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Sample records for acute aortic dissection

  1. Management of acute aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienaber, Christoph A; Clough, Rachel E

    2015-02-28

    A new appraisal of the management of acute aortic dissection is timely because of recent developments in diagnostic strategies (including biomarkers and imaging), endograft design, and surgical treatment, which have led to a better understanding of the epidemiology, risk factors, and molecular nature of aortic dissection. Although open surgery is the main treatment for proximal aortic repair, use of endovascular management is now established for complicated distal dissection and distal arch repair, and has recently been discussed as a pre-emptive measure to avoid late complications by inducing aortic remodelling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Management of acute type B aortic dissection.

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    Hughes, G Chad; Andersen, Nicholas D; McCann, Richard L

    2013-03-01

    Acute type B aortic dissection (identified within 2 weeks of symptom onset), as described using the Stanford classification, involves the aorta distal to the left subclavian artery and accounts for 25%-40% of all aortic dissections. The traditional treatment paradigm of medical management for uncomplicated acute type B dissection and open surgical intervention for early or late complications of type B dissection is currently undergoing a period of evolution as a result of the influence of minimally invasive thoracic endovascular aortic repair options. Thoracic endovascular repair has replaced open surgical repair as the preferred treatment for complicated acute type B dissection, and may also prove beneficial for prophylactic repair of uncomplicated acute type B dissection for high-risk patients. This review discusses the management of acute type B aortic dissection and long-term treatment considerations. Copyright © 2013 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute aortic dissection: An update

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    Iván Alejandro De León Ayala

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aorta, which has a complex intrinsic biology and sophisticated mechanical properties for conducting the blood ejected from the left ventricle to the rest of the systemic arterial bed, is the largest and strongest artery in the body. It carries roughly 200 million liters of blood in an average lifetime. Any process that undermines the architecture threatens the structure, stability, and functionality of the aorta. In this regard, acute aortic dissection (AAD requires special attention because it is the most catastrophic acute illness of the aorta; it has high morbidity and mortality because of potentially fatal complications. AAD has, therefore, become an important topic of recent research, and knowledge about this disease has improved during the past few years. Up-to-date knowledge about the natural history, epidemiology, presentation, physiopathology, evolution, management, follow-up, and long-term outcomes of AAD are summarized in this review.

  4. New type A dissection after acute type B aortic dissection.

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    Charlton-Ouw, Kristofer M; Sandhu, Harleen K; Leake, Samuel S; Miller, Charles C; Afifi, Rana O; Azizzadeh, Ali; Estrera, Anthony L; Safi, Hazim J

    2017-08-17

    Aortic dissection is a dynamic process that can progress both proximal and distal to the initial entry tear. We sought to determine associations for development of proximal progression or new type A aortic dissection (NTAD) after acute type B dissection (ATBD) and its effect on survival of the patient. We reviewed all cases of acute aortic dissection that we managed from 1999 to 2014. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed to identify correlates of NTAD. Multivariable regression and proportional hazards regression analysis was done to determine the effect of dissection progression on long-term survival. Among 477 cases of ATBD managed, 19 (4.0%) patients developed NTAD during a median follow-up of 4.1 (interquartile range, 1.4-7.7) years. Median time from diagnosis of ATBD to NTAD was 124 (interquartile range, 23-1201) days. Baseline predictors for development of NTAD at initial ATBD admission included bicuspid aortic valve (P = .006) and age natural history of ATBD is such that there is a persistent risk of NTAD, with the highest risk in the first 6 months. Factors associated with NTAD include bicuspid aortic valve and young age. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair did not have a large effect on risk. Timely diagnosis and repair of NTAD are associated with good survival rates. Lifelong surveillance is warranted in all cases of descending thoracic aortic dissection regardless of initial treatment modality. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Acute aortic dissection: be aware of misdiagnosis

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    Asteri Theodora

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute aortic dissection (AAD is a life-threatening condition requiring immediate assessment and therapy. A patient suffering from AAD often presents with an insignificant or irrelevant medical history, giving rise to possible misdiagnosis. The aim of this retrospective study is to address the problem of misdiagnosing AD and the different imaging studies used. Methods From January 2000 to December 2004, 49 patients (41 men and 8 women, aged from 18–75 years old presented to the Emergency Department of our hospital for different reasons and finally diagnosed with AAD. Fifteen of those patients suffered from arterial hypertension, one from giant cell arteritis and another patient from Marfan's syndrome. The diagnosis of AAD was made by chest X-ray, contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT, transthoracic echocardiography (TTE and coronary angiography. Results Initial misdiagnosis occurred in fifteen patients (31% later found to be suffering from AAD. The misdiagnosis was myocardial infarction in 12 patients and cerebral infarction in another three patients. Conclusion Aortic dissection may present with a variety of clinical manifestations, like syncope, chest pain, anuria, pulse deficits, abdominal pain, back pain, or acute congestive heart failure. Nearly a third of the patients found to be suffering from AD, were initially otherwise diagnosed. Key in the management of acute aortic dissection is to maintain a high level of suspicion for this diagnosis.

  6. Mesenteric ischemia in acute aortic dissection.

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    Orihashi, Kazumasa

    2016-05-01

    Mesenteric ischemia complicated by acute aortic dissection (AAD) is uncommon, but serious, as there is no established treatment strategy and it can progress rapidly to multi-organ failure. Diagnosing mesenteric ischemia before necrotic change is difficult, not only for primary care physicians, but even for gastrointestinal or cardiovascular surgeons as it can occur at any time during surgery. Thus, measures need to be in place at the bedside to enable us to obtain information on visceral perfusion. It is often difficult to decide which of laparotomy or aortic repair should be performed first, especially when there is associated shock or malperfusion of other vital organs. The standard surgical procedures for mesenteric ischemia are prompt revascularization of the mesenteric artery and, if needed, resection of necrotic intestine. However, the development of endovascular treatment and the introduction of hybrid ORs have improved the treatment strategies for mesenteric ischemia. This article reviews the issues of "diagnosis" in relation to the mechanism of mesenteric ischemia, and discusses the current "treatment strategies".

  7. Consumption coagulopathy in acute aortic dissection: principles of management.

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    Liu, Yuyong; Han, Lu; Li, Jiachen; Gong, Ming; Zhang, Hongjia; Guan, Xinliang

    2017-06-12

    The effect of acute aortic dissection itself on coagulopathy or surgery-related coagulopathy has never been specifically studied. The aim of the present study was to perioperatively describe consumption coagulopathy in patients with acute aortic dissection. Sixty-six patients with acute type A aortic dissection were enrolled in this study from January 2015 to September 2016. Thirty-six patients with thoracic aortic aneurysms were used as a control group during the same period. Consumption coagulopathy was evaluated using standard laboratory tests, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and thromboelastograghy at five perioperative time-points. A significant reduction in clotting factors and fibrinogen was observed at the onset of acute aortic dissection. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and thromboelastograghy also revealed a persistent systemic activation of the coagulation system and the consumption of clotting factors. In contrast, although platelet counts were consistently low, we did not find that platelet function was more impaired in the acute aortic dissection group than the control group. After surgery, clotting factors and fibrinogen were more impaired than platelet function. Thus, we proposed that hemostatic therapy should focus on the rapid and sufficient supplementation of clotting factors and fibrinogen to improve consumption coagulopathy in patients with acute aortic dissection.

  8. Aortic dissection

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    ... made in the chest or abdomen. Endovascular aortic repair. This surgery is done without any major surgical ... needed. If the heart arteries are involved, a coronary bypass is also performed. Outlook ... aneurysm - dissecting; Chest pain - aortic dissection; Thoracic aortic aneurysm - ...

  9. Emergency endovascular repair of acute descending thoracic aortic dissection

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    Muhammad Anees Sharif

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad Anees Sharif, Mark Edward O’Donnell, Paul Henry Blair, Peter KennedyDepartment of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Royal Victoria Hospital, Grosvenor Road, Belfast, BT12 6BA, United KingdomBackground: Acute descending thoracic aortic dissection is a life-threatening emergency. It is not often considered as the initial diagnosis in patients presenting with epigastric pain and could easily be missed in a busy casualty department.Aim: This case report is aimed to highlight the feasibility of the technique and the need for long-term surveillance following endovascular repair of acute thoracic aortic dissection.Results: The patient presented with epigastric pain radiating to the interscapular region with a stable hemodynamic status. A computerized tomography (CT scan demonstrated type B thoracic aortic dissection of the proximal descending thoracic aorta. A successful endovascular repair was carried out with uneventful recovery and follow-up CT scan six years after stent-grafting shows satisfactory position of the stent-graft, patent false lumen in the abdominal aorta perfusing the right kidney, and progressively enlarging diameter of the abdominal aorta.Conclusion: Thoracic aortic dissection should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with epigastric and interscapular chest pain. Emergency endovascular repair of acute thoracic aortic dissection is feasible and relatively safe. Regular follow-up with CT scan is required to evaluate the long-term effi cacy and identify the need for re-intervention.Keywords: aortic, dissection, endovascular, thoracic

  10. [Outcomes of acute type A aortic dissection repairs in Iceland].

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    Geirsson, Arnar; Melvinsdottir, Inga Hlif; Arnorsson, Thorarinn; Myrdal, Gunnar; Gudbjartsson, Tomas

    2016-02-01

    Acute type A aortic dissection is a life-threatening disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Treatment is challenging and requires emergency surgery. This study presents for the first time the short- and long-term outcome of acute type A aortic dissection repairs in Iceland. A retrospective review of 45 patients (mean age 60.7 ± 13.9 years, 68.9% male) treated for type A aortic dissection at Landspitali University Hospital between 1992 and 2014. Data was gathered from medical records about known risk factors, presenting symptoms, type of procedure, complications and operative mortality. Out of 45 operations the majority (73.3%) was performed in the second half of the study period. Nearly all patients presented with chest pain and 46.7% were in shock on arrival. Malperfusion syndrome was apparent in 26.7% of cases. A variety of operative methods were used, including hypothermic circulatory arrest in 31.1% of the cases and one-third of patients needed aortic root replacement. Reoperation rate for postoperative bleeding was 29.3% and perioperative stroke occurred in 14.6% of patients. The 30-day mortality rate was 22.2% (10 patients) and 5- and 10-year survival was 71.4 ± 8.2% and 65.4 ± 9.4%, respectively. The short-term outcomes of surgical repair for acute type A aortic dissection in Iceland is comparable to neighbouring countries, including 30-day mortality and long-term survival. Complications, however, are common, especially reoperations for bleeding. 1Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Landspitali University Hospital, 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland. Aortic dissection type A, aortic aneurysm, open heart surgery, complications, operative mortality, survival. Correspondence: Arnar Geirsson, arnarge@landspitali.is.

  11. Evaluation of acute aortic dissection by cine-MRI.

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    Minami, H; Sugimoto, T; Okada, M

    1999-02-01

    We investigated operative indication of acute aortic dissection by analyzing the movement of the intimal flap using cine-MRI. Ten consecutive cases of acute aortic dissection diagnosed between December 1997 and September 1998 participated in this study. Six of these patients had in Stanford type A and four Stanford type B aortic dissection. The diagnosis of aortic dissection was based on demonstration of two aortic channels with each cardiac cycle. After obtaining SE(spin-echo) images, gradient echo sequences (FFE) were obtained such that the false lumen was maximally imaged and the intimal flap was depicted perpendicularly. During one RR-interval of ECG, 12 to 16 measurements were recorded and combined in a cineloop mode. We defined the intimal flap, the site of the entry and thrombosis in the false lumen, and evaluated the movement of the intimal flap as the flap movement index (FMI). Maximum and minimum aortic diameters (ADmax, ADmin), as well as maximum and minimum false lumen diameters (FDmax, FDmin) were measured. FMI was defined as[(FDmax/ADmax) - (FDmin/ADmin)]/(FDmin/ADmin) x 100(%). Total thrombosis was noted in four cases, partial thrombosis in 3, and in the remaining 3 no thrombosis of the false lumen was noted. The FMI ranged between 4% and 87% (mean 26.3 +/- 8.6%). Among the 4 cases with the large FMI of greater than 30%, 3 underwent emergency surgery and were confirmed to have no thrombosis in the false lumen. The fourth case, who had partial thrombosis, underwent medical therapy, but since complete thrombosis in the false lumen never did occur in this case, surgery became absolutely necessary. The other 6 cases with a FMI of less than 30% showed a tendency toward gradual reduction of the false lumen. FMI is a potentially useful parameter in cases with acute aortic dissection to determine whether or not emergency surgery is indicated.

  12. Anaesthesia management of acute aortic dissection type B in Marfan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The natural history of pregnancy and the ability to deliver a viable fetus depends on the interaction between the pace of changes in the cardiovascular system and the advancement of pregnancy. We report the management of a type B acute aortic dissection in a woman in her 36th week of pregnancy. The anaesthesiologist ...

  13. Acute aortic dissection presenting as painless paraplegia: a case report.

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    Hdiji, Olfa; Bouzidi, Nouha; Damak, Mariem; Mhiri, Chokri

    2016-04-05

    Acute aortic dissection is an extreme emergency that is generally manifested by violent chest pain irradiating to a patient's back and abdomen. Paraplegia due to spinal cord ischemia and infarction as a presenting manifestation of aortic dissection has been found in 2 to 5% of patients. However, painless paraplegia is exceedingly rare and limited to a few case reports in the literature. We describe a new case with this unusual presentation of aortic dissection and here we emphasize that this condition must be considered in all patients with painless paraplegia. A 70-year-old Arab man with no previous known medical or surgical conditions was hospitalized for brutal heaviness of his lower limbs associated to urinary retention. A neurological examination revealed flaccid paraplegia without sensory disorder. His blood pressure and his pulse were in normal ranges. He was afebrile. His peripheral pulses were not checked. Laboratory investigations eliminated multiple organ failure. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging realized in emergency was normal. He had a cardiopulmonary arrest 1 day after his hospitalization. His autopsy report concluded a type A aortic dissection with an intimal tear at his aortic isthmus with intrapericardial rupture and extension to his intercostal and lumbar arteries. Acute aortic dissection is an extreme emergency that can lead to death unless there is an early diagnosis. It must be considered in any patient with paraplegia even painless. Clinical examination has a major role to play in diagnosing this condition. Apart from the neurological examination, palpation of peripheral pulses and blood pressure measurements in all four limbs is of paramount importance. Then further investigations must be carried out consisting of aortic angiography by computed tomography or by magnetic resonance imaging.

  14. Acute renal failure and hepatocellular damage as presenting symptoms of type II aortic dissection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jovanovic, Ivana; Tesic, Milorad; Antonijevic, Nebojsa; Menkovic, Nemanja; Paunovic, Ivana; Ristic, Arsen; Vucicevic, Vera; Vujisic-Tesic, Bosiljka

    2016-01-01

    ..., while presenting with an acute renal and hepatic failure. After initial diagnostic uncertainties, and following final diagnosis of an acute aortic dissection, this patient underwent surgical aortic valve replacement with a satisfactory outcome. Conclusion...

  15. Hybrid Strategy for Residual Arch and Thoracic Aortic Dissection following Acute Type A Aortic Dissection Repair

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    Sidharth Viswanathan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive dilatation of the false lumen in the arch and descending aorta has been encountered in one-third of survivors as a late sequelae following repair of ascending aortic dissection. Conventional treatment for the same requiring cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest is associated with high morbidity and mortality especially in the elderly cohort of patients. Herein we report a case of symptomatic progressive aneurysmal dilatation of residual arch and descending thoracic aortic dissection following repair of type A aortic dissection, successfully treated by total arch debranching and ascending aortic prosthesis to bicarotid and left subclavian bypass followed by staged retrograde aortic stent-graft deployment. This case report with relevant review of the literature highlights this clinical entity and the present evidence on its appropriate management strategies. Close surveillance is mandatory following surgical repair of type A aortic dissection and hybrid endovascular procedures seem to be the most dependable modality for salvage of patients detected to have progression of residual arch dissection.

  16. Acute aortic dissection in patient with suspected pheochromocytoma

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    Lešanović Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aortic dissection is one of the most fatal vascular emergencies. Almost 40% of the patients do not reach hospital in time while more than quarter die in the first 24 hours after the dissection begins. Case Report: A 37-year old man was admitted to our hospital with severe anterior chest pain which had lasted for over a week. Suspected aortic dissection was rapidly confirmed using imaging modalities - MDCT chest scan and TTE, followed by an urgent surgical management - Bentall procedure. MDCT chest scan also discovered adrenal incidentaloma defined as malignant, pheochromocytoma like mass. Due to the critical state of the patient, there was not enough time for further endocrinologic testing. Discussion and conclusion: When treating patients with pheochromocytoma and acute aortic disection, it is crucial to obtain a stable hemodynamic state before the surgery, since they can trigger a severe hypertensive crisis due to high levels of cathecholamines induced chronic vasoconctriction. The most vulnerable periods are the induction of anesthesia and perioperative hemodynamic oscillations, so treating patients with short acting alpha- 1 adrenergic blocking agents preoperatively has proven to be helpful - Phentolamine. Both dissection of aorta and pheochromocytoma present challenges for anesthesiologists and early recognition of symptoms is essential in establishing the diagnosis and reducing the mortality rate.

  17. Postoperative myocardial infarction in acute type A aortic dissection: A report from the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection.

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    Waterford, Stephen D; Di Eusanio, Marco; Ehrlich, Marek P; Reece, T Brett; Desai, Nimesh D; Sundt, Thoralf M; Myrmel, Truls; Gleason, Thomas G; Forteza, Alberto; de Vincentiis, Carlo; DiScipio, Anthony W; Montgomery, Daniel G; Eagle, Kim A; Isselbacher, Eric M; Muehle, Anja; Shah, Aamir; Chou, Daisy; Nienaber, Christoph A; Khoynezhad, Ali

    2017-03-01

    Postoperative myocardial infarction remains a serious complication in cardiac surgery. The incidence and impact of this condition in acute type A aortic dissection are poorly understood. A total of 1445 patients with acute type A aortic dissection who underwent surgery were enrolled in the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection from 1996 to 2013. Individuals with preoperative myocardial infarction at hospital presentation and a history of myocardial infarction were excluded. Patients with postoperative myocardial infarction (n = 38, 2.6%) were compared with those without postoperative myocardial infarction (n = 1407, 97.4%). The postoperative myocardial infarction group was more often of white race (100% vs 90%, P = .043) with bicuspid aortic valve (15.6% vs 4.5%, P = .015). Imaging demonstrated more aortic root involvement (75.8% vs 49.5%, P = .003), pericardial effusion (65.5% vs 44.1%, P = .022), and coronary artery compromise (27.3% vs 10.2%, P = .022). Patients with postoperative myocardial infarction were more frequently hypotensive or in shock during surgery (42.9% vs 25.5%, P = .021). Patients with postoperative myocardial infarction were more likely to have undergone root replacement (54.5% vs 33.3%, P = .011), coronary artery bypass grafting (28.6% vs 7.4%, P < .001), or aortic valve replacement (40.0% vs 23.8%, P = .027), and less likely to have had complete arch replacement (2.8% vs 14.0%, P = .050). Median circulatory arrest time was higher in postoperative myocardial infarction (60 vs 38 minutes, P = .024). In-hospital mortality (57.9% vs 16.3%, P < .001) and Kaplan-Meier estimates of 5-year mortality (P = .007) were distinctly higher in postoperative myocardial infarction. Postoperative myocardial infarction is a devastating complication of type A aortic dissection repair. It is associated with bicuspid aortic valve, root involvement, pericardial effusion, and extent of surgical repair. Patients with

  18. Aortic root surgery improves long-term survival after acute type A aortic dissection.

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    Hysi, Ilir; Juthier, Francis; Fabre, Olivier; Fouquet, Olivier; Rousse, Natacha; Banfi, Carlo; Pinçon, Claire; Prat, Alain; Vincentelli, André

    2015-04-01

    Our objective was to analyze the long term survival of patient operated on for acute type A aortic dissection. Between 1990 and 2010, 226 patients underwent emergency surgical operation for acute type A aortic dissection. We have followed the long-term outcomes. 144 patients were operated on with a supracommissural replacement of the ascending aorta (SCR) and 82 with an aortic root surgery (ARS, including 77 Bentall procedures and 5 Tirone David operations). Aortic cross-clamp was longer in ARS group (150.8 vs. 103.6 min, p<0.0001). Overall in-hospital mortality was lower in ARS group (20% vs. 34%, p 0.03). Median follow-up was 11.6 years. 10-year survival was higher in ARS group (85.7% vs. 65.9%, p 0.03) and 10-year freedom from aortic root reoperation was significantly lower in ARS group (93.4% vs. 82.9%, p 0.02). In a multivariate analysis aortic root surgery was an independent protective factor for proximal reoperations OR 0.393, CI 95% [0.206-0.748], p=0.005. Our study suggests that complete aortic root replacement in type A aortic dissection does not burden short-term outcomes, improves long-term survivals and decreases the rate of late reoperation. Whether this approach has to be preferred in younger patient has to be demonstrated in further studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Acute type A aortic dissection in a patient with paraganglioma.

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    Dos Santos Borrego, Andreia; Carrilho Ferreira, Pedro; Pinto, Fausto J

    2017-10-01

    Acute aortic dissection is the most common acute aortic syndrome. It is more prevalent in males and in the elderly, and has a high mortality. Hypertension is the main risk factor. Diagnosis is based on clinical features, laboratory tests and imaging exams. Treatment is usually surgical, although in some cases an endovascular approach is an alternative. Paraganglioma is an uncommon neuroendocrine tumor. Most produce catecholamines, and so usually manifest with hypertensive crisis, palpitations, headache and sweating. This tumor is diagnosed by measurement of plasma or urinary catecholamines and by computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. Surgery is the only potentially curative treatment. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. All rights reserved.

  20. Predicting long-term outcomes of acute aortic dissection: a focus on gender.

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    Divchev, Dimitar; Najjar, Tarek; Tillwich, Falko; Rehders, Tim; Palisch, Holger; Nienaber, Christoph A

    2015-03-01

    Acute aortic disease ranks as the 19th leading cause of death with steadily increasing incidence. The prevalence of aneurysms varies depending on the localization along the aorta with a mortality of aortic rupture of around 80%. Traditionally, aortic disease affects men more frequently than women, however, with a varying gender ratio. Nevertheless, in the setting of acute aortic dissection, the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissections identified significant gender-related differences in the management of both sexes with acute aortic conditions. Current data suggest that women are at an increased risk of both dying from aortic dissection and having aorta-related complications than men. This review aims to report on current evidence of gender impact on natural history, treatment and outcomes in patients with acute aortic dissection.

  1. Early Outcomes of Acute Retrograde Dissection From the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection.

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    Nauta, Foeke J H; Kim, Joon Bum; Patel, Himanshu J; Peterson, Mark D; Eckstein, Hans-Henning; Khoynezhad, Ali; Ehrlich, Marek P; Eusanio, Marco Di; Corte, Alessandro Della; Montgomery, Daniel G; Nienaber, Christoph A; Isselbacher, Eric M; Eagle, Kim A; Sundt, Thoralf M; Trimarchi, Santi

    2017-01-01

    To provide data on the management and outcomes of patients with acute retrograde aortic dissection (AD) originating from a tear in the descending aorta with extension into the aortic arch or ascending aorta. All patients enrolled in the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection from 1996-2015 were reviewed. Retrograde AD was defined by primary tear in the descending aorta with proximal extension into the arch or ascending aorta. Primary end points were in-hospital management strategy and mortality. We identified 101 patients with retrograde AD (67 men; 63.2 ± 14.0 years). During index hospitalization, medical (MED), open surgical (SURG), and endovascular (ENDO) therapies were undertaken in 44, 33, and 22 patients, respectively. The SURG group presented with larger ascending aorta (P = 0.04) and more frequent ascending aortic involvement (81.8% [27/33] vs 22.7% [15/66], P < 0.001) compared with the MED and ENDO groups. Early mortality rate was 9.1% (4/44), 18.2% (6/33), and 13.6% (3/22), for the MED, SURG, and ENDO groups (P = 0.51), respectively. A favorable early mortality rate was observed in patients with retrograde extension limited to the arch (8.6% [5/58]) vs into the ascending aorta (18.6% [8/43], P = 0.14). Early mortality rate of patients with retrograde AD with primary tear in the descending aorta (12.9% [13/101]) was significantly lower than those with classic type A AD presenting with primary tear in the ascending aorta (20.0% [195/977], P = 0.001). A subset of patients with acute retrograde AD originating from primary tear in the descending aorta might be managed less invasively with acceptable early results, particularly among those with proximal extension limited to the arch. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute Aortic Dissection Presenting Exclusively as Lower Extremity Paresthesias

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    Ryan Gibney

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available History of Present Illness: A 45-year-old male presented with left-lower extremity numbness for 3 hours. He denied chest pain, shortness of breath, back pain, or pain to his leg. On physical examination, he was noted to have a normal cardiac exam without murmurs and normal breath sounds, but had no palpable femoral or dorsalis pedis pulse on the left lower extremity. His extremity examination showed normal range of motion, full strength to both lower extremities, but subjective decreased sensation over the entire left lower extremity in all dermatomes. Significant findings: Chest x-ray and CT angiogram was performed to evaluate his thoracic and abdominal vasculature. Chest x-ray did not show any significant widening of the mediastinum. The CT angiogram demonstrated an intimal tear along the aortic arch separating a true and false aortic lumen, consistent with an acute aortic dissection. The true lumen (highlighted in blue in images 1-5 can be identified by continuity with an undissected part of the aorta1. While the false lumen (highlighted in red in images 1-5 can be identified by its crescent shape and larger cross-sectional area.1 Discussion: The classic acute aortic dissection patient presents with sudden onset, tearing chest pain radiating to the back. Inconsistent blood pressure in the extremities is often found, along with diminished or absent peripheral pulses and widened mediastinum on chest x-ray. Painless dissection rarely occurs (6.4% of cases, and is more often found in older patients and is associated with higher mortality.2 Although rare, isolated lower limb findings such as ischemia or paresthesias are noted to occur in about 10% of cases.2 When aortic dissection presents solely with extremity complaints, the diagnosis is often missed.3 CT Angiography is the ideal imaging modality to confirm the diagnosis and classification. Imaging can be obtained in stable patients in conjunction with emergent surgical consultation, pain

  3. Abdominal Aortic Dissection with Acute Mesenteric Ischemia in a Patient with Marfan Syndrome

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    Chii-Shyan Lay

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder of connective tissue, with various complications manifested primarily in the cardiovascular system. It potentially leads to aortic dissection and rupture, these being the major causes of death. We report a patient who complained of acute abdominal pain, which presented as acute mesenteric ischemia combined with abdominal aortic dissection. Echocardiography showed enlargement of the aortic root and mitral valve prolapse. Abdominal computed tomography scan revealed acute mesenteric ischemia due to abdominal aortic dissection. Finally, the patient underwent surgery of aortic root replacement and had a successful outcome. Therefore, we suggest that for optimal risk assessment and monitoring of patients with Marfan syndrome, both aortic stiffness and the diameter of the superior mesenteric vein compared with that of the superior mesenteric artery are useful screening methods to detect acute mesenteric ischemia secondary to abdominal aortic dissection. Early diagnosis and early treatment can decrease the high mortality rate of patients with Marfan syndrome.

  4. D-dimer measurements in acute aortic dissection

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    Vladyslava Bazylevska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute aortic dissection (AAD is a medical emergency with significant morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis can be challenging due to the wide array of presenting symptoms and a broad differential diagnosis. Computed tomographic angiography is currently the gold standard for diagnosis of AAD. However, it carries the risk of contrast and radiation exposure and has a financial burden for patients. Multiple biomarkers have been evaluated as a screening tool for AAD. D-dimer has previously been suggested as a sole rule-out test for AAD. It is rapid and inexpensive, is widely available in the emergency rooms, and is highly sensitive for any thrombotic event. This review article evaluates the evidence for the use of D-dimer assays in the diagnosis of AAD, in differentiation of AAD from acute coronary syndromes, and in risk stratification of AAD patients.

  5. Acute type B aortic dissection complicated by visceral ischemia.

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    Jonker, Frederik H W; Patel, Himanshu J; Upchurch, Gilbert R; Williams, David M; Montgomery, Daniel G; Gleason, Thomas G; Braverman, Alan C; Sechtem, Udo; Fattori, Rossella; Di Eusanio, Marco; Evangelista, Arturo; Nienaber, Christoph A; Isselbacher, Eric M; Eagle, Kim A; Trimarchi, Santi

    2015-04-01

    Acute type B aortic dissection (ABAD) can lead to visceral malperfusion, a potentially life-threatening complication. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presentation, management, and outcomes of ABAD patients with visceral ischemia who are enrolled in the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection. Patients with ABAD enrolled in the registry between 1996 and 2013 were identified and stratified based on presence of visceral ischemia at admission. Demographics, medical history, imaging results, management, and outcomes were compared for patients with versus without visceral ischemia. A total of 1456 ABAD patients were identified, of which 104 (7.1%) presented with visceral ischemia. Preoperative limb ischemia (28% vs 7%, P < .001) and acute renal failure (41% vs 14%, P < .001) were more common among patients with visceral ischemia. Endovascular treatment and surgery were offered to 49% and 30% of the visceral ischemia cohort, respectively; remaining patients were managed conservatively. The in-hospital mortality was 30.8% for patients with visceral ischemia and 9.1% for those without visceral ischemia (odds ratio [OR] 4.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8-7.0, P < .0001). Mortality rates were similar after surgical and endovascular management of visceral ischemia (25.8% and 25.5%, respectively, P = not significant). Among the visceral ischemia group, medical management was a predictor of mortality in multivariate analysis (OR, 5.91; 95% CI, 1.2-31.0; P = .036). Patients with ABAD complicated by visceral ischemia have a high risk of mortality. We observed similar outcomes for patients treated by endovascular management versus surgery, whereas medical management was an independent predictor of mortality. Early diagnosis and intervention for visceral ischemia seems to be crucial. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of distal entry tears in acute type B aortic dissection after thoracic endovascular aortic repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenmou; Huang, Bin; Zhao, Jichun; Ma, Yukui; Yuan, Ding; Yang, Yi; Xiong, Fei; Wang, Tiehao

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the clinical influence of distal entry tears in acute type B aortic dissection (ATBAD) after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). From August 2009 to December 2014, the clinical outcomes of 130 patients who underwent TEVAR for ATBAD were retrospectively analyzed. According to whether distal entry tears existed after TEVAR, patients were divided into group A (n = 25, absence of distal entry tears) and group B (n = 105, presence of distal entry tears). We evaluated clinical outcomes, including mortality and morbidity in early and late follow-up, as well as aortic remolding. Late aortic events were defined as aortic dissection-related events occurring >30 days from the initial TEVAR procedures, which consisted of endoleak, retrograde type A aortic dissection, aortic enlargement, late rupture, repeat dissection, and stent-induced new entry tear. The study comprised 130 patients (114 men [87.7%] and 16 women [12.3%)] with a mean age of 53.71 years. The 30-day mortality was 3.1%, and early morbidity included type I endoleak, 3.1%, organ failure, 3.8%; stroke, 3.1%; spinal cord ischemia, 0%; and early rupture 1.5%. The overall survival rate by Kaplan-Meier analysis at 1, 3, and 5 years was 93.8%, 89.5%, and 79.2%, respectively. There were no significant differences in early morbidity and 30-day mortality and late survival between group A and group B. However, group A had a significantly lower rate of late aortic events than group B (P = .028 by log-rank test). Meanwhile, group A had better aortic remolding than group B in complete thrombosis of the thoracic aorta at 12 months postoperatively (100% vs 83.5%; P = .029). This study demonstrated that TEVAR for ATBAD had low perioperative morbidity and mortality and satisfactory midterm outcome. Distal entry tears increase the occurrence of late aortic events and inhibit aortic remolding but do not have a significantly negative effect on late survival. Repairing all entry tears to restore

  7. Influence Of Timing After Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair For Acute Type B Aortic Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyairi, Takeshi; Miyata, Hiroaki; Chiba, Kiyoshi; Nishimaki, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Yukihisa; Motomura, Noboru; Takamoto, Shinichi

    2017-12-22

    This study aimed to analyze the influence of the timing of intervention from presentation of symptoms to thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) and its relation to major complications. Data were collected from the Japan Adult Cardiovascular Surgery Database. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 680 patients who underwent TEVAR for acute and subacute type B dissection between January 2008 and January 2013. TEVAR for type B dissection was performed in 680 patients: 295 were performed within 24 hours of presentation of symptoms (hyperacute), 97 between 24 hours and 14 days (acute), and 288 between 14 days and 6 weeks (subacute). Hyperacute patients more frequently suffered immediate life-threatening complications from type B dissection such as rupture or malperfusion than acute or subacute patients (41.0% [121/295] vs 7.2% [7/97] vs 4.2% [12/288]; P < .001 and 17.3% [51/295] vs 8.3% [8/97] vs 5.6% [16/288]; P < .001, respectively). Operative mortality and severe complications including aortic dissection were more common in hyperacute patients (11.9% [35/295] vs 0% [0/97] vs 1.7% [5/288]; P < .001 and 32.5% [96/295] vs 10.3% [10/97] vs 8.3% [24/288]; P < .001, respectively) and did not differ significantly between acute and subacute patients (P = .191 and P = .553, respectively). Although TEVAR performed for aortic dissection within 24 hours of presentation of symptoms was associated worse outcomes, TEVAR between 24 hours and 14 days, as compared with TEVAR between 14 days and 6 weeks, does not appear to increase the risk of perioperative complications. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Unusual presenting of acute aortic dissection due to penetrating atheromatous ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atas, Halil; Durmus, Erdal; Sunbul, Murat; Birkan, Yasar; Ozben, Beste

    2014-07-01

    Penetrating atheromatous ulcer (PAU) is an atherosclerotic ulcer penetrating the internal elastic lamina of the aortic wall causing a hematoma within the media layer of aorta. They are commonly located in the descending aorta of the elderly and hypertensive patients. They may rarely be complicated by aortic dissection. We report a relative young normotensive patient presenting with acute aortic dissection due to PAU located in the ascending aorta.

  9. Acute aortic dissection type A discloses Corpus alienum

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    Kolat Philipp

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report an unusual case of an aortic type A dissection with a corpus alienum which compresses the right ventricle. The patient successfully underwent an aortic root replacement in deep hypothermia with re-implantation of the coronary arteries using a modified Bentall procedure and the resection of the corpus alienum. Intraoperative finding reveals 3 greatly adhered gauze compresses, which were most likely forgotten in the operation 34 years ago.

  10. Reinforced aortic root reconstruction for acute type A aortic dissection involving the aortic root

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    Han Qing-qi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There are debates regarding the optimal approach for AAAD involving the aortic root. We described a modified reinforced aortic root reconstruction approach for treating AAAD involving the aortic root. METHODS: A total of 161 patients with AAAD involving the aortic root were treated by our modified reinforced aortic root reconstruction approach from January 1998 to December 2008. Key features of our modified approach were placement of an autologous pericardial patch in the false lumen, lining of the sinotubular junction lumen with a polyester vascular ring, and wrapping of the vessel with Teflon strips. Outcome measures included post-operative mortality, survival, complications, and level of aortic regurgitation. RESULTS: A total of 161 patients were included in the study (mean age: 43.3 1 15.5 years. The mean duration of follow-up was 5.1 1 2.96 years (2-12 years. A total of 10 (6.2% and 11 (6.8% patients died during hospitalization and during follow-up, respectively. Thirty-one (19.3% patients experienced postoperative complications. The 1-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year survival rates were 99.3%, 98%, 93.8%, and 75.5%, respectively. There were no instances of recurrent aortic dissection, aortic aneurysm, or pseudoaneurysm during the entire study period. The severity of aortic regurgitation dramatically decreased immediately after surgery (from 28.6% to 0% grade 3-4 and thereafter slightly increased (from 0% to 7.2% at 5 years and 9.1% at 10 years. CONCLUSION: This modified reinforced aortic root reconstruction was feasible, safe and durable/effective, as indicated by its low mortality, low postoperative complications and high survival rate.

  11. Ischemia-modified albumin in acute aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbarouni, Eftihia; Georgiadou, Panagiota; Marathias, Aikaterini; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Geroulanos, Stefanos; Voudris, Vassilis

    2010-01-01

    Acute aortic dissection (AOD) is associated with high mortality and early diagnosis and treatment are essential. Ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) is a marker of myocardial ischemia whereas cardiac enzymes are released when myocardial necrosis occurs. We investigated, for the first time, whether IMA increases in AOD either at presentation or after surgery. We studied 46 consecutive patients with documented AOD; we also evaluated 13 consecutive patients with dilated ascending aortas scheduled for elective surgery and admitted for preoperative coronary angiography; 46 age-matched normal subjects served as controls. Only patients with acute onset of symptoms were included. We evaluated IMA, cardiac enzymes, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and D-dimers on admission, 24  hr post-operatively and 4 days post-operatively. Duration from symptom onset to the first sample was 23±17  hr. IMA did not differ between patients with AOD at presentation (93±19  U/ml), patients with chronic aneurysms (90±14  U/ml) and normal controls (91±9  U/ml). In addition, IMA did not change significantly after surgical repair. IMA, at baseline, however, correlated positively with time from symptom onset as well as CRP levels (P=0.05 and P=0.007, respectively). IMA is not elevated in AOD when blood sampling is performed within 23±17  hr after symptom onset nor increases after surgery. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Medical image of the week: acute aortic dissection

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    Desai H

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. An 85-year-old gentleman with the past medical history significant for hypertension, smoking, and coronary artery disease presented to the emergency department (ED with complains of sudden onset of chest pain. His pain was described as squeezing and radiating to the back, associated with nausea and vomiting. His chest pain improved with nitroglycerin in ED. Chest x-ray showed a tortuous aortic knob and widened mediastinum. He underwent a CT angiogram, which showed, Stanford Type B aortic dissection, from distal aortic arch to renal arteries (Figure 1. He was managed in the hospital conservatively with tight blood pressure control given the type of dissection and no surgical intervention was done. He was uneventfully discharged with follow up arranged with vascular surgery. Aortic dissection is classified by Stanford Criteria as Type A which involves the ascending aorta and arch and Type B when it involves the descending aorta. Type A dissection is a ...

  13. D-dimer and BNP levels in acute aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbarouni, Eftihia; Georgiadou, Panagiota; Marathias, Aikaterini; Geroulanos, Stefanos; Kremastinos, Dimitrios Th

    2007-11-15

    Early diagnosis and treatment are pivotal for patients with acute aortic dissection (AAD). D-dimer is a rule-out diagnostic test for pulmonary embolism but there is evidence that it may also be applicable to AAD. We evaluated plasma D-dimer, white cell blood count (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in 18 consecutive patients with established AAD, 21 consecutive patients with dilated ascending aortas scheduled for elective surgery and 8 normal subjects. Patients with AAD had significantly higher elevated D-dimer, compared to chronic aneurysms and normal controls (pD-dimer level higher than 700 ng/ml had a sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 59% for diagnosis of AAD. The WBC count was also significantly increased compared to the other groups (pD-dimer can be used as a 'rule-out' test in patients with suspected AAD and seems useful in the discrimination between AAD and chronic uncomplicated aneurysms, unlike CRP and BNP plasma levels.

  14. Unusual presentation of aortic dissection: Post-coital acute paraplegia with renal failure

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    Dinith P Galabada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 45-year-old chronic smoker who presented with acute paraplegia occurring during coitus and subsequently developed acute renal failure (ARF requiring dialysis. He had absent peripheral pulses in the lower limbs with evidence of acute ischemia. Doppler study showed dissecting aneurysm of thoracic aorta, thrombotic occlusion of the distal aorta from L1 level up to bifurcation and occlusion of the right renal artery by a thrombus that was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging of the spine. He was not subjected to any vascular intervention as his lower limbs were not salvageable due to delay in the diagnosis. Post-coital aortic dissection and aortic dissection presenting with acute paraplegia and ARF are very rare. This is probably the first case report with post-coital acute aortic dissection presenting with paraplegia and ARF. This case emphasizes the importance of a careful examination of peripheral pulses in patients presenting with ARF and paraplegia.

  15. Unusual presentation of aortic dissection: post-coital acute paraplegia with renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galabada, Dinith P; Nazar, Abdul L M

    2014-09-01

    We report the case of a 45-year-old chronic smoker who presented with acute paraplegia occurring during coitus and subsequently developed acute renal failure (ARF) requiring dialysis. He had absent peripheral pulses in the lower limbs with evidence of acute ischemia. Doppler study showed dissecting aneurysm of thoracic aorta, thrombotic occlusion of the distal aorta from L1 level up to bifurcation and occlusion of the right renal artery by a thrombus that was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging of the spine. He was not subjected to any vascular intervention as his lower limbs were not salvageable due to delay in the diagnosis. Post-coital aortic dissection and aortic dissection presenting with acute paraplegia and ARF are very rare. This is probably the first case report with post-coital acute aortic dissection presenting with paraplegia and ARF. This case emphasizes the importance of a careful examination of peripheral pulses in patients presenting with ARF and paraplegia.

  16. Coronary ostial involvement in acute aortic dissection: detection with 64-slice cardiac CT.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, E Ronan

    2012-02-01

    A 41-year-old man collapsed after lifting weights at a gym. Following admission to the emergency department, a 64-slice cardiac computed tomography (CT) revealed a Stanford Type A aortic dissection arising from a previous coarctation repair. Multiphasic reconstructions demonstrated an unstable, highly mobile aortic dissection flap that extended proximally to involve the right coronary artery ostium. Our case is an example of the application of electrocardiogram-gated cardiac CT in directly visualizing involvement of the coronary ostia in acute aortic dissection, which may influence surgical management.

  17. Fatal Case of Type A Aortic Dissection Presenting As Acute Renal Failure

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    Fuat Ozkan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aortic dissection is a life-threatening illness requiring early diagnosis and treatment. Uncommon early presentations mimicking various illnesses can delay diagnosis. Acute renal failure (ARF is an uncommon complication of type A aortic dissection (AAD. Presentation with ARF is associated with an increased risk of in-hospital death and persistence of renal dysfunction at midterm follow-up in type B aortic dissection, but not AAD. We report a case of a type A aortic dissection complicated by ARF, with a fatal outcome. A 56-year-old male was transferred to the emergency service with anuria and rapid deterioration of renal function. Computed tomography showed type A aortic dissection with near-complete collapse of the true lumen at the level of the renal arteries and complicated with left renal infarct. Because of deterioration of his general condition during hemodialysis, he was treated with supportive measures including ventilatory support. He died two days after admission. Aortic dissection initially mimicking ARF is rare. Accurate early diagnosis of aortic dissection with indeterminate presentation is crucial. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2014; 3(4.000: 254-256

  18. High homocysteine and low folate concentrations in acute aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbarouni, Eftihia; Georgiadou, Panagiota; Analitis, Antonis; Chaidaroglou, Antigoni; Marathias, Aikaterini; Degiannis, Demitris; Voudris, Vassilis

    2013-09-20

    Biomarkers for monitoring progression and prognosis of thoracic aneurysm are of great interest. Homocysteine (Hcy) induces elastolysis in arterial media and may directly affect fibrillin-1 or collagen whereas lipoprotein (Lp) (a) inhibits elastolysis by reducing activation of matrix metallopeptidase-9. We studied 31 consecutive patients with acute aortic dissection (AAD) admitted for emergency surgery (group I, 60 ± 13 years old, 25 men), 30 consecutive patients with chronic aneurysms of the ascending aorta (group II, 67 ± 12 years old, 24 men) and 20 healthy controls (group III, 58 ± 15 years old, 14 men). We evaluated Hcy, folate, B12, Lp(a) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism at baseline. Hcy, folate and B12 differed significantly among the 3 studied groups (P=0.016, P=0.004 and P=0.001, respectively). The levels of Hcy and B12 were significantly higher in group I compared to both groups II and III (P=0.05 and P=0.002, P<0.001 and P=0.017, respectively) and without significant differences between groups II and III (P=0.083 and P=0.124). Folate was significantly lower in group I compared to both groups II and III (P=0.001 and P=0.006, respectively) and without marked difference between groups II and III (P=0.409). No significant difference was found in serum levels of Lp (a) (P=0.074) or among the frequency of MTHFR C677T genotypes. Patients with AAD present with higher Hcy and lower folate compared to both chronic aneurysms and controls. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evidence for and risks of endovascular treatment of asymptomatic acute type B aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Rachel E; Nienaber, Christoph A

    2017-04-01

    Acute aortic dissection is a challenging disease to manage. Type B aortic dissection has traditionally been divided temporally into acute and chronic cases but more recently this classification has been modified to include a sub-acute phase. Computed tomography is the imaging technique used most frequently in diagnosis and management. Active management of blood pressure is essential and should include beta-blockade unless contraindicated. In-hospital outcomes are generally acceptable in patients with medically managed acute uncomplicated type B aortic dissection, with up to 90% of patients surviving to hospital discharge but by 5 years up to 50% of patients are dead with a significant proportion dying from aortic rupture. The aim of endovascular repair is to treat the complications of the dissection, induce aortic remodeling and false lumen thrombosis and it has been shown to result in good long-term outcomes. Stent graft placement however is associated with an incidence of death, stroke, paraplegia and retrograde type A dissection. Some experts now advocate high intensity imaging in the first 14 days to detect development of complications early in the disease course, with planned elective treatment in the subacute phase.

  20. Delayed Surgery for Aortic Dissection after Intravenous Thrombolysis in Acute Ischemic Stroke

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    Nari Choi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of aortic dissection masquerading as acute ischemic stroke followed by intravenous thrombolysis. A 59-year-old man presented with dizziness. After examination, the patient had a seizure with bilateral Babinski signs. Soon after identifying multiple acute infarctions in both hemispheres on diffusion-weighted brain magnetic resonance (MR imaging, tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA was administered. Both common carotid arteries were invisible on MR angiography, and subsequent chest computed tomography revealed an aortic dissection. The emergency operation was delayed for 13 hours due to t-PA administration. The patient died of massive bleeding.

  1. Acute Aortic Dissection Mimicking STEMI in the Catheterization Laboratory: Early Recognition Is Mandatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Arrivi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary malperfusion due to type A aortic dissection is a life-threatening condition where timely recognition and treatment are mandatory. A 77-year-old woman underwent an acute evolving type A aortic dissection mimicking acute myocardial infarction. Two pathophysiologic mechanisms are discussed: either thrombosis migrating from a previously treated giant aneurism of proximal left anterior descending or a local arterial complication due to left main stenting. Recognition of these occurrences in the catheterization laboratory is important to look immediately for surgery.

  2. Aortic dissection presenting as acute subtotal left main coronary artery occlusion: a case approach and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruisi, Michael; Fallahi, Arzhang; Lala, Moinakhtar; Kanei, Yumiko

    2015-05-01

    Aortic dissection is the most common fatal condition of the aorta, yet it is often missed on initial clinical presentation. Aortic dissection associated with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is relatively rare, but if it occurs, it can be diagnostically challenging, and the condition can be fatal. Here we describe a case of aortic dissection presenting as ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) managed via the transradial approach. We describe the current literature on the subject.

  3. Effects of Gender on Outcomes and Survival Following Repair of Acute Type A Aortic Dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Brian D.; Stamou, Sotiris C.; Kouchoukos, Nicholas T.; Lobdell, Kevin W.; Hagberg, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated gender-related differences in early and late outcomes following type A dissection diagnosis. However, it is widely unknown whether gender affects early clinical outcomes and survival after repair of type A aortic dissection. The goal of this study was to compare the early and late clinical outcomes in women versus men after repair of acute type A aortic dissections. Between January 2000 and October 2010 a total of 251 patients from four academic medical centers underwent repair of acute type A aortic dissection. Of those, 79 were women and 172 were men with median ages of 67 (range, 20–87 years) and 58 years (range, 19–83 years), respectively (p actuarial survival were compared between the groups. Operative mortality was not significantly influenced by gender (19% for women vs. 17% for men, p = 0.695). There were similar rates of hemodynamic instability (12% for women vs. 13% men, p = 0.783) between the two groups. Actuarial 10-year survival rates were 58% for women versus 73% for men (p = 0.284). Gender does not significantly impact early clinical outcomes and actuarial survival following repair of acute type A aortic dissection. PMID:26060379

  4. Feasibility and accuracy of bedside transthoracic echocardiography in diagnosis of acute proximal aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczyk, Dorota; Nycz, Krzysztof

    2015-03-25

    The purpose of the present study was to establish the accuracy of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in diagnosis of acute type A aortic dissection in comparison to computed tomography (CT), with reference to the intraoperative image. The retrospective analysis included 178 patients referred to the cardiac surgery unit in our center due to acute type A dissection between 01-01-2008 and 31-12-2013, who underwent both TTE and CT. Intraoperative image was considered as a reference. Statistical analysis did not show any significant differences between computed tomography and echocardiography in the detection of the proximal aortic dissection. In patients with aortic valve abnormalities, procedure of choice was replacement by a composite graft (77,59%), whereas patients with a normal image of aortic valve were more likely to have the valve sparing procedure (50,88%). The R-Spearman statistics shows a strong positive correlation between maximum diameter of ascending aorta measured by TTE and CT (cc 0.869) and TTE and intraoperative measurement (cc 0.844). Our data confirm that transthoracic echocardiography is a reliable method for diagnosis of proximal aortic dissection. TTE provides a reliable value of maximum diameter of the ascending aorta in comparison to both CT and direct intraoperative measurement. Moreover, transthoracic echocardiography gives the additional information that influences the operative technique of choice and identifies the high-risk patients (cardiac tamponade, severe aortic dilatation, severe aortic regurgitation). Our retrospective analysis confirms the pivotal role of TTE in the evaluation of the patients with suspected proximal aortic dissection in emergency room setting.

  5. Successful staged operation for acute type A aortic dissection with paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Takashi; Abe, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Tokuichiro; Makuuchi, Haruo

    2013-06-01

    A 75-year-old man presented with both paraplegia and acute occlusion of the abdominal aorta at onset. Extraanatomical bypass was performed following spinal drainage. After 3 days, the ascending aorta replaced under cardiopulmonary bypass using the extraanatomical bypass graft for arterial cannulation. The abdominal aorta was replaced after 6 months. A staged operation is one of the options for acute aortic dissection with paraplegia and acute occlusion of the abdominal aorta.

  6. Acute aortic dissection in a young healthy athlete with androgenic anabolic steroid use: A case report

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    Barman M, Djamel B, Mathews J

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute aortic dissection can occur at the time of intense physical exertion in strength-trained athletes like weight lifters, bodybuilders, throwers, and wrestlers. Rapid rise in blood pressure and history of hypertension are the most common causes of aortic dissection in athletes. It is a very tragic event because of its high mortality rate of about 32% in young patients. We report a case of aortic dissection in a young weightlifter with a history of anabolic steroid usage with an extensive intimal tear of the aorta at Sino tubular junction and arch. All athletes must be assessed for predisposing factors for aortic dissection, and all patients should be encouraged to undergo appropriate diagnostic studies, like echocardiography and blood pressure monitoring while weightlifting to recognize possible predisposing factors for aortic dissection. Athletes who do have a problem should be encouraged to avoid or limit their exercise or activity by their cardiologist. It is vital that this disastrous event be prevented in young people. In conclusion, although a rare occurrence, AD should be considered in symptomatic patients with any family history of early cardiac deaths, a history suggestive of a connective tissue disorder (that is, multiple joint surgeries or who practice weightlifting.

  7. Haemolytic anaemia resulting from the surgical repair of acute type A aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Yuji; Yamamoto, Shin; Fujikawa, Takuya; Oshima, Susumu; Ono, Makoto; Sasaguri, Shiro

    2014-02-01

    Haemolytic anaemia after acute aortic dissection surgery is extremely rare. We report 4 cases of haemolytic anaemia with different aetiologies. Four patients underwent emergency operation for acute type A aortic dissection and subsequently developed haemolytic anaemia. Case 1: a 41-year old man underwent hemiarch replacement. We performed total arch replacement 3 years postoperatively, which revealed that haemolytic anaemia was induced by proximal anastomotic stenosis caused by inverted internal felt strip. Case 2: a 28-year old man diagnosed with Marfan syndrome underwent total arch replacement. Five months postoperatively, we noted severe stenosis at the previous distal anastomotic site, which caused the haemolytic anaemia, and performed descending thoracic aortic replacement for a residual dissecting aneurysm. Case 3: a 49-year old man underwent hemiarch replacement. Three years postoperatively, we performed total arch replacement for a residual dissecting aortic arch aneurysm and repaired a kinked graft responsible for haemolytic anaemia. Case 4: a 42-year old man underwent total arch replacement. Eighteen months later, we performed descending thoracic aortic replacement. We repaired a portion of the ascending aorta as haemolityc anaemia was induced by kinking of a total arch replacement redundant graft. All the haemolityc anaemia patients were successfully released after surgical reintervention.

  8. Risk factors of pre-operational aortic rupture in acute and subacute Stanford type A aortic dissection patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuo-Dong; Liu, Yang; Zhu, Jiang; Wang, Jun; Lu, Fang-Lin; Han, Lin; Xu, Zhi-Yun

    2017-12-01

    Aortic rupture is one of the main causes of early death in acute and subacute Stanford type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) patients. This study aimed to analyze potential risk factors for pre-operational aortic rupture in ATAAD patients. We retrospectively reviewed aortic dissection cases treated between May 2013 and May 2016 in Changhai Hospital, Shanghai. A total of 329 patients with ATAAD were included in the final analysis, and 31 patients died of aortic rupture before surgery. Clinical data on basic characteristics, clinical presentation, and biochemical measurements for all 329 patients were analyzed. The in-hospital aortic rupture rate was 9.4% (31/329), and the rupture accounted for 47% (31/66) of all in-hospital deaths of ATAAD patients. Patients who experienced rupture were significantly older (P0.7 ng/mL (OR: 9.28; 95% CI, 1.72-50.06; P=0.010), and D-dimer level ≥10 µg/mL (OR: 13.37; 95% CI, 2.18-81.97; P=0.005). Aortic rupture accounted for 47% of all in-hospital deaths among patient with ATAAD. Shock, pain requiring medication, a troponin level >0.7 ng/mL and a D-dimer level ≥10 µg/mL are independent risk factors for aortic rupture in these patients.

  9. Stanford-A acute aortic dissection, inflammation, and metalloproteinases: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifani, Noemi; Proietta, Maria; Tritapepe, Luigi; Di Gioia, Cira; Ferri, Livia; Taurino, Maurizio; Del Porto, Flavia

    2015-01-01

    Acute aortic dissection (AAD) is a life-threatening disease with an incidence of about 2.6-3.6 cases per 100,000/year. Depending on the site of rupture, AAD is classified as Stanford-A when the ascending aortic thoracic tract and/or the arch are involved, and Stanford-B when the descending thoracic aorta and/or aortic abdominal tract are targeted. It was recently shown that inflammatory pathways underlie aortic rupture in both type A and type B Stanford AAD. An immune infiltrate has been found within the middle and outer tunics of dissected aortic specimens. It has also been observed that the recall and activation of macrophages inside the middle tunic are key events in the early phases of AAD. Macrophages are able to release metalloproteinases (MMPs) and pro-inflammatory cytokines which, in turn, give rise to matrix degradation and neoangiogenesis. An imbalance between the production of MMPs and MMP tissue inhibitors is pivotal in the extracellular matrix degradation underlying aortic wall remodelling in dissections occurring both in inherited conditions and in atherosclerosis. Among MMPs, MMP-12 is considered a specific marker of aortic wall disease, whatever the genetic predisposition may be. The aim of this review is, therefore, to take a close look at the immune-inflammatory mechanisms underlying Stanford-A AAD.

  10. Serum Biomarker Identification by Mass Spectrometry in Acute Aortic Dissection

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    Yong Ren

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Aortic dissection (AD is also known as intramural hematoma. This study aimed to screen peripheral blood biomarkers of small molecule metabolites for AD using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS. Methods: Sera from 25 healthy subjects, 25 patients with well-established AD, and 25 patients with well-established hypertension were investigated by HPLC-MS to detect metabolites, screen differentially expressed metabolites, and analyze metabolic pathways. Results: Twenty-six and four metabolites were significantly up- and down-regulated in the hypertensive patients compared with the healthy subjects; 165 metabolites were significantly up-regulated and 109 significantly down-regulated in the AD patients compared with the hypertensive patients. Of these metabolites, 35 were up-regulated and 105 down-regulated only in AD patients. The metabolites that were differentially expressed in AD are mainly involved in tryptophan, histidine, glycerophospholipid, ether lipid, and choline metabolic pathways. As AD alters the peripheral blood metabolome, analysis of peripheral blood metabolites can be used in auxiliary diagnosis of AD. Conclusion: Eight metabolites are potential biomarkers for AD, 3 of which were differentially expressed and can be used for auxiliary diagnosis of AD and evaluation of treatment effectiveness.

  11. Acute Aortic Dissection Occurring “Behind The Wheel”, Report of 11 Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshizaki, Takamichi; Kimura, Naoyuki; Hirano, Tomoyasu; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Adachi, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the clinical picture of non-traumatic acute aortic dissection (AAD) occurring behind the wheel. Between 1990 and 2014, AAD had occurred in 11 patients while driving (nine men, mean age; 58.3 years, seven commercial drivers). The symptoms included chest and/or back pain (n = 9) and syncope (n = 2). One patient with syncope caused a traffic accident. Ten patients had type A dissection (DeBakey type I) and 1 type B dissection. In-hospital mortality was 9.9% (1/11). Our data showe...

  12. Acute Aortic Dissection Occurring "Behind The Wheel", Report of 11 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizaki, Takamichi; Kimura, Naoyuki; Hirano, Tomoyasu; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Adachi, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the clinical picture of non-traumatic acute aortic dissection (AAD) occurring behind the wheel. Between 1990 and 2014, AAD had occurred in 11 patients while driving (nine men, mean age; 58.3 years, seven commercial drivers). The symptoms included chest and/or back pain (n = 9) and syncope (n = 2). One patient with syncope caused a traffic accident. Ten patients had type A dissection (DeBakey type I) and 1 type B dissection. In-hospital mortality was 9.9% (1/11). Our data showed if affected drivers are transported to a hospital in a timely fashion, a good surgical outcome can be expected.

  13. Independent risk factors for hypoxemia after surgery for acute aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Wei; Yang, Hai-Qin; Chi, Yi-Fan; Niu, Zhao-Zhuo; Lin, Ming-Shan; Long, Sun

    2015-08-01

    To determine risk factors associated with postoperative hypoxemia after surgery for acute type A aortic dissection. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 192 patients with acute type A aortic dissection who underwent surgery in Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Medical College of Qingdao University, Qingdao, China between January 2007 and December 2013. Patients were divided into hypoxemia group (n=55) [arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ≤ 200 mm Hg] and non-hypoxemia group (n=137) [PaO2/FiO2 > 200 mm Hg]. Perioperative clinical data were analyzed and compared between the 2 groups. The incidence of postoperative hypoxemia after surgery for acute aortic dissection was 28.6% (55/192). Perioperative death occurred in 13 patients (6.8%). Multivariate regression identified body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg/m2 (OR=21.929, p=0.000), deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) (OR=11.551, p=0.000), preoperative PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 300 mm Hg (OR=7.830, p=0.000) and blood transfusion > 6U in 24 hours postoperatively (OR=12.037, p=0.000) as independent predictors of postoperative hypoxemia for patients undergoing Stanford A aortic dissection surgery. Our study demonstrated that BMI > 25 kg/m2, DHCA, preoperative PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 300 mm Hg, and blood transfusion in 24 hours postoperatively > 6U were independent risk factors of the hypoxemia after acute type A aortic dissection aneurysm surgery.

  14. Risk factors for prolonged mechanical ventilation after total aortic arch replacement for acute DeBakey type I aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Nan; Chen, Lei; Ge, Yi-Peng; Zhu, Jun-Ming; Liu, Yong-Min; Zheng, Jun; Liu, Wei; Ma, Wei-Guo; Sun, Li-Zhong

    2014-09-01

    EuroSCORE II is an objective risk scoring model. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of EuroSCORE II in the prediction of prolonged mechanical ventilation following total aortic arch replacement for acute DeBakey type I aortic dissection and evaluate the risk factors for prolonged mechanical ventilation. Between February 2009 to February 2012, data from 240 patients who underwent total aortic arch replacement for acute DeBakey type I aortic dissection were collected retrospectively. Mechanical ventilation after the surgery longer than 48 hours was defined as postoperative prolonged mechanical ventilation. EuroSCORE II was applied to predict prolonged mechanical ventilation. A C statistic (receiver operating characteristic curve) was used to test discrimination of the model. Calibration was assessed with a Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistic. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify the final risk factors of prolonged mechanical ventilation. The overall mortality was 10%. The mean length of mechanical ventilation after total aortic arch replacement was 42.72 ± 51.45 hours. Total 74 patients needed prolonged mechanical ventilation. EuroSCORE II showed poor discriminatory ability (C statistic 0.52) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow, pmechanical ventilation. On multivariate analysis, independent risk factors for postoperative prolonged mechanical ventilation were age ≥ 48.5 years (pmechanical ventilation following total aortic arch replacement for acute DeBakey type I aortic dissection. Preoperative high level of leukocyte, age and surgical period from symptom onset are risk factors for prolonged mechanical ventilation. Copyright © 2014 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. How I do it: transapical cannulation for acute type-A aortic dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexiou Christos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aortic dissection is the most frequently diagnosed lethal disease of the aorta. Half of all patients with acute type-A aortic dissection die within 48 hours of presentation. There is still debate as to the optimal site of arterial cannulation for establishing cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with type-A aortic dissection. Femoral artery cannulation with retrograde perfusion is the most common method but because of the risk of malperfusion of vital organs and atheroembolism related to it different sites such as the axillary artery, the innominate artery and the aortic arch are used. Cannulation of these sites is not without risks of atheroembolism, neurovascular complications and can be time consuming. Another yet to be popularised option is the transapical aortic cannulation (TAC described in this article. TAC consists of the insertion of the arterial cannula through the apex of the left ventricle and the aortic valve to lie in the sinus of Valsalva. Trans-oesophageal guidance is necessary to ensure correct placement of the cannula. TAC is an excellent method of establishing cardiopulmonary bypass as it is quick, provides a more physiological method of delivering antegrade arterial flow and is the only method to assure perfusion of the true lumen.

  16. Root replacement surgery versus more conservative management during type A acute aortic dissection repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Eusanio, Marco; Trimarchi, Santi; Peterson, Mark D; Myrmel, Truls; Hughes, G Chad; Korach, Amit; Sundt, Thoralf M; Di Bartolomeo, Roberto; Greason, Kevin; Khoynezhad, Ali; Appoo, Jehangir J; Folesani, Gianluca; De Vincentiis, Carlo; Montgomery, Daniel G; Isselbacher, Eric M; Eagle, Kim A; Nienaber, Christoph A; Patel, Himanshu J

    2014-12-01

    Aortic root management in type A acute aortic dissection is controversial. This study compared outcomes of root replacement (RR) interventions versus more conservative root (CR) management. Of 1,995 type A acute aortic dissection patients enrolled in the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection, 699 (35%) underwent RR interventions and 1,296 (65%) underwent CR management. Independent predictors of hospital and 3-year survival were identified using multivariable logistic and Cox regression models. Compared with CR patients, RR patients were younger (56.9 versus 62.3 years; p = 0.023) and more likely to present with larger root diameter (4.7 cm versus 4.0 cm; p < 0.001), Marfan syndrome (8.7% versus 2.5%; p < 0.001), aortic insufficiency (64.0% versus 50.3%; p < 0.001), and hypotension, shock, or tamponade (33.0% versus 26.5%; p = 0.003). Root replacement management did not increase hospital mortality (propensity score-adjusted odds ratio, 1.14; p = 0.674). On Kaplan-Meier analysis, 3-year survival (RR, 92.5% ± 1.7% versus CR, 91.6% ± 1.3%; log-rank p = 0.623) and freedom from aortic root reintervention (RR, 99.2% ± 0.1% versus CR, 99.3% ± 0.1%; log-rank p = 0.770) were similar. Only 2 patients (1 per group) underwent follow-up root reintervention. Propensity score-adjusted Cox regression excluded a relationship between root treatment and follow-up survival (hazard ratio, 1.5; 95% confidence interval, 0.502 to 5.010; p = 0.432). In type A acute aortic dissection patients more-extensive RR interventions are not associated with increased hospital mortality. This supports such an approach in young patients and patients with connective tissue diseases and bicuspid aortic valves. Excellent midterm survival and freedom from root reintervention in both groups suggest stable behavior of the nonreplaced aortic sinuses at 3 years. Thus, pending studies with longer follow-up, the use of aggressive RR techniques can be determined by patient-specific and

  17. Impact of Retrograde Arch Extension in Acute Type B Aortic Dissection on Management and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauta, Foeke J H; Tolenaar, Jip L; Patel, Himanshu J; Appoo, Jehangir J; Tsai, Thomas T; Desai, Nimesh D; Montgomery, Daniel G; Mussa, Firas F; Upchurch, Gilbert R; Fattori, Rosella; Hughes, G Chad; Nienaber, Christoph A; Isselbacher, Eric M; Eagle, Kim A; Trimarchi, Santi

    2016-12-01

    Optimal management of acute type B aortic dissection with retrograde arch extension is controversial. The effect of retrograde arch extension on operative and long-term mortality has not been studied and is not incorporated into clinical treatment pathways. The International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection was queried for all patients presenting with acute type B dissection and an identifiable primary intimal tear. Outcomes were stratified according to management for patients with and without retrograde arch extension. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed. Between 1996 and 2014, 404 patients (mean age, 63.3 ± 13.9 years) were identified. Retrograde arch extension existed in 67 patients (16.5%). No difference in complicated presentation was noted (36.8% vs 31.7%, p = 0.46), as defined by limb or organ malperfusion, coma, rupture, and shock. Patients with or without retrograde arch extension received similar treatment, with medical management in 53.7% vs 56.5% (p = 0.68), endovascular treatment in 32.8% vs 31.1% (p = 0.78), open operation in 11.9% vs 9.5% (p = 0.54), or hybrid approach in 1.5% vs 3.0% (p = 0.70), respectively. The in-hospital mortality rate was similar for patients with (10.7%) and without (10.4%) retrograde arch extension (p = 0.96), and 5-year survival was also similar at 78.3% and 77.8%, respectively (p = 0.27). The incidence of retrograde arch dissection involves approximately 16% of patients with acute type B dissection. In the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection, this entity seems not to affect management strategy or early and late death. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Successful repair of mesenteric ischemia in acute type A aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisata, Yoichi; Matsumaru, Ichiro; Yokose, Shogo; Hazama, Shiro

    2016-02-01

    A 64-year-old man with acute type A aortic dissection had superior mesenteric artery occlusion and marked metabolic acidosis. By an emergency laparotomy, bypass grafting from the left external iliac artery to the superior mesenteric artery was performed with great saphenous vein. After deep sedation and antihypertensive management in the intensive care unit, the acidosis resolved, and central repair was carried out. At 10 months postoperatively, his course has been uneventful without mesenteric complications. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Endovascular repair or medical treatment of acute type B aortic dissection? A comparison

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    Chemelli-Steingruber, I. [Department of Radiology, Innsbruck Medical University (Austria); Chemelli, A. [Department of Radiology, Innsbruck Medical University (Austria)], E-mail: andreas.chemelli@i-med.ac.at; Strasak, A. [Department of Medical Statistics, Informatics and Health Economics, Innsbruck Medical University (Austria); Hugl, B. [Department of Vascular Surgery, Innsbruck Medical University (Austria); Hiemetzberger, R. [Department of Cardiology, Innsbruck Medical University (Austria); Jaschke, W.; Glodny, B.; Czermak, B.V. [Department of Radiology, Innsbruck Medical University (Austria)

    2010-01-15

    Introduction: The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the outcome of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) to that of medical therapy in patients with acute type B aortic dissection (TBD). Materials and methods: From July 1996 to April 2008, 88 patients presenting with acute TBD underwent either TEVAR (group A, n = 38) or medical therapy (group B, n = 50). Indications for TEVAR were intractable pain, aortic branch compromise resulting in end-organ ischemia, rapid aortic dilatation and rupture. Follow-up was performed postinterventionally, at 3, 6 and 12 months and yearly thereafter and included clinical examinations and computed tomography (CT), as well as aortic diameter measurements and assessment of thrombosis. Results: Mean follow-up was 33 months in group A and 36 months in group B. The overall mortality rate was 23.7% in group A and 24% in group B, where 4 patients died of late aortic rupture. In group A, complications included 9 endoleaks and 4 retrograde type A dissections, 3 patients were converted to open surgery and 2 needed secondary intervention. None of the patients developed paraplegia. In group B, 4 patients were converted to open surgery and 2 to TEVAR. The maximal aortic diameter increased in both groups. Regarding the extent of thrombosis, our analyses showed slightly better overall results after TEVAR, but they also showed a tendency towards approximation between the two groups during follow-up. Conclusion: TEVAR is a feasible treatment option in acute TBD. However, several serious complications may occur during and after TEVAR and it should therefore be reserved to patients with life-threatening symptoms.

  20. Risk factors for hypoxemia following surgical repair of acute type A aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nan; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Weiguo; Shang, Wei; Zheng, Jun; Sun, Lizhong

    2017-02-01

    To identify the risk factors for hypoxaemia following surgical repair of acute type A aortic dissection. This was a retrospective study of patients treated between October 2013 and December 2014 at the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Anzhen Hospital, China. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed on the clinical data of 160 patients with acute type A dissection and who underwent ascending aortic and arch replacement under deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Hypoxaemia occurred in 30% (48/160) of patients (age: 49 ± 7.9 years; 40 males, 83.3%). The duration of ventilation and the lengths of intensive care unit and hospital stays were significantly longer in patients with hypoxemia (77.9 ± 56.0 vs 16.5 ± 11.5 h, P 15 000/μl (odds ratio, 9.79; 95% CI, 2.47-38.87; P = 0.001); and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest time >25 min (odds ratio, 3.26; 95% CI, 1.18-8.99; P = 0.023). Time from symptom onset to surgery ≤72 h, preoperative PaO2/FiO2 ≤300, white blood cell count >15 000/μl and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest time >25 min were found to be independently associated with hypoxaemia after surgery for acute type A aortic dissection.

