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Sample records for acute anaerobic interval

  1. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training

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    Stöggl, Thomas L.; Björklund, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR) in well-trained endurance athletes. Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33) and female (n = 3) runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak): 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg−1·min−1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high intensity interval training HIIT; polarized training POL; high volume low intensity oriented control group CG/HVLIT applying no HIIT). A maximal anaerobic running/cycling test (MART/MACT) was performed prior to and following a 9-week training period. Results: Only the HIIT group achieved improvements in peak power/velocity (+6.4%, P 0.05). Acute HRR was improved in HIIT (11.2%, P = 0.002) and POL (7.9%, P = 0.023) with no change in the HVLIT oriented control group. Conclusion: Only a training regime that includes a significant amount of HIIT improves the neuromuscular status, anaerobic power and the acute HRR in well-trained endurance athletes. A training regime that followed more a low and moderate intensity oriented model (CG/HVLIT) had no effect on any performance or HRR outcomes. PMID:28824457

  2. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training

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    Thomas L. Stöggl

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR in well-trained endurance athletes.Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33 and female (n = 3 runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak: 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg−1·min−1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high intensity interval training HIIT; polarized training POL; high volume low intensity oriented control group CG/HVLIT applying no HIIT. A maximal anaerobic running/cycling test (MART/MACT was performed prior to and following a 9-week training period.Results: Only the HIIT group achieved improvements in peak power/velocity (+6.4%, P < 0.001 and peak lactate (P = 0.001 during the MART/MACT, while, unexpectedly, in none of the groups the performance at the established lactate concentrations (4, 6, 10 mmol·L−1 was changed (P > 0.05. Acute HRR was improved in HIIT (11.2%, P = 0.002 and POL (7.9%, P = 0.023 with no change in the HVLIT oriented control group.Conclusion: Only a training regime that includes a significant amount of HIIT improves the neuromuscular status, anaerobic power and the acute HRR in well-trained endurance athletes. A training regime that followed more a low and moderate intensity oriented model (CG/HVLIT had no effect on any performance or HRR outcomes.

  3. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas L. Stöggl; Glenn Björklund; Glenn Björklund

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR) in well-trained endurance athletes.Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33) and female (n = 3) runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak): 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg−1·min−1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high ...

  4. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Carl Foster, Courtney V. Farland, Flavia Guidotti, Michelle Harbin, Brianna Roberts, Jeff Schuette, Andrew Tuuri, Scott T. Doberstein, John P. Porcari

    2015-01-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly). Steady-state (n = 19) exercised (cycle ergometer) 20 minutes at 90% of ...

  5. Effect of High Intensity Interval Training with Blood Restriction on Anaerobic Performance

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    Amir Behi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Limiting venous blood flow restriction is a new approach of  training aims to improving high level of performance among athletes, which has shown prominent results at muscle hypotrophy and strength. KAATSU[1] is a training system including pressure belt imposed on the proximal part of the upper and lower bodies. The present study aims to investigate the effect of HIIT Kaatsu trainings on anaerobic performance among young athletes. The present quasi experimental research was conducted through a pre-test and post-test and three groups including KAATSU intensive interval exercises (n=11, intense interval exercise (n=9 and a control group (n=10. The exercises included running distances of 20 and 40 meters. In the beginning of the protocol most of the exercises was in short distances and as the sessions proceeded, the number of the sets and repetitions increased and it reached to its highest intensity in the last session. During the exercise protocol, intensity of training was considered to be the highest running speed and based on their abilities each individual tried to run as fast as possible. The exercise load was defined based on repetitions and the sets. In the 20 meters distances, the participants took a ten second rest after each repetition and a one minute rest after each set and in 40 meters distances; Subjects took a 20 second rest after each repetition and 2 minute rest between sets. The control group did not performed any of the mentioned exercises. Moreover, before and after four weeks of training the individuals were given RAST and Anaerobic Biking Wingate Test. Statistical result has been shown, there is a significant change between the maximum anaerobic power in Wingate biking test after four weeks within KAATSU intensive interval (P≥ 0.05 and intensive interval (P≥ 0.05 groups, but no significant change was detected in the control group (P> 0.05.  The statistical analysis of this research has been shown that there is

  6. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Carl; Farland, Courtney V; Guidotti, Flavia; Harbin, Michelle; Roberts, Brianna; Schuette, Jeff; Tuuri, Andrew; Doberstein, Scott T; Porcari, John P

    2015-12-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly). Steady-state (n = 19) exercised (cycle ergometer) 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT). Tabata (n = 21) completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15) completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min) @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. There were significant (p Tabata protocol was significantly less enjoyable (p HIIT protocols are time efficient, they are not superior to conventional exercise training in sedentary young adults. Key pointsSteady state training equivalent to HIIT in untrained studentsMild interval training presents very similar physiologic challenge compared to steady state trainingHIIT (particularly very high intensity variants were less enjoyable than steady state or mild interval trainingEnjoyment of training decreases across the course of an 8 week experimental training program.

  7. Effects of Glycolytic-Based Interval Training on Anaerobic Capacity in Soccer Players

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    Polczyk Michał

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude of changes in anaerobic endurance in response to a training protocol targeting glycolytic capacity. Methods. The study involved 24 soccer players from two U-18 teams. One team served as an experimental (E group the other a control (C. Besides standard soccer practice performed by both groups, an interval training protocol was administered to the experimental group twice a week (15 sessions. One training repetition involved running a soccerspecific course. Repetition time was equal to 15 s interspersed with 45 s passive recovery. Total number of repetitions was determined by the ability to maintain target time (power in subsequent repetitions. A 5% reduction in the distance covered (m compared with the first repetition ended a set. The number of sets was based on the ability of player to maintain target time per repetition. Rest interval between sets was 15 min. Anaerobic performance was assessed before and after the 8-week protocol by the Wingate test in which arterial blood gases, blood lactate concentration, and respiratory variables on a breath-by-breath basis were measured. Results. Distance covered in group E in the first training session was 470.38 ± 77.82 m and 1182.31 ± 164.44 m in the last session. Post-intervention total work (273.63 ± 18.32 to 284.98 ± 15.76 J/kg and maximum power (13.28 ± 1.43 to 14.14 ± 1.25 W/kg significantly increased in the Wingate test. Statistically significant increases in lactate concentration (10.64 ± 1.54 and 12.72 ± 1.59 mmol/l and lower blood pH (7.21 ± 0.03 and 7.19 ± 0.02 were also observed. No significant changes in any of the above variables were observed in group C. Conclusions. Interval training develops glycolytic capacity but with large inter-individual variability.

  8. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Foster, Courtney V. Farland, Flavia Guidotti, Michelle Harbin, Brianna Roberts, Jeff Schuette, Andrew Tuuri, Scott T. Doberstein, John P. Porcari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available High intensity interval training (HIIT has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly. Steady-state (n = 19 exercised (cycle ergometer 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT. Tabata (n = 21 completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15 completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. Results: There were significant (p < 0.05 increases in VO2max (+19, +18 and +18% and PPO (+17, +24 and +14% for each training group, as well as significant increases in peak (+8, + 9 and +5% & mean (+4, +7 and +6% power during Wingate testing, but no significant differences between groups. Measures of the enjoyment of the training program indicated that the Tabata protocol was significantly less enjoyable (p < 0.05 than the steady state and Meyer protocols, and that the enjoyment of all protocols declined (p < 0.05 across the duration of the study. The results suggest that although HIIT protocols are time efficient, they are not superior to conventional exercise training in sedentary young adults.

  9. Effects of acute sleep deprivation and caffeine supplementation on anaerobic performance

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    Joss Moore

    Full Text Available Purpose: Athletes involved in team sports may be subject to varying degrees of sleep deprivation either before or after training and competition. Despite the belief among athletes and coaches of the importance of adequate sleep for ensuing performance, the effect of sleep loss on team-sport anaerobic performance remains unclear. There is conflicting evidence in the scientific literature as to the impact of acute sleep deprivation and caffeine supplementation on anaerobic performance indices. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of 24 hours of acute sleep deprivation on anaerobic performance and the effect of caffeine supplementation on anaerobic performance in the sleep deprived state. Methods: 11 club level games players (n=11, 25±4 yr, 178±7.5 cm, 80.2±10.4 kg, 15.1±5.6% body fat participated in a repeated measures double-blinded placebo control trial. Following familiarisation, each participant returned for testing on three separate occasions. One of the testing sessions took place following a night of normal sleep and the other two sessions took place following 24 hours of sleep deprivation with supplementation of either placebo or 6 mg.kg- 1 of caffeine. During each testing session participants performed the vertical jump height, 20-m straight sprint, Illinois speed agility test and 5-m shuttle run. Results: No significant differences were detected comparing non sleep deprived and sleep deprived interventions in any of the assessed outcome measures. There were also no significant differences observed in any of the outcome measures when comparing caffeine and placebo data in the sleep deprived state. Conclusion: In this cohort of athletes, a 24-h period of acute sleep deprivation did not have any significant impact on anaerobic performance. Caffeine also did not have any effect of on anaerobic performance in the sleep-deprived state.

  10. Effects of acute sleep deprivation and caffeine supplementation on anaerobic performance.

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    Moore, Joss; McDonald, Ciaran; McIntyre, Alan; Carmody, Kevin; Donne, Bernard

    2018-01-01

    Athletes involved in team sports may be subject to varying degrees of sleep deprivation either before or after training and competition. Despite the belief among athletes and coaches of the importance of adequate sleep for ensuing performance, the effect of sleep loss on team-sport anaerobic performance remains unclear. There is conflicting evidence in the scientific literature as to the impact of acute sleep deprivation and caffeine supplementation on anaerobic performance indices. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of 24 hours of acute sleep deprivation on anaerobic performance and the effect of caffeine supplementation on anaerobic performance in the sleep deprived state. 11 club level games players (n=11, 25±4 yr, 178±7.5 cm, 80.2±10.4 kg, 15.1±5.6% body fat) participated in a repeated measures double-blinded placebo control trial. Following familiarisation, each participant returned for testing on three separate occasions. One of the testing sessions took place following a night of normal sleep and the other two sessions took place following 24 hours of sleep deprivation with supplementation of either placebo or 6 mg.kg- 1 of caffeine. During each testing session participants performed the vertical jump height, 20-m straight sprint, Illinois speed agility test and 5-m shuttle run. No significant differences were detected comparing non sleep deprived and sleep deprived interventions in any of the assessed outcome measures. There were also no significant differences observed in any of the outcome measures when comparing caffeine and placebo data in the sleep deprived state. In this cohort of athletes, a 24-h period of acute sleep deprivation did not have any significant impact on anaerobic performance. Caffeine also did not have any effect of on anaerobic performance in the sleep-deprived state.

  11. Determination of leachate toxicity through acute toxicity using Daphnia pulex and anaerobic toxicity assays

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    Carabalí-Rivera, Y. S; Barba-Ho, L. E; Torres-Lozada, P

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The municipal solid waste (MSW) of large cities, in particular the ones of developing countries, is mainly disposed in landfills (LFs), whose inadequate management generates the emission of greenhouse gases and the production of leachates with high concentrations of organic and inorganic matter and, occasionally heavy metals. In this study, the toxicity of the leachates from an intermediate-age municipal landfill was evaluated by ecotoxicity and anaerobic toxicity tests. The acute to...

  12. Clinical characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibilities of anaerobic bacteremia in an acute care hospital.

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    Tan, Thean Yen; Ng, Lily Siew Yong; Kwang, Lee Ling; Rao, Suma; Eng, Li Ching

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the clinical features of anaerobic bacteraemia in an acute-care hospital, and evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates to commonly available antibiotics. Microbiological and epidemiological data from 2009 to 2011were extracted from the laboratory information system and electronic medical records. One hundred and eleven unique patient episodes consisting of 116 anaerobic isolates were selected for clinical review and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Susceptibilities to amoxicillin-clavulanate, clindamycin, imipenem, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, penicillin and piperacillin-tazobactam were performed using Etest strips with categorical interpretations according to current CLSI breakpoints. Metronidazole-resistant and carbapenem-resistant anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli were screened for the nim and cfiA genes. Clinical data was obtained retrospectively from electronic medical records. During the 3 year period, Bacteroides fragilis group (41%), Clostridium species (14%), Propionibacterium species (9%) and Fusobacterium species (6%) were the most commonly isolated anaerobes. Patients with anaerobic bacteraemia that were included in the study were predominantly above 60 years of age, with community-acquired infections. The most commonly used empiric antibiotic therapies were beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations (44%) and metronidazole (10%). The crude mortality was 25%, and appropriate initial antibiotic therapy was not significantly associated with improved survival. Intra-abdominal infections (39%) and soft-tissue infections (33%) accounted for nearly three-quarters of all bacteraemia. Antibiotics with the best anaerobic activity were imipenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, amoxicillin-clavulanate and metronidazole, with in-vitro susceptibility rates of 95%, 95%, 94% and 92% respectively. Susceptibilities to penicillin (31%), clindamycin (60%) and moxifloxacin (84%) were more variable. Two multidrug

  13. Conducting an acute intense interval exercise session during the Ramadan fasting month: what is the optimal time of the day?

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    Aziz, Abdul Rashid; Chia, Michael Yong Hwa; Low, Chee Yong; Slater, Gary John; Png, Weileen; Teh, Kong Chuan

    2012-10-01

    This study examines the effects of Ramadan fasting on performance during an intense exercise session performed at three different times of the day, i.e., 08:00, 18:00, and 21:00 h. The purpose was to determine the optimal time of the day to perform an acute high-intensity interval exercise during the Ramadan fasting month. After familiarization, nine trained athletes performed six 30-s Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) cycle bouts followed by a time-to-exhaustion (T(exh)) cycle on six separate randomized and counterbalanced occasions. The three time-of-day nonfasting (control, CON) exercise sessions were performed before the Ramadan month, and the three corresponding time-of-day Ramadan fasting (RAM) exercise sessions were performed during the Ramadan month. Note that the 21:00 h session during Ramadan month was conducted in the nonfasted state after the breaking of the day's fast. Total work (TW) completed during the six WAnT bouts was significantly lower during RAM compared to CON for the 08:00 and 18:00 h (p effect size [d] = .55 [small] and .39 [small], respectively) sessions, but not for the 21:00 h (p = .03, d = .18 [trivial]) session. The T(exh) cycle duration was significantly shorter during RAM than CON in the 18:00 (p Ramadan fasting had a small to moderate, negative impact on quality of performance during an acute high-intensity exercise session, particularly during the period of the daytime fast. The optimal time to conduct an acute high-intensity exercise session during the Ramadan fasting month is in the evening, after the breaking of the day's fast.

  14. Acute Response of Some Iron Indices of Young Elite Wrestlers to Three Types of Aerobic, Anaerobic, and Wrestling Exercise

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    Seyed Morteza Tayebi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the acute responses of some iron indices of young elite wrestlers to three types of aerobic, anaerobic, and wrestling exercises. A total of 24 elite volunteer wrestlers were randomly categorized into three groups (n=8 aerobic, anaerobic, and routine wrestling exercises. The exercises were conducted during three non-consecutive sessions within one week. The aerobic exercises included 35 min of continuous running with 130 beats per minute (BPM on a treadmill; the anaerobic exercises included 15 min circuit movements and 15 min rest with 160 BPM, and the wrestling training included routine wrestling exercises. Blood sampling was done in the first and third sessions in order to study the acute responses which included four stages of 1 h before, immediately, 3 h, and finally 24 h after exercises. The study of the acute response to the first session showed that the type of exercise had no effect on serum iron (p=0.57. Furthermore, the serum ferritin (p=0.012 and TIBC (p=0.006 affected was affected by type of exercise. The study of the acute response to the second session showed that the type of exercise had no effect on serum ferritin (p=0.731 and TIBC (p=0.231, rather the serum iron was affected by the type of exercise (p=0.01. Conclusively, the study of acute response showed that wrestling exercises led to a decline in iron stores during exercise and reduced total iron binding capacity during a 24-h recovery period. The study of acute exercise after a short adaptation period showed that despite the fact that serum iron had no change in anaerobic and wrestling exercises over the passage of time, it changed during aerobic exercise and 24-h recovery periods. Furthermore, the progress of iron deficiency was only observed in the first stage which prevented its progress to the next stage.

  15. Effects of Sprint Interval Training With Active Recovery vs. Endurance Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Power, Muscular Strength, and Sprint Ability.

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    Sökmen, Bülent; Witchey, Ronald L; Adams, Gene M; Beam, William C

    2018-03-01

    Sökmen, B, Witchey, RL, Adams, GM, and Beam, WC. Effects of sprint interval training with active recovery vs. endurance training on aerobic and anaerobic power, muscular strength, and sprint ability. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 624-631, 2018-This study compared sprint interval training with active recovery (SITAR) to moderate-intensity endurance training (ET) in aerobic and anaerobic power, muscular strength, and sprint time results. Forty-two recreationally active adults were randomly assigned to a SITAR or ET group. Both groups trained 3× per week for 10 weeks at 75% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max for 30 minutes weeks 1-4, with duration increasing to 35 minutes weeks 5-7 and 40 minutes weeks 8-10. While ET ran on a 400-m track without rest for the full training session, SITAR sprinted until the 200-m mark and recovered with fast walking or light jogging the second 200 m to the finish line in 3× original sprint time. Maximal oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), anaerobic treadmill run to exhaustion at 12.5 km·h at 20% incline, isokinetic leg extension and flexion strength at 60 and 300°·s, and 50 m sprint time were determined before and after training. Results showed a significant improvement (p ≤ 0.05) in absolute and relative V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, anaerobic treadmill run, and sprint time in both groups. Only SITAR showed significant improvements in isokinetic leg extension and flexion at 300°·s and decreases in body mass (p ≤ 0.05). SITAR also showed significantly greater improvement (p ≤ 0.05) over ET in anaerobic treadmill run and 50 m sprint time. These data suggest that SITAR is a time-efficient strategy to induce rapid adaptations in V[Combining Dot Above]O2max comparable to ET with added improvements in anaerobic power, isokinetic strength, and sprint time not observed with ET.

  16. Acute responses of circulating microRNAs to low-volume sprint interval cycling

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    Shu Fang eCui

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Low-volume high-intensity interval training is an efficient and practical method of inducing physiological responses in various tissues to develop physical fitness and may also change the expression of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether miRNAs for muscle, heart, somatic tissue and metabolism were affected by 30-s intervals of intensive sprint cycling. We also examined the relationship of these miRNAs to conventional biochemical and performance indices. Eighteen healthy young males performed sprint interval cycling. Circulating miRNAs in plasma were detected using TaqMan-based quantitative PCR and normalized to Let-7d/g/i. In addition, we determined the levels of insulin-like growth factor-I, testosterone and cortisol, and anaerobic capacity. Compared to plasma levels before exercise muscle-specific miR-1 (0.12 ± 0.02 vs. 0.09 ± 0.02, miR-133a (0.46 ± 0.10 vs. 0.31 ± 0.06 and miR-133b (0.19 ± 0.02 vs. 0.10 ± 0.01 decreased (all P < 0.05, while miR-206 and miR-499 remained unchanged. The levels of metabolism related miR-122 (0.62 ± 0.07 vs. 0.34 ± 0.03 and somatic tissues related miR-16 (1.74 ± 0.27 vs. 0.94 ± 0.12 also decreased (both P < 0.05. The post-exercise IGF-1 and cortisol concentrations were significantly increased, while testosterone concentrations did not. Plasma levels of miR-133b correlated to peak power (r = 0.712, P = 0.001 and miR-122 correlated to peak power ratio (r = 0.665, P = 0.003. In conclusion sprint exercise provokes genetic changes for RNA related to specific muscle or metabolism related miRNAs suggesting that miR-133b and miR-122 may be potential useful biomarkers for actual physiological strain or anaerobic capacity. Together, our findings on the circulating miRNAs may provide new insight into the physiological responses that are being performed during exercise and delineate mechanisms by which exercise confers distinct phenotypes and improves performance.

  17. Time interval between stroke onset and hospital arrival in acute ischemic stroke patients in Shanghai, China.

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    Fang, Jing; Yan, Weihong; Jiang, Guo-Xin; Li, Wei; Cheng, Qi

    2011-02-01

    To observe the time interval between stroke onset and hospital arrival (time-to-hospital) in acute ischemic stroke patients and analyze its putatively associated factors. During the period from November 1, 2006 to August 31, 2008, patients with acute ischemic stroke admitted consecutively to the Department of Neurology, Ninth Hospital, Shanghai, were enrolled in the study. Information of the patients was registered including the time-to-hospital, demographic data, history of stroke, season at attack, neurological symptom at onset, etc. Characteristics of the patients were analyzed and logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with the time-to-hospital. There were 536 patients in the study, 290 (54.1%) males and 246 (45.9%) females. The median time-to-hospital was 8h (ranged from 0.1 to 300 h) for all patients. Within 3h after the onset of stroke, 162 patients (30.2%) arrived at our hospital; and within 6h, 278 patients (51.9%). Patients with a history of stroke, unconsciousness at onset, or a high NIHSS score at admission had significantly less time-to-hospital. The time interval between stroke onset and hospital arrival was importance of seeking immediate medical help after stroke onset of patients and their relatives could significantly influence their actions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. High Resolution ECG for Evaluation of QT Interval Variability during Exposure to Acute Hypoxia

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    Zupet, P.; Finderle, Z.; Schlegel, Todd T.; Starc, V.

    2010-01-01

    Ventricular repolarization instability as quantified by the index of QT interval variability (QTVI) is one of the best predictors for risk of malignant ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Because it is difficult to appropriately monitor early signs of organ dysfunction at high altitude, we investigated whether high resolution advanced ECG (HR-ECG) analysis might be helpful as a non-invasive and easy-to-use tool for evaluating the risk of cardiac arrhythmias during exposure to acute hypoxia. 19 non-acclimatized healthy trained alpinists (age 37, 8 plus or minus 4,7 years) participated in the study. Five-minute high-resolution 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) were recorded (Cardiosoft) in each subject at rest in the supine position breathing room air and then after breathing 12.5% oxygen for 30 min. For beat-to-beat RR and QT variability, the program of Starc was utilized to derive standard time domain measures such as root mean square of the successive interval difference (rMSSD) of RRV and QTV, the corrected QT interval (QTc) and the QTVI in lead II. Changes were evaluated with paired-samples t-test with p-values less than 0.05 considered statistically significant. As expected, the RR interval and its variability both decreased with increasing altitude, with p = 0.000 and p = 0.005, respectively. Significant increases were found in both the rMSSDQT and the QTVI in lead II, with p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively. There was no change in QTc interval length (p = non significant). QT variability parameters may be useful for evaluating changes in ventricular repolarization caused by hypoxia. These changes might be driven by increases in sympathetic nervous system activity at ventricular level.

  19. Association between prehospital time interval and short-term outcome in acute heart failure patients.

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    Takahashi, Masashi; Kohsaka, Shun; Miyata, Hiroaki; Yoshikawa, Tsutomu; Takagi, Atsutoshi; Harada, Kazumasa; Miyamoto, Takamichi; Sakai, Tetsuo; Nagao, Ken; Sato, Naoki; Takayama, Morimasa

    2011-09-01

    Acute heart failure (AHF) is one of the most frequently encountered cardiovascular conditions that can seriously affect the patient's prognosis. However, the importance of early triage and treatment initiation in the setting of AHF has not been recognized. The Tokyo Cardiac Care Unit Network Database prospectively collected information of emergency admissions to acute cardiac care facilities in 2005-2007 from 67 participating hospitals in the Tokyo metropolitan area. We analyzed records of 1,218 AHF patients transported to medical centers via emergency medical services (EMS). AHF was defined as rapid onset or change in the signs and symptoms of heart failure, resulting in the need for urgent therapy. Patients with acute coronary syndrome were excluded from this analysis. Logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate the risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality. A majority of the patients were elderly (76.1 ± 11.5 years old) and male (54.1%). The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 6.0%. The median time interval between symptom onset and EMS arrival (response time) was 64 minutes (interquartile range [IQR] 26-205 minutes), and that between EMS arrival and ER arrival (transportation time) was 27 minutes (IQR 9-78 minutes). The risk-adjusted mortality increased with transportation time, but did not correlate with the response time. Those who took >45 minutes to arrive at the medical centers were at a higher risk for in-hospital mortality (odds ratio 2.24, 95% confidence interval 1.17-4.31; P = .015). Transportation time correlated with risk-adjusted mortality, and steps should be taken to reduce the EMS transfer time to improve the outcome in AHF patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of aerobic interval training versus continuous moderate exercise programme on aerobic and anaerobic capacity, somatic features and blood lipid profile in collegate females

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    Krzystof Mazurek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available introduction. Regular physical activity has many positive health benefits, including reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases and some cancers, as well as improving the quality of life. objectives. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of 8-week aerobic interval cycle exercise training (AIT compared to continuous cycle exercises of moderate intensity (CME on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity, somatic features and lipid profile. material and methods. The research was conducted in 88 volunteers aged 19.5±0.6 years, who were randomized to three groups of organized physical activity (OPA, who exercised 3 times per week in 47 min sessions: (I AIT (n=24 comprising 2 series of 6x10 s sprinting with maximal pedalling cadence and active rest pedalling with intensity 65%–75% HRmax, (II CME (n=22 corresponding to 65%-75% HRmax, (III regular collegiate physical education classes of programmed exercises (CON; n=42. Before and after OPA anthropometrics, aero- and anaerobic capacity and lipid profile indices were measured. results. In AIT, a significantly greater decrease of waist circumference and WHR was noted when compared to CON, and a significantly greater reduction of sum of skinfolds than in CON and CME. Improvement in relative and absolute VO2max (L/min and ml/kg/min was significantly higher in AIT than CON. Work output and peak power output in the anaerobic test improved significantly in AIT, CME and CON, but independently of training type. OPA was effective only in reducing triglyceride concentrations in CME and CON groups, without interaction effects in relation to training type. conclusion. It was found that 8 weeks of OPA was beneficial in improving somatic and aerobic capacity indices, but AIT resulted in the greatest improvement in somatic indices (waist circumference, WHR, sum of skinfolds and in VO[sub]2[/sub]max, compared to CME and CON programmes.

  1. Acute effects of interval versus continuous endurance training on pulse wave reflection in healthy young men.

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    Hanssen, Henner; Nussbaumer, Monique; Moor, Christoph; Cordes, Mareike; Schindler, Christian; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno

    2015-02-01

    Our aim was to investigate the acute and 24-hour (h) effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate continuous training (MCT) on arterial pulse wave reflection, an established marker of arterial stiffness and cardiovascular risk. In a randomized cross-over design, 21 young healthy male participants performed a HIIT or a MCT on separate visits. Before and 5 (t5), 20 (t20), 35 (t35), and 50 (t50) minutes after the acute exercise bouts, the crude augmentation index (AIx) and the AIx at a set heart rate (AIx@75) were analysed by applanation tonometry. Starting 1 h post-exercise, both indices were captured over 24-h with an oscillometric monitoring device. AIx did not change significantly after MCT but declined progressively after HIIT, reaching significantly lower values compared to MCT at t35 (P = 0.045) and t50 (P = 0.008). AIx@75 increased after both acute exercise types but was higher after HIIT at t5 (P HIIT (P = 0.007) but not after MCT (P = 0.813). Exercise intensity affects pulse wave reflection, with different time courses for AIx and AIx@75 post-exercise. Although initially higher after HIIT, AIx@75 declines in the 24-h recovery period indicating more favourable effects on pulse wave reflection compared to MCT. This may result in substantial positive chronic training effects on arterial stiffness in health and cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of extensive interval training at altitude on the physiological, aerobic, anaerobic and various blood parameters of athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaya Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, it was aimed to compare the physiological performances of athletes at sea level, at high altitude and 8 days after returning back to sea level on the basis of certain blood parameters, pulse and blood pressure. 12 male athletes between the ages of 19 and 23 voluntarily participated in the research. The subjects were exposed to endurance training at high altitude and at sea level between 09.00 and 11.00 in the morning. The subjects’ erythrocyte (RBC, leucocyte (WBC, haemoglobin (Hb, haematocrit (HCT, systolic blood pressure at rest (SBPR and diastolic blood pressure at rest (DBPR, heart rate at rest (HRR, aerobic (20m shuttle run test and anaerobic capacity (vertical jump levels were tested at sea level, on the 15th day at high altitude (3120m and 8 days after returning back to sea level. Statistical analysis comprised of t-test and the significance level of the results was accepted at (P<0.05. As a result of the research the following were determined: It can be said that high altitude trainings for fifteen days included in the annual training program of athletes can improve their performance.

  3. Acute response of high-intensity and traditional resistance exercise on anaerobic power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austad, Mark A; Gay, Chip R; Murray, Steven R; Pettitt, Robert W

    2013-09-01

    Quantifying the maximal work capacity (W') above the aerobic critical power (CP) has emerged as a method for estimating anaerobic work capacity. Slower cadence, lower-load resistance training (RT), colloquially referred to as high-intensity training (HIT), is purported to be a better metabolic stressor than faster cadence higher-load RT, but to date, this belief has not been supported by research. We compared the acute effects of HIT and traditional RT bouts on average power within a 150-second time period (P(150 s)), CP, and W', as measured from a 3-minute all-out exercise test using cycling ergometry (3 MT). Eight recreationally active male subjects (mean ± SD: age 22 ± 2 years, body mass 85 ± 14 kg, and height 18 ± 9 cm) completed a baseline 3 MT 10 repetition maximum testing on leg press and leg extension machines, and post-bout 3 MTs after an HIT (4:2 second cadence) or a traditional RT bout (1:1 second cadence). Measurements of CP from the 3 MTs were similar between the baseline, post-HIT (α = 0.96), and post-traditional RT bouts (α = 0.98). Neither HIT (269.2 ± 51.3 W) nor traditional RT (275.1 ± 51.3 W) evoked depreciations (p > 0.05) in P(150 s) from the baseline (275.1 ± 45.4 W). Moreover, estimates of W' at the baseline (8.3 ± 3.2 kJ) were unaffected (p > 0.05) either by the HIT (7.6 ± 2.3 kJ) or by the traditional RT (8.3 ± 1.3 kJ) bouts. These data indicate that the 4:2 cadence is insufficient to exhaust a person's capacity for high-intensity work. Longer RT durations, either by slower cadences or by multiple sets, are necessary to evoke substantive declines on W' and should be investigated.

  4. Acute and Post-Exercise Physiological Responses to High-Intensity Interval Training in Endurance and Sprint Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Cipryan, Lukas; Tschakert, Gerhard; Hofmann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT) between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 �� 2.5 years) participating in endurance (n = 8) or sprint (n = 8) sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval du...

  5. Acute and Post-Exercise Physiological Responses to High-Intensity Interval Training in Endurance and Sprint Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Lukas Cipryan, Gerhard Tschakert, Peter Hofmann

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT) between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 ± 2.5 years) participating in endurance (n = 8) or sprint (n = 8) sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval dur...

  6. Acute effect of passive rest intervals and stretching exercise on multiple set performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Claudio do Rosário Souza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n4p435 The objective of this study was to determine the acute effect of passive rest intervals and static stretching between resistance exercise sets on the number of maximal repetitions (RM, rating of perceived exertion (RPE, and cumulative number of repetitions in multiple sets with a workload adjusted by the 8RM test. Fourteen trained male subjects (24.4 ± 2.1 years; 79.1 ± 7.1 kg; 175.4 ± 5.6 cm were studied. On the first two visits, the subjects were submitted to the test and 8RM re-test using chest press (CP and squat (SQ exercises. On the two subsequent visits, all subjects were randomly assigned to two experimental situations: a 8RM test with a passive rest interval (PI; b 8RM test with static stretching (SS. The subjects performed three sets of CP and SQ, intercalated with 2 minutes of passive rest or 30 seconds of static stretching. ANOVA revealed a significant decrease (p < 0.05 in the second (PI = 6 ± 0.8 x SS = 5.2 ± 1.0 repetitions and third (PI = 4.1 ± 0.8 X SS = 3.3 ± 0.6 repetitions sets for CP and only in the third set (PI = 4.9 ± 0.8 X SS = 4.2 ± 1.0 repetitions for SQ. For RPE, the Wilcoxon test showed significant differences (p < 0.05 between all sets for CP and SQ. For the cumulative number of repetitions, the paired t-test revealed a significant decrease (p < 0.05 for CP (PI = 18.3 ± 1.5 X SS = 16.8 ± 1.6 repetitions. These results indicate that static stretching between resistance exercise sets decreases 8RM test performance.

  7. Acute Effects of a Caffeine-Containing Supplement on Anaerobic Power and Subjective Measurements of Fatigue in Recreationally Active Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Chelsea J; Jagim, Andrew R; Camic, Clayton L; Andre, Matthew J

    2018-04-01

    Hahn, CJ, Jagim, AR, Camic, CL, and Andre, MJ. Acute effects of a caffeine-containing supplement on anaerobic power and subjective measurements of fatigue in recreationally active men. J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 1029-1035, 2018-Studies show mixed results for the effects of caffeine on performance, warranting further investigation. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of a caffeine-containing supplement on anaerobic power and subjective measurements of fatigue during resisted sprinting on men. Fourteen recreationally active men (N = 14; [mean ± SD], age: 21.0 ± 0.7 years, height: 178.5 ± 5.1 cm, body mass: 77.3 ± 9.6 kg, and percent body fat: 12.6 ± 4.8%) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover design study. The first visit required each participant to complete 3 sets of practice sprints on a nonmotorized treadmill ranging from 10 to 20 seconds. During the second visit, participants completed 5 more practice sprints ranging from 15 to 25 seconds. During the third and fourth visits, participants ingested one serving of a caffeine-containing or placebo beverage (the opposite beverage was consumed during the fourth visit), rested for 20 minutes, and completed a dynamic warm-up before sprinting. Anaerobic power was assessed using a countermovement vertical jump and nonmotorized treadmill sprint test. Psychological variables were scored using a 5-point Likert scale. No significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences were observed between conditions for average (p = 0.22) or peak power (p = 0.43). Both conditions resulted in a significant increase in fatigue, although the increase was less for the caffeine condition (caffeine [INCREMENT] = 0.93 and placebo [INCREMENT] = 1.71). These findings indicated that the caffeine-containing supplement improved perceived measures of fatigue but not power indices assessed through vertical jump or nonmotorized treadmill sprinting. The consumption of a caffeine beverage may be

  8. Acute Hypotension after High-Intensity Interval Exercise in Metabolic Syndrome Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Palomo, Felix; Ramirez-Jimenez, Miguel; Ortega, Juan Fernando; Pallarés, Jesús G; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the magnitude of post-exercise hypotension (PEH) after a bout of cycling exercise using high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in comparison to a bout of traditional moderate-intensity continuous exercise (CE). After supine rest 14 obese (31±1 kg·m -2 ) middle-age (57±2 y) metabolic syndrome patients (50% hypertensive) underwent a bout of HIIT or a bout of CE in a random order and then returned to supine recovery for another 45 min. Exercise trials were isocaloric and compared to a no-exercise trial (CONT) of supine rest for a total of 160 min. Before and after exercise we assessed blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (Q), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), intestinal temperature (T INT ), forearm skin blood flow (S K BF) and percent dehydration. HIIT produced a larger post-exercise reduction in systolic blood pressure than CE in the hypertensive group (-20±6 vs. -5±3 mmHg) and in the normotensive group (-8±3 vs. -3±2 mmHg) while HIIT reduced SVR below CE (Pexercise T INT and S K BF increased only after HIIT (all Pexercise method to CE to acutely reduce blood pressure in MSyn subjects. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Acute molecular responses to concurrent resistance and high-intensity interval exercise in untrained skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Jamie K; Faulkner, Steve H; Jackson, Andrew P; King, James A; Nimmo, Myra A

    2015-01-01

    Concurrent training involving resistance and endurance exercise may augment the benefits of single-mode training for the purpose of improving health. However, muscle adaptations, associated with resistance exercise, may be blunted by a subsequent bout of endurance exercise, via molecular interference. High-intensity interval training (HIIT), generating similar adaptations to endurance exercise, may offer an alternative exercise mode to traditional endurance exercise. This study examined the influence of an acute HIIT session on the molecular responses following resistance exercise in untrained skeletal muscle. Ten male participants performed resistance exercise (4 × 8 leg extensions, 70% 1RM, (RE)) or RE followed by HIIT (10 × 1 min at 90% HRmax, (RE+HIIT)). Muscle biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis before, 2 and 6 h post-RE to determine intramuscular protein phosphorylation and mRNA responses. Phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473) decreased at 6 h in both trials (P HIIT (P HIIT with PGC-1α and PGC-1α-ex1b remaining elevated at 6 h, whereas RE-induced increases at 2 and 6 h for PGC-1α-ex1b only (P HIIT versus RE at 2 and 6 h (P effect on protein signaling and mRNA expression, and suggest that HIIT may be an alternative to endurance exercise when performed after resistance exercise in the same training session to optimize adaptations. PMID:25902785

  10. Analysis of actual healthcare costs of early versus interval cholecystectomy in acute cholecystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cheryl H M; Pang, Tony C Y; Woon, Winston W L; Low, Jee Keem; Junnarkar, Sameer P

    2015-03-01

    Healthcare cost modeling have favored early (ELC) over interval laparoscopic cholecystectomy (ILC) for acute cholecystitis (AC). However, actual costs of treatment have never been studied. The aim of the present study was to compare actual hospital costs involved in ELC and ILC in patients with AC. Retrospective study of patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for AC was conducted. Demographic, clinical, operative data and costs were extracted and analyzed. Between 2011 and 2013, 201 had laparoscopic surgery for AC at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore. One hundred and thirty-four (67%) patients underwent ELC (≤7 days of presentation, within index admission). Median total length of stay (LOS) was 4.6 and 6.8 days for ELC and ILC groups, respectively (P = 0.006). Patients who had ELC also had significantly lesser total number of admissions (P < 0.001). The median (IQR) total inpatient costs were €4.4 × 10(3) (3.6-5.6) and €5.5 × 10(3) (4.0-7.5) for ELC and ILC patients, respectively (P < 0.007). Costs associated with investigations were significantly higher in the ILC group (P = 0.039), of which serological costs made most difference (P < 0.005). The ward costs were also significantly higher in the ILC group. The cost differences reflect the significantly increased total LOS, and repeat presentations associated with ILC. Therefore, ELC should be the preferred management strategy for AC. © 2014 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  11. Psychophysiological effects of music on acute recovery from high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Leighton; Tiller, Nicholas B; Karageorghis, Costas I

    2017-03-01

    Numerous studies have examined the multifarious effects of music applied during exercise but few have assessed the efficacy of music as an aid to recovery. Music might facilitate physiological recovery via the entrainment of respiratory rhythms with music tempo. High-intensity exercise training is not typically associated with positive affective responses, and thus ways of assuaging negative affect warrant further exploration. This study assessed the psychophysiological effects of music on acute recovery and prevalence of entrainment in between bouts of high-intensity exercise. Thirteen male runners (M age =20.2±1.9years; BMI=21.7±1.7; V̇O 2 max=61.6±6.1mL·kg·min -1 ) completed three exercise sessions comprising 5×5-min bouts of high-intensity intervals interspersed with 3-min periods of passive recovery. During recovery, participants were administered positively-valenced music of a slow-tempo (55-65bpm), fast-tempo (125-135bpm), or a no-music control. A range of measures including affective responses, RPE, cardiorespiratory indices (gas exchange and pulmonary ventilation), and music tempo-respiratory entrainment were recorded during exercise and recovery. Fast-tempo, positively-valenced music resulted in higher Feeling Scale scores throughout recovery periods (pmusic-moderated differences in cardiorespiratory responses. In conclusion, fast-tempo, positively-valenced music applied during recovery periods engenders a more pleasant experience. However, there is limited evidence that music expedites cardiorespiratory recovery in between bouts of high-intensity exercise. These findings have implications for athletic training strategies and individuals seeking to make high-intensity exercise sessions more pleasant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Heart Rate vs. Speed-Based High Intensity Interval Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity of Female Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two types of high-intensity interval training (HIIT programs on aerobic and anaerobic capacity of female soccer players. Regional-level female athletes were randomly divided into heart rate-based HIIT (n = 8; age 23.4 ± 1.1 year and speed-based HIIT groups (n = 8; age 23.4 ± 1.3 year. Athletes trained three days per week for six weeks. Before and after training, each athlete’s performance was assessed directly through the Hoff test, 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (VIFT, and repeated-sprint ability test (RAST; maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max, power and fatigue were estimated indirectly. Both experimental groups improved power, fatigue index and VO2max after training (p < 0.05. It was noteworthy that the speed-based group had greater gains in minimal power (effect size (ES: 3.99 vs. 0.75, average power (ES: 2.23 vs. 0.33, and fatigue index (ES: 2.53 vs. 0.17 compared to heart rate-based group (p < 0.05. In conclusion, both heart rate-based and speed-based HIIT induced meaningful improvements in power, VO2max, and fatigue index in female soccer players, although the speed-based HIIT group achieved greater gains in power and fatigue index compared to the heart rate-based group.

  13. Relationships between acute toxicities of para nitrophenol (p-NP) and nitrobenzene (NB) to Daphnia magna and Photobacterium phosphoreum: Physicochemical properties and metabolites under anaerobic/aerobic sequentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sponza, Delia Teresa, E-mail: delya.sponza@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eyluel University, Engineering Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department, Buca Kaynaklar Campus, Buca, Izmir (Turkey); Kuscu, Ozlem Selcuk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Engineering and Architecture Faculty, Sueleyman Demirel University, Cuenuer Campus, 32260 Isparta (Turkey)

    2011-01-30

    In this study, the acute toxicities of nitrobenzene (NB) and para nitrophenol (p-NP) were investigated in a high rate sequential anaerobic migrating blanket (AMBR)/aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) using Microtox and Daphnia magna tests. After sequential anaerobic and aerobic treatments, the inhibitions in the Microtox bacteria decreased from an initial 78.10-48.20% and 4.00%, respectively, in wastewater containing 40.00 mg/L p-NP. The inhibitions of the influent wastewater containing 60.00 mg/L NB decreased from 72.10% to 45.30% and to 4.00% after anaerobic and aerobic treatment, respectively. The acute toxicity removals were 94% and 93% in the effluent of the whole sequential system, for p-NP and NB, respectively. The acute toxicity in the influent was dependent on the parent NB and p-NP concentrations and ons their physicochemical properties such as hydrophobicity, octanol/water partition coefficient and vapour density for both Microtox bacteria and Daphnia magna while the toxicity in the effluent of the anaerobic reactor was strongly dependent on the metabolites of p-NP (p-amino phenol, phenol, NH{sub 4}-N) and NB (aniline) for Microtox test. This effluent was not toxic to Daphnia magna.

  14. Relationships between acute toxicities of para nitrophenol (p-NP) and nitrobenzene (NB) to Daphnia magna and Photobacterium phosphoreum: Physicochemical properties and metabolites under anaerobic/aerobic sequentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sponza, Delia Teresa; Kuscu, Ozlem Selcuk

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the acute toxicities of nitrobenzene (NB) and para nitrophenol (p-NP) were investigated in a high rate sequential anaerobic migrating blanket (AMBR)/aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) using Microtox and Daphnia magna tests. After sequential anaerobic and aerobic treatments, the inhibitions in the Microtox bacteria decreased from an initial 78.10-48.20% and 4.00%, respectively, in wastewater containing 40.00 mg/L p-NP. The inhibitions of the influent wastewater containing 60.00 mg/L NB decreased from 72.10% to 45.30% and to 4.00% after anaerobic and aerobic treatment, respectively. The acute toxicity removals were 94% and 93% in the effluent of the whole sequential system, for p-NP and NB, respectively. The acute toxicity in the influent was dependent on the parent NB and p-NP concentrations and ons their physicochemical properties such as hydrophobicity, octanol/water partition coefficient and vapour density for both Microtox bacteria and Daphnia magna while the toxicity in the effluent of the anaerobic reactor was strongly dependent on the metabolites of p-NP (p-amino phenol, phenol, NH 4 -N) and NB (aniline) for Microtox test. This effluent was not toxic to Daphnia magna.

  15. The acute effects of multi-ingredient pre-workout ingestion on strength performance, lower body power, and anaerobic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagim, Andrew R; Jones, Margaret T; Wright, Glenn A; St Antoine, Carly; Kovacs, Attila; Oliver, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    Multi-ingredient pre-workout supplements (MIPS) are popular among resistance trained individuals. Previous research has indicated that acute MIPS ingestion may increase muscular endurance when using a hypertrophy-based protocol but less is known in regard to their effects on strength performance and high intensity running capacity. Therefore, the purpose was to determine if short-term, MIPS ingestion influences strength performance and anaerobic running capacity. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled, crossover design; 12 males (19 ± 1 yrs.; 180 ± 12 cm; 89.3 ± 11 kg; 13.6 ± 4.9 %BF) had their body composition assessed followed by 5-repetition maximum (5RM) determination of back squat (BS; 119.3 ± 17.7 kg) and bench press (BP; 92.1 ± 17.8 kg) exercises. On two separate occasions subjects ingested a MIPS or a placebo (P) 30-minutes prior to performing a counter movement vertical jump test, 5 sets of 5 repetitions at 85 % of 5RM of BS and BP, followed by a single set to failure, and an anaerobic capacity sprint test to assess peak and mean power. Subjective markers of energy levels and fatigue were also assessed. Subjects returned one week later for a second testing session using counter treatment. MIPS resulted in a greater number of repetitions performed in the final set to failure in the BP (MIPS, 9.8 ± 1.7 repetitions; P, 9.1 ± 2; p = 0.03, d = 0.38), which led to a greater total volume load (set x repetitions x load) in the MIPS (753 ± 211 kg) compared to P (710 ± 226 kg; p =0.03, d = .20). MIPS ingestion improved subjective markers of fatigue (p = 0.01, d = 3.78) and alertness (p = 0.048, d = 2.72) following a bout of resistance training. An increase in mean power was observed in the MIPS condition (p = 0.03, d = 0.25) during the anaerobic sprint test. Results suggest that acute ingestion of a MIPS study may increase upper body muscular endurance. In

  16. Acute high-intensity interval running increases markers of gastrointestinal damage and permeability but not gastrointestinal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Jamie N; Impey, Samuel G; Doran, Dominic A; Fleming, Simon C; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of high-intensity interval running on markers of gastrointestinal (GI) damage and permeability alongside subjective symptoms of GI discomfort. Eleven male runners completed an acute bout of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) (eighteen 400-m runs at 120% maximal oxygen uptake) where markers of GI permeability, intestinal damage, and GI discomfort symptoms were assessed and compared with resting conditions. Compared with rest, HIIT significantly increased serum lactulose/rhamnose ratio (0.051 ± 0.016 vs. 0.031 ± 0.021, p = 0.0047; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.006 to 0.036) and sucrose concentrations (0.388 ± 0.217 vs. 0.137 ± 0.148 mg·L -1 ; p HIIT and resting conditions. Plasma intestinal-fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) was significantly increased (p HIIT whereas no changes were observed during rest. Mild symptoms of GI discomfort were reported immediately and at 24 h post-HIIT, although these symptoms did not correlate to GI permeability or I-FABP. In conclusion, acute HIIT increased GI permeability and intestinal I-FABP release, although these do not correlate with symptoms of GI discomfort. Furthermore, by using serum sampling, we provide data showing that it is possible to detect changes in intestinal permeability that is not observed using urinary sampling over a shorter time-period.

  17. Clinical significance of the infection-free interval in the management of acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodosh, Sanford

    2005-06-01

    Rational and appropriate antibiotic use for patients with acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB) is a major concern, as approximately half of these patients do not have a bacterial infection. Typically, the result of antimicrobial therapy for patients with acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (ABECB) is not eradication of the pathogen but resolution of the acute symptoms. However, the length of time before the next bacterial exacerbation can be another important variable, as the frequency of exacerbations will affect the overall health of the patient and the rate of lung deterioration over time. Clinical trials comparing antimicrobial therapies commonly measure resolution of symptoms in AECB patients as the primary end point, regardless of whether the exacerbation is documented as bacterial in nature. Ideally, the scientific approach to assessing the efficacy of antibiotic therapy for ABECB should include a measurement of acute bacterial eradication rates in patients with documented bronchial bacterial infection followed by measurement of the infection-free interval (IFI), ie, the time to the next ABECB. The use of these variables can provide a standard for comparing various antimicrobial therapies. As we learn more about how antibiotics can affect the IFI, treatment decisions should be adapted to ensure optimal management of ABECB for the long-term.

  18. The impact of acute high-intensity interval exercise on biomarkers of cardiovascular health in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Monique E; Little, Jonathan P

    2017-08-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) interventions improve cardiovascular health, yet the acute effects on circulating and functional biomarkers of cardiovascular function are unclear in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). To explore this, we conducted two investigations to examine the acute response to HIIT in individuals with T2D. Study 1 measured blood pressure, endothelial-dependent dilation, circulating measures of endothelial activation, and troponin T, 30 min and 2 h after HIIT (7 × 1-min intervals) in T2D (n = 8) and age-matched normoglycemic controls (CTL; n = 8). Study 2 assessed circulating measures of endothelial activation and troponin T, 30 min, and 24 h after HIIT (10 × 1-min intervals) in ten previously trained T2D men. In study 1, markers of endothelial function and activation within the first 2 h after HIIT did not differ from baseline between T2D and CTL participants, except at 30 min after HIIT for glucose, which was reduced more in T2D than CTL (by -0.8 ± 1.2 mmol/L, p = 0.04), and VCAM-1, which was reduced more 30 min after HIIT in CTL compared to T2D (by -187 ± 221 ng/mL, p = 0.05). Study 2 saw no significant difference in any circulating markers of endothelial activation and troponin T, 30 min, and 24 h after HIIT in trained T2D males. Exploratory findings from these two studies suggest that acute HIIT does not substantially alter circulating and functional markers of cardio(vascular) health in individuals with T2D who are unaccustomed (study 1) and accustomed to HIIT (study 2).

  19. Effects of high-intensity interval training on body composition, aerobic and anaerobic performance and plasma lipids in overweight/obese and normal-weight young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejmeddine Ouerghi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To examine the effects of short high-intensity interval training (HIIT on body composition, physical performance and plasma lipids in overweight/obese compared to normal-weight young men. Nine overweight/ obese and nine normal-weight men (control group aged 17 to 20 years underwent a HIIT programme three times per week for eight weeks. Body composition, indices of aerobic [maximal aerobic velocity (MAV and maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2max ] and anaerobic [squat jump (SJ, counter-movement jump (CMJ, five-jump test (FJT, 10-m and 30-m sprint] performances, as well as fasting plasma lipids, were assessed in the two groups at PRE and POST HIIT. The HIIT programme resulted in significant reductions in body mass (-1.62%, P=0.016, ES=0.11 and fat mass (-1.59%, P=0.021, ES=0.23 in obese, but not in normal-weight subjects. MAV (+5.55%, P=0.005, ES=0.60 and +2.96%, P=0.009, ES=0.82, VO 2max (+5.27%, P=0.006, ES=0.63 and +2.88%, P=0.009, ES=0.41, FJT (+3.63%, P=0.005, ES=0.28 and +2.94%, P=0.009, ES=0.52, SJ (+4.92%, P=0.009, ES=0.25 and +6.94%, P=0.009, ES=0.70 and CMJ (+6.84%, P=0.014, ES=0.30 and +6.69%, P=0.002, ES=0.64 significantly increased in overweight/obese and normal-weight groups, respectively. 30-m sprint time significantly decreased in both groups (-1.77%, P=0.038, ES=0.12 and -0.72%, P=0.030, ES=0.16. Plasma total cholesterol (-11.8%, P=0.026, ES=0.96, LDL cholesterol (-11.9%, P=0.050, ES=0.77 and triglycerides (-21.3%, P=0.023, ES=1.08 significantly decreased in the obese group, but not in the normalweight group. The eight-week HIIT programme resulted in a slight improvement in physical fitness and a significant decrease in plasma lipids in the obese. Short duration HIIT may contribute to an improved cardiometabolic profile in the obese.

  20. Effects of high-intensity interval training on body composition, aerobic and anaerobic performance and plasma lipids in overweight/obese and normal-weight young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouerghi, Nejmeddine; Fradj, Mohamed Kacem Ben; Bezrati, Ikram; Khammassi, Marwa; Feki, Moncef; Kaabachi, Naziha; Bouassida, Anissa

    2017-12-01

    To examine the effects of short high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on body composition, physical performance and plasma lipids in overweight/obese compared to normal-weight young men. Nine overweight/obese and nine normal-weight men (control group) aged 17 to 20 years underwent a HIIT programme three times per week for eight weeks. Body composition, indices of aerobic [maximal aerobic velocity (MAV) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2max )] and anaerobic [squat jump (SJ), counter-movement jump (CMJ), five-jump test (FJT), 10-m and 30-m sprint] performances, as well as fasting plasma lipids, were assessed in the two groups at PRE and POST HIIT. The HIIT programme resulted in significant reductions in body mass (-1.62%, P=0.016, ES=0.11) and fat mass (-1.59%, P=0.021, ES=0.23) in obese, but not in normal-weight subjects. MAV (+5.55%, P=0.005, ES=0.60 and +2.96%, P=0.009, ES=0.82), VO 2max (+5.27%, P=0.006, ES=0.63 and +2.88%, P=0.009, ES=0.41), FJT (+3.63%, P=0.005, ES=0.28 and +2.94%, P=0.009, ES=0.52), SJ (+4.92%, P=0.009, ES=0.25 and +6.94%, P=0.009, ES=0.70) and CMJ (+6.84%, P=0.014, ES=0.30 and +6.69%, P=0.002, ES=0.64) significantly increased in overweight/obese and normal-weight groups, respectively. 30-m sprint time significantly decreased in both groups (-1.77%, P=0.038, ES=0.12 and -0.72%, P=0.030, ES=0.16). Plasma total cholesterol (-11.8%, P=0.026, ES=0.96), LDL cholesterol (-11.9%, P=0.050, ES=0.77) and triglycerides (-21.3%, P=0.023, ES=1.08) significantly decreased in the obese group, but not in the normal-weight group. The eight-week HIIT programme resulted in a slight improvement in physical fitness and a significant decrease in plasma lipids in the obese. Short duration HIIT may contribute to an improved cardiometabolic profile in the obese.

  1. Relationship between QT Interval Dispersion in acute stroke and stroke prognosis: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Yitzchok S.; Balucani, Clotilde; Lazar, Jason; Steinberg, Leah; Gugger, James; Levine, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Background QT dispersion (QTd) has been proposed as an indirect ECG measure of heterogeneity of ventricular repolarization. The predictive value of QTd in acute stroke remains controversial. We aimed to clarify the relationship between QTd and acute stroke and stroke prognosis. Methods A systematic review of the literature was performed using pre-specified medical subjects heading (MeSH) terms, Boolean logic and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Eligible studies (a) included ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke and (b) provided QTd measurements. Results Two independent reviewers identified 553 publications. Sixteen articles were included in the final analysis. There were a total of 888 stroke patients: 59% ischemic and 41% hemorrhagic. There was considerable heterogeneity in study design, stroke subtypes, ECG assessment-time, control groups and comparison groups. Nine studies reported a significant association between acute stroke and baseline QTd. Two studies reported that QTd increases are specifically related to hemorrhagic strokes, involvement of the insular cortex, right-side lesions, larger strokes, and increases in 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylethylene glycol in hemorrhagic stroke. Three studies reported QTd to be an independent predictor of stroke mortality. One study each reported increases in QTd in stroke patients who developed ventricular arrhythmias and cardiorespiratory compromise. Conclusions There are few well-designed studies and considerable variability in study design in addressing the significance of QTd in acute stroke. Available data suggest that stroke is likely to be associated with increased QTd. While some evidence suggests a possible prognostic role of QTd in stroke, larger and well-designed studies need to confirm these findings. PMID:25282188

  2. Energy intake over 2 days is unaffected by acute sprint interval exercise despite increased appetite and energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Kristine; Olver, T Dylan; Abbott, Kolten C; Lemon, Peter W R

    2015-01-01

    A cumulative effect of reduced energy intake, increased oxygen consumption, and/or increased lipid oxidation could explain the fat loss associated with sprint interval exercise training (SIT). This study assessed the effects of acute sprint interval exercise (SIE) on energy intake, subjective appetite, appetite-related peptides, oxygen consumption, and respiratory exchange ratio over 2 days. Eight men (25 ± 3 years, 79.6 ± 9.7 kg, body fat 13% ± 6%; mean ± SD) completed 2 experimental treatments: SIE and recovery (SIEx) and nonexercise control. Each 34-h treatment consisted of 2 consecutive 10-h test days. Between 0800-1800 h, participants remained in the laboratory for 8 breath-by-breath gas collections, 3 buffet-type meals, 14 appetite ratings, and 4 blood samples for appetite-related peptides. Treatment comparisons were made using 2-way repeated measures ANOVA or t tests. An immediate, albeit short-lived (SIEx (P SIEx (P = 0.04), elicited by the 1491-kJ (22%) greater energy expenditure over the first 24 h (P = 0.01). Despite its effects on oxygen consumption, appetite, and PYY, acute SIE did not affect energy intake. Consequently, if these dietary responses to SIE are sustained with regular SIT, augmentations in oxygen consumption and/or a substrate shift toward increased fat use postexercise are most likely responsible for the observed body fat loss with this type of exercise training.

