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Sample records for acute alcohol exposure

  1. In vitro and in vivo models of acute alcohol exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Angela Dolganiuc; Gyongyi Szabo

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a global problem due to the financial burden on society and the healthcare system. While the harmful health effects of chronic alcohol abuse are well established, more recent data suggest that acute alcohol consumption also affects human wellbeing. Thus, there is a need for research models in order to fully understand the effect of acute alcohol abuse on different body systems and organs. The present manuscript summarizes the interdisciplinary advantages and disadvantages of currently available human and non-human models of acute alcohol abuse,and identifies their suitability for biomedical research.

  2. Transient activation of microglia following acute alcohol exposure in developing mouse neocortex is primarily driven by BAX-dependent neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, Katelin E; Karaçay, Bahri; Fuller, Leah; Bonthius, Daniel J; Dailey, Michael E

    2015-10-01

    Fetal alcohol exposure is the most common known cause of preventable mental retardation, yet we know little about how microglia respond to, or are affected by, alcohol in the developing brain in vivo. Using an acute (single day) model of moderate (3 g/kg) to severe (5 g/kg) alcohol exposure in postnatal day (P) 7 or P8 mice, we found that alcohol-induced neuroapoptosis in the neocortex is closely correlated in space and time with the appearance of activated microglia near dead cells. The timing and molecular pattern of microglial activation varied with the level of cell death. Although microglia rapidly mobilized to contact and engulf late-stage apoptotic neurons, apoptotic bodies temporarily accumulated in neocortex, suggesting that in severe cases of alcohol toxicity the neurodegeneration rate exceeds the clearance capacity of endogenous microglia. Nevertheless, most dead cells were cleared and microglia began to deactivate within 1-2 days of the initial insult. Coincident with microglial activation and deactivation, there was a transient increase in expression of pro-inflammatory factors, TNFα and IL-1β, after severe (5 g/kg) but not moderate (3 g/kg) EtOH levels. Alcohol-induced microglial activation and pro-inflammatory factor expression were largely abolished in BAX null mice lacking neuroapoptosis, indicating that microglial activation is primarily triggered by apoptosis rather than the alcohol. Therefore, acute alcohol exposure in the developing neocortex causes transient microglial activation and mobilization, promoting clearance of dead cells and tissue recovery. Moreover, cortical microglia show a remarkable capacity to rapidly deactivate following even severe neurodegenerative insults in the developing brain.

  3. Acute High-Dose and Chronic Lifetime Exposure to Alcohol Consumption and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: T-CALOS Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunji Hwang

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of acute high-dose and chronic lifetime exposure to alcohol and exposure patterns on the development of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC.The Thyroid Cancer Longitudinal Study (T-CALOS included 2,258 DTC patients (449 men and 1,809 women and 22,580 healthy participants (4,490 men and 18,090 women who were individually matched by age, gender, and enrollment year. In-person interviews were conducted with a structured questionnaire to obtain epidemiologic data. Clinicopathologic features of the patients were obtained by chart reviews. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI were estimated using conditional regression models.While light or moderate drinking behavior was related to a reduced risk of DTC, acute heavy alcohol consumption (151 g or more per event or on a single occasion was associated with increased risks in men (OR = 2.22, 95%CI = 1.27-3.87 and women (OR = 3.61, 95%CI = 1.52-8.58 compared with never-drinkers. The consumption of alcohol for 31 or more years was a significant risk factor for DTC for both men (31-40 years: OR = 1.58, 95%CI = 1.10-2.28; 41+ years: OR = 3.46, 95%CI = 2.06-5.80 and women (31-40 years: OR = 2.18, 95%CI = 1.62-2.92; 41+ years: OR = 2.71, 95%CI = 1.36-5.05 compared with never-drinkers. The consumption of a large amount of alcohol on a single occasion was also a significant risk factor, even after restricting DTC outcomes to tumor size, lymph node metastasis, extrathyroidal extension and TNM stage.The findings of this study suggest that the threshold effects of acute high-dose alcohol consumption and long-term alcohol consumption are linked to an increased risk of DTC.

  4. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... her child’s genetic make-up, and changes in gene activity caused by prenatal alcohol exposure. NIH . . . Turning Discovery Into Health ® National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism www. niaaa. nih. gov • 301.443.3860 Interventions ...

  5. Acute alcohol-induced liver injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Edward Arteel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption is customary in most cultures and alcohol abuse is common worldwide. For example, more than 50% of Americans consume alcohol, with an estimated 23.1% of Americans participating in heavy and/or binge drinking at least once a month. A safe and effective therapy for alcoholic liver disease (ALD in humans is still elusive, despite significant advances in our understanding of how the disease is initiated and progresses. It is now clear that acute alcohol binges not only can be acutely toxic to the liver, but also can contribute to the chronicity of ALD. Potential mechanisms by which acute alcohol causes damage include steatosis, dysregulated immunity and inflammation and altered gut permeability. Recent interest in modeling acute alcohol exposure has yielded new insights into potential mechanisms of acute injury, that also may well be relevant for chronic ALD. Recent work by this group on the role of PAI-1 and fibrin metabolism in mediating acute alcohol-induced liver damage serve as an example of possible new targets that may be useful for alcohol abuse, be it acute or chronic.

  6. Altered performance in a rat gambling task after acute and repeated alcohol exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelder, Marcia; Lesscher, Heidi M B; Hesseling, Peter; Baars, Annemarie M; Lozeman-van T Klooster, José G; Mijnsbergen, Rob; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: A bidirectional relationship between alcohol use disorder (AUD) and deficits in impulse control and decision making has been suggested. However, the mechanisms by which neurocognitive impairments predispose to, or result from AUD remain incompletely understood. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this

  7. The Difference between Anxiolytic and Anxiogenic Effects Induced by Acute and Chronic Alcohol Exposure and Changes in Associative Learning and Memory Based on Color Preference and the Cause of Parkinson-Like Behaviors in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Li, Xu; Li, Yi-Xiang; Zhang, Yuan; Chen, Di; Sun, Ming-Zhu; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Dong-Yan; Feng, Xi-Zeng

    2015-01-01

    We describe an interdisciplinary comparison of the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure in terms of their disturbance of light, dark and color preferences and the occurrence of Parkinson-like behavior in zebrafish through computer visual tracking, data mining, and behavioral and physiological analyses. We found that zebrafish in anxiolytic and anxious states, which are induced by acute and chronic repeated alcohol exposure, respectively, display distinct emotional reactions in light/dark preference tests as well as distinct learning and memory abilities in color-enhanced conditional place preference (CPP) tests. Additionally, compared with the chronic alcohol (1.0%) treatment, acute alcohol exposure had a significant, dose-dependent effect on anxiety, learning and memory (color preference) as well as locomotive activities. Acute exposure doses (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%) generated an "inverted V" dose-dependent pattern in all of the behavioral parameters, with 1.0% having the greatest effect, while the chronic treatment had a moderate effect. Furthermore, by measuring locomotive activity, learning and memory performance, the number of dopaminergic neurons, tyrosine hydroxylase expression, and the change in the photoreceptors in the retina, we found that acute and chronic alcohol exposure induced varying degrees of Parkinson-like symptoms in zebrafish. Taken together, these results illuminated the behavioral and physiological mechanisms underlying the changes associated with learning and memory and the cause of potential Parkinson-like behaviors in zebrafish due to acute and chronic alcohol exposure.

  8. KEGG DISEASE / Acute alcohol sensitivity [KEGG DISEASE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DISEASE: H01071 Entry H01071Disease Name Acute alcohol sensitivity Description Alde...bolism Congenital disorders of carbohydrate metabolism H01071Acute alcohol sensit...eases. Journal Cardiovasc Res 88:51-7 (2010) KEGG DISEASE / Acute alcohol sensitivity ...

  9. Acute esophageal necrosis caused by alcohol abuse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tetsu Endo; Juichi Sakamoto; Ken Sato; Miyako Takimoto; Koji Shimaya; Tatsuya Mikami; Akihiro Munakata; Tadashi Shimoyama; Shinsaku Fukuda

    2005-01-01

    Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN) is extremely rare and the pathogenesis of this is still unknown. We report a case of AEN caused by alcohol abuse. In our case, the main pathogenesis could be accounted for low systemic perfusion caused by severe alcoholic lactic acidosis. After the healing of AEN, balloon dilatation was effective to manage the stricture.

  10. Prenatal alcohol exposure alters expression of neurogenesis-related genes in an ex vivo cell culture model

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler, Christina R; Allan, Andrea M.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to long-lasting changes in functional and genetic programs of the brain, which may underlie behavioral alterations seen in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Aberrant fetal programming during gestational alcohol exposure is a possible mechanism by which alcohol imparts teratogenic effects on the brain; however, current methods used to investigate the effects of alcohol on development often rely on either direct application of alcohol in vitro or acute h...

  11. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Cortical Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at Normandy University, and Rouen and Brest Universities, France studied the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the cortical microvascular and the action of alcohol, glutamate, and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF on activity, plasticity, and survival of microvessels in mice.

  12. Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on the Developing Kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnak Assadi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Clinical and experimental studies strongly suggest that prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with zinc deficiency and impaired renal tubular function. Whether maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy causes renal tubular cell injury is unknown.Material & Methods: Renal function was studied in 8 infants with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS and 8 healthy age-matched infants. Renal function and structure were also examined in 11 offspring of rats exposed to alcohol during gestation.Findings: Infants with FAS had limited ability to concentrate urine after water restriction (P<0.001 and impaired acidification after acute acid loading (P<0.001 compared to control group. Plasma zinc levels were lower (P<0.001 and urinary zinc excretion was higher (P<0.001 in infants with FAS compared to control infants. Scanning electron microscopic studies revealed cytoplasmic mitochondrial hypertrophy and vacuolar structures of the epithelial cells of the cortical collecting ducts in the rat kidney following fetal exposure to alcohol.Conclusion: These findings suggest that offspring of rats exposed to alcohol during fetal life have renal functional and structural abnormalities that may be responsible in the genesis of renal functional abnormalities as described in infants with FAS.

  13. Alcohol consumption in patients with acute or chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, J; Lankisch, P G; Nordback, I

    2007-01-01

    Understanding of the relation between the alcoholic consumption and the development of pancreatitis should help in defining the alcoholic etiology of pancreatitis. Although the association between alcohol consumption and pancreatitis has been recognized for over 100 years, it remains still unclear why some alcoholics develop pancreatitis and some do not. Surprisingly little data are available about alcohol amounts, drinking patterns, type of alcohol consumed and other habits such as dietary habits or smoking in respect to pancreatitis preceding the attack of acute pancreatitis or the time of the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis. This review summarizes the current knowledge. Epidemiological studies clearly show connection between the alcohol consumption in population and the development of acute and chronic pancreatitis. In the individual level the risk to develop either acute or chronic pancreatitis increases along with the alcohol consumption. Moreover, the risk for recurrent acute pancreatitis after the first acute pancreatitis episode seems also to be highly dependent on the level of alcohol consumption. Abstaining from alcohol may prohibit recurrent acute pancreatitis and reduce pain in chronic pancreatitis. Therefore, all the attempts to decrease alcohol consumption after acute pancreatitis and even after the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis should be encouraged. Smoking seems to be a remarkable co-factor together with alcohol in the development of chronic pancreatitis, whereas no hard data are available for this association in acute pancreatitis. Setting the limits for accepting the alcohol as the etiology cannot currently be based on published data, but rather on the 'political' agreement.

  14. Alcohol exposure during development: Impact on the epigenome

    OpenAIRE

    Perkins, Amy; Lehmann, Claudia; Lawrence, R. Charles; Kelly, Sandra J.

    2013-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders represent a wide range of symptoms associated with in utero alcohol exposure. Animal models of FASD have been useful in determining the specific neurological consequences of developmental alcohol exposure, but the mechanisms of those consequences are unclear. Long-lasting changes to the epigenome are proposed as a mechanism of alcohol-induced teratogenesis in the hippocampus. The current study utilized a three-trimester rodent model of FASD to examine changes ...

  15. Acute coronary ischemia during alcohol withdrawal: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram Ganeshalingam

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The potential of alcohol withdrawal to cause acute coronary events is an area that needs the urgent attention of clinicians and researchers. Case presentation We report the case of a 52-year-old heavy-alcohol-using Sri Lankan man who developed electocardiogram changes suggestive of an acute coronary event during alcohol withdrawal. Despite the patient being asymptomatic, subsequent echocardiogram showed evidence of ischemic myocardial dysfunction. We review the literature on precipitation of myocardial ischemia during alcohol withdrawal and propose possible mechanisms. Conclusions Alcohol withdrawal is a commonly observed phenomenon in hospitals. However, the number of cases reported in the literature of acute coronary events occurring during withdrawal is few. Many cases of acute ischemia or sudden cardiac deaths may be attributed to other well known complications of delirium tremens. This is an area needing the urgent attention of clinicians and epidemiologists.

  16. Rape-Myth Congruent Beliefs in Women Resulting from Exposure to Violent Pornography: Effects of Alcohol and Sexual Arousal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Martell, Joel; Heiman, Julia R.

    2006-01-01

    Previous research findings indicate that women suffer a variety of detrimental effects from exposure to violent pornography. This study used an experimental paradigm to examine the effects of a moderate alcohol dose and alcohol expectancies on women's acute reactions to a violent pornographic stimulus. A community sample of female social drinkers…

  17. Factors associated with younger adolescents' exposure to online alcohol advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Martino, Steven C; Collins, Rebecca L; Shadel, William G; Tolpadi, Anagha; Kovalchik, Stephanie; Becker, Kirsten M

    2017-03-01

    Little is known about the extent and nature of youth exposure to online alcohol advertising, or factors that may be associated with exposure. The current study recruited middle school students who completed a paper survey and then logged each alcohol advertisement that they encountered over a 2-week period using cell phones as part of an ecological momentary assessment design. We examined the percentage of youth who reported exposure to online alcohol advertising in the past 2 weeks, average weekly rate of exposure, types of online alcohol advertisements youth reported seeing, and factors that increased youths' risk of exposure to online alcohol advertising. Analyses are based on 485 participants (47% female; 25% Hispanic, 25% White, 27% Black; 6% Asian, 16% other). Youth logged exposures to a total of 3,966 (16,018 weighted for underreporting) alcohol advertisements across the monitoring period; 154 (568 weighted) or 3.6% were online ads. Seventeen percent of youth reported seeing any online alcohol ad; the majority of online ads seen were video commercials (44.8%) and banner/side ads (26.6%). Factors associated with greater ad exposure were being older, rebellious, and Black race; greater parental monitoring and more hours spent on social media were associated with less exposure. Findings provide important information about adolescents' exposure to online alcohol advertising and what might contribute to a greater likelihood of exposure. Given that online ad exposure is linked to drinking behavior, prevention programming for younger adolescents should continue to address this issue to help youth make healthy choices regarding alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. European longitudinal study on the relationship between adolescents' alcohol marketing exposure and alcohol use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, A. de; Tanghe, J.; Leeuw, R.N.H. de; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Anderson, P.D.; Beccaria, F.; Bujalski, M.; Celata, C.; Gosselt, J.; Schreckenberg, D.; Slodownik, L.; Wothge, J.; Dalen, W. van

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: This is the first study to examine the effect of alcohol marketing exposure on adolescents' drinking in a cross-national context. The aim was to examine reciprocal processes between exposure to a wide range of alcohol marketing types and adolescent drinking, controlled for non-a

  19. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and the Developing Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Theresa W

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from research in humans and animals suggest that ingesting alcohol during pregnancy can disrupt the fetal immune system and result in an increased risk of infections and disease in newborns that may persist throughout life. Alcohol may have indirect effects on the immune system by increasing the risk of premature birth, which itself is a risk factor for immune-related problems. Animal studies suggest that alcohol exposure directly disrupts the developing immune system. A comprehensive knowledge of the mechanisms underlying alcohol's effects on the developing immune system only will become clear once researchers establish improved methods for identifying newborns exposed to alcohol in utero.

  20. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Selectively Enhances Young Adult Perceived Pleasantness of Alcohol Odors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannigan, John H.; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Sokol, Robert J.; Janisse, James; Delaney-Black, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (PAE) can lead to life-long neurobehavioral and social problems that can include a greater likelihood of early use and/or abuse of alcohol compared to older teens and young adults without PAE. Basic research in animals demonstrates that PAE influences later postnatal responses to chemosensory cues (i.e., odor & taste) associated with alcohol. We hypothesized that PAE would be related to poorer abilities to identify odors of alcohol-containing beverages, and would alter perceived alcohol odor intensity and pleasantness. To address this hypothesis we examined responses to alcohol and other odors in a small sample of young adults with detailed prenatal histories of exposure to alcohol and other drugs. The key finding from our controlled analyses is that higher levels of PAE were related to higher relative ratings of pleasantness for alcohol odors. As far as we are aware, this is the first published study to report the influence of PAE on responses to alcohol beverage odors in young adults. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that positive associations (i.e., “pleasantness”) to the chemosensory properties of alcohol (i.e., odor) are acquired prenatally and are retained for many years despite myriad interceding postnatal experiences. Alternate hypotheses may also be supported by the results. There are potential implications of altered alcohol odor responses for understanding individual differences in initiation of drinking, and alcohol seeking and high-risk alcohol-related behaviors in young adults. PMID:25600468

  1. The Protective Effects of Buzui on Acute Alcoholism in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Da-Chao; Gao, Shu-di; Hu, Xiao-yu; Yi, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of a traditional buzui recipe in anti-inebriation treatment. Buzui consists of Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis, Fructus Chebulae, Fructus Mume, Fructus Crataegi, Endothelium Corneum Gigeriae Galli, and Excrementum Bombycis. The buzui mixture was delivered by gavage, and ethanol was delivered subsequent to the final treatment. The effects of buzui on the righting reflex, inebriation rates, and the survival curve are depicted. Blood alcohol concentrations, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were recorded. The activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as malonaldehyde (MDA) levels, were also measured. Our results demonstrated that a traditional buzui recipe showed significant effects on promoting wakefulness and the prevention of acute alcohol intoxication, accelerating the metabolism of alcohol in the liver and reducing the oxidative damage caused by acute alcoholism. PMID:26884793

  2. The effects of acute alcohol on motor impairments in adolescent, adult, and aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, Laura C; Novier, Adelle; Van Skike, Candice E; Diaz-Granados, Jaime L; Matthews, Douglas B

    2015-03-01

    Acute alcohol exposure has been shown to produce differential motor impairments between aged and adult rats and between adolescent and adult rats. However, the effects of acute alcohol exposure among adolescent, adult, and aged rats have yet to be systematically investigated within the same project using a dose-dependent analysis. We sought to determine the age- and dose-dependent effects of acute alcohol exposure on gross and coordinated motor performance across the rodent lifespan. Adolescent (PD 30), adult (PD 70), and aged (approximately 18 months) male Sprague-Dawley rats were tested on 3 separate motor tasks: aerial righting reflex (ARR), accelerating rotarod (RR), and loss of righting reflex (LORR). In a separate group of animals, blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) were determined at multiple time points following a 3.0 g/kg ethanol injection. Behavioral tests were conducted with a Latin square repeated-measures design in which all animals received the following doses: 1.0 g/kg or 2.0 g/kg alcohol or saline over 3 separate sessions via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. During testing, motor impairments were assessed on the RR 10 min post-injection and on ARR 20 min post-injection. Aged animals spent significantly less time on the RR when administered 1.0 g/kg alcohol compared to adult rats. In addition, motor performance impairments significantly increased with age after 2.0 g/kg alcohol administration. On the ARR test, aged rats were more sensitive to the effects of 1.0 g/kg and 2.0 g/kg alcohol compared to adolescents and adults. Seven days after the last testing session, animals were given 3.0 g/kg alcohol and LORR was examined. During LORR, aged animals slept longer compared to adult and adolescent rats. This effect cannot be explained solely by BEC levels in aged rats. The present study suggests that acute alcohol exposure produces greater motor impairments in older rats when compared to adolescent and adult rats and begins to establish a

  3. [The mode of differential diagnostic of and acute alcoholic gastroenteritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, V K; Makarov, P V

    2014-12-01

    The study was carried out to develop mode of differential diagnostic of salmonella and acute alcoholic gastroenteritis on the basis of phospholipid specter of blood serum. The indicators of phospholipid fractions of blood serum were analyzed in 50 healthy persons, 50 patients with acute alcoholic gastroenteritis and 50 patients with salmonella gastroenteritis were analyzed. The relative content of following fractions of whole phospholipids were analyzed--total lysophospholipids, sphyngomiyelin, phosphatidcholine, phosphatidyletanolamin. The phospholipid spectrum of blood serum can be applied in differential diagnostic of salmonella gastroenteritis and acute alcoholic gastroenteritis. The disorders of metabolism of lipids under given pathological conditions have a multidirectional character. The salmonella gastroenteritis is characterized by decreasing of relative content of total lysophospholipids and increasing of phosphatidcholine as compared with standard conditions. The acute alcoholic gastroenteritis is characterized by increasing of relative content of total lysophospholipids and phosphatidcholine and decreasing of level of phosphatidcholine. The content of total Iysophospholipids in blood serum is lower on 35% or 30.0 mg% permits diagnosing acute alcoholic gastroenteritis. The content of phosphaltidcholine in blood serum higher than 40% or 50 mg% permits diagnosing salmonella gastroenteritis.

  4. Motor performance during and following acute alcohol intoxication in healthy non-alcoholic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Buch; Jakobsen, Johannes Klitgaard; Andersen, Henning

    2007-01-01

    ). To detect a reduced activation of the central motor pathways superimposed external electrical stimulations during voluntary contractions were applied. Creatine kinase (CK) was measured to detect any alcohol-induced changes in sarcolemmal integrity. No change was seen in isokinetic as well as in isometric......Chronic alcohol abuse has adverse effects on skeletal muscle, and reduced muscle strength is frequently seen in chronic alcoholics. In this study the acute effects of moderate alcohol intoxication on motor performance was evaluated in 19 non-alcoholic healthy subjects (10 women, 9 men......). A randomised double-blinded placebo controlled design was applied to subjects receiving alcohol in juice and pure juice at two separate test periods. Isokinetic and isometric muscle strength and endurance were determined before, during, 24 and 48 h after the ingestion of alcohol in juice and juice (placebo...

  5. Response of Differentiated Human Airway Epithelia to Alcohol Exposure and Klebsiella pneumoniae Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammeta V. Raju

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse has been associated with increased susceptibility to pulmonary infection. It is not fully defined how alcohol contributes to the host defense compromise. Here primary human airway epithelial cells were cultured at an air-liquid interface to form a differentiated and polarized epithelium. This unique culture model allowed us to closely mimic lung infection in the context of alcohol abuse by basolateral alcohol exposure and apical live bacterial challenge. Application of clinically relevant concentrations of alcohol for 24 h did not significantly alter epithelial integrity or barrier function. When apically challenged with viable Klebsiella pneumoniae, the cultured epithelia had an enhanced tightness which was unaffected by alcohol. Further, alcohol enhanced apical bacterial growth, but not bacterial binding to the cells. The cultured epithelium in the absence of any treatment or stimulation had a base-level IL-6 and IL-8 secretion. Apical bacterial challenge significantly elevated the basolateral secretion of inflammatory cytokines including IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-γ, GM-CSF, and TNF-α. However, alcohol suppressed the observed cytokine burst in response to infection. Addition of adenosine receptor agonists negated the suppression of IL-6 and TNF-α. Thus, acute alcohol alters the epithelial cytokine response to infection, which can be partially mitigated by adenosine receptor agonists.

  6. In Vivo Nanodetoxication for Acute Uranium Exposure

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    Luis Guzmán

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Accidental exposure to uranium is a matter of concern, as U(VI is nephrotoxic in both human and animal models, and its toxicity is associated to chemical toxicity instead of radioactivity. We synthesized different PAMAM G4 and G5 derivatives in order to prove their interaction with uranium and their effect on the viability of red blood cells in vitro. Furthermore, we prove the effectiveness of the selected dendrimers in an animal model of acute uranium intoxication. The dendrimer PAMAM G4-Lys-Fmoc-Cbz demonstrated the ability to chelate the uranyl ion in vivo, improving the biochemical and histopathologic features caused by acute intoxication with uranium.

  7. Fetal alcohol exposure and development of the integument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longhurst WD

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available William D Longhurst,1 Jordan Ernst,2 Larry Burd3 1Center for Emergency Medicine, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA; 2University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND, USA; 3Department of Pediatrics, North Dakota Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Center, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND, USA Background: The physiology of fetal alcohol exposure changes across gestation. Early in pregnancy placental, fetal, and amniotic fluid concentrations of alcohol exposure are equivalent. Beginning in mid-pregnancy, the maturing fetal epidermis adds keratins which decrease permeability resulting in development of a barrier between fetal circulation and the amniotic fluid. Barrier function development is essential for viability in late pregnancy and in the extra-uterine environment. In this paper we provide a selected review of the effects of barrier function on fetal alcohol exposure. Methods: We utilized a search of PubMed and Google for all years in all languages for MeSH on Demand terms: alcohol drinking, amnion, amniotic fluid, epidermis, ethanol, female, fetal development, fetus, humans, keratins, permeability, and pregnancy. We also reviewed the reference lists of relevant papers and hand-searched reference lists of textbooks for additional references. Results: By 30 gestational weeks, development of barrier function alters the pathophysiology of ethanol dispersion between the fetus and amniotic fluid. Firstly, increases in the effectiveness of barrier function decreases the rate of diffusion of alcohol from fetal circulation across fetal skin into the amniotic fluid. This reduces the volume of alcohol entering the amniotic fluid. Secondly, barrier function increases the duration of fetal exposure by decreasing the rate of alcohol diffusion from amniotic fluid back into fetal circulation. Ethanol is then transported into

  8. Acute alcoholic myopathy, rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure : a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of middle aged male who developed swelling and weakness of muscles in the lower limbs following a heavy binge of alcohol is being reported. He had myoglobinuria and developed acute renal failure for which he was dialyzed. Acute alcoholic myopathy is not a well recognized condition and should be considered in any intoxicated patient who presents with muscle tenderness and weakness.

  9. Inpatient management of acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Elizabeth C

    2014-05-01

    Alcohol withdrawal is a common condition encountered in the hospital setting after abrupt discontinuation of alcohol in an alcohol-dependent individual. Patients may present with mild symptoms of tremulousness and agitation or more severe symptoms including withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. Management revolves around early identification of at-risk individuals and symptom assessment using a validated tool such as the revised Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol score. Benzodiazepines remain the mainstay of treatment and can be administered using a front-loading, fixed-dose, or symptom-triggered approach. Long-acting benzodiazepines such as chlordiazepoxide or diazepam are commonly used and may provide a smoother withdrawal than shorter-acting benzodiazepines, but there are no data to support superiority of one benzodiazepine over another. Elderly patients or those with significant liver disease may have increased accumulation and decreased clearance of the long-acting benzodiazepines, and lorazepam or oxazepam may be preferred in these patients. Patients with symptoms refractory to high doses of benzodiazepines may require addition of a rescue medication such as phenobarbital, propofol or dexmedetomidine. Anticonvulsants (carbamazepine, valproate, gabapentin) may have a role in the management of mild to moderate withdrawal. Other medications such as β-antagonists or neuroleptics may offer additional benefit in select patients but should not be used a monotherapy.

  10. Alcohol drinking habits, alcohol dehydrogenase genotypes and risk of acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Hansen, J.L.; Gronbaek, M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The risk of myocardial infarction is lower among light-to-moderate drinkers compared with abstainers. Results from some previous studies, but not all, suggest that this association is modified by variations in genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). We aimed to test this hypothesis, i...... for the association between alcohol drinking habits and the risk of developing acute coronary syndrome, if any, is very limited....

  11. Biomarkers for the detection of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lene Berit Skov; Bager, Heidi; Husby, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol exposure during pregnancy can cause adverse effects to the fetus, because it interferes with fetal development, leading to later physical and mental impairment. The most common clinical tool to determine fetal alcohol exposure is maternal self-reporting. However, a more objective and useful...... method is based on the use of biomarkers in biological specimens alone or in combination with maternal self-reporting. This review reports on clinically relevant biomarkers for detection of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). A systematic search was performed to ensure a proper overview in existing...... literature. Studies were selected to give an overview on clinically relevant neonatal and maternal biomarkers. The direct biomarkers fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), ethyl glucuronide (EtG), ethyl sulfate, and phosphatidylethanol (PEth) were found to be the most appropriate biomarkers in relation...

  12. Acute Inflammatory Bowel Disease Complicating Chronic Alcoholism and Mimicking Carcinoid Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piercarlo Ballo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a woman with a history of chronic alcohol abuse who was hospitalized with diarrhea, severe hypokalemia refractory to potassium infusion, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, alternations of high blood pressure with phases of hypotension, irritability and increased urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and cortisol. Although carcinoid syndrome was hypothesized, abdominal computed tomography and colonoscopy showed non-specific inflammatory bowel disease with severe colic wall thickening, and multiple colic biopsies confirmed non-specific inflammation with no evidence of carcinoid cells. During the following days diarrhea slowly decreased and the patient’s condition progressively improved. One year after stopping alcohol consumption, the patient was asymptomatic and serum potassium was normal. Chronic alcohol exposure is known to have several deleterious effects on the intestinal mucosa and can favor and sustain local inflammation. Chronic alcohol intake may also be associated with high blood pressure, behavior disorders, abnormalities in blood pressure regulation with episodes of hypotension during hospitalization due to impaired baroreflex sensitivity in the context of an alcohol withdrawal syndrome, increased urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid as a result of malabsorption syndrome, and increased urinary cortisol as a result of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation. These considerations, together with the regression of symptoms and normalization of potassium levels after stopping alcohol consumption, suggest the intriguing possibility of a alcohol-related acute inflammatory bowel disease mimicking carcinoid syndrome.

  13. Acute inflammatory bowel disease complicating chronic alcoholism and mimicking carcinoid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballo, Piercarlo; Dattolo, Pietro; Mangialavori, Giuseppe; Ferro, Giuseppe; Fusco, Francesca; Consalvo, Matteo; Chiodi, Leandro; Pizzarelli, Francesco; Zuppiroli, Alfredo

    2012-05-01

    We report the case of a woman with a history of chronic alcohol abuse who was hospitalized with diarrhea, severe hypokalemia refractory to potassium infusion, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, alternations of high blood pressure with phases of hypotension, irritability and increased urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and cortisol. Although carcinoid syndrome was hypothesized, abdominal computed tomography and colonoscopy showed non-specific inflammatory bowel disease with severe colic wall thickening, and multiple colic biopsies confirmed non-specific inflammation with no evidence of carcinoid cells. During the following days diarrhea slowly decreased and the patient's condition progressively improved. One year after stopping alcohol consumption, the patient was asymptomatic and serum potassium was normal. Chronic alcohol exposure is known to have several deleterious effects on the intestinal mucosa and can favor and sustain local inflammation. Chronic alcohol intake may also be associated with high blood pressure, behavior disorders, abnormalities in blood pressure regulation with episodes of hypotension during hospitalization due to impaired baroreflex sensitivity in the context of an alcohol withdrawal syndrome, increased urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid as a result of malabsorption syndrome, and increased urinary cortisol as a result of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation. These considerations, together with the regression of symptoms and normalization of potassium levels after stopping alcohol consumption, suggest the intriguing possibility of a alcohol-related acute inflammatory bowel disease mimicking carcinoid syndrome.