  1. Need for Limb Revascularization in Patients with Acute Aortic Dissection is Associated with Mesenteric Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton-Ouw, Kristofer M; Sandhu, Harleen K; Leake, Samuel S; Jeffress, Katherine; Miller, Charles C; Durham, Christopher A; Nguyen, Tom C; Estrera, Anthony L; Safi, Hazim J; Azizzadeh, Ali

    2016-10-01

    Acute aortic dissection (AAD) can cause limb ischemia due to branch vessel occlusion. A minority of patients have persistent ischemia after central aortic repair and require peripheral arterial revascularization. We investigated whether the need for limb revascularization is associated with adverse outcomes. We reviewed our cases of AAD from 2000 to 2014 and identified patients with malperfusion syndromes (coronary, cerebral, spinal, visceral, renal, or peripheral ischemia). Patients with DeBakey I/II (Stanford type A) dissection had urgent open repair of the ascending aorta. Patients with DeBakey III (Stanford type B) dissection were initiated on anti-impulse medical therapy and had either open aortic repair or thoracic endovascular aortic repair for malperfusion syndromes. Patients with persistent lower limb ischemia after aortic repair usually had either extra-anatomic bypass grafting or iliac stenting. Some DeBakey III patients had peripheral revascularization without central aortic repair. We performed univariate and multivariate analysis to determine the effects of need for limb revascularization and clinical outcomes. We treated 1,015 AAD patients (501 [49.4%] DeBakey I/II and 514 [50.6%] DeBakey III) with a mean age of 59.7 ± 14.5 years (67.5% males). Aortic repair was performed in all DeBakey I/II patients and in 103 (20.0%) DeBakey III patients. Overall 30-day mortality was 11.3%. Lower limb ischemia was present in 104 (10.3%) patients and was more common in DeBakey I/II compared with DeBakey III dissections (65.4% vs. 34.6%; odds ratio [OR] 2.1, confidence interval [CI] 1.4-3.2; P = 0.001). Among the 40 patients who required limb revascularization, there was no difference in need for revascularization between DeBakey I/II and III patients. Patients requiring limb revascularization were more likely to have mesenteric ischemia compared with the rest of the cohort in both DeBakey I/II (P = 0.037) and DeBakey III dissections (P mesenteric ischemia

  2. Aortic dissection-induced acute flaccid paraplegia treated with cerebrospinal fluid drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Leal Adam

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute aortic dissection is a life-threatening event in which prompt and correctdiagnosis is associated with better outcomes. In most cases, there is chestor back pain. However, in rare cases, patients have little or no pain andother symptoms are more conspicuous at presentation. The autors reportsthe case of a 47-year-old female patient who sought medical attention forsudden-onset paraplegia. The physical examination was normal except forbilateral lower limb flaccid paralysis, with abolition of deep tendon reflexes andparaesthesia in both feet. Computed tomography showed aortic dissection,with partial thrombosis of the false lumen, starting after the emergence of theleft subclavian artery and extending, toward the bifurcation of the aorta, to theleft iliac artery. After cerebrospinal fluid drainage, the evolution was favorable.

  3. Long-term outcomes after immediate aortic repair for acute type A aortic dissection complicated by coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukube, Takuro; Haraguchi, Tomonori; Okada, Yasushi; Matsukawa, Ritsu; Kozawa, Shuichi; Ogawa, Kyoichi; Okita, Yutaka

    2014-09-01

    The management of acute type A aortic dissection complicated by coma remains controversial. We previously reported an excellent rate of recovery of consciousness provided aortic repair was performed within 5 hours of the onset of symptoms. This study evaluates the early and long-term outcomes using this approach. Between August 2003 and July 2013, of the 241 patients with acute type A aortic dissection brought to the Japanese Red Cross Kobe Hospital and Hyogo Emergency Medical Center, 30 (12.4%) presented with coma; Glasgow Coma Scale was less than 11 on arrival. Surgery was performed in 186 patients, including 27 (14.5%) who were comatose. Twenty-four comatose patients underwent successful aortic repair immediately (immediate group). Their mean age was 71.0 ± 11.1 years, Glasgow Coma Scale was 6.5 ± 2.4, and prevalence of carotid dissection was 79%. For brain protection, deep hypothermia with antegrade cerebral perfusion was used, and postoperative induced hypothermia was performed. Neurologic evaluations were performed using the Glasgow Coma Scale, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and modified Rankin Scale. In the immediate group, the time from the onset of symptoms to arrival in the operating theater was 222 ± 86 minutes. Hospital mortality was 12.5%. Full recovery of consciousness was achieved in 79% of patients in up to 30 days. Postoperative Glasgow Coma Scale and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale improved significantly when compared with the preoperative score (P patients. The mean follow-up period was 56.5 months, and the cumulative survival was 48.2% after 10 years. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis indicated that immediate repair (hazard ratio, 4.3; P = .007) was the only significant predictor of postoperative survival over a 5-year period. The early and long-term outcomes as a result of immediate aortic repair for acute type A aortic dissection complicated by coma were satisfactory. Copyright © 2014 The American

  4. Chronobiology of Acute Aortic Dissection in the Marfan Syndrome (from the National Registry of Genetically Triggered Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Cardiovascular Conditions and the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Hasan K; Luminais, Steven N; Montgomery, Dan; Bossone, Eduardo; Dietz, Harry; Evangelista, Arturo; Isselbacher, Eric; LeMaire, Scott; Manfredini, Roberto; Milewicz, Dianna; Nienaber, Christoph A; Roman, Mary; Sechtem, Udo; Silberbach, Michael; Eagle, Kim A; Pyeritz, Reed E

    2017-03-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disease associated with acute aortic dissection (AAD). We used 2 large registries that include patients with MFS to investigate possible trends in the chronobiology of AAD in MFS. We queried the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection (IRAD) and the Genetically Triggered Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Cardiovascular Conditions (GenTAC) registry to extract data on all patients with MFS who had suffered an AAD. The group included 257 patients with MFS who suffered an AAD from 1980 to 2012. The chi-square tests were used for statistical testing. Mean subject age at time of AAD was 38 years, and 61% of subjects were men. AAD was more likely in the winter/spring season (November to April) than the other half of the year (57% vs 43%, p = 0.05). Dissections were significantly more likely to occur during the daytime hours, with 65% of dissections occurring from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. (p = 0.001). Men were more likely to dissect during the daytime hours (6 a.m. to 6 p.m.) than women (74% vs 51%, p = 0.01). These insights offer a glimpse of the times of greatest vulnerability for patients with MFS who suffer from this catastrophic event. In conclusion, the chronobiology of AAD in MFS reflects that of AAD in the general population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Presentation, Diagnosis, and Outcomes of Acute Aortic Dissection: 17-Year Trends From the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Linda A; Awais, Mazen; Woznicki, Elise M; Suzuki, Toru; Trimarchi, Santi; Evangelista, Arturo; Myrmel, Truls; Larsen, Magnus; Harris, Kevin M; Greason, Kevin; Di Eusanio, Marco; Bossone, Eduardo; Montgomery, Daniel G; Eagle, Kim A; Nienaber, Christoph A; Isselbacher, Eric M; O'Gara, Patrick

    2015-07-28

    Diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of acute aortic dissection (AAS) are changing. This study examined 17-year trends in the presentation, diagnosis, and hospital outcomes of AAD from the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection (IRAD). Data from 4,428 patients enrolled at 28 IRAD centers between December 26, 1995, and February 6, 2013, were analyzed. Patients were divided according to enrollment date into 6 equal groups and by AAD type: A (n = 2,952) or B (n = 1,476). There was no change in the presenting complaints of severe or worst-ever pain for type A and type B AAD (93% and 94%, respectively), nor in the incidence of chest pain (83% and 71%, respectively). Use of computed tomography (CT) for diagnosis of type A increased from 46% to 73% (p < 0.001). Surgical management for type A increased from 79% to 90% (p < 0.001). Endovascular management of type B increased from 7% to 31% (p < 0.001). Type A in-hospital mortality decreased significantly (31% to 22%; p < 0.001), as surgical mortality (25% to 18%; p = 0.003). There was no significant trend in in-hospital mortality in type B (from 12% to 14%). Presenting symptoms and physical findings of AAD have not changed significantly. Use of chest CT increased for type A. More patients in both groups were managed with interventional procedures: surgery in type A and endovascular therapy in type B. A significant decrease in overall in-hospital mortality was seen for type A but not for type B. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prognostic Implications of Acute Renal Failure after Surgery for Type A Acute Aortic Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Fabrizio; Morgante, Alessandro; Ceresa, Fabrizio; Salamone, Giovanni; Patanè, Francesco

    2015-06-01

    "Type A" acute aortic dissection (AAAD) is the most challenging among the emergency operations in cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the role of acute renal failure (ARF) in postoperative survival of patients operated for AAAD. From February 2010 to April 2012, 37 consecutive patients were operated at our department for AAAD. We studied our population by subdividing the patients within groups according to the presence of ARF requiring continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) and according to hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) times and degrees. The overall 30-day mortality was 27% (50% group A with ARF, 13% group B no ARF). Acute renal failure requiring CVVH was 37.8%. Multivariate analysis revealed a significant association with 30-day mortality (odds ratio 6.6 and p = 0.020). Preoperative oliguria [urine output less than 30 ml/h (odds ratio 4.7 p = 0.039)], CPB greater than 180 minutes (odds ratio 6.5 p = 0.023) and postoperative bleeding requiring a surgical reopening (odds ratio 12.2 and p = 0.021) were the variables significantly associated with acute kidney injury. The data obtained from our analysis bring out the high incidence of renal injuries after surgery for AAAD, and indicate a negative impact on renal injuries of a preoperative oliguria, longer Cardiopulmonary bypass (CBP)/HCA times, and postoperative bleeding requiring a surgical revision. Our data also suggest a better 30-day survival and better renal outcomes in case of shorter HCA and lesser degree of hypothermia. The option of lesser and shorter hypothermia may be very useful, especially for the elderly patients and octogenarians.

  7. Techniques of Proximal Root Reconstruction and Outcomes Following Repair of Acute Type A Aortic Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Tyler M; Stamou, Sotiris C; Kouchoukos, Nicholas T; Lobdell, Kevin W; Khabbaz, Kamal; Patzelt, Lawrence H; Hagberg, Robert C

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the early and late outcomes of different techniques of proximal root reconstruction during the repair of acute Type A aortic dissection, including aortic valve (AV) resuspension, aortic valve replacement (AVR), and a root replacement procedure. All patients who underwent acute Type A aortic dissection repair between January 2000 and October 2010 at four academic institutions were compiled from each institution's Society of Thoracic Surgeons Database. This included 189 patients who underwent a concomitant aortic valve (AV) procedure; 111, 21, and 57 patients underwent AV resuspension, AVR, and the Bentall procedure, respectively. The median age of patients undergoing a root replacement procedure was significantly younger than the other two groups. Early clinical outcomes and 10-year actuarial survival rates were compared. Trends in outcomes and surgical techniques throughout the duration of the study were also analyzed. The operative mortality rates were 17%, 29%, and 18%, for AV resuspension, AVR, and root replacement, respectively. Operative mortality (p = 0.459) was comparable between groups. Hemorrhage related re-exploration did not differ significantly between groups (p = 0.182); however, root replacement procedures tended to have decreased rates of bleeding when compared to AVR (p = 0.067). The 10-year actuarial survival rates for the AV resuspension, Bentall, and AVR groups were 72%, 56%, and 36%, respectively (log-rank p = 0.035). The 10-year actuarial survival was significantly lower in those receiving AVR compared to those receiving root replacement procedures or AV resuspension. Operative mortality was comparable between the three groups.

  8. Determination of entry site for acute type A aortic dissection by initial enhanced CT-scan

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    Mase, Takenori; Narumiya, Chihiro; Aoyama, Takahiko; Nagata, Yoshihisa [Aichi Medical Univ., Nagakute (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-01-01

    Acute type A aortic dissection presents a surgical emergency because conservative therapy is not effective in the majority of instances. Enhanced CT-scan of the chest is commonly available and is considered to be an optimal diagnostic method for this disease. The operative strategy is to resect the primary tear to close the entry site of the aortic dissection and replace it with a tubular Dacron graft. Therefore, the existence of the entry site is important in determining the operative procedure. Based on the numerical value of the enhanced CT-scan inspection, the present study seeks to preoperatively identify the location of the presumed entry site in aortic dissection. From May 1996 to June 1999, 21 consecutive patients (Marfan's syndrome excluded) with acute type A aortic dissection underwent surgical treatment. Nineteen patients were preoperatively examined by enhanced CT-scan: 11 men and 8 women, with a mean age of 61 years. CT-scan slices used for early diagnosis were of the ascending aorta, aortic arch, descending aorta, and thoracoabdominal aorta. The largest diameters of the whole and true lumen were measured from cross-sectional aortic images with a personal computer, and the areas of the whole and true lumen were obtained by the manual tracing method. The true ratio was calculated for the largest diameter and area of the whole lumen. The nineteen patients were divided into two groups according to the location of the entry site based on the operating views. Seven patients with the entry site in the ascending aorta were classified as group A, and twelve patients with the entry site further in the aortic arch and descending aorta were classified as group B. Comparisons were performed by non-parametric analysis. Moreover, a discriminant analysis was applied to evaluate the classification between the two groups. The ratio of the largest diameter of the true lumen in group A at the level of the ascending and descending aorta was significantly greater than

  9. Extended versus limited arch replacement in acute Type A aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Magnus; Trimarchi, Santi; Patel, Himanshu J; Di Eusanio, Marco; Greason, Kevin L; Peterson, Mark D; Fattori, Rossella; Hutchison, Stuart; Desai, Nimesh D; Korach, Amit; Montgomery, Daniel G; Isselbacher, Eric M; Nienaber, Christoph A; Eagle, Kim A; Bartnes, Kristian; Myrmel, Truls

    2017-12-01

    The recommended extent of surgical resection and reconstruction of the arch in acute DeBakey Type I aortic dissection is an ongoing controversy. However, several recent reports indicate a trend towards a more extensive arch operation in several institutions. We have analysed the recent data from the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection to assess the choice of procedure over time and to evaluate the surgical outcome in a 'real-world' database. Our aim was to compare short- and mid-term outcomes of limited repairs versus complete arch surgery. Of the 1241 patients included in the 'Interventional Cohort' of the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection from March 1996 to March 2015, 907 underwent ascending aortic or hemiarch replacement (Group A) and 334 had extended arch replacement (Group B). An extended resection was a surgeon's 'judgement call'. Logistic regression analysis, propensity-adjusted multivariable comparisons and Kaplan-Meier curves were used for analyses. Overall in-hospital mortality was 14.2% with no difference between groups (Group A 13.1%, Group B 17.1%). Coma/altered consciousness (odds ratio 3.16, 95% confidence interval 1.60-6.25, P = 0.001), hypotension, tamponade or shock (2.03, 1.11-3.73, P = 0.022) and any pulse deficit (1.92, 1.04-3.54, P = 0.038) were predictors of in-hospital mortality in a propensity score-adjusted multivariable analysis. Overall 5-year survival was 69.4% in the ascending group and 73.1% in the total arch group (P = 0.83 by Kaplan-Meier analysis). For survivors of the index hospitalization, the 5-year freedom from death, aortic rupture and reintervention were 71.1% in Group A and 76.4% in Group B (P = 0.54 by Kaplan-Meier analysis). Selective, or 'surgeon's choice', extended arch replacement had no discernible acute downside compared with less extensive surgery. Whether extended arch replacement improves the prognosis beyond 5 years remains to be settled.

  10. Transesophageal echocardiographic evaluation of an intraoperative retrograde acute aortic dissection: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiter Charles G

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report an intraoperative retrograde dissection of the aorta and its subsequent evaluation by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE. Case presentation A 78 year old woman with an ascending aortic aneurysm without dissection and coronary artery disease was brought to the operating room for aneurysm repair and coronary artery bypass grafting. After initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass through a femoral artery cannula, aortic dissection was noted and subsequently imaged by TEE. Conclusion Retrograde aortic dissection through the femoral artery is life-threatening. Intraoperative TEE can be used to diagnose this uncommon event, and should be considered after initiation of bypass.

  11. Rare spinal cord infarction in a patient with acute type B aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Yuji; Nishina, Takeshi; Ueda, Yuichi

    2017-06-01

    A 69-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with acute epigastric discomfort and subsequent paraplegia. Computed tomography revealed acute type B aortic dissection with a thrombosed false lumen. Magnetic resonance imaging did not reveal spinal cord infarction. Paraplegia resolved completely within 1 h. However, on the following day, the patient developed motor impairment in the left leg, sensory disorder of the bilateral legs and urinary retention. The symptoms gradually improved with conservative medical therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging on hospitalization Day 20 revealed spinal cord infarction limited to the right posterior area at level T7/T8 and the conus medullaris. The patient was discharged 44 days after admission. The presented case is notable for its atypical presentation of spinal cord infarction resulting from acute aortic dissection. The aetiology of neurological symptoms, especially that of lower extremity monoplegia, remained undiagnosed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  12. Hospital volumes and later year of operation correlates with better outcomes in acute Type A aortic dissection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geirsson, Arnar; Ahlsson, Anders; Franco-Cereceda, Anders

    2017-01-01

    and 30-day mortality. RESULTS: The annual number of operations increased significantly from 85 in 2005 to 150 in 2014 ( P  Chest pain was present in 85% of patients, 24% were hypotensive on presentation and 28% had malperfusion syndrome. Open distal anastomosis technique under hypothermic......OBJECTIVES: Acute Type A aortic dissection remains a life-threatening disease, but there are indications that its surgical mortality is decreasing. The aim of this report was to study how surgical mortality has changed and what influences those changes. METHODS: Nordic Consortium for Acute Type...... A Aortic Dissection is a retrospective database comprising 1159 patients (mean age 61.6 ± 12.2 years, 68% male) treated for acute Type A aortic dissection at 8 centres in Denmark, Finland, Iceland and Sweden from 2005 to 2014. Data gathered included demographics, symptoms, type of procedure, complications...

  13. Risk factors and early outcomes of acute renal injury after thoracic aortic endograft repair for type B aortic dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo S

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Songyuan Luo,* Huanyu Ding,* Jianfang Luo, Wei Li, Bing Ning, Yuan Liu, Wenhui Huang, Ling Xue, Ruixin Fan, Jiyan Chen Cardiology Department, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coronary Heart Disease Prevention, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR has become an emerging treatment modality for acute type B aortic dissection (TBAD patients in recent years. The risk factors and impacts of acute kidney injury (AKI after percutaneous TEVAR, however, have not been widely established.Methods: We retrospectively studied the clinical records of 305 consecutive patients who admitted to our institution and had TEVAR for TBAD between December 2009 and June 2013. The patients were routinely monitored for their renal functions preoperatively until 7 days after TEVAR. The Kidney Disease Improving Global Guidelines (KDIGO criteria were used for AKI.Results: Of the total 305 consecutive patients, 84 (27.5% developed AKI after TEVAR, comprising 66 (21.6% patients in KDIGO stage 1, 6 (2.0% patients in stage 2 and 12 (3.9% patients in stage 3. From the logistic regression analysis, systolic blood pressure (SBP on admission >140 mmHg (odds ratio [OR], 2.288; 95% CI, 1.319–3.969 and supra-aortic branches graft bypass hybrid surgery (OR, 3.228; 95% CI, 1.526–6.831 were independent risk factors for AKI after TEVAR. Local anesthesia tended to be a protective factor (OR, 0.563; 95% CI, 0.316–1.001. The preoperative renal function, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker or statin administration, volume of contrast agent, range of TBAD and false lumen involving renal artery were not associated with post-operation AKI. The in-hospital mortality and major adverse events were markedly increased with the occurrence of AKI (7.1% vs 0.9%, P=0

  14. Shock complicating type A acute aortic dissection: Clinical correlates, management, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossone, Eduardo; Pyeritz, Reed E; Braverman, Alan C; Peterson, Mark D; Ehrlich, Marek; O'Gara, Patrick; Suzuki, Toru; Trimarchi, Santi; Gilon, Dan; Greason, Kevin; Desai, Nimesh D; Montgomery, Daniel G; Isselbacher, Eric M; Nienaber, Christoph A; Eagle, Kim A

    2016-06-01

    Shock is among the most dreaded and common complications of type A acute aortic dissection (TAAAD). However, clinical correlates, management, and short- and long-term outcomes of TAAAD patients presenting with shock in real-world clinical practice are not known. We evaluated 2,704 patients with TAAAD enrolled in the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection between January 1, 1996, and August 18, 2012. On admission, 407 (15.1%) TAAAD patients presented with shock. Most in-hospital complications (coma, myocardial or mesenteric ischemia or infarction, and cardiac tamponade) were more frequent in shock patients. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher in TAAAD patients with than without shock (30.2% vs 23.9%, P=.007), regardless of surgical or medical treatment. Most shock patients underwent surgical repair, with medically managed patients demonstrating older age and more complications at presentation. Estimates using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that most (89%) TAAAD patients with shock discharged alive from the hospital survived 5years, a rate similar to that of TAAAD patients without shock (82%, P=.609). Shock occurred in 1 of 7 TAAAD patients and was associated with higher rates of in-hospital adverse events and mortality. However, TAAAD survivors with or without shock showed similar long-term mortality. Successful early and aggressive management of shock in TAAAD patients has the potential for improving long-term survival in this patient population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Hiatal hernia incarceration during cardiopulmonary bypass in patient with acute aortic dissection--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Y; Saito, T; Horimi, H; Kato, M; Kawashima, T; Fuse, K

    1995-09-01

    A 67-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital under diagnosis of Stanford type A acute aortic dissection. Chest CT showed aortic dissection from the ascending to descending aorta, and large hiatal hernia. Operation was undergone under cardiopulmonary bypass and circulatory arrest with retrograde cerebral perfusion. A graft replacement was carried out from the ascending to transverse arch aorta. After the release of the cross-clamping of aorta, the heart was gradually oppressed anteriorly by extrapericardial mass, so that the patient could not be weaned from the cardiopulmonary bypass. The mass was revealed incarcerated hiatal hernia by ultrasonography. After laparotomy, diaphragm and hiatus were incised, the incarceration was relieved and the diaphgragm was repaired with a Goretex sheet. Then the patient could be weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass. Her postoperative course was uneventful except for acute renal failure, and she was discharged 60 days after the operation. The incarceration of hiatal hernia was thought to be caused by tissue edema and small bleeding during cardiopulmonary bypass. This is the first reported case with the incarceration of hiatal hernia which occurred during cardiopulmonary bypass.

  16. Effects of Hemodynamic Instability on Early Outcomes and Late Survival Following Repair of Acute Type A Aortic Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Brian D; Stamou, Sotiris C; Kouchoukos, Nicholas T; Lobdell, Kevin W; Khabbaz, Kamal; Patzelt, Lawrence H; Hagberg, Robert C

    2014-02-01

    The goal of this study was to compare operative mortality and actuarial survival between patients presenting with and without hemodynamic instability who underwent repair of acute Type A aortic dissection. Previous studies have demonstrated that hemodynamic instability is related to differences in early and late outcomes following acute Type A dissection occurrence. However, it is unknown whether hemodynamic instability at the initial presentation affects early clinical outcomes and survival after repair of Type A aortic dissection. A total of 251 patients from four academic medical centers underwent repair of acute Type A aortic dissection between January 2000 and October 2010. Of those, 30 presented with hemodynamic instability while 221 patients did not. Median ages were 63 years (range 38-82) and 60 years (range 19-87) for patients presenting with hemodynamic instability compared to patients without hemodynamic instability, respectively (P = 0.595). Major morbidity, operative mortality, and 10-year actuarial survival were compared between groups. Operative mortality was profoundly influenced by hemodynamic instability (patients with hemodynamic instability 47% versus 14% for patients without hemodynamic instability, P < 0.001). Actuarial 10-year survival rates for patients with hemodynamic instability were 44% versus 63% for patients without hemodynamic instability (P = 0.007). Hemodynamic instability has a profoundly negative impact on early outcomes and operative mortality in patients with acute Type A aortic dissection. However, late survival is comparable between hemodynamically unstable and non-hemodynamically unstable patients.

  17. Early acute ischaemic stroke in two patients with acute type B aortic dissection: an unusual complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlGhamdi, Abdullah; Alqahtani, Saeed; Ricketti, Meagan; Aziz, Salim

    2015-08-04

    Aortic thoracic dissection (AD) is a serious cardiovascular disease. According to the Stanford classification; type A involves the ascending aorta and type B the descending distal to the left subclavian artery. Neurological complications secondary to AD are devastating. Ischaemic stroke and hypoxic encephalopathy are early-recognised complications of type A as the arch vessels can be involved AD. Although, late ischaemic stroke had been reported in 1.4-5% of patients with type B dissection, early stroke is very unusual as it cannot be simply explained by AD anatomical pathogenesis. We report two patients who presented with type B AD complicated by early ischaemic strokes. Work-up revealed significant cardiomyopathies in both patients but with left ventricle thrombus in one. In both patients the strokes were felt to be of cardioembolic origin. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  18. Influence of False Lumen Status on the Prognosis of Acute Type A Aortic Dissection without Urgent Surgical Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akihito; Ishii, Hideki; Suzuki, Susumu; Ota, Tomoyuki; Oshima, Hideki; Usui, Akihiko; Komori, Kimihiro; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2017-02-01

    Recently, much attention has been focused on partial thrombosis of the false lumen in patients with acute aortic dissection. However, its effect on clinical outcomes in these patients, especially in case of acute type A aortic dissection, has not been clearly elucidated. This study evaluated the influence of the false lumen status, including partial thrombosis, on short-term clinical outcomes in acute type A aortic dissection patients without urgent surgical treatment. Sixty-two patients (29 males, mean age 73±13 years) with acute type A aortic dissection who did not receive urgent surgical treatment at four hospitals were enrolled. Patients were divided into three groups based on the false lumen status on enhanced computed tomography image (complete thrombosis, n=28; partial thrombosis, n=27; patent, n=7). Patients with partial thrombosis were further divided into two groups (thrombus-dominant, n=15; flow-dominant, n=12). The short-term mortality rate (in-hospital and 30-day) was significantly higher in patients with a patent false lumen, while no significant difference was seen between the other two groups. Patients with flow-dominant partial thrombosis had significantly higher short-term mortality rate than those with thrombus-dominant partial thrombosis (in-hospital, p=0.001 and 30-day, p<0.001). The short-term mortality rate in acute type A aortic dissection patients without urgent surgical treatment was lower in patients with partial thrombosis of the false lumen than in those with a patent false lumen. Furthermore, patients with flow-dominant partial thrombosis had higher mortality rate than those with thrombus-dominant partial thrombosis.

  19. Magnitude of Soluble ST2 as a Novel Biomarker for Acute Aortic Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Tan, Xin; Gao, Hai; Yuan, Hui; Hu, Rong; Jia, Lixin; Zhu, Junming; Sun, Lizhong; Zhang, Hongjia; Huang, Lianjun; Zhao, Dong; Gao, Pei; Du, Jie

    2018-01-16

    Misdiagnosis of acute aortic dissection (AAD) can lead to significant morbidity and death. Soluble ST2 (sST2) is a cardiovascular injury-related biomarker. The extent to which sST2 is elevated in AAD and whether sST2 can discriminate AAD from other causes of sudden-onset severe chest pain are unknown. We measured plasma concentrations of sST2 (R&D Systems assay) in 1360 patients, including 1027 participants in the retrospective discovery set and 333 patients with initial suspicion of AAD enrolled in the prospective validation cohort. Measures of discrimination for differentiating AAD from other causes of chest pain were calculated. In the acute phase, sST2 levels were higher in patients with AAD than those with either acute myocardial infarction in the first case-control discovery set within 24 hours of symptom onset or with patients with pulmonary embolism in the second discovery set (medians of 129.2 ng/mL versus 14.7 with Ppulmonary embolism). In the prospective validation set, sST2 was most elevated in patients with AAD (median [25th, 75th percentile]: 76.4 [49.6, 130.3]) and modestly elevated in acute myocardial infarction (25.0 [15.5, 37.2]), pulmonary embolism (14.9 [10.2, 30.1]), and angina patients (21.5 [13.1, 27.6], all P<0.001 versus AAD). The area under receiver operating characteristic curve for patients with AAD versus all control patients within 24 hours of presenting at the emergency department was 0.97 (0.95, 0.98) for sST2, 0.91 (0.88, 0.94) for D-dimer, and 0.50 (0.44, 0.56) for cardiac troponin I, respectively. At a cutoff level of 34.6 ng/mL, sST2 had a sensitivity of 99.1%, specificity of 84.9%, positive predictive value of 68.7%, negative predictive value of 99.7%, positive likelihood ratio of 6.6, and negative likelihood ratio of 0.01. Among patients with suspected aortic dissection in the emergency department, sST2 showed superior overall diagnostic performance to D-dimer or cardiac troponin I. Additional study is needed to determine

  20. Spontaneous resolution late after aortic dissection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeebregts, CJAM; Schepens, MAAM; Vermeulen, FEE

    A 50-year-old man was operated on for acute type I (DeBakey classification) aortic dissection. The supracoronary ascending aorta was replaced with an interposition graft. Postoperative computed tomography and angiography clearly revealed a double-barrelled aortic arch, left common carotid artery and

  1. Electrocardiography changes in acute aortic dissection-association with troponin leak, coronary anatomy, and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourafkari, Leili; Tajlil, Arezou; Ghaffari, Samad; Chavoshi, Mohammadreza; Kolahdouzan, Kasra; Parvizi, Rezayat; Parizad, Raziyeh; Nader, Nader D

    2016-08-01

    Electrocardiography (ECG) offers some information that may be used to prognosticate acute type A aortic dissection (AAOD) for short- and long-term mortality. We retrospectively analyzed the electrocardiograms of patients with AAOD admitted from March 2004 to March 2015. The frequency of ECG findings and their prognostic value on hospital and follow-up mortality were investigated. Findings pertaining to coronary involvement and troponin level were also examined. A total of 120 men and 64 women were admitted. Acute ischemic changes were reported in 38.0%, whereas T inversion was the most common recorded abnormality, which occurred in 38.6%. Acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction was detected in 16.3%. Troponin increased in 36.6%; 21.9% of the patients underwent coronary angiography among which 70% were normal. Coronary involvement or troponin increase was not different in patients with acute ECG changes. During hospitalization, 45.7% of the patients died. In multivariate analyses, ST elevation in lead aVR was associated with higher hospital death (odds ratio, 5.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-25.73; P = .038), whereas QRS greater than 120 milliseconds was associated with long-term mortality (hazard ratio, 2.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-3.76; P = .006). Acute ischemic ECG changes are common in AAOD, and a completely normal ECG is infrequently encountered. Acute ECG changes were not associated with the increased troponin or the presence of coronary lesions in angiography. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. A single-center experience of hemofiltration treatment for acute aortic dissection (Stanford type A) complicated with postoperative acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Peng; Zhang, Xi-Quan; Pang, Xin-Yan; Cao, Guang-Qing; Fang, Chang-Cun; Wu, Shu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) for aortic dissection patients with acute renal failure after surgery in retrospective manner. A total of thirty-seven aortic dissection patients with postoperative acute renal failure accepted CVVH therapy. The effect of CVVH was evaluated by analyzing clinical condition changes and laboratory examination results. After treatment of CVVH, renal function and clinical symptoms were significantly improved in thirty patients. Eight of the thirty patients got completely renal function recovery within two weeks after CVVH therapy; and twenty-two of the thirty patients got completely renal function recovery within four weeks after CVVH therapy. Nevertheless, seven patients got no benefit from CVVH therapy with poor prognosis. CVVH is an effective treatment to most aortic dissection patients with postoperative acute renal failure. The effect of CVVH was correlated with original renal function, early CVVH therapy, and continuous intensive care.

  3. Patients With Type A Acute Aortic Dissection Presenting With an Abnormal Electrocardiogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costin, Nathaniel I; Korach, Amit; Loor, Gabriel; Peterson, Mark D; Desai, Nimesh D; Trimarchi, Santi; de Vincentiis, Carlo; Ota, Takeyoshi; Reece, T Brett; Sundt, Thoralf M; Patel, Himanshu J; Chen, Edward P; Montgomery, Dan G; Nienaber, Christoph A; Isselbacher, Eric M; Eagle, Kim A; Gleason, Thomas G

    2018-01-01

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) is often used in the diagnosis of patients presenting with chest pain to emergency departments. Because chest pain is a common manifestation of type A acute aortic dissection (TAAAD), ECGs are obtained in much of this population. We evaluated the effect of particular ECG patterns on the diagnosis and treatment of TAAAD. TAAAD patients (N = 2,765) enrolled in the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection were stratified based on normal (n = 1,094 [39.6%]) and abnormal (n = 1,671 [60.4%]) findings on presenting ECGs and further subdivided according to specific ECG findings. Time data are presented in hours as medians (quartile 1 to quartile 3). Patients with ECGs with abnormal findings presented to the hospital sooner after symptom onset than those with ECGs with normal findings (1.4 [0.8 to 3.3] vs 2.0 [1.0 to 3.3]; p = 0.005). Specifically, this was seen in patients with infarction with new Q waves or ST elevation (1.3 [0.6 to 2.7] vs 1.5 [0.8 to 3.3]; p = 0.049). Interestingly, the time between symptom onset and diagnosis was longer with infarction with old Q waves (6.7 [3.2 to 18.4] vs 5.0 [2.9 to 11.8]; p = 0.034) and nonspecific ST-T changes (5.8 [3.0 to 13.8] vs 4.5 [2.8 to 10.5]; p = 0.002). Surgical mortality was higher in patients with abnormal ECG findings (20.6% vs 11.9%, p < 0.001), especially in those with ischemia by ECG (25.7% vs 16.8%, p < 0.001) and infarction with new Q waves or ST elevation (30.1% vs 17.1%, p < 0.001). TAAAD patients presenting with abnormal ECG results are sicker, have more in-hospital complications, and are more likely to die. The frequency of nonspecific ST-T abnormalities and its association with delay in diagnosis and treatment presents an opportunity for practice improvement. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Successful reversal of immediate paraplegia associated with repair of acute Type A aortic dissection using cerebrospinal fluid drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Shinichiro; Cho, Yasunori; Aki, Akira; Ueda, Toshihiko

    2013-12-01

    We present a case of a 49-year old man who suffered from immediate paraplegia upon awakening from anaesthesia after surgery for acute aortic dissection Type A. A catheter was promptly inserted into the spinal canal for cerebrospinal fluid drainage, and the cerebrospinal fluid pressure was maintained paraplegia and was able to walk by himself after rehabilitation. In some cases, cerebrospinal fluid drainage can be effective for the treatment of immediate postoperative spinal cord damage.

  5. [Acute type B aortic dissection: prognosis after initial conservative treatment and predictive factors for a complicated course].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, T; Nguyen, T; Gysi, J; Kipfer, B; Sigurdsson, G; Schaffner, T; Schüpbach, P; Althaus, U

    1997-09-06

    Today there is still debate concerning the optimal mode of treatment for type B dissection of the aorta. Controversies are mainly due to discordant results regarding survival following medical or surgical treatment. We assessed the early and long-term outcome of acute dissection of the descending aorta after initial conservative treatment. Between 1980 and 1995, 225 patients were hospitalized in the medical or surgical department of our institution with the diagnosis of acute type B aortic dissection. 38 patients (16.8%) underwent replacement of the descending aorta within the first week after hospital admission. Primary indications for immediate surgery were rupturing aneurysm in 15 patients, extensive dilatation of the descending aorta in 13, distal malperfusion in 8, and pseudocoarctation syndrome with uncontrollable hypertension in 2. All other patients (n = 187) underwent primary conservative treatment in the intensive care unit, which included appropriate antihypertensive medication. Hospital mortality during and after initial conservative treatment was 17.6% (33/187 patients). Main causes of death were rupture in 14 patients, intestinal malperfusion in 13 and cardiac failure in 3, whereas in 3 patients the cause of death could not be determined. Nine additional patients had to be referred for early surgery during the initial hospitalization because of contained rupture (n = 4), rapidly increasing size of the aorta (n = 2) and suspected intestinal ischemia (n = 3). Hospital mortality after early surgery was 21% (8/38 patients) for the overall time period. After hospital discharge from the initial acute dissection, surgery for chronic dissection was performed in 47 patients, mainly because of expanding descending aortic aneurysm. Hospital mortality was 8% in these patients (4/47). Actuarial survival rates after primary conservative therapy were 76 +/- 5% and 50 +/- 7% after 5 and 8 years respectively. Currently, surgery for acute type B dissection is limited

  6. [Ascending Aorta Replacement and Extended Myectomy for Acute Aortic Dissection and Coexistent Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy;Report of a Case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Hata, Masaki; Yamaya, Kazuhiro; Saitou, Takeshi; Haba, Fumiya; Matsuno, Masahiro

    2017-12-01

    Emergent ascending aortic replacement and extended myectomy were performed in a woman with acute aortic dissection who was aged 63 years. Preoperative transthoracic echocardiography performed in the intensive care unit showed only slight left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction, but intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography after induction of anesthesia revealed pericardial effusion, systolic anterior motion(SAM), and associated mitral regurgitation(MR). Perioperative SAM and MR are sometimes facilitated under various hemodynamic conditions, but in this case, the left ventricular wall was thick and LVOT appeared to be obstructive by a hypertrophied septum. Structural hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) was diagnosed, and septal myectomy and aortic replacement were performed. After ascending aortic replacement and simultaneous extended myectomy with resection of abnormal band, weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass was smooth without SAM and MR. The patient was discharged from hospital 24 days postoperatively with no major complications. Extended myectomy should be considered if structural HOCM is diagnosed, even when aortic replacement for the dissected aorta is the primary procedure.

  7. Brain activity monitoring by compressed spectral array during deep hypothermic circulatory arrest in acute aortic dissection surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanowicz, Tomasz K; Budniak, Wiktor; Buczkowski, Piotr; Perek, Bartłomiej; Walczak, Maciej; Tomczyk, Jadwiga; Katarzyński, Sławomir; Jemielity, Marek

    2014-12-01

    Monitoring the central nervous system during aortic dissection repair may improve the understanding of the intraoperative changes related to its bioactivity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of deep hypothermia on intraoperative brain bioactivity measured by the compressed spectral array (CSA) method and to assess the influence of the operations on postoperative cognitive function. The study enrolled 40 patients (31 men and 9 women) at the mean age of 60.2 ± 8.6 years, diagnosed with acute aortic dissection. They underwent emergency operations in deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA). During the operations, brain bioactivity was monitored with the compressed spectral array method. There were no intraoperative deaths. Electrocerebral silence during DHCA was observed in 31 patients (74%). The lowest activity was observed during DHCA: it was 0.01 ± 0.05 nW in the left hemisphere and 0.01 ± 0.03 nW in the right hemisphere. The postoperative results of neurological tests deteriorated statistically significantly (26.9 ± 1.7 points vs. 22.0 ± 1.7 points; p < 0.001), especially among patients who exhibited brain activity during DHCA. The compressed spectral array method is clinically useful in monitoring brain bioactivity during emergency operations of acute aortic dissections. Electrocerebral silence occurs in 75% of patients during DHCA. The cognitive function of patients deteriorates significantly after operations with DHCA.

  8. Influence of the false lumen status on clinical outcomes in patients with acute type B aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akihito; Sakakibara, Masaki; Ishii, Hideki; Hayashida, Ryo; Jinno, Yasushi; Okumura, Satoshi; Okada, Koji; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2014-02-01

    Clinical outcomes in acute type B aortic dissection patients with partial thrombosis of the false lumen have not been clearly elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate long-term mortality and incidence of surgical treatment by focusing on the status of the false lumen including partial thrombosis. One hundred three patients (69 males, mean age 67 ± 13 years) with acute type B aortic dissection were enrolled. Patients were divided into three groups according to the status of the false lumen on enhanced computed tomography image (complete thrombosis, n = 55; partial thrombosis, n = 25; patent, n = 23). Requirement of surgical (open or endovascular) treatment during initial hospitalization was significantly less frequent in patients with complete thrombosis (0% in complete thrombosis, 16% in partial thrombosis, and 26% in patent). The long-term mortality (mean follow-up term, 1143 ± 933 days) did not differ among the three groups. Long-term surgical treatment-free rate was significantly lower in patients with patent false lumen. Cox regression analysis revealed that age (P type B aortic dissection, the incidence of surgical treatment was higher in patients with patent false lumen during long-term follow-up, whereas status of the false lumen did not influence long-term mortality. Copyright © 2014 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A successfully thrombolysed acute inferior myocardial infarction due to type A aortic dissection with lethal consequences: the importance of early cardiac echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bousoula Eleni

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thrombolysis, a standard therapy for ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI in non-PCI-capable hospitals, may be catastrophic for patients with aortic dissection leading to further expansion, rupture and uncontrolled bleeding. Stanford type A aortic dissection, rarely may mimic myocardial infarction. We report a case of a patient with an inferior STEMI thrombolysed with tenecteplase and followed by clinical and electrocardiographic evidence of successful reperfusion, which was found later to be a lethal acute aortic dissection. Prognostic implications of early diagnosis applying transthoracic echocardiography (TTE are described.

  10. Acute Aortic Dissection Presenting as Bilateral Lower Extremity Paralysis: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kate E; Seguin, Colin; Felton, Brent; Hughes, Mary J; Castle, David

    2016-10-01

    First described by Morgagni in 1761, aortic dissection (AD) is an acute life-threatening and time-sensitive disease process with an increasing mortality approaching 1% for every 1-hour delay in diagnosis within the first 48 hours. Despite continued surgical advancement, overall in-hospital mortality remains significant (27.4%). A 56-year-old woman presented to an outlying emergency department with a complaint of isolated lumbar pain associated with right lower extremity paresthesia and paralysis that progressed to the left. Her medical history and a review of symptoms were significant for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and tobacco abuse. The initial evaluation in the emergency department included laboratory values and a computed tomography scan of the lumbar spine that revealed minimal disease. After transfer to our tertiary care center for an emergent magnetic resonance imaging scan of the lumbar spine, her vital signs were as follows: blood pressure, 176/84 mm Hg; heart rate, 76 beats/min; respiratory rate, 24 breaths/min; afebrile; and oxygen saturation 98% on room air. A repeat examination revealed cold extremities with mottling, bilateral symmetric lower extremity flaccid paralysis, and a loss of pulses and reflexes. She was insensate below the T10 dermatome. Her upper extremities and cranial nerves were normal. She underwent computed tomography angiography, revealing an extensive Stanford type A AD with interim thrombus formation. After successful endograft stenting, she died 24 hours later. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Comprising <2% of all ADs, the pathophysiology of paraplegia as the initial presentation of AD is caused by compression of the anterior spinal artery, resulting in ischemia of the spinal cord. Acute AD is a life-threatening medical emergency that requires a high clinical level of suspicion because of its often variable presentation and high incidence of mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  11. Acute Aortic Dissection in a Third Trimester Pregnancy without Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth L Walters

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous aortic dissection in pregnancy is rare and life threatening for both the mother and the fetus. Most commonly, it is associated with connective tissue disorders, cardiac valve variants, or trauma. We present the case of a 23-year-old previously healthy woman, 36 weeks pregnant with a syncopal episode after dyspnea and vomiting. She subsequently developed cardiac arrest and underwent aggressive resuscitation, emergent thoracotomy, and cesarean delivery without recovery. On autopsy, she was found to have an aortic dissection of the ascending aorta. This case is presented to raise awareness and review the literature and the clinical approach to critical care for pregnant patients. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(4:571–574.

  12. Changes in operative strategy for patients enrolled in the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection interventional cohort program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Neil; Trimarchi, Santi; Gleason, Thomas G; Kamman, Arnoud V; di Eusanio, Marco; Myrmel, Truls; Korach, Amit; Maniar, Hersh; Ota, Takeyoshi; Khoynezhad, Ali; Montgomery, Daniel G; Desai, Nimesh D; Eagle, Kim A; Nienaber, Christoph A; Isselbacher, Eric M; Bavaria, Joseph; Sundt, Thoralf M; Patel, Himanshu J

    2017-04-01

    Advancements in cardiothoracic surgery prompted investigation into changes in operative management for acute type A aortic dissections over time. One thousand seven hundred thirty-two patients undergoing surgery for type A aortic dissection were identified from the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection Interventional Cohort Database. Patients were divided into time tertiles (T) (T1: 1996-2003, T2: 2004-2010, and T3: 2011-2016). Frequency of valve sparing procures increased (T1: 3.9%, T2: 18.6%, and T3: 26.7%; trend P < .001). Biologic valves were increasingly utilized (T1: 35.6%, T2; 40.6%, and T3: 52.0%; trend P = .009), whereas mechanical valve use decreased (T1: 57.6%, T2: 58.0%, and T3: 45.4%; trend P = .027) for aortic valve replacement. Adjunctive cerebral perfusion use increased (T1: 67.1%, T2: 89.5%, and T3: 84.8%; trend P < .001), with increase in antegrade cerebral techniques (T1: 55.9%, T2: 58.8%, and T3: 66.1%; trend P = .005) and hypothermic circulatory arrest (T1: 80.1%, T2: 85.9%, and T3: 86.8%; trend P = .030). Arterial perfusion through axillary cannulation increased (T1: 18.0%, T2: 33.2%, and T3: 55.7%), whereas perfusion via a femoral approach diminished (T1: 76.0%, T2: 53.3%, and T3: 30.1%) (both P values < .001). Hemiarch replacement was utilized more frequently (T1: 27.0%, T2: 63.3%, and T3: 51.7%; trend P = .001) and partial arch was utilized less frequently (T1: 20.7%, T2: 12.0%, and T3: 8.4%; trend P < .001), whereas complete arch replacement was used similarly (P = .131). In-hospital mortality significantly decreased (T1: 17.5%, T2: 15.8%, and T3: 12.2%; trend P = .017). There have been significant changes in operative strategy over time in the management of type A aortic dissection, with more frequent use of valve-sparing procedures, bioprosthetic aortic valve substitutes, antegrade cerebral perfusion strategies, and hypothermic circulatory arrest. Most importantly, a significant decrease of in

  13. Postoperative peri-axillary seroma following axillary artery cannulation for surgical treatment of acute type A aortic dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsanos Konstantinos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The arterial cannulation site for optimal tissue perfusion and cerebral protection during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB for surgical treatment of acute type A aortic dissection remains controversial. Right axillary artery cannulation confers significant advantages, because it provides antegrade arterial perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass, and allows continuous antegrade cerebral perfusion during hypothermic circulatory arrest, thereby minimizing global cerebral ischemia. However, right axillary artery cannulation has been associated with serious complications, including problems with systemic perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass, problems with postoperative patency of the artery due to stenosis, thrombosis or dissection, and brachial plexus injury. We herein present the case of a 36-year-old Caucasian man with known Marfan syndrome and acute type A aortic dissection, who had direct right axillary artery cannulation for surgery of the ascending aorta. Postoperatively, the patient developed an axillary perigraft seroma. As this complication has, not, to our knowledge, been reported before in cardiothoracic surgery, we describe this unusual complication and discuss conservative and surgical treatment options.

  14. D-dimer as a biomarker for acute aortic dissection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jia-sen; Jing, Zai-ping; Zhuang, Shun-jiu; Qi, Shao-hong; Li, Li; Zhou, Jun-wen; Zhang, Wang; Zhao, Yun; Qi, Ning; Yin, Yang-jun

    2015-01-01

    To perform a meta-analysis and examine the use of D-dimer levels for diagnosing acute aortic dissection (AAD). Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar were searched until April 23, 2014, using the following search terms: biomarker, acute aortic dissection, diagnosis, and D-dimer. Inclusion criteria were diagnosis of acute aortic dissection, D-dimer levels obtained, 2-armed study. Outcome measures were the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of D-dimer level for the diagnosis of AAD. Sensitivity analysis was performed using the leave-one-out approach. Of 34 articles identified, 5 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. The age of participants was similar between treatments within studies. The number of AAD patients ranged from 16 to 107 (total = 274), and the number of control group patients ranged from 32 to 206 (total = 469). The pooled sensitivity of D-dimer levels in AAD patients was 94.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 78.1%-98.8%, P < 0.001), and the specificity was 69.1% (95% CI 43.7%-86.5%, P = 0.136). The pooled area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for D-dimer levels in AAD patients was 0.916 (95% CI 0.863-0.970, P < 0.001). The direction and magnitude of the combined estimates did not change markedly with the exclusion of individual studies, indicating the meta-analysis had good reliability. D-dimer levels are best used for ruling out AAD in patients with low likelihood of the disease.

  15. [Acute aortic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienaber, Christoph A

    2016-06-01

    Acute aortic syndrome is the common denominator for acute events to the aortic wall and encompasses dissection of the aorta, intramural hematoma, formation of aortic ulcers and trauma to the aorta with an annual incidence of up to 35 cases/100.000 between 65 and 75 years of age. Both, inflammation and/or microtrauma at the level of the aortic media layer, and a genetic disposition are promoting elements of AAS, while the extent and anatomic involvement of the ascending aorta call for either surgical resection/repair in the proximal part of the aorta, or an endovascular solution for pathologies in the distal aorta; in all cases of dissection (regardless of location) reconstruction/realignment has been proven to portend better long-term outcomes (in addition to medical management of blood pressure). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Painless aortic dissection presenting as paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, Necmettin; Nazli, Yunus; Alpay, Mehmet Fatih; Akkaya, Ismail Olgun; Cakir, Omer

    2012-01-01

    Acute dissection of the aorta can be life-threatening. As a presenting manifestation of aortic dissection, neurologic complications such as paraplegia are rare. Herein, we report the case of a 51-year-old man who presented with sudden-onset paraplegia and ischemia of the legs, with no chest or back pain. His medical history included coronary artery bypass grafting. Physical examination revealed pulseless lower extremities, and computed tomography showed aortic dissection from the ascending aorta to the common iliac arteries bilaterally. A lumbar catheter was inserted for cerebrospinal fluid drainage, and axillary arterial cannulation was established. With the use of cardiopulmonary bypass, the aortic dissection was corrected, and the previous coronary artery grafts were reattached. The surgery restored spinal and lower-extremity perfusion, and the patient walked unaided from the hospital upon his discharge 5 days later. Although acute aortic dissection presenting as paraplegia is rare, it should be considered in patients who have pulseless femoral arteries bilaterally and sudden-onset paraplegia, despite no pain in the chest or back. Prompt diagnosis and intervention can prevent morbidity and death.

  17. [Thoraco-abdominal aortic replacement in chronic phase in a patient with temporary paraplegia after Stanford B acute dissection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Goro; Hata, Masaki; Tabayashi, Koichi

    2013-07-01

    A 42-year-old man underwent was performed with thoraco-abdominal aneurysm replacement accompaniedy with reconstruction of abdominal branches and intercostal arteries. Eighteen months before, he had suffered from Stanford already been cured with paraplegia on being type B acute aortic dissection combined with paraplegia. When paraplegia had been occurred, cerebrospinal fluid drainage was had been performed promptly, and 4 days later, neurologic deficit was disappeared in 1 day. During the thoraco-abdominal aortic operation, cerebrospinal fluid drainage was performed done again. After the operation, paraplegia did was not occurred and he did not feel somewhat wrong with his legs. He was discharged from hospital on foot by himself. This case showed the efficacy of cerebral spinal fluid drainage for not only both with the prevention but also and treatment of paraplegia.

  18. Endoluminal treatment of aortic dissection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavan, Ajay; Lotz, Joachim; Galanski, Michael [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Carl Neuberg Strasse 1, 30625, Hannover (Germany); Oelert, Frank; Haverich, Axel; Karck, Matthias [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Carl Neuberg Strasse 1, 30625, Hannover (Germany)

    2003-11-01

    Aortic dissection is most often a catastrophic medical emergency which, if untreated, can be potentially fatal. The intention of therapy in patients with aortic dissection is to prevent aortic rupture or aneurysm formation as well as to relieve branch vessel ischaemia. Patients with aortic dissection are often poor candidates for anaesthesia and surgery and the surgical procedure itself is challenging requiring thoracotomy, aortic cross clamping, blood transfusion as well as prolonged hospital stay in some cases. Operative mortality is especially high in patients with critical mesenteric or renal ischaemia. The past decade has experienced the emergence of a number of interventional radiological or minimally invasive techniques which have significantly improved the management of patients with aortic dissection. These include stent grafting for entry site closure to prevent aneurysmatic widening of the false lumen as well as percutaneous techniques such as balloon fenestration of the intimal flap and aortic true lumen stenting to alleviate branch vessel ischaemia. False lumen thrombosis following entry closure with stent grafts has been observed in 86-100% of patients, whereas percutaneous interventions are able to effectively relieve organ ischaemia in approximately 90% of the cases. In the years to come, it is to be expected that these endoluminal techniques will become the method of choice for treating most type-B dissections and will assist in significantly reducing the number of open surgical procedures required for type-A dissections. The intention of this article is to provide an overview of the current status of these endoluminal techniques based on our own experience as well as on a review of the relevant literature. (orig.)

  19. Influence of distal extension of false lumen on adverse aortic events after TEVAR in patients with acute type B aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhan-kui; Wang, Ya; Wang, Xiao-zeng; Jing, Quan-min; Han, Ya-ling

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the clinical outcomes influenced by distal extension of false lumen in acute type B aortic dissection (TBAD) patients following thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). From April 2002 to January 2013, 264 TBAD patients treated with TEVAR were retrospectively enrolled. The IIIa group exhibited a distal false lumen above the diaphragm (n = 70), and the IIIb group exhibited a distal false lumen under the diaphragm (n = 194). The morphological characteristics and adverse events (30-day and >30 days) were recorded and evaluated. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the demographics, comorbidity profiles, or initial feature of computed tomography angiography. The incidence of true lumen compression and branch involvement were significantly increased in the IIIb group compared with the IIIa group (8.6% vs. 25.3%, respectively; 15.7% vs. 36.1%, respectively, both P  0.05). Log-rank tests also indicated there was no significant difference. There was no significant difference between the IIIa and IIIb groups in the 5-year morality and adverse aortic events following TEVAR. The distal extension of false lumen prior to TEVAR does not influence the long-term morality and adverse aortic events in acute TBAD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Clinical significance of a false lumen pathway through the arch in acute type A aortic dissection and its influence on cervical branch compromise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamine, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Manami; Wakabayashi, Naohiro; Sugita, Hiroaki; Hara, Hiroiku; Kawase, Yushi

    2015-11-01

    Upon onset of acute type A aortic dissection, the aortic true lumen generally becomes fixed around the supra-aortic branches in the greater curvature and Botallo's ligament in the lesser curvature of the aortic arch. Therefore, the pathways of the false lumen through the arch can be categorized as anterior, bilateral and posterior. We investigated the relationship between a false lumen pathway through the arch and cervical branch compromise, stratified by primary tear location. Sixty-four consecutive patients with acute type A aortic dissection underwent emergency surgery at our institution between March 2005 and October 2013. Of these, 40 cases (63%) were DeBakey type I, 15 cases (23%) were type II and 9 cases (14%) were type III-D (retrograde type A). We conducted a retrospective review of preoperative computed tomographic angiography using three-dimensional image post-processing tools for 43 cases, excluding 15 cases with type II and 6 cases with type I for which preoperative digital image data were not available. Of the 43 cases, 14, 18 and 11 revealed anterior, bilateral and posterior pathways, respectively. Twenty-one cases (49%) showed a primary intimal tear in the ascending aorta (8 anterior, 12 bilateral and 1 posterior), 12 cases (28%) showed a primary intimal tear in the aortic arch (5 anterior, 3 bilateral and 4 posterior) and 10 cases (23%) showed a primary intimal tear in the descending aorta (1 anterior, 3 bilateral and 6 posterior). Twelve of the 14 anterior pathway cases (86%) had a total of 26 supra-aortic branch compromises, 13 of the 18 bilateral pathway cases (72%) had a total of 20 supra-aortic branch compromises, while only 4 of the 11 posterior pathway cases (36%) had a total of four supra-aortic branch compromises. None of the 11 posterior pathway cases had a dissection extending into all 3 supra-aortic branches. Posterior pathway cases generally showed primary tear locations in the arch or descending aorta, and cervical branch compromise

  1. Evidence, lack of evidence, controversy, and debate in the provision and performance of the surgery of acute type A aortic dissection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonser, Robert S; Ranasinghe, Aaron M; Loubani, Mahmoud

    2011-01-01

    Acute type A aortic dissection is a lethal condition requiring emergency surgery. It has diverse presentations, and the diagnosis can be missed or delayed. Once diagnosed, decisions with regard to initial management, transfer, appropriateness of surgery, timing of operation, and intervention...

  2. High neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in type A acute aortic dissection facilitates diagnosis and predicts worse outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbarouni, Eftihia; Georgiadou, Panagiota; Analitis, Antonis; Voudris, Vassilis

    2015-01-01

    The authors investigated whether neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (N/L) can contribute to the diagnosis and risk assessment in patients with type A acute aortic dissection (AAD). The authors studied 120 consecutive patients with type A AAD (group I) and compared them with 121 consecutive patients with chronic aneurysms (group II) and 121 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects (group III). It was found that white blood cell count, N/L, D-dimer and C-reactive protein were significantly higher in group I versus both groups II and III (p 4.6 was associated with 0.89 sensitivity and 0.91 specificity for AAD. High N/L may contribute to the diagnostic evaluation and prompt immediate therapy in patients with type A AAD.

  3. Extent of Preoperative False Lumen Thrombosis Does Not Influence Long‐Term Survival in Patients With Acute Type A Aortic Dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Magnus; Bartnes, Kristian; Tsai, Thomas T.; Eagle, Kim A.; Evangelista, Arturo; Nienaber, Christoph A.; Suzuki, Toru; Fattori, Rossella; Froehlich, James B.; Hutchison, Stuart; Sundt, Thoralf M.; Januzzi, James L.; Isselbacher, Eric M.; Montgomery, Daniel G.; Myrmel, Truls

    2013-01-01

    Background Partial thrombosis of the false lumen has been related to aortic growth, reoperations, and death in the chronic phase of type B and repaired type A aortic dissections. The impact of preoperative false lumen thrombosis has not been studied previously. We used data from a contemporary, multinational database on aortic dissections to evaluate whether different degrees of preoperative false lumen thrombosis influenced long‐term prognosis. Methods and Results We examined the records of 522 patients with surgically treated acute type A aortic dissections who survived to discharge between 1996 and 2011. At the preoperative imaging, 414 (79.3%) patients had patent false lumens, 84 (16.1%) had partial thrombosis of the false lumen, and 24 (4.6%) had complete thrombosis of the false lumen. The annual median (interquartile range) aortic growth rates were 0.5 (−0.3 to 2.0) mm in the aortic arch, 2.0 (0.2 to 4.0) mm in the descending thoracic aorta, and similar regardless of the degree of false lumen thrombosis. The overall 5‐year survival rate was 84.7%, and it was not influenced by false lumen thrombosis (P=0.86 by the log‐rank test). Independent predictors of long‐term mortality were age >70 years (hazard ratio [HR], 2.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20 to 4.56, P=0.012) and postoperative cerebrovascular accident, coma, and/or renal failure (HR, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.40 to 4.92, P=0.003). Conclusions Patients with acute type A aortic dissection who survive to discharge have a favorable prognosis. Preoperative false lumen thrombosis does not influence long‐term mortality, reintervention rates, or aortic growth. PMID:23817468

  4. Imaging of aortic dissection by helical computed tomography (CT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willoteaux, Serge; Lions, Christophe; Gaxotte, Virginia; Negaiwi, Ziad; Beregi, J.P. [CHRU de Lille, Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, Hopital Cardiologique, Lille (France)

    2004-11-01

    Aortic dissection is the most frequent cause of aortic emergency, and its outcome is still frequently fatal. The management of this pathology has changed with the development of endovascular means. Nowadays, imaging modalities are helpful in management decision-making by providing information such as identification of entry tears along the aorta and involvement of the visceral branches of the abdominal aorta. Multi-slice CT scanning now appears to be the modality of choice for complete examination of the entire aorta. We review the parameters of image acquisition and contrast injection; appearances on CT of acute and chronic dissection are illustrated. Diagnostic pitfalls in CT imaging of acute dissection are discussed. Imaging of the post-surgical aorta and of chronic dissection is outlined. Intra-mural hematoma and penetrating aortic ulcer are subtypes of aortic dissection, and their appearances on CT scanning are also presented. (orig.)

  5. Renal Infarction from Type B Aortic Dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit Tweet

    2017-07-01

    ascending aorta and is usually managed surgically. A Stanford Type B dissection begins distal to the left subclavian artery and is often managed medically with specific focus on blood pressure reduction. Aortic dissection can involve various branching vessels which will affect both how the patient presents and the complexity of their medical course. Patients can present with limb ischemia, syncope, stroke, acute renal failure, mesenteric ischemia, myocardial infarction, or, such as the above patient, back and abdominal pain.1 While pain is often a presenting complaint, aortic dissections should be considered in the absence of pain.2 Painless limb paralysis can occur secondary to dissection involving vessels supplying the spinal cord.3 Diagnosis is typically made by CTA, which has a sensitivity of 98%-100%, although an initial chest x-ray can detect findings concerning for aortic dissection in 60%-90% of cases.4 Early and aggressive blood pressure control is essential to prevent worsening of the dissection by decreasing afterload and shearing forces. The preferred anti-hypertensive would be a titratable beta blocker such as esmolol or labetalol. Vascular surgery consultation can help determine the effects of branching vessel compromise or the treatment course for the patient. For management of the above patient, vascular surgery was emergently consulted. Repeat vital signs included blood pressure 182/97, heart rate 77, respiratory rate 16, and oxygen saturation 100% on 2L nasal cannula. Labetalol infusion was initiated to control her elevated blood pressure with a goal of less than 120/80, intermittent fentanyl addressed pain and intravenous hydration was begun to protect her renal function. Additionally, she was started on a heparin drip to prevent thrombosis in the false lumen. This is not generally the standard of care for aortic dissections, but can be appropriate to avoid thrombosis-related complications in some patients.6

  6. Predictors of poor blood pressure control assessed by 24 hour monitoring in patients with type B acute aortic dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delsart P

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pascal Delsart1, Marco Midulla2, Jonathan Sobocinski3, Charles Achere4, Stephan Haulon3, Gonzague Claisse1, Claire Mounier-Vehier11Vascular Medicine and Hypertension Department, Cardiology Hospital, CHRU Lille, 2Radiology and Cardiovascular Imaging Department, Cardiology Hospital, CHRU Lille, 3Vascular Surgery Department, Cardiology Hospital, CHRU Lille, 4Cardiology Department, Cardiology Hospital, CHRU Lille, FranceAbstract: The chronic management of post-acute aortic dissection (AD of the descending aorta (Type B is based on optimal control of blood pressure (BP, with a target BP < 135/80 mmHg. The aim of our study was to determine and verify effective blood pressure control with an objective measurement method and to identify predicting factors.Methods: We collected data from 26 patients hospitalized in the acute phase of a Type B AD between 2006 and 2009. Two groups were defined according to 24 hour BP monitoring results at follow-up. Group 1 consisted of patients with a controlled BP (< 130/80 mmHg, and Group 2 consisted of patients with an uncontrolled BP.Results: Thirty four percent of patients showed an uncontrolled BP at checkup. Vascular history before AD (P = 0.06, high baseline BP trend (P = 0.01 for systolic and P = 0.08 for diastolic, and greater diameter of the descending aorta (P = 0.02 were associated with poor BP control.Conclusion: Prognosis after AD is associated with BP control. Therefore, 24 hour BP monitoring can be made.Keywords: acute aortic syndrome, blood pressure monitoring, hypertension

  7. [Case in which renal function improved following stent-graft placement in the aorta two months after the onset of stanford type B acute aortic dissection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusamae, Juri; Nishino, Tomoya; Uramatsu, Tadashi; Obata, Yoko; Furusu, Akira; Sakamoto, Ichiro; Kohno, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    A 48-year-old man was admitted to the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery in our hospital after developing Stanford type B acute aortic dissection with a patent false lumen in July 2008. Conservative treatment involving rest and antihypertensive therapy was provided following admission. Urine volume decreased from day 9, and serum creatinine increased to 7.7 mg/dL. As it was suspected that the reduced renal blood flow was caused by progression of aortic dissection, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT)was performed. The left kidney showed reduced enhancement and the right kidney was heterogeneously enhanced. The dissection had extended to the left renal artery, and the reduced renal blood flow caused by narrowing of the left renal artery was thought to have caused the renal dysfunction. As elevated urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels and hyperkalemia persisted, hemodialysis was performed a total of four times. Although the patient was subsequently withdrawn from dialysis, he continued to display severe renal dysfunction and was transferred to our department on day 28 for the treatment of renal failure. Conservative treatment was continued, but the maximum diameter of the thoracic aorta gradually increased, and stent placement at the entry of aortic dissection was indicated. On day 86, two stent-grafts were placed for entries at the distal site of the descending aorta and the distal site of the aortic arch. Postoperative abdominal contrast-enhanced CT showed expansion of the true lumen, and blood flow and contrast enhancement improved in both kidneys. Postoperatively, serum creatinine gradually decreased, improving to 1.16 mg/dL on day 96. Renography in the third month after stent-graft placement showed improved renal function in both kidneys. These findings suggest that even at approximately 2 months after the onset of acute renal failure associated with aortic dissection, renal function can be improved by restoring blood flow in the renal arteries.

  8. [A case of acute aortic dissection presenting with cerebral ischemic symptoms: utility of 3D CT angiography and CT perfusion for the diagnosis of acute stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koseki, Hirokazu; Kuroi, Yasuhiro; Arai, Naoyuki; Ohbuchi, Hidenori; Hirota, Kengo; Hagiwara, Shinji; Tani, Shigeru; Sasahara, Atsushi; Kasuya, Hidetoshi

    2014-08-01

    A 76-year-old woman presented at our hospital complaining of loss of consciousness, dysarthria, and upper extremity paresis. Head CT showed no remarkable findings. 3D CT angiography (CTA) and CT perfusion (CTP) revealed acute aortic dissection (AAD) involving the innominate artery and decreased cerebral blood flow in the right cerebral hemisphere, although there were no clinical signs of AAD. The patient underwent emergency allograft replacement performed by cardiovascular surgeons. The symptoms disappeared within several days and no cerebral infarction developed. Although patients with AAD and neurological symptoms can show a fatal course when they receive tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), it is difficult to exclude patient with AAD as candidates for tPA treatment. Routine use of 3D CTA and CTP in the diagnosis of acute stroke may help overcome the above problem.

  9. Impact of Elevated D-Dimer on Diagnosis of Acute Aortic Dissection With Isolated Neurological Symptoms in Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimuta, Tsuyoshi; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki; Okajima, Toshiya; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Toyoda, Kazunori; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki; Higashi, Masahiro; Hayashi, Kenshi; Kawashiri, Masa-aki; Yasuda, Satoshi; Yamagishi, Masakazu

    2015-01-01

    Plasma D-dimer is known to be a useful clinical marker of thrombogenic status, and D-dimer is used as a diagnostic marker for acute aortic dissection (AAD). Little is known, however, regarding the clinical value of D-dimer for diagnosis of asymptomatic AAD in patients with ischemic stroke. We investigated whether D-dimer could be used for early diagnosis of AAD with isolated neurological symptoms in ischemic stroke patients. We evaluated a total of 1,236 consecutive patients with symptomatic ischemic stroke without chest or back pain who underwent either head computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. D-dimer was measured within 24 h after onset. There were 9 patients with Stanford type A AAD and they had significantly higher D-dimer than the patients without AAD (mean, 46.47±54.48 μg/ml; range, 6.9-167.1 μg/ml vs. 2.33±3.58 μg/ml, 0.3-57.9 μg/ml, Psymptoms in ischemic stroke patients. Whole-body contrast-enhanced computed tomography should be performed in ischemic stroke patients who have high D-dimer.

  10. Classification and outcomes of extended arch repair for acute Type A aortic dissection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Holly N; Boodhwani, Munir; Ouzounian, Maral; Saczkowski, Richard; Gregory, Alexander J; Herget, Eric J; Appoo, Jehangir J

    2017-03-01

    Distal extent of repair in patients undergoing surgery for acute Type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) is controversial. Emerging hybrid techniques involving open and endovascular surgery have been reported in small numbers by select individual centres. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to investigate the outcomes following extended arch repair for ATAAD. A classification system is proposed of the different techniques to facilitate discussion and further investigation. Using Ovid MEDLINE, 38 studies were identified reporting outcomes for 2140 patients. Studies were categorized into four groups on the basis of extent of surgical aortic resection and the method of descending thoracic aortic stent graft deployment; during circulatory arrest (frozen stented elephant trunk) or with normothermic perfusion and use of fluoroscopy (warm stent graft): (I) surgical total arch replacement, (II) total arch and frozen stented elephant trunk, (III) hemiarch and frozen stented elephant trunk and (IV) total arch and warm stent graft. Perioperative event rates were obtained for each of the four groups and the entire cohort using pooled summary estimates. Linearized rates of late mortality and reoperation were calculated. Overall pooled hospital mortality for extended arch techniques was 8.6% (95% CI 7.2-10.0). Pooled data categorized by surgical technique resulted in hospital mortality of 11.9% for total arch, 8.6% total arch and frozen stented elephant trunk, 6.3% hemiarch and frozen stented elephant trunk and 5.5% total arch and 'warm stent graft'. Overall incidence of stroke for the entire cohort was 5.7% (95% CI 3.6-8.2). Rate of spinal cord ischaemia was 2.0% (95% CI 1.2-3.0). Pooled linearized rate of late mortality was 1.66%/pt-yr (95% CI 1.34-2.07) with linearized rate of re-operation of 1.62%/pt-yr (95% CI 1.24-2.05). Perioperative results of extended arch procedures are encouraging. Further follow-up is required to see if long-term complications are reduced

  11. Predictors of aortic growth in uncomplicated type B aortic dissection from the Acute Dissection Stent Grafting or Best Medical Treatment (ADSORB) database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamman, Arnoud V; Brunkwall, Jan; Verhoeven, Eric L

    2017-01-01

    database. Furthermore, we looked for trends in outcome for aortic growth and remodeling after BMT and thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) and BMT (TEVAR+BMT). METHODS: BMT patients with available baseline and a 1-year follow-up arterial computed tomography scan were identified. True lumen and false...... interval, 0.813-1.00; P = .0502). The proximal sections A and B showed complete thrombosis in 80.6% in the BMT+TEVAR group compared with 9.5% in the BMT group. In these sections, changes from patent to partial or partial to complete thrombosis were observed in 90.3% of the TEVAR+BMT group vs 31...