  3. Acute and Post-Exercise Physiological Responses to High-Intensity Interval Training in Endurance and Sprint Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipryan, Lukas; Tschakert, Gerhard; Hofmann, Peter

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT) between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 ± 2.5 years) participating in endurance (n = 8) or sprint (n = 8) sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval duration 30s), long HIIT (3min) and constant load exercise (CE). The exercise interventions were matched for mean power, total time and in case of HIIT interventions also for work-to-relief ratio. The acute cardiorespiratory (HR, V̇ O 2 , RER) and metabolic (lactate) variables as well as the post-exercise changes (up to 3 h) in the heart rate variability, inflammation (interleukin-6, leucocytes) and muscle damage (creatine kinase, myoglobin) were monitored. Endurance athletes performed exercise interventions with moderately (CE) or largely (both HIIT modes) higher mean V̇ O 2 . These differences were trivial/small when V̇ O 2 was expressed as a percentage of V̇ O 2max . Moderately to largely lower RER and lactate values were found in endurance athletes. Markers of cardiac autonomic regulation, inflammation and muscle damage did not reveal any considerable differences between endurance and sprint athletes. In conclusions, endurance athletes were able to perform both HIIT formats with increased reliance on aerobic metabolic pathways although exercise intensity was identical in relative terms for all the participants. However, other markers of the acute and early post-exercise physiological response to these HIIT interventions indicated similarities between endurance and sprint athletes.

  4. Acute and Post-Exercise Physiological Responses to High-Intensity Interval Training in Endurance and Sprint Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Cipryan, Gerhard Tschakert, Peter Hofmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 ± 2.5 years participating in endurance (n = 8 or sprint (n = 8 sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval duration 30s, long HIIT (3min and constant load exercise (CE. The exercise interventions were matched for mean power, total time and in case of HIIT interventions also for work-to-relief ratio. The acute cardiorespiratory (HR, V̇O2, RER and metabolic (lactate variables as well as the post-exercise changes (up to 3 h in the heart rate variability, inflammation (interleukin-6, leucocytes and muscle damage (creatine kinase, myoglobin were monitored. Endurance athletes performed exercise interventions with moderately (CE or largely (both HIIT modes higher mean V̇O2. These differences were trivial/small when V̇O2 was expressed as a percentage of V̇O2max. Moderately to largely lower RER and lactate values were found in endurance athletes. Markers of cardiac autonomic regulation, inflammation and muscle damage did not reveal any considerable differences between endurance and sprint athletes. In conclusions, endurance athletes were able to perform both HIIT formats with increased reliance on aerobic metabolic pathways although exercise intensity was identical in relative terms for all the participants. However, other markers of the acute and early post-exercise physiological response to these HIIT interventions indicated similarities between endurance and sprint athletes.

  5. Acute and chronic effects of sprint interval exercise on postprandial lipemia in women at-risk for the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Eric C; Gist, Nicholas H; Acitelli, Rachelle M; McConnell, Whitni J; Beck, Catherine D; Hausman, Dorothy B; Murrow, Jonathan R; Cureton, Kirk J; Evans, Ellen M

    2015-04-01

    Individuals diagnosed with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) exhibit elevated postprandial lipemia (PPL). The aims of this investigation were to determine 1) if an acute bout of sprint interval training (SIT) attenuates PPL; and 2) if the attenuation of PPL following 6 wk of SIT is magnified compared with a single session of SIT prior to training in women at-risk for MetS (n = 45; 30-65 yr). Women were randomized to SIT (n = 22) or a nonexercise control (n = 23; CON) for 6 wk. Postprandial responses to a high-fat meal challenge (HFMC) were assessed in the CON group before (B-HFMC) and after (Post-HFMC) without prior exercise and in the SIT group at baseline (B-HFMC) without prior exercise, after an acute bout of SIT (four 30-s all-out sprints with 4-min recovery) prior to (Pre-HFMC), and after the 6-wk intervention (Post-HFMC). Responses to the HFMC were assessed by collecting venous blood samples in the fasted state and at 0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min postprandial. Compared with baseline, an acute bout of SIT before (Pre-HFMC) and after the 6-wk intervention (Post-HFMC) significantly attenuated fasted TG (P exercise to reduce fasted and postprandial TG concentrations in women at-risk for MetS. Six weeks of SIT does not magnify the attenuation of PPL in response to a single session of SIT. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Influence of acute high-intensity aerobic interval exercise bout on selective attention and short-term memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Christiano R R; Tessaro, Victor H; Teixeira, Luis A C; Murakava, Karina; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno; Takito, Monica Y

    2014-02-01

    Acute moderate intensity continuous aerobic exercise can improve specific cognitive functions, such as short-term memory and selective attention. Moreover, high-intensity interval training (HIT) has been recently proposed as a time-efficient alternative to traditional cardiorespiratory exercise. However, considering previous speculations that the exercise intensity affects cognition in a U-shaped fashion, it was hypothesized that a HIT session may impair cognitive performance. Therefore, this study assessed the effects of an acute HIT session on selective attention and short-term memory tasks. 22 healthy middle-aged individuals (M age = 53.7 yr.) engaged in both (1) a HIT session, 10 1 min. cycling bouts at the intensity corresponding to 80% of the reserve heart rate interspersed by 1 min. active pauses cycling at 60% of the reserve heart rate and (2) a control session, consisting of an active condition with low-intensity active stretching exercise. Before and after each experimental session, cognitive performance was assessed by the Victoria Version of the Stroop test (a selective attention test) and the Digit Span test (a short-term memory test). Following the HIT session, the time to complete the Stroop "Color word" test was significantly lower when compared with that of the control session. The performances in the other subtasks of the Stroop test as well as in the Digit Span test were not significantly different. A HIT session can improve cognitive function.

  7. Acute and Post-Exercise Physiological Responses to High-Intensity Interval Training in Endurance and Sprint Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipryan, Lukas; Tschakert, Gerhard; Hofmann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT) between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 ± 2.5 years) participating in endurance (n = 8) or sprint (n = 8) sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval duration 30s), long HIIT (3min) and constant load exercise (CE). The exercise interventions were matched for mean power, total time and in case of HIIT interventions also for work-to-relief ratio. The acute cardiorespiratory (HR, V̇O2, RER) and metabolic (lactate) variables as well as the post-exercise changes (up to 3 h) in the heart rate variability, inflammation (interleukin-6, leucocytes) and muscle damage (creatine kinase, myoglobin) were monitored. Endurance athletes performed exercise interventions with moderately (CE) or largely (both HIIT modes) higher mean V̇O2. These differences were trivial/small when V̇O2 was expressed as a percentage of V̇O2max. Moderately to largely lower RER and lactate values were found in endurance athletes. Markers of cardiac autonomic regulation, inflammation and muscle damage did not reveal any considerable differences between endurance and sprint athletes. In conclusions, endurance athletes were able to perform both HIIT formats with increased reliance on aerobic metabolic pathways although exercise intensity was identical in relative terms for all the participants. However, other markers of the acute and early post-exercise physiological response to these HIIT interventions indicated similarities between endurance and sprint athletes. Key points The manner in which each training background (endurance vs. sprint) influences the response to HIIT is not well known. Despite the identical exercise intensity in relative terms, endurance

  8. High-Intensity Interval Exercises' Acute Impact on Heart Rate Variability: Comparison Between Whole-Body and Cycle Ergometer Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaun, Gustavo Z; Del Vecchio, Fabrício B

    2018-01-01

    Schaun, GZ and Del Vecchio, FB. High-intensity interval exercises' acute impact on heart rate variability: comparison between whole-body and cycle ergometer protocols. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 223-229, 2018-Study aimed to compare the effects of 2 high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols on heart rate variability. Twelve young adult males (23.3 ± 3.9 years, 177.8 ± 7.4 cm, 76.9 ± 12.9 kg) volunteered to participate. In a randomized cross-over design, subjects performed 2 HIIT protocols, 1 on a cycle ergometer (Tabata protocol [TBT]; eight 20-second bouts at 170% Pmax interspersed by 10-second rest) and another with whole-body calisthenic exercises (McRae protocol; eight 20-second all-out intervals interspersed by 10-second rest). Heart rate variability outcomes in the time, frequency, and nonlinear domains were assessed on 3 moments: (a) presession; (b) immediately postsession; and (c) 24 hours postsession. Results revealed that RRmean, Ln rMSSD, Ln high frequency (HF), and Ln low frequency (LF) were significantly reduced immediately postsession (p ≤ 0.001) and returned to baseline 24 h after both protocols. In addition, LF/HF ratio was reduced 24 h postsession (p ≤ 0.01) and SD2 was significantly lower immediately postsession only in TBT. Our main finding was that responses from heart rate autonomic control were similar in both protocols, despite different modes of exercise performed. Specifically, exercises resulted in a high parasympathetic inhibition immediately after session with subsequent recovery within 1 day. These results suggest that subjects were already recovered the day after and can help coaches to better program training sessions with such protocols.

  9. Effect of ultrasonic and ozone pre-treatments on pharmaceutical waste activated sludge's solubilisation, reduction, anaerobic biodegradability and acute biological toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Jin; Yao, Hong; Wang, Hui; Shan, Dan; Jiang, Yichen; Ma, Lanqianya; Yu, Xiaohua

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasonic and ozone pre-treatment technologies were employed in this study to improve the anaerobic digestion efficiency of pharmaceutical waste activated sludge. The sludge solubilisation achieved 30.01% (150,000 kJ/kg TS) and 28.10% (0.1g O3/g TS) after ultrasonic treatment and ozone treatment. The anaerobic biodegradability after ultrasonic treatment was higher compared to ozonation due to the higher cumulative methane volume observed after 6 days (249 ml vs 190 ml). The ozonated sludge released the highest concentration of Cu(2+) into the liquid phase (6.640 mg L(-1)) compared to 0.530 mg/L for untreated sludge and 0.991 mg/L for sonicated sludge. The acute toxicity test measured by luminescent bacteria showed that anaerobic digestion could degrade toxic compounds and result in a reduction in toxicity. The main mechanism of action led to some differences in the treated sludge exhibiting higher potential for methane production from pharmaceutical waste sludge with ultrasonic treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of four-week high-intensity interval training with beta-alanine supplementation on aerobic and anaerobic performance and some blood parameters in girls basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    bahareh ketabdar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of four-week high-intensity interval training with beta-alanine supplementation on aerobic and anaerobic performance and some blood parameters in girls basketball players. Materials & Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study. Twenty female basketball players, with the mean age of 24.65 ± 4.81 years, height of 166.97 ± 4.12 cm, weight of 59.15 ± 5.23 kg and body mass index of 21.5 ± 1.23 kg/m2, were divided into two groups, including intervention (exercise + supplement and control groups. Two days before and after the intervention, the subjects performed Wingate test (to estimate the average aerobic power and Bruce test (to estimate VO2max.The subjects attended basketball training two sessions per week; Intervention group performed high-intensity interval training in addition to the basketball training in every session. The dose of beta-alanine supplementation was 2.4, 3.6, 4.8 g per day. After four weeks, creatine kinase and lactate levels and performance tests were reevaluated. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 21, with a significance level of P0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that high-intensity interval training with beta-alanine supplementation resulted in delay in the fatigue threshold, stabilization of PH and hydrogen ions balance, increased aerobic-anaerobic capacity and exercise performance in female basketball players.

  11. The Acute Effects of Interval-Type Exercise on Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Subjects: Importance of Interval Length. A Controlled, Counterbalanced, Crossover Study.

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    Ida Jakobsen

    Full Text Available Interval-type exercise is effective for improving glycemic control, but the optimal approach is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of the interval length on changes in postprandial glycemic control following a single exercise bout. Twelve subjects with type 2 diabetes completed a cross-over study with three 1-hour interventions performed in a non-randomized but counter-balanced order: 1 Interval walking consisting of repeated cycles of 3 min slow (aiming for 54% of Peak oxygen consumption rate [VO2peak] and 3 min fast (aiming for 89% of VO2peak walking (IW3; 2 Interval walking consisting of repeated cycles of 1 min slow and 1 min fast walking (IW1 and 3 No walking (CON. The exercise interventions were matched with regards to walking speed, and VO2 and heart rate was assessed throughout all interventions. A 4-hour liquid mixed meal tolerance test commenced 30 min after each intervention, with blood samples taken regularly. IW3 and IW1 resulted in comparable mean VO2 and heart rates. Overall mean postprandial blood glucose levels were lower after IW3 compared to CON (10.3±3.0 vs. 11.1±3.3 mmol/L; P 0.05 for both. Conversely blood glucose levels at specific time points during the MMTT differed significantly following both IW3 and IW1 as compared to CON. Our findings support the previously found blood glucose lowering effect of IW3 and suggest that reducing the interval length, while keeping the walking speed and time spend on fast and slow walking constant, does not result in additional improvements.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02257190.

  12. Comparison of the acute effects of high-intensity interval training and continuous aerobic walking on inhibitory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Shih-Chun; Westfall, Daniel R; Soneson, Jack; Gurd, Brendon; Hillman, Charles H

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a single bout of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and continuous aerobic exercise (CAE) on inhibitory control. The P3 component of the stimulus-locked ERP was collected in 64 young adults during a modified flanker task following 20 min of seated rest, 20 min of CAE, and 9 min of HIIT on separate days in counterbalanced order. Participants exhibited shorter overall reaction time following CAE and HIIT compared to seated rest. Response accuracy improved following HIIT in the task condition requiring greater inhibitory control compared to seated rest and CAE. P3 amplitude was larger following CAE compared to seated rest and HIIT. Decreased P3 amplitude and latency were observed following HIIT compared to seated rest. The current results replicated previous findings indicating the beneficial effect of acute CAE on behavioral and neuroelectric indices of inhibitory control. With a smaller duration and volume of exercise, a single bout of HIIT resulted in additional improvements in inhibitory control, paralleled by a smaller and more efficient P3 component. In sum, the current study demonstrated that CAE and HIIT differentially facilitate inhibitory control and its underlying neuroelectric activation, and that HIIT may be a time-efficient approach for enhancing cognitive health. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  13. The effect of eight week interval acute training on plasma visfatin, TNF-α and IL-6 in rats: a brief report

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    Farhad Daryanoosh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adipokines are peptides secreted by adipose tissue that affect whole-body energy metabolism. Exercise training exerts beneficial effects on adipose tissue. However, less is known regarding visfatin’s, IL-6 & TNF-α response to an interval acute training. Therefore, we investigated the effects of acute interval exercise on plasma visfatin, TNF-α and IL-6 levels, in healthy female rats. Furthermore, correlate between changes probably these factors were also assessed.Methods: This study was conducted experimentally. Forty five female sprague dawley rat were randomly divided into three groups: pre test (n= 15, treadmill exercise (n= 15 and sedentary controls (n= 15. The acute alternative exercise consisted of treadmill running: 3 session/ week for 8 week. The changes of plasma IL-6, TNF-α and Visfatin levels were measured by ELISA analysis. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance with measures (ANOVA and post hoc Tukey test.Results: Acute interval treadmill exercise led to significant decreases in visfatin (P= 0/036, IL-6 (P= 0/009 and TNF-α (P= 0/022 plasma levels between the groups. Also, this study no significant correlations between the changes in adipokines were observed.Conclusion: Decreased levels of TNF-α and IL-6 correlated with intensity and duration exercise. Furthermore, probably there were some factors except weight decreasing that affects on visfatin decrease. Therefore, the reduction of this factor may cause in preventing metabolic disease.

  14. Anaerobic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic bacteria are bacteria that do not live or grow when oxygen is present. In humans, these bacteria ... Brook I. Diseases caused by non-spore-forming anaerobic bacteria. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  15. Increased oxidative stress and anaerobic energy release, but blunted Thr172-AMPKα phosphorylation, in response to sprint exercise in severe acute hypoxia in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Alamo, David; Ponce-González, Jesús Gustavo; Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Rodríguez-García, Lorena; Santana, Alfredo; Cusso, Maria Roser; Guerrero, Mario; Guerra, Borja; Dorado, Cecilia; Calbet, José A L

    2012-09-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a major mediator of the exercise response and a molecular target to improve insulin sensitivity. To determine if the anaerobic component of the exercise response, which is exaggerated when sprint is performed in severe acute hypoxia, influences sprint exercise-elicited Thr(172)-AMPKα phosphorylation, 10 volunteers performed a single 30-s sprint (Wingate test) in normoxia and in severe acute hypoxia (inspired Po(2): 75 mmHg). Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained before and immediately after 30 and 120 min postsprint. Mean power output and O(2) consumption were 6% and 37%, respectively, lower in hypoxia than in normoxia. O(2) deficit and muscle lactate accumulation were greater in hypoxia than in normoxia. Carbonylated skeletal muscle and plasma proteins were increased after the sprint in hypoxia. Thr(172)-AMPKα phosphorylation was increased by 3.1-fold 30 min after the sprint in normoxia. This effect was prevented by hypoxia. The NAD(+)-to-NADH.H(+) ratio was reduced (by 24-fold) after the sprints, with a greater reduction in hypoxia than in normoxia (P exercise in human skeletal muscle is altered in severe acute hypoxia, which abrogated Thr(172)-AMPKα phosphorylation, likely due to lower LKB1 activation by SIRT1.

  16. Poincaré plot analysis of autocorrelation function of RR intervals in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Shin-Shin; Wu, Kung-Tai; Lin, Chen-Yang; Lee, Steven; Chen, Gau-Yang; Kuo, Cheng-Deng

    2014-08-01

    The Poincaré plot of RR intervals (RRI) is obtained by plotting RRIn+1 against RRIn. The Pearson correlation coefficient (ρRRI), slope (SRRI), Y-intercept (YRRI), standard deviation of instantaneous beat-to-beat RRI variability (SD1RR), and standard deviation of continuous long-term RRI variability (SD2RR) can be defined to characterize the plot. Similarly, the Poincaré plot of autocorrelation function (ACF) of RRI can be obtained by plotting ACFk+1 against ACFk. The corresponding Pearson correlation coefficient (ρACF), slope (SACF), Y-intercept (YACF), SD1ACF, and SD2ACF can be defined similarly to characterize the plot. By comparing the indices of Poincaré plots of RRI and ACF between patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and patients with patent coronary artery (PCA), we found that the ρACF and SACF were significantly larger, whereas the RMSSDACF/SDACF and SD1ACF/SD2ACF were significantly smaller in AMI patients. The ρACF and SACF correlated significantly and negatively with normalized high-frequency power (nHFP), and significantly and positively with normalized very low-frequency power (nVLFP) of heart rate variability in both groups of patients. On the contrary, the RMSSDACF/SDACF and SD1ACF/SD2ACF correlated significantly and positively with nHFP, and significantly and negatively with nVLFP and low-/high-frequency power ratio (LHR) in both groups of patients. We concluded that the ρACF, SACF, RMSSDACF/SDACF, and SD1ACF/SD2ACF, among many other indices of ACF Poincaré plot, can be used to differentiate between patients with AMI and patients with PCA, and that the increase in ρACF and SACF and the decrease in RMSSDACF/SDACF and SD1ACF/SD2ACF suggest an increased sympathetic and decreased vagal modulations in both groups of patients.

  17. Timing matters: the interval between acute stressors within chronic mild stress modifies behavioral and physiologic stress responses in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavigelli, Sonia A; Bao, Alexander D; Bourne, Rebecca A; Caruso, Michael J; Caulfield, Jasmine I; Chen, Mary; Smyth, Joshua M

    2018-04-12

    Chronic mild stress can lead to negative health outcomes. Frequency, duration, and intensity of acute stressors can affect health-related processes. We tested whether the temporal pattern of daily acute stressors (clustered or dispersed across the day) affects depression-related physiology. We used a rodent model to keep stressor frequency, duration, and intensity constant, and experimentally manipulated the temporal pattern of acute stressors delivered during the active phase of the day. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to one of three chronic mild stress groups: Clustered: stressors that occurred within 1 hour of each other (n = 21), Dispersed: stressors that were spread out across the active phase (n = 21), and Control: no stressors presented (n = 21). Acute mild stressors included noise, strobe lights, novel cage, cage tilt, wet bedding, and water immersion. Depression-related outcomes included: sucrose preference, body weight, circulating glucocorticoid (corticosterone) concentration after a novel acute stressor and during basal morning and evening times, and endotoxin-induced circulating interleukin-6 concentrations. Compared to control rats, those in the Clustered group gained less weight, consumed less sucrose, had a blunted acute corticosterone response, and an accentuated acute interleukin-6 response. Rats in the Dispersed group had an attenuated corticosterone decline during the active period and after an acute stressor compared to the Control group. During a chronic mild stress experience, the temporal distribution of daily acute stressors affected health-related physiologic processes. Regular exposure to daily stressors in rapid succession may predict more depression-related symptoms, whereas exposure to stressors dispersed throughout the day may predict diminished glucocorticoid negative feedback.

  18. Acute high-intensity interval exercise induces comparable levels of circulating cell-free DNA and Interleukin-6 in obese and normal-weight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrandi, Peter J; Fico, Brandon G; Whitehurst, Michael; Zourdos, Michael C; Bao, Fanchen; Dodge, Katelyn M; Rodriguez, Alexandra L; Pena, Gabriel; Huang, Chun-Jung

    2018-06-01

    Obesity is associated with lipid aggregation in adipocytes and macrophage infiltration, leading to increased oxidative stress and inflammation. Increased cell-free DNA (cfDNA) concentrations have been observed in clinical conditions of systemic inflammation. While the beneficial effects of regular physical activity on the release of circulating cfDNA still remain unknown, acute intense exercise has been shown to increase inflammatory cytokines and cfDNA concentrations in normal-weight individuals. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to examine the effect of acute high-intensity interval Exercise (HIIE) on plasma cfDNA and interleukin-6 (IL-6) responses in obese and normal-weight subjects. Fourteen male subjects (7 obese and 7 normal-weight) participated in an acute HIIE protocol (30 min, 4x4min @ 80% - 90% of VO 2max ) on a treadmill. Between HIIE intervals, subjects performed 3 min of active recovery at 50-60% VO 2max . Blood samples were collected prior to, immediately following exercise, and one hour into recovery for measurements of plasma cfDNA and IL-6. Our results demonstrated a significant elevation in plasma cfDNA immediately following acute HIIE in both obese and normal-weight subjects. A comparable elevation in the concentration of plasma IL-6 was also found between two groups in response to acute HIIE. Furthermore, the level of plasma cfDNA was not correlated with IL-6 either at baseline or in response to acute HIIE. These findings may support the utilization of HIIE as a time-efficient exercise protocol to understand the obesity-associated cfDNA and inflammatory responses. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Chronic and acute inspiratory muscle loading augment the effect of a 6-week interval program on tolerance of high-intensity intermittent bouts of running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Tom K; Fu, Frank H; Eston, Roger; Chung, Pak-Kwong; Quach, Binh; Lu, Kui

    2010-11-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that chronic (training) and acute (warm-up) loaded ventilatory activities applied to the inspiratory muscles (IM) in an integrated manner would augment the training volume of an interval running program. This in turn would result in additional improvement in the maximum performance of the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test in comparison with interval training alone. Eighteen male nonprofessional athletes were allocated to either an inspiratory muscle loading (IML) group or control group. Both groups participated in a 6-week interval running program consisting of 3-4 workouts (1-3 sets of various repetitions of selected distance [100-2,400 m] per workout) per week. For the IML group, 4-week IM training (30 inspiratory efforts at 50% maximal static inspiratory pressure [P0] per set, 2 sets·d-1, 6 d·wk-1) was applied before the interval program. Specific IM warm-up (2 sets of 30 inspiratory efforts at 40% P0) was performed before each workout of the program. For the control group, neither IML was applied. In comparison with the control group, the interval training volume as indicated by the repeatability of running bouts at high intensity was approximately 27% greater in the IML group. Greater increase in the maximum performance of the Yo-Yo test (control: 16.9 ± 5.5%; IML: 30.7 ± 4.7% baseline value) was also observed after training. The enhanced exercise performance was partly attributable to the greater reductions in the sensation of breathlessness and whole-body metabolic stress during the Yo-Yo test. These findings show that the combination of chronic and acute IML into a high-intensity interval running program is a beneficial training strategy for enhancing the tolerance to high-intensity intermittent bouts of running.

  20. The acute effects of interval- vs. continuous-walking exercise on glycemic control in subjects with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Christensen, Camilla S; Pedersen, Bente K

    2014-01-01

    Context: Glycemic control improves with physical activity, but the optimal exercise mode is unknown. Objective: To determine whether interval-based exercise improves postprandial glucose tolerance and free-living glycemia more than oxygen-consumption and time-duration matched continuous exercise....... Design: Cross-over, controlled with trials performed in randomized order. Setting: Hospitalized and ambulatory care. Patients: Diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2DM; n=10, no withdrawels). Interventions: Subjects performed three 1-hour interventions: 1) interval-walking (IW; repeated cycles of 3 minutes...... of slow and fast walking); 2) continuous-walking (CW); 3) Control (CON). Oxygen consumption (VO2) was measured continuously to match mean VO2 between exercise sessions (∼75% VO2peak). Main Outcome Measures: A mixed meal tolerance test (MMTT; 450 kcal, 55% carbohydrate) with stable glucose isotopic tracers...

  1. Acute effects of high-intensity interval, resistance or combined exercise protocols on testosterone - cortisol responses in inactive overweight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Orjuela, Gina P; Domínguez-Sanchéz, María A; Hernández, Enrique; Correa-Bautista, Jorge E; Triana-Reina, Héctor R; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Peña-Ibagon, Jhonatan C; Izquierdo, Mikel; Cadore, Eduardo L; Hackney, Anthony C; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2018-06-22

    The purpose of this study was to compare the hormonal responses to one session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT, 4 × 4 min intervals at 85-95% maximum heart rate [HRmax], interspersed with 4 min of recovery at 75-85% HRmax), resistance training (RT at 50-70% of one repetition maximum 12-15 repetitions per set with 60s of recovery) or both (HIIT+RT) exercise protocol in a cohort of physical inactivity, overweight adults (age 18-30 years old). Randomized, parallel-group clinical trial among fifty-one men (23.6 ± 3.5 yr; 83.5 ± 7.8 kg; 28.0 ± 1.9 kg/m2), physical inactivity (i.e., 6 months), with abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥90 cm) or body mass index ≥25 and ≤30 kg/m 2 were randomized to the following 4 groups: high-intensity interval training (HIIT, n = 14), resistance training (RT, n = 12), combined high-intensity interval and resistance training (HIIT+RT, n = 13), or non-exercising control (CON, n = 12). Cortisol, total- and free-testosterone and total-testosterone/cortisol-ratio (T/C) assessments (all in serum) were determined before (pre) and 1-min post-exercise for each protocol session. Decreases in cortisol levels were -57.08 (95%CI, -75.58 to -38.58; P = 0.001; ɳ 2  = 0.61) and - 37.65 (95%CI, -54.36 to -20.93; P = 0.001; ɳ 2  = 0.51) in the HIIT and control group, respectively. Increases in T/C ratio were 0.022 (95%CI, 0.012 to 0.031; P = 0.001; ɳ 2  = 0.49) and 0.015 (95%CI, 0.004 to 0.025; P = 0.007; ɳ 2  = 0.29) in the HIIT and control group, respectively. In per-protocol analyses revealed a significant change in cortisol levels [interaction effect F( 7.777 ), ɳ 2  = 0.33] and T/C ratio [interaction effect F( 5.298 ), ɳ 2  = 0.25] between groups over time. Additionally, we showed that in both the intention-to-treat (ITT) and per protocol analyses, HIIT+RT did not change serum cortisol, total or free testosterone. The present

  2. Changes in human parechovirus profiles in hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis after a three-year interval in Lanzhou, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Guo

    Full Text Available The changing profile of infection over time for Human Parechoviruses (HPeVs is not well known and no detailed study has been reported to date in China. This investigation on HPeV infection in hospitalized children in Lanzhou, China revealed variations in epidemiological characteristics after a three-year interval. To assess the changes that had occurred, epidemiological and clinical characteristics of HPeVs were characterized and compared with previously reported data by our group. A comparable positivity rate (25.3%, 73/289 was revealed after the three-year interval with the majority of the infected children (95.9%, 70/73 being younger than two years of age. While a temporal change in the seasonal distribution was noted in the current study, HPeVs were more frequently detected during July to November compared to September to December in the previous study. Changes in HPeV genotypes patterns, a temporal change in the prevalence of HPeV1, a younger susceptible age to HPeV3 compared with HPeV1 and a tendency of older children to be infected with HPeV4 are in contrast to our previous report. HPeV2, a rarely reported genotype, was identified for the first time in China. In addition, an exclusive trinucleotide (GAT insertion in the HPeV4 nucleotide sequence was identified. However, the profiles of co-infection with other enteric related viruses were similar to our previous findings. In summary, these data suggest temporal variation in the seasonal distribution of HPeV and changing patterns of HPeV genotypes over time in the study region.

  3. The impact of acute bouts of interval and continuous walking on energy-intake and appetite regulation in subjects with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Ida A; Wedell-Neergaard, Anne-Sophie; Solomon, Thomas P J

    2017-01-01

    In healthy subjects, it has been suggested that exercise may acutely suppress energy-intake and appetite, with peak intensity being an important determinant for this effect. In subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D), the effect of exercise on appetite-related variables is, however, virtually unknown....... We aimed to assess the effects of two exercise interventions, differing with regards to peak intensity, on energy-intake, satiety and appetite-related hormones in subjects with T2D. Thirteen subjects with T2D completed three 60-min interventions with continuous measurement of oxygen consumption...... in a randomized and counterbalanced order: (1) Control, (2) Continuous walking (CW; intended 73% of VO2peak), (3) Interval-walking (IW; repeated cycles of 3 min slow [54% of VO2peak] and 3 min fast walking [89% of VO2peak]). Forty-five minutes after completion of the intervention, a 3-h liquid mixed meal...

  4. The effects of rest interval length on acute bench press performance: the influence of gender and muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratamess, Nicholas A; Chiarello, Christina M; Sacco, Anthony J; Hoffman, Jay R; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Ross, Ryan E; Kang, Jie

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of rest interval (RI) length on bench press performance in subjects with disparity in maximum strength. Two cohorts of subjects performed 3 bench press protocols in random order consisting of 3 sets of up to 10 repetitions with 75% of 1-repetition maximum (1RM) using either 1-, 2-, or 3-minute RIs between sets. In the first cohort, 22 men and women were studied to investigate gender influence. In the second cohort, 23 men were tested for 1RM bench press strength and placed into a low 1RM (mean = 80.7 ± 7.5 kg) or high 1RM (mean = 140.6 ± 11.9 kg) experimental group. The number of successful repetitions completed, average power, and velocity for each set were recorded. Women performed significantly more repetitions than men with 1-minute (26.9 ± 4.4 vs. 21.1 ± 3.5), 2-minute (29.0 ± 2.0 vs. 24.0 ± 4.5), and 3-minute (29.7 ± 1.8 vs. 25.8 ± 5.1) RIs. The magnitude of decline in average velocity and power was significantly higher in men than in women. Total number of repetitions performed was significantly greater in the low 1RM group than in the high 1RM group at 1-minute (21.6 ± 5.0 vs. 18.1 ± 2.0) and 2-minute RIs (24.2 ± 5.4 vs. 21.3 ± 2.8). Significant negative correlations were observed between 1RM bench press and total number of repetitions completed for 1- and 2-minute RIs (r = -0.558 and -0.490, respectively). These data indicate that maximal strength plays a role in bench press performance with varying RIs and suggest that shorter RIs may suffice in women to attain a specific volume.

  5. The diagnostic accuracy of TCD for intracranial arterial stenosis/occlusion in patients with acute ischemic stroke: the importance of time interval between detection of TCD and CTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jingxia; Zhou, Qin; Ouyang, Huangqing; Zhang, Shaofeng; Lu, Zuneng

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate prospectively the diagnostic accuracy of transcranial doppler (TCD) as an additional screening tool for intracranial arterial steno-occlusive disease against computed tomography angiography (CTA) in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) if both are performed in a short time interval. Between July 2011 and May 2012, 128 patients who were hospitalized within 24 hours of symptom onset and fulfilled the criteria for the clinical diagnosis of AIS were enrolled. Bedside detection of TCD was accomplished immediately after admission. High-resolution brain CTA was performed within 3 hours after the completion of TCD and the images were interpreted by a neuroradiologist blinded to TCD findings. The accuracy parameters of TCD against CTA were calculated after computation of true-positive, false-positive, true negative, and false-negative values. Among the 128 patients, there were 68 males and 60 females, aged 61.4 ± 17.5 years. The mean time interval between the detection of TCD and CTA was 89.7 (77.8) minutes. In 65% of patients, both examinations were performed with less than a half-hour interval between them. The diagnostic accuracy of TCD for different arteries showed slight distinction. Transcranial doppler demonstrated the most accurate diagnosis for middle cerebral artery (MCA), where TCD showed 35 true-positive, 0 false-negative, 1 false-positive, and 92 true-negative studies compared with CTA. Furthermore, elevated MCA velocities on TCD correlated well with the severity of intracranial stenosis detected on CTA. Vertebral artery (VA) is one of the arteries with the lowest sensitivity for TCD diagnosis (sensitivity 63.4%, specificity 96.5%, positive predictive value (PPV) 89.6%, negative predictive value (NPV) 84.8%, and accuracy 85.9%). In 20 cases (15.6%), TCD showed findings complementary to CTA (real-time embolization, collateral flow patterns, and steal phenomenon). Transcranial doppler shows high diagnostic accuracy against CTA if both are

  6. Acute effects of high-intensity interval training and moderate-intensity continuous training sessions on cardiorespiratory parameters in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaun, Gustavo Zaccaria; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Ribeiro, Diego Oliveira; Pinto, Stephanie Santana

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the energy expenditure (EE) during and after two treadmill protocols, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate continuous training (CONT), in young adult men. The sample was comprised by 26 physically active men aged between 18 and 35 years engaged in aerobic training programs. They were divided into two groups: HIIT (n = 14) which performed eight 20 s bouts at 130% of the velocity associated with the maximal oxygen consumption on a treadmill with 10 s of passive rest, or CONT (n = 12) which performed 30 min running on a treadmill at a submaximal velocity equivalent to 90-95% of the heart rate associated with the anaerobic threshold. Data related to oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) and EE were measured during the protocols and the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) was calculated for both sessions. No difference was found between groups for mean [Formula: see text] (HIIT: 2.84 ± 0.46 L min -1 ; CONT: 2.72 ± 0.43 L min -1 ) and EE per minute (HIIT: 14.36 ± 2.34 kcal min -1 ; CONT: 13.21 ± 2.08 kcal min -1 ) during protocols. Regarding total EE during session, CONT resulted in higher values compared to HIIT (390.45 ± 65.15; 55.20 ± 9.33 kcal, respectively). However, post-exercise EE and EPOC values were higher after HIIT (69.31 ± 10.88; 26.27 ± 2.28 kcal, respectively) compared to CONT (55.99 ± 10.20; 13.43 ± 10.45 kcal, respectively). These data suggest that supramaximal HIIT has a higher impact on EE and EPOC in the early phase of recovery when compared to CONT.

  7. Anaerobic biodegradability of macropollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini

    2002-01-01

    A variety of test procedures for determination of anaerobic biodegradability has been reported. This paper reviews the methods developed for determination of anaerobic biodegradability of macro-pollutants. Anaerobic biodegradability of micro-pollutants is not included. Furthermore, factors...

  8. Acute High-intensity Interval Exercise-induced Redox Signaling is Associated with Enhanced Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Middle-aged Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewan Parker

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity and ageing are associated with increased oxidative stress, activation of stress and mitogen activated protein kinases (SAPK, and the development of insulin resistance and metabolic disease. In contrast, acute exercise also increases oxidative stress and SAPK signaling, yet is reported to enhance insulin sensitivity and reduce the risk of metabolic disease. This study explored this paradox by investigating the effect of a single session of high-intensity interval-exercise (HIIE on redox status, muscle SAPK and insulin protein signaling in eleven middle-aged obese men. Methods. Participants completed a 2 hour hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp at rest, and 60 minutes after HIIE (4x4 mins at 95% HRpeak; 2 min recovery periods, separated by 1-3 weeks. Results. Irrespective of exercise-induced changes to redox status, insulin stimulation both at rest and after HIIE similarly increased plasma superoxide dismutase activity, plasma catalase activity, and skeletal muscle 4-HNE; and significantly decreased plasma TBARS and hydrogen peroxide. The SAPK signaling pathways of p38 MAPK, NF-κB p65, and JNK, and the distal insulin signaling protein AS160Ser588, were activated with insulin stimulation at rest and to a greater extent with insulin stimulation after a prior bout of HIIE. Higher insulin sensitivity after HIIE was associated with higher insulin-stimulated SAPK phosphorylation (JNK, p38 MAPK and NF-κB and SOD activity (p<0.05. Conclusion. These findings support a role for redox homeostasis and SAPK signaling in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake which may contribute to the enhancement of insulin sensitivity in obese men 3 hours after HIIE.

  9. Anaerobic Thermophiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Canganella

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The term “extremophile” was introduced to describe any organism capable of living and growing under extreme conditions. With the further development of studies on microbial ecology and taxonomy, a variety of “extreme” environments have been found and an increasing number of extremophiles are being described. Extremophiles have also been investigated as far as regarding the search for life on other planets and even evaluating the hypothesis that life on Earth originally came from space. The first extreme environments to be largely investigated were those characterized by elevated temperatures. The naturally “hot environments” on Earth range from solar heated surface soils and water with temperatures up to 65 °C, subterranean sites such as oil reserves and terrestrial geothermal with temperatures ranging from slightly above ambient to above 100 °C, to submarine hydrothermal systems with temperatures exceeding 300 °C. There are also human-made environments with elevated temperatures such as compost piles, slag heaps, industrial processes and water heaters. Thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms have been known for a long time, but scientists have often resisted the belief that some organisms do not only survive at high temperatures, but actually thrive under those hot conditions. They are perhaps one of the most interesting varieties of extremophilic organisms. These microorganisms can thrive at temperatures over 50 °C and, based on their optimal temperature, anaerobic thermophiles can be subdivided into three main groups: thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 50 °C and 64 °C and a maximum at 70 °C, extreme thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 65 °C and 80 °C, and finally hyperthermophiles with an optimal temperature above 80 °C and a maximum above 90 °C. The finding of novel extremely thermophilic and hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacteria in recent years, and the fact that a large fraction of them belong

  10. Isolation of Capsulate Bacteria from Acute Dentoalveolar Abscesses

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, M. A. O.; Milligan, S. G.; MacFarlane, T. W.; Carmichael, F. A.

    2011-01-01

    The presence of a capsule was determined for 198 bacterial strains (57 facultative anaerobes, 141 strict anaerobes) isobdted from pus samples aspirated from 40 acute dentoalveolar abscesses. A total of 133 (67 per cent) of the isolates (42 facultative anaerobes, 91 strict anaerobes) were found to have a capsule. Possession ofa capsule may in part explain the apparent pathogenicity of the bacterial species encountered in acute dentoalveolar abscess.Keywords - Bacterial capsule; Acute dentoalve...

  11. Livestock Anaerobic Digester Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Anaerobic Digester Database provides basic information about anaerobic digesters on livestock farms in the United States, organized in Excel spreadsheets. It includes projects that are under construction, operating, or shut down.

  12. Anaerobes in pleuropulmonary infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De A

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 76 anaerobes and 122 aerobes were isolated from 100 patients with pleuropulmonary infections, e.g. empyema (64, pleural effusion (19 and lung abscess (13. In 14% of the patients, only anaerobes were recovered, while a mixture of aerobes and anaerobes was encountered in 58%. From all cases of lung abscess, anaerobic bacteria were isolated, alone (04 or along with aerobic bacteria (13. From empyema and pleural effusion cases, 65.6% and 68.4% anaerobes were recovered respectively. Amongst anaerobes, gram negative anaerobic bacilli predominated (Prevotella melaninogenicus 16, Fusobacterium spp. 10, Bacteroides spp. 9, followed by gram positive anaerobic cocci (Peptostreptococcus spp. 31. Coliform bacteria (45 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (42 were the predominant aerobic isolates.

  13. Interval scanning photomicrography of microbial cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casida, L. E., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A single reproducible area of the preparation in a fixed focal plane is photographically scanned at intervals during incubation. The procedure can be used for evaluating the aerobic or anaerobic growth of many microbial cells simultaneously within a population. In addition, the microscope is not restricted to the viewing of any one microculture preparation, since the slide cultures are incubated separately from the microscope.

  14. Anaerobic Digestion: Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Batstone, Damien J.

    2011-01-01

    Organic waste may degrade anaerobically in nature as well as in engineered systems. The latter is called anaerobic digestion or biogasification. Anaerobic digestion produces two main outputs: An energy-rich gas called biogas and an effluent. The effluent, which may be a solid as well as liquid...... with very little dry matter may also be called a digest. The digest should not be termed compost unless it specifically has been composted in an aerated step. This chapter describes the basic processes of anaerobic digestion. Chapter 9.5 describes the anaerobic treatment technologies, and Chapter 9...

  15. Rapid Blood Pressure Lowering According to Recovery at Different Time Intervals after Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Pooled Analysis of the INTERACT Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Arima, Hisatomi; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; Woodward, Mark; Heeley, Emma; Stapf, Christian; Lavados, Pablo M; Robinson, Thompson; Huang, Yining; Wang, Jiguang; Delcourt, Candice; Anderson, Craig S

    2015-01-01

    Early intensive blood pressure (BP) lowering has been shown to improve functional outcome in acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), but the treatment effect is modest and without a clearly defined underlying explanatory mechanism. We aimed at more reliably quantifying the benefits of this treatment according to different time periods in the recovery of participants in the Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage Trial (INTERACT) studies. Pooled analysis of the pilot INTERACT1 (n = 404) and main INTERACT2 (n = 2,839) involving patients with spontaneous ICH (patient characteristic subgroups, with trends favoring those randomized early, and with higher SBP and milder neurological severity at baseline. Intensive BP lowering provides beneficial effects on physical functioning that manifests consistently through the early and later phases of recovery from ICH. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Desempenho da potência anaeróbia em atletas de elite do mountain bike submetidos à suplementação aguda com creatina Anaerobic power output of elite off-road cyclists with acute oral creatine supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Eckhardt Molina

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de investigar os efeitos da suplementação aguda com creatina no desempenho da potência anaeróbia de atletas de elite do mountain bike, 20 atletas em período básico do macrociclo de treinamento foram distribuídos aleatoriamente (duplo-cego em dois grupos: placebo (PLA, n = 10 e creatina (CRE, n = 10. Foram avaliados quanto à composição corporal (pesagem hidrostática e potência anaeróbia (teste de Wingate - TW antes (PRÉ e depois (PÓS de sete dias de suplementação. A creatina ou maltodextrina foi usada em três doses diárias de 0,3g/kg de massa corporal diluídos em meio líquido adoçado. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas nas variáveis morfológicas após sete dias de suplementação (PRÉ x PÓS, e os grupos não diferiram apesar da variação percentual (Δ% contrária (positiva para o grupo CRE e negativa para o PLA. A potência anaeróbia pico (PP e o instante da potência pico (IPP aumentaram e o índice de fadiga diminuiu do PRÉ para o PÓS-testes no grupo CRE, enquanto que o grupo PLA não apresentou diferenças significantes. A PP apresentou forte tendência em ser maior e o IPP foi maior no grupo CRE comparado com o PLA. Conclui-se que existem evidências de que a suplementação com creatina (0,3g/kg em curto prazo (sete dias pode retardar o IPP (CRE 3,0 ± 0,5/3,6 ± 0,8 Δ%= 20% no teste de Wingate em atletas de elite do mountain bike, sugerindo que a suplementação com creatina pode melhorar o desempenho físico quanto à potência anaeróbia durante o trabalho de alta intensidade e curta duração.In order to investigate the effect of a high dose, acute oral creatine supplementation on anaerobic power of male off-road cyclists, twenty elite athletes training at the basic period were randomly (double-blind assigned into 2 groups: placebo (PLA n=10 and creatine (CRE n=10. They were submitted to a body composition evaluation (underwater weighting and Wingate Anaerobic Test (TW before

  17. The effects of rest interval length manipulation of the first upper-body resistance exercise in sequence on acute performance of subsequent exercises in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratamess, Nicholas A; Chiarello, Christina M; Sacco, Anthony J; Hoffman, Jay R; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Ross, Ryan E; Kang, Jie

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of manipulating rest interval (RI) length of the first upper-body exercise in sequence on subsequent resistance exercise performance. Twenty-two men and women with at least 1 year of resistance training experience performed resistance exercise protocols on 3 occasions in random order. Each protocol consisted of performing 4 barbell upper-body exercises in the same sequence (bench press, incline bench press, shoulder press, and bent-over row) for 3 sets of up to 10 repetitions with 75% of 1 repetition maximum. Bench press RIs were 1, 2, or 3 minutes, whereas other exercises were performed with a standard 2-minute rest interval. The number of repetitions completed, average power, and velocity for each set of each exercise were recorded. Gender differences were observed during the bench press and incline press as women performed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) more repetitions than men during all RIs. The magnitude of decline in velocity and power over 3 sets of the bench press and incline press was significantly higher in men than women. Manipulation of RI length during the bench press did not affect performance of the remaining exercises in men. However, significantly more repetitions were performed by women during the first set of the incline press using 3-minute rest interval than 1-minute rest interval. In men and women, performance of the incline press and shoulder press was compromised compared with baseline performances. Manipulation of RI length of the first exercise affected performance of only the first set of 1 subsequent exercise in women. All RIs led to comparable levels of fatigue in men, indicating that reductions in load are necessary for subsequent exercises performed in sequence that stress similar agonist muscle groups when 10 repetitions are desired.

  18. Anaerobic treatment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehnke, B.; Bischofsberger, W.; Seyfried, C.F.

    1993-01-01

    This practical and theoretical guide presents the current state of knowledge in anaerobic treatment of industrial effluents with a high organic pollutant load and sewage sludges resulting from the treatment of municipal and industrial waste water. Starting from the microbiological bases of anaerobic degradation processes including a description and critical evaluation of executed plants, the book evolves the process-technical bases of anaerobic treatment techniques, derives relative applications, and discusses these with reference to excuted examples. (orig./UWA). 232 figs [de

  19. Can psychological well-being scales and hormone levels be used to predict acute performance of anaerobic training tasks in elite female volleyball players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Zourdos, Michael C; Clemente-Suárez, Vicente J; Calleja-González, Julio; Shipherd, Amber M

    2017-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between pre-training psychological well-being assessment scales (General Health Questionnaire-28-GHQ-28, Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2-CSAI-2, Sport Competition Anxiety Test-SCAT, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-S-STAI-S, Oviedo Sleep Questionnaire-OSQ and Psychological Characteristics Related to Sport Performance-PCSP), and pre-training stress hormone concentrations (cortisol-C, total testosterone-TT, free testosterone-FT, adrenocorticotropic hormone-ACTH and testosterone/cortisol-T/C ratios), on acute neuromuscular performance (ANP) in female volleyballers. Forty elite female volleyballers (27±4yrs.; 178.3±8.5cm; 67.9±7.2kg) participated. Bivariate correlations were performed between psychological assessments and hormone levels with ANP. All psychological scales presented at least one significant (pvolleyballers than pre-training stress hormone concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Power law behavior of RR-interval variability in healthy middle-aged persons, patients with recent acute myocardial infarction, and patients with heart transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigger, J. T. Jr; Steinman, R. C.; Rolnitzky, L. M.; Fleiss, J. L.; Albrecht, P.; Cohen, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The purposes of the present study were (1) to establish normal values for the regression of log(power) on log(frequency) for, RR-interval fluctuations in healthy middle-aged persons, (2) to determine the effects of myocardial infarction on the regression of log(power) on log(frequency), (3) to determine the effect of cardiac denervation on the regression of log(power) on log(frequency), and (4) to assess the ability of power law regression parameters to predict death after myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS. We studied three groups: (1) 715 patients with recent myocardial infarction; (2) 274 healthy persons age and sex matched to the infarct sample; and (3) 19 patients with heart transplants. Twenty-four-hour RR-interval power spectra were computed using fast Fourier transforms and log(power) was regressed on log(frequency) between 10(-4) and 10(-2) Hz. There was a power law relation between log(power) and log(frequency). That is, the function described a descending straight line that had a slope of approximately -1 in healthy subjects. For the myocardial infarction group, the regression line for log(power) on log(frequency) was shifted downward and had a steeper negative slope (-1.15). The transplant (denervated) group showed a larger downward shift in the regression line and a much steeper negative slope (-2.08). The correlation between traditional power spectral bands and slope was weak, and that with log(power) at 10(-4) Hz was only moderate. Slope and log(power) at 10(-4) Hz were used to predict mortality and were compared with the predictive value of traditional power spectral bands. Slope and log(power) at 10(-4) Hz were excellent predictors of all-cause mortality or arrhythmic death. To optimize the prediction of death, we calculated a log(power) intercept that was uncorrelated with the slope of the power law regression line. We found that the combination of slope and zero-correlation log(power) was an outstanding predictor, with a

  1. Acute Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Exercise and Continuous Moderate-Intensity Exercise Elicit a Similar Improvement in 24-h Glycemic Control in Overweight and Obese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lewan; Shaw, Christopher S; Banting, Lauren; Levinger, Itamar; Hill, Karen M; McAinch, Andrew J; Stepto, Nigel K

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute exercise reduces postprandial oxidative stress and glycemia; however, the effects of exercise intensity are unclear. We investigated the effect of acute low-volume high-intensity interval-exercise (LV-HIIE) and continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CMIE) on glycemic control and oxidative stress in overweight and obese, inactive adults. Methods: Twenty-seven adults were randomly allocated to perform a single session of LV-HIIE (9 females, 5 males; age: 30 ± 1 years; BMI: 29 ± 1 kg·m -2 ; mean ± SEM) or CMIE (8 females, 5 males; age: 30 ± 2.0; BMI: 30 ± 2.0) 1 h after consumption of a standard breakfast. Plasma redox status, glucose and insulin were measured. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was conducted during the 24-h period before (rest day) and after exercise (exercise day). Results: Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; 29 ±13%, p improvement in 24-h average glucose levels (-5 ± 2%, p improving 24-h glycemic control in overweight and obese adults.

  2. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  3. Anaerobic Digestion Foaming Causes

    OpenAIRE

    Ganidi, Nafsika

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming has been encountered in several sewage treatment plants in the UK. Foaming has raised major concerns for the water utilities due to significant impacts on process efficiency and operational costs. Several foaming causes have been suggested over the past few years by researchers. However, the supporting experimental information is limited and in some cases site specific. The present report aimed to provide a better understanding of the anaerobic di...

  4. Interval selection with machine-dependent intervals

    OpenAIRE

    Bohmova K.; Disser Y.; Mihalak M.; Widmayer P.

    2013-01-01

    We study an offline interval scheduling problem where every job has exactly one associated interval on every machine. To schedule a set of jobs, exactly one of the intervals associated with each job must be selected, and the intervals selected on the same machine must not intersect.We show that deciding whether all jobs can be scheduled is NP-complete already in various simple cases. In particular, by showing the NP-completeness for the case when all the intervals associated with the same job...

  5. Anaerobic prosthetic joint infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Neel B; Tande, Aaron J; Patel, Robin; Berbari, Elie F

    2015-12-01

    In an effort to improve mobility and alleviate pain from degenerative and connective tissue joint disease, an increasing number of individuals are undergoing prosthetic joint replacement in the United States. Joint replacement is a highly effective intervention, resulting in improved quality of life and increased independence [1]. By 2030, it is predicted that approximately 4 million total hip and knee arthroplasties will be performed yearly in the United States [2]. One of the major complications associated with this procedure is prosthetic joint infection (PJI), occurring at a rate of 1-2% [3-7]. In 2011, the Musculoskeletal Infectious Society created a unifying definition for prosthetic joint infection [8]. The following year, the Infectious Disease Society of America published practice guidelines that focused on the diagnosis and management of PJI. These guidelines focused on the management of commonly encountered organisms associated with PJI, including staphylococci, streptococci and select aerobic Gram-negative bacteria. However, with the exception of Propionibacterium acnes, management of other anaerobic organisms was not addressed in these guidelines [1]. Although making up approximately 3-6% of PJI [9,10], anaerobic microorganisms cause devastating complications, and similar to the more common organisms associated with PJI, these bacteria also result in significant morbidity, poor outcomes and increased health-care costs. Data on diagnosis and management of anaerobic PJI is mostly derived from case reports, along with a few cohort studies [3]. There is a paucity of published data outlining factors associated with risks, diagnosis and management of anaerobic PJI. We therefore reviewed available literature on anaerobic PJI by systematically searching the PubMed database, and collected data from secondary searches to determine information on pathogenesis, demographic data, clinical features, diagnosis and management. We focused our search on five commonly

  6. Isolation and Cultivation of Anaerobes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aragao Börner, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic microorganisms play important roles in different biotechnological processes. Their complex metabolism and special cultivation requirements have led to less isolated representatives in comparison to their aerobic counterparts.In view of that, the isolation and cultivation of anaerobic...

  7. Anaerobes in bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Four hundred high vaginal swabs were taken from patients attending gynaecology and obstetrics department of Govt. medical college, Amritsar. The patients were divided into four groups i.e. women in pregnancy (Group I, in labour/post partum (Group II, with abnormal vaginal discharge or bacterial vaginosis (Group III and asymptomatic women as control (Group IV. Anaerobic culture of vaginal swabs revealed that out of 400 cases, 212(53% were culture positive. Maximum isolation of anaerobes was in group III (84% followed by group II (56%, group I (36% and control group (15%. Gram positive anaerobes (69.2% out numbered gram negatives (30.8%. Among various isolates Peptostreptococcus spp. and Bacteroides spp. were predominant.

  8. Perspectives for anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    The modern society generates large amounts of waste that represent a tremendous threat to the environment and human and animal health. To prevent and control this, a range of different waste treatment and disposal methods are used. The choice of method must always be based on maximum safety...... to the soil. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is one way of achieving this goal and it will furthermore, reduce energy consumption or may even be net energy producing. This chapter aims at provide a basic understanding of the world in which anaerobic digestion is operating today. The newest process developments...

  9. Convex Interval Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alparslan-Gok, S.Z.; Brânzei, R.; Tijs, S.H.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, convex interval games are introduced and some characterizations are given. Some economic situations leading to convex interval games are discussed. The Weber set and the Shapley value are defined for a suitable class of interval games and their relations with the interval core for

  10. Modeling of anaerobic digestion of complex substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keshtkar, A. R.; Abolhamd, G.; Meyssami, B.; Ghaforian, H.

    2003-01-01

    A structured mathematical model of anaerobic conversion of complex organic materials in non-ideally cyclic-batch reactors for biogas production has been developed. The model is based on multiple-reaction stoichiometry (enzymatic hydrolysis, acidogenesis, aceto genesis and methano genesis), microbial growth kinetics, conventional material balances in the liquid and gas phases for a cyclic-batch reactor, liquid-gas interactions, liquid-phase equilibrium reactions and a simple mixing model which considers the reactor volume in two separate sections: the flow-through and the retention regions. The dynamic model describes the effects of reactant's distribution resulting from the mixing conditions, time interval of feeding, hydraulic retention time and mixing parameters on the process performance. The model is applied in the simulation of anaerobic digestion of cattle manure under different operating conditions. The model is compared with experimental data and good correlations are obtained

  11. Antibiotic-resistant obligate anaerobes during exacerbations of cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worlitzsch, D; Rintelen, C; Böhm, K; Wollschläger, B; Merkel, N; Borneff-Lipp, M; Döring, G

    2009-05-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are thought to cause the majority of lung infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, other bacterial pathogens may contribute to the pathophysiology of lung disease. Here, obligate anaerobes were identified in a cross-sectional study, and cell numbers and antibiotic susceptibilities of facultative and obligate anaerobes from 114 sputum samples from nine children and 36 adults with CF were determined. Furthermore, in 12 CF patients, we investigated whether conventional intravenous antibiotic therapy, administered during acute exacerbations, would affect the numbers of obligate anaerobes. Fifteen genera of obligate anaerobes were identified in 91% of the CF patients. Cell numbers (mean: 2.2 x 10(7) +/- standard deviation 6.9 x 10(7) CFU/mL of sputum sample) were comparable to those of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Staphylococcus saccharolyticus and Peptostreptococcus prevotii were most prevalent. Infection with P. aeruginosa did not increase the likelihood that obligate anaerobes are present in sputum specimens. Single obligate anaerobic species persisted for up to 11 months in sputum plugs in vivo. Patients with and without obligate anaerobes in sputum specimens did not differ in lung function. Intravenous therapy directed against P. aeruginosa during acute exacerbations increased lung function, but did not reduce the numbers of obligate anaerobes. Obligate anaerobic species differed widely in their patterns of resistance against meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, clindamycin, metronidazole and ceftazidime. In 58% of patients with acute exacerbations, obligate anaerobes were detected that were resistant to the antibiotics used for treatment. Antibiotic therapy, optimized to target anaerobes in addition to P. aeruginosa, may improve the management of CF lung disease.