  14. Conditioned learning in alcohol dependence: implications for cue exposure treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, D C; Cooper, T; Glautier, S P

    1990-06-01

    A review of the literature pertinent to cue exposure treatment in alcohol dependence is presented. Psychological models of relapse, based on conditioning and social learning theories, are critically evaluated. In particular, attention is drawn to the potential implications for cue exposure research and treatment of an interaction between Pavlovian and operant conditioning, problems with the application of the concepts of arousal and craving and the importance of a systems model to understand physiological responses. It is concluded that no study has so far demonstrated a link between conditioned responses to alcohol-related cues and relapse, an assumption on which cue exposure treatment is based. Further, the evidence for the effectiveness of cue exposure as a treatment is lacking. Promising research directions are identified.

  15. Embryonic alcohol exposure: Towards the development of a zebrafish model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlai, Robert

    2015-11-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a devastating disease of the brain caused by exposure to alcohol during prenatal development. Its prevalence exceeds 1%. The majority of FASD cases represent the milder forms of the disease which often remain undiagnosed, and even when diagnosed treatment options for the patient are limited due to lack of information about the mechanisms that underlie the disease. The zebrafish has been proposed as a model organism for exploring the mechanisms of FASD. Our laboratory has been studying the effects of low doses of alcohol during embryonic development in the zebrafish. This review discusses the methods of alcohol exposure, its effects on behavioral performance including social behavior and learning, and the potential underlying biological mechanisms in zebrafish. It is based upon a recent keynote address delivered by the author, and it focuses on findings obtained mainly in his own laboratory. It paints a promising future of this small vertebrate in FASD research.

  16. Exposure to alcohol commercials in movie theaters affects actual alcohol consumption in young adult high weekly drinkers: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption) between-participant design was used, in which 184 young adults (age: 16-28 years) were exposed to a movie that was preceded by either alcohol commercials or nonalcohol commercials. Participants' actual alcohol consumption while watching the movie ("Watchmen") was examined. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to examine the effects of the commercial condition on alcohol consumption. An interaction effect was found between commercial condition and weekly alcohol consumption (p < .001). Alcohol consumption among high weekly alcohol drinkers was higher in the alcohol commercial condition than in the nonalcohol commercial condition, whereas no differences were found in alcohol consumption between commercial conditions among low weekly alcohol drinkers. No gender differences were found in the association between exposure to alcohol commercials, weekly drinking, and alcohol use. Thus, exposure to alcohol commercials prior to a movie in a movie theater can directly influence alcohol consumption among high weekly alcohol consumers.

  17. Chronic alcohol exposure alters behavioral and synaptic plasticity of the rodent prefrontal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Kroener

    Full Text Available In the present study, we used a mouse model of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE exposure to examine how CIE alters the plasticity of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. In acute slices obtained either immediately or 1-week after the last episode of alcohol exposure, voltage-clamp recording of excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSCs in mPFC layer V pyramidal neurons revealed that CIE exposure resulted in an increase in the NMDA/AMPA current ratio. This increase appeared to result from a selective increase in the NMDA component of the EPSC. Consistent with this, Western blot analysis of the postsynaptic density fraction showed that while there was no change in expression of the AMPA GluR1 subunit, NMDA NR1 and NRB subunits were significantly increased in CIE exposed mice when examined immediately after the last episode of alcohol exposure. Unexpectedly, this increase in NR1 and NR2B was no longer observed after 1-week of withdrawal in spite of a persistent increase in synaptic NMDA currents. Analysis of spines on the basal dendrites of layer V neurons revealed that while the total density of spines was not altered, there was a selective increase in the density of mushroom-type spines following CIE exposure. Examination of NMDA-receptor mediated spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP showed that CIE exposure was associated with altered expression of long-term potentiation (LTP. Lastly, behavioral studies using an attentional set-shifting task that depends upon the mPFC for optimal performance revealed deficits in cognitive flexibility in CIE exposed mice when tested up to 1-week after the last episode of alcohol exposure. Taken together, these observations are consistent with those in human alcoholics showing protracted deficits in executive function, and suggest these deficits may be associated with alterations in synaptic plasticity in the mPFC.

  18. Embryonic alcohol exposure impairs associative learning performance in adult zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Yohaan; Tran, Steven; Abraham, Emil; Gerlai, Robert

    2014-05-15

    The zebrafish has been proposed for modeling fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Previous FASD research with zebrafish employed high concentrations of alcohol and/or long exposure periods. Here, we exposed zebrafish eggs to low doses of alcohol (0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0% (vol/vol); external bath application of which 1/20th may reach the inside of the egg) at 16-h post-fertilization (hpf) and only for a short duration (2h) in the hope to avoid gross morphological aberrations and to mimic the more frequent FASD exposure levels. Upon reaching adulthood the exposed and control zebrafish were tested for their associative learning performance in a plus-maze. Embryonic alcohol exposure led to no gross anatomical abnormalities and did not increase mortality. Unexposed (control) zebrafish showed excellent acquisition of association between a conditioned visual stimulus (CS) and food reward, demonstrated by their preference for the target zone of the maze that contained the CS during a probe trial in the absence of reward. However, alcohol-exposed fish showed no such preference and performed indistinguishable from random chance. Locomotor activity during training and the probe trial or the amount of food consumed during training did not differ between the embryonic alcohol exposed and unexposed (control) fish, suggesting that the impaired learning performance found was unlikely to be caused by altered motivation or motor function. Our results suggest that even very small amounts of alcohol reaching the embryo for only a short duration of time may have long lasting deleterious effects on cognitive function in vertebrates.

  19. Functional significance of subjective response to alcohol across levels of alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujarski, Spencer; Hutchison, Kent E; Prause, Nicole; Ray, Lara A

    2017-01-01

    Pre-clinical neurobiological models of addiction etiology including both the allostatic model and incentive sensitization theory suggest that alcohol consumption among alcohol-dependent (AD) individuals will be dissociated from hedonic reward as positive reinforcement mechanisms wane in later stage dependence. The aims of this study are to test this claim in humans by examining the relationship between dimensions of subjective responses to alcohol (SR) and alcohol craving across levels of alcohol exposure. Non-treatment-seeking drinkers (n = 205) completed an i.v. alcohol challenge (final target breath alcohol concentration = 0.06 g/dl) and reported on SR and craving. Participants were classified as light-to-moderate drinkers (LMD), heavy drinkers (HD) or AD. Analyses examined group differences in SR and craving response magnitude, as well as concurrent and predictive associations between SR domains and craving. At baseline, LMD and AD reported greater stimulation than HD, which carried over post-alcohol administration. However, stimulation was dose-dependently associated with alcohol craving in HD only. Furthermore, lagged models found that stimulation preceded craving among HD only, whereas this hypothesized pattern of results was not observed for craving preceding stimulation. Sedation was also positively associated with craving, yet no group differences were observed. In agreement with the prediction of diminished positive reinforcement in alcohol dependence, this study showed that stimulation/hedonic reward from alcohol did not precede craving in AD, whereas stimulation was dose-dependently associated with and preceded craving among non-dependent HD.

  20. Adolescent alcohol exposure and persistence of adolescent-typical phenotypes into adulthood: a mini-review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Linda Patia; Swartzwelder, H. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use is typically initiated during adolescence, which, along with young adulthood, is a vulnerable period for the onset of high-risk drinking and alcohol abuse. Given across-species commonalities in certain fundamental neurobehavioral characteristics of adolescence, studies in laboratory animals such as the rat have proved useful to assess persisting consequences of repeated alcohol exposure. Despite limited research to date, reports of long-lasting effects of adolescent ethanol exposure are emerging, along with certain common themes. One repeated finding is that adolescent exposure to ethanol sometimes results in the persistence of adolescent-typical phenotypes into adulthood. Instances of adolescent -like persistence have been seen in terms of baseline behavioral, cognitive, electrophysiological and neuroanatomical characteristics, along with the retention of adolescent-typical sensitivities to acute ethanol challenge. These effects are generally not observed after comparable ethanol exposure in adulthood. Persistence of adolescent-typical phenotypes is not always evident, and may be related to regionally-specific ethanol influences on the interplay between CNS excitation and inhibition critical for the timing of neuroplasticity. PMID:24813805

  1. Estimates of Ethanol Exposure in Children from Food not Labeled as Alcohol-Containing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgus, Eva; Hittinger, Maike; Schrenk, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    Ethanol is widely used in herbal medicines, e.g., for children. Furthermore, alcohol is a constituent of fermented food such as bread or yogurt and "non-fermented" food such as fruit juices. At the same time, exposure to very low levels of ethanol in children is discussed as possibly having adverse effects on psychomotoric functions. Here, we have analyzed alcohol levels in different food products from the German market. It was found that orange, apple and grape juice contain substantial amounts of ethanol (up to 0.77 g/L). Furthermore, certain packed bakery products such as burger rolls or sweet milk rolls contained more than 1.2 g ethanol/100 g. We designed a scenario for average ethanol exposure by a 6-year-old child. Consumption data for the "categories" bananas, bread and bakery products and apple juice were derived from US and German surveys. An average daily exposure of 10.3 mg ethanol/kg body weight (b.w.) was estimated. If a high (acute) consumption level was assumed for one of the "categories," exposure rose to 12.5-23.3 mg/kg b.w. This amount is almost 2-fold (average) or up to 4-fold (high) higher than the lowest exposure from herbal medicines (6 mg/kg b.w.) suggested to require warning hints for the use in children.

  2. Adolescent alcohol exposure: Are there separable vulnerable periods within adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2015-09-01

    There are two key alcohol use patterns among human adolescents that confer increased vulnerability for later alcohol abuse/dependence, along with neurocognitive alterations: (a) early initiation of use during adolescence, and (b) high rates of binge drinking that are particularly prevalent late in adolescence. The central thesis of this review is that lasting neurobehavioral outcomes of these two adolescent exposure patterns may differ. Although it is difficult to disentangle consequences of early use from later binge drinking in human studies given the substantial overlap between groups, these two types of problematic adolescent use are differentially heritable and hence separable to some extent. Although few studies using animal models have manipulated alcohol exposure age, those studies that have have typically observed timing-specific exposure effects, with more marked (or at least different patterns of) lasting consequences evident after exposures during early-mid adolescence than late-adolescence/emerging adulthood, and effects often restricted to male rats in those few instances where sex differences have been explored. As one example, adult male rats exposed to ethanol during early-mid adolescence (postnatal days [P] 25-45) were found to be socially anxious and to retain adolescent-typical ethanol-induced social facilitation into adulthood, effects that were not evident after exposure during late-adolescence/emerging adulthood (P45-65); exposure at the later interval, however, induced lasting tolerance to ethanol's social inhibitory effects that was not evident after exposure early in adolescence. Females, in contrast, were little influenced by ethanol exposure at either interval. Exposure timing effects have likewise been reported following social isolation as well as after repeated exposure to other drugs such as nicotine (and cannabinoids), with effects often, although not always, more pronounced in males where studied. Consistent with these timing

  3. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic diagnosis of acute alcohol ingestion with hidden history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pungavkar, S A; Joshi, V; Shah-Mehta, N; Patkar, D P; Lawande, M; Gadani, S

    2006-02-01

    Parenchymal changes within the brain in chronic alcoholics are well known, and specific MRI and MR spectroscopy findings have been described. However, recent alcohol ingestion goes undetected on routine MRI because of lack of specific parenchymal changes in the acute setting. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy can detect the presence of ethanol as a metabolite in the brain accurately and can provide valuable information regarding acute ingestion of alcohol. This may be useful especially in cases where history of alcohol ingestion is withheld.

  4. Acute interstitial nephritis with acetaminophen and alcohol intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexopoulou Iakovina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis (AIN represents a growing cause of renal failure in current medical practice. While antimicrobials and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are typically associated with drug-induced AIN, few reports have been made on the involvement of other analgesics. We report our experience in managing a 17-year-old female with AIN and subsequent renal injury following an acetaminophen overdose in conjunction with acute alcohol intoxication. It is well established that acetaminophen metabolism, particularly at high doses, produces reactive metabolites that may induce renal and hepatic toxicity. It is also plausible however, that such reactive species could instead alter renal peptide immunogenicity, thereby inducing AIN. In the following report, we review a possible mechanism for the acetaminophen-induced AIN observed in our patient and also discuss the potential involvement of acute alcohol ingestion in disease onset. The objective of our report is to increase awareness of healthcare professionals to the potential involvement of these commonly used agents in AIN pathogenesis.

  5. Developmental alcohol exposure leads to a persistent change on astrocyte secretome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Pablo; Hampton, Brian; Manhães, Alex C; Medina, Alexandre E

    2016-06-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder is the most common cause of mental disabilities in the western world. It has been quite established that acute alcohol exposure can dramatically affect astrocyte function. Because the effects of early alcohol exposure on cell physiology can persist into adulthood, we tested the hypothesis that ethanol exposure in ferrets during a period equivalent to the last months of human gestation leads to persistent changes in astrocyte secretome in vitro. Animals were treated with ethanol (3.5 g/kg) or saline between postnatal day (P)10-30. At P31, astrocyte cultures were made and cells were submitted to stable isotope labeling by amino acids. Twenty-four hour conditioned media of cells obtained from ethanol- or saline-treated animals (ET-CM or SAL-CM) were collected and analyzed by quantitative mass spectrometry in tandem with liquid chromatography. Here, we show that 65 out of 280 quantifiable proteins displayed significant differences comparing ET-CM to SAL-CM. Among the 59 proteins that were found to be reduced in ET-CM we observed components of the extracellular matrix such as laminin subunits α2, α4, β1, β2, and γ1 and the proteoglycans biglycan, heparan sulfate proteoglycan 2, and lumican. Proteins with trophic function such as insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4, pigment epithelium-derived factor, and clusterin as well as proteins involved on modulation of proteolysis such as metalloproteinase inhibitor 1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were also reduced. In contrast, pro-synaptogeneic proteins like thrombospondin-1, hevin as well as the modulator of extracelular matrix expression, angiotensinogen, were found increased in ET-CM. The analysis of interactome maps through ingenuity pathway analysis demonstrated that the amyloid beta A4 protein precursor, which was found reduced in ET-CM, was previously shown to interact with ten other proteins that exhibited significant changes in the ET-CM. Taken together our results

  6. Stable acetaldehyde--protein adducts as biomarkers of alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conduah Birt, J E; Shuker, D E; Farmer, P B

    1998-02-01

    The consumption of alcoholic beverages has been associated with increased risks of a number of chronic disorders including cancers. It is still not clear whether ethyl alcohol or other components such as metabolites are directly involved in the carcinogenic process or whether the effects are due to the modulation of metabolism of other carcinogens. At present, there is no good biomarker of alcohol intake, particularly at low or moderate levels of consumption. A number of studies have shown the ability of the major metabolite acetaldehyde to react with proteins in vitro to give stable and unstable adducts. The interaction of acetaldehyde with model peptides, which correspond to N-terminal globin sequences, was studied. The major stable adduct was identified by mass spectrometry and NMR as a diastereoisomeric mixture of imidazolidinones. This is believed to be formed by reaction and cyclization of the initial Schiff base adduct with the N-terminal valine. Incubation of human globin with acetaldehyde (0-2 mM) yielded products which were identified as the N-terminal adducts by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) of proteolytic digests. The specificity and sensitivity of the analysis was improved by the use of on-line HPLC-ESI-MS. Tryptic digests of the modified globin which contained both the N-terminal acetaldehyde adducts of alpha-globin (heptapeptide) and beta-globin (octapeptide) were resolved. These results suggest that analysis of stable imidazolidinone adducts is a promising approach to estimation of alcohol exposure.

  7. Effect of acute alcohol use on the lethality of suicide attempts in patients with mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Leo; Oquendo, Maria A; Richardson-Vejlgaard, Randall; Makhija, Nita M; Posner, Kelly; Mann, J John; Stanley, Barbara H

    2009-07-01

    Acute alcohol use is an important risk factor for attempted and completed suicide. We evaluated the effect of acute alcohol intake on the lethality of suicide attempts to test the hypothesis that acute alcohol intoxication is associated with more lethal suicide attempts. This retrospective study included 317 suicide attempters enrolled in mood disorders protocols. Demographic and clinical parameters were assessed. The use of alcohol at the time of the most lethal suicide attempt was determined. On the basis of their responses participants were classified into three groups: participants who reported "Enough alcohol intake to impair judgment, reality testing and diminish responsibility" or "Intentional intake of alcohol in order to facilitate implementation of attempt" were included in the group "Alcohol" (A); participants who reported "Some alcohol intake prior to but not related to attempt, reportedly not enough to impair judgment, reality testing" were included in the group "Some Alcohol" (SA); and participants who reported "No alcohol intake immediately prior to attempt" were included in the group "No Alcohol" (NA). Lethality of the most lethal suicide attempts was higher in the A group compared to the SA and NA groups. Prevalence of patients with alcohol use disorders was higher in the A group compared to the SA and NA groups. SA participants reported more reasons for living and lower suicide intent scores at the time of their most lethal suicide attempt compared to the A and NA groups. Acute alcohol use increases the lethality of suicide attempts in individuals with mood disorders.

  8. Fetal alcohol exposure leads to abnormal olfactory bulb development and impaired odor discrimination in adult mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.G. Akers (Katherine); S.A. Kushner (Steven); A.T. Leslie (Ana); L. Clarke (Laura); D. van der Kooy (Derek); J.P. Lerch (Jason); P.W. Frankland (Paul)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Children whose mothers consumed alcohol during pregnancy exhibit widespread brain abnormalities and a complex array of behavioral disturbances. Here, we used a mouse model of fetal alcohol exposure to investigate relationships between brain abnormalities and specific behavior

  9. Acute but not chronic ethanol exposure impairs retinol oxidation in the small and large intestine of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Ellendt, K.; Lindros, K.;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Ethanol has been shown to inhibit retinol oxidation at the level of alcohol dehydrogenase in liver and colon but not previously in the small intestine. In the present study we investigated how chronic alcohol feeding and acute ethanol exposure affects retinol dehydrogenase...... activity in the colon and small intestine of the rat. METHODS: Rats were fed ethanol in a liquid diet for six weeks. Control rats received a similar diet but with ethanol isocalorically replaced by carbohydrates. Retinol dehydrogenase was analyzed from cell cytosol samples from the small and the large...... higher, respectively). While chronic alcohol feeding did not affect these parameters, acute ethanol exposure reduced V(max) and V(max)/K(m) dose-dependently (p retinol...

  10. Phagocytosis and production of reactive oxygen species by peripheral blood phagocytes in patients with different stages of alcohol-induced liver disease: effect of acute exposure to low ethanol concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Schäfer, C.; Paulus, S. B.

    2003-01-01

    produced significantly more ROS than those of healthy controls. Basal values of ROS production from neutrophils correlated closely to markers of the severity of ALD. ROS formation was depressed dose-dependently by ethanol in the healthy controls but not in alcohol abusers. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in the ROS...

  11. CD14 promoter polymorphism in Chinese alcoholic patients with cirrhosis of liver and acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-Chen Chao; Heng-Cheng Chu; Wei-Kuo Chang; Hsin-Hung Huang; Tsai-Yuan Hsieh

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between genetic polymorphism of the CD14 promoter and the occurrence of alcoholic cirrhosis and alcoholic pancreatitis, and to challenge the conclusion made earlier that the patients with acute alcoholic pancreatitis and patients with alcoholic cirrhosis of liver are two different subpopulations.METHODS: Using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method, we determined the polymorphism of CD14 gene and aldehyde dehydrogenase gene 2 (ALDH 2) in 335 alcoholic patients with different organ complications i.e., cirrhosis of liver (n = 100), acute pancreatitis (n = 100), esophageal cancer (n = 82) and avascular necrosis of hip joint (AVN) (n = 53)and 194 non-alcoholic controls in a Chinese group.RESULTS: The results showed that the carriage of T allele was not different among alcoholic patients with cirrhosis of liver, alcoholic patients with other complication and non-alcoholic controls. On the other hand, the carriage of the C allele was significantly more prevalent for alcoholic pancreatitis than for esophageal cancer (0.79 vs 0.60,P<0.001), alcoholic AVN (0.79 vs 0.65, P<0.025) and nonalcoholic controls (0.79 vs 0.68, P<0.025). Furthermore,when only subjects with ALDH2 1-1 genotype were examined, the C allele frequency was significantly more prevalent for alcoholic pancreatitis than for alcoholic liver cirrhosis (0.82 vs 0.69, P<0.025), esophageal cancer (0.82 vs 0.61, P<0.01), alcoholic AVN (0.82 vs 0.64,P<0.01) and non-alcoholic controls (0.82 vs 0.69, P<0.05).CONCLUSION: The C allele may be associated with some mechanism, which is important in the pathogenesis of alcoholic pancreatitis, and that alcoholic patients with acute pancreatitis and cirrhosis of liver are probably two different subpopulations.

  12. Prenatal alcohol exposure alters expression of neurogenesis-related genes in an ex vivo cell culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Christina R; Allan, Andrea M

    2014-08-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to long-lasting changes in functional and genetic programs of the brain, which may underlie behavioral alterations seen in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Aberrant fetal programming during gestational alcohol exposure is a possible mechanism by which alcohol imparts teratogenic effects on the brain; however, current methods used to investigate the effects of alcohol on development often rely on either direct application of alcohol in vitro or acute high doses in vivo. In this study, we used our established moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) model, resulting in maternal blood alcohol content of approximately 20 mM, and subsequent ex vivo cell culture to assess expression of genes related to neurogenesis. Proliferating and differentiating neural progenitor cell culture conditions were established from telencephalic tissue derived from embryonic day (E) 15-17 tissue exposed to alcohol via maternal drinking throughout pregnancy. Gene expression analysis on mRNA derived in vitro was performed using a microarray, and quantitative PCR was conducted for genes to validate the microarray. Student's t tests were performed for statistical comparison of each exposure under each culture condition using a 95% confidence interval. Eleven percent of genes on the array had significantly altered mRNA expression in the prenatal alcohol-exposed neural progenitor culture under proliferating conditions. These include reduced expression of Adora2a, Cxcl1, Dlg4, Hes1, Nptx1, and Vegfa and increased expression of Fgf13, Ndn, and Sox3; bioinformatics analysis indicated that these genes are involved in cell growth and proliferation. Decreased levels of Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a were also found under proliferating conditions. Under differentiating conditions, 7.3% of genes had decreased mRNA expression; these include Cdk5rap3, Gdnf, Hey2, Heyl, Pard6b, and Ptn, which are associated with survival and differentiation as indicated by bioinformatics analysis

  13. Hippocampal neuron populations are reduced in vervet monkeys with fetal alcohol exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Mark W; Ptito, Maurice; Ervin, Frank R

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to beverage alcohol is a major cause of mild mental retardation and developmental delay. In nonendangered alcohol-preferring vervet monkeys, we modeled the most common nondysmorphic form of fetal alcohol syndrome disorder with voluntary drinking during the third trimester...

  14. Social Information Processing Skills in Children with Histories of Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Christie L.; Bjorkquist, Olivia A.; Price, Joseph M.; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    Based on caregiver report, children with prenatal alcohol exposure have difficulty with social functioning, but little is known about their social cognition. The current study assessed the social information processing patterns of school-age children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure using a paradigm based on Crick and Dodge's reformulated…

  15. Prenatal alcohol exposure increases postnatal acceptability of nicotine odor and taste in adolescent rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Mantella

    Full Text Available Human studies indicate that alcohol exposure during gestation not only increases the chance for later alcohol abuse, but also nicotine dependence. The flavor attributes of both alcohol and nicotine can be important determinants of their initial acceptance and they both share the component chemosensory qualities of an aversive odor, bitter taste and oral irritation. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating epigenetic chemosensory mechanisms through which fetal alcohol exposure increases adolescent alcohol acceptance, in part, by decreasing the aversion to alcohol's bitter and oral irritation qualities, as well as its odor. Given that alcohol and nicotine have noteworthy chemosensory qualities in common, we investigated whether fetal exposure to alcohol increased the acceptability of nicotine's odor and taste in adolescent rats. Study rats were alcohol-exposed during fetal development via the dams' liquid diet. Control animals received ad lib access to an iso-caloric, iso-nutritive diet throughout gestation. Odorant-induced innate behavioral responses to nicotine odor (Experiment 1 or orosensory-mediated responses to nicotine solutions (Experiment 2 were obtained, using whole-body plethysmography and brief access lick tests, respectively. Compared to controls, rats exposed to fetal alcohol showed an enhanced nicotine odor response that was paralleled by increased oral acceptability of nicotine. Given the common aversive component qualities imbued in the flavor profiles of both drugs, our findings demonstrate that like postnatal alcohol avidity, fetal alcohol exposure also influences nicotine acceptance, at a minimum, by decreasing the aversion of both its smell and taste. Moreover, they highlight potential chemosensory-based mechanism(s by which fetal alcohol exposure increases the later initial risk for nicotine use, thereby contributing to the co-morbid expression with enhanced alcohol avidity. Where common chemosensory mechanisms are

  16. Prenatal alcohol exposure inducing the apoptosis of mossy cells in hippocampus of SMS2-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lai; Wu, Lin; Wang, Xiaoqing; Deng, Jiexin; Ma, Zhanyou; Fan, Wenjuan; He, Weiya; Deng, Jinbo

    2015-11-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms of alcohol-induced neuroapoptosis through the ceramide pathway, sphingomyelin synthase 2 knockout (SMS2-/-) mice were used to make the prenatal alcohol exposure model, and the role of ceramide regulation on alcohol-induced neuroapoptosis was studied in the offspring. Initially the levels of serum sphingomyelin (SM) were detected with enzymatic method in P0 pups after alcohol exposure in parents. Then the apoptosis of mossy cells in the offspring hippocampus was investigated after prenatal alcohol exposure with immunohistochemistry and TUNEL assay. Finally the expression of activated Caspase 8 and activated Caspase 3 in the offspring hippocampus was detected with Western blot analysis. Our results showed that SM levels were down-regulated in a dose-dependent manner (palcohol exposure in wild-type (WT) and SMS2-/- pups. However, SM levels of serum in SMS2-/- pups were significantly lower than that in WT pups (palcohol-induced neuroapoptosis. In both WT pups and SMS2-/- pups, the number of apoptotic mossy cells in the hippocampus increased after prenatal alcohol exposure in a dose dependent manner (palcohol exposure, consistent with results from TUNEL assay and immunocytochemistry. Our study suggests that mossy cells may be the easily attacked cells for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), and ceramide is involved in the alcohol-induced neural apoptosis. The mechanism probably lies in the accumulated ceramide in SMS2 mice, and the increase of activated Caspase 8 and Caspase 3 promotes alcohol-induced neuroapoptosis.

  17. Alcohol-cue exposure effects on craving and attentional bias in underage college-student drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Jason J; Monti, Peter M; Colwill, Ruth M

    2015-06-01

    The effect of alcohol-cue exposure on eliciting craving has been well documented, and numerous theoretical models assert that craving is a clinically significant construct central to the motivation and maintenance of alcohol-seeking behavior. Furthermore, some theories propose a relationship between craving and attention, such that cue-induced increases in craving bias attention toward alcohol cues, which, in turn, perpetuates craving. This study examined the extent to which alcohol cues induce craving and bias attention toward alcohol cues among underage college-student drinkers. We designed within-subject cue-reactivity and visual-probe tasks to assess in vivo alcohol-cue exposure effects on craving and attentional bias on 39 undergraduate college drinkers (ages 18-20). Participants expressed greater subjective craving to drink alcohol following in vivo cue exposure to a commonly consumed beer compared with water exposure. Furthermore, following alcohol-cue exposure, participants exhibited greater attentional biases toward alcohol cues as measured by a visual-probe task. In addition to the cue-exposure effects on craving and attentional bias, within-subject differences in craving across sessions marginally predicted within-subject differences in attentional bias. Implications for both theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Impairment of social behaviour persists two years after embryonic alcohol exposure in zebrafish: A model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Yohaan; Rampersad, Mindy; Gerlai, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Zebrafish naturally form social groups called shoals. Previously, we have shown that submerging zebrafish eggs into low concentrations of alcohol (0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 vol/vol% external bath concentration) during development (24h post-fertilization) for two hours resulted in impaired shoaling response in seven month old young adult zebrafish. Here we investigate whether this embryonic alcohol exposure induced behavioural deficit persists to older age. Zebrafish embryos were exposed either to fresh system water (control) or to 1% alcohol for two hours, 24h after fertilization, and were raised in a high-density tank system. Social behaviour was tested by presenting the experimental fish with a computer animated group of zebrafish images, while automated tracking software measured their behaviour. Control fish were found to respond strongly to animated conspecific images by reducing their distanceand remaining close to the images during image presentation, embryonic alcohol treated fish did not. Our results suggest that the impaired shoaling response of the alcohol exposed fish was not due to altered motor function or visual perception, but likely to a central nervous system alteration affecting social behaviour itself. We found the effects of embryonic alcohol exposure on social behaviour not to diminish with age, a result that demonstrates the deleterious and potentially life-long consequences of exposure to even small amount of alcohol during embryonic development in vertebrates.

  19. [THE ROLE OF BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANES IN DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSTICS OF SALMONELLA AND ACUTE ALCOHOL GASTROENTERITIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, V K; Makarov, P V

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of Salmonella infection and alcohol on biological membranes from the content of serum phospholipid fraction known to be a component ofenterocyte membranes. Any change of membrane phospholipid content leads to a change of their blood level. The study included 50 patients with acute alcohol gastroenteritis, 50 ones with salmonella gastroenteritis, and 50 healthy subjects. Both salmonellosis and alcohol caused differently directed changes in biological membranes. The mechanism of diarrhea in patients with salmonella and acute alcohol gastroenteritis is different. Diarrhea associated with alcohol gastroenteritis is due to enhanced viscosity of biomembranes that decreases in salmonella gastroenteritis. It suggests different approaches to the treatment of these conditions. The membrane destruction coefficient below 2 is an additional proof of alcoholic etiology of gastroenteritis whereas its value above 3 confirms the involvement of salmonellosis in pathogenesis of gastroenteritis.

  20. Adolescent alcohol exposure: Burden of epigenetic reprogramming, synaptic remodeling, and adult psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan J Kyzar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence represents a crucial phase of synaptic maturation characterized by molecular changes in the developing brain that shape normal behavioral patterns. Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in these neuromaturation processes. Perturbations of normal epigenetic programming during adolescence by ethanol can delay these molecular events, leading to synaptic remodeling and abnormal adult behaviors. Repeated exposure to binge levels of alcohol increases the risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD and comorbid psychopathology including anxiety in adulthood. Recent studies in the field clearly suggest that adolescent alcohol exposure causes widespread and persistent changes in epigenetic, neurotrophic, and neuroimmune pathways in the brain. These changes are manifested by altered synaptic remodeling and neurogenesis in key brain regions leading to adult psychopathology such as anxiety and alcoholism. This review details the molecular mechanisms underlying adolescent alcohol exposure-induced changes in synaptic plasticity and the development of alcohol addiction-related phenotypes in adulthood.