  12. Aortic remodelling in aortic dissection after frozen elephant trunk†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohle, Daniel-Sebastian; Tsagakis, Konstantinos; Janosi, Rolf Alexander; Benedik, Jaroslav; Kühl, Hilmar; Penkova, Liuba; Stebner, Ferdinand; Wendt, Daniel; Jakob, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Frozen elephant trunk (FET) can be used for continuous downstream aorta treatment in acute aortic dissection (AAD) and chronic aortic dissection (CAD). The study reports the changes in the lumen volumes along the downstream aorta towards remodelling. In 70 patients (22 CAD, 48 AAD), pre-, postoperative and at least the 1-year follow-up aortic imaging was available. Volume changes of aortic lumen (AL) and true lumen (TL) between examinations along the stent graft aortic segment (A), downstream to coeliac trunk (B) and distally to bifurcation (C) were used for quantification. TL increase >10% with stable AL or AL decrease >10% with stable TL were classified as positive, changes within a 10% threshold as stable, and all other changes as negative remodelling. In AAD, positive or stable remodelling occurred in A (90%), B (65%), C (58%) within 1 year, thereafter in 26 patients (follow-up: 47 ± 21 months) in A (92%), B (65%), C (62%). Negative remodelling in ≥2 segments was found in 5/26 (19%) patients. In CAD, positive or stable remodelling occurred in A (100%), B (86%), C (77%) within 1 year, thereafter in 16 patients (follow-up: 46 ± 20 months) in A (75%), B (44%), C (38%). Negative remodelling in ≥2 segments was found in 7/16 (43%) patients, 5 underwent reintervention, and stabilized thereafter. FET facilitates positive remodelling in AAD and CAD down to stent graft level. Distally, 20% AAD and 40% CAD patients remain at risk for secondary reintervention, and can be identified by negative remodelling in ≥2 segments in the follow-up examinations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  13. Recurrent Aortic Dissection: Observations From the International Registry of Aortic Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isselbacher, Eric M; Bonaca, Marc P; Di Eusanio, Marco; Froehlich, James; Bassone, Eduardo; Sechtem, Udo; Pyeritz, Reed; Patel, Himanshu; Khoynezhad, Ali; Eckstein, Hans-Henning; Jondeau, Guillaume; Ramponi, Fabio; Abbasi, Mohammad; Montgomery, Daniel; Nienaber, Christoph A; Eagle, Kim; Lindsay, Mark E

    2016-10-04

    Improved medical care after initial aortic dissection (AD) has led to increased survivorship and a population of individuals at risk for further cardiovascular events, including recurrent AD. Reports describing recurrent ADs have been restricted to small numbers of patients from single institutions. We used the IRAD (International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection) database to examine the clinical profiles and outcomes of patients with recurrent AD. We identified 204 patients enrolled in IRAD with recurrent AD. For the primary analysis, patient characteristics, interventions, and outcomes were analyzed and compared with 3624 patients with initial AD. Iterative logistic modeling was performed to investigate variables associated with recurrent AD. Cox regression analyses were used to determine variables associated with 5-year survival. A subset of recurrent AD patients was analyzed for anatomic and demographic details of initial and recurrent ADs. Patients with recurrent AD were more likely to have Marfan syndrome (21.5% versus 3.1%; P<0.001) but not bicuspid aortic valve (3.6% versus 3.2%; P=0.77). Descending aortic dimensions were greater in patients with recurrent AD than in patients with initial AD independently of sentinel dissection type (type A: 4.3 cm [3.5-5.6 cm] versus 3.3 cm [2.9-3.7 cm], P<0.001; type B: 5.0 cm [3.9-6.0 cm] versus 4.0 cm [3.5-4.8 cm], P<0.001), and this observation was accentuated among patients with Marfan syndrome. In multivariate analysis, the diagnosis of Marfan syndrome independently predicted recurrent AD (hazard ratio, 8.6; 95% confidence interval, 5.8-12.8; P<0.001). Patients with recurrent AD who presented with proximal followed by distal AD were younger than patients who experienced distal followed by proximal dissection AD (42.1±16.1 versus 54.3±14.8 years; P=0.004). Among those suffering acute aortic dissection, 5% have a history of a prior aortic dissection. Recurrent AD is strongly associated with Marfan syndrome.

  14. Aortic Dissection Type A in Alpine Skiers

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    Thomas Schachner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients and Methods. 140 patients with aortic dissection type A were admitted for cardiac surgery. Seventy-seven patients experienced their dissection in the winter season (from November to April. We analyzed cases of ascending aortic dissection associated with alpine skiing. Results. In 17 patients we found skiing-related aortic dissections. Skiers were taller (180 (172–200 cm versus 175 (157–191 cm, and heavier (90 (68–125 kg versus 80 (45–110 kg, than nonskiers. An extension of aortic dissection into the aortic arch, the descending thoracic aorta, and the abdominal aorta was found in 91%, 74%, and 69%, respectively, with no significant difference between skiers and nonskiers. Skiers experienced RCA ostium dissection requiring CABG in 17.6% while this was true for 5% of nonskiers (. Hospital mortality of skiers was 6% versus 13% in nonskiers (. The skiers live at an altitude of 170 (0–853 m.a.s.l. and experience their dissection at 1602 (1185–3105; m.a.s.l. In 82% symptom start was during recreational skiing without any trauma. Conclusion. Skiing associated aortic dissection type A is usually nontraumatic. The persons affected live at low altitudes and practice an outdoor sport at unusual high altitude at cold temperatures. Postoperative outcome is good.

  15. Aortic Dissection Type A in Alpine Skiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Thomas; Fischler, Nikolaus; Dumfarth, Julia; Bonaros, Nikolaos; Krapf, Christoph; Schobersberger, Wolfgang; Grimm, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Patients and Methods. 140 patients with aortic dissection type A were admitted for cardiac surgery. Seventy-seven patients experienced their dissection in the winter season (from November to April). We analyzed cases of ascending aortic dissection associated with alpine skiing. Results. In 17 patients we found skiing-related aortic dissections. Skiers were taller (180 (172–200) cm versus 175 (157–191) cm, P = 0.008) and heavier (90 (68–125) kg versus 80 (45–110) kg, P = 0.002) than nonskiers. An extension of aortic dissection into the aortic arch, the descending thoracic aorta, and the abdominal aorta was found in 91%, 74%, and 69%, respectively, with no significant difference between skiers and nonskiers. Skiers experienced RCA ostium dissection requiring CABG in 17.6% while this was true for 5% of nonskiers (P = 0.086). Hospital mortality of skiers was 6% versus 13% in nonskiers (P = 0.399). The skiers live at an altitude of 170 (0–853) m.a.s.l. and experience their dissection at 1602 (1185–3105; P skiing without any trauma. Conclusion. Skiing associated aortic dissection type A is usually nontraumatic. The persons affected live at low altitudes and practice an outdoor sport at unusual high altitude at cold temperatures. Postoperative outcome is good. PMID:23971024

  16. Dissecting aortic aneurysm in maintenance hemodialysis patients

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    Ounissi M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The dissecting aortic aneurysm (DAA is a rare pathology that may result in fatal outcome. We report follow up of three cases of DAA patients undergoing maintenance hemo-dialysis who were managed conservatively.

  17. Pregnancy after aortic root replacement in Loeys-Dietz syndrome: High risk of aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Alan C; Moon, Marc R; Geraghty, Patrick; Willing, Marcia; Bach, Christopher; Kouchoukos, Nicholas T

    2016-08-01

    Loeys-Dietz syndrome due to mutations in TGFBR1 and 2 is associated with early and aggressive aortic aneurysm and branch vessel disease. There are reports of uncomplicated pregnancy in this condition, but there is an increased risk of aortic dissection and uterine rupture. Women with underlying aortic root aneurysm are cautioned about the risk of pregnancy-related aortic dissection. Prophylactic aortic root replacement is recommended in women with aortopathy and aortic root dilatation to lessen the risk of pregnancy. There is limited information in the literature about the outcomes of pregnancy after root replacement in Loeys-Dietz syndrome. We present a case series of three women with Loeys-Dietz syndrome who underwent elective aortic root replacement for aneurysm disease and subsequently became pregnant and underwent Cesarean section delivery. Each of these women were treated with beta blockers throughout pregnancy. Surveillance echocardiograms and noncontrast MRA studies during pregnancy remained stable demonstrating no evidence for aortic enlargement. Despite the normal aortic imaging and careful observation, two of the three women suffered acute aortic dissection in the postpartum period. These cases highlight the high risk of pregnancy following aortic root replacement in Loeys-Dietz syndrome. Women with this disorder are recommended to be counseled accordingly. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Clinical Predictors for Delayed or Inappropriate Initial Diagnosis of Type A Acute Aortic Dissection in the Emergency Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Kazuhito; Wake, Minoru; Takahashi, Takanori; Nakazato, Jun; Yagi, Nobuhito; Miyagi, Tadayoshi; Shimotakahara, Junichi; Mototake, Hidemitsu; Tengan, Toshiho; Takara, Tsuyoshi R; Yamaguchi, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Initial diagnosis of acute aortic dissection (AAD) in the emergency room (ER) is sometimes difficult or delayed. The aim of this study is to define clinical predictors related to inappropriate or delayed diagnosis of Stanford type A AAD. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 127 consecutive patients with type A AAD who presented to the ER within 12 h of symptom onset (age: 69.0 ± 15.4 years, male/female = 49/78). An inappropriate initial diagnosis (IID) was considered if AAD was not included in the differential diagnosis or if chest computed tomography or echocardiography was not performed as initial imaging tests. Clinical variables were compared between IID and appropriate diagnosis group. The time to final diagnosis (TFD) was also evaluated. Delayed diagnosis (DD) was defined as TFD > third quartile. Clinical factors predicting DD were evaluated in comparison with early diagnosis (defined as TFD within the third quartile). In addition, TFD was compared with respect to each clinical variable using a rank sum test. An IID was determined for 37% of patients. Walk-in (WI) visit to the ER [odds ratio (OR) 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-6.72, P = 0.048] and coronary malperfusion (CM, OR = 6.48, 95% CI = 1.14-36.82, P = 0.035) were predictors for IID. Overall, the median TFD was 1.5 h (first/third quartiles = 0.5/4.0 h). DD (>4.5 h) was observed in 27 cases (21.3%). TFD was significantly longer in WI patients (median and first/third quartiles = 1.0 and 0.5/2.85 h for the ambulance group vs. 3.0 and 1.0/8.0 h for the WI group, respectively; P = 0.003). Multivariate analysis revealed that WI visit was the only predictor for DD (OR = 3.72, 95% CI = 1.39-9.9, P = 0.009). TFD was significantly shorter for appropriate diagnoses than for IIDs (1.0 vs. 6.0 h, respectively; P < 0.0001). WI visit to the ER and CM were predictors for IID, and WI was the only predictor for DD in acute type A AAD in the community hospital.

  19. Clinical Predictors for Delayed or Inappropriate Initial Diagnosis of Type A Acute Aortic Dissection in the Emergency Room.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhito Hirata

    Full Text Available Initial diagnosis of acute aortic dissection (AAD in the emergency room (ER is sometimes difficult or delayed. The aim of this study is to define clinical predictors related to inappropriate or delayed diagnosis of Stanford type A AAD.We conducted a retrospective analysis of 127 consecutive patients with type A AAD who presented to the ER within 12 h of symptom onset (age: 69.0 ± 15.4 years, male/female = 49/78. An inappropriate initial diagnosis (IID was considered if AAD was not included in the differential diagnosis or if chest computed tomography or echocardiography was not performed as initial imaging tests. Clinical variables were compared between IID and appropriate diagnosis group. The time to final diagnosis (TFD was also evaluated. Delayed diagnosis (DD was defined as TFD > third quartile. Clinical factors predicting DD were evaluated in comparison with early diagnosis (defined as TFD within the third quartile. In addition, TFD was compared with respect to each clinical variable using a rank sum test.An IID was determined for 37% of patients. Walk-in (WI visit to the ER [odds ratio (OR 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.01-6.72, P = 0.048] and coronary malperfusion (CM, OR = 6.48, 95% CI = 1.14-36.82, P = 0.035 were predictors for IID. Overall, the median TFD was 1.5 h (first/third quartiles = 0.5/4.0 h. DD (>4.5 h was observed in 27 cases (21.3%. TFD was significantly longer in WI patients (median and first/third quartiles = 1.0 and 0.5/2.85 h for the ambulance group vs. 3.0 and 1.0/8.0 h for the WI group, respectively; P = 0.003. Multivariate analysis revealed that WI visit was the only predictor for DD (OR = 3.72, 95% CI = 1.39-9.9, P = 0.009. TFD was significantly shorter for appropriate diagnoses than for IIDs (1.0 vs. 6.0 h, respectively; P < 0.0001.WI visit to the ER and CM were predictors for IID, and WI was the only predictor for DD in acute type A AAD in the community hospital.

  20. Direct admission to the operating room: an efficient strategy for patients with diagnosed or highly suspected acute type a aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavanon, Olivier; Baguet, Jean-Philippe; Albaladéjo, Pierre; Blin, Dominique; Vanzetto, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    Acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) is a life-threatening condition with a poor acute prognosis, which requires rapid and effective surgical management. The aim of this study is to assess our strategy with regard to this condition. According to a regional emergency protocol, patients with diagnosed or highly suspected ATAAD are directly transferred to the cardiac operating room. Transesophageal echocardiography is performed under anaesthesia, and the patient then undergoes surgery if the diagnosis is confirmed. The present retrospective study examines the implementation of this management strategy between January 1, 1990 and December 31, 2009. Out of 380 patients, 245 were directly admitted to the operating room. Three hundred twelve cases of ATAAD, 15 cases of aneurysm of the ascending aorta, 9 cases of acute type B dissection, 4 cases of chronic dissection, 4 cases of hemopericardium, and 7 other diagnoses were observed. In 10 cases, no etiology was found. Nineteen patients died before surgery could be performed. Out of the 307 cases of ATAAD undergoing surgery, 15 patients were operated with cardiac massage (14 cases of aortic rupture). This management strategy was justified in 93.1% of patients (228/245) directly admitted to the operating room, because of the need for surgery or aortic rupture. Our management strategy enabled patients with ATAAD to receive effective and unselective treatment. Despite appropriate management, the large number of patients still dying before surgery, or undergoing surgery with cardiac massage, justifies and consolidates the need for immediate treatment of this condition. Copyright © 2011 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Endovascular "neobranching" to manage acute aortic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandormael, Isabelle L; Salmasi, Mohammad Y; Yeh, James S-M; Nienaber, Christoph A

    2017-08-01

    Acute aortic syndrome was coined in 2001 to describe a spectrum of acute aortic wall pathologies. The syndrome represents a cluster of aortic conditions such as aortic dissection, intramural hematoma and penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer. Acute aortic dissection is more common than the latter two pathologies with an incidence of up to 6 cases per 100,000 per year. The following report focuses on an unusual case presentation emphasizing the newest management techniques including "neobranching" whilst dealing with challenging patient anatomy and refractory hypertension. We believe this case report eventually broadens our understanding of acute aortic syndrome whilst addressing an entry tear outside the aorta by placing "neobranches". © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Effects of psychiatric disorders on Type A acute aortic dissection pathogenesis and analysis of follow-up results

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    Paolo Nardi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: A connection between psychiatric disorders (PDs and Type A acute aortic dissection (AAD has not been shown. The aim of this study was to define the psychological profile of patients treated for AAD, and to analyze the prevalence of PDs in their medical histories, in the immediate postoperative period, and at a mid-term follow-up. Patients and Methods: From March 2005 to October 2014, 240 consecutive patients underwent surgery for AAD. 60 patients (mean age 60+/-13 years; 43 males underwent psychiatric consultation postoperatively, and they represent the subjects of our retrospective study. Ascending aorta +/- arch replacement was performed in 43 patients, whereas the Bentall procedure +/- arch replacement was performed in 17. Data were retrospectively analyzed. Follow-ups were completed in 59 patients (mean duration 35+/-23 months. Results: PDs were present in the medical histories of 34 patients. Postoperatively, in 28 cases, a definitive diagnosis of PD (group PD was made in agreement with the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-IV criteria, including: Major depression (n=13, anxious-depressive syndrome (n=6, bipolar disorder Type 2 (n=4, panic attacks (n=2, paranoid schizophrenia (n=1, and anxiety (n=2. 32 patients without a definitive psychiatric diagnosis were classified as Group non-PD. In the postoperative period, clinical manifestations of PDs, including delirium, persistent spatio-temporal disorientation, and psychomotor agitation were evident in 22 patients (78% in group PD versus 8 patients (25% in group non-PD (P<0.0001. During follow-up, only one death for non-cardiac reasons occurred in group PD. There were no suicides; only 10 patients of group PD required PD treatment (P<0.0001 vs. early postoperative findings; 4 patients in group non-PD required PD treatment. Conclusion: Our findings suggest a strong relationship between PD and AAD. Because the psychiatric conditions appeared to be largely stable after

  3. Contemporary insights into the management of type A aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolis, George; Sundt, Thoralf M

    2016-10-01

    Acute Type A Dissection remains a surgical emergency with a relatively high operative mortality despite advances in cardiac surgical techniques and medical management over the past thirty years. In this presentation we will discuss the issues surrounding diagnosis, triage, surgical treatment and perioperative medical management as well as long term surveillance of patients suffering from Acute Type A Dissection and present the literature that supports our management strategies. Expert commentary: The ultimate goal of surgical intervention for patients with Type A Acute Aortic Dissection is an alive patient. A more complicated operation which addresses the root and arch and potentially reduces late complications should be approached with caution since it may increase the operative mortality of the procedure itself. With the recent evolution in endovascular techniques, there is hope that later complications can be reduced without increasing the risk of the primary operation. It remains to be seen whether the improved distal aortic remodeling afforded by a combined open/endovascular approach to Acute Type A Dissection will lead to decreased need for aortic reinterventions and overall long term complications of a residual descending thoracic chronic dissection.

  4. Surgical repair of acute type A aortic dissection: continuous pulmonary perfusion during retrograde cerebral perfusion prevents lung injury in a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santo, Luca Salvatore; Romano, Gianpaolo; Amarelli, Cristiano; Onorati, Francesco; Torella, Michele; Renzulli, Attilio; Galdieri, Nicola; Cotrufo, Maurizio

    2003-09-01

    Postoperative respiratory failure is a frequent and serious complication in patients with type A acute aortic dissection operated on with deep systemic hypothermia. Interaction between neutrophils and pulmonary endothelium along with ischemic insult and reperfusion are the major determinants of lung injury. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the effect of continuous pulmonary perfusion during retrograde cerebral perfusion on lung function. Twenty-two patients referred for acute type A aortic dissection, who were free from preoperative respiratory dysfunction, were assigned prospectively and alternately to one of 2 treatment groups. Pulmonary perfusion was performed during retrograde cerebral perfusion in group B (11 patients), whereas the conventional Ueda technique was applied in group A (11 patients). Lung function was evaluated on the basis of intubation time, scoring of chest radiographs at 12 hours after cardiopulmonary bypass, and Pao(2)/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio assessed from immediately before the operation to 72 hours after termination of cardiopulmonary bypass. Study groups were homogeneous for age, sex, interval between symptom onset and surgical operation, previous aortic surgery, preoperative ejection fraction and pulmonary gas exchange function, extent of aortic repair, and concomitant procedures. Cardiopulmonary bypass time, length of retrograde cerebral perfusion, operation time, need for blood substitutes, and surgical revision for bleeding did not differ between treatment groups. Postoperative Pao(2)/fraction of inspired oxygen ratios were higher in group B than in group A, and the difference remained statistically significant throughout the study period. The incidence of prolonged ventilator support (>72 hours) and the severity of the radiographic pulmonary infiltrate score were lower in the perfused group (18.2% vs 72.7% [P =.015] and 0.81 +/- 0.75 vs 1.8 +/- 0.78 [P =.028], respectively). Continuous pulmonary perfusion

  5. Aortic Dissection and Renal Failure in a Patient with Severe Hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Brooke, Valerie; Goswami, Sangeeta; Mohanty, Arpan; Kasi, Pashtoon Murtaza

    2012-01-01

    Acute aortic dissection (AAD) is a life-threatening condition associated with high morbidity and mortality. The most important recognized acquired cause that leads to dissection is chronic arterial hypertension. With respect to the anuria and renal failure, aortic dissection is not something that is always considered and is still not a very common presentation unless both renal arteries come off the false lumen of the dissection. However, when present, preoperative renal failure in patients w...

  6. Debranching Solutions in Endografting for Complex Thoracic Aortic Dissections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goksel, Onur Selcuk, E-mail: onurgokseljet@gmail.com [Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Cardiovascular Surgery, Istanbul (Turkey); Guven, Koray [Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey); Karatepe, Celalettin [Mustafa Kemal Medical Faculty, Cardiovascular Surgery, Istanbul (Turkey); Gok, Emre [Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Cardiovascular Surgery, Istanbul (Turkey); Acunas, Bulent [Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey); Cinar, Bayer [Medical Park Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey); Alpagut, Ufuk [Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Cardiovascular Surgery, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2014-08-15

    Conventional surgical repair of thoracic aortic dissections is a challenge due to mortality and morbidity risks. We analyzed our experience in hybrid aortic arch repair for complex dissections of the aortic arch. Between 2009 and 2013, 18 patients (the mean age of 67 ± 8 years-old) underwent hybrid aortic arch repair. The procedural strategy was determined on the individual patient. Thirteen patients had type I repair using trifurcation and another patient with bifurcation graft. Two patients had type II repair with replacement of the ascending aorta. Two patients received extra-anatomic bypass grafting to left carotid artery allowing covering of zone 1. Stent graft deployment rate was 100%. No patients experienced stroke. One patient with total debranching of the aortic arch following an acute dissection of the proximal arch expired 3 months after TEVAR due to heart failure. There were no early to midterm endoleaks. The median follow-up was 20 ± 8 months with patency rate of 100%. Various debranching solutions for different complex scenarios of the aortic arch serve as less invasive procedures than conventional open surgery enabling safe and effective treatment of this highly selected subgroup of patients with complex aortic pathologies.

  7. Management of acute aortic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Rachel E; Nienaber, Christoph A

    2015-02-01

    Acute aortic syndrome (AAS) encompasses a group of severe, life-threatening disorders of the aorta, including acute aortic dissection, intramural haematoma (IMH), and penetrating aortic ulcer (PAU). The concept of AAS was developed to enable the early identification and definitive treatment of patients with chest pain from an aortic origin. Aortic dissection is the most common form of AAS, followed by IMH and PAU. Congenital cardiovascular defects, genetic syndromes, and nonsyndromic genetic variants have all been linked with the development of AAS. The diagnosis of AAS in the clinic can be made using imaging modalities such as CT, echocardiography, and MRI. The initial management of patients with AAS is focussed on the control of blood pressure to reduce aortic wall stress. A multidisciplinary team is required to assess each patient and decide whether endovascular or open surgical treatment, or further medical management is indicated. The optimal treatment of patients with AAS remains a challenging clinical dilemma, and further studies are required to fully characterize conditions within the AAS spectrum and to design individualized, patient-centred treatment plans.

  8. Visceral Malperfusion in Aortic Dissection: The Michigan Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamman, Arnoud V; Yang, Bo; Kim, Karen M; Williams, David M; Michael Deeb, George; Patel, Himanshu J

    2017-01-01

    One of the most dreaded complications of acute aortic dissection is end-organ malperfusion. We summarize current evidence and describe our treatment paradigm in the setting of malperfusion in aortic dissection. Given the difficulty with identifying isolated visceral malperfusion in aortic dissection, both in the literature as well as in our practice, we have broadened the discussion to include data examining the presentation complex of malperfusion, particularly if mesenteric ischemia is identified. The approach to treating malperfusion syndrome is different depending on whether the patient presents with type A dissection vs type B dissection with malperfusion. Although thoracic endovascular aortic repair has emerged as the dominant strategy for resolving malperfusion for complicated type B dissection, fenestration may still have a role in its treatment. In contrast, for type A aortic dissection presenting with visceral malperfusion, the concept of operative repair after restoration of end-organ perfusion has been proposed with increasing frequency in recent reports. At the University of Michigan, we apply a patient-specific algorithm, based on the presence of malperfusion with end-organ dysfunction. In those patients presenting with visceral malperfusion, we prefer to first fenestrate, await resolution of the malperfusion syndrome and then perform central aortic repair. We recognize that other groups have implemented similar algorithms to reduce the dismal results of operative procedures in this cohort. However, the most appropriate period of delay remains unknown and there is a persistent risk of rupture before repair is performed. Future studies should be performed to determine whether these various treatment paradigms have merit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Thoracic aortic dissection revealed by systemic cholesterol embolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braem, L; Paule, P; Héno, P; Morand, J J; Mafart, B; La Folie, T; Varlet, P; Mioulet, D; Fourcade, L

    2006-10-01

    Systemic cholesterol embolism is a rare complication of atherosclerosis, and has various presentations. Arterial catheterisms are a common cause. However, the association with an aortic dissection has been exceptionally reported. We report the observation of a 70 year-old man, with coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia. Six months before hospitalization, a coronary angioplasty was performed due to recurrent angina. The association of purpuric lesions on the feet, with acute renal failure confirmed cholesterol embolism syndrome. Transoesophageal echocardiography showed a dissection of the descending thoracic aorta associated with complex atheroma. The evolution was marked by the pulpar necrosis of a toe and by a worsening of the renal failure, requiring definitive hemodialysis. Further echographic control highlighted the rupture of the intimal veil of the dissection. Cholesterol embolism syndrome may reveal an aortic dissection in patients without thoracic symptoms. In such cases, transoesophageal echocardiography is a useful and non-invasive examination.

  10. Percutaneous interventions for treating ischemic complications of aortic dissection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavan, Ajay; Luthe, Lars [Klinikum Oldenburg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Oldenburg (Germany); Rosenthal, Herbert; Pfingsten, Stefanie; Galanski, Michael [Hannover Medical School, Department of Radiology, Hannover (Germany); Kutschka, Ingo; Haverich, Axel [Hannover Medical School, Department of Cardio-thoracic Surgery, Hannover (Germany); Easo, Jerry; Dapunt, Otto [Klinikum Oldenburg, Department of Cardio-thoracic Surgery, Oldenburg (Germany); Piepenbrock, Siegfried [Hannover Medical School, Department of Anaesthesia, Hannover (Germany)

    2009-02-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of percutaneous interventions in treating ischemia complicating aortic dissection. Forty-five patients with ischemia complicating aortic dissection were treated by balloon fenestration, true lumen stenting, angioplasty, or thrombolysis. Clinical and laboratory examinations were performed before and after intervention, and at the end of follow-up (median 37 months). Eighteen dissections were acute, 9 sub-acute, and 18 chronic. Mesenterohepatic ischemia resolved in 16 of 18 patients; lactate and SGOT values fell from 2.89 to 1.23 mmol/L (p=0.006) and from 165.9 to 59.7 U/L (p=0.034), respectively. In patients with renal ischemia, creatinine levels fell from 360.1 to 196.3 {mu}mol/L (p=0.007) accompanied by a significant reduction in blood pressure. Limb-threatening ischemia resolved in three of four patients; in 21 claudicants, the mean walking distance improved from 272 to 1,283 m (p=0.001). Spinal ischemia resolved completely or partially in six of eight patients. Adjunctive surgical measures were necessary in six patients. Overall 30-day mortality in the 45 patients was 6.7%; all three deaths were in patients with acute dissections (mortality in this subgroup 16.7%). Ischemia complicating aortic dissection can be effectively treated by percutaneous interventions resulting in good early and mid-term outcomes. (orig.)

  11. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in proximal (type A) aortic dissection: Ready for a broader application?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienaber, Christoph A; Sakalihasan, Natzi; Clough, Rachel E; Aboukoura, Mohamed; Mancuso, Enrico; Yeh, James S M; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Cheshire, Nick; Rosendahl, Ulrich Peter; Quarto, Cesare; Pepper, John

    2017-02-01

    Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has demonstrated encouraging results and is gaining increasing acceptance as a treatment option for aortic aneurysms and dissections. Yet, its role in managing proximal aortic pathologies is unknown-this is important because in proximal (Stanford type A) aortic dissections, 10% to 30% are not accepted for surgery and 30% to 50% are technically amenable for TEVAR. We describe our case series of type A aortic dissections treated by using TEVAR. Between year 2009 and 2016, 12 patients with acute, subacute, or chronic type A aortic dissection with the proximal entry tear located between the coronaries and brachiocephalic artery were treated with TEVAR at 3 centers. Various stent-graft configurations were used to seal the proximal entry tear in the ascending aorta under rapid pacing. A total of 12 patients (9 male, 3 female), mean age 81 ± 7 years, EuroSCORE II 9.1 ± 4.5, underwent TEVAR for the treatment of type A aortic dissection. Procedural success was achieved in 11 of 12 patients (91.7%). There was 1 minor stroke and 1 intraprocedural death. No additional deaths were reported at 30 days. At 36 months, there were 4 further deaths (all from nonaortic causes). The mean survival of these 4 deceased was 23 months (range 15-36 months). Follow-up computed tomography demonstrated favorable aortic remodeling. TEVAR is feasible and reveals promising early results in selected patients with type A aortic dissection who are poor candidates for surgical repair. The current iteration of stent-graft technology, however, needs to be adapted to features specific to the ascending aorta. Copyright © 2016 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Malignant hypertension and acute aortic dissection associated with caffeine-based ephedra-free dietary supplements: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Imdad

    2009-04-03

    The use of weight loss dietary supplements is prevalent in the United States, and over the past decade, there has been tremendous growth of the use of these products. It is well documented that ephedra-based products are associated with various cardiovascular adverse effects. With new restrictions placed on such products, companies are now manufacturing caffeine-based ephedra-free herbal supplements. We present the case of 36-year old, previously healthy female who developed malignant hypertension and aortic dissection while taking various caffeine-based dietary supplements. Given the lack of research studies in regards to their safety and efficacy, judicious care should be taken with the use of dietary supplements, including those designated as ephedra-free.

  13. Pericardial tear as a consequence of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) involving chest compression: a report of two postmortem cases of acute type A aortic dissection with hemopericardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Takahisa; Takanari, Hiroki; Shiotani, Seiji; Hayakawa, Hideyuki; Ohno, Youkichi; Fowler, David R

    2015-05-01

    We present two cases of a pericardial tear as a consequence of cardiopulmonary resuscitation involving chest compressions in fatal acute type A aortic dissection (AoD) with hemopericardium. For each case, postmortem computed tomography revealed a hematoma in the false lumen of the ascending aorta with a slight hemopericardium and a large left hemothorax, as well as focal pericardial dimpling and discontinuity around the left ventricle. At autopsy, we confirmed a convex lens-shape gaping pericardial tear at the left posterolateral site of the pericardium and a massive volume of bloody fluid in the left thoracic cavity. It has been hypothesized that the pericardium ruptured due to chest compressions during resuscitation in these cases of acute type A AoD with hemopericardium and that intrapericardial blood leakage through the pericardial tear resulted in a hemothorax. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: familial thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a bulge in the blood vessel wall (an aneurysm ). Aortic dilatation may also lead to a sudden tearing of the layers in the aorta wall ( aortic dissection ), allowing blood to flow abnormally between the layers. These aortic abnormalities are ...

  15. FOXE3 mutations predispose to thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Shao-Qing; Medina-Martinez, Olga; Guo, Dong-chuan; Gong, Limin; Regalado, Ellen S.; Reynolds, Corey L.; Boileau, Catherine; Jondeau, Guillaume; Prakash, Siddharth K.; Kwartler, Callie S.; Zhu, Lawrence Yang; Peters, Andrew M.; Duan, Xue-Yan; Bamshad, Michael J.; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Debbie A.; Santos-Cortez, Regie L.; Dong, Xiurong; Leal, Suzanne M.; Majesky, Mark W.; Swindell, Eric C.; Jamrich, Milan; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2016-01-01

    The ascending thoracic aorta is designed to withstand biomechanical forces from pulsatile blood. Thoracic aortic aneurysms and acute aortic dissections (TAADs) occur as a result of genetically triggered defects in aortic structure and a dysfunctional response to these forces. Here, we describe mutations in the forkhead transcription factor FOXE3 that predispose mutation-bearing individuals to TAAD. We performed exome sequencing of a large family with multiple members with TAADs and identified a rare variant in FOXE3 with an altered amino acid in the DNA-binding domain (p.Asp153His) that segregated with disease in this family. Additional pathogenic FOXE3 variants were identified in unrelated TAAD families. In mice, Foxe3 deficiency reduced smooth muscle cell (SMC) density and impaired SMC differentiation in the ascending aorta. Foxe3 expression was induced in aortic SMCs after transverse aortic constriction, and Foxe3 deficiency increased SMC apoptosis and ascending aortic rupture with increased aortic pressure. These phenotypes were rescued by inhibiting p53 activity, either by administration of a p53 inhibitor (pifithrin-α), or by crossing Foxe3–/– mice with p53–/– mice. Our data demonstrate that FOXE3 mutations lead to a reduced number of aortic SMCs during development and increased SMC apoptosis in the ascending aorta in response to increased biomechanical forces, thus defining an additional molecular pathway that leads to familial thoracic aortic disease. PMID:26854927

  16. Operative Strategies and Outcomes in Type A Aortic Dissection After the Enactment of a Multidisciplinary Aortic Surgery Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, Jared P; Scheinerman, Joshua A; Balsam, Leora B; Ursomanno, Patricia; DeAnda, Abe

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare operative strategies and patient outcomes in acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) repairs before and after the implementation of a multidisciplinary aortic surgery team. Between May 2005 and July 2014, 101 patients underwent ATAAD repair at our institution. A dedicated multidisciplinary aortic surgery team (experienced aortic surgeon, perfusionists, cardiac anesthesiologists, nurses, and radiologists) was formed in 2010. We retrospectively compared ATAAD repair outcomes in patients before (2005-2009, N = 39) and after (2010-2014, N = 62) implementation of our program. Expected operative mortality was calculated using the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection preoperative predictive model. This study demonstrated a significant reduction in operative mortality after implementation of the aortic surgery program (30.8% vs. 9.7%; P = 0.014). There was also an increase in the complexity of surgical technique and perfusion strategies with fewer postoperative complications related to respiratory (P multidisciplinary aortic surgery team.

  17. Point-of-care echocardiography for aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism and acute coronary syndrome in patients with killer chest pain: EASY screening focused on the assessment of effusion, aorta, ventricular size and shape and ventricular asynergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigami, Kazuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Focus assessed transthoracic echocardiography and focused cardiac ultrasound are point-of-care echo protocols for the evaluation of cardiac disease in the emergency room; however, these protocols may not adequately assess aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism, and acute coronary syndrome in patients with killer chest pain. Here, I present an echocardiography protocol focused on screening for these critical cardiovascular diseases. This protocol (termed EASY screening) consists of the assessment of effusion in the pericardial space, aortic abnormalities, the size and shape of the ventricles and asynergy of the left ventricle. Aortic dissection is suggested by positive findings for effusion and/or abnormal aortic findings. Pulmonary embolism is suggested by a dilated right ventricle and a D-shaped left ventricle in the short-axis view. Acute coronary syndrome is suggested by asynergy of left ventricular wall motion. EASY screening may facilitate the assessment of aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism and acute coronary syndrome in patients presenting to the emergency room with killer chest pain.

  18. Central venous catheter insertion into the false lumen of a complicated aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Ahmet; Goksedef, Deniz; Kandemirli, Sedat G; Gulsen, Fatih; Numan, Furuzan

    2017-08-01

    Thoracic endovascular repair is considered the first-line treatment in complicated acute type B dissection. Central venous catheters provide valuable vascular access during endovascular treatments. However, central venous catheters are not without complications. Herein, we report a case of central venous catheter insertion into the false lumen of a complicated acute type B aortic dissection by direct aortic puncture. The tip of the central venous catheter was in the false lumen. The central venous catheter was left in place initially and was removed after graft stent deployment. This case illustrates the importance of image guidance during central venous catheter insertion, which may further complicate an already complicated aortic dissection case.

  19. Paraplegia aguda. Uma complicação rara da dissecção aórtica Acute paraplegia. A rare complication of aortic dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Côrtes de Lacerda

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Mulher normotensa de 67 anos desenvolveu síncope, seguida de choque, e, mesmo após estabilização hemodinâmica, permaneceu anúrica. Observaram-se paraplegia e paresia do membro superior direito, além de isquemia das extremidades distais dos membros inferiores. A hipótese de dissecção aórtica aguda foi considerada e confirmada através de tomografia computadorizada, tendo sido a paraplegia atribuída a infarto isquêmico da medula espinhal. Óbito ocorreu no 4º dia de evolução, conseqüente a tamponamento pericárdico. São revistas as dificuldades diagnósticas relacionadas a manifestações pouco conhecidas da dissecção aórtica, enfatizando-se, como complicação rara, a paraplegia aguda.A 67 year-old normotensive woman had a syncope followed by shock and remained anuric after hemodynamic stabilization. Paraplegia and paresis of the right upper limb, as well as signs of ischemia of the distal lower limbs were noted. The possibility of acute aortic dissection was raised and confirmed by computed tomography. The paraplegia was attributed to an ischemic infarction of the spinal cord. The patient died on the fourth hospital day due to a pericardial tamponade. This rare and not well recognized complication of aortic dissection is briefly reviewed.

  20. Seizure as Initial Manifestation of Aortic Dissection Type A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finsterer, Josef

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Seizure as the initial manifestation of aortic dissection is rare.Case report: An 88-year-old female experienced a first generalized tonic clonic seizure, which was terminated with midazolam. Acute cerebral magnetic resonance imaging and angiography were non-informative. After awaking she complained about cramping pain in the right upper extremity, which was accompanied by involuntary flexion movements of the right upper extremity. Blood pressure was initially normal. Blood gases revealed metabolic acidosis and blood chemical investigations a markedly increased D-dimer. Consecutively blood pressure declined and transthoracic echocardiography showed pericardial effusion. A computed tomography scan of the thorax revealed an aortic dissection type A. The patient died 16 hours after admission after cardiothoracic surgeons had refused surgical treatment.Conclusion: This case shows that a generalized tonic-clonic seizure may be the initial manifestation of an aortic dissection type A in the absence of thoracic chest pain and that brachyalgia may not develop earlier than with progression of the dissection. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(5:510-511.

  1. Update in the management of type B aortic dissection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Foeke J. H.; Trimarchi, Santi; Kamman, Arnoud V.; Moll, Frans L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070246882; van Herwaarden, Joost A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304814733; Patel, Himanshu J.; Figueroa, C. Alberto; Eagle, Kim A.; Froehlich, James B.

    Stanford type B aortic dissection (TBAD) is a life-threatening aortic disease. The initial management goal is to prevent aortic rupture, propagation of the dissection, and symptoms by reducing the heart rate and blood pressure. Uncomplicated TBAD patients require prompt medical management to prevent

  2. Local repair of distal thoracal aortic dissections (Locus minoris resistencia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, Iu V; Komarov, R N; Stepanenko, A B; Gens, A P; Charchian, E R

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents the method of local repair of distal aortic dissections. Local aortic grafting for surgical correction of type B dissecting aortic aneurysms helped to decrease hospital mortality up to 15.4%, the rate of paraparesis and multiorgan failure - up to 11.5%.

  3. High-energy drinks may provoke aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonjev, Zivojin S; Bala, Gustav

    2013-05-01

    High-energy drinks have become extremely popular after Red Bull's promotion at 1987 in Austria and 1997 in the United States. Since then, we witnessed spectacular increase in different brands, caffeine content and market consumption all over the world. However, there are no reports published in the scientific literature related with detrimental side effects after heavy consumption of high-energy drinks. We report a series of three high-risk cardiovascular patients who had aortic dissection (De Bakey type I and II) following significant consumption of high-energy drinks. All of them required emergency surgical procedure and were remaining stable after surgery. We propose that uncontrolled consumption of high-energy drinks, especially in patients with underlying heart disease, could provoke potentially lethal cardiovascular events as well as acute aortic dissection.

  4. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis by Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation Identified Lumican as a Potential Marker for Acute Aortic Dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guorong Gu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute aortic dissection (AAD is a serious vascular disease. Currently the diagnosis relies on clinical and radiological means whereas serum biomarkers are lacking. The purpose of this study was to identify potential serum biomarkers for AAD using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ approach. A total of 120 serum samples were collected from three groups: AAD patients (n=60, patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI, n=30, and healthy volunteers (n=30, whereas the first 10 samples from each group were used for iTRAQ analysis. Using iTRAQ approach, a total of 174 proteins were identified as significantly different between AAD patients and healthy subjects. Among them, forty-six proteins increased more than twofold, full-scale analysis using serum sample for the entire 120 subjects demonstrated that Lumican level was significantly increased relative to control and AMI samples. Further, Lumican level correlated with time from onset to admission in AAD but not AMI samples. Using iTRAQ approach, our study showed that Lumican may be a potential AAD-related serum marker that may assist the diagnosis of AAD.

  5. Protection of xenon against postoperative oxygen impairment in adults undergoing Stanford Type-A acute aortic dissection surgery: Study protocol for a prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Mu; Cheng, Yi; Yang, Yanwei; Pan, Xudong; Lu, Jiakai; Cheng, Weiping

    2017-08-01

    The available evidence shows that hypoxemia after Stanford Type-A acute aortic dissection (AAD) surgery is a frequent cause of several adverse consequences. The pathogenesis of postoperative hypoxemia after AAD surgery is complex, and ischemia/reperfusion and inflammation are likely to be underlying risk factors. Xenon, recognized as an ideal anesthetic and anti-inflammatory treatment, might be a possible treatment for these adverse effects. The trial is a prospective, double-blind, 4-group, parallel, randomized controlled, a signal-center clinical trial. We will recruit 160 adult patients undergoing Stanford type-A AAD surgery. Patients will be allocated a study number and will be randomized on a 1:1:1:1 basis to receive 1 of the 3 treatment options (pulmonary inflated with 50% xenon, 75% xenon, or 100% xenon) or no treatment (control group, pulmonary inflated with 50% nitrogen). The aims of this study are to clarify the lung protection capability of xenon and its possible mechanisms in patients undergoing the Stanford type-A AAD surgery. This trial uses an innovative design to account for the xenon effects of postoperative oxygen impairment, and it also delineates the mechanism for any benefit from xenon. The investigational xenon group is considered a treatment intervention, as it includes 3 groups of pulmonary static inflation with 50%, 75%, and 100% xenon. It is suggested that future trials might define an appropriate concentration of xenon for the best practice intervention.

  6. An easy miss: aortic dissection in a 'healthy' male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Co, Michael Lawrenz F; Agdamag, Arianne Clare; Mateo, Roselyn Cristelle; Williams, Kim A

    2017-08-07

    Aortic dissection is an uncommon cause of chest discomfort that can be rapidly fatal without early diagnosis and prompt treatment. In this report, we present a man with no risk factors who presented with chest discomfort not typical of a dissection, absent pulse and blood pressure differential and a normal chest radiograph. He eventually was diagnosed with an extensive Type-A aortic dissection. We discuss diagnostic clues, classification of aortic dissection and possible treatment options. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Tratamento híbrido com endoprótese não recoberta nas dissecções agudas da aorta tipo A New surgical strategy for acute type A aortic dissection: hybrid procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ribeiro Dias

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento da dissecção aguda da aorta tipo A de Stanford, com a utilização de um novo dispositivo (stent de aorta não recoberto em associação à interposição de tubo supracoronariano para a substituição da aorta ascendente e hemiarco permitem que o arco aórtico e porção da aorta descendente sejam tratados, sem acrescentar complexidade ao procedimento operatório, nem prolongar o tempo de isquemia cerebral ou sistêmica.The new surgical strategy to treat patients with acute type A aortic dissection, the hybrid procedure with an uncovered aortic stent, allows surgeons to treat the aortic arch and the proximal descending aorta, besides the ascending segment, without extension of cerebral or systemic ischemia.

  8. Rates of Spinal Cord Infarction After Repair of Aortic Aneurysm or Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gialdini, Gino; Parikh, Neal S; Chatterjee, Abhinaba; Lerario, Michael P; Kamel, Hooman; Schneider, Darren B; Navi, Babak B; Murthy, Santosh B; Iadecola, Costantino; Merkler, Alexander E

    2017-08-01

    The rate of spinal cord infarction (SCI) after surgical or endovascular repair of an aortic aneurysm or dissection is unclear. Using administrative claims data, we identified adult patients discharged from nonfederal acute care hospitals in California, New York, and Florida who underwent surgical or endovascular repair of an aortic aneurysm or dissection between 2005 and 2013. Patients with SCI diagnosed before the aortic repair were excluded. Our primary outcome was an SCI during the index hospitalization for aortic repair. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate crude rates of SCI. Analyses were stratified by whether the aneurysm or dissection had ruptured and by type of repair (surgical versus endovascular). We identified 91 212 patients who had repair of an aortic aneurysm or dissection. SCI occurred in 235 cases (0.26%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.22%-0.29%). In patients with ruptured aneurysm or dissection, the rate of SCI was 0.74% (95% CI, 0.60%-0.88%) compared with 0.16% (95% CI, 0.13%-0.19%) with unruptured aneurysm. In secondary analyses, rates of SCI were similar after endovascular repair (0.91%; 95% CI, 0.62%-1.19%) compared with surgical repair (0.68%; 95% CI, 0.53%-0.83%; P=0.147) of ruptured aortic aneurysm or dissection; however, rates of SCI were higher after surgical repair (0.20%; 95% CI, 0.15%-0.25%) versus endovascular repair (0.11%; 95% CI, 0.08%-0.14%; P<0.001) of unruptured aneurysm. SCI occurs in ≈1 in 130 patients undergoing aortic dissection or ruptured aortic aneurysm repair and in 1 in 600 patients undergoing unruptured aortic aneurysm repair. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. A case of an aortic dissection in a young adult: a refresher of the literature of this "great masquerader"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pineault J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Jérôme Pineault1, Denis Ouimet2, Vincent Pichette2, Michel Vallée21Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Nephrology, Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital, Montreal, CanadaAbstract: Aortic dissection is often misdiagnosed, especially among young patients, and it is associated with a high mortality rate. We present here a case of fatal acute aortic dissection in a young man who was misdiagnosed with pericarditis. We reviewed the literature of acute aortic dissection in young people and we focused particularly on clinical presentations, outcomes and investigations of aortic dissection. We report a case of a 33-year-old man with a history of uncontrolled hypertension with acute pleuretic chest pain who was transferred to our hospital for suspected pulmonary embolism and died of acute hemorragic pericardial effusion from an ascendant aortic dissection. We should never rule out aortic dissection off our differential diagnosis on the sole basis of a patient's young age.Keywords: pleuritic chest pain, hypertension, aortic dissection

  10. Aortic Dissection and Renal Failure in a Patient with Severe Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Brooke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute aortic dissection (AAD is a life-threatening condition associated with high morbidity and mortality. The most important recognized acquired cause that leads to dissection is chronic arterial hypertension. With respect to the anuria and renal failure, aortic dissection is not something that is always considered and is still not a very common presentation unless both renal arteries come off the false lumen of the dissection. However, when present, preoperative renal failure in patients with acute type B dissection has been noted to be an independent predictor of mortality. Early recognition and diagnosis is the key and as noted by previous studies as well, almost a third of these patients are initially worked up for other causes until later when they are diagnosed with aortic dissection. Here we present a case of a patient presenting with severe hypothyroidism, long-standing hypertension, and anuria. Through the case, we highlight the importance of having aortic dissection as an important differential in patients presenting with anuria who have a long standing history of uncontrolled hypertension. Pathophysiology relating to severe hypothyroidism-induced renal dysfunction is also discussed.

  11. Acute spontaneous isolated dissection of abdominal aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar beigi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    • Aortic dissection occurs when the layers of the aorta separate as a result of extra luminal cavity of blood through an intimal tear. Dissection limited to the abdominal aorta is rare. Unfortunately, the appropriate management of dissecting aneurysm of abdominal aorta is not documented yet. A 43 years old man was admitted to Al-zahra hospital in Isfahan with sudden onset of periumbilical abdominal pain. CT scan confirmed infrarenal dissection of abdominal aorta. Performing laparotomy, aorta was repaired using bifurcate collagen-coated Dacron graft. Surgical intervention with synthetic graft is recommended in patients with dissecting aortic aneurysm of infrarenal segments where the extent of dissection is limited and accessible.
    • Keywords: Aneurysm, Aortic dissection, Aortic aneurysm abdominal surgery.

  12. Failure of Marfan anatomic criteria to predict risk of aortic dissection in Turner syndrome: necessity of specific adjusted risk thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maureira, Juan-Pablo; Vanhuyse, Fabrice; Lekehal, Malik; Hubert, Thierry; Vigouroux, Charlène; Mattei, Marie-Françoise; Grandmougin, Daniel; Villemot, Jean-Pierre

    2012-05-01

    Patients with Turner syndrome are prompt to develop spontaneous acute aortic dissection following insidious aortic dilatation, with abnormal cardiovascular anatomy and consequently require specific guidelines for regular surveillance since they represent a subset of high-risk young patients. We report a rare and uncommon case of spontaneous acute aortic dissection in a 48-year old female patient with Turner syndrome who was not apparently eligible for a prophylactic surgery. A CT scan showed a Stanford type A aortic dissection and was urgently referred for surgical management. We operated on the patient under deep hypothermia (18°C) and circulatory arrest with a retrograde cerebroplegia as the primary entry tear was located in the arch. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged at the eighth postoperative day. Following description of this case, special attention was paid to determine predisposing risk factors for aortic dissection to be specifically adjusted to TS patients.

  13. Factors Affecting Optimal Aortic Remodeling After Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair of Type B (IIIb) Aortic Dissection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, I-Ming [National Yang Ming University, Institute of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine (China); Chen, Po-Lin; Huang, Chun-Yang [National Yang Ming University, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine (China); Weng, Shih-Hsien; Chen, Wei-Yuan; Shih, Chun-Che, E-mail: ccshih@vghtpe.gov.tw [National Yang Ming University, Institute of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine (China)

    2017-05-15

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to determine factors associated with entire aortic remodeling after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in patients with type B dissection.Materials and MethodsThe patients with type B (IIIb) dissections who underwent TEVAR from 2006 to 2013 with minimum of 2 years of follow-up computed tomography data were retrospectively reviewed. Based on the status of false lumen remodeling of entire aorta, patients were divided into three groups: complete regression, total thrombosis, and inadequate regression with patent abdominal false lumen.ResultsA total of 90 patients (72 males, 18 females; mean age 56.6 ± 16.4 years) were included and divided into the complete regression (n = 22), total thrombosis (n = 18), and inadequate regression (n = 50) groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that dissection extension to iliac arteries, increased preoperative number of dissection tear over abdominal aorta, and decreased preoperative abdominal aorta bifurcation true lumen ratio, as compared between the inadequate and complete regression groups, were associated with a persistent false lumen (odds ratio = 33.33, 2.304, and 0.021; all, p ≤ 0.012). Comparison of 6, 12, and 24 months postoperative data revealed no significant differences at any level, suggesting that the true lumen area ratio might not change after 6 months postoperatively.ConclusionsIncreased preoperative numbers of dissection tear around the abdominal visceral branches, dissection extension to the iliac arteries, and decreased preoperative true lumen area ratio of abdominal aorta are predictive of entire aortic remodeling after TEVAR in patients with type B dissection.Level of EvidenceIII.

  14. Survivors of Aortic Dissection: Activity, Mental Health, and Sexual Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaddha, Ashish; Kline-Rogers, Eva; Braverman, Alan C; Erickson, Steven R; Jackson, Elizabeth A; Franklin, Barry A; Woznicki, Elise M; Jabara, Justin T; Montgomery, Daniel G; Eagle, Kim A

    2015-11-01

    Currently no research exists assessing lifestyle modifications and emotional state of acute aortic dissection (AAD) survivors. We sought to assess activity, mental health, and sexual function in AAD survivors. Physical and sexual activity will decrease in AAD survivors compared to pre-dissection. Incidence of anxiety and depression will be significant after AAD. A cross sectional survey was mailed to 197 subjects from a single academic medical center (part of larger IRAD database). Subjects were ≥18 years of age surviving a type A or B AAD between 1996 and 2011. 82 surveys were returned (overall response rate 42%). Mean age ± SD was 59.5 ± 13.7 years, with 54.9% type A and 43.9% type B patients. Walking remained the most prevalent form of physical activity (49 (60%) pre-dissection and 47 (57%) post-dissection). Physical inactivity increased from 14 (17%) before AAD to 20 (24%) after AAD; sexual activity decreased from 31 (38%) to 9 (11%) mostly due to fear. Most patients (66.7%) were not exerting themselves physically or emotionally at AAD onset. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) at 36 months post-discharge for patients engaging in ≥2 sessions of aerobic activity/week was 126.67 ± 10.30 vs. 141.10 ± 11.87 (p-value 0.012) in those who did not. Self-reported new-onset depression after AAD was 32% and also 32% for new-onset anxiety. Alterations in lifestyle and emotional state are frequent in AAD survivors. Clinicians should screen for unfounded fears or beliefs after dissection that may reduce function and/or quality of life for AAD survivors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Influence of meteorological factors on acute aortic events in a subtropical territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Y; Chan, Y C; Cheng, S W

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between weather changes and acute aortic events in a subtropical territory. A linear regression analysis was performed in a pan-territory epidemiological survey for a period of 10 years on the impacts of meteorological factors (ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, amount of cloud, rainfall, number of lightning strikes, presence of typhoon, and thunderstorm warning) on the daily incidences of acute aortic dissections and ruptured aortic aneurysms. Meteorological variables were retrieved on a daily basis from a well-established observatory, and the daily incidences of aortic dissections and rupture of aortic aneurysms were retrieved from the Clinical Data Analysis and Reporting System. During the study period (January 2005 to December 2014), 3878 patients were identified as having acute aortic dissections, and 1174 patients had ruptured aortic aneurysms. Corresponding averaged daily incidences were 1.06 and 0.32, respectively. The incidences of aortic dissection and ruptured aortic aneurysm in a day could be predicted by ambient temperature in degrees Celsius using the following linear regression models: (1) incidence of aortic dissection = 1.548 - 0.021 × temperature; (2) incidence of ruptured aortic aneurysm = 0.564 - 0.010 × temperature. In addition, both high atmospheric pressure and absence of thunderstorm warning are positively associated with more aortic dissections. For rupture of aortic aneurysms, high atmospheric pressure and low relative humidity were positive predictors. In multiple regression analysis, however, ambient temperature was the only significant predictor for both acute aortic dissections and ruptured aortic aneurysms. This is the first pan-territory study to show an attributable effect of ambient temperature on acute aortic events. This paper confirms that even in a subtropical country, meteorological variables were important factors influencing acute aortic

  16. Long-term outcome and quality of life following emergency surgery for acute aortic dissection type A: a comparison between young and elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jussli-Melchers, Jill; Panholzer, Bernd; Friedrich, Christine; Broch, Ole; Renner, Jochen; Schöttler, Jan; Rahimi, Aziz; Cremer, Jochen; Schoeneich, Felix; Haneya, Assad

    2017-03-01

    Innovations in surgical techniques and perioperative management have continuously improved survival rates for acute aortic dissection type A (AADA). The aim of our study was to evaluate long-term outcome and quality of life (QoL) after surgery for AADA in elderly patients compared with younger patients. We retrospectively evaluated 242 consecutive patients, who underwent surgery for AADA between January 2004 and April 2014. Patients were divided into two groups: those aged 70 years and older (elderly group; n  = 78, mean age, 76 ± 4 years) and those younger than 70 years (younger group; n  = 164, mean age, 56 ± 10 years). QoL was assessed with the Short Form Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36) 1 year after surgery. The questionnaire return rate was 91.0%. There were already significant differences noted between the two groups with regard to preoperative risk factors on admission. The clinical presentation with a cardiac tamponade was higher in the elderly group (62.8% vs 47.6%; P  = 0.03). Intraoperatively, complex procedures were more common in the younger group (21.3% vs 5.2%; P  = 0.001). Accordingly, cardiopulmonary bypass and cross-clamping times were significantly longer in the younger group. The operative mortality was similar in both groups (3.8% vs 1.2%; P  = 0.33). In the elderly population, 30-day mortality was higher (21.8% vs 7.9%; P  = 0.003). One-year (72% vs 85%), 3-year (68% vs 84%) and 5-year (63% vs 79%) survival rates were satisfactory for the elderly group, but significantly lower compared with the younger group ( P  = 0.008). The physical component summary score also was similar between the groups (39.14 ± 11.12 vs 39.12 ± 12.02; P  = 0.99). However, the mental component summary score might be slightly higher in the elderly group but not statistically significant (51.61 ± 10.73 vs 48.63 ± 11.25; P  = 0.12). Satisfactory long-term outcome and the general perception of well

  17. Effects of pulmonary static inflation with 50% xenon on oxygen impairment during cardiopulmonary bypass for stanford type A acute aortic dissection: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Mu; Yang, Yanwei; Pan, Xudong; Lu, Jiakai; Zhang, Zhiquan; Cheng, Weiping

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of pulmonary static inflation with 50% xenon on postoperative oxygen impairment during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) for Stanford type A acute aortic dissection (AAD). This prospective single-center nonrandomized controlled clinical trial included 100 adult patients undergoing surgery for Stanford type A AAD at an academic hospital in China. Fifty subjects underwent pulmonary static inflation with 50% oxygen from January 2013 to January 2014, and 50 underwent inflation with 50% xenon from January 2014 to December 2014. During CPB, the lungs were inflated with either 50% xenon (xenon group) or 50% oxygen (control group) to maintain an airway pressure of 5 cm H2O. The primary outcome was oxygenation index (OI) value after intubation, and 10 minutes and 6 hours after the operation. The second outcome was cytokine and reactive oxygen species levels after intubation and 10 minutes, 6 hours, and 24 hours after the operation. Patients treated with xenon had lower OI levels compared to the control group before surgery (P = 0.002); however, there was no difference in postoperative values between the 2 groups. Following surgery, mean maximal OI values decreased by 18.8% and 33.8%, respectively, in the xenon and control groups. After surgery, the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha, and thromboxane B2 decreased by 23.5%, 9.1%, and 30.2%, respectively, in the xenon group, but increased by 10.8%, 26.2%, and 26.4%, respectively, in the control group. Moreover, IL-10 levels increased by 28% in the xenon group and decreased by 7.5% in the control group. There were significant time and treatment-time interaction effects on methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (P = 0.000 and P = 0.050, respectively) and myeloperoxidase (P = 0.000 and P = 0.001 in xenon and control groups, respectively). There was no difference in hospital mortality and 1-year survival rate between the 2 groups

  18. Predictors of late aortic intervention in patients with medically treated type B aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Samuel I; Durham, Christopher; Clouse, W Darrin; Patel, Virendra I; Lancaster, R Todd; Cambria, Richard P; Conrad, Mark F

    2017-09-11

    Patients with medically managed type B aortic dissection (TBAD) have a high incidence of aorta-related complications over time. Whereas early thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) to seal the entry tear can promote aortic remodeling and prevent late aneurysm formation, there are sparse data as to which patients will benefit from such therapy. The goal of this study was to identify clinical and anatomic factors that are associated with the need for subsequent aortic intervention in patients who present with uncomplicated TBAD. These factors could guide the selection of patients who will benefit from TEVAR in the subacute phase. Patients who presented with acute uncomplicated TBAD and were initially managed medically from January 2000 to December 2013 were included in the study. Timing of intervention was stratified into early (within 180 days of initial presentation) and late (181 days and later) cohorts. All patients had follow-up axial imaging studies. These imaging studies were reviewed for anatomic criteria in a retrospective fashion. Predictors of aortic intervention were determined using Cox regression analyses. There were 254 patients (65% men) with medically managed acute TBAD. The average age at presentation was 66.3 years, and 82.5% had a history of hypertension. Mean follow-up was 6.8 years (range, 0.1-13.6 years). There were a total of 97 (38%) patients who required an aortic intervention during follow-up; 30 (12%) patients required an early intervention, and 67 (26%) were treated during late follow-up (100% for aneurysmal degeneration). Predictors of late aortic intervention included entry tear >10 mm (odds ratio [OR], 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-3.8; P = .03), total aortic diameter >40 mm at time of presentation (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.8-4.3; P = .02), false lumen diameter >20 mm (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3-4.7; P = .03), and increase in total aortic diameter >5 mm between serial imaging studies (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.3-3.5; P = .02

  19. Surgical repair and reconstruction of aortic arch in debakey type I aortic dissection: recent advances and single-center experience in the application of branched stent graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Ma, Xiaochun; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Zhengjun; Zhang, Haizhou; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Song, Jian; Zou, Chengwei

    2017-10-03

    Aortic dissection (AD) represents a clinically uncommon aortic pathology which predicts a dismal prognosis if not promptly treated. In acute Debakey type I AD (ADIAD), aortic lesion extends from aortic root to even distal abdominal aorta among which aortic arch and its three main branches still remain a great surgical challenge for repair and reconstruction. Several decades have witnessed the painstaking efforts of cardiovascular surgeons across the globe for optimizing the surgical procedures, from total or hemi-arch replacement, "elephant trunk" technique to branched stent graft. However, operative mortality and morbidity still remain to be reduced and surgical strategy is to be advanced and simplified, particularly the repair and reconstruction of aortic arch and supra-aortic vessels. In this paper, we reviewed the relevant literature concerning recent advances in surgical intervention of aortic arch and summarized our opinions in the application of branched stent graft in ADIAD. The operative strategy for acute Debakey type I aortic dissection still remain to be advanced and simplified, especially the repair and reconstruction of aortic arch and supra-aortic vessels. For selection of branched stent grafts, the anatomic features and pathological changes of diseased arch are the crucial factors for clinical decision making. Branched stent graft is potentially an effective alternative for the treatment of type I AD with diseased aortic arch and supra-aortic vessels. The selection of branched stent grafts still remains to be further discussed in large-scale studies in the future.

  20. IRAD experience on surgical type A acute dissection patients: results and predictors of mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berretta, Paolo; Patel, Himanshu J; Gleason, Thomas G; Sundt, Thoralf M; Myrmel, Truls; Desai, Nimesh; Korach, Amit; Panza, Antonello; Bavaria, Joe; Khoynezhad, Ali; Woznicki, Elise; Montgomery, Dan; Isselbacher, Eric M; Di Bartolomeo, Roberto; Fattori, Rossella; Nienaber, Christoph A; Eagle, Kim A; Trimarchi, Santi; Di Eusanio, Marco

    2016-07-01

    Type A acute aortic dissection (TAAD) is a disease that has a catastrophic impact on a patient's life and emergent surgery represents a key goal of early treatment. Despite continuous improvements in imaging techniques, medical therapy and surgical management, early mortality in patients undergoing TAAD repair still remains high, ranging from 17% to 26%. In this setting, the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection (IRAD), the largest worldwide registry for acute aortic dissection, was established to assess clinical characteristics, management and outcomes of TAAD patients. The present review aimed to evaluate and comment on outcomes of TAAD surgery as reported from IRAD series.

  1. Aortic Dissection in a Healthy Male Athlete: A Unique Case with Comprehensive Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balraj Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A young otherwise healthy 27-year-old male who has been using anabolic steroids for a long time developed Type I aortic dissection associated with heavy weightlifting. The patient did not have a recent history of trauma to the chest, no history of hypertension, and no illicit drug use. He presented with severe chest pain radiating to back and syncopal event with exertion. Initial vitals were significant for blood pressure of 80/50 mmHg, pulse of 80 beats per minute, respirations of 24 per minute, and oxygen saturation of 92% on room air. Physical exam was significant for elevated jugular venous pressure, muffled heart sounds, and cold extremities with diminished pulses in upper and absent pulses in lower extremities. Bedside echocardiogram showed aortic root dilatation and cardiac tamponade. STAT computed tomography (CT scan of chest revealed dissection of ascending aorta. Cardiothoracic surgery was consulted and patient underwent successful repair of ascending aorta. Hemodynamic stress of weightlifting can predispose to aortic dissection. Aortic dissection is a rare but often catastrophic condition if not diagnosed and managed acutely. Although rare, aortic dissection needs to be in the differential when a young weightlifter presents with chest pain as a delay in diagnosis may be fatal.

  2. Postmortem genetic testing should be recommended in sudden cardiac death cases due to thoracic aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gago-Díaz, Marina; Ramos-Luis, Eva; Zoppis, Silvia; Zorio, Esther; Molina, Pilar; Braza-Boïls, Aitana; Giner, Juan; Sobrino, Beatriz; Amigo, Jorge; Blanco-Verea, Alejandro; Carracedo, Ángel; Brion, María

    2017-04-08

    Acute thoracic aortic dissections and ruptures, the main life-threatening complications of the corresponding aneurysms, are an important cause of sudden cardiac death. Despite the usefulness of the molecular diagnosis of these conditions in the clinical setting, the corresponding forensic field remains largely unexplored. The main goal of this study was to explore and validate a new massive parallel sequencing candidate gene​ assay as a diagnostic tool for acute thoracic aortic dissection autopsy cases. Massive parallel sequencing of 22 thoracic aortic disease candidate genes performed in 17 cases of thoracic aortic dissection using AmpliSeq and Ion Proton technologies. Genetic variants were filtered by location, type, and frequency at the Exome Aggregation Consortium and an internal database and further classified based on the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) recommendations published in 2015. All prioritized results were confirmed by traditional sequencing. From the total of 10 potentially pathogenic genetic variants identified in 7 out of the 17 initial samples, 2 of them were further classified as pathogenic, 2 as likely pathogenic, 1 as possibly benign, and the remaining 5 as variants of uncertain significance, reaching a molecular autopsy yield of 23%, approximately. This massive parallel sequencing candidate gene approach proved useful for the molecular autopsy of aortic dissection sudden cardiac death cases and should therefore be progressively incorporated into the forensic field, being especially beneficial for the anticipated diagnosis and risk stratification of any other family member at risk of developing the same condition.

  3. Slowly Progressive and Painless Thoracic Aortic Dissection Presenting with a Persistent Fever in an Elderly Patient: The Usefulness of Combined Measurement of Biochemical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Yamada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aortic dissection is a fatal medical condition that requires urgent diagnosis and appropriate intervention. Because acute aortic dissection often manifests as sudden onset excruciating chest pain, physicians can easily reach a proper diagnosis. However, some patients with aortic dissection present with varied clinical manifestations without exhibiting typical chest pain, leading to a delayed diagnosis and possible fatality. We herein present the case of an elderly subject with a fever of unknown origin who was ultimately diagnosed with aortic dissection. In the present case, a negative procalcitonin test, increased D-dimer and serum creatinine phosphokinase-BB levels, and reelevation of the CPR level led us to the correct diagnosis.

  4. Surgical treatment of complex aneurysms and thoracic aortic dissections with the Frozen Elephant Trunk technique

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    Ricardo Ribeiro Dias

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective:Report initial experience with the Frozen Elephant Trunk technique.Methods:From July 2009 to October 2013, Frozen Elephant Trunk technique was performed in 21 patients (66% male, mean age 56 ±11 years. They had type A aortic dissection (acute 9.6%, chronic 57.3%, type B (14.3%, all chronic and complex aneurysms (19%. It was 9.5% of reoperations and 38% of associated procedures (25.3% miocardial revascularization, 25.3% replacement of aortic valve and 49.4% aortic valved graft. Aortic remodeling was evaluated comparing preoperative and most recent computed tomography scans. One hundred per cent of complete follow-up, mean time of 28 months.Results:In-hospital mortality of 14.2%, being 50% in acute type A aortic dissection, 8.3% in chronic type A aortic dissection, 33.3% in chronic type B aortic dissection and 0% in complex aneurysms. Mean times of cardiopulmonary bypass (152±24min, myocardial ischemia (115±31min and selective cerebral perfusion (60±15min. Main complications were bleeding (14.2%, spinal cord injury (9.5%, stroke (4.7%, prolonged mechanical ventilation (4.7% and acute renal failure (4.7%. The need for second-stage operation was 19%. False-lumen thrombosis was obtained in 80%.Conclusion:Frozen Elephant Trunk is a feasible technique and should be considered. The severity of the underlying disease justifies high mortality rates. The learning curve is a reality. This approach allows treatment of more than two segments at once. Nonetheless, if a second stage is made necessary, it is facilitated.

  5. Operated DeBakey type III dissecting aortic aneurysm: review of 12 cases

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    Moon, Hi Eun; Lee, Ghi Jai; Oh, Sang Joon; Yoon, Sei Ra; Shim, Jae Chan; Kim, Ho Kyun; Han, Chang Yul [Inje University, Seoul Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-15

    We evaluated the indications of operation and radiologic findings in 12 operated DeBakey type III aortic dissections. We retrospectively reviewed radiologic findings of 12 operated DeBakey type III aortic dissections, using CT, MRI, or aortography, and correlations were made with clinical course of the patients. Three cases were uncomplicated dissections. There were aneurysm rupture in 4 cases, impending rupture in 4 cases, occlusion of common iliac artery in 2 cases, occlusion of renal artery in 1 case, and compression of bronchus and esophagus by dilated aorta in 1 case. Associated clinical sign and symptoms were chest and back pain in 12 cases, claudication in 3 cases, dyspnea and dysphagia in 1 case, hoarseness in 1 case, and hemoptysis in 1 case. Post-operative complications were death from aneurysm rupture in 1 case, paraplegia in 2 cases, acute renal failure in 3 cases, and hemopericardium in 1 case. Although medical therapy is preferred in management of DeBakey type III aortic dissection, surgical treatment should be considered in patients with radiological findings of aortic rupture, impending rupture, occlusion of aortic major branches.