  12. Bio digester : anaerobic methanogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullema, Marten; Hulzen, Hans; Keizer, Melvin; Pruisscher, Gerlof; Smint, Martin; Vincent, Helene

    2014-01-01

    As part of the theme 13 and 14, our group have to realize a project in the field of the renewable energy. This project consist of the design of a bio-digester for the canteen of Zernikeplein. Gert Hofstede is our client. To produce energy, a bio-digester uses the anaerobic digestion, which is made

  13. Anaerobic biotransformation of estrogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czajka, Cynthia P.; Londry, Kathleen L.

    2006-01-01

    Estrogens are important environmental contaminants that disrupt endocrine systems and feminize male fish. We investigated the potential for anaerobic biodegradation of the estrogens 17-α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and 17-β-estradiol (E2) in order to understand their fate in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Cultures were established using lake water and sediment under methanogenic, sulfate-, iron-, and nitrate-reducing conditions. Anaerobic degradation of EE2 (added at 5 mg/L) was not observed in multiple trials over long incubation periods (over three years). E2 (added at 5 mg/L) was transformed to estrone (E1) under all four anaerobic conditions (99-176 μg L -1 day -1 ), but the extent of conversion was different for each electron acceptor. The oxidation of E2 to E1 was not inhibited by E1. Under some conditions, reversible inter-conversion of E2 and E1 was observed, and the final steady state concentration of E2 depended on the electron-accepting condition but was independent of the total amount of estrogens added. In addition, racemization occurred and E1 was also transformed to 17-α-estradiol under all but nitrate-reducing conditions. Although E2 could be readily transformed to E1 and in many cases 17-α-estradiol under anaerobic conditions, the complete degradation of estrogens under these conditions was minimal, suggesting that they would accumulate in anoxic environments

  14. The anaerobic digestion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Boone, D.R. [Oregon Graduate Inst., Portland, OR (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

  15. Anaerobic treatment in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Borghi, M; Solisio, C; Ferrailo, G

    1984-02-01

    In Italy, environmental protection and energy conservation have become very important since the increase in oil prices. The law requires that all waste waters have a B.O.D. of 40 mg/l by 1986 so there has been an expansion of purification plants since 1976, using anaerobic digestion. The report deals with the current state of anaerobic treatment in Italy with particular reference to (1) animal wastes. In intensive holdings, anaerobic digestion leads to a decrease in pollution and an increase in biogas generation which can be used to cover the energy demand of the process. The factors which influence the builders of digestors for farms are considered. (2) Non toxic industrial wastes. These are the waste waters emanating from the meat packing, brewing, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Particular reference is made to the distillery plants using anaerobic treatment prior to aerobic digestion. (3) Urban wastes. The advantages and the disadvantages are considered and further research and development is recommended. 20 references.

  16. Anaerobic biological treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speece, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    The Enso-Fenox process has been very successfully used to remove chlorinated phenolic compounds from pulp bleaching effluents. It is a two-stage anaerobic/aerobic process consisting of a nonmethanogenic anaerobic fluidized bed followed by a trickling filter. Studies have been conducted on reductive dechlorination of chlorinated aromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions with chlorinated phenols as the sole carbon and energy source. Approximately 40% of the added chlorophenols was converted to CH 4 and CO 2 . Substrate loading rates were 20 mg/L/d at hydraulic detention times of 2-4 days with 90% substrate conversion efficiency. Reductive dechlorination of mono, di-, tri-, and pentachlorophenols has been demonstrated in anaerobic sewage sludge. The following constituents were tested in the laboratory at their approximate concentrations in coal conversion wastewater (CCWW) and were anaerobically degraded in serum bottles: 1,000 mg/L phenol; 500 mg/L resorcinol; 1,000 mg/L benzoic acid; 500 mg/L p-cresol; 200 mg/L pyridine; 2,000 mg/L benzoic acid; 250 mg/L 40 methylcatechol; 500 mg/L 4-ethylpyridine; and 2,000 mg/L hexanoic acid. A petrochemical may initially exhibit toxicity to an unacclimated population of methane-fermenting bacteria, but with acclimation the toxicity may be greatly reduced or disappear. In addition, the microorganisms may develop the capacity to actually degrade compounds which showed initial toxicity. Since biomass digestion requires a complete consortium of bacteria, it is relevant to study the effect of a given process as well as to individual steps within the process. A toxicant can inhibit the rate-limiting step and/or change the step that is rate-limiting. Both manifestations of toxicity can severely affect the overall process

  17. Early anaerobic metabolisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene; Rosing, Minik T; Bjerrum, Christian

    2006-01-01

    probably driven by the cycling of H2 and Fe2+ through primary production conducted by anoxygenic phototrophs. Interesting and dynamic ecosystems would have also been driven by the microbial cycling of sulphur and nitrogen species, but their activity levels were probably not so great. Despite the diversity......Before the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis, the biosphere was driven by anaerobic metabolisms. We catalogue and quantify the source strengths of the most probable electron donors and electron acceptors that would have been available to fuel early-Earth ecosystems. The most active ecosystems were...... of potential early ecosystems, rates of primary production in the early-Earth anaerobic biosphere were probably well below those rates observed in the marine environment. We shift our attention to the Earth environment at 3.8Gyr ago, where the earliest marine sediments are preserved. We calculate, consistent...

  18. Anaerobic azo dye reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Zee, van der, F.P.

    2002-01-01

    Azo dyes, aromatic moieties linked together by azo (-N=N-) chromophores, represent the largest class of dyes used in textile-processing and other industries. The release of these compounds into the environment is undesirable, not only because of their colour, but also because many azo dyes and their breakdown products are toxic and/or mutagenic to life. To remove azo dyes from wastewater, a biological treatment strategy based on anaerobic reduction of the azo dye...

  19. New perspectives in anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lier, J.B.; Tilche, A.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2001-01-01

    The IWA specialised group on anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the oldest working groups of the former IAWQ organisation. Despite the fact that anaerobic technology dates back more than 100 years, the technology is still under development, adapting novel treatment systems to the modern...... requirements. In fact, most advances were achieved during the last three decades, when high-rate reactor systems were developed and a profound insight was obtained in the microbiology of the anaerobic communities. This insight led to a better understanding of anaerobic treatment and, subsequently, to a broader...

  20. [Anaerobic bacteria isolated from patients with suspected anaerobic infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercis, Serpil; Tunçkanat, Ferda; Hasçelik, Gülşen

    2005-10-01

    The study involved 394 clinical samples sent to the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of Hacettepe University Adult Hospital between January 1997 and May 2004 for anaerobic cultivation. Since multiple cultures from the same clinical samples of the same patient were excluded, the study was carried on 367 samples. The anaerobic cultures were performed in anaerobic jar using AnaeroGen kits (Oxoid, Basingstoke, U.K.) or GENbox (bioMérieux, Lyon, France). The isolates were identified by both classical methods and "BBL Crystal System" (Becton Dickinson, U.S.A.). While no growth was detected in 120 (32.7%) of the clinical samples studied, in 144 samples (39.2%) only aerobes, in 28 (7.6%) only anaerobes and in 75 (20.5%) of the samples both aerobes and anaerobes were isolated. The number of the anaerobic isolates was 217 from 103 samples with anaerobic growth. Of these 103 samples 15 showed single bacterial growth whereas in 88 samples multiple bacterial isolates were detected. Anaerobic isolates consisted of 92 Gram negative bacilli (Bacteroides spp. 50, Prevotella spp. 14, Porphyromonas spp. 10, Fusobacterium spp. 7, Tisierella spp. 2, unidentified 9), 57 Gram positive bacilli (Clostridium spp.17, Propionibacterium spp. 16, Lactobacillus spp. 8, Actinomyces spp. 5, Eubacterium spp. 2, Bifidobacterium adolescentis 1, Mobiluncus mulieris 1, unidentified nonspore forming rods 7), 61 Gram positive cocci (anaerobic cocci 44, microaerophilic cocci 17), and 7 Gram negative cocci (Veillonella spp.). In conclusion, in the samples studied with prediagnosis of anaerobic infection, Bacteroides spp. (23%) were the most common bacteria followed by anaerobic Gram positive cocci (20.3%) and Clostridium spp (7.8%).

  1. Programming with Intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsakis, Nicholas D.; Gross, Thomas R.

    Intervals are a new, higher-level primitive for parallel programming with which programmers directly construct the program schedule. Programs using intervals can be statically analyzed to ensure that they do not deadlock or contain data races. In this paper, we demonstrate the flexibility of intervals by showing how to use them to emulate common parallel control-flow constructs like barriers and signals, as well as higher-level patterns such as bounded-buffer producer-consumer. We have implemented intervals as a publicly available library for Java and Scala.

  2. New perspectives in anaerobic digestion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, van J.B.; Tilche, A.; Ahring, B.K.; Macarie, H.; Moletta, R.; Dohanyos, M.; Hulshoff Pol, L.W.; Lens, P.N.L.; Verstraete, W.

    2001-01-01

    The IWA specialised group on anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the oldest working groups of the former IAWQ organisation. Despite the fact that anaerobic technology dates back more than 100 years, the technology is still under development, adapting novel treatment systems to the modern

  3. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  4. Anaerobic digestion of piggery waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velsen, van A.F.M.

    1981-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a biological process by which organic matter is converted to methane and carbon dioxide by microbes in the absence of air (oxygen). In nature, anaerobic conversions occur at all places where organic material accumulates and the supply of oxygen is deficient, e.g. in marshes

  5. Selected Topics in Anaerobic Bacteriology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Deirdre L

    2016-08-01

    Alteration in the host microbiome at skin and mucosal surfaces plays a role in the function of the immune system, and may predispose immunocompromised patients to infection. Because obligate anaerobes are the predominant type of bacteria present in humans at skin and mucosal surfaces, immunocompromised patients are at increased risk for serious invasive infection due to anaerobes. Laboratory approaches to the diagnosis of anaerobe infections that occur due to pyogenic, polymicrobial, or toxin-producing organisms are described. The clinical interpretation and limitations of anaerobe recovery from specimens, anaerobe-identification procedures, and antibiotic-susceptibility testing are outlined. Bacteriotherapy following analysis of disruption of the host microbiome has been effective for treatment of refractory or recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, and may become feasible for other conditions in the future.

  6. Anaerobic fungal populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookman, J.L.; Nicholson, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The development of molecular techniques has greatly broadened our view of microbial diversity and enabled a more complete detection and description of microbial communities. The application of these techniques provides a simple means of following community changes, for example, Ishii et al. described transient and more stable inhabitants in another dynamic microbial system, compost. Our present knowledge of anaerobic gut fungal population diversity within the gastrointestinal tract is based upon isolation, cultivation and observations in vivo. It is likely that there are many species yet to be described, some of which may be non-culturable. We have observed a distinct difference in the ease of cultivation between the different genera, for example, Caecomyes isolates are especially difficult to isolate and maintain in vitro, a feature that is likely to result in the under representation of this genera in culture-based enumerations. The anaerobic gut fungi are the only known obligately anaerobic fungi. For the majority of their life cycles, they are found tightly associated with solid digesta in the rumen and/or hindgut. They produce potent fibrolytic enzymes and grow invasively on and into the plant material they are digesting making them important contributors to fibre digestion. This close association with intestinal digesta has made it difficult to accurately determine the amount of fungal biomass present in the rumen, with Orpin suggesting 8% contribution to the total microbial biomass, whereas Rezaeian et al. more recently gave a value of approximately 20%. It is clear that the rumen microbial complement is affected by dietary changes, and that the fungi are more important in digestion in the rumens of animals fed with high-fibre diets. It seems likely that the gut fungi play an important role within the rumen as primary colonizers of plant fibre, and so we are particularly interested in being able to measure the appearance and diversity of fungi on the plant

  7. Arsenic, Anaerobes, and Autotrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, R. S.

    2008-12-01

    That microbes have resistance to the toxic arsenic oxyanions arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)] has been recognized for some time. More recently it was shown that certain prokaryotes can demonstrate As- dependent growth by conserving the energy gained from the aerobic oxidation of As(III) to As(V), or from the reduction of As(V) to As(III) under anaerobic conditions. During the course of our field studies of two alkaline, hypersaline soda lakes (Mono Lake and Searles Lake, CA) we have discovered several new anaerobic chemo- and photo-autotrophic bacteria that can center their energy gain around the redox reactions between As(III) and As(V). Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii, isolated from the water column of Mono Lake is a nitrate-respiring, As(III)-oxidizing chemoautotroph of the gamma-proteobacteria that has a highly flexible metabolism. It can function either as a facultative anaerobe or as a chemo-autotroph, or as a heterotroph (Hoeft et al., 2007). In contrast, strain MLMS-1 of the delta-proteobacteria was also isolated from Mono Lake, but to date is the first example of an obligate As(V)-respirer that is also an obligate chemo-autotroph, gaining its energy via the oxidation of sulfide to sulfate (Hoeft et al., 2004). Strain SLAS-1, isolated from salt-saturated Searles Lake is a member of the Halananerobiales, and can either grow as a heterotroph (lactate e-donor) or chemo- autotroph (sulfide e-donor) while respiring As(V). The fact that it can achieve this feat at salt-saturation (~ 340 g/L) makes it a true extremophile (Oremland et. al., 2005). Finally, strain PHS-1 isolated from a hot spring on Paoha island in Mono Lake is the first example of a photosynthetic bacterium of the gamma- proteobacteria able to link its growth to As(III)-dependent anoxygenic photosynthesis (Kulp et al., 2008). These novel microbes give us new insights into the evolution of arsenic-based metabolism and their role in the biogeochemical cycling of this toxic element. Hoeft, S.E., et

  8. Prognostic Value of Cardiac Time Intervals by Tissue Doppler Imaging M-Mode in Patients With Acute ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Treated With Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Mogelvang, Rasmus; Søgaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background- Color tissue Doppler imaging M-mode through the mitral leaflet is an easy and precise method to estimate all cardiac time intervals from 1 cardiac cycle and thereby obtain the myocardial performance index (MPI). However, the prognostic value of the cardiac time intervals and the MPI...... assessed by color tissue Doppler imaging M-mode through the mitral leaflet in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (MI) is unknown. Methods and Results- In total, 391 patients were admitted with an ST-segment-elevation MI, treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention...

  9. Aerobic vs anaerobic exercise training effects on the cardiovascular system

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Harsh; Alkhawam, Hassan; Madanieh, Raef; Shah, Niel; Kosmas, Constantine E; Vittorio, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    Physical exercise is one of the most effective methods to help prevent cardiovascular (CV) disease and to promote CV health. Aerobic and anaerobic exercises are two types of exercise that differ based on the intensity, interval and types of muscle fibers incorporated. In this article, we aim to further elaborate on these two categories of physical exercise and to help decipher which provides the most effective means of promoting CV health.

  10. Implementing Livestock Anaerobic Digestion Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page provides information to help make an informed decision about installing an anaerobic digester. Is it a good match for a farm’s organic waste, project financing, development guidelines and permit requirements?

  11. Anaerobic bacteria that dechlorinate perchloroethene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathepure, B Z; Nengu, J P; Boyd, S A

    1987-01-01

    In this study, we identified specific cultures of anaerobic bacteria that dechlorinate perchlorethene (PCE). The bacteria that significantly dechlorinated PCE were strain DCB-1, an obligate anaerobe previously shown to dechlorinate chlorobenzoate, and two strains of Methanosarcina. The rate of PCE dechlorination by DCB-1 compared favorably with reported rates of trichloroethene bio-oxidation by methanotrophs. Even higher PCE dechlorination rates were achieved when DCB-1 was grown in a methanogenic consortium. PMID:3426224

  12. PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI FARMASI FORMULASI DENGAN METODE ANAEROB-AEROB DAN ANAEROB-KOAGULASI

    OpenAIRE

    Farida Crisnaningtyas; Hanny Vistanty

    2016-01-01

    Studi ini membahas mengenai pengolahan limbah cair industri farmasi dalam skala laboratorium dengan menggunakan konsep anaerob-kimia-fisika dan anaerob-aerob. Proses anaerob dilakukan dengan menggunakan reaktor Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed reactor (UASBr) pada kisaran OLR (Organic Loading Rate) 0,5 – 2 kg COD/m3hari, yang didahului dengan proses aklimatisasi menggunakan substrat gula. Proses anaerob mampu memberikan efisiensi penurunan COD hingga 74%. Keluaran dari proses anaerob diolah lebih ...

  13. Overconfidence in Interval Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soll, Jack B.; Klayman, Joshua

    2004-01-01

    Judges were asked to make numerical estimates (e.g., "In what year was the first flight of a hot air balloon?"). Judges provided high and low estimates such that they were X% sure that the correct answer lay between them. They exhibited substantial overconfidence: The correct answer fell inside their intervals much less than X% of the time. This…

  14. Applications of interval computations

    CERN Document Server

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    1996-01-01

    Primary Audience for the Book • Specialists in numerical computations who are interested in algorithms with automatic result verification. • Engineers, scientists, and practitioners who desire results with automatic verification and who would therefore benefit from the experience of suc­ cessful applications. • Students in applied mathematics and computer science who want to learn these methods. Goal Of the Book This book contains surveys of applications of interval computations, i. e. , appli­ cations of numerical methods with automatic result verification, that were pre­ sented at an international workshop on the subject in EI Paso, Texas, February 23-25, 1995. The purpose of this book is to disseminate detailed and surveyed information about existing and potential applications of this new growing field. Brief Description of the Papers At the most fundamental level, interval arithmetic operations work with sets: The result of a single arithmetic operation is the set of all possible results as the o...

  15. Black-pigmented gram-negative anaerobes in endodontic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapasalo, M

    1993-03-01

    Necrotic dental root canal infections are polymicrobial infections dominated by anaerobic bacteria. The number of different species in one canal is usually low, approx. 4-7 species. The species isolated most frequently belong to the genera Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium, Peptostreptococcus, Eubacterium and Streptococcus. The frequency of isolation of black-pigmented Gram-negative anaerobes in endodontic infections varies from 25% to > 50%. Pr. intermedia is the most commonly found pigmented species, followed by Pr. denticola and two Porphyromonas species, P. gingivalis and P. endodontalis. Several studies have shown that P. gingivalis and P. endodontalis are closely related to the presence of acute symptoms in endodontic infections, whereas other black-pigmented Gram-negative anaerobes are not. However, several other species may also be involved in acute infections. Moreover, Porphyromonas species have occasionally been isolated from cases with no symptoms. Although Porphyromonas spp. are clearly related to symptoms at the beginning of therapy, they are not important for the prognosis of the treatment.

  16. Surveillance test interval optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepin, M.; Mavko, B.

    1995-01-01

    Technical specifications have been developed on the bases of deterministic analyses, engineering judgment, and expert opinion. This paper introduces our risk-based approach to surveillance test interval (STI) optimization. This approach consists of three main levels. The first level is the component level, which serves as a rough estimation of the optimal STI and can be calculated analytically by a differentiating equation for mean unavailability. The second and third levels give more representative results. They take into account the results of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) calculated by a personal computer (PC) based code and are based on system unavailability at the system level and on core damage frequency at the plant level

  17. Instrumentation in anaerobic treatment - research and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjers, H.; Lier, van J.B.

    2006-01-01

    High rate anaerobic treatment reactors are able to uncouple solids and liquid retention time, resulting in high biomass concentrations. Principal advantages of anaerobic treatment include: energy efficiency, low biomass yield, low nutrient requirement and high volumetric organic loadings. In order

  18. RISK FACTORS IN NEONATAL ANAEROBIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Tabib

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic bacteria are well known causes of sepsis in adults but there are few studies regarding their role in neonatal sepsis. In an attempt to define the incidence of neonatal anaerobic infections a prospective study was performed during one year period. A total number of 400 neonates under sepsis study were entered this investigation. Anaerobic as well as aerobic cultures were sent. The patients were subjected to comparison in two groups: anaerobic culture positive and anaerobic culture negative and this comparison were analyzed statistically. There were 7 neonates with positive anaerobic culture and 35 neonates with positive aerobic culture. A significant statistical relationship was found between anaerobic infections and abdominal distention and pneumonia. It is recommended for those neonates with abdominal distention and pneumonia refractory to antibiotic treatment to be started on antibiotics with anaerobic coverage.

  19. Chaos on the interval

    CERN Document Server

    Ruette, Sylvie

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this book is to survey the relations between the various kinds of chaos and related notions for continuous interval maps from a topological point of view. The papers on this topic are numerous and widely scattered in the literature; some of them are little known, difficult to find, or originally published in Russian, Ukrainian, or Chinese. Dynamical systems given by the iteration of a continuous map on an interval have been broadly studied because they are simple but nevertheless exhibit complex behaviors. They also allow numerical simulations, which enabled the discovery of some chaotic phenomena. Moreover, the "most interesting" part of some higher-dimensional systems can be of lower dimension, which allows, in some cases, boiling it down to systems in dimension one. Some of the more recent developments such as distributional chaos, the relation between entropy and Li-Yorke chaos, sequence entropy, and maps with infinitely many branches are presented in book form for the first time. The author gi...

  20. Molecular genetic studies on obligate anaerobic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    Molecular genetic studies on obligate anaerobic bacteria have lagged behind similar studies in aerobes. However, the current interest in biotechnology, the involvement of anaerobes in disease and the emergence of antibioticresistant strains have focused attention on the genetics of anaerobes. This article reviews molecular genetic studies in Bacteroides spp., Clostridium spp. and methanogens. Certain genetic systems in some anaerobes differ from those in aerobes and illustrate the genetic diversity among bacteria

  1. Arsenic, Anaerobes, and Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, J. F.; Oremland, R. S.; Switzer Blum, J.; Hoeft, S. E.; Baesman, S. M.; Bennett, S.; Miller, L. G.; Kulp, T. R.; Saltikov, C.

    2013-12-01

    Arsenic is an element best known for its highly poisonous nature, so it is not something one would associate with being a well-spring for life. Yet discoveries made over the past two decades have delineated that not only are some microbes resistant to arsenic, but that this element's primary redox states can be exploited to conserve energy and support prokaryotic growth ('arsenotrophy') in the absence of oxygen. Hence, arsenite [As(III)] can serve as an electron donor for chemo- or photo-autotrophy while arsenate [As(V)] will serve as an electron acceptor for chemo-heterotrophs and chemo-autotrophs. The phylogenetic diversity of these microbes is broad, encompassing many individual species from diverse taxonomic groups in the Domain Bacteria, with fewer representatives in the Domain Archaea. Speculation with regard to the evolutionary origins of the key functional genes in anaerobic arsenic transformations (arrA and arxA) and aerobic oxidation (aioB) has led to a disputation as to which gene and function is the most ancient and whether arsenic metabolism extended back into the Archaean. Regardless of its origin, robust arsenic metabolism has been documented in extreme environments that are rich in their arsenic content, such as hot springs and especially hypersaline soda lakes associated with volcanic regions. Searles Lake, CA is an extreme, salt-saturated end member where vigorous arsenic metabolism occurs, but there is no detectable sulfate-reduction or methanogenesis. The latter processes are too weak bio-energetically to survive as compared with arsenotrophy, and are also highly sensitive to the abundance of borate ions present in these locales. These observations have implications with respect to the search for microbial life elsewhere in the Solar System where volcanic-like processes have been operative. Hence, because of the likelihood of encountering dense brines in the regolith of Mars (formed by evapo-concentration) or beneath the ice layers of Europa

  2. Kinetics and modeling of anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion modeling started in the early 1970s when the need for design and efficient operation of anaerobic systems became evident. At that time not only was the knowledge about the complex process of anaerobic digestion inadequate but also there were computational limitations. Thus...

  3. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber. (a) Identification. An anaerobic chamber is a device intended for medical purposes to maintain an anaerobic (oxygen...

  4. Viscosity evolution of anaerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pevere, A.; Guibaud, G.; Hullebusch, van E.D.; Lens, P.N.L.; Baudu, M.

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of the apparent viscosity at steady shear rate of sieved anaerobic granular sludge (20¿315 ¿m diameter) sampled from different full-scale anaerobic reactors was recorded using rotation tests. The ¿limit viscosity¿ of sieved anaerobic granular sludge was determined from the apparent

  5. The phenomenon of granulation of anaerobic sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshoff Pol, L.

    1989-01-01

    Successful high-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment can only be accomplished when the slowgrowing anaerobic biomass is efficiently held back in the anaerobic treatment system. This biomass retention can be achieved in various ways including immobilization of the organisms on fixed materials

  6. [Case of interval form of carbon monoxide poisoning without increased carboxyhemoglobin level diagnosed by characteristic MR spectroscopy findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisawa, Tomoko; Ikawa, Masamichi; Hamano, Tadanori; Nagata, Miwako; Kimura, Hirohiko; Yoneda, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    A 67-year-old man living alone was admitted for acute disturbance of consciousness during winter. He presented with semicoma, a decorticate posture, and exaggerated tendon reflexes of the limbs, but brainstem reflexes were intact. The carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) level was normal in arterial blood gas on admission, and protein in cerebrospinal fluid was increased without pleocytosis. Brain MRI showed diffuse T2 high intensities in the deep white matter bilaterally without a contrast effect and abnormal T1 intensity in the pallidum. (1)H-MR spectroscopy (MRS) of the white matter lesion demonstrated findings suggesting demyelination as an increased choline peak, enhanced anaerobic metabolism as increased lactate and lipids peaks, and reduced neurons as a decreased N-acetylaspartate peak, which corresponded to delayed encephalopathy due to the interval form of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. The possibility of CO exposure due to coal briquette use 2 weeks before the symptomatic onset was indicated by his family, so he was diagnosed with CO poisoning. His consciousness slightly improved with corticosteroid therapy and repetitive hyperbaric oxygen therapy, but brain MRI and MRS findings did not improve. Characteristic MRS findings of leukoencephalopathy are helpful for diagnosing the interval form of CO poisoning in the case of a normal COHb level.

  7. Interval methods: An introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achenie, L.E.K.; Kreinovich, V.; Madsen, Kaj

    2006-01-01

    This chapter contains selected papers presented at the Minisymposium on Interval Methods of the PARA'04 Workshop '' State-of-the-Art in Scientific Computing ''. The emphasis of the workshop was on high-performance computing (HPC). The ongoing development of ever more advanced computers provides...... the potential for solving increasingly difficult computational problems. However, given the complexity of modern computer architectures, the task of realizing this potential needs careful attention. A main concern of HPC is the development of software that optimizes the performance of a given computer....... An important characteristic of the computer performance in scientific computing is the accuracy of the Computation results. Often, we can estimate this accuracy by using traditional statistical techniques. However, in many practical situations, we do not know the probability distributions of different...

  8. Multichannel interval timer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turko, B.T.

    1983-10-01

    A CAMAC based modular multichannel interval timer is described. The timer comprises twelve high resolution time digitizers with a common start enabling twelve independent stop inputs. Ten time ranges from 2.5 μs to 1.3 μs can be preset. Time can be read out in twelve 24-bit words either via CAMAC Crate Controller or an external FIFO register. LSB time calibration is 78.125 ps. An additional word reads out the operational status of twelve stop channels. The system consists of two modules. The analog module contains a reference clock and 13 analog time stretchers. The digital module contains counters, logic and interface circuits. The timer has an excellent differential linearity, thermal stability and crosstalk free performance

  9. Experimenting with musical intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presto, Michael C.

    2003-07-01

    When two tuning forks of different frequency are sounded simultaneously the result is a complex wave with a repetition frequency that is the fundamental of the harmonic series to which both frequencies belong. The ear perceives this 'musical interval' as a single musical pitch with a sound quality produced by the harmonic spectrum responsible for the waveform. This waveform can be captured and displayed with data collection hardware and software. The fundamental frequency can then be calculated and compared with what would be expected from the frequencies of the tuning forks. Also, graphing software can be used to determine equations for the waveforms and predict their shapes. This experiment could be used in an introductory physics or musical acoustics course as a practical lesson in superposition of waves, basic Fourier series and the relationship between some of the ear's subjective perceptions of sound and the physical properties of the waves that cause them.

  10. Oxygen Effects in Anaerobic Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshai Botheju

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of free oxygen in bio-gasification is a sparsely studied area, apart from the common argument of oxygen being toxic and inhibitory for anaerobic micro-cultures. Some studies have, however, revealed increased solubilisation of organic matter in the presence of some free oxygen in anaerobic digestion. This article analyses these counterbalancing phenomena with a mathematical modelling approach using the widely accepted biochemical model ADM 1. Aerobic oxidation of soluble carbon and inhibition of obligatory anaerobic organisms are modelled using standard saturation type kinetics. Biomass dependent first order hydrolysis kinetics is used to relate the increased hydrolysis rate with oxygen induced increase in biomass growth. The amended model, ADM 1-Ox (oxygen, has 25 state variables and 22 biochemical processes, presented in matrix form. The computer aided simulation tool AQUASIM 2.1 is used to simulate the developed model. Simulation predictions are evaluated against experimental data obtained using a laboratory batch test array comprising miniature anaerobic bio-reactors of 100 ml total volume each, operated under different initial air headspaces giving rise to the different oxygen loading conditions. The reactors were initially fed with a glucose solution and incubated at 35 Celsius, for 563 hours. Under the oxygen load conditions of 22, 44 and 88 mg/L, the ADM1-Ox model simulations predicted the experimental methane potentials quite adequately. Both the experimental data and the simulations suggest a linear reduction of methane potential with respect to the increase in oxygen load within this range.

  11. Anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2003-01-01

    by the immobilization of the biomass, which forms static biofilms, particle-supported biofilms, or granules depending on the reactor's operational conditions. The advantages of the high-rate anaerobic digestion over the conventional aerobic wastewater treatment methods has created a clear trend for the change......-rate anaerobic treatment systems based on anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm are described in this chapter. Emphasis is given to a) the Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) systems, b) the main characteristics of the anaerobic granular sludge, and c) the factors that control the granulation process...

  12. Inhibition of Anaerobic Biological Treatment: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Li; Ji, Dandan; Zang, Lihua

    2018-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a method for treating living and industrial wastewater by anaerobic degradation of organic compounds, which can produce biogas (carbon dioxide and methane mixture) and microbial biomass. And biogas as a renewable resource, can replace the use of ore fuel. In the process of anaerobic digestion, the problems of low methane yield and unstable reaction process are often encountered, which limits the widespread use of this technology. Various inhibitors are the main limiting factors for anaerobic digestion. In this paper, the main factors limiting anaerobic digestion are reviewed, and the latest research progress is introduced.

  13. Anaerobic bacteria as producers of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnken, Swantje; Hertweck, Christian

    2012-10-01

    Anaerobic bacteria are the oldest terrestrial creatures. They occur ubiquitously in soil and in the intestine of higher organisms and play a major role in human health, ecology, and industry. However, until lately no antibiotic or any other secondary metabolite has been known from anaerobes. Mining the genome sequences of Clostridium spp. has revealed a high prevalence of putative biosynthesis genes (PKS and NRPS), and only recently the first antibiotic from the anaerobic world, closthioamide, has been isolated from the cellulose degrading bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum. The successful genetic induction of antibiotic biosynthesis in an anaerobe encourages further investigations of obligate anaerobes to tap their hidden biosynthetic potential.

  14. [Current clinical significance of anaerobic bacteremia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirsa, Roman; Marešová, Veronika; Brož, Zdeněk

    2010-10-01

    to estimate tje current clinical significance of anaerobic bacteremia in a group of Czech hospitals. this retrospective analysis comprised 8 444 anaerobic blood cultures in patients admitted to four Czech hospitals between 2004 and 2007. in 16 patients, blood cultures yielded significant anaerobic bacteria. Thus, anaerobic bacteremia accounted for less than 2 % of clinically significant bacteremia. Four patients (18 %) died but none of the deaths could be clearly attributable to anaerobic bacteria in the bloodstream. The most common comorbidities predisposing to anaerobic bacteremia and the most frequent sources of infection were similar to those reported by other authors. The majority of anaerobic bacteremia cases were due to gram-negative bacteria, followed by Clostridium perfringens and, surprisingly, Eubacterium spp. (particularly Eubacterium lentum). anaerobic bacteremia remains rare. The comparison of our data with those by other authors suggests that (despite the reported high mortality) the actual clinical significance of anaerobic bacteremia is rather controversial and that the anaerobic bacteremia might not correspond to more serious pathogenic role of the anaerobic bacteria as the source of infection.

  15. Spatial variability of anaerobic processes and wastewater pH in force mains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudelle, Elise Alice; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2016-01-01

    The present study focuses on anaerobic organic matter transformation processes in force mains for the purpose of improving existing sewer process models. Wastewater samples were obtained at 100 m intervals from a 1 km long pilot scale force main and measured for several wastewater parameters. Tra...

  16. Establishing a Practical Treadmill Sprint as an Alternative to the Wingate Anaerobic Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKie, Greg L.; Islam, Hashim; Townsend, Logan K.; Howe, Greg J.; Hazell, Tom J.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the validity and reliability of a 30-second running sprint test using two non-motorized treadmills compared to the established Wingate Anaerobic Test. Twenty-four participants completed three sessions in a randomized order on a: (1) manual mode treadmill (Woodway); (2) specialized interval training treadmill (HiTrainer); and…

  17. Aerobic and anaerobic metabolism for the zebrafish, Danio rerio, reared under normoxic and hypoxic conditions and exposed to acute hypoxia during development Metabolismo aeróbico e anaeróbico do paulistinha Danio rerio, mantidos sob normóxia e hipóxia moderada e expostos a hipóxia aguda durante diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WR Barrionuevo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to verify the influence of chronic and acute ambient oxygen levels from egg to adult stage of the zebrafish, in vivo oxygen consumption (MO2, critical tensions of oxygen (Pcrit, heart rate (fH and total body lactate concentration (Lc were determined for Danio rerio (Hamilton, 1822 raised at 28 °C under normoxic (7.5 mgO2.L-1 or 80 mm.Hg-1 and hypoxic conditions (4.3 mgO2.L-1 and exposed to acute hypoxia during different developmental stages. Our findings confirmed that very early stages do not respond effectively to ambient acute hypoxia. However, after the stage corresponding to the age of 30 days, D. rerio was able to respond to acute hypoxia through effective physiological mechanisms involving aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. Such responses were more efficient for the fishes reared under hypoxia which showed that D. rerio survival capability increased during acclimation to mild hypoxia. Measurements of body mass and length showed that moderate hypoxia did not affect growth significantly until the fish reached the stage of 60 days. Moreover, a growth delay was verified for the hypoxic-reared animals. Also, the D. rerio eggs-to-larvae survival varied from 87.7 to 62.4% in animals reared under normoxia and mild hypoxia, respectively. However, the surviving animals raised under moderated hypoxia showed a better aptitude to regulate aerobic and anaerobic capacities when exposed to acute hypoxia.A influência de diferentes níveis de oxigênio no desenvolvimento (ovos a adulto do peixe paulistinha Danio rerio (Hamilton, 1822 foi verificada por meio de medidas experimentais de consumo de oxigênio (MO2, tensões críticas de oxigênio (Pcrit, taxa de batimentos cardíacos (fH e concentração total de lactato nos tecidos (Lc, para os animais mantidos a 28 ºC sob níveis normóxicos de oxigênio (7.5 mgO2.L-1 ou 80 mmHg e hipóxicos (4.3 mgO2.L-1 e submetidos a hipóxia ambiental aguda, em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento. Os

  18. The utility of anaerobic blood culture in detecting facultative anaerobic bacteremia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Kensuke; Komuro, Hisako; Watanabe, Yasushi; Miyairi, Isao

    2013-08-01

    Routine anaerobic blood culture is not recommended in children because obligate anaerobic bacteremia is rare in the pediatric population. However, a number of facultative anaerobic bacteria can cause community and hospital acquired infections in children and the utility of anaerobic blood culture for detection of these organisms is still unclear. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all blood culture samples (n = 24,356) at a children's hospital in Japan from October 2009 to June 2012. Among the samples that had paired aerobic and anaerobic blood cultures, 717 samples were considered clinically significant with 418 (58%) organisms detected from both aerobic and anaerobic cultures, 167 (23%) detected only from aerobic culture and 132 (18%) detected only from anaerobic culture. While most facultative anaerobes were detectable by aerobic culture, over 25% of Enterobacteriaceae and 15% of Staphylococcus sp. were detected from anaerobic cultures bottles only, suggesting its potential role in selected settings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Anaerobic bacteria in upper respiratory tract and head and neck infections: microbiology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Itzhak

    2012-04-01

    Anaerobes are the predominant components of oropharyngeal mucous membranes bacterial flora, and are therefore a common cause of bacterial infections of endogenous origin of upper respiratory tract and head and neck. This review summarizes the aerobic and anaerobic microbiology and antimicrobials therapy of these infections. These include acute and chronic otitis media, mastoiditis and sinusitis, pharyngo-tonsillitis, peritonsillar, retropharyngeal and parapharyngeal abscesses, suppurative thyroiditis, cervical lymphadenitis, parotitis, siliadenitis, and deep neck infections including Lemierre Syndrome. The recovery from these infections depends on prompt and proper medical and when indicated also surgical management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical features of anaerobic orthopaedic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowitz, Dan; Kressmann, Benjamin; Gjoni, Shpresa; Zenelaj, Besa; Grosgurin, Olivier; Marti, Christophe; Zingg, Matthieu; Uçkay, Ilker

    2017-02-01

    Some patient populations and types of orthopaedic surgery could be at particular risk for anaerobic infections. In this retrospective cohort study of operated adult patients with infections from 2004 to 2014, we assessed obligate anaerobes and considered first clinical infection episodes. Anaerobes, isolated from intra-operative samples, were identified in 2.4% of 2740 surgical procedures, of which half (33/65; 51%) were anaerobic monomicrobial infections. Propionibacterium acnes, a penicillin and vancomycin susceptible pathogen, was the predominantly isolated anaerobe. By multivariate analysis, the presence of fracture fixation plates was the variable most strongly associated with anaerobic infection (odds ratio: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.5). Anaerobes were also associated with spondylodesis and polymicrobial infections. In contrast, it revealed less likely in native bone or prosthetic joint infections and was not related to prior antibiotic use. In conclusion, obligate anaerobes in our case series of orthopaedic infections were rare, and mostly encountered in infections related to trauma with open-fracture fixation devices rather than clean surgical site infection. Anaerobes were often co-pathogens, and cultures most frequently recovered P. acnes. These observations thus do not support changes in current practices such as broader anaerobe coverage for perioperative prophylaxis.

  1. Anaerobic digestion of solid material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vavilin, V.A.; Lokshina, L.Y.; Flotats, X.

    2007-01-01

    A new multidimensional (3 and 2D) anaerobic digestion model for cylindrical reactor with non-uniform influent concentration distributions was developed to study the way in which mixing intensity affects the efficiency of continuous-flow anaerobic digestion. Batch experiments reported and simulated...... earlier by Vavilin and Angelidaki (2005) were used to modernize a kinetic scheme and to obtain the corresponding kinetic coefficients. In the new models, hydrolytic microorganisms were included using Contois kinetics for the hydrolysis/acidogenesis degradation of municipal solid waste (MSW). Monod...... kinetics was applied for description of methanogenesis. Both hydrolytic and methanogenic microorganisms were assumed to be inhibited by high volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration. According to the new distributed models, the mixing level reduction expressed by increasing dimensionless Peclet number may...

  2. Anaerobic thermophilic culture-system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljungdahl, L G; Wiegel, J K.W.

    1981-04-14

    A mixed culture system of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus and Clostridium thermocellum is employed for anaerobic, thermophilic ethanol fermentation of cellulose. By cellulase action, monosaccharides are formed which inhibit the growth of C. thermocellum, but are fermented by T. ethanolicus. Thus, at a regulated pH-value of 7.5, this mixed culture system of micro organisms results in a cellulose fermentation with a considerably higher ethanol yield.

  3. Endocarditis caused by anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestler, M; Muñoz, P; Marín, M; Goenaga, M A; Idígoras Viedma, P; de Alarcón, A; Lepe, J A; Sousa Regueiro, D; Bravo-Ferrer, J M; Pajarón, M; Costas, C; García-López, M V; Hidalgo-Tenorio, C; Moreno, M; Bouza, E

    2017-10-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) caused by anaerobic bacteria is a rare and poorly characterized disease. Most data reported in the literature are from case reports [1-3]. Therefore, we assessed the situation of anaerobic IE (AIE) in Spain using the database of the Spanish Collaboration on Endocarditis (GAMES). We performed a prospective study from 2008 to 2016 in 26 Spanish centers. We included 2491 consecutive cases of definite IE (Duke criteria). Anaerobic bacteria caused 22 cases (0.9%) of definite IE. Median age was 66 years (IQR, 56-73), and 19 (86.4%) patients were men. Most patients (14 [63.6%]) had prosthetic valve IE and all episodes were left-sided: aortic valves, 12 (54.5%); and mitral valves, 8 (36.4%). The most common pathogens were Propionibacterium acnes (14 [63.6%]), Lactobacillus spp (3 [13.63%]), and Clostridium spp. (2 [9.0%]), and the infection was mainly odontogenic. Fifteen of the 22 patients (68.2%) underwent cardiac surgery. Mortality was 18.2% during admission and 5.5% after 1 year of follow-up. When patients with AIE were compared with the rest of the cohort, we found that although those with AIE had a similar age and Charlson comorbidity index, they were more likely to have community-acquired IE (86.4% vs. 60.9%, p = 0.01), have undergone cardiac surgery (68.2% vs 48.7% p = 0.06), and have had lower mortality rates during admission (18.2% vs. 27.3%). IE due to anaerobic bacteria is an uncommon disease that affects mainly prosthetic valves and frequently requires surgery. Otherwise, there are no major differences between AIE and IE caused by other microorganisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Anaerobic reductive dehalogenation of polychlorinated dioxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunge, Michael [Aarhus Univ. (DK). Dept. of Biological Sciences, Microbiology, and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Centre (iNANO); Lechner, Ute [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Inst. of Biology/Microbiology

    2009-09-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs) are among the most harmful environmental contaminants. Their widespread distribution due to unintentional or unknown release coincides with environmental persistence, acute and chronic toxicity to living organisms, and long-term effects due to the compounds' tendency for bioaccumulation and biomagnification. While microbial aerobic degradation of PCDD/Fs is mainly reported for the turnover of low chlorinated congeners, this review focuses on anaerobic reductive dehalogenation, which may constitute a potential remediation strategy for polychlorinated compounds in soils and sediments. Microorganisms in sediments and in microcosms or enrichment cultures have been shown to be involved in the reductive dechlorination of dioxins. Bacteria related to the genus Dehalococcoides are capable of the reductive transformation of dioxins leading to lower chlorinated dioxins including di- and monochlorinated congeners. Thus, reductive dehalogenation might be one of the very few mechanisms able to mediate the turnover of polychlorinated dioxins by reducing their toxicity and paving the way for a subsequent breakdown of the carbon skeleton. (orig.)

  5. Simple and convenient method for culturing anaerobic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Behbehani, M J; Jordan, H V; Santoro, D L

    1982-01-01

    A simple and convenient method for culturing anaerobic bacteria is described. Cultures can be grown in commercially available flasks normally used for preparation of sterile external solutions. A special disposable rubber flask closure maintains anaerobic conditions in the flask after autoclaving. Growth of a variety of anaerobic oral bacteria was comparable to that obtained after anaerobic incubation of broth cultures in Brewer Anaerobic Jars.

  6. Application of dynamic membranes in anaerobic membranes in anaerobic membrane bioreactor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erşahin, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) physically ensure biomass retention by the application of a membrane filtration process. With growing application experiences from aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs), the combination of membrane and anaerobic processes has received much attention and become

  7. Molecular ecology of anaerobic reactor systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofman-Bang, H. Jacob Peider; Zheng, D.; Westermann, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic reactor systems are essential for the treatment of solid and liquid wastes and constitute a core facility in many waste treatment plants. Although much is known about the basic metabolism in different types of anaerobic reactors, little is known about the microbes responsible for these ......Anaerobic reactor systems are essential for the treatment of solid and liquid wastes and constitute a core facility in many waste treatment plants. Although much is known about the basic metabolism in different types of anaerobic reactors, little is known about the microbes responsible...... to the abundance of each microbe in anaerobic reactor systems by rRNA probing. This chapter focuses on various molecular techniques employed and problems encountered when elucidating the microbial ecology of anaerobic reactor systems. Methods such as quantitative dot blot/fluorescence in-situ probing using various...

  8. Potential for anaerobic conversion of xenobiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Anders Skibsted; Dolfing, J.; Haagensen, Frank

    2003-01-01

    This review covers the latest research on the anaerobic biodegradation of aromatic xenobiotic compounds, with emphasis on surfactants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalate esters, polychlorinated biphenyls, halogenated phenols, and pesticides. The versatility of anaerobic reactor systems...... regarding the treatment of xenobiotics is shown with the focus on the UASB reactor, but the applicability of other reactor designs for treatment of hazardous waste is also included. Bioaugmentation has proved to be a viable technique to enhance a specific activity in anaerobic reactors and recent research...

  9. Simulation of anaerobic digestion processes using stochastic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanichamy, Jegathambal; Palani, Sundarambal

    2014-01-01

    The Anaerobic Digestion (AD) processes involve numerous complex biological and chemical reactions occurring simultaneously. Appropriate and efficient models are to be developed for simulation of anaerobic digestion systems. Although several models have been developed, mostly they suffer from lack of knowledge on constants, complexity and weak generalization. The basis of the deterministic approach for modelling the physico and bio-chemical reactions occurring in the AD system is the law of mass action, which gives the simple relationship between the reaction rates and the species concentrations. The assumptions made in the deterministic models are not hold true for the reactions involving chemical species of low concentration. The stochastic behaviour of the physicochemical processes can be modeled at mesoscopic level by application of the stochastic algorithms. In this paper a stochastic algorithm (Gillespie Tau Leap Method) developed in MATLAB was applied to predict the concentration of glucose, acids and methane formation at different time intervals. By this the performance of the digester system can be controlled. The processes given by ADM1 (Anaerobic Digestion Model 1) were taken for verification of the model. The proposed model was verified by comparing the results of Gillespie's algorithms with the deterministic solution for conversion of glucose into methane through degraders. At higher value of 'τ' (timestep), the computational time required for reaching the steady state is more since the number of chosen reactions is less. When the simulation time step is reduced, the results are similar to ODE solver. It was concluded that the stochastic algorithm is a suitable approach for the simulation of complex anaerobic digestion processes. The accuracy of the results depends on the optimum selection of tau value.

  10. Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

    1991-06-01

    This study seeks to determine numbers, diversity, and morphology of anaerobic microorganisms in 15 samples of subsurface material from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in 18 samples from the Hanford Reservation and in 1 rock sample from the Nevada Test Site; set up long term experiments on the chemical activities of anaerobic microorganisms based on these same samples; work to improve methods for the micro-scale determination of in situ anaerobic microbial activity;and to begin to isolate anaerobes from these samples into axenic culture with identification of the axenic isolates.

  11. [Diagnosis and treatment of suppurative processes caused by non-clostridial anaerobic microflora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofanesian, S S

    1989-06-01

    One hundred and fifty patients suffering from various purulent diseases (60 persons) and postoperative purulent complications (90 persons) caused by nonclostridial anaerobes were examined. Nonclostridial anaerobic bacteria were isolated most frequently in acute mastitis, paraproctitis, and postinfectious abscesses among patients of the first group and after appendectomy and resection of the large intestine among those of the second group. The character of the wound discharge, the location of the focus of infection, the tendency of the purulent process to form a great number of cavities and fistules, bacterioscopy of the native material, etc. help in establishing the diagnosis (before the results of bacteriological tests are obtained). Purulent processes caused by a combination of anaerobic cocci and aerobic flora take a particularly unfavourable course. Antibiotic therapy should consists of high doses of one or two antibiotics combined with metronidazole and nystatin.

  12. High-intensity interval training and athletic performance in Taekwondo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, Lynne; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae; Jung, Hyun C; Song, Jong K

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on athletic performance in Taekwondo athletes. Thirty-three male and female collegiate Taekwondo athletes were randomly divided into a HIIT group (N.=16) or a high-intensity continuous running (HICR) group (N.=17). The HIIT group undertook training of high-intensity sprints interspersed with active rest periods whilst the HICR group participated in high-intensity running for a continuous period. Both groups completed 11 sessions over 4 weeks. Physique, body composition, Wingate anaerobic test and VO2max test were measured. The vertical jump test, agility T-test and sit-ups were used to assess physical fitness. Repeated measures ANCOVAs with sex as a covariate were applied and significant level was set at 0.05. Following 11 sessions of training, significant improvements in anaerobic peak power (Ptraining, specifically the influence of training intensity on anaerobic capacity.

  13. ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF A BIODEGRADABLE MATERIAL UNDER ANAEROBIC - THERMOPHILIC DIGESTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO CAMACHO-MUÑOZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper dertermined the anaerobic biodegradation of a polymer obtained by extrusion process of native cassava starch, polylactic acid and polycaprolactone. Initially a thermophilic - methanogenic inoculum was prepared from urban solid waste. The gas final methane concentration and medium’s pH reached values of 59,6% and 7,89 respectively. The assay assembly was carried out according ASTM D5511 standard. The biodegradation percent of used materials after 15 day of digestion were: 77,49%, 61,27%, 0,31% for cellulose, sample and polyethylene respectively. Due cellulose showed biodegradation levels higher than 70% it’s deduced that the inoculum conditions were appropriate. A biodegradation level of 61,27%, 59,35% of methane concentration in sample’s evolved gas and a medium’s finale pH of 7,71 in sample’s vessels, reveal the extruded polymer´s capacity to be anaerobically degraded under thermophilic- high solid concentration conditions.

  14. Size-dependent antibacterial activities of silver nanoparticles against oral anaerobic pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhong; Rong, Kaifeng; Li, Ju; Yang, Hao; Chen, Rong

    2013-06-01

    Dental caries and periodontal disease are widespread diseases for which microorganism infections have been identified as the main etiology. Silver nanoparticles (Ag Nps) were considered as potential control oral bacteria infection agent due to its excellent antimicrobial activity and non acute toxic effects on human cells. In this work, stable Ag Nps with different sizes (~5, 15 and 55 nm mean values) were synthesized by using a simple reduction method or hydrothermal method. The Nps were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The antibacterial activities were evaluated by colony counting assay and growth inhibition curve method, and corresponding minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against five anaerobic oral pathogenic bacteria and aerobic bacteria E. coli were determined. The results showed that Ag Nps had apparent antibacterial effects against the anaerobic oral pathogenic bacteria and aerobic bacteria. The MIC values of 5-nm Ag against anaerobic oral pathogenic bacteria A. actinomycetemcomitans, F. nuceatum, S. mitis, S. mutans and S. sanguis were 25, 25, 25, 50 and 50 μg/mL, respectively. The aerobic bacteria were more susceptible to Ag NPs than the anaerobic oral pathogenic bacteria. In the mean time, Ag NPs displayed an obvious size-dependent antibacterial activity against the anaerobic bacteria. The 5-nm Ag presents the highest antibacterial activity. The results of this work indicated a potential application of Ag Nps in the inhibition of oral microorganism infections.

  15. Anaerobic treatment of cellulose bleach plant wastewater: chlorinated organics and genotoxicity removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Chaparro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the removal efficiency of organic matter and how it relates to the decrease of toxic and mutagenic effects when an anaerobic reactor is used to treat the bleaching effluent from two kraft pulp mills. Parameters such as COD (chemical oxygen demand, DOC (dissolved organic carbon, AOX (adsorbable organic halogen, ASL (acid soluble lignin, color, chlorides, total phenols and absorbance values in the UV-VIS spectral region were measured. The acute and chronic toxicity and genetic toxicity assessments were performed with Daphnia similis, Ceriodaphnia sp. and Allium cepa L, respectively. The removal efficiency of organic matter measured as COD, ranged from 45% to 55%, while AOX removal ranged from 40% to 45%. The acute toxic and chronic effects, as well as the cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects, decrease as the biodegradable fraction of the organics is removed. These results, together with the organic load measurement of the effluents of the anaerobic treatment, indicate that these effluents are recalcitrant but not toxic. As expected, color increased when the anaerobic treatment was applied. However, the colored compounds are of microbial origin and do not cause an increase in genotoxic effects. To discharge the wastewater, it is necessary to apply a physico-chemical or aerobic biological post-treatment to the effluents of the anaerobic reactor.

  16. Method for anaerobic fermentation and biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for biomass processing, anaerobic fermentation of the processed biomass, and the production biogas. In particular, the invention relates to a system and method for generating biogas from anaerobic fermentation of processed organic material that comprises...

  17. Integrated anaerobic and aerobic treatment of sewage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, K.

    1994-01-01

    This thesis describes results of investigations dealing with sequential concept of anaerobic-aerobic treatment of municipal wastewater. The main purposes of the study were 1) to develop a proper anaerobic hydrolytic pretreatment unit, consisting of a Hydrolysis Upflow Sludge Bed (HUSB-)

  18. Anaerobic exercise - Induced changes in serum mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaerobic exercise, a non 02 – dependent energy metabolism leads to transient metabolic changes, which are corrected gradually by homestatic mechanism. We investigated in eight male subjects, the effects of anaerobic exercise after a day sedentary activity on serum mineral concentration. There was significant ...

  19. Drug Targets and Mechanisms of Resistance in the Anaerobic Protozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upcroft, Peter; Upcroft, Jacqueline A.

    2001-01-01

    The anaerobic protozoa Giardia duodenalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Entamoeba histolytica infect up to a billion people each year. G. duodenalis and E. histolytica are primarily pathogens of the intestinal tract, although E. histolytica can form abscesses and invade other organs, where it can be fatal if left untreated. T. vaginalis infection is a sexually transmitted infection causing vaginitis and acute inflammatory disease of the genital mucosa. T. vaginalis has also been reported in the urinary tract, fallopian tubes, and pelvis and can cause pneumonia, bronchitis, and oral lesions. Respiratory infections can be acquired perinatally. T. vaginalis infections have been associated with preterm delivery, low birth weight, and increased mortality as well as predisposing to human immunodeficiency virus infection, AIDS, and cervical cancer. All three organisms lack mitochondria and are susceptible to the nitroimidazole metronidazole because of similar low-redox-potential anaerobic metabolic pathways. Resistance to metronidazole and other drugs has been observed clinically and in the laboratory. Laboratory studies have identified the enzyme that activates metronidazole, pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, to its nitroso form and distinct mechanisms of decreasing drug susceptibility that are induced in each organism. Although the nitroimidazoles have been the drug family of choice for treating the anaerobic protozoa, G. duodenalis is less susceptible to other antiparasitic drugs, such as furazolidone, albendazole, and quinacrine. Resistance has been demonstrated for each agent, and the mechanism of resistance has been investigated. Metronidazole resistance in T. vaginalis is well documented, and the principal mechanisms have been defined. Bypass metabolism, such as alternative oxidoreductases, have been discovered in both organisms. Aerobic versus anaerobic resistance in T. vaginalis is discussed. Mechanisms of metronidazole resistance in E. histolytica have recently

  20. Longer Work/Rest Intervals During High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) Lead to Elevated Levels of miR-222 and miR-29c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Boris; Rolfes, Florian; Schelleckes, Katrin; Mewes, Mirja; Thorwesten, Lothar; Krüger, Michael; Klose, Andreas; Brand, Stefan-Martin

    2018-01-01

    Aim: MicroRNA-222 (miR-222) and miR-29c have been identified as important modulators of cardiac growth and may protect against pathological cardiac remodeling. miR-222 and -29c may thus serve as functional biomarkers for exercise-induced cardiac adaptations. This investigation compared the effect of two workload-matched high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols with different recovery periods on miR-222 and -29c levels. Methods: Sixty-three moderately trained females and males (22.0 ± 1.7 years) fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were randomized into two HIIT groups using sex and exercise capacity. During a controlled 4-week intervention (two sessions/week) a 4 × 30 HIIT group performed 4 × 30 s runs (all-out, 30 s active recovery) and a 8 × 15 HIIT group performed 8 × 15 s runs (all-out, 15 s active recovery). miR-222 and -29c as well as transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) mRNA levels were determined during high-intensity running as well as aerobic exercise using capillary blood from earlobes. Performance parameters were assessed using an incremental continuous running test (ICRT) protocol with blood lactate diagnostic and heart rate (HR) monitoring to determine HR recovery and power output at individual anaerobic threshold (IAT). Results: At baseline, acute exercise miR-222 and -29c levels were increased only in the 4 × 30 HIIT group (both p HIIT group (p HIIT group again no acute effect was observed. However, both HIIT interventions resulted in elevated resting miR-222 and -29c levels (all p 24% in both HIIT groups (both p ≤ 0.0002) speed at IAT was improved by 3.6% only in the 4 × 30 HIIT group (p HIIT can induce increased circulating levels of cardiac growth-associated miR-222 and -29c. miR-222 and miR-29c could be useful markers to monitor HIIT response in general and to identify optimal work/rest combinations. PMID:29719514

  1. Longer Work/Rest Intervals During High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) Lead to Elevated Levels of miR-222 and miR-29c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Boris; Rolfes, Florian; Schelleckes, Katrin; Mewes, Mirja; Thorwesten, Lothar; Krüger, Michael; Klose, Andreas; Brand, Stefan-Martin

    2018-01-01

    Aim: MicroRNA-222 (miR-222) and miR-29c have been identified as important modulators of cardiac growth and may protect against pathological cardiac remodeling. miR-222 and -29c may thus serve as functional biomarkers for exercise-induced cardiac adaptations. This investigation compared the effect of two workload-matched high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols with different recovery periods on miR-222 and -29c levels. Methods: Sixty-three moderately trained females and males (22.0 ± 1.7 years) fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were randomized into two HIIT groups using sex and exercise capacity. During a controlled 4-week intervention (two sessions/week) a 4 × 30 HIIT group performed 4 × 30 s runs (all-out, 30 s active recovery) and a 8 × 15 HIIT group performed 8 × 15 s runs (all-out, 15 s active recovery). miR-222 and -29c as well as transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) mRNA levels were determined during high-intensity running as well as aerobic exercise using capillary blood from earlobes. Performance parameters were assessed using an incremental continuous running test (ICRT) protocol with blood lactate diagnostic and heart rate (HR) monitoring to determine HR recovery and power output at individual anaerobic threshold (IAT). Results: At baseline, acute exercise miR-222 and -29c levels were increased only in the 4 × 30 HIIT group (both p HIIT group ( p HIIT group again no acute effect was observed. However, both HIIT interventions resulted in elevated resting miR-222 and -29c levels (all p 24% in both HIIT groups (both p ≤ 0.0002) speed at IAT was improved by 3.6% only in the 4 × 30 HIIT group ( p HIIT can induce increased circulating levels of cardiac growth-associated miR-222 and -29c. miR-222 and miR-29c could be useful markers to monitor HIIT response in general and to identify optimal work/rest combinations.