  1. Acute effects of alcohol on feedback processing and outcome evaluation during risky decision-making: an ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Euser (Anja); C.S. Meel (Catharine); M. Snelleman (Michelle); I.H.A. Franken (Ingmar)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractRationale: Although risky decision-making is one of the hallmarks of alcohol use disorders, relatively little is known about the acute psychopharmacological effects of alcohol on decision-making processes. Objective: The present study investigated the acute effects of alcohol on neural m

  2. Occupational exposure to solvents and acute myeloid leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talibov, Madar; Lehtinen-Jacks, Susanna; Martinsen, Jan Ivar;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to assess the relation between occupational exposure to solvents and the risk of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). METHODS: Altogether, this study comprises 15 332 incident cases of AML diagnosed in Finland, Norway, Sweden and Iceland from 1961-2005 and 76...

  3. Health Impacts from Acute Radiation Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2003-09-30

    Absorbed doses above1-2 Gy (100-200 rads) received over a period of a day or less lead to one or another of the acute radiation syndromes. These are the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome, the cerebrovascular (CV) syndrome, the pulmonary syndrome, or the cutaneous syndrome. The dose that will kill about 50% of the exposed people within 60 days with minimal medical care, LD50-60, is around 4.5 Gy (450 rads) of low-LET radiation measured free in air. The GI syndrome may not be fatal with supportive medical care and growth factors below about 10 Gy (1000 rads), but above this is likely to be fatal. Pulmonary and cutaneous syndromes may or may not be fatal, depending on many factors. The CV syndrome is invariably fatal. Lower acute doses, or protracted doses delivered over days or weeks, may lead to many other health outcomes than death. These include loss of pregnancy, cataract, impaired fertility or temporary or permanent sterility, hair loss, skin ulceration, local tissue necrosis, developmental abnormalities including mental and growth retardation in persons irradiated as children or fetuses, radiation dermatitis, and other symptoms listed in Table 2 on page 12. Children of parents irradiated prior to conception may experience heritable ill-health, that is, genetic changes from their parents. These effects are less strongly expressed than previously thought. Populations irradiated to high doses at high dose rates have increased risk of cancer incidence and mortality, taken as about 10-20% incidence and perhaps 5-10% mortality per sievert of effective dose of any radiation or per gray of whole-body absorbed dose low-LET radiation. Cancer risks for non-uniform irradiation will be less.

  4. The association of media exposure and media literacy with adolescent alcohol and tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fong-ching; Miao, Nae-fang; Lee, Ching-mei; Chen, Ping-hung; Chiu, Chiung-hui; Lee, Shu-ching

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the relationship of media exposure and media literacy to alcohol and tobacco use among adolescents in Taiwan. A total of 2992 10th-grade students recruited from 26 high schools in Taipei, Taiwan, completed a questionnaire in 2010. The multivariable analysis results indicated that the students with higher alcohol and tobacco media exposure were more likely to use alcohol and tobacco and have intentions to drink and smoke, while students with higher media literacy were less likely to use alcohol and have intentions to drink and smoke.

  5. Early Maternal Deprivation Enhances Voluntary Alcohol Intake Induced by Exposure to Stressful Events Later in Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Peñasco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we aimed to assess the impact of early life stress, in the form of early maternal deprivation (MD, 24 h on postnatal day, pnd, 9, on voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent male and female Wistar rats. During adolescence, from pnd 28 to pnd 50, voluntary ethanol intake (20%, v/v was investigated using the two-bottle free choice paradigm. To better understand the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption, voluntary alcohol intake was also evaluated following additional stressful events later in life, that is, a week of alcohol cessation and a week of alcohol cessation combined with exposure to restraint stress. Female animals consumed more alcohol than males only after a second episode of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress. MD did not affect baseline voluntary alcohol intake but increased voluntary alcohol intake after stress exposure, indicating that MD may render animals more vulnerable to the effects of stress on alcohol intake. During adolescence, when animals had free access to alcohol, MD animals showed lower body weight gain but a higher growth rate than control animals. Moreover, the higher growth rate was accompanied by a decrease in food intake, suggesting an altered metabolic regulation in MD animals that may interact with alcohol intake.

  6. Early maternal deprivation enhances voluntary alcohol intake induced by exposure to stressful events later in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñasco, Sara; Mela, Virginia; López-Moreno, Jose Antonio; Viveros, María-Paz; Marco, Eva M

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to assess the impact of early life stress, in the form of early maternal deprivation (MD, 24 h on postnatal day, pnd, 9), on voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent male and female Wistar rats. During adolescence, from pnd 28 to pnd 50, voluntary ethanol intake (20%, v/v) was investigated using the two-bottle free choice paradigm. To better understand the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption, voluntary alcohol intake was also evaluated following additional stressful events later in life, that is, a week of alcohol cessation and a week of alcohol cessation combined with exposure to restraint stress. Female animals consumed more alcohol than males only after a second episode of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress. MD did not affect baseline voluntary alcohol intake but increased voluntary alcohol intake after stress exposure, indicating that MD may render animals more vulnerable to the effects of stress on alcohol intake. During adolescence, when animals had free access to alcohol, MD animals showed lower body weight gain but a higher growth rate than control animals. Moreover, the higher growth rate was accompanied by a decrease in food intake, suggesting an altered metabolic regulation in MD animals that may interact with alcohol intake.

  7. A case of heart failure due to alcoholic cardiomyopathy combined with acute pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Feng; Yuan, Wei; Li, Xiaorong; Wang, Gannan; Jiang, Ting; Wang, Weiwei; Zhang, Jinsong; Li, Ping; Qi, Lianwen; Chen, Yan

    2014-09-01

    It has not been reported that cases of alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) combined with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). We hereby present a case of a 48-year-old male with ACM with significant enlargement of the heart and heart failure is described. Then, the patient was seized with acute PE which was confirmed by specific examination and his symptoms.

  8. The effect of acute alcohol intoxication on gut wall integrity in healthy male volunteers; a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Willem-Jan; Cleveringa, A. M.; Greijdanus, B.; Meyer, P.; Heineman, E.; Hulscher, J. B.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the effect of acute alcohol consumption on enterocytes. Chronic alcohol consumption has been known to induce a decrease in gut wall integrity in actively drinking alcoholics and patients with alcohol-induced liver disease. Data on the extent of the damage induced

  9. Youth exposure to alcohol advertising on radio--United States, June-August 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    In the United States, more underage youth drink alcohol than smoke tobacco or use illicit drugs. Excessive alcohol consumption leads to many adverse health and social consequences and results in approximately 4,500 deaths among underage youth each year. Recent studies have emphasized the contribution of alcohol marketing to underage drinking and have demonstrated that a substantial proportion of alcohol advertising appears in media for which the audience composition is youth-oriented (i.e., composed disproportionately of persons aged 12-20 years). To determine the proportion of radio advertisements that occurred on radio programs with audiences composed disproportionately of underage youth and the proportion of total youth exposure to alcohol advertising that occurs as a result of such advertising, researchers at the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth (Health Policy Institute, Georgetown University, District of Columbia) evaluated the placement of individual radio advertisements for the most advertised U.S. alcohol brands and the composition of audiences in the largest 104 markets in the United States. This report summarizes the results of that study, which indicate that alcohol advertising is common on radio programs which have disproportionately large youth audiences and that this advertising accounts for a substantial proportion of all alcohol radio advertising heard by underage youth. These results further indicate that 1) the current voluntary standards limiting alcohol marketing to youth should be enforced and ultimately strengthened, and 2) ongoing monitoring of youth exposure to alcohol advertising should continue.

  10. Measuring youth exposure to alcohol marketing on social networking sites: challenges and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, David H; Rushman, Anne E

    2014-02-01

    Youth exposure to alcohol marketing has been linked to increased alcohol consumption and problems. On relatively new and highly interactive social networking sites (SNS) that are popular with youth, tools for measuring youth exposure to alcohol marketing in traditional media are inadequate. We critically review the existing policies of Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube designed to keep branded alcohol content away from underage youth. Looking at brand and user activity on Facebook for the 15 alcohol brands most popular among US youth, we found activity has grown dramatically in the past 3 years, and underage users may be accounting for some of this activity. Surveys of youth and adult participation in alcohol marketing on SNS will be needed to inform debate over these marketing practices.

  11. Human physiological responses to cold exposure: Acute responses and acclimatization to prolonged exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, John W; Young, Andrew J

    2016-04-01

    Cold exposure in humans causes specific acute and chronic physiological responses. This paper will review both the acute and long-term physiological responses and external factors that impact these physiological responses. Acute physiological responses to cold exposure include cutaneous vasoconstriction and shivering thermogenesis which, respectively, decrease heat loss and increase metabolic heat production. Vasoconstriction is elicited through reflex and local cooling. In combination, vasoconstriction and shivering operate to maintain thermal balance when the body is losing heat. Factors (anthropometry, sex, race, fitness, thermoregulatory fatigue) that influence the acute physiological responses to cold exposure are also reviewed. The physiological responses to chronic cold exposure, also known as cold acclimation/acclimatization, are also presented. Three primary patterns of cold acclimatization have been observed, a) habituation, b) metabolic adjustment, and c) insulative adjustment. Habituation is characterized by physiological adjustments in which the response is attenuated compared to an unacclimatized state. Metabolic acclimatization is characterized by an increased thermogenesis, whereas insulative acclimatization is characterized by enhancing the mechanisms that conserve body heat. The pattern of acclimatization is dependent on changes in skin and core temperature and the exposure duration.

  12. Alcohol exposure after mild focal traumatic brain injury impairs neurological recovery and exacerbates localized neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Sophie X; Katz, Paige S; Maxi, John K; Mayeux, Jacques P; Gilpin, Nicholas W; Molina, Patricia E

    2015-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among young individuals. Alcohol abuse is a risk factor associated with increased TBI incidence. In addition, up to 26% of TBI patients engage in alcohol consumption after TBI. Limited preclinical studies have examined the impact of post-injury alcohol exposure on TBI recovery. The aim of this study was to determine the isolated and combined effects of TBI and alcohol on cognitive, behavioral, and physical recovery, as well as on associated neuroinflammatory changes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (∼300g) were subjected to a mild focal TBI by lateral fluid percussion (∼30PSI, ∼25ms) under isoflurane anesthesia. On day 4 after TBI, animals were exposed to either sub-chronic intermittent alcohol vapor (95% ethanol 14h on/10h off; BAL∼200mg/dL) or room air for 10days. TBI induced neurological dysfunction reflected by an increased neurological severity score (NSS) showed progressive improvement in injured animals exposed to room air (TBI/air). In contrast, TBI animals exposed to alcohol vapor (TBI/alcohol) showed impaired NSS recovery throughout the 10-day period of alcohol exposure. Open-field exploration test revealed an increased anxiety-like behavior in TBI/alcohol group compared to TBI/air group. Additionally, alcohol-exposed animals showed decreased locomotion and impaired novel object recognition. Immunofluorescence showed enhanced reactive astrocytes, microglial activation, and HMGB1 expression localized to the injured cortex of TBI/alcohol as compared to TBI/air animals. The expression of neuroinflammatory markers showed significant positive correlation with NSS. These findings indicated a close relationship between accentuated neuroinflammation and impaired neurological recovery from post-TBI alcohol exposure. The clinical implications of long-term consequences in TBI patients exposed to alcohol during recovery warrant further investigation.

  13. Epilogue: Understanding Children Who Have Been Affected by Maltreatment and Prenatal Alcohol Exposure--Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyter, Yvette D.; Way, Ineke

    2007-01-01

    This epilogue summarizes the six articles presented in the clinical forum focused on understanding children who have been affected by maltreatment and prenatal alcohol exposure. It presents common themes that emerged among the articles and future research directions.

  14. Neurotoxicity of prenatal alcohol exposure on medullary pre-Bötzinger complex neurons in neonatal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-li Ji; Yun-hong Wu; Zhi-bin Qian

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure disrupts the development of normal fetal respiratory function, but whether it perturbs respiratory rhythmical discharge activity is unclear. Furthermore, it is un-known whether the 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) is involved in the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. In the present study, pregnant female rats received drinking water containing alcohol at concentrations of 0%, 1%, 2%, 4%, 8% or 10% (v/v) throughout the gestation period. Slices of the medulla from 2-day-old neonatal rats were obtained to record respiratory rhythmical discharge activity. 5-HT2AR protein and mRNA levels in the pre-Bötzing-er complex of the respiratory center were measured by western blot analysis and quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. Compared with the 0% alcohol group, respiratory rhythmical discharge activity in medullary slices in the 4%, 8% and 10% alcohol groups was decreased, and the reduc-tion was greatest in the 8% alcohol group. Respiratory rhythmical discharge activity in the 10%alcohol group was irregular. Thus, 8% was the most effective alcohol concentration at attenuating respiratory rhythmical discharge activity. These ifndings suggest that prenatal alcohol exposure attenuates respiratory rhythmical discharge activity in neonatal rats by downregulating 5-HT2AR protein and mRNA levels.

  15. Alcohol exposure in utero is associated with decreased gray matter volume in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Kirsten A; Fouche, J P; Roos, Annerine; Koen, Nastassja; Howells, Fleur M; Riley, Edward P; Woods, Roger P; Zar, Heather J; Narr, Katherine L; Stein, Dan J

    2016-02-01

    Neuroimaging studies have indicated that prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with alterations in the structure of specific brain regions. However, the temporal specificity of such changes and their behavioral consequences are less known. Here we explore the brain structure of infants with in utero exposure to alcohol shortly after birth. T2 structural MRI images were acquired from 28 alcohol-exposed infants and 45 demographically matched healthy controls at 2-4 weeks of age on a 3T Siemens Allegra system as part of large birth cohort study, the Drakenstein Child Health Study (DCHS). Neonatal neurobehavior was assessed at this visit; early developmental outcome assessed on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III at 6 months of age. Volumes of gray matter regions were estimated based on the segmentations of the University of North Carolina neonatal atlas. Significantly decreased total gray matter volume was demonstrated for the alcohol-exposed cohort compared to healthy control infants (p smoking status. Both early neurobehavioral and developmental adverse outcomes at 6 months across multiple domains were significantly associated with regional volumes primarily in the temporal and frontal lobes in infants with prenatal alcohol exposure. Alcohol exposure during the prenatal period has potentially enduring neurobiological consequences for exposed children. These findings suggest the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on brain growth is present very early in the first year of life, a period during which the most rapid growth and maturation occurs.

  16. Acute liver failure associated with occupational exposure to tetrachloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chuan; Zhao, Cai-Yan; Liu, Fang; Wang, Ya-Dong; Wang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Tetrachloroethylene is a chlorinated solvent that is primarily used in dry cleaning and degreasing operations. Although the hepatotoxicity caused by tetrachloroethylene has been well documented in literature, it is rarely considered as a cause of acute liver failure. We report a case of a 39-yr-old man who was admitted to our hospital for acute liver failure due to tetrachloroethylene exposure. Histological examination of the liver revealed massive hepatic necrosis, prominently, in zone 3 of the hepatic lobules. The patient underwent supportive treatment along with 3 sessions of plasmapheresis, and consequently, he presented a favorable outcome. Repeat liver biopsy performed 6 months after the patient's discharge showed architectural distortion with postnecrotic cirrhosis. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of acute liver failure induced by tetrachloroethylene. Early plasmapheresis can be effective for individuals with sufficient capacity for hepatocyte regeneration.

  17. Alcohol Exposure Alters Mouse Lung Inflammation in Response to Inhaled Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A. Poole

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol exposure is associated with increased lung infections and decreased mucociliary clearance. Occupational workers exposed to dusts from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs are at risk for developing chronic inflammatory lung diseases. Agricultural worker co-exposure to alcohol and organic dust has been established, although little research has been conducted on the combination effects of alcohol and organic dusts on the lung. Previously, we have shown in a mouse model that exposure to hog dust extract (HDE collected from a CAFO results in the activation of protein kinase C (PKC, elevated lavage fluid cytokines/chemokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6, and the development of significant lung pathology. Because alcohol blocks airway epithelial cell release of IL-6 in vitro, we hypothesized that alcohol exposure would alter mouse lung inflammatory responses to HDE. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6 mice were fed 20% alcohol or water ad libitum for 6 weeks and treated with 12.5% HDE by intranasal inhalation method daily during the final three weeks. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, tracheas and lungs were collected. HDE stimulated a 2–4 fold increase in lung and tracheal PKCε (epsilon activity in mice, but no such increase in PKCε activity was observed in dust-exposed mice fed alcohol. Similarly, alcohol-fed mice demonstrated significantly less IL-6 in lung lavage in response to dust than that observed in control mice instilled with HDE. TNFα levels were also inhibited in the alcohol and HDE-exposed mouse lung tissue as compared to the HDE only exposed group. HDE-induced lung inflammatory aggregates clearly present in the tissue from HDE only exposed animals were not visually detectable in the HDE/alcohol co-exposure group. Statistically significant weight reductions and 20% mortality were also observed in the mice co-exposed to HDE and alcohol. These data suggest that alcohol exposure depresses the ability

  18. Neurocognitive performance following acute mephedrone administration, with and without alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Fernandes Perna, E B; Papaseit, E; Pérez-Mañá, C; Mateus, J; Theunissen, E L; Kuypers, Kpc; de la Torre, R; Farré, M; Ramaekers, J G

    2016-12-01

    Recreational use of mephedrone, alone and in combination with alcohol, has increased over the past years. Pharmacological properties of mephedrone share similarities with methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), but its effect on neurocognitive function has not been well established in humans. The present study assessed the effect of mephedrone alone and after co-administration with alcohol on neurocognitive function. It was hypothesised that mephedrone would improve psychomotor performance but impair memory performance, when administered alone. Neurocognitive performance was expected to be impaired following mephedrone when combined with alcohol. Eleven participants received single doses of 200 mg mephedrone or placebo combined with 0.8 g/kg alcohol or placebo. Neurocognitive performance was assessed at baseline (T0), at one hour (T1) and four hours after (T2) mephedrone administration, by means of the Divided Attention Task (DAT), Critical Tracking Task (CTT), and the Spatial Memory Test (SMT). Mephedrone intoxication impaired short-term spatial memory at T1 and improved critical tracking performance at T2 Mephedrone alone did not affect divided attention, but did show an interaction with alcohol on reaction time at T2 Reaction time decreased when mephedrone was combined with alcohol as compared to alcohol alone. Alcohol intoxication impaired both short- and long-term spatial memory at T1 and divided attention at T1 and T2 Critical tracking performance was not affected by alcohol intoxication. The current findings support the hypothesis that mephedrone improves psychomotor performance, impairs spatial memory and does not affect divided attention performance. Stimulatory effects of mephedrone were not sufficient to compensate for the impairing effects of alcohol on most performance parameters.

  19. Relationships between Head Circumference, Brain Volume and Cognition in Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Treit

    Full Text Available Head circumference is used together with other measures as a proxy for central nervous system damage in the diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, yet the relationship between head circumference and brain volume has not been investigated in this population. The objective of this study is to characterize the relationship between head circumference, brain volume and cognitive performance in a large sample of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (n = 144 and healthy controls (n = 145, aged 5-19 years. All participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging to yield brain volumes and head circumference, normalized to control for age and sex. Mean head circumference, brain volume, and cognitive scores were significantly reduced in the prenatal alcohol exposure group relative to controls, albeit with considerable overlap between groups. Males with prenatal alcohol exposure had reductions in all three measures, whereas females with prenatal alcohol exposure had reduced brain volumes and cognitive scores, but no difference in head circumference relative to controls. Microcephaly (defined here as head circumference ≤ 3rd percentile occurred more often in prenatal alcohol exposed participants than controls, but 90% of the exposed sample had head circumferences above this clinical cutoff indicating that head circumference is not a sensitive marker of prenatal alcohol exposure. Normalized head circumference and brain volume were positively correlated in both groups, and subjects with very low head circumference typically had below-average brain volumes. Conversely, over half of the subjects with very low brain volumes had normal head circumferences, which may stem from differential effects of alcohol on the skeletal and nervous systems. There were no significant correlations between head circumference and any cognitive score. These findings confirm group-level reductions in head circumference and increased rates of microcephaly in children with

  20. Associations of alcohol use with mental health and alcohol exposure among school-going students in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Tepirou, Chher

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to examine the associations of alcohol use with sociodemographic factors, mental health and alcohol exposure among school-going adolescents in Cambodia. The analysis included 3,806 school children, mean age 15.7 years (SD=1.8), from Cambodia who participated in the “Global School-based Student Health Survey” (GSHS) in 2013. The results indicate that overall, 10.0% of the students reported current alcohol use, 10.8% lifetime drunkenness, and 2.8% problem drinking. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, sociodemographic factors (older age and being male), mental health and other variables (bullying victimization, OR (odds ratio) = 1.99; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [1.50, 2.65] and OR = 2.15; 95% CI [1.58, 3.21], respectively; having attempted suicide, OR = 2.04; 95% CI [1.35, 3.08] and OR = 2.06; 95% CI [1.29, 3.28], respectively and illicit drug use, OR = 4.97; 95% CI [2.41, 10.24] OR = 5.05; 95% CI [2.14, 11.98], respectively) and alcohol exposure variables (peer influence on drinking alcohol, OR = 6.68; 95% CI [4.75, 9.39] and OR = 7.83; 95% CI [5.73, 10.66], respectively and daily or almost daily to alcohol advertising in the past 30 days OR = 1.61; 95% CI [1.03, 2.51] and OR = 2.30; 95% CI [1.40, 3.77], respectively) were significantly positively associated with current alcohol use and drunkenness. Moreover, older age, being male, bullying victimization, having close friends, suicide attempt, drug use, father or male guardian drinks alcohol and peer influence were associated with problem drinking. There is a need to implement public health interventions with a special focus on the determinants of alcohol consumption, including exposure to alcohol advertising, in this age group. PMID:28008197

  1. Solitary Versus Social Drinking: An Experimental Study on Effects of Social Exposures on In Situ Alcohol Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kündig, H.; Kuntsche, E.N.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whereas the effects of modeling and of drinking contexts on alcohol use are documented, studies are lacking regarding the effect of given social exposures on actual alcohol consumption during drinking episodes (i.e., in situ alcohol consumption, the quantity of alcohol actually ingested

  2. [Psychopathology and various mechanisms contributing to the formation of the Kandinsky syndrome in acute alcoholic hallucinosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guliamova, N M

    1983-01-01

    Forty patients with acute alcoholic hallucinosis associated with the Kandinsky syndrome were examined clinicopsychopathologically. Manifestation of the Kandinsky syndrome was limited by associative automatism in patients with stage II alcoholism with transient hallucinosis lasting 2-4 days. In patients with stage III alcoholism with more prolonged (6-9 days) psychoses, the non-extensive Kandinsky syndrome manifested itself in integrity. Psychopathological phenomena of the syndrome in the picture of acute alcoholic hallucinosis were notable for their descriptiveness, concreteness, extreme simplicity, and instability. Senestopathic and kinesthetic automatisms were localized at the sites of real painful disorders. Therefore, apart from cerebral disorders, the peripheral sensory mechanisms are considered to be of importance in the genesis of the Kandinsky syndrome.

  3. A decrease in the size of the basal ganglia following prenatal alcohol exposure: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, S N; Riley, E P; Jernigan, T L; Garcia, A; Kaneko, W M; Ehlers, C L; Jones, K L

    1994-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to cause damage to the central nervous system. This study sought to further elucidate the structural brain damage that occurs following prenatal alcohol exposure in both children and rats. Two children with histories of maternal alcohol abuse but who did not qualify for a diagnosis of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), based on established criteria, underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Reduced volumes were found for the cerebrum and cerebellum. In addition, the proportional volume of the basal ganglia was reduced, although the proportional volumes of cortical and subcortical fluid, cortical gray matter, limbic and nonlimbic cortex, and diencephalic structures were unaffected. These findings are compared with our recent MRI findings in two cases of FAS. In addition, the caudate-putamen and ventricular areas were assessed in rats exposed to alcohol prenatally. Whereas the overall brain section area was not reduced in size, the area of the caudate-putamen was reduced and that of the ventricles was enlarged.

  4. Alcohol acutely increases vascular reactivity together with insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, G; Kretschmer, S; Gouya, G; Haider, D G; Mittermayer, F; Riedl, M; Wagner, O; Pacini, G; Wolzt, M; Ludvik, B

    2010-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with increased insulin sensitivity and reduced cardiovascular risk. We hypothesized that this relates to a direct effect of alcohol and therefore investigated whether acute alcohol intake altered insulin sensitivity or endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes. In an open-label two period design, the effect of a single oral dose of 40 g of alcohol (168 ml 40% vodka) on an insulin-modified frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT) and on endothelium-dependent (flow mediated, FMD) or endothelium-independent (glyceroltrinitrate (GTN)-induced) vasodilation of the brachial artery measured by ultrasound was studied. Experiments were carried out in twelve male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (64+/-6 years, body mass index 28.4+/-5.7 kg/m (2)). Baseline insulin sensitivity index (S (I)) was 1.10+/-0.34 min (-1).microU (-1).ml, baseline FMD was +4.1+/-3.0%, and GTN-induced vasodilation +7.4+/-2.3% from resting brachial artery diameter. Acute alcohol intake increased alcohol plasma levels to 0.33+/-0.04 per thousand, S (I) to 1.86+/-0.45 min (-1).microU (-1).ml (p<0.05), and FMD to +8.2+/-2.8% (p<0.05), while GTN-induced dilation remained unchanged. No relationship was detectable between the observed changes. We conclude that alcohol intake acutely increases endothelium-dependent brachial artery vasodilation in patients with type 2 diabetes together with insulin sensitivity. This acute effect might explain some beneficial effects of low alcohol consumption in epidemiological observations.

  5. Neurocognitive performance following acute mephedrone administration, with and without alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Sousa Fernandes Perna, E B; Papaseit, E; Pérez-Mañá, C; Mateus, J; Theunissen, E L; Kuypers, K.P.C.; de la Torre, R; Farré, M; Ramaekers, J G

    2016-01-01

    Recreational use of mephedrone, alone and in combination with alcohol, has increased over the past years. Pharmacological properties of mephedrone share similarities with methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), but its effect on neurocognitive function has not been well established in humans. The pres

  6. Early adolescent, multi-ethnic, urban youth's exposure to patterns of alcohol-related neighborhood characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, Amy L; Komro, Kelli A; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M

    2009-10-01

    This study identified heterogeneous classes of alcohol-related neighborhood characteristics to which multi-ethnic, early adolescents in urban communities are exposed. The sample comprised 4,215 youth from 42 community areas in Chicago, Illinois who completed surveys at the beginning of 6th grade (2002). Neighborhood measures included: (1) mean number of alcohol outlets per 1,000 population per community area; (2) alcohol purchase attempt rate by pseudo-underage youth; (3) average number of alcohol advertisements within 1,500 feet of each school per community; and (4) a Census 2000-based deprivation index. Parents and community leaders provided data on perceived neighborhood problems and parental prevention actions, and neighborhood strength and preventive action by communities, law enforcement, and community organizations, respectively. Multilevel latent class analysis identified the number and characteristics of heterogeneous latent neighborhood classes in which these youth are exposed. Five classes best described the heterogeneity among the sample: (1) Low social capital/low exposure/high access to alcohol (19.8%), (2) Low social capital/low exposure/low access to alcohol (24.5%), (3) Moderate social capital/low exposure/high access to alcohol (30.0%), (4) Moderate social capital/moderate exposure/low access to alcohol (20.1%), and (5) High social capital/moderate exposure/high access to alcohol (5.6%). The racial/ethnic distribution among the classes varied considerably. Results suggest there is substantive heterogeneity among this seemingly homogeneous urban population. Further, they highlight the socioeconomic disadvantage of these inner-city communities and the resource disparity across the racial/ethnic groups. Understanding the nuances among communities may lend to development of more efficacious preventive interventions and policy initiatives, inform theory, and help prioritize limited resources.

  7. Inhibitory Effects of Pretreatment with Radon on Acute Alcohol-Induced Hepatopathy in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruaki Toyota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that radon inhalation activates antioxidative functions in the liver and inhibits carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatopathy in mice. In addition, it has been reported that reactive oxygen species contribute to alcohol-induced hepatopathy. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of radon inhalation on acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy in mice. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to intraperitoneal injection of 50% alcohol (5 g/kg bodyweight after inhaling approximately 4000 Bq/m3 radon for 24 h. Alcohol administration significantly increased the activities of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT, glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT in serum, and the levels of triglyceride and lipid peroxide in the liver, suggesting acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy. Radon inhalation activated antioxidative functions in the liver. Furthermore, pretreatment with radon inhibited the depression of hepatic functions and antioxidative functions. These findings suggested that radon inhalation activated antioxidative functions in the liver and inhibited acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy in mice.

  8. A randomized controlled study of exposure therapy as aftercare for alcohol use disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellentin, Angelina Isabella; Nielsen, Bent; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard;

    2016-01-01

    Background It is well documented that individuals with Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) respond well during evidence-based psychological treatment, but also that a large proportion relapses when discharged from treatment and confronted with alcohol in real life. Cue Exposure Treatment (CET) focuses...... on exposing individuals to alcohol cues in order to reduce cravings as well as the likelihood of relapse. The aims of the study are: 1) to investigate whether CET aftercare delivered via a smartphone or in group sessions increases the effect of Cognitive Behavioural Treatment in groups of alcohol dependent...... as an investigator-blinded randomized controlled trial. A total of 300 consecutively enrolled alcohol use disorder individuals recruited from an alcohol outpatient clinic will be randomized into one of the three following aftercare groups after concluding primary treatment: (1) CET as a smartphone application; (2...

  9. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Is Associated with Conduct Disorder in Adolescence: Findings from a Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkby, Cynthia A.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Hanusa, Barbara H.; Day, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association between prenatal alcohol exposure and the rate of conduct disorder in exposed compared with unexposed adolescents. Method: Data for these analyses are from a longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposures. Women were interviewed at their fourth and seventh prenatal months, and with their children, at…

  10. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Megumi Kido; Akihiro Asakawa; Koyama, Ken-Ichiro K.; Toshio Takaoka; Aya Tajima; Shigeru Takaoka; Yumiko Yoshizaki; Kayu Okutsu; Kazunori T. Takamine; Yoshihiro Sameshima; Akio Inui

    2016-01-01

    Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m2) consumed three different types ...