  6. Open aortic arch surgery in chronic dissection with visceral arteries originating from different lumens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanski, Paul P; Bougioukakis, Petros; Deja, Marek A; Diegeler, Anno; Irimie, Vadim; Lenos, Aristidis; Zembala, Michal O

    2016-05-01

    Surgical management of chronic aortic dissection is controversial, especially when the dissection extends into the abdominal aorta in which the visceral arteries originate from different lumens and is combined with aortic arch pathology necessitating surgery. The aim of the study was to evaluate the results of open surgery in this complex aortic pathology. Between June 2002 and 2015, a total of 17 patients (median age 57, range 32-76 years) necessitating complete arch replacement presented complex chronic dissection of the thoraco-abdominal aorta with the visceral arteries originating from different lumens. Fourteen patients (82%) had had previous cardiac surgery, which was performed on the proximal aorta in all but one because of acute type A dissection. Nine patients without considerable dilatation of the descending aorta received aortic arch replacement with distal resection of the dissection membrane, and 8 patients with progressive dilatation of the thoracic aorta underwent aortic arch and descending aorta replacement via clamshell approach. No early (defined as 30-day, 90-day and in-hospital period) deaths, strokes or spinal cord injuries occurred. Only 1 patient (6%) presented temporary neurological dysfunctions (delirium, agitation), which resolved completely before discharge, and an injury of the recurrent laryngeal nerve was documented in 2 patients (12%). Temporary dialysis was necessary in 1 case. The follow-up was complete for all patients. All but one patient, who died due to leukaemia 23 months after surgery, were alive at the last follow-up (median duration 33 months, range 2-118 months). No patient needed a reoperation or an intervention on the thoracic and/or abdominal aorta. Moreover, no noticeable progression of the chronic dissection in the downstream aorta was documented in any patient. The results after conventional aortic arch repair with distal resection of the dissection membrane and, if necessary, with replacement of the progressively

  7. Influence of tear configuration on false and true lumen haemodynamics in type B aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenick, Paula A; Bordone, Maurizio; Bijnens, Bart H; Soudah, Eduardo; Onate, Eugenio; Garcia-Dorado, David; Evangelista, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    The management and follow-up of chronic type B aortic dissections continues being a clinical challenge. Patients with chronic type B dissection have high mid/long term mortality mainly due to progressive aortic dilatation and subsequent rupture.

  8. The 100 most-cited articles on aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ping; Liu, Yuan-Hui; Xue, Jin-Hua; He, Peng-Cheng; Qiu, Yue-Qun

    2017-01-17

    To identify and characterize the most frequently cited articles that have been published on aortic dissection. A list of the 100 most frequently cited publications (T100) about aortic dissection was generated by performing a searching of the Science Citation Index--Expanded using "aortic dissection" as the search term. Basic information about the articles was recorded, including number of citations, journal title, journal impact factor, time since publication, first author's country, topic/subspecialty of the research, and publication type. We finally included 180 articles on aortic dissection, from which we identified the 100 most frequently cited articles (T100). The most frequently cited article received 1079 citations, while the least frequently cited article received 68 (mean140.5 citations per article). The T100 originated from 19 countries, with more than half of them originating from the USA (n = 97). The T100 articles were published from 1955 to 2013, with 79% published during the period 1990-2009. In addition, there were 40 different journals with Circulation having the most citations (n = 38). Regarding the article type, there were 21 basic and 140 clinical research articles, one meta-analysis, and 18 review articles. Reviews had the highest mean number of citations (mean 235.5 citations per article). Our study provides a historical perspective on the progress of dissection research, and helps to identify the quality of the work, the discoveries made, and the trends steering the studies.

  9. Traumatic aortic dissection presenting with respiratory arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Meyer

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Blunt aortic injury is a major cause of death in blunt chest trauma. Signs and symptoms of this injury are nonspecific and other injuries often take precedence, which makes a relatively difficult diagnosis even more challenging.

  10. Passive smoking and mortality from aortic dissection or aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, Tomomi; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2017-08-01

    Evidence on the association between passive smoking and risk of aortic dissection or aneurysm is limited. This study aimed to investigate whether passive smoking increases risk of mortality from aortic dissection or aneurysm. The Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) Study is a prospective community-based cohort study begun in 1988-90 and followed up to the end of 2009. We examined 48,677 individuals (mean age, 56 years; women, 46%) without history of stroke, coronary heart disease, or cancer, who provided valid responses to a lifestyle questionnaire including questions on active and passive smoking. We used 3 categories (passive smoking out of home, passive smoking at home, and passive smoking out of or at home combined) to divide never-smokers into 3 exposure groups: low, intermediate, and high exposures, respectively. The endpoint was underlying cause of death from aortic dissection or aneurysm. During the median 19-year follow-up of 48,677 study participants, 66 died of aortic dissection, and 75 of aortic aneurysm. Multivariable hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the high passive-smoking group as compared with the low passive-smoking group were 2.45 (1.02-5.88) out of home, 1.82 (0.84-3.96) at home, and 2.35 (1.09-5.09) out of or at home combined. The corresponding hazard ratios for current smokers as compared with the low passive-smoking group were 3.97 (2.14-7.39), 3.41 (1.84-6.32) and 4.09 (1.99-8.39), respectively. Out-of-home passive smoking and out-of- or at-home combined passive smoking were associated with increased mortality from aortic dissection or aneurysm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ascending aortic curvature as an independent risk factor for type A dissection, and ascending aortic aneurysm formation: a mathematical model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poullis, Michael P; Warwick, Richard; Oo, Aung; Poole, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To develop a mathematical model to demonstrate that ascending aortic curvature is an independent risk factor for type A dissections, in addition to hypertension, bicuspid aortic valve, aneurysm...

  12. Endovascular treatment of spontaneous isolated abdominal aortic dissection

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    Anna Maria Giribono

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Isolated abdominal aortic dissection is a rare clinical disease representing only 1.3% of all dissections. There are a few case series reported in the literature. The causes of this pathology can be spontaneous, iatrogenic, or traumatic. Most patients are asymptomatic and symptoms are usually abdominal or back pain, while claudication and lower limb ischemia are rare. Surgical and endovascular treatment are two valid options with acceptable results. We herein describe nine cases of symptomatic spontaneous isolated abdominal aortic dissection, out of which four successfully were treated with an endovascular approach between July 2003 and July 2013. All patients were men, smokers, symptomatic (either abdominal or back pain or lower limb ischemia, with a history of high blood pressure, with a medical history negative for concomitant aneurysmatic dilatation or previous endovascular intervention. Diagnosis of isolated abdominal aortic dissection were established by contrast-enhanced computed tomography angiography (CTA of the thoracic and abdominal aorta. All nine patients initially underwent medical treatment. In four symptomatic cases, non-responsive to medical therapy, bare-metal stents or stent grafts were successfully positioned. All patients completed a CTA follow-up of at least 12 months, during which they remained symptom-free. Endovascular management of this condition is associated with a high rate of technical success and a low mortality; therefore, it can be considered the treatment of choice when it is feasible.

  13. Symptomatic Delayed Aortic Dissection After Superior Mesenteric Artery Stenting for Chronic Mesenteric Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Cindy; Schwartz, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Chronic mesenteric ischemia most commonly occurs secondary to atherosclerotic disease of the mesenteric arteries. Patients are often older than 60 years and can present with postprandial abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, and significant weight loss. Symptomatic disease has traditionally been managed with open surgical repair, but endovascular strategies, such as percutaneous angioplasty and stenting, have emerged as the mainstays of therapy. Complications from stenting include plaque embolization, thrombosis, perforation, or dissection of the mesenteric arteries. We present a patient with symptomatic acute aortic dissection 18 months after celiac and superior mesenteric artery stent placement for chronic mesenteric ischemia.

  14. Fever of unknown origin, giant cell arteritis, and aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofheinz, K; Bertz, S; Wacker, J; Schett, G; Manger, B

    2017-02-01

    Giant cell arteritis is one of the most frequent causes of pyrexia of unknown origin after infectious or malignant causes have been ruled out. In this case report we describe a 66-year old female patient, who after five weeks of remitting fever developed a life-threatening, painless severe aortic dissection. The timely use of modern imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance angiography or positron emission computed tomography could in the future be of help to recognize aortic involvement early and to avoid this devastating complication in patients with fever of unknown origin.

  15. Modelling of aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection through 3D printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Daniel; Squelch, Andrew; Sun, Zhonghua

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess if the complex anatomy of aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection can be accurately reproduced from a contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan into a three-dimensional (3D) printed model. Contrast-enhanced cardiac CT scans from two patients were post-processed and produced as 3D printed thoracic aorta models of aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection. The transverse diameter was measured at five anatomical landmarks for both models, compared across three stages: the original contrast-enhanced CT images, the stereolithography (STL) format computerised model prepared for 3D printing and the contrast-enhanced CT of the 3D printed model. For the model with aortic dissection, measurements of the true and false lumen were taken and compared at two points on the descending aorta. Three-dimensional printed models were generated with strong and flexible plastic material with successful replication of anatomical details of aortic structures and pathologies. The mean difference in transverse vessel diameter between the contrast-enhanced CT images before and after 3D printing was 1.0 and 1.2 mm, for the first and second models respectively (standard deviation: 1.0 mm and 0.9 mm). Additionally, for the second model, the mean luminal diameter difference between the 3D printed model and CT images was 0.5 mm. Encouraging results were achieved with regards to reproducing 3D models depicting aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection. Variances in vessel diameter measurement outside a standard deviation of 1 mm tolerance indicate further work is required into the assessment and accuracy of 3D model reproduction. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy and New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology.

  16. New predictor of aortic enlargement in uncomplicated type B aortic dissection based on elliptic Fourier analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Ito, Toshiro; Kuroda, Yosuke; Uchiyama, Hiroki; Watanabe, Toshitaka; Yasuda, Naomi; Nakazawa, Junji; Harada, Ryo; Kawaharada, Nobuyoshi

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to re-examine the conventional predictive factors for dissected aortic enlargement, such as the aortic and false lumen diameter and to consider whether the morphological elements of the dissected aorta could be predictors by quantifying the 'shape' of the true lumen based on elliptic Fourier analysis. A total of 80 patients with uncomplicated type B aortic dissection were included. The patients were divided into 'Enlargement group' and 'No Change group.' Between the 2 groups, the mean systolic blood pressure during follow-up, aortic and false lumen maximum diameters, and analysed morphological data were compared using each statistical method. The maximum aortic and false lumen diameters were significantly larger in the Enlargement group than in the No Change group (39.3 vs 35.9 mm; P = 0.0058) (23.5 vs 18.2 mm; P = 0.000095). The principal component 1, which is the data calculated by elliptic Fourier analysis, was significantly lower in the Enlargement group than in the No Change group (0.020 vs - 0.072; P = 0.000049). The mean systolic blood pressure ≥130 mmHg, aortic diameter, false lumen diameter and principal component 1 were included in the Cox proportional hazard model as covariates to determine the significant predictive variable. Principal component 1 demonstrated the only significance with aortic enlargement on multivariate analysis (odds ratio = 0.32; P = 0.048). The analysed and calculated morphological data of the shape of the true lumen can be more effective predictive factors of aortic enlargement of type B dissection than the conventional factors.

  17. Aortic Dissection in Pregnancy: Management Strategy and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun-Ming; Ma, Wei-Guo; Peterss, Sven; Wang, Long-Fei; Qiao, Zhi-Yu; Ziganshin, Bulat A; Zheng, Jun; Liu, Yong-Min; Elefteriades, John A; Sun, Li-Zhong

    2017-04-01

    Aortic dissection in pregnancy is a rare but lethal catastrophe. Clinical experiences are limited. We report our experience in 25 patients focusing on etiology, management strategies, and outcomes. Between June 1998 and February 2015, we treated 25 pregnant women (mean age, 31.6 ± 4.7 years) in whom aortic dissection developed at a mean of 28 ± 10 gestational weeks (GWs). Type A aortic dissection (TAAD) was present in 20 (80%) and type B (TBAD) in 5 (20%). Marfan syndrome was seen in 17 (68%). Management strategy was based on dissection type and GWs. TAADs were managed surgically in 19 (95.0%) and medically in 1 (5.0%). Maternal and fetal mortalities were, respectively, 14.3% (1 of 7) and 0 (0 of 7) in the "delivery first" group (7 of 20), 16.7% (1 of 6) and 33.3% (2 of 6) in "single-stage delivery and aortic repair" group (6 of 20), 16.7% (1 of 6) and 66.7% (4 of 6) in "aortic repair first" group (6 of 20), and 100% (1 of 1) and 100% (1 of 1) in the "medical management" group (1 of 20). TBADs were managed surgically in 60% (3 of 5) and endovascularly and medically in 20% each (1 of 5). No maternal deaths occurred. Fetal mortality was 100% in the surgical group and 0% in the other groups. During late follow-up, which was complete in 95.2% (20 of 21), 3 maternal and 2 fetal deaths occurred in the TAAD group. Overall maternal survival was 68.6% at 5 years. Marfan syndrome predominates among women with aortic dissection in pregnancy. For TAADs, after 28 GWs, delivery followed by surgical repair can achieve maternal and fetal survival adequately; before 28 GWs, maternal survival should be prioritized given the high risk of fetal death. For TBADs in pregnancy, nonsurgical management is preferred. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Twins with progressive thoracic aortic aneurysm, recurrent dissection and ACTA2 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Stephanie M; Shikany, Amy; Landis, Benjamin J; James, Jeanne F; Hinton, Robert B

    2014-10-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is a genetically mediated disease with variable age of onset. In the pediatric age range, nonsyndromic TAA frequently has a milder course than syndromic forms of TAA, such as Marfan syndrome or Loeys-Dietz syndrome. Herein, we describe 17-year-old identical twin brothers with severe progressive TAA due to a novel de novo ACTA2 mutation. Interestingly, both boys were diagnosed at age 11 with congenital mydriasis, a recently recognized manifestation of some ACTA2 mutations due to smooth muscle dysfunction. One of the brothers presented with acute-onset lower back pain that was identified as dissection of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. Imaging of the chest at this time showed severe fusiform TAA. Cardiac imaging in his twin showed similar TAA, but no abdominal aortic aneurysm. Both brothers underwent valve-sparing aortic root replacement, but have had progressive aortic disease with recurrent dissection requiring multiple surgeries. This case emphasizes the importance of identifying physical stigmata of smooth muscle dysfunction, such as mydriasis, as potential markers for associated aortopathy and vascular diseases. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Delay from Diagnosis to Surgery in Transferred Type A Aortic Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, William; Tolenaar, Jip L; Harris, Kevin M; Strauss, Craig; Sundt, Thoralf M; Tsai, Thomas T; Peterson, Mark D; Evangelista, Arturo; Montgomery, Daniel G; Kline-Rogers, Eva; Nienaber, Christoph A; Froehlich, James B; Isselbacher, Eric M; Eagle, Kim A; Trimarchi, Santi

    2017-11-24

    The purpose of this research is to analyze factors associated with delays to surgical management of Type A acute aortic dissection patients. Time from diagnosis to surgery and associated factors were evaluated in 1880 surgically managed Type A dissection patients enrolled in the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection. The majority of patients were transferred (75.7% vs 24.3%). Patients who were transferred had a median delay from diagnosis to surgery of 4.0 hours (interquartile range 2.5-7.2 hours), compared with 2.3 hours (interquartile range 1.1-4.2 hours; P < .001) in nontransferred patients. Among patients who were transferred, those with worst-ever, posterior, or tearing chest pain those with severe complications, and those receiving transthoracic echocardiogram prior to a transesophageal echocardiogram or as the only echocardiogram were treated more quickly. Those undergoing magnetic resonance imaging, or who had prior cardiac surgery, had longer delays to surgery. Among nontransferred patients, those with coma were treated more quickly. In both groups, patients presenting with emergent conditions such as cardiac tamponade, hypotension, or shock had more rapid treatment. Among transferred patients, surviving patients had longer delays (4.1 [2.6-7.8] hours vs 3.3 [2.0-6.0] hours, P = .001). Overall mortality did not differ between patients who were transferred vs not (19.3% vs 21.1%, P = .416). Simply being transferred added significantly to the delay to surgery for Type A acute aortic dissection patients, but a number of factors affected its extent. Overall, signs and symptoms leading to a definitive diagnosis or indicating immediate life threat reduced time to surgery, while factors suggesting other diagnoses correlated with delays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Early results of valve-sparing ascending aortic replacement in type A aortic dissection and aortic insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. Л. Гордеев

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was designed to investigate predictors of effective valve-sparing ascending aortic replacement in patients with Stanford type A aortic dissection combined with aortic insufficiency and to analyze efficacy and safety of this kind of surgery.Methods: From January 2010 to December 2015, 49 patients with Stanford type A aortic dissection combined with aortic insufficiency underwent ascending aortic replacement. All patients were divided into 3 groups: valve-sparing procedures (group 1, n = 11, combined aortic valve and supracoronary ascending aortic replacement (group 2, n = 12, and Bentall procedure (group 3, n = 26. We assessed the initial status of patients, incidence of complications and efficacy of valve-sparing ascending aortic replacement.Results: The hospital mortality rate was 8.2% (4/49 patients. The amount of surgical correction correlated with the initial diameter of the aorta at the level of the sinuses of Valsalva. During the hospital period, none of patients from group 1 developed aortic insufficiency exceeding Grade 2 and the vast majority of patients had trivial aortic regurgitation. The parameters of cardiopulmonary bypass, cross-clamp time and circulatory arrest time did not correlate with the initial size of the ascending aorta and aortic valve blood flow impairment, neither did they influence significantly the incidence and severity of neurological complications. The baseline size of the ascending aorta and degree of aortic regurgitation did not impact the course of the early hospital period.Conclusions: Supracoronary ascending aortic replacement combined with aortic valve repair in ascending aortic dissection and aortic regurgitation is effective and safe. The initial size of the ascending aorta and aortic arch do not influence immediate results. The diameter of the aorta at the level of the sinuses of Valsalva and the condition of aortic valve leaflets could be considered as the limiting factors. Further long

  1. Management and outcomes of carotid artery extension of aortic dissections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laser, Adriana; Drucker, Charles B; Harris, Donald G; Flohr, Tanya; Toursavadkohi, Shahab; Sarkar, Rajabrata; Taylor, Bradley; Crawford, Robert S

    2017-08-01

    Aortic dissection (AD) is the most common aortic catastrophe. Carotid artery dissection due to extension of AD (CAEAD) is one severe complication of this condition. Despite years of refinement in the techniques for repair of AD, the optimal management strategy for CAEAD remains yet to be described. We hypothesized that CAEAD eventually resolves on antiplatelet therapy with a low but not insignificant risk of cerebrovascular accident (CVA). This was a single-institution retrospective review of patients admitted with nontraumatic coincident aortic and carotid dissection between 2001 and 2013. CAEAD was present in 38 patients (24 men [53%]). The median age was 59.5 years (range, 25-85 years). A Stanford type A AD was diagnosed in 36 patients (95%). CVA or transient ischemic attack was identified in 11 patients (29%). Eight were potentially attributable to the carotid lesion. Two of these eight strokes resulted in death. Of the 11 CVAs and transient ischemic attacks, 8 were evident at presentation, 2 were diagnosed postoperatively during hospitalization, and 1 was diagnosed during early follow-up. Only one of these three postadmission strokes was attributable to the carotid lesion. Nonoperative management of aortic and carotid dissections was pursued in 9 patients (24%), 26 (68%) underwent open repair, and 4 (11%) had endovascular management of AD (2 thoracic endovascular aortic repair, 2 endovascular fenestrations), including 1 patient with a staged hybrid procedure (frozen elephant trunk). There were eight inpatient deaths (21%) and nine deaths in the follow-up period. Of the 30 patients who survived to discharge, 24 (80%) were managed with antiplatelet therapy. At a median follow-up of 14.5 months in 22 patients with follow-up computed tomography scans available, a minority of lesions had resolved, and only one CVA was reported. This study found that CAEAD was associated almost exclusively with type A AD, was typically unilateral, most often on the left, and

  2. Diagnostic implication of fibrin degradation products and D-dimer in aortic dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jian; Duan, Xianli; Feng, Rui; Zhao, Zhiqing; Feng, Xiang; Lu, Qingsheng; Jing, Qing; Zhou, Jian; Bao, Junmin; Jing, Zaiping

    2017-03-01

    Fibrin degradation products (FDP) and D-dimer have been considered to be involved in many vascular diseases. In this study we aimed to explore the diagnostic implication of FDP and D-dimer in aortic dissection patients. 202 aortic dissection patients were collected as the case group, 150 patients with other cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction (MI, n = 45), pulmonary infarction (n = 51) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (n = 54) were collected as non-dissection group, and 27 healthy people were in the blank control group. The FDP and D-dimer levels were detected with immune nephelometry. Logist regression analysis was performed to evaluate the influence of FDP and D-dimer for the aortic dissection patients. ROC curve was used to determine the diagnostic value of FDP and D-dimer. The FDP and D-dimer levels were significantly higher in aortic dissection patients than in non-dissection patients and the healthy controls. FDP and D-dimer were both the risk factors for patients with aortic dissection. From the ROC analysis, diagnostic value of FDP and D-dimer were not high to distinguish aortic dissection patients from the non-dissection patients. However FDP and D-dimer could be valuable diagnostic marker to differentiate aortic dissection patients and healthy controls with both AUC 0.863.

  3. Visceral hybrid reconstruction of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm after open repair of type a aortic dissection by the Bentall procedure with the elephant trunk technique: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Reconstruction of chronic type B dissection and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA remaining after the emergency reconstruction of the ascending thoracic aorta and aortic arch for acute type A dissection represents one of the major surgical challenges. Complications of chronic type B dissection are aneurysmal formation and rupture of an aortic aneurysm with a high mortality rate. We presented a case of visceral hybrid reconstruction of TAAA secondary to chronic dissection type B after the Bentall procedure with the elephant trunk technique due to acute type A aortic dissection in a high-risk patient. Case report. A 62 year-old woman was admitted to our institution for reconstruction of Crawford type I TAAA secondary to chronic dissection. The patient had had an acute type A aortic dissection 3 years before and undergone reconstruction by the Bentall procedure with the elephant trunk technique with valve replacement. On admission the patient had coronary artery disease (myocardial infarction, two times in the past 3 years, congestive heart disease with ejection fraction of 25% and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. On computed tomography (CT of the aorta TAAA was revealed with a maximum diameter of 93 mm in the descending thoracic aorta secondary to chronic dissection. All the visceral arteries originated from the true lumen with exception of the celiac artery (CA, and the end of chronic dissection was below the origin of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA. The patient was operated on using surgical visceral reconstruction of the SMA, CA and the right renal artery (RRA as the first procedure. Postoperative course was without complications. Endovascular TAAA reconstruction was performed as the second procedure one month later, when the elephant trunk was used as the proximal landing zone for the endograft, and distal landing zone was the level of origin of the RRA. Postoperatively, the patient had no neurological deficit and

  4. Aortic dissection - when classical surgical approach, when endoluminal repair?; Die Aortendissektion - Wann operieren, wann endoluminal therapieren?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, G.M.; Hansmann, J. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Abt. Radiodiagnostik; Allenberg, J.R.; Schumacher, H. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik, Abt. Gefaesschirurgie; Vahl, C.; Hagl, S. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik, Abt. Herzchirurgie

    2001-08-01

    Goal. To demonstrate the Heidelberg results of the previous 2 years in patients referred for acute aortic dissection. Material and Methods. 93 patients referred for acute aortic dissection were treated by cardiac surgery, vascular surgery and interventional radiology according to a novel therapeutic algorithm including stent-grafts and combined open and interventional procedures and conservative medical therapy when no malperfusion syndrome was present or patients were considered prohibitive for even minor surgical procedures. Stent-graft placements were done assisted by short term cardiac arrest to facilitate correct device deployment. Results. 36 patients presented with type A and the other 57 with type B dissection. 32 of the A patients were operated and 20 of the B patients, respectively. 12 patients with B dissection were treated with stent-grafts. 3 required additional interventional therapy for organ malperfusion. The mortality was 0% in these 12 patients. The overall mortality rate in the A group was close to 40% mainly as a result of postoperative organ malperfusion while it was 15% in the B group. In both groups mortality was highest in the respective untreated patient subgroup (3/4 and 8/37, respectively). The main mortality factor was visceral (mesenteric or liver) ischemia. Paraplegic complications occured in neither group. In 4 patients a combined approach applying cardiac surgery of the ascending aorta and endluminal stent-graft placement for the residual B dissection was successfully performed. In one patient this was done simultaneously. Discussion. Acute aortic dissection of type A with or without valve involvement, coronary artery ischemia can be treated with high technical success rates. However, remaining distal aortic dissection associated with true lumen collapse and organ malperfusion is the main causative factor for clinical failures. Successful combination of open proximal aortic surgery with endoluminal treatment of residual B dissection

  5. Frozen elephant trunk repair for descending thoracic aortic dissection in a man with a hostile left pleural cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, William D T; Manjunath, Adarsh; Malaisrie, S Chris

    2014-06-01

    The frozen elephant trunk procedure is a hybrid, single-staged alternative to conventional surgery for repairing diffuse pathologic conditions of the thoracic aorta. This approach is particularly advantageous in patients who have pathologic conditions of the left side of the chest, because the descending thoracic aorta can be repaired without entering a hostile pleural cavity. We present the case of a 67-year-old man who had undergone repair of acute type A aortic dissection. He presented with aneurysmal dilation of the descending thoracic aorta secondary to chronic dissection, a large acute dissection of the proximal ascending aorta, and a large paraesophageal hernia that made him a poor candidate for conventional, 2-staged open aortic repair. We describe the hybrid frozen elephant trunk technique that we used to repair the aorta, and its broader advantages.

  6. Aortic Dissection and Sudden Unexpected Deaths: A Retrospective Study of 31 Forensic Autopsy Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Li, Ling; Mu, Hong-Shu; Fan, Shuan-Liang; He, Fang-Gang; Wang, Zhen-Yuan

    2015-09-01

    Acute aortic dissection (AAD) is the most common cause of sudden unexpected death related to aortic diseases. A retrospective study of 31 sudden unexpected deaths caused by AAD was conducted at Xi'an Jiaotong University Forensic Center from 2001 to 2012. We summarized the forensic characteristics of AAD and assessed the clinically diagnostic accuracy of AAD. The characteristics of sudden unexpected death due to AAD were male predominant (male: female=6.7:1), relatively young with the mean age of 44, and predominance of type A dissection (77.4%). Cardiac tamponade was the most frequent cause of sudden death (87.1%). Of the 31 cases, 26 (83.9%) patients were not recognized clinically and were misdiagnosed with acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, cholecystitis, acute gastroenteritis, renal/urinary lithiasis, or acute pancreatitis. In summary, AAD can be difficult to recognize, diagnosis is therefore sometimes delayed or missed. The medicolegal death investigation can help physicians have a better understanding of AAD. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Acute aortic pathology, Munchausen syndrome, and confirmation bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudino, Mario; Nasso, Giuseppe; Romano, Vito; Pragliola, Claudio; Di Cesare, Alessandro; Speziale, Giuseppe; Massetti, Massimo

    2013-12-01

    Munchausen syndrome is a psychiatric disease characterized by pathological lying and malingering. Patients who are affected can set up such complex and compelling clinical scenarios that they can lead to a bias in the diagnostic process and even to unnecessary surgery. Two cases of Munchausen syndrome misrepresenting acute aortic dissection are reported. The two cases occurred at two different institutions where there was considerable expertise in the management of aortic pathology. In both patients, a wrong diagnosis of acute aortic syndrome was made, leading to unnecessary surgery. Retrospective analysis of the clinical events and the diagnostic process suggests that a confirmation bias played a major role in determining the misdiagnosis. The same mistake is likely to have occurred in the only other case reported in the literature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of a protocol-based management of type A aortic dissections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Juan B; Kuschner, Cyrus E; Ferrari, Giovanni; Wilson, Sean R; Brizzio, Mariano E; Zapolanski, Alex; Yallowitz, Joseph; Shaw, Richard E

    2015-08-01

    Ascending aortic dissections (AADs) require prompt diagnosis and surgical treatment. We present the results of implementing a multidisciplinary aortic dissection protocol on the outcomes of AAD treatment at a nonteaching hospital. From January 2002-December 2013, 54 patients with the diagnosis of AAD were treated at our institution. Thirty-seven (68.5%) were male with a mean age of 62.3 y. Cardiogenic shock was present in 25.9% of patients. An AAD protocol, focused on educating physicians on presenting signs and symptoms, adequate triaging, and the need for immediate surgical intervention, was implemented, alongside the standardization of surgical treatment. We divided the cohort into two eras, based on AAD program's implementation in 2006, to better assess the impact of this protocol. Patients from the early era had significantly longer time from Emergency Department to the operating room, more postoperative occurrence of prolonged ventilation, and a longer postoperative hospital stay at 8.7 ± 8 versus 3.1 ± 2.6 h (P = 0.002), 63% versus 18% (P = 0.002), and 63% versus 18% (P = 0.002), respectively. The overall mortality for the cohort was 9.3%, decreasing from 12.5% before 2006 to 7.9% after 2006. The implementation of a multidisciplinary aortic dissection protocol has resulted in faster diagnosis and transport of AAD cases from the emergency room to the operating room, improving outcomes. Our data support the concept that nonteaching institutions can deliver excellent care to patients with acute aortic emergencies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Large aortic aneurysm and dissection in a patient with Marfan's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pivatto Júnior

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Marfan’s syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder of connective tissue affecting approximately1 in5000 people. In individuals with this syndrome, more than 90% of deaths from known causes result from cardiovascular complications, such as aortic dissection, aortic regurgitation, and congestive cardiac failure. In this report, we present a patient with a large symptomatic aortic aneurysm and chronic dissection, severe aortic regurgitation and cardiomegaly, treated successfully with resection of the proximal aorta and placement of a mechanic aortic valved graft.

  10. Aortic Disease in the Young: Genetic Aneurysm Syndromes, Connective Tissue Disorders, and Familial Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cury

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many genetic syndromes associated with the aortic aneurysmal disease which include Marfan syndrome (MFS, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS, Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS, familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD, bicuspid aortic valve disease (BAV, and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD. In the absence of familial history and other clinical findings, the proportion of thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms and dissections resulting from a genetic predisposition is still unknown. In this study, we propose the review of the current genetic knowledge in the aortic disease, observing, in the results that the causative genes and molecular pathways involved in the pathophysiology of aortic aneurysm disease remain undiscovered and continue to be an area of intensive research.

  11. Endovascular Treatment of Thoracic Aortic Dissection: Hemodynamic Shear Stress Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yik Sau; Lai, Siu Kai; Cheng, Stephen Wing Keung; Chow, Kwok Wing

    2012-11-01

    Thoracic Aortic Dissection (TAD), a life threatening cardiovascular disease, occurs when blood intrudes into the layers of the aortic wall, creating a new artificial channel (the false lumen) beside the original true lumen. The weakened false lumen wall may expand, enhancing the risk of rupture and resulting in high mortality. Endovascular treatment involves the deployment of a stent graft into the aorta, thus blocking blood from entering the false lumen. Due to the irregular geometry of the aorta, the stent graft, however, may fail to conform to the vessel curvature, and would create a ``bird-beak'' configuration, a wedge-shaped domain between the graft and the vessel wall. Computational fluid dynamics analysis is employed to study the hemodynamics of this pathological condition. With the `beaking' configuration, the local hemodynamic shear stress will drop below the threshold of safety reported earlier in the literature. The oscillating behavior of the shear stress might lead to local inflammation, atherosclerosis and other undesirable consequences. Supported by the Innovation and Technology Fund of the Hong Kong Government.

  12. Classic Dissection of Thoracic Aorta Complicated by Ascending Aortic Intramural Hematoma: Promt Diagnosis and Successful Endovascular Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gediminas Rackauskas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We reported a case of 68-year-old man, with a previous history of hypertension. Patient was admitted to our institution for evaluation of a severe, constant, tearing anterior chest pain radiated to the neck with suspicion of acute aortic dissection. A multidetector computed tomography scan of thorax and abdomen demonstrated a dissection starting from the middle part of aortic arch and extending downward to the descending aorta till the middle part of the thoracic aorta. The dissection was classified as Stanford A, De Bakey I. Surgical treatment of patient was started with bypass graft from the right common carotid artery to the left common carotid with subsequent revascularization of left subclavian artery. Lower parts of above-mentioned arteries were ligated. At the second stage an emergent prosthetic stent-graft was placed distally from the truncus brachiocephalicus up to the proximal part of the descending aorta. We reported a case report to present diagnostic and possible interventional treatment for patient with acute aortic type A dissection.

  13. High‑risk pulmonary embolism in a patient with acute dissecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the last decades, an increased incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE) and acute dissection (AD) of aortic aneurysms has been registered mostly due to increased availability of advanced imaging techniques. They seldom occur concomitantly in the same patient. In this paper, we present the clinical challenges and ...

  14. Beta-blockers for preventing aortic dissection in Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyun-Kyoung; Lawrence, Kendra Ak; Musini, Vijaya M

    2017-11-07

    Marfan syndrome is a hereditary disorder affecting the connective tissue and is caused by a mutation of the fibrillin-1 (FBN1) gene. It affects multiple systems of the body, most notably the cardiovascular, ocular, skeletal, dural and pulmonary systems. Aortic root dilatation is the most frequent cardiovascular manifestation and its complications, including aortic regurgitation, dissection and rupture are the main cause of morbidity and mortality. To assess the long-term efficacy and safety of beta-blocker therapy as compared to placebo, no treatment or surveillance only in people with Marfan syndrome. We searched the following databases on 28 June 2017; CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded and the Conference Proceeding Citation Index - Science in the Web of Science Core Collection. We also searched the Online Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease (OMMBID), ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) on 30 June 2017. We did not impose any restriction on language of publication. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of at least one year in duration assessing the effects of beta-blocker monotherapy compared with placebo, no treatment or surveillance only, in people of all ages with a confirmed diagnosis of Marfan syndrome were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts for inclusion, extracted data and assessed trial quality. Trial authors were contacted to obtain missing data. Dichotomous outcomes will be reported as relative risk and continuous outcomes as mean differences with 95% confidence intervals. We assessed the quality of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. One open-label, randomised, single-centre trial including 70 participants with Marfan syndrome (aged 12 to 50 years old) met the inclusion criteria. Participants were randomly assigned to

  15. Clinical and genetic aspects of Marfan syndrome and familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst-Hofstee, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    This thesis concerns the clinical and genetic aspects of familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections, in particular in Marfan syndrome. It includes the Dutch multidisciplinary guidelines for diagnosis and management of Marfan syndrome. These guidelines contain practical directions for

  16. Direct Aortic CoreValve implantation via right anterior thoracotomy in a patient with patent bilateral mammary artery grafts and aortic arch chronic dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Bruschi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct aortic trans-catheter aortic valve implantation is an alternative approach to treat high risk for surgery patients affected by severe aortic stenosis and concomitant peripheral vascular disease. We describe a case of direct aortic CoreValve implantation made via a right anterior thoracotomy in a 78-year-old male affected by severe aortic stenosis and severe peripheral vasculopathy, who previously underwent coronary artery bypass grafting, with patent bilateral mammary artery grafts and chronic aortic arch dissection.

  17. Differentiation of hemopericardium due to ruptured myocardial infarction or aortic dissection on unenhanced postmortem computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Flach, Patricia M; Ruder, Thomas D; Filograna, Laura; Schweitzer, Wolf; Thali, Michael J; Ebert, Lars C

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate unenhanced postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) in cases of non-traumatic hemopericardium by establishing the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of diagnostic criteria for the differentiation between aortic dissection and myocardial wall rupture due to infarction. Twenty six cases were identified as suitable for evaluation, of which ruptured aortic dissection could be identified as the underlying cause of hemopericardium in 50% of the cases, and myocardial wall rupture also in 50% of the cases. All cases underwent a PMCT and 24 of the cases also underwent one or more additional examinations: a subsequent autopsy, or a postmortem magnetic resonance (PMMR), or a PMCT angiography (PMCTA), or combinations of the above. Two radiologists evaluated the PMCT images and classified each case as "aortic dissection", "myocardial wall rupture" or "undetermined". Quantification of the pericardial blood was carried out using segmentation techniques. 17 of 26 cases were correctly identified, either as aortic dissections or myocardial ruptures, by both readers. 7 of 13 myocardial wall ruptures were identified by both readers, whereas both readers identified correctly 10 of 13 aortic dissection cases. Taking into account the responses of both readers, specificity was 100% for both causes of hemopericardium and sensitivity as well as accuracy was higher for aortic dissections than myocardial wall ruptures (72.7% and 87.5% vs 53.8% and 75% respectively). Pericardial blood volumes were constantly higher in the aortic dissection group, but a statistical significance of these differences could not be proven, since the small count of cases did not allow for statistical tests. This study showed that diagnostic criteria for the differentiation between ruptured aortic dissection and myocardial wall rupture due to infarction are highly specific and accurate.

  18. Risk factors for postoperative hypoxemia in patients undergoing Stanford A aortic dissection surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yinghua; Xue, Song; Zhu, Hongsheng

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to identify the risk factors for postoperative hypoxemia in patients with Stanford A aortic dissection surgery and their relation to clinical outcomes. Methods Clinical records of 186 patients with postoperative hypoxemia in Stanford A aortic dissection were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups by postoperative oxygen fraction (PaO2/FiO2):hypoxemia group (N=92) and non-hypoxemia group (N=94). Results We found that the inci...

  19. (Tissue PET) Vascular metabolic imaging and peripheral plasma biomarkers in the evolution of chronic aortic dissections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakalihasan, Natzi; Nienaber, Christoph A; Hustinx, Roland; Lovinfosse, Pierre; El Hachemi, Mounia; Cheramy-Bien, Jean-Paul; Seidel, Laurence; Lavigne, Jean-Paul; Quaniers, Janine; Kerstenne, Marie-Ange; Courtois, Audrey; Ooms, Annie; Albert, Adelin; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Michel, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-06-01

    Despite adequate medical management, dissection of the descending aorta (type B) may develop complications, including aneurysmal progression and eventually rupture. Partial false lumen thrombosis has been identified as a marker of adverse evolution in chronic dissection. The aim of this study was to test the ability of complementary information, provided by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and peripheral biomarkers, to add pathophysiological significance and a prognostic value to morphological data. We explored serial aortic (18)F-FDG uptake by PET/CT imaging and plasma biomarkers in a series of 23 patients with type B dissection to predict complications from initial data and to investigate potential associations with aneurysmal expansion during follow-up. Complications occurred in 17 patients. Acute initial characteristics associated with complications were male gender (P = 0.021), arterial hypertension (P = 0.040), aortic dissection diameter (P = 0.0086), partial thrombosis of the false channel (P = 0.0046), and enhanced focal (18)F-FDG uptake (P = 0.045). During follow-up (mean 16.7 ± 8.0 months), aneurysmal expansion was associated with false lumen morphology (P< 0.0001), quantitative (18)F-FDG uptake, (P = 0.0029), elevated plasma concentrations of biomarkers of platelets (P-selectin, P = 0.0009) and thrombin activation (TAT complexes, P = 0.0075), and fibrinolysis (PAP complexes, P < 0.0001; D-dimers, P = 0.0006). Plasma markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis were related to false channel morphology, suggesting that thrombus biological dynamics may drive progressive expansion of type B dissections. Enhanced FDG uptake may be considered as a complementary imaging marker associated with secondary complications in type B dissections. During follow-up, aneurysmal progression is related to PET/CT and biomarkers of thrombus renewal and lysis. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology

  20. Early Results of Chimney Technique for Type B Aortic Dissections Extending to the Aortic Arch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chen [Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Department of General Surgery (China); Tang, Hanfei; Qiao, Tong; Liu, Changjian; Zhou, Min, E-mail: 813477618@qq.com [The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Department of Vascular Surgery, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital (China)

    2016-01-15

    ObjectiveTo summarize our early experience gained from the chimney technique for type B aortic dissection (TBAD) extending to the aortic arch and to evaluate the aortic remodeling in the follow-up period.MethodsFrom September 2011 to July 2014, 27 consecutive TBAD patients without adequate proximal landing zones were retrograde analyzed. Chimney stent-grafts were deployed parallel to the main endografts to reserve flow to branch vessels while extending the landing zones. In the follow-up period, aortic remodeling was observed with computed tomography angiography.ResultsThe technical success rate was 100 %, and endografts were deployed in zone 0 (n = 3, 11.1 %), zone 1 (n = 18, 66.7 %), and zone 2 (n = 6, 22.2 %). Immediately, proximal endoleaks were detected in 5 patients (18.5 %). During a mean follow-up period of 17.6 months, computed tomography angiography showed all the aortic stent-grafts and chimney grafts to be patent. Favorable remodeling was observed at the level of maximum descending aorta and left subclavian artery with expansion of true lumen (from 18.4 ± 4.8 to 25 ± 0.86 mm, p < 0.001 and 27.1 ± 0.62 to 28.5 ± 0.37 mm, p < 0.001) and depressurization of false lumen (from 23.7 ± 2.7 to 8.7 ± 3.8 mm, p < 0.001, from 5.3 ± 1.2 to 2.1 ± 2.1 mm, p < 0.001). While at the level of maximum abdominal aorta, suboptimal remodeling of the total aorta (from 24.1 ± 0.4 to 23.6 ± 1.5 mm, p = 0.06) and true lumen (from 13.8 ± 0.6 to 14.5 ± 0.4 mm, p = 0.08) was observed.ConclusionBased on our limited experience, the chimney technique with thoracic endovascular repair is demonstrated to be promising for TBAD extending to the arch with favorable aortic remodeling.

  1. Outcome After Surgery for Acute Aortic Dissection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemtob, Raphaelle Avigael; Møller-Sørensen, Hasse; Holmvang, Lene

    2017-01-01

    the use of antiplatelet therapy (APT) prior to AAD surgery and patient outcome, including indications according to the European Society of Cardiology's (ESC) recent guidelines. Design A retrospective, observational study. Setting A tertiary University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Heart Centre, Copenhagen...

  2. Hybrid Completion of Aortic Repair after Type A Aortic Dissection in a Patient with Marfan's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Terri-Ann Teisha; Yeh, James Shue-Min; Kourliouros, Antonios; Nienaber, Christoph A

    2017-01-01

    Medicine and engineering are in collaboration to assist in the tackling of daunting surgical techniques which are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, in exchange for minimally invasive approaches with lower procedural risk. Endovascular procedures in general have already reduced the risk of surgery by limiting the extent of open surgery and often replacing it with purely percutaneous or hybrid procedures. Here, we describe a patient who had complex staged surgery with open repair of a proximal portion of a type A aortic dissection followed by a staged endovascular reconstruction of the arch and descending aorta by means of a fenestrated stent-graft to secure the left subclavian artery and the posterior cerebral circulation.

  3. Hemodynamic determinants of aortic dissection propagation by 2D computational modeling: implications for endovascular stent-grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitsaz, S; Azadani, A N; Matthews, P B; Chuter, T A; Tseng, E E; Ge, L

    2012-10-01

    Aortic dissection is a life-threatening aortic catastrophe where layers of the aortic wall are separated allowing blood flow within the layers. Propagation of aortic dissection is strongly linked to the rate of rise of pressure (dp/dt) experienced by the aortic wall but the hemodynamics is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to perform computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to determine the relationship between dissection propagation in the distal longitudinal direction (the tearing force) and dp/dt. Five computational models of aortic dissection in a 2D pipe were constructed. Initiation of dissection and propagation were represented in 4 single entry tear models, 3 of which investigated the role of length of dissection and antegrade propagation, 1 of which investigated retrograde propagation. The 5th model included a distal re-entry tear. Impact of pressure field distribution on tearing force was determined. Tearing force in the longitudinal direction for dissections with a single entry tear was approximately proportional to dp/dt and L2 where L is the length of dissection. Tearing force was much lower under steady flow than pulsatile flow conditions. Introduction of a second tear distally along the dissection away from the primary entry tear significantly reduced tearing force. The hemodynamic mechanism for dissection propagation demonstrated in these models support the use of β-blockers in medical management. Endovascular stent-graft treatment of dissection should ideally cover both entry and re-entry tears to reduce risk of retrograde propagation of aortic dissection.

  4. Peripartum type B aortic dissection in patients with Marfan syndrome who underwent aortic root replacement: a case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayama, S; Takeda, N; Iriyama, T; Inuzuka, R; Maemura, S; Fujita, D; Yamauchi, H; Nawata, K; Bougaki, M; Hyodo, H; Shitara, R; Nakayama, T; Komatsu, A; Nagamatsu, T; Osuga, Y; Fujii, T

    2017-03-11

    To investigate pregnancy outcomes, especially the risk of pregnancy-related aortic dissection (AD), in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS) after prophylactic aortic root replacement (ARR). Retrospective case series study. Tertiary perinatal care centre at a university hospital. Pregnant women fulfilling the revised Ghent nosology (2010) criteria for MFS who were managed at our institute. The pregnancy outcomes of all patients with MFS managed at our institute between 1982 and September 2016 were reviewed retrospectively based on medical records. Obstetrical management and complication including the incidence of AD throughout the peripartum period. Among 22 patients (28 pregnancies) who had been managed as potential MFS or related disorders, 14 (17 pregnancies) fulfilled the revised Ghent nosology (2010) criteria for MFS and were enrolled in this study. Five patients (five pregnancies) had received ARR before conception: three (60%) developed type B aortic dissection [AD(B)] during the peripartum period, compared with only one of 10 patients (12 pregnancies) without ARR (P MFS patients after prophylactic ARR are still at high risk of AD(B) during the peripartum period. Careful pre-pregnancy counselling and multidisciplinary care throughout the peripartum period are essential for the management of MFS, even after surgical repair of an ascending aortic aneurysm. MFS patients after prophylactic ARR are still at high risk of type B aortic dissection during the peripartum period. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  5. Type A aortic dissection: Are there CT signs suggestive of valvular involvement?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platon, Alexandra, E-mail: alexandra.platon@hcuge.ch [Department of Radiology, Emergency Radiology Unit, University Hospital of Geneva, 4 rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil, 1211, Geneva (Switzerland); Bernard, Stephane; Perrin, Nils [Department of Radiology, Emergency Radiology Unit, University Hospital of Geneva, 4 rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil, 1211, Geneva (Switzerland); Murith, Nicolas [Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital of Geneva, 4 rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil, 1211, Geneva (Switzerland); John, Gregor [Department of Internal medicine/Geriatrics and Rehabilitation, University Hospital of Geneva, 4 rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil, 1211, Geneva (Switzerland); Department of Internal Medicine, Hôpital neuchâtelois, 2300 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland); Perneger, Thomas [Division of Clinical Epidemiology, University Hospital of Geneva, 4 rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil, 1211, Geneva (Switzerland); Rutschmann, Olivier T. [Division of Emergency Medicine, University Hospitals of Geneva and School of Medicine, 4 rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil, 1211, Geneva (Switzerland); Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre [Department of Radiology, Emergency Radiology Unit, University Hospital of Geneva, 4 rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil, 1211, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Non-ECG gated CT rarely shows valve involvement in type A aortic dissection. • Diameters of the aortic root in type A aortic dissection were measured on initial CT. • Sinus of Valsalva diameter >45 mm is 100% specific to predict aortic valve involvement. - Abstract: Aim: To identify the predictive signs of aortic valve involvement on the non-electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated admission computed tomography (CT) of patients with Type A aortic dissection (AD) according to the Stanford classification. Materials and methods: We retrospectively analyzed the non-ECG-gated CT examinations of patients admitted to the emergency department who underwent surgery for Type A AD over a period of 4 years. The diameter of the following structures was calculated as the mean of the smallest and largest diameters (mm) measured in two different planes: aortic annulus, sinus of Valsalva, sinotubular junction, and proximal ascending aorta. These parameters were compared against operative reports in order to determine whether they were predictive of aortic valve involvement. Results: In total, 20 patients (13 men and 7 women) of a mean age of 59.5 years (29–80) were included, 55% of patients (11/20) having surgically proven valvular involvement. The mean diameters (in mm) of the aortic annulus, sinus of Valsalva, sinotubular junction and proximal ascending aorta in the group with (and without, respectively) valvular involvement was 27.7 (26.7), 44.3 (38.1), 42.6 (36.6), and 47.8 (45.9). Only the measurement of the mean diameter of the sinuses of Valsalva was significantly predictive (p = 0.02) of aortic valve involvement. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that measuring the diameter of the sinuses of Valsalva on non-ECG-gated admission CT examinations allows for predicting aortic valve involvement in Type A AD patients.

  6. Fracture mechanics of shear crack propagation and dissection in the healthy bovine descending aortic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslach, Henry W; Siddiqui, Ahmed; Weerasooriya, Amanda; Nguyen, Ryan; Roshgadol, Jacob; Monforte, Noel; McMahon, Eileen

    2018-03-01

    This experimental study adopts a fracture mechanics strategy to investigate the mechanical cause of aortic dissection. Inflation of excised healthy bovine aortic rings with a cut longitudinal notch that extends into the media from the intima suggests that an intimal tear may propagate a nearly circumferential-longitudinal rupture surface that is similar to the delamination that occurs in aortic dissection. Radial and 45°-from-radial cut notch orientations, as seen in the thickness surface, produce similar circumferential crack propagation morphologies. Partial cut notches, whose longitudinal length is half the width of the ring, measure the influence of longitudinal material on crack propagation. Such specimens also produce circumferential cracks from the notch root that are visible in the thickness circumferential-radial plane, and often propagate a secondary crack from the base of the notch, visible in the intimal circumferential-longitudinal plane. Inflation of rings with pairs of cut notches demonstrates that a second notch modifies the propagation created in a specimen with a single notch. The circumferential crack propagation is likely a consequence of the laminar medial structure. These fracture surfaces are probably due to non-uniform circumferential shear deformation in the heterogeneous media as the aortic wall expands. The qualitative deformation morphology around the root of the cut notch during inflation is evidence for such shear deformation. The shear apparently results from relative slip in the circumferential direction of collagen fibers. The slip may produce shear in the longitudinal-circumferential plane between medial layers or in the radial-circumferential plane within a medial lamina in an idealized model. Circumferential crack propagation in the media is then a shear mechanical process that might be facilitated by disease of the tissue. An intimal tear of an apparently healthy aortic wall near the aortic arch is life-threatening because it

  7. Svensson class IV Ascending aortic dissection, often confused with penetrating ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsomoy, Michel Francklyn; Alexoiu, Valerica; Kirsch, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    TWe present the case of a 64 years old male patient who had recently suffered an infective aortic valve endocarditis (Streptococcus agalactiae) complicated by embolic arthritis of the right hip. Initial echocardiography revealed moderate aortic insufficiency developed on a tricuspid aortic valve with a small vegetation (5 mm × 4 mm) on the left coronary cusp. Furthermore, an aneurysmal dilatation of the ascending aorta (maximal diameter, 54 mm) was noted. Other heart valves and left ventricular function were considered normal. The patient completed a 4 weeks course of antibiotherapy, and the right hip arthritis was treated by drainage and synovectomy. The patient was subsequently referred to surgery on an outpatient basis for the aneurysm of the ascending aorta. Preoperative computed tomography showed localized aortic dissection of the tubular ascending aorta characterized by an intimal tear without medial hematoma but excentric bulging of the aortic wall. This lesion was initially considered a penetrating ulcer of the aortic wall The operative specimen allowed to make differential diagnosis with a penetrating aortic ulcer by showing that the lesion did not develop within an atherosclerotic plaque. However, downstream extension of the dissection was probably limited by the presence of transmural calcifications on its distal side. The patient underwent successful complete aortic root replacement using a stentless Freestyle bioprosthesis with Dacron graft extension as reported previously.

  8. Hybrid treatment of a true thyreocervical trunk aneurysm in a patient with Type B aortic dissection

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    Nikolaos G Baikoussis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We would like to describe a case with a complex aortic disease treated in hybrid fashion. We present an interesting case of a 65-year-old man with a medical history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and coronary artery disease percutaneously treated. An acute Type B aortic dissection occurred and treated with the implantation of a stent-graft which occluded the left subclavian artery due to its extension to the aortic arch. This event required a carotid-subclavian artery bypass due to ischemia of the left arm. An aneurysm in the innominate artery also detected, was treated with another stent-graft implantation 3 months later. At 5-year follow-up, an aneurysm of the thyreocervical trunk was found while the stent-graft of the aorta was well-tolerated without endoleak and the carotid-subclavian graft was patent. The aneurysm was asymptomatic but considering the risk of spontaneous rupture of an aneurysm of this size, elective surgery was indicated. Because the aneurysm was very close to the brachiocephalic bifurcation, open surgical repair would require a sternotomy. The right common carotid artery and right subclavian artery were exposed. The thyrocervical trunk, right internal mammary artery and right vertebral artery were occluded by ligations to isolate the aneurysm. An 8-mm Dacron graft was anastomosed end-to-end to the distal part of subclavian artery. We would like through this case, discuss the role of the hybrid cardiovascular surgery to minimize the postoperative complications in complex cardiovascular pathology. We also discuss the international bibliography about the thyreocervical trunk aneurysm and the treatment options.

  9. Vasopressor mechanisms in acute aortic coarctation hypertension

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    Salgado H.C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin II (ANG II and vasopressin (AVP act together with the mechanical effect of aortic constriction in the onset of acute aortic coarctation hypertension. Blockade of ANG II and AVP V1 receptors demonstrated that ANG II acts on the prompt (5 min rise in pressure whereas AVP is responsible for the maintenance (30-45 min of the arterial pressure elevation during aortic coarctation. Hormone assays carried out on blood collected from conscious rats submitted to aortic constriction supported a role for ANG II in the early stage and a combined role for both ANG II and AVP in the maintenance of proximal hypertension. As expected, a role for catecholamines was ruled out in this model of hypertension, presumably due to the inhibitory effect of the sinoaortic baroreceptors. The lack of afferent feedback from the kidneys for AVP release from the central nervous system in rats with previous renal denervation allowed ANG II to play the major role in the onset of the hypertensive response. Median eminence-lesioned rats exhibited a prompt increase in proximal pressure followed by a progressive decline to lower hypertensive levels, revealing a significant role for the integrity of the neuroaxis in the maintenance of the aortic coarctation hypertension through the release of AVP. In conclusion, the important issue raised by this model of hypertension is the likelihood of a link between some vascular territory - probably renal - below the coarctation triggering the release of AVP, with this vasoconstrictor hormone participating with Ang II and the mechanical effect of aortic constriction in the acute aortic coarctation hypertension

  10.  Ischemic Stroke Secondary to Aortic Dissection Following Rifle Butt Recoil Chest Injury: A Case Report

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    John Valiath

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available  Ischemic stroke secondary to aortic dissection is not uncommon. We present a patient with left hemiplegia secondary to Stanford type A aortic dissection extending to the supra-aortic vessels, which was precipitated by rifle butt recoil chest injury. The diagnosis of aortic dissection was delayed due to various factors. Finally, the patient underwent successful Bentall procedure with complete resolution of symptoms. This case emphasizes the need for caution in the use of firearms for recreation and to take precautions in preventing such incidents. In addition, this case illustrates the need for prompt cardiovascular physical examination in patients presenting with stroke.

  11. Guide Catheter-Induced Aortic Dissection Complicated by Pericardial Effusion with Pulsus Paradoxus: A Case Report of Successful Medical Management

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    Magdalene Fiddler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aortic dissection is a rare but potentially fatal complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. Management strategies of PCI induced dissection are not clearly identified in literature; such occurrences often mandate surgical repair of the aortic root with reimplantation of the coronary arteries. Another trend seen in case reports is the use of coronary-aortic stenting if such lesions permit. Several factors impact the management decision including the hemodynamic stability of the patient; mechanism of aortic injury; size, severity, and direction of propagation of the dissection; presence of an intimal flap; and preexisting atherosclerotic disease. We describe a case of a 65-year-old woman who underwent PCI for a chronic right coronary artery (RCA occlusion, which was complicated by aortic dissection and pericardial effusion. Our case report suggests that nonsurgical management may also be appropriate for PCI induced dissections, and potentially even those associated with new pericardial effusion.

  12. Svensson Class IV Ascending Aortic Dissection, Often Confused With Penetrating Ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsomoy Michel Francklyn

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 64 years old male patient who had recently suffered an infective aortic valve endocarditis (Streptococcus agalactiae complicated by embolic arthritis of the right hip. Initial echocardiography revealed moderate aortic insufficiency developed on a tricuspidaortic valve with a small vegetation (5 mm × 4 mm on the left coronary cusp. Furthermore, ananeurysmal dilatation of the ascending aorta (maximal diameter, 54 mm was noted. Other heartvalves and left ventricular function were considered normal. The patient completed a 4 weekscourse of antibiotherapy, and the right hip arthritis was treated by drainage and synovectomy.The patient was subsequently referred to surgery on an outpatient basis for the aneurysm of theascending aorta. Preoperative computed tomography showed localized aortic dissection of thetubular ascending aorta characterized by an intimal tear without medial hematoma but excentricbulging of the aortic wall. This lesion was initially considered a penetrating ulcer of the aortic wallThe operative specimen allowed to make differential diagnosis with a penetrating aortic ulcer byshowing that the lesion did not develop within an atherosclerotic plaque. However, downstreamextension of the dissection was probably limited by the presence of transmural calcifications on itsdistal side. The patient underwent successful complete aortic root replacement using a stentlessFreestyle bioprosthesis with Dacron graft extension as reported previously

  13. Aortic Dissection and Thrombosis Diagnosed by Emergency Ultrasound in a Patient with Leg Pain and Paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann H. Tsung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a case of aortic dissection and abdominal aortic aneurysm thrombosis in a 78-year-old male who presented to the emergency department (ED complaining of lower extremity and paralysis for the past 1.5 hours. The initial vital signs in the ED were as follows: blood pressure (BP 132/88 mmHg, heart rate (HR 96, respiratory rate (RR 14, and an oxygen saturation of 94% at room air. Physical exam was notable for pale and cold left leg. The ED physician was unable to palpate or detect a Doppler signal in the left femoral artery. Bedside ultrasound was performed which showed non-pulsatile left femoral artery and limited flow on color Doppler. Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening ultrasound was performed showing a 4.99 cm infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm and an intra-aortic thrombus with an intimal flap. Vascular surgery was promptly contacted and the patient underwent emergent aorto-bi-femoral bypass, bilateral four compartment fasciotomy, right common femoral artery endarterectomy with profundoplasty, and subsequent left leg amputation. Emergency physicians should utilize bedside ultrasound in patients who present with risk factors or threatening signs and symptoms that may suggest aortic dissection or aneurysm. Bedside ultrasound decreases time to definitive treatment and the mortality of the patients.

  14. Impact of the Management of Type B Aortic Dissection on the Long-Term Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsart, Pascal; Ledieu, Guillaume Jean; Ramdane, Nassima; Sobocinski, Jonathan Paul; Clough, Rachel Elizabeth; Azzaoui, Richard Oussama; Mounier-Vehier, Claire; Nienaber, Christoph Anton; Haulon, Stephan

    2017-08-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) measurement (ABPM) is recommended to assess optimal BP control, and we studied its influence after an acute type B aortic dissection (ATBAD). We retrospectively collected data from 111 patients with ATBAD from January 2004 to September 2014. Controlled BP group was defined according to a 24-hour BP under 130/80 mm Hg during chronic phase. The population consisted of 85 men, with a mean age of 61 ± 13 years and mean body mass index of 28 ± 6 kg/m2. The median delay between ambulatory BP measurement and ATBAD was 2 (0.3 to 4) months. The mean 24-hour BP of the entire population was 124/71 ± 15/8.8 mm Hg. BP was not controlled in 41 patients (37%). The treatment score at discharge was 3.9 ± 1.4. The mean glomerular filtration rate was 83 ± 28 ml/min/1.73 m2, with no difference between groups. Visceral stent implantation in the acute phase (odds ratio [OR] 3.857 [1.199 to 12.406], p = 0.023), higher left ventricular ejection fraction (OR 1.092 [1.005 to 1.187], p = 0.038), and higher platelet count at discharge (OR 1.064 [1.018 to 1.112], p = 0.006) were identified as predictors of good BP control by multivariate analysis. The analysis showed that nighttime systolic BP was associated with aortic events during follow-up (hazard ratio [HR] 5.2 [1.01 to 27.2], p = 0.049), particularly for a threshold of 124 mm Hg or more (HR 1.967 [1.052 to 3.678], p = 0.0341). Nighttime pulse pressure showed also its significance (HR 20.1 [1.4 to 282.7], p = 0.026). In conclusion, subclinical renal malperfusion revascularization seems to improve BP control. A greater nighttime systolic BP was associated with the risk of new aortic events during follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence and critique of the INSTEAD Trial (TEVAR versus medical treatment for uncomplicated type B aortic dissection).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienaber, Christoph A

    2011-09-01

    Endovascular stent-grafting represents a novel nonsurgical therapeutic concept for type B aortic dissection in both the acute and subacute/chronic settings with unknown impact on outcomes. In a prospective trial, 140 patients with clinically stable type B dissection were randomly subjected to elective stent-graft placement in addition to optimal medical therapy (n = 72) or to optimal medical therapy (n = 68) with surveillance (arterial pressure according to World Health Organization guidelines, ≤120/80 mm Hg) and recurrent computed tomography imaging. Primary endpoint was 2-year all-cause mortality, while aorta-related mortality, progression of disease (with need for crossover to stent-graft or additional endovascular or open surgery), and aortic remodeling were secondary endpoints. There was no difference in all-cause mortality at 2 years, with cumulative survival of 95.6% ± 2.5% with optimal medical therapy versus 88.9% ± 3.7% with thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) (P = .15). Considering, however, that only 40% of the expected events occurred within 2 years (based on registry data), the trial turned out to be underpowered for all-cause mortality. Moreover, aorta-related mortality was also not different (P = .44) within the first 2 years of follow-up, and risk for the combined endpoints of aorta-related death (rupture) and progression (including conversion or additional endovascular or open surgery) was similar (P = .65); three neurological adverse events occurred in the TEVAR group (one paraplegia, one stroke, and one transient paraparesis) versus one paraparesis with medical treatment. Finally, and as expected, aortic remodeling (with true lumen recovery and thoracic false lumen thrombosis) occurred in 91.3% with TEVAR, but only in 19.4%with medical treatment alone (P type B aortic dissection, elective stent-graft placement on top of optimized medical management fails to improve survival and adverse events within an observation period of 2 years

  16. Percutaneous endovascular stent-graft treatment of aortic aneurysms and dissections: new techniques and initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Do Yun; Choi, Dong Hoon; Kang, Sung Gwon; Lee, Kwang Hoon; Won, Jong Yun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sung Gwon [Chosun University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Won, Je Whan [Aju University College of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ho Young [Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility, safety and effectiveness of a newly designed percutaneously implanted separate stent-graft (SSG) for the treatment of aortic aneurysms and dissections. Using a percutaneous technique, SSG placement (in the descending thoracic aorta in 26 cases and infrarenal abdominal aorta in 24) was attempted in 50 patients with aortic aneurysms (n=27) or dissection (n=23). All SSGs were individually constructed using self-expandable nitinol stents and a Dacron graft, and were introduced through a 12 F sheath and expanded to a diameter of 20-34 mm. In all cases, vascular access was through the femoral artery. The clinical status of each patient was monitored, and postoperative CT was performed within one week of the procedure and at 3-6 month intervals afterwards. Endovascular stent-graft deployment was technically successful in 49 of 50 patients (98%). The one failure was due to torsion of the unsupported graft during deployment. Successful exclusion of aneurysms and the primary entry tears of dissections was achieved in all but three patients with aortic dissection. All patients in whom technical success was achieved showed complete thrombosis of the thoracic false lumen or aneurysmal sac, and the overall technique success rate was 92%. In addition, sixteen patients demonstrated complete resolution of the dissected thoracic false lumen (n=9) or aneurysmal sac (n=7). Immediate post-operative complications occurred at the femoral puncture site in one patient with an arteriovenous fistula, and in two, a new saccular aneurysm developed at the distal margin of the stent. No patients died, and there was no instance of paraplegia, stroke, side-branch occlusion or infection during the subsequent mean follow-up period of 9.4 (range, 2 to 26) months. In patients with aortic aneurysm and dissection, treatment with a separate percutaneously inserted stent-graft is technically feasible, safe, and effective.

  17. Role of Microvascular Tone and Extracellular Matrix Contraction in the Regulation of Interstitial Fluid: Implications for Aortic Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallat, Ziad; Tedgui, Alain; Henrion, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    The pathophysiology of aortic dissection is poorly understood, and its risk is resistant to medical treatment. Most studies have focused on a proposed pathogenic role of transforming growth factor-β in Marfan disease and related thoracic aortic aneurysms and aortic dissections. However, clinical testing of this concept using angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists to block transforming growth factor-β signaling fell short of promise. Genetic mutations that predispose to thoracic aortic aneurysms and aortic dissections affect components of the extracellular matrix and proteins involved in cellular force generation. Thus, a role for dysfunctional mechanosensing in abnormal aortic wall remodeling is emerging. However, how abnormal mechanosensing leads to aortic dissection remains a mystery. Here, we review current knowledge about the regulation of interstitial fluid dynamics and myogenic tone and propose that alteration in contractile force reduces vascular tone in the microcirculation (here, aortic vasa vasorum) and leads to elevations of blood flow, transmural pressure, and fluid flux into the surrounding aortic media. Furthermore, reduced contractile force in medial smooth muscle cells coupled with alteration of structural components of the extracellular matrix limits extracellular matrix contraction, further promoting the formation of intramural edema, a critical step in the initiation of aortic dissection. The concept is supported by several pathophysiological and clinical observations. A direct implication of this concept is that drugs that lower blood pressure and limit interstitial fluid accumulation while preserving or increasing microvascular tone would limit the risk of dissection. In contrast, drugs that substantially lower microvascular tone would be ineffective or may accelerate the disease and precipitate aortic dissection. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Analysis of Patients Who Applied to Our Clinic with Aortic Dissection: A Five-year Experience

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    Meryem Burçin Alp

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although acute aort dissection (AAD is quite difficult to be diagnosed in the emergency department, the mortality of it is very high. Therefore, the purpose of our study is to discuss the evidence of demographic characteristics, clinical, laboratory of the AAD patients who applied to emergency department over mortality. Materials and Methods: In our research including 73 patients with AAD diagnosed whom admitted to emergency department on January 2010-October 2015. Sex, age, presenting complaints, past medical history, arterial blood pressure, pulse, laboratory tests, transthoracic echocardiography (TTE, thoracoabdominal computerized tomography (CT, mortality and DeBakey type have been recorded on patient information form. Statistical analysis was performed in IBM SPSS Statistics Version 22.0 software package. The comparison between the two groups of data Pearson chi-square, Fisher's exact and chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis of trends. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Fourty seven patients (64.4% were male and 26 (35.6% were women. In the background of the patients it was identified hypertension as the most common rate of 68.5%. The most common complaints identified were chest pain (53.4% and back pain (42.5%. It has been determined 68 (93.1% patients to whom CT have scanned and 27 out of 42 (64.3% patients to whom TTE have scanned were found to have AAD. According to the DeBakey classification, 31 (42.5% were DeBakey type 1, 18 (24.7% DeBakey type 2 and 24 (32.9% DeBakey type 3 as the AAD. Conclusion: Aortic dissection is still a highly mortality disease. The most important condition to reduce the mortality was thought the early diagnosis and the appropriate surgical intervention.

  19. Aortic dissection: natural course of disease? Report of two cases representing the extremes of the condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tollefsen, Isak E-mail: isak.tollefsen@sensewave.come; Joergensen, Ingrid K.; Woie, Leik; Fossdal, Jan E

    2001-10-01

    Objective: In a time when diagnostic methods and above all, surgical as well as interventional radiological treatment for aortic aneurysms and aortic dissections have reached a point nobody could think of a few years back, the present authors feel that it is worth while to remind oneself of the natural course of disease in these conditions. Taking into consideration the high morbidity and mortality rate in surgically treated patients with aortic dissection, and the high complication rate per- and postoperatively, it also seems right to ask if a more expectative and conservative approach to the condition sometimes perhaps may be justified. Methods and material: Two case reports are given. One was a 15-year-old boy with Stanford (Daily) type B dissection who statistically ought to have a good prognosis, but who died within 2 h after onset of symptoms. The other patient, a middle-aged woman with Stanford type A dissection, survived for 25 years without operation. Conclusion: These two cases, though not unique viewed separately, we consider to represent the extremes of the condition and also a natural course of disease, while none of them was operated on.

  20. [Clinical practice and thoughts on the strategy of root reconstruction for Stanford type A aortic dissection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C S; Li, J; Lai, H

    2017-04-01

    The strategy of root reconstruction for Stanford type A aortic dissection (AAD) includes resection of the intimal tear site, correction of concomitant aortic valve dysfunction and amendment of coronary lesion. Supracommissural tube graft replacement is a well-adopted and convenient procedure for most patients, although its application is limited when distinct sinus expansion and severe intimal damage is present. Composite valve conduit replacement (Bentall procedure) is suitable for patients with overt sinus damage. However, a fraction of patients with functional aortic valve will be unnecessarily put into risks for prosthetic complications. Valve-sparing aortic root replacement (VSRR), which includes aortic root remodeling (Yacoub procedure) and reimplantation (David procedure) techniques, has the advantage of retaining autologous aortic valve while guaranteeing resection of damaged vessel segments.The Yacoub procedure is relatively convenient but harbors long-term risk for annulus expansion, while the David procedure demonstrates long-term benefit but may be too demanding to be operated in emergent scenario as AAD. The last decade has witnessed worldwide endeavors to investigate the treatment strategy for aortic root, especially the VSRR approach. The preliminary results are encouraging and demonstrating improvements for both mid- and long-term outcomes of AAD, which enables standardized and personalized surgical management for these patients.