  2. Prospects of Anaerobic Digestion Technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    As the world's largest developing country, China must face the problem of managing municipal solid waste, and the challenge of organic waste disposal is even more serious. Considering the characteristics of traditional waste disposal technologies and the subsequent secondary pollution, anaerobic digestion has various advantages such as reduction in the land needed for disposal and preservation of environmental quality. In light of the energy crisis, this paper focuses on the potential production of biogas from biowaste through anaerobic digestion processes, the problems incurred by the waste collection system, and the efficiency of the anaerobic digestion process. Use of biogas in a combined heat and power cogeneration system is also discussed. Finally, the advantages of anaerobic digestion technology for the Chinese market are summarized. The anaerobic digestion is suggested to be a promising treating technology for the organic wastes in China.

  3. Interval stability for complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinshov, Vladimir V.; Kirillov, Sergey; Kurths, Jürgen; Nekorkin, Vladimir I.

    2018-04-01

    Stability of dynamical systems against strong perturbations is an important problem of nonlinear dynamics relevant to many applications in various areas. Here, we develop a novel concept of interval stability, referring to the behavior of the perturbed system during a finite time interval. Based on this concept, we suggest new measures of stability, namely interval basin stability (IBS) and interval stability threshold (IST). IBS characterizes the likelihood that the perturbed system returns to the stable regime (attractor) in a given time. IST provides the minimal magnitude of the perturbation capable to disrupt the stable regime for a given interval of time. The suggested measures provide important information about the system susceptibility to external perturbations which may be useful for practical applications. Moreover, from a theoretical viewpoint the interval stability measures are shown to bridge the gap between linear and asymptotic stability. We also suggest numerical algorithms for quantification of the interval stability characteristics and demonstrate their potential for several dynamical systems of various nature, such as power grids and neural networks.

  4. ANÁLISIS ELECTROCARDIOGRÁFICO DE LA DISPERSIÓN DEL INTERVALO TPICO-TFINAL EN EL INFARTO AGUDO DE MIOCARDIO CON ELEVACIÓN DEL ST / Electrocardiographic analysis of the T peak-T end interval dispersion in acute myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Carmona Puerta

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Introducción y objetivos: La dispersión del intervalo TPICO-TFINAL (Tpeak-Tend constituye una novedosa variable electrocardiográfica asociada recientemente, al riesgo de arritmias ventriculares malignas en el síndrome de Brugada, pero apenas se ha estudiado en el infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST, por lo que se decidió analizarlo en este contexto. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal donde se compararon los electrocardiogramas de 37 pacientes con infarto con elevación del segmento ST y otros 37, supuestamente sanos con respecto a las variables electrocardiográficas que evalúan la repolarización ventricular. Resultados: Se encontraron diferencias altamente significativas (p<0,001 al comparar a los pacientes infartados (QT 416,9 ± 42,3; QTc 431,4 ± 36,2 con los sanos (QT 441,2 ± 57,4 y QTc 477,6 ± 58,5, y significativas (p < 0,05 en la TPICO-TFINAL (37.2 ms vs. 21,6 ms. Existió correlación significativa entre el QT y la TPICO-TFINAL en el IMACEST inferior y ántero-septal, la que fue doblemente intensa en la localización ántero-septal (r = 0,34 vs. r = 0,80. Conclusiones: La dispersión del intervalo TPICO-TFINAL fue significativamente mayor en pacientes con infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST, independientemente de la localización del infarto. / Abstract Introduction and objectives: Tpeak-Tend interval dispersion is a new electrocardiographic variable recently associated to the risk of malignant ventricular arrhythmias in Brugada syndrome but it has hardly been studied in the acute myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation. That is why it was analyzed in this context. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in which the electrocardiograms of 37 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions and other 37 apparently healthy patients (regarding electrocardiographic variables that assess ventricular repolarization were compared. Results

  5. EFFECT OF MUSIC ON ANAEROBIC EXERCISE PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülin Atan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For years, mostly the effects of music on cardiorespiratory exercise performance have been studied, but a few studies have examined the effect of music on anaerobic exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of listening to music and its rhythm on anaerobic exercise: on power output, heart rate and the concentration of blood lactate. 28 male subjects were required to visit the laboratory on 6 occasions, each separated by 48 hours. Firstly, each subject performed the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST under 3 conditions on separate days: while listening to “slow rhythm music”, “fast rhythm music” or “no music”. 48 hours after the subjects completed RAST under 3 conditions, Wingate Anaerobic Power (WAN tests were performed under 3 music conditions. The order of the 3 conditions (slow music, fast music and no music was selected randomly to prevent an order effect. Results showed no significant differences between 3 conditions in anaerobic power assessments, heart rate or blood lactate (p>0.05. On the basis of these results it can be said that music cannot improve anaerobic performance. The type of music had no impact on power outputs during RAST and WAN exercise. As a conclusion, listening to music and its rhythm cannot enhance anaerobic performance and cannot change the physiological response to supramaximal exercise.

  6. A simple anaerobic system for onsite treatment of domestic wastewater

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among several anaerobic treatment processes, high rate anaerobic digesters receive great attention due to its high loading capacity and chemical oxygen demand removal rate. Up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) is getting wide acceptance among several anaerobic processes. However, its application is still ...

  7. Isolation of anaerobes from bubo associated with chancroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B; Sharma, V K; Bakaya, V; Ayyagiri, A

    1991-01-01

    Ten men with bubo associated with chancroid were studied for bacterial flora especially anaerobes. Anaerobes were isolated from all 10 buboes and eight out of 10 ulcers of chancroid. Anaerobic cocci, B melaninogenicus and B fragilis were the most common isolates. anaerobes probably play a role in the pathogenesis of bubo in chancroid. PMID:1680792

  8. Anaerobic digestion of hog wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taiganides, E P; Baumann, E R; Johnson, H P; Hazen, T E

    1963-01-01

    A short history, a list of advantages and limitations, and a short introduction to the principles of the process of anaerobic digestion are given. Six five gallon bottle digesters were daily fed hog manure, maintained at 35/sup 0/C, and constantly agitated. Satisfactory operation was assured at 3.2 g VS/l/day with a detention time of 10 days, yielding 490-643 ml gas/g VS/day with a CH/sub 4/ content of 59% (2.1 x 10/sup 7/ joules/m/sup 3/). A figure and discussion portray the interrelationships of loading rate, solids concentration and detention time. They estimate that a marginal profit might be obtained by the operation of a heated digester handling the wastes of 10,000 hogs.

  9. Anaerobic degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Anders Skibsted; Haagensen, Frank; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) found in wastewater is removed in the wastewater treatment facilities by sorption and aerobic biodegradation. The anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge has not been shown to contribute to the removal. The concentration of LAS based on dry matter typically...... increases during anaerobic stabilization due to transformation of easily degradable organic matter. Hence, LAS is regarded as resistant to biodegradation under anaerobic conditions. We present data from a lab-scale semi-continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) spiked with linear dodecylbenzene sulfonate (C...

  10. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Tirsgård, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A.

    2015-01-01

    to unsteady (i.e., burst-assisted) swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC); (2) variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; U crit) correlates with metabolic scope (MS) or anaerobic capacity (i.e., maximum EPOC); (3...... respirometry and video analysis. Results showed that anaerobic swimming costs (i.e., EPOC) increase linearly with the number of bursts in S. aurata, with each burst corresponding to 0.53 mg O2 kg(-1). Data are consistent with a previous study on striped surfperch (Embiotoca lateralis), a labriform swimmer...

  11. Accelerated anaerobic hydrolysis rates under a combination of intermittent aeration and anaerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T. R.; Lastra Milone, T.; Petersen, G.

    2017-01-01

    Anaerobic hydrolysis in activated return sludge was investigated in laboratory scale experiments to find if intermittent aeration would accelerate anaerobic hydrolysis rates compared to anaerobic hydrolysis rates under strict anaerobic conditions. The intermittent reactors were set up in a 240 h...... for calculating hydrolysis rates based on soluble COD were compared. Two-way ANOVA with the Bonferroni post-test was performed in order to register any significant difference between reactors with intermittent aeration and strictly anaerobic conditions respectively. The experiment demonstrated a statistically...... significant difference in favor of the reactors with intermittent aeration showing a tendency towards accelerated anaerobic hydrolysis rates due to application of intermittent aeration. The conclusion of the work is thus that intermittent aeration applied in the activated return sludge process (ARP) can...

  12. A simple and sensitive quality control method of the anaerobic atmosphere for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Tage; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz

    2013-01-01

    The maintenance of a strict anaerobic atmosphere is essential for the culture of strict anaerobic bacteria. We describe a simple and sensitive quality control method of the anaerobic atmosphere, based on the measurement of the zone diameter around a 5-μg metronidazole disk when testing...... an aerotolerant Clostridium perfringens strain. A zone diameter above 27 mm was indicative of acceptable anaerobic conditions....

  13. Generalized Confidence Intervals and Fiducial Intervals for Some Epidemiological Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut Bebu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For binary outcome data from epidemiological studies, this article investigates the interval estimation of several measures of interest in the absence or presence of categorical covariates. When covariates are present, the logistic regression model as well as the log-binomial model are investigated. The measures considered include the common odds ratio (OR from several studies, the number needed to treat (NNT, and the prevalence ratio. For each parameter, confidence intervals are constructed using the concepts of generalized pivotal quantities and fiducial quantities. Numerical results show that the confidence intervals so obtained exhibit satisfactory performance in terms of maintaining the coverage probabilities even when the sample sizes are not large. An appealing feature of the proposed solutions is that they are not based on maximization of the likelihood, and hence are free from convergence issues associated with the numerical calculation of the maximum likelihood estimators, especially in the context of the log-binomial model. The results are illustrated with a number of examples. The overall conclusion is that the proposed methodologies based on generalized pivotal quantities and fiducial quantities provide an accurate and unified approach for the interval estimation of the various epidemiological measures in the context of binary outcome data with or without covariates.

  14. Anaerobe Tolerance to Oxygen and the Potentials of Anaerobic and Aerobic Cocultures for Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Kato

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The anaerobic treatment processes are considered to be well-established methods for the elimination of easily biodegradable organic matter from wastewaters. Some difficulties concerning certain wastewaters are related to the possible presence of dissolved oxygen. The common belief is that anaerobes are oxygen intolerant. Therefore, the common practice is to use sequencing anaerobic and aerobic steps in separate tanks. Enhanced treatment by polishing off the residual biodegradable oxygen demand from effluents of anaerobic reactors, or the biodegradation of recalcitrant wastewater pollutants, usually requires sequenced anaerobic and aerobic bacteria activities. However, the combined activity of both bacteria can also be obtained in a single reactor. Previous experiments with either pure or mixed cultures showed that anaerobes can tolerate oxygen to a certain extent. The oxygen toxicity to methanogens in anaerobic sludges was quantified in batch experiments, as well as in anaerobic reactors. The results showed that methanogens have a high tolerance to oxygen. In practice, it was confirmed that dissolved oxygen does not constitute any detrimental effect on reactor treatment performance. This means that the coexistence of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria in one single reactor is feasible and increases the potentials of new applications in wastewater treatment

  15. PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI FARMASI FORMULASI DENGAN METODE ANAEROB-AEROB DAN ANAEROB-KOAGULASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Crisnaningtyas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Studi ini membahas mengenai pengolahan limbah cair industri farmasi dalam skala laboratorium dengan menggunakan konsep anaerob-kimia-fisika dan anaerob-aerob. Proses anaerob dilakukan dengan menggunakan reaktor Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed reactor (UASBr pada kisaran OLR (Organic Loading Rate 0,5 – 2 kg COD/m3hari, yang didahului dengan proses aklimatisasi menggunakan substrat gula. Proses anaerob mampu memberikan efisiensi penurunan COD hingga 74%. Keluaran dari proses anaerob diolah lebih lanjut dengan menggunakan dua opsi proses: (1 fisika-kimia, dan (2 aerob. Koagulan alumunium sulfat dan flokulan kationik memberikan efisiensi penurunan COD tertinggi (73% pada kecepatan putaran masing-masing 100 rpm dan 40 rpm. Uji coba aerob dilakukan pada kisaran MLSS antara 4000-5000 mg/L dan mampu memberikan efisiensi penurunan COD hingga 97%. Hasil uji coba menunjukkan bahwa efisiensi penurunan COD total yang dapat dicapai dengan menggunakan teknologi anaerob-aerob adalah 97%, sedangkan kombinasi anaerob-koagulasi-flokulasi hanya mampu menurunkan COD total sebesar 72,53%. Berdasarkan hasil tersebut, kombinasi proses anaerob-aerob merupakan teknologi yang potensial untuk diaplikasikan dalam sistem pengolahan limbah cair industri farmasi. 

  16. Haemostatic reference intervals in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szecsi, Pal Bela; Jørgensen, Maja; Klajnbard, Anna

    2010-01-01

    largely unchanged during pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum and were within non-pregnant reference intervals. However, levels of fibrinogen, D-dimer, and coagulation factors VII, VIII, and IX increased markedly. Protein S activity decreased substantially, while free protein S decreased slightly and total......Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age......-20, 21-28, 29-34, 35-42, at active labor, and on postpartum days 1 and 2. Reference intervals for each gestational period using only the uncomplicated pregnancies were calculated in all 391 women for activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, fibrin D-dimer, antithrombin, free protein S...

  17. Inverse Interval Matrix: A Survey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří; Farhadsefat, R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 22, - (2011), s. 704-719 E-ISSN 1081-3810 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/1957; GA ČR GC201/08/J020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : interval matrix * inverse interval matrix * NP-hardness * enclosure * unit midpoint * inverse sign stability * nonnegative invertibility * absolute value equation * algorithm Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.808, year: 2010 http://www.math.technion.ac.il/iic/ ela / ela -articles/articles/vol22_pp704-719.pdf

  18. Simulation of the anaerobic digestion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maia, C A.M.

    1981-01-01

    The dynamic model of anaerobic fermentation includes an inhibition function to relate volatile acid concentration to a specific growth rate for the methane bacteria and also includes the interactions between the liquid, gaseous, and biology phases of the digester.

  19. Anaerobic Toxicity of Cationic Silver Nanoparticles

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Toxicity data for the impact of nano-silver on anaerobic degradation. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Gitipour, A., S. Thiel, K. Scheckel,...

  20. Solar pond for heating anaerobic digesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Kehui; Li Shensheng

    1991-10-01

    A theoretical analysis and numerical results calculated for solar pond heating anaerobic digesters in Beijing area in China are presented. The effect of temperature rise is evident and rather steady. 3 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  1. Exocellular electron transfer in anaerobic microbial communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stams, A.J.M.; Bok, de F.A.M.; Plugge, C.M.; Eekert, van M.H.A.; Dolfing, J.; Schraa, G.

    2006-01-01

    Exocellular electron transfer plays an important role in anaerobic microbial communities that degrade organic matter. Interspecies hydrogen transfer between microorganisms is the driving force for complete biodegradation in methanogenic environments. Many organic compounds are degraded by obligatory

  2. An anaerobic mitochondrion that produces hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, Brigitte; Graaf, Rob M. de; Staay, Georg W.M. van der; Alen, Theo A. van; Ricard, Guenola; Gabaldón, Toni; Hoek, Angela H.A.M. van; Moon-van der Staay, Seung Yeo; Koopman, Werner J.H.; Hellemond, Jaap J. van; Tielens, Aloysius G.M.; Friedrich, Thorsten; Veenhuis, Marten; Huynen, Martijn A.; Hackstein, Johannes H.P.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogenosomes are organelles that produce ATP and hydrogen, and are found in various unrelated eukaryotes, such as anaerobic flagellates, chytridiomycete fungi and ciliates. Although all of these organelles generate hydrogen, the hydrogenosomes from these organisms are structurally and

  3. Anaerobic membrane bioreactor under extreme conditions (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munoz Sierra, J.D.; De Kreuk, M.K.; Spanjers, H.; Van Lier, J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Membrane bioreactors ensure biomass retention by the application of micro or ultrafiltration processes. This allows operation at high sludge concentrations. Previous studies have shown that anaerobic membrane bioreactors is an efficient way to retain specialist microorganisms for treating

  4. Application of Methanobrevibacter acididurans in anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savant, D V; Ranade, D R

    2004-01-01

    To operate anaerobic digesters successfully under acidic conditions, hydrogen utilizing methanogens which can grow efficiently at low pH and tolerate high volatile fatty acids (VFA) are desirable. An acid tolerant hydrogenotrophic methanogen viz. Methanobrevibacter acididurans isolated from slurry of an anaerobic digester running on alcohol distillery wastewater has been described earlier by this lab. This organism could grow optimally at pH 6.0. In the experiments reported herein, M. acididurans showed better methanogenesis under acidic conditions with high VFA, particularly acetate, than Methanobacterium bryantii, a common hydrogenotrophic inhabitant of anaerobic digesters. Addition of M. acididurans culture to digesting slurry of acidogenic as well as methanogenic digesters running on distillery wastewater showed increase in methane production and decrease in accumulation of volatile fatty acids. The results proved the feasibility of application of M. acididurans in anaerobic digesters.

  5. Anaerobes in Industrial- and Environmental Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatti-Kaul, Rajni; Mattiasson, Bo

    Anaerobic microorganisms present in diverse ecological niches employ alternative strategies for energy conservation in the absence of oxygen which enables them to play a key role in maintaining the global cycles of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur, and the breakdown of persistent compounds. Thereby they become useful tools in industrial and environmental biotechnology. Although anaerobes have been relatively neglected in comparison to their aerobic counterparts, with increasing knowledge about their diversity and metabolic potential and the development of genetic tools and process technologies to utilize them, we now see a rapid expansion of their applications in the society. This chapter summarizes some of the developments in the use of anaerobes as tools for biomass valorization, in production of energy carriers and chemicals, wastewater treatment, and the strong potential in soil remediation. The ability of several autotrophic anaerobes to reduce carbon dioxide is attracting growing attention as a means for developing a platform for conversion of waste gases to chemicals, materials, and biofuels.

  6. Anaerobic bacteraemia revisited: species and susceptibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lily S Y; Kwang, Lee Ling; Rao, Suma; Tan, Thean Yen

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the frequency of anaerobic bacteraemia over a 10-year period, and to provide updated antibiotic susceptibilities for the more clinically relevant anaerobes causing blood stream infection. Data were retrieved from the laboratory information system for the period 2003 to 2012. During this time, blood cultures were inoculated in Bactec™ Plus vials (BD, USA) and continuously monitored in the Bactec™ 9000 blood culture system (BD, USA). Anaerobic organisms were identified using commercial identification kits, predominantly API 20 A (bioMérieux, France) supplemented with Vitek ANC cards (bioMérieux, France) and AN-Ident discs (Oxoid, United Kingdom). A representative subset of isolates were retrieved from 2009 to 2011 and antimicrobial susceptibilities to penicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, clindamycin, imipenem, moxifloxacin, piperacillin-tazobactam and metronidazole were determined using the Etest method. Anaerobes comprised 4.1% of all positive blood culture with 727 obligate anaerobes recovered over the 10-year period, representing a positivity rate of 0.35%. The only significant change in anaerobe positivity rates occurred between 2003 and 2004, with an increase of 0.2%. The Bacteroides fragilis group (45%) were the predominant anaerobic pathogens, followed by Clostridium species (12%), Propioniobacterium species (11%) and Fusobacterium species (6%). The most active in vitro antibiotics were imipenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, amoxicillin-clavulanate and metronidazole, with susceptibilities of 95.0%, 93.3%, 90.8% and 90.8% respectively. Resistance was high to penicillin, clindamycin and moxifl oxacin. However, there were apparent differences for antibiotic susceptibilities between species. This study indicates that the anaerobes comprise a small but constant proportion of bloodstream isolates. Antibiotic resistance was high to some antibiotics, but metronidazole, the beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors and

  7. Anaerobic digester for treatment of organic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, V. K. [Indian Insitute of Technology, Delhi (India)]|[ENEA, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Matera (Italy); Fortuna, F.; Canditelli, M.; Cornacchia, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Matera (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Farina, R. [ENEA, centro Ricerche ``Ezio Clementel``, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1997-09-01

    The essential features of both new and more efficient reactor systems and their appropriate applications for various organic waste management situations, description of several working plants are discussed in the present communication. It is hoped that significant development reported here would be useful in opening a new vista to the application of anaerobic biotechnology for the waste treatment of both low/high organic strength and specialized treatment for toxic substances, using appropriate anaerobic methods.

  8. Covering Materials for Anaerobic Digesters Producing Biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itodo, I. N.; Philips, T. K.

    2002-01-01

    The suitability of foam, concrete and clay soil as covering material on anaerobic digesters producing biogas was investigated using four batch-type digesters of 20 litres volume. The methane yield from the digesters was of the order: foam >control> concrete > clay soil. The digester covered with foam had the highest methane yield, best temperature control and most favourable pH conditions. It is most suitable as cover material on anaerobic digesters

  9. Anaerobic Digestion Assessment for Contingency Base Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    heating. The use of anaerobic digestion for high solids organic waste (15 to 50 percent solids; i.e., mixed organic solids, such as food waste, manure ...but the team was not able to identify any for anaerobic digestion . One potentially widespread source is manure from ruminant organisms, such as...plug-flow digesters treating swine manure and used cooking grease. Bioresource Technology 101:4362-4370. ERDC TR-14-3 63 Lansing, S., and A.R

  10. Mechanism of quinolone resistance in anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, H; Edlund, C

    2003-06-01

    Several recently developed quinolones have excellent activity against a broad range of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and are thus potential drugs for the treatment of serious anaerobic and mixed infections. Resistance to quinolones is increasing worldwide, but is still relatively infrequent among anaerobes. Two main mechanisms, alteration of target enzymes (gyrase and topoisomerase IV) caused by chromosomal mutations in encoding genes, or reduced intracellular accumulation due to increased efflux of the drug, are associated with quinolone resistance. These mechanisms have also been found in anaerobic species. High-level resistance to the newer broad-spectrum quinolones often requires stepwise mutations in target genes. The increasing emergence of resistance among anaerobes may be a consequence of previous widespread use of quinolones, which may have enriched first-step mutants in the intestinal tract. Quinolone resistance in the Bacteroides fragilis group strains is strongly correlated with amino acid substitutions at positions 82 and 86 in GyrA (equivalent to positions 83 and 87 of Escherichia coli). Several studies have indicated that B. fragilis group strains possess efflux pump systems that actively expel quinolones, leading to resistance. DNA gyrase seems also to be the primary target for quinolones in Clostridium difficile, since amino acid substitutions in GyrA and GyrB have been detected in resistant strains. To what extent other mechanisms, such as mutational events in other target genes or alterations in outer-membrane proteins, contribute to resistance among anaerobes needs to be further investigated.

  11. Dynamic Properties of QT Intervals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Halámek, Josef; Jurák, Pavel; Vondra, Vlastimil; Lipoldová, J.; Leinveber, Pavel; Plachý, M.; Fráňa, P.; Kára, T.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 36, - (2009), s. 517-520 ISSN 0276-6574 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/1129; GA MŠk ME09050 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : QT Intervals * arrhythmia diagnosis Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering http://cinc.mit.edu/archives/2009/pdf/0517.pdf

  12. Haemostatic reference intervals in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szecsi, Pal Bela; Jørgensen, Maja; Klajnbard, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age-specific refe......Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age......-specific reference intervals for coagulation tests during normal pregnancy. Eight hundred one women with expected normal pregnancies were included in the study. Of these women, 391 had no complications during pregnancy, vaginal delivery, or postpartum period. Plasma samples were obtained at gestational weeks 13......-20, 21-28, 29-34, 35-42, at active labor, and on postpartum days 1 and 2. Reference intervals for each gestational period using only the uncomplicated pregnancies were calculated in all 391 women for activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, fibrin D-dimer, antithrombin, free protein S...

  13. Robust misinterpretation of confidence intervals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Rink; Morey, Richard; Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2014-01-01

    Null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) is undoubtedly the most common inferential technique used to justify claims in the social sciences. However, even staunch defenders of NHST agree that its outcomes are often misinterpreted. Confidence intervals (CIs) have frequently been proposed as a more

  14. Interval matrices: Regularity generates singularity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří; Shary, S.P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 540, 1 March (2018), s. 149-159 ISSN 0024-3795 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : interval matrix * regularity * singularity * P-matrix * absolute value equation * diagonally singilarizable matrix Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.973, year: 2016

  15. Chaotic dynamics from interspike intervals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, A N; Sosnovtseva, Olga; Mosekilde, Erik

    2001-01-01

    Considering two different mathematical models describing chaotic spiking phenomena, namely, an integrate-and-fire and a threshold-crossing model, we discuss the problem of extracting dynamics from interspike intervals (ISIs) and show that the possibilities of computing the largest Lyapunov expone...

  16. Anaerobic Nitrogen Fixers on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, B. G.

    2000-07-01

    The conversion of atmospheric nitrogen gas to the protein of living systems is an amazing process of nature. The first step in the process is biological nitrogen fixation, the transformation of N2 to NH3. The phenomenon is crucial for feeding the billions of our species on Earth. On Mars, the same process may allow us to discover how life can adapt to a hostile environment, and render it habitable. Hostile environments also exist on Earth. For example, nothing grows in coal refuse piles due to the oxidation of pyrite and marcasite to sulfuric acid. Yet, when the acidity is neutralized, alfalfa and soybean plants develop root nodules typical of symbiotic nitrogen fixation with Rhizobium species possibly living in the pyritic material. When split open, these nodules exhibited the pinkish color of leghemoglobin, a protein in the nodule protecting the active nitrogen-fixing enzyme nitrogenase against the toxic effects of oxygen. Although we have not yet obtained direct evidence of nitrogenase activity in these nodules (reduction of acetylene to ethylene, for example), these findings suggested the possibility that nitrogen fixation was taking place in this hostile, non-soil material. This immediately raises the possibility that freeliving anaerobic bacteria which fix atmospheric nitrogen on Earth, could do the same on Mars.

  17. Anaerobic digestion of cellulosic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.D.; Donaldson, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of low-level radioactive cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process development work has been completed using a 75-L digester to verify rates and conversions obtained at the bench scale. Start-up and operating procedures have been developed, and effluent was generated for characterization and disposal studies. Three runs using batch and fed-batch conditions were made lasting 36, 90, and 423 d. Solids solubilization rates and gas production rates averaged approximately 1.8 g cellulose per L of reactor per d and 1.2 L of off-gas per L reactor per d. Greater than 80% destruction of the volatile suspended solids was obtained. A simple dynamic process model was constructed to aid in process design and for use in process monitoring and control of a large-scale digester

  18. Anaerobic digestion of cellulosic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, T.L.; Lee, D.D.

    1984-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process development work is underway using a 75-L digester to verify rates and conversions obtained at the bench scale, to develop start-up and operating procedures, and to generate effluent for characterization and disposal studies. Three runs using batch and batch-fed conditions have been made lasting 36, 90, and over 200 days. Solids solubilization and gas production rates and total solids destruction have met or exceeded the target values of 0.6 g cellulose per L of reactor per day, 0.5 L off-gas per L of reactor per day, and 80% destruction of solids, respectively. Successful start-up procedures have been developed, and preliminary effluent characterization and disposal studies have been done. A simple dynamic process model has been constructed to aid in further process development and for use in process monitoring and control of a large-scale digester. 7 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  19. Anaerobic energy metabolism in unicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atteia, Ariane; van Lis, Robert; Tielens, Aloysius G M; Martin, William F

    2013-02-01

    Anaerobic metabolic pathways allow unicellular organisms to tolerate or colonize anoxic environments. Over the past ten years, genome sequencing projects have brought a new light on the extent of anaerobic metabolism in eukaryotes. A surprising development has been that free-living unicellular algae capable of photoautotrophic lifestyle are, in terms of their enzymatic repertoire, among the best equipped eukaryotes known when it comes to anaerobic energy metabolism. Some of these algae are marine organisms, common in the oceans, others are more typically soil inhabitants. All these species are important from the ecological (O(2)/CO(2) budget), biotechnological, and evolutionary perspectives. In the unicellular algae surveyed here, mixed-acid type fermentations are widespread while anaerobic respiration, which is more typical of eukaryotic heterotrophs, appears to be rare. The presence of a core anaerobic metabolism among the algae provides insights into its evolutionary origin, which traces to the eukaryote common ancestor. The predicted fermentative enzymes often exhibit an amino acid extension at the N-terminus, suggesting that these proteins might be compartmentalized in the cell, likely in the chloroplast or the mitochondrion. The green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella NC64 have the most extended set of fermentative enzymes reported so far. Among the eukaryotes with secondary plastids, the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana has the most pronounced anaerobic capabilities as yet. From the standpoints of genomic, transcriptomic, and biochemical studies, anaerobic energy metabolism in C. reinhardtii remains the best characterized among photosynthetic protists. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The evolutionary aspects of bioenergetic systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Metabolic interactions between methanogenic consortia and anaerobic respiring bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stams, A.J.; Oude Elferink, S.J.; Westermann, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Most types of anaerobic respiration are able to outcompete methanogenic consortia for common substrates if the respective electron acceptors are present in sufficient amounts. Furthermore, several products or intermediate compounds formed by anaerobic respiring bacteria are toxic to methanogenic...... consortia. Despite the potentially adverse effects, only few inorganic electron acceptors potentially utilizable for anaerobic respiration have been investigated with respect to negative interactions in anaerobic digesters. In this chapter we review competitive and inhibitory interactions between anaerobic...... respiring populations and methanogenic consortia in bioreactors. Due to the few studies in anaerobic digesters, many of our discussions are based upon studies of defined cultures or natural ecosystems...

  1. Longer Work/Rest Intervals During High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT Lead to Elevated Levels of miR-222 and miR-29c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Schmitz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: MicroRNA-222 (miR-222 and miR-29c have been identified as important modulators of cardiac growth and may protect against pathological cardiac remodeling. miR-222 and -29c may thus serve as functional biomarkers for exercise-induced cardiac adaptations. This investigation compared the effect of two workload-matched high-intensity interval training (HIIT protocols with different recovery periods on miR-222 and -29c levels.Methods: Sixty-three moderately trained females and males (22.0 ± 1.7 years fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were randomized into two HIIT groups using sex and exercise capacity. During a controlled 4-week intervention (two sessions/week a 4 × 30 HIIT group performed 4 × 30 s runs (all-out, 30 s active recovery and a 8 × 15 HIIT group performed 8 × 15 s runs (all-out, 15 s active recovery. miR-222 and -29c as well as transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1 mRNA levels were determined during high-intensity running as well as aerobic exercise using capillary blood from earlobes. Performance parameters were assessed using an incremental continuous running test (ICRT protocol with blood lactate diagnostic and heart rate (HR monitoring to determine HR recovery and power output at individual anaerobic threshold (IAT.Results: At baseline, acute exercise miR-222 and -29c levels were increased only in the 4 × 30 HIIT group (both p < 0.01, pre- vs. post-exercise. After the intervention, acute exercise miR-222 levels were still increased in the 4 × 30 HIIT group (p < 0.01, pre- vs. post-exercise while in the 8 × 15 HIIT group again no acute effect was observed. However, both HIIT interventions resulted in elevated resting miR-222 and -29c levels (all p < 0.001, pre- vs. post-intervention. Neither of the two miRNAs were elevated at any ICRT speed level at baseline nor follow-up. While HR recovery was improved by >24% in both HIIT groups (both p ≤ 0.0002 speed at IAT was improved by 3.6% only in the 4 × 30 HIIT group

  2. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-01-01

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the

  3. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-07-31

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the

  4. Is anaerobic blood culture necessary? If so, who needs it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Kentaro; Takahashi, Miwa

    2008-07-01

    The role of anaerobic blood cultures is not validated, although they are drawn routinely. We performed a retrospective chart review at a private hospital in Japan for patients admitted between July 1, 2004 to June 30, 2005 to determine patient characteristics resulting in anaerobic blood culture. During the study period, 17,775 blood culture bottles were sent for the analysis, and 2132 bottles (12.0%) were positive for microbial growth. Bacteria were grown from 958 anaerobic bottles (44.7%), and 719 (33.7%) of those were judged to represent real infections, which accounted for 410 cases of bacteremia. Only 47 cases (11.5%) were detected by anaerobic cultures alone. Among those 47, obligate anaerobes represented 12 cases. Clinical evaluation could have predicted 7 of 12 cases of obligate anaerobic bacteremia. In the remaining 5 cases, the source of bacteremia was unclear. There were 2.7 cases of anaerobic bacteremia per 1000 blood cultures. The mortality attributable to anaerobic bacteremia was 50%. Among bacteremic cases not caused by obligate anaerobes yet diagnosed solely by anaerobic bottles, either the standard 2 sets of blood were not taken or their clinical outcomes were favorable. Anaerobic blood culture can be avoided in most cases. Anaerobic blood culture may be most helpful when (1) bacteremia because of obligate anaerobes is clinically suspected, (2) patients are severely immunocompromised, and (3) source of bacteremia is not identified by clinical evaluation.

  5. Statistical intervals a guide for practitioners

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Gerald J

    2011-01-01

    Presents a detailed exposition of statistical intervals and emphasizes applications in industry. The discussion differentiates at an elementary level among different kinds of statistical intervals and gives instruction with numerous examples and simple math on how to construct such intervals from sample data. This includes confidence intervals to contain a population percentile, confidence intervals on probability of meeting specified threshold value, and prediction intervals to include observation in a future sample. Also has an appendix containing computer subroutines for nonparametric stati

  6. Cerebral lactate production and blood flow in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O; Gideon, P; Sperling, B

    1992-01-01

    that follows reperfusion. The amount of lactate present in the acute phase reflects the severity of ischemia in the affected region. The lactate level was still above normal in the subacute phase with hyperemia, suggesting lactate production through aerobic glycolysis. Thus, the lactate level in the subacute...... phase probably does not reflect the degree of anaerobic glycolysis in hypoxic neuronal tissue....

  7. Dijets at large rapidity intervals

    CERN Document Server

    Pope, B G

    2001-01-01

    Inclusive diet production at large pseudorapidity intervals ( Delta eta ) between the two jets has been suggested as a regime for observing BFKL dynamics. We have measured the dijet cross section for large Delta eta in pp collisions at square root s = 1800 and 630 GeV using the DOE detector. The partonic cross section increases strongly with the size of Delta eta . The observed growth is even stronger than expected on the basis of BFKL resummation in the leading logarithmic approximation. The growth of the partonic cross section can be accommodated with an effective BFKL intercept of alpha /sub BFKL/(20 GeV) = 1.65 +or- 0.07.

  8. Variational collocation on finite intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amore, Paolo; Cervantes, Mayra; Fernandez, Francisco M

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we study a set of functions, defined on an interval of finite width, which are orthogonal and which reduce to the sinc functions when the appropriate limit is taken. We show that these functions can be used within a variational approach to obtain accurate results for a variety of problems. We have applied them to the interpolation of functions on finite domains and to the solution of the Schroedinger equation, and we have compared the performance of the present approach with others

  9. In vivo imaging and tracking of host-microbiota interactions via metabolic labeling of gut anaerobic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva-Zatorsky, Naama; Alvarez, David; Hudak, Jason E.; Reading, Nicola C.; Erturk-Hasdemir, Deniz; Dasgupta, Suryasarathi; von Andrian, Ulrich H.; Kasper, Dennis L.

    2015-01-01

    The intestine is densely populated by anaerobic commensal bacteria. These microorganisms shape immune system development, but our understanding of host–commensal interactions is hampered by a lack of tools for studying the anaerobic intestinal environment. We applied metabolic oligosaccharide engineering and bioorthogonal click-chemistry to label various commensal anaerobes, including Bacteroides fragilis, a common and immunologically important commensal. We studied the dissemination of B. fragilis following acute peritonitis, and characterized the interactions of the intact microbe and its polysaccharide components in myeloid and B cell lineages. The distribution and colonization of labeled B. fragilis along the intestine can be assessed, as well as niche competition following coadministration of multiple species of the microbiota. Nine additional anaerobic commensals (both gram-negative and gram-positive) from three phyla common in the gut—Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria—and five families and one aerobic pathogen (Staphylococcus aureus) were also fluorescently labeled. This strategy permits visualization of the anaerobic microbial niche by various methods, including intravital two-photon microscopy and non-invasive whole-body imaging, and an approach to study microbial colonization and host–microbe interactions in real-time. PMID:26280120

  10. Thermophillic Sidestream Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors: The Shear Rate Dilemma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeison, D.A.; Telkamp, P.; Lier, van J.B.

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic biomass retention under thermophilic conditions has proven difficult. Membrane filtration can be used as alternative way to achieve high sludge concentrations. This research studied the feasibility of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) under thermophilic conditions. A sidestream MBR

  11. The effect of tannic compounds on anaerobic wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment is an alternative to the conventional aerobic treatment processes for the removal of easily biodegradable organic matter in medium to high strength industrial wastestreams. Anaerobic treatment has several advantages, however one important disadvantage is the

  12. Characterization and Optimization of Dual Anaerobic/Aerobic Biofilm Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Togna, A

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this Phase I STTR effort was to develop and characterize a dual anaerobic/aerobic biofilm process that promotes anaerobic reductive dehalogenation and aerobic cometabolic biodegradation...

  13. Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

    1992-06-01

    A variety of different media were used to isolate facultatively (FAB) and obligately anaerobic bacteria (OAB). These bacteria were isolated from core subsamples obtained from boreholes at the Idaho National Engineering Lab. (INEL) or at the Hanford Lab. (Yakima). Core material was sampled at various depths to 600 feet below the surface. All core samples with culturable bacteria contained at least FAB making thisthe most common physiological type of anaerobic bacteria present in the deep subsurface at these two sites. INEL core samples are characterized by isolates of both FAB and OAB. No isolates of acetogenic, methanogenic, or sulfate reducing bacteria were obtained. Yakima core samples are characterized by a marked predominance of FAB in comparison to OAB. In addition, isolates of acetogenic, methanogenic, and sulfate reducing bacteria were obtained. The Yakima site has the potential for complete anaerobic mineralization of organic compounds whereas this potential appears to be lacking at INEL.

  14. Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-18

    We welcome you to The Power of Anaerobes. This conference serves two purposes. One is to celebrate the life of Harry D. Peck, Jr.,who was born May 18, 1927 and would have celebrated his 73rd birthday at this conference. He died November 20, 1998. The second is to gather investigators to exchange views within the realm of anaerobic microbiology, an area in which tremendous progress has been seen during recent years. It is sufficient to mention discoveries of a new form of life (the archaea), hyper or extreme thermophiles, thermophilic alkaliphiles and anaerobic fungi. With these discoveries has come a new realization about physiological and metabolic properties of microorganisms, and this in turn has demonstrated their importance for the development, maintenance and sustenance of life on Earth.

  15. Detoxification of carbaryl by anaerobic gastrointestinal organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laszewski, S.J.; Harkin, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Bacteria originating from the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) were tested in vitro for their ability to hydrolyze carbaryl, the most widely used carbamate insecticide. Carbaryl hydrolysis prevents acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Degradation of [1- 14 C]naphthyl N-methylcarbamate was assessed through the use of carbon-and nitrogen-free enrichment cultures as well as a cometabolic enrichment culture. The carbon-free enrichment culture showed the greatest ability to hydrolyze carbaryl. Two facultative anaerobes, identified as DF-3 and Citrobacter freundii were isolated. Cell-free extracts from these bacteria were able to hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl acetate, 1-naphthyl acetate and carbaryl. This investigation suggests carbaryl degradation could occur prior to gastrointestinal absorption. Human GIT organisms are also widespread in anaerobic environments. Microbial hydrolysis of a xenobiotic can be an important reaction in the anaerobic environments of man or nature

  16. [Activity of doripenem against anaerobic bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreuil, L; Neut, C; Mahieux, S; Muller-Serieys, C; Jean-Pierre, H; Marchandin, H; Soussy, C J; Miara, A

    2011-04-01

    This study examines the activity of doripenem, a new carbapenem compound compared with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, piperacillin+tazobactam, imipenem, clindamycin and metronidazole against 316 anaerobes. Inoculum preparation and agar dilution method were performed according to the CLSI method for anaerobes (M11A7). At a concentration of 4μg/ml doripenem and imipenem (IMP) inhibited 122 (96 %) and 126 (99 %) strains of the Bacteroides fragilis group, respectively. In contrast, doripenem appeared more potent than IMP against Gram-positive anaerobes inhibiting at the same concentration of 4μg/ml 145/145 strains (100 %) versus 115/145 for IMP (79.3 %). Against 316 anaerobic strains, the carbapenem doripenem had an MIC(50) of 0.25μg/ml and an MIC(90) of 2μg/ml. Results were similar to those for imipenem (MIC(50) of 0.125μg/ml and MIC(90) of 4μg/ml). If we consider the resistant breakpoints of the two carbapenems as defined by EUCAST, the resistance rate for doripenem (MIC>4μg/ml) 1.6 % is similar to that of imipenem (MIC>8μg/ml) 1.3 %. Thus independently of the PK/PD parameters the two carbapenems demonstrated very close activity; doripenem was more potent on Gram-positive anaerobes and slightly less potent against Gram-negative anaerobes mainly the B. fragilis group. Further clinical studies are needed to assess its usefulness in patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. In vitro activity of mecillinam against anaerobic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Steinkraus, G E; McCarthy, L R

    1980-01-01

    A microtiter broth dilution method was employed to determine the in vitro activity of mecillinam against 201 recent clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria. Both the anerobic gram-positive and anaerobic gram-negative bacilli displayed a wide range of minimal inhibitory concentrations of mecillinam; most strains were resistant to the antibiotic. The anaerobic cocci exhibited a narrower range of minimal inhibitory concentrations than were observed with other anaerobes, but also exhibited mecill...

  18. The Financial Feasibility of Anaerobic Digestion for Ontario's Livestock Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Weersink, Alfons; Mallon, Shawn

    2007-01-01

    This report is an investigation of the financial feasibility of farm based anaerobic digestion investments under Ontario's Standard Offer Contract electricity prices. Using Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA) Agricultural Anaerobic Digestion Calculation Spreadsheet (AADCS) anaerobic digestion inputs, outputs, cost and revenues were estimated and used to conduct a financial analysis on the feasibility of four sized farm base anaerobic digestion investments. The res...

  19. Anaerobic Digestion: Mass Balances and Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Jansen, Jes la Cour

    2011-01-01

    While the basic processes involved in anaerobic digestion of waste are described in Chapter 9.4 and the main digestion technologies are presented in Chapter 9.5, this chapter focuses on mass balances, gas production and energy aspects, environmental emissions and unit process inventories. Underst......While the basic processes involved in anaerobic digestion of waste are described in Chapter 9.4 and the main digestion technologies are presented in Chapter 9.5, this chapter focuses on mass balances, gas production and energy aspects, environmental emissions and unit process inventories...

  20. Anaerobic digestion of cider apple residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras Lopez, A. (E.T.S.I.I., U.N.E.D., Madrid (Spain). Dept. Quimica Applicada a la Ingenieria); Lopez Bobo, R. (E.T.S. Ingeneiros Industriales, Asturias (Spain). Dept. de Energia)

    1992-12-01

    Apple residue from the cider industry is used here for anaerobic fermentation. The effect of retention time and volatile solids concentration on the production of biogas and methane was investigated by using continuously mixed anaerobic fermentors with a working volume of 1 1. The maximum proportions of biogas and methane obtained were 430 1 biogas/kg per day (12 days' retention time and 3% of volatile solids) and 281 1 of methane per day (a retention time of 30 days and 2% of volatile solids), respectively. (author)

  1. Renewable methane from anaerobic digestion of biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chynoweth, D.P.; Owens, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Production of methane via anaerobic digestion of energy crops and organic wastes would benefit society by providing a clean fuel from renewable feedstocks. This would replace fossil fuel-derived energy and reduce environmental impacts including global warming and acid rain. Although biomass energy is more costly than fossil fuel-derived energy, trends to limit carbon dioxide and other emissions through emission regulations, carbon taxes, and subsidies of biomass energy would make it cost competitive. Methane derived from anaerobic digestion is competitive in efficiencies and costs to other biomass energy forms including heat, synthesis gases, and ethanol. (author)

  2. Anaerobic digestion of industrial activated aerobic sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodloe, J.G.; Roberts, R.S.

    1990-04-01

    The Tennessee Eastman Company manufactures a variety of organic chemicals, plastics and fibers at their Kingsport Tennessee Facility. The wastewater generated during the manufacture of these compounds is currently treated using an activated sludge process. The objective of the project is to evaluate the economic potential of an anaerobic digestion process to convert industrial sludge at the Tennessee Eastman Company into biogas. The evaluation will require collection and analysis of experimental data on the anaerobic digestion of industrial sludge obtained from Kingsport. Although the experiments will be conducted using Tennessee Eastman sludge, these results should be also generally applicable to similar industrial sludge

  3. Pu sorption to activated conglomerate anaerobic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takayuki; Kudo, Akira

    2001-01-01

    The sorption of Pu to the anaerobic bacteria activated under specific conditions of temperature, pH and depleted nutrients after long dormant period was investigated. After 4 h at neutral pH, the distribution coefficient (K d ) between bacteria and aqueous phase at 308 and 278 K had around 10 3 to 10 4 . After over 5 days, however, the K d at only 308 K had increased to over 10 5 . Sterilized (dead) and dormant anaerobic bacteria adsorbed Pu to the same extent. (author)

  4. The IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No 1 (ADM1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batstone, D.J.; Keller, J.; Angelidaki, I.; Kalyuzhnyi, S.V.; Pavalostathis, S.G.; Rozzi, A.; Sanders, W.T.M.; Siegrist, H.; Vavilin, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    The IWA Anaerobic Digestion Modelling Task Group was established in 1997 at the 8th World Congress on Anaerobic Digestion (Sendai, Japan) with the goal of developing a generalised anaerobic digestion model. The structured model includes multiple steps describing biochemical as well as

  5. The IWA Anaerobic digestion model no 1. (ADM1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batstone, Damien J.; Keller, J.; Angelidaki, Irini

    2002-01-01

    The IWA Anaerobic Digestion Modelling Task Group was established in 1997 at the 8th World Congress on Anaerobic Digestion (Sendai, Japan) with the goal of developing a generalised anaerobic digestion model. The structured model includes multiple steps describing biochemical as well...

  6. Anaerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, John W., Ed.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a four-lesson unit on anaerobic digestion control. Areas addressed include: (1) anaerobic sludge digestion (considering the nature of raw sludge, purposes of anaerobic digestion, the results of digestion, types of equipment, and other topics); (2) digester process control (considering feeding…

  7. Some Characterizations of Convex Interval Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brânzei, R.; Tijs, S.H.; Alparslan-Gok, S.Z.

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on new characterizations of convex interval games using the notions of exactness and superadditivity. We also relate big boss interval games with concave interval games and obtain characterizations of big boss interval games in terms of exactness and subadditivity.

  8. Concurrent nitrate and Fe(III) reduction during anaerobic biodegradation of phenols in a sandstone aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Mette; Crouzet, C.; Arvin, Erik

    2000-01-01

    The biodegradation of phenols (similar to 5, 60, 600 mg 1(-1)) under anaerobic conditions (nitrate enriched and unamended) was studied in laboratory microcosms with sandstone material and groundwater from within an anaerobic ammonium plume in an aquifer, The aqueous phase was sampled and analyzed...... for phenols and selected redox sensitive parameters on a regular basis. An experiment with sandstone material from specific depth intervals from a vertical profile across the ammonium plume was also conducted. The miniature microcosms used in this experiment were sacrificed for sampling for phenols...... and selected redox sensitive parameters at the end of the experiment. The sandstone material was characterized with respect to oxidation and reduction potential and Fe(II) and Fe(III) speciation prior to use for all microcosms and at the end of the experiments for selected microcosms. The redox conditions...

  9. Anaerobic microbiological method of cleaning water contaminated by metallurgical slags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Леонідівна Дан

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem of environmental protection and rational use of water resources is one of the most important problems of environmental policy in Ukraine. This problem in Mariupol is particularly acute as metallurgical and coke industries cause significant damage to adjacent water bodies (the Kalchyk, the Kalmius and coastal zone of the Sea of Azov. One of the most harmful components of wastewater of these enterprises are sulfide-containing compounds. These compounds in water can cause great harm to both human health and the environment. For example, in 1999 the main city enterprises (AZOVSTAL IRON & STEEL WORKS and ILYICH IRON AND STEEL WORKS discharged 885,0 million m³ of wastewater (including 403,9 million m³ of polluted waste water into water bodies. The slag dumps and landfills in close proximity to the sea form a source of dangerous pollution, because contaminated water infiltration washed out here in the groundwater and surface water, get into the Sea of Azov later on. There are 97 mg/l of sulfides in the protective dam of AZOVSTAL IRON & STEEL WORKS, what exceeds the standards (MPC = 10 mg/l. It makes it possible for us to put forward biochemical purification processes. Anaerobic microbiological method proposed in the article has several advantages (compact hardware design, a minimum amount of activated sludge and lack of energy consumption for aeration over the existing wastewater treatment (chemical, mechanical, biological. The experimental procedure consisted in introducing the medium to be purified purified into microbial communities of high concentration (Thiobacillus «X», Thiobacillus concretivorus, which assimilated organic substances of the medium as a primary energy source. The kinetics of sulfide compounds removal by means of anaerobic microbiological method was considered. The effectiveness of wastewater treatment with changing purification process conditions has been also assessed (concentration of sulfides, reactor type, p

  10. Proceedings of the 10. world congress on anaerobic digestion 2004 : anaerobic bioconversion, answer for sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This conference reviewed the broad scope of anaerobic process-related activities taking place globally and confirmed the possibilities of using anaerobic processes to add value to industrial wastewaters, municipal solid wastes and organic wastes while minimizing pollution and greenhouse gases. It focused on biomolecular tools, instrumentation of anaerobic digestion processes, anaerobic bioremediation of chlorinated organics, and thermophilic and mesophilic digestion. Several papers focused on the feasibility of using waste products to produce hydrogen and methane for electricity generation. The sessions of the conference were entitled acidogenesis; microbial ecology; process control; sulfur content; technical development; domestic wastewater; agricultural waste; organic municipal solid wastes; instrumentation; molecular biology; sludges; agricultural feedstock; bioremediation; industrial wastewater; hydrogen production; pretreatments; sustainability; and integrated systems. The conference featured 387 posters and 192 oral presentations, of which 111 have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  11. Environmental impacts of anaerobic digestion and the use of anaerobic residues as soil amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosey, F.E. [VFA Services Ltd., Herts (United Kingdom)

    1996-01-01

    This paper defines the environmental role of anaerobic digestion within the overall objective of recovering energy from renewable biomass resources. Examples and opportunities for incorporating anaerobic digestion into biomass-to-energy schemes are discussed, together with environmental aspects of anaerobic digestion plants. These include visual, public amenity, pathogens and public health, odor control, and gaseous emissions. Digestate disposal and the benefits of restrictions on recycling organic wastes and biomass residues back to the land are discussed, particularly as they relate to American and European codes of practice and environmental legislation. The paper concludes that anaerobic digestion, if performed in purpose-designed reactors that efficiently recover and use biogas, is an environmentally benign process that can enhance energy recovery and aid the beneficial land use of plant residues in many biomass-to-energy schemes.

  12. Exocellular electron transfer in anaerobic microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stams, Alfons J M; de Bok, Frank A M; Plugge, Caroline M; van Eekert, Miriam H A; Dolfing, Jan; Schraa, Gosse

    2006-03-01

    Exocellular electron transfer plays an important role in anaerobic microbial communities that degrade organic matter. Interspecies hydrogen transfer between microorganisms is the driving force for complete biodegradation in methanogenic environments. Many organic compounds are degraded by obligatory syntrophic consortia of proton-reducing acetogenic bacteria and hydrogen-consuming methanogenic archaea. Anaerobic microorganisms that use insoluble electron acceptors for growth, such as iron- and manganese-oxide as well as inert graphite electrodes in microbial fuel cells, also transfer electrons exocellularly. Soluble compounds, like humic substances, quinones, phenazines and riboflavin, can function as exocellular electron mediators enhancing this type of anaerobic respiration. However, direct electron transfer by cell-cell contact is important as well. This review addresses the mechanisms of exocellular electron transfer in anaerobic microbial communities. There are fundamental differences but also similarities between electron transfer to another microorganism or to an insoluble electron acceptor. The physical separation of the electron donor and electron acceptor metabolism allows energy conservation in compounds as methane and hydrogen or as electricity. Furthermore, this separation is essential in the donation or acceptance of electrons in some environmental technological processes, e.g. soil remediation, wastewater purification and corrosion.

  13. Anaerobic Digestion in a Flooded Densified Leachbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chynoweth, David P.; Teixeira, Arthur A.; Owens, John M.; Haley, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    A document discusses the adaptation of a patented biomass-digesting process, denoted sequential batch anaerobic composting (SEBAC), to recycling of wastes aboard a spacecraft. In SEBAC, high-solids-content biomass wastes are converted into methane, carbon dioxide, and compost.

  14. Anaerobic hydrolysis during digestion of complex substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, W.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    Complex waste(water) such as, raw sewage, dairy wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater, fish processing wastewater, primary sludge and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste have been proven to be degradable under anaerobic conditions. However, during the digestion process the conversion of

  15. Anaerobic hydrolysis during digestion of complex substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, W.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    Complex waste(water) such as, raw sewage, dairy wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater, fish processing wastewater, primary sludge and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste have been proven to be degradable under anaerobic conditions. However, during the digestion process the

  16. Anaerobic effluent disinfection using ozone: Byproducts formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, G.H.R.; Daniel, L.A.; Bruning, H.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    This research was aimed at studying oxidation processes, coliform inactivation effectiveness and disinfection byproducts (DBPs) associated with the disinfection of anaerobic sanitary wastewater effluent with ozone applied at doses of 5.0, 8.0 and 10.0mg O(3)L(-1) for contact times of 5, 10 and 15

  17. Anaerobic Toxicity of Cationic Silver Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The microbial toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) stabilized with different capping agents was compared to that of Ag+ under anaerobic conditions. Three AgNPs were investigated: (1) negatively charged citrate-coated AgNPs (citrate-AgNPs), (2) minimally charged p...

  18. Anaerobic digestion of dairy farm slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, C

    1973-04-01

    Bell described the intermittent operation of a pilot-scale anaerobic digester receiving dilute dairy farm slurry. A 65 to 75 percent reduction of the ''permanganate (COD) value'' could be obtained at 35/sup 0/ and a 60 day detention time. Methane content of the gases ranged between 40 and 70 percent.

  19. Multivariate monitoring of anaerobic co-digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    Anaerobic digestion processes for production of renewable energy in the form of biogas, and in the future hydrogen, are becoming increasingly important worldwide. Sustainable solutions for renewable energy production systems are given high political priority, amongst other things due to global...

  20. Electrochemical monitoring of ammonia during anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Nannan; Angelidaki, Irini; Zhang, Yifeng

    Ammonia is known as key inhibitor to methanogens in anaerobic digestion (AD) process. It’s of importance to develop efficient tool for ammonia monitoring. In this study, an electrolysis cell (EC) coupled with a complete nitrification reactor was developed as sensor for real time and online monito...

  1. Sulfate-reducing bacteria in anaerobic bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Elferink, S.J.W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The treatment of industrial wastewaters containing high amounts of easily degradable organic compounds in anaerobic bioreactors is a well-established process. Similarly, wastewaters which in addition to organic compounds also contain sulfate can be treated in this way. For a long time, the

  2. Anaerobic oxidation of methane and ammonium.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strous, M.; Jetten, M.S.M.

    2004-01-01

    Anaerobic oxidation of methane and ammonium are two different processes catalyzed by completely unrelated microorganisms. Still, the two processes do have many interesting aspects in common. First, both of them were once deemed biochemically impossible and nonexistent in nature, but have now been

  3. Comparative effects of undigested and anaerobically digested ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... The pot experiment consisted of sixty (60) nursery bags, set out in the greenhouse. ... (NPK 20:10:10) applied at the 120 kgN/ha; air-dried undigested and anaerobically digested ...

