THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT AND ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Timchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Currently, acute cerebrovascular accident is an extremely important medical and social issue. Stroke is a major cause of disability in the population and takes a leading place among the causes of death.Modern high­tech endovascular treatment of the ischemic stroke (IS and acute coronary syndrome (ACS includes effective methods of reperfusion of the brain and myocardium within first hours of the disease.In this paper, we report two clinical examples of high­tech reperfusion endovascular treatment in the same patient at an intervals of 1 year and 6 months in the development of clinical picture of the stroke and ACS in Regional Clinical hospital № 1 n.a. Prof. S.V. Ochapovsky.In the first case, intra­aortic TLT of two cerebral arteries (ACA and MCA was performed simultaneously with delayed recanalization and complete regression of focal neurological symptoms. And in the second case, selective thrombolytic therapy was performed in the acute phase of stroke, which developed few hours after PTCA RCA in ACS, with a good clinical effect. 

  15. [Management concept for acute traumatic aortic rupture based on a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, G; Schläpfer, R; Stirnemann, P; Stulz, P

    2000-01-01

    Acute traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta (ATRRA) is mainly a consequence of high-speed travel or fall from great altitude. Most of the victims die at the accident scene. Only 10-20% reach the hospital alive. Because of the extremely high mortality, emergency repair seems to be indicated. Taking into consideration that the hemorrhage into the mediastinum may remain constained and the patient usually suffers from a wide variety of life-threatening causes of injury the aforementioned option is probably not the best one. We report on a patient whose "stable" aortic rupture was surgically corrected after stablization of the circulation, coagulation and respiratory problems.

  16. Acute Aortic Dissection Occurring “Behind The Wheel”, Report of 11 Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshizaki, Takamichi; Kimura, Naoyuki; Hirano, Tomoyasu; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Adachi, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the clinical picture of non-traumatic acute aortic dissection (AAD) occurring behind the wheel. Between 1990 and 2014, AAD had occurred in 11 patients while driving (nine men, mean age; 58.3 years, seven commercial drivers). The symptoms included chest and/or back pain (n = 9) and syncope (n = 2). One patient with syncope caused a traffic accident. Ten patients had type A dissection (DeBakey type I) and 1 type B dissection. In-hospital mortality was 9.9% (1/11). Our data showe...

  17. Acute Aortic Dissection Occurring "Behind The Wheel", Report of 11 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizaki, Takamichi; Kimura, Naoyuki; Hirano, Tomoyasu; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Adachi, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the clinical picture of non-traumatic acute aortic dissection (AAD) occurring behind the wheel. Between 1990 and 2014, AAD had occurred in 11 patients while driving (nine men, mean age; 58.3 years, seven commercial drivers). The symptoms included chest and/or back pain (n = 9) and syncope (n = 2). One patient with syncope caused a traffic accident. Ten patients had type A dissection (DeBakey type I) and 1 type B dissection. In-hospital mortality was 9.9% (1/11). Our data showed if affected drivers are transported to a hospital in a timely fashion, a good surgical outcome can be expected.

  18. Acute Myocardial Infarction in an Elderly Patient With Severe Aortic Stenosis and Angiographically Normal Coronary Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Feng Lin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Aortic stenosis (AS is common in the elderly and is associated with an increased risk of death from cardiovascular events. Nevertheless, acute myocardial infarction (AMI in patients with severe AS and “normal” coronary arteries is very rare. We present an elderly male with severe AS and angiographically normal coronary arteries who experienced AMI. Platelet hyperaggregability, activation of blood coagulation, coronary microcirculatory dysfunction, imbalance of supply and demand in the hypertrophied myocardium, and subendocardial ischemia predisposed by AS are possible mechanisms. The relevant literature is reviewed and discussed in the report.

  19. The Role of Extra-Anatomic Bypass in the Surgical Treatment of Acute Abdominal Aortic Occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, Gokhan; Bozok, Şahin; Ergene, Şaban; Karakisi, Sedat Ozan; Tufekci, Nebiye; Kazdal, Hızır; Ogullar, Sabri; Kucuker, Seref Alp

    2015-06-01

    Aortic occlusion is rare catastophic pathology with high rates of mortality and severe morbidity. In this study, we aimed to share our experience in the management of aortic occlusion and to assess the outcomes of extra-anatomic bypass procedures. Eighteen patients who had undergone extra-anatomic bypass interventions in the cardiovascular surgery department of our tertiary care center between July 2009 and May 2013 were retrospectively evaluated. All patients were preoperatively assessed with angiograms (conventional, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance angiography) and Doppler ultrasonography. Operations consisted of bilateral femoral thromboembolectomy, axillobifemoral extra-anatomic bypass and femoropopliteal bypass and were performed on an emergency basis. In all patients during early postoperative period successful revascularization outcomes were obtained; however, one of these operated patients died on the 10th postoperative due to multiorgan failure. The patients were followed up for a mean duration of 21.2±9.4 months (range, 6 to 36 months). Amputation was not warranted for any patient during postoperative follow-up. To conclude, acute aortic occlusion is a rare but devastating event and is linked with substantial morbidity and mortality in spite of the recent advances in critical care and vascular surgery. Our results have shown that these hazardous outcomes may be minimized and better rates of graft patency may be achieved with extra-anatomic bypass techniques tailored according to the patient.

  20. The Role of Extra-Anatomic Bypass in the Surgical Treatment of Acute Abdominal Aortic Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Ilhan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aortic occlusion is rare catastophic pathology with high rates of mortality and severe morbidity. In this study, we aimed to share our experience in the management of aortic occlusion and to assess the outcomes of extra-anatomic bypass procedures. Methods: Eighteen patients who had undergone extra-anatomic bypass interventions in the cardiovascular surgery department of our tertiary care center between July 2009 and May 2013 were retrospectively evaluated. All patients were preoperatively assessed with angiograms (conventional, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance angiography and Doppler ultrasonography. Operations consisted of bilateral femoral thromboembolectomy, axillo-bifemoral extra-anatomic bypass and femoropopliteal bypass and were performed on an emergency basis. Results: In all patients during early postoperative period successful revascularization outcomes were obtained; however, one of these operated patients died on the 10th postoperative due to multiorgan failure. The patients were followed up for a mean duration of 21.2±9.4 months (range, 6 to 36 months. Amputation was not warranted for any patient during postoperative follow-up.. Conclusion: To conclude, acute aortic occlusion is a rare but devastating event and is linked with substantial morbidity and mortality in spite of the recent advances in critical care and vascular surgery. Our results have shown that these hazardous outcomes may be minimized and better rates of graft patency may be achieved with extra-anatomic bypass techniques tailored according to the patient.

  1. Transapical sutureless aortic valve implantation under magnetic resonance imaging guidance: Acute and short-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Keith A; Mazilu, Dumitru; Cai, Junfeng; Kindzelski, Bogdan; Li, Ming

    2015-04-01

    Despite the increasing success and applicability of transcatheter aortic valve replacement, 2 critical issues remain: the durability of the valves, and the ideal imaging to aid implantation. This study was designed to investigate the transapical implantation of a device of known durability using real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance. A sutureless aortic valve was used that employs a self-expanding nitinol stent and is amenable to transapical delivery. MRI (1.5-T) was used to identify the anatomic landmarks in 60-kg Yucatan swine. Prostheses were loaded into an MRI-compatible delivery device with an active guidewire to enhance visualization. A series of acute feasibility experiments were conducted (n = 10). Additional animals (n = 6) were allowed to survive and had follow-up MRI scans and echocardiography at 90 days postoperatively. Postmortem gross examination was performed. The valve was MRI compatible and created no significant MRI artifacts. The 3 commissural struts were visible on short-axis view; therefore, coronary ostia obstruction was easily avoided. The average implantation time was 65 seconds. Final results demonstrated stability of the implants with preservation of myocardial perfusion and function over 90 days: the ejection fraction was 48% ± 15%; the peak gradient was 17.3 ± 11.3 mm Hg; the mean gradient was 9.8 ± 7.2 mm Hg. Mild aortic regurgitation was seen in 4 cases, trace in 1 case, and a severe central jet in 1 case. Prosthesis positioning was evaluated during gross examination. We demonstrated that a sutureless aortic valve can be safely and expeditiously implanted through a transapical approach under real-time MRI guidance. Postimplantation results showed a well-functioning prosthesis, with minimal regurgitation, and stability over time. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Osteoprotegerin in Turner syndrome - relationship to aortic diameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Christian; Mortensen, Kristian Havmand; Bjerre, Mette

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is a cardinal trait of Turner syndrome (TS), causing half of the 3-fold excess mortality. Since osteoprotegerin (OPG) is as a potential biomarker of cardiovascular disease, this cross-sectional and prospective study aimed at elucidating OPG levels in TS and its...

  3. Acquired von Willebrand syndrome in children with aortic and pulmonary stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnetoğlu, Fatih Köksal; Babaoğlu, Kadir; Filiz, Şayegan Güven; Zengin, Emine; Altun, Gürkan; Kılıç, Suar Çakı; Sarper, Nazan

    This prospective study was planned to investigate the frequency and relationship of acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS) with aortic and pulmonary stenosis in patients. A total of 84 children, ranging from two to 18 years of age, were enrolled in this study. Of these, 28 had isolated aortic stenosis, 32 had isolated pulmonary stenosis and 24 were healthy. Children with aortic and pulmonary stenosis associated with other congenital heart diseases were excluded. Children with hypothyroidism, renal or liver disease, malignancy or autoimmune disease were also excluded. Wholeblood count, blood group, factor VIII level, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF:Ag), ristocetin co-factor (VWF:RCo), and bleeding time using a platelet-function analyser (PFA-100) were performed in all patients. All of the children in the study underwent a detailed physical examination and echocardiographic evaluation. A history of bleeding was positive in 18% of the aortic stenosis group, 9% of the pulmonary stenosis group, and 4% of the control group. Seven of 60 (12%) patients had laboratory findings that implied a diagnosis of AVWS, and two of these (28%) had a history of bleeding. The frequency of AVWS was 14% in patients with aortic stenosis and 9% in those with pulmonary stenosis. AVWS is not rare in stenotic obstructive cardiac diseases. A detailed history of bleeding should be taken from patients with valvular disease. Even if the history is negative, whole blood count, PT and aPTT should be performed. If necessary, PFA-100 closure time and further tests should be planned for the diagnosis of AVWS.

  4. A successful case of ascending aorta--abdominal aorta bypass for middle aortic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, Yukihiro; Mori, Yoshio; Umeda, Yukio; Imaizumi, Matsuhisa; Takiya, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    The middle aortic syndrome (MAS) is a rare disease affecting children and young adults, and it occurs in about 0.5% to 2.0% of all aortic coarctation cases. Congenital, acquired, inflammatory, and infectious etiologies have been described. In the majority of cases, there is a short, isolated or diffuse tubular narrowing of the descending thoracic and abdominal aorta, often accompanied by ostial stenosis or occlusion of the renal and visceral branches, which leads to renovascular hypertension and visceral ischemia. Surgical treatment should be considered in cases of uncontrollable hypertension, evidence of end-organ damage such as cardiac failure, progressive renal insufficiency, or severe intermittent claudication. Several surgical treatments for this condition have been reported, including bypass grafting, graft replacement, or patch angioplasty. We report a successful case of ascending aorta-abdominal aorta bypass for MAS in a 11-year-old boy.

  5. Perturbed sympatho-vagal balance in Turner syndrome - relation to aortic dilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Christian; Mortensen, Kristian Havmand; Andersen, Niels Holmark

    examined once. Aortic dimensions were measured at nine positions using 3D, non-contrast and free-breathing cardiovascular-MRI. HRV measured by short-term spectral analysis (supine-standing), transthoracic echocardiography, 24-hour ambulatory BP were done. Results: The changes in High frequency (HF) power......-average=-0.312 and -0.341; pmeasures of HRV. Prospectively there were no changes in HRV. Conclusions: A perturbed sympatho-vagal balance is present in TS explained by a decreased vagal activity......Objective: The risk of aortic dissection is 100 fold increased in Turner syndrome (TS). Increased blood pressure (BP) and heart rate is present as well as an increased risk of ischemic heart disease and diabetes. This study aimed to prospectively assess heart rate variability (HRV) in TS and its...

  6. Case report of a rarely seen long-segment middle aortic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakut, Kahraman; Erdoğan, İlkay

    2017-03-01

    Middle aortic syndrome (MAS) follows a course with distal thoracic and abdominal aorta stenosis. It is a rare disease that is usually diagnosed after the first decade of life. Clinical reflection of MAS is often in the form of hypertension and claudication in the lower extremities. Its etiology is unclear, but is known to be associated with congenital or acquired diseases. This pathology, which is accompanied by malignant hypertension, often does not respond to medical treatment. In patients with MAS, surgical treatment is first line recommendation to prevent complications such as hypertension, heart failure, intracranial bleeding, or aortic rupture. In order to draw attention to this disease, presently described is case of high blood pressure detected during routine examination of a child who had no complaint, and discovery of long-segment stenosis in the abdominal aorta identified with echocardiography and conventional angiography.

  7. Dress syndrome with sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome and pneumomediastinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhas Prasun Giri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS syndrome reflects a serious hypersensitivity reaction to drugs, and is characterized by skin rash, fever, lymph node enlargement, and internal organ involvement. So far, numerous drugs such as sulfonamides, phenobarbital, sulfasalazine, carbamazepine, and phenytoin have been reported to cause DRESS syndrome. We report a case of a 10-year-old girl who developed clinical manifestations of fever, rash, lymphadenopathy, hypereosinophilia, and visceral involvement (hepatitis and pneumonitis after taking phenobarbital for seizures, with subsequent development of sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS and spontaneous air leak syndrome (pnemothorax and pneumomediastinum. She was put on steroids and various antibiotics and was ventilated, but ultimately succumbed to sepsis and pulmonary complications.

  8. Improved hemodynamics with a novel miniaturized intra-aortic axial flow pump in a porcine model of acute left ventricular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabari, Farshad Raissi; George, Joggy; Cuchiara, Michael P; Langsner, Robert J; Heuring, Jason J; Cohn, William E; Hertzog, Benjamin A; Delgado, Reynolds

    2013-01-01

    Currently, long-term mechanical circulatory support (MCS) is limited to large, complex devices that require invasive, high-risk surgical implantation. These devices are mainly used in patients with late stage heart failure (HF). We are developing a novel percutaneous intra-aortic micro-axial fluid entrainment pump intended for long-term MCS in patients with earlier stage HF. This study examined the pump's hemodynamic effects in a porcine model of acute HF. In three porcine experiments, the pump was deployed in the thoracic aorta by standard cardiac catheterization techniques and was anchored with self-expanding struts. Acute cardiac dysfunction was induced by infusing esmolol continuously. Pump support increased cardiac output (+10.4%), stroke volume (+8.9%), and ejection fraction (+10.8%) while decreasing cardiac stroke work (-10.8%) and afterload (-22.7%). Furthermore, pump support significantly enhanced renal perfusion through sustained increases in both renal artery flow (+36.4%) and pressure (+73.6%). In a porcine model of acute HF, the catheter-based intra-aortic fluid entrainment pump improved hemodynamics and renal perfusion. These results suggest that the pump could improve HF outcomes and patients' quality of life by resting the heart, promoting reverse remodeling, and augmenting end-organ perfusion. Furthermore, the enhanced renal perfusion may help disrupt the cardiorenal syndrome cycle and improve HF treatment.

  9. A single-center experience of hemofiltration treatment for acute aortic dissection (Stanford type A) complicated with postoperative acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Peng; Zhang, Xi-Quan; Pang, Xin-Yan; Cao, Guang-Qing; Fang, Chang-Cun; Wu, Shu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) for aortic dissection patients with acute renal failure after surgery in retrospective manner. A total of thirty-seven aortic dissection patients with postoperative acute renal failure accepted CVVH therapy. The effect of CVVH was evaluated by analyzing clinical condition changes and laboratory examination results. After treatment of CVVH, renal function and clinical symptoms were significantly improved in thirty patients. Eight of the thirty patients got completely renal function recovery within two weeks after CVVH therapy; and twenty-two of the thirty patients got completely renal function recovery within four weeks after CVVH therapy. Nevertheless, seven patients got no benefit from CVVH therapy with poor prognosis. CVVH is an effective treatment to most aortic dissection patients with postoperative acute renal failure. The effect of CVVH was correlated with original renal function, early CVVH therapy, and continuous intensive care.

  10. Shock complicating type A acute aortic dissection: Clinical correlates, management, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossone, Eduardo; Pyeritz, Reed E; Braverman, Alan C; Peterson, Mark D; Ehrlich, Marek; O'Gara, Patrick; Suzuki, Toru; Trimarchi, Santi; Gilon, Dan; Greason, Kevin; Desai, Nimesh D; Montgomery, Daniel G; Isselbacher, Eric M; Nienaber, Christoph A; Eagle, Kim A

    2016-06-01

    Shock is among the most dreaded and common complications of type A acute aortic dissection (TAAAD). However, clinical correlates, management, and short- and long-term outcomes of TAAAD patients presenting with shock in real-world clinical practice are not known. We evaluated 2,704 patients with TAAAD enrolled in the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection between January 1, 1996, and August 18, 2012. On admission, 407 (15.1%) TAAAD patients presented with shock. Most in-hospital complications (coma, myocardial or mesenteric ischemia or infarction, and cardiac tamponade) were more frequent in shock patients. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher in TAAAD patients with than without shock (30.2% vs 23.9%, P=.007), regardless of surgical or medical treatment. Most shock patients underwent surgical repair, with medically managed patients demonstrating older age and more complications at presentation. Estimates using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that most (89%) TAAAD patients with shock discharged alive from the hospital survived 5years, a rate similar to that of TAAAD patients without shock (82%, P=.609). Shock occurred in 1 of 7 TAAAD patients and was associated with higher rates of in-hospital adverse events and mortality. However, TAAAD survivors with or without shock showed similar long-term mortality. Successful early and aggressive management of shock in TAAAD patients has the potential for improving long-term survival in this patient population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Hiatal hernia incarceration during cardiopulmonary bypass in patient with acute aortic dissection--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Y; Saito, T; Horimi, H; Kato, M; Kawashima, T; Fuse, K

    1995-09-01

    A 67-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital under diagnosis of Stanford type A acute aortic dissection. Chest CT showed aortic dissection from the ascending to descending aorta, and large hiatal hernia. Operation was undergone under cardiopulmonary bypass and circulatory arrest with retrograde cerebral perfusion. A graft replacement was carried out from the ascending to transverse arch aorta. After the release of the cross-clamping of aorta, the heart was gradually oppressed anteriorly by extrapericardial mass, so that the patient could not be weaned from the cardiopulmonary bypass. The mass was revealed incarcerated hiatal hernia by ultrasonography. After laparotomy, diaphragm and hiatus were incised, the incarceration was relieved and the diaphgragm was repaired with a Goretex sheet. Then the patient could be weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass. Her postoperative course was uneventful except for acute renal failure, and she was discharged 60 days after the operation. The incarceration of hiatal hernia was thought to be caused by tissue edema and small bleeding during cardiopulmonary bypass. This is the first reported case with the incarceration of hiatal hernia which occurred during cardiopulmonary bypass.

  12. Acute Abdominal Pain Secondary to Chilaiditi Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chilaiditi syndrome is a rare condition occurring in 0.025% to 0.28% of the population. In these patients, the colon is displaced and caught between the liver and the right hemidiaphragm. Patients' symptoms can range from asymptomatic to acute intermittent bowel obstruction. Diagnosis is best achieved with CT imaging. Identification of Chilaiditi syndrome is clinically significant as it can lead to many significant complications such as volvulus, perforation, and bowel obstruction. If the patient is symptomatic, treatment is usually conservative. Surgery is rarely indicated with indications including ischemia and failure of resolution with conservative management.

  13. [Diagnosis and treatment of aortic diseases : new guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggebrecht, H

    2014-12-01

    In September 2014 the European Society of Cardiology issued guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of aortic diseases in adults. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) represents the imaging modality of first choice as it is rapidly and almost ubiquitously available and can evaluate the entire aorta in a single-step examination. In patients with a high clinical suspicion of an acute aortic syndrome based on (family) history and symptoms, CT should be performed without further delay to confirm or refute the diagnosis. Diseases involving the ascending aorta remain a domain of open surgery, be it on an emergency basis in an acute type A dissection or electively in asymptomatic aneurysms with an aortic diameter >5.5 cm. The presence of risk factors (e. g. bicuspid aortic valve, Marfan syndrome and aortic dissection/rupture in the family history) may prompt earlier surgical repair at a lower threshold diameter. The treatment of descending aortic disease is primarily conservative including modification of cardiovascular risk factors. If indicated, endovascular aortic stent graft repair appears to be superior to open surgery for descending thoracic aortic disease or equivalent in the treatment of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms. The management of aortic diseases related to genetic connective tissue diseases (e. g. Marfan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome) is complex and requires special multidisciplinary expertise.

  14. Prophylactic antidepressant treatment following acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ole G; Madsen, Michael T; Simonsen, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is significantly increased in patients following acute coronary syndrome resulting in twofold increased mortality compared with patients without depression. The depression diagnosis is often missed leading to considerable undertreatment. This systematic review assesses...... the current evidence of primary prophylactic treatment of depression in patients after acute coronary syndrome. The study protocol was prospectively registered at PROSPERO (registration number CRD42015025587). A systematic review were conducted and reported according to Preferred Reporting Items...... with an antidepressant intervention of any kind. A validated assessment tool should measure depression and depressive symptoms. Languages were limited to articles written in English. Six articles were included. Four studies utilized different components of case and disease management, health coaching, or relaxational...

  15. [Acute kidney injury : A clinical syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienholz, A; Kribben, A

    2016-10-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a clinical syndrome occurring in the context of multiple and diverse disease entities. Although the term AKI implies renal damage as well as functional impairment or a combination of both, diagnosis is solely based on the functional parameters serum creatinine and urine output. Independent of the underlying disease and even assuming full recovery of renal function, AKI is associated with increased morbidity and mortality not only during the acute situation, but also long term. Awareness of the individual risk profile of each patient and the variety of causes and clinical manifestations of AKI is pivotal for prophylaxis, diagnosis, and therapy. The complexity of the clinical syndrome in the context of sepsis, solid organ transplantation, malignancy, and autoimmune diseases requires differentiated diagnostic and therapeutic approaches and interdisciplinary care.

  16. Acute compartment syndrome of forearm and hand

    OpenAIRE

    T Chandraprakasam; R Ashok Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of the acute compartment syndrome is of paramount importance. Unless the viscious cycle is intervened at an appropriately early time it will result in irreversible damage leading to disability. In this review article we are discussing the basic pathophysiological process through which the various aetiological factors causing increased compartmental pressure lead to the progressive death of muscles and nerves. We also discuss the various clinical features that aid i...

  17. Lower extremity compartment syndrome after elective percutaneous fenestrated endovascular repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Charitable, MD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic complications after fenestrated endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (FEVAR can result in significant morbidity and mortality. We present a case of a 65-year-old man who underwent a FEVAR complicated by bilateral lower extremity compartment syndrome requiring four-compartment fasciotomies. This ischemic complication was likely caused by sheath occlusion because the patient had no evidence of arterial injury or distal plaque embolization. This case highlights the importance of careful postoperative monitoring after FEVAR, because the larger sheaths required can be occlusive and result in lower extremity ischemia, even for relatively short cases.

  18. Pacing to treat low cardiac output syndrome following elective aortic valve replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ishaq

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of low cardiac output syndrome caused by dynamic left ventricular (LV outflow obstruction after aortic valve replacement (AVR. This recognized phenomenon probably occurs more frequently than appreciated, and the author suggests that this should be considered when managing patients with severe hemodynamic instability after AVR. In addition, we also focus on the fact that invasive pacemaker systems have significant effects on cardiac output augmentation postoperatively and in long-term management of patients with LV outflow tract (LVOT obstruction following AVR. The possible mechanisms and subsequent treatments are discussed.

  19. Early Manifestation of Supravalvular Aortic and Pulmonary Artery Stenosis in a Patient with Williams Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Uk Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS is a developmental disorder characterized by vascular abnormalities such as thickening of the vascular media layer in medium- and large-sized arteries. Supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS and peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis (PPAS are common vascular abnormalities in WS. The natural course of SVAS and PPAS is variable, and the timing of surgery or intervention is determined according to the progression of vascular stenosis. In our patient, SVAS and PPAS showed rapid concurrent progression within two weeks after birth. We report the early manifestation of SVAS and PPAS in the neonatal period and describe the surgical treatment for stenosis relief.

  20. Acute Compartment Syndrome of the Leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konda, Sanjit R; Kester, Benjamin S; Fisher, Nina; Behery, Omar A; Crespo, Alexander M; Egol, Kenneth A

    2017-08-01

    Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is well known among orthopaedic surgeons. The timely diagnosis and management of ACS is crucial to avoiding its sequelae, including renal failure, ischemic contractures, and limb loss. Despite its relative importance, ACS poses a challenge to many residents and clinicians as diagnosis relies largely on clinical judgment. Timely diagnosis and thorough compartment release are essential to optimizing outcomes in ACS. This video highlights a clinical case in which compartment syndrome of the leg was considered, diagnosed, and surgically managed. This video will present the indications for compartment release and a video-guided demonstration of compartment checks using an arterial line transducer, a 4-compartment fasciotomy with 2 incisions, and temporizing vessel loop closure. Compartment syndrome can be a devastating complication of common fractures. It is essential that orthopaedic practitioners understand the immediacy of intervention. We have a responsibility to provide timely, accurate diagnosis along with expedient surgical management.

  1. [Emergency diagnosis of the acute vestibular syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamás, T László; Garai, Tibor; Király, István; Mike, Andrea; Nagy, Csaba; Paukovics, Ágnes; Schmidt, Péter; Szatmári, Ferenc; Tompos, Tamás; Vadvári, Árpád; Szirmai, Ágnes

    2017-12-01

    To diagnose acute vestibular syndrome (AVS) in a prospective study by a new bedside test (providing 1A evidence) based on oculomotor analysis and assessment of hearing loss. To assess the frequency of central and peripheral causes of acute vestibular syndrome in the emergency room. To establish the diagnostic accuracy of acute cranial computed tomography as compared to oculomotor analysis done by video oculography goggles and audiometry. Between 1st March 2016 and 1st March 2017 we documented 125 patients (62 women, 63 men, average age 53 years) in the emergency room of the Petz Aladár County Teaching Hospital using the above bedside and instrumental testing. Diagnosis was verified by cranial magnetic resonance imaging. According to the results of the instrumental examination in AVS in 67% we found a peripheral cause and in 33% a central pathology. In 62% isolated posterior circulation stroke manifested itself by isolated vertigo without additional focal signs and the acute cranial computed tomography showed negative results in 96%. The instrumental examination increased diagnostic accuracy by making the diagnosis of isolated inferior semicircular canal vestibular neuritis possible. The new bedside oculomotor test is suitable for the diagnosis of posterior circulation stroke manifesting with isolated vertigo in early cases, when the routine neuroradiologic methods have a lower sensitivity or are not available. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(51): 2029-2040.

  2. Effects of Hemodynamic Instability on Early Outcomes and Late Survival Following Repair of Acute Type A Aortic Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Brian D; Stamou, Sotiris C; Kouchoukos, Nicholas T; Lobdell, Kevin W; Khabbaz, Kamal; Patzelt, Lawrence H; Hagberg, Robert C

    2014-02-01

    The goal of this study was to compare operative mortality and actuarial survival between patients presenting with and without hemodynamic instability who underwent repair of acute Type A aortic dissection. Previous studies have demonstrated that hemodynamic instability is related to differences in early and late outcomes following acute Type A dissection occurrence. However, it is unknown whether hemodynamic instability at the initial presentation affects early clinical outcomes and survival after repair of Type A aortic dissection. A total of 251 patients from four academic medical centers underwent repair of acute Type A aortic dissection between January 2000 and October 2010. Of those, 30 presented with hemodynamic instability while 221 patients did not. Median ages were 63 years (range 38-82) and 60 years (range 19-87) for patients presenting with hemodynamic instability compared to patients without hemodynamic instability, respectively (P = 0.595). Major morbidity, operative mortality, and 10-year actuarial survival were compared between groups. Operative mortality was profoundly influenced by hemodynamic instability (patients with hemodynamic instability 47% versus 14% for patients without hemodynamic instability, P < 0.001). Actuarial 10-year survival rates for patients with hemodynamic instability were 44% versus 63% for patients without hemodynamic instability (P = 0.007). Hemodynamic instability has a profoundly negative impact on early outcomes and operative mortality in patients with acute Type A aortic dissection. However, late survival is comparable between hemodynamically unstable and non-hemodynamically unstable patients.

  3. Fetal Aortic Valvuloplasty for Evolving Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome: Postnatal Outcomes of the First 100 Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freud, Lindsay R.; McElhinney, Doff B.; Marshall, Audrey C.; Marx, Gerald R.; Friedman, Kevin G.; del Nido, Pedro J.; Emani, Sitaram M.; Lafranchi, Terra; Silva, Virginia; Wilkins-Haug, Louise E.; Benson, Carol B.; Lock, James E.; Tworetzky, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Background Fetal aortic valvuloplasty (FAV) can be performed for severe mid-gestation aortic stenosis (AS) in an attempt to prevent progression to hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). A subset of patients has achieved a biventricular (BV) circulation after FAV. The postnatal outcomes and survival of the BV patients, compared to those managed as HLHS, have not been reported. Methods and Results We included 100 patients who underwent FAV for severe mid-gestation AS with evolving HLHS from March 2000 to January 2013. Patients were categorized based on postnatal management as BV or HLHS. Clinical records were reviewed. Eighty-eight fetuses were live-born, and 38 had a BV circulation (31 from birth, 7 converted after initial univentricular palliation). Left-sided structures, namely aortic and mitral valve sizes and LV volume, were significantly larger in the BV group at the time of birth (p-values <0.01). After a median follow-up of 5.4 years, freedom from cardiac death among all BV patients was 96±4% at 5 years and 84±12% at 10 years, which was better than HLHS patients (log-rank p=0.04). There was no cardiac mortality in patients with a BV circulation from birth. All but 1 of the BV patients required postnatal intervention; 42% underwent aortic and/or mitral valve replacement. On most recent echocardiogram, the median LV end-diastolic volume z-score was +1.7 (range: -1.3, +8.2), and 80% had normal ejection fraction. Conclusions Short- and intermediate-term survival among patients who underwent FAV and achieved a BV circulation postnatally is encouraging. However, morbidity still exists, and on-going assessment is warranted. PMID:25052401

  4. Cigarette Smoke Exposure and the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Calfee, CS; Matthay, MA; Kangelaris, KN; Siew, ED; Janz, DR; Bernard, GR; May, AK; Jacob, P; Havel, C; Benowitz, NL; Ware, LB

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. The association between cigarette smoke exposure and the acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with the most common acute respiratory distress syndrome risk factors of sepsis, pneumonia, and aspiration has not been well studied. The goal of this study was to test the association between biomarker-confirmed cigarette smoking and acute respiratory distress syndrome in a diverse cohort. Design: Prospective ...

  5. Electrocardiography changes in acute aortic dissection-association with troponin leak, coronary anatomy, and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourafkari, Leili; Tajlil, Arezou; Ghaffari, Samad; Chavoshi, Mohammadreza; Kolahdouzan, Kasra; Parvizi, Rezayat; Parizad, Raziyeh; Nader, Nader D

    2016-08-01

    Electrocardiography (ECG) offers some information that may be used to prognosticate acute type A aortic dissection (AAOD) for short- and long-term mortality. We retrospectively analyzed the electrocardiograms of patients with AAOD admitted from March 2004 to March 2015. The frequency of ECG findings and their prognostic value on hospital and follow-up mortality were investigated. Findings pertaining to coronary involvement and troponin level were also examined. A total of 120 men and 64 women were admitted. Acute ischemic changes were reported in 38.0%, whereas T inversion was the most common recorded abnormality, which occurred in 38.6%. Acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction was detected in 16.3%. Troponin increased in 36.6%; 21.9% of the patients underwent coronary angiography among which 70% were normal. Coronary involvement or troponin increase was not different in patients with acute ECG changes. During hospitalization, 45.7% of the patients died. In multivariate analyses, ST elevation in lead aVR was associated with higher hospital death (odds ratio, 5.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-25.73; P = .038), whereas QRS greater than 120 milliseconds was associated with long-term mortality (hazard ratio, 2.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-3.76; P = .006). Acute ischemic ECG changes are common in AAOD, and a completely normal ECG is infrequently encountered. Acute ECG changes were not associated with the increased troponin or the presence of coronary lesions in angiography. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Influence of False Lumen Status on the Prognosis of Acute Type A Aortic Dissection without Urgent Surgical Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akihito; Ishii, Hideki; Suzuki, Susumu; Ota, Tomoyuki; Oshima, Hideki; Usui, Akihiko; Komori, Kimihiro; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2017-02-01

    Recently, much attention has been focused on partial thrombosis of the false lumen in patients with acute aortic dissection. However, its effect on clinical outcomes in these patients, especially in case of acute type A aortic dissection, has not been clearly elucidated. This study evaluated the influence of the false lumen status, including partial thrombosis, on short-term clinical outcomes in acute type A aortic dissection patients without urgent surgical treatment. Sixty-two patients (29 males, mean age 73±13 years) with acute type A aortic dissection who did not receive urgent surgical treatment at four hospitals were enrolled. Patients were divided into three groups based on the false lumen status on enhanced computed tomography image (complete thrombosis, n=28; partial thrombosis, n=27; patent, n=7). Patients with partial thrombosis were further divided into two groups (thrombus-dominant, n=15; flow-dominant, n=12). The short-term mortality rate (in-hospital and 30-day) was significantly higher in patients with a patent false lumen, while no significant difference was seen between the other two groups. Patients with flow-dominant partial thrombosis had significantly higher short-term mortality rate than those with thrombus-dominant partial thrombosis (in-hospital, p=0.001 and 30-day, p<0.001). The short-term mortality rate in acute type A aortic dissection patients without urgent surgical treatment was lower in patients with partial thrombosis of the false lumen than in those with a patent false lumen. Furthermore, patients with flow-dominant partial thrombosis had higher mortality rate than those with thrombus-dominant partial thrombosis.

  7. Acute respiratory failure following ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Nicolini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is a serious and potentially life-threatening physiological complication that may be encountered in patients who undergo controlled ovarian hyperstimulation cycles. The syndrome is typically associated with regimes of exogenous gonadotropins, but it can be seen, albeit rarely, when clomiphene is administered during the induction phase. Although this syndrome is widely described in scientific literature and is well known by obstetricians, the knowledge of this pathological and potentially life-threatening condition is generally less than satisfactory among physicians. The dramatic increase in therapeutic strategies to treat infertility has pushed this condition into the realm of acute care therapy. The potential complications of this syndrome, including pulmonary involvement, should be considered and identified so as to allow a more appropriate diagnosis and management. We describe a case of a woman with an extremely severe (Stage 6 ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome who presented ascites, bilateral pleural effusion and severe respiratory failure treated with non-invasive ventilation. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit because of severe respiratory failure, ascites, and bilateral pleural effusion due to ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Treatment included non-invasive ventilation and three thoracentesis procedures, plus the administration of albumin, colloid solutions and high-dose furosemid. Severe form of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is observed in 0.5-5% of the women treated, and intensive care may be required for management of thromboembolic complications, renal failure and severe respiratory failure. Pulmonary intensive care may involve thoracentesis, oxygen supplementation and, in more severe cases, assisted ventilation. To our knowledge, there have been only two studies in English language medical literature that describe severe respiratory failure treated with non

  8. Vascular smooth muscle cells in Marfan syndrome aneurysm: the broken bricks in the aortic wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrucci, Gianluca L; Rurali, Erica; Gowran, Aoife; Pini, Alessandro; Antona, Carlo; Chiesa, Roberto; Pompilio, Giulio; Nigro, Patrizia

    2017-01-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a connective tissue disorder with multiple organ manifestations. The genetic cause of this syndrome is the mutation of the FBN1 gene, encoding the extracellular matrix (ECM) protein fibrillin-1. This genetic alteration leads to the degeneration of microfibril structures and ECM integrity in the tunica media of the aorta. Indeed, thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection represent the leading cause of death in MFS patients. To date, the most effective treatment option for this pathology is the surgical substitution of the damaged aorta. To highlight novel therapeutic targets, we review the molecular mechanisms related to MFS etiology in vascular smooth muscle cells, the foremost cellular type involved in MFS pathogenesis.