  1. [Spiral CT and MRT of the operated Stanford-type-A aortic dissection: its course and complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, T; Abu-Ramadan, D; Pauleit, D; Hofer, U; Likungu, J; Preusse, K; Layer, G; Schild, H

    1998-02-01

    To demonstrate normal postoperative spiral CT and MRI findings and typical complications in patients with aortic repair after Stanford type A aortic dissection. 24 patients with aortic repair after Stanford type A aortic dissection were followed up by spiral CT and MRI (0.5 Tesla). Presence of persistent dissection, progressive or new dissection, proximal and distal anastomosis, periprosthetic space, supraaortic vessels, thrombosis and dilatation of the true and false lumen were evaluated. The following postoperative complications were seen: three pseudoaneurysms which developed at the proximal anastomoses of the Dacron prosthesis in two cases and at the insertion site of the reimplanted left coronary artery after implantation of a composite graft (Bentall procedure) in one case; one re-dissection; one perforation of the false lumen; periprosthetic flow in one patient after surgical repair of type A dissection by the graft inclusion technique; progressive dilatation of the false lumen in 4 cases; dilatation of the aortic root in a Marfan patient after replacement of the ascending aorta. Precise knowledge of the surgical technique performed is crucial to accurate postoperative imaging evaluation. MRI is the method of choice in the postoperative follow-up of clinically stable patients with aortic dissections.

  2. Perioperative and mid-term results of endovascular management of complicated type B aortic dissection using a proximal thoracic endoprosthesis and selective distal bare stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kische, Stephan; D'Ancona, Giuseppe; Belu, Ioan Christian; Stoeckicht, Yannik; Agma, Umut; Ortak, Jasmin; Ince, Hüseyin

    2015-10-01

    To present results of endovascular treatment of complicated type B aortic dissection. Patients with acutely complicated type B aortic dissection extending from the left sub-clavian artery to the abdominal aorta were treated. The strategy involved the placement of a covered endoprosthesis to seal the primary entry tear and, in cases where malperfusion persisted, distal extension with uncovered stents, to enhance true lumen (TL) expansion and reperfusion of the ischaemic arterial branches originating from the TL. Thirty-five patients were included. Mean age was 63.1 (37-79) years and malperfusion syndrome occurred in 71.4%. Average aortic coverage with endoprostheses was 220.6 mm (136-355 mm). In 17 cases (48.5%), distal extension with uncovered stents was necessary. Thirty-day major morbidity was 28.5%, and mortality 2.8%. At follow-up (25.6 ± 19.5 months; 4-73 months), overall mortality was 15.2%, and aortic mortality 12.1%. Additional aortic intervention was necessary in 18.2%. Although patients undergoing distal extension with bare metal stents suffered most often from preoperative malperfusion, no significant differences were noted in the 30-day and follow-up clinical results. Follow-up angio-computed tomography showed complete thrombosis of the false lumen in the proximal half of the thoracic aorta in 76.4%. Patients treated with bare stents had significantly larger aortic TL sizes, at the different abdominal aorta levels. In patients with complicated type B aortic dissection, tailored elongation with uncovered stents is a safe treatment of persistent malperfusion. Although the results presented are encouraging, randomized data and a longer follow-up are required to confirm benefits and complications of this strategy. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  3. The Acute aortic syndrome – what do we know and what should we know?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlind, Kim Christian

    and benign condition, this does not seem to be the case in Western populations, where the incidence is relatively lower and the prognosis closer to that of patients with AD (3). In a recent review, Nienaber and Powell added the clinical entities of leaking thoracic aneurysm and traumatic dissection...... al. International heterogeneity in diagnostic frequency and clinical outcomes of ascending aortic intramural hematoma. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2007;20:1260-8 4.Nienaber CA, Powell J. Management of Acute Aortic Syndromes. European Heart Journal 2012; 33:26-35...

  4. Outcomes after treatment of acute aortic occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Varona Frolov, Serguei R; Acosta Silva, Marcela P; Volo Pérez, Guido; Fiuza Pérez, Maria D

    2015-11-01

    Acute aortic occlusion (AAO) is a rare disease with high morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to describe the results of surgical treatment of acute aortic occlusion and risk factors for mortality. Retrospective review of the clinical history of 29 patients diagnosed and operated on for AAO during 28 years. The following variables were analysed: age, sex, tabaco use, diabetes, chronic renal insufficiency, chronic heart failure, atrial fibrillation, arterial hypertension, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment, 30-day mortality and long-term survival. A univariant analysis was performed of variables related to mortality. Twenty-nine patients were included (18 male) with a mean age of 66,2 years. The aetiology was: embolism (EM) in 11 cases and Thrombosis (TR) in 18 cases. The surgical procedures performed included bilateral transfemoral thrombectomy (14 cases), aorto-bifemoral by-pass (8 cases), axilo uni/bifemoral by-pass (5 cases) and aortoiliac and renal tromboendarterectomy (2 cases). Morbidity included: renal failure (14 cases), mesenteric ischemia (4 cases), cardiac complications (7 cases), respiratory complications (5 cases) and loss of extremity (2 cases). The in-hospital mortality was 21% (EM 0%, TR 21%). The estimated survival at 1.3 and 5 years was 60, 50 and 44% respectively. Age (p=0.032), arterial hypertension (p=0.039) and aetiology of the AAO (p=0.039) were related to mortality. Acute aortic occlusion is a medical emergency with high mortality rates. Acute renal failure is the most common postoperative complication. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Low arterial pressure on admission as a predictor of mortality in operated patients with type A aortic dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Katica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hypertension is a known predictor of proximal aortic dissection, but it is not commonly present in these patients on presentation. The associations between ascending aorta with left ventricular hypertrophy, cardiovascular risk factors and coronary atherosclerosis, and outcome of these patients are not fully elucidated. Methods. This retrospective study included 55 consecutive patients with acute type A aortic dissection treated surgically in our institution during the last 2 years. The diagnosis was based on imaging studies. Diameter of ascending aorta was measured with echocardiography. Results. The mean age of the patients was 55.4 ± 12.19 years, and 72.7% were men. A history of arterial hypertension was present in 76.4% of the patients. Maximal ascending aorta diameter was 4.09 ± 0.59 cm, while patients with frank aneurysm accounted for 5.5%. Systolic blood pressure on admission was < 150 mmHg in 58.2% of the patients. Diastolic blood pressure on admission was < 90 mmHg in 54.5% of the patients. Mean arterial pressure on admission was 104.9 ± 24.6 mmHg. No correlations were demonstrated between maximal ascending aorta diameter and diameter of the left ventricular wall, any obtained risk factor and with coronary artery atherosclerosis (p > 0.05. After six months 11 (20% patients died, while intrahospital mortality was 72%. According to logistic regression analysis which included traditional risk factors, echo parameters, coronary artery disease and logistic euro scor, mean arterial blood pressure was the independent predictor of a six-month mortality [RR 0.956; CI (0.918-0.994 ; p = 0.024]. Conclusion. In our population the acute type A aortic dissection occurred rarely in the setting of frank ascending aortic aneurysms > 5.0 cm. The majority of patients had a history of arterial hypertension. A history of arterial hypertension was not associated with maximal ascending aorta diameter. Mean arterial blood pressure was the

  6. Analysis of intimal extent and predictors of renal atrophy in patients with aortic dissection

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    Chan, Wen-Hui; Huang, Yu-Chieh; Wan, Yung-Liang [Dept. of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Coll. of Medicine, Chang Gung Univ., Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)], e-mail: ylw0518@adm.cgmh.org.tw; Weng, Hsu-Huei [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Chia-Yi, Coll. of Medicine, Chang Gung Univ., Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Ko, Sheung-Fat [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Kaohsiung, Coll. of Medicine, Chang Gung Univ., Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chu, Jaw-Ji; Lin, Pyng-Jing [Dept. of Cardiac Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Coll. of Medicine, Chang Gung Univ., Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

    2012-09-15

    Background: The intimal flap of aortic dissection may extend to the abdominal branches and probably lead to malperfusion syndrome. Renal malperfusion and renal atrophy are significantly related to patient outcomes. Purpose: To study the extent of the intimal flap and predisposing factors for renal atrophy in patients with aortic dissection. Material and Methods: From January 2001 to June 2008, 176 (137 men, aged 21-86 years, mean 51.9 years) of 225 subjects with aortic dissection and computed tomography (CT) met the inclusion criteria for this study. Of these 176 patients, 35 (19.9%) developed unilateral renal atrophy. A review of the CT was conducted to classify aortic branch vessel perfusion into three types: type 1, in which the branch vessels are perfused exclusively from the true lumen; type 2, in which the branches are perfused from both the true and false lumens; and type 3, in which the branches are perfused exclusively from the false lumen. Variables including age, gender, type of aortic dissection, type of perfusion of the abdominal branches, and the presence of thrombi in the false lumen were analyzed to determine whether these factors were related to the left or right side and global or focal renal atrophy. Results: Of 880 abdominal branches in 176 patients, 622 (70.7%) were classed as perfusion type 1, 50 (5.7%) as type 2, and 208 (23.6%) as type 3. Type 3 perfusion was most commonly observed in the left renal artery, at a frequency of 31.7% (66/208). Partial thrombosis in the false lumen above the level of the renal arteries was seen in 68.8% of patients; such thrombi and type 3 perfusion of the renal artery were significantly related to renal atrophy. The laterality (left or right) and extent (global or focal) of renal atrophy were not related to age, gender, type of aortic dissection, or perfusion type. Conclusion: Type 3 perfusion is most frequent in the left renal artery, and such perfusion and partial thrombi in the false lumen above the renal

  7. Acute myocardial infarction due to spontaneous, localized, acute dissection of the sinus of Valsalva detected by intravascular ultrasound and electrocardiogram-gated computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihashi, Taku; Ito, Tsuyoshi; Murai, Shunsuke; Ikehara, Noriyuki; Fujita, Hiroshi; Suda, Hisao; Ohte, Nobuyuki

    2016-09-01

    A 58-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of chest pain. The 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) revealed ST-segment elevation in II, III, and a Vf with advanced heart block. Transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated aortic root dilatation at the sinus of Valsalva, moderate aortic regurgitation, and decreased wall motion in the inferior part of the left ventricle. Non-ECG-gated enhanced computed tomography (CT) did not reveal an aortic dissection. The patient underwent emergent coronary angiography, which revealed a severely narrowed ostium of the right coronary artery (RCA). Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was performed under intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) guidance. IVUS images demonstrated an intimal flap extending from the aortic wall to the proximal RCA, suggesting that a periaortic hematoma in the false lumen compressed the ostium of the RCA, leading to acute myocardial infarction. To recover hemodynamic stability, the RCA ostium was stented. Subsequent ECG-gated enhanced CT clearly depicted the entry point and extension of the dissection localized within the sinus of Valsalva. The dissection likely involved the left main coronary artery and an emergent Bentall procedure was performed. Intraoperative findings confirmed an intimal tear and extension of the dissection. Thus, ECG-gated CT can clearly depict the entry site and extension of a dissection occurring in the localized area that cannot be detected by conventional CT.

  8. Are type B aortic dissections feasible to intervention under local anesthesia?

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    Ugur Gocen

    2016-12-01

    Material and Methods: Between March 2010 and March 2016, we performed endovascular stent graft repair with inguinal local anesthesia for 23 Type B aortic dissection patients in our clinic. Only patients with good cooperation, no neurological conditions and hemodynamically stable (Systolic 120-90 mmHg and Diastolic 70-50mmHg were included in to study. A follow up CT angiography at postoperative months 3 and 6 were performed for patient assessment. Results: Of 4 patients who had an implantation of thoracic endovascular stent due to emergency Type B aortic dissection, one had left heart failure, pulmonary edema, and visceral ischemia, one had persistent hypertension, back pain, and two others had renal malperfusion and anuria. In the remaining 19 elective cases, no signs or symptoms other than hypertension and back pain were present. Stent graft procedure could be accomplished successfully in the appropriate anatomical location in all patients. There was one in-patient mortality due to multi-organ failure in a patient who underwent emergency intervention. No neurological deficits occurred in any of the surviving patients. Conclusions: Endovascular stent graft may be successfully accomplished through the femoral artery without general anesthesia and sedation in patients with Type B aortic dissections, even in the emergency setting. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(4.000: 680-686

  9. The anechoic crescent in abdominal aortic aneurysms: not a sign of dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, P S; Cooperberg, P L; Madigan, S M

    1986-02-01

    In six cases, abdominal aortic aneurysms simulated dissections because an anechoic crescent was seen peripheral to the echogenic intraluminal thrombus. Thrombus can easily be identified by sonography, but the layered echogenic and anechoic appearance has not been described. Three of these cases are presented to illustrate this sonographic pattern of thrombus so that it will not be misinterpreted as a dissection. CT scans were performed on all three patients and an arteriogram and surgery in one, all of which confirmed that these were not dissections but two layers of thrombus with the intima peripheral to the anechoic layer. At surgery, the anechoic layer medial to the intima in one case proved to be serosanguinous fluid and, therefore, likely liquefaction of the clot.

  10. Lower limb malperfusion in type B aortic dissection: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoni, Claudio Bianchini; Gallitto, Enrico; Freyrie, Antonio; Trimarchi, Santi; Faggioli, Gianluca; Stella, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Background Lower limb malperfusion (LLM) syndrome occurs in up to 40% of complicated type B aortic dissections (TBAD) and in up to 71% of TBAD with malperfusion syndrome. This syndrome is associated with higher 30-day mortality. The aim of this systematic review was to provide clinical and procedural data of patients with LLM syndrome secondary to TBAD. Methods The PubMed database was systematically searched from January 2000 to June 2014 for English-language publications reporting on demographic data of patients with LLM secondary to TBAD. Results A total of 29 papers were included (10 original articles and 19 case reports), reporting on a total of 138 patients (mean age =58±12 years; male =87%). Lower limb complications developed in acute and chronic TBAD in 134 (97%) and 4 (3%) cases, respectively. LLM presented with acute limb ischemia in 120 (87%) patients. Bilateral clinical presentation occurred in 56% (40/72) of cases. LLM was the only clinically detected malperfusion in 52% of cases (44/84). In 40% (35/84) and 25% (21/84) of cases, LLM was clinically associated with renal and visceral malperfusion, respectively. Radiological imaging showed renal, celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery involvement in 53% (47/88), 31% (27/88) and 34% (30/88) of cases, respectively. Medical, surgical and endovascular treatments were performed in 22 (16%), 51 (37%) and 65 (47%) patients, respectively. Thirty-day morbidity was 31% (13/42) and 46% (6/13) following surgical and endovascular treatment, respectively. Thirty-day mortality was 14% (5/36) and 8% (2/26) following surgical and endovascular treatment, respectively. Conclusions LLM syndrome secondary to TBAD usually developed during the acute phase and, in most cases, presented with acute limb ischemia. Bilateral clinical presentation occurred in more than half of cases. Renal and visceral malperfusion were frequently associated with lower limb flow reduction but LLM was the only clinically detected malperfusion in

  11. A post mortem assessment of a 25-year-old man with ascending aortic dissection and a novel MYLK variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn Hodge

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We report on the process of post mortem evaluation and genetic testing following the death of a 25-year-old man due to ascending aortic dissection leading to aortic rupture. Following the negative clinical testing of a 12- gene thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection panel, research testing revealed a novel c.5732A>T (p.E1911V variant in exon 34 of the MYLK gene (NM_053025. Two likely pathogenic variants in this gene have been reported previously in individuals with familial thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection. Given the unclear clinical consequence of the variant found in our proband, we have classified this change as a variant of uncertain significance. In addition to discussing the complexity involved in variant interpretation, we recognize the need for additional research for more accurate MYLK interpretation. Finally, we comment on the unique challenges of post mortem genetic testing.

  12. A survival case of painless chronic type A aortic dissection with a history of stroke and anticoagulant use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugcu, Aylin; Yildirimturk, Ozlem; Demiroglu, I C Cemsid; Aytekin, Saide

    2010-10-01

    We report the case of a patient with completely painless chronic aortic dissection, who presented to another hospital with a left hemiparesia 3 months ago and received anticoagulation therapy with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke. Most of her symptoms had resolved when she presented to our outpatient clinic except for numbness of her left hand and dysphasia. Physical examination found a diastolic murmur at the left sternal border and a bruit over the right carotid artery. Transthoracic echocardiography and carotid sonography demonstrated aortic dissection with extension into the internal right carotid artery and severe aortic regurgitation. Surgery was performed successfully and the patient was discharged. This case emphasizes that the diagnosis of a completely painless aortic dissection with only neurologic symptoms at presentation can be extremely difficult and should always be considered as a cause of ischemic stroke to avoid catastrophic antithrombolytic or anticoagulation therapy. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Tratamento cirúrgico da dissecção da aorta Surgical treatment of the aortic dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Fassheber Berlinck

    1990-04-01

    Full Text Available Entre janeiro de 1979 e dezembro de 1989, foram realizadas 85 operações para o tratamento da dissecção da aorta, sendo 50 na fase aguda e 35 na fase crónica. A mortalidade imediata (hospitalar foi de 21,1% (18 pacientes, tendo como causa principal a síndrome de baixo débito cardíaco. Foi maior nos pacientes operados na fase aguda. Dentre quatro pacientes reoperados por recidiva ou dissecção em outro local, dois faleceram. Com relação à morbidade, uma paciente, reoperada por aneurisma tóraco-abdominal, apresentou paraplegia no período de pós-operatório. O seguimento tardio mostrou boa evolução dos 63 sobreviventes.Between January 1979 and December 1989, eighty five operations were performed to treat aortic dissection, including fifty in the acute phase, and thirty five in a chronic phase. The Hospital mortality was 21.1% (eighteen patients and low cardiac output was the major cause of death. The mortality was higher in the group of patients operated upon in the acute phase. Four patients were operated upon for redissection or dissection in other localization of the aorta, and all of them died. One patient developed paraplegy in the postoperative period. The late follow-up showed good evolution in the survivors group.

  14. Type A aortic dissection: Are there CT signs suggestive of valvular involvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platon, Alexandra; Bernard, Stephane; Perrin, Nils; Murith, Nicolas; John, Gregor; Perneger, Thomas; Rutschmann, Olivier T; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre

    2016-11-01

    To identify the predictive signs of aortic valve involvement on the non-electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated admission computed tomography (CT) of patients with Type A aortic dissection (AD) according to the Stanford classification. We retrospectively analyzed the non-ECG-gated CT examinations of patients admitted to the emergency department who underwent surgery for Type A AD over a period of 4 years. The diameter of the following structures was calculated as the mean of the smallest and largest diameters (mm) measured in two different planes: aortic annulus, sinus of Valsalva, sinotubular junction, and proximal ascending aorta. These parameters were compared against operative reports in order to determine whether they were predictive of aortic valve involvement. In total, 20 patients (13 men and 7 women) of a mean age of 59.5 years (29-80) were included, 55% of patients (11/20) having surgically proven valvular involvement. The mean diameters (inmm) of the aortic annulus, sinus of Valsalva, sinotubular junction and proximal ascending aorta in the group with (and without, respectively) valvular involvement was 27.7 (26.7), 44.3 (38.1), 42.6 (36.6), and 47.8 (45.9). Only the measurement of the mean diameter of the sinuses of Valsalva was significantly predictive (p=0.02) of aortic valve involvement. Our findings suggest that measuring the diameter of the sinuses of Valsalva on non-ECG-gated admission CT examinations allows for predicting aortic valve involvement in Type A AD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of aortic wall CT attenuation measurements for the diagnosis of acute aortic syndromes

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    Knollmann, Friedrich D., E-mail: friedrich.knollmann@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [Department of Radiology, University of California, Davis, 4860 Y Street, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Departments of Radiology and Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, 200 Lothrop Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Lacomis, Joan M.; Ocak, Iclal; Gleason, Thomas [Department of Radiology, University of California, Davis, 4860 Y Street, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Departments of Radiology and Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, 200 Lothrop Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Objectives: To determine if measurements of aortic wall attenuation can improve the CT diagnosis of acute aortic syndromes. Methods: CT reports from a ten year period were searched for acute aortic syndromes (AAS). Studies with both an unenhanced and a contrast enhanced (CTA) series that had resulted in the diagnosis of intramural hematoma (IMH) were reviewed. Diagnoses were confirmed by medical records. The attenuation of aortic wall abnormalities was measured. The observed attenuation threshold was validated using studies from 39 new subjects with a variety of aortic conditions. Results: The term “aortic dissection” was identified in 1206, and IMH in 124 patients’ reports. IMH was confirmed in 31 patients, 21 of whom had both unenhanced and contrast enhanced images. All 21 had pathologic CTA findings, and no CTA with IMH was normal. Attenuation of the aortic wall was greater than 45 HUs on the CTA images in all patients with IMH. When this threshold was applied to the new group, sensitivity for diagnosing AAS was 100% (19/19), and specificity 94% (16/17). Addition of unenhanced images did not improve accuracy. Conclusions: Measurements of aortic wall attenuation in CTA have a high negative predictive value for the diagnosis of acute aortic syndromes.

  16. Transcarotid Artery Endovascular Reconstruction of the Aortic Arch by Modified Bifurcated Stent Graft for Stanford Type A Dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Guo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A 40-year-old man with Stanford type B dissection underwent his first endovascular repair (EVAR in April 2004 by Talent thoracic stent graft. He had an uncomplicated recovery and maintained good blood pressure control. However, a new retrograde dissection appeared in September 2004. The new dissection involved his aortic arch and ascending thoracic aorta to the opening of the coronary arteries. To reconstruct the aortic arch, bypasses between the right common carotid artery (RCCA, left common carotid artery and left subclavian artery were performed before endovascular repair. A modified bifurcated Talent stent graft was deployed from the RCCA to the ascending thoracic aorta with a long limb in the innominate artery and a short limb in the aortic arch. A further two pieces of graft were deployed via the common femoral artery. The ascending thoracic aorta and aortic arch were reconstructed completely by the bifurcated stent graft. The final angiography confirmed that there was good stent graft configuration, normal blood flow, and stable haemodynamics. No endoleak or other major complications were encountered. This result indicated that it is possible to reconstruct the aortic arch with a bifurcated stent graft and could be a new endovascular repair model for complex thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection.

  17. [A prediction model for severe postoperative hypoxemia after surgery for Standford type A aortic dissection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, F; Liu, N; Pan, X D; Qiao, H Y; Li, L; Rong, T H; Sun, L Z; Zheng, S H

    2016-04-05

    To study the risk factors of severe postoperative hypoxemia after surgery for Standford type A aortic dissection and establish a prediction model. Data of 411 consecutive patients from January 2014 to April 2015, who underwent surgery for Standford type A aortic dissection in the department of cardiovascular surgery of Beijing Anzhen Hospital, were retrospectively analyzed. All the cases were divided into two groups according to the appearance of severe postoperative hypoxemia. All the data about potential risk factors was put into the database and analyzed by logistic regression. The prediction model was then established upon acquired independent risk factors. Discrimination and calibration of the prediction model were assessed with ROC curve and Hosmer and Lemeshow goodness of fit test. The perioperative in-hospital mortality was 6.57%(27/411). Severe postoperative hypoxemia (PaO2/FiO2≤100 mmHg) happened in 69 cases within 48 hours after procedures, with an incidence rate of 17.1%. The logistic regression demonstrated that body mass index (BMI), age, preoperative serum myoglobin, preoperative serum creatinine, preoperative serumalanine aminotransferase, the time of cardiopulmonary bypass, re-exploration within 48 hours after procedures were the independent risk factors for severe postoperative hypoxemia. The prediction model was then established based on these independent risk factors. The area under ROC curve of the model was 0.785, and the P value in Hosmer and Lemeshow goodness of fit test was 0.625. The logsitic model built in this study succeeded to predict the incidence of severe postoperative hypoxemia after surgery for Standford type A aortic dissection, and it could meet the doctors' requirement with its excellent discrimination and calibration.

  18. Perioperative type I aortic dissection during conventional coronary artery bypass surgery: risk factors and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketenci, Bulend; Enc, Yavuz; Ozay, Batuhan; Gunay, Rafet; Cimen, Serdar; Gorur, Alper; Tuygun, Abdullah Kemal; Sargin, Murat; Sari, Sibel; Demirtas, Mahmut Murat

    2008-01-01

    Perioperative iatrogenic type I aortic dissection (PIAD) is a rare but potentially fatal complication of conventional coronary artery bypass surgery (CCABG). Prompt recognition and repair of PIAD may significantly improve outcomes. We reviewed the hospital records of patients with PIAD occurring as a complication of CCABG at Siyami Ersek Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery Center from January 2001 through June 2007. During this period, 10,130 CCABG were performed and 21 patients (0.20%) with PIAD were identified. We compared variables for these 21 patients with 603 patients without PIAD (control group). PIAD occurred intraoperatively in 19 patients (90%) and during the early postoperative period (first 6 hours) in 2 patients (10%) who underwent CCABG. Dissections were noticed after removal of the aortic crossclamp in 11 patients, during aortic cannulation in 3 patients, and after removal of the partial-occlusion clamp in 5 patients. Patients with and without PIAD differed significantly in regard to sex (P = .05), history of hypertension (P = .001), and history of severe concomitant peripheral arterial disease (PAD) (P = .001). The diameter of the aorta was significantly wider in patients with PIAD. (3.83 +/- 0.9 vs 2.93 +/- 0.46 cm, P = .019). The occurrence of high cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) pressure (>==120 mmHg) was significantly higher in the PIAD patients than the non-PIAD patients (28.6% vs 3.3%, P = .0001). Seven PIAD patients (33.3%) died preoperatively and 3 (14.2%) died postoperatively. PIAD is frequently fatal. Risk factors for PIAD during or after CCABG include female sex, history of PAD and hypertension, increased aortic diameter, and high CPB pressure.

  19. Should a reimplantation valve sparing procedure be done systematically in type A aortic dissection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Fadi; Durand, Marion; Boussel, Loïc; Sanchez, Ingrid; Villard, Jacques; Jegaden, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the risks and benefits of a systematic reimplantation valve sparing procedure in the surgical treatment of type A aortic dissection (TAAD). From February December 2005, 15 consecutive patients (mean age 61+/-12 years) who underwent surgery for TAAD were analyzed prospectively. Eleven had a preoperative CT-scan and all had an echography. Eight patients presented with a preoperative aortic insufficiency>2/4 and seven had an ascending aortic aneurysm over 50mm. In 11 cases, arterial cannulation was performed directly into the ascending aorta. Surgical technique included complete resection and replacement of the ascending aorta using a reimplantation valve sparing technique (David), associated in 12 patients with an arch replacement, under mild (29.7+/-3.0 degrees C) hypothermia and cerebral selective antegrade perfusion. Aortic clamping, cerebral perfusion and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) times were respectively 93+/-29, 18+/-9, and 131+/-38min. Mean bleeding at 24h was 1165+/-846ml. Troponin I level at 24h was 21+/-30 microg/l. One patient had a right coronary artery bypass for a chronically occluded coronary. Another had a triple arterial revascularisation for pre-existing coronary dissection. One patient presented with a postoperative regressive right hemiparesia (normal CT-scan). Two patients underwent revision for bleeding (one was undergoing treatment by clopidogrel). One patient had at day 7 an implantation of a covered stentgraft on the descending aorta for a concomitant penetrating aortic ulcer. One patient died suddenly on POD 7 during a tracheal aspiration. Intubation and ICU times were respectively 9.5+/-16.3 and 16.2+/-20.9 days. Four patients with severe preoperative co morbidities had long intubations. Echographic and CT-scan control, done in postoperative and after a mean follow up of 11.0+/-4.8 months, did not show any residual aortic insufficiency (actuarial survival rate at 2 years of 93.3%). A reimplantation valve sparing procedure in

  20. The Impact of Distal Stent Graft-Induced New Entry on Aortic Remodeling of Chronic Type B Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Yang; Hsu, Hung-Lung; Chen, Po-Lin; Chen, I-Ming; Hsu, Chiao-Po; Shih, Chun-Che

    2017-12-01

    In chronic type B aortic dissection, late distal stent graft-induced new entry (SINE) has a possible negative role in long-term aortic remodeling. This study aimed to investigate the impact of SINE occurrence on survival by evaluating true and false lumen remodeling in thoracic and abdominal segments at midterm surveillance. This study enrolled 65 patients with chronic type B aortic dissection (DeBakey type IIIb), who had received hybrid thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) and had completed surveillance for at least 3 years. The 3-year survival rate was 84.7%. The patients were classified into non-SINE (n = 47) and SINE (n = 18) groups. Serial computed tomography scans were used to analyze volumetric change, true and false lumens, and thrombus volume from arch to aortic bifurcation level. The SINE event occurred at a median of 22.5 months. In the SINE group, there was a significant interruption of the abdominal true lumen expansion in the second year (median 0.01 [interquartile range (IQR), -0.03 to 0.12] in the non-SINE group versus median -0.04 [IQR, -0.12 to 0.04] in the SINE group; p = 0.014). There was a significantly worse thoracic false lumen remodeling in the SINE group compared with the non-SINE group in the third year after the SINE event occurred (median 0 [IQR, -0.09 to 0.05] in the non-SINE group versus median 0.06 [IQR, 0 to 0.13] in the SINE group; p = 0.038). For chronic aortic dissection, late occurrence of distal SINE could influence abdominal true lumen expansion and thoracic false lumen shrinkage. Early reintervention for distal SINE could improve aortic remodeling in chronic aortic dissection. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Aortic Dissection and Severe Renal Failure 6 Years After Kidney Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaury Dujardin, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. We report the case of a patient with long-term history of hypertension, presenting with transient neurological disorders and severe graft failure several years after kidney transplantation. Cause of end-stage renal disease was hypertensive nephrosclerosis. Chronic hemodialysis lasted for 1 year. After transplantation and throughout follow-up, serum creatinine ranged from 200 to 230 μmol/L and maintenance immunosuppression included sirolimus and low-dose steroids. Six years after transplantation, the patient presented with right hip pain radiating to the lower back, transient aphasia, confusion, and hemiparesis. Surprisingly, progressive anuria was established requiring dialysis. After numerous nonconclusive investigations including renal histology, a contrast computed tomography scan discovered a Stanford B aortic dissection from the left common carotid artery and left subclavian artery to bilateral internal and external iliac arteries, including the right femoral artery. No surgical treatment was opted and hemodialysis, tight control of blood pressure and oral anticoagulation were established. Immunosuppression was lightened to low-dose steroids alone. After 8 months, chronic dialysis was stopped, and today, 22 months after the diagnosis of aortic dissection, the patient is doing well with a still functioning graft (creatinine, 377 μmol/L; modification of diet in renal disease-glomerular filtration rate, 15 mL/min, and without any other immunosuppression than low-dose steroids.

  2. Follow-up of aortic dissection: contribution of MR angiography for evaluation of the abdominal aorta and its branches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogaert, J. [Department of Radiology, Catholic University Hospitals, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Meyns, B. [Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University Hospitals, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Rademakers, F.E. [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Catholic University Hospitals, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Bosmans, H. [Department of Radiology, Catholic University Hospitals, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Verschakelen, J. [Department of Radiology, Catholic University Hospitals, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Flameng, W. [Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University Hospitals, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Marchal, G. [Department of Radiology, Catholic University Hospitals, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Baert, A.L. [Department of Radiology, Catholic University Hospitals, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium)

    1997-06-01

    Spin-echo MR is an established method to evaluate thoracic aortic dissections, but is not well suited to study the abdominal aorta. In this study we evaluated whether MR angiography could provide a complete examination of the abdominal aorta. In 28 patients (40 MR studies) with suspected (n = 6) or known (n = 34) aortic dissection, MR studies were performed. Thoracic aorta was evaluated with spin-echo and gradient-recalled-echo MR imaging. Axial two-dimensional time-of-flight MR angiography with thin overlapping slices was used to study the abdominal aorta. Intermediate and high signal intensity on MR angiography was interpreted as patent flow, and low signal was interpreted as thrombus. The presence of an intima flap and the re-entry site could be depicted in all MR studies. Thrombus in the false channel was seen in 8 studies. The origin of the abdominal visceral branches and their relation to the false-true channel could be depicted, except in 4 of 80 renal arteries studied. Extension of the dissection into the coeliac trunk was seen in 2 and in the superior mesenteric artery in 10 studies. Dilatation of the suprarenal abdominal aorta was seen in 20 studies, and of the infrarenal aorta in 9 studies. MR angiography provides valuable information about the abdominal aorta and its branches in patients with aortic dissection. This makes MR imaging appealing as the preferred imaging modality for the diagnosis and follow-up of aortic dissection. (orig.). With 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Complicated type B aortic dissection causing ischemia in the celiac and inferior mesenteric artery distribution despite patent superior mesenteric artery bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Rana O; Zhu, Youwei; Leake, Samuel S; Kott, Amy; Azizzadeh, Ali; Estrera, Anthony L; Safi, Hazim J; Charlton-Ouw, Kristofer M

    2015-08-01

    Mortality rates associated with acute type B aortic dissection (ABAD) complicated by malperfusion remains significant. Optimal management of patients with ABAD is still debatable. We present a case report of a 50-year-old man who was admitted due to ABAD. He was treated medically with his pain resolved and he was discharged on oral antihypertensive medications. One month after initial diagnosis, he was readmitted with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. On imaging, an extension of the aortic dissection into the visceral arteries with occlusion of the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries (SMA) was noted. He underwent thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) and bypass grafting to the SMA. Despite the intervention, the patient developed large bowel, liver, and gastric ischemia and underwent bowel resection. He died from multi-organ failure. In selected cases of uncomplicated ABAD, TEVAR should be considered and when TEVAR fails and visceral malperfusion develops, an aggressive revascularization of multiple visceral arteries should be attempted. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. The VIRTUE Registry of type B thoracic dissections--study design and early results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Endovascular procedures for repair of Type B aortic dissection have become increasingly common and are often considered to be first line therapy for acute complicated dissections. The long term durability of these repairs is largely undefined....

  5. The Potential of Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation on Serial Monitoring of Hemodynamic Change in Type B Aortic Dissection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Simon C. H., E-mail: simonyu@cuhk.edu.hk; Liu, Wen [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince of Wales Hospital (Hong Kong); Wong, Randolph H. L.; Underwood, Malcolm [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Prince of Wales Hospital (Hong Kong); Wang, Defeng [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince of Wales Hospital (Hong Kong)

    2016-08-15

    PurposeWe aimed to assess the potential of computational fluid dynamics simulation (CFD) in detecting changes in pressure and flow velocity in response to morphological changes in type B aortic dissection.Materials and MethodsPressure and velocity in four morphological models of type B aortic dissection before and after closure of the entry tear were calculated with CFD and analyzed for changes among the different scenarios. The control model (Model 1) was patient specific and built from the DICOM data of CTA, which bore one entry tear and three re-entry tears. Models 2–4 were modifications of Model 1, with two re-entry tears less in Model 2, one re-entry tear more in Model 3, and a larger entry tear in Model 4.ResultsThe pressure and velocity pertaining to each of the morphological models were unique. Changes in pressure and velocity findings were accountable by the changes in morphological features of the different models. There was no blood flow in the false lumen across the entry tear after its closure, the blood flow direction across the re-entry tears was reversed after closure of the entry tear.ConclusionCFD simulation is probably useful to detect hemodynamic changes in the true and false lumens of type B aortic dissection in response to morphological changes, it may potentially be developed into a non-invasive and patient-specific tool for serial monitoring of hemodynamic changes of type B aortic dissection before and after treatment.

  6. The imaging assessment and specific endograft design for the endovascular repair of ascending aortic dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Y

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Yepeng Zhang,1 Hanfei Tang,1 JianPing Zhou,2 Zhao Liu,1 Changjian Liu,1 Tong Qiao,1 Min Zhou1 1Department of Vascular Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, 2Department of General Surgery, Yixin People’s Hospital, Yixin, People’s Republic of China Background: Endovascular option has been proposed for a very limited and selected number of Stanford type A aortic dissection (TAAD patients. We have performed a computed tomography (CT-based TAAD study to explore appropriate endograft configurations for the ascending aortic pathology. Methods: TAAD patients treated with optimal CT scans were retrospectively reviewed, and their entry tears (ETs were identified using three-dimensional and multiplanar reconstructions in an EndoSize workstation. After generating a centerline of flow, measurements, including numerous morphologic characteristics of anatomy, were evaluated and a selected subset of patients were determined to be suitable for endovascular treatments. Proximal diameter and distal diameter of endograft were selected based on diameters measured at the ET level and at the innominate artery (IA level, with 10% oversizing with respect to the true lumen, but not exceeding the original aortic diameter. The length of the endograft was determined by the distance from the sinotubular junction to IA. Results: This study covered 126 TAAD patients with primary ET in ascending aorta, among which, according to the assumed criteria, 48 (38.1% patients were deemed to be suitable for endovascular treatment. The diameters of ascending aorta from the sinotubular junction to the IA level presented a downward trend, and the proximal diameters differed significantly from distal diameters of the endograft for TAAD (39.9 versus 36.2 mm, P<0.01, implying that the conical endograft might be compatible with the ascending pathology. In the ascending aorta, lengths of the endograft should be 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 mm in five

  7. Acute aortic regurgitation due to infective endocarditis

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    Claudia M Cortés

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute aortic regurgitation (AAR due to infective endocarditis (IE is a serious disease and usually requires surgical treatment. Our study aims to compare the clinical, echocardiographic, and microbiological characteristics as well as in-hospital outcome of patients with AAR according to the severity of heart failure (HF and to evaluate predictors of in-hospital mortality in a tertiary centre. In a prospective analysis, we compared patients with NYHA functional class I-II HF (G1 vs. functional class III-IV HF (G2. From 06/92 to 07/16, 439 patients with IE were hospitalized; 86 presented AAR: (G1, 39: 45.4% y G2, 47: 54.7%. The G1 had higher prosthetic IE (43.6% vs. 17%, p 0.01. All G2 patients had dyspnoea vs. 30.8% of the G1 (p < 0.0001. There were no differences in clinical, echocardiographic and microbiological characteristics. Surgical treatment was indicated mainly due to infection extension or valvular dysfunction in G1 and HF in G2. In-hospital mortality was 15.4% vs. 27.7% (G1 and G2 respectively p NS. In multivariate analysis, health care-associated acquisition (p 0.001, negative blood cultures (p 0.004, and functional class III-IV HF (p 0.039 were in-hospital mortality predictors. One-fifth of the patients with EI had AAR. Half of them had severe HF which needed emergency surgery and the remaining needed surgery for extension of the infection and / or valvular dysfunction. Both groups remain to have high surgical and in-hospital mortality. Health care-associated acquisition, negative blood cultures and advanced HF were predictors of in-hospital mortality

  8. Imaging of acute aortic diseases; L'imagerie de la pathologie aortique aigue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semlali, S.; Ennafae, I.; Mahi, M.; Benaissa, L.; Hanine, A.; Akjouj, S.; Jidal, M.; Chaouir, S. [Service d' imagerie medicale, hopital militaire Mohamed V, CHU, Rabat (Morocco)

    2010-09-15

    We report a review of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings in acute aortic syndrome. Contrast-enhanced multidetector CT is a highly accurate imaging method for determining the cause of acute aortic syndrome. (authors)

  9. 320-row CT renal perfusion imaging in patients with aortic dissection: A preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongting Liu

    Full Text Available To investigate the clinical value of renal perfusion imaging in patients with aortic dissection (AD using 320-row computed tomography (CT, and to determine the relationship between renal CT perfusion imaging and various factors of aortic dissection.Forty-three patients with AD who underwent 320-row CT renal perfusion before operation were prospectively enrolled in this study. Diagnosis of AD was confirmed by transthoracic echocardiography. Blood flow (BF of bilateral renal perfusion was measured and analyzed. CT perfusion imaging signs of AD in relation to the type of AD, number of entry tears and the false lumen thrombus were observed and compared.The BF values of patients with type A AD were significantly lower than those of patients with type B AD (P = 0.004. No significant difference was found in the BF between different numbers of intimal tears (P = 0.288, but BF values were significantly higher in cases with a false lumen without thrombus and renal arteries arising from the true lumen than in those with thrombus (P = 0.036. The BF values measured between the true lumen, false lumen and overriding groups were different (P = 0.02, with the true lumen group having the highest. Also, the difference in BF values between true lumen and false lumen groups was statistically significant (P = 0.016, while no statistical significance was found in the other two groups (P > 0.05. The larger the size of intimal entry tears, the greater the BF values (P = 0.044.This study shows a direct correlation between renal CT perfusion changes and AD, with the size, number of intimal tears, different types of AD, different renal artery origins and false lumen thrombosis, significantly affecting the perfusion values.

  10. Use of real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in type A aortic dissections: Advantages of 3D TEE illustrated in three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy J Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stanford type A aortic dissections often present to the hospital requiring emergent surgical intervention. Initial diagnosis is usually made by computed tomography; however transesophageal echocardiography (TEE can further characterize aortic dissections with specific advantages: It may be performed on an unstable patient, it can be used intra-operatively, and it has the ability to provide continuous real-time information. Three-dimensional (3D TEE has become more accessible over recent years allowing it to serve as an additional tool in the operating room. We present a case series of three patients presenting with type A aortic dissections and the advantages of intra-operative 3D TEE to diagnose the extent of dissection in each case. Prior case reports have demonstrated the use of 3D TEE in type A aortic dissections to characterize the extent of dissection and involvement of neighboring structures. In our three cases described, 3D TEE provided additional understanding of spatial relationships between the dissection flap and neighboring structures such as the aortic valve and coronary orifices that were not fully appreciated with two-dimensional TEE, which affected surgical decisions in the operating room. This case series demonstrates the utility and benefit of real-time 3D TEE during intra-operative management of a type A aortic dissection.

  11. Unfavorable-risk acute myeloid leukemia dissected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Stephen A; Mohan, Sanjay R; Savona, Michael R

    2016-03-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an immensely heterogeneous disease based on the presence of varying combinations of morphologic, immunophenotypic, genetic, and molecular characteristics identified among those diagnosed with this disease. Although current therapeutic strategies provide a reasonable likelihood of achieving a complete remission for the majority of patients, relapse rates and subsequent disease-related mortality remain unacceptably high. Improved methods of risk stratification are needed to better identify patients at considerable risk of relapse in hopes of allowing for early therapeutic intervention and/or intensification that may lead to a higher likelihood of cure. The current status of risk stratification of AML and emerging technologies with potential to improve prognostic classification and outcomes are summarized in this review. Refinement of our understanding of the impact of current pretreatment AML cytogenetic, immunophenotypic, and molecular aberrations to predict outcomes and guide therapeutic decision-making is ongoing. Emerging data suggest that incorporation of the degree of posttreatment response and/or the detection of minimal residual disease can improve the accuracy of risk stratification for individual patients. Although pretreatment disease characteristics remain the hallmark of prognostication for AML patients, posttreatment parameters such as minimal residual disease assessment and degree of response to therapy possess the ability to further refine our identification of patients with unfavorable disease and thereby influence decisions regarding therapeutic planning.

  12. Immersed boundary peridynamics (IB/PD) method to simulate aortic dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Amneet Pal Singh; Griffith, Boyce

    2016-11-01

    Aortic dissection occurs when an intimal tear in the aortic wall propagates into the media to form a false lumen within the vessel wall. Rupture of the false lumen and collapse of the true lumen both carry a high risk of morbidity and mortality. Surgical treatment consists of either replacement of a portion of the aorta, or stent implantation to cover the affected segment. Both approaches carry significant risks: open surgical intervention is highly invasive, whereas stents can be challenging to implant and offer unclear long-term patient outcomes. It is also difficult to time optimally the intervention to ensure that the benefits of treatment outweigh its risks. In this work we develop innovative fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model combining elements from immersed boundary (IB) and peridynamics (PD) methods to simulate tears in membranes. The new approach is termed as IB/PD method. We use non-ordinary state based PD to represent material hyperelasticity. Several test problems are taken to validate peridynamics approach to model structural dynamics, with and without accounting for failure in the structures. FSI simulations using IB/PD method are compared with immersed finite element method (IB/FE) to validate the new hybrid approach. NIH Award R01HL117163 NSF Award ACI 1450327.

  13. Propensity Score-Matched Analysis of Open Surgical and Endovascular Repair for Type B Aortic Dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Brunt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify national outcomes of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR for type B aortic dissections (TBADs. Methods. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was examined from 2005 to 2008 using ICD-9 codes to identify patients with TBAD who underwent TEVAR or open surgical repair. We constructed separate propensity models for emergently and electively admitted patients and calculated mortality and complication rates for propensity score-matched cohorts of TEVAR and open repair patients. Results. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher following open repair than TEVAR (17.5% versus 10.8%, P = .045 in emergently admitted TBAD. There was no in-hospital mortality difference between open repair and TEVAR (5.6% versus 3.3%, P = .464 for elective admissions. Hospitals performing thirty or more TEVAR procedures annually had lower mortality for emergent TBAD than hospitals with fewer than thirty procedures. Conclusions. TEVAR produces better in-hospital outcomes in emergent TBAD than open repair, but further longitudinal analysis is required.

  14. Consideration of Two Cases of Ascending Aortic Dissection That Began with Stroke-Like Symptoms

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    Chiaki Takahashi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently experienced two patients with stroke-like symptoms and ascending aortic dissection (AAD in our outpatient department. Both patients were transferred to our hospital presenting with neurological deficit such as hemiparesis and conjugate deviation. They did not complain from any chest or abdominal pain. Their MRI did not show fresh infarction or main branch occlusion. A chest CT image showed AAD. The former patient was immediately transferred to a tertiary hospital and the latter received conservative management in the cardiovascular department. Discussion. As neither patient was experiencing any pain, we initially diagnosed them with ischemic stroke and began treatment. Fortunately, bleeding complications did not occur. In such cases, problems are caused when intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA injection is administered with the aim of reopening the occluded intracranial arteries. In fact, patients with AAD undergoing t-PA injection have been reported to die from bleeding complications without any recognition of the dissection. These findings suggest that confirmation using carotid ultrasound, carotid MR angiography, and a D-dimer test is crucial and should be adopted in emergency departments.

  15. Emergency endovascular treatment of acute aortic diseases; Endovaskulaere Behandlung akuter Erkrankungen der thorakalen Aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitton, M.B.; Herber, S.; Thelen, M. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie; Schmiedt, W.; Neufang, A. [Klinik fuer Herz-, Thorax- und Gefaesschirurgie, Johannes Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz (Germany); Dueber, C. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Klinikum Mannheim GmbH (Germany)

    2002-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the safety and efficacy of emergency treatment of acute aortic diseases with endovascular stent grafts. Methods: In 11 patients (median age 55 years, range 18 - 85) with acute complications of descending aortic diseases endovascular emergency treatment was performed: traumatic aortic rupture (n = 4), penetrating ulcer with aortobronchial fistula or hematothorax (n = 4), acute type B dissection (n = 2, one with penetration, one with subacute mesenteric ischemia), and symptomatic aneurysm of the thoracic aorta (n = 1) with pain and diameter progression. 15 stent grafts were implanted (Talent n = 11, Vanguard/Stentor n = 4). Stent extension was necessary in 4 cases. In 2 cases graft extension was done during the first procedure (due to distal migration and due to the total length of the aortic aneurysm). In 2 cases graft extension was performed 5 days (due to a new aortic ulcer at the proximal stent struts) and 5 months after the initial procedure (recurrent aortobronchial fistula due to aneurysm progression). 14 of 15 implantations required general anesthesia, one symptomatic thoracic aneurysm was performed in local anesthesia and sedation. Results: 14 of 15 graft procedures were performed using the femoral or iliac approach. One procedure required aortofemoral bypass grafting due to extensive arteriosclerotic stenosis and the stent graft was inserted via the bypass graft. The orifice of the subclavian artery was crossed with bare stent struts in 4 cases without neurological complications. Median follow-up is 27 months (range 6 to 72 months). In traumatic aortic ruptures, immediate sealing of bleeding was achieved and follow-up is inconspicuous at a maximum of 72 months. In cases of aortobronchial fistulas, follow-up is satisfactory (maximum 72 months) despite the necessity for reintervention and graft extension. In one acute type B dissection retrograde dissection of the aortic arch occurred during stent release with stable disease during

  16. Management of patients with acute aortic syndrome through a regional rapid transport system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzur, Miguel; Han, Sukgu M; Dunn, Joie; Elsayed, Ramsey S; Fleischman, Fernando; Casagrande, Yolee; Weaver, Fred A

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the outcomes of patients with acute aortic syndrome (AAS) during and after transfer to a regional aortic center by a rapid transport system. Review of patients with AAS who were transferred by a rapid transport system to a regional aortic center was performed. Data regarding demographics, diagnosis, comorbidities, transportation, and hospital course were acquired. Severity of existing comorbidities was determined by the Society for Vascular Surgery Comorbidity Severity Score (SVSCSS). The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score assessed physiologic instability on admission. Risk factors associated with system-related (transfer and hospital) mortality were identified by univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis. During a recent 18-month period (December 2013-July 2015), 183 patients were transferred by a rapid transport system; 148 (81%) patients were transported by ground and 35 (19%) by air. Median distance traveled was 24 miles (range, 3.6-316 miles); median transport time was 42 minutes (range, 10-144 minutes). Two patients died during transport, one with a type A dissection, the other of a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. There were 118 (66%) patients who received operative intervention. Median time to operation was 6 hours. Type B dissections had the longest median time to operation, 45 hours, with system-related mortality of 1.9%; type A dissections had the shortest median time, 3 hours, and a system-related mortality of 16%. Overall, system-related mortality was 15%. On univariate analysis, factors associated with system-related mortality were age ≥65 years (P = .026), coronary artery disease (P = .030), prior myocardial infarction (P = .049), prior coronary revascularization (P = .002), SVSCSS of >8 (P 10 (P = .004). Distance traveled and transport mode and duration were not associated with increased risk of system-related mortality. Only SVSCSS of >8 (odds

  17. Early and late outcome of operated and non-operated acute dissection of the descending aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gysi, J; Schaffner, T; Mohacsi, P; Aeschbacher, B; Althaus, U; Carrel, T

    1997-06-01

    At present debate continues concerning the optimal mode of treatment for type B dissections. Controversies are mainly due to discordant results regarding survival following medical or surgical treatment. We assessed early and long-term outcome of acute dissection of the descending aorta treated by emergency aortic replacement, medical treatment or delayed surgery. Between 1980 and 1995, 225 patients were hospitalized in the medical or surgical department of our institution with the diagnosis of acute type B aortic dissection. A total of 38 patients (16.8%) underwent replacement of the descending aorta within the first week after hospital admission. Primary indications for immediate surgery were: rupturing aneurysm (n = 15), diameter of the descending aorta (n = 13), malperfusion of the thoracoabdominal aorta (n = 8) and pseudocoarctation syndrome with uncontrollable hypertension (n = 2). All other patients (n = 187) underwent primary conservative treatment on the intensive care unit, including appropriate anti-hypertensive medication. In 12 of them, surgery was denied because of age or significant concomitant diseases. Hospital mortality after urgent or emergency surgery was 21% (8/38 patients) for the overall time period. There has been a significant decrease in hospital mortality during the last 5 year-period (12% versus 30% between 1980 and 1994). Causes of death were: cardiac failure in 3, bleeding complications in 2, postoperative mesenteric ischemia in 2 and septicemia in one patient. From the 30 operative survivors, 9 (30%) patients required further surgery on the native aorta after a mean follow-up of 48 +/- 13 months. Hospital mortality during conservative treatment was 17.6% (33/187 patients). Main causes of death were rupture in 14, thoraco-abdominal malperfusion in 13 and cardiac failure in 3 patients, whereas in 3 patients, the cause of death could not be evaluated. In this group, 9 patients had to be shifted to early surgery during the initial

  18. Role of Pulse Pressure and Geometry of Primary Entry Tear in Acute Type B Dissection Propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peelukhana, Srikara V; Wang, Yanmin; Berwick, Zachary; Kratzberg, Jarin; Krieger, Joshua; Roeder, Blayne; Cloughs, Rachel E; Hsiao, Albert; Chambers, Sean; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2017-03-01

    The hemodynamic and geometric factors leading to propagation of acute Type B dissections are poorly understood. The objective is to elucidate whether geometric and hemodynamic parameters increase the predilection for aortic dissection propagation. A pulse duplicator set-up was used on porcine aorta with a single entry tear. Mean pressures of 100 and 180 mmHg were used, with pulse pressures ranging from 40 to 200 mmHg. The propagation for varying geometric conditions (%circumference of the entry tear: 15-65%, axial length: 0.5-3.2 cm) were tested for two flap thicknesses (1/3rd and 2/3rd of the thickness of vessel wall, respectively). To assess the effect of pulse and mean pressure on flap dynamics, the %true lumen (TL) cross-sectional area of the entry tear were compared. The % circumference for propagation of thin flap (47 ± 1%) was not significantly different (p = 0.14) from thick flap (44 ± 2%). On the contrary, the axial length of propagation for thin flap (2.57 ± 0.15 cm) was significantly different (p propagation was calculated as 75 ± 9 J/m2 and was fairly uniform across different specimens. Pulse pressure had a significant effect on the flap movement in contrast to mean pressure. Hence, mitigation of pulse pressure and restriction of flap movement may be beneficial in patients with type B acute dissections.

  19. Retrograde ascending aortic dissection during or after thoracic aortic stent graft placement: insight from the European registry on endovascular aortic repair complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggebrecht, Holger; Thompson, Matt; Rousseau, Hervé

    2009-01-01

    Repair Complications reported a total of 63 rAAD cases (incidence, 1.33%; 95% CI, 0.75 to 2.40). Eighty-one percent of patients underwent TEVAR for acute (n=26, 54%) or chronic type B dissection (n=13, 27%). Stent grafts with proximal bare springs were used in majority of patients (83%). Only 7 (15......%) patients had intraoperative rAAD, with the remaining occurring during the index hospitalization (n=10, 21%) and during follow-up (n=31, 64%). Presenting symptoms included acute chest pain (n=16, 33%), syncope (n=12, 25%), and sudden death (n=9, 19%) whereas one fourth of patients were asymptomatic (n=12...

  20. [The relationship between preoperative renal failure and severe postoperative hypoxemia of patients received surgical procedures for Stanford A aortic dissection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, X D; Ju, F; Liu, N; Zheng, J; Sun, L Z; Zheng, S H

    2016-08-01

    To study the relationship between renal failure and severe postoperative hypoxemia of patients received surgical procedure for Stanford A aortic dissection. Clinical data of 411 consecutive patients from January 2014 to April 2015, who received surgical procedure for Stanford A aortic dissection in Department of Cardiovascular Surgery of Beijing Anzhen Hospital, were collected retrospectively. The appearance of severe postoperative hypoxemia was recorded in all the cases. All the data about potential prognostic factors was put into the database and analyzed by univariate and multivariate Logistic regression respectively. Severe postoperative hypoxemia (PO2/FiO2hypoxemia showed no statistical significance. However, the influence of preoperative serum creatinine showed statistical significance (OR=1.009, 95%CI: 1.000 to 1.018, P=0.048). The preoperative creatinine clearance rate of patients has no direct relationship with severe postoperative hypoxemia. But the preoperative serum creatinine could be regarded as an independent predictor of severe postoperative hypoxemia.

  1. Acute Aortic Dissection Presenting Exclusively as Lower Extremity Paresthesias

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan Gibney; Jonathan Patane; Steven Bunch

    2017-01-01

    History of Present Illness: A 45-year-old male presented with left-lower extremity numbness for 3 hours. He denied chest pain, shortness of breath, back pain, or pain to his leg. On physical examination, he was noted to have a normal cardiac exam without murmurs and normal breath sounds, but had no palpable femoral or dorsalis pedis pulse on the left lower extremity. His extremity examination showed normal range of motion, full strength to both lower extremities, but subjective decreased...

  2. Three novel mutations in the ACTA2 gene in German patients with thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffjan, Sabine; Waldmüller, Stephan; Blankenfeldt, Wulf; Kötting, Judith; Gehle, Petra; Binner, Priska; Epplen, Jörg T; Scheffold, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Mutations in the gene encoding smooth muscle cell alpha actin (ACTA2) have recently been shown to cause familial thoracic aortic aneurysms leading to type A dissections (TAAD) and predispose to premature stroke and coronary artery disease. In order to further explore the role of ACTA2 variations in the pathogenesis of TAAD, we sequenced the coding regions of this gene in 40 unrelated German patients with TAAD (with [n=21] or without [n=19] clinical features suggestive of M...

  3. [Clinical and electrocardiographic aspect of pulmonary embolism masking aortic dissection revealed by thoracic CT angiography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masinarivo, Daniella Rakotoniaina; Rakotomanana, Jenny Larissa

    2017-01-01

    We here report the case of a 52-year old hypertensive, obese woman (BMI 32,46 kg/m2) with a past history of smoking and without evidence-based risk factors of venous thromboembolism, hospitalized for left chest pain radiating to the dorsolumbar region associated with dyspnoea. Clinical examination on hopitalization showed left blood pressure 100/60 mmHg, tachycardia 100/min, oxygen desaturation index at 88% with the patient breathing ambient air, normal cardiopulmonary auscultation, peripheral pulses palpable and no symptoms of phlebitis of the lower limbs. The ECG showed right axis deviation, S1Q3 pattern, right ventricular hypertrophy and right bundle branch block (A, B, C). The patient underwent emergency thoracic CT angiography objectifying aortic dissection from the origin of the aorta to the iliac bifurcation (Stanford A). Our patient received medical care based on blood pressure and heart rate control as well as on analgesics, with good evolution in the absence of surgical means.

  4. Acute Right Coronary Ostial Stenosis during Aortic Valve Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwar Umran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of acute right coronary artery stenosis developing in a patient undergoing aortic valve replacement. We present a case report with a brief overview of the literature relating to coronary artery occlusion associated with cardiac valve surgery - the theories and treatments are discussed. A 85 year-old female was admitted under the care of the cardiothoracic team with signs and symptoms of heart failure. Investigations, including cardiac echocardiography and coronary angiography, indicated a critical aortic valve stenosis. Intraoperative right ventricular failure ensued post aortic valve replacement. Subsequent investigations revealed an acute occlusion of the proximal right coronary artery with resultant absence of distal flow supplying the right ventricle. An immediate right coronary artery bypass procedure was performed with resolution of the right ventricular failure. Subsequent weaning off cardiopulmonary bypass was uneventful and the patient continued to make excellent recovery in the postoperative phase. To our knowledge this is one of the few documented cases of intraoperative acute coronary artery occlusion developing during valve surgery. However, surgeons should be aware of the potential for acute occlusion so that early recognition and rapid intervention can be instituted.

  5. Acute Traumatic Aortic Disruption and Right Aortic Arch: A Fatal Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirvan Salaminia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute traumatic aortic disruption occurs after forceful deceleration and usually due to motor accidents. Only 10 % to 15 % reach a treatment facility alive and a highly suspicious state is needed for timely diagnosis. Most time they suffer multiple associated lethal injuries. Asymptomatic and isolated right aortic arch is a rare anomaly of the aorta with a prevalence of 0.5% [3]. Its diagnosis is by radiologic studies. We present this patient to remember that the incidental right aortic arch and disruption may interpreted as the left side mediastinal rotation in radiography and so inadvertently lead to late diagnosis and a futile outcome. A 24-year old man was brought to emergency room following a motor accident. He had Glascow Coma Scale Score: 14-15/15 but with stable vital signs. After primary survey chest radiography, emergency abdominal sonography (eFAST and brain CT scanning were requested. Spiral thoracoabdominal CT was also requested about seven hours after admission and when the patient entered an unstable hemodynamic phase. The primary survey was unremarkable. His chest radiography had left mediastinal rotation, which is opposite to what is seen pathologically in the condition of the traumatic aortic disruption, the right mediastinal rotation. His eFAST and brain CT were normal. The patient remained stable until seven hours after admission when the patient becomes unstable. Massive pleural effusion with aortic disruption and a right aortic arch was seen in thoracoabdominal CT. He transferred to the operation room but arrested during transfer. Massive hemothorax was seen during open cardiac massage. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was unsuccessful. This may raises that in any blunt trauma patient with highly suspicious history for the great vessel injury, it may be better to consider the spiral chest CT scanning as the primary radiologic test for evaluation of the chest trauma and not waste the time or resources with rely simply on a

  6. Risk factors for continuous renal replacement therapy after surgical repair of type A aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hai-Bo; Ma, Wei-Guo; Zhao, Hong-Lei; Zheng, Jun; Li, Jian-Rong; Liu, Ou; Sun, Li-Zhong

    2017-04-01

    To identify the risk factors for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) following surgical repair of type A aortic dissection (TAAD) using the total arch replacement and frozen elephant trunk (TAR + FET) technique. The study included 330 patients with TAAD repaired using TAR + FET between January 2014 and April 2015. Mean age was 47.1±10.2 years (range, 18-73 years) and 242 were male (73.3%). Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify the risk factors for CRRT. Postoperative CRRT was required in 38 patients (mean age 50.7±10.0 years; 27 males). Operative death occurred in 12 patients (3.6%, 12/330). The mortality rate was 23.7% (9/38) in patients with CRRT and 1.0% (3/292) in those without CRRT (PCRRT were age (50.7±10.0 vs. 46.7±10.2 years, P=0.023), preoperative serum creatinine (sCr) (135.0±154.2 vs. 85.7±37.0 µmol/L, PCRRT were CPB time (minute) [odds ratio (OR) 1.018; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.007-1.029; P=0.002], preoperative sCr level (µmol/L) (OR, 1.008; 95% CI, 1.000-1.015; P=0.040), and the amount of red blood cell transfused intraoperatively (unit) (OR, 1.206; 95% CI, 1.077-1.350; PCRRT after TAR + FET.

  7. Novel Endovascular Management of Proximal Type A (DeBakey II) Aortic Dissection With a Patent Foramen Ovale Occluder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xun; Mitsis, Andreas; Mozalbat, David; Nienaber, Christoph A

    2017-12-01

    To present a novel endovascular management option that avoids open surgery in selected patients with subacute type A aortic dissection (DeBakey II). A 75-year-old woman with previous infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm repaired in 2006 and multiple comorbidities (EURO score II 20.5%) was admitted with chest pain; computed tomography angiography (CTA) showed a new dissection in the ascending aorta just above the right coronary ostium. As the patient was considered unfit to undergo surgery, an endovascular solution was suggested after multidisciplinary team discussion. With a single entry identified, coils were deployed in the false lumen followed by a patent foramen ovale (PFO) occluder placed across the entry tear to seal the cavity. Intraprocedural digital subtraction angiography and transesophageal echocardiography, as well as CTA 3 days postprocedure, confirmed an entirely thrombosed false lumen. The 6-month follow-up CTA demonstrated the PFO occluder firmly in place, shrinkage of the false lumen, and remodeling of the ascending aorta. Interventional management of the false lumen in proximal (type A) dissection is feasible and sustainable. The use of coils and closure devices may present a new, efficient, minimalistic strategy to avoid open surgery in selected cases.

  8. Multiple Ascending Aortic Mural Thrombi and Acute Necrotizing Mediastinitis Secondary to Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Kwon Chong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The formation of aortic thrombi is an extremely rare complication of acute pancreatitis. Here we report a case of acute pancreatitis complicated by a paraesophageal pseudocyst, necrotizing mediastinitis, and the formation of multiple thrombi in the ascending aorta. The patient was successfully treated by surgical therapy, which included extensive debridement of the mediastinum and removal of the aortic thrombi under cardiopulmonary bypass. Although esophageal resection was not carried out concomitantly, the lesions were resolved and the patient remained free of complications over 2 years of follow-up care.

  9. Endovascular repair of a ruptured thoracic aortic dissection with a right sided aortic arch: A case report

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    Jeremy L. Irvan

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Right-sided aortic arch presents challenges in the emergency setting. CTA and post-processing reconstructions are very helpful. While the endoleaks prompted additional interventions, the end result was excellent. This case displays the importance of careful attention to detail and follow-up in these complicated patients.

  10. Ethnic disparities in outcomes of patients with complicated type B aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yammine, Halim; Ballast, Jocelyn K; Anderson, William E; Frederick, John R; Briggs, Charles S; Roush, Timothy; Madjarov, Jeko M; Nussbaum, Tzvi; Sibille, Joshua A; Arko, Frank R

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the difference in outcomes after endovascular intervention in patients with complicated type B aortic dissection (TBAD) based on ethnicity and blood pressure control. Between 2012 and 2016, there were 126 patients who underwent endovascular procedures for complicated TBAD at a single-institution quaternary referral center. Patients self-identified as African American (n = 53), white (n = 70), and Asian (n = 3). African American and white patients were compared on a number of variables, including age, ethnicity, insurance type, blood pressure, comorbidities, number of previous interventions, and number of antihypertension medications they were taking before intervention. Primary outcomes were survival and need for reintervention. Kaplan-Meier estimates for survival for African Americans vs whites were 94% vs 89%, 91% vs 83%, 89% vs 79%, and 89% vs 76% at 30 days, 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years, respectively (P = .05). African Americans were younger overall (52.5 ± 11 years) vs whites (63.7 ± 14.7 years; P 140 mm Hg) preoperatively, postoperatively, and 30 days after intervention at 32%, 32%, and 39%. There was no significant difference between the cohorts in uncontrolled hypertension preoperatively (P = .39) or postoperatively (P = .63). However, more African Americans had uncontrolled hypertension at 30 days (African Americans, 49%; whites, 31%; odds ratio, 2.1; P = .09). African Americans were taking a greater number of antihypertension medications at presentation than whites (P = .01) and specifically had higher use rates of beta blockers (P = .02), diuretics (P = .02), and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (P = .04). African Americans with TBAD present at a younger age than their white counterparts do and have a survival advantage up to at least 5 years. However, African Americans have a higher rate of reintervention that is probably associated with poor blood pressure control despite

  11. Impact of statin therapy on patients with coronary heart disease and aortic aneurysm or dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazaki, Junichi; Morimoto, Takeshi; Sakata, Ryuzo; Okabayashi, Hitoshi; Yamazaki, Fumio; Nishiwaki, Noboru; Mitsudo, Kazuaki; Kimura, Takeshi

    2014-09-01

    The impact of statin therapy on cardiovascular outcome in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with aortic aneurysm or dissection (AD) is still unclear. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of statins at discharge to improve outcomes in CAD patients with AD. Among 14,834 consecutive patients who underwent first coronary revascularization in the CREDO-Kyoto PCI/CABG registry, we identified 699 patients (4.7%) with AD. The primary outcome measure was defined as a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, and stroke. The effect of statin therapy was assessed by a Cox proportional hazards model incorporating clinically relevant factors. The risk for the primary outcome measure was significantly higher in patients with AD (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-1.66; P aneurysm repair, and only 274 patients (39%) were treated with statins at discharge. Patients treated with statins were younger, had higher body mass index, and were more often treated with percutaneous coronary intervention. Heart failure, anemia, and hemodialysis were more prevalent in patients treated without statins. In patients without AD, 7014 patients (50%) were treated with statins. Patients treated with statins were younger and had higher body mass index, and more patients were treated for CAD due to myocardial infarction. Heart failure, prior stroke, hemodialysis, anemia, and malignant disease were more prevalent in patients treated without statins. The use of statins was associated with lower risk for the primary outcome measure in patients with AD (adjusted HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.51-0.99; P = .045) as well as in patients without AD (adjusted HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.73-0.85; P < .0001). The effect size of statin use was similar between the patients with AD and those without AD (P interaction = .69). CAD patients with AD had significantly higher long-term risk for cardiovascular events. Statin therapy was associated with lower risk for

  12. Pseudo-dissection of ascending aorta in inferior myocardial infarction.

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    Grahame K. Goode

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute aortic dissection is a cardiac emergency which can present as inferior myocardial infarction. It has high morbidity and mortality requiring prompt diagnosis and treatment. Rapid advances in noninvasive imaging modalities have facilitated the early diagnosis of this condition and in ruling out this potentially catastrophic illness. We report an interesting case of a 57 year- old -man who presented with inferior myocardial infarction requiring thrombolysis and temporary pacing wire for complete heart block. An echocardiogram was highly suspicious of aortic dissection. CT scan confirmed that the malposition of the temporary pacing wire through the aorta mimicked aortic dissection.

  13. Aortic plaque rupture in the setting of acute lower limb ischemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, David H

    2012-02-01

    Acute aortic plaque rupture is an uncommon cause of acute lower limb ischemia. The authors report sequence computed tomographic imaging of a distal aortic plaque rupture in a young man with bilateral lower limb complications. Clinical awareness, prompt recognition and imaging, and appropriate treatment of this uncommon condition are necessary to improve patient outcomes.

  14. Heartbeat-related displacement of the thoracic aorta in patients with chronic aortic dissection type B: Quantification by dynamic CTA

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    Weber, Tim F. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: tim.weber@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Ganten, Maria-Katharina [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: m.ganten@dkfz.de; Boeckler, Dittmar [University of Heidelberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: dittmar.boeckler@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Geisbuesch, Philipp [University of Heidelberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: philipp.geisbuesch@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: hu.kauczor@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik von [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: h.vontengg@dkfz.de

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the heartbeat-related displacement of the thoracic aorta in patients with chronic aortic dissection type B (CADB). Materials and methods: Electrocardiogram-gated computed tomography angiography was performed during inspiratory breath-hold in 11 patients with CADB: Collimation 16 mm x 1 mm, pitch 0.2, slice thickness 1 mm, reconstruction increment 0.8 mm. Multiplanar reformations were taken for 20 equidistant time instances through both ascending (AAo) and descending aorta (true lumen, DAoT; false lumen, DAoF) and the vertex of the aortic arch (VA). In-plane vessel displacement was determined by region of interest analysis. Results: Mean displacement was 5.2 {+-} 1.7 mm (AAo), 1.6 {+-} 1.0 mm (VA), 0.9 {+-} 0.4 mm (DAoT), and 1.1 {+-} 0.4 mm (DAoF). This indicated a significant reduction of displacement from AAo to VA and DAoT (p < 0.05). The direction of displacement was anterior for AAo and cranial for VA. Conclusion: In CADB, the thoracic aorta undergoes a heartbeat-related displacement that exhibits an unbalanced distribution of magnitude and direction along the thoracic vessel course. Since consecutive traction forces on the aortic wall have to be assumed, these observations may have implications on pathogenesis of and treatment strategies for CADB.