  11. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Persistently Impacts Adult Neurobiology and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetreno, Ryan P.; Broadwater, Margaret A.; Robinson, Donita L.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period when physical and cognitive abilities are optimized, when social skills are consolidated, and when sexuality, adolescent behaviors, and frontal cortical functions mature to adult levels. Adolescents also have unique responses to alcohol compared with adults, being less sensitive to ethanol sedative–motor responses that most likely contribute to binge drinking and blackouts. Population studies find that an early age of drinking onset correlates with increased lifetime risks for the development of alcohol dependence, violence, and injuries. Brain synapses, myelination, and neural circuits mature in adolescence to adult levels in parallel with increased reflection on the consequence of actions and reduced impulsivity and thrill seeking. Alcohol binge drinking could alter human development, but variations in genetics, peer groups, family structure, early life experiences, and the emergence of psychopathology in humans confound studies. As adolescence is common to mammalian species, preclinical models of binge drinking provide insight into the direct impact of alcohol on adolescent development. This review relates human findings to basic science studies, particularly the preclinical studies of the Neurobiology of Adolescent Drinking in Adulthood (NADIA) Consortium. These studies focus on persistent adult changes in neurobiology and behavior following adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE), a model of underage drinking. NADIA studies and others find that AIE results in the following: increases in adult alcohol drinking, disinhibition, and social anxiety; altered adult synapses, cognition, and sleep; reduced adult neurogenesis, cholinergic, and serotonergic neurons; and increased neuroimmune gene expression and epigenetic modifiers of gene expression. Many of these effects are specific to adolescents and not found in parallel adult studies. AIE can cause a persistence of adolescent-like synaptic physiology, behavior, and sensitivity

  12. Acute Alcoholic Hepatitis | EU Clinical Trials Register [EU Clinical Trials Register

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available UK - MHRA A.2EudraCT number2006-004419-24 A.3Full title of the trial The Use of Sulfasalazine as an Anti-fibrotic in Acute...General Information on the Trial E.1 Medical condition or disease under investigation E.1.1Medical condition...(s) being investigated Acute Alcoholic Hepatitis MedDRA Classification E.1.2 Medical condition or disease un

  13. Alcohol, cognitive impairment and the hard to discharge acute hospital inpatients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Popoola, A

    2012-02-03

    AIM: To examine the role of alcohol and alcohol-related cognitive impairment in the clinical presentation of adults in-patients less than 65 years who are \\'hard to discharge\\' in a general hospital. METHOD: Retrospective medical file review of inpatients in CUH referred to the discharge coordinator between March and September 2006. RESULTS: Of 46 patients identified, the case notes of 44 (25 male; age was 52.2 +\\/- 7.7 years) were reviewed. The average length of stay in the hospital was 84.0 +\\/- 72.3 days and mean lost bed days was 15.9 +\\/- 36.6 days. The number of patients documented to have an overt alcohol problem was 15 (34.1%). Patients with alcohol problems were more likely to have cognitive impairment than those without an alcohol problem [12 (80%) and 9 (31%) P = 0.004]. Patients with alcohol problems had a shorter length of stay (81.5 vs. 85.3 days; t = 0.161, df = 42, P = 0.87), fewer lost bed days (8.2 vs. 19.2 days; Mann-Whitney U = 179, P = 0.34) and no mortality (0 vs. 6) compared with hard to discharge patients without alcohol problem. CONCLUSION: Alcohol problems and alcohol-related cognitive impairment are hugely over-represented in acute hospital in-patients who are hard to discharge. Despite these problems, this group appears to have reduced morbidity, less lost bed days and a better outcome than other categories of hard to discharge patients. There is a need to resource acute hospitals to address alcohol-related morbidity in general and Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome in particular.

  14. Endocrine responses in the rhesus monkey during acute cold exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotz, W.G.; Saxton, J.L. (Naval Aerospace Medical Research Lab., Pensacola, FL (United States))

    1991-03-11

    The authors studied five young male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), 3.4 to 6.7 kg, to determine the relationship between fluid balance hormones and urine production during acute, dry cold exposure. Each monkey served as its own control in duplicate experimental sessions at 6C or 26C. A 6-h experimental session consisted of 120 min equilibration at 26C, 120 min experimental exposure, and 120 min recovery at 26C. Urinary and venous catheters were inserted on the morning of a session. Rectal (Tre) and skin temperatures were monitored continuously. Blood samples were taken at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min of exposure, and at 60 min postexposure. Plasma was analyzed for arginine vasopressin (AVP), atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma aldosterone (PA), and osmolality. Urine samples were analyzed for osmolality, electrolytes, and creatinine. Mean Tre was 1.6C lower after 120 min at 6C than at 26C. Urine volume and osmolality were not altered by cold exposure, as they are in humans and rats. Vasopressin and PA increased sharply, with mean plasma levels in monkeys exposed to cold more than threefold and tenfold, respectively, the levels in monkeys exposed at 26C. In contrast, ANF, PRA, and plasma osmolality were not significantly changed by cold exposure. The absence of a cold-induced diuresis in the monkey may be related to the marked increase in plasma AVP level.

  15. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developmental pattern of temperature preference in a thermocline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerberg, B; Tomlinson, T M; Glaser, J; Beckstead, J W

    1993-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with a variety of impairments in neonatal state regulatory systems. Since prenatal alcohol exposure causes thermoregulatory deficits in response to both heat and cold stress in rats, body temperature set-point might be altered in alcohol-exposed offspring. The effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on behavior in a thermocline was investigated in 10-, 15-, and 125-day-old male and female rats from three prenatal treatment conditions: alcohol liquid diet, pair-fed liquid diet control, or standard control. Subjects were placed in the thermocline in the cold, hot, or middle start positions and observed for 60 min. Subjects exposed to alcohol prenatally had a wider "preference zone" than control subjects at 10 and 15 days of age, but did not as adults. This widening of the temperature set-point in young subjects prenatally exposed to alcohol may represent a developmental lag in the development of body temperature set-point or a central compensatory process allowing the animal to adapt to alternating experiences of heat and cold stress.

  16. Violence- and alcohol-related acute healthcare visits in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexøe, Jørgen; Wilche, Julie Præst; Niclasen, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    by simple means. Methods: Registration of all emergencies presented in 15 out of 17 of Greenland's health districts in the period 21 May to 7 June 2010. Results: In the 17-day registration period, 2403 emergencies were registered. In 10% of cases the patients were clinically alcohol intoxicated. When reason...... for presentation were mental or social problems, attempted suicide, accidents, or violence, 24, 50, 15, and 59% respectively were intoxicated. Alcohol intoxication was statistically significantly more often associated with advanced treatment (e.g. evacuation, hospitalisation, or follow up by doctor or nurse...

  17. Acute radiation syndrome caused by accidental radiation exposure - therapeutic principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörr Harald

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fortunately radiation accidents are infrequent occurrences, but since they have the potential of large scale events like the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima, preparatory planning of the medical management of radiation accident victims is very important. Radiation accidents can result in different types of radiation exposure for which the diagnostic and therapeutic measures, as well as the outcomes, differ. The clinical course of acute radiation syndrome depends on the absorbed radiation dose and its distribution. Multi-organ-involvement and multi-organ-failure need be taken into account. The most vulnerable organ system to radiation exposure is the hematopoietic system. In addition to hematopoietic syndrome, radiation induced damage to the skin plays an important role in diagnostics and the treatment of radiation accident victims. The most important therapeutic principles with special reference to hematopoietic syndrome and cutaneous radiation syndrome are reviewed.

  18. RE-AIM evaluation of the Alcohol and Pregnancy Project: educational resources to inform health professionals about prenatal alcohol exposure and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Janet M; France, Kathryn E; Henley, Nadine; D'Antoine, Heather A; Bartu, Anne E; O'Leary, Colleen M; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Bower, Carol; Geelhoed, Elizabeth

    2011-03-01

    The objective was to evaluate the Alcohol and Pregnancy Project that provided health professionals in Western Australia (WA) with educational resources to inform them about prevention of prenatal alcohol exposure and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The authors developed, produced, and distributed educational resources to 3,348 health professionals in WA. Six months later, they surveyed 1,483 of these health professionals. The authors used the RE-AIM framework (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance) to evaluate the project. The educational resources were effective in producing a 31% increase in the proportion of health professionals who routinely provided pregnant women with information about the consequences of drinking alcohol during pregnancy. One hundred percent of the settings adopted the project, it reached 96.3% of the target population, it was implemented as intended, and the resources were maintained (http://www.ichr.uwa.edu.au/alcoholandpregnancy). The educational resources for health professionals have potential to contribute to reducing prenatal alcohol exposure and FASD.

  19. Acute versus chronic alcohol consumption in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars E; Dalhoff, Kim; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine by multivariate analysis how alcohol and other factors affect the clinical course and outcome in patients with acetaminophen (paracetamol) poisoning. A total of 645 consecutive patients admitted from 1994 to 2000 with single-dose acetaminophen poisoning were...

  20. Responses of Hyalella azteca to acute and chronic microplastic exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Sarah Y; Bruce, Terri F; Bridges, William C; Klaine, Stephen J

    2015-11-01

    Limited information is available on the presence of microplastics in freshwater systems, and even less is known about the toxicological implications of the exposure of aquatic organisms to plastic particles. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of microplastic ingestion on the freshwater amphipod, Hyalella azteca. Hyalella azteca was exposed to fluorescent polyethylene microplastic particles and polypropylene microplastic fibers in individual 250-mL chambers to determine 10-d mortality. In acute bioassays, polypropylene microplastic fibers were significantly more toxic than polyethylene microplastic particles; 10-d lethal concentration 50% values for polyethylene microplastic particles and polypropylene microplastic fibers were 4.64 × 10(4) microplastics/mL and 71.43 microplastics/mL, respectively. A 42-d chronic bioassay using polyethylene microplastic particles was conducted to quantify effects on reproduction, growth, and egestion. Chronic exposure to polyethylene microplastic particles significantly decreased growth and reproduction at the low and intermediate exposure concentrations. During acute exposures to polyethylene microplastic particles, the egestion times did not significantly differ from the egestion of normal food materials in the control; egestion times for polypropylene microplastic fibers were significantly slower than the egestion of food materials in the control. Amphipods exposed to polypropylene microplastic fibers also had significantly less growth. The greater toxicity of microplastic fibers than microplastic particles corresponded with longer residence times for the fibers in the gut. The difference in residence time might have affected the ability to process food, resulting in an energetic effect reflected in sublethal endpoints.

  1. Increased oxidative stress following acute and chronic high altitude exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, J Ashley; Simoni, Jan; Escudero, Elizabeth; Hurtado, Maria-Elena; Swenson, Erik R; Wesson, Donald E; Schreiner, George F; Schoene, Robert B; Johnson, Richard J; Hurtado, Abdias

    2004-01-01

    The generation of reactive oxygen species is typically associated with hyperoxia and ischemia reperfusion. Recent evidence has suggested that increased oxidative stress may occur with hypoxia. We hypothesized that oxidative stress would be increased in subjects exposed to high altitude hypoxia. We studied 28 control subjects living in Lima, Peru (sea level), at baseline and following 48 h exposure to high altitude (4300 m). To assess the effects of chronic altitude exposure, we studied 25 adult males resident in Cerro de Pasco, Peru (altitude 4300 m). We also studied 27 subjects living in Cerro de Pasco who develop excessive erythrocytosis (hematocrit > 65%) and chronic mountain sickness. Acute high altitude exposure led to increased urinary F(2)-isoprostane, 8-iso PGF(2 alpha) (1.31 +/- 0.8 microg/g creatinine versus 2.15 +/- 1.1, p = 0.001) and plasma total glutathione (1.29 +/- 0.10 micromol versus 1.37 +/- 0.09, p = 0.002), with a trend to increased plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) (59.7 +/- 36 pmol/mg protein versus 63.8 +/- 27, p = NS). High altitude residents had significantly elevated levels of urinary 8-iso PGF(2 alpha) (1.3 +/- 0.8 microg/g creatinine versus 4.1 +/- 3.4, p = 0.007), plasma TBARS (59.7 +/- 36 pmol/mg protein versus 85 +/- 28, p = 0.008), and plasma total glutathione (1.29 +/- 0.10 micromol versus 1.55 +/- 0.19, p < 0.0001) compared to sea level. High altitude residents with excessive erythrocytosis had higher levels of oxidative stress compared to high altitude residents with normal hematological adaptation. In conclusion, oxidative stress is increased following both acute exposure to high altitude without exercise and with chronic residence at high altitude.

  2. No Effects of Acute Alcohol Ingestion on Subjective Visual Horizontal Determination During Eccentric Rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren; Svenson; Olsson; Ödkvist; Ledin

    1998-01-01

    Evaluating the function of the vestibular part of the inner ear comprises more than the classic analysis of the lateral semicircular canal function. In healthy subjects, positional alcohol nystagmus may be seen after acute alcohol ingestion. Posturography has shown a deteriorated equilibrium after even moderate doses of alcohol, which speculatively could be an effect of otolith disturbance or a central integrative effect. We tested the possibility of an otolith effect by using linear acceleration in the lateral direction by means of eccentric rotation, stimulating mainly the outermost ear's otolith organ. The subject is seated eccentrically in a rotatory chair facing the direction of rotation. Thus, the otolith organs are stimulated in steady-state rotation. The subject experiences a lateral tilt and, in darkness, is instructed to put a short light bar in the position thought to be that of a water surface, which is identical to the perceived tilt. Twenty healthy subjects (10 men, 10 women) aged 20-29 years were tested before and approximately 1 hour after ingestion of alcohol, the amounts consumed corresponding to an approximate blood alcohol level of 0.05%, well above the maximum permissible level for driving in Sweden. No significant effects of alcohol were found. The otolith function probably is not affected by moderate alcohol intoxication levels. From this point of view, equilibrium deterioration due to alcohol ingestion in the erect position is caused by a central integrative deficit and not by an otolith effect.

  3. Acute and chronic effects of dinner with alcoholic beverages on nitric oxide metabolites in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, A.; Gaag, M.S. van der; Grobbee, D.E.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2003-01-01

    1. The present study investigated the acute and chronic effect of dinner with alcoholic beverages on serum nitric oxide (NO) metabolites, namely nitrate and nitrite (NOx), in 11 healthy, non-smoking middle-aged men. 2. In a randomized, diet-controlled, cross-over trial, subjects consumed dinner with

  4. Acute Alcohol Effects on Repetition Priming and Word Recognition Memory with Equivalent Memory Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Suchismita; Bates, Marsha E.

    2006-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication effects on memory were examined using a recollection-based word recognition memory task and a repetition priming task of memory for the same information without explicit reference to the study context. Memory cues were equivalent across tasks; encoding was manipulated by varying the frequency of occurrence (FOC) of words…

  5. Acute Alcohol Intoxication in Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Characteristics, Recovery and Outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenen, Myrthe; de Koning, Myrthe; van der Horn, Harm; van der Naalt, Joukje; Spikman, Jacoba

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the incidence of acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) at the time of sustaining mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), describe the characteristics of this intoxicated subgroup, and evaluate recovery and outcome in comparison to sober mTBI patients. Methods. Multicenter cohort st

  6. Attentional bias for food and alcohol cues after exposure to commercial advertising : a consumer neuroscience approach

    OpenAIRE

    Keitiline Ramos Viacava

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how commercial stimuli may affect individuals’ behavior and health is one of the main questions in Consumer Neuroscience. Thus, the main aim of this thesis was to investigate the role of exposure to commercial advertising on attentional bias for food and alcohol cues in a set of studies. There were similarities in the use of visuoperceptual content in advertisements for tobacco, alcohol and food in Brazil (study 1); and high proportion (75%) of unhealthy food commercials in the ...

  7. Chronic-Alcohol-Abuse-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Development of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol ingestion increases the risk of developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, a severe form of acute lung injury, characterized by alveolar epithelial and endothelial barrier disruption and intense inflammation. Alcohol abuse is also associated with a higher incidence of sepsis or pneumonia resulting in a higher rate of admittance to intensive care, longer inpatient stays, higher healthcare costs, and a 2–4 times greater mortality rate. Chronic alcohol ingestion induced severe oxidative stress associated with increased ROS generation, depletion of the critical antioxidant glutathione (GSH, and oxidation of the thiol/disulfide redox potential in the alveolar epithelial lining fluid and exhaled breath condensate. Across intracellular and extracellular GSH pools in alveolar type II cells and alveolar macrophages, chronic alcohol ingestion consistently induced a 40–60 mV oxidation of GSH/GSSG suggesting that the redox potentials of different alveolar GSH pools are in equilibrium. Alcohol-induced GSH depletion or oxidation was associated with impaired functions of alveolar type II cells and alveolar macrophages but could be reversed by restoring GSH pools in the alveolar lining fluid. The aims of this paper are to address the mechanisms for alcohol-induced GSH depletion and oxidation and the subsequent effects in alveolar barrier integrity, modulation of the immune response, and apoptosis.

  8. Youth exposure to alcohol advertising in magazines--United States, 2001-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-03

    Alcohol consumption among persons aged 12-20 years contributes to the three leading causes of death (unintentional injury, homicide, and suicide) in this age group in the United States and is associated with other health-risk behaviors, including high-risk sexual activity, smoking, and physical fighting. Recent studies have documented the contribution of alcohol marketing to underage drinking. In 2000, the trade association for the wine industry changed its voluntary marketing code to stop advertising in magazines in which youths aged 12-20 years were >30% of the audience. In 2003, this threshold was adopted by the trade associations for beer and liquor producers. To determine the proportion of alcohol advertisements placed in magazines with disproportionately large youth readerships (i.e., >15% of readers aged 12-20 years) and to assess the proportion of youths exposed to these advertisements, the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth (Health Policy Institute, Georgetown University, District of Columbia) evaluated the placement of alcohol advertisements in 143 national magazines for which readership composition data were available for 2001-2005; these 143 publications accounted for approximately 90% of expenditures for all alcohol advertising in national print magazines. This report summarizes the results of that study, which indicated that alcohol advertising remained common in magazines with >15% youth readership but decreased substantially in magazines with >30% youth readership. These results suggest that although voluntary industry standards have reduced youth exposure to alcohol advertising in magazines, strengthening these standards by establishing a >15% youth readership threshold would further reduce exposure. In addition, independent monitoring of youth exposure to alcohol advertising should continue, as recommended by the U.S. Congress and Surgeon General.

  9. A new treatment for cognitive disorders related to in utero exposure to alcohol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuang Li; Yan Zhang; Feng Zhu; Bin Zhang; Jianying Lin; Chunyang Xu; Wancai Yang; Wei Hao; Ruiling Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy has detrimental effects on fetal central nervous system development. Maternal alcohol consumption prior to and during pregnancy significantly affects cognitive functions in offspring, which may be related to changes in cyclin-dependent kinase 5 because it is associated with modulation of synaptic plasticity and impaired learning and memory. In this study, we examined adult offspring in a maternal alcohol consumption model in rats. Y-maze test results showed that in utero exposure to alcohol impairs learning and memory capacities. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 mRNA and protein expressions in the hippocampus of the offspring were significantly elevated, as assayed by quantitative real-time PCR and reverse transcription-PCR, immunofluorescence, and immuno-precipitation. Our experimental findings strongly suggest that altered cyclin-dependent kinase 5 may mediate impaired learning and memory in adult rats that were exposed to alcohol by maternal consumption while in utero.

  10. Acute Alcohol Intoxication Decreases Glucose Metabolism but Increases Acetate Uptake in the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkow, Nora D.; Kim, Sung Won; Wang, Gene-Jack; Alexoff, David; Logan, Jean; Muench, Lisa; Shea, Colleen; Telang, Frank; Fowler, Joanna S.; Wong, Christopher; Benveniste, Helene; Tomasi, Dardo

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol intoxication results in marked reductions in brain glucose metabolism, which we hypothesized reflect not just its GABAergic enhancing effects but also metabolism of acetate as an alternative brain energy source. To test this hypothesis we separately assessed the effects of alcohol intoxication on brain glucose and acetate metabolism using Positron Emission Tomography (PET). We found that alcohol intoxication significantly decreased whole brain glucose metabolism (measured with FDG) with the largest decrements in cerebellum and occipital cortex and the smallest in thalamus. In contrast, alcohol intoxication caused a significant increase in [1-11C]acetate brain uptake (measured as standard uptake value, SUV), with the largest increases occurring in cerebellum and the smallest in thalamus. In heavy alcohol drinkers [1-11C]acetate brain uptake during alcohol challenge trended to be higher than in occasional drinkers (p <0.06) and the increases in [1-11C]acetate uptake in cerebellum with alcohol were positively associated with the reported amount of alcohol consumed (r=0.66, p<0.01). Our findings corroborate a reduction of brain glucose metabolism during intoxication and document an increase in brain acetate uptake. The opposite changes observed between regional brain metabolic decrements and regional increases in [1-11C]acetate uptake support the hypothesis that during alcohol intoxication the brain may rely on acetate as an alternative brain energy source and provides preliminary evidence that heavy alcohol exposures may facilitate the use of acetate as an energy substrate. These findings raise the question of the potential therapeutic benefits that increasing plasma acetate concentration (ie ketogenic diets) may have in alcoholics undergoing alcohol detoxification. PMID:22947541

  11. Effects of Acute Exposures to Carbon Dioxide upon Cognitive Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, V. E.; Scully, R. R.; Alexander, D. J.; Lam, C. W.; Young, M.; Satish, U.; Basner, M.

    2017-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) originates from human metabolism and typically remains about 10-fold higher in concentration on the International Space Station (ISS) than at the earth's surface. There have been recurring complaints by crew members of episodes of "mental viscosity" adversely affecting their performance, and there is evidence from the ISS that associates CO2 levels with reports of headaches by crewmembers. Consequently, flight rules have been employed to control CO2 below 3 mm Hg, which is well below the existing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentration (SMAC) of 10 mm Hg for 24-hour exposures, and 5.3 mm Hg for exposures of 7 to 180 days. Headaches, while sometime debilitating themselves, are also symptoms that can provide evidence that physiological defense mechanisms have been breached, and there is evidence that CO2 has effects at levels below the threshold for headaches. This concern appears to be substantiated in reports that CO2 at concentrations below 2 mm Hg substantially reduced some cognitive functions that are associated with the ability to make complex decisions in conditions that are characterized by volatility, uncertainty, complexity, ambiguity, and delayed feedback. These are conditions that could be encountered by crews in off-nominal situations or during the first missions beyond low earth orbit. Therefore, we set out to determine if decision-making under volatile, uncertain, confusing and ambiguous circumstances, where feedback is delayed or absent, is correlated with low levels of CO2 during acute exposures (several hours) in crew-like subjects and to determine if additional cognitive domains are sensitive to concentrations of CO2 at, or below, current ISS levels by using a test battery that is currently available onboard ISS. We enrolled 22 volunteers (8 females, 14 males) between the ages of 30-55 (38.8 +/- 7.0) years whose training and professional experience reflect that of the astronaut corps. Subjects were divided among 4 study

  12. Acute Psychotic Symptoms due to Benzydamine Hydrochloride Abuse with Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Ayhan Acar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Benzydamine hydrochloride is a locally acting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Benzydamine hydrochloride overdose can cause stimulation of central nervous system, hallucinations, and psychosis. We presented a young man with psychotic symptoms due to benzydamine hydrochloride abuse. He received a total dose of 1000 mg benzydamine hydrochloride with alcohol for its hallucinative effects. Misuse of benzydamine hydrochloride must be considered in differential diagnosis of first-episode psychosis and physicians should consider possibility of abuse in prescribing.

  13. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Persistently Impacts Adult Neurobiology and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Crews, Fulton T.; Vetreno, Ryan P.; Broadwater, Margaret A.; Robinson, Donita L.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period when physical and cognitive abilities are optimized, when social skills are consolidated, and when sexuality, adolescent behaviors, and frontal cortical functions mature to adult levels. Adolescents also have unique responses to alcohol compared with adults, being less sensitive to ethanol sedative–motor responses that most likely contribute to binge drinking and blackouts. Population studies find that an early age of drinking onset correlates with increa...

  14. Inhalation exposure system used for acute and repeated-dose methyl isocyanate exposures of laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, B; O'Connor, R W; Dement, J M

    1987-06-01

    Laboratory animals were exposed by inhalation for 2 hr/day (acute) or 6 hr/day (four consecutive days, repeated dose) to methyl isocyanate (MIC). Exposures were conducted in stainless steel and glass inhalation exposure chambers placed in stainless steel, wire mesh cages. MIC was delivered with nitrogen via stainless steel and Teflon supply lines. Chamber concentrations ranged from 0 to 60 ppm and were monitored continuously with infrared spectrophotometers to 1 ppm and at 2-hr intervals to 20 ppb with a high performance liquid chromatograph equipped with a fluorescence detector. Other operational parameters monitored on a continuous basis included chamber temperature (20-27 degrees C), relative humidity (31-64%), static (transmural) pressure (-0.3 in.), and flow (300-500 L/min). The computer-assistance system interfaced with the inhalation exposure laboratory is described in detail, including the analytical instrumentation calibration system used throughout this investigation.

  15. Youth exposure to alcohol advertising on television--25 markets, United States, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    Excessive alcohol consumption accounted for an estimated 4,700 deaths and 280,000 years of potential life lost among youths aged marketing increases the likelihood to varying degrees that youths will initiate drinking and drink at higher levels. By 2003, the alcohol industry voluntarily agreed not to advertise on television programs where >30% of the audience is reasonably expected to be aged advertising". Because local media markets might have different age distributions, the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, evaluated the proportion of advertisements that appeared on television programs in 25 local television markets* and resulting youth exposure that exceeded the industry standard (i.e., >30% aged 2-20 years) or the proposed NRC/IOM standard (i.e., >15% aged 12-20 years). Among national television programs with alcohol advertising, placements were assessed for the 10 programs with the largest number of youth viewers within each of four program categories: network sports, network nonsports, cable sports, and cable nonsports (40 total). Of the 196,494 alcohol advertisements that aired on television programs with the largest number of youth viewers in these local markets, placement of 23.7% exceeded the industry threshold and 35.4% exceeded the NRC/IOM threshold. These results indicate that the alcohol industry's self-regulation of its advertising could be improved, and youth exposure to alcohol advertising could be further reduced by adopting and complying with the NRC/IOM standard. In addition, continued public health surveillance would allow for sustained assessment of youth exposure to alcohol advertising and inform future interventions.

  16. Assessment of Exposure to Alcohol Vapor from Alcohol-Based Hand Rubs

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier Thomas; Vincent Bessonneau

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This study assessed the inhaled dose of alcohol during hand disinfection. Experiments were conducted with two types of hand rub using two hand disinfection procedures. Air samples were collected every 10 s from the breathing zone, by bubbling through a mixture of K2Cr2O7 and H2SO4. The reduction of dichromate ions in the presence of alcohols was followed by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The difference in intensity of the dichromate absorption peak was used to quantify the ...

  17. Acute symptoms during non-inhalation exposure to combinations of toluene, trichloroethylene, and n-hexane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    To study the acute effect of exposure to a mixture of three commonly used solvents in humans using a route of exposure not involving the nose and lungs, in this case a gastrointestinal application....

  18. Depression of contraction and the calcium transient in single cardiomyocytes with acute ethanol exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozanski, D.J.; Delaville, F.J.; Thomas, A.P. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The mechanism by which acute ethanol (ET) exposure causes reversible myocardial dysfunction is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of ET exposure on contraction and cytosolic free Ca[sup 2+] ([Ca[sup 2+

  19. Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: In order to understand the etiological burden of disease associated with acute health symptoms (e.g. gastrointestinal [GI], respiratory, dermatological), it is important to understand how common exposures influence these symptoms. Exposures to familiar and unfamiliar ...

  20. [Comparative characteristics of glucose metabolism in the liver of rats under acute alcohol and morphine intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelevich, S V

    2011-01-01

    The comparative analysis effect of acute alcohol and morphine intoxications on rats on hepatic glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway was done. The dose-dependent inhibitory effect of ethanol on activity of limiting enzymes of these metabolic ways, as well as anaerobic reorientation of glucose metabolism was recognised with the increase of the dose of the intake alcohol. Morfine (10 mg/kg) activated enymes of glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway, but in contrast to ethanol it did not influence these parameters at the dose 20 or 40 mg/kg.

  1. A Heart too Drunk to Drive; AV Block following Acute Alcohol Intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Stigt, Arthur H; Overduin, Ruben J; Staats, Liza C; Loen, Vera; van der Heyden, Marcel A G

    2016-02-29

    Acute excessive alcohol consumption is associated with heart rhythm disorders like atrial fibrillation but also premature ventricular contractions, collectively known as the "holiday heart syndrome". More rarely but clinically significant are reports of atrioventricular (AV) conduction disturbances in binge drinkers with no underlying heart disease or chronic alcohol consumption. To obtain better insights into common denominators and the potential underlying mechanisms we collected and compared individual case reports of AV block following acute alcohol intoxication in otherwise healthy people. By screening PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus and JSTOR, fifteen cases were found of which eight were sufficiently documented for full analysis. Blood alcohol levels ranged from 90 to 958 mg/dl (19 to 205 mM). Second and third degree AV block was observed most (6/8) albeit that in two of these patients a vagal stimulus led to deterioration from first into higher order AV block. In all cases, patients reverted to normal sinus rhythm upon becoming sober again. Mildly lowered body temperature (35.9 ± 0.5°C) was observed but can be excluded as a major cause of conduction blockade. We hypothesize that ethanol induced partial inhibition of calcium and potentially also sodium currents in conductive tissue structures may be one of the mechanisms of conduction slowing and block that may become exaggerated upon increased vagal tone. An impairment of gap junction function cannot be excluded as a contributing factor. In conclusion, cases of documented alcohol induced AV block are very rare but events can occur at relatively low serum alcohol levels which should prompt to awareness of this phenomenon in alcohol intoxicated patients.

  2. Prenatal exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and coffee and the risk for febrile seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, M; Wisborg, K; Henriksen, TB

    2005-01-01

    of extensive brain growth and differentiation in this period. We evaluated the association between prenatal exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and coffee and the risk for febrile seizures in 2 population-based birth cohorts. METHODS: The Aarhus Birth Cohort consisted of 25,196 children of mothers who were...... Birth Cohort, but the corresponding association was weak in the Aalborg-Odense cohort. We found no association between maternal alcohol and coffee consumption and the risk for febrile seizures. The results were similar for simple and complex febrile seizures. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that prenatal...... exposure to low to moderate levels of alcohol and coffee has no impact on the risk for febrile seizures, whereas a modest smoking effect cannot be ruled out....

  3. Prologue: Understanding Children Who Have Been Affected by Maltreatment and Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyter, Yvette D.

    2007-01-01

    This prologue introduces an important topic for multiple disciplines involved with children and their families. This introduction includes a review of some of the current literature on the effects of maltreatment and prenatal alcohol exposure on child development, an explanation of why this topic is essential learning for communication…

  4. Violence Exposure and Early Adolescent Alcohol Use: An Exploratory Study of Family Risk and Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kelli W.; Kliewer, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    In this short-term longitudinal exploratory interview study, the relations between exposure to community violence and subsequent alcohol use were examined, with a focus on caregiver and family variables as moderators. Maternal caregivers and their children (N = 101 families; 98% African American; M child age = 11.2 yrs) were interviewed separately…

  5. Chronic alcohol exposure inhibits biotin uptake by pancreatic acinar cells: possible involvement of epigenetic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Padmanabhan; Kapadia, Rubina; Biswas, Arundhati; Said, Hamid M

    2014-11-01

    Chronic exposure to alcohol affects different physiological aspects of pancreatic acinar cells (PAC), but its effect on the uptake process of biotin is not known. We addressed this issue using mouse-derived pancreatic acinar 266-6 cells chronically exposed to alcohol and wild-type and transgenic mice (carrying the human SLC5A6 5'-promoter) fed alcohol chronically. First we established that biotin uptake by PAC is Na(+) dependent and carrier mediated and involves sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT). Chronic exposure of 266-6 cells to alcohol led to a significant inhibition in biotin uptake, expression of SMVT protein, and mRNA as well as in the activity of the SLC5A6 promoter. Similarly, chronic alcohol feeding of wild-type and transgenic mice carrying the SLC5A6 promoter led to a significant inhibition in biotin uptake by PAC, as well as in the expression of SMVT protein and mRNA and the activity of the SLC5A6 promoters expressed in the transgenic mice. We also found that chronic alcohol feeding of mice is associated with a significant increase in the methylation status of CpG islands predicted to be in the mouse Slc5a6 promoters and a decrease in the level of expression of transcription factor KLF-4, which plays an important role in regulating SLC5A6 promoter activity. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that chronic alcohol exposure negatively impacts biotin uptake in PAC and that this effect is exerted (at least in part) at the level of transcription of the SLC5A6 gene and may involve epigenetic/molecular mechanisms.