  9. Phenotype in girls and women with turner syndrome: Association between dysmorphic features, karyotype and cardio-aortic malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordman, Iris; Duijnhouwer, Anthonie; Kapusta, Livia; Kempers, Marlies; Roeleveld, Nel; Schokking, Michiel; Smeets, Dominique; Freriks, Kim; Timmers, Henri; van Alfen-van der Velden, Janiëlle

    2018-01-12

    Turner syndrome (TS) is a genetic disorder characterized by the (partial) absence or a structural aberration of the second sex chromosome and is associated with a variety of phenotypes with specific physical features and cardio-aortic malformations. The objective of this study was to gain a better insight into the differences in dysmorphic features between girls and women with TS and to explore the association between these features, karyotype and cardio-aortic malformations. This prospective study investigated 14 dysmorphic features of TS girls and women using a checklist. Three major phenotypic patterns were recognized (severe phenotype, lymphatic phenotype and skeletal phenotype). Patient data including karyotype and cardio-aortic malformations (bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and aortic coarctation (COA)) were collected. Associations between the prevalence of dysmorphic features, karyotype and cardio-aortic malformations were analysed using chi 2 -test and odds ratios. A total of 202 patients (84 girls and 118 women) were analysed prospectively. Differences in prevalence of dysmorphic features were found between girls and women. A strong association was found between monosomy 45,X and the phenotypic patterns. Furthermore, an association was found between COA and lymphatic phenotype, but no association was found between karyotype and cardio-aortic malformations. This study uncovered a difference in dysmorphic features between girls and women. Monosomy 45,X is associated with a more severe phenotype, lymphatic phenotype and skeletal phenotype. All patients with TS should be screened for cardio-aortic malformations, because in contrast to previous reports, karyotype and cardio-aortic malformations showed no significant association. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. Acute outcomes after introduction of a standardized clinical assessment and management plan (SCAMP) for balloon aortic valvuloplasty in congenital aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras, Diego; Brown, David W; Rathod, Rahul; Friedman, Kevin; Gauvreau, Kimberly; Lock, James E; Esch, Jesse J; Bergersen, Lisa; Marshall, Audrey C

    2014-01-01

    Standardization of care can reduce practice variation, optimize resource utilization, and improve clinical outcomes. We have created a standardized clinical assessment and management plan (SCAMP) for patients having balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) for congenital aortic stenosis (AS). This study compares acute outcomes of BAV at our institution before and after introduction of this SCAMP. In this retrospective matched cohort study, each SCAMP patient was matched to four historical controls. Outcomes were categorized based on the combination of residual AS and aortic regurgitation (AR) as: (1) Optimal: gradient ≤ 35 mm Hg and trivial or no AR; (2) Adequate: gradient ≤ 35 mm Hg and mild AR; (3) Inadequate: gradient > 35 mm Hg and/or moderate or severe AR. All 23 SCAMP patients achieved a residual AS gradient ≤ 35 mm Hg; the median residual AS gradient for the SCAMP group was lower (25 [10-35] mm Hg) than in matched controls (30 [0-65] mm Hg; P = 0.005). The two groups did not differ with regard to degree of AR grade after BAV. Compared with controls, SCAMP patients were more likely to have an optimal result and less likely to have an inadequate result (52% vs. 34% and 17% vs. 45%, respectively; P = 0.02) CONCLUSIONS: A SCAMP for BAV resulted in optimal acute results in half of the initial 23 patients enrolled, and outcomes in this group were better than those of matched historical controls. Whether these improved acute outcomes translate into better long-term outcomes for this patient population remains to be seen. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Early acute ischaemic stroke in two patients with acute type B aortic dissection: an unusual complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlGhamdi, Abdullah; Alqahtani, Saeed; Ricketti, Meagan; Aziz, Salim

    2015-08-04

    Aortic thoracic dissection (AD) is a serious cardiovascular disease. According to the Stanford classification; type A involves the ascending aorta and type B the descending distal to the left subclavian artery. Neurological complications secondary to AD are devastating. Ischaemic stroke and hypoxic encephalopathy are early-recognised complications of type A as the arch vessels can be involved AD. Although, late ischaemic stroke had been reported in 1.4-5% of patients with type B dissection, early stroke is very unusual as it cannot be simply explained by AD anatomical pathogenesis. We report two patients who presented with type B AD complicated by early ischaemic strokes. Work-up revealed significant cardiomyopathies in both patients but with left ventricle thrombus in one. In both patients the strokes were felt to be of cardioembolic origin. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  12. Participation of Arachidonic Acid Metabolism in the Aortic Aneurysm Formation in Patients with Marfan Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Soto

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Marfan syndrome (MFS is a pleiotropic genetic disease involving the cardiovascular system where a fibrillin-1 mutation is present. This mutation is associated with accelerated activation of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ1 which contributes to the formation of aneurysms in the root of the aorta. There is an imbalance in the synthesis of thromboxane A2 (TXA2 and prostacyclin, that is a consequence of a differential protein expression of the isoforms of cyclooxygenases (COXs, suggesting an alteration of arachidonic acid (AA metabolism. The aim of this study was to analyze the participation of AA metabolism associated with inflammatory factors in the dilation and dissection of the aortic aneurysm in patients with MFS. A decrease in AA (p = 0.02, an increase in oleic acid (OA, TGFβ1, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 (p < 0.05, and COXs activity (p = 0.002 was found. The expressions of phospholipase A2 (PLA2, cytochrome P450 (CYP450 4A, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX, COX2 and TXA2R (p < 0.05 showed a significant increase in the aortic aneurysm of patients with MFS compared to control subjects. COX1, 6-keto-prostaglandin 1 alpha (6-keto-PG1α and 8-isoprostane did not show significant changes. Histological examination of the aortas showed an increase of cystic necrosis, elastic fibers and collagen in MFS. The results suggest that there are inflammatory factors coupled to genetic factors that predispose to aortic endothelial dysfunction in the aortic tissue of patients with MFS. There is a decrease in the percentage of AA, associated with an increase of PLA2, COX2/TXA2R, CYP450 4A, and 5-LOX which leads to a greater synthesis of PGE2 than of 6-keto-PGF1α, thus contributing to the formation of the aortic aneurysm. The evident loss of the homeostasis in these mechanisms confirms that there is a participation of the AA pathway in the aneurysm progression in MFS.

  13. Neurosonology Accuracy for Isolated Acute Vestibular Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tábuas-Pereira, Miguel; Sargento-Freitas, João; Isidoro, Luís; Silva, Fernando; Galego, Orlando; Nunes, César; Cordeiro, Gustavo; Cunha, Luís

    2017-12-01

    The clinical approach to acute vestibular syndromes is often complex for the physician. Neurosonology offers a noninvasive method to study the cervicocephalic circulation when a vascular etiology is suspected. We aim to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a vascular neurosonological exam in isolated acute vestibular syndrome. All patients submitted to cerebrovascular ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging during the period between 2011 and 2015 with acute isolated vestibular syndrome. Those with any clinical sign of brainstem lesion on presentation were excluded. All patients performed the neuroimaging study (brain computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) and neurologic surveillance. Neurosonological exam included all intra- and extracranial segments of the vertebrobasilar circulation. Positive ultrasound exam was defined as the presence of stenotic or occlusive disease in any of these segments related to the infarcted area. A total of 108 patients were included: 60 (53.6%) were males (mean age: 60.75 years (standard deviation, 14.17)). In 27 patients (25.0%) a cerebral ischemic lesion was found to be the cause of the vertigo. Neurosonological assessment showed a sensitivity of 40.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 22.4; 61.2), specificity of 100% (95% CI: 95.5; 100.0), positive predictive value (PPV) of 100% (95% CI: 71.5; 100.0), and negative predictive value (NPV) of 83.5% (95% CI: 74.6; 90.3). Our study suggests that cerebrovascular ultrasound is a highly specific method for the diagnosis of cerebrovascular vertigo. However, its low sensitivity makes it a poor candidate for screening. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  14. Magnitude of Soluble ST2 as a Novel Biomarker for Acute Aortic Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Tan, Xin; Gao, Hai; Yuan, Hui; Hu, Rong; Jia, Lixin; Zhu, Junming; Sun, Lizhong; Zhang, Hongjia; Huang, Lianjun; Zhao, Dong; Gao, Pei; Du, Jie

    2018-01-16

    Misdiagnosis of acute aortic dissection (AAD) can lead to significant morbidity and death. Soluble ST2 (sST2) is a cardiovascular injury-related biomarker. The extent to which sST2 is elevated in AAD and whether sST2 can discriminate AAD from other causes of sudden-onset severe chest pain are unknown. We measured plasma concentrations of sST2 (R&D Systems assay) in 1360 patients, including 1027 participants in the retrospective discovery set and 333 patients with initial suspicion of AAD enrolled in the prospective validation cohort. Measures of discrimination for differentiating AAD from other causes of chest pain were calculated. In the acute phase, sST2 levels were higher in patients with AAD than those with either acute myocardial infarction in the first case-control discovery set within 24 hours of symptom onset or with patients with pulmonary embolism in the second discovery set (medians of 129.2 ng/mL versus 14.7 with Ppulmonary embolism). In the prospective validation set, sST2 was most elevated in patients with AAD (median [25th, 75th percentile]: 76.4 [49.6, 130.3]) and modestly elevated in acute myocardial infarction (25.0 [15.5, 37.2]), pulmonary embolism (14.9 [10.2, 30.1]), and angina patients (21.5 [13.1, 27.6], all P<0.001 versus AAD). The area under receiver operating characteristic curve for patients with AAD versus all control patients within 24 hours of presenting at the emergency department was 0.97 (0.95, 0.98) for sST2, 0.91 (0.88, 0.94) for D-dimer, and 0.50 (0.44, 0.56) for cardiac troponin I, respectively. At a cutoff level of 34.6 ng/mL, sST2 had a sensitivity of 99.1%, specificity of 84.9%, positive predictive value of 68.7%, negative predictive value of 99.7%, positive likelihood ratio of 6.6, and negative likelihood ratio of 0.01. Among patients with suspected aortic dissection in the emergency department, sST2 showed superior overall diagnostic performance to D-dimer or cardiac troponin I. Additional study is needed to determine

  15. Emerging therapies for acute coronary syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M Lilly

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the majority of cases acute coronary syndromes (ACS are caused by activation and aggregation of platelets and subsequent thrombus formation leading to a decrease in coronary artery bloodflow. Recent focus on the treatment of ACS has centered on reducing the response of platelets to vascular injury as well as inhibiting fibrin deposition. Novel therapies include more effective P2Y12 receptor blockers thereby reducing inter-individual variability, targeting the platelet thrombin receptor (protease activated receptor 1 as well as directly inhibiting factor Xa or thrombin activity. In this review we discuss the clinical data evaluating the effectiveness of these various new ACS treatment options.

  16. Acute compartment syndrome of forearm and hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandraprakasam, T.; Kumar, R. Ashok

    2011-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of the acute compartment syndrome is of paramount importance. Unless the viscious cycle is intervened at an appropriately early time it will result in irreversible damage leading to disability. In this review article we are discussing the basic pathophysiological process through which the various aetiological factors causing increased compartmental pressure lead to the progressive death of muscles and nerves. We also discuss the various clinical features that aid in the diagnosis and the role of intracompartmental pressure measurements. Finally we hope to ascertain the basic principles and the surgical techniques for treating this condition effectively. PMID:22022031

  17. Acute compartment syndrome of forearm and hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Chandraprakasam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis and treatment of the acute compartment syndrome is of paramount importance. Unless the viscious cycle is intervened at an appropriately early time it will result in irreversible damage leading to disability. In this review article we are discussing the basic pathophysiological process through which the various aetiological factors causing increased compartmental pressure lead to the progressive death of muscles and nerves. We also discuss the various clinical features that aid in the diagnosis and the role of intracompartmental pressure measurements. Finally we hope to ascertain the basic principles and the surgical techniques for treating this condition effectively.

  18. Acute compartment syndrome of forearm and hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandraprakasam, T; Kumar, R Ashok

    2011-05-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of the acute compartment syndrome is of paramount importance. Unless the viscious cycle is intervened at an appropriately early time it will result in irreversible damage leading to disability. In this review article we are discussing the basic pathophysiological process through which the various aetiological factors causing increased compartmental pressure lead to the progressive death of muscles and nerves. We also discuss the various clinical features that aid in the diagnosis and the role of intracompartmental pressure measurements. Finally we hope to ascertain the basic principles and the surgical techniques for treating this condition effectively.

  19. [Acute carpal tunnel syndrome in a patient with Marfan syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, J; Wenzel, W; Rehfuss, D; Keiner, H P; Manncke, K

    2008-05-01

    Acute carpal tunnel syndrome (ACTS) is rare and is mostly the result of fractures of the distal radius or the carpal bones. This paper gives the first report of an ACTS following contusion of the wrist as the result of an extensive haematoma of the flexor tendon sheath, which did not appear until 50 hours after the injury was sustained but then developed rapidly. The patient suffers from Marfan syndrome. This disease is associated with pathologic changes to the major vessels, and especially the aorta, and of the smaller peripheral vessels. It is assumed that the haematoma arose from an aneurysm of such a small vessel. The treatment of choice in ACTS is emergency incision of the carpal tunnel.

  20. Polymyalgia rheumatica and systemic giant cell arteritis. Bioptic findings of the subclavian arteries in a case of aortic arch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, V; Fraioli, A; Carmenini, G; Schietroma, M; Meloni, F; Grossi, F

    1984-08-01

    A 64 year old woman complained of aches and stiffness of the neck and the shoulders with fever and E.S.R. increase. A nonsteroid anti-inflammatory treatment was unsuccessful. A clinical examination revealed absence of both radial pulses and presence of murmurs at level of the carotids. The angiographic findings confirmed an aortic arch syndrome with severe stenosis of the subclavian and axillary arteries. The diagnostic approach, in spite of a negativity of the temporal artery biopsy, was for systemic giant cell arteries with general manifestations of polymyalgia rheumatica. The biopsies of both subclavian arteries, performed during a surgery revascularization, showed a typical giant cell arteries in acute stage. The histopathological pattern of extratemporal giant cell arteries obtained by means of a surgical biopsy is really uncommon, being the previous reports performed on necroscopic findings only. In addition this case confirms that polymyalgia rheumatica implies a systemic arteries even if the clinical and histopathological signs of temporal arteritis are lacking. Therefore the temporal artery should be only considered as a particular and inconstant localization of this vasculitis.

  1. Painless Aortic Dissection—Diagnostic Dilemma With Fatal Outcomes: What Do We Learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Saeeda; Sharma, Konika

    2017-01-01

    Aortic dissection is the most catastrophic clinical condition that involves the aorta. It has a high mortality as well as high rate of misdiagnosis due to frequent unusual presentation. Typically, it presents with acute chest, back, and tearing abdominal pain. However, it can present atypically with minimal or no pain, making diagnosis difficult. Physicians should always suspect acute aortic dissection in patients with certain clinical conditions like difficult-to-control hypertension, giant cell arteritis, bicuspid aortic valve, intracranial aneurysms, simple renal cysts, family history of aortic disease, and Marfan syndrome, especially when a patient presents with ischemic symptoms involving multiple organ without an obvious cause. PMID:28815188

  2. Acute Compartment Syndrome of the Thigh in Combat Casualties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    of 30 (70%) patients required lower leg fasciotomy for acute compart- ment syndrome . Seven service members required forearm fasciotomies with four...Owen, C. A. Compartmental syndrome and its relation to the crush syndrome : a spectrum of disease. A review of 11 cases of prolonged limb compression...of compartmental syndromes . J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 62:286–291, 1980. 28. Mubarak, S. J. A practical approach to compartmental syndromes : Part II

  3. [Ascending Aorta Replacement and Extended Myectomy for Acute Aortic Dissection and Coexistent Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy;Report of a Case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Hata, Masaki; Yamaya, Kazuhiro; Saitou, Takeshi; Haba, Fumiya; Matsuno, Masahiro

    2017-12-01

    Emergent ascending aortic replacement and extended myectomy were performed in a woman with acute aortic dissection who was aged 63 years. Preoperative transthoracic echocardiography performed in the intensive care unit showed only slight left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction, but intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography after induction of anesthesia revealed pericardial effusion, systolic anterior motion(SAM), and associated mitral regurgitation(MR). Perioperative SAM and MR are sometimes facilitated under various hemodynamic conditions, but in this case, the left ventricular wall was thick and LVOT appeared to be obstructive by a hypertrophied septum. Structural hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) was diagnosed, and septal myectomy and aortic replacement were performed. After ascending aortic replacement and simultaneous extended myectomy with resection of abnormal band, weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass was smooth without SAM and MR. The patient was discharged from hospital 24 days postoperatively with no major complications. Extended myectomy should be considered if structural HOCM is diagnosed, even when aortic replacement for the dissected aorta is the primary procedure.

  4. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Associated with Tumour Lysis Syndrome in Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaim M Bell

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute tumour lysis syndrome (ATLS developed in two patients with acute myelogenous leukemia soon after they were treated with cytosine arabinoside. The patients also developed respiratory distress requiring intubation. Autopsy and clinical findings demonstrated the presence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. An association appears to be present between ARDS and ATLS in this group of patients.

  5. Chinese herbal medicine for severe acute respiratory syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jianping; Manheimer, Eric; Shi, Yi

    2004-01-01

    To review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of Chinese herbal medicine for treating severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) systematically.......To review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of Chinese herbal medicine for treating severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) systematically....

  6. Impact of copeptin on diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zeinab H. El Sayed

    2014-03-17

    Mar 17, 2014 ... Abstract Background: Acute coronary syndrome remains the principal cause of death, so the early diagnosis is of great ... copeptin and cardiac troponin I is being suggested for early diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. Subject: It was done to .... used for solid phase immobilization (on the microtiter wells).

  7. Rivaroxaban in patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mega, Jessica L; Braunwald, Eugene; Wiviott, Stephen D

    2012-01-01

    Acute coronary syndromes arise from coronary atherosclerosis with superimposed thrombosis. Since factor Xa plays a central role in thrombosis, the inhibition of factor Xa with low-dose rivaroxaban might improve cardiovascular outcomes in patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome....

  8. Continuous glucose monitoring in acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Quintanilla, Karina Alejandra; Lavalle-González, Fernando Javier; Mancillas-Adame, Leonardo Guadalupe; Zapata-Garrido, Alfonso Javier; Villarreal-Pérez, Jesús Zacarías; Tamez-Pérez, Héctor Eloy

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. To compare the efficacy of devices for continuous glucose monitoring and capillary glucose monitoring in hospitalized patients with acute coronary syndrome using the following parameters: time to achieve normoglycemia, period of time in normoglycemia, and episodes of hypoglycemia. We performed a pilot, non-randomized, unblinded clinical trial that included 16 patients with acute coronary artery syndrome, a capillary or venous blood glucose ≥ 140 mg/dl, and treatment with a continuous infusion of fast acting human insulin. These patients were randomized into 2 groups: a conventional group, in which capillary measurement and recording as well as insulin adjustment were made every 4h, and an intervention group, in which measurement and recording as well as insulin adjustment were made every hour with a subcutaneous continuous monitoring system. Student's t-test was applied for mean differences and the X(2) test for qualitative variables. We observed a statistically significant difference in the mean time for achieving normoglycemia, favoring the conventional group with a P = 0.02. Continuous monitoring systems are as useful as capillary monitoring for achieving normoglycemia. Copyright © 2012 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  9. Bilateral acute endophthalmitis associated with munchausen syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Prethy; Shah, Ankoor R; Michelotti, Monica M; Anderson, Bradley; Abbey, Ashkan M; Jain, Nieraj; Stec, Lori; Lowe, Lori; Johnson, Mark W; Williams, George A

    2015-01-01

    Endophthalmitis is a potentially blinding intraocular infection that requires urgent intervention. Self-inflicted endophthalmitis is rare, difficult to diagnose, and requires a multidisciplinary approach for management. The purpose is to present a rare case of sequential self-inflicted acute endophthalmitis as a feature of Munchausen syndrome. This is a case report reviewing imaging and laboratory studies. A 42-year-old female patient developed culture-proven acute endophthalmitis sequentially in both eyes with different bacterial strains. There was clear evidence of self-inflicted corneal puncture tracks in the right eye, and during the course of inpatient psychiatric evaluation, the patient admitted to self-inflicted ocular perforations. Patients with Munchausen syndrome often injure themselves as a method of drawing attention, sympathy, or reassurance. Although ocular injuries due to psychiatric disease are known to occur, intraocular injection as a mode of self-injury is extremely rare. A high index of suspicion must be maintained when the reported history and clinical course are inconsistent.

  10. [Clinico-diagnostic evaluation of acute delirious syndromes in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteleeva, G P

    1989-01-01

    Psychopathologic and nosologic issues of acute paranoid and Kandinsky-Clerambault syndromes are discussed on the background of clinical studies of 225 schizophrenic patients with these syndromes being initial manifestations. The data on the syndromes typology, clinical value and prognosis of acute delirious disorders are presented. These are shown to be not confined to progredient schizophrenia, including its paranoid form. Rather, they can manifest a course of the disease unspecific for schizophrenia, the so-called schizophrenic reactions and phasic states thus reflecting the course of latent schizophrenia. A differentiated approach to clinical and psychopathological analysis of acute delirious syndromes in schizophrenia is essential for adequate choice of medicosocial measures and epidemiologic investigations.

  11. Ticagrelor. Acute coronary syndromes: nothing new.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Several revascularisation methods are effective in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Standard antithrombotic treatment combines heparin and aspirin during the acute phase, followed by long-term aspirin therapy. The only proven advantage of adding clopidogrel is for patients who undergo angioplasty with stenting. Ticagrelor is an antiplatelet drug belonging to a different chemical class than clopidogrel. Its chemical structure resembles that of adenosine. Ticagrelor has been authorised in the European Union for patients with acute coronary syndromes, in combination with aspirin. Clinical evaluation is mainly based on a double-blind randomised trial comparing ticagrelor + aspirin versus clopidogrel + aspirin in 18 624 patients who underwent angioplasty (64% of patients), coronary artery bypass grafting (10%), or who received medical treatment only. Half of the patients were treated for at least 9 months. After 12 months of treatment, compared to the clopidogrel group, overall mortality appeared to be significantly lower in the ticagrelor group (4.5% versus 5.9%), along with cardiovascular mortality (4.0% versus 5.1%). Symptomatic myocardial infarction was also less frequent (5.8% versus 6.9%), but not stroke (about 1.4% in both groups). Ticagrelor did not statistically significantly reduce overall mortality in patients who had angioplasty with stenting, but stent thrombosis was less frequent than with clopidogrel (2.9% versus 3.8%). In combination with aspirin, ticagrelor provoked more bleeding than clopidogrel, based on the definition used in the trial (16.1% versus 14.6%). In contrast, the rate of major bleeding was similar in the two groups (11.5%), including fatal bleeding (0.3%). The adverse effect profile of ticagrelor resembles that of adenosine in certain respects. For example, dyspnoea was more frequent with ticagrelor than with clopidogrel (13.8% versus 7.8%), as were conduction disorders and ventricular pauses at the beginning of treatment (5

  12. Abdominal compartment syndrome caused by ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm in vena cava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Aleksandar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS is a rapid increase in intra-abdominal pressure associated with multi-organs dysfunction. It is caused mostly by abdominal bleeding und massive volume compensation. Case report. We reported a 76-year-old patient admitted to the hospital with aortic abdominal aneurysm, 13.7 cm in diameter, ruptured in vena cava, which caused intraabdominal hypertension, the liver and kidney dysfunction, as well as circulation, respiration and metabolic disorders. Intraabdominal pressure was measured by bladder manometry. Central venous pressure and systemic arterial pressure were monitored continuously. Clinical signs were thrill and typical abdominal bruit. Aorto-caval fistula was diagnosed by the use of contrast computerized tomography. Caval endoaneurysmatic suture and aortobiiliac bypass with 18 × 9 mm Dacron prothesis were performed. Haemodynamic changes were mostly corrected during the surgery. The complete correction of haemodynamics, liver, kidney, respiration and metabolic changes was established in the next few weeks. Conclusion. The ACS was caused by rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm in vena cava followed by edema of the abdominal organs, retroperitoneum, abdominal wall and ascites. Caval endoaneurysmatic suture and aortobiiliac bypass with 18 × 9 mm Dacron prothesis solved aortocaval fistula as well as all the organs and metabolic dysfunctions caused by ACS.

  13. Endovascular stent-graft treatment of thoracic aortic syndromes: A 7-year experience

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    Dialetto, Giovanni [Department of Cardiothoracic and Respiratory Sciences, Second University of Naples, V. Monaldi Hospital, Naples (Italy); Reginelli, Alfonso; Cerrato, Marcella [Department of Radiology, Second University of Naples, Naples (Italy); Rossi, Giovanni [Department of Radiology, Monaldi Hospital, Naples (Italy); Covino, Franco Enrico; Manduca, Sabrina [Department of Cardiothoracic and Respiratory Sciences, Second University of Naples, V. Monaldi Hospital, Naples (Italy); Lassandro, Francesco [Department of Radiology, Monaldi Hospital, Naples (Italy)], E-mail: f.lassandro@tiscali.it

    2007-10-15

    Thoracic aortic diseases (TAD) are relatively frequent conditions associated with high mortality. Recently, several reports have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of endovascular stent-graft (EVG) placement for TAD as an alternative to open surgery. We report our experience in management of thoracic aortic syndrome on 56 consecutive patients with TAD that underwent endovascular stent-graft repair. MDCT angiography was used in all patients to provide preprocedure evaluation and measurements. In particular it is necessary to evaluate the proximal and distal landing zones of the stent-graft. All EVGs in our series were placed successfully. Conversion to open surgery was never required. Six patients (10.7%) died early after the stent-graft deployment. During follow-up four more patients died. The endoleak rate was 16.7% (no. 10 pt). We did not observe any case of paraplegia. The present study shows the efficacy of EVG in the long-term follow-up, with an overall survival of 82.1%, which is comparable to that reported in recent studies. In conclusion this technique is emerging as an alternative approach in the treatment of TAD because this approach offers a less invasive therapeutic option to standard surgical techniques, even in patients who have associated diseases that make them poor surgical candidates.

  14. Acute reversible Charles Bonnet syndrome precipitated by sudden severe anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeser, Pierre-Francois; Borruat, Francois-Xavier

    2009-01-01

    To report the sudden onset of reversible Charles Bonnet syndrome precipitated byacute severe anemia. The charts of three patients (Usher syndrome, bilateral macular degeneration, and bilateral retinal vein occlusion) with acute Charles Bonnet syndrome in the setting of severe anemia were reviewed. Anemia resulted from bladder surgery, recto-colitis, and severe urinary tract infection. Hemoglobin ranged from 78 to 86 g/L. Decreased visual acuity and formed visual hallucinations (giants, flowers, animals) were present in all three patients. Rapid reversal of Charles Bonnet syndrome and visual acuity improvement followed blood transfusion. Acute severe anemia can precipitate Charles Bonnet syndrome, which may be reversible by blood transfusion.

  15. Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis Presenting with Acute Aortic and Mitral Regurgitation: Case Report and Big-Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kindi, Sadeer G; Amer Al-Aiti, M; Yang, Michael; Josephson, Richard A

    2017-01-01

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a rare vasculitis that can have multisystem involvement, though cardiac involvement is very rare. The case is described of a 53-year-old woman who presented with acute aortic and mitral valve regurgitation requiring surgical intervention. Pathology from the excised aortic valve showed geographic necrosis concerning for GPA. Subsequent rheumatologic testing was positive for anti-serine proteinase 3 (PR3) antibody, consistent with GPA. A year after the valve surgery the patient was found to have a vegetation of the mitral valve and elevated PR3 antibody levels, and was successfully treated with an intensification of immunosuppression. The cardiac involvement of GPA is discussed and big data analyzed to identify the epidemiology of valvular involvement. In conclusion, GPA can have multiple different valvular manifestations with a high recurrence rate. GPA should be considered in patients who present with acute valvular disease without any clear precipitant.

  16. Successful reversal of immediate paraplegia associated with repair of acute Type A aortic dissection using cerebrospinal fluid drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Shinichiro; Cho, Yasunori; Aki, Akira; Ueda, Toshihiko

    2013-12-01

    We present a case of a 49-year old man who suffered from immediate paraplegia upon awakening from anaesthesia after surgery for acute aortic dissection Type A. A catheter was promptly inserted into the spinal canal for cerebrospinal fluid drainage, and the cerebrospinal fluid pressure was maintained paraplegia and was able to walk by himself after rehabilitation. In some cases, cerebrospinal fluid drainage can be effective for the treatment of immediate postoperative spinal cord damage.

  17. Acute kidney injury in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenzi, Giancarlo; Cosentino, Nicola; Bartorelli, Antonio L

    2015-11-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is increasingly being seen in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACSs). This condition has a complex pathogenesis, an incidence that can reach 30% and it is associated with higher short-term and long-term morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, AKI is still characterised by lack of a single accepted definition, unclear pathophysiology understanding and insensitive diagnostic tools that make its detection difficult, particularly in the setting of ACS. Recent data suggested that patients with AKI during ACS, even those in whom renal function seems to fully recover, face an increased, persisting risk of future AKI and may develop chronic kidney disease. Thus, in these patients, nephrology follow-up, after hospital discharge, and secondary preventive measures should possibly be implemented. In this review, we aim at providing a framework of knowledge to increase cardiologists' awareness of AKI, with the goal of improving the outcome of patients with ACS. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Patients With Type A Acute Aortic Dissection Presenting With an Abnormal Electrocardiogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costin, Nathaniel I; Korach, Amit; Loor, Gabriel; Peterson, Mark D; Desai, Nimesh D; Trimarchi, Santi; de Vincentiis, Carlo; Ota, Takeyoshi; Reece, T Brett; Sundt, Thoralf M; Patel, Himanshu J; Chen, Edward P; Montgomery, Dan G; Nienaber, Christoph A; Isselbacher, Eric M; Eagle, Kim A; Gleason, Thomas G

    2018-01-01

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) is often used in the diagnosis of patients presenting with chest pain to emergency departments. Because chest pain is a common manifestation of type A acute aortic dissection (TAAAD), ECGs are obtained in much of this population. We evaluated the effect of particular ECG patterns on the diagnosis and treatment of TAAAD. TAAAD patients (N = 2,765) enrolled in the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection were stratified based on normal (n = 1,094 [39.6%]) and abnormal (n = 1,671 [60.4%]) findings on presenting ECGs and further subdivided according to specific ECG findings. Time data are presented in hours as medians (quartile 1 to quartile 3). Patients with ECGs with abnormal findings presented to the hospital sooner after symptom onset than those with ECGs with normal findings (1.4 [0.8 to 3.3] vs 2.0 [1.0 to 3.3]; p = 0.005). Specifically, this was seen in patients with infarction with new Q waves or ST elevation (1.3 [0.6 to 2.7] vs 1.5 [0.8 to 3.3]; p = 0.049). Interestingly, the time between symptom onset and diagnosis was longer with infarction with old Q waves (6.7 [3.2 to 18.4] vs 5.0 [2.9 to 11.8]; p = 0.034) and nonspecific ST-T changes (5.8 [3.0 to 13.8] vs 4.5 [2.8 to 10.5]; p = 0.002). Surgical mortality was higher in patients with abnormal ECG findings (20.6% vs 11.9%, p < 0.001), especially in those with ischemia by ECG (25.7% vs 16.8%, p < 0.001) and infarction with new Q waves or ST elevation (30.1% vs 17.1%, p < 0.001). TAAAD patients presenting with abnormal ECG results are sicker, have more in-hospital complications, and are more likely to die. The frequency of nonspecific ST-T abnormalities and its association with delay in diagnosis and treatment presents an opportunity for practice improvement. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficacy of losartan vs. atenolol for the prevention of aortic dilation in Marfan syndrome: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forteza, Alberto; Evangelista, Arturo; Sánchez, Violeta; Teixidó-Turà, Gisela; Sanz, Paz; Gutiérrez, Laura; Gracia, Teresa; Centeno, Jorge; Rodríguez-Palomares, José; Rufilanchas, Juan Jose; Cortina, José; Ferreira-González, Ignacio; García-Dorado, David

    2016-03-21

    To determine the efficacy of losartan vs. atenolol in aortic dilation progression in Marfan syndrome (MFS) patients. A phase IIIb, randomized, parallel, double-blind study was conducted in 140 MFS patients, age range: 5-60 years, with maximum aortic diameter losartan (n = 70) or atenolol (n = 70). Doses were raised to a maximum of 1.4 mg/kg/day or 100 mg/day. The primary end-point was the change in aortic root and ascending aorta maximum diameter indexed by body surface area on magnetic resonance imaging after 36 months of treatment. No serious drug-related adverse effects were observed. Five patients presented aortic events during a follow-up (one in the losartan and four in the atenolol groups, P = 0.366). After 3 years of follow-up, aortic root diameter increased significantly in both groups: 1.1 mm (95% CI 0.6-1.6) in the losartan and 1.4 mm (95% CI 0.9-1.9) in the atenolol group, with aortic dilatation progression being similar in both groups: absolute difference between losartan and atenolol -0.3 mm (95% CI -1.1 to 0.4, P = 0.382) and indexed by BSA -0.5 mm/m2 (95% CI -1.2 to 0.1, P = 0.092). Similarly, no significant differences were found in indexed ascending aorta diameter changes between the losartan and atenolol groups: -0.3 mm/m2 (95% CI -0.8 to 0.3, P = 0.326). Among patients with MFS, the use of losartan compared with atenolol did not result in significant differences in the progression of aortic root and ascending aorta diameters over 3 years of follow-up. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. [Inflammatory biomarkers in ischemic acute coronary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Rodríguez, Alberto; Abreu-González, Pedro

    2015-10-01

    Diagnosing acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the emergency department is often a complex process. Inflammatory markers might be useful for the rapid assessment of a patient's overall risk and might also help predict future episodes. The clinical use of these biomarkers could potentially lower the number of emergency visits and help in the prevention of future adverse events. The aim of this review was to evaluate the clinical utility of markers of cardiovascular inflammation in emergency patients with ACS. Based on a critical analysis of a selection of the literature, we concluded that none of the biomarkers of cardiovascular inflammation would at present be useful for stratifying risk in emergency situations, aiding prognosis, or guiding therapy for patients with ACS.

  1. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: 30 Years Later?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Lesur

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS was first described about 30 years ago. Modern definitions and statements have recently been proposed to describe ARDS accurately, but none is perfect. Diffuse alveolar damage is the basic pathological pattern most commonly observed in ARDS, and the term includes permeability edema. The alveolar epithelium of the alveolar-capillary barrier is clearly a key component requiring repair, given its multipotent functional activity. Lung inflammation and neutrophil accumulation are essential markers of disease in ARDS, and a wide variety of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines have been described in the alveolar fluid and blood of patients. These molecules still have to prove their value as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers of ARDS.

  2. Nuclear Cardiology in Acute Coronary Syndrome

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    Paeng, Jin Chul; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    Nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging is very effective in the evaluation of patients with suspicious acute coronary syndrome (ACS), for adequate diagnosis and treatment. There have been many clinical evidences to support the efficacy and cost-effectiveness. In addition, many authoritative guidelines support the utility of myocardial perfusion imaging in ACS with an appropriate diagnostic protocol. However, with the development of other cardiac imaging modalities, the choice of modality for the diagnosis of suspicious ACS now depends on the availability of each modality in each institute. Newly developed imaging technologies, especially including molecular imaging, are expected to have great potential not only for diagnosis but also for primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of ACS.