  4. Anaerobic prefermentation and primary sedimentation of wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out with the aim of evaluating the solubilisation and acidification capacity of fermenting organisms in suspension in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), which had a volume of 1 800 ℓ. Using 8 h cycles with 340 min of anaerobic reaction time, the wastewater fed to the SBR presented an average of ...

  5. The anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    1995-01-01


    In the anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) will compete with methanogenic- (MB) and acetogenic bacteria (AB) for the available substrates such as hydrogen, acetate, propionate and butyrate. The outcome of this competition will

  6. Early Microbial Evolution: The Age of Anaerobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William F; Sousa, Filipa L

    2015-12-18

    In this article, the term "early microbial evolution" refers to the phase of biological history from the emergence of life to the diversification of the first microbial lineages. In the modern era (since we knew about archaea), three debates have emerged on the subject that deserve discussion: (1) thermophilic origins versus mesophilic origins, (2) autotrophic origins versus heterotrophic origins, and (3) how do eukaryotes figure into early evolution. Here, we revisit those debates from the standpoint of newer data. We also consider the perhaps more pressing issue that molecular phylogenies need to recover anaerobic lineages at the base of prokaryotic trees, because O2 is a product of biological evolution; hence, the first microbes had to be anaerobes. If molecular phylogenies do not recover anaerobes basal, something is wrong. Among the anaerobes, hydrogen-dependent autotrophs--acetogens and methanogens--look like good candidates for the ancestral state of physiology in the bacteria and archaea, respectively. New trees tend to indicate that eukaryote cytosolic ribosomes branch within their archaeal homologs, not as sisters to them and, furthermore tend to root archaea within the methanogens. These are major changes in the tree of life, and open up new avenues of thought. Geochemical methane synthesis occurs as a spontaneous, abiotic exergonic reaction at hydrothermal vents. The overall similarity between that reaction and biological methanogenesis fits well with the concept of a methanogenic root for archaea and an autotrophic origin of microbial physiology. Copyright © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  7. Anaerobic work capacity in elite wheelchair athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H; Bakker, W H; Elkhuizen, J W; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); Gwinn, T

    1997-01-01

    To study the anaerobic work capacity in wheelchair athletes, 67 elite wheelchair athletes (50 male) were studied in a 30-second sprint test on a computer-controlled wheelchair ergometer during the World Championships and Games for the Disabled in Assen (1990). The experimental set-up (ergometer,

  8. The fate of methanol in anaerobic bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florencio, L.

    1994-01-01

    Methanol is an important component of certain industrial wastewaters. In anaerobic environments, methanol can be utilized by methanogens and acetogens. In wastewater treatment plants, the conversion of methanol into methane is preferred because this conversion is responsible for chemical

  9. Applications of the anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ellegaard, L.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    and resource/energy recovery have been developed. Treatment of biowastes by anaerobic digestion processes is in many cases the optimal way to convert organic waste into useful products such as energy (in the form of biogas) and a fertilizer product. Other waste management options, such as land filling...

  10. Teleosts in hypoxia : Aspects of anaerobic metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Thillart, G.; van Waarde, Aren

    1985-01-01

    Moderate hypoxia can be tolerated by many fish species, while only some species survive severe hypoxia or anoxia. Hypoxia usually activates anaerobic glycolysis, which may be temporary when the animals are able to improve their oxygen extraction capacity. Switching over to aerobic metabolism allows

  11. Antimicrobial resistance and susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Audrey N

    2014-09-01

    Infections due to anaerobic bacteria can be severe and life-threatening. Susceptibility testing of anaerobes is not frequently performed in laboratories, but such testing is important to direct appropriate therapy. Anaerobic resistance is increasing globally, and resistance trends vary by geographic region. An overview of a variety of susceptibility testing methods for anaerobes is provided, and the advantages and disadvantages of each method are reviewed. Specific clinical situations warranting anaerobic susceptibility testing are discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Bacteriology of aspiration pneumonia in patients with acute coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Enise; Voss, Frederik; Gerigk, Roland; Lauterbach, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Loss of protective airway reflexes in patients with acute coma puts these patients at risk of aspiration pneumonia complicating the course of the primary disease. Available data vary considerably with regard to bacteriology, role of anaerobic bacteria, and antibiotic treatment. Our objective was to research the bacteriology of aspiration pneumonia in acute coma patients who were not pre-treated with antibiotics or hospitalized within 30 days prior to the event. We prospectively analyzed 127 patient records from adult patients admitted, intubated and ventilated to a tertiary medical intensive care unit with acute coma. Bacteriology and antibiotic resistance testing from tracheal aspirate sampled within 24 h after admission, blood cultures, ICU scores (APACHE II, SOFA), hematology, and clinical chemistry were assessed. Patients were followed up until death or hospital discharge. The majority of patients with acute coma suffered from acute cardiovascular disorders, predominantly myocardial infarction, followed by poisonings, and coma of unknown cause. In a majority of our patients, microaspiration resulted in overt infection. Most frequently S. aureus, H. influenzae, and S. pneumoniae were isolated. Anaerobic bacteria (Bacteroides spec., Fusobacteria, Prevotella spec.) were isolated from tracheal aspirate in a minority of patients, and predominantly as part of a mixed infection. Antibiotic monotherapy with a 2nd generation cephalosporin, or a 3rd generation gyrase inhibitor, was most effective in our patients regardless of the presence of anaerobic bacteria.

  13. Anaerobic bacteria in wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyprowski, Marcin; Stobnicka-Kupiec, Agata; Ławniczek-Wałczyk, Anna; Bakal-Kijek, Aleksandra; Gołofit-Szymczak, Małgorzata; Górny, Rafał L

    2018-03-28

    The objective of this study was to assess exposure to anaerobic bacteria released into air from sewage and sludge at workplaces from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Samples of both sewage and sludge were collected at six sampling points and bioaerosol samples were additionally collected (with the use of a 6-stage Andersen impactor) at ten workplaces covering different stages of the technological process. Qualitative identification of all isolated strains was performed using the biochemical API 20A test. Additionally, the determination of Clostridium pathogens was carried out using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The average concentration of anaerobic bacteria in the sewage samples was 5.49 × 10 4 CFU/mL (GSD = 85.4) and in sludge-1.42 × 10 6 CFU/g (GSD = 5.1). In turn, the average airborne bacterial concentration was at the level of 50 CFU/m 3 (GSD = 5.83) and the highest bacterial contamination (4.06 × 10 3  CFU/m 3 ) was found in winter at the bar screens. In total, 16 bacterial species were determined, from which the predominant strains belonged to Actinomyces, Bifidobacterium, Clostridium, Propionibacterium and Peptostreptococcus genera. The analysis revealed that mechanical treatment processes were responsible for a substantial emission of anaerobic bacteria into the air. In both the sewage and air samples, Clostridium perfringens pathogen was identified. Anaerobic bacteria were widely present both in the sewage and in the air at workplaces from the WWTP, especially when the technological process was performed in closed spaces. Anaerobic bacteria formed small aggregates with both wastewater droplets and dust particles of sewage sludge origin and as such may be responsible for adverse health outcomes in exposed workers.

  14. Analysis of anaerobic blood cultures in burned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regules, Jason A; Carlson, Misty D; Wolf, Steven E; Murray, Clinton K

    2007-08-01

    The utility of anaerobic blood culturing is often debated in the general population, but there is limited data on the modern incidence, microbiology, and utility of obtaining routine anaerobic blood cultures for burned patients. We performed a retrospective review of the burned patients electronic medical records database for all blood cultures drawn between January 1997 and September 2005. We assessed blood cultures for positivity, organisms identified, and growth in aerobic or anaerobic media. 85,103 blood culture sets were drawn, with 4059 sets from burned patients. Three hundred and forty-five single species events (619 total blood culture isolates) were noted in 240 burned patients. For burned patients, four isolates were obligate anaerobic bacteria (all Propionibacterium acnes). Anaerobic versus aerobic culture growth was recorded in 310 of 619 (50.1%) burned patient blood culture sets. 46 (13.5%) of the identified organisms, most of which were not obligate anaerobic bacteria, were identified from solely anaerobic media. The results of our study suggest that the detection of significant anaerobic bacteremia in burned patients is very rare and that anaerobic bottles are not needed in this population for that indication. However anaerobic blood cultures systems are also able to detect facultative and obligate aerobic bacteria; therefore, the deletion of the anaerobic culture medium may have deleterious clinical impact.

  15. A single bout of high-intensity interval training reduces awareness of subsequent hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijackers, H.M.M.; Wiegers, E.C.; Graaf, M. van der; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Tack, C.J.J.; Galan, B.E. de

    2017-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) gains increasing popularity in patients with diabetes. HIIT acutely increases plasma lactate levels. This may be important, since administration of lactate during hypoglycemia suppresses symptoms and counterregulation, whilst preserving cognitive function. We

  16. Techniques for controlling variability in gram staining of obligate anaerobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M J; Thatcher, E; Cox, M E

    1995-01-01

    Identification of anaerobes recovered from clinical samples is complicated by the fact that certain gram-positive anaerobes routinely stain gram negative; Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus, Eubacterium plautii, Clostridium ramosum, Clostridium symbiosum, and Clostridium clostridiiforme are among the nonconformists with regard to conventional Gram-staining procedures. Accurate Gram staining of American Type Culture Collection strains of these anaerobic bacteria is possible by implementing fixing and staining techniques within a gloveless anaerobic chamber. Under anaerobic conditions, gram-positive staining occurred in all test organisms with "quick" fixing techniques with both absolute methanol and formalin. The results support the hypothesis that, when anaerobic bacteria are exposed to oxygen, a breakdown of the physical integrity of the cell wall occurs, introducing Gram stain variability in gram-positive anaerobes. PMID:7538512

  17. Problematic effects of antibiotics on anaerobic treatment of swine wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, D L; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Chang, S W; Nguyen, D D; Kumar, S Mathava; Du, B; Wei, Q; Wei, D

    2018-05-04

    Swine wastewaters with high levels of organic pollutants and antibiotics have become serious environmental concerns. Anaerobic technology is a feasible option for swine wastewater treatment due to its advantage in low costs and bioenergy production. However, antibiotics in swine wastewater have problematic effects on micro-organisms, and the stability and performance of anaerobic processes. Thus, this paper critically reviews impacts of antibiotics on pH, COD removal efficiencies, biogas and methane productions as well as the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the anaerobic processes. Meanwhile, impacts on the structure of bacteria and methanogens in anaerobic processes are also discussed comprehensively. Furthermore, to better understand the effect of antibiotics on anaerobic processes, detailed information about antimicrobial mechanisms of antibiotics and microbial functions in anaerobic processes is also summarized. Future research on deeper knowledge of the effect of antibiotics on anaerobic processes are suggested to reduce their adverse environmental impacts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Robust misinterpretation of confidence intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Rink; Morey, Richard D; Rouder, Jeffrey N; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2014-10-01

    Null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) is undoubtedly the most common inferential technique used to justify claims in the social sciences. However, even staunch defenders of NHST agree that its outcomes are often misinterpreted. Confidence intervals (CIs) have frequently been proposed as a more useful alternative to NHST, and their use is strongly encouraged in the APA Manual. Nevertheless, little is known about how researchers interpret CIs. In this study, 120 researchers and 442 students-all in the field of psychology-were asked to assess the truth value of six particular statements involving different interpretations of a CI. Although all six statements were false, both researchers and students endorsed, on average, more than three statements, indicating a gross misunderstanding of CIs. Self-declared experience with statistics was not related to researchers' performance, and, even more surprisingly, researchers hardly outperformed the students, even though the students had not received any education on statistical inference whatsoever. Our findings suggest that many researchers do not know the correct interpretation of a CI. The misunderstandings surrounding p-values and CIs are particularly unfortunate because they constitute the main tools by which psychologists draw conclusions from data.

  19. Using the confidence interval confidently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Avijit

    2017-10-01

    Biomedical research is seldom done with entire populations but rather with samples drawn from a population. Although we work with samples, our goal is to describe and draw inferences regarding the underlying population. It is possible to use a sample statistic and estimates of error in the sample to get a fair idea of the population parameter, not as a single value, but as a range of values. This range is the confidence interval (CI) which is estimated on the basis of a desired confidence level. Calculation of the CI of a sample statistic takes the general form: CI = Point estimate ± Margin of error, where the margin of error is given by the product of a critical value (z) derived from the standard normal curve and the standard error of point estimate. Calculation of the standard error varies depending on whether the sample statistic of interest is a mean, proportion, odds ratio (OR), and so on. The factors affecting the width of the CI include the desired confidence level, the sample size and the variability in the sample. Although the 95% CI is most often used in biomedical research, a CI can be calculated for any level of confidence. A 99% CI will be wider than 95% CI for the same sample. Conflict between clinical importance and statistical significance is an important issue in biomedical research. Clinical importance is best inferred by looking at the effect size, that is how much is the actual change or difference. However, statistical significance in terms of P only suggests whether there is any difference in probability terms. Use of the CI supplements the P value by providing an estimate of actual clinical effect. Of late, clinical trials are being designed specifically as superiority, non-inferiority or equivalence studies. The conclusions from these alternative trial designs are based on CI values rather than the P value from intergroup comparison.

  20. Acute nephritic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glomerulonephritis - acute; Acute glomerulonephritis; Nephritis syndrome - acute ... Acute nephritic syndrome is often caused by an immune response triggered by an infection or other disease. Common causes in children ...

  1. Direct Interval Forecasting of Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Can; Xu, Zhao; Pinson, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    This letter proposes a novel approach to directly formulate the prediction intervals of wind power generation based on extreme learning machine and particle swarm optimization, where prediction intervals are generated through direct optimization of both the coverage probability and sharpness...

  2. A note on birth interval distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, G.

    1989-08-01

    A considerable amount of work has been done regarding the birth interval analysis in mathematical demography. This paper is prepared with the intention of reviewing some probability models related to interlive birth intervals proposed by different researchers. (author). 14 refs

  3. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Enteric Gram Negative Facultative Anaerobe Bacilli in Aerobic versus Anaerobic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amachawadi, Raghavendra G.; Renter, David G.; Volkova, Victoriya V.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial treatments result in the host’s enteric bacteria being exposed to the antimicrobials. Pharmacodynamic models can describe how this exposure affects the enteric bacteria and their antimicrobial resistance. The models utilize measurements of bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility traditionally obtained in vitro in aerobic conditions. However, in vivo enteric bacteria are exposed to antimicrobials in anaerobic conditions of the lower intestine. Some of enteric bacteria of food animals are potential foodborne pathogens, e.g., Gram-negative bacilli Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. These are facultative anaerobes; their physiology and growth rates change in anaerobic conditions. We hypothesized that their antimicrobial susceptibility also changes, and evaluated differences in the susceptibility in aerobic vs. anaerobic conditions of generic E. coli and Salmonella enterica of diverse serovars isolated from cattle feces. Susceptibility of an isolate was evaluated as its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measured by E-Test® following 24 hours of adaptation to the conditions on Mueller-Hinton agar, and on a more complex tryptic soy agar with 5% sheep blood (BAP) media. We considered all major antimicrobial drug classes used in the U.S. to treat cattle: β-lactams (specifically, ampicillin and ceftriaxone E-Test®), aminoglycosides (gentamicin and kanamycin), fluoroquinolones (enrofloxacin), classical macrolides (erythromycin), azalides (azithromycin), sulfanomides (sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim), and tetracyclines (tetracycline). Statistical analyses were conducted for the isolates (n≥30) interpreted as susceptible to the antimicrobials based on the clinical breakpoint interpretation for human infection. Bacterial susceptibility to every antimicrobial tested was statistically significantly different in anaerobic vs. aerobic conditions on both media, except for no difference in susceptibility to ceftriaxone on BAP agar. A satellite experiment

  4. Optimal Data Interval for Estimating Advertising Response

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard J. Tellis; Philip Hans Franses

    2006-01-01

    The abundance of highly disaggregate data (e.g., at five-second intervals) raises the question of the optimal data interval to estimate advertising carryover. The literature assumes that (1) the optimal data interval is the interpurchase time, (2) too disaggregate data causes a disaggregation bias, and (3) recovery of true parameters requires assumption of the underlying advertising process. In contrast, we show that (1) the optimal data interval is what we call , (2) too disaggregate data do...

  5. An Adequate First Order Logic of Intervals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaochen, Zhou; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    1998-01-01

    This paper introduces left and right neighbourhoods as primitive interval modalities to define other unary and binary modalities of intervals in a first order logic with interval length. A complete first order logic for the neighbourhood modalities is presented. It is demonstrated how the logic can...... support formal specification and verification of liveness and fairness, and also of various notions of real analysis....

  6. Consistency and refinement for Interval Markov Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delahaye, Benoit; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Legay, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Interval Markov Chains (IMC), or Markov Chains with probability intervals in the transition matrix, are the base of a classic specification theory for probabilistic systems [18]. The standard semantics of IMCs assigns to a specification the set of all Markov Chains that satisfy its interval...

  7. Multivariate interval-censored survival data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Interval censoring means that an event time is only known to lie in an interval (L,R], with L the last examination time before the event, and R the first after. In the univariate case, parametric models are easily fitted, whereas for non-parametric models, the mass is placed on some intervals, de...

  8. Comparative analysis of two different methods of anaerobic capacity assessment in sedentary young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klašnja Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The Wingate anaerobic test is a valid and reliable method of measuring anaerobic capacity. The aim of this study was to determine whether other modified test can be used instead of the Wingate test. Methods. A group of 30 sedentary young men were first tested with a cycle ergometer (classic Wingate test, and then with a dynamometer during 30 s of 'all out' leg extension exercise (modified Wingate test; WAnTe in order to test anaerobic capacity. Subsequent correlations between these tests were made. Results. Peak power, mean power on cycling ergometer in absolute and relative values were 463 ± 105 W, 316.7 ± 63.8 W, 5.68 ± 1.17 W/kg, 3.68 ± 0.78 W/kg, respectively. On a dynamometer absolute and relative values of maximal and mean load in kg and power in Watts were 136.54 ± 21.3 kg, 1.67 ± 0.26; 128.65 ± 19.93 kg, 1.57 ± 0.24 kg, 657 ± 125.87 W, and 8 ± 1.54 W/kg, respectively. There was no correlation between 5 s intervals of the classic Wingate test and WAnTe during the first, fourth and fifth intervals, but in the second (r = 0.49, p < 0.05, third (r = 0.38, p < 0.05 and last 5 s intervals (r = 0.39, p < 0.05, and also in peak power and mean power (r = 0.42, p < 0.05 and r = 0.45, p < 0.05 respectively, a significant positive correlation was detected. Conclusion. A modified Wingate test of leg extension on a dynamometer in sedentary young men shows a correlation with the classic Wingate test only in parameters of peak power, and mean power and the second, the third and the last 5 s intervals. Because of that it should only be used for orientation, whereas for precise measurements of anaerobic capacity the classic Wingate test should be used.

  9. In situ detection of anaerobic alkane metabolites in subsurface environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa eGieg

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alkanes comprise a substantial fraction of crude oil and refined fuels. As such, they are prevalent within deep subsurface fossil fuel deposits and in shallow subsurface environments such as aquifers that are contaminated with hydrocarbons. These environments are typically anaerobic, and host diverse microbial communities that can potentially use alkanes as substrates. Anaerobic alkane biodegradation has been reported to occur under nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Elucidating the pathways of anaerobic alkane metabolism has been of interest in order to understand how microbes can be used to remediate contaminated sites. Alkane activation primarily occurs by addition to fumarate, yielding alkylsuccinates, unique anaerobic metabolites that can be used to indicate in situ anaerobic alkane metabolism. These metabolites have been detected in hydrocarbon-contaminated shallow aquifers, offering strong evidence for intrinsic anaerobic bioremediation. Recently, studies have also revealed that alkylsuccinates are present in oil and coal seam production waters, indicating that anaerobic microbial communities can utilize alkanes in these deeper subsurface environments. In many crude oil reservoirs, the in situ anaerobic metabolism of hydrocarbons such as alkanes may be contibuting to modern-day detrimental effects such as oilfield souring, or may lead to more benefical technologies such as enhanced energy recovery from mature oilfields. In this review, we briefly describe the key metabolic pathways for anaerobic alkane (including n-alkanes, isoalkanes, and cyclic alkanes metabolism and highlight several field reports wherein alkylsuccinates have provided evidence for anaerobic in situ alkane metabolism in shallow and deep subsurface environments.

  10. Anaerobic biodegradability and treatment of grey water in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmitwalli, Tarek A; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2007-03-01

    Feasibility of grey water treatment in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor operated at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 16, 10 and 6h and controlled temperature of 30 degrees C was investigated. Moreover, the maximum anaerobic biodegradability without inoculum addition and maximum removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) fractions in grey water were determined in batch experiments. High values of maximum anaerobic biodegradability (76%) and maximum COD removal in the UASB reactor (84%) were achieved. The results showed that the colloidal COD had the highest maximum anaerobic biodegradability (86%) and the suspended and dissolved COD had similar maximum anaerobic biodegradability of 70%. Furthermore, the results of the UASB reactor demonstrated that a total COD removal of 52-64% was obtained at HRT between 6 and 16 h. The UASB reactor removed 22-30% and 15-21% of total nitrogen and total phosphorous in the grey water, respectively, mainly due to the removal of particulate nutrients. The characteristics of the sludge in the UASB reactor confirmed that the reactor had a stable performance. The minimum sludge residence time and the maximum specific methanogenic activity of the sludge ranged between 27 and 93 days and 0.18 and 0.28 kg COD/(kg VS d).

  11. Instrumentation and Control in Anaerobic Digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anaerobic digestion is a multistep process, and is most applied to solids destruction and wastewater treatment for energy production. Despite wide application, and long-term industrial proof of application, some industries are still reluctant to apply this technology. One of the classical reasons...... benchmark. There has therefore been, overall, a quantum advance in application and sophistication of instrumentation and control in anaerobic digestion, and it is an effective option for improved process loading rate and conversion efficiency....... are still a limitation, but this is being partly addressed by the increased complexity of digestion processes. Methods for control benchmarking have also been improved, as there is now an industry standard model (the IWA ADM1), and this is being applied in an improved whole wastewater treatment plant...

  12. Anaerobic Digestion Alters Copper and Zinc Speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legros, Samuel; Levard, Clément; Marcato-Romain, Claire-Emmanuelle; Guiresse, Maritxu; Doelsch, Emmanuel

    2017-09-19

    Anaerobic digestion is a widely used organic waste treatment process. However, little is known on how it could alter the speciation of contaminants in organic waste. This study was focused on determining the influence of anaerobic digestion on the speciation of copper and zinc, two metals that generally occur at high concentration in organic waste. Copper and zinc speciation was investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy in four different raw organic wastes (predigestion) and their digested counterparts (postdigestion, i.e., digestates). The results highlighted an increase in the digestates of the proportion of amorphous or nanostructured copper sulfides as well as amorphous or nanostructured zinc sulfides and zinc phosphate as compared to raw waste. We therefore suggest that the environmental fate of these elements would be different when spreading either digestates or raw waste on cropland.

  13. Some effects of aeration on anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhywapathanapun, S

    1972-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of meat works waste water is made possible by separating the sludge solids, after which necessary amounts of the concentrated sludge are returned to the digester. Sludge recirculation prolongs solid retention time in the digester. However, sludge separation by gravitational sedimentation is almost impossible because the sludge tends to rise with the continuous gassing. Therefore treatment of the sludge suspension prior to sedimentation is necessary for effective solid separation. The present study examined aeration degasification as a method for sludge suspension pretreatment and found that the rates of aeration of 0.75 to 1.0 VVM (0.12 to 0.16 cubic foot of air per gallon of mixed liquor per minute) were optimal for aeration degasification. The toxic effects on the anaerobic bacteria were small, daily gas production being reduced by only 5%.

  14. Note: Small anaerobic chamber for optical spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvet, Adrien A. P., E-mail: adrien.chauvet@gmail.com; Chergui, Majed [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Ultrarapide, ISIC, Faculté des Sciences de Base, Station 6, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Agarwal, Rachna; Cramer, William A. [Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    The study of oxygen-sensitive biological samples requires an effective control of the atmosphere in which they are housed. In this aim however, no commercial anaerobic chamber is adequate to solely enclose the sample and small enough to fit in a compact spectroscopic system with which analysis can be performed. Furthermore, spectroscopic analysis requires the probe beam to pass through the whole chamber, introducing a requirement for adequate windows. In response to these challenges, we present a 1 l anaerobic chamber that is suitable for broad-band spectroscopic analysis. This chamber has the advantage of (1) providing access, via a septum, to the sample and (2) allows the sample position to be adjusted while keeping the chamber fixed and hermetic during the experiment.

  15. Relationship between anaerobic capacity estimated using a single effort and 30-s tethered running outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Moura Zagatto

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between alternative anaerobic capacity method (MAODALT and a 30-s all-out tethered running test. Fourteen male recreational endurance runners underwent a graded exercise test, a supramaximal exhaustive effort and a 30-s all-out test on different days, interspaced by 48h. After verification of data normality (Shapiro-Wilk test, the Pearson's correlation test was used to verify the association between the anaerobic estimates from the MAODALT and the 30-s all-out tethered running outputs. Absolute MAODALT was correlated with mean power (r = 0.58; P = 0.03, total work (r = 0.57; P = 0.03, and mean force (r = 0.79; P = 0.001. In addition, energy from the glycolytic pathway (E[La-] was correlated with mean power (r = 0.58; P = 0.03. Significant correlations were also found at each 5s interval between absolute MAODALT and force values (r between 0.75 and 0.84, and between force values and E[La-] (r between 0.73 to 0.80. In conclusion, the associations between absolute MAODALT and the mechanical outputs from the 30-s all-out tethered running test evidenced the importance of the anaerobic capacity for maintaining force during the course of time in short efforts.

  16. Monitoring and control of anaerobic reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pind, Peter Frode; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    The current status in monitoring and control of anaerobic reactors is reviewed. The influence of reactor design and waste composition on the possible monitoring and control schemes is examined. After defining the overall control structure, and possible control objectives, the possible process...... control approaches that have been used are comprehensively described. These include simple and adaptive controllers, as well as more recent developments such as fuzzy controllers, knowledge-based controllers and controllers based on neural networks....

  17. Anaerobic co-digestion of organic wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Neves, L.

    2009-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Engenharia Química e Biológica Anaerobic digestion is an already established process but the increasing need of bio‐waste recovery has determined the emergence of new substrates, revamping the research in this field. Contrary to some other European countries, in Portugal this technology is still scarcely in use. Nonetheless, the current legislation endorses this application as a waste management and as an energy recovery process. The rapid growth of the ...

  18. Monitoring and control of anaerobic reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pind, Peter Frode; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    The current status in monitoring and control of anaerobic reactors is reviewed. The influence of reactor design and waste composition on the possible monitoring and control schemes is examined. After defining the overall control structure, and possible control objectives, the possible process mea...... control approaches that have been used are comprehensively described. These include simple and adaptive controllers, as well as more recent developments such as fuzzy controllers, knowledge-based controllers and controllers based on neural networks....

  19. The fate of methanol in anaerobic bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Florencio, L.

    1994-01-01

    Methanol is an important component of certain industrial wastewaters. In anaerobic environments, methanol can be utilized by methanogens and acetogens. In wastewater treatment plants, the conversion of methanol into methane is preferred because this conversion is responsible for chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, whereas with the formation of volatile fatty acids (VFA) little COD removal is achieved. Moreover, the accumulation of VFA can lead to reactor instability due to pH drops...

  20. Some unique features of alkaliphilic anaerobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roof, Erin; Pikuta, Elena; Otto, Christopher; Williams, George; Hoover, Richard

    2013-09-01

    This article explores two topics involving the examination of four strains of alkaliphilic anaerobes. The first topic was dedicated to detection of the ability of microorganisms to metabolize alternative chirality substrates. Two saccharolytic anaerobic bacteria were chosen for the first experiment: Anaerovirgula multivorans strain SCAT, which is gram positive and spore-forming; and Spirochaeta dissipatitropha, strain ASpC2T, which is gram negative. It was found that both checked sugarlytics were able to use L-ribose and L-arabinose, as growth substrates. The second part was concerned of study a chemolithotrophy in two halo-alkaliphilic sulfate reducing bacteria: Desulfonatornum thiodismutans strain MLF1T and Desulfonatronum lacustre strain Z-7951T. The experiments with lithotrophs had demonstrated that strain MLF1T was capable to grow without any organic source of carbon, while strain Z-7951T had required at least 2 mM sodium acetate for growth. Anaerobic technique was used for preparation of the growth media and maintenance of these bacterial cultures. Standard methods for Gram, spore, and flagella staining were applied for characterization of cytomorphology. In this article, the results of the experiments performed on cytological, physiological, and biochemical levels are presented and discussed.

  1. Anaerobic Capacity of Sailors with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokopowicz Grzegorz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A review of Polish and international literature does not give a clear indication of the level of anaerobic capacity that sailors with disabilities demonstrate with regard to their functional capacities. This study sought to determine differences in functional capacity levels between sailors from three medical and functional groups. Material and methods. The research was carried out during a sports camp at the National Sailing Centre in Górki Zachodnie in 2014. Eighteen males with locomotor disabilities were included in the study. The athletes were members of the National Team of Sailors with Disabilities of the Polish Yachting Association. The sportsmen competed in the Skud 18 and 2.4mR Paralympic classes. A 30-second Wingate test for upper limbs was employed in the study. Results. Significant differences in mean power (MP values were noted between the groups under investigation. The group of wheelchair sailors with improper core stability (A and the group of wheelchair sailors with proper core stability (B had significantly lower scores than the group of study participants who were able to move freely, that is to walk (C. Conclusions. The study revealed that a 30-second anaerobic capacity test performed on an arm ergometer differentiated disabled sailors from selected groups in terms of mean power. Research on anaerobic capacity may be used to verify the current classification in Paralympic sailing and will make it possible to differentiate present competition categories.

  2. Biogeochemistry of anaerobic crude oil biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Ian; Gray, Neil; Aitken, Caroline; Sherry, Angela; Jones, Martin; Larter, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    Anaerobic degradation of crude oil and petroleum hydrocarbons is widely recognized as a globally significant process both in the formation of the world's vast heavy oil deposits and for the dissipation of hydrocarbon pollution in anoxic contaminated environments. Comparative analysis of crude oil biodegradation under methanogenic and sulfate-reducing conditions has revealed differences not only in the patterns of compound class removal but also in the microbial communities responsible. Under methanogenic conditions syntrophic associations dominated by bacteria from the Syntropheaceae are prevalent and these are likely key players in the initial anaerobic degradation of crude oil alkanes to intermediates such as hydrogen and acetate. Syntrophic acetate oxidation plays an important role in these systems and often results in methanogenesis dominated by CO2 reduction by members of the Methanomicrobiales. By contrast the bacterial communities from sulfate-reducing crude oil-degrading systems were more diverse and no single taxon dominated the oil-degrading sulfate-reducing systems. All five proteobacterial subdivisions were represented with Delta- and Gammaproteobacteria being detected most consistently. In sediments which were pasteurized hydrocarbon degradation continued at a relatively low rate. Nevertheless, alkylsuccinates characteristic of anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation accumulated to high concentrations. This suggested that the sediments harbour heat resistant, possibly spore-forming alkane degrading sulfate-reducers. This is particularly interesting since it has been proposed recently, that spore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria found in cold arctic sediments may have originated from seepage of geofluids from deep subsurface hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  3. Anaerobic treatment of textile dyeing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, S R; Szpyrkowicz, L; Rodighiero, I

    2003-01-01

    Aerobic treatment commonly applied to textile wastewater results in good or even excellent removal of organic load. This is not, however, accompanied by an equally good removal of colour. Traditional or advanced chemical methods of decolourisation are costly and not always reliable in justifying an interest in microbial decolourisation. Among several processes anaerobic methods seem most promising. In this paper, the results of a study conducted in two pilot-scale plants comprising anaerobic fixed bed biofilters of 15 L and 5 m3 operating as continuous reactors are presented, along with evaluation of the microbial kinetics. As is shown the process proved efficient in a long-term study with no stability problems of the biofilters. The six-month performance of the pilot plant confirmed also that the pre-treated wastewater could be applied in the operation of dyeing. For the majority of the colours applied in the factory no problems were encountered when the dyeing baths were prepared by substituting 90% of fresh water to the effluent treated by a sequence of activated sludge processes: anaerobic-aerobic.

  4. Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

    1993-10-01

    Anaerobic bacteria were isolated from deep subsurface sediment samples taken at study sites in Idaho (INEL) and Washington (HR) by culturing on dilute and concentrated medium. Morphologically distinct colonies were purified, and their responses to 21 selected physiological tests were determined. Although the number of isolates was small (18 INEL, 27 HR) some general patterns could be determined. Most strains could utilize all the carbon sources, however the glycerol and melizitose utilization was positive for 50% or less of the HR isolates. Catalase activity (27.78% at INEL, 74.07% at HR) and tryptophan metabolism (11.12% at INEL, 40.74% at HR) were significantly different between the two study sites. MPN and viable counts indicate that sediments near the water table yield the greatest numbers of anaerobes. Deeper sediments also appear to be more selective with the greatest number of viable counts on low-nutrient mediums. Likewise, only strictly obligate anaerobes were found in the deepest sediment samples. Selective media indicated the presence of methanogens, acetogens, and sulfate reducers at only the HR site

  5. Design and Fabrication of an Anaerobic Digester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Abubakar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digester is a physical structure that provides a conducive environment for the multiplication of micro-organisms that degrades organic matter to generate biogas energy. Energy is required in agriculture for crop production, processing and storage, poultry production and electricity for farmstead and farm settlements. It is energy that propels agricultural mechanization, which minimizes the use of human and animal muscles and its inherent drudgery in agriculture. The energy demand required to meet up with the agricultural growth in Nigeria is high and growing every year. In this study the design and fabrication of an anaerobic digester was reported which is an attempt to boost energy requirement for small and medium dryland farmers in Nigeria. The design of the digester includes the following concept; the basic principles of anaerobic digestion processes, socio-economic status of the dryland farmers, amount of biogas to be produced. Finally, the digester was fabricated using locally available raw materials within the dryland area of Nigeria. At the end, preliminary flammability test was conducted and the biogas produced was found to be flammable.

  6. Anaerobic digestion of cheese whey using up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, J.Q.; Lo, K.V.; Liao, P.H.

    1989-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment of cheese whey using a 17.5-litre up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor was investigated in the laboratory. The reactor was studied over a range of influent concentration from 4.5 to 38.1 g chemical oxygen demand per litre at a constant hydraulic retention time of 5 days. The reactor start-up and the sludge acclimatization were discussed. The reactor performance in terms of methane production, volatile fatty acids conversion, sludge net growth and chemical oxygen demand reduction were also presented in this paper. Over 97% chemical oxygen demand reduction was achieved in this experiment. At the influent concentration of 38.1 g chemical oxygen demand per litre, an instability of the reactor was observed. The results indicated that the up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor process could treat cheese whey effectively.

  7. Energy production by anaerobic treatment of cheese whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peano, L.; Ciciarelli, R.; Comino, E.; Gard, P. A.

    2009-07-01

    Anaerobic treatment and methane generation potential of cheese whey, diluted with mud, were determined in the digester of an existing wastewater treatment plant in Switzerland. Lactose, main sugar in cheese whey, can be a useful indicator to evaluate serum anaerobic treatment. Conventional parameters of anaerobic digestion (Volatile Matter, Dry Matter, Fatty Volatile Acids, total Alkali metric Title) were measured after the introduction of different whey/sludge ratio demonstrating that, despite an overcharge of whey digester, its stability is never compromised. (Author)

  8. The anaerobic corrosion of carbon steel in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naish, C.C.; Balkwill, P.H.; O'Brien, T.M.; Taylor, K.J.; Marsh, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    This is the final report of a 2 year programme aimed at (1) determining the rate of anaerobic corrosion of steel in concrete, (2) investigating the nature of the corrosion products formed on carbon steel embedded in cementitious material under anaerobic conditions and (3) evaluating the effect of hydrogen over-pressures on the rate of anaerobic corrosion. All experiments have been carried out at temperatures in the range 20-30 0 C, ie ambient conditions. 4 refs.; 19 figs.; 6 tabs

  9. Peritoneal dialysis peritonitis by anaerobic pathogens: a retrospective case series

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Chia-Ter; Lee, Szu-Ying; Yang, Wei-Shun; Chen, Huei-Wen; Fang, Cheng-Chung; Yen, Chung-Jen; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Huang, Jenq-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial infections account for most peritoneal dialysis (PD)-associated peritonitis episodes. However, anaerobic PD peritonitis is extremely rare and intuitively associated with intra-abdominal lesions. In this study, we examined the clinical characteristics of PD patients who developed anaerobic peritonitis. Methods We retrospectively identified all anaerobic PD peritonitis episodes from a prospectively collected PD registry at a single center between 1990 and 2010. Only patient...

  10. Analysis of anaerobic product properties in fluid and aggressive environments

    OpenAIRE

    Goncharov, A.; Tulinov, A.

    2008-01-01

    The article presents the results of experiments involved in investigation of properties of some domestic and foreign-made anaerobic materials in components and units operating in fluid and aggressive environments. These experiments determined the strength and swell values of anaerobic products in the sea water, fuel and oil, and confirmed their anticorrosion properties. The experiments demonstrated high resistance of anaerobic products to various fluids and aggressive environments, which make...

  11. Energy production by anaerobic treatment of cheese whey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peano, L.; Ciciarelli, R.; Comino, E.; Gard, P. A.

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment and methane generation potential of cheese whey, diluted with mud, were determined in the digester of an existing wastewater treatment plant in Switzerland. Lactose, main sugar in cheese whey, can be a useful indicator to evaluate serum anaerobic treatment. Conventional parameters of anaerobic digestion (Volatile Matter, Dry Matter, Fatty Volatile Acids, total Alkali metric Title) were measured after the introduction of different whey/sludge ratio demonstrating that, despite an overcharge of whey digester, its stability is never compromised. (Author)

  12. [Application of anaerobic bacteria detection in oral and maxillofacial infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zhen-ying; Lin, Qin; Meng, Yan-hong; He, Chun; Su, Jia-zeng; Peng, Xin

    2016-02-18

    To investigate the distribution and drug resistance of anaerobic bacteria in the patients with oral and maxillofacial infection. Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria cultures from 61 specimens of pus from the patients with oral and maxillofacial infection in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Peking University School of Stomatology were identified. The culture type was evaluated by API 20A kit and drug resistance test was performed by Etest method. The clinical data and antibacterial agents for the treatment of the 61 cases were collected, and the final outcomes were recorded. The bacteria cultures were isolated from all the specimens, with aerobic bacteria only in 6 cases (9.8%), anaerobic bacteria only in 7 cases (11.5%), and both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in 48 cases (78.7%). There were 55 infected cases (90.2%) with anaerobic bacteria, and 81 anaerobic bacteria stains were isolated. The highest bacteria isolation rate of Gram positive anaerobic bacteria could be found in Peptostreptococcus, Bifidobacterium and Pemphigus propionibacterium. No cefoxitin, amoxicillin/carat acid resistant strain was detected in the above three Gram positive anaerobic bacteria. The highest bacteria isolation rate of Gram negative anaerobic bacteria could be detected in Porphyromonas and Prevotella. No metronidazole, cefoxitin, amoxicillin/carat acid resistant strain was found in the two Gram negative anaerobic bacteria. In the study, 48 patients with oral and maxillofacial infection were treated according to the results of drug resistance testing, and the clinical cure rate was 81.3%. Mixed aerobic and anaerobic bacteria cultures are very common in most oral and maxillofacial infection patients. Anaerobic bacteria culture and drug resistance testing play an important role in clinical treatment.

  13. Dechlorination of Aromatic Xenobiotic Compounds by Anaerobic Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    dechlorination of 3 6C1- 2,3,7,8-TCDD have been initiated but are incomplete at this time. The sources of anaerobic dechlorinating bacteria were the...SETHUNATHAN, 1983). Active anaerobic habitatsa DDT Soil, rumen fluid, sewage sludge, sediments, microbial cultures Lindane Soil, sediments, microbial... anaerobic bacteria (Reference 24). Sediments containing relatively high levels of PCBs (> 50 ppm) all showed losses of up to one-third of the chlorine

  14. A bio-electrochemical system for removing inhibitors of anaerobic digestion processes from anaerobic reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of anaerobic digestion process by high level of ammonia (NH4 +/I\\IH3) is the most serious problem existing in biogas plants. No viable/applicable method to overcome this problem has been found up to now. This invention proposes an innovative submersible bio-electrochemical membrane...... reactor to recover ammonia from anaerobic digestion reactor, and thereby alleviate or counteract ammonia inhibition and enhance the conversion of ammonia-rich wastes to biogas. The invention may further reduce overall cost, giving synergistic advantages for both ammonia recycling and biogas plants...... by recovering acid (e.g., H2SO4, HCI), that can be used to treat the recovered ammonia....

  15. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pancreatitis Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is defined as ... pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for almost 1 ...

  16. Probability Distribution for Flowing Interval Spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzio, S.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to develop a probability distribution for flowing interval spacing. A flowing interval is defined as a fractured zone that transmits flow in the Saturated Zone (SZ), as identified through borehole flow meter surveys (Figure 1). This analysis uses the term ''flowing interval spacing'' as opposed to fractured spacing, which is typically used in the literature. The term fracture spacing was not used in this analysis because the data used identify a zone (or a flowing interval) that contains fluid-conducting fractures but does not distinguish how many or which fractures comprise the flowing interval. The flowing interval spacing is measured between the midpoints of each flowing interval. Fracture spacing within the SZ is defined as the spacing between fractures, with no regard to which fractures are carrying flow. The Development Plan associated with this analysis is entitled, ''Probability Distribution for Flowing Interval Spacing'', (CRWMS M and O 2000a). The parameter from this analysis may be used in the TSPA SR/LA Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Work Direction and Planning Documents: (1) ''Abstraction of Matrix Diffusion for SZ Flow and Transport Analyses'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a) and (2) ''Incorporation of Heterogeneity in SZ Flow and Transport Analyses'', (CRWMS M and O 1999b). A limitation of this analysis is that the probability distribution of flowing interval spacing may underestimate the effect of incorporating matrix diffusion processes in the SZ transport model because of the possible overestimation of the flowing interval spacing. Larger flowing interval spacing results in a decrease in the matrix diffusion processes. This analysis may overestimate the flowing interval spacing because the number of fractures that contribute to a flowing interval cannot be determined from the data. Because each flowing interval probably has more than one fracture contributing to a flowing interval, the true flowing interval spacing could be

  17. Atorvastatin Use Associated With Acute Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Few data are present in the literature on the relationship between atorvastatin use and acute pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to explore this issue in Taiwan. Using representative claims data established from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program, this case–control study consisted of 5810 cases aged 20 to 84 years with a first-time diagnosis of acute pancreatitis during the period 1998 to 2011and 5733 randomly selected controls without acute pancreatitis. Both cases and controls were matched by sex, age, comorbidities, and index year of diagnosing acute pancreatitis. Subjects who at least received 1 prescription for other statins or nonstatin lipid-lowering drugs were excluded from the study. If subjects never had 1 prescription for atorvastatin, they were defined as never use of atorvastatin. Current use of atorvastatin was defined as subjects whose last remaining 1 tablet of atorvastatin was noted ≤7 days before the date of diagnosing acute pancreatitis. Late use of atorvastatin was defined as subjects whose last remaining 1 tablet of atorvastatin was noted >7 days before the date of diagnosing acute pancreatitis. The odds ratio with 95% confidence interval of acute pancreatitis associated with atorvastatin use was calculated by using the logistic regression analysis. The logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio of acute pancreatitis was 1.67 for subjects with current use of atorvastatin (95% confidence interval 1.18, 2.38), when compared with subjects with never use of atorvastatin. The odds ratio decreased to 1.15 for those with late use of atorvastatin (95% confidence interval 0.87, 1.52), but without statistical significance. Current use of atorvastatin is associated with the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. Clinically, clinicians should consider the possibility of atorvastatin-associated acute pancreatitis when patients present with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis without a definite etiology but are taking

  18. Correct Bayesian and frequentist intervals are similar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper argues that Bayesians and frequentists will normally reach numerically similar conclusions, when dealing with vague data or sparse data. It is shown that both statistical methodologies can deal reasonably with vague data. With sparse data, in many important practical cases Bayesian interval estimates and frequentist confidence intervals are approximately equal, although with discrete data the frequentist intervals are somewhat longer. This is not to say that the two methodologies are equally easy to use: The construction of a frequentist confidence interval may require new theoretical development. Bayesians methods typically require numerical integration, perhaps over many variables. Also, Bayesian can easily fall into the trap of over-optimism about their amount of prior knowledge. But in cases where both intervals are found correctly, the two intervals are usually not very different. (orig.)

  19. Anaerobic exercise testing in rehabilitation : A systematic review of available tests and protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krops, Leonie A.; Albada, Trijntje; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Hijmans, Juha M.; Dekker, Rienk

    Objective: Anaerobic capacity assessment in rehabilitation has received increasing scientific attention in recent years. However, anaerobic capacity is not tested consistently in clinical rehabilitation practice. This study reviews tests and protocols for anaerobic capacity in adults with various

  20. Restricted Interval Valued Neutrosophic Sets and Restricted Interval Valued Neutrosophic Topological Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Mukherjee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the concept of restricted interval valued neutrosophic sets (RIVNS in short. Some basic operations and properties of RIVNS are discussed. The concept of restricted interval valued neutrosophic topology is also introduced together with restricted interval valued neutrosophic finer and restricted interval valued neutrosophic coarser topology. We also define restricted interval valued neutrosophic interior and closer of a restricted interval valued neutrosophic set. Some theorems and examples are cites. Restricted interval valued neutrosophic subspace topology is also studied.

  1. Adaptive Changes After 2 Weeks of 10-s Sprint Interval Training With Various Recovery Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Olek

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of applying two different rest recovery times in a 10-s sprint interval training session on aerobic and anaerobic capacities as well as skeletal muscle enzyme activities.Methods: Fourteen physically active but not highly trained male subjects (mean maximal oxygen uptake 50.5 ± 1.0 mlO2·kg−1·min−1 participated in the study. The training protocol involved a series of 10-s sprints separated by either 1-min (SIT10:1 or 4-min (SIT10:4 of recovery. The number of sprints progressed from four to six over six sessions separated by 1–2 days rest. Pre and post intervention anthropometric measurements, assessment of aerobic, anaerobic capacity and muscle biopsy were performed. In the muscle samples maximal activities of citrate synthase (CS, 3-hydroxyacylCoA dehydrogenase (HADH, carnitine palmitoyl-transferase (CPT, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, and its mitochondrial form (mMDH, as well as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were determined. Analysis of variance was performed to determine changes between conditions.Results: Maximal oxygen uptake improved significantly in both training groups, by 13.6% in SIT10:1 and 11.9% in SIT10:4, with no difference between groups. Wingate anaerobic test results indicated main effect of time for total work, peak power output and mean power output, which increased significantly and similarly in both groups. Significant differences between training groups were observed for end power output, which increased by 10.8% in SIT10:1, but remained unchanged in SIT10:4. Both training protocols induced similar increase in CS activity (main effect of time p < 0.05, but no other enzymes.Conclusion: Sprint interval training protocols induce metabolic adaptation over a short period of time, and the reduced recovery between bouts may attenuate fatigue during maximal exercise.

  2. Conditional prediction intervals of wind power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Kariniotakis, Georges

    2010-01-01

    A generic method for the providing of prediction intervals of wind power generation is described. Prediction intervals complement the more common wind power point forecasts, by giving a range of potential outcomes for a given probability, their so-called nominal coverage rate. Ideally they inform...... on the characteristics of prediction errors for providing conditional interval forecasts. By simultaneously generating prediction intervals with various nominal coverage rates, one obtains full predictive distributions of wind generation. Adapted resampling is applied here to the case of an onshore Danish wind farm...... to the case of a large number of wind farms in Europe and Australia among others is finally discussed....

  3. Multimodal high-intensity interval training increases muscle function and metabolic performance in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Stephanie; Knapp, Kelly; Lackie, Amy; Lewry, Colin; Horvey, Karla; Benko, Chad; Trinh, Jason; Butcher, Scotty

    2015-11-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient method of improving aerobic and anaerobic power and capacity. In most individuals, however, HIIT using modalities such as cycling, running, and rowing does not typically result in increased muscle strength, power, or endurance. The purpose of this study is to compare the physiological outcomes of traditional HIIT using rowing (Row-HIIT) with a novel multimodal HIIT (MM-HIIT) circuit incorporating multiple modalities, including strength exercises, within an interval. Twenty-eight recreationally active women (age 24.7 ± 5.4 years) completed 6 weeks of either Row-HIIT or MM-HIIT and were tested on multiple fitness parameters. MM-HIIT and Row-HIIT resulted in similar improvements (p HIIT group had significant (p HIIT group had no increase in any muscle performance variable (p values 0.33-0.90). Post-training, 1-repetition maximum (1RM) squat (64.2 ± 13.6 vs. 45.8 ± 16.2 kg, p = 0.02), 1RM press (33.2 ± 3.8 vs. 26.0 ± 9.6 kg, p = 0.01), and squat endurance (23.9 ± 12.3 vs. 10.2 ± 5.6 reps, p HIIT group than in the Row-HIIT group. MM-HIIT resulted in similar aerobic and anaerobic adaptations but greater muscle performance increases than Row-HIIT in recreationally active women.

  4. Acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Rupjyoti; Vege, Santhi S

    2015-09-01

    To summarize recent data on classification systems, cause, risk factors, severity prediction, nutrition, and drug treatment of acute pancreatitis. Comparison of the Revised Atlanta Classification and Determinant Based Classification has shown heterogeneous results. Simvastatin has a protective effect against acute pancreatitis. Young black male, alcohol, smoldering symptoms, and subsequent diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis are risk factors associated with readmissions after acute pancreatitis. A reliable clinical or laboratory marker or a scoring system to predict severity is lacking. The PYTHON trial has shown that oral feeding with on demand nasoenteric tube feeding after 72 h is as good as nasoenteric tube feeding within 24 h in preventing infections in predicted severe acute pancreatitis. Male sex, multiple organ failure, extent of pancreatic necrosis, and heterogeneous collection are factors associated with failure of percutaneous drainage of pancreatic collections. The newly proposed classification systems of acute pancreatitis need to be evaluated more critically. New biomarkers are needed for severity prediction. Further well designed studies are required to assess the type of enteral nutritional formulations for acute pancreatitis. The optimal minimally invasive method or combination to debride the necrotic collections is evolving. There is a great need for a drug to treat the disease early on to prevent morbidity and mortality.

  5. Cultivation of Nannochloropsis salina using anaerobic digestion effluent as a nutrient source for biofuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Ting; Park, Stephen Y.; Racharaks, Ratanachat; Li, Yebo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Cultivation of Nannochloropsis salina with effluent of anaerobic digestion (AD). • The highest biomass yield was obtained at 6% AD effluent loading. • Lipid content and productivity decreased with increased effluent loading from 3% to 18%. • Biomass productivity increased by up to 49% as harvest ratio increased from 25% to 50%. - Abstract: The biomass and lipid productivities and the nutrient removal capacity of microalgae Nannochloropsis salina grown using anaerobically digested municipal wastewater effluent as a nutrient source were evaluated in this study. Results from bench-scale batch reactors showed that N. salina grew well under 3%, 6%, 12%, and 18% (v/v) anaerobic digestion (AD) effluent loading with the highest growth rate being 0.645 d −1 obtained at 6% AD effluent loading. The growth of N. salina decreased when the effluent loading was increased to 24%. The highest biomass productivity of 92 mg l −1 d −1 was obtained with 6% effluent loading. Three harvesting frequencies (1, 2, and 3 d intervals) and two harvesting ratios (25% and 50%, v/v) were tested in semi-continuous bench-scale reactors with 6% effluent loading. The highest lipid productivity of 38.7 mg l −1 d −1 was achieved with a 2-d harvesting interval and 50% harvesting ratio, where nitrogen and phosphorus were removed at rates of 35.3 mg l −1 d −1 and 3.8 mg l −1 d −1 , respectively. The fatty acid (FA) profile showed that palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5) were the major components, accounting for 32.1%, 26%, and 15.7% of the total FAs, respectively

  6. The challenges of anaerobic digestion and the role of biochar in optimizing anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagbohungbe, Michael O; Herbert, Ben M J; Hurst, Lois; Ibeto, Cynthia N; Li, Hong; Usmani, Shams Q; Semple, Kirk T

    2017-03-01

    Biochar, like most other adsorbents, is a carbonaceous material, which is formed from the combustion of plant materials, in low-zero oxygen conditions and results in a material, which has the capacity to sorb chemicals onto its surfaces. Currently, research is being carried out to investigate the relevance of biochar in improving the soil ecosystem, digestate quality and most recently the anaerobic digestion process. Anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic substrates provides both a sustainable source of energy and a digestate with the potential to enhance plant growth and soil health. In order to ensure that these benefits are realised, the anaerobic digestion system must be optimized for process stability and high nutrient retention capacity in the digestate produced. Substrate-induced inhibition is a major issue, which can disrupt the stable functioning of the AD system reducing microbial breakdown of the organic waste and formation of methane, which in turn reduces energy output. Likewise, the spreading of digestate on land can often result in nutrient loss, surface runoff and leaching. This review will examine substrate inhibition and their impact on anaerobic digestion, nutrient leaching and their environmental implications, the properties and functionality of biochar material in counteracting these challenges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Application of Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 for simulating anaerobic mesophilic sludge digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Carlos; Esquerre, Karla; Matos Queiroz, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The behavior of a anaerobic reactor was evaluated through modeling. • Parametric sensitivity analysis was used to select most sensitive of the ADM1. • The results indicate that the ADM1 was able to predict the experimental results. • Organic load rate above of 35 kg/m 3 day affects the performance of the process. - Abstract: Improving anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge by monitoring common indicators such as volatile fatty acids (VFAs), gas composition and pH is a suitable solution for better sludge management. Modeling is an important tool to assess and to predict process performance. The present study focuses on the application of the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) to simulate the dynamic behavior of a reactor fed with sewage sludge under mesophilic conditions. Parametric sensitivity analysis is used to select the most sensitive ADM1 parameters for estimation using a numerical procedure while other parameters are applied without any modification to the original values presented in the ADM1 report. The results indicate that the ADM1 model after parameter estimation was able to predict the experimental results of effluent acetate, propionate, composites and biogas flows and pH with reasonable accuracy. The simulation of the effect of organic shock loading clearly showed that an organic shock loading rate above of 35 kg/m 3 day affects the performance of the reactor. The results demonstrate that simulations can be helpful to support decisions on predicting the anaerobic digestion process of sewage sludge

  8. Application of Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 for simulating anaerobic mesophilic sludge digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Carlos, E-mail: carllosmendez@gmail.com; Esquerre, Karla, E-mail: karlaesquerre@ufba.br; Matos Queiroz, Luciano, E-mail: lmqueiroz@ufba.br

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The behavior of a anaerobic reactor was evaluated through modeling. • Parametric sensitivity analysis was used to select most sensitive of the ADM1. • The results indicate that the ADM1 was able to predict the experimental results. • Organic load rate above of 35 kg/m{sup 3} day affects the performance of the process. - Abstract: Improving anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge by monitoring common indicators such as volatile fatty acids (VFAs), gas composition and pH is a suitable solution for better sludge management. Modeling is an important tool to assess and to predict process performance. The present study focuses on the application of the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) to simulate the dynamic behavior of a reactor fed with sewage sludge under mesophilic conditions. Parametric sensitivity analysis is used to select the most sensitive ADM1 parameters for estimation using a numerical procedure while other parameters are applied without any modification to the original values presented in the ADM1 report. The results indicate that the ADM1 model after parameter estimation was able to predict the experimental results of effluent acetate, propionate, composites and biogas flows and pH with reasonable accuracy. The simulation of the effect of organic shock loading clearly showed that an organic shock loading rate above of 35 kg/m{sup 3} day affects the performance of the reactor. The results demonstrate that simulations can be helpful to support decisions on predicting the anaerobic digestion process of sewage sludge.

  9. Growth media in anaerobic fermentative processes : The underestimated potential of thermophilic fermentation and anaerobic digestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.T.W.M.; van Lier, J.B.; de Kreuk, M.K.

    2018-01-01

    Fermentation and anaerobic digestion of organic waste and wastewater is broadly studied and applied. Despite widely available results and data for these processes, comparison of the generated results in literature is difficult. Not only due to the used variety of process conditions, but also

  10. [Distribution and removal of anaerobic antibiotic resistant bacteria during mesophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Juan; Wang, Yuan-Yue; Wei Yuan, Song

    2014-10-01

    Sewage sludge is one of the major sources that releasing antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistant genes (ARG) into the environment since it contains large amount of ARB, but there is little information about the fate of the anaerobic ARB in the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge. Therefore, the distribution, removal and seasonal changes of tetracycline and β-lactam antibiotics resistant bacteria in the mesophilic egg-shaped digesters of a municipal wastewater treatment plant were investigated for one year in this study. Results showed that there were higher amounts of ARB and higher resistance rate of β-lactam antibiotics than that of tetracycline antibiotics in the sewage sludge. All ARB could be significantly reduced during the mesophilic anaerobic digestion process by 1.48-1.64 log unit (P anaerobic digestion by 12.0% and 14.3%, respectively (P bacteria, there were more ARB in the sewage sludge in cold season than in warm season (P < 0.05).