  6. The CRHR1 gene, trauma exposure, and alcoholism risk: a test of G × E effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, L A; Sehl, M; Bujarski, S; Hutchison, K; Blaine, S; Enoch, M-A

    2013-06-01

    The corticotropin-releasing hormone type I receptor (CRHR1) gene has been implicated in the liability for neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly under conditions of stress. On the basis of the hypothesized effects of CRHR1 variation on stress reactivity, measures of adulthood traumatic stress exposure were analyzed for their interaction with CRHR1 haplotypes and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in predicting the risk for alcoholism. Phenotypic data on 2533 non-related Caucasian individuals (1167 alcoholics and 1366 controls) were culled from the publically available Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment genome-wide association study. Genotypes were available for 19 tag SNPs. Logistic regression models examined the interaction between CRHR1 haplotypes/SNPs and adulthood traumatic stress exposure in predicting alcoholism risk. Two haplotype blocks spanned CRHR1. Haplotype analyses identified one haplotype in the proximal block 1 (P = 0.029) and two haplotypes in the distal block 2 (P = 0.026, 0.042) that showed nominally significant (corrected P alcoholism. The block 1 haplotype effect was driven by SNPs rs110402 (P = 0.019) and rs242924 (P = 0.019). In block 2, rs17689966 (P = 0.018) showed significant and rs173365 (P = 0.026) showed nominally significant, gene × environment (G × E) effects on alcoholism status. This study extends the literature on the interplay between CRHR1 variation and alcoholism, in the context of exposure to traumatic stress. These findings are consistent with the hypothesized role of the extra hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor system dysregulation in the initiation and maintenance of alcoholism. Molecular and experimental studies are needed to more fully understand the mechanisms of risk and protection conferred by genetic variation at the identified loci.

  7. Statistical modeling of volume of alcohol exposure for epidemiological studies of population health: the US example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gmel Gerrit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol consumption is a major risk factor in the global burden of disease, with overall volume of exposure as the principal underlying dimension. Two main sources of data on volume of alcohol exposure are available: surveys and per capita consumption derived from routine statistics such as taxation. As both sources have significant problems, this paper presents an approach that triangulates information from both sources into disaggregated estimates in line with the overall level of per capita consumption. Methods A modeling approach was applied to the US using data from a large and representative survey, the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Different distributions (log-normal, gamma, Weibull were used to model consumption among drinkers in subgroups defined by sex, age, and ethnicity. The gamma distribution was used to shift the fitted distributions in line with the overall volume as derived from per capita estimates. Implications for alcohol-attributable fractions were presented, using liver cirrhosis as an example. Results The triangulation of survey data with aggregated per capita consumption data proved feasible and allowed for modeling of alcohol exposure disaggregated by sex, age, and ethnicity. These models can be used in combination with risk relations for burden of disease calculations. Sensitivity analyses showed that the gamma distribution chosen yielded very similar results in terms of fit and alcohol-attributable mortality as the other tested distributions. Conclusions Modeling alcohol consumption via the gamma distribution was feasible. To further refine this approach, research should focus on the main assumptions underlying the approach to explore differences between volume estimates derived from surveys and per capita consumption figures.

  8. Ethanol Exposure Alters Protein Expression in a Mouse Model of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Mason

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol exposure during development can result in variable growth retardation and facial dysmorphology known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Although the mechanisms underlying the disorder are not fully understood, recent progress has been made that alcohol induces aberrant changes in gene expression and in the epigenome of embryos. To inform the gene and epigenetic changes in alcohol-induced teratology, we used whole-embryo culture to identify the alcohol-signature protein profile of neurulating C6 mice. Alcohol-treated and control cultures were homogenized, isoelectrically focused, and loaded for 2D gel electrophoresis. Stained gels were cross matched with analytical software. We identified 40 differentially expressed protein spots (P<0.01, and 9 spots were selected for LC/MS-MS identification. Misregulated proteins include serotransferrin, triosephosphate isomerase and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 N. Misregulation of serotransferrin and triosephosphate isomerase was confirmed with immunologic analysis. Alteration of proteins with roles in cellular function, cell cycle, and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway was induced by alcohol. Several misregulated proteins interact with effectors of the NF-κB and Myc transcription factor cascades. Using a whole-embryo culture, we have identified misregulated proteins known to be involved in nervous system development and function.

  9. Acanthoic Acid Can Partially Prevent Alcohol Exposure-Induced Liver Lipid Deposition and Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, You-Li; Han, Xin; Li, Zhi-Man; Lian, Li-Hua; Nan, Ji-Xing; Wu, Yan-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The present study aims to detect the effect of acanthoic acid (AA) on alcohol exposure-induced liver lipid deposition and inflammation, and to explore the mechanisms. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with single dose of AA (20 and 40 mg/kg) by oral gavage or equal volume of saline, and then exposed to three doses of ethanol (5 g/kg body weight, 25%, w/v) by gavage within 24 h. The mice were sacrificed at 6 h after the last ethanol dosing. Serum and hepatic indexes were detected by western blot, RT-PCR, and histopathological assay. AML-12 cells were pretreated with AA (5, 10, 20 μM), or AICAR (500 μM), GW3965 (1 μM), SRT1720 (6 μM), Nicotinamide (20 mM) for 2 h, respectively, and then following treated with EtOH (200 mM) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (10 ng/ml) for additional 48 h. Cell protein and mRNA were collected for western blot and RT-PCR. Cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) release were detected by ELISA assay. Results: It was found that AA significantly decreased acute ethanol-induced increasing of the serum ALT/AST, LDH, ALP levels, and hepatic and serum triglyceride levels, and reduced fat droplets accumulation in mice liver. AA significantly suppressed the levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1), IL-1β, and caspase-1 induced by ethanol. Furthermore, a significant decline of sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and liver X receptors (LXRs) levels was observed in EtOH group, compared with normal group mice. And AA pretreatment increased the Sirt1 and LXRs levels, and also ameliorated phosphorylation of liver kinase B-1 (LKB-1), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) proteins, compared with EtOH group. However, the levels of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor -α or -γ (PPAR-α or PPAR-γ) induced by acute ethanol were reversed by AA. In EtOH/LPS cultivated AML-12 cells, AA decreased IL-1β and TNF-α levels, lipid

  10. Prenatal alcohol and other early childhood adverse exposures: Direct and indirect pathways to adolescent drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Marie D.; De Genna, Natacha M.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L.

    2016-01-01

    We examined direct and indirect pathways between adverse environmental exposures during gestation and childhood and drinking in mid-adolescence. Mothers and their offspring (n = 917 mother/child dyads) were followed prospectively from second trimester to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14 years. Adverse environmental factors included gestational exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, exposures to childhood maltreatment and violence, maternal psychological symptoms, parenting practices, economic and home environments, and demographic characteristics of the mother and child. Indirect effects of early child behavioral characteristics including externalizing, internalizing activity, attention, and impulsivity were also examined. Polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate direct effects of adverse environmental exposures with level of adolescent drinking. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to simultaneously estimate the relation between early adversity variables, childhood characteristics, and drinking level at age 16 while controlling for significant covariates. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was directly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to drink at higher levels. There was a significant indirect effect between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent drinking via childhood externalizing behavior problems. All other hypothesized indirect pathways were not significant. Thus most of the early adversity measures directly predicted adolescent drinking and did not operate via childhood behavioral dysregulation characteristics. These results highlight the importance of adverse environmental exposures on pathways to adolescent drinking. PMID:26994529

  11. Assessment of exposure to alcohol vapor from alcohol-based hand rubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessonneau, Vincent; Thomas, Olivier

    2012-03-01

    This study assessed the inhaled dose of alcohol during hand disinfection. Experiments were conducted with two types of hand rub using two hand disinfection procedures. Air samples were collected every 10 s from the breathing zone, by bubbling through a mixture of K(2)Cr(2)O(7) and H(2)SO(4). The reduction of dichromate ions in the presence of alcohols was followed by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The difference in intensity of the dichromate absorption peak was used to quantify the alcohol concentration expressed in ethanol equivalent. During hygienic hand disinfection, the mean ethanol equivalent concentrations peaked at around 20-30 s for both hand rubs (14.3 ± 1.4 mg/L for hand rub 1 and 13.2 ± 0.7 mg/L for hand rub 2). During surgical hand disinfection, two peaks were found at the same time (40 and 80 s) for both hand rubs. The highest mean concentrations were 20.2 ± 0.9 mg/L for hand rub 1 and 18.1 ± 0.9 mg/L for hand rub 2. For hand rub 1, the total absorbed doses, calculated from ethanol with an inhalation flow of 24 L/min and an absorption rate of 62%, were 46.5 mg after one hygienic hand disinfection and 203.9 mg after one surgical hand disinfection. Although the use of ABHRs leads to the absorption of very low doses, sudden, repeated inhalation of high alcohol concentrations raises the question of possible adverse health effects.

  12. Assessment of Exposure to Alcohol Vapor from Alcohol-Based Hand Rubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Thomas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the inhaled dose of alcohol during hand disinfection. Experiments were conducted with two types of hand rub using two hand disinfection procedures. Air samples were collected every 10 s from the breathing zone, by bubbling through a mixture of K2Cr2O7 and H2SO4. The reduction of dichromate ions in the presence of alcohols was followed by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The difference in intensity of the dichromate absorption peak was used to quantify the alcohol concentration expressed in ethanol equivalent. During hygienic hand disinfection, the mean ethanol equivalent concentrations peaked at around 20–30 s for both hand rubs (14.3 ± 1.4 mg/L for hand rub 1 and 13.2 ± 0.7 mg/L for hand rub 2. During surgical hand disinfection, two peaks were found at the same time (40 and 80 s for both hand rubs. The highest mean concentrations were 20.2 ± 0.9 mg/L for hand rub 1 and 18.1 ± 0.9 mg/L for hand rub 2. For hand rub 1, the total absorbed doses, calculated from ethanol with an inhalation flow of 24 L/min and an absorption rate of 62%, were 46.5 mg after one hygienic hand disinfection and 203.9 mg after one surgical hand disinfection. Although the use of ABHRs leads to the absorption of very low doses, sudden, repeated inhalation of high alcohol concentrations raises the question of possible adverse health effects.

  13. [Effect of acute alcohol intoxication on lipid peroxidation in testis and adrenal glands of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokha, A M; Kashko, M F; Antsulevich, S N; Doroshkevich, N A; Voronov, P P

    1993-01-01

    Hormones level and lipid peroxidation processes under influence of acute alcohol intoxication are tested in testes and adrenals of rats. Ethanol marker effects--the rise of corticosterone biosynthesis and depression of testosterone concentration--were reproduced in the experiment. At the moment of maximal changes in steroid levels indices characterising lipid peroxidation didn't differ from the control. At the early stage of the experiment transient shifts in malonic dialdehyde and dienic conjugates levels were noted. The data obtained does not agree with the hypothesis of acute ethanol effects in testes and adrenals being mediated through the changes of lipid peroxidation rate.

  14. Environmental properties of long chain alcohols. Part 1: Physicochemical, environmental fate and acute aquatic toxicity properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisk, Peter; Sanderson, Hans; Wildey, Ross;

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarises the physicochemical, biodegradation and acute aquatic ecotoxicity properties of long chain aliphatic alcohols. Properties of pure compounds are shown to follow somewhat predictable trends, which are amenable to estimation by quantitative structure-activity relationships ((Q......)SARs). This allows predictions of data relating to human and environmental safety profiles and patterns. These alcohols have been shown to be rapidly degradable under standard conditions up to C18. Furthermore, evidence suggests that longer chain lengths are also rapidly biodegradable. While log Kow values suggest...... possible bioaccumulation potential, available data suggest that these substances are not as bioaccumulative as estimations would predict. For acute aquatic toxicity, solubility limits the possibility of effects being appropriately observed and become increasingly challenging above C12. Further, a model has...

  15. Changes in Cardiac Autonomic Regulation after Acute Lung Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes: Implications for Occupational Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo M. Legramante

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are among the most relevant engineered nanomaterials (ENMs. Given the expected rise of exposure to ENMs, there is concern that they may adversely affect health of exposed people. Aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs pulmonary exposure acutely affect the autonomic cardiovascular regulation in conscious rats. We studied Wistar-Kyoto rats in which a telemetry transmitter for continuous arterial pressure (AP and heart rate (HR recordings was surgically implanted. SWCNTs dispersed in phosphate buffer saline (PBS or PBS alone were randomly administered intratracheally. Immediately before, and 24 hours after each instillation a 30 min AP recording was performed. The sequence analysis was performed to evaluate the baroreflex function. In the control group, PBS instillation did not induce any significant changes. At variance the SWCNT exposure induced a significant reduction of baroreflex system (BRS (3.5±0.6 versus 2.6±0.40 msec/mmHg without significant changes in the occurrence of baroreflex sequences (7.5±0.47% versus 7.4±0.38%. Our results show that SWCNT pulmonary exposure might affect the cardiovascular autonomic regulation thus contributing to cardiac and arrhythmic events.

  16. Repeated exposure to conditioned fear stress increases anxiety and delays sleep recovery following exposure to an acute traumatic stressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin N Greenwood

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated stressor exposure can sensitize physiological responses to novel stressors and facilitate the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety. Disruptions in diurnal rhythms of sleep-wake behavior accompany stress-related psychiatric disorders and could contribute to their development. Complex stressors that include fear-eliciting stimuli can be a component of repeated stress experienced by humans, but whether exposure to repeated fear can prime the development of anxiety and sleep disturbances is unknown. In the current study, adult male F344 rats were exposed to either control conditions or repeated contextual fear conditioning for 22 days followed by exposure to either no, mild (10, or severe (100 acute uncontrollable tail shock stress. Exposure to acute stress produced anxiety-like behavior as measured by a reduction in juvenile social exploration and exaggerated shock-elicited freezing in a novel context. Prior exposure to repeated fear enhanced anxiety-like behavior as measured by shock-elicited freezing, but did not alter social exploratory behavior. The potentiation of anxiety produced by prior repeated fear was temporary; exaggerated fear was present 1 day but not 4 days following acute stress. Interestingly, exposure to acute stress reduced REM and NREM sleep during the hours immediately following acute stress. This initial reduction in sleep was followed by robust REM rebound and diurnal rhythm flattening of sleep / wake behavior. Prior repeated fear extended the acute stress-induced REM and NREM sleep loss, impaired REM rebound, and prolonged the flattening of the diurnal rhythm of NREM sleep following acute stressor exposure. These data suggest that impaired recovery of sleep / wake behavior following acute stress could contribute to the mechanisms by which a history of prior repeated stress increases vulnerability to subsequent novel stressors and stress-related disorders.

  17. Determination of in Histochemical Changes of Internal Organs Under Acute Alcoholic Intoxications in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vugar Mammadov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: During forensic-medical autopsies experts must very often assess degree and the role of acute alcohol intoxications in mechanisms of death. This becomes more actual in the cases of sudden death from different diseases especially cardiac, brain and liver origin, mechanical injuries, mechanical asphyxia etc. METHOD: This study aims to show that blood concentration of alcohol must not be only criteria during assessment of severity of intoxications and their influence on patogenesis. Epidemiological screening of 320 medico-legal reports assesses the role of sex, age, ethnicity and other peculiarities. RESULTS: Special histochemical investigations of ethanol oxidizing enzymes were also conducted on materials taken from 167 autopsies. CONCLUSION: Study suggests that morpho-functional histochemical tests must be entered in the list of methods of postmortem diagnostics during autopsies of cases with the background of ethanol poisoning, especially for differential diagnosis of acute alcohol intoxication, alcohol cardiomyopathy and ischemic heart disease. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(6.000: 641-648

  18. Injury to skeletal muscle of mice following acute and sub-acute pregabalin exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshiri, Mohammad; Moallem, Seyed Adel; Attaranzadeh, Armin; Saberi, Zahra; Etemad, Leila

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): Pregabalin (PGB) is a new antiepileptic drug that has received FDA approval for patient who suffers from central neuropathic pain, partial seizures, generalized anxiety disorder, fibromyalgia and sleep disorders. This study was undertaken to evaluate the possible adverse effects of PGB on the muscular system of mice. Materials and Methods: To evaluate the effect of PGB on skeletal muscle, the animals were exposed to a single dose of 1, 2 or 5 g /kg or daily doses of 20, 40 or 80 mg/kg for 21 days, intraperitoneally (IP). Twaenty-four hr after the last drug administration, all animals were sacrificed. The level of fast-twitch skeletal muscle troponin I and CK-MM activity were evaluated in blood as an indicator of muscle injury. Skeletal muscle pathological findings were also reported as scores ranging from 1 to 3 based on the observed lesion. Results: In the acute and sub-acute toxicity assay IP injection of PGB significantly increased the activity and levels of CK-MM and fsTnI compared to the control group. Sub-acute exposure to PGB caused damages that include muscle atrophy, infiltration of inflammatory cells and cell degeneration. Conclusion: PGB administration especially in long term care causes muscle atrophy with infiltration of inflammatory cells and cell degeneration. The fsTnI and CK-MM are reliable markers in PGB-related muscle injury. The exact mechanisms behind the muscular damage are unclear and necessitate further investigations. PMID:28392896

  19. Chronic Ethanol Exposure Effects on Vitamin D Levels Among Subjects with Alcohol Use Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsakin, Olalekan; Hottor, Tete; Mehta, Ashish; Lichtveld, Maureen; McCaskill, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D has been previously recognized to play important roles in human immune system and function. In the pulmonary system, vitamin D regulates the function of antimicrobial peptides, especially cathelicidin/LL-37. Human cathelicidin/LL-37 is a bactericidal, bacteriostatic, and antiviral endogenous peptide with protective immune functions. Chronic exposure to excessive alcohol has the potential to reduce levels of vitamin D (inactive vitamin D [25(OH)D3] and active vitamin D [1, 25(OH)2D3]) and leads to downregulation of cathelicidin/LL-37. Alcohol-mediated reduction of LL-37 may be partly responsible for increased incidence of more frequent and severe respiratory infections among subjects with alcohol use disorder (AUD). The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which alcohol exerts its influence on vitamin D metabolism. In addition, the aim was to establish associations between chronic alcohol exposures, levels of pulmonary vitamin D, and cathelicidin/LL-37 using broncho-alveolar lavage fluid samples of subjects with AUD and healthy controls. Findings from the experiment showed that levels of inactive vitamin D (25(OH)D3), active vitamin D (1, 25(OH)2D3), cathelicidin/LL-37, and CYP27B1 proteins were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) when compared with the matched healthy control group. However, CYP2E1 was elevated in all the samples examined. Chronic exposure to alcohol has the potential to reduce the levels of pulmonary vitamin D and results in subsequent downregulation of the antimicrobial peptide, LL-37, in the human pulmonary system. PMID:27795667

  20. Moderate alcohol exposure during early brain development increases stimulus-response habits in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Matthew O; Evans, Alexandra M-D; Brock, Alistair J; Combe, Fraser J; Teh, Muy-Teck; Brennan, Caroline H

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol during early central nervous system development has been shown variously to affect aspects of physiological and behavioural development. In extreme cases, this can extend to craniofacial defects, severe developmental delay and mental retardation. At more moderate levels, subtle differences in brain morphology and behaviour have been observed. One clear effect of developmental alcohol exposure is an increase in the propensity to develop alcoholism and other addictions. The mechanisms by which this occurs, however, are not currently understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that adult zebrafish chronically exposed to moderate levels of ethanol during early brain ontogenesis would show an increase in conditioned place preference for alcohol and an increased propensity towards habit formation, a key component of drug addiction in humans. We found support for both of these hypotheses and found that the exposed fish had changes in mRNA expression patterns for dopamine receptor, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and μ-opioid receptor encoding genes. Collectively, these data show an explicit link between the increased proclivity for addiction and addiction-related behaviour following exposure to ethanol during early brain development and alterations in the neural circuits underlying habit learning.

  1. Moderate alcohol exposure compromises neural tube midline development in prenatal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng C; Sari, Youssef; Powrozek, Teresa; Goodlett, Charles R; Li, Ting-Kai

    2003-08-12

    We previously reported that fetal alcohol treatment compromised the development of the midline raphe and the serotonin neurons contained in it. In this study, we report that the timely development of midline neural tissue during neural tube formation is sensitive to alcohol exposure. Pregnant dams were treated from embryonic day 7 (E7, prior to neurulation) or E8.5 (at neurulation) with the following diets: (a) alcohol (ALC), given as either a 20% or 25% ethanol-derived calorie (EDC) liquid diet, or (b) isocaloric liquid diet pair-fed (PF), or (c) standard rat chow (Chow). Fetal brains from each group were examined on E13, E15, or E18. Neural tube development was compromised as a result of alcohol exposure in the following ways: (1) approximately 60% of embryos at E13 and 20% at E15 showed perforation of the floor plate in the diencephalic vesicle, (2) although completely closed at E13, 70-80% of embryos failed to complete the formation of neural tissue at the roof as the alcohol exposure continued to E15, and (3) 60-80% of embryos show delayed 'occlusion' of the ventral canal by newly formed nestin-positive neuroepithelial cells and S100beta-positive glia in the brainstem of E15. The compromised (incomplete) neural tube midline (cNTM) occurred near the ventricles at E13 and E15, but was later completed at E18. In all cases, the cNTM was accompanied by an enlarged ventricle, and dose-dependent brain weight reduction. The midline of the neural tube at the roof and floor plates is known to mediate timely trophic induction for neural differentiation. Prenatal midline deficits also have the potential to affect the development of midline neurons such as raphe, septal nuclei, and the timely crossing of commissural fibers. The results of the liquid diet alcohol exposure paradigm suggest it is more a model for Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND) featuring neuropsychiatric disorders than for full-blown fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) with noticeable facial

  2. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  3. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  4. Maltol, a Food Flavoring Agent, Attenuates Acute Alcohol-Induced Oxidative Damage in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of maltol, a food-flavoring agent, on alcohol-induced acute oxidative damage in mice. Maltol used in this study was isolated from red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A Meyer and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and mass spectrometry. For hepatoprotective activity in vivo, pretreatment with maltol (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg; 15 days drastically prevented the elevated activities of aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and triglyceride (TG in serum and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β in liver tissue (p < 0.05. Meanwhile, the levels of hepatic antioxidant, such as catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px were elevated by maltol pretreatment, compared to the alcohol group (p < 0.05. Histopathological examination revealed that maltol pretreatment significantly inhibited alcohol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and fatty degeneration. Interestingly, pretreatment of maltol effectively relieved alcohol-induced oxidative damage in a dose-dependent manner. Maltol appeared to possess promising anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory capacities. It was suggested that the hepatoprotective effect exhibited by maltol on alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury may be due to its potent antioxidant properties.

  5. S100B and homocysteine in the acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedekind, Dirk; Neumann, Karolin; Falkai, Peter; Malchow, Berend; Engel, Kirsten Rita; Jamrozinski, Katja; Havemann-Reinecke, Ursula

    2011-03-01

    Elevations of serum homocysteine levels are a consistent finding in alcohol addiction. Serum S100B levels are altered in different neuropsychiatric disorders but not well investigated in alcohol withdrawal syndromes. Because of the close connection of S100B to ACTH and glutamate secretion that both are involved in neurodegeneration and symptoms of alcoholism the relationship of S100B and homocysteine to acute withdrawal variables has been examined. A total of 22 male and 9 female inpatients (mean age 46.9 ± 9.7 years) with an ICD-10 diagnosis of alcohol addiction without relevant affective comorbidity were examined on admission and after 24, 48, and 120 h during withdrawal. S100B and homocysteine levels in serum were collected, and severity of withdrawal symptoms (AWS-scale), applied withdrawal medication, initial serum ethanol levels and duration of addiction were recorded. Serum S100B and homocysteine levels declined significantly (P < .05) over time. Both levels declined with withdrawal syndrome severity. Females showed a trend to a more intense decline in serum S100B levels compared to males at day 5 (P = .06). Homocysteine levels displayed a negative relationship to applied amount of clomethiazole (P < .05) and correlated with age of onset of addiction. No withdrawal seizures were recorded during the trial. As it is known for homocysteine, S100B revealed to decline rapidly over withdrawal treatment in alcoholism. This effect is more pronounced in female patients. S100B could be of relevance in the neurobiology of alcohol withdrawal syndromes. It may be indirectly related to the level of stress level or glutamatergic activity during alcohol withdrawal.

  6. Exposure to alcohol commercials in movie theatres affects actual alcohol consumption in young adult high weekly drinkers: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption) between

  7. Exposure to alcohol commercials in movie theaters affects actual alcohol consumption in young adult high weekly drinkers: An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption) between

  8. Long-Term Consequences of Developmental Alcohol Exposure on Brain Structure and Function: Therapeutic Benefits of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian F. Hamilton

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Developmental alcohol exposure both early in life and during adolescence can have a devastating impact on normal brain structure and functioning, leading to behavioral and cognitive impairments that persist throughout the lifespan. This review discusses human work as well as animal models used to investigate the effect of alcohol exposure at various time points during development, as well as specific behavioral and neuroanatomical deficits caused by alcohol exposure. Further, cellular and molecular mediators contributing to these alcohol-induced changes are examined, such as neurotrophic factors and apoptotic markers. Next, this review seeks to support the use of aerobic exercise as a potential therapeutic intervention for alcohol-related impairments. To date, few interventions, behavioral or pharmacological, have been proven effective in mitigating some alcohol-related deficits. Exercise is a simple therapy that can be used across species and also across socioeconomic status. It has a profoundly positive influence on many measures of learning and neuroplasticity; in particular, those measures damaged by alcohol exposure. This review discusses current evidence that exercise may mitigate damage caused by developmental alcohol exposure and is a promising therapeutic target for future research and intervention strategies.

  9. Non-alcoholic acute Wernicke's encephalopathy: Role of MRI in non typical cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elefante, Andrea, E-mail: aelefant@unina.it [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Puoti, Gianfranco [I Division of Neurology, General Medicine Department, Second University of Naples, Naples (Italy); Senese, Rossana [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Coppola, Cinzia [I Division of Neurology, General Medicine Department, Second University of Naples, Naples (Italy); Russo, Carmela [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Tortora, Fabio [Department of Neuroradiology, Second University of Naples, Naples (Italy); Divitiis, Oreste de [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Brunetti, Arturo [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Aim: Acute Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is a severe neurological disorder caused by thiamine deficiency, most commonly found in chronic alcoholics. It is not so easy to suspect acute WE when the clinical picture does not include all the typical symptoms and alcohol abuse is not reported. Three rare cases of Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) in non-alcoholic patients are reported. Cases presentation: Two patients developed the disease following prolonged intravenous feeding, the third was carrying a gastric lymphoma. None of them presented with the classic clinical triad of WE (ophtalmoplegia/nystagmus, ataxia and consciousness disturbance), showing just one or two of the typical symptoms. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) represented the key tool to suspect and define WE diagnosis, showing a picture characterized by bilaterally altered signal of the thalamic pulvinar, mesencephalic cup, mammillary bodies, periaqueductal grey matter and floor of fourth ventricle. All patients dramatically improved within 48 h after administration of thiamine. Conclusion: We emphasize that WE should be suspected in all patients showing typical MRI features presenting with at least one of the clinical triad of WE.

  10. Potential Biomarker Peptides Associated with Acute Alcohol-Induced Reduction of Blood Pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Wakabayashi

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the peptides that are related to acute reduction of blood pressure after alcohol drinking. Venous blood was collected from male healthy volunteers before and after drinking white wine (3 ml/kg weight containing 13% of ethanol. Peptidome analysis for serum samples was performed using a new target plate, BLOTCHIP®. Alcohol caused significant decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels at 45 min. The peptidome analysis showed that the levels of three peptides of m/z 1467, 2380 and 2662 changed significantly after drinking. The m/z 1467 and 2662 peptides were identified to be fragments of fibrinogen alpha chain, and the m/z 2380 peptide was identified to be a fragment of complement C4. The intensities of the m/z 2380 and m/z 1467 peptides before drinking were associated with % decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels at 45 min after drinking compared with the levels before drinking, while there were no significant correlations between the intensity of the m/z 2662 peptide and % decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels after drinking. The m/z 1467 and 2380 peptides are suggested to be markers for acute reduction of blood pressure after drinking alcohol.

  11. Injury to skeletal muscle of mice following acute and sub-acute pregabalin exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Moshiri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Pregabalin (PGB is a new antiepileptic drug that has received FDA approval for patient who suffers from central neuropathic pain, partial seizures, generalized anxiety disorder, fibromyalgia and sleep disorders. This study was undertaken to evaluate the possible adverse effects of PGB on the muscular system of mice. Materials and Methods: To evaluate the effect of PGB on skeletal muscle, the animals were exposed to a single dose of 1, 2 or 5 g /kg or daily doses of 20, 40 or 80 mg/kg for 21 days, intraperitoneally (IP. Twaenty-four hr after the last drug administration, all animals were sacrificed. The level of fast-twitch skeletal muscle troponin I and CK-MM activity were evaluated in blood as an indicator of muscle injury. Skeletal muscle pathological findings were also reported as scores ranging from 1 to 3 based on the observed lesion. Results: In the acute and sub-acute toxicity assay IP injection of PGB significantly increased the activity and levels of CK-MM and fsTnI compared to the control group. Sub-acute exposure to PGB caused damages that include muscle atrophy, infiltration of inflammatory cells and cell degeneration. Conclusion: PGB administration especially in long term care causes muscle atrophy with infiltration of inflammatory cells and cell degeneration. The fsTnI and CK-MM are reliable markers in PGB-related muscle injury. The exact mechanisms behind the muscular damage are unclear and necessitate further investigations.

  12. Understanding Specific Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on Brain Structure in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiangchuan; Coles, Claire D.; Lynch, Mary E; Hu, Xiaoping

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is associated with various adverse effects on human brain and behavior. Recently, neuroimaging studies have begun to identify PAE effects on specific brain structures. Investigation of such specific PAE effects is important for understanding the teratogenic mechanism of PAE on human brain, which is critical for differentiating PAE from other disorders. In this structural MRI study with young adults, PAE effects on the volumes of automatically segmented cortical...

  13. Long-term alterations of striatal parvalbumin interneurons in a rat model of early exposure to alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    De Giorgio Andrea; Comparini Sara E; Intra Francesca; Granato Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Exposure to alcohol in utero is a known cause of mental retardation. Although a certain degree of motor impairment is always associated with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, little is known about the neurobiological basis of the defective motor control. We have studied the striatal interneurons containing parvalbumin in a rat model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Methods Newborn rats received ethanol by inhalation from postnatal day two through six and parvalbumin stri...