  15. Open repair management of a patient with aortic arch saccular aneurysm, penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer, one vessel coronary artery disease and an isolated dissection of the abdominal aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romolo, Harvey; Wartono, Dicky A; Suyuti, Sugisman; Herlambang, Bagus; Caesario, Michael; Sunu, Ismoyo

    2017-01-01

    Isolated saccular compared to fusiform aneurysm is considered to be a rare entity with challenges of its own. A 62-year-old female was diagnosed with a case of saccular aneurysm and penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer of the aortic arch. Additionally, she also had one vessel coronary artery disease and type B abdominal aortic dissection. She was then managed with open aortic arch repair and coronary artery bypass grafting. If required, elective endovascular repair will be done for the abdominal aorta on a later date.

  16. Hybrid Treatment of Acute Abdominal Aortic Thrombosis Presenting with Paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzarone, Matteo; De Troia, Alessandro; Iazzolino, Luigi; Nabulsi, Bilal; Tecchio, Tiziano

    2016-05-01

    Acute thrombotic or embolic occlusion of the abdominal aorta is a rare vascular emergency associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Classically, the clinical presentation is a severe peripheral ischemia with bilateral leg pain as the predominant feature. Aortic occlusion presenting as an isolated acute onset of paraplegia due to spinal cord ischemia is very rare and requires improved awareness to prevent adverse outcomes associated with delayed diagnosis. We report the case of a 54-year-old man who presented with sudden paraplegia due to the thrombotic occlusion of the infrarenal aorta involving the first segment of the common iliac arteries on both sides; emergent transperitoneal aorto iliac thrombectomy combined with the endovascular iliac kissing-stent technique were performed achieving perioperative complete regression of the symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evolution of Simplified Frozen Elephant Trunk Repair for Acute DeBakey Type I Dissection: Midterm Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselli, Eric E; Idrees, Jay J; Bakaeen, Faisal G; Tong, Michael Z; Soltesz, Edward G; Mick, Stephanie; Johnston, Douglas R; Eagleton, Mathew J; Menon, Venu; Svensson, Lars G

    2017-12-04

    A modified technique for frozen elephant trunk (FET) repair of acute DeBakey type I dissection has evolved. Procedural modifications are described and midterm outcomes evaluated. From 2009 to 2016, 72 patients with DeBakey type I dissection underwent emergency simplified FET. Mean age was 59 ± 15 years. Presentation included malperfusion (n = 22, 31%), rupture (n = 12, 16%), and aortic insufficiency (n = 42, 58%). Concomitant procedures included valve replacement (n = 9), root replacement (n = 11; valve sparing n = 6), cusp repair (n = 11), and valve resuspension (n = 21). The first 39 were treated by modifying an early generation stent graft. The next 16 received newer modified stent grafts, and the latest 17 underwent branched single anastomosis technique with left subclavian stent grafting. Operative mortality was 4.2% (n = 3 of 72). Two presented comatose without recovering, the other died from coagulopathy complications. Morbidity included stroke (n = 3, 4.2%), spinal injury (n = 3, 4.2%; 1 permanent), tracheostomy (n = 7, 9.7%), and renal failure (n = 2, 2.8%). Median follow-up was 28 ± 25 months. Survival was 92% at 6 months, 92% at 1 year, 89% at 3 years, and 80% at 5 years. Among 69 survivors, follow-up imaging was available in 63 (91%). Of these, 58 (92%) patients thrombosed the treated false lumen, with shrinkage in 37(54%) patients from 42 ± 8 mm to 37 ± 7 mm. Ten patients underwent 14 late reinterventions for growth and incomplete thrombosis (7 endo extension, 4 left subclavian embolization, 1 bypass, 2 false lumen embolization). Freedom from reintervention was 93% at 6 months, 87% at 1 year, 77% at 3 years, and 72% at 5 years. Simplified FET for treating acute DeBakey type I dissection has evolved and remained safe. It promotes aortic remodeling, and simplifies management of chronic aortic complications. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Brahma-related gene 1 inhibits proliferation and migration of human aortic smooth muscle cells by directly up-regulating Ras-related associated with diabetes in the pathophysiologic processes of aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei-Lin; Tan, Meng-Wei; Yuan, Yang; Wang, Guo-Kun; Wang, Chong; Tang, Hao; Xu, Zhi-Yun

    2015-11-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms of Brahma-related gene 1 (Brg1) involvement in the pathophysiologic processes of aortic dissection. Seventeen dissecting, 4 dilated, and 10 healthy human aorta samples were collected. Expression of Brg1 in the medium of aorta was evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemical staining, respectively. The regulation effect of Brg1 on proliferation and migration of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) was analyzed in 3 ways: using cell counting, a migration chamber, and a wound scratch assay. A polymerase chain reaction array was used for screening potential target genes of Brg1. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was adopted for direct deoxyribonucleic acid-protein binding detection. Expression levels of Brg1 were increased in aortic dissection and aortic dilation patients. In vitro results indicated that overexpression of Brg1 inhibited proliferation and migration of HASMCs. The candidate proliferation- and migration-related Brg1 target gene found was Ras-related associated with diabetes (RRAD), expression levels of which were enhanced in dissecting aortic specimens. The direct regulation effect of Brg1 on RRAD was verified by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay results. Furthermore, down-regulating RRAD significantly alleviated the suppression effects of Brg1 on proliferation and migration of HASMCs. Our study illustrated that Brg1 inhibited the proliferation and migration capacity of HASMCs, via the mechanism of direct up-regulation of RRAD, thus playing an important role in the pathophysiologic processes of aortic dissection. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Trends in aortic aneurysm- and dissection-related mortality in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, 1985–2009: multiple-cause-of-death analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santo Augusto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aortic aneurysm and dissection are important causes of death in older people. Ruptured aneurysms show catastrophic fatality rates reaching near 80%. Few population-based mortality studies have been published in the world and none in Brazil. The objective of the present study was to use multiple-cause-of-death methodology in the analysis of mortality trends related to aortic aneurysm and dissection in the state of Sao Paulo, between 1985 and 2009. Methods We analyzed mortality data from the Sao Paulo State Data Analysis System, selecting all death certificates on which aortic aneurysm and dissection were listed as a cause-of-death. The variables sex, age, season of the year, and underlying, associated or total mentions of causes of death were studied using standardized mortality rates, proportions and historical trends. Statistical analyses were performed by chi-square goodness-of-fit and H Kruskal-Wallis tests, and variance analysis. The joinpoint regression model was used to evaluate changes in age-standardized rates trends. A p value less than 0.05 was regarded as significant. Results Over a 25-year period, there were 42,615 deaths related to aortic aneurysm and dissection, of which 36,088 (84.7% were identified as underlying cause and 6,527 (15.3% as an associated cause-of-death. Dissection and ruptured aneurysms were considered as an underlying cause of death in 93% of the deaths. For the entire period, a significant increased trend of age-standardized death rates was observed in men and women, while certain non-significant decreases occurred from 1996/2004 until 2009. Abdominal aortic aneurysms and aortic dissections prevailed among men and aortic dissections and aortic aneurysms of unspecified site among women. In 1985 and 2009 death rates ratios of men to women were respectively 2.86 and 2.19, corresponding to a difference decrease between rates of 23.4%. For aortic dissection, ruptured and non-ruptured aneurysms, the

  20. Stent-Graft Relining in a Patient with Acute Aortic Aneurysm and a Completely Migrated Endograft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Jayandiran; Yazicioglu, Ceyhan; Omar, Mahad; Veller, Martin G.

    2017-01-01

    Stent-graft migration and type I endoleaks are associated with a higher rate of reintervention and increased mortality and morbidity. This article describes a patient presented with an infrarenal aortic stent-graft which had migrated into the aortic sac with loss of all aortic neck attachment. The acutely expanding abdominal aortic aneurysm was treated by placing a second modular endograft within and above the migrated stentgraft. The patient returned 36 months later, with features of an acute myocardial infarction, severe bilateral lower limb ischemia, and renal failure. He was too ill for intervention and demised within 48 hours. PMID:29267621

  1. Traumatic infra-renal aortic dissection after a high-energy trauma: a case report of a primary missed diagnosis

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    Holger Godry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A traumatic infra-renal aortic dissection is a rare but life-threatening injury that follows deceleration injuries. The mechanism of blunt abdominal aortic injury involves both direct and indirect forces. The successful management of patients with traumatic injuries depends on a prompt suspicion of the injury and early diagnosis and therapy. Missed injuries in trauma patients are well-described phenomena and implementation of the ATLS® trauma schedule led to a decrease in the number of missed injuries, but trauma computed tomography (CT scans in injured patients are still not standard. We report on a 54-year old Caucasian female patient who was involved in a car accident. The fellow passenger of the car was seriously injured. The patient had been previously treated at two different hospitals, and a dislocated acetabular fracture had been diagnosed. Because of this injury, the patient was transferred to our institution, a level 1 trauma-center where, according to the nature of the accident as a high-energy trauma, a complete polytrauma management was performed at the time of admission. During the body check, a moderate tension of the lower parts of the abdomen was detected. During the CT scan, an aneurysm of the infra-renal aorta with a dissection from the height of the second lumbar vertebral body to the iliac artery was observed. The patient required an operation on the day of admission. After 19 days post-trauma care the patient was able to leave our hospital in good general condition. Therefore, missed injuries in multiple injury patients could be fatal, and it is essential that the orthopedic surgeon leaves room for suspicion of injuries based on the nature of the trauma. Traumatic injuries of the abdominal aorta are rare. According to the ATLS® trauma schedule, all of the patients who have experienced high-energy trauma and associated fractures should undergo routine screening using a trauma CT scan with contrast agents to detect

  2. Cirurgia das dissecções crónicas da aorta ascendente com insuficiência valvar Surgery of chronic aortic dissection with aortic insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo M Pêgo-Fernandes

    1990-12-01

    menor índice de complicações a médio prazo do que a substituição valvar; 2 a identificação do mecanismno da insuficiência valvar é fundamental para decisão da tática operatória; 3 o uso da cola biológica facilita o manuseio da aorta e pode diminuir o sangramento intra-operatório; 4 quando é necessária a substituição valvar tem-se preferido empregar prótese mecânica dada a maior dificuldade técnica na reoperaçáo nesses pacientes; 5 a aortoplastia não deve ser utilizada devido à alta incidência de redissecção aórtica.In the period of January 1980 to December 1988, 44 patients with chronic aortic dissections and aortic insufficiency were operated on. This group of patients was analized in order to evaluate the evolution of those in which the aortic valve was preserved compared to the group of patients submitted to valvular replacement. The overall preoperative characteristics of these two groups were similar. Valvular replacement was the elected procedure in cases of valvular degeneration or of aortic annular ectasia. In cases of cusp prolapse with enlarged annulus a plastic procedure was used; in 48% of the cases it was possible to preserve the valve. In the 23 patients submitted to valve replacement, the Bentall and De Bono technique was utilized. In six patientes other surgical procedures were associated. Biological adhesives were utilized in every patient operated on from 1986 on. In 41 patients (93% the proximal aorta was substituted and in the remaining three an aortoplasty was performed. Five patients (11% had hospitalar deaths, three due to low-output syndrome, one due to bleeding and one on account of neurological complications. Late death occurred in two patients (4%. The follow-up of the 37 surviving patients varied from two to 108 months (mean: 18 months; of these, 78% were in fuctional class I, and the others in class II. Two patients that had their aortic valve preserved presented mild aortic insufficiency. Three patients with

  3. Assessment of wall elasticity variations on intraluminal haemodynamics in descending aortic dissections using a lumped-parameter model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenick, Paula A; Bijnens, Bart H; Segers, Patrick; García-Dorado, David; Evangelista, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Descending aortic dissection (DAD) is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Aortic wall stiffness is a variable often altered in DAD patients and potentially involved in long-term outcome. However, its relevance is still mostly unknown. To gain more detailed knowledge of how wall elasticity (compliance) might influence intraluminal haemodynamics in DAD, a lumped-parameter model was developed based on experimental data from a pulsatile hydraulic circuit and validated for 8 clinical scenarios. Next, the variations of intraluminal pressures and flows were assessed as a function of wall elasticity. In comparison with the most rigid-wall case, an increase in elasticity to physiological values was associated with a decrease in systolic and increase in diastolic pressures of up to 33% and 63% respectively, with a subsequent decrease in the pressure wave amplitude of up to 86%. Moreover, it was related to an increase in multidirectional intraluminal flows and transition of behaviour as 2 parallel vessels towards a vessel with a side-chamber. The model supports the extremely important role of wall elasticity as determinant of intraluminal pressures and flow patterns for DAD, and thus, the relevance of considering it during clinical assessment and computational modelling of the disease.

  4. Disección de aorta: Aspectos básicos y manejo endovascular Aortic dissection: Basic aspects and endovascular management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás I Jaramillo

    2005-08-01

    theoretically high risk of complications should render the surgeon extremely cautious especially with young patients. Conceptually, the endoluminal treatment in the acute phase seems to be the solution and will probably become a preferred therapy while technical refinement is under way. Worldwide experience is growing and with this a better understanding of the indications and limitations of this innovative therapy will be elucidated. The clinical, diagnostic and management perspectives on aortic dissection and its variants, aortic intramural hematoma and atherosclerotic aortic ulcer, are reviewed.

  5. Recurrent Autonomic Dysreflexia due to Chronic Aortic Dissection in an Adult Male with Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

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    Subramanian Vaidyanathan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic dysreflexia is a hypertensive clinical emergency for persons with spinal cord injury at T-6 level or above. Recurrent autonomic dysreflexia is uncommon in spinal cord injury patients and is usually caused by noxious stimuli that cannot be removed promptly, e.g., somatic pain, abdominal distension. A 61-year-old man, who sustained tetraplegia at C-5 (ASIA-A 38 years ago, was admitted with chest infection. Computerised tomography (CT of the chest showed the ascending aorta to measure 4 cm in anteroposterior diameter; descending thoracic aorta measured 3.5 cm. No dissection was seen. Normal appearances of abdominal aorta were seen. He was treated with noninvasive ventilation, antibiotics, and diuretics. Nineteen days later, when there was sudden deterioration in his clinical condition, CT of the pulmonary angiogram was performed to rule out pulmonary embolism. This showed no pulmonary embolus, but the upper abdominal aorta showed some dissection with thrombosis of the false lumen. Blood pressure was controlled with perindopril 2 mg, once a day, doxazosin 4 mg, twice a day, and furosemide 20 mg, twice a day. Since this patient did not show clinical features of mesenteric or lower limb ischaemia, the vascular surgeon did not recommend subdiaphragmatic aortic replacement.

  6. Rarity of isolated pulmonary embolism and acute aortic syndrome occurring outside of the field of view of dedicated coronary CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hwa Yeon; Song, In Sup (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology Chung-Ang Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Yoo, Seung Min; Rho, Ji Young (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology CHA Medical Univ. Hospital, Bundang (Korea, Republic of)), email: smyoo68@hanmail.net; Moon, Jae Youn; Kim, In Jai; Lim, Sang Wook; Sung, Jung Hoon; Cha, Dong Hun (Dept. of Cardiology CHA Medical Univ. Hospital, Bundang (Korea, Republic of)); White, Charles S. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore (United States))

    2011-05-15

    Background Although triple rule-out CT angiography (TRO) to simultaneously evaluate acute coronary syndrome (ACS), pulmonary embolism (PE), and acute aortic syndrome (AAS) is increasingly used in many institutions, TRO is inevitably associated with increased radiation exposure due to extended z-axis coverage compared with dedicated coronary CT angiography (DCTA). Purpose To determine the frequency of exclusion of findings of AAS, PE, and significant incidental non-cardiac pathology that may be the cause of acute chest pain when using a restricted DCTA field of view (FOV). Material and Methods We retrospectively reviewed CT images and charts of 103 patients with acute PE and 50 patients with AAS. Either non-ECG gated dedicated pulmonary or aortic CT angiography was performed using 16- or 64-slice multidetector CT (MDCT). We analyzed the incidence of isolated PE, AAS, or significant non-cardiac pathology outside of DCTA FOV (i.e. from tracheal carina to the base of heart). Results There were two cases of isolated PE (2/103, 1.9%) excluded from the FOV of DCTA. One case of PE was isolated to the subsegmental pulmonary artery in the posterior segment of the right upper lobe. In the second case, pulmonary embolism in the left main pulmonary artery was located out of the FOV of DCTA because the left main pulmonary artery was retracted upwardly by fibrotic scar in the left upper lobe due to prior tuberculosis. There was no case of AAS and significant non-cardiac pathology excluded from the FOV of DCTA. AAS (n = 50) consisted of penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (n = 7), intramural hematoma (n = 5) and aortic dissection (n = 38). Conclusion As isolated PE, AAS, and significant non-cardiac pathology outside of the DCTA FOV rarely occur, DCTA may replace TRO in the evaluation of patients with non-specific acute chest pain and a low pre-test probability of PE or aortic dissection

  7. Traumatic abdominal aortic dissection in a 16-month-old child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heck, Josh M. [Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Nashville, TN (United States); Bittles, Mark A. [Monroe Carell Jr. Children' s Hospital at Vanderbilt, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Abdominal aortic injury after blunt trauma is rare in the pediatric population. There have been fewer than 20 reported cases in the literature since 1960, and most were the result of motor vehicle collisions. We report the case of a 16-month-old boy who is the youngest reported patient to sustain this type of injury. We discuss the radiologic findings in multiple imaging modalities, mechanisms, associated injuries and management options. (orig.)

  8. An in vitro phantom study on the influence of tear size and configuration on the hemodynamics of the lumina in chronic type B aortic dissections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenick, Paula A; Bijnens, Bart H; García-Dorado, David; Evangelista, Arturo

    2013-02-01

    Management and follow-up of chronic aortic dissections continue to be a clinical challenge due to progressive dilatation and subsequent rupture. To predict complications, guidelines suggest follow-up of aortic diameter. However, dilatation is triggered by hemodynamic parameters (pressures/wall shear stresses) and geometry of false (FL) and true lumen (TL), information not captured by diameter alone. Therefore, we aimed at better understanding the influence of dissection anatomy on TL and FL hemodynamics. In vitro studies were performed using pulsatile flow in realistic dissected latex/silicone geometries with varying tear number, size, and location. We assessed three different conformations: (1) proximal tear only; (2) distal tear only; (3) both proximal and distal tears. All possible combinations (n = 8) of small (10% of aortic diameter) and large (25% of aortic diameter) tears were considered. Pressure, velocity, and flow patterns were analyzed within the lumina (at proximal and distal sections) and at the tears. We also computed the FL mean pressure index (FPI(mean)%) as a percentage of the TL mean pressure, to compare pressures among models. The presence of large tears equalized FL/TL pressures compared with models with only small tears (proximal FPI(mean)% 99.85 ± 0.45 vs 92.73 ± 3.63; distal FPI(mean)% 99.51 ± 0.80 vs 96.35 ± 1.96; P 290 cm/s), and a well-defined flow. Additionally, both proximal and distal tears act as entry and exit. During systole, flow enters the FL through all tears simultaneously, while during diastole, flow leaves through all communications. Flow through the FL, from proximal to distal tears or vice versa, is minimal. Our results suggest that FL hemodynamics heavily depends on cumulative tear size, and thus, it is an important parameter to take into account when clinically assessing chronic aortic dissections. Copyright © 2013 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump Malposition Reduces Visceral Artery Perfusion in an Acute Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondran, Maximilian; Rastan, Ardawan J; Tillmann, Eugen; Seeburger, Jörg; Schröter, Thomas; Dhein, Stefan; Bakhtiary, Farhad; Mohr, Friedrich-Wilhelm

    2016-04-01

    Visceral artery perfusion can be potentially affected by intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) catheters. We utilized an animal model to quantify the acute impact of a low balloon position on mesenteric artery perfusion. In six pigs (78 ± 7 kg), a 30-cc IABP was placed in the descending aorta in a transfemoral procedure. The celiac artery (CA) and the cranial mesenteric artery (CMA) were surgically dissected. Transit time blood flow was measured for (i) baseline, (ii) 1:1 augmentation with the balloon proximal to the visceral arteries, and (iii) 1:1 augmentation with the balloon covering the visceral arteries. Blood flow in the CMA and CA was reduced by 17 and 24%, respectively, when the balloon compromised visceral arteries compared with a position above the visceral arteries (flow in mL/min: CMA: (i) 1281 ± 512, (ii) 1389 ± 287, (iii) 1064 ± 276, P < 0.05 for 3 vs. 1 and 3 vs. 2; CA: (i) 885 ± 370, (ii) 819 ± 297, (iii) 673 ± 315; P < 0.05 for 3 vs. 1). The covering of visceral arteries by an IABP balloon causes a significant reduction of visceral artery perfusion; thus, the positioning of this device during implantation is critical for obtaining a satisfactory outcome. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Painless Aortic Dissection—Diagnostic Dilemma With Fatal Outcomes: What Do We Learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Saeeda; Sharma, Konika

    2017-01-01

    Aortic dissection is the most catastrophic clinical condition that involves the aorta. It has a high mortality as well as high rate of misdiagnosis due to frequent unusual presentation. Typically, it presents with acute chest, back, and tearing abdominal pain. However, it can present atypically with minimal or no pain, making diagnosis difficult. Physicians should always suspect acute aortic dissection in patients with certain clinical conditions like difficult-to-control hypertension, giant cell arteritis, bicuspid aortic valve, intracranial aneurysms, simple renal cysts, family history of aortic disease, and Marfan syndrome, especially when a patient presents with ischemic symptoms involving multiple organ without an obvious cause. PMID:28815188

  11. Correção endovascular de dissecção de aorta ascendente Endovascular repair of ascending aortic dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Dorsa Vieira Pontes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Paciente de 84 anos com dissecção de aorta torácica tipo A de Stanford comprometendo todo o arco aórtico e aorta descendente. Proposto e aceito o tratamento endovascular em função da gravidade do quadro clínico. Procedeu-se à dissecção das artérias femorais comum bilateralmente. A aortografia confirmou a exclusão da falsa luz e a patência dos óstios coronarianos.Woman, 84 years-old, with Stanford type A thoracic aortic dissection committing aortic arch and descending aorta. Proposed and accepted endovascular treatment according to the severity of the clinical picture. Common femoral artery dissection bilaterally was done. Aortography confirmed the exclusion of the false lumen and patency of the coronary ostia.

  12. Endovascular stent-assisted thrombolysis in acute occlusive carotid artery dissection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourand, Isabelle [Hopital Gui de Chauliac, Department of Neurology, CHU Montpellier, Montpellier, Cedex 5 (France); Hopital Gui de Chauliac, Department of Neurology, Service de Neurologie, Montpellier, Cedex 5 (France); Brunel, Herve; Vendrell, Jean-Francois; Bonafe, Alain [Hopital Gui de Chauliac, Department of Neuroradiology, CHU Montpellier, Montpellier, Cedex 5 (France); Thouvenot, Eric [Hopital Gui de Chauliac, Department of Neurology, CHU Montpellier, Montpellier, Cedex 5 (France)

    2010-02-15

    Internal carotid artery dissection with tandem internal carotid and middle cerebral artery occlusion may be responsible for large cerebral infarction that carries a general poor prognosis. Recanalization of internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection by stent-assisted thrombolysis has been recently proposed. We report two cases of acute symptomatic ICA dissection with tandem occlusion successfully treated with emergent endovascular stent-assisted thrombolysis using new self-expandable intracranial stents. A 37-year-old woman and a 59-year-old man were admitted in our hospital after acute severe symptoms of right-hemispheric stroke with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores of 15 and 18, respectively. In both cases, magnetic resonance angiography showed tandem occlusion and angiography confirmed tandem occlusion with ICA dissection. An extensive mismatch region was diagnosed by Perfusion-diffusion MRI of the brain within 3 h after symptoms onset. Treatment was initiated 4 h after symptom onset by implantation of self-expandable intracranial stents into the dissected ICA and administration of intra-arterial recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. Recanalization of the ICA and middle cerebral artery (MCA) was accomplished within 6 h after symptoms onset. In both cases, no periprocedural complication was observed and follow-up CT scan showed only a mild brain infarct in the MCA territory. After, respectively, 12 and 10 months follow-up, patients had a favorable outcome with NIHSS 0 and mRS {<=}1. Endovascular stent-assisted thrombolysis appears to be a promising treatment in tandem occlusion due to ICA dissection. Our work underline the potential use of self-expandable intracranial stents in symptomatic acute ICA dissection. (orig.)

  13. [Combined use of occluder plus bare stent in the treatment of aortic dissection with tear at the area of visceral branches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; You, Qing-Sheng; Zhang, Yu-Chun; Gan, Ji-Hong; Mei, Jia-Cai; Shao, Ming-Zhe; Pan, Ye; Zhang, Jian; Wu, Hai-Sheng

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the novel method of combinedly use of occluder and bare stent in the treatment of aortic dissection with distal tear at visceral branches. From April 2010 to September 2012, 6 patients (5 male and 1 female patients, aged from 29 to 62 years, mean 47.2 years) were diagnosed as Stanford type B aortic dissection that been revealed by CT angiography. The main tears were sealed with stent-grafts firstly, and then the tears at the visceral branch area were evaluated that impossible to close spontaneously. Atrium septal defect occluder and ventricular septal defect were implanted at the tears with the anterior disc in false lumen, while the posterior disc in the true lumen. After that, the bare stents were implanted in the true lumen to pull the occluders on the aortic wall. Among the 6 procedures, occluders were successfully implanted in 5 cases, and 1 failed anchoring at the tear, and the alternative method of coils embolization was applicated. After all the procedures, the immediate aortogrophy revealed that the false lumen disappeared in the 5 cases that occluders were used, and the visceral branches were all patent. No paraplegia, lesion of visceral organs or other complications occurred. All the cases were followed at least 5 months. There was one endoleak due to a non-sealed tear at the descending aorta, one new-occurred small tear in the descending aorta but with no communication to the false lumen. The combinedly use of occluder and bare stent in the treatment of aortic dissection with tears at the visceral branch area is a sum of two simple technique plus each other. It is easily to master. The lesions at the aortic that ordinary stent-grafting incapable to seal are successfully solved then. The huge trauma of open or hybrid procedures are avoided.

  14. Thrombectomy in Acute Stroke With Tandem Occlusions From Dissection Versus Atherosclerotic Cause

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gory, Benjamin; Piotin, Michel; Haussen, Diogo C

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tandem steno-occlusive lesions were poorly represented in randomized trials and represent a major challenge for endovascular thrombectomy in acute anterior circulation strokes. The impact of the cervical carotid lesion cause (ie, atherosclerotic versus dissection) on outco...

  15. [Treatment of acute coronary dissection by angioplasty during diagnostic catheterization by the Sones' technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, G A; Cavalcanti, R C; Livera, J R; Mota, F B; de Oliveira, N S; Yaktine, H; Cano, M; Sousa, A G; Sousa, J E

    1991-12-01

    Male, 50 year-old, white, who underwent coronary arteriography and exhibited proximal dissection of the left anterior descending coronary artery induced by the Sones catheter with subsequent acute vessel occlusion. The patient was immediately treated by balloon angioplasty with excellent outcome.

  16. Urgent Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation in Patients With Severe Aortic Stenosis and Acute Heart Failure: Procedural and 30-Day Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landes, Uri; Orvin, Katia; Codner, Pablo; Assali, Abid; Vaknin-Assa, Hana; Schwartznberg, Shmuel; Levi, Amos; Shapira, Yaron; Sagie, Alexander; Kornowski, Ran

    2016-06-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is recommended for patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS) who are at prohibitive/high risk for surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). Patients with severe AS may experience acute decompensated heart failure (HF) that is resistant to medical therapy. We report our TAVI experience in treating patients with unstable AS who require urgent intervention for their aortic valve disease. Patients were restrictively included in the urgent TAVI registry if they were admitted with acute refractory and persistent HF despite medical therapy and had TAVI performed during the same hospital stay. All others were included in the elective TAVI group. Between November 2008 and April 2015, 410 consecutive patients underwent TAVI at our centre-27 (6.6%) urgently. Patients operated on urgently were more likely to be frail and carry higher SAVR mortality risk based on The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Predicted Risk of Mortality/logistic EuroSCORE (LES) measures. Pulmonary edema was the most common clinical presentation. Preprocedural assessment used fewer imaging modalities, yet implantation success remained high and reached 96.3% using an additional valve (valve-within-valve) required in 3 patients, with no difference in periprocedural complications according to the Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 definitions. Although 30-day functional capacity was reduced, patients had similar 30-day mortality and major adverse cardiovascular event rates compared with patients who underwent elective TAVI. Short-term outcome after urgent TAVI appears to be reasonable. For patients with severe AS who experience acute decompensated HF that is recalcitrant to optimal medical therapy and who are at high risk with SAVR, urgent TAVI may be a viable treatment strategy. Larger prospective studies and data on long-term outcomes are needed. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Spontaneous coronary artery dissection: An exceptional cause of acute coronary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, H; Ekou, A; N'Djessan, J J; Zoumenou, A; Angoran, I; N'Guetta, R

    2018-02-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is an uncommon cause of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or sudden death, which typically affects young women. We reported two cases of black Africans patients, aged 56 and 52 years old, who presented to Abidjan Heart Institute for ACS. Coronary angiography showed spontaneous dissection of the right coronary artery in the first case, and dissection of the distal left anterior descending artery in the second. A conservative approach was preferred. Both patients received antiplatelet agents, beta-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and statins, with a favorable in-hospital course. These cases highlight SCAD as a possible cause of ACS. Implementation of interventional cardiology in Sub-Saharan Africa will help identify this uncommon cause of ACS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Ang II enhances noradrenaline release from sympathetic nerve endings thus contributing to the up-regulation of metalloprotease-2 in aortic dissection patients' aorta wall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Hu

    Full Text Available OBJECT: To test the hypothesis that angiotensin II (Ang II could enhance noradrenaline (NA release from sympathetic nerve endings of the aorta thus contributing to the up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2 during the formation of aortic dissection (AD. METHODS: Ang II, NA, MMP-2, MMP-9 of the aorta sample obtained during operation from aortic dissection patients were detected by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and ELISA and compared with controls. Isotope labelling method was used to test the impact of exogenous Ang II and noradrenaline on the NA release and MMP-2, MMP-9 expression on Sprague Dawley (SD rat aorta rings in vitro. Two kidneys, one clip, models were replicated for further check of that impact in SD rats in vivo. RESULTS: The concentration of Ang II, MMP-2, 9 was increased and NA concentration was decreased in aorta samples from AD patients. Exogenous Ang II enhanced while exogenous NA restrained NA release from aortic sympathetic endings. The Ang II stimulated NA release and the following MMP-2 up-regulation could be weakened by Losartan and chemical sympathectomy. Beta blocker did not influence NA release but down-regulated MMP-2. Long term in vivo experiments confirmed that Ang II could enhance NA release and up-regulate MMP-2. CONCLUSIONS: AD is initiated by MMP-2 overexpression as a result of increased NA release from sympathetic nervous endings in response to Ang II. This indicates an interaction of RAS and SAS during the formation of AD.

  19. Evaluation of flow volume and flow patterns in the patent false lumen of chronic aortic dissections using velocity-encoded cine magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Toshihisa; Watanabe, Shigeru; Sakurada, Hideki; Ono, Katsuhiro; Urano, Miharu; Hijikata, Yasuyoshi; Saito, Isao; Masuda, Yoshiaki [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-10-01

    In 21 patients with chronic aortic dissections and proven patent false lumens, the flow volume and flow patterns in the patent false lumens was evaluated using velocity-encoded cine magnetic resonance imaging (VENC-MRI) and the relationship between the flow characteristics and aortic enlargement was retrospectively examined. Flow patterns in the false lumen were divided into 3 groups: pattern A with primarily antegrade flow (n=6), pattern R with primarily retrograde flow (n=3), and pattern B with bidirectional flow (n=12). In group A, the rate of flow volume in the false lumen compared to the total flow volume in true and false lumens (%TFV) and the average rate of enlargement of the maximum diameter of the dissected aorta per year ({delta}D) were significantly greater than in groups R and B (%TFV: 74.1{+-}0.07 vs 15.2{+-}0.03 vs 11.8{+-}0.04, p<0.01; {delta}D: 3.62{+-}0.82 vs 0 vs 0.58{+-}0.15 mm/year, p<0.05, respectively). There was a significant correlation between %TFV and {delta}D (r=0.79, p<0.0001). Evaluation of flow volume and flow patterns in the patent false lumen using VENC-MRI may be useful for predicting enlargement of the dissected aorta. (author)

  20. Double valve replacement for acute spontaneous left chordal rupture secondary to chronic aortic incompetence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLenachan Jim

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 54 years old male with undiagnosed chronic calcific degenerative aortic valve incompetence presented with acute left anterior chordae tendinae rupture resulting in severe left heart failure and cardiogenic shock. He was successfully treated with emergency double valve replacement using mechanical valves. The pathogenesis of acute rupture of the anterior chordae tendinae, without any evidence of infective endocarditis or ischemic heart disease seems to have been attrition of the subvalvular mitral apparatus by the chronic regurgitant jet of aortic incompetence with chronic volume overload. We review the literature with specific focus on the occurrence of this unusual event.

  1. Acute mesenteric ischemia caused by spontaneous isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery: treatment by percutaneous stent placement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, D.A.; Kubik-Huch, R.; Marincek, B.; Pfammatter, T. [Dept. of Radiology, Zurich University Hospital (Switzerland); Schneider, E. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Zurich University Hospital (Switzerland)

    2000-12-01

    Spontaneous and isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery is a rare and often fatal event which has been successfully treated by surgery in several reported cases. We present a patient with acute mesenteric ischemia due to superior mesenteric artery dissection who was successfully treated by percutaneous endovascular placement of a Wallstent. (orig.)

  2. Elevated troponin levels and typical chest pain: Is always acute coronary syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altug Osken

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aortic dissection is a fatal disease that must be considered in the differential diagnosis of chest pain. If the diagnosis cannot be made in early period, mortality is very high. Here, we present a case of aortic dissection, clinically mimicking acute coronary syndrome.

  3. Recovery of Renal Function after Prolonged Anuria in Acute Suprarenal Aortic Occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongkind, Vincent; Kievit, Jur K; Wiersema, Arno M

    2016-01-01

    Acute suprarenal aortic occlusion is a rare but often catastrophic event. Despite immediate treatment, mortality and morbidity are high. We present a case of acute suprarenal aortic occlusion presenting with renal failure and dyspnea but without lower limb ischemia. Diagnosis was initially not taken in consideration. The patient required hemodialysis and temporary mechanical ventilation. After 13 days, an abdominal ultrasound was performed which revealed thrombosis of the suprarenal abdominal aorta. Suprarenal aortic thrombectomy was performed followed by aortobi-iliac bypass grafting. Diuresis returned 4 hr after surgery, and the patient fully recovered. Thorough review of the literature revealed only 8 cases of acute suprarenal aortic occlusion. Only 3 patients survived. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of acute suprarenal occlusion, in which renal function could be restored after a 14-day period of anuria. The case illustrates that in select cases with prolonged acute renal failure aortorenal revascularization can be performed successfully. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pathogenetic Basis of Aortopathy and Aortic Valve Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-19

    Aortopathies; Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm; Aortic Valve Disease; Thoracic Aortic Disease; Thoracic Aortic Dissection; Thoracic Aortic Rupture; Ascending Aortic Disease; Descending Aortic Disease; Ascending Aortic Aneurysm; Descending Aortic Aneurysm; Marfan Syndrome; Loeys-Dietz Syndrome; Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome; Shprintzen-Goldberg Syndrome; Turner Syndrome; PHACE Syndrome; Autosomal Recessive Cutis Laxa; Congenital Contractural Arachnodactyly; Arterial Tortuosity Syndrome

  5. Bicuspid Aortic Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    aortic valvular disease, endocarditis, ascending aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection.1-4 There is also an association of BAV with coarctation of...for aortic aneurysm , patients with BAV appear to have additional risks for aortic disease. Nistri et al.12 reported significant aortic root...Congenital heart disease in patients with Turner’s syndrome. Italian study group for Turner syndrome (ISGTS). J Pediatr 1998; 133:688-692. 7. Schmid

  6. Endovascular stent graft treatment of acute thoracic aortic transections due to blunt force trauma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bjurlin, Marc A

    2012-02-01

    Endovascular stent graft treatment of acute thoracic aortic transections is an encouraging minimally invasive alternative to open surgical repair. Between 2006 and 2008, 16 patients with acute thoracic aortic transections underwent evaluation at our institution. Seven patients who were treated with an endovascular stent graft were reviewed. The mean Glasgow Coma Score was 13.0, probability of survival was .89, and median injury severity score was 32. The mean number of intensive care unit days was 7.7, mean number of ventilator support days was 5.4, and hospital length of stay was 10 days. Mean blood loss was 285 mL, and operative time was 143 minutes. Overall mortality was 14%. Procedure complications were a bleeding arteriotomy site and an endoleak. Endovascular treatment of traumatic thoracic aortic transections appears to demonstrate superior results with respect to mortality, blood loss, operative time, paraplegia, and procedure-related complications when compared with open surgical repair literature.

  7. A Case of Critical Aortic Stenosis Masquerading as Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth A. Wayangankar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum cardiac troponins I and T are reliable and highly specific markers of myocardial injury. Studies have shown that at least 20% of patients with severe aortic stenosis have detectable serum troponins. This case report describes a patient who presented as suspected acute coronary syndrome with markedly elevated troponin levels, who was later found to have normal coronaries and critical aortic stenosis. This case highlights the need for comprehensive and accurate physical examination in patients who present with angina. Critical aortic stenosis may cause such severe subendocardial ischemia as to cause marked elevation in cardiac markers and mimic an acute coronary syndrome. Careful physical examination will lead to an earlier use of non invasive techniques, such as echocardiography to confirm the correct diagnosis and the avoidance of inappropriate treatments such as intravenous nitroglycerin and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors.

  8. The severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemic in mainland China dissected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuchun Cao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of a recently published series of studies that give a detailed and comprehensive documentation of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS epidemic in mainland China, which severely struck the country in the spring of 2003. The epidemic spanned a large geographical extent but clustered in two areas: first in Guangdong Province, and about 3 months later in Beijing with its surrounding areas. Reanalysis of all available epidemiological data resulted in a total of 5327 probable cases of SARS, of whom 343 died. The resulting case fatality ratio (CFR of 6.4% was less than half of that in other SARS-affected countries or areas, and this difference could only partly be explained by younger age of patients and higher number of community acquired infections. Analysis of the impact of interventions demonstrated that strong political commitment and a centrally coordinated response was the most important factor to control SARS in mainland China, whereas the most stringent control measures were all initiated when the epidemic was already dying down. The long-term economic consequence of the epidemic was limited, much consumption was merely postponed, but for Beijing irrecoverable losses to the tourist sector were considerable. An important finding from a cohort study was that many former SARS patients currently suffer from avascular osteo­necrosis, as a consequence of the treatment with corticosteroids during their infection. The SARS epidemic provided valuable information and lessons relevant in controlling outbreaks of newly emerging infectious diseases, and has led to fundamental reforms of the Chinese health system. In particular, a comprehensive nation-wide internet-based disease reporting system was established.

  9. Tratamento cirúrgico dos aneurismas e dissecções do arco aórtico Surgical treatment of aneurysms and dissections of the aortic arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayard GONTIJO FILHO

    1999-10-01

    ; 31 patients were male (66.0% and ages ranged from 26-74 years (mean = 54.9 ± 10.9. Aortic dissection was present in 33 patients (70.2% and fusiform or sacular aneurysms in 14 (29.8%. Previous cardíac procedures had been performed in 11 patients (23.4%, rupture with cardíac tamponade was present in 4 patients. Median sternotomy was used in 42 cases and bilateral thoracotomy in 5. Deep hypothermia with circulatory arrest was used in 97.8% of cases with the arrest period ranging from 15 to 60 minutes (m = 30.6 ± 12.6. Anterior hemiarch reconstruction was used in 19 patients (40.4%, posterior hemiarch in 5 (10.6%, total arch replacement in 18 (38.3% aortoplasty in 4 (8.5% and extra-anatomic bypass with exclusion in 1 (2.1%. The main associated procedures were: myocardial revascularization (9, ascending aorta replacement by a valved conduit (15, elephant trunk (5 and aortic valve replacement (3. Hospital mortality was 12,3% (6 patients and respiratory insufficiency was the most common non-fatal complication (7 cases. Determinant factors for hospital mortality showed a statistical tendency for age over 60 years (p = 0.17 and for acute aortic dissection (p = 0.07. Late follow-up was achieved in 95.12% of the hospital survivors. There were 3 late deaths (1 cerebro-vascular accident, 2 reoperations. The 9 year survival rate is 80.85%.

  10. Acute hypotension induced by aortic clamp vs. PTH provokes distinct proximal tubule Na+ transporter redistribution patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leong, Patrick K K; Yang, Li E; Lin, Harrison W

    2004-01-01

    in renal cortical membranes fractionated on sorbitol density gradients. Aortic clamp-induced acute hypotension (from 100 +/- 3 to 78 +/- 2 mmHg) provoked a 62% decrease in urine output and a significant decrease in volume flow from the proximal tubule detected as a 66% decrease in endogenous lithium......-density membranes enriched in apical markers. PTH at much lower doses (

  11. Relation of left ventricular free wall rupture and/or aneurysm with acute myocardial infarction in patients with aortic stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikh, Irtiza N.; Roberts, William C.

    2017-01-01

    This minireview describes 6 previously reported patients with left ventricular free wall rupture and/or aneurysm complicating acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients with aortic stenosis. The findings suggest that left ventricular rupture and/or aneurysm is more frequent in patients with AMI associated with aortic stenosis than in patients with AMI unassociated with aortic stenosis, presumably because of retained elevation of the left ventricular peak systolic pressure after the appeara...

  12. Acute resistance exercise using free weights on aortic wave reflection characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu Lun; Gerhart, Hayden; Mayo, Xián; Kingsley, J Derek

    2018-01-01

    Aortic wave reflection characteristics such as the augmentation index (AIx), wasted left ventricular pressure energy (ΔE w ) and aortic haemodynamics, such as aortic systolic blood pressure (ASBP), strongly predict cardiovascular events. The effects of acute resistance exercise (ARE) using free-weight exercises on these characteristics are unknown. Therefore, we sought to determine the effects of acute free-weight resistance exercise on aortic wave reflection characteristics and aortic haemodynamics in resistance-trained individuals. Fifteen young, healthy resistance-trained (9 ± 3 years) individuals performed two randomized sessions consisting of an acute bout of free-weight resistance exercise (ARE) or a quiet control (CON). The ARE consisted of three sets of 10 repetitions at 75% one repetition maximum for squat, bench press and deadlift. In CON, the participants rested in the supine position for 30 min. Measurements were made at baseline before sessions and 10 min after sessions. A two-way ANOVA was used to compare the effects of condition across time. There were no significant interactions for aortic or brachial blood pressures. Compared to rest, there were significant increases in augmentation pressure (rest: 5·7 ± 3·0 mmHg; recovery: 10·4 ± 5·7 mmHg, P = 0·002), AIx (rest: 116·8 ± 4·2%; recovery: 123·2 ± 8·4%, P = 0·002), AIx normalized at 75 bpm (rest: 5·2 ± 7·6%; recovery: 27·3 ± 13·2%, P<0·0001), ΔE w (rest: 1215 ± 674 dynes s cm -2 ; recovery: 2096 ± 1182 dynes s cm -2 , P = 0·008), and there was a significant decrease in transit time of the reflected wave (rest: 150·7 ± 5·8 ms; recovery 145·5 ± 5·6 ms, P<0·001) during recovery from ARE compared to CON. These data suggest that ARE using free-weight exercises may have no effect on aortic and brachial blood pressure but may significantly alter aortic wave reflection characteristics. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and

  13. Coronary artery dissection and acute myocardial infarction following blunt chest trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tønnessen Theis

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Blunt chest trauma might lead to cardiac injury ranging from simple arrhythmias to lethal conditions such as cardiac rupture. We experienced a case of initially overlooked traumatic coronary artery dissection which resulted in acute myocardial infarction (AMI. A high degree of suspicion is needed to diagnose this condition. Based on our case, we will give an overview of relevant literature on this topic. ECG, echocardiography, coronary angiography and cardiac enzymes are valuable tools in diagnosing this rare condition. The time span from coronary artery occlusion to revascularisation must be short if AMI is to be avoided.

  14. Intramyocardial Dissecting Hematoma after Acute Myocardial Infarction-Echocardiographic Features and Clinical Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; He, Yi Hua; Liu, Wen Xu; Sun, Lin; Han, Jian Cheng; Man, Ting Ting; Gu, Xiao Yan; Chen, Zhuo; Wen, Zhao Ying; Henein, Michael Y

    2016-07-01

    Intramyocardial dissecting hematoma (IDH) after acute myocardial infarction (MI) is a rare form of subacute cardiac rupture and hence management uncertainties. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical course of a small series of IDH patients and to review the available evidence for managing similar cases. Eight IDH patients from our center had echocardiographic, coronary angiographic and clinical outcome data reviewed. PubMed was also searched for IDH following MI. Cases were divided into three groups and compared according to the dissection location. In our 8 patients, 3 had septal, 1 right ventricular (RV), and 4 left ventricular (LV) dissection. Five were medically treated and 3 surgically repaired. Reviewing the literature revealed 68 IDH patients, of mean age 66 ± 10 years, 43 males. The percentage of IDH involving the LV free wall, septal, and RV free wall were 47%, 26.5%, and 26.5%, respectively. In the cohort as a whole, mortality was not different between surgically and medically treated patients (33.3% vs. 54.3%, P = 0.08), neither based on the IDH location (P = 0.49). While surgical and medical treatment of the LV free wall (20.0% vs. 40.9%, P = 0.25) and septal (46.2% vs. 60.0%, P = 0.60) were not different, surgical repair of RV free wall had significantly better survival (30.0% vs. 87.5%, P = 0.015). The LVEF (P = 0.82), mitral regurgitation (P = 0.49) failed to predict mortality. While survival following medical and surgical treatment of LV IDH is not different, patients with RV free wall dissection benefit significantly from surgical repair. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Isolated Superior Mesenteric Artery Dissection with Small Intestine Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Aimi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric artery (SMA dissection without aortic dissection is a rare condition, and its diagnosis is considered to be difficult. Intestinal infarction is a severe complication of the disease, which may require resection of the intestine. We present a case of isolated SMA dissection. A 53-year-old man experienced sudden pain in the abdomen while playing Japanese pinball and was admitted to our hospital due to acute abdominal symptoms of uncertain cause. Enhanced CT revealed a defect of the root of the SMA, while angiography and intravascular ultrasound findings showed dissection of the SMA wall. Conservative treatment was chosen at the time, while a part of the small intestine was eventually resected because of progressive ischemia. Although SMA dissection is a rare occurrence in cases with acute abdominal symptoms, awareness of the condition is important for differential diagnosis.

  16. Repair of aortic root in patients with aneurysm or dissection: comparing the outcomes of valve-sparing root replacement with those from the Bentall procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvard Skripochnik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Management of aortic root aneurysm or dissection has been the subject of much discussion that has led to some modifications. The current trend is a valve-sparing root replacement. We compared the outcome following valve sparing root repair with Bentall procedure. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 70 patients who underwent root replacement for aneurysm or dissection and compared the outcomes of valve-sparing root replacement with those of the Bentall procedure from January 2007 to December 2011 at our institution. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients had valve-sparing aortic root replacement (VSR, including reimplantation or remodeling (23 males and 2 females, and 45 patients had the Bentall procedure (34 males and 11 females. Patients who underwent a VSR were younger with a mean age of 55.4 ± 14.8 years compared to those who underwent the Bentall procedure with a mean age of 60.6 ± 12.7 (P=ns. The preoperative aortic insufficiency (AI in the VSR group was moderate in 8 (32% patients, and severe in 6 (24%. Preoperative creatinine was 1 ± 0.35 mg/dl in the VSR group and 1.1 ± 0.87 mg/dl in the Bentall group. In the VSR group, 3 (12% patients had emergency surgery; by contrast, in the Bentall group, 8 (17% patients had emergent surgery. Concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting (excluding coronary reimplantation was performed in 8 (32% patients in the VSR group and in 12 (26.6% patients in the Bentall group (P=0.78; additional valve procedures were performed in 2 (8% patients in the VSR group and in 11 (24.4% patients in the Bentall group. The perioperative mortality was 8% (n=2 and 13.3% (n=6, for the VSR and Bentall procedures, respectively (P=0.7, ns. The total duration of intensive care unit stay was 116.6 ± 106 hours for VSR patients and 152.5 ± 218.2 hours for Bentall patients (P=0.5. The overall length of stay in the hospital was 10 ± 8.1 days for VSR and 11 ± 9.52 days for Bentall (P=0.89. The one-year survival was 92

  17. Acute pulmonary edema due to stress cardiomyopathy in a patient with aortic stenosis: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Monika F

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Stress cardiomyopathy is a condition of chest pain, breathlessness, abnormal heart rhythms and sometimes congestive heart failure or shock precipitated by intense mental or physical stress. Case presentation A 64-year-old male with a known diagnosis of moderate-to-severe aortic stenosis and advised that valve replacement was not urgent, presented with acute pulmonary edema following extraordinary mental distress. The patient was misdiagnosed as having a "massive heart attack" and...

  18. Redox stress in Marfan syndrome: Dissecting the role of the NADPH oxidase NOX4 in aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Altayó, Francesc; Meirelles, Thayna; Crosas-Molist, Eva; Sorolla, M Alba; Del Blanco, Darya Gorbenko; López-Luque, Judit; Mas-Stachurska, Aleksandra; Siegert, Ana-Maria; Bonorino, Fabio; Barberà, Laura; García, Carolina; Condom, Enric; Sitges, Marta; Rodríguez-Pascual, Fernando; Laurindo, Francisco; Schröder, Katrin; Ros, Joaquim; Fabregat, Isabel; Egea, Gustavo

    2018-02-20

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is characterized by the formation of ascending aortic aneurysms resulting from altered assembly of extracellular matrix fibrillin-containing microfibrils and dysfunction of TGF-β signaling. Here we identify the molecular targets of redox stress in aortic aneurysms from MFS patients, and investigate the role of NOX4, whose expression is strongly induced by TGF-β, in aneurysm formation and progression in a murine model of MFS. Working models included aortae and cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from MFS patients, and a NOX4-deficient Marfan mouse model (Fbn1 C1039G/+ -Nox4 -/- ). Increased S-nitrosylation and reactive oxygen species levels were found in the tunica media of human aortic aneurysms and in cultured VSMC. Proteomic analysis identified nitrated and carbonylated proteins, which included smooth muscle α-actin (αSMA) and annexin A2. NOX4 immunostaining increased in the tunica media of human Marfan aorta and was transcriptionally overexpressed in VSMC. Fbn1 C1039G/+ -Nox4 -/- mice aortas showed a reduction of fragmented elastic fibers, which was accompanied by an amelioration in the Marfan-associated enlargement of the aortic root. Increase in the contractile phenotype marker calponin in the tunica media of MFS mice aortas was abrogated in Fbn1 C1039G/+ -Nox4 -/- mice. Endothelial dysfunction evaluated by myography in the Marfan ascending aorta was prevented by the absence of Nox4 or catalase-induced H 2 O 2 decomposition. We conclude that redox stress occurs in MFS, whose targets are actin-based cytoskeleton members and regulators of extracellular matrix homeostasis. Likewise, NOX4 have an impact in the progression of the aortic dilation in MFS and in the structural organization of the aortic tunica media, the VSMC phenotypic modulation, and endothelial function. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Combined venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and transcatheter aortic valve implantation for the treatment of acute aortic prosthesis dysfunction in a high-risk patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergolini, Amedeo; Zampi, Giordano; Tinti, Maria Denitza; Polizzi, Vincenzo; Pino, Paolo Giuseppe; Pontillo, Daniele; Musumeci, Francesco; Luzi, Giampaolo

    2016-01-01

    We describe the case of a patient with acute bioprosthesis dysfunction in cardiogenic shock, in whom hemodynamic support was provided by venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and successfully treated by transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of aspirin as sole oral antiplatelet therapy in acute flow diversion for ruptured dissecting aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Albert Ho Yuen; Ramesh, Rajalakshmi; Wenderoth, Jason; Davies, Mark; Cheung, Andrew

    2017-05-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to rupture of a circumferential dissecting aneurysm continues to be a treatment dilemma. Vessel sacrifice, when possible, continues to be the safest option but in certain cases this is not possible due to lack of collateral supply. In such cases, coil assisted endovascular flow diversion has become a potential option but the requirement for dual antiplatelet therapy in an unsecured intracranial aneurysm continues to raise concern.We present a 48-year-old man with a World Federation of Neurological Surgeons grade 5 subarachnoid hemorrhage, secondary to a ruptured intradural left vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm, who was treated successfully with a pipeline embolization device with Shield technology using aspirin and a single intravenous loading dose of abciximab. To our knowledge, this is the first case of an acute flow diversion performed using only aspirin as the sole oral antiplatelet agent. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. [Diagnosis and treatment of aortic diseases : new guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggebrecht, H

    2014-12-01

    In September 2014 the European Society of Cardiology issued guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of aortic diseases in adults. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) represents the imaging modality of first choice as it is rapidly and almost ubiquitously available and can evaluate the entire aorta in a single-step examination. In patients with a high clinical suspicion of an acute aortic syndrome based on (family) history and symptoms, CT should be performed without further delay to confirm or refute the diagnosis. Diseases involving the ascending aorta remain a domain of open surgery, be it on an emergency basis in an acute type A dissection or electively in asymptomatic aneurysms with an aortic diameter >5.5 cm. The presence of risk factors (e. g. bicuspid aortic valve, Marfan syndrome and aortic dissection/rupture in the family history) may prompt earlier surgical repair at a lower threshold diameter. The treatment of descending aortic disease is primarily conservative including modification of cardiovascular risk factors. If indicated, endovascular aortic stent graft repair appears to be superior to open surgery for descending thoracic aortic disease or equivalent in the treatment of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms. The management of aortic diseases related to genetic connective tissue diseases (e. g. Marfan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome) is complex and requires special multidisciplinary expertise.

  2. [Management concept for acute traumatic aortic rupture based on a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, G; Schläpfer, R; Stirnemann, P; Stulz, P

    2000-01-01

    Acute traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta (ATRRA) is mainly a consequence of high-speed travel or fall from great altitude. Most of the victims die at the accident scene. Only 10-20% reach the hospital alive. Because of the extremely high mortality, emergency repair seems to be indicated. Taking into consideration that the hemorrhage into the mediastinum may remain constained and the patient usually suffers from a wide variety of life-threatening causes of injury the aforementioned option is probably not the best one. We report on a patient whose "stable" aortic rupture was surgically corrected after stablization of the circulation, coagulation and respiratory problems.

  3. Acute Myocardial Infarction in an Elderly Patient With Severe Aortic Stenosis and Angiographically Normal Coronary Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Feng Lin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Aortic stenosis (AS is common in the elderly and is associated with an increased risk of death from cardiovascular events. Nevertheless, acute myocardial infarction (AMI in patients with severe AS and “normal” coronary arteries is very rare. We present an elderly male with severe AS and angiographically normal coronary arteries who experienced AMI. Platelet hyperaggregability, activation of blood coagulation, coronary microcirculatory dysfunction, imbalance of supply and demand in the hypertrophied myocardium, and subendocardial ischemia predisposed by AS are possible mechanisms. The relevant literature is reviewed and discussed in the report.

  4. The Role of Extra-Anatomic Bypass in the Surgical Treatment of Acute Abdominal Aortic Occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, Gokhan; Bozok, Şahin; Ergene, Şaban; Karakisi, Sedat Ozan; Tufekci, Nebiye; Kazdal, Hızır; Ogullar, Sabri; Kucuker, Seref Alp

    2015-06-01

    Aortic occlusion is rare catastophic pathology with high rates of mortality and severe morbidity. In this study, we aimed to share our experience in the management of aortic occlusion and to assess the outcomes of extra-anatomic bypass procedures. Eighteen patients who had undergone extra-anatomic bypass interventions in the cardiovascular surgery department of our tertiary care center between July 2009 and May 2013 were retrospectively evaluated. All patients were preoperatively assessed with angiograms (conventional, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance angiography) and Doppler ultrasonography. Operations consisted of bilateral femoral thromboembolectomy, axillobifemoral extra-anatomic bypass and femoropopliteal bypass and were performed on an emergency basis. In all patients during early postoperative period successful revascularization outcomes were obtained; however, one of these operated patients died on the 10th postoperative due to multiorgan failure. The patients were followed up for a mean duration of 21.2±9.4 months (range, 6 to 36 months). Amputation was not warranted for any patient during postoperative follow-up. To conclude, acute aortic occlusion is a rare but devastating event and is linked with substantial morbidity and mortality in spite of the recent advances in critical care and vascular surgery. Our results have shown that these hazardous outcomes may be minimized and better rates of graft patency may be achieved with extra-anatomic bypass techniques tailored according to the patient.

  5. The Role of Extra-Anatomic Bypass in the Surgical Treatment of Acute Abdominal Aortic Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Ilhan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aortic occlusion is rare catastophic pathology with high rates of mortality and severe morbidity. In this study, we aimed to share our experience in the management of aortic occlusion and to assess the outcomes of extra-anatomic bypass procedures. Methods: Eighteen patients who had undergone extra-anatomic bypass interventions in the cardiovascular surgery department of our tertiary care center between July 2009 and May 2013 were retrospectively evaluated. All patients were preoperatively assessed with angiograms (conventional, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance angiography and Doppler ultrasonography. Operations consisted of bilateral femoral thromboembolectomy, axillo-bifemoral extra-anatomic bypass and femoropopliteal bypass and were performed on an emergency basis. Results: In all patients during early postoperative period successful revascularization outcomes were obtained; however, one of these operated patients died on the 10th postoperative due to multiorgan failure. The patients were followed up for a mean duration of 21.2±9.4 months (range, 6 to 36 months. Amputation was not warranted for any patient during postoperative follow-up.. Conclusion: To conclude, acute aortic occlusion is a rare but devastating event and is linked with substantial morbidity and mortality in spite of the recent advances in critical care and vascular surgery. Our results have shown that these hazardous outcomes may be minimized and better rates of graft patency may be achieved with extra-anatomic bypass techniques tailored according to the patient.

  6. Transapical sutureless aortic valve implantation under magnetic resonance imaging guidance: Acute and short-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Keith A; Mazilu, Dumitru; Cai, Junfeng; Kindzelski, Bogdan; Li, Ming

    2015-04-01

    Despite the increasing success and applicability of transcatheter aortic valve replacement, 2 critical issues remain: the durability of the valves, and the ideal imaging to aid implantation. This study was designed to investigate the transapical implantation of a device of known durability using real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance. A sutureless aortic valve was used that employs a self-expanding nitinol stent and is amenable to transapical delivery. MRI (1.5-T) was used to identify the anatomic landmarks in 60-kg Yucatan swine. Prostheses were loaded into an MRI-compatible delivery device with an active guidewire to enhance visualization. A series of acute feasibility experiments were conducted (n = 10). Additional animals (n = 6) were allowed to survive and had follow-up MRI scans and echocardiography at 90 days postoperatively. Postmortem gross examination was performed. The valve was MRI compatible and created no significant MRI artifacts. The 3 commissural struts were visible on short-axis view; therefore, coronary ostia obstruction was easily avoided. The average implantation time was 65 seconds. Final results demonstrated stability of the implants with preservation of myocardial perfusion and function over 90 days: the ejection fraction was 48% ± 15%; the peak gradient was 17.3 ± 11.3 mm Hg; the mean gradient was 9.8 ± 7.2 mm Hg. Mild aortic regurgitation was seen in 4 cases, trace in 1 case, and a severe central jet in 1 case. Prosthesis positioning was evaluated during gross examination. We demonstrated that a sutureless aortic valve can be safely and expeditiously implanted through a transapical approach under real-time MRI guidance. Postimplantation results showed a well-functioning prosthesis, with minimal regurgitation, and stability over time. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Postoperative follow-up of Stanford type A aortic dissections with Spiral-CT and MRI: Normal imaging findings and typical complications; Spiral-CT und MRT der operierten Stanford Typ A-Aortendissektion: Verlauf und Komplikationen

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    Sommer, T.; Pauleit, D.; Hofer, U.; Preusse, K.; Layer, G.; Schild, H. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Radiologische Klinik; Abu-Ramadan, D.; Likungu, J. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Herz- und Gefaesschirurgie

    1998-02-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate normal postoperative Spiral-CT and MRI findings and typical complications in patients with aortic repair after Stanford type A aortic dissection. Results: The following postoperative complications were seen: Three pseudoaneurysms which developed at the proximal anastomoses of the Dacron prosthesis in two cases and at the insertion site of the reimplanted left coronary artery after implantation of a composite graft (Bentall procedure) in one case; one re-dissection; one perforation of the false lumen; periprostethic flow in one patient after surgical repair of type A dissection by the graft inclusion technique; progressive dilatation of the false lumen in 4 cases; dilatation of the aortic root in a Marfan patient after replacement of the ascending aorta. Conclusion: Precise knowledge of the surgical technique performed is crucial to accurate postoperative imaging evaluation. MRI is the method of choice in the postoperative follow-up of clinically stable patients with aortic dissections. (orig./AJ) [Deutsch] Ziel: Darstellung der verschiedenen Operationsverfahren bei der Stanford Typ A-Dissektion mit ihren typischen Aspekten in Spiral-CT und MRT sowie ihren spezifischen Komplikationen. Ergebnisse: Folgende postoperative Komplikationen traten auf: Drei Pseudoaneurysmen, die zweimal von der proximalen Anastomose des Aorta-ascendens-Ersatzes sowie einmal von der Insertionsstelle der reimplantierten linken Koronararterie (Operation nach Bentall) ausgingen; eine Re-Dissektion; eine gedeckte Perforation des falschen Lumens; periprothetischer Fluss nach Anwendung der Graft-Inclusion-Technik; progrediente Dilatation des falschen Lumens in 4 Faellen; aneurysmatische Erweiterung des originaeren Aortenbulbus bei einem Marfan-Patienten nach suprakoronarem Aorta-ascendens-Ersatz. Schlussfolgerung: Bei der postoperativen Verlaufskontrolle von Patienten mit Aortendissektionen mittels Spiral-CT und MRT sind Kenntnisse der verschiedenen Operationsverfahren mit

  8. Open surgery for chronic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, Jason; Kelay, Arun; Mastracci, Tara M

    2016-05-01

    Chronic aortic dissection is one of the most challenging pathologies faced by aortic surgeons. The variety of presentations and the multiple comorbidities of the patients make treatment and follow-up a subject of much debate. Historical data is difficult to interpret because of the heterogeneity of the included populations, and the common tendency of authors to pool outcomes of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair secondary to degenerative pathology or connective tissue disorder with those who have an underlying dissection. As the endovascular treatment of chronic aortic dissection becomes more commonplace with the increasing use of branched and fenestrated technology, it will be important to have an historical "gold standard" to use as a comparator. This narrative review of the literature describes the challenges to interpretation of data and the available information published about chronic aortic dissection. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Aortic non communicating dissections. A study with helical CT; Studio dell'ematoma intramurale aortico. Aspetti con Tomografia Computerizzata spirale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midiri, M.; Strada, A.; Stabile Ianora, A.A.; Rotondo, A.; Angelelli, G. [Bari Univ., Bari (Italy). Dipt. di Medicina Interna e Medicina Pubblica, Sez. di Diagnostica per Immagini; Scialpi, M. [Ospedale SS. Annunziata, Taranto (Italy); D' Agostino, D.; De Luca Tupputi Schinosa, L. [Bari Univ., Bari (Italy). Dipt. Emergenze Trapianto d' Organo, Sez. di Cardiochirurgia

    2000-09-01

    The evaluate the signs of aortic intramural hematoma with helical CT and the diagnostic role of this technique in patients with this condition. It was reviewed the CT findings of 396 patients submitted to emergency examinations for suspected aortic dissection from 1995 to 1999. Only 18 patients (6 women and 12 men) had CT signs of aortic intramural hematoma. Helical CT studies were carried out with the following parameters: slice thickness 10 mm, reconstruction index 10, feed 1.5 mm, conventional algorithm with minimum values of 130 kV and 125mA. All patients were examined with dynamic contrast-enhanced CT, before and after a power injection of 130 mL ionic contrast material. It was studied: hematoma localization and longitudinal extension; thickness and density of aortic wall; presence and location of intimal calcifications; integrity of intimal wall; hemo mediastinum and/or hemo thorax. Aortic wall thickening appeared as a high density crescent-shaped area at baseline CT and had low density on enhanced images in all patients. Thickening was eccentric in 14/18 patients and concentric in 4/18 only; it always exceeded 4 mm. It was found some intimal calcifications in 8 patients and hemo thorax and/or hemo mediastinum in 9 patients. A patient with type A hematoma died of cardiac tamponade a few hours after CT diagnosis. Six patients (5 type B and 1 type A) underwent anti-hypertensive treatment and radiological follow-up. Eleven patients (6 type A and 5 type B) underwent prosthesis replacement and 5 of them (3 type A and 2 type B) died of postoperative complications. In the 5 type B patients surgery was performed because of treatment-resistant pain and of the onset of ischemic complications to abdominal organs caused by involvement of the main collateral branches of the aorta. One patient with type A hematoma was submitted to drug treatment because it was judged unresectable. Intramural hematoma of the aorta is a distinct pathological entity, which should not be

  10. Pig specific vascular anatomy allows acute infrarenal aortic occlusion without hind limb ischemia and stepwise occlusion without clinical signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haacke, N; Unger, J K; Haidenhein, C; Russ, M; Hiebl, B; Niehues, S M

    2011-01-01

    In a porcine, aortic graft model we found 5 animals to develop and survive unnoticed, complete infrarenal aortic occlusion and 2 pigs with an acute occlusion but rather unspecific clinical symptoms. We investigated the pigs' vascular system to classify the anatomic capabilities to compensate for an acute abdominal aortic occlusion. Retrospective analysis of CT scans and clinical data to specify unexpected results in a case series of infrarenal occlusion in a porcine model. Collaborative study of experimental and clinical departments. Fifteen healthy female minipigs. All pigs underwent an infrarenal aortic graft intervention. Anesthesia and perioperative management of the animals were preformed along the standard operating procedures of the local Department of Experimental Medicine. All animals received perioperative antibiotics, ASS, and carprofen for postoperative analgesia. Arterial pressure, heart rate, body temperature, and diuresis were monitored during surgery and therapeutic interventions. Contrast media based computed tomography (CT) with total body scans were performed at 1, 4, 10, 12 weeks after surgery. Comparable scans of cardiovascular healthy subjects (humans and pigs) and patients with a Leriche's syndrome were analyzed. Neither acute (within the first 12 h after surgery) nor stepwise total aortic occlusion show unmistakable clinical signs. In pigs, the epigastric artery (EGA) - which is in connection with suprarenal lumbal arteries, subclavian and external iliac artery - is highly developed associated to the high number of mammary glands of about 7 on one side. In humans, the ratio of aortic to EGA-diameter is 1 : 0.15. In minipigs we found a ratio of 1 : 0.43 which changed during aortic occlusion resulting in a ratio of 1 : 0.58. Pigs with a slowly developing occlusion demonstrated an enlargement of the ureteric artery of about 210% completing a sufficient collateral system. While in the human Leriche's syndrome months are needed to enlarge the

  11. Complicações pós-operatórias de pacientes com dissecção de aorta ascendente tratados cirurgicamente Postoperative complications of surgically treated ascending aortic dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Ferreira Almeida

    2011-09-01

    dissecção da aorta ascendente está associada à incidência aumentada de complicações pós-operatórias e tempo de permanência hospitalar, mas a mortalidade em 1 e 6 meses é igual a de pacientes após revascularização miocárdica pareados.OBJECTIVES: Ascending aortic dissection has a poor prognosis if it is not promptly corrected surgically. Even with surgical correction, postoperative management is feared because of its complicated course. Our aim was to describe the incidence of postoperative complications and identify the 1 and 6-month mortality rate of our ascending aortic dissection surgical cohort. Secondarily, a comparison was made between ascending aortic dissection patients and paired-matched patients who received urgent coronary artery bypass graft surgery. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of a prospectively-collected database from February 2005 through June 2008 revealed 12 ascending aortic dissection and 10 elective ascending aortic aneurysm repair patients. These patients were analyzed for demographic and perioperative characteristics. Ascending aortic dissection patients were compared to paired-matched coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients according to age (± 3 years, gender, elective/urgent procedure and surgical team. The main outcome was in-hospital morbidity, defined by postoperative complications, intensive care unit admission and hospital length of stay. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients received operations to correct ascending aortic dissections and ascending aortic aneurysms, while 246 patients received coronary artery bypass graft surgeries. Ascending aortic dissection patients were notably similar to ascending aortic aneurysm brackets, except for longer mechanical ventilation times and lengths of stay in the hospital. After matching coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients to an ascending aortic dissection group, the following significantly worse results were found for the Aorta group: higher incidence of postoperative

  12. Prevalence of spontaneous coronary artery dissection in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiguchi, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Atsushi; Ozaki, Yuichi; Taruya, Akira; Fukuda, Shota; Taguchi, Haruyuki; Iwaguro, Tetsuya; Ueno, Satoshi; Okumoto, Yasushi; Akasaka, Takashi

    2016-06-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) found typically in young females without classical coronary risk factors is thought to be a very rare cause of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The prevalence of SCAD in ACS subjects has been unclear, probably due to the nature of coronary angiography. The aim of this study was to use optical coherence tomography (OCT) to investigate the prevalence of SCAD in ACS. This study consisted of 326 patients with ACS (with or without ST-segment elevation) who underwent OCT to explore the entire culprit artery. According to OCT findings, patients were divided into a SCAD, a plaque rupture (PR), and a non-SCAD/non-PR group. OCT revealed 13 (4.0%) SCADs and 160 (49.1%) plaque ruptures in ACS subjects. The percentage of females versus males was greater in the SCAD group (SCAD: 53.8% vs. PR: 20.0% vs. non-SCAD/non-PR: 23.5%, p=0.02) while no difference was observed in age (SCAD: 67.3±13.3 vs. PR: 66.5±11.1 vs. non-SCAD/non-PR: 67.0±10.5, p=0.90). The prevalence of dyslipidemia (SCAD: 30.8% vs. PR: 63.8% vs. non-SCAD/non-PR: 67.5%, p=0.03) and current smoking (SCAD: 7.7% vs. PR: 57.9% vs. non-SCAD/non-PR: 59.7%, pcoronary risk factors. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013.