  11. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola

    2016-10-01

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Anaerobic toxicity of cationic silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitipour, Alireza; Thiel, Stephen W.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Tolaymat, Thabet

    2016-01-01

    The microbial toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) stabilized with different capping agents was compared to that of Ag"+ under anaerobic conditions. Three AgNPs were investigated: (1) negatively charged citrate-coated AgNPs (citrate-AgNPs), (2) minimally charged polyvinylpyrrolidone coated AgNPs (PVP-AgNPs) and (3) positively charged branched polyethyleneimine coated AgNPs (BPEI-AgNPs). The AgNPs investigated in this experiment were similar in size (10–15 nm), spherical in shape, but varied in surface charge which ranged from highly negative to highly positive. While, at AgNPs concentrations lower than 5 mg L"−"1, the anaerobic decomposition process was not influenced by the presence of the nanoparticles, there was an observed impact on the diversity of the microbial community. At elevated concentrations (100 mg L"−"1 as silver), only the cationic BPEI-AgNPs demonstrated toxicity similar in magnitude to that of Ag"+. Both citrate and PVP-AgNPs did not exhibit toxicity at the 100 mg L"−"1 as measured by biogas evolution. These findings further indicate the varying modes of action for nanoparticle toxicity and represent one of the few studies that evaluate end-of-life management concerns with regards to the increasing use of nanomaterials in our everyday life. These findings also highlight some of the concerns with a one size fits all approach to the evaluation of environmental health and safety concerns associated with the use of nanoparticles. - Highlights: • At concentrations -1 the anaerobic decomposition process was not impacted. • An impact on the microbial community at concentrations -1 were observed. • At high concentrations (100 mg L"−"1), the cationic BPEI-AgNPs demonstrated toxicity. • Toxicity was demonstrated without the presence of oxidative dissolution of silver. • A one size fits all approach for the evaluation of NPs may not be accurate.

  13. Relationships between chemical oxygen demand (COD) components and toxicity in a sequential anaerobic baffled reactor/aerobic completely stirred reactor system treating Kemicetine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sponza, Delia Teresa, E-mail: delya.sponza@deu.edu.tr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Dokuz Eyluel University, Buca Kaynaklar Campus, Tinaztepe, 35160 Izmir (Turkey); Demirden, Pinar, E-mail: pinar.demirden@kozagold.com [Environmental Engineer, Koza Gold Company, Environmental Department, Ovacik, Bergama Izmir (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    In this study the interactions between toxicity removals and Kemicetine, COD removals, intermediate products of Kemicetine and COD components (CODs originating from slowly degradable organics, readily degradable organics, inert microbial products and from the inert compounds) were investigated in a sequential anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR)/aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system with a real pharmaceutical wastewater. The total COD and Kemicetine removal efficiencies were 98% and 100%, respectively, in the sequential ABR/CSTR systems. 2-Amino-1 (p-nitrophenil)-1,3 propanediol, l-p-amino phenyl, p-amino phenol and phenol were detected in the ABR as the main readily degradable inter-metabolites. In the anaerobic ABR reactor, the Kemicetin was converted to corresponding inter-metabolites and a substantial part of the COD was removed. In the aerobic CSTR reactor the inter-metabolites produced in the anaerobic reactor were completely removed and the COD remaining from the anerobic reactor was biodegraded. It was found that the COD originating from the readily degradable organics did not limit the anaerobic degradation process, while the CODs originating from the slowly degradable organics and from the inert microbial products significantly decreased the anaerobic ABR reactor performance. The acute toxicity test results indicated that the toxicity decreased from the influent to the effluent of the aerobic CSTR reactor. The ANOVA test statistics showed that there was a strong linear correlation between acute toxicity, CODs originating from the slowly degradable organics and inert microbial products. A weak correlation between acute toxicity and CODs originating from the inert compounds was detected.

  14. Relationships between chemical oxygen demand (COD) components and toxicity in a sequential anaerobic baffled reactor/aerobic completely stirred reactor system treating Kemicetine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sponza, Delia Teresa; Demirden, Pinar

    2010-01-01

    In this study the interactions between toxicity removals and Kemicetine, COD removals, intermediate products of Kemicetine and COD components (CODs originating from slowly degradable organics, readily degradable organics, inert microbial products and from the inert compounds) were investigated in a sequential anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR)/aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system with a real pharmaceutical wastewater. The total COD and Kemicetine removal efficiencies were 98% and 100%, respectively, in the sequential ABR/CSTR systems. 2-Amino-1 (p-nitrophenil)-1,3 propanediol, l-p-amino phenyl, p-amino phenol and phenol were detected in the ABR as the main readily degradable inter-metabolites. In the anaerobic ABR reactor, the Kemicetin was converted to corresponding inter-metabolites and a substantial part of the COD was removed. In the aerobic CSTR reactor the inter-metabolites produced in the anaerobic reactor were completely removed and the COD remaining from the anerobic reactor was biodegraded. It was found that the COD originating from the readily degradable organics did not limit the anaerobic degradation process, while the CODs originating from the slowly degradable organics and from the inert microbial products significantly decreased the anaerobic ABR reactor performance. The acute toxicity test results indicated that the toxicity decreased from the influent to the effluent of the aerobic CSTR reactor. The ANOVA test statistics showed that there was a strong linear correlation between acute toxicity, CODs originating from the slowly degradable organics and inert microbial products. A weak correlation between acute toxicity and CODs originating from the inert compounds was detected.

  15. Anaerobic xylose fermentation by Spathaspora passalidarum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaoru

    2012-01-01

    A cost-effective conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into bioethanol requires that the xylose released from the hemicellulose fraction (20–40% of biomass) can be fermented. Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, efficiently ferments glucose but it lacks the ability to ferment xylose. Xylose-fermenting...... yeast such as Pichia stipitis requires accurately controlled microaerophilic conditions during the xylose fermentation, rendering the process technically difficult and expensive. In this study, it is demonstrated that under anaerobic conditions Spathaspora passalidarum showed high ethanol production...

  16. Geochemical indicators of anaerobic biodegradation of BTEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.T.; Kampbell, D.; Hutchins, S.; Wilson, B.; Kennedy, L.G.

    1992-01-01

    In the late 1970s, a leaking underground pipeline released petroleum hydrocarbons to a shallow, water-table aquifer in Kansas. Approximately six acres surrounding the release contain hydrocarbons at residual saturation. Parts of the release have acclimated and are carrying out anaerobic biodegradation of benzene, toluene, and the xylenes, Analysis of ground water from monitoring wells in areas that have acclimated reveal high concentrations of methane, less than -.1/liter oxygen, millimolar concentrations of acetate, and strongly reducing redox potentials. There is also a marked shift in the radio of the concentration of individual compounds to the total concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons

  17. Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohanyos, Michael; Zabranska, Jana; Kutil, Josef; Jenicek, Pavel

    2003-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion improvement can be accomplished by different methods. Besides optimization of process conditions is frequently used pretreatment of input sludge and increase of process temperature. Thermophilic process brings a higher solids reduction and biogas production, the high resistance to foaming, no problems with odour, the higher effect of destroying pathogens and the improvement of the energy balance of the whole treatment plant. Disintegration of excess activated sludge in lysate centrifuge was proved in full-scale conditions causing increase of biogas production. The rapid thermal conditioning of digested sludge is acceptable method of particulate matter disintegration and solubilization. (author)

  18. New thermophilic anaerobes that decompose crystalline cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taya, M; Hinoki, H; Suzuki, Y; Yagi, T; Yap, M G.S.; Kobayashi, T

    1985-01-01

    Two strains (designated as 25A and 3B) of cellulolytic, thermophilic, anaerobic, spore-forming bacteria were newly isolated from an alkaline hot spring through enrichment cultures at 60/sup 0/C. Though strain 25A was nearly identical to Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 as a reference strain, strain 3B had some characteristics different from the reference; no flagellation, alkalophilic growth property (optimum pH of 7.5-8) and orange-colored pigmentation of the cell mass. Strain 3B effectively decomposed micro-crystalline cellulose (Avicel) and raw cellulosics (rice straw, newspaper, and bagasse) without physical or chemical pretreatments. 20 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  19. Empirical antimicrobial therapy of acute dentoalveolar abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matijević Stevo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The most common cause of acute dental infections are oral streptococci and anaerobe bacteria. Acute dentoalveolar infections are usually treated surgically in combination with antibiotics. Empirical therapy in such infections usually requires the use of penicillin-based antibiotics. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical efficiency of amoxicillin and cefalexin in the empirical treatment of acute odontogenic abscess and to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolated bacteria in early phases of its development. Methods. This study included 90 patients with acute odontogenic abscess who received surgical treatment (extraction of a teeth and/or abscess incision and were divided into three groups: two surgicalantibiotic groups (amoxicillin, cefalexin and the surgical group. In order to evaluate the effects of the applied therapy following clinical symptoms were monitored: inflammatory swelling, trismus, regional lymphadentytis and febrility. In all the patients before the beginning of antibiotic treatment suppuration was suched out of the abscess and antibiotic susceptibility of isolated bacteria was tested by using the disk diffusion method. Results. The infection signs and symptoms lasted on the average 4.47 days, 4.67 days, and 6.17 days in the amoxicillin, cefalexin, and surgically only treated group, respectively. A total of 111 bacterial strains were isolated from 90 patients. Mostly, the bacteria were Gram-positive facultative anaerobs (81.1%. The most common bacteria isolated were Viridans streptococci (68/111. Antibiotic susceptibility of isolated bacteria to amoxicillin was 76.6% and cefalexin 89.2%. Conclusion. Empirical, peroral use of amoxicillin or cefalexin after surgical treatment in early phase of development of dentoalveolar abscess significantly reduced the time of clinical symptoms duration in the acute odontogenic infections in comparison to surgical treatment only. Bacterial strains

  20. Interpretation of Confidence Interval Facing the Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luisa; Fernández, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    As literature has reported, it is usual that university students in statistics courses, and even statistics teachers, interpret the confidence level associated with a confidence interval as the probability that the parameter value will be between the lower and upper interval limits. To confront this misconception, class activities have been…

  1. Interval logic. Proof theory and theorem proving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Marthedal

    2002-01-01

    of a direction of an interval, and present a sound and complete Hilbert proof system for it. Because of its generality, SIL can conveniently act as a general formalism in which other interval logics can be encoded. We develop proof theory for SIL including both a sequent calculus system and a labelled natural...

  2. Risk factors for QTc interval prolongation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, Charlotte P.M.; Pereboom, Marieke; van Stralen, Karlijn; Berger, Florine A.; van den Bemt, Patricia M.L.A.; Kuijper, Aaf F.M.; van der Hoeven, Ruud T M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K.; Becker, Matthijs L

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Prolongation of the QTc interval may result in Torsade de Pointes, a ventricular arrhythmia. Numerous risk factors for QTc interval prolongation have been described, including the use of certain drugs. In clinical practice, there is much debate about the management of the risks involved. In

  3. Interval Forecast for Smooth Transition Autoregressive Model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we propose a simple method for constructing interval forecast for smooth transition autoregressive (STAR) model. This interval forecast is based on bootstrapping the residual error of the estimated STAR model for each forecast horizon and computing various Akaike information criterion (AIC) function. This new ...

  4. Confidence Interval Approximation For Treatment Variance In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a random effects model with a single factor, variation is partitioned into two as residual error variance and treatment variance. While a confidence interval can be imposed on the residual error variance, it is not possible to construct an exact confidence interval for the treatment variance. This is because the treatment ...

  5. New interval forecast for stationary autoregressive models ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we proposed a new forecasting interval for stationary Autoregressive, AR(p) models using the Akaike information criterion (AIC) function. Ordinarily, the AIC function is used to determine the order of an AR(p) process. In this study however, AIC forecast interval compared favorably with the theoretical forecast ...

  6. The effect of inter-set rest intervals on resistance exercise-induced muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henselmans, Menno; Schoenfeld, Brad J

    2014-12-01

    Due to a scarcity of longitudinal trials directly measuring changes in muscle girth, previous recommendations for inter-set rest intervals in resistance training programs designed to stimulate muscular hypertrophy were primarily based on the post-exercise endocrinological response and other mechanisms theoretically related to muscle growth. New research regarding the effects of inter-set rest interval manipulation on resistance training-induced muscular hypertrophy is reviewed here to evaluate current practices and provide directions for future research. Of the studies measuring long-term muscle hypertrophy in groups employing different rest intervals, none have found superior muscle growth in the shorter compared with the longer rest interval group and one study has found the opposite. Rest intervals less than 1 minute can result in acute increases in serum growth hormone levels and these rest intervals also decrease the serum testosterone to cortisol ratio. Long-term adaptations may abate the post-exercise endocrinological response and the relationship between the transient change in hormonal production and chronic muscular hypertrophy is highly contentious and appears to be weak. The relationship between the rest interval-mediated effect on immune system response, muscle damage, metabolic stress, or energy production capacity and muscle hypertrophy is still ambiguous and largely theoretical. In conclusion, the literature does not support the hypothesis that training for muscle hypertrophy requires shorter rest intervals than training for strength development or that predetermined rest intervals are preferable to auto-regulated rest periods in this regard.

  7. Expressing Intervals in Automated Service Negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kassidy P.; Warnier, Martijn; van Splunter, Sander; Brazier, Frances M. T.

    During automated negotiation of services between autonomous agents, utility functions are used to evaluate the terms of negotiation. These terms often include intervals of values which are prone to misinterpretation. It is often unclear if an interval embodies a continuum of real numbers or a subset of natural numbers. Furthermore, it is often unclear if an agent is expected to choose only one value, multiple values, a sub-interval or even multiple sub-intervals. Additional semantics are needed to clarify these issues. Normally, these semantics are stored in a domain ontology. However, ontologies are typically domain specific and static in nature. For dynamic environments, in which autonomous agents negotiate resources whose attributes and relationships change rapidly, semantics should be made explicit in the service negotiation. This paper identifies issues that are prone to misinterpretation and proposes a notation for expressing intervals. This notation is illustrated using an example in WS-Agreement.

  8. Performance of an innovative multi-stage anaerobic reactor during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Start-up of an anaerobic reactor is a relatively delicate process and depends on various factors such as wastewater composition, available inoculum, operating conditions and reactor configuration. Accordingly, systematized operational procedures are important, mainly during the start-up of an anaerobic reactor.

  9. Modelling non-redox enzymes: Anaerobic and aerobic acetylene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Modelling non-redox enzymes: Anaerobic and aerobic acetylene hydratase. SABYASACHI SARKAR. Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016,. India. Acetaldehyde is the first metabolite produced during acetylene degradation by bacteria either aerobically or anaerobically. Conversion of ...

  10. Schematic Method for Effective Identification of Anaerobes from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They were inoculated into two compounded media; Neomycin Blood Agar (NBA) and Neomycin Plasma Agar (NPA) incubated anaerobically at 37oC for (24-48) hours. Isolated anaerobes were gram-stained and tested using discs impregnated with antibiotics, bile salts and dyes, carbohydrate fermentation and other ...

  11. Anaerobic microbial processes for energy conservation and biotransformation of pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luz Ferreira Martins Paulo, da Lara

    2017-01-01

    Anaerobic microbial processes are commonly applied in the treatment of domestic and industrial wastewaters. Anaerobic digestion (AD) of wastewater has received a great deal of attention, but many aspects related to the complex interactions between microorganism, and how that is affected by the

  12. Rumen derived anaerobic digestion of water hyacinth (Eicchornia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... The agar plates were then incubated anaerobically at 37°C for 24 h. The digesters were seeded with rumen bacteria and immersed into water bath operated at 37°C. During the anaerobic digestion, volume of biogas produced was recorded accordingly. This paper, therefore, suggests ways by which water.

  13. Microbiology of anaerobic digestion; Microbiologia da digestao anaerobica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novaes, Rosana Filomena Vazoller [CETESB, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1988-12-31

    Considerations was made about the microorganisms involved in the anaerobic digestion of wastes. Are also presented, the main results on this subject obtained, until now, in the studies carried on the group of anaerobic microbiology researchers from the Sanitary Company of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. (author) 23 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Enhanced biogas yield from energy crops with rumen anaerobic fungi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, J.; Mrázek, Jakub; Štrosová, Lenka; Fliegerová, Kateřina; Zábranská, J.; Dohányos, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2012), s. 343-351 ISSN 1618-0240 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP503/10/P394; GA MZe QI92A286 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Anaerobic digestion * Anaerobic fungi * Biogas yield Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 1.633, year: 2012

  15. Rumen derived anaerobic digestion of water hyacinth (Eicchornia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The agar plates were then incubated anaerobically at 37°C for 24 h. The digesters were seeded with rumen bacteria and immersed into water bath operated at 37°C. During the anaerobic digestion, volume of biogas produced was recorded accordingly. This paper, therefore, suggests ways by which water hyacinth can be ...

  16. Methane fermentation process as anaerobic digestion of biomass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaerobic decomposition of organic compounds is conducted in close cooperation of specialized bacteria of different types, including mostly hydrolyzing, digestive, acetogenic, homoacetogenic, sulfate-reducing (VI) and methanogenic bacteria. A great interest in the anaerobic digestion process results mainly from its ...

  17. Optimisation Study on the Production of Anaerobic Digestate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is a rich substrate for biogas and compost production. Anaerobic Digestate compost (ADC) is an organic fertilizer produced from stabilized residuals of anaerobic digestion of OFMSW. This paper reports the result of studies carried out to optimise the production of ADC from ...

  18. Influence of temperature on the anaerobic stabilization of organic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at determining the effect of temperature on the stabilization of organic solid waste conjugated with sewage sludge in anaerobic batch ... It is concluded that anaerobic digestion at ambient temperature represents an economical and environmentally viable strategy for the disposal of municipal solid ...

  19. Anaerobic Treatment Of Percolate From Faecal Sludge Drying Beds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Composite percolate samples, from sludge drying beds of a pilot co-composting plant in Kumasi, Ghana, were characterised and subjected to laboratory scale anaerobic treatment. Two categories of percolate samples were investigated; samples seeded with anaerobic sludge and samples without seeding. The average ...

  20. Moroccan rock phosphate solubilization during a thermo-anaerobic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to investigate the presence of thermo-tolerant rock phosphate (RP) solubilizing anaerobic microbes during the fermentation process, we used grassland as sole organic substrate to evaluate the RP solubilization process under anaerobic thermophilic conditions. The result shows a significant decrease of pH from ...

  1. Anaerobic Treatment of Cane Sugar Effluent from Muhoroni Sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was therefore concluded that anaerobic treatment, particularly with pH control and seeding shows potential in first stage management of sugar mill wastewater. Keywords: cane sugar mill effluent, anaerobic treatment, batch reactor, waste stabilization ponds. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Vol.

  2. Gender differences in anaerobic power in Nigerian students | Musa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken in order to determine gender differences in anaerobic power of undergraduate physical education students. An attempt was also made to assess the relationship between selected anthropometric variables and indices of anaerobic power: peak power (PP), Mean power (MP), and fatigue index (FI) ...

  3. Susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria in Auckland: 1991-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, K P; Pottumarthy, S; Morris, A J

    1999-11-12

    To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of local anaerobic bacteria. The antimicrobial susceptibility of 357 obligate anaerobes collected between 1991 and 1997 was determined by a standard agar dilution method. Isolates tested included Bacteroides spp. 131, Fusobacterium spp. 12, Prevotella spp. 13, Veillonella spp. 5, Clostridium perfringens 27, other Clostridium spp. 29, Propionibacterium spp. 57, Actinomyces spp. 7, other non-sporing gram-positive bacilli 28 and Peptostreptococcus spp. 48. Ten antimicrobials were tested: penicillin, amoxycillin/ clavulanic acid, pipercillin/tazobactam, ceftriaxone, cefoxitin, cefotetan, imipenem, meropenem, clindamycin and metronidazole. Imipenem, pipercillin/tazobactam, meropenem and amoxycillin/clavulanic acid were active against virtually all anaerobes tested. Metronidazole was active against all anaerobic gram-negative bacteria and Clostridium spp., but had variable activity against other anaerobes. Cefoxitin was the most active cephalosporin against Bacteroides spp., with 76%, 64% and 15% of Bacteroides spp. being susceptible to cefoxitin, cefotetan and ceftriaxone, respectively. Penicillin had poor activity against anaerobic gram negative bacilli. Actinomyces and Propionibacterium spp. were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested except metronidazole. Variable results were obtained with other antimicrobial-organism combinations. Comparison of results with data from a previously published survey showed little change in susceptibility except for increased resistance of Bacteroides fragilis to ceftriaxone and Clostridium species (not C perfringens) to clindamycin. Our results update the local susceptibility profile of anaerobic bacteria and may be considered when choosing an antimicrobial agent for prophylaxis or treatment of anaerobic infections.

  4. Anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds: a genetic and genomic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Manuel; Zamarro, María Teresa; Blázquez, Blas; Durante-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Juárez, Javier F; Valderrama, J Andrés; Barragán, María J L; García, José Luis; Díaz, Eduardo

    2009-03-01

    Aromatic compounds belong to one of the most widely distributed classes of organic compounds in nature, and a significant number of xenobiotics belong to this family of compounds. Since many habitats containing large amounts of aromatic compounds are often anoxic, the anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds by microorganisms becomes crucial in biogeochemical cycles and in the sustainable development of the biosphere. The mineralization of aromatic compounds by facultative or obligate anaerobic bacteria can be coupled to anaerobic respiration with a variety of electron acceptors as well as to fermentation and anoxygenic photosynthesis. Since the redox potential of the electron-accepting system dictates the degradative strategy, there is wide biochemical diversity among anaerobic aromatic degraders. However, the genetic determinants of all these processes and the mechanisms involved in their regulation are much less studied. This review focuses on the recent findings that standard molecular biology approaches together with new high-throughput technologies (e.g., genome sequencing, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metagenomics) have provided regarding the genetics, regulation, ecophysiology, and evolution of anaerobic aromatic degradation pathways. These studies revealed that the anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds is more diverse and widespread than previously thought, and the complex metabolic and stress programs associated with the use of aromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions are starting to be unraveled. Anaerobic biotransformation processes based on unprecedented enzymes and pathways with novel metabolic capabilities, as well as the design of novel regulatory circuits and catabolic networks of great biotechnological potential in synthetic biology, are now feasible to approach.

  5. [Long-term storage of obligate anaerobic microorganisms in glycerol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briukhanov, A I; Netrusov, A I

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the possibility of storing the cultures of obligate anaerobic microorganisms (clostridia. acetogenic and sulfate-reducing bacteria, and methanogenic archaea) in 25% glycerol at -70 degrees C for a long time (up to 3 years). This method of storage is adequate to preserve cell viability in most obligate anaerobes.

  6. The role of anaerobic bacteria in the cystic fibrosis airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrard, Laura J; Bell, Scott C; Tunney, Michael M

    2016-11-01

    Anaerobic bacteria are not only normal commensals, but are also considered opportunistic pathogens and have been identified as persistent members of the lower airway community in people with cystic fibrosis of all ages and stages of disease. Currently, the role of anaerobic bacteria in cystic fibrosis lower airway disease is not well understood. Therefore, this review describes the recent studies relating to the potential pathophysiological role(s) of anaerobes within the cystic fibrosis lungs. The most frequently identified anaerobic bacteria in the lower airways are common to both cystic fibrosis and healthy lungs. Studies have shown that in cystic fibrosis, the relative abundance of anaerobes fluctuates in the lower airways with reduced lung function and increased inflammation associated with a decreased anaerobic load. However, anaerobes found within the lower airways also produce virulence factors, may cause a host inflammatory response and interact synergistically with recognized pathogens. Anaerobic bacteria are potentially members of the airway microbiota in health but could also contribute to the pathogenesis of lower airway disease in cystic fibrosis via both direct and indirect mechanisms. A personalized treatment strategy that maintains a normal microbial community may be possible in the future.

  7. Optimization of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2013-06-05

    Jun 5, 2013 ... sludge instead of imported commercial anaerobic granulated sludge. Over the ... biogas, granulated anaerobic sludge, industrial wastewater. ... production of methane by methanogenic bacteria. Compared with other treatment processes, USAB ... effluent collector; 8, gas outlet; 9, gas collector; 10, side-arm ...

  8. Control of calcium carbonate precipitation in anaerobic reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langerak, van E.P.A.

    1998-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment of waste waters with a high calcium content may lead to excessive precipitation of calcium carbonate. So far, no proper methods were available to predict or reduce the extent of precipitation in an anaerobic treatment system. Moreover, it also was not clear to what

  9. Reviewing interval cancers: Time well spent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gower-Thomas, Kate; Fielder, Hilary M.P.; Branston, Lucy; Greening, Sarah; Beer, Helen; Rogers, Cerilan

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To categorize interval cancers, and thus identify false-negatives, following prevalent and incident screens in the Welsh breast screening programme. SETTING: Breast Test Wales (BTW) Llandudno, Cardiff and Swansea breast screening units. METHODS: Five hundred and sixty interval breast cancers identified following negative mammographic screening between 1989 and 1997 were reviewed by eight screening radiologists. The blind review was achieved by mixing the screening films of women who subsequently developed an interval cancer with screen negative films of women who did not develop cancer, in a ratio of 4:1. Another radiologist used patients' symptomatic films to record a reference against which the reviewers' reports of the screening films were compared. Interval cancers were categorized as 'true', 'occult', 'false-negative' or 'unclassified' interval cancers or interval cancers with minimal signs, based on the National Health Service breast screening programme (NHSBSP) guidelines. RESULTS: Of the classifiable interval films, 32% were false-negatives, 55% were true intervals and 12% occult. The proportion of false-negatives following incident screens was half that following prevalent screens (P = 0.004). Forty percent of the seed films were recalled by the panel. CONCLUSIONS: Low false-negative interval cancer rates following incident screens (18%) versus prevalent screens (36%) suggest that lower cancer detection rates at incident screens may have resulted from fewer cancers than expected being present, rather than from a failure to detect tumours. The panel method for categorizing interval cancers has significant flaws as the results vary markedly with different protocol and is no more accurate than other, quicker and more timely methods. Gower-Thomas, K. et al. (2002)

  10. Vaginal microbiology of women with acute recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Sobel, J D; Chaim, W

    1996-01-01

    Alterations in the autochthonous vaginal microflora can predispose women to recurring attacks of Candida vaginitis. Quantitative aerobic and anaerobic cultures were obtained from 24 premenopausal women with acute recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and from 21 healthy asymptomatic premenopausal women. Lactobacillus species constituted the predominant flora in both groups, with a mean log10 CFU/ml of 8.7, a total isolation rate of 96%, and a mean of 1.6 Lactobacillus species isolated per patien...

  11. Sequential batch anaerobic composting (SEBAC sup TM ) of solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chynoweth, D.P.; O' Keefe, D.M.; Barkdoll, A.W.; Owens, J.M. (Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida (US)); Legrand, R. (Radian Corporation, Austin, Texas (US))

    1992-01-01

    Anaerobic high-solids digestion (anaerobic composting) is an attractive option for treatment of organic wastes. The main advantages of anaerobic composting are the lack of aeration requirements and production of methane. An anaerobic composting design, sequential batch anaerobic composting (SEBAC{sup TM}), has been developed and demonstrated at the pilot scale which has proven to be stable and effective for treatment of the non-yeard waste and yard waste organic fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW). The design employs leachate recycle for wetting, inoculation, and removal of volatile organic acids during startup. Performance is similar to that of other designs requiring heavy solids inoculation and mixing and which do not have a mechanism for volatile organic acid removal during imbalance. (au) (12 refs.).

  12. Anaerobic biodegradation of hexazinone in four sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huili; Xu Shuxia; Tan Chengxia; Wang Xuedong

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic biodegradation of hexazinone was investigated in four sediments (L1, L2, Y1 and Y2). Results showed that the L2 sediment had the highest biodegradation potential among four sediments. However, the Y1 and Y2 sediments had no capacity to biodegrade hexazinone. Sediments with rich total organic carbon, long-term contamination history by hexazinone and neutral pH may have a high biodegradation potential because the former two factors can induce the growth of microorganisms responsible for biodegradation and the third factor can offer suitable conditions for biodegradation. The addition of sulfate or nitrate as electron acceptors enhanced hexazinone degradation. As expected, the addition of electron donors (lactate, acetate or pyruvate) substantially inhibited the degradation. In natural environmental conditions, the effect of intermediate A [3-(4-hydroxycyclohexyl)-6-(dimethylamino)-1-methyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4(1H, 3H)dione] on anaerobic hexazinone degradation was negligible because of its low level.

  13. Comparative economic analysis: Anaerobic digester case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusk, P.D.

    1991-01-01

    An economic guide is developed to assess the value of anaerobic digesters used on dairy farms. Two varieties of anaerobic digesters, a conventional mixed-tank mesophilic and an innovative earthen psychrophilic, are comparatively evaluated using a cost-effectiveness index. The two case study examples are also evaluated using three other investment merit statistics: simple payback period, net present value, and internal rate of return. Life-cycle savings are estimated for both varieties, with sensitivities considered for investment risk. The conclusion is that an earthen psychrophilic digester can have a significant economic advantage over a mixed-tank mesophilic digester because of lower capital cost and reduced operation and maintenance expenses. Because of this economic advantage, additional projects are being conducted in North Carolina to increase the rate of biogas utilization. The initial step includes using biogas for milk cooling at the dairy farm where the existing psychrophilic digester is located. Further, a new project is being initiated for electricity production with thermal reclaim at a swine operation

  14. Anaerobic columnar denitrification of high nitrate wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, C.W.; Malone, C.D.

    1975-01-01

    Anaerobic columns were used to test the effectiveness of biological denitrification of nitrate solutions ranging in concentration from 1 to 10 kg NO 3 /m 3 . Several sources of nitrate (Ca(CNO 3 ) 2 , NaNO 3 , NH 4 NO 3 , and actual nitrate wastes from a UO 2 fuel fabrication plant) were evaluated as well as two packing media. The packing media were anthracite coal particles, whose effective diameter size ranged between 2 and 3 mm, and polypropylene Raschig rings 1.6 x 1.6 diameter. The anthracite coal proved to be the better packing media as excessive hydraulic short circuiting occurred in a 120 x 15 cm diameter glass column packed with the polypropylene rings after 40 days operation. With anthracite coal, floatation of the bed occurred at flow rates greater than 0.80 cm 3 /s. Tapered columns packed with anthracite coal eliminated the floatation problem, even at flow rates as high as 5 cm 3 /s. Under optimum operating conditions the anthracite coal behaved as a fluidized bed. Maximum denitrification rates were 1.0--1.4 g NO 3 /m 3 /s based on initial bed volume. Denitrification kinetics indicated that rates of denitrification became substrate inhibited at nitrate concentrations greater than 6.5 kg NO 3 /m 3 Anaerobic columns packed with anthracite coal appear to be an effective method of nitrate disposal for nitrate rich wastewater generated at UO 2 fuel fabrication plants and fuel reprocessing facilities. (U.S.)

  15. Anaerobic and aerobic transformation of TNT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulpa, C.F. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Boopathy, R.; Manning, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

    1996-12-31

    Most studies on the microbial metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds have used pure cultures of aerobic microorganisms. In many cases, attempts to degrade nitroaromatics under aerobic conditions by pure cultures result in no mineralization and only superficial modifications of the structure. However, mixed culture systems properly operated result in the transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and in some cases mineralization of TNT occurs. In this paper, the mixed culture system is described with emphasis on intermediates and the characteristics of the aerobic microbial process including the necessity for a co-substrate. The possibility of removing TNT under aerobic/anoxic conditions is described in detail. Another option for the biodegradation of TNT and nitroaromatics is under anaerobic, sulfate reducing conditions. In this instance, the nitroaromatic compounds undergo a series of reductions with the formation of amino compounds. TNT under sulfate reducing conditions is reduced to triaminotoluene presumably by the enzyme nitrite reductase, which is commonly found in many Desulfovibrio spp. The removal of nitro groups from TNT is achieved by a series of reductive reactions with the formation of ammonia and toluene by Desulfovibrio sp. (B strain). These metabolic processes could be applied to other nitroaromatic compounds like nitrobenzene, nitrobenzoic acids, nitrophenols, and aniline. The data supporting the anaerobic transformation of TNT under different growth condition are reviewed in this report.

  16. Tolerance of anaerobic bacteria to chlorinated solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Joanna C; Groissmeier, Kathrin D; Manefield, Mike J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of four chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs), perchloroethene (PCE), carbon tetrachloride (CT), chloroform (CF) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), on the growth of eight anaerobic bacteria: four fermentative species (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., Clostridium sp. and Paenibacillus sp.) and four respiring species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Geobacter sulfurreducens, Shewanella oneidensis and Desulfovibrio vulgaris). Effective concentrations of solvents which inhibited growth rates by 50% (EC50) were determined. The octanol-water partition coefficient or log Po/w of a CAH proved a generally satisfactory measure of its toxicity. Most species tolerated approximately 3-fold and 10-fold higher concentrations of the two relatively more polar CAHs CF and 1,2-DCA, respectively, than the two relatively less polar compounds PCE and CT. EC50 values correlated well with growth rates observed in solvent-free cultures, with fast-growing organisms displaying higher tolerance levels. Overall, fermentative bacteria were more tolerant to CAHs than respiring species, with iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria in particular appearing highly sensitive to CAHs. These data extend the current understanding of the impact of CAHs on a range of anaerobic bacteria, which will benefit the field of bioremediation.

  17. INTERVAL OBSERVER FOR A BIOLOGICAL REACTOR MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kharkovskaia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The method of an interval observer design for nonlinear systems with parametric uncertainties is considered. The interval observer synthesis problem for systems with varying parameters consists in the following. If there is the uncertainty restraint for the state values of the system, limiting the initial conditions of the system and the set of admissible values for the vector of unknown parameters and inputs, the interval existence condition for the estimations of the system state variables, containing the actual state at a given time, needs to be held valid over the whole considered time segment as well. Conditions of the interval observers design for the considered class of systems are shown. They are: limitation of the input and state, the existence of a majorizing function defining the uncertainty vector for the system, Lipschitz continuity or finiteness of this function, the existence of an observer gain with the suitable Lyapunov matrix. The main condition for design of such a device is cooperativity of the interval estimation error dynamics. An individual observer gain matrix selection problem is considered. In order to ensure the property of cooperativity for interval estimation error dynamics, a static transformation of coordinates is proposed. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated by computer modeling of the biological reactor. Possible applications of these interval estimation systems are the spheres of robust control, where the presence of various types of uncertainties in the system dynamics is assumed, biotechnology and environmental systems and processes, mechatronics and robotics, etc.

  18. Thermophilic anaerobic fermentation of olive pulp for hydrogen and methane production: modelling of the anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2006-01-01

    the olive pulp; c) subsequent anaerobic treatment of the hydrogen-effluent with the simultaneous production of methane; and d) development of a mathematical model able to describe the anaerobic digestion of the olive pulp and the effluent of hydrogen producing process. Both continuous and batch experiments...

  19. Validity of the Pediatric Running-Based Anaerobic Sprint Test to Determine Anaerobic Performance in Healthy Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, Bart C.; Werkman, Maarten S.; Blokland, Donna; Eijsermans, Maria J. C.; van der Torre, Patrick; Bartels, Bart; Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim

    Purpose: To determine criterion validity of the pediatric running-based anaerobic sprint test (RAST) as a nonsophisticated field test for evaluating anaerobic performance in healthy children and adolescents. Methods: Data from 65. healthy children (28 boys and 37 girls between 6 and 18 years of age,

  20. Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting with short relaxation intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amthor, Thomas; Doneva, Mariya; Koken, Peter; Sommer, Karsten; Meineke, Jakob; Börnert, Peter

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a technique for improving the performance of Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) in repetitive sampling schemes, in particular for 3D MRF acquisition, by shortening relaxation intervals between MRF pulse train repetitions. A calculation method for MRF dictionaries adapted to short relaxation intervals and non-relaxed initial spin states is presented, based on the concept of stationary fingerprints. The method is applicable to many different k-space sampling schemes in 2D and 3D. For accuracy analysis, T 1 and T 2 values of a phantom are determined by single-slice Cartesian MRF for different relaxation intervals and are compared with quantitative reference measurements. The relevance of slice profile effects is also investigated in this case. To further illustrate the capabilities of the method, an application to in-vivo spiral 3D MRF measurements is demonstrated. The proposed computation method enables accurate parameter estimation even for the shortest relaxation intervals, as investigated for different sampling patterns in 2D and 3D. In 2D Cartesian measurements, we achieved a scan acceleration of more than a factor of two, while maintaining acceptable accuracy: The largest T 1 values of a sample set deviated from their reference values by 0.3% (longest relaxation interval) and 2.4% (shortest relaxation interval). The largest T 2 values showed systematic deviations of up to 10% for all relaxation intervals, which is discussed. The influence of slice profile effects for multislice acquisition is shown to become increasingly relevant for short relaxation intervals. In 3D spiral measurements, a scan time reduction of 36% was achieved, maintaining the quality of in-vivo T1 and T2 maps. Reducing the relaxation interval between MRF sequence repetitions using stationary fingerprint dictionaries is a feasible method to improve the scan efficiency of MRF sequences. The method enables fast implementations of 3D spatially

  1. Acute Pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertilsson, Sara; Håkansson, Anders; Kalaitzakis, Evangelos

    2017-01-01

    Aims: We aimed to evaluate the potential relation between the incidence of (alcoholic and non-alcoholic) acute pancreatitis (AP) and alcohol consumption in the general population, and whether the occurrence of AP shows any seasonal variation, particularly in relation to periods with expected...... consumption in the general population do not appear to be related to changes in the incidence of AP and there are no significant seasonal differences in the occurrence of AP in Sweden. Short summary: The incidence of acute pancreatitis (AP) is increasing, and alcohol is still recognized as one of the most...

  2. Advanced Interval Management: A Benefit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timer, Sebastian; Peters, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This document is the final report for the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC)- sponsored task order 'Possible Benefits for Advanced Interval Management Operations.' Under this research project, Architecture Technology Corporation performed an analysis to determine the maximum potential benefit to be gained if specific Advanced Interval Management (AIM) operations were implemented in the National Airspace System (NAS). The motivation for this research is to guide NASA decision-making on which Interval Management (IM) applications offer the most potential benefit and warrant further research.

  3. Generalized production planning problem under interval uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir A. Abass

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Data in many real life engineering and economical problems suffer from inexactness. Herein we assume that we are given some intervals in which the data can simultaneously and independently perturb. We consider the generalized production planning problem with interval data. The interval data are in both of the objective function and constraints. The existing results concerning the qualitative and quantitative analysis of basic notions in parametric production planning problem. These notions are the set of feasible parameters, the solvability set and the stability set of the first kind.

  4. Reconstruction of dynamical systems from interspike intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, T.

    1994-01-01

    Attractor reconstruction from interspike interval (ISI) data is described, in rough analogy with Taken's theorem for attractor reconstruction from time series. Assuming a generic integrate-and-fire model coupling the dynamical system to the spike train, there is a one-to-one correspondence between the system states and interspike interval vectors of sufficiently large dimension. The correspondence has an important implication: interspike intervals can be forecast from past history. We show that deterministically driven ISI series can be distinguished from stochastically driven ISI series on the basis of prediction error

  5. MR of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spickler, E.; Lufkin, R.; Frazee, J.; Lylyk, P.; Vinuela, F.; Bentson, J.; Dion, J.

    1987-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage was produced in four Macaca nemestrina monkeys using the technique of Frazee. CT and MR imaging was performed immediately after the procedure and at frequent intervals up to 2 weeks after hemorrhage. The imaging studies were compared with clinical evaluations and pathologic specimens of all animals. Additional human clinical CT/MR studies of subarachnoid hemorrhage were also studied. Acute hemorrhage was recognized on MR images as an increase in signal in the region of clot compared with surrounding cerebrospinal fluid. This most likely reflects T1 shortening due to proton binding rather than a pure paramagnetic effect. While CT is sensitive to the hemoglobin protein in acute hemorrhage, the superior resolution of MR of the basal cisterns results in equal or better definition of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage on MR studies in many cases

  6. Microbiology and Treatment of Acute Apical Abscesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rôças, Isabela N.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Acute apical abscess is the most common form of dental abscess and is caused by infection of the root canal of the tooth. It is usually localized intraorally, but in some cases the apical abscess may spread and result in severe complications or even mortality. The reasons why dental root canal infections can become symptomatic and evolve to severe spreading and sometimes life-threatening abscesses remain elusive. Studies using culture and advanced molecular microbiology methods for microbial identification in apical abscesses have demonstrated a multispecies community conspicuously dominated by anaerobic bacteria. Species/phylotypes commonly found in these infections belong to the genera Fusobacterium, Parvimonas, Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Dialister, Streptococcus, and Treponema. Advances in DNA sequencing technologies and computational biology have substantially enhanced the knowledge of the microbiota associated with acute apical abscesses and shed some light on the etiopathogeny of this disease. Species richness and abundance and the resulting network of interactions among community members may affect the collective pathogenicity and contribute to the development of acute infections. Disease modifiers, including transient or permanent host-related factors, may also influence the development and severity of acute abscesses. This review focuses on the current evidence about the etiology and treatment of acute apical abscesses and how the process is influenced by host-related factors and proposes future directions in research, diagnosis, and therapeutic approaches to deal with this disease. PMID:23554416

  7. Intact interval timing in circadian CLOCK mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Sara; Gallistel, C R

    2008-08-28

    While progress has been made in determining the molecular basis for the circadian clock, the mechanism by which mammalian brains time intervals measured in seconds to minutes remains a mystery. An obvious question is whether the interval-timing mechanism shares molecular machinery with the circadian timing mechanism. In the current study, we trained circadian CLOCK +/- and -/- mutant male mice in a peak-interval procedure with 10 and 20-s criteria. The mutant mice were more active than their wild-type littermates, but there were no reliable deficits in the accuracy or precision of their timing as compared with wild-type littermates. This suggests that expression of the CLOCK protein is not necessary for normal interval timing.

  8. Socioeconomic position and the primary care interval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Anders

    2018-01-01

    to the easiness to interpret the symptoms of the underlying cancer. Methods. We conducted a population-based cohort study using survey data on time intervals linked at an individually level to routine collected data on demographics from Danish registries. Using logistic regression we estimated the odds......Introduction. Diagnostic delays affect cancer survival negatively. Thus, the time interval from symptomatic presentation to a GP until referral to secondary care (i.e. primary care interval (PCI)), should be as short as possible. Lower socioeconomic position seems associated with poorer cancer...... younger than 45 years of age and older than 54 years of age had longer primary care interval than patients aged ‘45-54’ years. No other associations for SEP characteristics were observed. The findings may imply that GPs are referring patients regardless of SEP, although some room for improvement prevails...

  9. Arsenic volatilization in model anaerobic biogas digesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestrot, Adrien; Xie, Wan-Ying; Xue, Ximei; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Arsenic is volatilized form all model anaerobic digesters, including the non-treated ones. • Volatile As species can be identified and quantified in all digesters. • Non-arsenic treated digesters volatilization rates are higher than Roxarsone treated ones. - Abstract: Arsenic is a class 1 non-threshold carcinogen which is highly ubiquitous. Arsenic undergoes many different transformations (biotic or abiotic) between and within environmental compartments, leading to a number of different chemical species possessing different properties and toxicities. One specific transformation is As biotic volatilization which is coupled with As biomethylation and has been scarcely studied due to inherent sampling issues. Arsenic methylation/volatilization is also linked with methanogenesis and occurs in anaerobic environments. In China, rice straw and animal manure are very often used to produce biogas and both can contain high amounts of As, especially if the rice is grown in areas with heavy mining or smelting industries and if Roxarsone is fed to the animals. Roxarsone is an As-containing drug which is widely used in China to control coccidian intestinal parasites, to improve feed efficiency and to promote rapid growth. Previous work has shown that this compound degrades to inorganic As under anaerobic conditions. In this study the focus is on biotic transformations of As in small microcosms designed as biogas digester models (BDMs) using recently validated As traps, thus, enabling direct quantification and identification of volatile As species. It is shown that although there was a loss of soluble As in the BDMs, their conditions favored biomethylation. All reactors produced volatile As, especially the monomethylarsonic acid spiked ones with 413 ± 148 ng As (mean ± SD, n = 3) which suggest that the first methylation step, from inorganic As, is a limiting factor. The most abundant species was trimethylarsine, but the toxic arsine was present in the

  10. Anaerobic toxicity of cationic silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitipour, Alireza; Thiel, Stephen W. [Biomedical, Chemical, and Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Scheckel, Kirk G. [USEPA, Office of Research and Development, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Tolaymat, Thabet, E-mail: tolaymat.thabet@epa.gov [USEPA, Office of Research and Development, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The microbial toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) stabilized with different capping agents was compared to that of Ag{sup +} under anaerobic conditions. Three AgNPs were investigated: (1) negatively charged citrate-coated AgNPs (citrate-AgNPs), (2) minimally charged polyvinylpyrrolidone coated AgNPs (PVP-AgNPs) and (3) positively charged branched polyethyleneimine coated AgNPs (BPEI-AgNPs). The AgNPs investigated in this experiment were similar in size (10–15 nm), spherical in shape, but varied in surface charge which ranged from highly negative to highly positive. While, at AgNPs concentrations lower than 5 mg L{sup −1}, the anaerobic decomposition process was not influenced by the presence of the nanoparticles, there was an observed impact on the diversity of the microbial community. At elevated concentrations (100 mg L{sup −1} as silver), only the cationic BPEI-AgNPs demonstrated toxicity similar in magnitude to that of Ag{sup +}. Both citrate and PVP-AgNPs did not exhibit toxicity at the 100 mg L{sup −1} as measured by biogas evolution. These findings further indicate the varying modes of action for nanoparticle toxicity and represent one of the few studies that evaluate end-of-life management concerns with regards to the increasing use of nanomaterials in our everyday life. These findings also highlight some of the concerns with a one size fits all approach to the evaluation of environmental health and safety concerns associated with the use of nanoparticles. - Highlights: • At concentrations -1 the anaerobic decomposition process was not impacted. • An impact on the microbial community at concentrations -1 were observed. • At high concentrations (100 mg L{sup −1}), the cationic BPEI-AgNPs demonstrated toxicity. • Toxicity was demonstrated without the presence of oxidative dissolution of silver. • A one size fits all approach for the evaluation of NPs may not be accurate.

  11. An anaerobic bioreactor system for biobutanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paekkilae, J.; Hillukkala, T.; Myllykoski, L.; Keiski, R.L. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Process and Environmental Engineering (Finland)). email: johanna.pakkila@oulu.fi

    2009-07-01

    Concerns about the greenhouse effect, as well as legislation to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and to increase the use of renewable energy have been the main reasons for the increased production and use of biofuels. In addition to bioethanol and biodiesel production, the research on biobutanol production has also increased during the past years. Butanol can be produced by chemical or biochemical routes. Fuel properties of butanol are considered to be superior to ethanol because of higher energy content, and better air-to-fuel ratio. Butanol is also less volatile and explosive than ethanol, has higher flash point and lower vapour pressure which makes it safer to handle. Biobutanol production is an anaerobic two-stage fermentation process where acetic and butyric acids, carbon dioxide and hydrogen are first produced in the acidogenic phase. Then the culture undergoes metabolic shift to solventogenic phase and acids are converted into acetone, ethanol and butanol. At the end of the fermentation, products are recovered from the cell mass, other suspended solids, and by-products. Several species of Clostridium bacteria are capable to metabolize different sugars, amino and organic acids, polyalcohols and other organic compounds to butanol and other solvents. Feedstock materials for biobutanol are diverse, including different kind of by-products, wastes and residues of agriculture and industry. Optimal fermentation conditions (pH, temperature, nutrients), products and their ratio vary with strains and substrates used. Biobutanol production has still some limitations including butanol toxicity to culture leading to low butanol yields. The product inhibition hinders the yield of butanol and acids, making integrated product separation process highly favorable. Butanol recovery from fermentation broth is expensive because of the low butanol concentration and high boiling point (118 degC). Several different recovery methods are available. Membrane-based methods such as membrane

  12. Recurrence interval analysis of trading volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fei; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2010-06-01

    We study the statistical properties of the recurrence intervals τ between successive trading volumes exceeding a certain threshold q. The recurrence interval analysis is carried out for the 20 liquid Chinese stocks covering a period from January 2000 to May 2009, and two Chinese indices from January 2003 to April 2009. Similar to the recurrence interval distribution of the price returns, the tail of the recurrence interval distribution of the trading volumes follows a power-law scaling, and the results are verified by the goodness-of-fit tests using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistic, the weighted KS statistic and the Cramér-von Mises criterion. The measurements of the conditional probability distribution and the detrended fluctuation function show that both short-term and long-term memory effects exist in the recurrence intervals between trading volumes. We further study the relationship between trading volumes and price returns based on the recurrence interval analysis method. It is found that large trading volumes are more likely to occur following large price returns, and the comovement between trading volumes and price returns is more pronounced for large trading volumes.

  13. Interval Size and Affect: An Ethnomusicological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarha Moore

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This commentary addresses Huron and Davis's question of whether "The Harmonic Minor Provides an Optimum Way of Reducing Average Melodic Interval Size, Consistent with Sad Affect Cues" within any non-Western musical cultures. The harmonic minor scale and other semitone-heavy scales, such as Bhairav raga and Hicaz makam, are featured widely in the musical cultures of North India and the Middle East. Do melodies from these genres also have a preponderance of semitone intervals and low incidence of the augmented second interval, as in Huron and Davis's sample? Does the presence of more semitone intervals in a melody affect its emotional connotations in different cultural settings? Are all semitone intervals equal in their effect? My own ethnographic research within these cultures reveals comparable connotations in melodies that linger on semitone intervals, centered on concepts of tension and metaphors of falling. However, across different musical cultures there may also be neutral or lively interpretations of these same pitch sets, dependent on context, manner of performance, and tradition. Small pitch movement may also be associated with social functions such as prayer or lullabies, and may not be described as "sad." "Sad," moreover may not connote the same affect cross-culturally.

  14. High-intensity interval training induces a modest systemic inflammatory response in active, young men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwetsloot, Kevin A; John, Casey S; Lawrence, Marcus M; Battista, Rebecca A; Shanely, R Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine: 1) the extent to which an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases systemic inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and 2) whether 2 weeks of HIIT training alters the inflammatory response. Eight recreationally active males (aged 22±2 years) performed 2 weeks of HIIT on a cycle ergometer (six HIIT sessions at 8–12 intervals; 60-second intervals, 75-second active rest) at a power output equivalent to 100% of their predetermined peak oxygen uptake (VO2max). Serum samples were collected during the first and sixth HIIT sessions at rest and immediately, 15, 30, and 45 minutes post-exercise. An acute session of HIIT induced significant increases in interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 compared with rest. The concentrations of interferon-γ, granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor, and IL-1β were unaltered with an acute session of HIIT Two weeks of training did not alter the inflammatory response to an acute bout of HIIT exercise. Maximal power achieved during a VO2max test significantly increased 4.6%, despite no improvements in VO2max after 2 weeks of HIIT. These data suggest that HIIT exercise induces a small inflammatory response in young, recreationally active men; however, 2 weeks of HIIT does not alter this response. PMID:24520199

  15. A PRACTICAL MODEL OF LOW-VOLUME HIGH-INTENSITY INTERVAL TRAINING INDUCES PERFORMANCE AND METABOLIC ADAPTATIONS THAT RESEMBLE 'ALL-OUT' SPRINT INTERVAL TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Bayati

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a novel type of high-intensity interval training known as sprint interval training has demonstrated increases in aerobic and anaerobic performance with very low time commitment. However, this type of training program is unpractical for general populations. The present study compared the impact of a low-volume high-intensity interval training to a "all-out" sprint interval training. Twenty-four active young males were recruited and randomized into three groups: (G1: 3-5 cycling bouts × 30-s all-out with 4 min recovery; G2: 6- 10 cycling bouts × 125% Pmax with 2 min recovery and a non-trained control group. They all performed a VO2max test, a time to exhaustion at Pmax (Tmax and a Wingate test before and after the intervention. Capillary blood lactate was taken at rest, 3, and 20 min after the Wingate trial. Training was performed 3 sessions per week for 4 weeks. In G1, significant improvements (p < 0.05 following training were found in VO2max (9.6%, power at VO2max (12.8%, Tmax (48.4%, peak power output (10.3% and mean power output (17.1%. In G2, significant improvements following training were found in VO2max (9.7%, power at VO2max (16.1%, Tmax (54.2%, peak power output (7.4%; p < 0.05, but mean power output did not change significantly. Blood lactate recovery (20th min significantly decreased in G1 and G2 when compared with pre-testing and the CON group (p < 0.05. In conclusion, the results of the current study agree with earlier work demonstrating the effectiveness of 30-s all-out training program to aerobic and anaerobic adaptations. Of substantial interest is that the low volume high intensity training provides similar results but involves only half the intensity with double the repetitions

  16. Probability Distribution for Flowing Interval Spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Kuzio

    2004-01-01

    Fracture spacing is a key hydrologic parameter in analyses of matrix diffusion. Although the individual fractures that transmit flow in the saturated zone (SZ) cannot be identified directly, it is possible to determine the fractured zones that transmit flow from flow meter survey observations. The fractured zones that transmit flow as identified through borehole flow meter surveys have been defined in this report as flowing intervals. The flowing interval spacing is measured between the midpoints of each flowing interval. The determination of flowing interval spacing is important because the flowing interval spacing parameter is a key hydrologic parameter in SZ transport modeling, which impacts the extent of matrix diffusion in the SZ volcanic matrix. The output of this report is input to the ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). Specifically, the analysis of data and development of a data distribution reported herein is used to develop the uncertainty distribution for the flowing interval spacing parameter for the SZ transport abstraction model. Figure 1-1 shows the relationship of this report to other model reports that also pertain to flow and transport in the SZ. Figure 1-1 also shows the flow of key information among the SZ reports. It should be noted that Figure 1-1 does not contain a complete representation of the data and parameter inputs and outputs of all SZ reports, nor does it show inputs external to this suite of SZ reports. Use of the developed flowing interval spacing probability distribution is subject to the limitations of the assumptions discussed in Sections 5 and 6 of this analysis report. The number of fractures in a flowing interval is not known. Therefore, the flowing intervals are assumed to be composed of one flowing zone in the transport simulations. This analysis may overestimate the flowing interval spacing because the number of fractures that contribute to a flowing interval cannot be

  17. Anaerobic Digestion Modeling: from One to Several Bacterial Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván D. Ramírez-Rivas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion systems are complex processes that unfortunately often suffer from instability causing digester failure. In order to be able to design, optimizing and operate efficiently anaerobic digestion systems, appropriate control strategies need to be designed. Such strategies require, in general, the development of mathematical models. The anaerobic digestion process comprises a complex network of sequential and parallel reactions of biochemical and physicochemical nature. Usually, such reactions contain a particular step, the so called rate-limiting step which, being the slowest, limits the reaction rate of the overall process. The first attempts for modeling anaerobic digestion led to models describing only the limiting step. However, over a wide range of operating conditions, the limiting step is not always the same. It may depend on wastewater characteristics, hydraulic loading, temperature, etc. It is apparent that the "limiting step hypothesis" leads to simple and readily usable models. Such models, however, do not describe very well the digester behavior, especially under transient operating conditions. This work reviews the current state-of-the-art in anaerobic digestion modeling. We give a brief description of the key anaerobic digestion models that have been developed so far for describing biomass growth systems, including the International Water Association’s Anaerobic Digestion Model 1 (ADM1 and we identify the areas that require further research endeavors.