  3. Non-Acute Coronary Syndrome Anginal Chest Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Megha; Mehta, Puja K.; Merz, C. Noel Bairey

    2010-01-01

    Anginal chest pain is one of the most common complaints in the outpatient setting. While much of the focus has been on identifying obstructive atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) as the cause of anginal chest pain, it is clear that microvascular coronary dysfunction (MCD) can also cause anginal chest pain as a manifestation of ischemic heart disease (IHD), and carries an increased cardiovascular risk. Epicardial coronary vasospasm, aortic stenosis, left ventricular hypertrophy, congenital coronary anomalies, mitral valve prolapse and abnormal cardiac nociception can also present as angina of cardiac origin. For non-acute coronary syndrome (ACS) stable chest pain, exercise treadmill testing (ETT) remains the primary tool for diagnosis of ischemia and cardiac risk stratification; however, in certain subsets of patients, such as women, ETT has a lower sensitivity and specificity for identifying obstructive CAD. When combined with an imaging modality, such as nuclear perfusion or echocardiography testing, the sensitivity and specificity of stress testing for detection of obstructive CAD improves significantly. Advancements in stress cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables detection of perfusion abnormalities in a specific coronary artery territory, as well as subendocardial ischemia associated with MCD. Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) enables visual assessment of obstructive CAD, albeit with a higher radiation dose. Invasive coronary angiography (CA) remains the gold standard for diagnosis and treatment of obstructive lesions that cause medically refractory stable angina. Furthermore, in patients with normal coronary angiograms, the addition of coronary reactivity testing (CRT) can help diagnose endothelial dependent and independent microvascular dysfunction. Life-style modification and pharmacologic intervention remains the cornerstone of therapy to reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with stable angina. This review focuses on

  4. Effect of ascending aortic dimension on acute procedural success following self-expanding transcatheter aortic valve replacement: A multicenter retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeno, Yoshio; Yoon, Sung-Han; Abramowitz, Yigal; Watanabe, Yusuke; Jilaihawi, Hasan; Lin, Mao-Shin; Chan, Jason; Sharma, Rahul; Kawashima, Hideyuki; Israr, Sharjeel; Kawamori, Hiroyuki; Miyasaka, Masaki; Rami, Tanya; Kazuno, Yoshio; Mangat, Geeteshwar; Kashif, Mohammad; Chakravarty, Tarun; Kao, Hsien-Li; Lee, Michael Kang-Yin; Nakamura, Mamoo; Kozuma, Ken; Cheng, Wen; Makkar, Raj R

    2017-10-01

    Self-expanding (SE) valves are characterized with long stent frame design and the radial force of the device exists both in the inflow and outflow level. Therefore, we hypothesized that device success of SE-valves may be influenced by ascending aortic dimensions (AAD). The aim of this study was to determine the influence of AAD on acute device success rates following SE transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). In 4 centers in the United States and Asia, 214 consecutive patients underwent SE-TAVR. Outcomes were assessed in line with Valve Academic Research Consortium criteria. AAD was defined as the sum of the short and long axis aortic diameter divided by 2. Overall, device success rate was 85.0%. Multivariate analysis revealed that increased AAD (Odds ratio 1.27) and % oversizing (Odds ratio 0.88) were found to be independent predictors of unsuccessful device implantation. The c-statistic of the model for device success was area under the curve 0.79, sensitivity 81.3% and specificity 44.0%. Co-existence of several risk factors was associated with an exponential fall to 64.2% in device success rate. For a large AAD, however, optimally oversized SE-valves (threshold 16.2%) resulted with high device success rates compared to suboptimal oversizing (88.6% vs. 64.2%, p=0.005). Larger AAD and smaller degrees of oversizing were confirmed to be the most relevant predictors of unsuccessful device implantation following SE-valve implantations. Optimal oversizing of great significance was noted, particularly that with a large AAD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pathogenesis of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Golubev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is a common complication of many diseases. Its polyetiological pattern determines the specific features of lung morphological changes and the clinical course of ARDS. Objective: to analyze the pathogenesis of ARDS in the context of the general pathological processes underlying its development. Material and methods. More than 200 lungs from the people who had died from severe concomitant injury or ARDS-complicated pneumonia were investigated. More than 150 rat experiments simulated various types of lung injury: ventilator-induced lung injury with different ventilation parameters; reperfusion injuries (systemic circulation blockade due to 12-minute vascular fascicle ligation, followed by the recovery of cardiac performance and breathing; microcirculatory disorder (injection of a thromboplastin solution into the jugular vein; blood loss; betaine-pepsin aspiration; and closed chest injury. Different parts of the right and left lungs were histologically examined 1 and 3 hours and 1 and 3 days after initiation of the experiment. Lung pieces were fixed in 10% neutral formalin solution and embedded in paraffin. Histological sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and using the van Gieson and Weigert procedures; the Schiff test was used. Results. The influence of aggression factors (trauma, blood loss, aspiration, infection, etc. results in damage to the lung and particularly air-blood barrier structures (endothelium, alveolar epithelium, their basement membrane. In turn the alteration of cellular and extracellular structures is followed by the increased permeability of hemomicrocirculatory bed vessels, leading to the development of non-cardiogenic (interstitial, alveolar pulmonary edema that is a central component in the pathogenesis of ARDS. Conclusion. The diagnosis of the early manifestations of ARDS must account for the nature of an aggression factor, the signs confirming the alteration of the lung

  6. Supravalvular aortic stenosis associated to infectious endocarditis and cerebral vascular disease in a patient with Williams-Beuren Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rubens Figueroa, Jesús; Marhx, Alfonso; López Terrazas, Javier; Palacios Macedo, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    The Williams-Beuren syndrome is a rare genetic disease characterized by: (a) typical facial features; (b) psychomotor retardation with a specific neurocognitive profile; (c) cardiovascular condition and (d) likely transient hypocalcemia in infancy. The objective of this study was to describe the clinic evolution and diagnosis of patient with this syndrome that was associated with endocarditis caused by Streptococcus parasanguis in the ascending aorta and an aneurism located in the fronto-temporal area, which produced a parenchymal hematoma in the left lobe, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. He was treated with ceftriaxone and dicloxacillin. Then we proceeded to correct the aneurysm and perform vegetation resection in aortic arteries with supravalvular aortic stenosis correction. The evolution after one year has been favorable and is currently without neurologic sequelae. A 5-year-old male patient presented a diagnosis of supravalvular aortic stenosis. After cardiac catheterization was performed, he presented a fever and right side paresis. The echocardiogram showed multiple vegetations in the ascendant aortic arch and the supraortic arteries. The blood cultures reported S. parasanguis. The magnetic resonance showed a subarachnoid hemorrhage with an aneurysm and a hematoma. Copyright © 2014 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  7. Acute Respiratory Distress: from syndrome to disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal-Fernández, P; Correger, E; Villanueva, J; Rios, F

    2016-04-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is currently one of the most important critical entities given its high incidence, rate of mortality, long-term sequelae and non-specific pharmacological treatment. The histological hallmark of ARDS is diffuse alveolar damage (DAD). Approximately 50% of ARDS patients present DAD, the rest is made up of a heterogeneous group of histological patterns, many of which correspond to a well-recognized disease. For that reason, if these patterns could be diagnosed, patients could benefit from a treatment. Recently, the effect of DAD in clinical and analytical evolution of ARDS has been demonstrated, so the classical approach to ARDS as an entity defined solely by clinical, radiological and gasometrical variables should be reconsidered. This narrative review aims to examine the need to evolve from the concept of ARDS as a syndrome to ARDS as a specific disease. So we have raised 4 critical questions: a) What is a disease?; b) what is DAD?; c) how is DAD considered according to ARDS definition?, and d) what is the relationship between ARDS and DAD? Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  8. Acute heart failure: acute cardiorenal syndrome and role of aggressive decongestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Elias B; Hanna Deschamps, Eliana

    2014-12-01

    Congestion and acute renal dysfunction are at the center of acute heart failure (HF) syndromes. Acute cardiorenal syndrome, which refers to worsening of renal function in a patient with acute HF syndrome, is partly related to venous congestion and high renal afterload. Aggressive decongestion improves renal and myocardial flow and ventricular loading conditions, potentially resulting in reduced HF progression, rehospitalization, and mortality. High-dose diuretic therapy remains the mainstay therapy. Ultrafiltration and inotropic therapy are useful in the subgroup of patients with a low-output state and diuretic resistance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. ANALYSIS OF PRE-HOSPITAL TREATMENT OF ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Reshetko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the pre-hospital treatment of patients with acute coronary syndromes (acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina in 2001 and 2006.Material and methods. Retrospective pre-hospital treatment survey was performed in 1114 patients with acute coronary syndrome (acute myocardial infarction (AMI or unstable angina (UA in 2001 and 2006.Results. For acute myocardial infarction use of aspirin, β-blockers, heparin was 0%, 0%, 81,5% in 2001 and 23,9%, 8%, 13,4% in 2006, respectively. Use of aspirin, β-blockers, heparin in unstable angina were 0%, 16,2%, 12,3% in 2001 and 3,4%, 1,6%, 0,5% in 2006, respectively. Fibrinolytic therapy was not provided. Polypragmasia reduced in 2006 in comparison with 2001.Conclusions. This survey demonstrates the discordance between existing current practice and guidelines for acute coronary syndrome.

  10. ANALYSIS OF PRE-HOSPITAL TREATMENT OF ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Reshetko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the pre-hospital treatment of patients with acute coronary syndromes (acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina in 2001 and 2006.Material and methods. Retrospective pre-hospital treatment survey was performed in 1114 patients with acute coronary syndrome (acute myocardial infarction (AMI or unstable angina (UA in 2001 and 2006.Results. For acute myocardial infarction use of aspirin, β-blockers, heparin was 0%, 0%, 81,5% in 2001 and 23,9%, 8%, 13,4% in 2006, respectively. Use of aspirin, β-blockers, heparin in unstable angina were 0%, 16,2%, 12,3% in 2001 and 3,4%, 1,6%, 0,5% in 2006, respectively. Fibrinolytic therapy was not provided. Polypragmasia reduced in 2006 in comparison with 2001.Conclusions. This survey demonstrates the discordance between existing current practice and guidelines for acute coronary syndrome.

  11. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: epidemiology and management approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walkey AJ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Allan J Walkey,1 Ross Summer,1 Vu Ho,1 Philip Alkana21The Pulmonary Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; 2Asthma Research Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Acute lung injury and the more severe acute respiratory distress syndrome represent a spectrum of lung disease characterized by the sudden onset of inflammatory pulmonary edema secondary to myriad local or systemic insults. The present article provides a review of current evidence in the epidemiology and treatment of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome, with a focus on significant knowledge gaps that may be addressed through epidemiologic methods.Keywords: acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, review, epidemiology

  12. Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump Malposition Reduces Visceral Artery Perfusion in an Acute Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondran, Maximilian; Rastan, Ardawan J; Tillmann, Eugen; Seeburger, Jörg; Schröter, Thomas; Dhein, Stefan; Bakhtiary, Farhad; Mohr, Friedrich-Wilhelm

    2016-04-01

    Visceral artery perfusion can be potentially affected by intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) catheters. We utilized an animal model to quantify the acute impact of a low balloon position on mesenteric artery perfusion. In six pigs (78 ± 7 kg), a 30-cc IABP was placed in the descending aorta in a transfemoral procedure. The celiac artery (CA) and the cranial mesenteric artery (CMA) were surgically dissected. Transit time blood flow was measured for (i) baseline, (ii) 1:1 augmentation with the balloon proximal to the visceral arteries, and (iii) 1:1 augmentation with the balloon covering the visceral arteries. Blood flow in the CMA and CA was reduced by 17 and 24%, respectively, when the balloon compromised visceral arteries compared with a position above the visceral arteries (flow in mL/min: CMA: (i) 1281 ± 512, (ii) 1389 ± 287, (iii) 1064 ± 276, P < 0.05 for 3 vs. 1 and 3 vs. 2; CA: (i) 885 ± 370, (ii) 819 ± 297, (iii) 673 ± 315; P < 0.05 for 3 vs. 1). The covering of visceral arteries by an IABP balloon causes a significant reduction of visceral artery perfusion; thus, the positioning of this device during implantation is critical for obtaining a satisfactory outcome. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Acute Aortic Dissection Presenting as Bilateral Lower Extremity Paralysis: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kate E; Seguin, Colin; Felton, Brent; Hughes, Mary J; Castle, David

    2016-10-01

    First described by Morgagni in 1761, aortic dissection (AD) is an acute life-threatening and time-sensitive disease process with an increasing mortality approaching 1% for every 1-hour delay in diagnosis within the first 48 hours. Despite continued surgical advancement, overall in-hospital mortality remains significant (27.4%). A 56-year-old woman presented to an outlying emergency department with a complaint of isolated lumbar pain associated with right lower extremity paresthesia and paralysis that progressed to the left. Her medical history and a review of symptoms were significant for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and tobacco abuse. The initial evaluation in the emergency department included laboratory values and a computed tomography scan of the lumbar spine that revealed minimal disease. After transfer to our tertiary care center for an emergent magnetic resonance imaging scan of the lumbar spine, her vital signs were as follows: blood pressure, 176/84 mm Hg; heart rate, 76 beats/min; respiratory rate, 24 breaths/min; afebrile; and oxygen saturation 98% on room air. A repeat examination revealed cold extremities with mottling, bilateral symmetric lower extremity flaccid paralysis, and a loss of pulses and reflexes. She was insensate below the T10 dermatome. Her upper extremities and cranial nerves were normal. She underwent computed tomography angiography, revealing an extensive Stanford type A AD with interim thrombus formation. After successful endograft stenting, she died 24 hours later. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Comprising <2% of all ADs, the pathophysiology of paraplegia as the initial presentation of AD is caused by compression of the anterior spinal artery, resulting in ischemia of the spinal cord. Acute AD is a life-threatening medical emergency that requires a high clinical level of suspicion because of its often variable presentation and high incidence of mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  14. Brain activity monitoring by compressed spectral array during deep hypothermic circulatory arrest in acute aortic dissection surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanowicz, Tomasz K; Budniak, Wiktor; Buczkowski, Piotr; Perek, Bartłomiej; Walczak, Maciej; Tomczyk, Jadwiga; Katarzyński, Sławomir; Jemielity, Marek

    2014-12-01

    Monitoring the central nervous system during aortic dissection repair may improve the understanding of the intraoperative changes related to its bioactivity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of deep hypothermia on intraoperative brain bioactivity measured by the compressed spectral array (CSA) method and to assess the influence of the operations on postoperative cognitive function. The study enrolled 40 patients (31 men and 9 women) at the mean age of 60.2 ± 8.6 years, diagnosed with acute aortic dissection. They underwent emergency operations in deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA). During the operations, brain bioactivity was monitored with the compressed spectral array method. There were no intraoperative deaths. Electrocerebral silence during DHCA was observed in 31 patients (74%). The lowest activity was observed during DHCA: it was 0.01 ± 0.05 nW in the left hemisphere and 0.01 ± 0.03 nW in the right hemisphere. The postoperative results of neurological tests deteriorated statistically significantly (26.9 ± 1.7 points vs. 22.0 ± 1.7 points; p < 0.001), especially among patients who exhibited brain activity during DHCA. The compressed spectral array method is clinically useful in monitoring brain bioactivity during emergency operations of acute aortic dissections. Electrocerebral silence occurs in 75% of patients during DHCA. The cognitive function of patients deteriorates significantly after operations with DHCA.

  15. Influence of the false lumen status on clinical outcomes in patients with acute type B aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akihito; Sakakibara, Masaki; Ishii, Hideki; Hayashida, Ryo; Jinno, Yasushi; Okumura, Satoshi; Okada, Koji; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2014-02-01

    Clinical outcomes in acute type B aortic dissection patients with partial thrombosis of the false lumen have not been clearly elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate long-term mortality and incidence of surgical treatment by focusing on the status of the false lumen including partial thrombosis. One hundred three patients (69 males, mean age 67 ± 13 years) with acute type B aortic dissection were enrolled. Patients were divided into three groups according to the status of the false lumen on enhanced computed tomography image (complete thrombosis, n = 55; partial thrombosis, n = 25; patent, n = 23). Requirement of surgical (open or endovascular) treatment during initial hospitalization was significantly less frequent in patients with complete thrombosis (0% in complete thrombosis, 16% in partial thrombosis, and 26% in patent). The long-term mortality (mean follow-up term, 1143 ± 933 days) did not differ among the three groups. Long-term surgical treatment-free rate was significantly lower in patients with patent false lumen. Cox regression analysis revealed that age (P type B aortic dissection, the incidence of surgical treatment was higher in patients with patent false lumen during long-term follow-up, whereas status of the false lumen did not influence long-term mortality. Copyright © 2014 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A review of pulmonary coagulopathy in acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome and pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, Laurens; de Groot, Philip G.; Grutters, Jan C.; Biesma, Douwe H.

    Enhanced bronchoalveolar coagulation is a hallmark of many acute inflammatory lung diseases such as acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome and pneumonia. Intervention with natural anticoagulants in these diseases has therefore become a topic of interest. Recently, new data on the

  17. [Acute coronary syndrome after hornet bite, type II Kounis syndrome - a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alihodzić, Hajriz; Ilić, Boris; Mladina, Nada; Mrsić, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Kounis syndrome is an accidental occurrence of acute coronary syndrome associated with anaphylaxis, where acute inflammatory mediators cause the spasm of coronary arteries with the erosion and rupture of atheromatous plaque. We present a 53-year-old male who during the treatment of anaphylaxis after a hornet bite developed acute anteroseptal myocardial infarction. The diagnosis of type II Kounis syndrome was proven by electrocardiographic abnormalities and biochemical markers with clinical manifestation of acute coronary syndrome, and was associated with anaphylaxis which demanded prehospital treatment of the patient after the hornet bite. Anaphylaxis after a hornet bite requires consideration of acute coronary syndrome if patients have chest pain and hemodynamic impairment, as these conditions occur infrequently but demand additional diagnostics and adequate treatment.

  18. Impact of copeptin on diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab H. El Sayed

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: In suspected acute coronary syndrome, determination of copeptin and cardiac troponin I provides a remarkable negative predictive value, which aids in early and safe ruling out of myocardial infarction.

  19. [Thoraco-abdominal aortic replacement in chronic phase in a patient with temporary paraplegia after Stanford B acute dissection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Goro; Hata, Masaki; Tabayashi, Koichi

    2013-07-01

    A 42-year-old man underwent was performed with thoraco-abdominal aneurysm replacement accompaniedy with reconstruction of abdominal branches and intercostal arteries. Eighteen months before, he had suffered from Stanford already been cured with paraplegia on being type B acute aortic dissection combined with paraplegia. When paraplegia had been occurred, cerebrospinal fluid drainage was had been performed promptly, and 4 days later, neurologic deficit was disappeared in 1 day. During the thoraco-abdominal aortic operation, cerebrospinal fluid drainage was performed done again. After the operation, paraplegia did was not occurred and he did not feel somewhat wrong with his legs. He was discharged from hospital on foot by himself. This case showed the efficacy of cerebral spinal fluid drainage for not only both with the prevention but also and treatment of paraplegia.

  20. Redox stress in Marfan syndrome: Dissecting the role of the NADPH oxidase NOX4 in aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Altayó, Francesc; Meirelles, Thayna; Crosas-Molist, Eva; Sorolla, M Alba; Del Blanco, Darya Gorbenko; López-Luque, Judit; Mas-Stachurska, Aleksandra; Siegert, Ana-Maria; Bonorino, Fabio; Barberà, Laura; García, Carolina; Condom, Enric; Sitges, Marta; Rodríguez-Pascual, Fernando; Laurindo, Francisco; Schröder, Katrin; Ros, Joaquim; Fabregat, Isabel; Egea, Gustavo

    2018-02-20

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is characterized by the formation of ascending aortic aneurysms resulting from altered assembly of extracellular matrix fibrillin-containing microfibrils and dysfunction of TGF-β signaling. Here we identify the molecular targets of redox stress in aortic aneurysms from MFS patients, and investigate the role of NOX4, whose expression is strongly induced by TGF-β, in aneurysm formation and progression in a murine model of MFS. Working models included aortae and cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from MFS patients, and a NOX4-deficient Marfan mouse model (Fbn1 C1039G/+ -Nox4 -/- ). Increased S-nitrosylation and reactive oxygen species levels were found in the tunica media of human aortic aneurysms and in cultured VSMC. Proteomic analysis identified nitrated and carbonylated proteins, which included smooth muscle α-actin (αSMA) and annexin A2. NOX4 immunostaining increased in the tunica media of human Marfan aorta and was transcriptionally overexpressed in VSMC. Fbn1 C1039G/+ -Nox4 -/- mice aortas showed a reduction of fragmented elastic fibers, which was accompanied by an amelioration in the Marfan-associated enlargement of the aortic root. Increase in the contractile phenotype marker calponin in the tunica media of MFS mice aortas was abrogated in Fbn1 C1039G/+ -Nox4 -/- mice. Endothelial dysfunction evaluated by myography in the Marfan ascending aorta was prevented by the absence of Nox4 or catalase-induced H 2 O 2 decomposition. We conclude that redox stress occurs in MFS, whose targets are actin-based cytoskeleton members and regulators of extracellular matrix homeostasis. Likewise, NOX4 have an impact in the progression of the aortic dilation in MFS and in the structural organization of the aortic tunica media, the VSMC phenotypic modulation, and endothelial function. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Related Knowledge of Nurses Acute Coronary Syndrome with Accuracy of Patiens Do Help According to SOP Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfi Wahyuni

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute Coronary syndrome is one of the syndromes that often caused a sudden death, so it is an emergency problem that needs fast response. Knowledge is the result of knowing and it appears after someone observing to a certain object. The purpose of this research was to find out the correlation between nurse knowledge about Acute Coronary Syndrome with precise action to help according to Acute Coronary Syndrome SOP. The method that been used in this research was analytic correlation with cross sectional approach. The sample of this research was all 26th nurse at ICCU of Sidoarjo hospital. Data collection was questionnaire form to observe the nurse knowledge about Acute Coronary Syndrome and observation form to observe the precise action done by the nurse to help. The result of cross tabulation showing the knowledge of “good” categories was 12 people, 11 people was doing the right help and 1 people was wrong. The nurse knowledge on “enough” category was 13 people, 8 people doing the right help and 5 people was wrong. Knowledge on “poor” category ws 1 people and does not giving the right help. The result ws showing that there was correlation between the nurse knowledge about Acute Coronary Syndrome with the accuracy of giving help according to the SOP.  It was proven that knowledge can raise the precise action done by the nurse in helping patient according to Acute Coronary Syndrom SOP.

  2. Changes in operative strategy for patients enrolled in the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection interventional cohort program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Neil; Trimarchi, Santi; Gleason, Thomas G; Kamman, Arnoud V; di Eusanio, Marco; Myrmel, Truls; Korach, Amit; Maniar, Hersh; Ota, Takeyoshi; Khoynezhad, Ali; Montgomery, Daniel G; Desai, Nimesh D; Eagle, Kim A; Nienaber, Christoph A; Isselbacher, Eric M; Bavaria, Joseph; Sundt, Thoralf M; Patel, Himanshu J

    2017-04-01

    Advancements in cardiothoracic surgery prompted investigation into changes in operative management for acute type A aortic dissections over time. One thousand seven hundred thirty-two patients undergoing surgery for type A aortic dissection were identified from the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection Interventional Cohort Database. Patients were divided into time tertiles (T) (T1: 1996-2003, T2: 2004-2010, and T3: 2011-2016). Frequency of valve sparing procures increased (T1: 3.9%, T2: 18.6%, and T3: 26.7%; trend P < .001). Biologic valves were increasingly utilized (T1: 35.6%, T2; 40.6%, and T3: 52.0%; trend P = .009), whereas mechanical valve use decreased (T1: 57.6%, T2: 58.0%, and T3: 45.4%; trend P = .027) for aortic valve replacement. Adjunctive cerebral perfusion use increased (T1: 67.1%, T2: 89.5%, and T3: 84.8%; trend P < .001), with increase in antegrade cerebral techniques (T1: 55.9%, T2: 58.8%, and T3: 66.1%; trend P = .005) and hypothermic circulatory arrest (T1: 80.1%, T2: 85.9%, and T3: 86.8%; trend P = .030). Arterial perfusion through axillary cannulation increased (T1: 18.0%, T2: 33.2%, and T3: 55.7%), whereas perfusion via a femoral approach diminished (T1: 76.0%, T2: 53.3%, and T3: 30.1%) (both P values < .001). Hemiarch replacement was utilized more frequently (T1: 27.0%, T2: 63.3%, and T3: 51.7%; trend P = .001) and partial arch was utilized less frequently (T1: 20.7%, T2: 12.0%, and T3: 8.4%; trend P < .001), whereas complete arch replacement was used similarly (P = .131). In-hospital mortality significantly decreased (T1: 17.5%, T2: 15.8%, and T3: 12.2%; trend P = .017). There have been significant changes in operative strategy over time in the management of type A aortic dissection, with more frequent use of valve-sparing procedures, bioprosthetic aortic valve substitutes, antegrade cerebral perfusion strategies, and hypothermic circulatory arrest. Most importantly, a significant decrease of in

  3. A Case with Repeated Recurrent Acute Coronary Syndrome due to Pseudoephedrine Use: Kounis Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Çeliker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic reaction-associated acute coronary syndrome picture is defined as Kounis syndrome. Although drug use is the most common cause of allergic reaction, foods and environmental factors may also play a role in the etiology. Herein, a case with acute coronary syndrome that developed two times at 8-month interval due to pseudoephedrine use for upper respiratory tract infection is presented.

  4. Clinical significance of a false lumen pathway through the arch in acute type A aortic dissection and its influence on cervical branch compromise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamine, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Manami; Wakabayashi, Naohiro; Sugita, Hiroaki; Hara, Hiroiku; Kawase, Yushi

    2015-11-01

    Upon onset of acute type A aortic dissection, the aortic true lumen generally becomes fixed around the supra-aortic branches in the greater curvature and Botallo's ligament in the lesser curvature of the aortic arch. Therefore, the pathways of the false lumen through the arch can be categorized as anterior, bilateral and posterior. We investigated the relationship between a false lumen pathway through the arch and cervical branch compromise, stratified by primary tear location. Sixty-four consecutive patients with acute type A aortic dissection underwent emergency surgery at our institution between March 2005 and October 2013. Of these, 40 cases (63%) were DeBakey type I, 15 cases (23%) were type II and 9 cases (14%) were type III-D (retrograde type A). We conducted a retrospective review of preoperative computed tomographic angiography using three-dimensional image post-processing tools for 43 cases, excluding 15 cases with type II and 6 cases with type I for which preoperative digital image data were not available. Of the 43 cases, 14, 18 and 11 revealed anterior, bilateral and posterior pathways, respectively. Twenty-one cases (49%) showed a primary intimal tear in the ascending aorta (8 anterior, 12 bilateral and 1 posterior), 12 cases (28%) showed a primary intimal tear in the aortic arch (5 anterior, 3 bilateral and 4 posterior) and 10 cases (23%) showed a primary intimal tear in the descending aorta (1 anterior, 3 bilateral and 6 posterior). Twelve of the 14 anterior pathway cases (86%) had a total of 26 supra-aortic branch compromises, 13 of the 18 bilateral pathway cases (72%) had a total of 20 supra-aortic branch compromises, while only 4 of the 11 posterior pathway cases (36%) had a total of four supra-aortic branch compromises. None of the 11 posterior pathway cases had a dissection extending into all 3 supra-aortic branches. Posterior pathway cases generally showed primary tear locations in the arch or descending aorta, and cervical branch compromise

  5. Nuclear cardiology in acute coronary syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulow, H.; Schwaiger, M. [Nuclearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik Technische Universitat Munchen, Munich (Germany)

    2005-03-01

    Acute coronary syndromes are a frequent manifestation of a coronary artery disease, usually being associated with chest pain and presenting as a medical emergency. Since a considerable number of patients with chest pain, however, have a non cardiac etiology of trier pain, properly triaging these patients represents a diagnostic challenge for physicians in the emergency department. As the available diagnostic procedures have limited accuracy, many different diagnostic strategies have been evaluated. Among these, radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) at rest or in combination with stress procedures has been investigated in many trails. MPI has been proven to be useful, especially in a patient population with a low to intermediate probability of an ischemic event. Perfusion scintigraphy has a high sensitivity in the detection of myocardial infarction and reveals an excellent negative predictive value, allowing a safe discharge strategy of patients with a negative scan result. Moreover, it enables risk stratification and provides incremental and independent prognostic information regarding short to long term future cardiac adverse events. Several cost effectiveness studies have shown that perfusion imaging leads to lower overall direct costs, mainly by a reduction of unnecessary hospital admissions and diagnostic angiograms, without worsening of the clinical outcome of these patients. As a possible study endpoint, myocardial perfusion imaging in the acute setting enables the quantification of salvaged myocardium and therefore the evaluation of treatment efficacy. Besides perfusion agents, several infarcts avid radiopharmaceuticals have been developed, which in part show promising results. However, larger randomized trials evaluating these tracers in clinical settings are needed to warrant routine clinical application.

  6. A successfully thrombolysed acute inferior myocardial infarction due to type A aortic dissection with lethal consequences: the importance of early cardiac echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bousoula Eleni

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thrombolysis, a standard therapy for ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI in non-PCI-capable hospitals, may be catastrophic for patients with aortic dissection leading to further expansion, rupture and uncontrolled bleeding. Stanford type A aortic dissection, rarely may mimic myocardial infarction. We report a case of a patient with an inferior STEMI thrombolysed with tenecteplase and followed by clinical and electrocardiographic evidence of successful reperfusion, which was found later to be a lethal acute aortic dissection. Prognostic implications of early diagnosis applying transthoracic echocardiography (TTE are described.

  7. Short report Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalcin (NGAL) as a biomarker of dialysis-dependent acute kidney injury following infrarenal aortic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Helene Korvenius; Stæhr, Jannie Bisgaard; Gilsaa, Torben

    2013-01-01

    Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common following abdominal aortic surgery. NGAL might be useful in the early diagnosis of AKI since it responds rapidly to ischaemic damage. Methods: Twenty patients undergoing elective infrarenal aortic surgery. U-NGAL was measured before surgery and 24, 48...... and 72 hours postoperatively. Results: No significant rise in U-NGAL was seen in patients without AKI at any time. All patients who developed dialysisdependent AKI had a significant increase in U-NGAL. Conclusion: U-NGAL did not increase solely in response to the surgical trauma. U-NGAL may be a useful...... biomarker for AKI following abdominal aortic surgery....

  8. SICK SINUS SYNDROME IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. K. Kazakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a clinical case of 2 patients with heart arrhythmias of the sick sinus syndrome type, who were implanted electriccardiac pacemakers in the acute period of cerebrovascular accidents. There were no cardiac complaints in the clinical manifestation, however, a comprehensive assessment confirmed the diagnosis of sick sinus syndrome.

  9. Acute compartmental syndrome from hematogenous osteomyelitis of the ulna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy, D W; Lourie, G M; Morrissy, R T

    1998-08-01

    Compartmental syndrome of the forearm in children is usually caused by fractures, soft-tissue damage, burns, or arterial injury. This report presents the case of a child who had compartmental syndrome of the forearm resulting from acute hematogenous osteomyelitis of the ulna.

  10. Age and Aortic Diameters in Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akın, Ahmet; Ozturk, Cengiz; Aparci, Mustafa; Cakmak, Tolga; Metin, Suleyman; Balta, Sevket; Sen, Ahmet

    2015-12-01

    Pilots are exposed to various physical and hemodynamic stresses during flight. Aortic dilatation may be one of the important consequences of flight-related stress. In this study, we evaluated whether or not variation in aortic diameter was associated with the type of aircraft and the age of pilots. Medical records of 87 jet aircraft pilots (JP) (mean age = 30.0 ± 7.0 years) and 65 non-jet aircraft pilots (NJP) (mean age = 32.63 ± 5.7) were reviewed. Echocardiographic diameters of the aortic sinus (AoS) and ascending aorta (AoAsc) were measured using standard echo probe positions. Aortic diameters were not statistically different between JP and NJP. Regression analysis revealed that the diameters of the AoS (R = 0.484, R(2) = 0.234, p age in the JP group. Whereas, there was not any relationship found between age and the diameters of the AoS and AoAsc in the NJP group. Jet pilots had aortic enlargement as they became older in contrast to the NJP group. Although the aortic diameters were not within the critical ranges in the JP group, these results could suggest that flight-related stresses might result in acute aortic syndromes in the long term. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  11. Transesophageal echocardiographic evaluation of an intraoperative retrograde acute aortic dissection: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiter Charles G

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report an intraoperative retrograde dissection of the aorta and its subsequent evaluation by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE. Case presentation A 78 year old woman with an ascending aortic aneurysm without dissection and coronary artery disease was brought to the operating room for aneurysm repair and coronary artery bypass grafting. After initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass through a femoral artery cannula, aortic dissection was noted and subsequently imaged by TEE. Conclusion Retrograde aortic dissection through the femoral artery is life-threatening. Intraoperative TEE can be used to diagnose this uncommon event, and should be considered after initiation of bypass.

  12. Non-invasive imaging in acute chest pain syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechtem, Udo; Achenbach, Stephan; Friedrich, Matthias; Wackers, Frans; Zamorano, José L

    2012-01-01

    This review has the purpose of informing the reader about the current use of imaging techniques in patients presenting with acute chest pain to the emergency department. We will focus on three aspects of managing the patient with acute chest pain: Imaging to increase the number of correct diagnoses in the acute situation; Imaging to rule out other than coronary causes of chest pain; Use of imaging for risk stratification once myocardial infarction has been ruled out in the CPU. Special emphasis is given to how these management aspects are discussed in current guidelines on the management of patients with acute chest pain or acute coronary syndrome.

  13. Female Psychological Adjustment Following an Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Prata

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: Type-D personality, high anxiety, hypertension and dyslipidemia seem to cluster among female acute coronary syndrome patients. Nevertheless, type-D personality itself was not associated with higher anxiety and depressive scores during the post-acute period.

  14. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in Acute Pancreatitis : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Brunschot, Sandra; Schut, Anne Julia; Bouwense, Stefan A.; Besselink, Marc G.; Bakker, Olaf J.; Goor ,van Harry; Hofker, Hendrik; Gooszen, Hein G.; Boermeester, Marja A.; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C.

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a lethal complication of acute pancreatitis. We performed a systematic review to assess the treatment and outcome of these patients. A systematic literature search for cohorts of patients with acute pancreatitis and ACS was performed. The main outcomes were

  15. Abdominal compartment syndrome in acute pancreatitis: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Brunschot, Sandra; Schut, Anne Julia; Bouwense, Stefan A.; Besselink, Marc G.; Bakker, Olaf J.; van Goor, Harry; Hofker, Sijbrand; Gooszen, Hein G.; Boermeester, Marja A.; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C.

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a lethal complication of acute pancreatitis. We performed a systematic review to assess the treatment and outcome of these patients.A systematic literature search for cohorts of patients with acute pancreatitis and ACS was performed. The main outcomes were

  16. Impact of copeptin on diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome | El ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Acute coronary syndrome remains the principal cause of death, so the early diagnosis is of great importance. Cardiac troponin is the preferred biomarker for acute myocardial infarction. Cardiac chest pain immediately increased copeptin secretion. The combination of copeptin and cardiac troponin I is being ...

  17. Novel oral anticoagulants in acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costopoulos, Charis; Niespialowska-Steuden, Maria; Kukreja, Neville; Gorog, Diana A

    2013-09-10

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with a prevalence that has now reached pandemic levels as a consequence of the rapid modernization of the developing world. Its presentation as an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a frequent reason for hospital admission and of profound implications for personal, societal and global health. Despite improvements in the management of ACS with anti-platelet and anticoagulant therapy and revascularization techniques, many patients continue to suffer recurrent ischemic events. The need to reduce future cardiovascular events has led to the development of novel therapies to prevent coronary thrombosis, targeting thrombin-mediated pathways. These include direct Xa inhibitors (apixaban, rivaroxaban and darexaban), direct thrombin inhibitors (dabigatran) and PAR 1 antagonists (vorapaxar and atopaxar). This article critically reviews the comparative mechanisms of action, the risks and benefits, together with the clinical evidence base for the use of these novel oral agents in the management of ACS patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Chronic kidney disease in acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenzi, Giancarlo; Cabiati, Angelo; Assanelli, Emilio

    2012-10-06

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with a high burden of coronary artery disease. In patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), CKD is highly prevalent and associated with poor short- and long-term outcomes. Management of patients with CKD presenting with ACS is more complex than in the general population because of the lack of well-designed randomized trials assessing therapeutic strategies in such patients. The almost uniform exclusion of patients with CKD from randomized studies evaluating new targeted therapies for ACS, coupled with concerns about further deterioration of renal function and therapy-related toxic effects, may explain the less frequent use of proven medical therapies in this subgroup of high-risk patients. However, these patients potentially have much to gain from conventional revascularization strategies used in the general population. The objective of this review is to summarize the current evidence regarding the epidemiology and the clinical and prognostic relevance of CKD in ACS patients, in particular with respect to unresolved issues and uncertainties regarding recommended medical therapies and coronary revascularization strategies.