  13. Aortic Diameter Growth in Children With a Bicuspid Aortic Valve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkx, R.; Duijnhouwer, A.L.; Vink, E. de; Roos-Hesselink, J.W.; Schokking, M.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of aortic growth in patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is essential to identify patients at risk for dissection, but data on children remain unclear. We retrospectively evaluated the aortic diameters of all pediatric BAV patients, identified through an echocardiographic database

  14. Aortic Diameter Growth in Children With a Bicuspid Aortic Valve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkx, R. (Remy); A.L. Duijnhouwer (Anthonie L.); Vink, E. (Evelien); J.W. Roos-Hesselink (Jolien); M. Schokking (Michiel)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractKnowledge of aortic growth in patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is essential to identify patients at risk for dissection, but data on children remain unclear. We retrospectively evaluated the aortic diameters of all pediatric BAV patients, identified through an echocardiographic

  15. Acute outcomes after introduction of a standardized clinical assessment and management plan (SCAMP) for balloon aortic valvuloplasty in congenital aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras, Diego; Brown, David W; Rathod, Rahul; Friedman, Kevin; Gauvreau, Kimberly; Lock, James E; Esch, Jesse J; Bergersen, Lisa; Marshall, Audrey C

    2014-01-01

    Standardization of care can reduce practice variation, optimize resource utilization, and improve clinical outcomes. We have created a standardized clinical assessment and management plan (SCAMP) for patients having balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) for congenital aortic stenosis (AS). This study compares acute outcomes of BAV at our institution before and after introduction of this SCAMP. In this retrospective matched cohort study, each SCAMP patient was matched to four historical controls. Outcomes were categorized based on the combination of residual AS and aortic regurgitation (AR) as: (1) Optimal: gradient ≤ 35 mm Hg and trivial or no AR; (2) Adequate: gradient ≤ 35 mm Hg and mild AR; (3) Inadequate: gradient > 35 mm Hg and/or moderate or severe AR. All 23 SCAMP patients achieved a residual AS gradient ≤ 35 mm Hg; the median residual AS gradient for the SCAMP group was lower (25 [10-35] mm Hg) than in matched controls (30 [0-65] mm Hg; P = 0.005). The two groups did not differ with regard to degree of AR grade after BAV. Compared with controls, SCAMP patients were more likely to have an optimal result and less likely to have an inadequate result (52% vs. 34% and 17% vs. 45%, respectively; P = 0.02) CONCLUSIONS: A SCAMP for BAV resulted in optimal acute results in half of the initial 23 patients enrolled, and outcomes in this group were better than those of matched historical controls. Whether these improved acute outcomes translate into better long-term outcomes for this patient population remains to be seen. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. [Prognostic value of aortic stenosis in patients after acute coronary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumakova, O S; Selezneva, N D; Evdokimova, M A; Osmolovskaia, B S; Kochkina, M S; Aseĭcheva, O Iu; Minushkina, L O; Baklanova, T N; Talyzin, P A; Tereshchenko, S N; Dzhaiani, N A; Akatova, E V; Glezer, M G; Galiavich, A S; Zakirova, V B; Koziolova, N A; Polianskaia, E A; Iagoda, A V; Boeva, O I; Khorolets, E V; Shlyk, S V; Volkova, E G; Rodicheva, O A; Levashov, S Iu; Konstantinov, V O; Kalishevich, N B; Zateĭshchikov, D A

    2011-01-01

    With the aim to assess prevalence of aortic stenosis (AS) and prognostic value of its detection among survivors of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) we examined 851 patients included into multicenter prospective study of risk factors of serious vascular events and death after acute coronary syndrome. The patients were enrolled into the study in stable condition on 10th day after onset of myocardial infarction (MI) or unstable angina (UA). Examination involved medical history, laboratory tests and echocardiography. Afterwards all cases of death and serious vascular events were registered. Severity of AS was specified by maximal aortic flow rate: 1st degree > 2.5, 2nd degree 3.0-4.0, 3rd degree > 4.0 m/s. AS was detected in 16 patients (1.9%). AS severity was 1st, 2nd and 3rd degree in 9, 4 and 3 patients, respectively. Patients with AS were significantly older (77.4 vs. 61.3 years, p p = 0.021) and lowered renal function (66.7 vs. 34.0%, p 75 years (OR 1,395 [1.023-1.902], p = 0.036), history of CHF (1.319 [1.015-1.713], p = 0.038), history of MI (1.692 [1.320-2.170], p p = 0.012), left atrial diameter (1.024 [1.001-1.047], p = 0.037) and presence of AS (3.211 [1.742-.,916], p < 0.001). Prevalence of preexisting AS among patients who have had MI/UA is 1.9% what is similar to data of European Heart Survey ACS-II (1.8%). Presence of AS of any severity in a survivor of ACS worsens prognosis independently of other known risk factors.

  17. Fístula aortoesofágica após correção endovascular da dissecção de aorta torácica tipo B de Stanford Aortic-esophageal fistula after endovascular repair of Stanford type B thoracic aortic dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Gurgel Marques

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A correção endovascular da dissecção de aorta tipo B tem se mostrado como uma nova alternativa para reduzir o trauma cirúrgico. No entanto, as complicações de médio e longo prazo, tais como a fístula aortoesofágica, são ainda pouco conhecidas e pouco relatadas. O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever três casos de fístula aortoesofágica após o tratamento endovascular de 23 casos de dissecção de aorta descendente conduzidos pela equipe de Cirurgia Vascular da Santa Casa de São Paulo em um estudo retrospectivo. Esses pacientes apresentavam características em comum, como dissecção crônica, pós-operatório imediato sem intercorrências, necessidade de reintervenções, oclusão de troncos arteriais como a artéria subclávia, mesentérica, tronco celíaco, e, ainda, uma rápida evolução para o óbito após os primeiros sinais de fístula. Portanto, embora raramente descrita na literatura, a ocorrência de fístula aortoesofágica é uma complicação de causa até o momento indefinida do tratamento endovascular da dissecção de aorta descendente que merece atenção, dada sua recorrência e evolução fatal.Endoluminal stent-graft for type B aortic dissection is a new alternative to reduce surgical trauma. However, medium- and long-term complications are still little known and poorly reported, such as the aortic-esophageal fistula. The objective of this study is to describe three cases of aortic-esophageal fistula after the endovascular treatment of 23 cases of descending aortic dissection conducted by the vascular surgery team of Santa Casa de São Paulo in a retrospective study. These patients presented some common characteristics: chronic dissection, successful early outcome, need of reinterventions, occlusion of arterial trunks such as subclavian artery, mesenteric artery, celiac trunk, and finally, a fast fatal course after the first fistula-related symptoms. Therefore, despite rarely described in the literature, aortic

  18. Perfusão cerebral retrógrada e anterógrada no tratamento cirúrgico de dissecção aguda da aorta ascendente Cerebral retrograde perfusion alternating with carotid artery anterograde perfusion in the surgical treatment of acute dissection of ascending aorta dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Ducceschi Fontes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam o uso de perfusão cerebral retrógrada e anterógrada para proteção cerebral, em normotermia, durante tratamento cirúrgico de dissecção aguda de aorta do Tipo 1. O paciente foi considerado neurologicamente apto ao ser submetido ao Mini Mental State Examination, no pós-operatório tardio. Os autores acreditam que a associação dos métodos possa se constituir em uma alternativa para proteção cerebral nas operações para tratamento dos aneurismas e dissecções da aorta, após avaliação de seu emprego em uma série significante de pacientes.The authors report an original case using cerebral retrograde perfusion alternating with carotid artery anterograde perfusion, during the surgical treatment of acute ascending aorta dissection. The patient was discharged on 32nd post-operative day in a clinically controlled condition. The Mini Mental State Examination test was applied after 30 days and showed normal cerebral cognitive activity. The authors believe that this method can give a protective effect to the brain during procedures involving aortic dissection or aneurysms, after evaluating its use after a significant series of cases.

  19. Case report of severe Cushing's syndrome in medullary thyroid cancer complicated by functional diabetes insipidus, aortic dissection, jejunal intussusception, and paraneoplastic dysautonomia: remission with sorafenib without reduction in cortisol concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Muhammad M; Duaiji, Najla; Mutairi, Ghazi; Aklabi, Sabah; Qattan, Nasser; Abouzied, Mohei El-Din M; Sous, Mohamed W

    2015-09-09

    Normalization of cortisol concentration by multikinase inhibitors have been reported in three patients with medullary thyroid cancer-related Cushing's syndrome. Aortic dissection has been reported in three patients with Cushing's syndrome. Diabetes insipidus without intrasellar metastasis, intestinal intussusception, and paraneoplastic dysautonomia have not been reported in medullary thyroid cancer. An adult male with metastatic medullary thyroid cancer presented with hyperglycemia, hypernatremia, hypokalemia, hypertension, acne-like rash, and diabetes insipidus (urine volume >8 L/d, osmolality 190 mOsm/kg). Serum cortisol, adrenocorticoitropic hormone, dehydroepiandrostenedione sulfate, and urinary free cortisol were elevated 8, 20, 4.4, and 340 folds, respectively. Pituitary imaging was normal. Computed tomography scan revealed jejunal intussusception and incidental abdominal aortic dissection. Sorafenib treatment was associated with Cushing's syndrome remission, elevated progesterone (>10 fold), normalization of dehydroepiandrostenedione sulfate, but persistently elevated cortisol concentration. Newly-developed proximal lower limb weakness and decreased salivation were associated with elevated ganglionic neuronal acetylcholine receptor (alpha-3) and borderline P/Q type calcium channel antibodies. Extreme cortisol concentration may have contributed to aortic dissection and suppressed antidiuretic hormone secretion; which combined with hypokalemia due cortisol activation of mineralocorticoid receptors, manifested as diabetes insipidus. This is the first report of paraneoplastic dysautonomia and jejunal intussusception in medullary thyroid cancer, they may be related to medullary thyroid cancer's neuroendocrine origin and metastasis, respectively. Remission of Cushing's syndrome without measurable reduction in cortisol concentration suggests a novel cortisol-independent mechanism of action or assay cross-reactivity. Normalization of dehydroepiandrostenedione

  20. Recycling and Reinforcing Intimomedial Flap of the Infrarenal Aorta Using Anterior Longitudinal Ligament in Patients With Acute Trauma With Bowel Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Milan; Radojkovic, Milan; Djordjevic, Predrag; Rancic, Dejan; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Rancic, Zoran

    2017-10-01

    We present a patient with blunt abdominal trauma with severe acute right limb ischemia and clinical signs of diffuse peritonitis. Computed tomography angiography showed circumferential dissection of the infrarenal aorta with occlusion of the right common iliac artery. We opted for simultaneous abdomen exploration and open repair of injured aorta. Critical weakening of the aortic wall with imminent rupture was identified intraoperatively. Aortotomy cranially from bifurcation showed circumferential intimomedial dissection. The fixation of fragile intimomedial flap of aortic dissection was achieved with reinforcement using an anterior longitudinal ligament. The long aortoiliac arteriotomy was repaired using a great saphenous vein patch. Patient had uneventful postoperative course and was discharged after 7 days. In patients with abdominal polytrauma with peritonitis, and no available endovascular tools, open surgery for circumferential aortic dissection is possible and successful. Described reinforcement of the posterior aortic wall to the anterior longitudinal ligament should be added to the armamentarium of aortic injury treatment.

  1. Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis Presenting with Acute Aortic and Mitral Regurgitation: Case Report and Big-Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kindi, Sadeer G; Amer Al-Aiti, M; Yang, Michael; Josephson, Richard A

    2017-01-01

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a rare vasculitis that can have multisystem involvement, though cardiac involvement is very rare. The case is described of a 53-year-old woman who presented with acute aortic and mitral valve regurgitation requiring surgical intervention. Pathology from the excised aortic valve showed geographic necrosis concerning for GPA. Subsequent rheumatologic testing was positive for anti-serine proteinase 3 (PR3) antibody, consistent with GPA. A year after the valve surgery the patient was found to have a vegetation of the mitral valve and elevated PR3 antibody levels, and was successfully treated with an intensification of immunosuppression. The cardiac involvement of GPA is discussed and big data analyzed to identify the epidemiology of valvular involvement. In conclusion, GPA can have multiple different valvular manifestations with a high recurrence rate. GPA should be considered in patients who present with acute valvular disease without any clear precipitant.

  2. Right coronary artery dissection and aneurysm presented as acute inferior myocardial infarction from an automobile airbag trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chunlai; Hu, Wuming; Zhu, Ning; Zhao, Xuyong; Xu, Jian; Ye, Shiyong; Xiang, Yijia; Lv, Linchun

    2015-10-01

    Coronary artery dissection and aneurysm culminating in acute myocardial infarction are rare after blunt chest trauma. We are reporting a case of a previously healthy 52-year-old man who presented with right inferior lobe contusion, pleural effusion, right interlobar fissure effusion, bone fracture of right fourth rib, and acute inferior wall myocardial infarction and who experienced blunt trauma in his right chest wall by an airbag deployment in a car accident. Coronary angiography showed an aneurysm in the middle of right coronary artery with 70% afferent narrowing just distal to the aneurysm with no visible atherosclerotic lesion. A 4.0×20 mm TEXUS Liberté stent in the lesion was deployed, and a good coronary flow was obtained without residual stenosis and the aneurysm vanished.

  3. [Established Indications for Invasive Treatment of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Ibrahim; Nienaber, Christoph

    2015-11-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysms are associated with high morbidity and mortality due to rupture and dissection. Conservative medical treatment is associated with a 5-year survival rate of 13 %. This rises to 70-79 % in case of surgical treatment. While classical surgical strategies still dominate the care for acute and chronic pathology of the ascending aorta and the proximal arch region, new endovascular concepts are emerging and are likely to evolve as primary treatment strategies for descending aortic pathology in suitable patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. The role of multi slice computed tomography in the evaluation of acute non-cardiac chest pain

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Vegar Zubović; Spomenka Kristić

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Differential diagnosis of acute chest pain encompasses a broad spectrum of illnesses which are most likely followed by benign outcomes (pneumonia, pneumothorax, pleurisy, pericardial effusion, hiatus hernia), but also illnesses of lethal outcomes (pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, aortic dissection,thoracic aortic aneurysms, thoracic aortic aneurysm rupture, etc). Illnesses associated with benign and lethal outcomes may present very similar if not the same symptoms, res...

  5. Resultados a médio prazo do tratamento cirúrgico da dissecção aguda de aorta tipo A com o emprego da prótese intraluminal Surgical treatment of type a aortic dissection using intraluminal prosthesis medium term follow up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Francisco de OLIVEIRA

    2001-06-01

    o observamos formação de pseudo-aneurisma, migração e o gradiente máximo encontrado foi de 16 mmHg. Conclusão: O emprego da prótese intraluminal para o tratamento da dissecção aguda de aorta do tipo A nos proporciona uma anastomose rápida, segura e hem2ostática. Na avaliação pós-operatória e a médio prazo não observamos qualquer complicação relacionada ao emprego desta técnica.Introduction: The concept of intraluminal prosthesis was introduced by CARREL, in 1912. In 1978, DUREAU & ABLASA described the first case of type A acute aortic dissection treated with intraluminal prosthesis. This prosthesis was used in the eighties by several groups with good results. Several reports of complications (migration, embolism, stenosis, pseudoaneurysms formation made the surgical groups lose the enthusiasm with that technique. Objective: To evaluate the sutureless anastomosis using the intraluminal prosthesis in the treatment of type A acute aortic dissection. Material and Methods: During the period from July/1996 to November/1999, 64 patients with the diagnosis of type A acute aortic dissection were operated in our Service. In all the cases we used the intraluminal ring as the technique of suture. The average of age was of 56.3 years, and 89% of the patients were males. All the patients had systemic hypertension. In 26 patients we used only the intraluminal anastomosis. The proximal ring was placed above the coronary ostium and the distal ring was positioned close to the origin of the inominate artery. The aorta cross clamping time in these patients was 9 minutes, and the extracorporeal circulation average of time was 26 minutes. Only in 1 case there was a rupture of the ligature on the proximal ring, when we accomplished a radical surgery (Bentall-DeBonno, maintaining the distal ring. In 23 patients we did the aortoplasty and used a double patch of Dacron to prepare the aortic root, using the intraluminal ring in the distal anastomosis. We operated on the aortic arch

  6. [Modern treatment of type B dissections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitfod, L.; Baekgaard, N.; Just, S.

    2008-01-01

    Rapid classification is essential in the management of aortic dissections, as Type A dissections require surgery, while the optimal treatment of Type B dissections is controversial. Medical treatment with antihypertensive medication and analgesics has so far been the main treatment of uncomplicat...

  7. Effect of ascending aortic dimension on acute procedural success following self-expanding transcatheter aortic valve replacement: A multicenter retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeno, Yoshio; Yoon, Sung-Han; Abramowitz, Yigal; Watanabe, Yusuke; Jilaihawi, Hasan; Lin, Mao-Shin; Chan, Jason; Sharma, Rahul; Kawashima, Hideyuki; Israr, Sharjeel; Kawamori, Hiroyuki; Miyasaka, Masaki; Rami, Tanya; Kazuno, Yoshio; Mangat, Geeteshwar; Kashif, Mohammad; Chakravarty, Tarun; Kao, Hsien-Li; Lee, Michael Kang-Yin; Nakamura, Mamoo; Kozuma, Ken; Cheng, Wen; Makkar, Raj R

    2017-10-01

    Self-expanding (SE) valves are characterized with long stent frame design and the radial force of the device exists both in the inflow and outflow level. Therefore, we hypothesized that device success of SE-valves may be influenced by ascending aortic dimensions (AAD). The aim of this study was to determine the influence of AAD on acute device success rates following SE transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). In 4 centers in the United States and Asia, 214 consecutive patients underwent SE-TAVR. Outcomes were assessed in line with Valve Academic Research Consortium criteria. AAD was defined as the sum of the short and long axis aortic diameter divided by 2. Overall, device success rate was 85.0%. Multivariate analysis revealed that increased AAD (Odds ratio 1.27) and % oversizing (Odds ratio 0.88) were found to be independent predictors of unsuccessful device implantation. The c-statistic of the model for device success was area under the curve 0.79, sensitivity 81.3% and specificity 44.0%. Co-existence of several risk factors was associated with an exponential fall to 64.2% in device success rate. For a large AAD, however, optimally oversized SE-valves (threshold 16.2%) resulted with high device success rates compared to suboptimal oversizing (88.6% vs. 64.2%, p=0.005). Larger AAD and smaller degrees of oversizing were confirmed to be the most relevant predictors of unsuccessful device implantation following SE-valve implantations. Optimal oversizing of great significance was noted, particularly that with a large AAD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Aortoscopia no tratamento das dissecções agudas da aorta Aortoscopy in the treatment of acute dissecting aneurysms of the aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladyston SOUTO

    1999-07-01

    . In type A group, there was re-entrance below the left subclavian artery in 2 patients and on the iliac bifurcation in the other 2. In the type B group, there was re-entrance at the renal arteries level in 2 patients and at the aorta bifurcation level of the iliac in 4 patients. The aortoscopy guided us in implanting an elephant trunk supplement in two patients in group type A. In the other 2, it guided us in the inversion of arterial line direction. It directed us in the correct elephant trunk placement in the type B group. In 4 patients we used the aortoscopy as a diagnostic complement. The time spent with the aortoscopy did not alter morbidity concluding that aortoscopy is a rapid diagnostic method with good definition of anatomic changes of the aorta, leading to an efficient treatment. In acute unstable cases we can dispense with some diagnostic scans that could delay surgery, once the re-entrance is on the end of the aortoscopy helps avoid retrograde dissection. We belive that aortoscopy can, in the future, be of great value in the diagnosis and treatment of A D A Ao, as well as in other aortic diseases.

  9. Hemodynamic parameters that may predict false-lumen growth in type-B aortic dissection after endovascular repair: A preliminary study on long-term multiple follow-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huanming; Li, Zhenfeng; Dong, Huiwu; Zhang, Yilun; Wei, Jianyong; Watton, Paul N; Guo, Wei; Chen, Duanduan; Xiong, Jiang

    2017-09-07

    Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) is commonly applied in type-B aortic dissection. For patients with dissection affects descending aorta and extends downward to involve abdominal aorta and possibly iliac arteries, false lumen (FL) expansion might occur post-TEVAR. Predictions of dissection development may assist in medical decision on re-intervention or surgery. In this study, two patients are selected with similar morphological features at initial presentation but with different long-term FL development post-TEVAR (stable and enlarged FL). Patient-specific models are established for each of the follow-ups. Flow boundaries and computational validations are obtained from Doppler ultrasound velocimetry. By analyzing the hemodynamic parameters, the false-to-true luminal pressure difference (PDiff) and particle relative residence time (RRT) are found related to FL remodeling. It is found that (i) the position of the first FL flow entry is the watershed of negative-and-positive PDiff and, in long-term follow-ups, and the position of largest PDiff is consistent with that of the greatest increase of FL width; (ii) high RRT occurs at the FL proximal tip and similar magnitude of RRT is found in both stable and enlarged cases; (iii) comparing to the RRT at 7days post-TEVAR, an increase of RRT afterwards in short-term is found in the stable case while a slight decrease of this parameter is found in the enlarged case, indicating that the variation of RRT in short-term post-TEVAR might be potential to predict long-term FL remodeling. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Successful management of aortic thrombi resulting in spinal cord infarction in a patient with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and acute cholecystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izumi M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Manabu Izumi, Shoko Teraoka, Keisuke Yamashita, Kenji Matsumoto, Tomohiro Muronoi, Yoshimitsu Izawa, Chikara Yonekawa, Masaki Ano, Masayuki SuzukawaDepartment of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, JapanAbstract: A 74-year-old man with coronary artery disease was suffering from acute nonobstructive cholecystitis and was admitted to a nearby hospital. Dual antiplatelet (aspirin and ticlopidine therapy was discontinued before preparation for surgical resection of the gall bladder. During his time in hospital he was aware of lumbar pain and weakness in both legs. He was transferred to our hospital for further evaluation and therapy. Diffuse intra-aortic thrombi were revealed by computed tomography with contrast media, and magnetic resonance imaging showed spinal cord infarction. However, computed tomography scans of the descending aorta obtained 4 months before admission exhibited no signs of atherosclerotic plaques or intra-aortic thrombi. Laboratory data suggest that antiphospholipid antibody syndrome might have caused these acute multiple intra-arterial thrombi. By restarting dual antiplatelet therapy and increasing the dose of heparin (from 10,000 IU/day to 15,000 IU/day we successfully managed the patient's clinical condition and symptoms. It is important to understand that stopping antiplatelet therapy may rapidly grow thrombi in patients with a hypercoagulative state.Keywords: intra-aortic thrombus, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, spinal cord infarction

  11. Enxerto venoso intercoronariano na revascularização de artéria coronária comprometida por dissecção de aorta tipo I Intercoronary venous graft in revascularization of the coronary artery involved by aortic dissection type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto C Abreu Filho

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Paciente de 39 anos, portador de hipertensão arterial não controlada, submetido a cirurgia para tratamento de dissecção aguda de aorta tipo I. Devido ao grande envolvimento do óstio coronário direito pela dissecção aórtica, optou-se pela ressecção da porção comprometida do vaso, com interposição de tubo não valvulado de Dacron na aorta ascendente, suspensão da valva aórtica e ligadura do óstio da artéria coronária direita. Como não havia presença de aterosclerose no ramo interventricular anterior e na artéria coronária direita, decidimos realizar um enxerto venoso entre as artérias. O enxerto intercoronário apresentou bom funcionamento e todo o território dependente da coronária direita manteve boa contratilidade. O paciente recebeu alta hospitalar em boas condições clínicas, com função rniocárdica preservada.A thirty nine-year-old patient presenting arterial hypertension was operated upon for type I acute aortic dissection. Due to important alterations in the ascendent aorta with involvement of the right coronary ostium, the surgical procedure included resection of the segment of aorta containing the intimal tear and replacement with a Dacron prosthesis, suspension of the aortic valve and ligadure of the right coronary ostium. Technical difficulties brought the necessity of a different approach for the myocardium revascularization. Instead of the traditional described procedures, an intercoronary venous graft was put between the anterior interventricular artery (branch of the left coronary artery and the right coronary artery. The intercoronary graft presented a good flow since the begining, keeping a good myocardial contratility. Patient left the hospital in a good clinical condition, with preserved myocardial function. Intercoronary graft should be an efficient alternative for revascularization of a corohary artery involved by aortic dissections.

  12. Chronic dissection of the superior mesenteric artery: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Common, A.A.; Pressacco, J. [Univ. of Toronto, St. Michael' s Hospital, Dept. of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1999-02-01

    Acute dissection of the thoracic aorta is a well-recognized, often fatal condition that frequently extends to involve the abdominal aorta and iliac vessels. The ostia of the renal and mesenteric vessels may be compromised, and the resulting visceral ischemia may necessitate surgical intervention. However, visceral perfusion may be restored if blood flow from true to false lumen is re-established or if the false lumen is obliterated, either spontaneously or by surgical or interventional techniques. Isolated dissections of mesenteric, renal, and carotid vessels are rarely reported. These may be spontaneous, related to high blood pressure and underlying disease of the vessel wall, or caused by abdominal trauma or medical intervention, including angiographic procedures. They are usually associated with pain and other signs and symptoms of ischemia in the appropriate territory. We present a case of chronic superior mesenteric artery (SMA) dissection, an incidental angiographic finding, in an asymptomatic patient being evaluated for resection of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). (author)

  13. Short report Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalcin (NGAL) as a biomarker of dialysis-dependent acute kidney injury following infrarenal aortic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Helene Korvenius; Stæhr, Jannie Bisgaard; Gilsaa, Torben

    2013-01-01

    Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common following abdominal aortic surgery. NGAL might be useful in the early diagnosis of AKI since it responds rapidly to ischaemic damage. Methods: Twenty patients undergoing elective infrarenal aortic surgery. U-NGAL was measured before surgery and 24, 48...... and 72 hours postoperatively. Results: No significant rise in U-NGAL was seen in patients without AKI at any time. All patients who developed dialysisdependent AKI had a significant increase in U-NGAL. Conclusion: U-NGAL did not increase solely in response to the surgical trauma. U-NGAL may be a useful...... biomarker for AKI following abdominal aortic surgery....

  14. The Role of Extra-Anatomic Bypass in the Surgical Treatment of Acute Abdominal Aortic Occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Gokhan Ilhan; Şahin Bozok; Şaban Ergene; Sedat Ozan Karakisi; Nebiye Tufekci; Hızır Kazdal; Sabri Ogullar; Seref Alp Kucuker

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aortic occlusion is rare catastophic pathology with high rates of mortality and severe morbidity. In this study, we aimed to share our experience in the management of aortic occlusion and to assess the outcomes of extra-anatomic bypass procedures. Methods: Eighteen patients who had undergone extra-anatomic bypass interventions in the cardiovascular surgery department of our tertiary care center between July 2009 and May 2013 were retrospectively evaluated. All patients...

  15. Aortic stentgrafts and en dovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-07-19

    Jul 19, 2007 ... 4). Calibrating angiography, transoesophageal echo and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) are useful adjuncts only for thoracic aortic pathology. The stentgraft should generally be oversized by 15 - 20% (10 -. 15% for connective tissue disorders, aortic dissections, etc.). EVAR is performed with local, regional.

  16. High-sensitivity troponin assays in the evaluation of patients with acute chest pain in the emergency department

    OpenAIRE

    Christ, Michael; Bertsch, Thomas; Popp, Steffen; Bahrmann, Philipp; Heppner, Hans-Jürgen; Müller, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Evaluating patients with acute chest pain presenting to the emergency department remains an ongoing challenge. The spectrum of etiologies in acute chest pain ranges from minor disease entities to life-threatening diseases, such as pulmonary embolism, acute aortic dissection or acute myocardial infarction (MI). The diagnosis of acute MI is usually made integrating the triad of patient history and clinical presentation, readings of 12-lead ECG and measurement of cardiac troponins (cTn). Introdu...

  17. Acute genetic manipulation of neuronal activity for the functional dissection of neural circuits-a dream come true for the pioneers of behavioral genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Moto; Ito, Kei

    2012-03-01

    Abstract: This review summarizes technical development of the functional manipulation of specific neural circuits through genetic techniques in Drosophila. Long after pioneers' efforts for the genetic dissection of behavior using this organism as a model, analyses with acute activation of specific neural circuits have finally become feasible using transgenic Drosophila that expresses light-, heat-, or cold-activatable cation channels by xxx/upstream activation sequence (Gal4/UAS)-based induction system. This methodology opened a new avenue to dissect functions of neural circuits to make dreams of the pioneers into reality.

  18. Impact of Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) on radiation dose and image quality in aortic dissection studies: a qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornfeld, Daniel; Israel, Gary; Detroy, Ezra; Bokhari, Jamal; Mojibian, Hamid

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to quantify the radiation dose reduction achieved when imaging the aorta using Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) and to determine if this has an effect on image quality. We retrospectively reviewed 31 CT angiography examinations of the thoracic and abdominal aorta performed with ASIR and 32 consecutive similar examinations performed without ASIR. Volume CT dose index (CTDI(vol)), dose-length product (DLP), aortic enhancement at multiple levels, aorta-to-muscle contrast-to-noise ratio at multiple levels, and subjective image quality were compared between the two groups. The mean CTDI(vol) and DLP were significantly lower for the studies performed with ASIR versus studies without ASIR (15.6 vs 21.5 mGy, with an average difference of 5.8 mGy [95% CI 2.3-9.4 mGy] and 818 vs 1075 mGy × cm with an average difference of -257 mGy × cm [54-460 mGy × cm], respectively). Aortic enhancement, aortic signal-to-noise ratio, and aortic to muscle contrast-to-noise ratio were not different between the two groups. Subjectively, one reviewer preferred the non-ASIR images and one found the images equivalent. Both reviewers believed the images were of diagnostic quality. A 29% decrease in CTDI(vol) and a 20% decrease in DLP were obtained in scans with ASIR compared with scans without ASIR, without a quantitative loss of image quality.

  19. High‑risk pulmonary embolism in a patient with acute dissecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-04-07

    Apr 7, 2016 ... stable angina, metabolic syndrome, hypercholesterolemia, and hyperuricemia ... triglycerides ‑ 195 mg/dL, and uric acid ‑ 9.2 mg/dL. ... 3 mg/day, INR adjusted, until September, when surgery was performed. Unfortunately, the patient died shortly after surgery because of acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  20. Coronary Emboli in a Young Patient with Mechanical Aortic Valve: A Rare Cause of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Gholoobi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery embolism is an uncommon cause of Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI. Herein, we reported a 24-year-old male who was admitted with acute infero-posterior myocardial infarction and cerebral Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA. He had undergone mechanical Aortic Valve Replacement (AVR surgery 6 years ago. Surprisingly, the patient had decided to stop taking his medication (warfarin 20 days earlier without any medical advice. Coronary angiography revealed a thrombus located at the distal part of the left circumflex artery. Discontinuation of anticoagulant therapy in the presence of mechanical valve prosthesis, clinical evidence of coincidental TIA, and lack of atherosclerotic risk factors were highly suggestive of coronary thromboembolism as the cause of AMI. Overall, this case report emphasized the necessity of continuous education in patients with mechanical heart valves to prevent such undesired events.

  1. The effects of contrast media volume on acute kidney injury after transcatheter aortic valve replacement: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongprayoon, Charat; Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Podboy, Alexander J; Gillaspie, Erin A; Greason, Kevin L; Kashani, Kianoush B

    2016-11-01

    The goal of this systematic review was to assess the effects of contrast media volume on transcatheter aortic valve replacement-related acute kidney injury. A literature search was performed using Medline, EMbase, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and clinicaltrials.gov from the inception of these databases through December 2015. Studies that reported relative risk, odds ratio, or hazard ratio comparing the risks of acute kidney injury following transcatheter aortic valve replacement in patients who received high contrast media volume were included. Pooled risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using a random-effect, generic inverse variance method. Four cohort studies composed of 891 patients were included in the analyses to assess the risk of acute kidney injury after transcatheter aortic valve replacement in patients who received high contrast media volume. The pooled RR of acute kidney injury after transcatheter aortic valve replacement in patients who received a large volume of contrast media was 1.41 (95% CI, 0.87 to 2.28) compared with low contrast media volume. The meta-analysis was limited to studies using standard acute kidney injury definitions, and the pooled RR of acute kidney injury in patients who received high contrast media volume is 1.12 (95% CI, 0.78 to 1.62). Our meta-analysis shows no significant association between contrast media volume and risk of acute kidney injury after transcatheter aortic valve replacement. © 2016 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Approach to chest pain and acute myocardial infarction | Pandie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patient history, physical examination, 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and cardiac biomarkers are key components of an effective chest pain assessment. The first priority is excluding serious chest pain syndromes, namely acute coronary syndromes (ACSs), aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism, cardiac tamponade and ...

  3. Brain strokes related to aortic aneurysma – the analysis of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastuszak Żanna

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Brain stroke connected with aortic blood flow disturbances is a rare disease and its incidence is difficult to assume. Nevertheless, 10-50% of patients with aortic dissection may not experience any pain. In case of 18-30% patients with aortic dissection neurological signs are first disease presentation and among them ischemic stroke is the most common. The most popular aortic dissection classification is with use of Stanford system. Type A involves the ascending aorta and type B is occurring distal to the subclavian artery. Aortic dissection risk factors include hypertension, cystic medionecrosis, bicuspid aortic valve and Marfan’s or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

  4. Aortic surgery in Marfan patients with severe pectus excavatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffa, Giuseppe Maria; Kowalewski, Mariusz; Malvindi, Pietro Giorgio; Bertani, Alessandro; Romano, Giuseppe; Sciacca, Sergio; Turrisi, Marco; Armaro, Alessandro; Stringi, Vincenzo; Montalbano, Giuseppe; Mattiucci, Gabriella; Follis, Fabrizio; Pilato, Michele

    2017-05-01

    The optimal surgical management of the aortic root phenotype Marfan patients with severe pectus excavatum is a subject of debate. All the available literature were reviewed according to preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) principles in order to assess the early outcomes of both pectus excavatum and aortic repair techniques. Searches were done in PubMed and MEDLINE electronic databases dating from July 1953 to December 2015. A total of 97 peer-reviewed publications were retrieved, and 27 relevant publications were identified with a total of 39 Marfan patients with pectus excavatum who underwent ascending aorta and aortic root surgery. Emergency acute Type-A aortic dissection repair was reported in five cases. Concomitant pectus excavatum and aortic root repair and composite graft implantation were the most commonly performed procedures. Complications after a staged or a combined approach were uncommon and no deaths occurred. Aortic surgery in Marfan patients with pectus excavatum was carried out according to a variety of strategies, surgical techniques and accesses with low complications rate and no mortality. Many of these were well tolerated with minimal complications and no mortality.

  5. Acute kidney injury defined according to the 'Risk,' 'Injury,' 'Failure,' 'Loss,' and 'End-stage' (RIFLE) criteria after repair for a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, Sytse C.; Legemate, Dink A.; Vahl, Anco; Bouman, Catherine S. C.; Vogt, Liffert; Wisselink, Willem; Balm, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious complication after repair of a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA). In the present Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS)/International Society for CardioVascular Surgery (ISCVS) reporting standards patients are classified as no dialysis (grade I), as

  6. Histopathology of aortic complications in bicuspid aortic valve versus Marfan syndrome: relevance for therapy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Grewal (Nimrat); R. Franken (Romy); B.J.M. Mulder (Barbara); M.-J. Goumans (Marie-José); J.H.N. Lindeman (Johannes); M.R.M. Jongbloed (Monique); M.C. DeRuiter (Marco); R.J.M. Klautz (Robert); A.J.J.C. Bogers (Ad); R.E. Poelmann (Robert); A.C.G.-D. Groot (Adriana C. Gittenberger-de)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPatients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS) are more prone to develop aortic dilation and dissection compared to persons with a tricuspid aortic valve (TAV). To elucidate potential common and distinct pathways of clinical relevance, we compared the

  7. Spontaneous isolated celiac artery dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyspepsia with mild, stabbing epigastric discomfort without history of trauma is a very common symptom that emergency physicians see in their daily practice. Vascular emergencies, mostly the aortic dissection and aneurysm, are always described in the differential diagnosis with persistent symptoms. Isolated celiac artery dissection occurring spontaneously is a very rare diagnosis. The involvement of branch vessels is generally observed and patients show various clinical signs and symptoms according to the involved branch vessel. Here we are presenting a case with spontaneous isolated celiac artery dissection, without any branch vessel involvement or visceral damage, detected by computed tomography scans taken on admission.

  8. Genetic dissection of acute ethanol responsive gene networks in prefrontal cortex: functional and mechanistic implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron R Wolen

    Full Text Available Individual differences in initial sensitivity to ethanol are strongly related to the heritable risk of alcoholism in humans. To elucidate key molecular networks that modulate ethanol sensitivity we performed the first systems genetics analysis of ethanol-responsive gene expression in brain regions of the mesocorticolimbic reward circuit (prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and ventral midbrain across a highly diverse family of 27 isogenic mouse strains (BXD panel before and after treatment with ethanol.Acute ethanol altered the expression of ~2,750 genes in one or more regions and 400 transcripts were jointly modulated in all three. Ethanol-responsive gene networks were extracted with a powerful graph theoretical method that efficiently summarized ethanol's effects. These networks correlated with acute behavioral responses to ethanol and other drugs of abuse. As predicted, networks were heavily populated by genes controlling synaptic transmission and neuroplasticity. Several of the most densely interconnected network hubs, including Kcnma1 and Gsk3β, are known to influence behavioral or physiological responses to ethanol, validating our overall approach. Other major hub genes like Grm3, Pten and Nrg3 represent novel targets of ethanol effects. Networks were under strong genetic control by variants that we mapped to a small number of chromosomal loci. Using a novel combination of genetic, bioinformatic and network-based approaches, we identified high priority cis-regulatory candidate genes, including Scn1b, Gria1, Sncb and Nell2.The ethanol-responsive gene networks identified here represent a previously uncharacterized intermediate phenotype between DNA variation and ethanol sensitivity in mice. Networks involved in synaptic transmission were strongly regulated by ethanol and could contribute to behavioral plasticity seen with chronic ethanol. Our novel finding that hub genes and a small number of loci exert major influence over the ethanol

  9. Anesthesia Approach in Endovascular Aortic Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşin Alagöl

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We have analyzed our initial results of our anesthesia techniques in our new-onset endovascular aortic reconstruction cases.Patients and Methods: The perioperative data of 15 elective and emergent endovascular aortic reconstruction cases that were operated in 2010-2011 were collected in a database. The choice of anesthesia was made by the risk factors, surgical team’s preferences, type and location of the aortic pathology and by the predicted operation duration. The data of local and general anesthesia cases were compared.Results: Thirteen (86.7% cases were male and 2 (13.3% female. Eleven patients were in ASA Class III. The demographic parameters, ASA classifications, concurrent diseases were similar in both groups. Thirteen (86.7% cases had infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm and 2 (13.3% had Type III aortic dissection. The diastolic arterial pressures were lower in general anesthesia group in 20th and 40th minutes’ measurements just like the mean arterial pressure measurements at the 40th, 100th minutes and during the deployment of the graft. Postoperative mortality occurred in 3 (20.0% patients and they all had general anesthesia and they were operated on emergency basis. Postoperative morbidity occurred in four patients that had general anesthesia (acute renal failure, multi-organ failure and pneumonia. The other patient had atrial fibrillation on the 1st postoperative day and was converted to sinus rhythm with amiodarone infusion.Conclusion: Edovascular aortic reconstruction procedures can safely be performed with both general and local anesthesia less invasively compared to open surgery. General anesthesia may be preferred for the better hemodynamic control.

  10. Acute Reverse Remodelling After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: A Link Between Myocardial Fibrosis and Left Ventricular Mass Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Laura Elizabeth; Musa, Tarique A; Uddin, Akhlaque; Fairbairn, Timothy A; Swoboda, Peter P; Erhayiem, Bara; Foley, James; Garg, Pankaj; Haaf, Philip; Fent, Graham J; Malkin, Christopher J; Blackman, Daniel J; Plein, Sven; Greenwood, John P

    2016-12-01

    Despite the wealth of data showing the positive effects on cardiac reverse remodelling in the long-term, the immediate effects of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) on the left ventricle are yet to be comprehensively described using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. Also, the link between myocardial fibrosis and acute left ventricular (LV) mass regression is unknown. Fifty-seven patients with severe aortic stenosis awaiting TAVI underwent paired cardiovascular magnetic resonance scans before and early after the procedure (4 [interquartile range, 3-5] days). LV mass, volume, and function were measured. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging was performed to assess for the presence of and pattern of myocardial fibrosis. After the procedure, 53 (95%) patients experienced an immediate (10.1 ± 7.1%) reduction in indexed LV mass (LVMi) from 76 ± 15.5 to 68.4 ± 14.7 g/m(2) (P reverse remodelling occurs immediately after TAVI, with significant LV mass regression in the total population and an improvement in LVEF in those with preexisting LV impairment. Those without myocardial fibrosis at baseline experience greater LV mass regression than those with fibrosis. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Vertebral artery dissection associated with sildenafil abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dersch, Rick; Anastasopoulos, Constantin; Hader, Claudia; Stich, Oliver

    2013-05-01

    We present a 49-year-old male who suffered a cerebellar infarction due to a vertebral artery dissection. The patient had taken sildenafil daily for at least 2 years for sexual enhancement. There was no sexual intercourse or traumatic event prior to symptom onset. Sildenafil intake has been associated with aortic dissection and, in the light of this report, we suggest that chronic sildenafil intake could be a risk factor for arterial dissection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Acute Success of Balloon Aortic Valvuloplasty in the Current Era: A National Cardiovascular Data Registry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boe, Brian A; Zampi, Jeffrey D; Kennedy, Kevin F; Jayaram, Natalie; Porras, Diego; Foerster, Susan R; Armstrong, Aimee K

    2017-09-11

    The aim of this study was to evaluate practice patterns and outcomes of a contemporary group of patients undergoing balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) for congenital aortic stenosis (AS). BAV is the most common treatment for isolated congenital AS. Within the IMPACT (Improving Pediatric and Adult Congenital Treatments) Registry, all BAV procedures performed between January 2011 and March 2015 were identified. Procedures were separated into those performed for critical versus noncritical AS. Outcomes were stratified into optimal, adequate, and inadequate, with optimal and adequate outcomes defining "successful" procedures. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify patient and procedural characteristics associated with unsuccessful BAV. Mortality and adverse events rates were compared across patient cohorts. Of the 1,026 isolated BAV procedures captured in IMPACT, 718 (70%) were "successful." Success rates were 70.9% for noncritical AS (n = 916) and 62.7% for critical AS (n = 110). Multivariate analysis revealed that prior cardiac catheterization, mixed valve disease, baseline aortic valve gradient >60 mm Hg, baseline aortic insufficiency greater than mild, presence of a trainee, and multiple balloon inflations were associated with unsuccessful BAV in the noncritical AS cohort. There were no factors associated with unsuccessful procedures in the critical AS group. No procedural deaths occurred, but 2.4% of patients did not survive to hospital discharge. Adverse events occurred in 15.8% of all cases and were more frequent in procedures performed for critical AS (30.0% vs. 14.1%; p critical AS have a higher risk for procedure-related adverse events. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic Dissection of Acute Anterior Uveitis Reveals Similarities and Differences in Associations observed with Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Philip C.; Claushuis, Theodora A.M.; Cortes, Adrian; Martin, Tammy M.; Evans, David M.; Leo, Paul; Mukhopadhyay, Pamela; Bradbury, Linda A.; Cremin, Katie; Harris, Jessica; Maksymowych, Walter P.; Inman, Robert D.; Rahman, Proton; Haroon, Nigil; Gensler, Lianne; Powell, Joseph E.; van der Horst-Bruinsma, Irene E.; Hewitt, Alex W.; Craig, Jamie E.; Lim, Lyndell L.; Wakefield, Denis; McCluskey, Peter; Voigt, Valentina; Fleming, Peter; Degli-Esposti, Mariapia; Pointon, Jennifer J.; Weisman, Michael H.; Wordsworth, B. Paul; Reveille, John D.; Rosenbaum, James T.; Brown, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To use high density genotyping to investigate the genetic associations of acute anterior uveitis (AAU) in patients both with and without ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Method We genotyped 1,711 patients with AAU (either primary or with AAU and AS), 2,339 AS patients without AAU, and 10,000 controls on the Illumina Immunochip Infinium microarray. We also used data on AS patients from previous genomewide association studies to investigate the AS risk locus ANTXR2 for its putative effect in AAU. ANTXR2 expression in mouse eyes was investigated by RT-PCR. Results Comparing all AAU cases with HC, strong association was seen over HLA-B corresponding to the HLA-B27 tag SNP rs116488202. Three non-MHC loci IL23R, the intergenic region 2p15 and ERAP1 were associated at genome-wide significance (P < 5×10−8). Five loci harboring the immune-related genes IL10-IL19, IL18R1-IL1R1, IL6R, the chromosome 1q32 locus harboring KIF21B, as well as the eye related gene EYS, were also associated at a suggestive level of significance (P < 5×10−6). A number of previously confirmed AS associations demonstrated significant differences in effect size between AS patients with AAU and AS patients without AAU. ANTXR2 expression was found to vary across eye compartments. Conclusion These findings, with both novel AAU specific associations, and associations shared with AS demonstrate overlapping but also distinct genetic susceptibility loci for AAU and AS. The associations in IL10 and IL18R1 are shared with inflammatory bowel disease, suggesting common etiologic pathways. PMID:25200001

  14. Endovascular Treatment of Blunt Traumatic Abdominal Aortic Occlusion With Kissing Stent Placement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idoguchi, Koji, E-mail: idoguchi@ares.eonet.ne.jp; Yamaguchi, Masato; Okada, Takuya [Kobe University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Center for Endovascular Therapy (Japan); Nomura, Yoshikatsu [Kobe University Hospital, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery (Japan); Sugimura, Kazuro [Kobe University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Center for Endovascular Therapy (Japan); Okita, Yutaka [Kobe University Hospital, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery (Japan); Sugimoto, Koji [Kobe University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Center for Endovascular Therapy (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    Blunt traumatic abdominal aortic dissection is extremely rare and potentially deadly. We present the case of a 62-year-old man involved in a frontal car crash. After emergency undergoing laparotomy for bowel injuries, he was referred to our hospital due to acute ischemia of bilateral lower extremities on day 3 after the trauma. Computed tomography and aortography showed an aortobiiliac dissection with complete occlusion. This injury was successfully treated by endovascular treatment with 'kissing'-technique stent placement, which appears to be a safe, effective, and minimally invasive treatment.

  15. O tratamento operatório da dissecção aórtica crônica tipo A em pacientes submetidos à revascularização cirúrgica do miocárdio Surgical treatment of chronic type A aortic dissection in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Leal

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento operatório da dissecção aórtica é um desafio para o cirurgião cardíaco, sobretudo nos pacientes submetidos a operação cardíaca prévia. Nosso objetivo neste relato de caso é demonstrar como tratamos a dissecção aórtica crônica tipo A em paciente revascularizado utilizando cânulas arterial e venosa percutâneas.Surgical treatment of aortic dissection is a challenge for the cardiac surgeon, especially in patients undergoing cardiac operations. Our objective in this case report is to demonstrate how we treat the chronic type A aortic dissection in patients revascularized using percutaneous arterial and venous cannulae.

  16. Surgical treatment of pararenal aortic aneurysms in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, G; D'Urso, A; Ceccanei, G; Caliò, F; Vietri, F

    2007-12-01

    Until fenestrated endografts will become the standard treatment of pararenal aortic aneurysms, open surgical repair will currently be employed for the repair of this condition. Suprarenal aortic control and larger surgical dissection represent additional technical requirements for the treatment of pararenal aneurysms compared to those of open infrarenal aortic aneurysms, which may be followed by an increased operative mortality and morbidity rate. As this may be especially true when dealing with pararenal aneurysms in an elderly patients' population, we decided to retrospectively review our results of open pararenal aortic aneurysm repair in elderly patients, in order to compare them with those reported in the literature. Twenty-one patients over 75 years of age were operated on for pararenal aortic aneurysms in a ten-year period. Exposure of the aorta was obtained by means of a retroperitoneal access, through a left flank incision on the eleventh rib. When dealing with interrenal aortic aneurysm the left renal artery was revascularized with a retrograde bypass arising from the aortic graft, proximally bevelled on the ostium of the right renal artery. Two patients died of acute intestinal ischemia, yielding a postoperative mortality of 9.5%. Nonfatal complications included 2 pleural effusions, a transitory rise in postoperative serum creatinine levels in 3 cases, and one retroperitoneal hematoma. Mean renal ischemia time was 23 min, whereas mean visceral ischemia time was 19 min. Mean inhospital stay was 11 days. Pararenal aortic aneurysms in the elderly can be surgically repaired with results that are similar to those obtained in younger patients.

  17. Isolated celiac artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMusto, Paul D; Oberdoerster, Molly M; Criado, Enrique

    2015-04-01

    Spontaneous celiac artery dissection is rare, and its natural history is not well studied. The objective of this study was to review our experience with the evaluation and management of this condition. During the last 8 years, 19 patients (14 men, five women) presented with the diagnosis of spontaneous celiac artery dissection. Each patient's clinical course was retrospectively reviewed, and patients were contacted for assessment of current symptoms. All patients had computed tomography scans documenting a celiac artery dissection without concomitant aortic dissection. Ages ranged from 39 to 76 years. Seven patients presented with abdominal pain, and 12 were diagnosed incidentally. All patients were initially treated with observation because none had threatened end organs. Patients presenting with aspirin or clopidogrel therapy were continued on these medications, but no patients were prescribed any medications due to their dissection. Three patients continued to have abdominal pain and eventually underwent celiac artery stenting. Pain improved after the intervention in all three. One patient with aneurysmal degeneration of the celiac artery underwent surgical repair. No other patients required intervention. Eighteen patients had follow-up within a year of data collection in the clinic or over the phone. The average time from the initial diagnosis to follow-up for the entire cohort was 46 months. None had abdominal or back pain related to the celiac dissection, had lost weight, or had to change their eating habits. Celiac artery dissection can be safely managed initially with observation. If abdominal pain is persistent, endovascular stenting may stabilize or improve the pain, and surgical reconstruction can be done for aneurysmal degeneration or occlusion, both unusual events. Long-term anticoagulation does not appear necessary in these patients. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Acute Testicular Ischemia following Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair Identified in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Finnerty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR is perhaps the most widely utilized surgical procedure for patients with large abdominal aortic aneurysms. This procedure is minimally invasive and reduces inpatient hospitalization requirements. The case involves a 72-year-old male who presented to the emergency department with right testicular ischemia two days following EVAR. Given the minimal inpatient hospitalization associated with this procedure, emergency physicians are likely to encounter associated complications. Ischemic and thromboembolic events following EVAR are extremely rare but require prompt vascular surgery intervention to minimize morbidity and mortality.

  19. Total Endovascular Treatment of Acute Non-A-non-B Dissection Complicated by Visceral Malperfusion without Primary Entry Tear Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Raphael J; Bartoli, Michel A; Simonet, Gaetan; Amabile, Philippe; Sarlon-Bartoli, Gabrielle; Magnan, Pierre-Edouard

    2017-11-01

    Management of visceral ischemia due to non-A, non-B dissection is extremely challenging due to the position of the primary entry tear at the level of the brachiocephalic vessels. We report on a patient who was admitted for a complicated non-A, non-B-type dissection with visceral and leg ischemia. A covered stent graft was implanted below the primary entry tear to redirect the flow in the true lumen, associated with stents implantation in the visceral arteries, to treat the dissection's static component. The patient did well, without need for bowel resection visceral or late stent restenosis. Stent-graft implantation below the primary entry tear in cases of visceral ischemia due to non-A, non-B dissection seems feasible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Endoluminal treatment of thoracic aortic lesions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    20 The predominant predictors ... age, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and an elevated mean blood pressure increase the risk of ... disease, dissection or aortic rupture require immediate diagnostic evalua- tion and pre-procedural ...

  1. [Status of intra-aortic balloon pump application and related factors in Chinese patients with acute myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, N Q; Gao, Z; Zheng, Y; Li, W; Li, J N; Xu, H Y; Cheng, X S; Wu, Y; Wang, Y; Wang, Z J; Yang, J G; Yang, Y J

    2018-01-24

    Objective: To investigate the current status of application of intra-aortic balloon pump(IABP) and analyze the factors which might impact the application of IABP in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated with cardiac shock in China. Methods: In China Acute Myocardial Infarction (CAMI) Registry,a nationwide, multicenter(107 hospitals), prospective study, 26 592 patients with acute myocardial infarction were enrolled consecutively between January 1, 2013 and September 30, 2014. After excluding of 30 cases due to missing important data,26 562 cases were analyzed.The application status of IABP was analyzed and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the factors related to IABP application. Results: A total of 785(3.0%) patients with acute myocardial infarction received IABP implantation, and 381(49.9%) patients belonged to preventive application of IABP before primary percutaneous coronary intervention,and 6(0.8%) patients were complicated with mechanical complications.There were 118(15.0%) patients with cardiac shock received IABP implantation, which accounted for 12.0%(118/984) of all patients with cardiac shock.Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the clinical independent factors of the decision of IABP insertion included dyslipidemia ( OR= 2.858, 95% CI 1.397-5.846, P= 0.004),left ventricular ejection fraction ( OR= 0.977, 95% CI 0.961-0.994, P= 0.009),usage of dopamine ( OR= 2.817, 95% CI 1.495-5.308, P= 0.001), left main disease ( OR= 2.817, 95% CI 1.495-5.308, P= 0.001), GRACE score ( OR= 1.006, 95% CI 1.000-1.011, P= 0.034), receiving primary percutaneous coronary intervention ( OR= 4.508, 95% CI 1.673-12.146, P= 0.003), teritiary hospitals ( OR= 2.562, 95% CI 1.498-4.384, P= 0.001), and higher education of the patients ( OR= 2.183, 95% CI 1.056-4.509, P= 0.016). Conclusions: Among the Chinese acute myocardial infarction patients who received IABP implantation, nearly half application of IABP are

  2. Acute Symptomatic Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Secondary to Endovascular Stent Graft Associated Type II Endoleak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Ka Leung Chan

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Endovascular abdominal aneurysm repair (EVAR is popular because of its low invasiveness and feasibility for high-risk patients. Endoleak is common after EVAR and is characterized by blood flow within the aneurysm sac but outside the stent graft. Type II or collateral endoleak commonly results from retrograde filling of the aneurysm from collateral visceral vessels, lumbar, inferior mesenteric, accessory renal or sacral arteries. Collateral leaks are generally thought to be benign and over half of the early leaks will seal spontaneously. Sporadically, collateral endoleak could lead to aneurysm sac pressurization and place the patient at ongoing risk of rupture. Herein, we report an uncommon case of early post-stent graft placement symptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm associated with type II endoleak.

  3. [Women and acute coronary syndrome with ST elevation: Excess mortality related to longer delays and spontaneous coronary dissection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benamer, H; Motreff, P; Jessen, P; Piquet, M; Haziza, F; Chevalier, B

    2015-12-01

    The outcome of patients with ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has been increasingly improving in the general population over the past few decades. However, detailed analysis of the results show that the reduction in mortality rates is higher in males compared to their female counterparts. The excess mortality rate observed in women, though sometimes questioned, has been widely reported in the literature. The higher mortality rate observed in women with ST elevation ACS can be explained by the presence of aggravating clinical factors such as older age, a higher percentage of diabetics, and a higher frequency of cardiogenic shock. Other factors pertaining to patient management seem to negatively impact the outcome. These factors include a lower use of reperfusion strategies, longer time to treatment mainly as a result of diagnostic uncertainty with respect to a disease, which is believed to affect principally the male gender. The doubts that female patients themselves and their families have about the nature of their symptoms are also present in the medical environment but cease to exist in the catheterization laboratory. This is illustrated in the first clinical case that we present here. Coronary reperfusion is the cornerstone of the therapeutic management of MI. In this context, bleeding complications associated with the implemented treatments can also result in an increased mortality rate in this more vulnerable population. When all the factors likely to influence the prognosis are taken into account, excess mortality seems to persist in women, especially in younger patients. As described in the second clinical case, a distinct physio-pathological factor, more frequent in women, could account for this higher mortality rate. Indeed, spontaneous coronary dissection and intramural hematoma are not always easy to diagnose and may not be adequately managed by reperfusion treatments. In addition, these coronary reperfusion strategies are probably not adapted

  4. The role of urgent transthoracic echocardiography in the evaluation of patients presenting with acute chest pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Benoy Nalin; Ahmadvazir, Shahram; Pabla, Jatinder Singh; Zacharias, Kostas; Senior, Roxy

    2012-10-01

    Chest pain is one of the most frequent reasons for presentation to the Emergency Department. The possible causes of chest pain are numerous and diverse, but importantly, several conditions, such as acute coronary syndrome, pulmonary embolism and aortic dissection, require urgent management and, in some cases, may be life-threatening. In such situations, a prompt and accurate diagnosis is vital. Two-dimensional echocardiography is a safe, painless and rapid test that can be performed in the Emergency Department and ensure a correct diagnosis as well as identify other complications and help institute appropriate management strategies swiftly. We review the current indications for urgent echocardiography in this article, with reference to international management guidelines where available, when managing patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome, acute pulmonary embolism, acute aortic dissection, acute pericarditis and trauma. We also discuss the differences between comprehensive and FOcussed Cardiac UltraSound (FOCUS) echocardiography studies, along with the associated quality control and medicolegal implications.

  5. Prevalence of Acute Coronary Syndrome in Patients Suspected for Pulmonary Embolism or Acute Aortic Syndrome: Rationale for the Triple Rule-Out Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qahtani, Saad Al; Kandeel, Ahmed Y; Breault, Stephane; Jouannic, Anne-Marie; Qanadli, Salah D

    2015-08-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the prevalence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) among patients presenting with atypical chest pain who are evaluated for acute aortic syndrome (AAS) or pulmonary embolism (PE) with computed tomoangiography (CTA) and discuss the rationale for the use of triple rule-out (TRO) protocol for triaging these patients. This study is a retrospective analysis of patients presenting with atypical chest pain and evaluated with thoracic (CTA), for suspicion of AAS/PE. Two physicians reviewed patient files for demographic characteristics, initial CT and final clinical diagnosis. Patients were classified according to CTA finding into AAS, PE and other diagnoses and according to final clinical diagnosis into AAS, PE, ACS and other diagnoses. Four hundred and sixty-seven patients were evaluated: 396 (84.8%) patients for clinical suspicion of PE and 71 (15.2%) patients for suspicion of AAS. The prevalence of ACS and AAS was low among the PE patients: 5.5% and 0.5% respectively (P = 0.0001), while the prevalence of ACS and PE was 18.3% and 5.6% among AAS patients (P = 0.14 and P = 0.34 respectively). The prevalence of ACS and AAS among patients suspected clinically of having PE is limited while the prevalence of ACS and PE among patients suspected clinically of having AAS is significant. Accordingly patients suspected for PE could be evaluated with dedicated PE CTA while those suspected for AAS should still be triaged using TRO protocol.

  6. Non coding RNAs in aortic aneurysmal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna eDuggirala

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An aneurysm is a local dilatation of a vessel wall which is >50% its original diameter. Withinthe spectrum of cardiovascular diseases, aortic aneurysms are among the most challenging to treat. Most patients present acutely after aneurysm rupture or dissection from a previous asymptomatic condition and are managed by open surgical or endovascular repair. In addition, patients may harbour concurrent disease contraindicating surgical intervention. Collectively, these factors have driven the search for alternative methods of identifying, monitoring and treating aortic aneurisms using less invasive approaches. Non-coding RNA (ncRNAs are emerging as new fundamental regulators of gene expression. The small microRNAs have opened the field of ncRNAs capturing the attention of basic and clinical scientists for their potential to become new therapeutic targets and clinical biomarkers for aortic aneurysm. More recently, long ncRNAs (lncRNAs have started to be actively investigated, leading to first exciting reports, which further suggest their important and yet largely unexplored contribution to vascular physiology and disease.

  7. Diagnostic imaging of aortic diseases; Bildgebende Diagnostik der Aortenerkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nienaber, C.A. [Abteilung Innere Medizin, Kardiologie, Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Kodolitsch, Y. von [Abteilung Innere Medizin, Kardiologie, Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-05-01

    The aim of this overview is the comparison between noninvasive tomographic imaging modalities such as surface echochardiography, transesophageal echocardiography, X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging with the previous gold standard angiography in the setting of acute and chronic aortic diseases. Methods: The groundwork for the comparison between various noninvasive modalities is the validation of findings with angiography or intraoperative and histopathological results. Results and conclusions: Nonivasive modalities such as transesophageal echocardiography, X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are suitable methods for reliable diagnosis or exclusion of aortic dissection both in the ascending and descending segment of the thoracic aorta. Ohter more rare pathologies of the aorta such as intramural hemorrhage as a precursor of dissection, aortic ulcers, aneurysms as well as congenital and posttraumatic lesions may also be subjected to transesophageal echocardiography or magnetic resonance imaging with excellent sensitivity and specificity; both techniques have also proven to be safe procedures in critically ill patients and have, in our view, replaced angiography for the diagnosis of acute aortic syndromes. Thus, in acute aortic diseases invasive angiographic procedures should be relegated to a complementary role, while transesophageal echocardiography, X-ray computed tomography (especially helical CT) in acute, and magnetic resonance imaging in chronic cases represent prefered diagnostic options. In addition to primary diagnostics the noninvasive approaches using transesophageal echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging are superbly suitable for serial follow-up imaging in all forms of aortic pathology. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fragestellung: Ziel der Uebersicht ist der Vergleich nichtinvasiver diagnostischer Schnittbildverfahren wie Echokardiographie, transoesophageale Echokardiographie, Computertomographie und

  8. Abdominal aortic occlusion and vascular compromise secondary to acute gastric dilatation in a patient with bulimia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsharif, M; Doulias, T; Aljundi, W; Balchandra, S

    2014-11-01

    Acute gastric dilation is a rare but recognised complication in patients with bulimia and anorexia following binge episodes owing to decreased bowel motility. We present a rare case of acute gastric dilation secondary to bulimia in an otherwise healthy 18-year-old female patient that resulted in compression and complete occlusion of the abdominal aorta, leading to acute mesenteric and bilateral lower limb ischaemia. This resolved immediately following a laparotomy and gastric decompression. Management of these patients is very challenging owing to the lack of a successful precedent. To our knowledge, such a catastrophic complication has only ever been reported once in the literature and the outcome was fatal. Our case is of additional importance as it offers a successful management strategy for these patients.

  9. Acute aortic occlusion due to tumor embolism in a patient with lung malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Lioudaki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Acute lower limb ischemia caused by tumor embolization is rare, despite the fact that cancer is a common cause of hypercoagulability predisposing to venous thrombosis. Arterial embolization is mostly associated with intracardiac tumors while lung malignancies are the second most common cause of tumor embolism. Methods: In this report, we present a male patient who developed acute bilateral lower limb ischemia in the immediate postoperative period after a thoracotomy for attempted left upper lobe resection for lung cancer. Results: The patient was treated with a subclavian-bifemoral bypass, since an initial attempted embolectomy was unsuccessful. Histopathological characteristics of thrombus obtained during embolectomy were consistent with the histopathology of the primary tumor. Conclusion: Acute ischemia is an emergency that should be diagnosed and treated immediately. Interestingly, in this case, the presence of epidural anesthesia masked the initial symptoms and delayed diagnosis. Preoperative assessment with transesophageal echocardiography may reveal patients at high risk for tumor embolism.

  10. Molecular evaluation of the great vessels of patients with bicuspid aortic valve disease

    OpenAIRE

    Leme, Mauro Paes; David, Tirone E.; Butany, Jagdish; Banerjee, Diponkar; Bastos,Eduardo S.; Provenzano,Sylvio C.; Leôncio A. Feitosa; Murad,Henrique; Magnanini,Monica M. Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is associated with increased prevalence of annulo-aortic ectasia, dissection and ascending aortic aneurysm. This study was undertaken to compare the amount of fibrillin-1 and elastin in the media of great vessels of patients with bicuspid and tricuspid aortic valve disease. METHOD: Tissue samples of ascending aorta and pulmonary artery were obtained from 22 patients with bicuspid aortic valve disease (BAV) and 17 patients with tricuspid aortic valve diseas...

  11. Acute kidney injury after infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery: a comparison of AKIN and RIFLE criteria for risk prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, J-Y; Lee, J B; Yoon, Y; Seo, H-S; Song, J-G; Hwang, G S

    2014-12-01

    Although both Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) and risk, injury, failure, loss, and end-stage (RIFLE) kidney disease criteria are frequently used to diagnose acute kidney injury (AKI), they have rarely been compared in the diagnosis of AKI in patients undergoing surgery for infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). This study investigated the incidence of, and risk factors for, AKI, defined by AKIN and RIFLE criteria, and compared their ability to predict mortality after infrarenal AAA surgery. This study examined 444 patients who underwent infrarenal AAA surgery between January 1999 and December 2011. Risk factors for AKI were assessed by multivariable analyses, and the impact of AKI on overall mortality was assessed by a Cox's proportional hazard model with inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). Net reclassification improvement (NRI) was used to assess the performance of AKIN and RIFLE criteria in predicting overall mortality. AKI based on AKIN and RIFLE criteria occurred in 82 (18.5%) and 55 (12.4%) patients, respectively. The independent risk factors for AKI were intraoperative red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and chronic kidney disease (CKD) by AKIN criteria, and age, intraoperative RBC transfusion, preoperative atrial fibrillation, and CKD by RIFLE criteria. After IPTW adjustment, AKI was related to 30 day mortality and overall mortality. NRI was 15.2% greater (P=0.04) for AKIN than for RIFLE criteria in assessing the risk of overall mortality. Although AKI defined by either AKIN or RIFLE criteria was associated with overall mortality, AKIN criteria showed better prediction of mortality in patients undergoing infrarenal AAA surgery. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Re-do aortic operation in a young patient for aggressive Takayasu’s arteritis

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    Bougioukas Ioannis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Takayasu’s arteritis is an inflammatory arteriopathy which involves the aorta and its major branches, causing mainly stenosis of their lumen, though aneurysmal lesions can also occur. A young female with Takayasu’s disease presented to our hospital with acute lung oedema due to severe aortic insufficiency and ascending aorta dilatation. She had already undergone distal ascending aorta and hemiarch replacement due to Standford type A aortic dissection five years ago. The patient had also undergone reconstruction of abdominal arteries’ stenoses with extraanatomical bypass. We performed a Bentall procedure with a valved conduit and implantation of the coronary ostia as buttons on the conduit. A mechanical valved graft was used instead of a bioprosthesis, due to possible early degradation of a bioprosthesis. The postoperative course was uneventful and the one year follow-up was normal. Valve-sparing aortic root replacement should be avoided in Takayasu’s arteritis due to high rate of recurrent regurgitation.

  13. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection: A Rare Manifestation of Alport Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuwatworn, Amornpol; Sethi, Prince; Steffen, Kelly; Jonsson, Orvar; Petrasko, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Alport syndrome (AS) is a genetic disorder due to inheritance of genetic mutations which lead to production of abnormal type IV collagen. AS has been associated with renal, auditory, and ocular diseases due to the presence of abnormal alpha chains of type IV collagen in the glomerulus, cochlea, cornea, lens, and retina. The resulting disorder includes hereditary nephritis, corneal opacities, anterior lenticonus, fleck retinopathy, temporal retinal thinning, and sensorineural deafness. Aortic and aortic valve pathologies have been described as extrarenal manifestations of AS in multiple case reports. One case report described intramural hematoma of the coronary artery. We report the first case of true spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) with an intimal flap as a very rare manifestation of AS. The patient is a 36-year-old female with history of AS with chronic kidney disease, hypertension, and obesity who presented to the emergency room with acute onset of substernal chest pain radiating to her neck and arms. Troponin was elevated, and ECG showed transient 1 mm ST-segment elevation in the inferior leads. Subsequent coronary angiography revealed localized dissection of the left circumflex artery. Percutaneous coronary angioplasty was performed and her symptoms improved. This case illustrates that SCAD may be a manifestation of AS patients with chest pain.

  14. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection: A Rare Manifestation of Alport Syndrome

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    Amornpol Anuwatworn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alport syndrome (AS is a genetic disorder due to inheritance of genetic mutations which lead to production of abnormal type IV collagen. AS has been associated with renal, auditory, and ocular diseases due to the presence of abnormal alpha chains of type IV collagen in the glomerulus, cochlea, cornea, lens, and retina. The resulting disorder includes hereditary nephritis, corneal opacities, anterior lenticonus, fleck retinopathy, temporal retinal thinning, and sensorineural deafness. Aortic and aortic valve pathologies have been described as extrarenal manifestations of AS in multiple case reports. One case report described intramural hematoma of the coronary artery. We report the first case of true spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD with an intimal flap as a very rare manifestation of AS. The patient is a 36-year-old female with history of AS with chronic kidney disease, hypertension, and obesity who presented to the emergency room with acute onset of substernal chest pain radiating to her neck and arms. Troponin was elevated, and ECG showed transient 1 mm ST-segment elevation in the inferior leads. Subsequent coronary angiography revealed localized dissection of the left circumflex artery. Percutaneous coronary angioplasty was performed and her symptoms improved. This case illustrates that SCAD may be a manifestation of AS patients with chest pain.