  18. Gardnerella vaginalis and anaerobic bacteria in genital disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaqchali, S; Wilks, M; Thin, R N

    1983-01-01

    In a study of Gardnerella vaginalis and anaerobic bacteria in non-specific vaginitis (NSV) and other genital disease 89 patients attending a genital medicine clinic had vaginal samples examined for conventional pathogens and for quantitative analysis of G vaginalis and aerobic and anaerobic bacterial flora. The overall incidence of G vaginalis was 20%; G vaginalis (mean concentration 7.0 log10/g of secretion) occurred predominantly in patients with NSV (57%) but also in sexual contacts of non-specific urethritis (NSU) (37.5%) and in patients with other conditions (11.8%). G vaginalis is therefore a relatively common isolate in patients with vaginal discharge. The concentration of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria ranged from 4.9-11.0 log10/g of secretion with an anaerobe-to-aerobe ratio of 10:1. Anaerobic bacteria, particularly anaerobic Gram-positive cocci (mean concentrations 7.7 log10/g), were present in patients with NSV and in association with G vaginalis, but they also occurred in other clinical groups and with other pathogens, particularly Trichomonas vaginalis. Anaerobic bacteria may therefore play an important role in the pathogenesis of vaginal infections. PMID:6600955

  19. Anaerobic biodegradability and toxicity of complex or toxicant wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills Betancur, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    As a first approximation to wastewater classification in susceptibility terms to treatment by anaerobic biological system, anaerobic biodegradability trials are accomplished to leached of sanitary landfill, to wastewater of coffee grain wet treatment plant and to wastewater of fumaric acid recuperation plant. In the last Plant, anaerobic toxicity trials and lethal toxicity on the Daphnia pulex micro-crustacean are made too. Anaerobic biological trials are made continuing the Wageningen University (Holland) Methodology (1.987). Lethal toxicity biological trials are made following the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater(18th edition, 1992). In development of this investigation project is found that fumaric acid recuperation plant leached it has a low anaerobic biodegradability, a high anaerobic toxicity and a high lethal toxicity over Daphnia pulex, for such reasons this leached is cataloged as complex and toxic wastewater. The other hand, wastewater of coffee grain wet treatment plant and wastewater of sanitary landfill they are both highly biodegradability and not-toxic, for such reasons these wastewaters are cataloged as susceptible to treatment by anaerobic biological system

  20. Growth media in anaerobic fermentative processes: The underestimated potential of thermophilic fermentation and anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, A T W M; van Lier, J B; de Kreuk, M K

    Fermentation and anaerobic digestion of organic waste and wastewater is broadly studied and applied. Despite widely available results and data for these processes, comparison of the generated results in literature is difficult. Not only due to the used variety of process conditions, but also because of the many different growth media that are used. Composition of growth media can influence biogas production (rates) and lead to process instability during anaerobic digestion. To be able to compare results of the different studies reported, and to ensure nutrient limitation is not influencing observations ascribed to process dynamics and/or reaction kinetics, a standard protocol for creating a defined growth medium for anaerobic digestion and mixed culture fermentation is proposed. This paper explains the role(s) of the different macro- and micronutrients, as well as the choices for a growth medium formulation strategy. In addition, the differences in nutrient requirements between mesophilic and thermophilic systems are discussed as well as the importance of specific trace metals regarding specific conversion routes and the possible supplementary requirement of vitamins. The paper will also give some insight into the bio-availability and toxicity of trace metals. A remarkable finding is that mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes are quite comparable at their optimum temperatures. This has consequences for the trace metal requirements of thermophiles under certain conditions. Under non-limiting conditions, the trace metal requirement of thermophilic systems is about 3 times higher than for mesophilic systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Applicability and trends of anaerobic granular sludge treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Seung Joo; Kim, Tak-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic granular sludge treatment processes have been continuously developed, although the anaerobic sludge granulation process was not clearly understood. In this review, an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), an expanded granule sludge blanket (EGSB), and a static granular bed reactor (SGBR) were introduced as components of a representative anaerobic granular sludge treatment processes. The characteristics and application trends of each reactor were presented. The UASB reactor was developed in the late 1970s and its use has been rapidly widespread due to the excellent performance. With the active granules, this reactor is able to treat various high-strength wastewaters as well as municipal wastewater. Most soluble industrial wastewaters can be efficiently applied using a UASB. The EGSB reactor was developed owing to give more chance to contact between wastewater and the granules. Dispersed sludge is separated from mature granules using the rapid upward velocity in this reactor. The EGSB reactor shows the excellent performance in treating low-strength and/or high-strength wastewater, especially under low temperatures. The SGBR, developed at Iowa State University, is one of anaerobic granular sludge treatment processes. Although the configuration of the SGBR is very simple, the performance of this system is similar to that of the UASB or EGSB reactor. The anaerobic sludge granulation processes showed excellent performance for various wastewaters at a broad range of organic loading rate in lab-, pilot-scale tests. This leads to erect thousands of full-scale granular processes, which has been widely operated around the world. -- Highlights: • Anaerobic sludge granulation is a key parameter for maintaining granular processes. • Anaerobic granular digestion processes are applicable for various wastewaters. • The UASB is an economic high-rate anaerobic granular process. • The EGSB can treat high-strength wastewater using expanding granules. • The SGBR is

  2. Anaerobic digestion for sustainable development: a natural approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gljzen, H J

    2002-01-01

    After the discovery of methane gas by Alessandro Volta in 1776, it took about 100 years before anaerobic processes for the treatment of wastewater and sludges were introduced. The development of high rate anaerobic digesters for the treatment of sewage and industrial wastewater took until the nineteen-seventies and for solid waste even till the nineteen-eighties. All digesters have in common that they apply natural anaerobic consortia of microorganisms for degradation and transformation processes. In view of this, it could be rewarding to evaluate the efficiency of natural ecosystems for their possible application. Examples of high rate anaerobic natural systems include the forestomach of ruminants and the hindgut of certain insects, such as termites and cockroaches. These 'natural reactors' exhibit volumetric methane production rates as high as 35 l/l.d. The development of anaerobic reactors based on such natural anaerobic systems could produce eco-technologies for the effective management of a wide variety of solid wastes and industrial wastewater. Important limitations of anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage relate to the absence of nutrient and pathogen removal. A combination of anaerobic pre-treatment followed by photosynthetic posttreatment is proposed for the effective recovery of energy and nutrients from sewage. This eco-technology approach is based on the recognition that the main nutrient assimilating capacity is housed in photosynthetic plants. The proposed anaerobic-photosynthetic process is energy efficient, cost effective and applicable under a wide variety of rural and urban conditions. a natural systems approach towards waste management could generate affordable eco-technologies for effective treatment and resource recovery.

  3. Anaerobic digestion for sustainable development: a natural approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gijzen, H.J.

    2002-07-01

    After the discovery of methane gas by Alessandro Volta in 1776, it took about 100 years before anaerobic processes for the treatment of wastewater and sludges were introduced. The development of high rate anaerobic digesters for the treatment of sewage and industrial wastewater took until the nineteen-seventies and for solid waste even till the nineteen-eighties. All digesters have in common that they apply natural anaerobic consortia of microorganisms for degradation and transformation processes. In view of this, it could be rewarding to evaluate the efficiency of natural ecosystems for their possible application. Examples of high rate anaerobic natural systems include the forestomach of ruminants and the hindgut of certain insects, such as termites and cockroaches. These ''natural reactors'' exhibit volumetric methane production rates as high as 35 l/l.d. The development of anaerobic reactors based on such natural anaerobic systems could produce eco-technologies for the effective management of a wide variety of solid wastes and industrial wastewater. Important limitations of anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage relate to the absence of nutrient and pathogen removal. A combination of anaerobic pre-treatment followed by photosynthetic post-treatment is proposed for the effective recovery of energy and nutrients from sewage. This eco-technology approach is based on the recognition that the main nutrient assimilating capacity is housed in photosynthetic plants. The proposed anaerobic-photosynthetic process is energy efficient, cost effective and applicable under a wide variety of rural and urban conditions. In conclusion: a natural systems approach towards waste management could generate affordable eco-technologies for effective treatment and resource recovery. (author)

  4. Characterization of Spartina alterniflora as feedstock for anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shiguan; Zheng, Zheng; Meng, Zhuo; Li, Jihong

    2009-01-01

    Smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), a saltmarsh plant with high production, was characterized for its potential for use as feedstock for anaerobic digestion processes. The anaerobic digestibility and biogas yield of S. alterniflora were evaluated by anaerobic batch digestion experiments performed at 35 ± 1 C at initial volatile solids (VS) of 6%. The nutrient content analysis indicated that S. alterniflora contained the required nutrition for anaerobic microorganisms, but its high C/N of 58.8, high K and Na contents of 8.1, 22.7 g kg -1 , respectively, may be disadvantageous to its anaerobic digestion. The cumulative biogas yield was determined to be 358 L kg -1 VS and the biodegradation efficiency was 45% after 60 days of digestion. The methane content of biogas increased from 53% on day 3 to around 62% after 13 days of digestion. The changes of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) indicated that the acidification of S. alterniflora was propionate-type fermentation with proportion of acetate and propionate ranging from 54.8% to 98.4%, and the hydrolysis of lignocellulose was the rate-limiting step for its anaerobic digestion. The analysis of cations suggested that K + and Mg 2+ , with the maximum concentration of 1.35 and 0.43 g L -1 in fermentation liquor, respectively, could be inhibitory to the anaerobic digestion of S. alterniflora. It is concluded that S. alterniflora can be transformed into clean energy by anaerobic digestion and the high contents of K, Na, Ca and Mg may be the inhibitory factors when S. alterniflora is digested by continuous or semi-continuous anaerobic process. (author)

  5. Peritoneal dialysis peritonitis by anaerobic pathogens: a retrospective case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial infections account for most peritoneal dialysis (PD)-associated peritonitis episodes. However, anaerobic PD peritonitis is extremely rare and intuitively associated with intra-abdominal lesions. In this study, we examined the clinical characteristics of PD patients who developed anaerobic peritonitis. Methods We retrospectively identified all anaerobic PD peritonitis episodes from a prospectively collected PD registry at a single center between 1990 and 2010. Only patients receiving more than 3 months of PD were enrolled. We analyzed clinical features as well as outcomes of anaerobic PD peritonitis patients. Results Among 6 patients, 10 episodes of PD-associated peritonitis were caused by anaerobic pathogens (1.59% of all peritonitis episodes during study the period), in which the cultures from 5 episodes had mixed growth. Bacteroides fragilis was the most common species identified (4 isolates). Only 3 episodes were associated with gastrointestinal lesions, and 4 episodes were related to a break in sterility during exchange procedures. All anaerobic pathogens were susceptible to clindamycin and metronidazole, but penicillin resistance was noted in 4 isolates. Ampicillin/sulbactam resistance was found in 2 isolates. In 5 episodes, a primary response was achieved using the first-generation cephalosporin and ceftazidime or aminoglycoside. In 3 episodes, the first-generation cephalosporin was replaced with aminoglycosides. Tenckhoff catheter removal was necessary in 2 episodes. Only one episode ended with mortality (due to a perforated bowel). Conclusion Anaerobic PD-associated peritonitis might be predominantly caused by contamination, rather than intra-abdominal events. Half of anaerobic PD-associated peritonitis episodes had polymicrobial growth. The overall outcome of anaerobic peritonitis is fair, with a high catheter survival rate. PMID:23705895

  6. Anaerobic biodegradation of cyanide under methanogenic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, R D; Cooper, D A; Speece, R; Henson, M

    1991-01-01

    Upflow, anaerobic, fixed-bed, activated charcoal biotreatment columns capable of operating at free cyanide concentrations of greater than 100 mg liter-1 with a hydraulic retention time of less than 48 h were developed. Methanogenesis was maintained under a variety of feed medium conditions which included ethanol, phenol, or methanol as the primary reduced carbon source. Under optimal conditions, greater than 70% of the inflow free cyanide was removed in the first 30% of the column height. Strongly complexed cyanides were resistant to removal. Ammonia was the nitrogen end product of cyanide transformation. In cell material removed from the charcoal columns, [14C]bicarbonate was the major carbon end product of [14C]cyanide transformation. PMID:1872600

  7. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejnfelt, Anette; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55 degrees C and for some experiments also at 37 degrees C. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone...... flour, fat, blood, hair, meat, ribs, raw waste were: 225, 497,487, 561, 582, 575, 359, 619 dm(3) kg(-1) respectively, corresponding to 50-100% of the calculated theoretical methane potential. Dilution of the by-products had a positive effect on the specific methane yield with the highest dilutions...... giving the best results. High concentrations of long-chain fatty acids and ammonia in the by-products were found to inhibit the biogas process at concentrations higher than 5 g lipids dm(-3) and 7 gN dm(-3) respectively. Pretreatment (pasteurization: 70 degrees C, sterilization: 133 degrees C, and alkali...

  8. [Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, José E; García-Sánchez, Enrique; García-García, María Inmaculada

    2014-02-01

    The anaerobic bacteria resistance to antibiotics is increasing, and even has appeared against the most active of those, like metronidazol and carbapenems. This fact forces to make and periodical sensibility tests -at least in the most aggressive and virulent species, in cases that they are isolated from life locations and in the absence of therapeutic response- to check the local sensibility and to establish suitable empiric therapies, all based on multicentric studies carried out in order to this or well to check the activity of new antibiotics. For the laboratory routine, the easiest sensibility method is the E-test/MIC evaluator. Another alternative is microdilution, that's only normalized for Bacteroides. There are preliminary facts that allow the use of disc diffusion method in some species of Bacteroides and Clostridium. For the temporal and multicentric studies, the procedure is dilution in agar plate, the reference method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Applications of the anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ellegaard, L.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    and resource/energy recovery have been developed. Treatment of biowastes by anaerobic digestion processes is in many cases the optimal way to convert organic waste into useful products such as energy (in the form of biogas) and a fertilizer product. Other waste management options, such as land filling......At the start of the new millennium waste management has become a political priority in many countries. One of the main problems today is to cope with an increasing amount of primary waste in an environmentally acceptable way. Biowastes, i.e., municipal, agricultural or industrial organic waste...... and incineration of organic waste has become less desirable, and legislation, both in Europe and elsewhere, tends to favor biological treatment as a way of recycling minerals and nutrients of organic wastes from society back to the food production and supply chain. Removing the relatively wet organic waste from...

  10. [Anaerobic hydrolysis of terramycin crystallizing mother solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, W; Wang, J; Liang, C; Qi, R; Yang, M

    2001-09-01

    The terramycin crystallizing mother solution contained high organics and high nitrogen. There were many kinds of bioinhibition in it but not enough electronic donor. Anaerobic hydrolysis of terramycin crystallizing mother solution was completed with up anarobic sludge bed in order to improve the biodegradability of wastewater and electronic donor in it. The variations of pH, COD, NH4+, and SO4(2-) were monitored. The COD removal was in a narrow range between 10% and 16.4% even when the HRT of the reactor was changed from 1.5 h to 6 h. pH increased because of formation of NH3 and reduction of SO4(2-). Most of SO4(2-) was reduced to S2- when the HRT was longer than 2 h. Batch experiments on hydrolyzed wastewater demonstrated that reaction rates of nitrification and denitrification increased by 90.9% and 45.2%, respectively.

  11. PCB dechlorination in anaerobic soil slurry reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasson, K.T.; Evans, B.S.

    1993-01-01

    Many industrial locations, including the US Department of Energy's, have identified needs for treatment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes and remediation of PCB-contaminated sites. Biodegradation of PCBs is a potentially effective technology for the treatment of PCB-contaminated soils and sludges, including mixed wastes; however, a practical remediation technology has not yet been demonstrated. In laboratory experiments, soil slurry bioreactors inoculated with microorganisms extracted from PCB-contaminated sediments from the Hudson River have been used to obtain anaerobic dechlorination of PCBS. The onset of dechlorination activity can be accelerated by addition of nutritional amendments and inducers. After 15 weeks of incubation with PCB-contaminated soil and nutrient solution, dechlorination has been observed under several working conditions. The best results show that the average chlorine content steadily dropped from 4.3 to 3.5 chlorines per biphenyl over a 15-week period

  12. [Clinical studies on flomoxef in acute tonsillitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, M

    1994-09-01

    To objectively evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety in acute tonsillitis, flomoxef (FMOX) was examined for the distribution of sensitivity of clinical strains to it and for its clinical usefulness. 1. The 80% minimum inhibitory concentration of 11 clinical strains of Gram-positive bacteria, 6 of Gram-negative bacteria and 5 of anaerobic bacteria was 0.39 microgram/ml. FMOX showed the strongest, most comprehensive antibacterial action among the drugs tested. 2. Thirty patients received FMOX. Clinical effectiveness was evaluated in 28 patients, and clinical usefulness and safety in 30. 3. The clinical efficacy rate ('excellent' and 'good') was 75% (21/28). 4. As for bacteriological response, bacterial elimination rates were 67% for Gram-positive bacteria, 100% for Gram-negative bacteria, 100% for anaerobic bacteria and 100% for mixed infections. 5. Side effects occurred in 2 (6%) patients: drug eruption and diarrhea in 1 patient each. These symptoms improved rapidly after discontinuation of the drug. 6. Although abnormal clinical test results were found in 7 (23%) patients, i.e., increases in GOT and GPT in 2, in GPT in 4 and in BUN in 1, they were transient. 7. The usefulness of FMOX was assessed in light of its efficacy and safety. It was highly satisfactory in 14 patients, satisfactory in 11, relatively satisfactory in 1, unsatisfactory in 2 and highly unsatisfactory in 2, and rate of usefulness was 83%. FMOX is considered to be highly useful for the treatment of severe acute tonsillitis.

  13. Anaerobic treatment of solid and liquid residues. Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerkl, H.; Stegmann, R.

    1994-01-01

    Anaerobic processes are getting increasing attention in the disposal of liquid waste of the food industry and chemical industry and solid organic residues of the municipal sector. The main advantages of anaerobic processes are the favourable energy balance and the comparatively small volume of new biomass produced. There are new satisfactory technical solutions for nearly all problems encountered in practice. A conference on ''Anaerobic treatment of solid and liquid residues'' was held on 2-4 November 1994. The state of the art and new developments were presented in lectures by experts from research and practice. (orig.) [de

  14. Trends in the development of equipment for anaerobic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcak, B; Lutcha, J

    1982-01-01

    The successful application of anaerobic fermentation to the utilization of diluted wastes for the production of energy stimulated in recent years the development of new types of anaerobic reactors. Although the point of view of a chemical engineer does not encompass the complexity of this microbial process, he still disposes of means that enable him to estimate to what extent is it possible to affect the efficiency of the process by the concept of reactor arrangement. Simulation of behaviour by means of mathematical models enables us to compare quantitatively, for the types of anaerobic reactor under consideration, the apparatuses, and to predict the expected trends in their development.

  15. ANAEROBIC MEMBRANE BIOREACTORS FOR DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT. PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Vera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The operation of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (SAnMBRs for domestic wastewaters treatment was studied in laboratory scale, with the objective to define sustainable filtration conditions of the suspensions along the process. During continuous experiments, the organic matter degradation by anaerobic way showed an average DQOT removal of 85% and 93%. Indeed, the degradation generated biogas after 12 days of operation and its relative methane composition was of 60% after 25 days of operation. Additionally, the comparison between membrane bioreactors (MBRs performance in aerobic and anaerobic conditions in filterability terms, reported that both systems behave similarly once reached the stationary state.

  16. Starch-degrading enzymes from anaerobic non-clostridial bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, H; Schepers, H J; Troesch, W [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Grenzflaechen- und Bioverfahrenstechnik (IGB), Stuttgart (Germany, F.R.)

    1990-08-01

    A number of meso- and thermophilic anaerobic starch-degrading non-spore-forming bacteria have been isolated. All the isolates belonging to different genera are strictly anaerobic, as indicated by a catalase-negative reaction, and produce soluble starch-degrading enzymes. Compared to enzymes of aerobic bacteria, those of anaerobic origin mainly show low molecular mass of about 25 000 daltons. Some of the enzymes may have useful applications in the starch industry because of their unusual product pattern, yielding maltotetraose as the main hydrolysis product. (orig.).

  17. Anaerobic bacterial quantitation of Yucca Mountain, Nevada DOE site samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarkson, W.W.; Krumholz, L.R.; Suflita, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria were studied from samples of excavated rock material as one phase of the overall Yucca Mountain site characterization effort. An indication of the abundance of important groups of anaerobic bacteria would enable inferences to be made regarding the natural history of the site and allow for more complete risk evaluation of the site as a nuclear repository. Six bacterial groups were investigated including anaerobic heterotrophs, acetogens, methanogens, sulfate-, nitrate-, and iron-reducing bacteria. The purpose of this portion of the study was to detect and quantify the aforementioned bacterial groups

  18. Evidence based exercise - clinical benefits of high intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraev, Tim; Barclay, Gabriella

    2012-12-01

    Aerobic exercise has a marked impact on cardiovascular disease risk. Benefits include improved serum lipid profiles, blood pressure and inflammatory markers as well as reduced risk of stroke, acute coronary syndrome and overall cardiovascular mortality. Most exercise programs prescribed for fat reduction involve continuous, moderate aerobic exercise, as per Australian Heart Foundation clinical guidelines. This article describes the benefits of exercise for patients with cardiovascular and metabolic disease and details the numerous benefits of high intensity interval training (HIIT) in particular. Aerobic exercise has numerous benefits for high-risk populations and such benefits, especially weight loss, are amplified with HIIT. High intensity interval training involves repeatedly exercising at a high intensity for 30 seconds to several minutes, separated by 1-5 minutes of recovery (either no or low intensity exercise). HIT is associated with increased patient compliance and improved cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes and is suitable for implementation in both healthy and 'at risk' populations. Importantly, as some types of exercise are contraindicated in certain patient populations and HIIT is a complex concept for those unfamiliar to exercise, some patients may require specific assessment or instruction before commencing a HIIT program.

  19. Interpregnancy interval and risk of autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnes, Nina; Surén, Pål; Bresnahan, Michaeline; Hornig, Mady; Lie, Kari Kveim; Lipkin, W Ian; Magnus, Per; Nilsen, Roy Miodini; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Schjølberg, Synnve; Susser, Ezra Saul; Øyen, Anne-Siri; Stoltenberg, Camilla

    2013-11-01

    A recent California study reported increased risk of autistic disorder in children conceived within a year after the birth of a sibling. We assessed the association between interpregnancy interval and risk of autistic disorder using nationwide registry data on pairs of singleton full siblings born in Norway. We defined interpregnancy interval as the time from birth of the first-born child to conception of the second-born child in a sibship. The outcome of interest was autistic disorder in the second-born child. Analyses were restricted to sibships in which the second-born child was born in 1990-2004. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated by fitting ordinary logistic models and logistic generalized additive models. The study sample included 223,476 singleton full-sibling pairs. In sibships with interpregnancy intervals autistic disorder, compared with 0.13% in the reference category (≥ 36 months). For interpregnancy intervals shorter than 9 months, the adjusted OR of autistic disorder in the second-born child was 2.18 (95% confidence interval 1.42-3.26). The risk of autistic disorder in the second-born child was also increased for interpregnancy intervals of 9-11 months in the adjusted analysis (OR = 1.71 [95% CI = 1.07-2.64]). Consistent with a previous report from California, interpregnancy intervals shorter than 1 year were associated with increased risk of autistic disorder in the second-born child. A possible explanation is depletion of micronutrients in mothers with closely spaced pregnancies.

  20. A new anti-microbial combination prolongs the latency period, reduces acute histologic chorioamnionitis as well as funisitis, and improves neonatal outcomes in preterm PROM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JoonHo; Romero, Roberto; Kim, Sun Min; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Park, Chan-Wook; Park, Joong Shin; Jun, Jong Kwan; Yoon, Bo Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Antibiotic administration is a standard practice in preterm premature rupture of membranes (PROM). Specific anti-microbial agents often include ampicillin and/or erythromycin. Anaerobes and genital mycoplasmas are frequently involved in preterm PROM, but are not adequately covered by antibiotics routinely used in clinical practice. Our objective was to compare outcomes of PROM treated with standard antibiotic administration versus a new combination more effective against these bacteria. A retrospective study compared perinatal outcomes in 314 patients with PROM 23 ng/mL). (1) Patients treated with regimen 2 had a longer median antibiotic-to-delivery interval than those with regimen 1 [median (interquartile range) 23 d (10-51 d) versus 12 d (5-52 d), p acute histologic chorioamnionitis (50.5% versus 66.7%, p hemorrhage (IVH) and cerebral palsy (CP) were significantly lower in patients allocated to regimen 2 than regimen 1 (IVH: 2.1% versus 19.0%, p acute histologic chorioamnionitis/funisitis, and improved neonatal outcomes in patients with preterm PROM. These findings suggest that the combination of anti-microbial agents (ceftriaxone, clarithromycin, and metronidazole) may improve perinatal outcome in preterm PROM.

  1. ASSESSMENT OF ANAEROBIC CAPABILITIES OF FOOTBALL PLAYERS IN RELATION WITH LENGTH OF THEIR SPORTS ENGAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Cvetković

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The general objective of this research is to determine how much influence the length of sports engagement has on anaerobic endurance of the football players, as well as on the maximum sprint ability of the players. In addition to the primary objective, the research seeks to determine the maximum power, minimum power, average power and fatigue index in players of cadet age group. Methods: The total sample of respondents in this study is made of 60 players of cadet age group (14-16 years of age, divided in relation to length of their sports engagement, into groups of up to 5 years (11 respondents, 6-7 years (21 respondents and from 8 to 10 years (28 respondents. The study used field RAST test. The RAST test was designed for sports where running is a basic form of movement. According to the protocol of the test respondents have ten minutes to warm up and five minutes to recover. That is followed by the performance of the test, which is composed of six 35-meter sprints at maximum speed. Between sprints respondent is allowed to pause for 10 seconds, intended primarily for turning and preparing for the next section. Based on the obtained time results from six 35-meter sprints, power is calculated for each run and then the following parameters are determined: maximum power (the highest value; minimum power (the lowest value ; average power (the sum of all six values/six and fatigue index which indicates the extent to which strength decreases for each respondent. This paper shall present a descriptive parameters, mean, standard deviation (SD, minimum and maximum of all values, the coefficient of variation (CV of confidence intervals, skewness as measure of asymmetry, kurtosis as measure of flatness and value of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Multivariate procedures MANOVA and discriminant analysis shall be used. Out of univariate procedures ANOVA t-test and Roy’s test shall be applied. Results: Results obtained by multivariate analysis of

  2. Short and Long Term Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training on Hormones, Metabolites, Antioxidant System, Glycogen Concentration, and Aerobic Performance Adaptations in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    de Araujo, Gustavo G.; Papoti, Marcelo; dos Reis, Ivan Gustavo Masselli; de Mello, Maria A. R.; Gobatto, Claudio A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of short and long term High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) on anaerobic and aerobic performance, creatinine, uric acid, urea, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, testosterone, corticosterone, and glycogen concentration (liver, soleus, and gastrocnemius). The Wistar rats were separated in two groups: HIIT and sedentary/control (CT). The lactate minimum (LM) was used to evaluate the aerobic and anaer...

  3. Diversity Profile of Microbes Associated with Anaerobic Sulfur Oxidation in an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor Treating Municipal Sewage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aida, Azrina A.; Kuroda, Kyohei; Yamamoto, Masamitsu; Nakamura, Akinobu; Hatamoto, Masashi; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    We herein analyzed the diversity of microbes involved in anaerobic sulfur oxidation in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor used for treating municipal sewage under low-temperature conditions. Anaerobic sulfur oxidation occurred in the absence of oxygen, with nitrite and nitrate as electron acceptors; however, reactor performance parameters demonstrated that anaerobic conditions were maintained. In order to gain insights into the underlying basis of anaerobic sulfur oxidation, the microbial diversity that exists in the UASB sludge was analyzed comprehensively to determine their identities and contribution to sulfur oxidation. Sludge samples were collected from the UASB reactor over a period of 2 years and used for bacterial 16S rRNA gene-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and next-generation sequencing analyses. T-RFLP and sequencing results both showed that microbial community patterns changed markedly from day 537 onwards. Bacteria belonging to the genus Desulforhabdus within the phylum Proteobacteria and uncultured bacteria within the phylum Fusobacteria were the main groups observed during the period of anaerobic sulfur oxidation. Their abundance correlated with temperature, suggesting that these bacterial groups played roles in anaerobic sulfur oxidation in UASB reactors. PMID:25817585

  4. Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria gain antibiotic resistance during long-term acclimatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng-Zhe; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Guo, Qiong; Chen, Qian-Qian; Jiang, Xiao-Yan; Jin, Ren-Cun

    2015-09-01

    Three broad-spectrum antibiotics, amoxicillin (AMX), florfenicol (FF) and sulfamethazine (SMZ), that inhibit bacteria via different target sites, were selected to evaluate the acute toxicity and long-term effects on anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) granules. The specific anammox activity (SAA) levels reduced by approximately half within the first 3 days in the presence of antibiotics but no nitrite accumulation was observed in continuous-flow experiments. However, the SAA levels and heme c content gradually recovered as the antibiotic concentrations increased. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) analysis suggested that anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria gradually developed a better survival strategy during long-term acclimatization, which reduced the antibiotic stress via increased EPS secretion that provided a protective 'cocoon.' In terms of nitrogen removal efficiency, anammox granules could resist 60 mg-AMX L(-1), 10 mg-FF L(-1) and 100 mg-SMZ L(-1). This study supported the feasibility of using anammox granules to treat antibiotic-containing wastewater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Four weeks of running sprint interval training improves cardiorespiratory fitness in young and middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Taura N; Thomas, Matthew P L; Schmale, Matthew S; Copeland, Jennifer L; Hazell, Tom J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a 4-week running sprint interval training protocol to improve both aerobic and anaerobic fitness in middle-aged adults (40-50 years) as well as compare the adaptations to younger adults (20-30 years). Twenty-eight inactive participants - 14 young 20-30-year-olds (n = 7 males) and 14 middle-aged 40-50-year-olds (n = 5 males) - completed 4 weeks of running sprint interval training (4 to 6, 30-s "all-out" sprints on a curved, self-propelled treadmill separated by 4 min active recovery performed 3 times per week). Before and after training, all participants were assessed for maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), 2000 m time trial performance, and anaerobic performance on a single 30-s sprint. There were no interactions between group and time for any tested variable, although training improved relative VO2max (young = 3.9, middle-aged = 5.2%; P < 0.04), time trial performance (young = 5.9, middle-aged = 8.2%; P < 0.001), peak sprint speed (young = 9.3, middle-aged = 2.2%; P < 0.001), and average sprint speed (young = 6.8, middle-aged = 11.6%; P < 0.001) in both young and middle-aged groups from pre- to post-training on the 30-s sprint test. The current study demonstrates that a 4-week running sprint interval training programme is equally effective at improving aerobic and anaerobic fitness in younger and middle-aged adults.

  6. Atmospheric vs. anaerobic processing of metabolome samples for the metabolite profiling of a strict anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Sooah; Kwon, Min-A; Jung, Young Hoon; Shin, Yong-An; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2014-12-01

    Well-established metabolome sample preparation is a prerequisite for reliable metabolomic data. For metabolome sampling of a Gram-positive strict anaerobe, Clostridium acetobutylicum, fast filtration and metabolite extraction with acetonitrile/methanol/water (2:2:1, v/v) at -20°C under anaerobic conditions has been commonly used. This anaerobic metabolite processing method is laborious and time-consuming since it is conducted in an anaerobic chamber. Also, there have not been any systematic method evaluation and development of metabolome sample preparation for strict anaerobes and Gram-positive bacteria. In this study, metabolome sampling and extraction methods were rigorously evaluated and optimized for C. acetobutylicum by using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based metabolomics, in which a total of 116 metabolites were identified. When comparing the atmospheric (i.e., in air) and anaerobic (i.e., in an anaerobic chamber) processing of metabolome sample preparation, there was no significant difference in the quality and quantity of the metabolomic data. For metabolite extraction, pure methanol at -20°C was a better solvent than acetonitrile/methanol/water (2:2:1, v/v/v) at -20°C that is frequently used for C. acetobutylicum, and metabolite profiles were significantly different depending on extraction solvents. This is the first evaluation of metabolite sample preparation under aerobic processing conditions for an anaerobe. This method could be applied conveniently, efficiently, and reliably to metabolome analysis for strict anaerobes in air. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Combined electrical-alkali pretreatment to increase the anaerobic hydrolysis rate of waste activated sludge during anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen, Guangyin; Lu, Xueqin; Li, Yu-You; Zhao, Youcai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Combined electrical-alkali pretreatment for improving sludge anaerobic digestion was proposed. • Combined process enhanced the cell lysis, biopolymers releases, and thus sludge disintegration. • Increased solubilization of sludge increased the anaerobic hydrolysis rate. • Increased solubilization does not always induce an improved anaerobic digestion efficiency. - Abstract: Pretreatment can be used prior to anaerobic digestion to improve the efficiency of waste activated sludge (WAS) digestion. In this study, electrolysis and a commonly used pretreatment method of alkaline (NaOH) solubilization were integrated as a pretreatment method for promoting WAS anaerobic digestion. Pretreatment effectiveness of combined process were investigated in terms of disintegration degree (DD SCOD ), suspended solids (TSS and VSS) removals, the releases of protein (PN) and polysaccharide (PS), and subsequent anaerobic digestion as well as dewaterability after digestion. Electrolysis was able to crack the microbial cells trapped in sludge gels and release the biopolymers (PN and PS) due to the cooperation of alkaline solubilization, enhancing the sludge floc disintegration/solubilization, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays showed the highest methane yield was achieved with 5 V plus pH 9.2 pretreatment with up to 20.3% improvement over the non-pretreated sludge after 42 days of mesophilic operation. In contrast, no discernible improvements on anaerobic degradability were observed for the rest of pretreated sludges, probably due to the overmuch leakage of refractory soluble organics, partial chemical mineralization of solubilized compounds and sodium inhibition. The statistical analysis further indicated that increased solubilization induced by electrical-alkali pretreatment increased the first-order anaerobic hydrolysis rate (k hyd ), but had no, or very slight enhancement on WAS ultimate

  8. Acute abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wig J

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available 550 cases of acute abdomen have been analysed in detail includ-ing their clinical presentation and operative findings. Males are more frequently affected than females in a ratio of 3: 1. More than 45% of patients presented after 48 hours of onset of symptoms. Intestinal obstruction was the commonest cause of acute abdomen (47.6%. External hernia was responsible for 26% of cases of intestinal obstruction. Perforated peptic ulcer was the commonest cause of peritonitis in the present series (31.7% while incidence of biliary peritonitis was only 2.4%.. The clinical accuracy rate was 87%. The mortality in operated cases was high (10% while the over-all mortality rate was 7.5%.

  9. Transmission line sag calculations using interval mathematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaalan, H. [Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Washington, DC (United States)]|[US Merchant Marine Academy, Kings Point, NY (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Electric utilities are facing the need for additional generating capacity, new transmission systems and more efficient use of existing resources. As such, there are several uncertainties associated with utility decisions. These uncertainties include future load growth, construction times and costs, and performance of new resources. Regulatory and economic environments also present uncertainties. Uncertainty can be modeled based on a probabilistic approach where probability distributions for all of the uncertainties are assumed. Another approach to modeling uncertainty is referred to as unknown but bounded. In this approach, the upper and lower bounds on the uncertainties are assumed without probability distributions. Interval mathematics is a tool for the practical use and extension of the unknown but bounded concept. In this study, the calculation of transmission line sag was used as an example to demonstrate the use of interval mathematics. The objective was to determine the change in cable length, based on a fixed span and an interval of cable sag values for a range of temperatures. The resulting change in cable length was an interval corresponding to the interval of cable sag values. It was shown that there is a small change in conductor length due to variation in sag based on the temperature ranges used in this study. 8 refs.

  10. Acute Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekins, Jessica M

    2015-09-01

    Sudden loss of vision is an ophthalmic emergency with numerous possible causes. Abnormalities may occur at any point within the complex vision pathway, from retina to optic nerve to the visual center in the occipital lobe. This article reviews specific prechiasm (retina and optic nerve) and cerebral cortical diseases that lead to acute blindness. Information regarding specific etiologies, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis for vision is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Existence test for asynchronous interval iterations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Caprani, O.; Stauning, Ole

    1997-01-01

    In the search for regions that contain fixed points ofa real function of several variables, tests based on interval calculationscan be used to establish existence ornon-existence of fixed points in regions that are examined in the course ofthe search. The search can e.g. be performed...... as a synchronous (sequential) interval iteration:In each iteration step all components of the iterate are calculatedbased on the previous iterate. In this case it is straight forward to base simple interval existence and non-existencetests on the calculations done in each step of the iteration. The search can also...... on thecomponentwise calculations done in the course of the iteration. These componentwisetests are useful for parallel implementation of the search, sincethe tests can then be performed local to each processor and only when a test issuccessful do a processor communicate this result to other processors....

  12. Chosen interval methods for solving linear interval systems with special type of matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyszka, Barbara

    2013-10-01

    The paper is devoted to chosen direct interval methods for solving linear interval systems with special type of matrix. This kind of matrix: band matrix with a parameter, from finite difference problem is obtained. Such linear systems occur while solving one dimensional wave equation (Partial Differential Equations of hyperbolic type) by using the central difference interval method of the second order. Interval methods are constructed so as the errors of method are enclosed in obtained results, therefore presented linear interval systems contain elements that determining the errors of difference method. The chosen direct algorithms have been applied for solving linear systems because they have no errors of method. All calculations were performed in floating-point interval arithmetic.

  13. Bacterial ecology of abattoir wastewater treated by an anaerobic digestor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Jabari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Wastewater from an anaerobic treatment plant at a slaughterhouse was analysed to determine the bacterial biodiversity present. Molecular analysis of the anaerobic sludge obtained from the treatment plant showed significant diversity, as 27 different phyla were identified. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Thermotogae, Euryarchaeota (methanogens, and msbl6 (candidate division were the dominant phyla of the anaerobic treatment plant and represented 21.7%, 18.5%, 11.5%, 9.4%, 8.9%, and 8.8% of the total bacteria identified, respectively. The dominant bacteria isolated were Clostridium, Bacteroides, Desulfobulbus, Desulfomicrobium, Desulfovibrio and Desulfotomaculum. Our results revealed the presence of new species, genera and families of microorganisms. The most interesting strains were characterised. Three new bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion of abattoir wastewater were published.

  14. Bacterial ecology of abattoir wastewater treated by an anaerobic digestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabari, Linda; Gannoun, Hana; Khelifi, Eltaief; Cayol, Jean-Luc; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Hamdi, Moktar; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater from an anaerobic treatment plant at a slaughterhouse was analysed to determine the bacterial biodiversity present. Molecular analysis of the anaerobic sludge obtained from the treatment plant showed significant diversity, as 27 different phyla were identified. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Thermotogae, Euryarchaeota (methanogens), and msbl6 (candidate division) were the dominant phyla of the anaerobic treatment plant and represented 21.7%, 18.5%, 11.5%, 9.4%, 8.9%, and 8.8% of the total bacteria identified, respectively. The dominant bacteria isolated were Clostridium, Bacteroides, Desulfobulbus, Desulfomicrobium, Desulfovibrio and Desulfotomaculum. Our results revealed the presence of new species, genera and families of microorganisms. The most interesting strains were characterised. Three new bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion of abattoir wastewater were published. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimization of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for treatment of composite ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... Granules grown in the bottom part of UASB reactor were more compact and tense ...

  16. Inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process by linear alkylbenzene sulfonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2002-01-01

    Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) are the most widely used synthetic anionic surfactants. They are anthropogenic, toxic compounds and are found in the primary sludge generated in municipal wastewater treatment plants. Primary sludge is usually stabilized anaerobically and therefore it is impor......Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) are the most widely used synthetic anionic surfactants. They are anthropogenic, toxic compounds and are found in the primary sludge generated in municipal wastewater treatment plants. Primary sludge is usually stabilized anaerobically and therefore...... it is important to investigate the effect of these xenobiotic compounds on an anaerobic environment. The inhibitory effect of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) on the acetogenic and methanogenic step of the anaerobic digestion process was studied. LAS inhibit both acetogenesis from propionate...

  17. Microbiological and technical aspects of anaerobic waste water purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aivasidis, A.

    1994-01-01

    Anaerobic waste water purification is likely to be another example of how innovations can result from the joint use of biological and technical concepts. No matter how far the optimization of oxygen input with aerobic waste water purification advances it will still be the less a real competitor for anaerobic techniques the more polluted the waste water is. The principle of carrier fixation to avoid their washing out, too, has often been observed in nature with sessile microorganisms. With highly polluted water, anaerobic purification does not only work at no expenditure of energy but it can also make excess energy available for use in other processes. Another important argument for anaerobic methods of waste water purification is probably the clearly reduced production of excess sludge. (orig.) [de

  18. Methods of ammonia removal in anaerobic digestion: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakat, Niclas; Demirel, Burak; Anjum, Reshma; Dietz, Donna

    2017-10-01

    The anaerobic digestion of substrates with high ammonia content has always been a bottleneck in the methanisation process of biomasses. Since microbial communities in anaerobic digesters are sensitive to free ammonia at certain conditions, the digestion of nitrogen-rich substrates such as livestock wastes may result in inhibition/toxicity eventually leading to process failures, unless appropriate engineering precautions are taken. There are many different options reported in literature to remove ammonia from anaerobic digesters to achieve a safe and stable process so that along with high methane yields, a good quality of effluents can also be obtained. Conventional techniques to remove ammonia include physical/chemical methods, immobilization and adaptation of microorganisms, while novel methods include ultrasonication, microwave, hollow fiber membranes and microbial fuel cell applications. This paper discusses conventional and novel methods of ammonia removal from anaerobic digesters using nitrogen-rich substrates, with particular focus on recent literature available about this topic.

  19. HIGH-RATE ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF ALCOHOLIC WASTEWATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencio L.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern high-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment processes are rapidly becoming popular for industrial wastewater treatment. However, until recently stable process conditions could not be guaranteed for alcoholic wastewaters containing higher concentrations of methanol. Although methanol can be directly converted into methane by methanogens, under specific conditions it can also be converted into acetate and butyrate by acetogens. The accumulation of volatile fatty acids can lead to reactor instability in a weakly buffered reactor. Since this process was insufficiently understood, the application of high-rate anaerobic reactors was highly questionable. This research investigated the environmental factors that are of importance in the predominance of methylotrophic methanogens over acetogens in a natural mixed culture during anaerobic wastewater treatment in upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors. Technological and microbiological aspects were investigated. Additionally, the route by which methanol is converted into methane is also presented

  20. The influence of aerobic sludge retention time on anaerobic co ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-04-02

    Apr 2, 2007 ... INTRODUCTION. In developing countries such as China, secondary waste- ..... co-digestion product of azo dye of TDP wastewater. (Razo-Flores et al., .... sludge disintegration for improving anaerobic stabilization. Water. Res.

  1. Estimation of methane generation based on anaerobic digestion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drake

    Technology ... generation of methane from waste at Kiteezi landfill was measured using .... estimate methane gas generation by the anaerobic decomposition ..... Z (2007). Climate Change 2007. The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of ...

  2. Enhancement of anaerobic sludge digestion by high-pressure homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming; Fan, Jie; Zhang, Yuxuan

    2012-08-01

    To improve anaerobic sludge digestion efficiency, the effects of high-pressure homogenization (HPH) conditions on the anaerobic sludge digestion were investigated. The VS and TCOD were significantly removed with the anaerobic digestion, and the VS removal and TCOD removal increased with increasing the homogenization pressure and homogenization cycle number; correspondingly, the accumulative biogas production also increased with increasing the homogenization pressure and homogenization cycle number. The optimal homogenization pressure was 50 MPa for one homogenization cycle and 40 MPa for two homogenization cycles. The SCOD of the sludge supernatant significantly increased with increasing the homogenization pressure and homogenization cycle number due to the sludge disintegration. The relationship between the biogas production and the sludge disintegration showed that the accumulative biogas and methane production were mainly enhanced by the sludge disintegration, which accelerated the anaerobic digestion process and improved the methane content in the biogas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Anaerobic desulphurisation of thiophenes by mixed microbial communities from oilfields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, C.L.M.; Ivanova, A.E.; Janssen, A.J.H.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic enrichment cultures obtained from oil fields degraded various thiophenic compounds i.e. thiophene, benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene, with the concomitant formation of sulphide using hydrogen, lactate and ethanol as possible electron donors. It was demonstrated that dibenzothiophene was

  4. Anaerobic Fungi and Their Potential for Biogas Production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dollhofer, V.; Podmirseg, S.M.; Callaghan, T. M.; Griffith, G.W.; Fliegerová, Kateřina

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 151, č. 1 (2015), s. 41-61 ISSN 0724-6145 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : anaerobic fungi * Neocallimastigomycota * phylogeny Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.911, year: 2015

  5. The influence of aerobic sludge retention time on anaerobic co ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABR) and aerobic plug flow reactor (PFR) were operated aiming to minimize excess sludge output of the activated sludge process through coupled alkaline hydrolysis and anaerobic digestion. Variations in the effluent total chemical oxygen ...

  6. Anaerobic bioleaching of metals from waste activated sludge

    KAUST Repository

    Meulepas, Roel J W; Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Teshager, Fitfety Melese; Witharana, Ayoma; Saikaly, Pascal; Lens, Piet Nl L

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination of anaerobically digested waste activated sludge hampers its reuse as fertilizer or soil conditioner. Conventional methods to leach metals require aeration or the addition of leaching agents. This paper investigates whether

  7. Optimisation Study on the Production of Anaerobic Digestate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    optimise the production of ADC from organic fractions of domestic wastes and the effects of ADC amendments on soil .... (22%), cooked meat (9%), lettuce (11%), carrots. (3%), potato (44%) ... seed was obtained from a mesophilic anaerobic.

  8. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of anaerobic pathogens in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veloo, A. C. M.; van Winkelhoff, A. J.

    The antibiotic susceptibility profile of the Bacteroides fragilis group, Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC), Fusobacterium spp., Prevotella spp., Veillonella spp. and Bilophila wadsworthia for amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, clindamycin and metronidazole was determined. Human clinical

  9. POSTMORTAL CHANGES AND ASSESSMENT OF POSTMORTEM INTERVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edin Šatrović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes in a simple way the changes that occur in the body after death.They develop in a specific order, and the speed of their development and their expression are strongly influenced by various endogenous and exogenous factors. The aim of the authors is to indicate the characteristics of the postmortem changes, and their significance in establishing time since death, which can be established precisely within 72 hours. Accurate evaluation of the age of the corpse based on the common changes is not possible with longer postmortem intervals, so the entomological findings become the most significant change on the corpse for determination of the postmortem interval (PMI.

  10. A sequent calculus for signed interval logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Marthedal

    2001-01-01

    We propose and discuss a complete sequent calculus formulation for Signed Interval Logic (SIL) with the chief purpose of improving proof support for SIL in practice. The main theoretical result is a simple characterization of the limit between decidability and undecidability of quantifier-free SIL....... We present a mechanization of SIL in the generic proof assistant Isabelle and consider techniques for automated reasoning. Many of the results and ideas of this report are also applicable to traditional (non-signed) interval logic and, hence, to Duration Calculus....

  11. Interval Continuous Plant Identification from Value Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how to obtain the values of the numerator and denominator Kharitonov polynomials of an interval plant from its value set at a given frequency. Moreover, it is proven that given a value set, all the assigned polynomials of the vertices can be determined if and only if there is a complete edge or a complete arc lying on a quadrant. This algorithm is nonconservative in the sense that if the value-set boundary of an interval plant is exactly known, and particularly its vertices, then the Kharitonov rectangles are exactly those used to obtain these value sets.

  12. On interval and cyclic interval edge colorings of (3,5)-biregular graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casselgren, Carl Johan; Petrosyan, Petros; Toft, Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    A proper edge coloring f of a graph G with colors 1,2,3,…,t is called an interval coloring if the colors on the edges incident to every vertex of G form an interval of integers. The coloring f is cyclic interval if for every vertex v of G, the colors on the edges incident to v either form an inte...

  13. The effect of combined supplementation of carbohydrates and creatine on anaerobic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AS Theodorou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of creatine (Cr supplementation on anaerobic performance when ingesting creatine and carbohydrates (CHO together. Twenty male physical education students comprised the two experimental (CR and CRCHO and one control (CON groups of the study. All groups performed three 30 s anaerobic Wingate tests (AWTs interspersed with 6 minutes of recovery. The CR group (n = 7 ingested 5 g of Cr 5 times per day for 4 days. Subjects in the CRCHO group (n = 6 ingested the same quantity but additionally after each 5 g dose of Cr consumed 500 ml of a commercially available energy drink containing 100 g of simple sugars. Over all three AWTs average mean power improved significantly compared to baseline for the CR group (5.51% but not for the CRCHO group (3.06%. Mean power for the second AWT was improved following the acute loading for the CR group only (4.54% and for the third AWT for both CR (8.49% and CRCHO (5.75% groups. Over all three AWTs a significant change was recorded in average peak power following the acute loading for the CR group (8.26% but not for the CRCHO group (4.11%. Peak power was significantly improved following the loading only for the CR group during the third AWT (19.79%. No changes in AWT performance were recorded for the CON group after intervention. The findings of the present study suggest that ingesting creatine together with carbohydrates will not further improve performance compared to the ingestion of creatine only.

  14. Microbial diversity and anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation potential in an oil-contaminated mangrove sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luiza L; Leite, Deborah C A; Ferreira, Edir M; Ferreira, Lívia Q; Paula, Geraldo R; Maguire, Michael J; Hubert, Casey R J; Peixoto, Raquel S; Domingues, Regina M C P; Rosado, Alexandre S

    2012-08-30

    Mangrove forests are coastal wetlands that provide vital ecosystem services and serve as barriers against natural disasters like tsunamis, hurricanes and tropical storms. Mangroves harbour a large diversity of organisms, including microorganisms with important roles in nutrient cycling and availability. Due to tidal influence, mangroves are sites where crude oil from spills farther away can accumulate. The relationship between mangrove bacterial diversity and oil degradation in mangrove sediments remains poorly understood. Mangrove sediment was sampled from 0-5, 15-20 and 35-40 cm depth intervals from the Suruí River mangrove (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), which has a history of oil contamination. DGGE fingerprinting for bamA, dsr and 16S rRNA encoding fragment genes, and qPCR analysis using dsr and 16S rRNA gene fragment revealed differences with sediment depth. Analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity revealed changes with depth. DGGE for bamA and dsr genes shows that the anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading community profile also changed between 5 and 15 cm depth, and is similar in the two deeper sediments, indicating that below 15 cm the anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading community appears to be well established and homogeneous in this mangrove sediment. qPCR analysis revealed differences with sediment depth, with general bacterial abundance in the top layer (0-5 cm) being greater than in both deeper sediment layers (15-20 and 35-40 cm), which were similar to each other.

  15. Contribution of anaerobic energy expenditure to whole body thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Christopher B

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heat production serves as the standard measurement for the determination of energy expenditure and efficiency in animals. Estimations of metabolic heat production have traditionally focused on gas exchange (oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production although direct heat measurements may include an anaerobic component particularly when carbohydrate is oxidized. Stoichiometric interpretations of the ratio of carbon dioxide production to oxygen uptake suggest that both anaerobic and aerobic heat production and, by inference, all energy expenditure – can be accounted for with a measurement of oxygen uptake as 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen. This manuscript incorporates contemporary bioenergetic interpretations of anaerobic and aerobic ATP turnover to promote the independence of these disparate types of metabolic energy transfer: each has different reactants and products, uses dissimilar enzymes, involves different types of biochemical reactions, takes place in separate cellular compartments, exploits different types of gradients and ultimately each operates with distinct efficiency. The 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen for carbohydrate oxidation includes a small anaerobic heat component as part of anaerobic energy transfer. Faster rates of ATP turnover that exceed mitochondrial respiration and that are supported by rapid glycolytic phosphorylation with lactate production result in heat production that is independent of oxygen uptake. Simultaneous direct and indirect calorimetry has revealed that this anaerobic heat does not disappear when lactate is later oxidized and so oxygen uptake does not adequately measure anaerobic efficiency or energy expenditure (as was suggested by the "oxygen debt" hypothesis. An estimate of anaerobic energy transfer supplements the measurement of oxygen uptake and may improve the interpretation of whole-body energy expenditure.

  16. Kinetics of propionate conversion in anaerobic continuously stirred tank reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Mladenovska, Zuzana; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2008-01-01

    The kinetic parameters of anaerobic propionate degradation by biomass from 7 continuously stirred tank reactors differing in temperature, hydraulic retention time and substrate composition were investigated. In substrate-depletion experiments (batch) the maximum propionate degradation rate, A......-m, was estimated. The results demonstrate that the rate of endogenous substrate (propionate) production should be taken into account when estimating kinetic parameters in biomass from manure-based anaerobic reactors....

  17. Anaerobic Dehalogenation of Hydroxylated Polychlorinated Biphenyls by Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegel, Juergen; Zhang, Xiaoming; Wu, Qingzhong

    1999-01-01

    Ten years after reports on the existence of anaerobic dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment slurries, we report here on the rapid reductive dehalogenation of para-hydroxylated PCBs (HO-PCBs), the excreted main metabolites of PCB in mammals, which can exhibit estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in humans. The anaerobic bacterium Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans completely dehalogenates all flanking chlorines (chlorines in ortho position to the para-hydroxyl group) ...

  18. Microbiological Hydrogen Production by Anaerobic Fermentation and Photosynthetic Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asada, Y.; Ohsawa, M.; Nagai, Y.; Fukatsu, M.; Ishimi, K.; Ichi-ishi, S.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen gas is a clean and renewable energy carrier. Microbiological hydrogen production from glucose or starch by combination used of an anaerobic fermenter and a photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter spheroides RV was studied. In 1984, the co-culture of Clostridium butyricum and RV strain to convert glucose to hydrogen was demonstrated by Miyake et al. Recently, we studied anaerobic fermentation of starch by a thermophilic archaea. (Author)

  19. Anaerobic depuration of waste waters; Depuracion anaerobia de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejias Sanchez, G.; Vazquez Berger, E.; Magana Pietra, A.H. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de yucatan, Merida (Mexico)

    1996-08-01

    Trials were carried out at a 500 l semi-experimental plant using there reactor models-anaerobic filter, fixed film and UASB type-for the anaerobic treatment of waste from different sources. The results after 24 and 48 hours were compared. The greatest efficiency was obtained after 48 hours the aerobic filter reactor (66% displacement), followed by the fixed film reactor (50%) and the UASB model (41%). (Author) 16 refs.

  20. Alternative method for determining anaerobic threshold in rowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Dos Santos Cunha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n4p367 In rowing, the standard breathing that athletes are trained to use makes it difficult, or even impossible, to detect ventilatory limits, due to the coupling of the breath with the technical movement. For this reason, some authors have proposed determining the anaerobic threshold from the respiratory exchange ratio (RER, but there is not yet consensus on what value of RER should be used. The objective of this study was to test what value of RER corresponds to the anaerobic threshold and whether this value can be used as an independent parameter for determining the anaerobic threshold of rowers. The sample comprised 23 male rowers. They were submitted to a maximal cardiorespiratory test on a rowing ergometer with concurrent ergospirometry in order to determine VO2máx and the physiological variables corresponding to their anaerobic threshold. The anaerobic threshold was determined using the Dmax (maximal distance method. The physiological variables were classified into maximum values and anaerobic threshold values. The maximal state of these rowers reached VO2 (58.2±4.4 ml.kg-1.min-1, lactate (8.2±2.1 mmol.L-1, power (384±54.3 W and RER (1.26±0.1. At the anaerobic threshold they reached VO2 (46.9±7.5 ml.kg-1.min-1, lactate (4.6±1.3 mmol.L-1, power (300± 37.8 W and RER (0.99±0.1. Conclusions - the RER can be used as an independent method for determining the anaerobic threshold of rowers, adopting a value of 0.99, however, RER should exhibit a non-linear increase above this figure.

  1. Statistics of return intervals between long heartbeat intervals and their usability for online prediction of disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogachev, Mikhail I; Bunde, Armin; Kireenkov, Igor S; Nifontov, Eugene M

    2009-01-01

    We study the statistics of return intervals between large heartbeat intervals (above a certain threshold Q) in 24 h records obtained from healthy subjects. We find that both the linear and the nonlinear long-term memory inherent in the heartbeat intervals lead to power-laws in the probability density function P Q (r) of the return intervals. As a consequence, the probability W Q (t; Δt) that at least one large heartbeat interval will occur within the next Δt heartbeat intervals, with an increasing elapsed number of intervals t after the last large heartbeat interval, follows a power-law. Based on these results, we suggest a method of obtaining a priori information about the occurrence of the next large heartbeat interval, and thus to predict it. We show explicitly that the proposed method, which exploits long-term memory, is superior to the conventional precursory pattern recognition technique, which focuses solely on short-term memory. We believe that our results can be straightforwardly extended to obtain more reliable predictions in other physiological signals like blood pressure, as well as in other complex records exhibiting multifractal behaviour, e.g. turbulent flow, precipitation, river flows and network traffic.

  2. Circadian profile of QT interval and QT interval variability in 172 healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnemeier, Hendrik; Wiegand, Uwe K H; Braasch, Wiebke

    2003-01-01

    of sleep. QT and R-R intervals revealed a characteristic day-night-pattern. Diurnal profiles of QT interval variability exhibited a significant increase in the morning hours (6-9 AM; P ... lower at day- and nighttime. Aging was associated with an increase of QT interval mainly at daytime and a significant shift of the T wave apex towards the end of the T wave. The circadian profile of ventricular repolarization is strongly related to the mean R-R interval, however, there are significant...

  3. Effects of sprint interval training and body weight reduction on power to weight ratio in experienced cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, William R; Finn, Joan A; Axtell, Robert S

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of supramaximal sprint interval training (SIT), body weight reduction, and a combination of both treatments on peak and average anaerobic power to weight ratio (PPOan:Wt, APOan:Wt) by manipulating peak and average anaerobic power output (PPOan, APOan) and body weight (BW) in experienced cyclists. Participants (N = 34, age = 38.0 +/- 7.1 years) were assigned to 4 groups for a 10-week study. One group performed twice-weekly SIT sessions on a cycle ergometer while maintaining body weight (SIT). A second group did not perform SIT but intentionally reduced body weight (WR). A third group simultaneously performed SIT sessions and reduced body weight (SIT+WR). A control group cycled in their normal routine and maintained body weight (CON). The 30-second Wingate Test assessed pretest and posttest POan:Wt scores. There was a significant mean increase (p weight (kg) decreased significantly in WR and SIT + WR (80.3 +/- 13.7 to 75.3 +/- 11.9 and 78.9 +/- 10.8 to 73.4 +/- 10.8, respectively). The results demonstrate that cyclists can use SIT sessions and body weight reduction as singular training interventions to effect significant increases in anaerobic power to weight ratio, which has been correlated to enhanced aerobic cycling performance. However, the treatments were not effective as combined interventions, as there was no significant change in either PPOan:Wt or APOan:Wt in SIT + WR.