  19. MRI assessment of local acute radiation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber-Donat, G.; Potet, J.; Baccialone, J.; Teriitehau, C. [Military Hospital Percy, Radiology Department, Clamart (France); Amabile, J.C.; Laroche, P. [Military Hospital Percy, Army Institute of Radioprotection, Clamart (France); Lahutte-Auboin, M. [Military Hospital Val-de-Grace, Radiology Department, Paris (France); Bey, E. [Military Hospital Percy, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Department, Clamart (France)

    2012-12-15

    To describe local acute radiation syndrome and its radiological imaging characteristics. We performed a retrospective study of patients who had suffered skin and deeper radiation damage who were investigated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We compared the clinical findings, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and MRI results. A total of 22 MRI examinations were performed between 2005 and 2010 in 7 patients; 6 patients had increased CRP levels and MRI abnormalities. They were treated by surgery and local cellular therapy. One patient had no CRP or MRI abnormalities, and had a spontaneous good outcome. Eighteen abnormal MR examinations demonstrated high STIR signal and/or abnormal enhancement in the dermis and muscle tissues. Three MRI examinations demonstrated skeletal abnormalities, consistent with radionecrosis. The four normal MRI examinations were associated only with minor clinical manifestations such as pain and pigmentation disorders. MRI seems to be a useful and promising imaging investigation in radiation burns management i.e. initial lesion evaluation, treatment evaluation and complication diagnosis. MRI findings correlated perfectly with clinical stage and no false negative examinations were obtained. In particular, the association between normal MRI and low CRP level seems to be related to good outcome without specific treatment. (orig.)

  20. Ortner’s syndrome: Cardiovocal syndrome caused by aortic arch ps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil H. Al Kindi

    2016-10-01

    Ortner’s syndrome describes vocal changes caused by cardiovascular pathology. It should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with cardiovascular risk factors presenting with hoarseness. This case demonstrates the use of endovascular stents to treat the causative pathology with resolution of symptoms. In expert hands, it represents low risk, minimally invasive therapeutic strategy with excellent early results in patients who are high risk for open procedure.

  1. Acute atraumatic compartment syndrome in an athlete: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollsteimer, G T; Shelton, W R

    1997-07-01

    To present the case of a college football player with acute, atraumatic, exercise-induced compartment syndrome in the leg. Acute, atraumatic, exercise-induced compartment syndrome is an infrequently reported cause of leg pain in the athlete. If left untreated, acute compartment syndrome can cause muscle necrosis. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome, medial tibial syndrome, stress fracture. Treatment consists of compartment fasciotomy. This previously healthy, but unconditioned, athlete developed severe anterolateral left leg pain after two days of fall practice in which he was unable to run a mile in 7.5 minutes. Physical examination by the team physician revealed acute compartment syndrome, and an emergency anterolateral compartment fasciotomy was performed. Second-look débridement performed 48 hours later revealed no significant change in the necrotic appearance of the anterior compartment soft tissue. Therefore, the dead muscle was completely débrided, and a free-flap latissumus dorsi graft was used for coverage of the wound. With recovery, strength returned to normal in the lateral compartment but remained 0/5 in the anterior compartment. The patient had persistent sensory loss in the distributions of the superficial and deep peroneal nerves. Although much less common than the more frequent causes of leg pain (ie, chronic exertional compartment syndrome, medial tibial syndrome, stress fracture), acute compartment syndrome is potentially more devastating. When the increased intracompartmental pressure within a closed tissue space exceeds capillary perfusion pressure, tissue perfusion is decreased, the soft tissue becomes ischemic, and cells die. The most important clinical diagnostic signs of compartment syndrome are pain with passive stretching of the compartment and pain out of proportion to the results of the physical examination.

  2. D-dimer as a biomarker for acute aortic dissection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jia-sen; Jing, Zai-ping; Zhuang, Shun-jiu; Qi, Shao-hong; Li, Li; Zhou, Jun-wen; Zhang, Wang; Zhao, Yun; Qi, Ning; Yin, Yang-jun

    2015-01-01

    To perform a meta-analysis and examine the use of D-dimer levels for diagnosing acute aortic dissection (AAD). Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar were searched until April 23, 2014, using the following search terms: biomarker, acute aortic dissection, diagnosis, and D-dimer. Inclusion criteria were diagnosis of acute aortic dissection, D-dimer levels obtained, 2-armed study. Outcome measures were the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of D-dimer level for the diagnosis of AAD. Sensitivity analysis was performed using the leave-one-out approach. Of 34 articles identified, 5 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. The age of participants was similar between treatments within studies. The number of AAD patients ranged from 16 to 107 (total = 274), and the number of control group patients ranged from 32 to 206 (total = 469). The pooled sensitivity of D-dimer levels in AAD patients was 94.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 78.1%-98.8%, P < 0.001), and the specificity was 69.1% (95% CI 43.7%-86.5%, P = 0.136). The pooled area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for D-dimer levels in AAD patients was 0.916 (95% CI 0.863-0.970, P < 0.001). The direction and magnitude of the combined estimates did not change markedly with the exclusion of individual studies, indicating the meta-analysis had good reliability. D-dimer levels are best used for ruling out AAD in patients with low likelihood of the disease.

  3. Current thinking about acute compartment syndrome of the lower extremity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadgan, Babak; Menon, Matthew; Sanders, David; Berry, Gregg; Martin, Claude; Duffy, Paul; Stephen, David; O’Brien, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome of the lower extremity is a clinical condition that, although uncommon, is seen fairly regularly in modern orthopedic practice. The pathophysiology of the disorder has been extensively described and is well known to physicians who care for patients with musculoskeletal injuries. The diagnosis, however, is often difficult to make. In this article, we review the clinical risk factors of acute compartment syndrome of the lower extremity, identify the current concepts of diagnosis and discuss appropriate treatment plans. We also describe the Canadian medicolegal environment in regard to compartment syndrome of the lower extremity. PMID:20858378

  4. Acute Idiopathic Compartment Syndrome of the Forearm in an Adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith, Kelley

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute compartment syndrome (ACS is a condition typically associated with long bone fractures or severe trauma; however, non-traumatic etiologies also occur. We describe a case of an otherwise healthy female pediatric patient presenting with unilateral forearm pain without an inciting injury. Intracompartmental pressures of the forearm were measured and she was diagnosed with idiopathic compartment syndrome. Our goal is to encourage clinicians to consider acute compartment syndrome even in the absence of trauma. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(1:158-160.

  5. Surgical repair of supravalvular aortic stenosis in children with williams syndrome: a 30-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Tyson A; d'Udekem, Yves; Brizard, Christian P; Wheaton, Gavin; Weintraub, Robert G; Konstantinov, Igor E

    2015-04-01

    Williams syndrome is an uncommon genetic disorder associated with supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS) in childhood. We reviewed outcomes of children with Williams syndrome who underwent repair of SVAS during a 30-year period at a single institution. Between 1982 and 2012, 28 patients with Williams syndrome were operated on for SVAS. Mean age at operation was 5.2 years (range, 3 months to 13 years), and mean weight at operation was 18.6 kg (range, 4.1 to 72.4 kg). Associated cardiac lesions in 11 patients (39.3%) were repaired at the time of the SVAS repair. The most common associated cardiac lesion was main pulmonary artery stenosis (8 of 28 [28%]). A 3-patch repair was performed in 10 patients, a Doty repair in 17, and a McGoon repair in 1 (3.6%). There were no early deaths. Follow-up was 96% complete (27 of 28). Overall mean follow-up was 11.2 years (range, 1 month to 27.3 years). Mean follow-up was 5 years (range, 1 month to 14.3 years) for the 3-patch repair patients and 14.7 years (range, 6 weeks to 27 years) for the Doty repair patients. Of the 17 Doty patients, there were 4 (24%) late deaths, occurring at 6 weeks, 3.5 years, 4 years, and 16 years after the initial operation. There were no late deaths in the 3-patch repair patients. Overall survival was 86% at 5, 10, and 15 years after repair. Survival was 82% at 5, 10 and 15 years for the Doty repair patients. Overall, 6 of 27 patients (22%) patients required late reoperation at a mean of 11.2 years (range, 3.6 to 23 years). No 3-patch repair patients required reoperation. Overall freedom from reoperation was 91% at 5 years and 73% at 10 and 15 years. Freedom from reoperation for the Doty repair patients was 93% at 5 years and 71% at 10 and 15 years. Surgical repair of SVAS in children Williams syndrome has excellent early results. However, significant late mortality and morbidity warrants close follow-up. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  6. Molecular genetic analysis of individuals with Williams syndrome and supravalvar aortic stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smoot, L.B.; Lacro, R.V.; Kunkel, L.M. [Children`s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Pober, B. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Mutations at the elastin locus (chromosome 7q11.23) have been demonstrated in individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) and familial supravalvar aortic stenosis (SVAS). Relationships between elastin mutations and vascular and/or neurodevelopmental pathology have yet to be defined. In determining phenotype-genotype correlations in WS/SVAS, we examined 35 individuals with sporadic WS, families with SVAS affecting multiple members, and sporadic cases of isolated obstructive vascular disease. Full length elastin cDNA was used to probe a human genomic library from which multiple elastin genomic clones have been isolated and ordered relative to the elastin gene, covering a minimum of 35 kb. (Additional genomic clones are being obtained by {open_quote}walking{close_quote} 5{prime} and 3{prime} to elastin.) Elastin genomic clones were used as probes in fluorescent in situ hybridization of metaphase chromosomes from WS/SVAS patients. Preliminary analysis confirms elastin deletions in WS patients, but have not yet been demonstrated in patients with isolated vascular disease using this technique. Results of deletional analysis in individuals representing a wide spectrum of phenotypes will be presented.

  7. The Role of Extra-Anatomic Bypass in the Surgical Treatment of Acute Abdominal Aortic Occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Gokhan Ilhan; Şahin Bozok; Şaban Ergene; Sedat Ozan Karakisi; Nebiye Tufekci; Hızır Kazdal; Sabri Ogullar; Seref Alp Kucuker

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aortic occlusion is rare catastophic pathology with high rates of mortality and severe morbidity. In this study, we aimed to share our experience in the management of aortic occlusion and to assess the outcomes of extra-anatomic bypass procedures. Methods: Eighteen patients who had undergone extra-anatomic bypass interventions in the cardiovascular surgery department of our tertiary care center between July 2009 and May 2013 were retrospectively evaluated. All patients...

  8. Effects of psychiatric disorders on Type A acute aortic dissection pathogenesis and analysis of follow-up results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Nardi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: A connection between psychiatric disorders (PDs and Type A acute aortic dissection (AAD has not been shown. The aim of this study was to define the psychological profile of patients treated for AAD, and to analyze the prevalence of PDs in their medical histories, in the immediate postoperative period, and at a mid-term follow-up. Patients and Methods: From March 2005 to October 2014, 240 consecutive patients underwent surgery for AAD. 60 patients (mean age 60+/-13 years; 43 males underwent psychiatric consultation postoperatively, and they represent the subjects of our retrospective study. Ascending aorta +/- arch replacement was performed in 43 patients, whereas the Bentall procedure +/- arch replacement was performed in 17. Data were retrospectively analyzed. Follow-ups were completed in 59 patients (mean duration 35+/-23 months. Results: PDs were present in the medical histories of 34 patients. Postoperatively, in 28 cases, a definitive diagnosis of PD (group PD was made in agreement with the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-IV criteria, including: Major depression (n=13, anxious-depressive syndrome (n=6, bipolar disorder Type 2 (n=4, panic attacks (n=2, paranoid schizophrenia (n=1, and anxiety (n=2. 32 patients without a definitive psychiatric diagnosis were classified as Group non-PD. In the postoperative period, clinical manifestations of PDs, including delirium, persistent spatio-temporal disorientation, and psychomotor agitation were evident in 22 patients (78% in group PD versus 8 patients (25% in group non-PD (P<0.0001. During follow-up, only one death for non-cardiac reasons occurred in group PD. There were no suicides; only 10 patients of group PD required PD treatment (P<0.0001 vs. early postoperative findings; 4 patients in group non-PD required PD treatment. Conclusion: Our findings suggest a strong relationship between PD and AAD. Because the psychiatric conditions appeared to be largely stable after

  9. Prevalence of Burnout Syndrome in Patients Admitted with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Prosdócimo, Ana Cláudia Giaxa; Lucina, Luciane Boreki; Marcia,Olandoski; Jobs, Priscila Megda João; Schio, Nicolle Amboni; Baldanzi, Fernanda Fachin; Costantini, Costantino Ortiz; Benevides-Pereira,Ana Maria Teresa; Guarita-Souza, Luiz Cesar; Faria-Neto, José Rocha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Burnout Syndrome is the extreme emotional response to chronic occupational stress, manifesting as physical and mental exhaustion. Although associated with higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, no study so far has evaluated whether the Burnout Syndrome could be a prevalent factor in non-elderly individuals active in the labor market, admitted for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of the Burnout Syndrome in non-elderly, economically act...

  10. Prevalence of Burnout Syndrome in Patients Admitted with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Cláudia Giaxa Prosdócimo; Luciane Boreki Lucina; Olandoski Marcia; Priscila Megda João Jobs; Nicolle Amboni Schio; Fernanda Fachin Baldanzi; Costantino Ortiz Costantini; Ana Maria Teresa Benevides-Pereira; Luiz Cesar Guarita-Souza; José Rocha Faria-Neto

    2015-01-01

    Background: Burnout Syndrome is the extreme emotional response to chronic occupational stress, manifesting as physical and mental exhaustion. Although associated with higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, no study so far has evaluated whether the Burnout Syndrome could be a prevalent factor in non-elderly individuals active in the labor market, admitted for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of the Burnout Syndrome in non-elderly, economically act...

  11. Marshall-Smith syndrome: Novel pathogenic variant and previously unreported associations with precocious puberty and aortic root dilatation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anjali; Nguyen, Joanne; Rivera-Davila, Michelle; Rodriguez-Buritica, David

    2017-07-01

    Marshall-Smith Syndrome (MRSHSS) is a very rare genetic disorder characterized by failure to thrive and characteristic dysmorphic features associated with accelerated osseous maturation. We present a nine-year-old girl who was diagnosed with MRSHSS based on characteristic clinical features supported by the identification of a novel de novo pathogenic variant in the NFIX gene. The patient also presented with precocious puberty diagnosed at five years of age and had an abnormal GnRH stimulation test indicative of central precocious puberty. Central precocious puberty has not been described in association with MRSHSS previously in the medical literature and broadens our knowledge of the natural history of MRSHSS. The causes of advanced bone age in this syndrome are also reviewed. Additionally, the patient showed progressive dilatation of the aortic root. Although connective tissue abnormalities have been described in association with MRSHSS, aortic root dilatation has not. Understanding the mechanism of comorbidities such as advanced bone age and aortic root dilatation in MRSHSS patients enables future development of anticipatory guidance, preventative care measures, and treatment guidelines. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Children after Fetal Cardiac Intervention for Aortic Stenosis with Evolving Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraja, Kristin; Sadhwani, Anjali; Tworetzky, Wayne; Marshall, Audrey C; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Freud, Lindsay; Hass, Cara; Dunbar-Masterson, Carolyn; Ware, Janice; Lafranchi, Terra; Wilkins-Haug, Louise; Newburger, Jane W

    2017-05-01

    To characterize neurodevelopmental outcomes after fetal aortic valvuloplasty for evolving hypoplastic left heart syndrome and determine the risk factors for adverse neurodevelopment. Questionnaires were mailed to families of children who underwent fetal aortic valvuloplasty from 2000 to 2012, and medical records were reviewed retrospectively. The primary outcome was the General Adaptive Composite score of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System Questionnaire-Second Edition. Other questionnaires included the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Ages and Stages, and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory. Among 69 eligible subjects, 52 (75%) completed questionnaires at median age of 5.5 (range 1.3-12) years; 30 (58%) had biventricular status circulation. The General Adaptive Composite mean score (92 ± 17) was lower than population norms (P Children, Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Ages and Stages, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory), most subscale scores for patients with biventricular and single ventricular status were similar. Children who underwent fetal aortic valvuloplasty have neurodevelopmental delay, similar to patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome without fetal intervention. Achievement of biventricular circulation was not associated with better outcomes. We infer that innate patient factors and morbidity during infancy have the greatest effect on neurodevelopmental outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Case of Acute Atraumatic Compartment Syndrome of the Thigh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutfraynd, Alexander; Philpott, Sheila

    2016-09-01

    In the absence of trauma, compartment syndrome of the thigh is rare. Several case reports have described compartment syndrome in the presence of trauma, comorbid medical conditions, and acute muscle overuse. Very few reports have demonstrated an acute onset of atraumatic thigh compartment syndrome. A 24-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with a painful and swollen left thigh immediately after a night of dancing at a concert. He was found to have an elevated intracompartmental quadriceps pressure of 45 mm Hg in the ED, which led to his transfer to the operating room for an emergent fasciotomy. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Although acute, atraumatic compartment syndrome of the thigh is a rare entity, failure to diagnose it promptly can lead to muscle necrosis, permanent neurologic deficits, and amputation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Anesthetic Implications of Emergent Cesarean Section in a Parturient with Marfan Syndrome Complicated by Ascending Aortic Aneurysm and Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Sung Kim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular comorbidities to the Marfan syndrome may induce hemodynamic instability especially in the parturients during labor or delivery. For anesthesiologists, it is challenging to maintain hemodynamic stability during Cesarean section in those patients with Marfan syndrome. Remifentanil is an ultra-short-acting opioid with rapid onset and offset of action which provides cardiovascular stability during surgery. Together with remifentanil, the use of a laryngeal mask airway can reduce the risk of hypertensive response followed by tracheal intubation. We describe the successful administration of remifentanil and application of laryngeal mask airway for emergent Cesarean section performed under general anesthesia in a patient with Marfan syndrome complicated by ascending aortic aneurysm and heart failure. The use of remifentanil (loading dose of 1 μg/kg for 1 min, 2 min before induction; thereafter continuous infusion dose of 0.1 μg/kg/min was useful to maintain hemodynamic stability of the parturient throughout the surgery without neonatal respiratory depression. Keywords: Ascending Aortic Aneurysm; Cesarean section; Laryngeal mask airway; Marfan syndrome; Remifentanil

  15. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, M; Jepson, N; Lehm, Jp

    2005-04-18

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) includes acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina. ACS is common and may prove fatal. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) will improve oxygen supply to the threatened heart and may reduce the volume of heart muscle that will perish. The addition of HBOT to the standard treatment may reduce death rate and other major adverse outcomes. To assess the benefits and harms of adjunctive HBOT for treating ACS. We searched the following from inception to November 2004: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, DORCTHIM, and references from selected articles. Relevant journals were handsearched and researchers in the field contacted. Randomised studies comparing the effect on ACS of regimens that include HBOT with those that exclude HBOT. Three reviewers independently evaluated the quality of trials using the guidelines of the Cochrane Handbook and extracted data from included trials. Four trials with 462 participants contributed to this review. There was a trend towards, but no significant decrease in, the risk of death with HBOT (relative risk (RR) 0.64, 95% CI 0.38 to 1.06, P=0.08). There was evidence from individual trials of reductions in the risk of major adverse coronary events [MACE] (RR 0.12, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.85, P=0.03; NNT 4, 95% CI 3 to 10) and some dysrhythmias following HBOT (RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.89, P=0.01; NNT 6, 95% CI 3 to 24), particularly complete heart block (RR 0.32, 95%CI 0.12 to 0.84, P=0.02), and that the time to relief of pain was reduced with HBOT (Weighted Mean Difference [WMD] 353 minutes shorter, 95% CI 219 to 488, P<0.0001). One trial suggested a significant incidence of claustrophobia in single occupancy chambers of 15% (RR of claustrophobia with HBOT 31.6, 95%CI 1.92 to 521, P=0.02). For people with ACS, individual small trials suggest the addition of HBOT reduced the risk of Major Adverse Cardiac Events, some dysrrhythmias, and reduced the time to relief from ischaemic pain, but did not reduce mortality. In

  16. Survival of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Mary Y Y; Cheng, Peter K C; Lim, Wilina W L

    2005-10-01

    The primary modes of transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SARS-CoV) appear to be direct mucus membrane contact with infectious droplets and through exposure to formites. Knowledge of the survival characteristics of the virus is essential for formulating appropriate infection-control measures. Survival of SARS-CoV strain GVU6109 was studied in stool and respiratory specimens. Survival of the virus on different environmental surfaces, including a laboratory request form, an impervious disposable gown, and a cotton nondisposable gown, was investigated. The virucidal effects of sodium hypochlorite, house detergent, and a peroxygen compound (Virkon S; Antec International) on the virus were also studied. SARS-CoV GVU6109 can survive for 4 days in diarrheal stool samples with an alkaline pH, and it can remain infectious in respiratory specimens for >7 days at room temperature. Even at a relatively high concentration (10(4) tissue culture infective doses/mL), the virus could not be recovered after drying of a paper request form, and its infectivity was shown to last longer on the disposable gown than on the cotton gown. All disinfectants tested were shown to be able to reduce the virus load by >3 log within 5 min. Fecal and respiratory samples can remain infectious for a long period of time at room temperature. The risk of infection via contact with droplet-contaminated paper is small. Absorbent material, such as cotton, is preferred to nonabsorptive material for personal protective clothing for routine patient care where risk of large spillage is unlikely. The virus is easily inactivated by commonly used disinfectants.

  17. BMS-214662 in Treating Patients With Acute Leukemia, Myelodysplastic Syndrome, or Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

  18. Acute and recurrent effort-related compartment syndrome in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, M A; Moeyersoons, J P

    1990-01-01

    An effort-related compartmental syndrome is a condition in which increased pressure in a muscle compartment impedes blood flow and compromises metabolic demands of the tissues within that space. One can clinically distinguish acute irreversible and chronic reversible types. The aetiology relates in most instances to a limiting noncompliant fascia surrounding the affected muscle compartment. Sports activity leads to increased muscle volume and if there is a noncompliant fascia this will result in an excessive intracompartmental pressure which interferes with muscle blood flow. As a consequence of a reduced intracompartmental blood flow a reversible (recurrent) or irreversible (acute) exercise ischaemia, a so-called 'compartmental syndrome' occurs. A compartment syndrome is typically encountered in the lower leg, but it can be also observed in the upper leg and even in the forearm. Clinical history plays a key role in the diagnosis. Pain, muscle tightness and cramp-like feeling are the most common complaints. Weakness, paralysis and numbness are seen, especially in the acute syndrome. Symptoms appear at a certain intensity of activity and disappear at rest in the chronic compartment syndrome, but in the acute type pain will persist and will be severe. It is clearly an effort-related pain syndrome. Physical examination is not always useful in diagnosing a recurrent syndrome, but in the acute syndrome one will find high sensitivity to pressure and tenseness over the involved muscle compartment. Decreased or loss of active motion and sensation in the involved compartment are frequently seen. Tissue pressure monitoring can confirm the diagnosis for both types.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Epidemiology of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome in The Netherlands : A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, Jan; Versteegt, Jens; Twisk, Jos; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Bindels, Alexander J. G. H.; Spijkstra, Jan-Jaap; Girbes, Armand R. J.; Groeneveld, A. B. Johan

    2007-01-01

    Background: The characteristics, incidence and risk factors for acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) may depend on definitions and geography. Methods: A prospective, 3-day point-prevalence study was performed by a survey of all intensive care units (ICU) in the

  20. Acute respiratory tract infections: a potential trigger for the acute coronary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harskamp, Ralf E.; van Ginkel, Margreet W.

    2008-01-01

    Clinical studies suggest that acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) may be a risk factor for the acute coronary syndrome (ACS). ARTI is associated with an increased risk for ACS up to 2 weeks prior to a cardiac event. The mechanism that may underlie this association is unclear. Infections are

  1. Risk factors for rehospitalization for acute coronary syndromes and unplanned revascularization following acute myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, Suzanne V.; Smolderen, Kim G.; Kennedy, Kevin F.; Li, Yan; Shore, Supriya; Stolker, Joshua M.; Wang, Tracy Y.; Jones, Philip G.; Zhao, Zhenxiang; Spertus, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rehospitalizations for acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and coronary revascularization after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are not only common and costly but can also impact patients’ quality of life. In contrast to mortality and all‐cause readmissions, little insight is available

  2. Coronary Emboli in a Young Patient with Mechanical Aortic Valve: A Rare Cause of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Gholoobi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery embolism is an uncommon cause of Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI. Herein, we reported a 24-year-old male who was admitted with acute infero-posterior myocardial infarction and cerebral Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA. He had undergone mechanical Aortic Valve Replacement (AVR surgery 6 years ago. Surprisingly, the patient had decided to stop taking his medication (warfarin 20 days earlier without any medical advice. Coronary angiography revealed a thrombus located at the distal part of the left circumflex artery. Discontinuation of anticoagulant therapy in the presence of mechanical valve prosthesis, clinical evidence of coincidental TIA, and lack of atherosclerotic risk factors were highly suggestive of coronary thromboembolism as the cause of AMI. Overall, this case report emphasized the necessity of continuous education in patients with mechanical heart valves to prevent such undesired events.

  3. Extent of Preoperative False Lumen Thrombosis Does Not Influence Long‐Term Survival in Patients With Acute Type A Aortic Dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Magnus; Bartnes, Kristian; Tsai, Thomas T.; Eagle, Kim A.; Evangelista, Arturo; Nienaber, Christoph A.; Suzuki, Toru; Fattori, Rossella; Froehlich, James B.; Hutchison, Stuart; Sundt, Thoralf M.; Januzzi, James L.; Isselbacher, Eric M.; Montgomery, Daniel G.; Myrmel, Truls

    2013-01-01

    Background Partial thrombosis of the false lumen has been related to aortic growth, reoperations, and death in the chronic phase of type B and repaired type A aortic dissections. The impact of preoperative false lumen thrombosis has not been studied previously. We used data from a contemporary, multinational database on aortic dissections to evaluate whether different degrees of preoperative false lumen thrombosis influenced long‐term prognosis. Methods and Results We examined the records of 522 patients with surgically treated acute type A aortic dissections who survived to discharge between 1996 and 2011. At the preoperative imaging, 414 (79.3%) patients had patent false lumens, 84 (16.1%) had partial thrombosis of the false lumen, and 24 (4.6%) had complete thrombosis of the false lumen. The annual median (interquartile range) aortic growth rates were 0.5 (−0.3 to 2.0) mm in the aortic arch, 2.0 (0.2 to 4.0) mm in the descending thoracic aorta, and similar regardless of the degree of false lumen thrombosis. The overall 5‐year survival rate was 84.7%, and it was not influenced by false lumen thrombosis (P=0.86 by the log‐rank test). Independent predictors of long‐term mortality were age >70 years (hazard ratio [HR], 2.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20 to 4.56, P=0.012) and postoperative cerebrovascular accident, coma, and/or renal failure (HR, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.40 to 4.92, P=0.003). Conclusions Patients with acute type A aortic dissection who survive to discharge have a favorable prognosis. Preoperative false lumen thrombosis does not influence long‐term mortality, reintervention rates, or aortic growth. PMID:23817468

  4. The effects of contrast media volume on acute kidney injury after transcatheter aortic valve replacement: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongprayoon, Charat; Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Podboy, Alexander J; Gillaspie, Erin A; Greason, Kevin L; Kashani, Kianoush B

    2016-11-01

    The goal of this systematic review was to assess the effects of contrast media volume on transcatheter aortic valve replacement-related acute kidney injury. A literature search was performed using Medline, EMbase, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and clinicaltrials.gov from the inception of these databases through December 2015. Studies that reported relative risk, odds ratio, or hazard ratio comparing the risks of acute kidney injury following transcatheter aortic valve replacement in patients who received high contrast media volume were included. Pooled risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using a random-effect, generic inverse variance method. Four cohort studies composed of 891 patients were included in the analyses to assess the risk of acute kidney injury after transcatheter aortic valve replacement in patients who received high contrast media volume. The pooled RR of acute kidney injury after transcatheter aortic valve replacement in patients who received a large volume of contrast media was 1.41 (95% CI, 0.87 to 2.28) compared with low contrast media volume. The meta-analysis was limited to studies using standard acute kidney injury definitions, and the pooled RR of acute kidney injury in patients who received high contrast media volume is 1.12 (95% CI, 0.78 to 1.62). Our meta-analysis shows no significant association between contrast media volume and risk of acute kidney injury after transcatheter aortic valve replacement. © 2016 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Cardiovascular Structure and Function in Children With Middle Aortic Syndrome and Renal Artery Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumman, Rawan K; Slorach, Cameron; Hui, Wei; Matsuda-Abedini, Mina; Langlois, Valerie; Radhakrishnan, Seetha; Lorenzo, Armando J; Amaral, Joao; Mertens, Luc; Parekh, Rulan S

    2017-12-01

    Middle aortic syndrome (MAS) is a narrowing of the abdominal aorta, often in conjunction with renal artery stenosis (RAS). Structure and function of the cardiovascular system are not well understood. In a prospective cross-sectional study, 35 children with MAS or RAS or both (MAS/RAS) were compared with 140 age-, sex-, and body surface area-matched healthy children. Vascular assessment included carotid intima-media thickness and carotid distensibility using B-mode ultrasound and central and peripheral pulse wave velocities using applanation tonometry. Left ventricular structure and function were assessed by 2-dimensional and speckle-tracking echocardiography. Children with MAS or RAS were 12.5±3.0 years old at enrollment, and 50% were men. Carotid intima-media thickness (0.54±0.10 versus 0.44±0.05 mm; Pchildren with disease compared with healthy children; however, after adjustment for systolic blood pressure z score, only carotid intima-media thickness remained significantly higher in the MAS/RAS group compared with the controls (β=0.07 [0.03, 0.10]). Peripheral pulse wave velocities and carotid distensibility were normal. Children with disease had significantly increased left ventricular mass and changes in diastolic function (lower E/a ratio and lower e' velocities). Systolic parameters, including ejection fraction, global longitudinal and circumferential strain, were similar to controls. Our findings demonstrate that children with MAS or RAS have evidence of carotid and left ventricular remodeling, without peripheral arterial involvement, which suggests a localized disease process. Left ventricular systolic function is preserved; however, subtle changes in diastolic function are observed. Carotid vessel changes are consistent with a 5- to 10-year aging, which underscores the importance of blood pressure control. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Antiplatelet intervention in acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Rohit R; Rai, Fasi

    2009-01-01

    Clinical trials have demonstrated the usefulness of antiplatelet agents, percutaneous coronary intervention, and glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibitors in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) based on risk stratification. Studies like RITA 3 and FRISC II have shown that an early invasive strategy in high-risk patients was associated with lower mortality over the long term compared with conservative treatment. High-risk patients with unstable angina/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction derive particular benefit from GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors and an early invasive strategy. The TIMI risk score for patients with unstable angina/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction provides an easily implemented tool for therapeutic decision-making. Simultaneous assessment of troponin, C-reactive protein, and brain natriuretic peptide at the time of presentation of ACS provides incremental prognostic information. Recent evidence supports the fact that thrombosis and inflammation are interrelated (platelets are involved in inflammation and, similarly, leukocytes are involved in hemostasis). The platelet, which was once viewed as a bystander in hemostasis, is now recognized as a key mediator of thrombosis as well as inflammation. Antithrombotic drugs block platelet aggregation and activation at various points in the thrombotic cascade and include aspirin, the thienopyridine clopidogrel, and its predecessor ticlopidine, intravenous GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors, which block the final common pathway of platelet activation and aggregation, unfractionated heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin, notably enoxaparin, and direct thrombin inhibitors (eg, bivalirudin). Bivalirudin has proven noninferior to heparin in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Enoxaparin is emerging as a safer and better alternative to unfractionated heparin in invasively managed patients. Declining renal function is a major cause of excess dosing of antithrombotic agents and frequently increases the

  7. [Gas exchange in acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Guillermo A

    2003-01-01

    The hypoxemia of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) depends chiefly upon shunt and ventilation-perfusion (VA/Q) inequality produced by fluid located in the interstitial space, alveolar collapse and flooding. Variables other tham inspired oxygen fraction and the underlying physiological abnormality can influence arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2). Changes in cardiac output, hemoglobin concentration, oxygen consumption and alcalosis can cause changes in PaO2 through their influence on mixed venous PO2. Gas exchange (GE) in ARDS may be studied using the inert gas elimination technique (MIGET) which enables to define the distribution of ventilation and perfusion without necessarily altering the FIO2 differentiating shunt from lung units with low VA/Q ratios and dead space from lung units with high VA/Q ratios. Different ventilatory strategies that increase mean airway pressure (positive end-expiratory pressure, high tidal volumes, inverse inspiratory-expiratory ratio, etc) improve PaO2 through increasing lung volume by recruiting new open alveoli and spreading the intra-alveolar fluid over a large surface area. Also prone-position ventilation would result in a marked improvement in GE enhancing dorsal lung ventilation by the effects on the gravitional distribution of pleural pressure and the reduction in the positive pleural pressure that develops in dorsal regions in ARDS. Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to increase PaO2 in ARDS patients by inducing vasodilation predominantly in ventilated areas redistributing pulmonary blood flow away from nonventilated toward ventilated areas of the lung thus resulting in a shunt reduction. On the same way inhaled prostaglandins (PGI2 or PGE1) causes selective pulmonary vasodilation improving pulmonary GE. Intravenous almitrine, a selective pulmonary vasoconstrictor, has been shown to increase PaO2 by increasing hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. A synergistic effect was found between inhaled NO and almitrine

  8. Tachyarrhythmias, bradyarrhythmias and acute coronary syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trappe Hans-Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of bradyarrhythmias in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS is 0.3% to 18%. It is caused by sinus node dysfunction (SND, high-degree atrioventricular (AV block, or bundle branch blocks. SND presents as sinus bradycardia or sinus arrest. First-degree AV block occurs in 4% to 13% of patients with ACS and is caused by rhythm disturbances in the atrium, AV node, bundle of His, or the Tawara system. First- or second-degree AV block is seen very frequently within 24 h of the beginning of ACS; these arrhythmias are frequently transient and usually disappear after 72 h. Third-degree AV blocks are also frequently transient in patients with infero-posterior myocardial infarction (MI and permanent in anterior MI patients. Left anterior fascicular block occurs in 5% of ACS; left posterior fascicular block is observed less frequently (incidence < 0.5%. Complete bundle branch block is present in 10% to 15% of ACS patients; right bundle branch block is more common (2/3 than left bundle branch block (1/3. In patients with bradyarrhythmia, intravenous (IV atropine (1-3 mg is helpful in 70% to 80% of ACS patients and will lead to an increased heart rate. The need for pacemaker stimulation (PS is different in patients with inferior MI (IMI and anterior MI (AMI. Whereas bradyarrhythmias are frequently transient in patients with IMI and therefore do not need permanent PS, there is usually a need for permanent PS in patients with AMI. In these patients bradyarrhythmias are mainly caused by septal necrosis. In patients with ACS and ventricular arrhythmias (VTA amiodarone is the drug of choice; this drug is highly effective even in patients with defibrillation-resistant out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. There is general agreement that defibrillation and advanced life support is essential and is the treatment of choice for patients with ventricular flutter/fibrillation. If defibrillation is not available in patients with cardiac arrest due to VTA

  9. Acute pediatric leg compartment syndrome in chronic myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Eric; Truntzer, Jeremy; Trunzter, Jeremy; Klinge, Steve; Schwartz, Kevin; Schiller, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is an orthopedic surgical emergency and may result in devastating complications in the setting of delayed or missed diagnosis. Compartment syndrome has a variety of causes, including posttraumatic or postoperative swelling, external compression, burns, bleeding disorders, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Rare cases of pediatric acute compartment syndrome in the setting of acute myeloid leukemia and, even less commonly, chronic myeloid leukemia have been reported. The authors report the first known case of pediatric acute compartment syndrome in a patient without a previously known diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia. On initial examination, an 11-year-old boy presented with a 2-week history of progressive left calf pain and swelling after playing soccer. Magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a hematoma in the left superficial posterior compartment. The patient had unrelenting pain, intermittent lateral foot parethesias, and inability to bear weight. Subsequently, he was diagnosed with acute compartment syndrome and underwent fasciotomy and evacuation of a hematoma. Laboratory results showed an abnormal white blood cell count of 440×10(9)/L (normal, 4.4-11×10(9)) and international normalized ratio of 1.3 (normal, 0.8-1.2). Further testing included the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene located on the Philadelphia chromosome, leading to a diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia. Monotherapy with imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) was initiated. This report adds another unique case to the growing literature on compartment syndrome in the pediatric population and reinforces the need to consider compartment syndrome, even in unlikely clinical scenarios. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Clinical utility of the neutrophil elastase inhibitor sivelestat for the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aikawa, Naoki; Kawasaki, Yasushi

    2014-01-01

    .... Sivelestat is a neutrophil elastase inhibitor approved in Japan and the Republic of Korea for acute lung injury, including acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome...