  14. Long-term alterations of striatal parvalbumin interneurons in a rat model of early exposure to alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    De Giorgio, Andrea; Comparini, Sara E; Intra, Francesca Sangiuliano; Granato, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to alcohol in utero is a known cause of mental retardation. Although a certain degree of motor impairment is always associated with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, little is known about the neurobiological basis of the defective motor control. We have studied the striatal interneurons containing parvalbumin in a rat model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Methods Newborn rats received ethanol by inhalation from postnatal day two through six and parvalbumin striatal neur...

  15. Tracking Adolescents with GPS-enabled Cell Phones to Study Contextual Exposures and Alcohol and Marijuana Use: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.; Wiebe, Douglas J.; Morrison, Christopher N.; Remer, Lillian G.; Wiehe, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Measuring activity spaces, places adolescents spend time, provides information about relations between contextual exposures and risk behaviors. We studied whether contextual exposures in adolescents’ activity spaces differ from contextual risks present in residential contexts and examined relationships between contextual exposures in activity spaces and alcohol/marijuana use. Methods Adolescents (N=18) aged 16–17 carried GPS-enabled smartphones for one week, with locations tracked. Activity spaces were created by connecting GPS points sequentially and adding buffers. Contextual exposure data (e.g., alcohol outlets) were connected to routes. Adolescents completed texts regarding behaviors. Results Adolescent activity spaces intersected 24.3 census tracts and contained 9 times more alcohol outlets than residential census tracts. Outlet exposure in activity spaces was related to drinking. Low SES exposure was related to marijuana use. Conclusions Findings suggest substantial differences between activity spaces and residential contexts, and suggest that activity spaces are relevant for adolescent risk behaviors. PMID:26206448

  16. Large-scale analysis of acute ethanol exposure in zebrafish development: a critical time window and resilience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaukat Ali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In humans, ethanol exposure during pregnancy causes a spectrum of developmental defects (fetal alcohol syndrome or FAS. Individuals vary in phenotypic expression. Zebrafish embryos develop FAS-like features after ethanol exposure. In this study, we ask whether stage-specific effects of ethanol can be identified in the zebrafish, and if so, whether they allow the pinpointing of sensitive developmental mechanisms. We have therefore conducted the first large-scale (>1500 embryos analysis of acute, stage-specific drug effects on zebrafish development, with a large panel of readouts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Zebrafish embryos were raised in 96-well plates. Range-finding indicated that 10% ethanol for 1 h was suitable for an acute exposure regime. High-resolution magic-angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that this produced a transient pulse of 0.86% concentration of ethanol in the embryo within the chorion. Survivors at 5 days postfertilisation were analysed. Phenotypes ranged from normal (resilient to severely malformed. Ethanol exposure at early stages caused high mortality (≥88%. At later stages of exposure, mortality declined and malformations developed. Pharyngeal arch hypoplasia and behavioral impairment were most common after prim-6 and prim-16 exposure. By contrast, microphthalmia and growth retardation were stage-independent. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that some ethanol effects are strongly stage-dependent. The phenotypes mimic key aspects of FAS including craniofacial abnormality, microphthalmia, growth retardation and behavioral impairment. We also identify a critical time window (prim-6 and prim-16 for ethanol sensitivity. Finally, our identification of a wide phenotypic spectrum is reminiscent of human FAS, and may provide a useful model for studying disease resilience.

  17. Alcohol exposure leads to unrecoverable cardiovascular defects along with edema and motor function changes in developing zebrafish larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy can cause a series of developmental disorders in the fetus called FAS (fetal alcohol syndrome. In the present study we exposed zebrafish embryos to 1% and 2% alcohol and observed the morphology of heart and blood vessels during and after exposure to investigate motor function alterations, and damage and recovery to the cardiovascular system. The results showed that alcohol exposure could induce heart deformation, slower heart rate, and incomplete blood vessels and pericardium. After stopping exposure, larvae exposed to 1% alcohol could recover only in heart morphology, but larvae in 2% alcohol could not recover either morphology or function of cardiovascular system. The edema-like characteristics in the 2% alcohol group became more conspicuous afterwards, with destruction in the dorsal aorta, coarctation in segmental arteries and a decrease in motor function, implying more serious unrecoverable cardiovascular defects in the 2% group. The damaged blood vessels in the 2% alcohol group resulted in an alteration in permeability and a decrease of blood volume, which were the causes of edema in pathology. These findings contribute towards a better understanding of ethanol-induced cardiovascular abnormalities and co-syndrome in patients with FAS, and warns against excessive maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy.

  18. Maternal And Neonatal Plasma MicroRNA Biomarkers For Fetal Alcohol Exposure In An Ovine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaraman, Sridevi; Lunde, E. Raine; Sawant, Onkar; Cudd, Timothy A.; Washburn, Shannon E.; Miranda, Rajesh C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Plasma or circulating miRNAs (cirmiRNAs) have potential diagnostic value as biomarkers for a range of diseases. Based on observations that ethanol altered intracellular miRNAs during development, we tested the hypothesis that plasma miRNAs were biomarkers for maternal alcohol exposure, and for past in utero exposure, in the neonate. Methods Pregnant sheep were exposed to a binge model of ethanol consumption resulting in an average peak blood alcohol content of 243 mg/dl, for a three-trimester equivalent period from gestational day (GD) 4 to GD 132. MiRNA profiles were assessed by quantitative PCR analysis in plasma, erythrocyte and leukocytes obtained from non-pregnant ewes, and plasma from pregnant ewes 24 hours following the last binge ethanol episode, and from newborn lambs, at birth on ~GD 147. Results Pregnant ewe and newborn lamb cirmiRNA profiles were similar to each other and different from non-pregnant female plasma, erythrocyte or leukocyte miRNAs. Significant changes in cirmiRNA profiles were observed in the ethanol-exposed ewe, and at birth, in the in utero, ethanol-exposed lamb. CirmiRNAs including miR-9, -15b, -19b and -20a were sensitive and specific measures of ethanol exposure in both pregnant ewe and newborn lamb. Additionally, ethanol exposure altered guide to passenger strand cirmiRNA ratios in the pregnant ewe, but not in the lamb. Conclusion Shared profiles between pregnant dam and neonate suggest possible maternal-fetal miRNA transfer. CirmiRNAs are biomarkers for alcohol exposure during pregnancy, in both mother and neonate, and may constitute an important shared endocrine biomarker that is vulnerable to the maternal environment. PMID:24588274

  19. Treatment of acute alcohol withdrawal with gabapentin: results from a controlled two-center trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Udo; Banger, Markus; Leweke, F Markus; Specka, Michael; Müller, Bernhard W; Hashemi, Thilo; Nyhuis, Peter W; Kutscher, Sven; Burtscheidt, Wilhelm; Gastpar, Markus

    2003-10-01

    A few case reports and data from animal experiments point to a possible efficacy of gabapentin (GP) in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). Because of ethical considerations, the efficacy of GP in acute AWS was tested in an add-on fashion to clomethiazole (CLO). Given that the symptom-triggered amount of CLO required to limit AWS within the first 24 hours is related to the severity of AWS, we tested this amount of CLO during placebo (P) or GP (400 mg qid) under double blind, randomized conditions. Sixty-one patients (P = 29/GP = 32) suffering from alcohol dependence (ICD-10) and without any other psychiatric condition or psychotropic medication were included. The groups were not significantly different in baseline characteristics (eg, demographic data, severity of AWS). Both ITT and completer analyses revealed no significant differences between the groups considering the primary effectiveness measure: amount of CLO required in the first 24 hours (P = 6.1 +/- 5.4/GP = 6.2 +/- 4.7 capsules). In addition, premature discontinuations (P = 3/GP = 2) and decreases in Mainz Alcohol Withdrawal Scores were not significantly different in the first 48 hours of AWS (secondary effectiveness measures). Tolerability of combined CLO/GP was studied throughout the whole treatment comprising a 5-day lasting reduction part subsequent to the first 48 hours. Throughout the whole 7-day treatment a total of 5 and 2 patients dropped out and 6 and 5 patients reported adverse clinical events in the P and GP groups, respectively. All together, GP (400 mg qid) was no better than P in saving initial consumption of CLO or decreasing initial Mainz Alcohol Withdrawal Scores suggesting that GP was ineffective in the management of acute AWS in this model. The combination of GP and CLO was safe.

  20. ESTIMATED RATE OF FATAL AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENTS ATTRIBUTABLE TO ACUTE SOLVENT EXPOSURE AT LOW INHALED CONCENTRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute solvent exposures may contribute to automobile accidents because they increase reaction time and decrease attention, in addition to impairing other behaviors. These effects resemble those of ethanol consumption, both with respect to behavioral effects and neurological mecha...

  1. Long term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of acute coronary events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cesaroni, Giulia; Forastiere, Francesco; Stafoggia, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    To study the effect of long term exposure to airborne pollutants on the incidence of acute coronary events in 11 cohorts participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE).......To study the effect of long term exposure to airborne pollutants on the incidence of acute coronary events in 11 cohorts participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)....

  2. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megumi Kido

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m2 consumed three different types of alcohol beverages (beer, shochu, and sake, each with 40 g ethanol or mineral water with dinner on different days in the hospital. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 12 h after drinking each beverage, and assessments of physical and emotional state were administered at the same time. In addition, sleep patterns and brain waves were examined using polysomnography. Results. Blood glucose levels at 1 h and the 12-h area under the curve (AUC value after drinking shochu were significantly lower than that with water and beer. The 12-h blood insulin AUC value after drinking shochu was significantly lower than that with beer. Blood glucose × insulin level at 1 h and the 2-h blood glucose × insulin AUC value with shochu were significantly lower than that with beer. The insulinogenic indexes at 2 h with beer and sake, but not shochu, were significantly higher than that with water. The visual analogue scale scores of physical and emotional state showed that the tipsiness levels with beer, shochu, and sake at 1 h were significantly higher than that with water. These tipsiness levels were maintained at 2 h. The polysomnography showed that the rapid eye movement (REM sleep latency with shochu and sake were shorter than that with water and beer. Conclusions. Acute consumption of alcohol beverages with a meal resulted in different responses in postprandial glucose and insulin levels as well as REM sleep latency. Alcohol beverage type should be taken into

  3. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Megumi; Asakawa, Akihiro; Koyama, Ken-Ichiro K.; Takaoka, Toshio; Tajima, Aya; Takaoka, Shigeru; Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Okutsu, Kayu; Takamine, Kazunori T.; Sameshima, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m2) consumed three different types of alcohol beverages (beer, shochu, and sake, each with 40 g ethanol) or mineral water with dinner on different days in the hospital. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 12 h after drinking each beverage, and assessments of physical and emotional state were administered at the same time. In addition, sleep patterns and brain waves were examined using polysomnography. Results. Blood glucose levels at 1 h and the 12-h area under the curve (AUC) value after drinking shochu were significantly lower than that with water and beer. The 12-h blood insulin AUC value after drinking shochu was significantly lower than that with beer. Blood glucose × insulin level at 1 h and the 2-h blood glucose × insulin AUC value with shochu were significantly lower than that with beer. The insulinogenic indexes at 2 h with beer and sake, but not shochu, were significantly higher than that with water. The visual analogue scale scores of physical and emotional state showed that the tipsiness levels with beer, shochu, and sake at 1 h were significantly higher than that with water. These tipsiness levels were maintained at 2 h. The polysomnography showed that the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency with shochu and sake were shorter than that with water and beer. Conclusions. Acute consumption of alcohol beverages with a meal resulted in different responses in postprandial glucose and insulin levels as well as REM sleep latency. Alcohol beverage type should be taken into consideration

  4. Protective effects of C-phycocyanin on alcohol-induced acute liver injury in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dong; Liu, Bing; Luan, Xiying; Sun, Junyan; Liu, Nana; Qin, Song; Du, Zhenning

    2016-03-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption leads to liver disease. Extensive evidence suggests that C-phycocyanin (C-PC), a chromophore phycocyanobilin derived from Spirulina platensis, exerts protective effects against chemical-induced organ damage. In this study, we investigated whether C-PC could protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (CHOL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), liver homogenate malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) content were measured, and pathological examination of liver sections were examined. C-PC showed obvious inhibitory effects on serum ALT, AST, TG, CHOL, LDL and MDA, and SOD content significantly increased in the liver. The structure of hepatic lobules was clear, liver sinus returned to normal, and liver cell cords were arranged in neat rows. Cloudiness, swelling, inflammatory cell infiltration and spotty necrosis of liver cells were significantly reduced. Therefore, C-PC can significantly protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury.

  5. Investigation of the possible protective role of gallic acid on paraoxanase and arylesterase activities in livers of rats with acute alcohol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartkaya, Kazim; Oğlakçi, Ayşegül; Şentürk, Hakan; Bayramoğlu, Gökhan; Canbek, Mediha; Kanbak, Güngör

    2013-04-01

    Gallic acid, a polyphenyl class natural product from gallnut and green tea, is known to be antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and radical scavenger. In this study, we aimed to investigate the possible protective effects of gallic acid on paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in liver exposed to acute alcohol intoxication. Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in liver tissue and serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase levels were measured. Histological investigations were also made. In our study, we observed a significant increase of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities, which are indicators of liver damage after acute ethanol consumption. Gallic acid therapy has significantly reduced the increase in these biomarkers, indicating a possible hepatoprotective effect of gallic acid. Ethanol consumption caused a significant decrease in liver paraoxonase activity (P Gallic acid treatment partly restored this decreased paraoxonase activity, which resulted from ethanol administration. A gallic acid dose of 100 mg/kg was observed as highest restoring effect for paraoxonase activity (P gallic acid treatment restored the loss of this activity due to ethanol exposure (P gallic acid ameliorates the liver damage caused by excessive alcohol consumption in a dose-dependent way. Our results in this study showed that gallic acid might have a protective effect against alcoholic liver disease.

  6. A tensor-based morphometry analysis of regional differences in brain volume in relation to prenatal alcohol exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Meintjes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reductions in brain volumes represent a neurobiological signature of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. Less clear is how regional brain tissue reductions differ after normalizing for brain size differences linked with FASD and whether these profiles can predict the degree of prenatal exposure to alcohol. To examine associations of regional brain tissue excesses/deficits with degree of prenatal alcohol exposure and diagnosis with and without correction for overall brain volume, tensor-based morphometry (TBM methods were applied to structural imaging data from a well-characterized, demographically homogeneous sample of children diagnosed with FASD (n = 39, 9.6–11.0 years and controls (n = 16, 9.5–11.0 years. Degree of prenatal alcohol exposure was significantly associated with regionally pervasive brain tissue reductions in: (1 the thalamus, midbrain, and ventromedial frontal lobe, (2 the superior cerebellum and inferior occipital lobe, (3 the dorsolateral frontal cortex, and (4 the precuneus and superior parietal lobule. When overall brain size was factored out of the analysis on a subject-by-subject basis, no regions showed significant associations with alcohol exposure. FASD diagnosis was associated with a similar deformation pattern, but few of the regions survived FDR correction. In data-driven independent component analyses (ICA regional brain tissue deformations successfully distinguished individuals based on extent of prenatal alcohol exposure and to a lesser degree, diagnosis. The greater sensitivity of the continuous measure of alcohol exposure compared with the categorical diagnosis across diverse brain regions underscores the dose dependence of these effects. The ICA results illustrate that profiles of brain tissue alterations may be a useful indicator of prenatal alcohol exposure when reliable historical data are not available and facial features are not apparent.

  7. Superselective arterial embolisation with a liquid polyvinyl alcohol copolymer in patients with acute gastrointestinal haemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenhart, Markus; Schneider, Hans [Sozialstiftung Bamberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Bamberg (Germany); Paetzel, Christian [Klinikum Weiden, Department of Radiology, Weiden (Germany); Sackmann, Michael [Sozialstiftung Bamberg, Department of Gastroenterology, Bamberg (Germany); Jung, Ernst Michael; Schreyer, Andreas G.; Feuerbach, Stefan; Zorger, Niels [University of Regensburg, Department of Radiology, Regensburg (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    To evaluate the results of emergency embolisation in acute arterial bleeding of the gastrointestinal tract with a liquid polyvinyl alcohol copolymer from two centres. We retrospectively analysed 16 cases (15 patients) of acute arterial bleeding of the gastrointestinal tract where emergency embolotherapy was performed by using the copolymer when acute haemorrhage was not treatable with endoscopic techniques alone. Cause of haemorrhage and technical and clinical success were documented. Arterial embolotherapy was successful in all 16 cases. The technical success rate was 100%. The cause of bleeding was pancreatitis in four, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) of the colon in three, malignancy in three, angiodysplasia in two, ulcer in two and panarteritis no dosa and trauma in one each. There were no procedure-related complications. No bowel necrosis occurred because of embolisation. In 13 cases, the patients were discharged in good condition (81%); the three patients with GVHD died because of the underlying disease. The copolymer seems to have great potential in embolotherapy of acute arterial gastrointestinal bleeding. In our series none of the patients had rebleeding at the site of embolisation and no clinically obvious bowel necrosis occurred. (orig.)

  8. Novel oxytocin gene expression in the hindbrain is induced by alcohol exposure: transgenic zebrafish enable visualization of sensitive neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitrín M Coffey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD are a collection of disorders resulting from fetal ethanol exposure, which causes a wide range of physical, neurological and behavioral deficits including heightened susceptibility for alcoholism and addictive disorders. While a number of mechanisms have been proposed for how ethanol exposure disrupts brain development, with selective groups of neurons undergoing reduced proliferation, dysfunction and death, the induction of a new neurotransmitter phenotype by ethanol exposure has not yet been reported. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The effects of embryonic and larval ethanol exposure on brain development were visually monitored using transgenic zebrafish expressing cell-specific green fluorescent protein (GFP marker genes. Specific subsets of GFP-expressing neurons were highly sensitive to ethanol exposure, but only during defined developmental windows. In the med12 mutant, which affects the Mediator co-activator complex component Med12, exposure to lower concentrations of ethanol was sufficient to reduce GFP expression in transgenic embryos. In transgenic embryos and larva containing GFP driven by an oxytocin-like (oxtl promoter, ethanol exposure dramatically up-regulated GFP expression in a small group of hindbrain neurons, while having no effect on expression in the neuroendocrine preoptic area. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol exposure during limited embryonic periods impedes the development of specific, identifiable groups of neurons, and the med12 mutation sensitizes these neurons to the deleterious effects of ethanol. In contrast, ethanol exposure induces oxtl expression in the hindbrain, a finding with profound implications for understanding alcoholism and other addictive disorders.

  9. Cholecalciferol attenuates perseverative behavior associated with developmental alcohol exposure in rats in a dose-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, N M; Happer, J P; Thomas, J D

    2013-07-01

    Alcohol is a known teratogen that is estimated to affect 2-5% of the births in the U.S. Prenatal alcohol exposure can produce physical features such as facial dysmorphology, physiological alterations such as cell loss in the central nervous system (CNS), and behavioral changes that include hyperactivity, cognitive deficits, and motor dysfunction. The range of effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure is referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Despite preventative measures, some women continue to drink while pregnant. Therefore, identifying interventions that reduce the severity of FASD is critical. This study investigated one such potential intervention, vitamin D3, a nutrient that exerts neuroprotective properties. The present study determined whether cholecalciferol, a common vitamin D3 nutritional supplement, could serve as a means of mitigating alcohol-related learning deficits. Using a rat model of FASD, cholecalciferol was given before, during, and after 3rd trimester equivalent alcohol exposure. Three weeks after cholecalciferol treatment, subjects were tested on a serial spatial discrimination reversal learning task. Animals exposed to ethanol committed significantly more errors compared to controls. Cholecalciferol treatment reduced perseverative behavior that is associated with developmental alcohol exposure in a dose-dependent manner. These data have important implications for the treatment of FASD and suggest that cholecalciferol may reduce some aspects of FASD. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Vitamin D Workshop'.

  10. In-utero exposure to smoking, alcohol, coffee, and tea and risk of strabismus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry;

    2010-01-01

    In a prospective, population-based cohort study, the authors investigated the effect of in-utero exposure to maternal smoking and consumption of alcohol, coffee, and tea on the risk of strabismus. They reviewed medical records for children in the Danish National Birth Cohort identified through.......92, 1.61). Light maternal alcohol consumption was inversely associated with strabismus risk, whereas maternal coffee and tea drinking were not associated with strabismus risk. In conclusion, smoking during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of strabismus in the offspring. Conversely, light...... national registers as possibly having strabismus. Relative risk estimates were adjusted for year of birth, social class, maternal smoking, maternal age at birth, and maternal coffee and tea consumption. The authors identified 1,321 cases of strabismus in a cohort of 96,842 Danish children born between 1996...

  11. Intervention strategies for children vulnerable for school failure due to exposure to drugs and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G H

    1993-11-01

    Children and youth exposed in utero to drugs and alcohol and/or who are growing up in a family in which these substances are misused are vulnerable for failure at all age levels, prenatally through adulthood. This article reviews developmental issues presented by children and youth vulnerable for school failure either due to the biological effects of prenatal exposure to drugs and/or environmental issues resulting from growing up in a family in which misuse of drugs and alcohol occurs. Characteristics and needs of these students with recommendations for educational and community-based system of services to them and their families are discussed. Model programs serving children and youth prenatally through school age are identified.

  12. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure in Rodents As a Promising Model for the Study of ADHD Molecular Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Mayorquín, Argelia E.; Padilla-Velarde, Edgar; Ortuño-Sahagún, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    A physiological parallelism, or even a causal effect relationship, can be deducted from the analysis of the main characteristics of the “Alcohol Related Neurodevelopmental Disorders” (ARND), derived from prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), and the behavioral performance in the Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). These two clinically distinct disease entities, exhibits many common features. They affect neurological shared pathways, and also related neurotransmitter systems. We briefly review here these parallelisms, with their common and uncommon characteristics, and with an emphasis in the subjacent molecular mechanisms of the behavioral manifestations, that lead us to propose that PAE in rats can be considered as a suitable model for the study of ADHD. PMID:28018163

  13. In-utero exposure to smoking, alcohol, coffee, and tea and risk of strabismus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry;

    2010-01-01

    In a prospective, population-based cohort study, the authors investigated the effect of in-utero exposure to maternal smoking and consumption of alcohol, coffee, and tea on the risk of strabismus. They reviewed medical records for children in the Danish National Birth Cohort identified through...... national registers as possibly having strabismus. Relative risk estimates were adjusted for year of birth, social class, maternal smoking, maternal age at birth, and maternal coffee and tea consumption. The authors identified 1,321 cases of strabismus in a cohort of 96,842 Danish children born between 1996.......92, 1.61). Light maternal alcohol consumption was inversely associated with strabismus risk, whereas maternal coffee and tea drinking were not associated with strabismus risk. In conclusion, smoking during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of strabismus in the offspring. Conversely, light...

  14. Protective Action of Se-Supplement Against Acute Alcoholism Is Regulated by Selenoprotein P (SelP) in the Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenbiao; Guo, Yingfang; Qiu, Changwei; Deng, Ganzhen; Guo, Mengyao

    2017-02-01

    Acute alcoholism is a major cause of cirrhosis and liver failure around the world. Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient promoting liver health in humans and animals. Selenoprotein P (SelP) is a glycoprotein secreted within the liver, which interacts with cytokines and the growth factor pathway to provide protection for hepatic cells. The present study was conducted to confirm the effect and mechanism of Se and SelP action in livers affected by acute alcoholism. In this study, a mouse model of acute alcoholism, as well as a hepatocyte model, was successfully established. The Se content of the liver was detected by atomic fluorescence spectrophotometry. The expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) was analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The protein expression of inflammatory factors was detected by ELISA. The other proteins were analyzed by western blotting. The results showed that pathological damage to the liver was gradually weakened by Se-supplementation, which was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and TUNEL staining. Se-supplementation inhibited expression of pro-inflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-1β and promoted production of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in the liver with acute alcoholism. Se-supplementation also prevented the apoptosis of hepatocytes by suppressing the cleavage of caspases-9, 3, 6, 7, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Through correlational analysis, it was determined that the effects of Se-supplement were closely related to SelP expression, inflammatory cytokines, and apoptosis molecule production. The sienna of SelP further confirmed the protective action of Se-supplementation on the liver and that the mechanism of SelP involves the regulation of inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis molecules in acute alcoholism. These findings provide information regarding a new potential target for the treatment of acute alcoholism.

  15. AGE-RELATED TOXICITY PATHWAY ANALYSIS IN BROWN NORWAY RAT BRAIN FOLLOWING ACUTE TOLUENE EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental exposures is poorly understood. To investigate-the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we examined the effects of an acute exposure to the volatile organic compound, toluene (0.0 or 1.0 g/kg), i...

  16. Moderate (2%, v/v) Ethanol Feeding Alters Hepatic Wound Healing after Acute Carbon Tetrachloride Exposure in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Krutika T; Liu, Shinlan; McCracken, Jennifer M; Jiang, Lu; Gaw, Ta Ehpaw; Kaydo, Lindsey N; Richard, Zachary C; O'Neil, Maura F; Pritchard, Michele T

    2016-01-06

    Wound healing consists of three overlapping phases: inflammation, proliferation, and matrix synthesis and remodeling. Prolonged alcohol abuse can cause liver fibrosis due to deregulated matrix remodeling. Previous studies demonstrated that moderate ethanol feeding enhances liver fibrogenic markers and frank fibrosis independent of differences in CCl₄-induced liver injury. Our objective was to determine whether or not other phases of the hepatic wound healing response were affected by moderate ethanol after CCl₄ exposure. Mice were fed moderate ethanol (2% v/v) for two days and then were exposed to CCl₄ and euthanized 24-96 h later. Liver injury was not different between pair- and ethanol-fed mice; however, removal of necrotic tissue was delayed after CCl₄-induced liver injury in ethanol-fed mice. Inflammation, measured by TNFα mRNA and protein and hepatic Ly6c transcript accumulation, was reduced and associated with enhanced hepatocyte apoptosis after ethanol feeding. Hepatocytes entered the cell cycle equivalently in pair- and ethanol-fed mice after CCl₄ exposure, but hepatocyte proliferation was prolonged in livers from ethanol-fed mice. CCl₄-induced hepatic stellate cell activation was increased and matrix remodeling was prolonged in ethanol-fed mice compared to controls. Taken together, moderate ethanol affected each phase of the wound healing response to CCl₄. These data highlight previously unknown effects of moderate ethanol exposure on hepatic wound healing after acute hepatotoxicant exposure.

  17. Moderate (2%, v/v Ethanol Feeding Alters Hepatic Wound Healing after Acute Carbon Tetrachloride Exposure in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutika T. Deshpande

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing consists of three overlapping phases: inflammation, proliferation, and matrix synthesis and remodeling. Prolonged alcohol abuse can cause liver fibrosis due to deregulated matrix remodeling. Previous studies demonstrated that moderate ethanol feeding enhances liver fibrogenic markers and frank fibrosis independent of differences in CCl4-induced liver injury. Our objective was to determine whether or not other phases of the hepatic wound healing response were affected by moderate ethanol after CCl4 exposure. Mice were fed moderate ethanol (2% v/v for two days and then were exposed to CCl4 and euthanized 24–96 h later. Liver injury was not different between pair- and ethanol-fed mice; however, removal of necrotic tissue was delayed after CCl4-induced liver injury in ethanol-fed mice. Inflammation, measured by TNFα mRNA and protein and hepatic Ly6c transcript accumulation, was reduced and associated with enhanced hepatocyte apoptosis after ethanol feeding. Hepatocytes entered the cell cycle equivalently in pair- and ethanol-fed mice after CCl4 exposure, but hepatocyte proliferation was prolonged in livers from ethanol-fed mice. CCl4-induced hepatic stellate cell activation was increased and matrix remodeling was prolonged in ethanol-fed mice compared to controls. Taken together, moderate ethanol affected each phase of the wound healing response to CCl4. These data highlight previously unknown effects of moderate ethanol exposure on hepatic wound healing after acute hepatotoxicant exposure.

  18. The effects of prenatal and postnatal (via nursing) exposure to alcohol in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nekvasil, N.; Baggio, C. (St. Mary' s Coll., Notre Dame, IN (United States))

    1992-02-26

    Pregnant and post-partum rats were given daily doses of 20% alcohol during days 13-21 gestation and postnatal days 3-12, respectively. Following exposure, all rat pups, were tested for balance, blood pressure, right and left cerebral hemisphere weights, and cerebellar weight. Results were grouped according to exposure and gender. The postnatal group was the only one to demonstrate difficulties with balance. The mean arterial pressure in males exposed postnatally was significantly lower than the control and prenatal males. Females exposed postnatally had a significantly higher blood pressure than control females. Within the postnatal group, males had a significantly lower blood pressure than the females. Prenatal and control females differed significantly for left cerebral hemisphere (LCH) weight with the prenatal weighing less. Male pups exposed prenatally had significantly heavier LCH than the postnatal and control males. For both males and females, postnatal LCH weights did not differ from those of the control pups. Within the prenatal group, the LCH weight in females was significantly lower than in males. Mean cerebellar weights were significantly lower in postnatal animals compared to control animals. A major finding of this study is that the effect of alcohol exposure on rat pups depends on gender and developmental age.

  19. Effects of acute electromagnetic fields exposure on the interhemispheric homotopic functional connectivity during resting state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Bin; Shao, Qing; Chen, Zhiye; Ma, Lin; Wu, Tongning

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we aimed to investigate the possible effects of acute radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the interhemispheric homotopic functional connectivity with resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique. We designed a controllable LTE-related EMF exposure environment at 2.573 GHz and performed the 30 min real/sham exposure experiments on human brain under the safety limits. The resting state fMRI signals were collected before and after EMF exposure. Then voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity method was utilized to evaluate the acute effects of LTE EMF exposure on the homotopic functional connectivity between two human hemispheres. Based on our previous research, we further demonstrated that the 30 min short-term LTE EMF exposure would modulate the interhemispheric homotopic functional connectivity in resting state around the medial frontal gyrus and the paracentral lobule during the real exposure.