  4. Does a single session of high-intensity interval training provoke a transient elevated risk of falling in seniors and adults?

    OpenAIRE

    Donath, Lars; Kurz, Eduard; Roth, Ralf; Hanssen, Henner; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Zahner, Lukas; Faude, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Balance and strength training can reduce seniors' fall risk up to 50%. Available evidence suggests that acute bouts of neuromuscular and endurance exercise deteriorate postural control. High-intensity endurance training has been successfully applied in different populations. Thus, it seemed valuable to examine the acute effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on neuromuscular performance in seniors and young adults.; The acute impact of a HIIT session on balance performance and mus...

  5. [Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass with animal digestion mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Zhang, Pan-Yue; Guo, Jian-Bin; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2013-02-01

    Lignocellulosic material is the most abundant renewable resource in the earth. Herbivores and wood-eating insects are highly effective in the digestion of plant cellulose, while anaerobic digestion process simulating animal alimentary tract still remains inefficient. The digestion mechanisms of herbivores and wood-eating insects and the development of anaerobic digestion processes of lignocellulose were reviewed for better understanding of animal digestion mechanisms and their application in design and operation of the anaerobic digestion reactor. Highly effective digestion of lignocellulosic materials in animal digestive system results from the synergistic effect of various digestive enzymes and a series of physical and biochemical reactions. Microbial fermentation system is strongly supported by powerful pretreatment, such as rumination of ruminants, cellulase catalysis and alkali treatment in digestive tract of wood-eating insects. Oxygen concentration gradient along the digestive tract may stimulate the hydrolytic activity of some microorganisms. In addition, the excellent arrangement of solid retention time, digesta flow and end product discharge enhance the animal digestion of wood cellulose. Although anaerobic digestion processes inoculated with rumen microorganisms based rumen digestion mechanisms were developed to treat lignocellulose, the fermentation was more greatly limited by the environmental conditions in the anaerobic digestion reactors than that in rumen or hindgut. Therefore, the anaerobic digestion processes simulating animal digestion mechanisms can effectively enhance the degradation of wood cellulose and other organic solid wastes.

  6. Effect of alkaline pretreatment on anaerobic digestion of solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Torres, M.; Espinosa Llorens, Ma. del C.

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of the anaerobic digestion for the treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is currently of special interest. The main difficulty in the treatment of this waste fraction is its biotransformation, due to the complexity of organic material. Therefore, the first step must be its physical, chemical and biological pretreatment for breaking complex molecules into simple monomers, to increase solubilization of organic material and improve the efficiency of the anaerobic treatment in the second step. This paper describes chemical pretreatment based on lime addition (Ca(OH) 2 ), in order to enhance chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilization, followed by anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW. Laboratory-scale experiments were carried out in completely mixed reactors, 1 L capacity. Optimal conditions for COD solubilization in the first step of pretreatment were 62.0 mEq Ca(OH) 2 /L for 6.0 h. Under these conditions, 11.5% of the COD was solubilized. The anaerobic digestion efficiency of the OFMSW, with and without pretreatment, was evaluated. The highest methane yield under anaerobic digestion of the pretreated waste was 0.15 m 3 CH 4 /kg volatile solids (VS), 172.0% of the control. Under that condition the soluble COD and VS removal were 93.0% and 94.0%, respectively. The results have shown that chemical pretreatment with lime, followed by anaerobic digestion, provides the best results for stabilizing the OFMSW

  7. Using contaminated plants involved in phytoremediation for anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zewei; Wang, Shengxiao; Wang, Ting; Chang, Zhizhou; Shen, Zhenguo; Chen, Yahua

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the anaerobic digestion capability of five plants and the effects of copper (Cu) and S,S'-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS, a chelator widely used in chelant-assisted phytoremediation) on biogas production to determine a feasible disposal method for plants used in remediation. The results showed that in addition to Phytolacca americana L., plants such as Zea mays L., Brassica napus L., Elsholtzia splendens Nakai ex F. Maekawa, and Oenothera biennis L. performed well in biogas production. Among these, O. biennis required the shortest period to finish anaerobic digestion. Compared to normal plants with low Cu content, the plants used in remediation with increased Cu levels (100 mg kg(-1)) not only promoted anaerobic digestion and required a shorter anaerobic digestion time, but also increased the methane content in biogas. When the Cu content in plants increased to 500, 1000, and 5000 mg kg(-1), the cumulative biogas production decreased by 12.3%, 14.6%, and 41.2%, respectively. Studies also found that EDDS conspicuously restrained biogas production from anaerobic digestion. The results suggest that anaerobic digestion has great potential for the disposal of contaminated plants and may provide a solution for the resource utilization of plants used in remediation.

  8. Anaerobic biodegradation of (emerging) organic contaminants in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghattas, Ann-Kathrin; Fischer, Ferdinand; Wick, Arne; Ternes, Thomas A

    2017-06-01

    Although strictly anaerobic conditions prevail in several environmental compartments, up to now, biodegradation studies with emerging organic contaminants (EOCs), such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products, have mainly focused on aerobic conditions. One of the reasons probably is the assumption that the aerobic degradation is more energetically favorable than degradation under strictly anaerobic conditions. Certain aerobically recalcitrant contaminants, however, are biodegraded under strictly anaerobic conditions and little is known about the organisms and enzymatic processes involved in their degradation. This review provides a comprehensive survey of characteristic anaerobic biotransformation reactions for a variety of well-studied, structurally rather simple contaminants (SMOCs) bearing one or a few different functional groups/structural moieties. Furthermore it summarizes anaerobic degradation studies of more complex contaminants with several functional groups (CMCs), in soil, sediment and wastewater treatment. While strictly anaerobic conditions are able to promote the transformation of several aerobically persistent contaminants, the variety of observed reactions is limited, with reductive dehalogenations and the cleavage of ether bonds being the most prevalent. Thus, it becomes clear that the transferability of degradation mechanisms deduced from culture studies of SMOCs to predict the degradation of CMCs, such as EOCs, in environmental matrices is hampered due the more complex chemical structure bearing different functional groups, different environmental conditions (e.g. matrix, redox, pH), the microbial community (e.g. adaptation, competition) and the low concentrations typical for EOCs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical characteristics associated with mortality of patients with anaerobic bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Takumi; Hamada, Yukihiro; Yamagishi, Yuka; Suematsu, Hiroyuki; Mikamo, Hiroshige

    2016-06-01

    The presence of anaerobes in the blood stream is known to be associated with a higher rate of mortality. However, few prognostic risk factor analyses examining whether a patient's background characteristics are associated with the prognosis have been reported. We performed a retrospective case-controlled study to assess the prognostic factors associated with death from anaerobic bacteremia. Seventy-four patients with anaerobic bacteremia were treated between January 2005 and December 2014 at Aichi Medical University Hospital. The clinical information included drug susceptibility was used for analysis of prognostic factors for 30-day mortality. Multivariate logistic analyses revealed an association between the 30-day mortality rate and malignancy (OR: 3.64, 95% CI: 1.08-12.31) and clindamycin resistance (OR: 7.93, 95% CI: 2.33-27.94). The result of Kaplan-Meier analysis of mortality showed that the 30-day survival rate was 83% in clindamycin susceptible and 38.1% in clindamycin resistant anaerobes causing bacteremia. The result of log-rank test also showed that susceptibility to clindamycin affected mortality (P anaerobic bacteremia with a higher risk of 30-day mortality. The results of this study are important for the early and appropriate management of patients with anaerobic bacteremia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Diversity of anaerobic microbes in spacecraft assembly clean rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Alexander; Vaishampayan, Parag; Osman, Shariff; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Andersen, Gary L; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2010-05-01

    Although the cultivable and noncultivable microbial diversity of spacecraft assembly clean rooms has been previously documented using conventional and state-of-the-art molecular techniques, the occurrence of obligate anaerobes within these clean rooms is still uncertain. Therefore, anaerobic bacterial communities of three clean-room facilities were analyzed during assembly of the Mars Science Laboratory rover. Anaerobic bacteria were cultured on several media, and DNA was extracted from suitable anaerobic enrichments and examined with conventional 16S rRNA gene clone library, as well as high-density phylogenetic 16S rRNA gene microarray (PhyloChip) technologies. The culture-dependent analyses predominantly showed the presence of clostridial and propionibacterial strains. The 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from clone libraries revealed distinct microbial populations associated with each clean-room facility, clustered exclusively within gram-positive organisms. PhyloChip analysis detected a greater microbial diversity, spanning many phyla of bacteria, and provided a deeper insight into the microbial community structure of the clean-room facilities. This study presents an integrated approach for assessing the anaerobic microbial population within clean-room facilities, using both molecular and cultivation-based analyses. The results reveal that highly diverse anaerobic bacterial populations persist in the clean rooms even after the imposition of rigorous maintenance programs and will pose a challenge to planetary protection implementation activities.

  11. High-Intensity Interval Training in Heart Transplant Recipients: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael José Perrier-Melo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heart transplantation (HTx is considered an efficient and gold-standard procedure for patients with end-stage heart failure. After surgery, patients have lower aerobic power (VO2max and compensatory hemodynamic responses. The aim of the present study was to assess through a systematic review with meta-analysis whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT can provide benefits for those parameters. This is a systematic review with meta-analysis, which searched the databases and data portals PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct and Wiley until December 2016 (pairs. The following terms and descriptors were used: “heart recipient” OR “heart transplant recipient” OR ”heart transplant” OR “cardiac transplant” OR “heart graft”. Descriptors via DeCS and Mesh were: “heart transplantation’’ OR “cardiac transplantation”. The words used in combination (AND were: “exercise training” OR “interval training” OR “high intensity interval training” OR “high intensity training” OR “anaerobic training” OR “intermittent training” OR “sprint training”. The initial search identified 1064 studies. Then, only those studies assessing the influence of HIIT on the post-HTx period were added, resulting in three studies analyzed. The significance level adopted was 0.05. Heart transplant recipients showed significant improvement in VO2peak, heart rate and peak blood pressure in 8 to 12 weeks of intervention.

  12. High-intensity interval training has positive effects on performance in ice hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimo, M A; de Souza, E O; Wilson, J M; Carpenter, A L; Gilchrist, P; Lowery, R P; Averbuch, B; White, T M; Joy, J

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the well-known benefits that have been shown, few studies have looked at the practical applications of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on athletic performance. This study investigated the effects of a HIIT program compared to traditional continuous endurance exercise training. 24 hockey players were randomly assigned to either a continuous or high-intensity interval group during a 4-week training program. The interval group (IG) was involved in a periodized HIIT program. The continuous group (CG) performed moderate intensity cycling for 45-60 min at an intensity that was 65% of their calculated heart rate reserve. Body composition, muscle thickness, anaerobic power, and on-ice measures were assessed pre- and post-training. Muscle thickness was significantly greater in IG (p=0.01) when compared to CG. The IG had greater values for both ∆ peak power (p<0.003) and ∆ mean power (p<0.02). Additionally, IG demonstrated a faster ∆ sprint (p<0.02) and a trend (p=0.08) for faster ∆ endurance test time to completion for IG. These results indicate that hockey players may utilize short-term HIIT to elicit positive effects in muscle thickness, power and on-ice performance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Diagnostic interval and mortality in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Marie Louise; Frydenberg, Morten; Hamilton, William

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test the theory of a U-shaped association between time from the first presentation of symptoms in primary care to the diagnosis (the diagnostic interval) and mortality after diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Study Design and Setting Three population-based studies in Denmark...

  14. Safety information on QT-interval prolongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam J; Holtkamp, Frank A; Rutten, Frans H

    2014-01-01

    Prolongation of the QT interval can predispose to fatal ventricular arrhythmias. Differences in QT-labeling language can result in miscommunication and suboptimal risk mitigation. We systematically compared the phraseology used to communicate on QT-prolonging properties of 144 drugs newly approve...

  15. Population based reference intervals for common blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population based reference intervals for common blood haematological and biochemical parameters in the Akuapem north district. K.A Koram, M.M Addae, J.C Ocran, S Adu-amankwah, W.O Rogers, F.K Nkrumah ...

  16. Changing reference intervals for haemoglobin in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg-Nørholt, Judith; Frederiksen, Henrik; Nybo, Mads

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Based on international experiences and altering demography the reference intervals (RI) for haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations in blood were changed in Denmark in 2013 from 113 - 161 g/L to 117 - 153 g/L for women and from 129 - 177 g/L to 134 - 170 g/L for men. The aim of this study w...

  17. The Total Interval of a Graph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    about them in a mathematical con- text. A thorough treatment of multiple interval representations, including applications, is given by Roberts [21...8217-. -- + .".-)’""- +_ .. ,_ _ CA6 46 operation applied to a member of .4 U 3 T U.) U.3 UU- T T i Figure 11.2.18 I Fieure 11.2.19 ,* This completes the proof

  18. Coefficient Omega Bootstrap Confidence Intervals: Nonnormal Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the normal theory bootstrap (NTB), the percentile bootstrap (PB), and the bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient omega was assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation under conditions not previously investigated. Of particular interests were nonnormal Likert-type and binary items.…

  19. Quinsy tonsillectomy or interval tonsillectomy - a prospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifty-one patients with peritonsillar abscesses were randomised to undergo either quinsy tonsillectomy (aT) or interval tonsillectomy (IT), and the two groups were compared. The QT group lost fewer (10,3 v. 17,9) working days and less blood during the operation (158,6 ml v. 205,7 ml); haemostasis was easier and the ...

  20. Linear chord diagrams on two intervals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Penner, Robert; Reidys, Christian

    generating function ${\\bf C}_g(z)=z^{2g}R_g(z)/(1-4z)^{3g-{1\\over 2}}$ for chords attached to a single interval is algebraic, for $g\\geq 1$, where the polynomial $R_g(z)$ with degree at most $g-1$ has integer coefficients and satisfies $R_g(1/4)\

  1. Learned Interval Time Facilitates Associate Memory Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Vincent; Kochs, Sarah; Smulders, Fren; De Weerd, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The extent to which time is represented in memory remains underinvestigated. We designed a time paired associate task (TPAT) in which participants implicitly learned cue-time-target associations between cue-target pairs and specific cue-target intervals. During subsequent memory testing, participants showed increased accuracy of identifying…

  2. Interval Appendicectomy and Management of Appendix Mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A wholly conservative management without interval appendicectomy was instituted for 13 patients diagnosed as having appendix mass between 1998 and 2002 in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Within three days of admission, one patient developed clinical features of ruptured appendix and ...

  3. Effect of methanogenic substrates on anaerobic oxidation of methane and sulfate reduction by an anaerobic methanotrophic enrichment.

    KAUST Repository

    Meulepas, Roel J W; Jagersma, Christian G; Khadem, Ahmad F; Stams, Alfons J M; Lens, Piet N L

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to sulfate reduction (SR) is assumed to be a syntrophic process, in which methanotrophic archaea produce an interspecies electron carrier (IEC), which is subsequently utilized by sulfate-reducing bacteria

  4. Manipulation of nitric oxide in an animal model of acute liver injury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We evaluated the impact of altering nitric oxide release on acute liver injury, the associated gut injury and bacterial translocation, at different time intervals. Methods: An acute rat liver injury model induced by D-galactosamine was used. Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four main groups: normal control, acute liver ...

  5. Anaerobes as Sources of Bioactive Compounds and Health Promoting Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Gashaw

    Aerobic microorganisms have been sources of medicinal agents for several decades and an impressive variety of drugs have been isolated from their cultures, studied and formulated to treat or prevent diseases. On the other hand, anaerobes, which are believed to be the oldest life forms on earth and evolved remarkably diverse physiological functions, have largely been neglected as sources of bioactive compounds. However, results obtained from the limited research done so far show that anaerobes are capable of producing a range of interesting bioactive compounds that can promote human health. In fact, some of these bioactive compounds are found to be novel in their structure and/or mode of action.Anaerobes play health-promoting roles through their bioactive products as well as application of whole cells. The bioactive compounds produced by these microorganisms include antimicrobial agents and substances such as immunomodulators and vitamins. Bacteriocins produced by anaerobes have been in use as preservatives for about 40 years. Because these substances are effective at low concentrations, encounter relatively less resistance from bacteria and are safe to use, there is a growing interest in these antimicrobial agents. Moreover, several antibiotics have been reported from the cultures of anaerobes. Closthioamide and andrimid produced by Clostridium cellulolyticum and Pantoea agglomerans, respectively, are examples of novel antibiotics of anaerobe origin. The discovery of such novel bioactive compounds is expected to encourage further studies which can potentially lead to tapping of the antibiotic production potential of this fascinating group of microorganisms.Anaerobes are widely used in preparation of fermented foods and beverages. During the fermentation processes, these organisms produce a number of bioactive compounds including anticancer, antihypertensive and antioxidant substances. The well-known health promoting effect of fermented food is mostly due to these

  6. Effect of high-intensity interval training on body composition and bioenergetic indices in boys - futsal players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balbasi Fatemeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: High-intensity interval trainings (HIIT can result in the best improvement of body fitness among athletes in the shortest possible time. The impact of HIIT on bioenergetic factors of futsal players has not been studied extensively. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of 3-week HIIT on body composition indices, maximum aerobic power, and maximum anaerobic power, anaerobic power among boys - futsal players. Material: 30 boys - futsal players (mean± SD age, 13.49±1.03 years; BMI, 20.95±1.78 kg/m2 participated in the study voluntarily. They were randomly assigned to experimental (n=15 and control (n=15 groups. HIIT lasted for three weeks, three sessions a week for 12-36 minutes on treadmill. Weight, body mass index (BMI, waist to hip ratio (WHR, thickness of body fat, maximal aerobic power, and maximum anaerobic power were recorded before intervention and 48 hours after the final training session. Aerobic power was measured with 20-m shuttle run, and maximum anaerobic power was measured with RAST test. Paired sample t-test was used to determine pretest-posttest differences, and independent t-test was used to determine between-group differences. The significance level was set to P < 0.05. Results: Significant differences were found in weight, BMI, thickness of body fat, maximum aerobic power and maximum anaerobic power in experimental group (P = 0.001 before and after training intervention, but the change in WHR was not significant (P < 0.05. No significant differences were observed in selected body composition between experimental and control groups, but they exhibited significant differences in maximum aerobic power and maximum anaerobic power (P = 0.001. Conclusion: According to the results, HIIT can be an effective training program for improving the performance of bioenergetic indices of futsal players. Also, it is recommended to study the effect of similar trainings with longer durations on other

  7. Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of biologically pretreated abattoir wastewaters in an upflow anaerobic filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gannoun, H.; Bouallagui, H.; Okbi, A.; Sayadi, S.; Hamdi, M.

    2009-01-01

    The hydrolysis pretreatment of abattoir wastewaters (AW), rich in organic suspended solids (fats and protein) was studied in static and stirred batch reactors without aeration in the presence of natural microbial population acclimated in a storage tank of AW. Microbial analysis showed that the major populations which contribute to the pretreatment of AW belong to the genera Bacillus. Contrary to the static pretreatment, the stirred conditions favoured the hydrolysis and solubilization of 80% of suspended matter into soluble pollution. The pretreated AW, in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 days, was fed to an upflow anaerobic filter (UAF) at an HRT of 2 days. The performance of anaerobic digestion of biologically pretreated AW was examined under mesophilic (37 deg. C) and thermophilic (55 deg. C) conditions. The shifting from a mesophilic to a thermophilic environment in the UAF was carried out with a short start-up of thermophilic condition. The UAF ran at organic loading rates (OLRs) ranging from 0.9 to 6 g COD/L d in mesophilic conditions and at OLRs from 0.9 to 9 g COD/L d in thermophilic conditions. COD removal efficiencies of 80-90% were achieved for OLRs up to 4.5 g COD/L d in mesophilic conditions, while the highest OLRs i.e. 9 g COD/L d led to efficiencies of 70-72% in thermophilic conditions. The biogas yield in thermophilic conditions was about 0.32-0.45 L biogas/g of COD removed for OLRs up to 4.5 g COD/L d. For similar OLR, the UAF in mesophilic conditions showed lower percentage of methanization. Mesophilic anaerobic digestion has been shown to destroy pathogens partially, whereas the thermophilic process was more efficient in the removal of indicator microorganisms and pathogenic bacteria at different organic loading rates.

  8. Acupuncture for acute hordeolum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ke; Law, Andrew; Guo, Menghu; Wieland, L. Susan; Shen, Xueyong; Lao, Lixing

    2017-01-01

    comparing acupuncture plus another treatment versus another treatment alone. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures used by Cochrane. Main results We included 6 RCTs with a total of 531 participants from China. The mean age of the participants ranged from 18 to 28 years. Four RCTs included participants diagnosed with initial acute hordeolum with a duration of less than seven days; one RCT included participants diagnosed with initial acute hordeolum without specifying the duration; and one RCT included participants with recurrent acute hordeolum with a mean duration of 24 days. About 55% (291/531) of participants were women. Three RCTs included participants with either external or internal hordeolum; one RCT included participants with only external hordeolum; and two RCTs did not specify the type of hordeolum. Follow-up was no more than seven days after treatment in all included RCTs; no data were available for long-term outcomes. Overall, the certainty of the evidence for all outcomes was low to very low, and we judged all RCTs to be at high or unclear risk of bias. Three RCTs compared acupuncture with conventional treatments. We did not pool the data from these RCTs because the conventional treatments were not similar among trials. Two trials showed that resolution of acute hordeolum was more likely in the acupuncture group when compared with topical antibiotics (1 RCT; 32 participants; risk ratio (RR) 3.60; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.34 to 9.70; low-certainty of evidence) or oral antibiotics plus warm compresses (1 RCT; 120 participants; RR 1.45; 95% CI 1.18 to 1.78; low-certainty of evidence). In the third trial, little or no difference in resolution of hordeolum was observed when acupuncture was compared with topical antibiotics plus warm compresses (1 RCT; 109 participants; RR 1.00; 95% CI 0.96 to 1.04; low-certainty of evidence). One RCT mentioned adverse outcomes, stating that there was no adverse event associated with acupuncture

  9. Acute Appendicitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tind, Sofie; Qvist, Niels

    2017-01-01

    and treatment of AA it is important that the classifications are consistent. Furthermore, in the clinical settings, incorrect classification might lead to over diagnosing and a prolonged antibiotic treatment. The aim of our study was to investigate the concordance between perioperative diagnosis made......BACKGROUND: The classification of acute appendicitis (AA) into various grades is not consistent, partly because it is not clear whether the perioperative or the histological findings should be the foundation of the classification. When comparing results from the literature on the frequency...

  10. Acute Respiratory Failure in Acute Poisoning by Neutrotropic Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Lodyagin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of methods for diagnosing and treating critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF in acute poisoning by neurotropic substances. Subjects and methods. Two hundred and thirty-three patients with acute severe intoxication with neurotropic poisons were examined. All the patients were admitted for toxic-hypoxic coma and ARF; in this connection all the patients underwent artificial ventilation (AV. The patients were divided into 3 groups: 1 those in whom the traditional treatments (AV, detoxifying therapy, and infusional and cardiotropic support could restore the basic parameters of vital functions, as judged from the recovered oxygenation index; these patients had no metabolic shifts; 2 those who had signs of pulmonary hyperhydration, low cardiac output and moderate metabolic disorders, as suggested by elevated lactate levels; 3 seriously ill patients in whom the interval between the time of poisoning to care delivery was more than 20 hours; the patients of this group had the most significant metabolic disorders. Results. Correction of ARF in critically ill patients with acute poisoning should include, in addition to the rational parameters of AV and detoxifying therapy, agents for targeted therapy for sequels of hypoxia and energy deficiency states. For maximally rapid and effective oxygen transport recovery, the addition of perfluorane to the complex therapy cardinally improves the results of treatment and reduces mortality rates. Conclusion. The complexity of the pathogenesis of ARF and its sequels is a ground for diagnosing and correcting not only ventilation disturbances, but also pulmonary microcirculatory disorders and metabolic disturbances. Key words: acute intoxication with neu-rotropic poisons, acute respiratory failure, pulmonary hyperhydration, hypoxia, metabolic disturbances.

  11. Modified anaerobic digestion elutriated phased treatment for the anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and food wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Kyung; Lee, Wonbae; Kim, Moonil

    2017-02-01

    A modified anaerobic digestion elutriated phased treatment (MADEPT) process was developed for investigating anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and food wastewater. The anaerobic digestion elutriated phased treatment (ADEPT) process is similar to a two-phase system, however, in which the effluent from a methanogenic reactor recycles into an acidogenic reactor to elutriate mainly dissolved organics. Although ADEPT could reduce reactor volume significantly, the unsolubilized solids should be wasted from the system. The MADEPT process combines thermo-alkali solubilization with ADEPT to improve anaerobic performance and to minimize the sludge disposal. It was determined that the optimal volume mixing ratio of sewage sludge and food wastewater was 4 : 1 for the anaerobic co-digestion. The removal efficiencies of total chemical oxygen demand, volatile solids, and volatile suspended solids in the MADEPT process were 73%, 70%, and 64%, respectively. However, those in the ADEPT process were only 48%, 37%, and 40%, respectively, at the same hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7 days. The gas production of MADEPT was two times higher than that of ADEPT. The thermo-alkali solubilization increased the concentration of dissolved organics so that they could be effectively degraded in a short HRT, implying that MADEPT could improve the performance of ADEPT in anaerobic co-digestion.

  12. The Effects of Sprint Interval vs. Continuous Endurance Training on Physiological and Metabolic Adaptations in Young Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalcakan Gulbin Rudarli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of sprint interval training (SIT and continuous endurance training (CET on selected anthropometric, aerobic, and anaerobic performance indices as well as the blood lipid profile, inflammatory and muscle damage markers in healthy young males. Fifteen recreationally active male volunteers (age: 21.7 ±2.2 years, body mass: 83.0 ±8.0 kg, body height: 1.82 ±0.05 m were divided into two groups according to their initial VO2max levels. Training programs were conducted 3 times per week for 7 weeks. The SIT program consisted of 4-6 Wingate anaerobic sprints with a 4.5 min recovery, while CET consisted of 30-50 min cycling at 60% VO2max. Biochemical, anthropometric and fitness assessments were performed both pre and post-intervention. Significant improvements in VO2max, anaerobic power and capacity, and VO2 utilization during the submaximal workout and significant decreases in body fat and in waist circumference after the intervention occurred in both SIT and CET groups. Significantly greater gross efficiency was measured in the CET group. No differences in the lipid profile or serum levels of inflammatory, myocardial and skeletal muscle damage markers were observed after the training period. The study results agree with the effectiveness of a 30 s all-out training program with a reduced time commitment for anthropometric, aerobic and anaerobic adaptation and eliminate doubts about its safety as a model.

  13. Anaerobic digestion of cellulosic wastes: laboratory tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.D.; Donaldson, T.L.

    1984-11-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process development work is underway using a 75-L digester to verify rates and conversions obtained at the bench scale, to develop start-up and operating procedures, and to generate effluent for characterization and disposal studies. Three runs using batch and batch-fed conditions have been made lasting 36, 90, and over 200 days. Solids solubilization and gas production rates and total solids destruction have met or exceeded the target values of 0.6 g cellulose per L of reactor per day, 0.5 L off-gas per L of reactor per day, and 80% destruction of solids, respectively. Successful start-up procedures have been developed, and preliminary effluent characterization and disposal studies have been done. A simple dynamic process model has been constructed to aid in further process development and for use in process monitoring and control of a large-scale digester. 10 references, 17 figures, 4 tables

  14. Linearizing control of continuous anaerobic fermentation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babary, J.P. [Centre National d`Etudes Spatiales (CNES), 31 - Toulouse (France). Laboratoire d`Analyse et d`Architecture des Systemes; Simeonov, I. [Institute of Microbiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (Bulgaria); Ljubenova, V. [Institute of Control and System Research, BAS (Country unknown/Code not available); Dochain, D. [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    1997-09-01

    Biotechnological processes (BTP) involve living organisms. In the anaerobic fermentation (biogas production process) the organic matter is mineralized by microorganisms into biogas (methane and carbon dioxide) in the absence of oxygen. The biogas is an additional energy source. Generally this process is carried out as a continuous BTP. It has been widely used in life process and has been confirmed as a promising method of solving some energy and ecological problems in the agriculture and industry. Because of the very restrictive on-line information the control of this process in continuous mode is often reduced to control of the biogas production rate or the concentration of the polluting organic matter (de-pollution control) at a desired value in the presence of some perturbations. Investigations show that classical linear controllers have good performances only in the linear zone of the strongly non-linear input-output characteristics. More sophisticated robust and with variable structure (VSC) controllers are studied. Due to the strongly non-linear dynamics of the process the performances of the closed loop system may be degrading in this case. The aim of this paper is to investigate different linearizing algorithms for control of a continuous non-linear methane fermentation process using the dilution rate as a control action and taking into account some practical implementation aspects. (authors) 8 refs.

  15. Anaerobic degradation of linoleic oleic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalman, J.A.; Bagley, D.M.

    1999-07-01

    The anaerobic degradation of linoleic (C18:2) and oleic (C18:1) acids was examined in batch experiments. By-product distribution depended on both the type of long chain fatty acid added and initial substrate concentration. Major by-products were palmitic (C16), myristic (C14) and acetic acids. Trace quantities of palmitoleic (C16:1) and lauric (C12) acids were observed together with larger amounts of palmitic (C16), myristic (C14) and hexanoic (C6) acids in cultures incubated with 100 mg/L linoleic (C18:2) acid. Bio-hydrogenation of C18 fatty acids was not necessary for the {beta}-oxidation mechanism to proceed. Aceticlastic methanogenic inhibition was observed in cultures inoculated with greater than 50 mg/L linoleic (C18:2) acid. In cultures incubated with greater than 50 mg/L oleic (C18:1) acid, aceticlastic methanogenic inhibition was observed for a short time period.

  16. Cellulolytic properties of an extremely thermophilic anaerobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, J A; Morgan, H W; Daniel, R M [Waikato Univ., Hamilton (New Zealand). Microbial Biochemistry and Biotechnology Unit

    1990-09-01

    An extremely thermophilic anaerobe was isolated from a New Zealand hot spring by incubating bacterial mat strands in a medium containing xylan. The Gramreaction-negative organism that was subsequently purified had a temperature optimum of 70deg C and a pH optimum of 7.0. The isolate, designated strain H173, grew on a restricted range of carbon sources. In batch culture H173 could degrade Avicel completely when supplied at 5 or 10 g l{sup -1}. There was an initial growth phase, during which a cellulase complex was produced and carbohydrates fermented to form acetic and lactic acids, followed by a phase where cells were not metabolising but the cellulase complex actively converted cellulose to glucose. When co-cultered with strain Rt8.B1, an ethanologenic extreme thermophile, glucose was fermented to ethanol and acetate, and no reducing sugars accumulated in the medium. In pH controlled batch culture H173 produced an increased amount of lactate and acetate but there was again a phase when reducing sugars accumulated in the medium, and these were converted to ethanol by co-culture with Rt8.B1. (orig.).

  17. Cold water recovery reduces anaerobic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, M J; O'Connor, D; Rudd, D

    2007-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of cold water immersion on recovery from anaerobic cycling. Seventeen (13 male, 4 female) active subjects underwent a crossover, randomised design involving two testing sessions 2 - 6 d apart. Testing involved two 30-s maximal cycling efforts separated by a one-hour recovery period of 10-min cycling warm-down followed by either passive rest or 15-min cold water immersion (13 - 14 degrees C) with passive rest. Peak power, total work and postexercise blood lactate were significantly reduced following cold water immersion compared to the first exercise test and the control condition. These variables did not differ significantly between the control tests. Peak exercise heart rate was significantly lower after cold water immersion compared to the control. Time to peak power, rating of perceived exertion, and blood pH were not affected by cold water immersion compared to the control. Core temperature rose significantly (0.3 degrees C) during ice bath immersion but a similar increase also occurred in the control condition. Therefore, cold water immersion caused a significant decrease in sprint cycling performance with one-hour recovery between tests.

  18. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejnfelt, Anette; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55 o C and for some experiments also at 37 o C. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone flour, fat, blood, hair, meat, ribs, raw waste were: 225, 497, 487, 561, 582, 575, 359, 619 dm 3 kg -1 respectively, corresponding to 50-100% of the calculated theoretical methane potential. Dilution of the by-products had a positive effect on the specific methane yield with the highest dilutions giving the best results. High concentrations of long-chain fatty acids and ammonia in the by-products were found to inhibit the biogas process at concentrations higher than 5 g lipids dm -3 and 7 g N dm -3 respectively. Pretreatment (pasteurization: 70 o C, sterilization: 133 o C, and alkali hydrolysis (NaOH) had no effect on achieved methane yields. Mesophilic digestion was more stable than thermophilic digestion, and higher methane yield was noticed at high waste concentrations. The lower yield at thermophilic temperature and high waste concentration was due to ammonia inhibition. Co-digestion of 5% pork by-products mixed with pig manure at 37 o C showed 40% higher methane production compared to digestion of manure alone.

  19. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hejnfelt, Anette; Angelidaki, Irini [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DTU, Building 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2009-08-15

    Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55 C and for some experiments also at 37 C. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone flour, fat, blood, hair, meat, ribs, raw waste were: 225, 497, 487, 561, 582, 575, 359, 619 dm{sup 3} kg{sup -1} respectively, corresponding to 50-100% of the calculated theoretical methane potential. Dilution of the by-products had a positive effect on the specific methane yield with the highest dilutions giving the best results. High concentrations of long-chain fatty acids and ammonia in the by-products were found to inhibit the biogas process at concentrations higher than 5 g lipids dm{sup -3} and 7 g N dm{sup -3} respectively. Pretreatment (pasteurization: 70 C, sterilization: 133 C), and alkali hydrolysis (NaOH) had no effect on achieved methane yields. Mesophilic digestion was more stable than thermophilic digestion, and higher methane yield was noticed at high waste concentrations. The lower yield at thermophilic temperature and high waste concentration was due to ammonia inhibition. Co-digestion of 5% pork by-products mixed with pig manure at 37 C showed 40% higher methane production compared to digestion of manure alone. (author)

  20. Five Weeks of Sprint and High-Intensity Interval Training Improves Paddling Performance in Adolescent Surfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Oliver R L; Secomb, Josh L; Parsonage, Joanna R; Lundgren, Lina E; Abbiss, Chris R; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2016-09-01

    Farley, ORL, Secomb, JL, Parsonage, JR, Lundgren, LE, Abbiss, CR, and Sheppard, JM. Five weeks of sprint and high-intensity interval training improves paddling performance in adolescent surfers. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2446-2452, 2016-The purpose of our study was to examine the effects of sprint interval training (SIT; 10 seconds) and high-intensity interval training (HIT; 30 seconds) on surfing athletes paddling performance (400-m time trial and repeat-sprint paddle performance). Twenty-four competitive adolescent surfers (19 male, 5 female; age = 14.4 ± 1.3 years, mass: 50.1 ± 10.7 kg, and stature: 159.9 ± 10.3 cm) were assigned to perform either 5 weeks of SIT and HIT. Participants completed a repeated-sprint paddle ability test (RSPT, 15-m surfboard sprint paddle initiated every 40 seconds × 10 bouts) and 400-m endurance surfboard paddle time trial before and after training. High-intensity interval training decreased the total time to complete the 400 m by 15.8 ± 16.1 seconds (p = 0.03), and SIT decreased the total time to complete the RSPT by 6.5 ± 4.3 seconds (p = 0.02). Fatigue index during the RSPT (first-slowest effort) was lower after HIT and SIT (p ≤ 0.001 and p = 0.02, respectively). There were no significant differences in performance changes in the 400 m (total time) and RSPT (total time, fastest 15 m time, and peak velocity) between HIT and SIT. Our study indicates that HIT and SIT may be implemented to the training program of surfers to improve aerobic and repeat-sprint paddle ability, both of which are identified as key aspects of the sport. In addition, these findings indicate that 400-m paddle and RSPT can discriminate between aerobic and anaerobic training adaptations, with aerobic gains likely from HIT and anaerobic gains from SIT.

  1. Anaerobic respiration of Escherichia coli in the mouse intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Shari A; Gibson, Terri; Maltby, Rosalie C; Chowdhury, Fatema Z; Stewart, Valley; Cohen, Paul S; Conway, Tyrrell

    2011-10-01

    The intestine is inhabited by a large microbial community consisting primarily of anaerobes and, to a lesser extent, facultative anaerobes, such as Escherichia coli, which we have shown requires aerobic respiration to compete successfully in the mouse intestine (S. A. Jones et al., Infect. Immun. 75:4891-4899, 2007). If facultative anaerobes efficiently lower oxygen availability in the intestine, then their sustained growth must also depend on anaerobic metabolism. In support of this idea, mutants lacking nitrate reductase or fumarate reductase have extreme colonization defects. Here, we further explore the role of anaerobic respiration in colonization using the streptomycin-treated mouse model. We found that respiratory electron flow is primarily via the naphthoquinones, which pass electrons to cytochrome bd oxidase and the anaerobic terminal reductases. We found that E. coli uses nitrate and fumarate in the intestine, but not nitrite, dimethyl sulfoxide, or trimethylamine N-oxide. Competitive colonizations revealed that cytochrome bd oxidase is more advantageous than nitrate reductase or fumarate reductase. Strains lacking nitrate reductase outcompeted fumarate reductase mutants once the nitrate concentration in cecal mucus reached submillimolar levels, indicating that fumarate is the more important anaerobic electron acceptor in the intestine because nitrate is limiting. Since nitrate is highest in the absence of E. coli, we conclude that E. coli is the only bacterium in the streptomycin-treated mouse large intestine that respires nitrate. Lastly, we demonstrated that a mutant lacking the NarXL regulator (activator of the NarG system), but not a mutant lacking the NarP-NarQ regulator, has a colonization defect, consistent with the advantage provided by NarG. The emerging picture is one in which gene regulation is tuned to balance expression of the terminal reductases that E. coli uses to maximize its competitiveness and achieve the highest possible population in

  2. Alternative method for determining anaerobic threshold in rowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani dos Santos Cunha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In rowing, the standard breathing that athletes are trained to use makes it difficult, or even impossible, to detectventilatory limits, due to the coupling of the breath with the technical movement. For this reason, some authors have proposeddetermining the anaerobic threshold from the respiratory exchange ratio (RER, but there is not yet consensus on what valueof RER should be used. The objective of this study was to test what value of RER corresponds to the anaerobic thresholdand whether this value can be used as an independent parameter for determining the anaerobic threshold of rowers. Thesample comprised 23 male rowers. They were submitted to a maximal cardiorespiratory test on a rowing ergometer withconcurrent ergospirometry in order to determine VO2máx and the physiological variables corresponding to their anaerobicthreshold. The anaerobic threshold was determined using the Dmax (maximal distance method. The physiological variableswere classified into maximum values and anaerobic threshold values. The maximal state of these rowers reached VO2(58.2±4.4 ml.kg-1.min-1, lactate (8.2±2.1 mmol.L-1, power (384±54.3 W and RER (1.26±0.1. At the anaerobic thresholdthey reached VO2 (46.9±7.5 ml.kg-1.min-1, lactate (4.6±1.3 mmol.L-1, power (300± 37.8 W and RER (0.99±0.1. Conclusions- the RER can be used as an independent method for determining the anaerobic threshold of rowers, adopting a value of0.99, however, RER should exhibit a non-linear increase above this figure.

  3. Anaerobic fitness assessment in taekwondo athletes. A new perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rocha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We intended to determine the concurrent validity of a taekwondo specific anaerobic test (TSAT to assess anaerobic fitness in taekwondo athletes. Seventeen elite male subjects (17.59 ± 4.34 years of age; 1.72 m ± .07 m in height; 61.3 kg ± 8.7 kg in weight and 15.6% ± 8.5% in body fat performed a TSAT, which consisted of kicking a punching bag for 30 seconds. The standard test was the Wingate Anaerobic Test. Two trials were made for both tests and the agreement between both was tested. The variables analysed and compared were: peak power; relative peak power; mean anaerobic power; relative mean anaerobic power; fatigue index and anaerobic capacity. The number of kicks performed in the TSAT protocol and the maximum height of the counter movement jump (CMJ were also registered. Trial I and II had significant ICC results in all variables (P = .000 ranged between 0.56 and 0.97. Both protocols were significantly correlated (r = 0.55 to 0.88; P = .000 to .05. CMJ strongly correlated with the number of techniques (r=0.59; P = .013 and the mean power (r = 0.56; P = .019 of the TSAT. The variables between the two methods correlate and are consistent, except for the anaerobic capacity that although correlated, is not consistent with constant bias, P = 0.001; CI]-705.1;-370.2[. TSAT has a level of agreement with the Wingate, and assigns specificity in the evaluation of these variables.

  4. Anaerobic bacteria colonizing the lower airways in lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybojad, Pawel; Los, Renata; Sawicki, Marek; Tabarkiewicz, Jacek; Malm, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobes comprise most of the endogenous oropharyngeal microflora, and can cause infections of airways in lung cancer patients who are at high risk for respiratory tract infections. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and species diversity of anaerobes in specimens from the lower airways of lung cancer patients. Sensitivity of the isolates to conventional antimicrobial agents used in anaerobe therapy was assessed. Respiratory secretions obtained by bronchoscopy from 30 lung cancer patients were cultured onto Wilkins-Chalgren agar in anaerobic conditions at 37°C for 72-96 hours. The isolates were identified using microtest Api 20A. The minimal inhibitory concentrations for penicillin G, amoxicillin/clavulanate, piperacillin/tazobactam, cefoxitin, imipenem, clindamycin, and metronidazole were determined by E-test. A total of 47 isolates of anaerobic bacteria were detected in 22 (73.3%) specimens. More than one species of anaerobe was found in 16 (53.3%) samples. The most frequently isolated were Actinomyces spp. and Peptostreptococcus spp., followed by Eubacterium lentum, Veillonella parvula, Prevotella spp., Bacteroides spp., Lactobacillus jensenii. Among antibiotics used in the study amoxicillin/clavulanate and imipenem were the most active in vitro (0% and 2% resistant strains, respectively). The highest resistance rate was found for penicillin G and metronidazole (36% and 38% resistant strains, respectively). The results obtained confirm the need to conduct analyses of anaerobic microflora colonizing the lower respiratory tract in patients with lung cancer to monitor potential etiologic factors of airways infections, as well as to propose efficient, empirical therapy.

  5. Anaerobic bacteria colonizing the lower airways in lung cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Malm

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobes comprise most of the endogenous oropharyngeal microflora, and can cause infections of airways in lung cancer patients who are at high risk for respiratory tract infections. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and species diversity of anaerobes in specimens from the lower airways of lung cancer patients. Sensitivity of the isolates to conventional antimicrobial agents used in anaerobe therapy was assessed. Respiratory secretions obtained by bronchoscopy from 30 lung cancer patients were cultured onto Wilkins- -Chalgren agar in anaerobic conditions at 37°C for 72–96 hours. The isolates were identified using microtest Api 20A. The minimal inhibitory concentrations for penicillin G, amoxicillin/clavulanate, piperacillin/tazobactam, cefoxitin, imipenem, clindamycin, and metronidazole were determined by E-test. A total of 47 isolates of anaerobic bacteria were detected in 22 (73.3% specimens. More than one species of anaerobe was found in 16 (53.3% samples. The most frequently isolated were Actinomyces spp. and Peptostreptococcus spp., followed by Eubacterium lentum, Veillonella parvula, Prevotella spp., Bacteroides spp., Lactobacillus jensenii. Among antibiotics used in the study amoxicillin/clavulanate and imipenem were the most active in vitro (0% and 2% resistant strains, respectively. The highest resistance rate was found for penicillin G and metronidazole (36% and 38% resistant strains, respectively. The results obtained confirm the need to conduct analyses of anaerobic microflora colonizing the lower respiratory tract in patients with lung cancer to monitor potential etiologic factors of airways infections, as well as to propose efficient, empirical therapy. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 2, pp. 263–266

  6. Interval Mathematics Applied to Critical Point Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito A. Stradi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The determination of critical points of mixtures is important for both practical and theoretical reasons in the modeling of phase behavior, especially at high pressure. The equations that describe the behavior of complex mixtures near critical points are highly nonlinear and with multiplicity of solutions to the critical point equations. Interval arithmetic can be used to reliably locate all the critical points of a given mixture. The method also verifies the nonexistence of a critical point if a mixture of a given composition does not have one. This study uses an interval Newton/Generalized Bisection algorithm that provides a mathematical and computational guarantee that all mixture critical points are located. The technique is illustrated using several example problems. These problems involve cubic equation of state models; however, the technique is general purpose and can be applied in connection with other nonlinear problems.

  7. Constraint-based Attribute and Interval Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Ari; Frank, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe Constraint-based Attribute and Interval Planning (CAIP), a paradigm for representing and reasoning about plans. The paradigm enables the description of planning domains with time, resources, concurrent activities, mutual exclusions among sets of activities, disjunctive preconditions and conditional effects. We provide a theoretical foundation for the paradigm, based on temporal intervals and attributes. We then show how the plans are naturally expressed by networks of constraints, and show that the process of planning maps directly to dynamic constraint reasoning. In addition, we de ne compatibilities, a compact mechanism for describing planning domains. We describe how this framework can incorporate the use of constraint reasoning technology to improve planning. Finally, we describe EUROPA, an implementation of the CAIP framework.

  8. Anaerobic treatment of distillery spent wash - a study on upflow anaerobic fixed film bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Bhavik K; Mohana, Sarayu; Madamwar, Datta

    2008-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion of wastewater from a distillery industry having very high COD (1,10,000-1,90,000 mg/L) and BOD (50,000-60,000 mg/L) was studied in a continuously fed, up flow fixed film column reactor using different support materials such as charcoal, coconut coir and nylon fibers under varying hydraulic retention time and organic loading rates. The seed consortium was prepared by enrichment with distillery spent wash in a conventional type reactor having working capacity of 3 L and was used for charging the anaerobic column reactor. Amongst the various support materials studied the reactor having coconut coir could treat distillery spent wash at 8d hydraulic retention time with organic loading rate of 23.25 kg COD m(-3)d(-1) leading to 64% COD reduction with biogas production of 7.2 m3 m(-3)d(-1) having high methane yield without any pretreatment or neutralization of the distillery spent wash. This study indicates fixed film biomethanation of distillery spent wash using coconut coir as the support material appears to be a cost effective and promising technology for mitigating the problems caused by distillery effluent.

  9. Estimation of Anaerobic Debromination Rate Constants of PBDE Pathways Using an Anaerobic Dehalogenation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakas, Filiz; Imamoglu, Ipek

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to estimate anaerobic debromination rate constants (k m ) of PBDE pathways using previously reported laboratory soil data. k m values of pathways are estimated by modifying a previously developed model as Anaerobic Dehalogenation Model. Debromination activities published in the literature in terms of bromine substitutions as well as specific microorganisms and their combinations are used for identification of pathways. The range of estimated k m values is between 0.0003 and 0.0241 d -1 . The median and maximum of k m values are found to be comparable to the few available biologically confirmed rate constants published in the literature. The estimated k m values can be used as input to numerical fate and transport models for a better and more detailed investigation of the fate of individual PBDEs in contaminated sediments. Various remediation scenarios such as monitored natural attenuation or bioremediation with bioaugmentation can be handled in a more quantitative manner with the help of k m estimated in this study.

  10. Retention and transport of an anaerobic trichloroethene dechlorinating microbial culture in anaerobic porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huixin; Ulrich, Ania C; Liu, Yang

    2015-06-01

    The influence of solution chemistry on microbial transport was examined using the strictly anaerobic trichloroethene (TCE) bioaugmentation culture KB-1(®). A column was employed to determine transport behaviors and deposition kinetics of three distinct functional species in KB-1(®), Dehalococcoides, Geobacter, and Methanomethylovorans, over a range of ionic strengths under a well-controlled anaerobic condition. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was utilized to enumerate cell concentration and complementary techniques were implemented to evaluate cell surface electrokinetic potentials. Solution chemistry was found to positively affect the deposition rates, which was consistent with calculated Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) interaction energies. Retained microbial profiles showed spatially constant colloid deposition rate coefficients, in agreement with classical colloid filtration theory (CFT). It was interesting to note that the three KB-1(®) species displayed similar transport and retention behaviors under the defined experimental conditions despite their different cell electrokinetic properties. A deeper analysis of cell characteristics showed that factors, such as cell size and shape, concentration, and motility were involved in determining adhesion behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydrogen production from rice winery wastewater in an upflow anaerobic reactor by using mixed anaerobic cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanqing Yu; Zhenhu Zhu [University of Science and Technology, Hefei, Anhui (China). School of Chemistry and Materials; Wenrong Hu [Shandong Univ., Jinan (China). School of Resources and Environmental Engineering; Haisheng Zhang [Jingzi Wine Distillery Company, Shandong (China)

    2002-12-01

    Continuous production of hydrogen from the anaerobic acidogenesis of a high-strength rice winery wastewater by a mixed bacterial flora was demonstrated. The experiment was conducted in a 3.0-l upflow reactor to investigate individual effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) (2-24 h), chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration in wastewater (14-36 g COD/l), pH (4.5-6.0) and temperature (20-55{sup o}C) on bio-hydrogen production from the wastewater. The biogas produced under all test conditions was composed of mostly hydrogen (53-61%) and carbon dioxide (37-45%), but contained no detectable methane. Specific hydrogen production rate increased with wastewater concentration and temperature, but with a decrease in HRT. An optimum hydrogen production rate of 9.33 lH{sub 2}/gVSSd was achieved at an HRT of 2 h, COD of 34 g/l, pH 5.5 and 55{sup o}C. The hydrogen yield was in the range of 1.37-2.14 mol/mol-hexose. In addition to acetate, propionate and butyrate, ethanol was also present in the effluent as an aqueous product. The distribution of these compounds in the effluent was more sensitive to wastewater concentration, pH and temperature, but was less sensitive to HRT. This upflow reactor was shown to be a promising biosystem for hydrogen production from high-strength wastewaters by mixed anaerobic cultures. (Author)

  12. Simultaneous isolation of anaerobic bacteria from udder abscesses and mastitic milk in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeff, A S; du Preez, J H

    1985-12-01

    A variety of non-sporulating anaerobic bacterial species were isolated from udder abscesses in 10 lactating dairy cows. Fifty percent of the abscesses yielded multiple anaerobic species and the other 50% only 1 species. The anaerobic bacteria, however, were always accompanied by classical facultative anaerobic mastitogenic bacteria. In four of the five cows also afflicted with mastitis in the quarters with abscesses, the anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria were identical. Peptococcus indolicus was the most commonly isolated organism followed by Eubacterium and Bacteroides spp. Bacteroides fragilis was resistant to penicillin, ampicillin and tetracycline.

  13. Understanding Confidence Intervals With Visual Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Navruz, Bilgin; Delen, Erhan

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, we showed how confidence intervals (CIs) are valuable and useful in research studies when they are used in the correct form with correct interpretations. The sixth edition of the APA (2010) Publication Manual strongly recommended reporting CIs in research studies, and it was described as “the best reporting strategy” (p. 34). Misconceptions and correct interpretations of CIs were presented from several textbooks. In addition, limitations of the null hypothesis statistica...

  14. Acute lower extremity ischaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute lower extremity ischaemia. Acute lower limb ischaemia is a surgical emergency. ... is ~1.5 cases per 10 000 persons per year. Acute ischaemia ... Table 2. Clinical features discriminating embolic from thrombotic ALEXI. Clinical features.

  15. Acute kidney failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute Images Kidney anatomy References Devarajan P. Biomarkers for assessment of renal function during acute kidney injury. In: Alpern RJ, Moe OW, Caplan M, ...

  16. Acute post-traumatic endophthalmitis secondary to Propionibacterium acnes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shailaja, S; Kamath, Yogish; Hazarika, Manali; Vishwanath, Shashidhar

    2013-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes has rarely been reported as the causative organism in acute endophthalmitis following penetrating ocular trauma. We report a 53-year-old man, who presented with best corrected vision of counting fingers at 2 m, anaerobic and fungal culture. The patient was treated with intravitreal ceftazidime, vancomycin along with topical antibiotics and steroids. An aqueous anaerobic culture was positive for P acnes. At the fifth month follow-up, the best corrected vision had improved to 20/20, N6. Thus, a good visual outcome was achieved, following appropriate treatment of a rather unusual causative organism. PMID:24096075

  17. Early diastolic time intervals during hypertensive pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, L; Ferro, G; Nappi, C; Farace, M J; Talarico, G; Cinquegrana, G; Condorelli, M

    1987-10-01

    Early diastolic time intervals have been assessed by means of the echopolycardiographic method in 17 pregnant women who developed hypertension during pregnancy (HP) and in 14 normal pregnant women (N). Systolic time intervals (STI), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF), and mean velocity of myocardial fiber shortening (VCF) were also evaluated. Recordings were performed in the left lateral decubitus (LLD) and then in the supine decubitus (SD). In LLD, isovolumic relaxation period (IRP) was prolonged in the hypertensive pregnant women compared with normal pregnant women (HP 51 +/- 12.5 ms, N 32.4 +/- 15 ms p less than 0.05), whereas time of the mitral valve maximum opening (DE) was not different in the groups. There was no difference in SV, EF, and mean VCF, whereas STI showed only a significant (p less than 0.05) lengthening of pre-ejection period (PEP) in HP. When the subjects shifted from the left lateral to the supine decubitus position, left ventricular ejection time index (LVETi) and SV decreased significantly (p less than 0.05) in both normotensive hypertensive pregnant women. IRP and PEP lengthened significantly (p less than 0.05) only in normals, whereas they were unchanged in HP. DE time did not vary in either group. In conclusion, hypertension superimposed on pregnancy induces lengthening of IRP, as well as of PEP, and minimizes the effects of the postural changes in preload on the above-mentioned time intervals.

  18. QT interval prolongation associated with sibutramine treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison-Woolrych, Mira; Clark, David W J; Hill, Geraldine R; Rees, Mark I; Skinner, Jonathan R

    2006-01-01

    Aims To investigate a possible association of sibutramine with QT interval prolongation. Methods Post-marketing surveillance using prescription event monitoring in the New Zealand Intensive Medicines Monitoring Programme (IMMP) identified a case of QT prolongation and associated cardiac arrest in a patient taking sibutramine for 25 days. This patient was further investigated, including genotyping for long QT syndrome. Other IMMP case reports suggesting arrhythmias associated with sibutramine were assessed and further reports were obtained from the World Health Organisation (WHO) adverse drug reactions database. Results The index case displayed a novel mutation in a cardiac potassium channel subunit gene, KCNQ1, which is likely to prolong cardiac membrane depolarization and increase susceptibility to long QT intervals. Assessment of further IMMP reports identified five additional patients who experienced palpitations associated with syncope or presyncopal symptoms, one of whom had a QTc at the upper limit of normal. Assessment of reports from the WHO database identified three reports of QT prolongation and one fatal case of torsade de pointes in a patient also taking cisapride. Conclusions This case series suggests that sibutramine may be associated with QT prolongation and related dysrhythmias. Further studies are required, but in the meantime we would recommend that sibutramine should be avoided in patients with long QT syndrome and in patients taking other medicines that may prolong the QT interval. PMID:16542208

  19. Antioxidant status of interval-trained athletes in various sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dékány, M; Nemeskéri, V; Györe, I; Harbula, I; Malomsoki, J; Pucsok, J

    2006-02-01

    Muscular exercise results in an increased production of free radicals and other forms of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Further, developing evidence implicates cytotoxins as an underlying etiology of exercise-induced stimuli in muscle redox status, which could result in muscle fatigue and/or injury. Two major classes of endogenous protective mechanisms (enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants) work together to reduce the harmful effects of oxidants in the cell. This study examined the effects of acute physical exercise on the enzymatic antioxidant systems of different athletes and comparison was made to the mechanism of action of three main antioxidant enzymes in the blood. Handball players (n = 6), water-polo players (n = 20), hockey players (n = 22), basketball players (n = 24), and a sedentary control group (n = 10 female and n = 9 male) served as the subjects of this study. The athletes were divided into two groups according to the observed changes of activity of superoxide dismutase enzyme. The antioxidant enzyme systems were characterized by catalase (CAT), glutathione-peroxidase (GPX), and superoxide-dismutase (SOD) and measured by spectrophotometry. An important finding in the present investigation is that when the activities of SOD increased, the activities of GPX and CAT increased also and this finding related to the physical status of interval-trained athletes. Positive correlation between SOD and GPX activities was observed (r = 0.38 females, r = 0.56 males; p antioxidant enzyme systems of athletes are sport specific, and different from control subjects. Presumably, with interval-trained athletes, hydrogen-peroxide is significantly eliminated by glutathione-peroxidase. From these results it can be concluded that the blood redox status should be taken into consideration when establishing a fitness level for individual athletes.

  20. Hypokalemia in acute medical patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helene Christine Kildegaard; Brabrand, Mikkel; Vinholt, Pernille Just

    2015-01-01

    . METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study involving all first time admissions (n=11988) to the Acute Medical Department at Odense University Hospital linking potassium level at admission with registry data on patient characteristics, laboratory data, redeemed prescriptions and time of death......: Hypokalemia occurred in 16.8% of first time admissions (n=2011). It was associated with an adjusted hazard ratio [HR] of 1.34 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98-1.85) for 7-day mortality and 1.56 (CI, 1.18-3.06) for 8-30 day mortality. Among patients with more severe hypokalemia (plasma [K(+)