  11. Acute Pulmonary Embolism Mimics Acute Coronary Syndrome in Older Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chieh Liu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute pulmonary embolism is a fatal disease and an often missed diagnosis. There are no specific symptoms or signs. Accurate diagnosis followed by effective therapy can reduce mortality. We report on a 67-year-old man who underwent lumbar laminectomy and developed an acute anterior compressive-like chest pain and jaw numbness rather than dyspnea on the fifth postoperative day. Owing to refractory chest pain with suspicious posterior myocardial infarction or unstable angina on surface electrocardiogram, the patient received emergency coronary catheterization, which demonstrated normal coronary arteries. Further investigation provided a final diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism. Acute pulmonary embolism with simultaneous recent neuro-surgery was a therapeutic dilemma because of the risk of postoperative hemorrhage threatening neurologic function. After treatment with enoxaparin and close monitoring of his neurologic condition, his symptoms were eliminated. Clinicians must keep in mind a differential diagnosis of pulmonary embolism in a postoperative high-risk patient.

  12. [Troponin elevation in the absence of acute coronary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallet, O; Gouffran, G; Lavie Badie, Y

    2016-11-01

    Cardiac troponins are the most sensitive and specific markers of myocardial injury. Cardiac troponin elevation are common in many diseases and do not necessarily indicate the presence of a thrombotic acute coronary syndrome. In clinical practice, interpretation of dynamic changes of troponin may be challenging. Troponin evaluation should be performed only if clinically indicated and must be interpreted in the context of clinical presentation, ECG changes, troponin level and kinetic. In the absence of thrombotic acute coronary syndrom, troponin retains a prognostic value. Its practical interest as a risk criteria is limited to a few situations like pulmonary embolism, pericarditis an myocarditis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute retroviral syndrome in Slovenian patients infected with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Pirš

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Two to six weeks after primary infection with HIV 50 to 90 percent of patients develop an acute retroviral syndrome which usually presents with mononucleosis or flu-like illness. Due to nonspecific symptoms ARS is frequently misdiagnosed.Patients and methods: Data of Slovenian patients with acute retroviral syndrome is shown, as well as their symptoms, approaches to management and diagnostic particularities of primary HIV infection.Conclusions: The combination of particular symptoms and epidemiological data should lead us to consider the possibility of an early HIV infection.

  14. GERSTMANN?S SYNDROME IN ACUTE STROKE PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Zukic, Sanela; MRKONJIC Zamir; Sinanovic, Osman; Vidovic, Mirjana; Kojic, Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Gerstmann in 1924. observed in a few patients a concomitant impairment in discriminating their own fingers, writing by hand, distinguishing left from right and performing calculations. He claimed that this tetrad of symptoms constituted a syndromal entity, assigned it to a lesion of the dominant parietal lobe. Since than, Gerstmann`s syndrome (GS) was enigma for neuropsychologists. The aim of this study was to analyze frequency and clinical features of GS among acute stroke patient...

  15. [Characteristic and treatment of acute aggravating cubital tunnel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ran; Kan, Shilian; Li, Jin

    2015-11-03

    To investigate the causes and the characteristics of acute aggravating cubital tunnel syndrome. The enrolling criteria of subjects were as follows: (1) Patients with manifestation of cubital tunnel syndrome for more than 6 months; (2) acute exacerbation of the disease for no more than 4 weeks. The clinical data from March 2011 to December 2014 was collected and analyzed retrospectively. Twelve cases aged 52 to 65 met the enrolling criteria and were included in this study, and among them 10 patients were male, 2 were female; 5 cases were on the left and the other 7 on the right. All of them had some degree of cubital tunnel syndrome symptoms before the onset of acute exacerbation. When nerve decompression and anterior transposition of the ulnar nerve was performed, the elbow joint cysts which squeezed the ulnar nerve were found. The cysts were then resected. In all 12 cases, the compression symptoms of ulnar nerve were relieved after surgery. The mean follow up period was 13 months, ranging from 6 to 45 months. According to Gu Yudong functional evaluation criteria for cubital tunnel syndrome, 2 of the patients can be judged as "Excellent", 8 "good" and 2 "acceptable" at the follow-up. Cyst compression may induce the acute exacerbation of ulnar nerve symptom in patients with cubital tunnel syndrome. Early diagnosis and treatment is critical for these patients.

  16. [A case of acute aortic dissection presenting with cerebral ischemic symptoms: utility of 3D CT angiography and CT perfusion for the diagnosis of acute stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koseki, Hirokazu; Kuroi, Yasuhiro; Arai, Naoyuki; Ohbuchi, Hidenori; Hirota, Kengo; Hagiwara, Shinji; Tani, Shigeru; Sasahara, Atsushi; Kasuya, Hidetoshi

    2014-08-01

    A 76-year-old woman presented at our hospital complaining of loss of consciousness, dysarthria, and upper extremity paresis. Head CT showed no remarkable findings. 3D CT angiography (CTA) and CT perfusion (CTP) revealed acute aortic dissection (AAD) involving the innominate artery and decreased cerebral blood flow in the right cerebral hemisphere, although there were no clinical signs of AAD. The patient underwent emergency allograft replacement performed by cardiovascular surgeons. The symptoms disappeared within several days and no cerebral infarction developed. Although patients with AAD and neurological symptoms can show a fatal course when they receive tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), it is difficult to exclude patient with AAD as candidates for tPA treatment. Routine use of 3D CTA and CTP in the diagnosis of acute stroke may help overcome the above problem.

  17. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in acute intermittent porphyria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bi; Wei, QianQian; Wang, YunHan; Chen, YongPing; Shang, HuiFang

    2014-09-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria is an inherited disease that is rarely diagnosed in prepubertal children. It can affect the autonomic, peripheral, and central nervous system. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a clinicoradiological entity characterized by headache, seizures, altered consciousness, and visual disorder associated with potentially reversible neuroradiological abnormalities predominantly in the parieto-occipital lobes. We report a child with acute intermittent porphyria who presented with radiological manifestations suggestive of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. A 9-year-old girl underwent an appendectomy after developing abdominal pain. She subsequently developed bilateral visual disturbance, confusion, seizures, hypertension, tachycardia, nausea, vomiting, constipation, dark tea-colored urine, and recurrent abdominal pain. Initial brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed hyperintense gyriform lesions on T2-weighted images and hypointense to isointense lesions on T1-weighted images in both parieto-occipital lobes with mild enhancement. The diagnosis of acute intermittent porphyria was confirmed by increased urinary excretion of porphyrin precursors. Her clinical signs gradually improved after intravenous high-dose glucose treatment and symptomatic therapies. A repeat magnetic resonance imaging confirmed complete resolution of the parieto-occipital lesions, suggesting with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. The association of abdominal pain, mental status changes, and autonomic dysfunction should arouse the suspicion of acute intermittent porphyria. Acute intermittent porphyria can be associated with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Complex aortic and bilateral renal artery aneurysm repair in a young patient with multiple arterial aneurysm syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Hinojosa, MD, MSc

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aneurysmal disease affecting the aorta and visceral vessels in young patients is uncommon and typically associated with connective tissue disorders. We describe the case of a 17-year-old girl who presented with acute onset of abdominal pain; computed tomography scan revealed aortic and bilateral renal artery aneurysms and a perirenal hematoma. She was taken to the angiography suite; rupture of the right renal artery aneurysm was identified and immediately treated successfully with coil embolization. The left renal artery aneurysm was repaired with ex-vivo renal autotransplantation; 2 years later, the aorta and right renal artery underwent surgical reconstruction.

  19. Idiopathic Atypical Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome presenting with acute dystonia

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maduemem, Rizwan K E

    2017-09-01

    Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS), a triad of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and acute kidney injury. The atypical HUS (aHUS) results from over activation of complement system with formation of micro thrombi and damage to endothelial cells resulting in renal impairment in 50 % and death in 25 %, commonly in untreated patients. We report an intriguing case of aHUS presenting with acute onset of movement disorder and fluctuating delirium.

  20. Acute carpal tunnel syndrome in a patient with haemophilia

    OpenAIRE

    Mayne, Alistair Ivan William; Howard, Anthony; Kent, Matthew; Banks, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Acute carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a rare surgical condition usually resulting from wrist trauma. We present the case of a young haemophilic man who developed acute CTS following trivial injury. The patient was initially managed conservatively but symptom progression resulted in carpal tunnel decompression. A literature review and management approach are presented. This is an important complication of haemophilia to be aware of as prompt conservative management can obviate the need for sur...

  1. Acute coronary syndromes amongst type 2 diabetics with ischaemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therapy in use was OHA 43%, insulin 42%, insulin and OHA 1%; prophylactic aspirin 14.7% and statins 8.4%. Thirty four (35.8%) were classified as acute coronary syndrome (ACS); 29 ( 30.5%) acute myocardial infarction (ACS-AMI) and five (5.2%) unstable angina (ACS-UA). Majority (79.4%) of the ACS presented more ...

  2. Acute evaluation of the acute vestibular syndrome: differentiating posterior circulation stroke from acute peripheral vestibulopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Benjamin K T; Chen, Alex S K; Paine, Mark

    2017-12-01

    This review article aims to provide an evidence-based approach to evaluating the patient who presents with acute prolonged, spontaneous vertigo in the context of the acute vestibular syndrome (AVS). Differentiation of posterior circulation stroke (PCS) presenting as an AVS has been regarded as an important diagnostic challenge for physicians involved in acute care. Current evidence suggests that a targeted approach to history taking and physical examination with emphasis on the oculomotor examination, more specifically the HINTS (Head Impulse/Nystagmus/Test-of-skew) examination battery, yields a higher sensitivity for the diagnosis of PCS than even standard magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging. However, most studies have only validated the utility of the HINTS examination when performed by experts, who interpret the most powerful component of HINTS, namely the head impulse test (HIT), considerably different to the novice. Several investigations useful in the differentiation of the AVS are becoming more accessible and portable, such as videooculography with Frenzel goggles and video head impulse testing (vHIT), which allows for the quantitative assessment of the HIT. In clinical practice, vHIT has already become accepted as standard of care in the evaluation of AVS. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  3. Evidence, lack of evidence, controversy, and debate in the provision and performance of the surgery of acute type A aortic dissection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonser, Robert S; Ranasinghe, Aaron M; Loubani, Mahmoud

    2011-01-01

    Acute type A aortic dissection is a lethal condition requiring emergency surgery. It has diverse presentations, and the diagnosis can be missed or delayed. Once diagnosed, decisions with regard to initial management, transfer, appropriateness of surgery, timing of operation, and intervention...

  4. Acute kidney injury defined according to the 'Risk,' 'Injury,' 'Failure,' 'Loss,' and 'End-stage' (RIFLE) criteria after repair for a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, Sytse C.; Legemate, Dink A.; Vahl, Anco; Bouman, Catherine S. C.; Vogt, Liffert; Wisselink, Willem; Balm, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious complication after repair of a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA). In the present Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS)/International Society for CardioVascular Surgery (ISCVS) reporting standards patients are classified as no dialysis (grade I), as

  5. Natural history of aortic root dilation through young adulthood in a hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Alyssa; Atzinger, Carrie; Hays, Brandon; James, Jeanne; Shikany, Amy; Neilson, Derek; Martin, Lisa; Weaver, Kathryn Nicole

    2017-06-01

    Hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (hEDS) is a common inherited connective tissue disorder characterized by joint hypermobility. The natural history of aortic root dilation (AoD), a potential complication of EDS, has not been well characterized in this population. We describe the natural history of aortic root size in a large cohort of patients with hEDS. A cohort of 325 patients with HEDS was identified at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center (CCHMC), including 163 patients from a previous study. Medical records were reviewed and each participant's height, weight, and aortic dimensions from up to four echocardiograms were documented. Aortic root z-scores were calculated using two established formulas based on age (Boston or Devereux). Overall prevalence of AoD and prevalence by age were calculated and longitudinal regression was performed. The prevalence of AoD with a z-score ≥ 2.0 was 14.2% (46/325) and with a z-score of ≥3.0 was 5.5% (18/325). No significant increases in z-score were seen over time for patients with multiple echocardiograms. Participants under the age of 15 years had an average decline of 0.1 standard deviations (SDs)/year. No significant change was found after 15 of age. Between the ages of 15 and 21 years, Boston z-scores were 0.96 higher than Devereux z-scores. The nearly 1 z-score unit difference between formulas indicates caution prior to diagnosing AoD in patients with hEDS. In light of the low prevalence and lack of progression of AoD, routine echocardiograms may not be warranted for pediatric patients with hEDS. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Acute Cubital Tunnel Syndrome Secondary to Anconeus Epitrochlearis Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Kan Law

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cubital tunnel syndrome is the most common type of ulnar nerve entrapment that usually associates with chronic sensory and motor symptoms. Having anconeus epitrochlearis muscle is an uncommon cause of cubital tunnel syndrome. In this paper, the author introduces a case of cubital tunnel syndrome due to anconeus epitrochlearis muscle presenting with acute sensory, motor, and sympathetic symptoms. For such cases, there has been much controversy over the choices of surgical treatment, which can be excision of the muscle alone or together with ulnar nerve anterior transposition.

  7. Interleukin-17A Is Associated With Alveolar Inflammation and Poor Outcomes in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikacenic, Carmen; Hansen, Elizabeth E; Radella, Frank; Gharib, Sina A; Stapleton, Renee D; Wurfel, Mark M

    2016-03-01

    Interleukin-17A is a proinflammatory cytokine known to play a role in host defense and pathologic inflammation in murine models of lung injury. The relationship between interleukin-17A and inflammation in human lung injury is unknown. Our primary objective was to determine whether interleukin-17A levels are associated with alveolar measures of inflammation and injury in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Our secondary objective was to test whether interleukin-17A levels are associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome-related outcomes. Observational study. Six North American medical centers. We studied two groups of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: 1) patients previously enrolled in a placebo-controlled clinical trial of omega-3 fatty acids performed at five North American medical centers (n = 86, acute respiratory distress syndrome 1), and 2) patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome admitted to an ICU who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (n = 140, acute respiratory distress syndrome 2). In acute respiratory distress syndrome 1, we used paired serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples obtained within 48 hours of acute respiratory distress syndrome onset, whereas in acute respiratory distress syndrome 2, we used plasma obtained within the first 24 hours of ICU admission. None. We measured circulating interleukin-17A in acute respiratory distress syndrome 1 and acute respiratory distress syndrome 2. We also measured interleukin-17A, neutrophil counts, and total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from acute respiratory distress syndrome 1. We found that bronchoalveolar lavage interleukin-17A was strongly associated with higher bronchoalveolar lavage percent neutrophils (p syndrome1. In both acute respiratory distress syndrome 1 and acute respiratory distress syndrome 2, elevated interleukin-17A was associated with higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores (p syndrome.

  8. Guillain-Barre Syndrome Presenting as Acute Abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk incecik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Guillain-Barr and eacute; syndrome (GBS is the most common cause of acute flaccid paralysis in childhood. Symmetric weakness, headache, respiratory symptom, neuropathic pain, muscle pain, paresthesia, and facial palsy were the most common clinical presentations. We report 13-year-old boy with GBS who presented with acute abdominal pain. This is the first report, to our knowledge, first presented of acute abdomen of a pediatric patient with GBS. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(3.000: 601-603

  9. Acute Reverse Remodelling After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: A Link Between Myocardial Fibrosis and Left Ventricular Mass Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Laura Elizabeth; Musa, Tarique A; Uddin, Akhlaque; Fairbairn, Timothy A; Swoboda, Peter P; Erhayiem, Bara; Foley, James; Garg, Pankaj; Haaf, Philip; Fent, Graham J; Malkin, Christopher J; Blackman, Daniel J; Plein, Sven; Greenwood, John P

    2016-12-01

    Despite the wealth of data showing the positive effects on cardiac reverse remodelling in the long-term, the immediate effects of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) on the left ventricle are yet to be comprehensively described using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. Also, the link between myocardial fibrosis and acute left ventricular (LV) mass regression is unknown. Fifty-seven patients with severe aortic stenosis awaiting TAVI underwent paired cardiovascular magnetic resonance scans before and early after the procedure (4 [interquartile range, 3-5] days). LV mass, volume, and function were measured. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging was performed to assess for the presence of and pattern of myocardial fibrosis. After the procedure, 53 (95%) patients experienced an immediate (10.1 ± 7.1%) reduction in indexed LV mass (LVMi) from 76 ± 15.5 to 68.4 ± 14.7 g/m(2) (P reverse remodelling occurs immediately after TAVI, with significant LV mass regression in the total population and an improvement in LVEF in those with preexisting LV impairment. Those without myocardial fibrosis at baseline experience greater LV mass regression than those with fibrosis. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Apixaban with antiplatelet therapy after acute coronary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexander, J.H.; Lopes, R.D.; James, S.; Kilaru, R.; He, Y.; Mohan, P.; Bhatt, D.L.; Goodman, S.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Flather, M.; Huber, K.; Liaw, D.; Husted, S.E.; Lopez-Sendon, J.; Caterina, R. de; Jansky, P.; Darius, H.; Vinereanu, D.; Cornel, J.H.; Cools, F.; Atar, D.; Leiva-Pons, J.L.; Keltai, M.; Ogawa, H.; Pais, P.; Parkhomenko, A.; Ruzyllo, W.; Diaz, R.; White, H.; Ruda, M.; Geraldes, M.; Lawrence, J.; Harrington, R.A.; Wallentin, L.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Apixaban, an oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor, may reduce the risk of recurrent ischemic events when added to antiplatelet therapy after an acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial comparing apixaban, at a dose of 5 mg

  11. Overview of emerging pharmacologic agents for acute heart failure syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Luca, Leonardo; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Parissis, John T.; Bohm, Michael; Voors, Adriaan A.; Nieminen, Markku; Zannad, Faiez; Rhodes, Andrew; El-Banayosy, Ali; Dickstein, Kenneth; Gheorghiade, Mihai

    Background: Several therapies commonly used for the treatment of acute heart failure syndromes (AHFS) present some well-known limitations and have been associated with an early increase in the risk of death. There is, therefore, an unmet need for new pharmacologic agents for the early management of

  12. Ward Round - Late Presentation of Acute Compartment Syndrome in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    following the course of ibuprofen mentioned. Twelve days after admission he started to complain of increasing pain and tightness in his left thigh. Sensation and motor function. Ward Round - Late Presentation of Acute. Compartment Syndrome in the Thigh. University of Malawi, College of Medicine, Department of Surgery,.

  13. Clipboard: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS): an old virus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 28; Issue 4. Clipboard: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS): an old virus jumping into a new host or a new creation? M S Shaila. Volume 28 Issue 4 June 2003 pp 359-360. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  14. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children with Down syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buitenkamp, Trudy D; Izraeli, Shai; Zimmermann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) have an increased risk of B-cell precursor (BCP) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The prognostic factors and outcome of DS-ALL patients treated in contemporary protocols are uncertain. We studied 653 DS-ALL patients enrolled in 16 international trials from 1995...

  15. Acute compartment syndrome of the thigh without associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute compartment syndrome of the thigh is a rare complication of trauma to the thigh. It occurs less commonly than in other sites such as the leg and forearm. Because of its rarity, it is often not suspected and its diagnosis is frequently delayed with disastrous consequences. We report a patient who sustained blunt trauma to ...

  16. Infective endocarditis presenting as acute coronary syndrome | El ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report tow cases of infective endocarditis (IE) presenting as acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Case 1: A 60-year-old man with the diagnosis of mitral IE complicated by an ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention with aspiration of the thrombus at the distal leftanterior ...

  17. Empiric Treatment of Acute Meningitis Syndrome in a Resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-01

    Nov 1, 2017 ... Empiric Treatment of Acute Meningitis Syndrome in a Resource-. Limited Setting: Clinical Outcomes and Predictors of Survival or. Death. Birkneh Tilahun Tadesse1, Byron Alexander Foster2, Mulugeta Sitot Shibeshi1,. HenokTadele Dangiso1. OPEN ACCESS. Citation: Birkneh Tilahun Tadesse, Byron.

  18. [Acute coronary syndrome in women below 60 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, A.H.E.M.; Lagro-Janssen, T.; Boer, M.J. de

    2011-01-01

    Women below 60 years of age with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have higher in-hospital and 1-year mortality rates than similarly aged men, despite the lower prevalence of obstructive coronary artery disease. When ACS occurs, gender differences in symptom presentation result in later recognition by

  19. HINTS in the Acute Vestibular Syndrome: Pearls and Pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Nathan H; Van Stavern, Gregory P; Gold, Daniel R

    2018-01-09

    The acute vestibular syndrome (AVS) is characterized by the rapid onset of vertigo, nausea/vomiting, nystagmus, unsteady gait, and head motion intolerance lasting more than 24 hours. We present 4 patients with AVS to illustrate the pearls and pitfalls of the Head Impulse, Nystagmus, Test of Skew (HINTS) examination.

  20. Platelets and white blood cells in acute coronary syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jaap Jan Johannes

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, we have studied the role of leukocytes and platelets as methods to measure platelets aggregation, in the clinical management of presenting with acute coronary syndromes. We have tried to incidence and to identify predictors of adverse cardiac events with function tests or

  1. Chilaiditi's syndrome as an acute abdomen | Jambo | Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepato-diaphragmatic interposition of the intestine is uncommon. Although known as Chilaiditi syndrome, the diagnosis is often missed. As more cases are seen, it has been shown that the disease condition is a potential cause of acute abdomen requiring emergency or elective operation. Aim: To report a case ...

  2. Early invasive versus selectively invasive management for acute coronary syndromes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, R.J. de; Windhausen, F.; Cornel, J.H.; Dunselman, P.; Janus, C.L.; Bendermacher, P.E.; Michels, H.R.; Sanders, G.T.B.; Tijssen, J.G.P.; Verheugt, F.W.A.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend an early invasive strategy for patients who have acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation and with an elevated cardiac troponin T level. However, randomized trials have not shown an overall reduction in mortality, and the reduction in the rate of

  3. Acute kidney injury and hepatorenal syndrome in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerod Israelsen, Mads; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Krag, Aleksander

    2015-01-01

    Cirrhosis is the eighth leading cause of "years of lost life" in the United States and accounts for approximately 1% to 2% of all deaths in Europe. Patients with cirrhosis have a high risk of developing acute kidney injury. The clinical characteristics of hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) are similar...

  4. Acute Aortic Dissection in a Third Trimester Pregnancy without Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth L Walters

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous aortic dissection in pregnancy is rare and life threatening for both the mother and the fetus. Most commonly, it is associated with connective tissue disorders, cardiac valve variants, or trauma. We present the case of a 23-year-old previously healthy woman, 36 weeks pregnant with a syncopal episode after dyspnea and vomiting. She subsequently developed cardiac arrest and underwent aggressive resuscitation, emergent thoracotomy, and cesarean delivery without recovery. On autopsy, she was found to have an aortic dissection of the ascending aorta. This case is presented to raise awareness and review the literature and the clinical approach to critical care for pregnant patients. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(4:571–574.

  5. Acute Success of Balloon Aortic Valvuloplasty in the Current Era: A National Cardiovascular Data Registry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boe, Brian A; Zampi, Jeffrey D; Kennedy, Kevin F; Jayaram, Natalie; Porras, Diego; Foerster, Susan R; Armstrong, Aimee K

    2017-09-11

    The aim of this study was to evaluate practice patterns and outcomes of a contemporary group of patients undergoing balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) for congenital aortic stenosis (AS). BAV is the most common treatment for isolated congenital AS. Within the IMPACT (Improving Pediatric and Adult Congenital Treatments) Registry, all BAV procedures performed between January 2011 and March 2015 were identified. Procedures were separated into those performed for critical versus noncritical AS. Outcomes were stratified into optimal, adequate, and inadequate, with optimal and adequate outcomes defining "successful" procedures. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify patient and procedural characteristics associated with unsuccessful BAV. Mortality and adverse events rates were compared across patient cohorts. Of the 1,026 isolated BAV procedures captured in IMPACT, 718 (70%) were "successful." Success rates were 70.9% for noncritical AS (n = 916) and 62.7% for critical AS (n = 110). Multivariate analysis revealed that prior cardiac catheterization, mixed valve disease, baseline aortic valve gradient >60 mm Hg, baseline aortic insufficiency greater than mild, presence of a trainee, and multiple balloon inflations were associated with unsuccessful BAV in the noncritical AS cohort. There were no factors associated with unsuccessful procedures in the critical AS group. No procedural deaths occurred, but 2.4% of patients did not survive to hospital discharge. Adverse events occurred in 15.8% of all cases and were more frequent in procedures performed for critical AS (30.0% vs. 14.1%; p critical AS have a higher risk for procedure-related adverse events. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Aortic arch repair after Norwood procedure in children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г. В. Павличев

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze the impact of aortic arch repair on the development of aortic obstruction when using a Norwood procedure. Patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 included patients who underwent neoaortic plasty performed by using bovine pericardial patches (group 1, n = 6. Group 2 consisted of patients, whose arch was repaired with autologous tissues only, without using bovine pericardial (group 2, n = 12. The groups were comparable by demographic data. To measure the aorta, we used cardiac catheterization data obtained before stage 2 of hemodynamic correction. Angiographic measurements were carried out at the level of distal anastomosis and descending aorta. Coarctation index (CI was calculated as the ratio between distal anastomosis on neoaorta and descending aorta. Occurrence of aortic obstruction in groups 1 and 2 was 50% (n = 3 and 16.7% (n = 2 respectively (p = 0.137. The aorta at the level of distal anastomosis was greater in group 2 if compared with group 1. Differences between the two groups were not statistically significant. CI for groups 1 and 2 were 0.730.16 and 0.90.18 respectively (p = 0.08. When comparing patients with the obstruction of the aortic arch and without it, the presence of ductus arteriosus tissue was found out to be associated with stenosis (p = 0.019. The authors believe that the complete excision of coarctation tissue is one of the keys to prevention of postoperative aortic arch obstruction.

  7. High neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in type A acute aortic dissection facilitates diagnosis and predicts worse outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbarouni, Eftihia; Georgiadou, Panagiota; Analitis, Antonis; Voudris, Vassilis

    2015-01-01

    The authors investigated whether neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (N/L) can contribute to the diagnosis and risk assessment in patients with type A acute aortic dissection (AAD). The authors studied 120 consecutive patients with type A AAD (group I) and compared them with 121 consecutive patients with chronic aneurysms (group II) and 121 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects (group III). It was found that white blood cell count, N/L, D-dimer and C-reactive protein were significantly higher in group I versus both groups II and III (p 4.6 was associated with 0.89 sensitivity and 0.91 specificity for AAD. High N/L may contribute to the diagnostic evaluation and prompt immediate therapy in patients with type A AAD.

  8. Identification Bracelet Precipitated Acute Compartment Syndrome during Intravenous Infusion in an Obtunded Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahib Zafar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute compartment syndrome is a serious condition requiring immediate medical care. A lack of urgent medical treatment can result in serious complications such as loss of function and even amputation. While the pathophysiology of acute compartment syndrome is well understood, numerous potential causes are still being discovered. A rare cause of acute compartment syndrome is IV infiltration. We present a case of acute compartment syndrome resulting from intravenous infusion due to proximal placement of a patient identification bracelet. We conclude that both routine evaluation for IV infiltration and proximal placement of IV lines are essential for prevention of acute compartment syndrome.

  9. Cardiorenal syndrome in acute heart failure: a vicious cycle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Francisca; Barra, Sérgio; Faustino, Ana; Botelho, Ana; Mota, Paula; Costa, Marco; Leitão Marques, António

    2014-03-01

    Worsening renal function has an unquestionably negative impact on prognosis in patients with acute heart failure (HF). In Portugal there is little information about the importance of this entity in HF patients admitted to hospital. The objective of this work was to assess the prevalence of cardiorenal syndrome and to identify its key predictors and consequences in patients admitted for acute HF. This was a retrospective study of 155 patients admitted for acute HF. Cardiorenal syndrome was defined as an increase in serum creatinine of ≥26.5 μmol/l. Clinical, laboratory and echocardiographic parameters were analyzed and compared. Mortality was assessed at 30 and 90 days. Cardiorenal syndrome occurred in 46 patients (29.7%), 5.4 ± 4.4 days after admission; 66.7% (n=24) did not recover baseline creatinine levels. The factors associated with cardiorenal syndrome were older age, chronic renal failure, moderate to severe mitral regurgitation, higher admission blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and troponin I, and lower glomerular filtration rate. Patients who developed cardiorenal syndrome had longer hospital stay, were treated with higher daily doses of intravenous furosemide, and more often required inotropic support and renal replacement therapy. They had higher in-hospital and 30-day mortality, and multivariate analysis identified cardiorenal syndrome as an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality. Renal dysfunction is common in acute HF patients, with a negative impact on prognosis, which highlights the importance of preventing kidney damage through the use of new therapeutic strategies and identification of novel biomarkers. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. The role of levosimendan in acute heart failure complicating acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieminen, Markku S; Buerke, M.; Cohen-Solal, A.

    2016-01-01

    defined as exclusion criteria in trials and registries. As a consequence, guideline recommendations are mostly driven by observational studies, even though these patients have a particularly poor prognosis compared to heart failure patients without signs of coronary artery disease. In acute heart failure......Acute heart failure and/or cardiogenic shock are frequently triggered by ischemic coronary events. Yet, there is a paucity of randomized data on the management of patients with heart failure complicating acute coronary syndrome, as acute coronary syndrome and cardiogenic shock have frequently been...... are generally less common than with other inotropic and vasoactive therapies, with the notable exception of hypotension. The decision to use levosimendan, in terms of timing and dosing, is influenced by the presence of pulmonary congestion, and blood pressure measurements. Levosimendan should be preferred over...

  11. Characteristics of children and young adults with Marfan syndrome and aortic root dilation in a randomized trial comparing atenolol and losartan therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lacro, R.V.; Guey, L.T.; Dietz, H.C.; Pearson, G.D.; Yetman, A.T.; Gelb, B.D.; Loeys, B.L.; Benson, D.W.; Bradley, T.J.; Backer, J. de; Forbus, G.A.; Klein, G.L.; Lai, W.W.; Levine, J.C.; Lewin, M.B.; Markham, L.W.; Paridon, S.M.; Pierpont, M.E.; Radojewski, E.; Selamet Tierney, E.S.; Sharkey, A.M.; Wechsler, S.B.; Mahony, L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Pediatric Heart Network designed a clinical trial to compare aortic root growth and other short-term cardiovascular outcomes in children and young adults with Marfan syndrome randomized to receive atenolol or losartan. We report here the characteristics of the screened population and

  12. Risk Factors for Mortality and Outcomes in Pediatric Acute Lung Injury/Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panico, Flávia F; Troster, Eduardo J; Oliveira, Cindy S; Faria, Aline; Lucena, Michelle; João, Paulo R D; Saad, Everardo D; Foronda, Flávia A K; Delgado, Artur F; de Carvalho, Werther Brunow

    2015-09-01

    Children admitted to PICUs often present with or develop respiratory failure that requires mechanical ventilation. We prospectively identified children admitted to three general PICUs, with the goal of identifying risk factors for mortality. Prospective multicenter observational study. Three general PICUs, two in São Paulo and one in Curitiba, Brazil. Children aged between 1 month and 15 years, consecutively admitted between August 2008 and July 2010, with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome that developed at least 12 hours after invasive or noninvasive mechanical ventilation. None. We used logistic regression models to explore the relationship between death and independent variables. Of 3,046 patients admitted to the three PICUs, 1,658 patients underwent mechanical ventilation, and 84 fulfilled the acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Nearly 60% were boys, and the median age was 31 months. Pressure control/assist control was the initial mode of mechanical ventilation in 86% of cases, and the median durations of mechanical ventilation and PICU stay were 12 and 15 days, respectively. None of the eight patients with acute lung injury died, whereas 33 of 76 of the remaining patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome died, for an overall mortality rate of 39.3% (95% CI, 28.8-50.6%). In different multivariate logistic regression model, the number of organ dysfunctions at admission, peak inspiratory pressure, airway pressure gradient on day 1, and the mean airway pressure gradient over the first 7 days of mechanical ventilation were significantly associated with mortality. Mortality is high in pediatric acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome. Mechanical ventilation-associated risk factors for death among such patients are potential targets for intervention.

  13. Severe acute respiratory syndrome: Aetiopathogenesis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No Abstract. Keywords: SARS; Adult respiratory distress syndrome; pathology. Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine Vol. 1 (1) 2003: pp. 9-14. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/aipm.v1i1.39095 · AJOL African ...

  14. Acute radiation syndrome caused by accidental radiation exposure - therapeutic principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörr Harald

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fortunately radiation accidents are infrequent occurrences, but since they have the potential of large scale events like the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima, preparatory planning of the medical management of radiation accident victims is very important. Radiation accidents can result in different types of radiation exposure for which the diagnostic and therapeutic measures, as well as the outcomes, differ. The clinical course of acute radiation syndrome depends on the absorbed radiation dose and its distribution. Multi-organ-involvement and multi-organ-failure need be taken into account. The most vulnerable organ system to radiation exposure is the hematopoietic system. In addition to hematopoietic syndrome, radiation induced damage to the skin plays an important role in diagnostics and the treatment of radiation accident victims. The most important therapeutic principles with special reference to hematopoietic syndrome and cutaneous radiation syndrome are reviewed.

  15. Preliminary Evidence for Aortopathy and an X-Linked Parent-of-Origin Effect on Aortic Valve Malformation in a Mouse Model of Turner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Hinton

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Turner syndrome (TS, most frequently caused by X-monosomy (45,X, is characterized in part by cardiovascular abnormalities, including aortopathy and bicuspid aortic valve (BAV. There is a need for animal models that recapitulate the cardiovascular manifestations of TS. Extracellular matrix (ECM organization and morphometrics of the aortic valve and proximal aorta were examined in adult 39,XO mice (where the parental origin of the single X was paternal (39,XPO or maternal (39,XMO and 40,XX controls. Aortic valve morphology was normal (tricuspid in all of the 39,XPO and 40,XX mice studied, but abnormal (bicuspid or quadricuspid in 15% of 39,XMO mice. Smooth muscle cell orientation in the ascending aorta was abnormal in all 39,XPO and 39,XMO mice examined, but smooth muscle actin was decreased in 39,XMO mice only. Aortic dilation was present with reduced penetrance in 39,XO mice. The 39,XO mouse demonstrates aortopathy and an X-linked parent-of-origin effect on aortic valve malformation, and the candidate gene FAM9B is polymorphically expressed in control and diseased human aortic valves. The 39,XO mouse model may be valuable for examining the mechanisms underlying the cardiovascular findings in TS, and suggest there are important genetic modifiers on the X chromosome that modulate risk for nonsyndromic BAV and aortopathy.