  20. Effect of alcohol exposure on hepatic superoxide generation and hepcidin expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duygu; Dee; Harrison-Findik; Sizhao; Lu; Emily; M; Zmijewski; Jocelyn; Jones; Matthew; C; Zimmerman

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To understand the role of mitochondrial-produced superoxide(O 2 ?) in the regulation of iron-regulatory hormone, hepcidin by alcohol in the liver. METHODS: For alcohol experiments, manganese superoxide dismutase knockout mice heterozygous for Sod2 gene expression(Sod2 +/) and age-matched littermate control mice(LMC), expressing Sod2 gene on both alleles, were exposed to either 10%(w/v) ethanol in the drinking water or plain water(control) for 7 d. Total cellular O 2 ? levels in hepatocytes isolated from the livers of mice were measured by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The mitochondrial-targeted, O 2 ?-sensitive fluorogenic probe, MitoSOX Red and flow cytometry were utilized to measure O 2 ? in mitochondria. Gene and protein expression were determined by Taqman Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting, respectively. RESULTS: Sod2 +/- mice expressed 40% less MnSOD protein(SOD2) in hepatocytes compared to LMC mice. The deletion of Sod2 allele did not alter the basal expression level of hepcidin in the liver. 10% ethanol exposure for 1 wk inhibited hepatic hepcidin mRNA expression three-fold both in Sod2 +/ and LMC mice. O 2 ? levels in hepatocytes of untreated Sod2 +/ mice were three-fold higher than in untreated LMC mice, as observed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. O 2 ? levels in mitochondria of Sod2 +/ mice were four-fold higher than in mitochondria of untreated LMC mice, as measured by MitoSOX Red fluorescence and flow cytometry. Alcohol induced a two-fold higher increase in O 2 ? levels in hepatocytes of LMC mice than in Sod2 +/ mice compared to respective untreated counterparts. In contrast, 1 wk alcohol exposure did not alter mitochondrial O 2 ? levels in both Sod2 +/- and control mice. CONCLUSION: Mitochondrial O2 ? is not involved in the inhibition of liver hepcidin transcription and thereby regulation of iron metabolism by alcohol. These findings also suggest that short-term alcohol consumption significantly

  1. Calcium-dependent behavioural responses to acute copper exposure in Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, S.B.; Svendsen, Jon Christian; Aarestrup, Kim;

    2014-01-01

    Using rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, the present study demonstrated that: (1) calcium (Ca) increased the range of copper (Cu) concentrations that O. mykiss avoided; (2) Ca conserved the maintenance of pre-exposure swimming activity during inescapable acute (10 min) Cu exposure. Data showed...... their spontaneous swimming speed, whereas no response was observed in O. mykiss acclimated and tested at high Ca concentration. Collectively, the data support the conclusion that in O. mykiss the behavioural responses to acute Cu exposure are Ca-dependent....

  2. Genome-wide Gene Expression Profiling of Acute Metal Exposures in Male Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-23

    and methods Experimental overview Fig. 1 shows the design scheme. Fish exposures Briefly, adult,male zebrafishwere exposed to concentrations of each...before and after exposures. Initially 25 adult (6–9 months) presumptive male zebrafish were selected per condition to ensure that 20 male fish were...evaluated in whole adult male zebra ???sh following acute 24 h high dose exposure to three metals with known human health risks. Male adult zebra ???sh

  3. Study on Alcoholic Withdrawal Score, with Questionnaire Based Session Conducted on Acute and Chronic Alcoholic Liver Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandi Navyatha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol liver disease is damage to the Liver and its function due to alcohol abuse. It occurs after years of heavy drinking and by through which cirrhosis can occur and which leads to the final phase of Alcoholic liver disease. It not only occurs in heavy drinkers but also there is a chance of getting liver disease go up the longer of been drinking and more alcohol consumption. A study was observational, prospective and descriptive; and was carried out one hundred and nine patients [n=109] who were with suffering from an Alcoholic liver disease, to determine the alcohol withdrawal score and there symptoms involved after they were kept on alcohol withdrawal therapy. An observational, prospective and randomized study was conducted in the hospital from March 2014-March 2016. Questionnaire based session with 10 scaled questions were framed according to CIWA (assessment and management of alcohol withdrawal and the score was noted with their symptoms occurrence after the alcohol cessation plan. CIWA score with moderate severity were found to be highest. 7 patients out of 33 patients in severe category of CIWA score were admitted in the hospital with alcohol withdrawal syndrome and psychological disturbances. Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment of Alcohol Scale (CIWA helps clinicians assess and treat potential alcohol withdrawal.

  4. The relationship between exposure to alcohol-related content on Facebook and predictors of alcohol consumption among female emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joseph; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2014-12-01

    Consuming an unhealthy level of alcohol is a significant problem for some young women. Potential determinants of excess consumption include perceptions of usual consumption among peers-perceptions of what is "normal." The present study examined whether perceptions of social normative endorsement of drinking, operationalized by measures of perceived alcohol consumption of close friends (proximal norms), the consumption of the "average student" (distal norms), and the extent of alcohol-related content posted by peers on Facebook were related to alcohol-related attitudes and self-reported consumption. Female university students (n=129; Mage=21.48 years, SD=3.00) completed an online questionnaire assessing Facebook use, perceived alcohol-related norms, and self-reported alcohol attitudes and consumption. Perceptions of the consumption of the average female student were a negative predictor of attitudes. Positive alcohol attitudes, extent of own alcohol-related photographic posts on Facebook, average female student alcohol consumption, and report of male close friend consumption predicted self-report of own alcohol consumption. Interestingly, female close friend norms failed to predict consumption, whereas male close friend norms predicted consumption but not attitudes, suggesting the possibility of separate cognitive pathways for alcohol-related attitudes and behavior. This study builds on existing research by casting new light on predictors of alcohol-related attitudes, as well as describing the potential role of social networking sites such as Facebook in the formation of social norms and the modulation of drinking behavior.

  5. Ethylglucuronide in Maternal Hair as a Biomarker of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez, Hilda L.; Hund, Lauren; Shrestha, Shikhar; Rayburn, William F.; Leeman, Lawrence; Savage, Daniel D.; Bakhireva, Ludmila N.

    2015-01-01

    While direct ethanol metabolites, including ethylglucuronide (EtG), play an important role for the confirmation of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), their utility is often limited by their short half-lives in blood and urine. Maternal hair might allow for a retrospective measure of PAE for up to several months. This study examined the validity of hair EtG (hEtG) relative to self-reporting and five other biomarkers (gamma glutamyltranspeptidase [GGT], carbohydrate-deficient transferrin [%dCDT],...

  6. Maternal L-glutamine supplementation prevents prenatal alcohol exposure-induced fetal growth restriction in an ovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Onkar B; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to cause fetal growth restriction and disturbances in amino acid bioavailability. Alterations in these parameters can persist into adulthood and low birth weight can lead to altered fetal programming. Glutamine has been associated with the synthesis of other amino acids, an increase in protein synthesis and it is used clinically as a nutrient supplement for low birth weight infants. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of repeated maternal alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation on fetal growth and amino acid bioavailability during the third trimester-equivalent period in an ovine model. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to four groups, saline control, alcohol (1.75-2.5 g/kg), glutamine (100 mg/kg, three times daily) or alcohol + glutamine. In this study, a weekend binge drinking model was followed where treatment was done 3 days per week in succession from gestational day (GD) 109-132 (normal term ~147). Maternal alcohol exposure significantly reduced fetal body weight, height, length, thoracic girth and brain weight, and resulted in decreased amino acid bioavailability in fetal plasma and placental fluids. Maternal glutamine supplementation successfully mitigated alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction and improved the bioavailability of glutamine and glutamine-related amino acids such as glycine, arginine, and asparagine in the fetal compartment. All together, these findings show that L-glutamine supplementation enhances amino acid availability in the fetus and prevents alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction.

  7. Fetal Alcohol Exposure Reduces Dopamine Receptor D2 and Increases Pituitary Weight and Prolactin Production via Epigenetic Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omkaram Gangisetty

    Full Text Available Recent evidence indicated that alcohol exposure during the fetal period increases the susceptibility to tumor development in mammary and prostate tissues. Whether fetal alcohol exposure increases the susceptibility to prolactin-producing tumor (prolactinoma development in the pituitary was studied by employing the animal model of estradiol-induced prolactinomas in Fischer 344 female rats. We employed an animal model of fetal alcohol exposure that simulates binge alcohol drinking during the first two trimesters of human pregnancy and involves feeding pregnant rats with a liquid diet containing 6.7% alcohol during gestational day 7 to day 21. Control rats were pair-fed with isocaloric liquid diet or fed ad libitum with rat chow diet. Adult alcohol exposed and control female offspring rats were used in this study on the day of estrus or after estrogen treatment. Results show that fetal alcohol-exposed rats had increased levels of pituitary weight, pituitary prolactin (PRL protein and mRNA, and plasma PRL. However, these rats show decreased pituitary levels of dopamine D2 receptor (D2R mRNA and protein and increased pituitary levels of D2R promoter methylation. Also, they show elevated pituitary mRNA levels of DNA methylating genes (DNMT1, DNMT3b, MeCP2 and histone modifying genes (HDAC2, HDAC4, G9a. When fetal alcohol exposed rats were treated neonatally with a DNA methylation inhibitor 5-Aza deoxycytidine and/or a HDAC inhibitor trichostatin-A their pituitary D2R mRNA, pituitary weights and plasma PRL levels were normalized. These data suggest that fetal alcohol exposure programs the pituitary to increase the susceptibility to the development of prolactinomas possibly by enhancing the methylation of the D2R gene promoter and repressing the synthesis and control of D2R on PRL-producing cells.

  8. Changes in health professionals' knowledge, attitudes and practice following provision of educational resources about prevention of prenatal alcohol exposure and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Janet; France, Kathryn; Henley, Nadine; D'Antoine, Heather; Bartu, Anne; O'Leary, Colleen; Elliott, Elizabeth; Bower, Carol

    2011-07-01

    We provided health professionals in Western Australia (WA) with educational resources about prevention of prenatal alcohol exposure and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and assessed changes in their knowledge, attitudes and practice concerning fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and alcohol consumption in pregnancy. Following our 2002 survey of health professionals in WA, we developed and distributed educational resources to 3348 health professionals in WA in 2007. Six months later we surveyed 1483 of these health professionals. Prevalence rate ratios [PRR] and 95% confidence intervals [CI] were calculated to compare 2007 results with results from the 2002 survey. Of the 1001 responding health professionals, 69.8% had seen the educational resources; of these 77.1% have used them and 48.5% said the resources had assisted them to change their practice or their intention to change their practice. Compared with 2002, there was an increase in the proportion who knew all the essential features of FAS from 11.7% to 15.8% [PRR 1.35; 95% CI 1.09, 1.67] and had diagnosed FAS, from 4.8% to 7.3% [PRR 1.52; 95% CI 1.08, 2.13]. In 2007, 98.1% of health professionals stated they would advise pregnant women to consider not drinking at all or advise them that no alcohol in pregnancy is the safest choice. Health professionals surveyed in 2007 have increased their knowledge, changed their attitudes and practice about FAS, and altered the advice they give to pregnant women about alcohol consumption since our survey in 2002. It is essential that we build on this change and continue to support health professionals' knowledge, attitudes and practice about the prevention of prenatal alcohol exposure and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. The educational resources for health professionals may be ordered as hard copies and downloaded from the internet http://www.ichr.uwa.edu.au/alcoholandpregnancy.

  9. Sensitivity of Trout to Chronic Acute Exposure to Selenium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel; Nielsen, M. Gissel

    1978-01-01

    Trout were exposed to selenite (Na2SeO3) solutions of varying concentrations (0.1-100 ppm Se) for periods of up to 4 wk. A chronic exposure to 0.1 ppm Se or less is non-lethal to trout. Lethality at higher concentrations depends on the length of exposure. Trout that survive for 10 days in tap...

  10. A randomised controlled trial of extended brief intervention for alcohol dependent patients in an acute hospital setting (ADPAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williamson Paula

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol dependence affects approximately 3% of the English population, and accounts for significant medical and psychiatric morbidity. Only 5.6% of alcohol-dependent individuals ever access specialist treatment and only a small percentage ever seek treatment. As people who are alcohol dependent are more likely to have experienced health problems leading to frequent attendance at acute hospitals it would seem both sensible and practical to ensure that this setting is utilised as a major access point for treatment, and to test the effectiveness of these treatments. Methods/Design This is a randomised controlled trial with a primary hypothesis that extended brief interventions (EBI delivered to alcohol-dependent patients in a hospital setting by an Alcohol Specialist Nurse (ASN will be effective when compared to usual care in reducing overall alcohol consumption and improving on the standard measures of alcohol dependence. Consecutive patients will be screened for alcohol misuse in the Emergency Department (ED of a district general hospital. On identification of an alcohol-related problem, following informed written consent, we aim to randomize 130 patients per group. The ASN will discharge to usual clinical care all control group patients, and plan a programme of EBI for treatment group patients. Follow-up interview will be undertaken by a researcher blinded to the intervention at 12 and 24 weeks. The primary outcome measure is level of alcohol dependence as determined by the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire (SADQ score. Secondary outcome measures include; Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT score, quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption, health-related quality of life measures, service utilisation, and patient experience. The trial will also allow an assessment of the cost-effectiveness of EBI in an acute hospital setting. In addition, patient experience will be assessed using qualitative methods

  11. Alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.; Tol, A. van

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol consumption affects overall mortality. Light to moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; epidemiological, physiological and genetic data show a causal relationship. Light to moderate drinking is also associated with a reduced risk of other vascular diseases an

  12. Acute expanded perlite exposure with persistent reactive airway dysfunction syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chung-Li; Wang, Jung-Der; Chu, Po-Chin; Guo, Yue-Liang Leon

    2010-01-01

    Expanded perlite has been assumed as simple nuisance, however during an accidental spill out in Taiwan, among 24 exposed workers followed for more than 6 months, three developed persisted respiratory symptoms and positive provocation tests were compatible with reactive airway dysfunction syndrome. During simulation experiment expanded perlite is shown to be very dusty and greatly exceed current exposure permission level. Review of literature and evidence, though exposure of expanded perlite below permission level may be generally safe, precautionary protection of short term heavy exposure is warranted.

  13. Developmental Neurotoxicity of Alcohol and Anesthetic Drugs Is Augmented by Co-Exposure to Caffeine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Creeley

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Anesthetic and anti-epileptic drugs used in pediatric and obstetric medicine and several drugs, including alcohol, that are abused by pregnant women, trigger widespread neuroapoptosis in the developing brain of several animal species, including non-human primates. Caffeine (CAF is often administered to premature infants to stimulate respiration, and these infants are also exposed simultaneously to anesthetic drugs for procedural sedation and/or surgical procedures. Pregnant women who abuse alcohol or other apoptogenic drugs also may heavily consume CAF. We administered CAF to infant mice alone or in combination with alcohol, phencyclidine, diazepam, midazolam, ketamine, or isoflurane, which are drugs of abuse and/or drugs frequently used in pediatric medicine, and found that CAF weakly triggers neuroapoptosis by itself and markedly potentiates the neuroapoptogenic action of each of these other drugs. Exposure of infant mice to CAF + phencyclidine resulted in long-term impairment in behavioral domains relevant to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, whereas exposure to CAF + diazepam resulted in long-term learning/memory impairment. At doses used in these experiments, these behavioral impairments either did not occur or were substantially less pronounced in mice exposed to CAF alone or to phencyclidine or diazepam alone. CAF currently enjoys the reputation of being highly beneficial and safe for use in neonatal medicine. Our data suggest the need to consider whether CAF may have harmful as well as beneficial effects on the developing brain, and the need for research aimed at understanding the full advantage of its beneficial effects while avoiding its potentially harmful effects.

  14. Exposure of Children and Adolescents to Alcohol Marketing on Social Media Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winpenny, Eleanor M.; Marteau, Theresa M.; Nolte, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Aims: In 2011, online marketing became the largest marketing channel in the UK, overtaking television for the first time. This study aimed to describe the exposure of children and young adults to alcohol marketing on social media websites in the UK. Methods: We used commercially available data on the three most used social media websites among young people in the UK, from December 2010 to May 2011. We analysed by age (6–14 years; 15–24 years) and gender the reach (proportion of internet users who used the site in each month) and impressions (number of individual pages viewed on the site in each month) for Facebook, YouTube and Twitter. We further analysed case studies of five alcohol brands to assess the marketer-generated brand content available on Facebook, YouTube and Twitter in February and March 2012. Results: Facebook was the social media site with the highest reach, with an average monthly reach of 89% of males and 91% of females aged 15–24. YouTube had a similar average monthly reach while Twitter had a considerably lower usage in the age groups studied. All five of the alcohol brands studied maintained a Facebook page, Twitter page and YouTube channel, with varying levels of user engagement. Facebook pages could not be accessed by an under-18 user, but in most cases YouTube content and Twitter content could be accessed by those of all ages. Conclusion: The rise in online marketing of alcohol and the high use of social media websites by young people suggests that this is an area requiring further monitoring and regulation. PMID:24293506

  15. Pulmonary CT findings in acute mercury vapour exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Manabu; Sato, Kimihiko; Heianna, Jyouiti; Hirano, Yoshinori; Omachi, Kohiti; Izumi, Jyunichi; Watarai, Jiro

    2001-01-01

    AIM: We describe the pulmonary computed tomography (CT) findings in acute mercury poisoning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Initial (n= 8) and follow-up (n= 6) chest CT examinations in eight patients exposed to mercury vapour while cutting pipes in a sulphuric acid plant were reviewed. Of the eight patients, two were asymptomatic and had normal CT results, two were asymptomatic but had abnormalities on CT, and four had both acute symptoms and positive CT results. The patients were all men whose ages ranged from 37 to 54 years (mean, 49 years). RESULTS: Poorly defined nodules were present in five of six patients with positive CT findings, present alone in two patients or as part of a mixed pattern in three. They were random in distribution. Alveolar consolidation (n= 3) and areas of ground-glass opacity (n= 4) were observed and were more prominent in the most severely affected patients with the highest blood and urine level of mercury, predominantly in the upper and/or middle zone. These abnormal findings on CT resolved with (n= 1) or without (n= 5) steroid therapy. Pathological findings (n= 1) demonstrated acute interstitial changes predominantly with oedema. CONCLUSION: We report CT findings in eight patients acutely exposed to mercury vapour. The pulmonary injury was reversible on CT in these cases. Hashimoto, M. (2001)

  16. A novel antibody-based biomarker for chronic algal toxin exposure and sub-acute neurotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathi A Lefebvre

    Full Text Available The neurotoxic amino acid, domoic acid (DA, is naturally produced by marine phytoplankton and presents a significant threat to the health of marine mammals, seabirds and humans via transfer of the toxin through the foodweb. In humans, acute exposure causes a neurotoxic illness known as amnesic shellfish poisoning characterized by seizures, memory loss, coma and death. Regular monitoring for high DA levels in edible shellfish tissues has been effective in protecting human consumers from acute DA exposure. However, chronic low-level DA exposure remains a concern, particularly in coastal and tribal communities that subsistence harvest shellfish known to contain low levels of the toxin. Domoic acid exposure via consumption of planktivorous fish also has a profound health impact on California sea lions (Zalophus californianus affecting hundreds of animals yearly. Due to increasing algal toxin exposure threats globally, there is a critical need for reliable diagnostic tests for assessing chronic DA exposure in humans and wildlife. Here we report the discovery of a novel DA-specific antibody response that is a signature of chronic low-level exposure identified initially in a zebrafish exposure model and confirmed in naturally exposed wild sea lions. Additionally, we found that chronic exposure in zebrafish caused increased neurologic sensitivity to DA, revealing that repetitive exposure to DA well below the threshold for acute behavioral toxicity has underlying neurotoxic consequences. The discovery that chronic exposure to low levels of a small, water-soluble single amino acid triggers a detectable antibody response is surprising and has profound implications for the development of diagnostic tests for exposure to other pervasive environmental toxins.

  17. A novel antibody-based biomarker for chronic algal toxin exposure and sub-acute neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Kathi A.; Frame, Elizabeth R.; Gulland, Frances; Hansen, John D.; Kendrick, Preston S.; Beyer, Richard P.; Bammler, Theo K.; Farin, Frederico M.; Hiolski, Emma M.; Smith, Donald R.; Marcinek, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The neurotoxic amino acid, domoic acid (DA), is naturally produced by marine phytoplankton and presents a significant threat to the health of marine mammals, seabirds and humans via transfer of the toxin through the foodweb. In humans, acute exposure causes a neurotoxic illness known as amnesic shellfish poisoning characterized by seizures, memory loss, coma and death. Regular monitoring for high DA levels in edible shellfish tissues has been effective in protecting human consumers from acute DA exposure. However, chronic low-level DA exposure remains a concern, particularly in coastal and tribal communities that subsistence harvest shellfish known to contain low levels of the toxin. Domoic acid exposure via consumption of planktivorous fish also has a profound health impact on California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) affecting hundreds of animals yearly. Due to increasing algal toxin exposure threats globally, there is a critical need for reliable diagnostic tests for assessing chronic DA exposure in humans and wildlife. Here we report the discovery of a novel DA-specific antibody response that is a signature of chronic low-level exposure identified initially in a zebrafish exposure model and confirmed in naturally exposed wild sea lions. Additionally, we found that chronic exposure in zebrafish caused increased neurologic sensitivity to DA, revealing that repetitive exposure to DA well below the threshold for acute behavioral toxicity has underlying neurotoxic consequences. The discovery that chronic exposure to low levels of a small, water-soluble single amino acid triggers a detectable antibody response is surprising and has profound implications for the development of diagnostic tests for exposure to other pervasive environmental toxins.

  18. Effect of variations in treatment regimen and liver cirrhosis on exposure to benzodiazepines during treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gershkovich, Pavel; Wasan, Kishor M.; Ribeyre, Charles; Ibrahim, Fady; McNeill, John H

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Benzodiazepines (BDZs) are the drugs of choice to prevent the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). Various treatment protocols are published and have been shown to be effective in both office-managed and facility-managed treatment of AWS. The aim of this scientific commentary is to demonstrate the differences in the expected exposure to BDZs during AWS treatment using different treatment regimens available in the literature, in patients with or without alcoholic liver cirrh...

  19. "Pseudotumoral" hepatic pattern in acute alcoholic hepatitis:A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrea Tenca; Sara Massironi; Agostino Colli; Guido Basilisco; Dario Conte

    2009-01-01

    In acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAH),a "pseudotumoral" appearance of the liver parenchyma on computed tomography (CT) scan has been reported.The main findings are hypervascularized areas closely similar to those observed in large hepatocellular carcinomas.We report a case of a patient affected by AAH with an unusual appearance of these "pseudotumoral" areas on CT scan,close resembling a metastatic cancer rather than a primary hepatocellular carcinoma.In fact,in contrast with previous reports,the picture was characterized by the presence of many inhomogeneous,hypoattenuated areas highlighted during both pre-and post-contrast phases.Moreover,we report the first description of "pseudotumoral" lesions on ultrasound scan.This patient was successfully treated with corticosteroids,even if many controversies still exist regarding their efficacy in this setting.

  20. Acute and chronic effects from pulse exposure of D. magna to silver and copper oxide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Rasmussen, Rose

    2016-01-01

    , and afterwards transferred to clean medium and observed for 48 h (post-exposure period) for acute effects and for 21 d for chronic effects. AgNO3 and CuCl2 were used as reference materials for dissolved silver and copper, respectively. For all test materials, a 3 h pulse caused comparable immobility in D. magna...... decreased more with increasing concentrations than for CuCl2 exposures when taking the measured dissolved copper into account. This indicates a nanoparticle-specific effect for CuONPs, possibly related to the CuONPs accumulated in the gut of D. magna during the pulse exposure. Pulse exposure...

  1. Different digital paths to the keg? How exposure to peers' alcohol-related social media content influences drinking among male and female first-year college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Sarah C; LaBrie, Joseph W; Froidevaux, Nicole M; Witkovic, Yong D

    2016-06-01

    Despite speculation that peers' alcohol-related content on social media sites (SMS) may influence the alcohol use behaviors of SMS frequenting college students, this relationship has not been investigated longitudinally. The current prospective study assesses the relationship between exposure to peers' alcohol-related SMS content and later-drinking among first-year college students. Among 408 first-year students, total exposure to peers' alcohol-related content on Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat during the initial 6 weeks of college predicted alcohol consumption 6 months later. The rather robust relationship persisted even after students' and close friends drinking were accounted for, indicating that alcohol references on SMS do not simply reflect alcohol use behaviors that would otherwise be observed in the absence of SMS and be predictive of later alcohol use. Findings also illuminate important gender differences in the degree to which peers' alcohol-related SMS content influenced later drinking behavior as well as psychological mediators of this relationship. Among females, enhancement drinking motives and beliefs about the role of alcohol in the college experience fully mediated the relationship between SMS alcohol exposure and later drinking. Males, however, evidenced a much stronger predictive relationship between SMS alcohol exposure and second semester drinking, with this relationship only partially explained by perceptions of drinking norms, enhancement drinking motives, and beliefs about the role of alcohol in the college experience. Implications of these findings for college drinking prevention efforts and directions for future research are discussed.

  2. Adolescent oxytocin exposure causes persistent reductions in anxiety and alcohol consumption and enhances sociability in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Michael T; Carson, Dean S; Spiro, Adena; Arnold, Jonathon C; McGregor, Iain S

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that administration of oxytocin (OT) can have modulatory effects on social and anxiety-like behavior in mammals that may endure beyond the time of acute OT administration. The current study examined whether repeated administration of OT to male Wistar rats (n = 48) during a key developmental epoch (early adolescence) altered their physiology and behavior in later-life. Group housed rats were given intraperitoneal injections of either 1 mg/kg OT or vehicle during early adolescence (post natal-days [PND] 33-42). OT treatment caused a transient inhibition of body weight gain that recovered quickly after the cessation of treatment. At PND 50, the rats pre-treated with OT displayed less anxiety-like behavior on the emergence test, while at PND 55 they showed greater levels of social interaction. A subgroup of OT pre-treated rats examined at PND 63 showed a strong trend towards increased plasma OT levels, and also displayed significantly increased OT receptor mRNA in the hypothalamus. Rats pre-treated with OT and their controls showed similar induction of beer intake in daily 70 min test sessions (PND 63 onwards) in which the alcohol concentration of beer was gradually increased across days from 0.44% to 4.44%. However, when given ad libitum access to beer in their home cages from PND 72 onwards (early adulthood), consumption of beer but not water was significantly less in the OT pre-treated rats. A "booster" shot of OT (1 mg/kg) given after 25 days of ad libitum access to beer had a strong acute inhibitory effect on beer intake without affecting water intake. Overall these results suggest that exogenous OT administered during adolescence can have subtle yet enduring effects on anxiety, sociability and the motivation to consume alcohol. Such effects may reflect the inherent neuroplasticity of brain OT systems and a feed-forward effect whereby exogenous OT upregulates endogenous OT systems.

  3. Thiamine pyrophosphate effect and normalized erythrocyte transketolase activity ratio in Wernicke-Korsakoff patients and acute alcoholics undergoing detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooprai, H K; Pratt, O E; Shaw, G K; Thomson, A D

    1996-09-01

    Thiamine deficiency may be assessed clinically by an abnormally low specific erythrocyte transketolase activity and/or by abnormally large activation by thiamine diphosphate in vitro (or 'TPP effect'). In the present investigation, we report erythrocyte transketolase activation by TPP in acute alcoholics and Wernicke-Korsakoff patients undergoing detoxification. A new age-dependent parameter was used to improve the reliability of transketolase activity as an indicator of marginal thiamine deficiency. Thus normalized transketolase activity ratio (NTKZ), primary activation ratio (PAR) and further activation ratio (FAR) were measured in 29 acute alcoholics and 12 Wernicke-Korsakoff patients upon admission, and also on 47 control subjects. It was possible to follow up 14 of the 29 acute alcoholics after 7 days of treatment. Twenty-one per cent of the acute alcoholics and 33% of the Wernicke-Korsakoff patients, on admission to the detoxification Unit, had NTKZ values beyond the defined critical conditions for thiamine deficiency, whereas 7% of the former and 25% of the latter had PAR values beyond these critical conditions. Furthermore, all three parameters were significantly different in the Wernicke-Korsakoff patients compared to the other groups. The pattern of improvement of the different parameters on follow-up varied considerably and is difficult to explain, as only the NTKZ was statistically significant. Hence, only eight out of 14 acute alcoholics showed improvement in NTKZ, seven showed improvement of PAR and six showed improvement of FAR after treatment. Five patients showed improvement of both NTKZ and PAR and none of the patients showed improvement of all three parameters. We conclude that our findings confirm previous reports and that this modified transketolase activation test improves its reliability as an indicator of marginal thiamine deficiency.

  4. Prenatal and acute cocaine exposure affects neural responses and habituation to visual stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Brooke Riley

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Psychostimulants have many effects on visual function, from adverse, following acute and prenatal exposure to therapeutic, on attention deficit. To determine the impact of prenatal and acute cocaine exposure on visual processing, we studied neuronal responses to visual stimuli in two brain regions of a transgenic larval zebrafish expressing the calcium indicator GCaMP-HS. We found that both red light (LF and dark (DF flashes elicited similar responses in the optic tectum neuropil (TOn, while the dorsal telencephalon (dTe responded only to LF. Acute cocaine (0.5 μM reduced neuronal responses to LF in both brain regions but did not affect responses to DF. Repeated stimulus presentation led to habituation of dTe neurons to LF. Acute cocaine prevented habituation. TOn habituated to DF, but not LF, and DF habituation was not modified by cocaine. Remarkably, prenatal cocaine exposure prevented the effects of acute cocaine on LF response amplitude and habituation later in development in both brain regions, but did not affect DF responses. We discovered that, in spite of similar neural responses to LF and DF in the TO (superior colliculus in mammals, responses to LF are more complex, involving dTe (homologous to the cerebral cortex, and are more vulnerable to cocaine. Our results demonstrate that acute cocaine exposure affects visual processing differentially by brain region, and that prenatal cocaine exposure modifies zebrafish visual processing in multiple structures in a stimulus-dependent manner. These findings are in accordance with the major role that the optic tectum and cerebral cortex play in sustaining visual attention, and support the hypothesis that modification of these areas by prenatal cocaine exposure may be responsible for visual deficits noted in humans. This model offers new methodological approaches for studying the adverse and therapeutic effects of psychostimulants on attention, and for the development of new pharmacological

  5. Oxidative stress and nitric oxide in rats with alcohol-induced acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gülnur Andican; Remisa Gelisgen; Gülden Burcak; Ethem Unal; Osman Baran Tortum; Tayfun Karahasanoglu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Oxygen free radical mediated tissue damage is well established in pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP).Whether nitric oxide (NO) plays a deleterious or a protective role is unknown. In alcohol-induced AP, we studied NO, lipooxidative damage and glutathione in pancreas, lung and circulation.METHODS: AP was induced in rats (n = 25) by injection of ethyl alcohol into the common biliary duct. A sham laparatomy was performed in controls (n = 15). After 24 h the animals were killed, blood and tissue sampling were done.RESULTS: Histopathologic evidence confirmed the development of AP. Marked changes were observed in the pulmonary tissue. Compared with controls, the AP group displayed higher values for NO metabolites in pancreas and lungs, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in circulation. Glutathione was lower in pancreas and in circulation. Glutathione and NO were positively correlated in pancreas and lungs of controls but negatively correlated in circulation of experimental group. In the experimental group, plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were negatively correlated with pancreas thiobarbituric acid reactive substances but positively correlated with pancreas NO.CONCLUSION: NO increases in both pancreas and lungs in AP and NO contributes to the pathogenesis of AP under oxidative stress.

  6. Prenatal exposure to alcohol and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy) alters adult hippocampal neurogenesis and causes enduring memory deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, Juan J; Ferrer-Donato, Agueda

    2014-01-01

    Recreational drug use among pregnant women is a source of concern due to potential harmful effects of drug exposure on prenatal and infant development. The simultaneous abuse of ecstasy [3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)] and alcohol is prevalent among young adults, including young expectant mothers. Here, we used a rat model to study the potential risks associated with exposure to alcohol and MDMA during pregnancy. Pregnant rats received alcohol, MDMA, or both alcohol and MDMA by gavage at E13 through E15 twice daily. Female offspring treated prenatally with the combination of alcohol and MDMA, but not those exposed to either drug separately, showed at 3 months of age decreased exploratory activity and impaired working memory function. Prenatal treatment with the combination of alcohol and MDMA decreased proliferation of neuronal precursors in the adult dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, as measured by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine labelling, and adult neurogenesis, assessed by quantifying doublecortin expression. These results provide the first evidence that the simultaneous abuse of alcohol and ecstasy during pregnancy, even for short periods of time, may cause significant abnormalities in neurocognitive development.