  15. Endovascular treatment of thoracic aortic diseases

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    Davidović Lazar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Endovascular treatment of thoracic aortic diseases is an adequate alternative to open surgery. This method was firstly performed in Serbia in 2004, while routine usage started in 2007. Aim of this study was to analyse initial experience in endovacular treatment of thoracic aortic diseses of three main vascular hospitals in Belgrade - Clinic for Vascular and Endovascular Surgery of the Clinical Center of Serbia, Clinic for Vascular Surgery of the Military Medical Academy, and Clinic for Vascular Surgery of the Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases “Dedinje”. Methods. Between March 2004. and November 2010. 41 patients were treated in these three hospitals due to different diseases of the thoracic aorta. A total of 21 patients had degenerative atherosclerotic aneurysm, 6 patients had penetrating aortic ulcer, 6 had posttraumatic aneurysm, 4 patients had ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysm, 1 had false anastomotic aneurysm after open repair, and 3 patients had dissected thoracic aneurysm of the thoracoabdominal aorta. In 15 cases the endovascular procedure was performed as a part of the hybrid procedure, after carotidsubclavian bypass in 4 patients and subclavian artery transposition in 1 patient due to the short aneurysmatic neck; in 2 patients iliac conduit was used due to hypoplastic or stenotic iliac artery; in 5 patients previous reconstruction of abdominal aorta was performed; in 1 patient complete debranching of the aortic arch, and in 2 patients visceral abdominal debranching were performed. Results. The intrahospital mortality rate (30 days was 7.26% (3 patients with ruptured thoracic aneurysms died. Endoleak type II in the first control exam was revealed in 3 patients (7. 26%. The patients were followed up in a period of 1-72 months, on average 29 months. The most devastating complication during a followup period was aortoesofageal fistula in 1 patient a year after the treatment of posttraumatic aneurysm. Conversion was

  16. Aortic stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... but most often it develops later in life. Children with aortic stenosis may have other conditions present from birth. Aortic ... children may need aortic valve repair or replacement. Children with mild aortic stenosis may be able to take part in most ...

  17. Descending thoracic aorta dissection associated with esophageal carcinoma

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    Kaushik Saha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of aortic dissection with a malignancy is a rare finding and previous reports are usually those of primary aortic sarcomas. A 45-year-old male presented to us with chest pain and dysphagia for 1 month with a background history of obstructive airway disease and uncontrolled hypertension. In this report we present a case of typical descending aorta dissection with associated esophageal carcinoma.

  18. Reliability of different body temperature measurement sites during aortic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbölös, L; Philipp, A; Ugocsai, P; Foltan, M; Thrum, A; Miskolczi, S; Pousios, D; Khawaja, S; Budra, M; Ohri, S K

    2014-01-01

    We retrospectively performed a comparative analysis of temperature measurement sites during surgical repair of the thoracic aorta. Between January 2004 and May 2006, 22 patients (mean age: 63 ± 12 years) underwent operations on the thoracic aorta with arterial cannulation of the aortic arch concavity and selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) during deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA). Indications for surgical intervention were acute type A dissection in 14 (64%) patients, degenerative aneurysm in 6 (27%), aortic infiltration of thymic carcinoma in 1 (4.5%) and intra-aortic stent refixation in 1 (4.5%). Rectal, tympanic and bladder temperatures were evaluated to identify the best reference to arterial blood temperature during HCA and ACP. There were no operative deaths and the 30-day mortality rate was 13% (three patients). Permanent neurological deficits were not observed and transient changes occurred in two patients (9%). During re-warming, there was strong correlation between tympanic and arterial blood temperatures (r = 0.9541, ptemperature (r = 0.7654, p = n.s; r = 0.7939, p = n.s., respectively). We conclude that tympanic temperature measurements correlate with arterial blood temperature monitoring during aortic surgery with HCA and ACP and, therefore, should replace bladder and rectal measurements.

  19. Endovascular stent-graft management of thoracic aortic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dake, Michael D. E-mail: mddake@stanford.edu

    2001-07-01

    The traditional standard therapy for descending thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is open operative repair with graft replacement of the diseased aortic segment. Despite important advances in surgical techniques, anesthetic management, and post-operative care over the last 30 years, the mortality and morbidity of surgery remains considerable, especially in patients at high risk for thoracotomy because of coexisting severe cardiopulmonary abnormalities or other medical diseases. The advent of endovascular stent-graft technology provides an alternative to open surgery for selected patients with TAA. The initial experience suggests that stent-graft therapy potentially may reduce the operative risk, hospital stay and procedural expenses of TAA repair. These potential benefits are especially attractive for patients at high risk for open TAA repair. Current results of endovascular TAA therapy document operative mortalities of between 0 and 4%, aneurysm thrombosis in 90 and 100% of cases, and paraplegia as a complication in 0 and 1.6% of patients. The early success of stent-graft repair of TAA has fostered the application of these devices for the management of a wide variety of thoracic aortic pathologies, including acute and chronic dissection, intramural hematoma, penetrating ulcer, traumatic injuries, and other diseases. The results of prospective controlled trials that compare the outcomes of stent-graft therapy with those of surgical treatment in patients with specific types of aortic disease are anxiously awaited before recommendations regarding the general use of these new devices can be made with confidence.

  20. Spontaneous left main coronary artery dissection complicated by pseudoaneurysm formation in pregnancy: role of CT coronary angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weintraub Nealw F

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report a case of a 26-year-old female, who presented at 34 weeks of an uncomplicated pregnancy with an acute ST elevation anterior wall myocardial infarction. Cardiac catheterization suggested a left main coronary artery dissection with pseudoaneurysm formation. The patient's course was complicated by congestive heart failure. She was initially managed conservatively by a multidisciplinary team including heart failure specialists, obstetricians, and cardiovascular surgeons. 4 days after admission, her LMC was imaged by dual-source 64 slice Cardiac computed tomography, coronary dissection was identified extending to the lumen, and the presence of pseudoaneurysm was confirmed. She underwent subsequently a staged procedure, which included placement of an intra-aortic balloon pump, cesarean section, and coronary artery bypass grafting. This case illustrates the utility of coronary artery CT imaging to assess the complexity and stability of coronary artery dissections, thereby helping to determine the need for, and timing of revascularization procedures.

  1. Interim report of the SENTIS trial: cerebral perfusion augmentation via partial aortic occlusion in acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uflacker, R; Schönholz, C; Papamitisakis, N

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to present the interim results of the the Safety and Efficacy of NeuroFlo Technology in Ischemic Stroke (SENTIS) trial. The SENTIS study is a phase III, multi-center randomized prospective study to evaluate cerebral perfusion augmentation with partial aortic occlusion in acute ischemic stroke. The trial was designed to compare conventional management of stroke patients with stroke patients treated by partial occlusion of the abdominal aorta by the NeuroFlo device. Follow up was at 24 hours and 90 days. Of the 100 patients enrolled, 53 were randomized to treatment and 47 to control. Six patients enrolled to treatment were found to have specific exclusion criteria and were excluded. Therefore, 97 validated patients, 47 treated patients and 47 control patients were included in the analysis. Adverse events were evenly distributed, among the two cohorts of patients with 16 patients or 34% in each group, including fatal and non-fatal adverse events. However, the mortality was significantly lower for the treated population (6.4%) versus the control population (14.9%), with more stroke progression (8.5%) and hemorrhagic transformation of the stroke area (4.3%) in the control population. The SENTIS trial was designed to test the hypothesis that the NeuroFlo system is safe to be used in humans and able to produce cerebral perfusion augmentation, based on imaging and neurological assessment at 24 hours and at 90 days. The preliminary data yielded by the interim analysis showed that the population enrolled in the trial was rather homogeneous regarding age, baseline NIHSS scores, and other risk factors, suggesting that the treated and control cohorts were similar. The analysis also showed that the adverse events were rather comparable between the two groups, suggesting the treatment procedure to be safe enough for continuation of the trial. The NeuroFlo system so far proved to be safe enough for clinical use and seems to be promising in improving

  2. Improved hemodynamics with a novel miniaturized intra-aortic axial flow pump in a porcine model of acute left ventricular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabari, Farshad Raissi; George, Joggy; Cuchiara, Michael P; Langsner, Robert J; Heuring, Jason J; Cohn, William E; Hertzog, Benjamin A; Delgado, Reynolds

    2013-01-01

    Currently, long-term mechanical circulatory support (MCS) is limited to large, complex devices that require invasive, high-risk surgical implantation. These devices are mainly used in patients with late stage heart failure (HF). We are developing a novel percutaneous intra-aortic micro-axial fluid entrainment pump intended for long-term MCS in patients with earlier stage HF. This study examined the pump's hemodynamic effects in a porcine model of acute HF. In three porcine experiments, the pump was deployed in the thoracic aorta by standard cardiac catheterization techniques and was anchored with self-expanding struts. Acute cardiac dysfunction was induced by infusing esmolol continuously. Pump support increased cardiac output (+10.4%), stroke volume (+8.9%), and ejection fraction (+10.8%) while decreasing cardiac stroke work (-10.8%) and afterload (-22.7%). Furthermore, pump support significantly enhanced renal perfusion through sustained increases in both renal artery flow (+36.4%) and pressure (+73.6%). In a porcine model of acute HF, the catheter-based intra-aortic fluid entrainment pump improved hemodynamics and renal perfusion. These results suggest that the pump could improve HF outcomes and patients' quality of life by resting the heart, promoting reverse remodeling, and augmenting end-organ perfusion. Furthermore, the enhanced renal perfusion may help disrupt the cardiorenal syndrome cycle and improve HF treatment.

  3. Acute effect of static exercise in patients with aortic regurgitation assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance: role of left ventricular remodelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegret, Josep M; Martinez-Micaelo, Neus; La Gerche, Andre; Franco-Bonafonte, Luis; Rubio-Pérez, Francisco; Calvo, Nahum; Montero, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    In patients with aortic regurgitation (AR), the effect of static exercise (SE) on global ventricular function and AR severity has not been previously studied. Resting and SE cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) were prospectively performed in 23 asymptomatic patients with AR. During SE, we observed a decrease in regurgitant volume in both end-diastolic (EDV) and end-systolic (ESV) volume in both ventricles, as well as a slight decrease in LV ejection fraction (EF). Interestingly, responses varied depending on the degree of LV remodelling. Among patients with a greater degree of LV remodelling, we observed a decrease in LVEF (56 ± 4 % at rest vs 48 ± 7 % during SE, p = 0.001) as a result of a lower decrease in LVESV (with respect to LVEDV. Among patients with a lower degree of LV remodelling, LVEF remained unchanged. RVEF remained unchanged in both groups. In patients with AR, SE provoked a reduction in preload, LV stroke volume, and regurgitant volume. In those patients with higher LV remodelling, we observed a decrease in LVEF, suggesting a lower LV contractile reserve. • In patients with aortic regurgitation, static exercise reduced preload volume. • In patients with aortic regurgitation, static exercise reduced stroke volume. • In patients with aortic regurgitation, static exercise reduced regurgitant volume. • In patients with greater remodelling, static exercise unmasked a lower contractile reserve. • Effect of static exercise on aortic regurgitation was assessed by cardiac MR.

  4. Aortic and Mitral Calcification Is Marker of Significant Carotid and Limb Atherosclerosis in Patients with First Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannino, Anna; Losi, Maria-Angela; Giugliano, Giuseppe; Canciello, Grazia; Toscano, Evelina; Giamundo, Alessandra; Scudiero, Fernando; Brevetti, Linda; Scudiero, Laura; Prastaro, Maria; Perrino, Cinzia; Perrone-Filardi, Pasquale; Galderisi, Maurizio; Trimarco, Bruno; Esposito, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    Atherosclerosis is a systemic disease and coronary artery disease is frequently associated with peripheral artery disease. As aortic and mitral valvular calcification (VC) share some etiopathogenetic mechanisms with atherosclerosis, we analyzed the risk profile and the echocardiographic characteristics of patients admitted for first acute coronary syndrome (ACS) to investigate whether the presence of VC could be a marker of asymptomatic hemodynamically significant peripheral atherosclerosis. A total of 151 patients admitted for ACS without previous history of cardiovascular disease were consecutively enrolled. The presence of VC was identified by echocardiography; a carotid stenosis ≥50% by ultrasound identified carotid artery disease (CarAD); an ankle-brachial index ≤0.9 or ≥1.4 identified lower extremity artery disease (LEAD). Significant peripheral atherosclerosis was defined by the presence of CarAD and/or LEAD. Peripheral atherosclerosis was diagnosed in 82 (54.3%) patients; isolated CarAD in 24, isolated LEAD in 20, both diseases in 38 patients. VC was present in 103 (68.2%) patients. By multivariate analysis, age (OR = 1.059, 95% CI 1.007-1.113, P = 0.025), diabetes mellitus (OR = 5.068, 95% CI 1.480-17.351, P = 0.010), VC (OR = 7.422, 95% CI 2.421-22.880, P < 0.001), and multivessel CAD (OR = 3.317, 95% CI 1.281-8.586, P = 0.013) were the only independent predictors of having peripheral atherosclerosis. C-statistic for VC was not inferior to that obtained by age (0.728, 95% CI 0.649-0.797 vs. 0.800, 95% CI 0.727-0.861, P = 0.101) and to that obtained by the combination of multivessel CAD with diabetes (0.750; 95% CI 0.673-0.817, P = 0.635), and, furthermore, it was higher than that obtained by diabetes alone (0.620, 95% CI 0.538-0.698, P = 0.036). Ruling out the presence of significant peripheral atherosclerosis should be routinely considered in patients with ACS showing VC at echocardiography. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Risk factor analysis of bird beak occurrence after thoracic endovascular aortic repair

    OpenAIRE

    Boufi, M.; Guivier-Curien, C.; Deplano, V.; Boiron, O.; Loundou, A.D.; Dona, B.; Hartung, O.; Alimi, Y.S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim was to analyze the role played by anatomy and stent graft in the incidence of incomplete apposition to aortic arch.Methods: Between 2007 and 2014 data including available and suitable computed tomographic angiography (CIA) imaging of patients who had undergone thoracic endovascular aortic repair were reviewed. The study included 80 patients (65 men, 54 /- 21 years) treated for traumatic aortic rupture (n = 27), thoracic aortic aneurysm (n = 15), type B aortic dissection (...

  6. Cardiac tamponade associated with delayed ascending aortic perforation after blunt chest trauma: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, Dae Woong; Lee, Mi Kyung

    2017-01-01

    Background Cardiac tamponade due to aortic injury after blunt trauma is a rare and potentially fatal injury. Most aortic injuries caused by blunt trauma present as aortic dissection or rupture of the aortic isthmus. Several cases of delayed aortic injury have been reported. However, all of these injuries were observed in the descending aorta because they had been caused by a posterior rib fracture. Case presentation We report the first case of cardiac tamponade associated with delayed ascendi...

  7. Aortic Diameter Growth in Children With a Bicuspid Aortic Valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkx, Remy; Duijnhouwer, Anthonie L; Vink, Evelien; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; Schokking, Michiel

    2017-07-01

    Knowledge of aortic growth in patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is essential to identify patients at risk for dissection, but data on children remain unclear. We retrospectively evaluated the aortic diameters of all pediatric BAV patients, identified through an echocardiographic database (2005 to 2013). Medical records were reviewed and aortic diameters re-measured on echocardiographic images at diagnosis and if available on variable mid- and endpoints follow-up. Dilatation (z-score >2) was based on 2 different z-score equation methods (Gautier/Campens). In 234 of the total 250 BAV patients, aortic diameters were analyzed; median age was 6.1 years (interquartile range 1.7 to 10), of which 63% were male. Aortic coarctation was present in 81 (36%) patients, 23% had a ventricular septal defect. BAV morphology according to Sievers was as follows: type 0 in 128 patients (55%), type 1 in 96 (41%), and type 2 in 10 (4%). Ascending aortic (AA) dilatation was present in 24% (Gautier) and 36% (Campens) at inclusion. Median follow-up was 4.7 years. The AA was the only location where mean z-scores progressed significantly with age: 0.06 (Gautier) and 0.09 (Campens) units per year between ages 5 and 15 years. Associations for higher AA z-scores at older age were an initial z-score >2 (p aortic valve stenosis (p aortic surgery occurred. In conclusion, only the AA seems at risk for complication, although no aortic complications occurred in this pediatric BAV cohort. BAV morphology seems associated with larger AA z-scores and valvular dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mechanisms involved in the vasorelaxant effects produced by the acute application of amfepramone in vitro to rat aortic rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Canales, J.S. [Section of Postgraduate Studies and Investigation, Higher School of Medicine from the National Polytechnic Institute, Mexico City (Mexico); Department of Cellular Biology, National Institute of Perinatology, Mexico City (Mexico); Lozano-Cuenca, J.; Muãoz-Islas, E.; Aguilar-Carrasco, J.C. [Department of Cellular Biology, National Institute of Perinatology, Mexico City (Mexico); López-Canales, O.A.; López-Mayorga, R.M.; Castillo-Henkel, E.F.; Valencia-Hernández, I.; Castillo-Henkel, C. [Section of Postgraduate Studies and Investigation, Higher School of Medicine from the National Polytechnic Institute, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2015-03-27

    Amfepramone (diethylpropion) is an appetite-suppressant drug used for the treatment of overweight and obesity. It has been suggested that the systemic and central activity of amfepramone produces cardiovascular effects such as transient ischemic attacks and primary pulmonary hypertension. However, it is not known whether amfepramone produces immediate vascular effects when applied in vitro to rat aortic rings and, if so, what mechanisms may be involved. We analyzed the effect of amfepramone on phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings with or without endothelium and the influence of inhibitors or blockers on this effect. Amfepramone produced a concentration-dependent vasorelaxation in phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings that was not affected by the vehicle, atropine, 4-AP, glibenclamide, indomethacin, clotrimazole, or cycloheximide. The vasorelaxant effect of amfepramone was significantly attenuated by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and tetraethylammonium (TEA), and was blocked by removal of the vascular endothelium. These results suggest that amfepramone had a direct vasorelaxant effect on phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings, and that inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and the opening of Ca{sup 2+}-activated K{sup +} channels were involved in this effect.

  9. Aortic event rate in the Marfan population: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jondeau, Guillaume; Detaint, Delphine; Tubach, Florence; Arnoult, Florence; Milleron, Olivier; Raoux, Francois; Delorme, Gabriel; Mimoun, Lea; Krapf, Laura; Hamroun, Dalil; Beroud, Christophe; Roy, Carine; Vahanian, Alec; Boileau, Catherine

    2012-01-17

    Optimal management, including timing of surgery, remains debated in Marfan syndrome because of a lack of data on aortic risk associated with this disease. We used our database to evaluate aortic risk associated with standardized care. Patients who fulfilled the international criteria, had not had previous aortic surgery or dissection, and came to our center at least twice were included. Aortic measurements were made with echocardiography (every 2 years); patients were given systematic β-blockade and advice about sports activities. Prophylactic aortic surgery was proposed when the maximal aortic diameter reached 50 mm. Seven hundred thirty-two patients with Marfan syndrome were followed up for a mean of 6.6 years. Five deaths and 2 dissections of the ascending aorta occurred during follow-up. Event rate (death/aortic dissection) was 0.17%/y. Risk rose with increasing aortic diameter measured within 2 years of the event: from 0.09%/y per year (95% confidence interval, 0.00-0.20) when the aortic diameter was <40 mm to 0.3% (95% confidence interval, 0.00-0.71) with diameters of 45 to 49 mm and 1.33% (95% confidence interval, 0.00-3.93) with diameters of 50 to 54 mm. The risk increased 4 times at diameters ≥50 mm. The annual risk dropped below 0.05% when the aortic diameter was <50 mm after exclusion of a neonatal patient, a woman who became pregnant against our recommendation, and a 72-year-old woman with previous myocardial infarction. Risk of sudden death or aortic dissection remains low in patients with Marfan syndrome and aortic diameter between 45 and 49 mm. Aortic diameter of 50 mm appears to be a reasonable threshold for prophylactic surgery. © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Aortic aneurysm and diverticulum of Kommerell: a dreadful concomitance

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    Fernando Peixoto Ferraz de Campos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available First described in 1936, the diverticulum of Kommerell (DOK is a dilatation of the proximal segment of an aberrant subclavian artery. Appearing more frequently in the left-sided aortic arch, the aberrant right subclavian artery passes behind the esophagus toward the right arm, causing symptoms in the minority of cases. Diagnosis is generally incidental with this pattern. When symptomatic, dysphagia, respiratory symptoms, hoarseness, chest pain, and upper limb ischemia are the most common complaints. Although debatable, the origin of DOK is accepted as being degenerative or congenital. The degenerative condition is normally associated with atherosclerosis and occurs more frequently after the age of 50 years with no gender predominance. Complications may be life threatening and are more commonly related to the diverticulum aneurysm or when associated with aortic diseases such as aneurysms or dissection. The authors present a case of a 67-year-old male with a history of acute chest pain, neurological disturbances, and hypertensive crisis. The diagnostic workup revealed an aortic arch aneurysm with intramural hematoma and a diverticulum aneurysm of Kommerell. Treatment was conservative at first. The patient presented a satisfactory outcome and was referred to an outpatient clinic for follow up and further therapeutic consolidation.

  11. Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased acute kidney injury and 1-year mortality after transcatheter aortic valve replacement: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, George S; Gill, Priyanka; Soliman, Demiana; Reddy, Pratap; Dominic, Paari

    2017-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with adverse outcomes after surgical aortic valve replacement. However, there are conflicting data on the impact of DM on outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). DM is associated with poor outcomes after different cardiac procedures. Therefore, DM can also be associated with poor outcomes after TAVR. We searched PubMed and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for studies that evaluated outcomes after TAVR and stratified at least 1 of the studied endpoints by DM status. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality at 1 year. Secondary endpoints were early (up to 30 days) mortality, acute kidney injury (AKI), cerebrovascular accident (CVA), major bleeding, and major vascular complications. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using random effects models. We included 64 studies with a total of 38 686 patients. DM was associated with significantly higher 1-year mortality (OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.04-1.26, P = 0.008) and periprocedural AKI (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.08-1.52, P = 0.004). On the other hand, there were no significant differences between diabetics and nondiabetics in early mortality, CVAs, major bleeding, or major vascular complications. DM is associated with increased 1-year mortality and periprocedural AKI in patients undergoing TAVR. The results of this study suggest that DM is a predictor of adverse outcomes in patients undergoing TAVR. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Introducing transcatheter aortic valve implantation with a?new generation prosthesis: Institutional learning curve and effects on acute outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    D'Ancona, G; Agma, H. U.; Kische, S.; El-Achkar, G.; Di?mann, M.; Ortak, J.; Ince, H.; U. Ketterer; B?risch, A.; ?ner, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We present our single-centre experience with the direct flow medical (DFM) trans-catheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) prosthesis addressing the impact of learning curve upon outcomes. Background The DFM has been recently introduced for TAVI. The prosthesis presents original design and implantation features. Methods Patients were divided into three groups according to the chronological implantation sequence that reflected technical skills acquisition of the entire team. Results...

  13. Reoperative Aortic Root Replacement in Patients with Previous Aortic Root or Aortic Valve Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Kwon Chong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Generalization of standardized surgical techniques to treat aortic valve (AV and aortic root diseases has benefited large numbers of patients. As a consequence of the proliferation of patients receiving aortic root surgeries, surgeons are more frequently challenged by reoperative aortic root procedures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of redo-aortic root replacement (ARR. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 66 patients (36 male; mean age, 44.5±9.5 years who underwent redo-ARR following AV or aortic root procedures between April 1995 and June 2015. Results: Emergency surgeries comprised 43.9% (n=29. Indications for the redo-ARR were aneurysm (n=12, pseudoaneurysm (n=1, or dissection (n=6 of the residual native aortic sinus in 19 patients (28.8%, native AV dysfunction in 8 patients (12.1%, structural dysfunction of an implanted bioprosthetic AV in 19 patients (28.8%, and infection of previously replaced AV or proximal aortic grafts in 30 patients (45.5%. There were 3 early deaths (4.5%. During follow- up (median, 54.65 months; quartile 1–3, 17.93 to 95.71 months, there were 14 late deaths (21.2%, and 9 valve-related complications including reoperation of the aortic root in 1 patient, infective endocarditis in 3 patients, and hemorrhagic events in 5 patients. Overall survival and event-free survival rates at 5 years were 81.5%±5.1% and 76.4%±5.4%, respectively. Conclusion: Despite technical challenges and a high rate of emergency conditions in patients requiring redo-ARR, early and late outcomes were acceptable in these patients.

  14. Hybrid treatment of penetrating aortic ulcer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, Juan Antonio Herrero; Martins-Romeo, Daniela de Araujo; Escudero, Carlos Caparros; Falcon, Maria del Carmen Prieto; Batista, Vinicius Bianchi, E-mail: jaherrero5@hotmail.com [Unidade de Gestao Clinica (UGC) de Diagnostico por Imagem - Hosppital Universitario Virgen Macarena, Sevilha (Spain); Vazquez, Rosa Maria Lepe [Unit of Radiodiagnosis - Hospital Nuestra Senora de la Merced, Osuna, Sevilha (Spain)

    2015-05-15

    Penetrating atherosclerotic aortic ulcer is a rare entity with poor prognosis in the setting of acute aortic syndrome. In the literature, cases like the present one, located in the aortic arch, starting with chest pain and evolving with dysphonia, are even rarer. The present report emphasizes the role played by computed tomography in the diagnosis of penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer as well as in the differentiation of this condition from other acute aortic syndromes. Additionally, the authors describe a new therapeutic approach represented by a hybrid endovascular surgical procedure for treatment of the disease. (author)

  15. Clinical results of aortic arch replacement using a four branched prosthetic graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, S; Matsubara, J; Nagayoshi, Y; Nishizawa, H; Takeuchi, K; Nonaka, T; Noguchi, Y

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the operative techniques of total arch replacement, the clinical results and the survival curves of patients following this procedure. Since December 2001, 92 patients have undergone surgical treatment for aortic dissection and aneurysm. The total aortic arch replacement was performed in 24 of these patients. There were 16 men and 8 women, and the age range was 42 to 81 years with a mean age of 59.4 years. As the operative technique for total arch replacement, we used the 4-branched prosthetic graft, selective cerebral perfusion (SCP), continuous cold blood cardioplegia (CCBC), and open distal anastomosis under circulatory arrest. The combined operations were coronary bypass grafting in 4 patients, aortic valve suspension in 1 patient and a Bentairs procedure in 1 patient. Eleven (73.3%) patients with acute dissection required emergency operation. The hospital mortality rate was 25% (6 of the 24 patients). The causes of death were multiple organ failure (MOF) due to renal and mesenteric ischemia in 3 patients, cerebral infarction in 2 patients, myonephropathic metabolic syndrome (MNMS) in 1 patient, respectively. The data concerning extracorporeal circulation was 204+/-53 min in total pump time, 136+/-43 min in aortic cross clamp time, 83+/-14 min in SCP time and 48+/-10 min in circulatory arrest time, respectively. The long-term result in actuarial survival rate was 76% for 5 years. We consider the technique of total arch replacement using 4-branched prosthetic graft, SCP, CCBC, and open distal anastomosis is a useful operative method in patients with aortic aneurysm.

  16. Outcomes in patients with contained ruptures of the aortic annulus after transcatheter aortic valve implantation with balloon-expandable devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitbart, Philipp; Minners, Jan; Pache, Gregor

    2017-01-01

    ) at three centers in Germany and Denmark. CR were identified in 12 patients (1.2%, 80.7+5.0 years, STS-Score 4.1+1.4%). All 12 patients had received a balloon-expandable valve. In 3 patients periprocedural transesophageal echocardiography revealed findings suggestive of aortic dissection, an aortic...

  17. Prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm and large infrarenal aorta in patients with acute coronary syndrome and proven coronary stenosis: a prospective monocenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Anne; Bui, Huu Tri; Barbe, Coralie; Henni, Amine Hadj; Journet, Julien; Metz, Damien; Nazeyrollas, Pierre

    2010-07-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in patients with coronary heart disease. The aims of this prospective study were to evaluate the prevalence of AAA and of large abdominal aorta in patients hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome and coronary stenosis of 50% or greater. AAA ultrasound screening was prospectively performed in 306 patients after they gave informed consent. AAA and large abdominal aorta were defined by maximum anteroposterior diameter of 30 mm or greater and of 20 to 29 mm, respectively. Patient characteristics were prospectively collected. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify risk factors for AAA and large abdominal aorta. A p value Prevalence reached 7.7% in patients older than 50 years. Using stepwise logistic regression analysis, age (odds ratio [OR] 1.04. 95% confidence [CI] 1.00-1.09 per year of age, p = 0.06) and previous coronary events (OR 2.44, 95% CI 0.96-6.25, p = 0.06) showed a borderline significant association with AAA. Large infrarenal aortic diameter was observed in 32% of patients. Age (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.02-1.05 per year of age, p prevalence seems high in patients with acute coronary syndrome and proven coronary stenosis of 50% or greater. Previous coronary events and older age might be associated with higher risk of AAA, and age, male gender, and obesity are significantly associated with large infrarenal aorta. If these results are confirmed in larger studies, further guidelines concerning AAA screening in this well-defined population should be considered. Copyright (c) 2010 Annals of Vascular Surgery Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Contribution of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in blood-brain barrier disruption and edema after acute ischemia/reperfusion in aortic coarctation-induced hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Taghi; Shid Moosavi, Seyed Mostafa; Dehghani, Gholam Abbas

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity is increased during hypertension and cerebral ischemia. NOS inactivation reduces stroke-induced cerebral injuries, but little is known about its role in blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and cerebral edema formation during stroke in acute hypertension. Here, we investigated the role of NOS inhibition in progression of edema formation and BBB disruptions provoked by ischemia/reperfusion injuries in acute hypertensive rats. Rats were made acutely hypertensive by aortic coarctation. After 7 days, the rats were randomly selected for the recording of carotid artery pressure, or regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using laser Doppler. Ishcemia induced by 60-min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), followed by 12-h reperfusion. A single i.p. dose of L-NAME (1 mg/kg) was injected before MCAO. After evaluation of neurological disabilities, rats were slaughtered under deep anesthesia to assess cerebral infarction volume, edema, or BBB disruption. A 75-85% reduction in rCBF was occurred during MCAO which returned to pre-occluded levels during reperfusion. Profound neurological disabilities were evidenced after MCAO alongside with severe cerebral infarctions (628 ± 98 mm3), considerable edema (4.05 ± 0.52%) and extensive BBB disruptions (Evans blue extravasation, 8.46 ± 2.03 mug/g). L-NAME drastically improved neurological disabilities, diminished cerebral infarction (264 ± 46 mm3), reduced edema (1.49 ± 0.47%) and BBB disruption (2.93 ± 0.66 mug/g). The harmful actions of NOS activity on cerebral microvascular integrity are intensified by ischemia/reperfusion injuries during acute hypertension. NOS inactivation by L-NAME preserved this integrity and diminished cerebral edema.

  19. Percutaneous Retrograde Transhepatic Arterial Puncture to Regain Access in the True Lumen of the Dissected and Acutely Occluded Transplant Hepatic Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Fumagalli, R; Jia, Z; Sella, D M; McKinney, J M; Frey, G T; Wang, W

    2017-03-01

    Iatrogenic hepatic artery dissection is a serious complication that can progress to complete hepatic artery occlusion and graft loss. Restoration of arterial flow to the graft is urgent, but the severity and extent of the dissection may interfere with endovascular techniques. The authors describe a technique of percutaneous retrograde transhepatic arterial puncture to regain access into the true lumen of the dissected hepatic artery to restore in-line flow to the liver graft. © 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  20. Predictors of paraplegia with current thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongkornrat, Wanchai; Yamamoto, Shin; Sekine, Yuji; Ono, Makoto; Fujikawa, Takuya; Oshima, Susumu; Sasaguri, Shiro

    2015-05-01

    Although the results of surgical repair of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm continue to improve, the incidence of paraplegia remains within a wide range depending on each institution. The purpose of this study was to find predictors of paraplegia following thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair in our institute, using the current spinal cord protection strategies. From January 2007 to December 2011, 200 consecutive patients underwent thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Of these, 24 (12%) had Crawford extent I repair, 82 (41%) had extent II, 51 (25.5%) had extent III, 10 (5%) had extent IV, and 33 (16.5%) had extent V (modified by Safi). Aortic dissection was present in 101 (50.5%) patients. Adjuncts used during the procedures included left heart bypass in all patients, cerebrospinal fluid drainage in 164 (82%), and intercostal artery reimplantation in 76 (38%). There were 20 (10%) hospital deaths including 6 (3%) within 30 days; hospital mortality was 8.8% in elective operations. Postoperative complications included paraplegia in 17 (8.5%) patients, stroke in 5 (2.5%), and acute renal failure requiring dialysis in 5 (2.5%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that significant factors for the development of paraplegia were preoperative hypotension (p = 0.005, odds ratio 18.5), intraoperative hypotension (p = 0.001, odds ratio 77.6), and an open distal anastomosis technique (p = 0.012, odds ratio 4.6). The predictors of postoperative paraplegia in our institution were perioperative hypotension and an open distal anastomosis technique. Avoidance of these risk factors might diminish the incidence of postoperative paraplegia. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  1. The Risk of Acute Kidney Injury and Its Impact on 30-Day and Long-Term Mortality after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Gebauer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI is widely used in high risk patients (pts with aortic stenosis. Underlying chronic kidney disease implicates a high risk of postprocedural acute kidney injury (AKI. We analyzed its occurrence, impact on hospital stay, and mortality. Methods. 150 consecutive pts underwent TAVI in our institution (mean age 81 ± 7 years; logistic EuroSCORE 24 ± 15%. AKI definition was a creatinine rise of 26.5 μmol/L or more within 48 hours postprocedural. Ten patients on chronic hemodialysis were excluded. Results. AKI occurred in 28 pts (20%. Baseline creatinine was higher in AKI pts (126.4 ± 59.2 μmol/L versus 108.7 ± 45.1 μmol/L, P=0.09. Contrast media use was distributed evenly. Both, 30-day mortality (29% versus 7%, P<0.0001 and long-term mortality (43% versus 18%, P<0.0001 were higher; hospital stay was longer in AKI pts (20 ± 12 versus 15 ± 10 days, P=0.03. Predicted renal failure calculated STS Score was similar (8.0 ± 5.0% [AKI] versus 7.1 ± 4.0% [non-AKI], P=0.32 and estimated lower renal failure rates than observed. Conclusion. AKI remains a frequent complication with increased mortality in TAVI pts. Careful identification of risk factors and development of more suitable risk scores are essential.

  2. The Risk of Acute Kidney Injury and Its Impact on 30-Day and Long-Term Mortality after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Katrin; Diller, Gerhard-Paul; Kaleschke, Gerrit; Kerckhoff, Gregor; Malyar, Nasser; Meyborg, Matthias; Reinecke, Holger; Baumgartner, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Background. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is widely used in high risk patients (pts) with aortic stenosis. Underlying chronic kidney disease implicates a high risk of postprocedural acute kidney injury (AKI). We analyzed its occurrence, impact on hospital stay, and mortality. Methods. 150 consecutive pts underwent TAVI in our institution (mean age 81 ± 7 years; logistic EuroSCORE 24 ± 15%). AKI definition was a creatinine rise of 26.5 μmol/L or more within 48 hours postprocedural. Ten patients on chronic hemodialysis were excluded. Results. AKI occurred in 28 pts (20%). Baseline creatinine was higher in AKI pts (126.4 ± 59.2 μmol/L versus 108.7 ± 45.1 μmol/L, P = 0.09). Contrast media use was distributed evenly. Both, 30-day mortality (29% versus 7%, P < 0.0001) and long-term mortality (43% versus 18%, P < 0.0001) were higher; hospital stay was longer in AKI pts (20 ± 12 versus 15 ± 10 days, P = 0.03). Predicted renal failure calculated STS Score was similar (8.0 ± 5.0% [AKI] versus 7.1 ± 4.0% [non-AKI], P = 0.32) and estimated lower renal failure rates than observed. Conclusion. AKI remains a frequent complication with increased mortality in TAVI pts. Careful identification of risk factors and development of more suitable risk scores are essential. PMID:23365748

  3. White blood cell and platelet count as adjuncts to standard clinical evaluation for risk assessment in patients at low probability of acute aortic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Fulvio; Cavalot, Giulia; Giachino, Francesca; Tizzani, Maria; Nazerian, Peiman; Carbone, Federica; Pivetta, Emanuele; Mengozzi, Giulio; Moiraghi, Corrado; Lupia, Enrico

    2017-08-01

    Pre-test probability assessment is key in the approach to suspected acute aortic syndromes (AASs). However, most patients with AAS-compatible symptoms are classified at low probability, warranting further evaluation for decision on aortic imaging. White blood cell count, platelet count and fibrinogen explore pathophysiological pathways mobilized in AASs and are routinely assayed in the workup of AASs. However, the diagnostic performance of these variables for AASs, alone and as a bundle, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that white blood cell count, platelet count and/or fibrinogen at presentation may be applied as additional tools to standard clinical evaluation for pre-test risk assessment in patients at low probability of AAS. This was a retrospective observational study conducted on consecutive patients managed in our Emergency Department from 2009 to 2014 for suspected AAS. White blood cell count, platelet count and fibrinogen were assayed during evaluation in the Emergency Department. The final diagnosis was obtained by computed tomography angiography. The pre-test probability of AAS was defined according to guidelines. Of 1210 patients with suspected AAS, 1006 (83.1%) were classified at low probability, and 271 (22.4%) were diagnosed with AAS. Within patients at low probability, presence of at least one alteration among white blood cell count >9*10 3 /µl, platelet count 9*10 3 /µl and platelet count 9*10 3 /µl and platelet count evaluation, white blood cell count and platelet count may be used in patients at low pre-test probability to fine-tune risk assessment of AAS.

  4. Challenging Friesian horse diseases : aortic rupture and megaesophagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, M.

    2015-01-01

    Aortic rupture is quite rare in Warmblood horses and is best known as an acute and fatal rupture of the aortic root in older breeding stallions. It has now become clear that aortic rupture, which is diagnosed around an age of 4 years, is more frequent in the Friesian breed than in others. The high

  5. Thoracic aortic catastrophes : towards the endovascular solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, F.H.W.

    2010-01-01

    Descending thoracic aortic catastrophes include a variety of acute pathologies of the descending thoracic aorta, which are all associated with high morbidity and mortality rates, requiring immediate intervention. For this thesis, we explored the management and outcomes of several thoracic aortic

  6. [Results of operations for ascending aortic aneurysm in Iceland 2000-2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brynjarsdottir, Helga Bjork; Melvinsdottir, Inga Hlif; Gudbjartsson, Tomas; Geirsson, Arnar

    2016-01-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is an uncommon disease where treatment is complex and associated with significant comorbidity. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of operations for TAA in Iceland with emphasis on postoperative complications, 30 day mortality and survival. A retrospective study on 105 patients (mean age 60.7 yrs., 69.5% males) that underwent operations for TAA between 2000 and 2014 in Iceland. Patients with aortic injury or acute aortic dissection were excluded. Clinical information was collected from hospital charts and long-term survival estimated by Kaplan-Meier method. Mean follow-up was 5.7 yrs. Bicuspid aortic valve was present in 52 patients (51.0%) and family history was positive in 10 of the cases (9.5%). Every other patient (50.5%) was asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally. The most common procedure was aortic root replacement using biological prosthesis. Two out of three patients had complications, that were regarded as major in 31.4% of cases, however, stroke was only detected in 2 (1.9%) patients. Two patients died within 30 days postoperatively (1.9%). The overall survival at one year was 95.1%; more favorable for males compared to females (97.2 vs. 90.4%, p=0.0012, log rank test) and at 5 years 90.3%. Outcome following surgery for TAA in Iceland is comparable to studies in neighbouring countries. The complications rate is high, however, the stroke rate was low, as was 30 day mortality. Longterm survival is favorable, and is more favorable for males than females. Key words: Thoracic aortic aneurysm, ascending aorta, open heart surgery, complications, operative mortality, survival. Correspondance: Arnar Geirsson, arnarge@landspitali.is.

  7. Introducing transcatheter aortic valve implantation with a new generation prosthesis: Institutional learning curve and effects on acute outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ancona, G; Agma, H U; Kische, S; El-Achkar, G; Dißmann, M; Ortak, J; Ince, H; Ketterer, U; Bärisch, A; Öner, A

    2017-02-01

    We present our single-centre experience with the direct flow medical (DFM) trans-catheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) prosthesis addressing the impact of learning curve upon outcomes. The DFM has been recently introduced for TAVI. The prosthesis presents original design and implantation features. Patients were divided into three groups according to the chronological implantation sequence that reflected technical skills acquisition of the entire team. Group I included the first 20 patients (early learning phase), group II the second 20 patients (proctoring to other members of the team), and group III the following 93 patients (technique consolidation). Differences in baseline and procedural variables were analysed. Nonparametric correlation and linear regression were used to identify changes according to institutional cumulative experience. There was a significant correlation between catheterisation time and institutional experience (rho = -0.4; p proctoring and technical consolidation phase.

  8. Partial aortic occlusion for cerebral perfusion augmentation: safety and efficacy of NeuroFlo in Acute Ischemic Stroke trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shuaib, Ashfaq; Bornstein, Natan M; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Dillon, William; Fisher, Marc; Hammer, Maxim D; Molina, Carlos A; Rutledge, J Neal; Saver, Jeffrey L; Schellinger, Peter D; Shownkeen, Harish

    2011-01-01

    .... The Safety and Efficacy of NeuroFlo in Acute Ischemic Stroke trial is a randomized trial of the safety and efficacy of NeuroFlo treatment in improving neurological outcome versus standard medical management...

  9. RELEVANCIA DEL DIAGNÓSTICO DIFERENCIAL ENTRE EL SÍNDROME AÓRTICO AGUDO Y EL SÍNDROME CORONARIO AGUDO EN PACIENTES CON DOLOR TORÁCICO Y CRISIS HIPERTENSIVA: REVISIÓN A PROPÓSITO DE 2 CASOS / Relevance of the differential diagnosis between acute aortic syndrome and acute coronary syndrome in patients with thoracic pain and hypertensive crisis: review on 2 case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Simó Sánchez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute aortic syndrome is a pathological process with low incidence compared with acute coronary syndrome, although with a worse prognosis in the short term, which is why its early diagnosis and urgent treatment are essential to the favorable evolution of thepatient. Electrocardiographic changes suggestive of myocardial ischemia, with acute evolution, are rare in acute aortic syndrome. Even in the presence of a suggestive thoracic pain and high levels of blood pressure, an adequate differential diagnosis is of utmost importance, since the administration of anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy in high doses can have a dramatic impact on patient outcome. Two cases are presented in which electrocardiographic changes determined the action to take in patients with acute aortic syndrome.

  10. Endovascular management of lap belt-related abdominal aortic injury in a 9-year-old child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazoglou, Konstantinos O; Karkos, Christos D; Kalogirou, Thomas E; Giagtzidis, Ioakeim T

    2015-02-01

    Blunt abdominal aortic trauma is a rare occurrence in children with only a few patients having been reported in the literature. Most such cases have been described in the context of lap belt injuries. We report a 9-year-old boy who suffered lap belt trauma to the abdomen during a high-speed road traffic accident resulting to the well-recognized pattern of blunt abdominal injury, that is, the triad of intestinal perforation, fractures of the lumbar spine, and abdominal aortic injury. The latter presented with lower limb ischemia due to dissection of the infrarenal aorta and right common iliac artery. Revascularization was achieved by endovascular means using 2 self-expanding stents in the infrarenal aorta and the right common iliac artery. This case is one of the few reports of lap belt-related acute traumatic abdominal aortic dissection in a young child and highlights the feasibility of endovascular management in the pediatric population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Pregnancy and coronary artery dissection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Rodríguez-González, Fayna

    2015-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction during pregnancy is associated with high maternal and fetal mortality. Coronary atherosclerosis is the most common cause due to an increase in the age of the patients and the association with cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, and the existence of family history of coronary disease. However, thrombosis, coronary dissection or coronary vasospasms are other causes that may justify it. We report the case of a 33 weeks pregnant first-time mother, without cardiovascular risk factors, who presented an acute coronary event in the context of atherosclerotic disease and coronary dissection after percutaneous coronary intervention. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. [Sports-related carotid artery dissection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrouschot, J; Bormann, A; Routsi, D; Stoll, A

    2009-09-01

    Sports-related carotid artery dissection are very rare and were described in different kinds of sports. We report on a 45-year old man who suffered bilateral brain infarctions caused by bilateral extracranial internal carotid artery dissection after excessive weight lifting in a gym. As possible trigger factors for the dissections we assumed the abrupt extension of the neck during weight lifting and the frequent Valsalva manoeuvers with massive rise in the pressure in the carotid artery system. The patient underwent angioplasty and stenting of the stenosis of right carotid artery, the primarily occluded left carotid artery recanalized spontaneously. Secondary prevention was established by platelet aggregation inhibitors. The patient recovered completely. The pathogenesis of sports-related dissections is multifactorial. In addition to sporting activities hereditary or acquired structural aberrations in the arterial walls could be discussed. Acute focal neurological symptoms after sport should always focus on carotid or vertebral artery dissection. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart-New York.

  13. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection during cabergoline therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Nishaki Kiran; Malkani, Samir; Ockene, Ira

    2012-01-01

    Although spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome, it should be considered during the evaluation of patients who have chest pain. Coronary vasospasm can lead to spontaneous dissection. The dopamine agonist cabergoline is known to cause digital vasospasm. Herein, we report a case of spontaneous right coronary artery dissection in a 43-year-old woman who was taking cabergoline as therapy for prolactinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an apparent relationship between cabergoline therapy and spontaneous coronary artery dissection. The possible association of cabergoline with coronary artery spasm and dissection should be considered in patients who present with chest pain while taking this medication.

  14. Whole body perfusion for hybrid aortic arch repair: evolution of selective regional perfusion with a modified extracorporeal circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Philip; Walsh, Graham; Walsh, Stephanie; O'Neil, Michael; Gelinas, Jill; Chu, Michael W A

    2017-04-01

    Patients undergoing hybrid aortic arch reconstruction require careful protection of vital organs. We believe that whole body perfusion with tailored dual circuitry may help to achieve optimal patient outcomes. Our circuit has evolved from a secondary circuit utilizing a cardioplegia delivery device for lower body perfusion to a dual-oxygenator circuit. This allows individually controlled regional perfusion with ease of switching from secondary to primary circuit for total body flow. The re-design allows for separate flow and temperature regulation with two oxygenators in parallel. All patients underwent a single-stage operation for simultaneous treatment of arch and descending aortic pathology via a sternotomy, using a hybrid frozen elephant trunk technique. We report six consecutive patients undergoing hybrid arch and frozen elephant trunk reconstruction using a dual-oxygenator circuit. Five patients underwent elective surgery and one was emergent. One patient had an acute dissection while three underwent concomitant procedures, including a Ross procedure and two valve-sparing root reconstructions. Three cases were redo sternotomies. The mean pump time was 358 ± 131 min, the aortic cross clamp time 243 ± 135 min, the cardioplegia volume of 33,208 ml ± 16,173, cerebral ischemia 0 min, lower body ischemia 76 ± 34 min and the average lower body perfusion time was 142 min. Two patients did not require any donor blood products. The median intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital lengths of stay (LOS) were two days and 10 days, respectively. The average peak serum lactate on CPB was 7.47 mmol/L and, at admission to the ICU, it was 3.37 mmol/L. Renal and respiratory failure developed in the salvage acute type A dissection patient. No other complications occurred in this series. Whole body perfusion as delivered through individually controlled dual-oxygenator circuitry allows maximum flexibility for hybrid aortic arch reconstruction. A modified circuit perfusion

  15. Causes and histopathology of ascending aortic disease in children and young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Deepali; Dietz, Harry C.; Oswald, Gretchen L.; Maleszewski, Joseph J.; Halushka, Marc K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Ascending aortic diseases (aneurysms, dissections, and stenosis) and associated aortic valve disease are rare but important causes of morbidity and mortality in children and young adults. Certain genetic causes, such as Marfan syndrome and congenital bicuspid aortic valve disease, are well known. However, other rarer genetic and nongenetic causes of aortic disease exist. Methods We performed an extensive literature search to identify known causes of ascending aortic pathology in children and young adults. We catalogued both aortic pathologies and other defining systemic features of these diseases. Results We describe 17 predominantly genetic entities that have been associated with thoracic aortic disease in this age group. Conclusions While extensive literature on the common causes of ascending aortic disease exists, there is a need for better histologic documentation of aortic pathology in rarer diseases. PMID:19926309

  16. Identification and Management of Iatrogenic Aortocoronary Dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Ping Nie, MD, PhD, FESC, FSCAI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Iatrogenic aortocoronary dissection (IACD is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication during coronary catheterizations. Although the incidence was relatively low, the dissection often leads to procedure failure with increased risk of myocardial infarction and death. IACD is mainly caused by disruption of intima at the ostia of left or right coronary artery during interventional procedures, and appears as luminal filling defects or persistence of contrast (“extraluminal cap” or intimal tear outside the coronary lumen. Dissection could disseminate antegradely and lead to subtotal or total occlusion of the coronary lumen. Similarly, it could extend retrogradely into the sinus of Valsalva and cusp, or even the ascending aorta, aortic arch, or descending aorta, leading to hemodynamic collapse. Early identification and prompt management is crucial to the prognosis of patients with IACD. Immediate bail-out stenting should be performed as rapidly as possible in most cases of severe dissection, even when significant propagation has already occurred. Surgery should only be considered when stenting failed to seal the dissection and the patients had hemodynamic compromise.

  17. Aortic root disease in athletes: aortic root dilation, anomalous coronary artery, bicuspid aortic valve, and Marfan's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Eugene Sun

    2013-08-01

    condition should be restricted from participation in competitive sports, but can be cleared for participation 6 months after surgical repair. Bicuspid aortic valve is another form of aortic root disease with significance in athletes. Although echocardiography has traditionally been used for diagnosis, CT and MRI have proven more sensitive and specific. Management of bicuspid aortic valve consists of surveillance through echocardiography, medical therapy with beta-blockers and ARBs, and surgery. Guidelines for sports participation are based on the presence of aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation, and aortic root dilation. Marfan's syndrome is a genetic disorder with a number of cardiac manifestations including aortic root dilation, aneurysm, and dissection. Medical management involves beta-blockers and ARBs. Thresholds for surgical management differ from the general population. With regard to sports participation, the most important consideration is early detection. Athletes with the stigmata of Marfan's syndrome or with family history should be tested. Further research should determine whether more aggressive screening is warranted in sports with taller athletes. Athletes with Marfan's syndrome should be restricted from activities involving collision and heavy contact, avoid isometric exercise, and only participate in activities with low intensity, low dynamic, and low static components. In summary, many forms of aortic root disease afflict athletes and need to be appreciated by sports medicine practitioners because of their potential to lead to tragic but preventable deaths in an otherwise healthy population.

  18. Management of Aortic Replacement-Induced Chylothorax by Lipiodol Lymphography

    OpenAIRE

    Kitahara, Hiroto; Yoshitake, Akihiro; Hachiya, Takashi; Inaba, Yu; Tamura, Kentaro; Yashiro, Hideki; Nakatsuka, Seiji; Shimizu, Hideyuki

    2015-01-01

    Chylothorax is a rare but serious complication of thoracic aortic surgery, leading to malnutrition, respiratory insufficiency, and prolonged hospital stay. In this article, we describe the successful treatment of a case of intractable chylothorax by lipiodol lymphography. The patient was a 39-year-old man who underwent descending aortic replacement for a remaining dissected aneurysm after total arch replacement. Chylothorax developed postoperatively. After complete oral intake cessation, tota...

  19. Management of pediatric craniocervical arterial dissections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Aditya S; Hill, Elizabeth; Al-Holou, Wajd N; Gemmete, Joseph J; Chaudhary, Neeraj; Thompson, B Gregory; Garton, Hugh J L; Maher, Cormac O

    2015-01-01

    Craniocervical arterial dissections (CCADs) represent a preventable cause of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Our objective was to describe clinical presentation, imaging features, treatment strategies, and report clinical and imaging outcomes of CCADs at a large pediatric tertiary referral center. Electronic medical records were queried using variations of the word dissection for patients under 25 years of age with neuroimaging over a 13-year period. Medical and imaging records were reviewed to identify carotid, vertebral, or intracranial dissections. Demographics, presenting symptoms, presence of AIS, mechanism of injury, dissection location, dissection treatment, and complications stemming from treatment were collected. Clinical outcome was classified according to modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score. Imaging follow-up was obtained until the dissection healed or stabilized. A total 6,289 patients met initial search criteria. Of the 42 (0.7%) patients with CCADs, 23 (54.8%) had internal carotid artery (ICA) dissections, and 17 (40.5%) had vertebrobasilar (VB) dissections. More females had ICA dissections (p = 0.002), and more males had VB dissections (p = 0.01). CCADs associated with traumatic presentation occurred in 34 patients (81.0%), while 8 (19.0%) were spontaneous. Good outcomes (mRS 0-3) were noted for 36 patients, and 5 had poor outcomes (mRS 4-6). In the 17 patients with vessel occlusion, 50.0% had partial or complete recanalization at a mean follow-up of 23.9 months. CCAD is commonly related to trauma and presents with AIS. The majority of patients experience good clinical outcome. Recanalization of initial vessel occlusion occurs in half of cases at 2 years.

  20. A Case of Advanced Gastric Cancer with Para-Aortic Lymph Node Metastasis Treated with Preoperative FOLFOX Chemotherapy Followed by Radical Subtotal Gastrectomy and D2 Lymph Node Dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung Jo Suh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 73-year-old female who was diagnosed with advanced gastric cancer. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy was used to diagnose Borrmann type 3 advanced gastric cancer located at the gastric antrum. A biopsy revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-CT (FDG-PET-CT scans demonstrated multiple lymph node metastases, including the para-aortic lymph nodes. Systemic chemotherapy with 5-fluoruracil (5-FU, oxaliplatin, and leucovorin (FOLFOX was initiated. An abdominopelvic CT scan taken after 4 cycles of chemotherapy showed improvement in the ulceroinfiltrative gastric lesion and marked regression of several enlarged lymph nodes. Consequently, we performed a subtotal gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy. The postoperative histopathological report was early gastric carcinoma with no lymph node metastasis in the 48 resected lymph nodes. Another 4 cycles of FOLFOX chemotherapy were performed after surgery. A FDG-PET-CT scan taken 12 months postoperatively showed no definite evidence of local recurrence or distant metastasis, and the previously noted retroperitoneal lymph nodes had disappeared. A FDG-PET-CT taken 16 months postoperatively showed multiple lymph node metastases, including the left supraclavicular lymph node. Despite 8 cycles of secondary chemotherapy with 5-FU, irinotecan, and leucovorin (FOLFIRI and radiotherapy, the patient died 38 months after the operation.

  1. Aortic Valve Stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rapid, fluttering heartbeat Not eating enough (mainly in children with aortic valve stenosis) Not gaining enough weight (mainly in children with aortic valve stenosis) The heart-weakening effects of aortic valve stenosis ...

  2. Cardiac tamponade associated with delayed ascending aortic perforation after blunt chest trauma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Dae Woong; Lee, Mi Kyung

    2017-06-17

    Cardiac tamponade due to aortic injury after blunt trauma is a rare and potentially fatal injury. Most aortic injuries caused by blunt trauma present as aortic dissection or rupture of the aortic isthmus. Several cases of delayed aortic injury have been reported. However, all of these injuries were observed in the descending aorta because they had been caused by a posterior rib fracture. We report the first case of cardiac tamponade associated with delayed ascending aortic perforation 2 weeks after blunt trauma. The patient was an 81-year-old man. In cases of blunt chest trauma, delayed ascending aortic injury causing cardiac tamponade is possible associated with various causes such as direct injury by fractured rib or delayed aortic perforation of initial blunt injury.

  3. Partial aortic occlusion for cerebral perfusion augmentation: safety and efficacy of NeuroFlo in Acute Ischemic Stroke trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaib, Ashfaq; Bornstein, Natan M; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Dillon, William; Fisher, Marc; Hammer, Maxim D; Molina, Carlos A; Rutledge, J Neal; Saver, Jeffrey L; Schellinger, Peter D; Shownkeen, Harish

    2011-06-01

    Fewer than 5% of patients with acute ischemic stroke are currently treated, and there is need for additional treatment options. A novel catheter treatment (NeuroFlo) that increases cerebral blood flow was tested to 14 hours. The Safety and Efficacy of NeuroFlo in Acute Ischemic Stroke trial is a randomized trial of the safety and efficacy of NeuroFlo treatment in improving neurological outcome versus standard medical management. The primary safety end point was the incidence of serious adverse events through 90 days. The primary efficacy end point on a modified intent-to-treat population was a global disability end point at 90 days. Secondary end points included mortality, intracranial hemorrhage, modified Rankin scale score outcome of 0 to 2, and modified Rankin scale shift analysis. Between October 2005 and January 2010, 515 patients were enrolled at 68 centers in 9 countries. The primary efficacy end point did not reach statistical significance (OR, 1.17; CI, 0.81-1.67; P=0.407). The primary safety end point did not show a difference in serious adverse events (P=0.923). Ninety-day mortality was 11.3% (26/230) in treatment and 16.3% (42/257) in control (P=0.087). Post hoc analyses showed that patients presenting within 5 hours (OR, 3.33; CI, 1.31-8.48), with NIHSS score 8 to 14 (OR, 1.80; CI, 0.99-3.30), or older than age 70 years (OR, 2.02; CI, 1.02-4.03) had better modified Rankin scale score outcomes of 0 to 2; additionally, there were fewer stroke-related deaths in treatment compared to control groups (7.4% = 17/230; 14.4% = 37/257). The trial met its primary safety end point but not its primary efficacy end point. Signals of treatment effect were suggested on all-cause mortality, in patients presenting early, older than age 70 years, or with moderate strokes, but these require confirmation. URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00119717.

  4. Resveratrol Inhibits Aortic Root Dilatation in the Fbn1C1039G/+ Marfan Mouse Model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hibender, S.; Franken, R.; Roomen, C. van; Braake, A.D. ter; Made, I. van der; Schermer, E.E.; Gunst, Q.; Hoff, M.J. van den; Lutgens, E.; Pinto, Y.M.; Groenink, M.; Zwinderman, A.H.; Mulder, B.J.; Vries, C.J. de; Waard, V. de

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a connective tissue disorder caused by mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene. Patients with MFS are at risk of aortic aneurysm formation and dissection. Usually, blood pressure-lowering drugs are used to reduce aortic events; however, this is not sufficient for most

  5. MRI and MR angiography of vertebral artery dissection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascalchi, M. [Cattedra di Radiologia, Universita di Pisa (Italy); Bianchi, M.C. [Servizio di Neuroradiologia, Ospedale S. Chiara, Pisa (Italy); Mangiafico, S. [Servizio di Neuroradiologia, Ospedale di Careggi, Firenze (Italy); Ferrito, G. [Servizio di Neuroradiologia, Ospedali Riuniti, Livorno (Italy); Puglioli, M. [Servizio di Neuroradiologia, Ospedale S. Chiara, Pisa (Italy); Marin, E. [Servizio di Radiologia, Ospedale S. M. Nuova, Firenze (Italy); Mugnai, S. [Clinica Neurologica, Universita di Firenze (Italy); Canapicchi, R. [Servizio di Neuroradiologia, Ospedale S. Chiara, Pisa (Italy); Quilici, N. [Servizio di Neuroradiologia, Ospedali Riuniti, Livorno (Italy); Inzitari, D. [Clinica Neurologica, Universita di Firenze (Italy)

    1997-05-01

    A review of 4,500 angiograms yielded 11 patients with dissection of the vertebral arteries who had MRI and (in 4 patients) MR angiography (MRA) in the acute phase of stroke. One patient with incidental discovery at arteriography of asymptomatic vertebral artery dissection and two patients with acute strokes with MRI and MRA findings consistent with vertebral artery dissection were included. Dissection occurred after neck trauma or chiropractic manipulation in 4 patients and was spontaneous in 10. Dissection involved the extracranial vertebral artery in 9 patients, the extra-intracranial junction in 1, and the intracranial artery in 4. MRI demonstrated infarcts in the brain stem, cerebellum, thalamus or temporo-occipital regions in 7 patients with extra- or extra-intracranial dissections and a solitary lateral medullary infarct in 4 patients (3 with intracranial and 1 with extra-intracranial dissection). In 2 patients no brain abnormality related to vertebral artery dissection was found and in one MRI did not show subarachnoid haemorrhage revealed by CT. Intramural dissecting haematoma appeared as crescentic or rounded high signal on T1-weighted images in 10 patients examined 3-20 days after the onset of symptoms. The abnormal vessel stood out in the low signal cerebrospinal fluid in intracranial dissections, whereas it was more difficult to detect in extracranial dissections because of the intermediate-to-high signal of the normal perivascular structures and slow flow proximal and distal to the dissection. In two patients examined within 36 h of the onset, mural thickening was of intermediate signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal on spin-density and T2-weighted images. MRA showed abrupt stenosis in 2 patients and disappearance of flow signal at and distal to the dissection in 5. Follow-up arteriography, MRI or MRA showed findings consistent with occlusion of the dissected vessel in 6 of 8 patients. (orig.). With 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Spontaneous carotid artery dissection causing a juvenile cerebral infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trattnig, S.; Huebsch, P.; Schindler, E.

    1988-11-01

    The case of a 19-year-old patient is presented who was admitted with aphasia and hemiparesis due to basal ganglia infarction as a result of spontaneous dissection of the internal carotid artery. The difficulties in diagnosing this disease with CT and MRI in the acute stage are demonstrated. Angiography is still imperative in order to ascertain that a carotid dissection has occurred.

  7. Is there any difference in aortic wall quality between patients with aortic stenosis and those with regurgitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedik, Jaroslav; Pilarzcyk, Kevin; Wendt, Daniel; Price, Vivien; Tsagakis, Konstantinos; Perrey, Mareike; Baba, Hideo A; Jakob, Heinz

    2013-10-01

    The interaction between aortic valve (AV) and aortic wall pathology is currently unclear. No intraoperative examination or investigation is able to predict postoperative dissection or aneurysm formation in patients operated on for primary AV pathology. The aim of the present study was therefore to evaluate the mechanical and histological properties of the aortic wall in patients operated on for aortic stenosis (AS) or regurgitation (AR). The aortic walls of 229 patients (age 67.5 ± 11.0 years) operated on for AS (n = 135, Group 1) or AR (n = 94, Group 2) were subjected to mechanical stress testing and postoperative histological examination. Ascending aortic diameter was ≥50 mm in 46/229 patients and 40-49 mm in 52/229 patients. AR was associated with an increased tendency to aortic media disruption (P < 0.001) and with media degeneration (P < 0.001) compared with AS patients. The incidence of aortic aneurysm (≥50 mm) was increased in AR patients (35 in AR and 11 in AS, P < 0.01). The aortic wall cohesion was better in patients with an aortic diameter of <40 mm compared with those with moderate dilatation of 40-49 mm (P = 0.009) or an aortic aneurysm (P = 0.002). Our study proves that patients presenting for AV replacement with AR have a poorer quality of the ascending aorta despite a superior thickness compared with patients with AS. In addition, patients with a slightly dilated aorta (40-49 mm) have a poorer cohesion of the aortic wall than those with normal aortic dimensions.

  8. Spontaneous renal artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Santhosh G; Pillai, Unnikrishnan; Vaidyan, Philip B; Ishiyama, Takaaki

    2010-01-01

    Isolated spontaneous dissection of renal arteries or its branches are extremely rare. Most cases of renal artery dissection are associated with underlying pathology of the renal arteries. We report a case of spontaneous dissection of the left main renal artery and infarction of the left kidney with positive antiphospholipid antibody. Extensive work up of the patient including imaging studies confirmed the diagnosis of SRAD. Antiphospholipid antibodies may have a role in the pathogenesis of arterial dissection by causing endothelial dysfunction. This is a first literature report.

  9. Coronary Artery Dissection: Not Just a Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aneurysm More Coronary Artery Dissection: Not Just a Heart Attack Updated:Oct 4,2016 Sometimes a heart attack ... Disease Go Red For Women Types of aneurysms Heart Attack • Home • About Heart Attacks Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) ...

  10. Aortic valve bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens T; Jensen, Maiken Brit; Arendrup, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    In aortic valve bypass (AVB) a valve-containing conduit is connecting the apex of the left ventricle to the descending aorta. Candidates are patients with symptomatic aortic valve stenosis rejected for conventional aortic valve replacement (AVR) or transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI...

  11. Aortic aneurysm disease vs. aortic occlusive disease - differences in outcome and intensive care resource utilisation after elective surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Jannie; Gilsaa, Torben; Rønholm, Ebbe

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT: Abdominal aortic surgery is a high-risk procedure, with aortic aneurysm and aortic occlusive diseases being the main indications. These groups are often regarded as having equal perioperative risk profiles. Previous reports suggest that the haemodynamic and inflammatory response to aortic...... clamping is more pronounced in patients with aortic aneurysm disease, which may affect outcome. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this observational cohort study was to evaluate outcome after open elective abdominal aortic surgery, hypothesising a higher 30-day mortality, a higher incidence of postoperative organ...... January 2007 to 1 March 2010. PATIENTS: One thousand two hundred and ninety-three patients scheduled for primary open elective, aortoiliac bypass or aortofemoral bypass procedures or abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mechanical ventilation, acute dialysis, use of vasopressors...

  12. Pregnancy and Thoracic Aortic Disease: Managing the Risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanga, Shaynah; Silversides, Candice; Dore, Annie; de Waard, Vivian; Mulder, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The most common aortopathies in women of childbearing age are bicuspid aortic valve, coarctation of the aorta, Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, SMAD3 aortopathy, Turner syndrome, and familial thoracic aneurysm and dissection. The hemodynamic and hormonal changes of

  13. Acute kidney injury defined according to the 'Risk,' 'Injury,' 'Failure,' 'Loss,' and 'End-stage' (RIFLE) criteria after repair for a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Sytse C; Legemate, Dink A; Vahl, Anco; Bouman, Catherine S C; Vogt, Liffert; Wisselink, Willem; Balm, Ron

    2014-11-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious complication after repair of a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA). In the present Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS)/International Society for CardioVascular Surgery (ISCVS) reporting standards patients are classified as no dialysis (grade I), as temporary dialysis (grade II), and as permanent dialysis or fatal outcome (grade III). However, AKI is a broad clinical syndrome including more than the requirement for renal replacement therapy. The recently introduced 'Risk,' 'Injury,' 'Failure,' 'Loss,' and 'End-stage' (RIFLE) classification for AKI comprises three severity categories based on serum creatinine and urine output ('Risk,' 'Injury,' and 'Failure'). The objective of the present study was to assess the incidence of AKI using the RIFLE criteria (AKIRIFLE). Secondary objectives were to assess the incidence of AKI as defined using the SVS/ISCVS reporting standards (AKISVS/ISCVS) and the association between AKIRIFLE and death. This was an observational cohort study in 362 consecutive patients with an RAAA in three hospitals in Amsterdam (The Netherlands) between 2004 and 2011. The end points were the incidence of AKIRIFLE, of AKISVS/ISCVS, and the combined 30-day or in-hospital death rate. A multivariable logistic regression model was made to assess the association between AKIRIFLE and death after adjustment for preoperative shock profile (Glasgow Aneurysm Score) and postoperative shock profile (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation [APACHE] II score, use of vasopressors, and fluid balance during the first 24 hours after intervention). AKIRIFLE occurred in 74% (267/362; 95% confidence interval [CI], 69%-78%), with 27% of these patients categorized as 'Risk' (71/267; 95% CI, 22%-32%), 39% categorized as 'Injury' (104/267, 95% CI, 33%-45%), and 34% categorized as 'Failure' (92/267; 95% CI, 29%-40%). AKISVS/ISCVS occurred in 48% (175/362; 95% CI, 43%-53%), with 53% of these categorized as 'grade I' (92/175; 95

  14. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection following Topical Hormone Replacement Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander L. Pan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare condition, usually presenting as an acute coronary syndrome, and is often seen in states associated with high systemic estrogen levels such as pregnancy or oral contraceptive use. While topical hormonal replacement therapy may result in increased estrogen levels similar to those documented with oral contraceptive use, there are no reported cases of spontaneous coronary dissection with topical hormonal replacement therapy. We describe a 53-year-old female who developed two spontaneous coronary dissections while on topical hormonal replacement therapy. The patient had no other risk factors for coronary dissection. After withdrawal from topical hormonal therapy, our patient has done well and has not had recurrent coronary artery dissections over a one-year follow-up period. The potential contributory role of topical hormonal therapy as a cause of spontaneous coronary dissection should be recognized.

  15. Research of Customized Aortic Stent Graft Manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Chen, Xin; Liu, Muhan

    2017-03-01

    Thoracic descending aorta diseases include aortic dissection and aortic aneurysm, of which the natural mortality rate is extremely high. At present, endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has been widely used as an effective means for the treatment of descending aortic disease. Most of the existing coating stents are standard design, which are unable to meet the size or structure of different patients. As a result, failure of treatment would be caused by dimensional discrepancy between stent and vessels, which could lead to internal leakage or rupture of blood vessels. Therefore, based on rapid prototyping sacrificial core - coating forming (RPSC-CF), a customized aortic stent graft manufactured technique has been proposed in this study. The aortic stent graft consists of film and metallic stent, so polyether polyurethane (PU) and nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy with good biocompatibility were chosen. To minimum film thickness without degrading performance, effect of different dip coating conditions on the thickness of film were studied. To make the NiTi alloy exhibit super-elasticity at body temperature (37°C), influen