  16. Prone position in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setten, Mariano; Plotnikow, Gustavo Adrián; Accoce, Matías

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome occupies a great deal of attention in intensive care units. Despite ample knowledge of the physiopathology of this syndrome, the focus in intensive care units consists mostly of life-supporting treatment and avoidance of the side effects of invasive treatments. Although great advances in mechanical ventilation have occurred in the past 20 years, with a significant impact on mortality, the incidence continues to be high. Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, especially the most severe cases, often present with refractory hypoxemia due to shunt, which can require additional treatments beyond mechanical ventilation, among which is mechanical ventilation in the prone position. This method, first recommended to improve oxygenation in 1974, can be easily implemented in any intensive care unit with trained personnel. Prone position has extremely robust bibliographic support. Various randomized clinical studies have demonstrated the effect of prone decubitus on the oxygenation of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome measured in terms of the PaO2/FiO2 ratio, including its effects on increasing patient survival. The members of the Respiratory Therapists Committee of the Sociedad Argentina de Terapia Intensiva performed a narrative review with the objective of discovering the available evidence related to the implementation of prone position, changes produced in the respiratory system due to the application of this maneuver, and its impact on mortality. Finally, guidelines are suggested for decision-making. PMID:27925054

  17. Pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome: definition, incidence, and epidemiology: proceedings from the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemani, Robinder G; Smith, Lincoln S; Zimmerman, Jerry J; Erickson, Simon

    2015-06-01

    Although there are similarities in the pathophysiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome in adults and children, pediatric-specific practice patterns, comorbidities, and differences in outcome necessitate a pediatric-specific definition. We sought to create such a definition. A subgroup of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome investigators who drafted a pediatric-specific definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome based on consensus opinion and supported by detailed literature review tested elements of the definition with patient data from previously published investigations. International PICUs. Children enrolled in published investigations of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome. None. Several aspects of the proposed pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome definition align with the Berlin Definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome in adults: timing of acute respiratory distress syndrome after a known risk factor, the potential for acute respiratory distress syndrome to coexist with left ventricular dysfunction, and the importance of identifying a group of patients at risk to develop acute respiratory distress syndrome. There are insufficient data to support any specific age for "adult" acute respiratory distress syndrome compared with "pediatric" acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, children with perinatal-related respiratory failure should be excluded from the definition of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome. Larger departures from the Berlin Definition surround 1) simplification of chest imaging criteria to eliminate bilateral infiltrates; 2) use of pulse oximetry-based criteria when PaO2 is unavailable; 3) inclusion of oxygenation index and oxygen saturation index instead of PaO2/FIO2 ratio with a minimum positive end-expiratory pressure level for invasively ventilated patients; 4) and specific inclusion of children with preexisting chronic lung disease or cyanotic congenital heart disease. This

  18. [Acute Stress and Broken Heart Syndrome. A Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergel, Juliana; Tamayo-Orozco, Sebastián; Vallejo-Gómez, Andrés Felipe; Posada, María Teresa; Restrepo, Diana

    Stress has been associated with an acute heart failure syndrome of important morbidity and mortality. Case report and non-systematic review of the relevant literature. A 65-year-old woman with a history of an untreated generalized anxiety disorder, whom after the violent death of her son presented with oppressive chest pain irradiated to neck and left superior extremity, lasting for more than 30minutes, initial clinical suspect suggests acute coronary syndrome. Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy is characterized by a reversible left ventricular dysfunction and wall movement abnormalities, without any compromise of the coronary arteries, associated to high plasma levels of catecholamines which in most cases correlates with an acute stress of emotional or physical type. Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy has to be considered by physicians among the differential diagnosis when facing a patient with suspected acute coronary syndrome, especially in post-menopausal women with a history of psychiatric comorbidities such as a generalized anxiety disorder. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. Acute Testicular Ischemia following Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair Identified in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Finnerty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR is perhaps the most widely utilized surgical procedure for patients with large abdominal aortic aneurysms. This procedure is minimally invasive and reduces inpatient hospitalization requirements. The case involves a 72-year-old male who presented to the emergency department with right testicular ischemia two days following EVAR. Given the minimal inpatient hospitalization associated with this procedure, emergency physicians are likely to encounter associated complications. Ischemic and thromboembolic events following EVAR are extremely rare but require prompt vascular surgery intervention to minimize morbidity and mortality.

  20. Acute lumbar paraspinal compartment syndrome: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, William; Low, Nelson; Pratt, George

    2018-01-08

    While still a rare entity, acute lumbar paraspinal compartment syndrome has an increasing incidence. Similar to other compartment syndromes, acute lumbar paraspinal compartment syndrome is defined by raised pressure within a closed fibro-osseous space, limiting tissue perfusion within that space. The resultant tissue ischaemia presents as acute pain, and if left untreated, it may result in permanent tissue damage. A literature search of 'paraspinal compartment syndrome' revealed 21 articles. The details from a case encountered by the authors are also included. A common data set was extracted, focusing on demographics, aetiology, clinical features, management and outcomes. There are 23 reported cases of acute compartment syndrome. These are typically caused by weight-lifting exercises, but may also result from other exercises, direct trauma or non-spinal surgery. Pain, tenderness and paraspinal paraesthesia are key clinical findings. Serum creatine kinase, magnetic resonance imaging and intracompartment pressure measurement confirm the diagnosis. Half of the reported cases have been managed with surgical fasciotomy, and these patients have all had good outcomes relative to those managed with conservative measures with or without hyperbaric oxygen therapy. These good outcomes were despite significant delays to operative intervention. The diagnostic uncertainty and subsequent delay to fasciotomy result from the rarity of this disease entity, and a high level of suspicion is recommended in the appropriate setting. This is particularly true in light of the current popularity of extreme weight lifting in non-professional athletes. Operative intervention is strongly recommended in all cases based on the available evidence. © 2018 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  1. [Acute compartment syndrome after a bowling game].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C Y; Braun, K F; Huber-Wagner, S; Neu, J

    2015-11-01

    A 28-year-old male patient was initially conservatively treated by a general physician for muscle strain of the right calf after a bowling game. Due to increasing pain and swelling of the lower leg 5 days later, the differential diagnosis of a deep vein thrombosis was considered. Furthermore, the onset of neurological deficits and problems with raising the foot prompted inclusion of compartment syndrome in the differential diagnosis for the first time. Admission to hospital for surgical intervention was scheduled for the following day. At this point in time the laboratory results showed a negative d-dimer value and greatly increased C-reactive protein level. On day 6 a dermatofasciotomy was performed which revealed extensive muscular necrosis with complete palsy of the peroneal nerve. In the following lawsuit the patient accused the surgeon of having misdiagnosed the slow-onset compartment syndrome and thus delaying correct and mandatory treatment. The arbitration board ruled that the surgeon should have performed fasciotomy immediately on day 5 at the patient's consultation. The clinical presentation of progressive pain, swelling of the lower leg in combination with peroneal palsy must lead to the differential diagnosis of compartment syndrome resulting in adequate therapy. The delay of immediate surgery, therefore, was assessed to be faulty as this knowledge is to be expected of a surgeon.

  2. [Prevalence and determinants of atypical presentation of acute coronary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, David; Lunet, Nuno; Azevedo, Ana

    2011-12-01

    Knowledge of the characteristics of patients with atypical presentation of acute coronary syndromes may contribute to increased sensitivity in diagnosis in a given population. The purpose of this study is to quantify the prevalence of atypical presentation, to identify its determinants, and to describe the presenting symptoms in cases of acute coronary syndrome at the emergency department of Hospital São João, Porto. Systematic sample of 288 emergency admissions with a confirmed diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome in 2007. Atypical presentation was defined as absence of chest pain and/or syncope. The prevalence of atypical presentation was 20.5% [95% confidence interval (CI): 16.0 to 25.5], with no important variation by gender. It increased with age and was more frequent in cases of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. In multivariate analysis, atypical presentation was associated with age [>70 versus ≤ 50 years, odds ratio (OR)=3.45; 95%CI: 1.03-11.61] and it was about four times less likely in the presence of history of ischemic heart disease, hypertension, dyslipidemia and smoking. A history of heart failure was independently associated with a higher likelihood of acute coronary syndrome with atypical presentation (OR = 4.15, 95%CI 1.50-11.46). Among the 223 cases who had chest pain or discomfort, a growing, oppressive, prolonged (longer than 30 minutes), recurrent and episodic pain prevailed. Among other symptoms, dyspnea was the most frequently reported, either as the main symptom in cases of atypical presentation or concurrently with typical symptoms. Factors associated with atypical presentation are consistent with those described in other populations. Using routine clinical data allowed access to a large data base on a representative sample of patients admitted to the emergency department of a third-level hospital that serves a large part of the local urban population. In medical records, data are unstandardized and heterogeneous in validity

  3. Acute coronary syndrome of paradoxical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana Rita; Freitas, António; Magno, Pedro; Soares, Ana Oliveira; Farto e Abreu, Pedro; Neves, José Pedro; Gil, Victor M

    2013-10-01

    We describe a rare case of acute myocardial infarction secondary to paradoxical embolism complicating acute pulmonary embolism. A 44-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with chest pain. The physical examination was unremarkable except for oxygen saturation of 75%, and the electrocardiogram showed ST-segment elevation in the inferior leads. Urgent coronary angiography showed a distal occlusion of the right coronary artery and multiple thrombi were aspirated. Despite relief of chest pain and electrocardiogram normalization, her oxygen saturation remained low (90%) with high-flow oxygen by mask. The transthoracic echocardiogram showed a mass in the left atrium and dilatation of the right chambers, while the transesophageal echocardiogram showed a thrombus attached to the interatrial septum in the region of the foramen ovale. Color flow imaging was consistent with a patent foramen ovale. Thoracic computed tomography angiography documented thrombi in both branches of the pulmonary trunk. After five days on anticoagulation, the patient underwent surgical foramen ovale closure.

  4. Acute bulbar palsy plus syndrome: A rare variant of Guillain–Barre syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sanghamitra Ray; Prakash Chand Jain

    2016-01-01

    Guillain?Barre syndrome (GBS) is the most common cause of acute flaccid paralysis worldwide both in adult and pediatric population. Although flaccid paralysis is the hallmark of this disease, there are some rare variants which may be easily missed unless suspected. Here, we present a very rare variant of GBS - acute bulbar palsy plus syndrome in a pediatric patient. A 13-year-old female child presented with right-sided lower motor neuron type of facial palsy and palsy of bilateral glossophary...

  5. The Challenging Acute Buried Bumper Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Pinho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG is the preferred route of feeding and nutritional support in patients requiring long-term enteral nutrition. Major complications related to the procedure are rare. Buried bumper syndrome is a late major complication, occurring in 0.3-2.4% of patients. Although considered a late complication, it can rarely occur in an acute setting early after the procedure. We present the case of an early buried bumper syndrome, presenting 1 week after PEG tube placement, with local stoma infection associated with an infected cavity within the abdominal wall with feeding content, successfully managed with antibiotic therapy and PEG tube repositioning through the original track.

  6. Terson Syndrome Associated With Acute Macular Neuropathy Type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujosevic, Stela; Testi, Ilaria; Nacci, Elisabetta; Midena, Edoardo

    2017-09-01

    Terson syndrome is defined as the incidence of intraocular hemorrhage in patients following a subarachnoid or intracranial bleed. A 38-year-old female with both intraretinal and subretinal hemorrhages secondary to Terson syndrome underwent repair of a ruptured cerebral aneurysm. One month following resolution of the macular hemorrhages, a paracentral scotoma persisted. Multimodal imaging (morphological and functional) confirmed the presence of acute macular neuroretinopathy Type 2 associated with deep retinal capillary ischemia. Optical coherence tomography angiography illustrated the selective involvement of the deep retinal capillary plexus. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:764-767.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Increased prevalence of bicuspid aortic valve in Turner syndrome links with karyotype: the crucial importance of detailed cardiovascular screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klásková, Eva; Zapletalová, Jiřina; Kaprálová, Sabina; Šnajderová, Marta; Lebl, Jan; Tüdös, Zbyněk; Pavlíček, Jan; Černá, Jana; Mihál, Vladimír; Stará, Veronika; Procházka, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) represents one of the strongest risk factors for aortic dissection in Turner syndrome (TS). An exact relation between the occurrence of BAV and a particular karyotype has not been established yet. The aim of this study was to determine the association between karyotype and prevalence of BAV. Sixty-seven TS patients aged between 6.6 and 32.5 years underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. They were divided into four cytogenetic subgroups-45,X karyotype (n=27); 45,X/46,XX mosaicism (n=17); structural abnormalities of the X chromosome (n=10); and 45,X/structural abnormality of the X chromosome mosaicism (n=13). Prevalence of BAV and odds ratio (OR) compared with the general population in the whole study group, and statistical comparison of prevalences of BAV among the individual subgroups were determined. Prevalence of BAV in the whole study group was established as 28.4% [OR 208.3 (95% CI - 103.8-418.0); p-valuekaryotype had the highest prevalence of BAV - 40.7%, p-valuekaryotype significantly predisposed to BAV (p-value=0.05). The 45,X karyotype is associated with the highest prevalence of BAV. Also, the presence of the 45,X cell line in any mosaic karyotype increases the probability of BAV.

  8. Acute carpal tunnel syndrome in a patient with haemophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Alistair Ivan William; Howard, Anthony; Kent, Matthew; Banks, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Acute carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a rare surgical condition usually resulting from wrist trauma. We present the case of a young haemophilic man who developed acute CTS following trivial injury. The patient was initially managed conservatively but symptom progression resulted in carpal tunnel decompression. A literature review and management approach are presented. This is an important complication of haemophilia to be aware of as prompt conservative management can obviate the need for surgery. This case is useful in (a) highlighting the importance of considering a patient's medical history when formulating differential diagnoses and (b) outlining a management approach to this condition. PMID:22761230

  9. Emotional predictors and behavioral triggers of acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Karina W

    2008-03-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that depression, anxiety, and hostility/anger may each be an independent risk factor for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) occurrence. Data specific to the role of these negative emotional states in predisposing to imminent ACS risk are limited, however. Additionally, a number of studies have indicated that certain situational triggers (such as intense physical exertion) and behavioral triggers (such as acute anxiety or anger) are predictive of imminent occurrence of an ACS. Despite these findings, the use of emotional or behavioral information to identify persons at high risk for imminent ACS to facilitate such patient identification.

  10. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is an acute cardiac syndrome induced by stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Annette Maria; Bang, Lia E; Holmvang, Lene

    2016-01-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is an acute cardiac syndrome, characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction often following a stressful event in post-menopausal women. Symptoms are indistinguishable from myocardial infarction. However, TTC patients do not have a culprit lesion on acute...... angiography, and regional akinesia is not limited to a single vascular territory. As opposed to other cardiomyopathies TTC is completely reversible, albeit with a 5% mortality rate as well as a 10% re-occurrence rate. This article summarizes the current knowledge about aetiology, diagnostics and treatment....

  11. Embolized prostatic brachytherapy seeds mimicking acute chest pain syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal Guragai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 59-year-old male with a history of nonobstructive coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and prostate cancer presented to the hospital with 1-day history of pleuritic chest pain. Initial workup for acute coronary event was unremarkable. Chest X-ray revealed multiple small radial densities which were linear and hyperdense, consistent with embolization of metallic seeds to the pulmonary circulation. The patient was noted to have had radioactive metallic seeds implanted for prostate cancer 6 months ago. Diagnosis of pulmonary embolization of prostatic seeds is challenging as they frequently present with chest pain mimicking acute coronary syndromes.

  12. Donor Umbilical Cord Blood Transplant With or Without Ex-vivo Expanded Cord Blood Progenitor Cells in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, or Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-24

    Acute Biphenotypic Leukemia; Acute Erythroid Leukemia; Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Blasts Under 10 Percent of Bone Marrow Nucleated Cells; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Mixed Phenotype Acute Leukemia; Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Myelodysplastic Syndrome With Excess Blasts; Pancytopenia; Refractory Anemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  13. Potential Application of Viral Empty Capsids for the Treatment of Acute Lung Injury/Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Prof. Ariella Oppenheim CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Hebrew University of Jerusalem...Lung / 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Injury/Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Prof. Ariella...Particles (VLPs), may attenuate ARDS, increasing survival and recovery from this severe clinical condition. The hypothesis was successfully

  14. Cardiorenal syndrome followed by acute hepatitis C in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaila, Romeo-Gabriel

    2014-05-01

    Cardiorenal syndrome involves altering cardiac and renal function. These patients frequently develop resistance to diuretic therapy, so that ultrafiltration should be applied in emergency for saving them. Concomitant presence of an active hematologic malignancy represents an important complicating factor. We present the case of an elderly patient with acute myeloid leukemia, appeared on the background of myelodysplastic syndrome who, during marrow aplasia occurred after the first course of induction chemotherapy, developed a cardiorenal syndrome, which required repeated sessions of hemodialysis. Complete hematologic remission and efficiency of fluid depletion therapy allowed the second course of polychemotherapy, after which the patient developed an acute hepatitis C. After 8 months of complete hematologic remission that persists, the patient will be put on the standard antivirusologic treatment.

  15. Classification and outcomes of extended arch repair for acute Type A aortic dissection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Holly N; Boodhwani, Munir; Ouzounian, Maral; Saczkowski, Richard; Gregory, Alexander J; Herget, Eric J; Appoo, Jehangir J

    2017-03-01

    Distal extent of repair in patients undergoing surgery for acute Type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) is controversial. Emerging hybrid techniques involving open and endovascular surgery have been reported in small numbers by select individual centres. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to investigate the outcomes following extended arch repair for ATAAD. A classification system is proposed of the different techniques to facilitate discussion and further investigation. Using Ovid MEDLINE, 38 studies were identified reporting outcomes for 2140 patients. Studies were categorized into four groups on the basis of extent of surgical aortic resection and the method of descending thoracic aortic stent graft deployment; during circulatory arrest (frozen stented elephant trunk) or with normothermic perfusion and use of fluoroscopy (warm stent graft): (I) surgical total arch replacement, (II) total arch and frozen stented elephant trunk, (III) hemiarch and frozen stented elephant trunk and (IV) total arch and warm stent graft. Perioperative event rates were obtained for each of the four groups and the entire cohort using pooled summary estimates. Linearized rates of late mortality and reoperation were calculated. Overall pooled hospital mortality for extended arch techniques was 8.6% (95% CI 7.2-10.0). Pooled data categorized by surgical technique resulted in hospital mortality of 11.9% for total arch, 8.6% total arch and frozen stented elephant trunk, 6.3% hemiarch and frozen stented elephant trunk and 5.5% total arch and 'warm stent graft'. Overall incidence of stroke for the entire cohort was 5.7% (95% CI 3.6-8.2). Rate of spinal cord ischaemia was 2.0% (95% CI 1.2-3.0). Pooled linearized rate of late mortality was 1.66%/pt-yr (95% CI 1.34-2.07) with linearized rate of re-operation of 1.62%/pt-yr (95% CI 1.24-2.05). Perioperative results of extended arch procedures are encouraging. Further follow-up is required to see if long-term complications are reduced

  16. Exercise-Induced Acute Bilateral Upper-Arm Compartment Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Traub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a rare case of acute exercise-induced bilateral upper-arm compartment syndrome in a patient who, after a year-long hiatus from exercise, subjected his upper-extremities to the stress of over 100 pushups. The patient presented with severe pain of the bilateral biceps and triceps and complaints of dark urine. Decompressive fasciotomy was performed followed by an intensive care unit (ICU stay for associated myoglobinuria secondary to rhabdomyolysis. The patient suffered no long-term sequelae as a result of his conditions and recovered full function of the bilateral upper-extremities. Albeit rare, acute exercise-induced compartment syndrome should be considered as a diagnosis following unaccustomed bouts of exercise.

  17. Acute Compartment Syndrome of the Limbs: Current Concepts and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabvuure, Nigel Tapiwa; Malahias, Marco; Hindocha, Sandip; Khan, Wasim; Juma, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) of the limb refers to a constellation of symptoms, which occur following a rise in the pressure inside a limb muscle compartment. A failure or delay in recognising ACS almost invariably results in adverse outcomes for patients. Unrecognised ACS can leave patients with nonviable limbs requiring amputation and can also be life–threatening. Several clinical features indicate ACS. Where diagnosis is unclear there are several techniques for measuring intracompartmental pressure described in this review. As early diagnosis and fasciotomy are known to be the best determinants of good outcomes, it is important that surgeons are aware of the features that make this diagnosis likely. This clinical review discusses current knowledge on the relevant clinical anatomy, aetiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, clinical features, diagnostic procedures and management of an acute presentation of compartment syndrome. PMID:23248724

  18. Acute coronary syndrome: analysis of two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mascellanti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The patients presenting acute coronary syndrome without ST segment elevation can have a short and long-term risk of death or recurrent ischemic events. Therefore, the evaluation of risk is an essential step in the management of such patients. We report two cases – a 86-year-old male, and a 46-year-old one – with acute coronary syndrome with non-ST-segment elevation, showing the importance of risk assessment to determine management strategy. Two risk profile scores were used: TIMI score and GRACE score. Routine use of validated risk score may facilitate more appropriate tailoring of intensive therapies, but the clinical reasoning of the physician is essential to take right decisions.

  19. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEPRESSION, ANXIETY AND ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Widiyanti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Depression and anxiety occur at high prevalence in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Studies have shown that depression is also a significant risk factor for new cases of heart disease and can increase the morbidity and mortality of heart disease. Despite the high prevalence and have serious effects, the symptoms of depression and anxiety are often unrecognized and untreared in mostly patients with acute coronary syndrome and some of the symptoms during months. The standard therapy for this disorder is safe, well tolerated and can be effective for this population; in fact, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors can improve the outcome of the disorder of the heart. The purpose of this paper would adding a better sense about the effect of the combination of depression and anxiety, as well as with prospective research about the influence of therapy on the results of the heart disorder.

  20. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Complicating Strongyloides stercoralis Hyperinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ju Tsai

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloidiasis is endemic in tropic and subtropic areas, but is currently seldom encountered in developed area like Taiwan. We present an elder man with acute respiratory distress syndrome complicating Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection. There was no significant clue initially for diagnosing this patient as having S. stercoralis hyperinfection. Neither peripheral eosinophilia nor significant hemoptysis was noted. Bronchoscopy played a critical role to define the unexpected cause of his progressive pulmonary infiltrates. The correct diagnosis was soon made by recognition of the worm in bronchioloalveolar lavage cytology, and specific treatment was initiated promptly. For a septic patient with progressive pulmonary infiltrates, bronchoscopic studies including cytology may be necessary for defining the cause. Hyperinfection strongyloidiasis should be considered as a cause of acute respiratory distress syndrome in immunocompromised patient, especially with the presence of chronic gastrointestinal symptoms.

  1. Bilateral acute lupus pneumonitis in a case of rhupus syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Sarkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhupus syndrome, the overlap of rheumatoid arthritis (RA and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, is an extremely uncommon condition. Organ damages found due to SLE are usually mild in rhupus. Lupus pneumonitis in rhupus syndrome has not been reported worldwide. We are reporting a 23-year-old female with bilateral symmetric erosive arthritis, oral ulcer, alopecia, polyserositis, anemia, leucopenia, positive RA-factor, anti nuclear antibody (ANA and anti ds-DNA. She presented with acute onset dyspnea, high fever, chest pain, tachycardia, tachypnea, hypoxia and respiratory alkalosis. High resolution computed tomography (HRCT-thorax showed bilateral, basal consolidation with air bronchogram. Repeated sputum and single broncho alveolar lavage (BAL fluid examination revealed no organism or Hemosiderin-laden macrophage. The diagnosis of rhupus was confirmed by combined manifestations of RA and SLE, and the diagnosis of acute lupus pneumonitis was established by clinico-radiological picture and by excluding other possibilities.

  2. Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging in Acute Coronary Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kubo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography (OCT is a high-resolution imaging technique that offers microscopic visualization of coronary plaques. The clear and detailed images of OCT generate an intense interest in adopting this technique for both clinical and research purposes. Recent studies have shown that OCT is useful for the assessment of coronary atherosclerotic plaques, in particular the assessment of plaque rupture, erosion, and intracoronary thrombus in patients with acute coronary syndrome. In addition, OCT may enable identifying thin-cap fibroatheroma, the proliferation of vasa vasorum, and the distribution of macrophages surrounding vulnerable plaques. With its ability to view atherosclerotic lesions in vivo with such high resolution, OCT provides cardiologists with the tool they need to better understand the thrombosis-prone vulnerable plaques and acute coronary syndromes. This paper reviews the possibility of OCT for identification of vulnerable plaques in vivo.

  3. Acute toxic neuropathy mimicking guillain barre syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Jasim Abdul Jalal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Case: A 30 year old male presented with numbness of palms and soles followed by weakness of upper limbs and lower limbs of 5 days duration, which was ascending and progressive. Three months back he was treated for oral and genital ulcers with oral steroids. His ulcers improved and shifted to indigenous medication. His clinical examination showed polyneuropathy. CSF study did not show albuminocytological dissociation. Nerve conduction study showed demyelinating polyneuropathy. His blood samples and the ayurvedic drug samples were sent for toxicological analysis. Inference: Acute toxic neuropathy - Arsenic

  4. Predictors of aortic growth in uncomplicated type B aortic dissection from the Acute Dissection Stent Grafting or Best Medical Treatment (ADSORB) database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamman, Arnoud V; Brunkwall, Jan; Verhoeven, Eric L

    2017-01-01

    database. Furthermore, we looked for trends in outcome for aortic growth and remodeling after BMT and thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) and BMT (TEVAR+BMT). METHODS: BMT patients with available baseline and a 1-year follow-up arterial computed tomography scan were identified. True lumen and false...... interval, 0.813-1.00; P = .0502). The proximal sections A and B showed complete thrombosis in 80.6% in the BMT+TEVAR group compared with 9.5% in the BMT group. In these sections, changes from patent to partial or partial to complete thrombosis were observed in 90.3% of the TEVAR+BMT group vs 31...

  5. DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY IN PATIENT WITH ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    Kadek Dwi Krisnayanti

    2013-01-01

    Depression and anxiety are two conditions that common happened in patient with acute coronary syndrome which can cause negative cardiovascular outcomes. Although the prevalencies of these two conditions are slightly high, most of them had not been treated well. The mechanisms that underly the association between depression and anxiety with the negative cardiovascular outcome are possibly correlates with their effect on inflammatory process, cathecolamine release, heart rate variability, endo...

  6. Role of biomarkers in risk stratification of acute coronary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Nagesh, C. M.; Roy, Ambuj

    2010-01-01

    Diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) encompasses a wide spectrum of myocardial ischaemia varying from assuredly benign to potentially fatal. Cardiac biomarkers have had a major impact on the management of this disease and are now the cornerstone in its diagnosis and prognosis. In this review we discuss both the established and the newer emerging biomarkers in ACS and their role in highlighting not only myocardial necrosis but also different facets of the pathophysiology of ACS. The futu...

  7. Dyspnoea management in acute coronary syndrome patients treated with ticagrelor

    OpenAIRE

    Parodi, Guido; Storey, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of dyspnoea in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients has always been considered a challenging diagnostic and therapeutic clinical scenario. P2Y12 platelet receptor inhibitors (i.e., clopidogrel, prasugrel and ticagrelor) are currently the cornerstone of treatment of ACS patients. Thus, in the last few years, the potential association between ACS and dyspnoea has also become more challenging with the increasing use of ticagrelor in these patients due to its beneficial effects o...

  8. Antiplatelet therapy in acute coronary syndromes: focus on ticagrelor

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenstein, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Kade Birkeland1,2, David Parra1,2, Robert Rosenstein21Departments of Medicine and Pharmacy, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, West Palm Beach, FL, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, West Palm Beach, FL, USAAbstract: The use of antiplatelet agents, specifically the thienopyridines, has become a standard of care in the approach to the patient presenting with an acute coronary syndrome. These drugs irreversibly inhibit the platelet by permanently binding to the surface...

  9. Woven Coronary Artery Anomaly Associated with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhan, Selim; Ozturk, Serkan; Tekelioglu, Umit Yasar; Ocak, Tarik

    2013-01-01

    The woven coronary artery anomaly is a rare congenital anomaly in which a coronary artery is divided into thin channels that merge again into the distal lumen. Only a few cases of woven coronary artery have been reported in the literature. This anomaly is accepted as a benign condition. We describe a case of acute coronary syndrome in a patient with woven coronary artery anomaly. PMID:24436585

  10. Severe acute respiratory syndrome and its lesions in digestive system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Zhong Zhang

    2003-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an infectious atypical pneumonia that has recently been recognized in the patients in 32 countries and regions. This brief review summarizes some of the initial etiologic findings,pathological description, and its lesions of digestive system caused by SARS virus. It is an attempt to draw gastroenterologists and hepatologists' attention to this fatal illness, especially when it manifests itself initially as digestive symptoms.

  11. Hypothyroid-induced acute compartment syndrome in all extremities

    OpenAIRE

    Musielak, Matthew C.; Chae, Jung Hee

    2016-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is an uncommon complication of uncontrolled hypothyroidism. If unrecognized, this can lead to ischemia, necrosis and potential limb loss. A 49-year-old female presented with the sudden onset of bilateral lower and upper extremity swelling and pain. The lower extremity anterior compartments were painful and tense. The extensor surface of the upper extremities exhibited swelling and pain. Motor function was intact, however, limited due to pain. Bilateral lower e...

  12. Terson Syndrome Before Induction Chemotherapy for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, YunZu Michele; Nudleman, Eric; Vinocur, Daniel; Kuo, Dennis John

    2017-12-01

    A previously healthy 2-year-old female infant presented with pancytopenia and was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Before the initiation of treatment, she developed symptoms concerning for increased intracranial pressure. Head imaging revealed left parietal hemorrhage, in addition to a right vitreous hemorrhage, which was confirmed on ophthalmology examination later. Terson syndrome, in which intraocular hemorrhage is associated with intracranial hemorrhage, is more commonly reported in adults, although ocular manifestations of leukemia have been reported at presentation and are typically asymptomatic.

  13. [Status of intra-aortic balloon pump application and related factors in Chinese patients with acute myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, N Q; Gao, Z; Zheng, Y; Li, W; Li, J N; Xu, H Y; Cheng, X S; Wu, Y; Wang, Y; Wang, Z J; Yang, J G; Yang, Y J

    2018-01-24

    Objective: To investigate the current status of application of intra-aortic balloon pump(IABP) and analyze the factors which might impact the application of IABP in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated with cardiac shock in China. Methods: In China Acute Myocardial Infarction (CAMI) Registry,a nationwide, multicenter(107 hospitals), prospective study, 26 592 patients with acute myocardial infarction were enrolled consecutively between January 1, 2013 and September 30, 2014. After excluding of 30 cases due to missing important data,26 562 cases were analyzed.The application status of IABP was analyzed and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the factors related to IABP application. Results: A total of 785(3.0%) patients with acute myocardial infarction received IABP implantation, and 381(49.9%) patients belonged to preventive application of IABP before primary percutaneous coronary intervention,and 6(0.8%) patients were complicated with mechanical complications.There were 118(15.0%) patients with cardiac shock received IABP implantation, which accounted for 12.0%(118/984) of all patients with cardiac shock.Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the clinical independent factors of the decision of IABP insertion included dyslipidemia ( OR= 2.858, 95% CI 1.397-5.846, P= 0.004),left ventricular ejection fraction ( OR= 0.977, 95% CI 0.961-0.994, P= 0.009),usage of dopamine ( OR= 2.817, 95% CI 1.495-5.308, P= 0.001), left main disease ( OR= 2.817, 95% CI 1.495-5.308, P= 0.001), GRACE score ( OR= 1.006, 95% CI 1.000-1.011, P= 0.034), receiving primary percutaneous coronary intervention ( OR= 4.508, 95% CI 1.673-12.146, P= 0.003), teritiary hospitals ( OR= 2.562, 95% CI 1.498-4.384, P= 0.001), and higher education of the patients ( OR= 2.183, 95% CI 1.056-4.509, P= 0.016). Conclusions: Among the Chinese acute myocardial infarction patients who received IABP implantation, nearly half application of IABP are

  14. GERSTMANN’S SYNDROME IN ACUTE STROKE PATIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukic, Sanela; Mrkonjic, Zamir; Sinanovic, Osman; Vidovic, Mirjana; Kojic, Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Gerstmann in 1924. observed in a few patients a concomitant impairment in discriminating their own fingers, writing by hand, distinguishing left from right and performing calculations. He claimed that this tetrad of symptoms constituted a syndromal entity, assigned it to a lesion of the dominant parietal lobe. Since than, Gerstmann`s syndrome (GS) was enigma for neuropsychologists. The aim of this study was to analyze frequency and clinical features of GS among acute stroke patients. Patients and methods: We prospectively analyzed 194 acute stroke patients (average age 65±11.06 years, male 113 (58.2%), female 81 (41.8%) hospitalized at department of Neurology, University Clinical Center tuzla, during the six mounths in 2010. For clinical assessment of agraphia, alexia and acalculia we used Minessota test for differential diagnosis of aphasia’s. Results: Among these acute stroke patients, 59 (30.40%) had alexia, agraphia and acalculia or different combinations of these disorders. two patients (3.4%) had agraphia and acalculia associated with other part of tetrad of GS: fi nger agnosia and left-right disorientation. they both where men, right handed, and cranial computed tomography scan showed ischemic lesion in the left parietal and left temporoparietal lobe. Conclusion: Gerstmann`s syndrome is rare clinical entity, and has the high value in localization and the lesion is mainly localized to angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. PMID:23378691

  15. Marfan syndrome with acute abdomen: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyazit Zencirci

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Beyazit ZencirciKahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Medical Faculty, Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation Kahramanmaras, TurkeyIntroduction: Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder characterized by a combination of clinical manifestations in different organ systems. Patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS whose lifetimes are extended may be encountered as acute abdomen (appendicitis cases apart from the obligatory reasons and emergencies arising naturally out of their disease, as in the case reported.Case presentation: In a 28-year-old Turkish male, arachnodactyly, pectus excavatum, kyphoscoliosis and, according to pulmonary roentgenogram, a density increase in the left apical field were detected. In addition, according to the echocardiographic examination, Ebstein’s anomaly, mitral valve prolapse, pulmonary hypertension, and inferior deficiency of mitral, aorta, and tricuspid valves were present. The patient was planned to be operated on with the prediagnosis of acute abdomen.Conclusion: Taking into consideration the pathologies that may accompany MFS and the probable future complications, the patients must be closely monitored during anesthesia applications and required measures should be taken beforehand.Keywords: Marfan syndrome, acute abdomen

  16. Nephrotic Syndrome and Acute Renal Failure Apparently Induced by Sunitinib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Shou Chen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of nephrotic syndrome and acute renal failure apparently induced by sunitinib. A 67-year-old man with a history of metastatic renal cell carcinoma presented with progressive kidney dysfunction with proteinuria, general edema, and body weight gain of 21 kg after undergoing 3 weeks of sunitinib therapy. The patient had taken no other over-the-counter medications, and all other possible causes of nephrotic syndrome were excluded. The Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction Probability Scale score for this event was 6, indicating a high probability that the observed presentations were associated with use of the drug. However, despite the discontinuation of sunitinib, his condition deteriorated, and hemodialysis was initiated for respiratory distress. A renal biopsy was performed, which revealed ischemic acute tubular necrosis with minimal change nephropathy. In conclusion, nephrologists and oncologists should be aware that nephrotic syndrome with ischemic acute tubular necrosis is a possible adverse effect of sunitinib. For early diagnosis of this condition and to avoid renal damage, we recommend differential diagnosis of serum creatinine and proteinuria in patients undergoing sunitinib therapy.

  17. The acute respiratory distress syndrome network controversy: lessons and legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Henry J

    2004-12-01

    Several of the Acute Respiratory Disease Syndrome Network clinical trials embrace a clinical trial design that evaluates contrasting strategies, one or both of which represents only a segment of standard practices. Such a trial design has engendered ethical controversy regarding the value of such trials and their ability to protect human subjects. During the past year, commentators have continued to reflect on the significance of such trials. Several authors have reflected on the ethical significance of the standard of care in clinical trial design and have offered a framework for determining control group selection in critical care trials. Other authors have written on methodologic issues and approaches to determine whether control groups are reflective of standard practices. Surveys have been performed to determine the impact and hence the relevancy of the Acute Respiratory Disease Syndrome Network tidal volume trial on clinical practice. The controversy related to and the impact of the Acute Respiratory Disease Syndrome Network clinical trial design on clinical practice offer an opportunity to explore the trade-offs between explanatory and pragmatic types of clinical trials. Such discussions will lead to a clearer understanding of the value of both types of clinical trials and the optimal ethical conduct of such trials.

  18. Acute Symptomatic Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Secondary to Endovascular Stent Graft Associated Type II Endoleak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Ka Leung Chan

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Endovascular abdominal aneurysm repair (EVAR is popular because of its low invasiveness and feasibility for high-risk patients. Endoleak is common after EVAR and is characterized by blood flow within the aneurysm sac but outside the stent graft. Type II or collateral endoleak commonly results from retrograde filling of the aneurysm from collateral visceral vessels, lumbar, inferior mesenteric, accessory renal or sacral arteries. Collateral leaks are generally thought to be benign and over half of the early leaks will seal spontaneously. Sporadically, collateral endoleak could lead to aneurysm sac pressurization and place the patient at ongoing risk of rupture. Herein, we report an uncommon case of early post-stent graft placement symptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm associated with type II endoleak.

  19. Prevalence of Burnout Syndrome in patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosdócimo, Ana Cláudia Giaxa; Lucina, Luciane Boreki; Marcia, Olandoski; Jobs, Priscila Megda João; Schio, Nicolle Amboni; Baldanzi, Fernanda Fachin; Costantini, Costantino Ortiz; Benevides-Pereira, Ana Maria Teresa; Guarita-Souza, Luiz Cesar; Faria-Neto, José Rocha

    2015-03-01

    Burnout Syndrome is the extreme emotional response to chronic occupational stress, manifesting as physical and mental exhaustion. Although associated with higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, no study so far has evaluated whether the Burnout Syndrome could be a prevalent factor in non-elderly individuals active in the labor market, admitted for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). To evaluate the prevalence of the Burnout Syndrome in non-elderly, economically active patients, hospitalized with ACS. Cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary and private cardiology center, with economically active patients aged Burnout Syndrome was evaluated with the Burnout Syndrome Inventory (BSI), which assesses workplace conditions and four dimensions that characterize the syndrome: emotional exhaustion (EE), emotional distancing (EmD), dehumanization (De) and professional fulfillment (PF). The Lipp's Stress Symptoms Inventory for Adults (LSSI) was applied to evaluate global stress. Of 830 patients evaluated with suspected ACS, 170 met the study criteria, 90% of which were men, overall average age was 52 years, and 40.5% had an average income above 11 minimum wages. The prevalence of the Burnout Syndrome was 4.1%. When we evaluated each dimension individually, we found high EE in 34.7%, high De in 52.4%, high EDi in 30.6%, and low PF in 5.9%. The overall prevalence of stress was 87.5%. We found a low prevalence of Burnout Syndrome in an economically active, non-elderly population among patients admitted for ACS in a tertiary and private hospital.

  20. Acute and chronic pain syndromes in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Knudsen, L; Jensen, K

    1991-01-01

    A representative sample of 117 patients with definite multiple sclerosis (MS) was interviewed on pain syndromes. Chronic syndromes lasting more than one month included dysaestesthesia, low back pain, spasms, tonic seizures, tightening and painful sensations in the extremities. Acute syndromes...... with pain at the time of the examination increased with age and duration of disease. Patients with pain were significantly more often spastic and significantly more often sought alternative treatment forms. No difference was found for mean age, sex, physical impairment, duration of disease from onset of MS...... included neuralgia, L'Hermitte's sign and pain associated with optic neuritis. Thirty-five per cent were pain-free. Of the remaining patients had 45% pain at the time of the examination, 32% indicated pain among the most severe symptoms of MS and 23% had pain at the onset of MS. The number of patients...

  1. Acute compartment syndrome in lower extremity musculoskeletal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Steven A; Glasgow, Robert R

    2005-11-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is a potentially devastating condition in which the pressure within an osseofascial compartment rises to a level that decreases the perfusion gradient across tissue capillary beds, leading to cellular anoxia, muscle ischemia, and death. A variety of injuries and medical conditions may initiate acute compartment syndrome, including fractures, contusions, bleeding disorders, burns, trauma, postischemic swelling, and gunshot wounds. Diagnosis is primarily clinical, supplemented by compartment pressure measurements. Certain anesthetic techniques, such as nerve blocks and other forms of regional and epidural anesthesia, reportedly contribute to a delay in diagnosis. Basic science data suggest that the ischemic threshold of normal muscle is reached when pressure within the compartment is elevated to 20 mm Hg below the diastolic pressure or 30 mm Hg below the mean arterial blood pressure. On diagnosis of impending or true compartment syndrome, immediate measures must be taken. Complete fasciotomy of all compartments involved is required to reliably normalize compartment pressures and restore perfusion to the affected tissues. Recognizing compartment syndromes requires having and maintaining a high index of suspicion, performing serial examinations in patients at risk, and carefully documenting changes over time.

  2. Acute adrenal insufficiency due to primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore Kumar Behera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We report a case of acute adrenal insufficiency (AAI in a patient with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS. Case Report: A 44-year-old female patient presented to us with acute abdominal pain associated with recurrent vomiting and giddiness. On examination, her blood pressure was 80/50 mm Hg. Systemic examination was normal. Further evaluation revealed hypocortisolemia with elevated plasma adrenocorticotropin hormone indicative of primary adrenal insufficiency. Her abdominal computed tomography scan showed features of evolving bilateral adrenal infarction. Etiological work-up revealed prolonged activated thromboplastin time, which didn′t correct with normal plasma, her anti-cardiolipin antibody and lupus anticoagulant were also positive. She was diagnosed to have APS with adrenal insufficiency and she was started on intravenous steroids and heparin infusion. Conclusion: AAI due to the APS can present with acute abdominal pain followed by hypotension. A high index of suspicion is needed to make the correct diagnosis and to initiate appropriate treatment.

  3. Acute coronary syndromes in patients with pre-existing moderate to severe valvular disease of the heart: lessons from the Euro-Heart Survey of acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasdai, David; Lev, Eli I; Behar, Solomon; Boyko, Valentina; Danchin, Nicholas; Vahanian, Alec; Battler, Alexander

    2003-04-01

    To determine the frequency of pre-existing valvular disease (VD) among patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and to compare the clinical characteristics, clinical course, treatment, and outcomes of ACS patients with and without pre-existing VD. The Euro Heart Survey ACS prospectively enrolled 10,484 ACS patients in 103 hospitals in 25 countries across Europe and the Mediterranean basin. Of the 10,207 patients with data on VD status, 489 (4.8%) had a diagnosis of pre-existing VD: 3.7% of 4339 ST-segment-elevation-ACS patients, 5.2% of 5210 non-ST-segment-elevation-ACS patients, and 10.8% of 658 undetermined-electrocardiogram-ACS patients. Moderate/severe mitral regurgitation had been diagnosed in 54.0% (48.7% without and 5.3% with concomitant mitral stenosis), and moderate/severe aortic stenosis occurred in 31.7% (26.4% without and 5.3% with concomitant aortic regurgitation). Patients with pre-existing VD had worse baseline clinical and demographic characteristics, were more likely to present with heart failure and less likely to have typical angina, and had a more complicated in-hospital course (heart failure, atrial arrhythmias, and renal failure). They were more likely to receive inotropic agents, diuretics, amiodarone, and warfarin, and less likely to receive antiplatelet agents and beta-adrenergic blockers. As compared to patients without VD, the adjusted risk (95% confidence interval) of in-hospital death for VD patients was 1.55 (0.85, 2.80), 1.92 (1.03, 3.59), and 1.77 (0.75, 4.17) for ST-segment-elevation-ACS, non-ST-segment-elevation-ACS, and undetermined-electrocardiogram-ACS, respectively. Patients with ACS and pre-existing VD constitute about 5% of all ACS patients; they have high-risk features and poor prognosis. There is a need to better define their optimal treatment, in order to improve their prognosis.

  4. Inhaled nitric oxide for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute lung injury in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Arash; Brok, Jesper; Møller, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure (AHRF), defined as acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), are critical conditions. AHRF results from a number of systemic conditions and is associated with high mortality and morbidity in all ages. Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) has...

  5. Embelia ribes ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirole, R L; Shirole, N L; Saraf, M N

    2015-06-20

    Embelia ribes Burm. f. (Fam. Myrsinaceae) locally known as Vidanga have been used for treating tumors, ascites, bronchitis, jaundice, diseases of the heart and brain in traditional Indian medicine. However, no scientific studies providing new insights in its pharmacological properties with respect to acute respiratory distress syndrome have been investigated. The present investigation aimed to elucidate the effectiveness of Embelin isolated from Embelia ribes seeds on attenuation of LPS-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome in murine models. Embelin (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg/day, i.p.) and Roflumilast (1 mg/kg/day, p.o.) were administered for four days and prior to LPS in rats (i.t.). Four hour after LPS challenge animals were anesthesized and bronchoalveolar lavage was done with ice-cold phosphate buffer. Assessment of BAL fluid was done for albumin, total protein, total cell and neutrophil count, TNF-α levels, nitrosoative stress. Superior lobe of right lung was used for histopathologic evaluation. Inferior lobe of right lung was used to obtain lung edema. Left lung was used for myeloperoxidase estimation. Arterial blood was collected immediately and analyzed for pH, pO2 and pCO2 were estimated. Pretreatment with embelin (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) decreased lung edema, mononucleated cellular infiltration, nitrate/nitrite, total protein, albumin concentrations, TNF-α in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and myeloperoxidase activity in lung homogenate. Embelin markedly prevented pO2 down-regulation and pCO2 augmentation. Additionally, it attenuated lung histopathological changes in acute respiratory distress syndrome model. The study demonstrates the effectiveness of Embelia ribes Burm. f. (Fam. Myrsinaceae) seeds in acute respiratory distress syndrome possibly related to its anti-inflammatory and protective effect against LPS induced airway inflammation by reducing nitrosative stress, reducing physiological parameters of blood gas change, TNF-α and mononucleated

  6. [Case in which renal function improved following stent-graft placement in the aorta two months after the onset of stanford type B acute aortic dissection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusamae, Juri; Nishino, Tomoya; Uramatsu, Tadashi; Obata, Yoko; Furusu, Akira; Sakamoto, Ichiro; Kohno, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    A 48-year-old man was admitted to the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery in our hospital after developing Stanford type B acute aortic dissection with a patent false lumen in July 2008. Conservative treatment involving rest and antihypertensive therapy was provided following admission. Urine volume decreased from day 9, and serum creatinine increased to 7.7 mg/dL. As it was suspected that the reduced renal blood flow was caused by progression of aortic dissection, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT)was performed. The left kidney showed reduced enhancement and the right kidney was heterogeneously enhanced. The dissection had extended to the left renal artery, and the reduced renal blood flow caused by narrowing of the left renal artery was thought to have caused the renal dysfunction. As elevated urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels and hyperkalemia persisted, hemodialysis was performed a total of four times. Although the patient was subsequently withdrawn from dialysis, he continued to display severe renal dysfunction and was transferred to our department on day 28 for the treatment of renal failure. Conservative treatment was continued, but the maximum diameter of the thoracic aorta gradually increased, and stent placement at the entry of aortic dissection was indicated. On day 86, two stent-grafts were placed for entries at the distal site of the descending aorta and the distal site of the aortic arch. Postoperative abdominal contrast-enhanced CT showed expansion of the true lumen, and blood flow and contrast enhancement improved in both kidneys. Postoperatively, serum creatinine gradually decreased, improving to 1.16 mg/dL on day 96. Renography in the third month after stent-graft placement showed improved renal function in both kidneys. These findings suggest that even at approximately 2 months after the onset of acute renal failure associated with aortic dissection, renal function can be improved by restoring blood flow in the renal arteries.

  7. Late Consequences of Acute Coronary Syndromes: Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnasser, Sami M A; Huang, Wei; Gore, Joel M; Steg, Ph Gabriel; Eagle, Kim A; Anderson, Frederick A; Fox, Keith A A; Gurfinkel, Enrique; Brieger, David; Klein, Werner; van de Werf, Frans; Avezum, Álvaro; Montalescot, Gilles; Gulba, Dietrich C; Budaj, Andrzej; Lopez-Sendon, Jose; Granger, Christopher B; Kennelly, Brian M; Goldberg, Robert J; Fleming, Emily; Goodman, Shaun G

    2015-07-01

    Short-term outcomes have been well characterized in acute coronary syndromes; however, longer-term follow-up for the entire spectrum of these patients, including ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, and unstable angina, is more limited. Therefore, we describe the longer-term outcomes, procedures, and medication use in Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) hospital survivors undergoing 6-month and 2-year follow-up, and the performance of the discharge GRACE risk score in predicting 2-year mortality. Between 1999 and 2007, 70,395 patients with a suspected acute coronary syndrome were enrolled. In 2004, 2-year prospective follow-up was undertaken in those with a discharge acute coronary syndrome diagnosis in 57 sites. From 2004 to 2007, 19,122 (87.2%) patients underwent follow-up; by 2 years postdischarge, 14.3% underwent angiography, 8.7% percutaneous coronary intervention, 2.0% coronary bypass surgery, and 24.2% were re-hospitalized. In patients with 2-year follow-up, acetylsalicylic acid (88.7%), beta-blocker (80.4%), renin-angiotensin system inhibitor (69.8%), and statin (80.2%) therapy was used. Heart failure occurred in 6.3%, (re)infarction in 4.4%, and death in 7.1%. Discharge-to-6-month GRACE risk score was highly predictive of all-cause mortality at 2 years (c-statistic 0.80). In this large multinational cohort of acute coronary syndrome patients, there were important later adverse consequences, including frequent morbidity and mortality. These findings were seen in the context of additional coronary procedures and despite continued use of evidence-based therapies in a high proportion of patients. The discriminative accuracy of the GRACE risk score in hospital survivors for predicting longer-term mortality was maintained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of losartan on progressive aortic dilatation in patients with Marfan's syndrome: a meta-analysis of prospective randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Linggen; Chen, Lei; Fan, Li; Gao, Dewei; Liang, Zhiru; Wang, Rong; Lu, Wenning

    2016-08-15

    To assess the effect of losartan therapy on progressive aortic dilatation and on clinical outcome in patients with Marfan's syndrome (MFS). The meta-analysis was instituted, which included studies identified by a systematic review of MEDLINE of peer-reviewed publications. Echocardiogram or MRI measurements of the aortic root dimension and outcome measures of death, cardiovascular surgery and aortic dissection or rupture were compared between patients who were treated and untreated with losartan therapy. Six randomized trials with 1398 subjects met all the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with non-losartan treatment, losartan therapy significantly decreased the rate of aortic dilatation (SMD=-0.13 with 95% CI -0.25 to 0.00, p=0.04). The clinical outcome beneficial was not observed in the losartan treatment group when compared with no losartan treatment group (odds ratio=1.04 with 95% CI of 0.57-1.87). Given the current results of the meta-analysis and together with the lack of associated side effects, it would be reasonable to use losartan in MFS patients with aortic root dilatation. However, no clinical outcome benefits were observed in the losartan treatment group when compared with no losartan treatment group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Aortic dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... made in the chest or abdomen. Endovascular aortic repair. This surgery is done without any major surgical ... needed. If the heart arteries are involved, a coronary bypass is also performed. Outlook ... aneurysm - dissecting; Chest pain - aortic dissection; Thoracic aortic aneurysm - ...

  10. Comparison of Cine-MRI and Transthoracic Echocardiography for the Assessment of Aortic Root Diameters in Patients with Suspected Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannas, P; Rybczynski, M; Sheikhzadeh, S; von Kodolitsch, Y; Derlin, T; Yamamura, J; Lund, G; Adam, G; Groth, M

    2015-11-01

    Patients with Marfan syndrome require repeated imaging for monitoring of aortic root aneurysms. Therefore, we evaluated the agreement and reproducibility of cine-MRI and echocardiography measurements of the sinuses of Valsalva in patients with suspected Marfan syndrome. 51 consecutive patients with suspected Marfan syndrome were prospectively examined using cine-MRI and echocardiography. Two readers independently measured aortic root diameters at the level of the sinuses of Valsalva in both cine-MRI and echocardiography. Statistics included intraclass correlation coefficient, Pearson correlation coefficient, Bland-Altman analysis, and two-sided t-test. In 38 of the 51 individuals (74.5 %), the diagnosis of Marfan syndrome was established according to the criteria of the Ghent-2 nosology. Cine-MRI measurements of the sinuses of Valsalva revealed a strong correlation with echocardiography (r = 0.929), but a statistically significant bias of -1.0  mm (p cine-MRI was 32.3  ±  5.8 mm as compared to 33.4  ±  5.4 mm obtained by echocardiography. Interobserver agreement of measurements of the sinuses of Valsalva was higher for cine-MRI than for echocardiography (p = 0.029). Despite small, but statistically significant differences in terms of agreement and reproducibility, cine-MRI and echocardiographic measurements of aortic root diameters provide comparable results without a significant clinical difference. Therefore both techniques may be used for monitoring of the aortic root in patients with Marfan syndrome. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Comparison of cine-MRI and transthoracic echocardiography for the assessment of aortic root diameters in patients with suspected Marfan syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannas, P.; Derlin, T.; Yamamura, J.; Lund, G.; Adam, G. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Rybczynski, M.; Sheikhzadeh, S.; Kodolitsch, Y. von [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of General and Interventional Cardiology; Groth, M. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Section for Pediatric Radiology

    2015-11-15

    Patients with Marfan syndrome require repeated imaging for monitoring of aortic root aneurysms. Therefore, we evaluated the agreement and reproducibility of cine-MRI and echocardiography measurements of the sinuses of Valsalva in patients with suspected Marfan syndrome. 51 consecutive patients with suspected Marfan syndrome were prospectively examined using cine-MRI and echocardiography. Two readers independently measured aortic root diameters at the level of the sinuses of Valsalva in both cine-MRI and echocardiography. Statistics included intraclass correlation coefficient, Pearson correlation coefficient, Bland-Altman analysis, and two-sided t-test. In 38 of the 51 individuals (74.5 %), the diagnosis of Marfan syndrome was established according to the criteria of the Ghent-2 nosology. Cine-MRI measurements of the sinuses of Valsalva revealed a strong correlation with echocardiography (r=0.929), but a statistically significant bias of -1.0 mm (p<0.001). The mean absolute diameter for sinuses of Valsalva obtained by cine-MRI was 32.3 ± 5.8 mm as compared to 33.4 ± 5.4 mm obtained by echocardiography. Interobserver agreement of measurements of the sinuses of Valsalva was higher for cine-MRI than for echocardiography (p=0.029). Despite small, but statistically significant differences in terms of agreement and reproducibility, cine-MRI and echocardiographic measurements of aortic root diameters provide comparable results without a significant clinical difference. Therefore both techniques may be used for monitoring of the aortic root in patients with Marfan syndrome.

  12. Message concerning Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome ("SARS")

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    IMPORTANT REMINDER If you have just come back from one of the regions identified by the WHO as being infected with SARS, it is essential to monitor your state of health for ten days after your return. The syndrome manifests itself in the rapid onset of a high fever combined with respiratory problems (coughing, breathlessness, breathing difficulty). Should these signs appear, you must contact the CERN Medical Service as quickly as possible on number 73802 or 73186 during normal working hours, and the fire brigade at all other times on number 74444, indicating that you have just returned from one of the WHO-identified areas with recent local transmission.China: Beijing, Hong Kong (Special Administrative Region), Guangdong Province, Inner Mongolia, Shanxi Province, Tianjin ProvinceTaiwan:TaipeiMoreover, until further notice the CERN Management requests that all trips to these various regions of the world be reduced to a strict minimum and then only with the consent of the Division Leader concerned. Anyone comin...

  13. [Case of subcutaneous and mesenteric acute panniculitis with Sjögren's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Takahiko; Koike, Rhuji; Nosaka, Yurika; Ogawa, Jun; Hagiyama, Hiroyuki; Nagasaka, Kenji; Nonomura, Yoshinori; Nishio, Junko; Nanki, Toshihiro; Kohsaka, Hitoshi; Kubota, Tetsuo; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki

    2002-06-01

    We report a case of a 27-year-old Japanese female with Sjogren's syndrome (SS), who suffered from several episodes of subcutaneous and mesenteric panniculitis with a recurrence within one year. After a history of fever and skin rash, the patient underwent surgery at a local hospital with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis complicated with an ileocecal abscess. She was also diagnosed as having SS. After the operation, the fever and skin rash persisted. She was treated with prednisolone (PSL), and her symptoms resolved. A recurrent bout of abdominal pain with fever, annular erythema on the trunk and a nodular erythematous rash on the lower extremities occurred six months after the operation. A skin biopsy from the lower extremities showed findings that were compatible with panniculitis. Abdominal computer tomography (CT) showed a diffuse swelling with soft tissue density in the intestinal mesenterium and para aortic area. A retrospective examination of the operative specimen obtained from the local hospital revealed centrilobular infiltration of neutrophils in the mesenteric adipose tissue with fat necrosis, which is compatible with mesenteric panniculitis. Twenty mg/day of PSL was successful in treating the systemic panniculitis, and the abnormal diffuse soft tissue density on the abdominal CT disappeared after three weeks of PSL administration. Systemic panniculitis is a rare complication in SS, and the pathogenesis is unclear.

  14. Abdominal aortic occlusion and vascular compromise secondary to acute gastric dilatation in a patient with bulimia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsharif, M; Doulias, T; Aljundi, W; Balchandra, S

    2014-11-01

    Acute gastric dilation is a rare but recognised complication in patients with bulimia and anorexia following binge episodes owing to decreased bowel motility. We present a rare case of acute gastric dilation secondary to bulimia in an otherwise healthy 18-year-old female patient that resulted in compression and complete occlusion of the abdominal aorta, leading to acute mesenteric and bilateral lower limb ischaemia. This resolved immediately following a laparotomy and gastric decompression. Management of these patients is very challenging owing to the lack of a successful precedent. To our knowledge, such a catastrophic complication has only ever been reported once in the literature and the outcome was fatal. Our case is of additional importance as it offers a successful management strategy for these patients.

  15. Acute aortic occlusion due to tumor embolism in a patient with lung malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Lioudaki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Acute lower limb ischemia caused by tumor embolization is rare, despite the fact that cancer is a common cause of hypercoagulability predisposing to venous thrombosis. Arterial embolization is mostly associated with intracardiac tumors while lung malignancies are the second most common cause of tumor embolism. Methods: In this report, we present a male patient who developed acute bilateral lower limb ischemia in the immediate postoperative period after a thoracotomy for attempted left upper lobe resection for lung cancer. Results: The patient was treated with a subclavian-bifemoral bypass, since an initial attempted embolectomy was unsuccessful. Histopathological characteristics of thrombus obtained during embolectomy were consistent with the histopathology of the primary tumor. Conclusion: Acute ischemia is an emergency that should be diagnosed and treated immediately. Interestingly, in this case, the presence of epidural anesthesia masked the initial symptoms and delayed diagnosis. Preoperative assessment with transesophageal echocardiography may reveal patients at high risk for tumor embolism.

  16. Acute myeloid leukaemia after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in girl with Bloom syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Madeleine; Jenney, Meriel; Lazarou, Laz; White, Rhian; Birdsall, Sanda; Staab, Timo; Schindler, Detlev; Meyer, Stefan

    2013-09-18

    Bloom syndrome (BS) is an inherited genomic instability disorder caused by disruption of the BLM helicase and confers an extreme cancer predisposition. Here we report on a girl with BS who developed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) at age nine, and treatment-related acute myeloid leukaemia (t-AML) aged 12. She was compound heterozygous for the novel BLM frameshift deletion c.1624delG and the previously described c.3415C>T nonsense mutation. Two haematological malignancies in a child with BS imply a fundamental role for BLM for normal haematopoiesis, in particular in the presence of genotoxic stress.

  17. Impact of Elevated D-Dimer on Diagnosis of Acute Aortic Dissection With Isolated Neurological Symptoms in Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimuta, Tsuyoshi; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki; Okajima, Toshiya; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Toyoda, Kazunori; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki; Higashi, Masahiro; Hayashi, Kenshi; Kawashiri, Masa-aki; Yasuda, Satoshi; Yamagishi, Masakazu

    2015-01-01

    Plasma D-dimer is known to be a useful clinical marker of thrombogenic status, and D-dimer is used as a diagnostic marker for acute aortic dissection (AAD). Little is known, however, regarding the clinical value of D-dimer for diagnosis of asymptomatic AAD in patients with ischemic stroke. We investigated whether D-dimer could be used for early diagnosis of AAD with isolated neurological symptoms in ischemic stroke patients. We evaluated a total of 1,236 consecutive patients with symptomatic ischemic stroke without chest or back pain who underwent either head computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. D-dimer was measured within 24 h after onset. There were 9 patients with Stanford type A AAD and they had significantly higher D-dimer than the patients without AAD (mean, 46.47±54.48 μg/ml; range, 6.9-167.1 μg/ml vs. 2.33±3.58 μg/ml, 0.3-57.9 μg/ml, Psymptoms in ischemic stroke patients. Whole-body contrast-enhanced computed tomography should be performed in ischemic stroke patients who have high D-dimer.

  18. Acute kidney injury after infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery: a comparison of AKIN and RIFLE criteria for risk prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, J-Y; Lee, J B; Yoon, Y; Seo, H-S; Song, J-G; Hwang, G S

    2014-12-01

    Although both Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) and risk, injury, failure, loss, and end-stage (RIFLE) kidney disease criteria are frequently used to diagnose acute kidney injury (AKI), they have rarely been compared in the diagnosis of AKI in patients undergoing surgery for infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). This study investigated the incidence of, and risk factors for, AKI, defined by AKIN and RIFLE criteria, and compared their ability to predict mortality after infrarenal AAA surgery. This study examined 444 patients who underwent infrarenal AAA surgery between January 1999 and December 2011. Risk factors for AKI were assessed by multivariable analyses, and the impact of AKI on overall mortality was assessed by a Cox's proportional hazard model with inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). Net reclassification improvement (NRI) was used to assess the performance of AKIN and RIFLE criteria in predicting overall mortality. AKI based on AKIN and RIFLE criteria occurred in 82 (18.5%) and 55 (12.4%) patients, respectively. The independent risk factors for AKI were intraoperative red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and chronic kidney disease (CKD) by AKIN criteria, and age, intraoperative RBC transfusion, preoperative atrial fibrillation, and CKD by RIFLE criteria. After IPTW adjustment, AKI was related to 30 day mortality and overall mortality. NRI was 15.2% greater (P=0.04) for AKIN than for RIFLE criteria in assessing the risk of overall mortality. Although AKI defined by either AKIN or RIFLE criteria was associated with overall mortality, AKIN criteria showed better prediction of mortality in patients undergoing infrarenal AAA surgery. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. TAKOTSUBO SYNDROME AS ACUTE FORM OF MICROVASCULAR ANGINA. CLINICAL CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Boldueva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of stress-induced cardiomyopathy (takotsubo syndrome have not been fully determined. A clinical case of the development of stressinduced cardio-myopathy in a patient with microvascular angina is presented. A 73-year-old woman was hospitalized to the cardiology clinic with a diagnosis of acute circular myocardial infarction (elevation ST II, III, aVF, V2-6, positive troponin test. According to coronary angiography stenosis of coronary arteries were not identified. According to echocardiography the following abnormalities were revealed: decrease in global contractility of the myocardium, hyperkinesia of the basal parts of the left ventricle and at the same time akinesia of the apex and hypokinesia of the middle segments of the left ventricle. After 1 month a contractility of the myocardium was normal, there were no zones of violation of contractility. It was suggested that the patient had takotsubo syndrome. Anginal pain due to physical and emotional stress with unchanged coronary arteries suggested primary microvascular angina. It was confirmed by the presence of endothelium-dependent vasodilation disorders that were revealed by positron emission tomography of myocardium with cold pressor test and peripheral arterial tonometry. This clinical case demonstrates one of the discussed pathogenetic mechanisms of the takotsubo syndrome – generalized microvascular spasm. As the patient suffered previously from chronic microvascular angina, it seems logical in this case to regard stress-induced cardiomyopathy as an acute form of microvascular angina.

  20. SB-715992 in Treating Patients With Acute Leukemia, Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, or Advanced Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  1. Diagnosis and management of acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker Hamilton

    2013-09-01

    La prévalence des maladies cardiovasculaires connaît une croissance rapide dans les pays en développement, entraînant une incidence croissante du syndrome coronarien aigu (SCA. Les modalités de diagnostic et de traitement de cette maladie continuent d’évoluer, et il convient de tenir compte des ressources locales lors de la réalisation d’un diagnostic et la détermination des options thérapeutiques. Cet article constitue un guide à la prise en charge du SCA fondé sur l’expérience, et fournit des recommandations spécifiques destinées aux médecins hospitaliers travaillant dans les pays à bas et moyen revenu. Le diagnostic du SCA, y compris les SCA sans élévation du ST et avec élévation du ST, se concentre sur la stratification du risque, la vigilance relative aux manifestations subtiles ou atypiques, et la prise en considération d’autres causes des douleurs poitrinaires. Le processus de diagnostic implique l’évaluation des facteurs de risque, la connaissance des antécédents médicaux défavorables et les conclusions de l’examen physique (des variantes étant susceptibles d’exister dans les différentes populations, ainsi que l’utilisation de tests de diagnostic appropriés. Il est recommandé d’utiliser de l’aspirine à titre de traitement initial, parallèlement à un antiagrégant plaquettaire supplémentaire. Le prasugrel est préféré au clopidogrel si le patient présente un SCA avec élévation du ST et qu’une intervention coronaire percutanée (ICP est prévue. La bivalidurine devrait être le premier choix pour éviter la coagulation dans les SCA avec élévation du ST, suivie de l’enoxaparine (qui ne nécessite pas de perfusion, puis d’héparine non fractionnée. Pour les patients présentant un SCA sans élévation du ST et en cas de risque de saignement accru, le fondaparinux devrait être envisagé à la place de l’énoxaparine. Les patients souffrant de dyspnée, présentant des signes d

  2. 12 min/week of high-intensity interval training reduces aortic reservoir pressure in individuals with metabolic syndrome: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Joyce S; Dalleck, Lance C; Ramos, Maximiano V; Borrani, Fabio; Roberts, Llion; Gomersall, Sjaan; Beetham, Kassia S; Dias, Katrin A; Keating, Shelley E; Fassett, Robert G; Sharman, James E; Coombes, Jeff S

    2016-10-01

    Decreased aortic reservoir function leads to a rise in aortic reservoir pressure that is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. Although there is evidence that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would be useful to improve aortic reservoir pressure, the optimal dose of high-intensity exercise to improve aortic reservoir function has yet to be investigated. Therefore, this study compared the effect of different volumes of HIIT and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on aortic reservoir pressure in participants with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Fifty individuals with MetS were randomized into one of the following 16-week training programs: MICT [n = 17, 30 min at 60-70% peak heart rate (HRpeak), five times/week]; 4 × 4-min high-intensity interval training (4HIIT) (n = 15, 4 × 4 min bouts at 85-95% HRpeak, interspersed with 3 min of active recovery at 50-70% HRpeak, three times/week); and 1 × 4-min high-intensity interval training (1HIIT) (n = 18, 1 × 4 min bout at 85-95% HRpeak, three times/week). Aortic reservoir pressure was calculated from radial applanation tonometry. Although not statistically significant, there was a trend for a small-to-medium group × time interaction effect on aortic reservoir pressure, indicating a positive adaptation following 1HIIT compared with 4HIIT and MICT [F (2,46) = 2.9, P = 0.07, η = 0.06]. This is supported by our within-group analysis wherein only 1HIIT significantly decreased aortic reservoir pressure from pre to postintervention (pre-post: 1HIIT 33 ± 16 to 31 ± 13, P = 0.03; MICT 29 ± 9-28 ± 8, P = 0.78; 4HIIT 28 ± 10-30 ± 9 mmHg, P = 0.10). Three sessions of 4 min of high-intensity exercise per week (12 min/week) was sufficient to improve aortic reservoir pressure, and thus may be a time-efficient exercise modality for reducing cardiovascular risk in individuals with MetS.

  3. Approach to chest pain and acute myocardial infarction | Pandie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patient history, physical examination, 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and cardiac biomarkers are key components of an effective chest pain assessment. The first priority is excluding serious chest pain syndromes, namely acute coronary syndromes (ACSs), aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism, cardiac tamponade and ...

  4. Prediction of acute coronary syndromes by urinary proteome analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nay M Htun

    Full Text Available Identification of individuals who are at risk of suffering from acute coronary syndromes (ACS may allow to introduce preventative measures. We aimed to identify ACS-related urinary peptides, that combined as a pattern can be used as prognostic biomarker. Proteomic data of 252 individuals enrolled in four prospective studies from Australia, Europe and North America were analyzed. 126 of these had suffered from ACS within a period of up to 5 years post urine sampling (cases. Proteomic analysis of 84 cases and 84 matched controls resulted in the discovery of 75 ACS-related urinary peptides. Combining these to a peptide pattern, we established a prognostic biomarker named Acute Coronary Syndrome Predictor 75 (ACSP75. ACSP75 demonstrated reasonable prognostic discrimination (c-statistic = 0.664, which was similar to Framingham risk scoring (c-statistics = 0.644 in a validation cohort of 42 cases and 42 controls. However, generating by a composite algorithm named Acute Coronary Syndrome Composite Predictor (ACSCP, combining the biomarker pattern ACSP75 with the previously established urinary proteomic biomarker CAD238 characterizing coronary artery disease as the underlying aetiology, and age as a risk factor, further improved discrimination (c-statistic = 0.751 resulting in an added prognostic value over Framingham risk scoring expressed by an integrated discrimination improvement of 0.273 ± 0.048 (P < 0.0001 and net reclassification improvement of 0.405 ± 0.113 (P = 0.0007. In conclusion, we demonstrate that urinary peptide biomarkers have the potential to predict future ACS events in asymptomatic patients. Further large scale studies are warranted to determine the role of urinary biomarkers in clinical practice.

  5. Novel risk factors for acute coronary syndromes and emerging therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, David C; Wilson, Andrew M; Layland, Jamie

    2016-10-01

    Acute coronary syndromes represent not merely disrupted atherosclerotic plaques or luminal stenoses but rather a complex clinical syndrome. The traditional conception of pathogenesis and management of ACS has been challenged by numerous recent landmark ACS trials. Current prognostication models lack clinical precision and can be challenging to the clinicians in tailoring management strategies for individual patients. In this review we summarise the emerging evidence of novel risk factors (plaque phenotype, coronary blood flow, endothelial dysfunction, microvascular dysfunction, and inflammation) in predicting future events and outcomes in ACS population. As the search for miracle cure for ischaemic heart disease continues, one is hopeful that emerging therapeutic approaches targeting these novel risk factors will improve long-term outcomes of ACS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Acute Phase Hyperglycemia among Patients Hospitalized with Acute Coronary Syndrome: Prevalence and Prognostic Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hameed Laftah Wanoose

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjectives: Regardless of diabetes status, hyperglycemia on arrival for patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome, has been associated with adverse outcomes including death. The aim of this study is to look at the frequency and prognostic significance of acute phase hyperglycemia among patients attending the coronary care unit with acute coronary syndrome over the in-hospital admission days.Methods: The study included 287 consecutive patients in the Al- Faiha Hospital in Basrah (Southern Iraq during a one year period from December 2007 to November 2008. Patients were divided into two groups with respect to admission plasma glucose level regardless of their diabetes status (those with admission plasma glucose of <140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L and those equal to or more than that. Acute phase hyperglycemia was defined as a non-fasting glucose level equal to or above 140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L regardless of past history of diabetes.Results: Sixty one point seven percent (177 of patients were admitted with plasma glucose of ≥140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L. There were no differences were found between both groups regarding the mean age, qualification, and smoking status, but males were predominant in both groups. A family history of diabetes, and hypertension, were more frequent in patients with plasma glucose of ≥140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L. There were no differences between the two groups regarding past history of ischemic heart disease, stroke, lipid profile, troponin-I levels or type of acute coronary syndrome. Again heart failure was more common in the admission acute phase hyperglycemia group, but there was no difference regarding arrhythmia, stroke, or death. Using logistic regression with heart failure as the dependent variable we found that only the admission acute phase hyperglycemia (OR=2.1344, 95�0CI=1.0282-4.4307; p=0.0419 was independently associated with heart failure. While male gender, family history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and

  7. Current perspectives for management of acute respiratory insufficiency in premature infants with acute respiratory syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Zhang, Ying; Li, Long-Yun

    2014-09-01

    Current perspectives for management of acute respiratory insufficiency in premature infants with acute respiratory syndrome and the pathology of acute respiratory insufficiency in the preterm infant, including the current therapy modalities on disposition are presented. Since the therapeutical challenge and primary clinical goal are to normalize ventilation ratio and lung perfusion, when respiratory insufficiency occurs, it is very important to introduce the respiratory support as soon possible, in order to reduce development of pulmonary cyanosis and edema, and intrapulmonary or intracardial shunts. A characteristic respiratory instability that reflects through fluctuations in gas exchange and ventilation is often present in premature infants. Adapting the respiratory support on a continuous basis to the infant's needs is challenging and not always effective. Although a large number of ventilation strategies for the neonate are available, there is a need for additional consensus on management of acute respiratory distress syndrome in pediatric population lately redefined by Berlin definition criteria, in order to efficiently apply various modes of respiratory support in daily pediatrician clinical use.

  8. [Organ damage and cardiorenal syndrome in acute heart failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado Cerrada, Jesús; Pérez Calvo, Juan Ignacio

    2014-03-01

    Heart failure is a complex syndrome that affects almost all organs and systems of the body. Signs and symptoms of organ dysfunction, in particular kidney dysfunction, may be accentuated or become evident for the first time during acute decompensation of heart failure. Cardiorenal syndrome has been defined as the simultaneous dysfunction of both the heart and the kidney, regardless of which of the two organs may have suffered the initial damage and regardless also of their previous functional status. Research into the mechanisms regulating the complex relationship between the two organs is prompting the search for new biomarkers to help physicians detect renal damage in subclinical stages. Hence, a preventive approach to renal dysfunction may be adopted in the clinical setting in the near future. This article provides a general overview of cardiorenal syndrome and an update of the physiopathological mechanisms involved. Special emphasis is placed on the role of visceral congestion as an emergent mechanism in this syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. [Acute respiratory distress syndrome: a review of the Berlin definition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis Cabezón, N; Sánchez Castro, I; Bengoetxea Uriarte, U X; Rodrigo Casanova, M P; García Peña, J M; Aguilera Celorrio, L

    2014-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is due to many causes. The absence of a universal definition up until now has led to a series of practical problems for a definitive diagnosis. The incidences of ARDS and Acute Lung Injury (ALI) vary widely in the current literature. The American-European Consensus Conference definition has been applied since its publication in 1994 and has helped to improve knowledge about ARDS. However, 18 years later, in 2011, the European Intensive Medicine Society, requested a team of international experts to meet in Berlin to review the ARDS definition. The purpose of the Berlin definition is not to use it as a prognostic tool, but to improve coherence between research and clinical practice. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Associated with Refractory Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia R. Delgado

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a young man who was transferred to our hospital with worsening acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM despite treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin and plasma exchange. He developed neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS without the use of dopamine-modulating drugs. His progressive clinical improvement started after treatment with intravenous cyclophosphamide and methylprednisolone. In our patient, acute demyelination with severe bilateral inflammation of the basal ganglia could have caused a state of central dopamine depletion, creating proper conditions for the development of NMS. Significant clinical improvement of our case after treatment with intravenous cyclophosphamide and steroids provides further evidence for a possible role of the inflammatory lesions in the pathogenesis of NMS in association with ADEM.

  11. Chest wall myositis in a patient with acute coronary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Laila; Al-Rawi, Harith

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of a 42-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with severe left-sided chest pain and chest tenderness of 1-day duration. The pain was episodic and was aggravated by any chest wall movement. His initial blood tests and ECG were suggestive of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, his pattern of pain, lack of response to opiates, raised creatine kinase and signs of pleurisy on chest radiograph raised a suspicion of an alternative diagnosis. The patient showed...

  12. Acute compartment syndrome of the thigh in a rugby player

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard David James; Rust-March, Holly; Kluzek, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In the absence of obvious trauma, diagnosis of acute compartment syndrome (ACS) of the thigh can easily be delayed, as disproportional pain is not always present. We present a case of ACS of the anterior right thigh compartment in a healthy, semiprofessional rugby player with normal coagulation, who sustained a seemingly innocuous blow during a rugby match. Following early surgical fasciotomy, he returned to his preinjury playing standards within 12 months. Our literature review suggests that high muscle mass, young, athletic males participating in a contact sport are mostly at risk of developing ACS of the thigh. PMID:26250368

  13. Acute Compartment Syndrome in Orthopedics: Causes, Diagnosis, and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Hasnain; Mahapatra, Anant

    2015-01-01

    Almost all orthopaedic surgeons come across acute compartment syndrome (ACS) in their clinical practice. Diagnosis of ACS mostly relies on clinical findings. If the diagnosis is missed and left untreated, it can lead to serious consequences which can endanger limb and life of the patient and also risk the clinician to face lawsuits. This review article highlights the characteristic features of ACS which will help an orthopaedic surgeon to understand the pathophysiology, natural history, high risk patients, diagnosis, and surgical management of the condition. PMID:25688303

  14. Multiple Chronic Conditions in Older Adults with Acute Coronary Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfredsson, Joakim; Alexander, Karen P

    2016-05-01

    Older adults presenting with acute coronary syndromes (ACSs) often have multiple chronic conditions (MCCs). In addition to traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors (ie, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes), common CV comorbidities include heart failure, stroke, and atrial fibrillation, whereas prevalent non-CV comorbidities include chronic kidney disease, anemia, depression, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The presence of MCCs affects the presentation (eg, increased frequency of type 2 myocardial infarctions [MIs]), clinical course, and prognosis of ACS in older adults. In general, higher comorbidity burden increases mortality following MI, reduces utilization of ACS treatments, and increases the importance of developing individualized treatment plans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Epidemiology of coronary heart disease and acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Perez-Quilis, Carme; Leischik, Roman; Lucia, Alejandro

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize the incidence, prevalence, trend in mortality, and general prognosis of coronary heart disease (CHD) and a related condition, acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Although CHD mortality has gradually declined over the last decades in western countries, this condition still causes about one-third of all deaths in people older than 35 years. This evidence, along with the fact that mortality from CHD is expected to continue increasing in developing countries, illustrates the need for implementing effective primary prevention approaches worldwide and identifying risk groups and areas for possible improvement.

  16. Mechanical ventilation in the acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelbaum, Oleg; Aronow, Wilbert S

    2017-08-01

    The management of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patient is fundamental to the field of intensive care medicine, and it presents unique challenges owing to the specialized mechanical ventilation techniques that such patients require. ARDS is a highly lethal disease, and there is compelling evidence that mechanical ventilation itself, if applied in an injurious fashion, can be a contributor to ARDS mortality. Therefore, it is imperative for any clinician central to the care of ARDS patients to understand the fundamental framework that underpins the approach to mechanical ventilation in this special scenario. The current review summarizes the major components of the mechanical ventilation strategy as it applies to ARDS.

  17. Transmission Dynamics and Control of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsitch, Marc; Cohen, Ted; Cooper, Ben; Robins, James M.; Ma, Stefan; James, Lyn; Gopalakrishna, Gowri; Chew, Suok Kai; Tan, Chorh Chuan; Samore, Matthew H.; Fisman, David; Murray, Megan

    2003-06-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a recently described illness of humans that has spread widely over the past 6 months. With the use of detailed epidemiologic data from Singapore and epidemic curves from other settings, we estimated the reproductive number for SARS in the absence of interventions and in the presence of control efforts. We estimate that a single infectious case of SARS will infect about three secondary cases in a population that has not yet instituted control measures. Public-health efforts to reduce transmission are expected to have a substantial impact on reducing the size of the epidemic.

  18. Predicting Acute Compartment Syndrome (PACS): The Role of Continuous Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Andrew H; Bosse, Michael J; Frey, Katherine P; OʼToole, Robert V; Stinner, Daniel J; Scharfstein, Daniel O; Zipunnikov, Vadim; MacKenzie, Ellen J

    2017-04-01

    The diagnosis of acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is a common clinical challenge among patients who sustain high-energy orthopaedic trauma, largely because no validated criteria exist to reliably define the presence of the condition. In the absence of validated diagnostic standards, concern for the potential clinical and medicolegal impact of a missed compartment syndrome may result in the potential overuse of fasciotomy in "at-risk" patients. The goal of the Predicting Acute Compartment Syndrome Study was to develop a decision rule for predicting the likelihood of ACS that would reduce unnecessary fasciotomies while guarding against potentially missed ACS. Of particular interest was the utility of early and continuous monitoring of intramuscular pressure and muscle oxygenation using near-infrared spectroscopy in the timely diagnosis of ACS. In this observational study, 191 participants aged 18-60 with high-energy tibia fractures were prospectively enrolled and monitored for up to 72 hours after admission, then followed for 6 months. Treating physicians were blinded to continuous pressure and oxygenation data. An expert panel of 9 orthopaedic surgeons retrospectively assessed the likelihood that each patient developed ACS based on data collected on initial presentation, clinical course, and known functional outcome at 6 months. This retrospectively assigned likelihood is modeled as a function of clinical data typically available within 72 hours of admission together with continuous pressure and oxygenation data. This study will improve our understanding of the natural history of compartment syndrome and examine the utility of early and continuous monitoring of the physiologic status of the injured extremity in the timely diagnosis of ACS.

  19. Aortic stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... but most often it develops later in life. Children with aortic stenosis may have other conditions present from birth. Aortic ... children may need aortic valve repair or replacement. Children with mild aortic stenosis may be able to take part in most ...

  20. [Clinico-psychopathologic varieties of the acute Kandinsky-Clerambault syndrome in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikaia, V I

    1985-01-01

    Acute cases of the Kandinsky-Clerambault syndrome first manifested in adulthood were studied in schizophrenic patients. On the basis of the clinical mechanisms of the development of psychosis and the specific features of acute delirious disturbances in the structure of psychosis 3 clinical variants of the acute syndrome of psychic automatism were identified: developing according to the type of reaction in the structure of acute paranoid (the first variant), according to the regularities of endogenic paroxysm in the picture of acute sensory delirium (the second variant) and according to the mechanism of exacerbation of chronic delirium entering the structure of acute interpretative delirium (the third variant).

  1. Prevalence of Burnout Syndrome in Patients Admitted with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Giaxa Prosdócimo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burnout Syndrome is the extreme emotional response to chronic occupational stress, manifesting as physical and mental exhaustion. Although associated with higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, no study so far has evaluated whether the Burnout Syndrome could be a prevalent factor in non-elderly individuals active in the labor market, admitted for acute coronary syndrome (ACS. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of the Burnout Syndrome in non-elderly, economically active patients, hospitalized with ACS. Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary and private cardiology center, with economically active patients aged <65 years, hospitalized with diagnosis of ACS. The Burnout Syndrome was evaluated with the Burnout Syndrome Inventory (BSI, which assesses workplace conditions and four dimensions that characterize the syndrome: emotional exhaustion (EE, emotional distancing (EmD, dehumanization (De and professional fulfillment (PF. The Lipp’s Stress Symptoms Inventory for Adults (LSSI was applied to evaluate global stress. Results: Of 830 patients evaluated with suspected ACS, 170 met the study criteria, 90% of which were men, overall average age was 52 years, and 40.5% had an average income above 11 minimum wages. The prevalence of the Burnout Syndrome was 4.1%. When we evaluated each dimension individually, we found high EE in 34.7%, high De in 52.4%, high EDi in 30.6%, and low PF in 5.9%. The overall prevalence of stress was 87.5%. Conclusion: We found a low prevalence of Burnout Syndrome in an economically active, non-elderly population among patients admitted for ACS in a tertiary and private hospital.

  2. Acute bulbar palsy plus syndrome: A rare variant of Guillain-Barre syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Sanghamitra; Jain, Prakash Chand

    2016-01-01

    Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is the most common cause of acute flaccid paralysis worldwide both in adult and pediatric population. Although flaccid paralysis is the hallmark of this disease, there are some rare variants which may be easily missed unless suspected. Here, we present a very rare variant of GBS - acute bulbar palsy plus syndrome in a pediatric patient. A 13-year-old female child presented with right-sided lower motor neuron type of facial palsy and palsy of bilateral glossopharyngeal and vagus nerve of 2 weeks duration. On detailed neurological examination, motor and sensory system were normal, but the deep tendon reflexes were absent universally. Nerve conduction study showed demyelinating motor neuropathy. Based on typical clinical course and electrophysiological studies, the diagnosis was made. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first pediatric case of unilateral facial palsy with bulbar involvement without any motor abnormality.

  3. Acute flaccid paraparesis (cauda equina syndrome in a patient with Bardet–Biedl syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhu Krishnan Viswanathan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bardet–Biedl syndrome (BBS is a rare, autosomal-recessive, debilitating genetic disorder, which can present with multitudinous systemic clinical features including rod-cone dystrophy, polydactyly, Frohlich-like central obesity, mental retardation, hypogonadism, and renal anomalies. Diverse neuromuscular manifestations in patients afflicted by this heterogeneous disorder include ataxia, cervical, and thoracic canal stenoses, presenting as spastic quadriparesis and other gait disturbances. We report a young patient with BBS, who had presented with acute flaccid paraparesis due to severe primary lumbar canal stenosis. She underwent immediate lumbar decompression and discectomy following which she recovered significantly. Acute cauda equina syndrome due to primary lumbar canal stenosis has not been reported as a clinical feature of BBS previously.

  4. Surgical repair of acute type A aortic dissection: continuous pulmonary perfusion during retrograde cerebral perfusion prevents lung injury in a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santo, Luca Salvatore; Romano, Gianpaolo; Amarelli, Cristiano; Onorati, Francesco; Torella, Michele; Renzulli, Attilio; Galdieri, Nicola; Cotrufo, Maurizio

    2003-09-01

    Postoperative respiratory failure is a frequent and serious complication in patients with type A acute aortic dissection operated on with deep systemic hypothermia. Interaction between neutrophils and pulmonary endothelium along with ischemic insult and reperfusion are the major determinants of lung injury. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the effect of continuous pulmonary perfusion during retrograde cerebral perfusion on lung function. Twenty-two patients referred for acute type A aortic dissection, who were free from preoperative respiratory dysfunction, were assigned prospectively and alternately to one of 2 treatment groups. Pulmonary perfusion was performed during retrograde cerebral perfusion in group B (11 patients), whereas the conventional Ueda technique was applied in group A (11 patients). Lung function was evaluated on the basis of intubation time, scoring of chest radiographs at 12 hours after cardiopulmonary bypass, and Pao(2)/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio assessed from immediately before the operation to 72 hours after termination of cardiopulmonary bypass. Study groups were homogeneous for age, sex, interval between symptom onset and surgical operation, previous aortic surgery, preoperative ejection fraction and pulmonary gas exchange function, extent of aortic repair, and concomitant procedures. Cardiopulmonary bypass time, length of retrograde cerebral perfusion, operation time, need for blood substitutes, and surgical revision for bleeding did not differ between treatment groups. Postoperative Pao(2)/fraction of inspired oxygen ratios were higher in group B than in group A, and the difference remained statistically significant throughout the study period. The incidence of prolonged ventilator support (>72 hours) and the severity of the radiographic pulmonary infiltrate score were lower in the perfused group (18.2% vs 72.7% [P =.015] and 0.81 +/- 0.75 vs 1.8 +/- 0.78 [P =.028], respectively). Continuous pulmonary perfusion

  5. Acute human immunodeficiency virus syndrome in an adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Mridula; Rein, Jeffrey

    2003-10-01

    suspicion of acute HIV illness should prompt virologic and serologic analysis. Initial serology is usually negative. Diagnosis therefore depends on direct detection of the virus, by assay of viral load (HIV RNA), DNA polymerase chain reaction, or p24 antigen. Both false-positive and false-negative results for these tests have been reported, further complicating early diagnosis. Pediatricians should play an active role in identifying HIV-infected patients. Our case, the first report of acute HIV illness in an adolescent, emphasizes that clinicians should consider acute HIV seroconversion in the appropriate setting. Recognition of acute HIV syndrome is especially important for improving prognosis and limiting transmission. It is imperative that we maintain a high index of suspicion as primary care physicians for adolescents who present with a viral syndrome and appropriate risk factors.

  6. Nitric oxide mediates aortic disease in mice deficient in the metalloprotease Adamts1 and in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oller, Jorge; Méndez-Barbero, Nerea; Ruiz, E Josue; Villahoz, Silvia; Renard, Marjolijn; Canelas, Lizet I; Briones, Ana M; Alberca, Rut; Lozano-Vidal, Noelia; Hurlé, María A; Milewicz, Dianna; Evangelista, Arturo; Salaices, Mercedes; Nistal, J Francisco; Jiménez-Borreguero, Luis Jesús; De Backer, Julie; Campanero, Miguel R; Redondo, Juan Miguel

    2017-02-01

    Heritable thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD), including Marfan syndrome (MFS), currently lack a cure, and causative mutations have been identified for only a fraction of affected families. Here we identify the metalloproteinase ADAMTS1 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) as therapeutic targets in individuals with TAAD. We show that Adamts1 is a major mediator of vascular homeostasis, given that genetic haploinsufficiency of Adamts1 in mice causes TAAD similar to MFS. Aortic nitric oxide and Nos2 levels were higher in Adamts1-deficient mice and in a mouse model of MFS (hereafter referred to as MFS mice), and Nos2 inactivation protected both types of mice from aortic pathology. Pharmacological inhibition of Nos2 rapidly reversed aortic dilation and medial degeneration in young Adamts1-deficient mice and in young or old MFS mice. Patients with MFS showed elevated NOS2 and decreased ADAMTS1 protein levels in the aorta. These findings uncover a possible causative role for the ADAMTS1-NOS2 axis in human TAAD and warrant evaluation of NOS2 inhibitors for therapy.

  7. Dietary Supplement-Drug Interaction-Induced Serotonin Syndrome Progressing to Acute Compartment Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Yesha A; Marzella, Nino

    2017-08-25

    BACKGROUND Dietary supplements have been associated with an increase in emergency intervention as a result of unexpected adverse events. Limited resources and information on significant drug-drug interactions with dietary supplements and prescription medications have contributed to associated complications and unexpected events. We present the case of a patient who consumed multiple prescription medications and dietary supplements which resulted in significant complications. CASE REPORT A 28-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department complaining of severe calf pain after exercising. In addition to his prescription medications, which included sertraline, he also consumed dietary supplements prior to his workout. He developed serotonin syndrome with rhabdomyolysis, which rapidly progressed to acute compartment syndrome. An emergency bilateral four-compartment double-incision lower extremity and forearm fasciotomy was performed, with complete recovery. CONCLUSIONS Drug-drug interactions involving dietary supplements are frequently overlooked in most healthcare settings, especially in the Emergency Department. Health care providers should be cognizant of the potential drug- drug interactions resulting in serotonin syndrome to prevent the progression to acute compartment syndrome and associated complications. Pharmacists play a key role in recognizing drug-dietary supplement interactions and adverse effects.

  8. Early Upregulation of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome-Associated Cytokines Promotes Lethal Disease in an Aged-Mouse Model of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Rockx, Barry; Baas, Tracey; Zornetzer, Gregory; Haagmans, Bart; Sheahan, Timothy; Frieman, Matthew; Dyer, Matthew; Teal, Thomas; Proll, Sean; Brand, Judith; Baric, Ralph; Katze, Michael

    2009-01-01

    textabstractSeveral respiratory viruses, including influenza virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), produce more severe disease in the elderly, yet the molecular mechanisms governing age-related susceptibility remain poorly studied. Advanced age was significantly associated with increased SARS-related deaths, primarily due to the onset of early- and late-stage acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and pulmonary fibrosis. Infection of aged, but not young, mice...

  9. Impact of Different Obesity Assessment Methods after Acute Coronary Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline N. M. Nunes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abdominal obesity is an important cardiovascular risk factor. Therefore, identifying the best method for measuring waist circumference (WC is a priority. Objective: To evaluate the eight methods of measuring WC in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS as a predictor of cardiovascular complications during hospitalization. Methods: Prospective study of patients with ACS. The measurement of WC was performed by eight known methods: midpoint between the last rib and the iliac crest (1, point of minimum circumference (2; immediately above the iliac crest (3, umbilicus (4, one inch above the umbilicus (5, one centimeter above the umbilicus (6, smallest rib and (7 the point of greatest circumference around the waist (8. Complications included: angina, arrhythmia, heart failure, cardiogenic shock, hypotension, pericarditis and death. Logistic regression tests were used for predictive factors. Results: A total of 55 patients were evaluated. During the hospitalization period, which corresponded on average to seven days, 37 (67% patients had complications, with the exception of death, which was not observed in any of the cases. Of these complications, the only one that was associated with WC was angina, and with every cm of WC increase, the risk for angina increased from 7.5 to 9.9%, depending on the measurement site. It is noteworthy the fact that there was no difference between the different methods of measuring WC as a predictor of angina. Conclusion: The eight methods of measuring WC are also predictors of recurrent angina after acute coronary syndromes.

  10. Cardiorenal Syndrome in Acute Heart Failure: Revisiting Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Julio; Miñana, Gema; Santas, Enrique; Bertomeu-González, Vicente

    2015-05-01

    Cardiorenal syndrome has been defined as the simultaneous dysfunction of both the heart and the kidney. Worsening renal function that occurs in patients with acute heart failure has been classified as cardiorenal syndrome type 1. In this setting, worsening renal function is a common finding and is due to complex, multifactorial, and not fully understood processes involving hemodynamic (renal arterial hypoperfusion and renal venous congestion) and nonhemodynamic factors. Traditionally, worsening renal function has been associated with worse outcomes, but recent findings have revealed mixed and heterogeneous results, perhaps suggesting that the same phenotype represents a diversity of pathophysiological and clinical situations. Interpreting the magnitude and chronology of renal changes together with baseline renal function, fluid overload status, and clinical response to therapy might help clinicians to unravel the clinical meaning of renal function changes that occur during an episode of heart failure decompensation. In this article, we critically review the contemporary evidence on the pathophysiology and clinical aspects of worsening renal function in acute heart failure. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Using machine learning techniques to differentiate acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sougand Setareh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS is an unstable and dynamic process that includes unstable angina, ST elevation myocardial infarction, and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction. Despite recent technological advances in early diognosis of ACS, differentiating between different types of coronary diseases in the early hours of admission is controversial. The present study was aimed to accurately differentiate between various coronary events, using machine learning techniques. Such methods, as a subset of artificial intelligence, include algorithms that allow computers to learn and play a major role in treatment decisions. Methods: 1902 patients diagnosed with ACS and admitted to hospital were selected according to Euro Heart Survey on ACS. Patients were classified based on decision tree J48. Bagging aggregation algorithms was implemented to increase the efficiency of algorithm. Results: The performance of classifiers was estimated and compared based on their accuracy computed from confusion matrix. The accuracy rates of decision tree and bagging algorithm were calculated to be 91.74% and 92.53%, respectively. Conclusion: The proposed methods used in this study proved to have the ability to identify various ACS. In addition, using matrix of confusion, an acceptable number of subjects with acute coronary syndrome were identified in each class.

  12. Impact of Different Obesity Assessment Methods after Acute Coronary Syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Caroline N. M.; Minicucci, Marcos F.; Farah, Elaine; Fusco, Daniéliso; Azevedo, Paula S.; Paiva, Sergio A. R.; Zornoff, Leonardo A. M., E-mail: lzornoff@cardiol.br [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    Abdominal obesity is an important cardiovascular risk factor. Therefore, identifying the best method for measuring waist circumference (WC) is a priority. To evaluate the eight methods of measuring WC in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) as a predictor of cardiovascular complications during hospitalization. Prospective study of patients with ACS. The measurement of WC was performed by eight known methods: midpoint between the last rib and the iliac crest (1), point of minimum circumference (2); immediately above the iliac crest (3), umbilicus (4), one inch above the umbilicus (5), one centimeter above the umbilicus (6), smallest rib and (7) the point of greatest circumference around the waist (8). Complications included: angina, arrhythmia, heart failure, cardiogenic shock, hypotension, pericarditis and death. Logistic regression tests were used for predictive factors. A total of 55 patients were evaluated. During the hospitalization period, which corresponded on average to seven days, 37 (67%) patients had complications, with the exception of death, which was not observed in any of the cases. Of these complications, the only one that was associated with WC was angina, and with every cm of WC increase, the risk for angina increased from 7.5 to 9.9%, depending on the measurement site. It is noteworthy the fact that there was no difference between the different methods of measuring WC as a predictor of angina. The eight methods of measuring WC are also predictors of recurrent angina after acute coronary syndromes.

  13. Recurrent Aortic Dissection: Observations From the International Registry of Aortic Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isselbacher, Eric M; Bonaca, Marc P; Di Eusanio, Marco; Froehlich, James; Bassone, Eduardo; Sechtem, Udo; Pyeritz, Reed; Patel, Himanshu; Khoynezhad, Ali; Eckstein, Hans-Henning; Jondeau, Guillaume; Ramponi, Fabio; Abbasi, Mohammad; Montgomery, Daniel; Nienaber, Christoph A; Eagle, Kim; Lindsay, Mark E

    2016-10-04

    Improved medical care after initial aortic dissection (AD) has led to increased survivorship and a population of individuals at risk for further cardiovascular events, including recurrent AD. Reports describing recurrent ADs have been restricted to small numbers of patients from single institutions. We used the IRAD (International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection) database to examine the clinical profiles and outcomes of patients with recurrent AD. We identified 204 patients enrolled in IRAD with recurrent AD. For the primary analysis, patient characteristics, interventions, and outcomes were analyzed and compared with 3624 patients with initial AD. Iterative logistic modeling was performed to investigate variables associated with recurrent AD. Cox regression analyses were used to determine variables associated with 5-year survival. A subset of recurrent AD patients was analyzed for anatomic and demographic details of initial and recurrent ADs. Patients with recurrent AD were more likely to have Marfan syndrome (21.5% versus 3.1%; P<0.001) but not bicuspid aortic valve (3.6% versus 3.2%; P=0.77). Descending aortic dimensions were greater in patients with recurrent AD than in patients with initial AD independently of sentinel dissection type (type A: 4.3 cm [3.5-5.6 cm] versus 3.3 cm [2.9-3.7 cm], P<0.001; type B: 5.0 cm [3.9-6.0 cm] versus 4.0 cm [3.5-4.8 cm], P<0.001), and this observation was accentuated among patients with Marfan syndrome. In multivariate analysis, the diagnosis of Marfan syndrome independently predicted recurrent AD (hazard ratio, 8.6; 95% confidence interval, 5.8-12.8; P<0.001). Patients with recurrent AD who presented with proximal followed by distal AD were younger than patients who experienced distal followed by proximal dissection AD (42.1±16.1 versus 54.3±14.8 years; P=0.004). Among those suffering acute aortic dissection, 5% have a history of a prior aortic dissection. Recurrent AD is strongly associated with Marfan syndrome.

  14. Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome with severe calcific aortic valve stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natesh B Hanumanthappa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS is a rare premature aging syndrome that results from mutation in the Laminin A gene. This case report of a 12-year-old girl with HGPS is presented for the rarity of the syndrome and the classical clinical features that were observed in the patient. All patients with this condition should undergo early and periodic evaluation for cardiovascular diseases. However, the prognosis is poor and management is mainly conservative. There is no proven therapy available. Mortality in this uniformly fatal condition is primarily due to myocardial infarction, strokes or congestive cardiac failure between ages 7 and 21 years due to the rapidly progressive arteriosclerosis involving the large vessels.

  15. β-Blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors: comparison of effects on aortic growth in pediatric patients with Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phomakay, Venusa; Huett, Wilson G; Gossett, Jeffrey M; Tang, Xinyu; Bornemeier, Renee A; Collins, R Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) have been shown to decrease aortic growth velocity (AGV) in Marfan syndrome (MFS). We sought to compare the effect of β-blockers and ACEI on AGV in MFS. We retrospectively reviewed all data from all patients with MFS seen at Arkansas Children's Hospital between January 1, 1976 and January 1, 2013. Generalized least squares were used to evaluate AGV over time as a function of age, medication group, and the interaction between the 2. A mixed model was used to compare AGV between medication groups as a function of age, medication group (none, β-blocker, ACEI), and the interaction between the 2. A total of 67 patients with confirmed MFS were identified (34/67, 51% female). Mean age at first encounter was 13 ± 10 years, with mean follow-up of 7.6 ± 5.8 years. There were 839 patient encounters with a median of 10 (range 2-42) encounters per patient. AGV was nearly normal in the β-blocker group, and was less than either the ACEI or untreated groups. The AGV was higher than normal in ACEI and untreated groups (P AGV in MFS. ACEI did not decrease AGV in a clinically significant manner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Whole exome sequencing implicates an INO80D mutation in a syndrome of aortic hypoplasia, premature atherosclerosis, and arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameer, Khader; Klee, Eric W; Dalenberg, Angela K; Kullo, Iftikhar J

    2014-10-01

    Massively parallel, high-throughput sequencing technology is helping to generate new insights into the genetic basis of human diseases. We used whole exome sequencing to identify the mutation underlying a syndrome affecting 2 siblings with aortic hypoplasia, calcific atherosclerosis, systolic hypertension, and premature cataract. Exonic regions were captured and sequenced using a next-generation sequencing platform to generate 100 bases paired-end reads. A computational genomic data analysis pipeline was used to perform quality control, align reads to a reference genome, and identify genetic variants; findings were confirmed using a different exome analyses pipeline. The 2 siblings were homozygous for a rare missense mutation (Ser818Cys) in INO80D, a subunit of the human INO80 chromatin remodeling complex. Homozygosity mapping and Sanger sequencing confirmed that the mutation is located in one of the runs of homozygosity on chromosome 2. INO80D encodes a key subunit of the human IN080 complex, a multiprotein complex involved in DNA binding, chromatin modification, organization of chromosome structure, and ATP-dependent nucleosome sliding. By introducing a new disulphide-bond in the protein product and also disrupting the composition of low-complexity regions, the Ser818Cys mutation may affect INO80D function, protein-protein interactions, and chromatin remodeling. Our findings suggest a link between the Ser818Cys mutation in INO80D, a subunit of the human INO80 chromatin remodeling complex, and accelerated arterial aging. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Acute neurological involvement in diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, Sylvie; Kwon, Thérésa; Elmaleh, Monique; Charbit, Marina; Launay, Emma Allain; Harambat, Jérôme; Brun, Muriel; Ranchin, Bruno; Bandin, Flavio; Cloarec, Sylvie; Bourdat-Michel, Guylhene; Piètrement, Christine; Champion, Gérard; Ulinski, Tim; Deschênes, Georges

    2010-07-01

    Neurologic involvement is the most threatening complication of diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (D+HUS). We report a retrospective multicenter series of 52 patients with severe initial neurologic involvement that occurred in the course of D+HUS. Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection was documented in 24. All except two patients had acute renal failure that required peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis, or both techniques. A first group of eight patients remained with normal consciousness; five of them had protracted seizures. A second group of 23 patients had stuporous coma; five of these had protracted severe seizures, and 18 had a neurologic defect including pyramidal syndrome, hemiplegia or hemiparesia, and extrapyramidal syndrome. A third group of 21 patients had severe coma. Plasma exchanges were undertaken in 25 patients, 11 of whom were treated within 24 hours after the first neurologic sign; four died, two survived with severe sequelae, and five were alive without neurologic defect. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for 29 patients showed that (1) every structure of the central nervous system was susceptible to involvement; (2) no correlation seemed to exist between special profile of localization on early MRI and the final prognosis; and (3) MRI did not exhibit any focal lesions in three patients. The overall prognosis of the series was marked by the death of nine patients and severe sequelae in 13. Neurologic involvement is associated with a severe renal disease but does not lead systematically to death or severe disability.

  18. [Acute pancreatitis and afferent loop syndrome. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barajas-Fregoso, Elpidio Manuel; Romero-Hernández, Teodoro; Macías-Amezcua, Michel Dassaejv

    2013-01-01

    The afferent syndrome loop is a mechanic obstruction of the afferent limb before a Billroth II or Roux-Y reconstruction, secondary in most of case to distal or subtotal gastrectomy. Clinical case: Male 76 years old, with antecedent of cholecystectomy, gastric adenocarcinoma six years ago, with subtotal gastrectomy and Roux-Y reconstruction. Beginning a several abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, abdominal distension, without peritoneal irritation sings. Amylase 1246 U/L, lipase 3381 U/L. Computed Tomography with thickness wall and dilatation of afferent loop, pancreas with diffuse enlargement diagnostic of acute pancreatitis secondary an afferent loop syndrome. The afferent loop syndrome is presented in 0.3%-1% in all cases with Billroth II reconstruction, with a mortality of up to 57%, the obstruction lead accumulation of bile, pancreatic and intestinal secretions, increasing the pressure and resulting in afferent limb, bile conduct and Wirsung conduct dilatation, triggering an inflammatory response that culminates in pancreatic inflammation. The severity of the presentation is related to the degree and duration of the blockage.

  19. Outcome of contemporary acute coronary syndrome complicated by ventricular tachyarrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orvin, Katia; Eisen, Alon; Goldenberg, Ilan; Gottlieb, Shmuel; Kornowski, Ran; Matetzky, Shlomi; Golovchiner, Gregory; Kuznietz, Jairo; Gavrielov-Yusim, Natalie; Segev, Amit; Strasberg, Boris; Haim, Moti

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the incidence and prognostic implications of ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VTAs) complicating acute myocardial infarction (MI). We evaluated 7669 MI patients [ST elevation (n = 3573) and non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (ACS) (n = 4096)] from the Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Survey for the incidence of VTA. Ventricular tachyarrhythmia occurred in 3.8% of patients [2.1% early (≤ 48 h) and 1.7% late (>48 h) VTA]. In-hospital mortality rates were higher for patients with VTA when compared with patients with no VTA (P < 0.001). Consistent with these findings, multivariable analysis demonstrated that early and late VTAs were associated with increased risk of in-hospital death [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.84; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.77-6.78, P < 0.001, and HR = 8.23; 95% CI 4.84-13.98, P < 0.001, respectively]. In contrast, post-discharge outcomes demonstrated that only late VTA was independently associated with a significant increased risk of 30-day mortality (HR = 5.17; 95% CI 1.54-17.27, P = 0.007) with a trend towards an increased 1-year mortality risk (HR = 1.69; 95% CI 0.79-3.62, P = 0.17). The long-term risk associated with in-hospital VTA was driven by sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) (HR = 3.28; 95% CI 1.92-5.60, P < 0.001) but not ventricular fibrillation (HR = 1.27; 95% CI 0.65-2.49, P = 0.47). Our findings suggest that in patients with ACS, both early and late VTAs are associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality. However, only late VTA, mostly sustained VT, is associated with long-term adverse outcome. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Steroid Exposure, Acute Coronary Syndrome, and Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Insights into the Inflammatory Milieu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaño, Roderick C.; Basnet, Sandeep; Onandia, Zurine Galvan; Gandhi, Sachin; Tawakol, Ahmed; Min, James K.; Truong, Quynh A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Steroids are anti-inflammatory agents commonly used to treat inflammatory bowel disease. Inflammation plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of both inflammatory bowel disease and acute coronary syndrome. We examined the relationship between steroid use in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and acute coronary syndrome. Methods In 177 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (mean age 67, 75% male, 44% Crohn's disease, 56% ulcerative colitis), we performed a 1:2 case-control study matched for age, sex and inflammatory bowel disease type and compared 59 patients with inflammatory bowel disease with acute coronary syndrome to 118 patients with inflammatory bowel disease without acute coronary syndrome. Steroid use was defined as current or prior exposure. Acute coronary syndrome was defined as myocardial infarction or unstable angina, confirmed by cardiac biomarkers and coronary angiography. Results In patients with inflammatory bowel disease, 34% with acute coronary syndrome had exposure to steroids versus 58% without acute coronary syndrome (pinflammatory bowel disease, 77% in Crohn's disease (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.14-0.92; adjusted OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.06-0.98), and 78% in ulcerative colitis (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.16-1.04; adjusted OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.06-0.90). There was no association between other inflammatory bowel disease medications and acute coronary syndrome. Conclusions In patients with inflammatory bowel disease, steroid use significantly reduces the odds of acute coronary syndrome. These findings provide further mechanistic insight into the inflammatory processes involved in inflammatory bowel disease and acute coronary syndrome. PMID:25446295