  7. Arousal effects of orexin A on acute alcohol intoxication-induced coma in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaojun; Yan, Jie; Xia, Jianxia; Xiong, Jiaxiang; Wang, Tianhao; Chen, Yuan; Qi, Aiping; Yang, Nian; Fan, Shuangyi; Ye, Jianning; Hu, Zhian

    2012-02-01

    The key role of the hypothalamic neuropeptides orexins in maintenance and promotion of arousal has been well established in normal mammalian animals, but whether orexins exert arousal effects under pathological condition such as coma was little studied. In this study, a model of unconscious rats induced by acute alcohol intoxication was used to examine the effects of orexins through intracerebroventricular injection. The results revealed that either orexin A or orexin B induced decrease of duration of loss of right reflex in alcohol-induced unconscious rats. In the presence of the selective orexin receptor 1 antagonist SB 334867 and orexin receptor 2 antagonist TCS OX2 29, the excitatory action of orexin A was completely blocked. Our data further presented that orexin A also induced reduction of delta power in EEG in these rats. Single-unit recording experiment in vivo demonstrated that orexin A could evoke increase of firing activity of prefrontal cortex neurons in unconscious rats. This excitation was completely inhibited by an H(1) receptor antagonist, pyrilamine, whereas application of α(1)-adrenoreceptor antagonist prazosin or 5-HT(2) selective receptor antagonist ritanserin partially attenuated the excitatory effects of orexin A on these neurons. Consistently, the results of EEG recordings showed that microinjection of pyrilamine, prazosin, or ritanserin suppressed reduction of delta power in EEG induced by orexin A on unconscious rats. Thus, these data suggest that orexins exert arousal effects on alcohol-induced unconscious rats by the promotion of cortical activity through activation of histaminergic, noradrenergic and serotonergic systems. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'.

  8. Social behavior of offspring following prenatal cocaine exposure in rodents: a comparison with prenatal alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Krishna Sobrian

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and experimental reports suggest that prenatal cocaine exposure(PCEalters the offsprings’ social interactions with caregivers and conspecifics. Children exposed to prenatal cocaine show deficits in caregiver attachment and play behavior. In animal models,a developmental pattern of effects that range from deficits in play and social interaction during adolescence, to aggressive reactions during competition in adulthood is seen. This review will focus primarily on the effects of PCE on social behaviors involving conspecifics in animal models. Social relationships are critical to the developing organism; maternally-directed interactions are necessary for initial survival. Juvenile rats deprived of play behavior, one of the earliest forms of non-mother directed social behaviors in rodents, show deficits in learning tasks and sexual competence. Social behavior is inherently conmplex. Because the emergence of appropriate social skills involves the interplay between various conceptual and biological facets of behavior and social information, it may be a particularly sensitive measure of prenatal insult. The social behavior surveyed include social interactions, play behavior/fighting, scent marking and aggressive behavior in the offspring, as well as aspects of maternal behavior. The goal is to determine if there is a consensus of results in the literature with respect to PCE and social behaviors, and to discuss discrepant findings in terms of exposure models, the paradigms and dependent variables, as well as housing conditions, and the sex and age of the offspring at testing. As there is increasing evidence that deficits in social behavior may be sequelae of developmental exposure alcohol, we compare changes in social behaviors reported for prenatal alcohol with those reported for prenatal cocaine. Shortcomings in the both literatures are identified and addressed in an effort to improve the translational value of future experimentation.

  9. Impact of acute and chronic inhalation exposure to CdO nanoparticles on mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lebedová, J.; Bláhová, L.; Večeřa, Z. (Zbyněk); P. Mikuška; Dočekal, B. (Bohumil); Buchtová, M. (Marcela); Míšek, I. (Ivan); Dumková, J.; Hampl, A.; Hilscherová, K.

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium nanoparticles can represent a risk in both industrial and environmental settings, but there is little knowledge on the impacts of their inhalation, especially concerning longer-term exposures. In this study, mice were exposed to cadmium oxide (CdO) nanoparticles in whole body inhalation chambers for 4 to 72 h in acute and 1 to 13 weeks (24 h/day, 7 days/week) in chronic exposure to investigate the dynamics of nanoparticle uptake and effects. In the acute experiment, mice were ...

  10. Acute exposure to silica nanoparticles aggravate airway inflammation: different effects according to surface characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hye Jung; Sohn, Jung-Ho; Kim, Yoon-Ju; Park, Yoon Hee; Han, Heejae; Park, Kyung Hee; Lee, Kangtaek; Choi, Hoon; Um, Kiju; Choi,In-Hong; Park, Jung-Won; Lee, Jae-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Silica nanoparticles (SNPs) are widely used in many scientific and industrial fields despite the lack of proper evaluation of their potential toxicity. This study examined the effects of acute exposure to SNPs, either alone or in conjunction with ovalbumin (OVA), by studying the respiratory systems in exposed mouse models. Three types of SNPs were used: spherical SNPs (S-SNPs), mesoporous SNPs (M-SNPs), and PEGylated SNPs (P-SNPs). In the acute SNP exposure model performed, 6-week-old BALB/c ...

  11. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changes that come from drinking alcohol can make people do stupid or embarrassing things, like throwing up or peeing on themselves. Drinking also gives people bad breath, and no one enjoys a hangover. ...

  12. The effects of postnatal alcohol exposure and galantamine on the context pre-exposure facilitation effect and acetylcholine efflux using in vivo microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Amy E; Fadel, Jim R; Kelly, Sandra J

    2015-05-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are characterized by damage to multiple brain regions, including the hippocampus, which is involved in learning and memory. The acetylcholine neurotransmitter system provides major input to the hippocampus and is a possible target of developmental alcohol exposure. Alcohol (3.0 g/kg/day) was administered via intubation to male rat pups (postnatal day [PD] 2-10; ethanol-treated [ET]). Controls received a sham intubation (IC) or no treatment (NC). Acetylcholine efflux was measured using in vivo microdialysis (PD 32-35). ET animals were not different at baseline, but had decreased K(+)/Ca(2+)-induced acetylcholine efflux compared to NC animals and an enhanced acetylcholine response to galantamine (acetylcholinesterase inhibitor; 2.0 mg/kg) compared to both control groups. A separate cohort of animals was tested in the context pre-exposure facilitation effect task (CPFE; PD 30-32) following postnatal alcohol exposure and administration of galantamine (2.0 mg/kg; PD 11-30). Neither chronic galantamine nor postnatal alcohol exposure influenced performance in the CPFE task. Using immunohistochemistry, we found that neither alcohol exposure nor behavioral testing significantly altered the density of vesicular acetylcholine transporter or alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the ventral hippocampus (CA1). In the medial septum, the average number of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT+) cells was increased in ET animals that displayed the context-shock association; there were no changes in IC and NC animals that learned the context-shock association or in any animals that were in the control task that entailed no learning. Taken together, these results indicate that the hippocampal acetylcholine system is significantly disrupted under conditions of pharmacological manipulations (e.g., galantamine) in alcohol-exposed animals. Furthermore, ChAT was up‑regulated in ET animals that learned the CPFE, which may account for their ability

  13. Acute and chronic effects from pulse exposure of D. magna to silver and copper oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Holten Lützhøft, Hans-Christian; Rasmussen, Rose; Baun, Anders

    2016-11-01

    Aquatic toxicity testing of nanoparticles (NPs) is challenged by their dynamic behavior in test suspensions. The resulting difficulties in controlling and characterizing exposure concentrations are detrimental to the generation of concentration-response data needed for hazard identification of NPs. This study explores the applicability of short-term (1, 2 and 3h) pulse exposures as means to keep the exposure stable and at the same time disclose acute and chronic effects of AgNPs and CuONPs in D. magna. Dissolution, agglomeration and sedimentation were found to have less influence on exposure concentrations during 1-3h pulses than for 24-48h continuous exposures. For AgNPs, preparation of test suspensions in medium 24h before toxicity testing (aging) increased stability during the short-term pulses. In pulse tests, organisms were exposed to the test materials, AgNPs and CuONPs for 1, 2 and 3h, and afterwards transferred to clean medium and observed for 48h (post-exposure period) for acute effects and for 21 d for chronic effects. AgNO3 and CuCl2 were used as reference materials for dissolved silver and copper, respectively. For all test materials, a 3h pulse caused comparable immobility in D. magna (observed after 48h post-exposure) as 24h continuous exposure, as evidenced by overlapping 95% confidence intervals of EC50-values. In the 21 d post-exposure period, no trends in mortality or body length were identified. AgNP and AgNO3 pulses had no effect on the number of moltings, days to first live offspring or cumulated number of offspring, but the number of offspring increased for AgNPs (3h pulse only). In contrast, CuONP and CuCl2 pulses decreased the number of moltings and offspring, and for CuONPs the time to first live offspring was prolonged. After CuONP exposures, the offspring production decreased more with increasing concentrations than for CuCl2 exposures when taking the measured dissolved copper into account. This indicates a nanoparticle-specific effect

  14. Rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure after strenuous exercise and alcohol abuse: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth De Francesco Daher

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Rhabdomyolysis is a severe and life-threatening condition in which skeletal muscle is damaged. Acute renal failure due to rhabdomyolysis has been widely described and its main pathophysiological mechanisms are renal vasoconstriction, intraluminal cast formation and direct myoglobin toxicity. OBJECTIVE: To report on a case of acute renal failure (ARF induced by rhabdomyolysis due to strenuous exercise and alcohol abuse and to describe the pathophysiology of this type of ARF. CASE REPORT: A 39-year-old man arrived at the hospital emergency service with swollen legs and lower extremity compartment syndrome. He was oliguric and had serum creatinine and urea levels of 8.1 mg/dl and 195 mg/dl, respectively. The diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis was made through clinical and laboratory findings (creatine kinase activity of 26320 IU/l. The initial treatment consisted of fluid replacement and forced diuresis. The specific treatment for compartment syndrome, such as fasciotomy, was avoided in order to prevent infection. Partial recovery of renal function was recorded, after ten hemodialysis sessions. Complete recovery was observed after two months of follow-up.

  15. Is the contribution of alcohol to fatal traumatic brain injuries being underestimated in the acute hospital setting?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Toole, O

    2011-04-05

    Alcohol consumption in Ireland has nearly doubled during the period 1989-2001. To evaluate the relationship of alcohol to fatal head injuries in the acute hospital setting we created a data base of all fatal traumatic brain injuries in the Department of Neuropathology at Beaumont Hospital over a ten year period (1997-2006 inclusive). 498 cases were identified (351 males: 147 females). Fatalities were highest in males aged 19-25 years (N=101) and 51-70 years (N=109). Falls (N=210) and road traffic accidents (N=183) were the commonest modes of presentation. 36\\/210 (17%) falls had positive blood alcohol testing, 9\\/210 (4.3%) had documentation of alcohol in notes but no testing, 35\\/210 (16.7%) tested negative for alcohol and 130\\/210 (61.9%) were not tested. The RTA group (N=183) comprised drivers (n=79), passengers (n=47) and pedestrians (n=57). 65\\/79 (82.2%) of drivers were males aged 19-25 years. Blood alcohol was only available in 27\\/79 (34.1%) drivers and was positive in 13\\/27 (48.1%). 14\\/75 (18.7%) pedestrians were tested for alcohol, 4\\/14 (28.6%) were positive. Overall 142\\/183 (77.6%) of the RTA group were not tested. The contribution of alcohol to fatal traumatic brain injuries is probably being underestimated due to omission of blood alcohol concentration testing on admission to hospital. Absence of national guidelines on blood alcohol testing in the emergency department compounds the problem.

  16. Human solvent exposure. Factors influencing the pharmacokinetics and acute toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper

    1991-01-01

    . Normal therapeutic doses of cimetidine or propranolol have no measurable effect on toluene metabolism. Exposure to 100 ppm during 7 h causes irritation in the eyes and airways as well as feeling of intoxication, dizziness, and headache. There are signs of impairment in the performance in test concerning...

  17. Commuters’ air pollution exposure and acute health effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, M.M.M.

    2011-01-01

    People spend a substantial proportion of their time in traffic. In Europe, the average daily time in traffic is one to one and a half hour. Because of high in-traffic exposures and because most of the journeys are made during rush hours, the one to one and a half hour in traffic contributes dispropo

  18. Does acute exposure to aldehydes impair pulmonary function and structure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Mariana de; Neto, Alcendino Cândido; Carvalho, Giovanna; Casquillo, Natalia Vasconcelos; Carvalho, Niedja; Okuro, Renata; Ribeiro, Gabriel C Motta; Machado, Mariana; Cardozo, Aléxia; Silva, Aline Santos E; Barboza, Thiago; Vasconcellos, Luiz Ricardo; Rodrigues, Danielle Araujo; Camilo, Luciana; Carneiro, Leticia de A M; Jandre, Frederico; Pino, Alexandre V; Giannella-Neto, Antonio; Zin, Walter A; Corrêa, Leonardo Holanda Travassos; Souza, Marcio Nogueira de; Carvalho, Alysson R

    2016-07-15

    Mixtures of anhydrous ethyl alcohol and gasoline substituted for pure gasoline as a fuel in many Brazilian vehicles. Consequently, the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as ketones, other organic compounds, and particularly aldehydes increased in many Brazilian cities. The current study aims to investigate whether formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, or mixtures of both impair lung function, morphology, inflammatory and redox responses at environmentally relevant concentrations. For such purpose, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to either medical compressed air or to 4 different mixtures of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Eight hours later animals were anesthetized, paralyzed and lung mechanics and morphology, inflammatory cells and IL-1β, KC, TNF-α, IL-6, CCL2, MCP-1 contents, superoxide dismutase and catalalase activities were determined. The extra pulmonary respiratory tract was also analyzed. No differences could be detected between any exposed and control groups. In conclusion, no morpho-functional alterations were detected in exposed mice in relation to the control group.

  19. Humoral immunodepression following acute NO/sub 2/ exposure in normal and adrenalectomized mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azoulay-Dupuis, E.; Levacher, M.; Muffat-Joly, M.; Pocidalo, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects following 20 ppm NO/sub 2/ exposure on humoral immunity were investigated in C57BI/6 mice after 48, 72, and 96 h exposure. Both spleen plaque-forming cell (PFC) responses and serum hemagglutinins (HA) using sheep red blood cells (SRBC) as antigen were studied. Splenic and thymic weight and cellularity decreased on acute exposure to NO/sub 2/. PFC were markedly depressed after 48 h exposure and continued to decrease as exposure time was lengthened. HA titers were also depressed. The same significant suppression of PFC and HA titers was observed in adrenalectomized mice after 96 h NO/sub 2/ exposure. The depression of humoral immunity in NO/sub 2/-exposed mice was independent of stress-induced endogeneous steroids.

  20. Chronic and acute effects of coal tar pitch exposure and cardiopulmonary mortality among aluminum smelter workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Melissa C; Demers, Paul A; Spinelli, John J; Eisen, Ellen A; Lorenzi, Maria F; Le, Nhu D

    2010-10-01

    Air pollution causes several adverse cardiovascular and respiratory effects. In occupational studies, where levels of particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are higher, the evidence is inconsistent. The effects of acute and chronic PAH exposure on cardiopulmonary mortality were examined within a Kitimat, Canada, aluminum smelter cohort (n = 7,026) linked to a national mortality database (1957-1999). No standardized mortality ratio was significantly elevated compared with the province's population. Smoking-adjusted internal comparisons were conducted using Cox regression for male subjects (n = 6,423). Ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality (n = 281) was associated with cumulative benzo[a]pyrene (B(a)P) exposure (hazard ratio = 1.62, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 2.46) in the highest category. A monotonic but nonsignificant trend was observed with chronic B(a)P exposure and acute myocardial infarction (n = 184). When follow-up was restricted to active employment, the hazard ratio for IHD was 2.39 (95% confidence interval: 0.95, 6.05) in the highest cumulative B(a)P category. The stronger associations observed during employment suggest that risk may not persist after exposure cessation. No associations with recent or current exposure were observed. IHD was associated with chronic (but not current) PAH exposure in a high-exposure occupational setting. Given the widespread workplace exposure to PAHs and heart disease's high prevalence, even modest associations produce a high burden.

  1. Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (ND-PAE): Proposed DSM-5 Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kable, Julie A; O'Connor, Mary J; Olson, Heather Carmichael; Paley, Blair; Mattson, Sarah N; Anderson, Sally M; Riley, Edward P

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 40 years, a significant body of animal and human research has documented the teratogenic effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Neurobehavioral Disorder associated with PAE is proposed as a new clarifying term, intended to encompass the neurodevelopmental and mental health symptoms associated with PAE. Defining this disorder is a necessary step to adequately characterize these symptoms and allow clinical assessment not possible using existing physically-based diagnostic schemes. Without appropriate diagnostic guidelines, affected individuals are frequently misdiagnosed and treated inappropriately (often to their considerable detriment) by mental health, educational, and criminal justice systems. Three core areas of deficits identified from the available research, including neurocognitive, self-regulation, and adaptive functioning impairments, are discussed and information regarding associated features and disorders, prevalence, course, familial patterns, differential diagnosis, and treatment of the proposed disorder are also provided.

  2. Association of arsenic exposure with smoking, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: data from NHANES 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-03-01

    Association of arsenic exposure with smoking, alcohol, and caffeine consumption was investigated. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2005-2010 were used for this investigation. Urinary levels of total arsenic (UAS) and dimethylarsonic acid (UDMA) were evaluated for children aged 6-12 years and adolescents and adults aged ≥ 12 years. Urinary levels of arsenobetaine (UAB) were evaluated for adolescents and adults only. Regression models were fitted for log transformed values of UAB, UAS, and UDMA. For the models for children, however, gender, race/ethnicity, SES, and fish/shell fish consumption during the last 30 days were the only independent variables that were included in the models. Nonsmokers were found to have higher levels of UAS and UDMA than smokers. Elevated levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA were associated with higher amounts of daily alcohol consumption. The associations were in the opposite direction for daily caffeine consumption. Females were found to have statistically significantly lower adjusted levels of UDMA than males for those aged ≥ 12 years. Irrespective of age, those with unclassified race/ethnicity had the highest levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA and non-Hispanic whites had the lowest levels. Adolescents had the higher levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA than adults. Higher SES was associated with higher levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA among adolescents and adults. Irrespective of age, fish consumption was associated with higher levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA.

  3. Effects of postnatal alcohol exposure on hippocampal gene expression and learning in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Moon, Jihye; Ryu, Jinhyun; Jeong, Joo Yeon; Roh, Gu Seob; Kim, Hyun Joon; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Choi, Wan Sung; Kang, Sang Soo

    2016-04-28

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a condition resulting from excessive drinking by pregnant women. Symptoms of FAS include abnormal facial features, stunted growth, intellectual deficits and attentional dysfunction. Many studies have investigated FAS, but its underlying mechanisms remain unknown. This study evaluated the relationship between alcohol exposure during the synaptogenesis period in postnatal mice and subsequent cognitive function in adult mice. We delivered two injections, separated by 2 h, of ethanol (3 g/kg, ethanol/saline, 20% v/v) to ICR mice on postnatal day 7. After 10 weeks, we conducted a behavioral test, sacrificed the animals, harvested brain tissue and analyzed hippocampal gene expression using a microarray. In ethanol-treated mice, there was a reduction in brain size and decreased neuronal cell number in the cortex, and also cognitive impairment. cDNA microarray results indicated that 1,548 genes showed a > 2-fold decrease in expression relative to control, whereas 974 genes showed a > 2-fold increase in expression relative to control. Many of these genes were related to signal transduction, synaptogenesis and cell membrane formation, which are highlighted in our findings.

  4. Initial subjective reward: Single-exposure conditioned place preference to alcohol in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith E. Grisel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Most adults consume alcohol with relative impunity, but about 10-20% of users persist (or progress in their consumption, despite mounting and serious repercussions. Identifying at-risk individuals before neuroadaptative changes associated with chronic use become well ingrained is thus a key step in mitigating and preventing the end stage disease and its devastating impacts. Explaining liability has been impeded, in part, by the absence of animal models for assessing initial sensitivity to the drug’s reinforcing properties, an important endophenotype in the trajectory toward excessive drinking. Here we assess the initial rewarding effects of the drug in a novel application of the conditioned place preference paradigm. In contrast to previous studies that have all employed repeated drug administration, we demonstrated a robust preference for a context paired with a single exposure to 1.5g/kg EtOH in male and female subjects of three strains. This model validates an assay of initial sensitivity to the subjective rewarding effects of alcohol, a widely used drug with multifarious impacts on both brain and society, and provides a new tool for theory-driven endophenotypic pharmacogenetic approaches to understanding and treating addiction.

  5. [Prenatal alcohol exposure as an etiological factor in neuropsychiatric diseases of childhood, adolescence and adulthood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, Sergio Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    In Argentina, prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is an almost neglected condition as an important etiological factor for the induction of a wide spectrum of neuropsychiatric diseases that may appear during childhood, adolescence or adulthood. Children born to alcoholic mothers may show a spectrum of diseases ranging from an apparent normality to a profound mental retardation, passing through epilepsy, attention deficit disorders with or without hyperactivity, autism and pervasive developmental disorders, and different types of learning disorders. When adolescents, they may develop different kinds of personality disorders and substance abuse disorders. Finally, in adulthood, they may suffer from different types of affective and psychotic disorders, among others. A great number of those children may not develop their full mental and social potentiality as free individuals. They usually have diverse types of cognitive, attentional, mnemonic and affective impairments. Not infrequently, they engage in antisocial behaviors, have school or work troubles. In this work, I review the present clinical classifications of the disorders emerging from a PAE and the several neuropsychiatric diseases that can be induced by them, in order to call attention to the Argentinian neuropsychiatric community about the increasingly, although underdiagnosed, frequency of these disorders in our country.

  6. Alcohol exposure in utero leads to enhanced prepubertal mammary development and alterations in mammary IGF and estradiol systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco, Tiffany A; Crismale-Gann, Catina; Cohick, Wendie S

    2011-08-01

    Exposure to alcohol during fetal development increases susceptibility to mammary cancer in adult rats. This study determined if early changes in mammary morphology and the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)/estradiol axis are involved in the mechanisms that underlie this increased susceptibility. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a liquid diet containing 6.7% ethanol (alcohol), an isocaloric liquid diet (pair-fed), or rat chow ad libitum from days 11 to 21 of gestation. At birth, female pups were cross-fostered to ad libitum-fed control dams. Offspring were euthanized at postnatal days (PND) 20, 40, or 80. Animals were injected with BrdU before euthanasia, then mammary glands, serum, and livers were collected. Mammary glands from animals exposed to alcohol in utero displayed increased epithelial cell proliferation and aromatase expression at PND 20 and 40. Mammary IGF-I mRNA was higher in alcohol-exposed animals relative to controls at PND 20, while mammary IGFBP-5 mRNA was lower in this group at PND 40. Hepatic IGF-I mRNA expression was increased at all time points in alcohol-exposed animals, however, circulating IGF-I levels were not altered. These data indicate that alcohol exposure in utero may advance mammary development via the IGF and estradiol systems, which could contribute to increased susceptibility to mammary cancer later in life.

  7. TOXICITY PATHWAY ANALYSIS IN AGING BROWN NORWAY RAT BRAIN FOLLOWING ACUTE TOLUENE EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental stressors is poorly understood. To investigate the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we examined the effects of acute exposure by oral gavage of the volatile organic solvent toluene (0.00, 0.3...

  8. Neurobehavorial effects of acute exposure to four solvents: meta-abalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meta-and re-analyses of the available data for the neurobehavioral effects of acute inhalation exposure to toluene were reported by Benignus et al. (2007). The present study was designed to test the generality of the toluene results in as many other solvents as possible by furthe...

  9. The effect of chronic ammonia exposure on acute phase proteins, immunoglobulin and cytokines in laying hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia is a potential health hazard to both humans and animals, causing systemic low-grade inflammation based on its levels and durations. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of 45 weeks of exposure to 30 ppm NH3 on the concentrations of acute phase proteins, immunoglobulins and c...

  10. In Utero Exposure to Lipopolysaccharide Alters the Postnatal Acute Phase Response in Beef Heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to determine the potential effect of prenatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure on the postnatal acute phase response (APR) to an LPS challenge in heifers. Pregnant crossbred cows (n = 50) were separated into prenatal immune stimulation (PIS; n = 25; administered 0.1 microgr...

  11. ACUTE BEHAVORIAL EFFECTS FROM EXPOSURE TO TWO-STROKE ENGINE EXHAUST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefits of changing from two-stroke to four-stroke engines (and other remedial requirements) can be evaluated (monetized) from the standpoint of acute behavioral effects of human exposure to exhaust from these engines. The monetization process depends upon estimates of the magn...

  12. Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animals#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animalsWhitney S. Krueger1,2, Elizabeth D. Hilborn2, Timothy J. Wade21Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA2Environmental Public Health Division, Office of Research and Development, U...

  13. Pathogenesis of Acute and Delayed Corneal Lesions after Ocular Exposure to Sulfur Mustard Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    had poor outcomes. Using a rabbit corneal vapor exposure model, we previously demonstrated a clinical progression with acute and chronic sequelae...can cause a permanent reduction in visual acuity or complete loss of eyesight [6]. The pathogenesis of MGK has been clinically described as a chronic

  14. A Method for Quantifying the Acute Health Impacts of Residential Non-Biological Exposure Via Inhalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, Jennifer M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Bret C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The inability to monetize the health costs of acute exposures in homes and the benefits of various control options is a barrier to justifying policies and approaches that can reduce exposure and improve health.We synthesized relationships between short-term outdoor concentration changes and health outcomes to estimate the health impacts of short-term in-home exposures. Damage and cost impacts of specific health outcomes were taken from the literature. We assessed the impact of vented and non-vented residential natural gas cooking burners on Southern California occupants for two pollutants (NO2 and CO).

  15. The effects of acute alcohol on psychomotor, set-shifting, and working memory performance in older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Lauren A; Sklar, Alfredo L; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2015-05-01

    A limited number of publications have documented the effects of acute alcohol administration among older adults. Among these, only a few have investigated sex differences within this population. The current project examined the behavioral effects of acute low- and moderate-dose alcohol on 62 older (ages 55-70) male and female, healthy, light to moderate drinkers. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three dose conditions: placebo (peak breath alcohol concentration [BrAC] of 0 mg/dL), low (peak BrAC of 40 mg/dL), and moderate (peak BrAC of 65 mg/dL). Tasks assessed psychomotor, set-shifting, and working memory performance. Better set-shifting abilities were observed among women, whereas men demonstrated more efficient working memory, regardless of dose. The moderate-dose group did not significantly differ from the placebo group on any task. However, the low-dose group performed better than the moderate-dose group across measures of set shifting and working memory. Relative to the placebo group, the low-dose group exhibited better working memory, specifically for faces. Interestingly, there were no sex by dose interactions. These data suggest that, at least for our study's task demands, low and moderate doses of alcohol do not significantly hinder psychomotor, set-shifting, or working memory performance among older adults. In fact, low-dose alcohol may facilitate certain cognitive abilities. Furthermore, although sex differences in cognitive abilities were observed, these alcohol doses did not differentially affect men and women. Further investigation is necessary to better characterize the effects of sex and alcohol dose on cognition in older adults.

  16. Effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on childhood academic outcomes: contrasting maternal and paternal associations in the ALSPAC study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Alati

    Full Text Available The impact of low-to-moderate levels of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on child cognitive outcomes has been of recent concern. This study has tested the hypothesis that low-to-moderate maternal alcohol use in pregnancy is associated with lower school test scores at age 11 in the offspring via intrauterine mechanisms.We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, a birth cohort study based in the South West of England. Analyses were conducted on 7062 participants who had complete data on: maternal and paternal patterns of alcohol use in the first trimester and at 18 weeks' gestation, child's academic outcomes measured at age 11, gender, maternal age, parity, marital status, ethnicity, household crowding, home ownership status and parental education. We contrasted the association of mother's alcohol consumption during pregnancy with child's National Curriculum Key Stage 2 (KS2 test scores with the association for father's alcohol consumption (during the time the mother was pregnant with child's National Curriculum Key Stage 2 (KS2 test scores. We used multivariate linear regression to estimate mean differences and 95% confidence intervals [CI] in KS2 scores across the exposure categories and computed f statistics to compare maternal and paternal associations.Drinking up to 1 unit of alcohol a day during pregnancy was not associated with lower test scores. However, frequent prenatal consumption of 4 units (equivalent to 32 grams of alcohol on each single drinking occasion was associated with reduced educational attainment [Mean change in offspring KS2 score was -0.68 (-1.03, -0.33 for maternal alcohol categories compared to 0.27 (0.07, 0.46 for paternal alcohol categories]. Frequent consumption of 4 units of alcohol during pregnancy may adversely affect childhood academic outcomes via intrauterine mechanisms.

  17. Prenatal and acute cocaine exposure affects neural responses and habituation to visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Elizabeth; Kopotiyenko, Konstantin; Zhdanova, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Psychostimulants have many effects on visual function, from adverse following acute and prenatal exposure to therapeutic on attention deficit. To determine the impact of prenatal and acute cocaine exposure on visual processing, we studied neuronal responses to visual stimuli in two brain regions of a transgenic larval zebrafish expressing the calcium indicator GCaMP-HS. We found that both red light (LF) and dark (DF) flashes elicited similar responses in the optic tectum neuropil (TOn), while the dorsal telencephalon (dTe) responded only to LF. Acute cocaine (0.5 μM) reduced neuronal responses to LF in both brain regions but did not affect responses to DF. Repeated stimulus presentation (RSP) led to habituation of dTe neurons to LF. Acute cocaine prevented habituation. TOn habituated to DF, but not LF, and DF habituation was not modified by cocaine. Remarkably, prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) prevented the effects of acute cocaine on LF response amplitude and habituation later in development in both brain regions, but did not affect DF responses. We discovered that, in spite of similar neural responses to LF and DF in the TO (superior colliculus in mammals), responses to LF are more complex, involving dTe (homologous to the cerebral cortex), and are more vulnerable to cocaine. Our results demonstrate that acute cocaine exposure affects visual processing differentially by brain region, and that PCE modifies zebrafish visual processing in multiple structures in a stimulus-dependent manner. These findings are in accordance with the major role that the optic tectum and cerebral cortex play in sustaining visual attention, and support the hypothesis that modification of these areas by PCE may be responsible for visual deficits noted in humans. This model offers new methodological approaches for studying the adverse and therapeutic effects of psychostimulants on attention, and for the development of new pharmacological interventions.

  18. Using eyeblink classical conditioning as a test of the functional consequences of exposure of the developing cerebellum to alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, John T

    2003-01-01

    Exposure of the developing brain to alcohol produces profound Purkinje cell loss in the cerebellum, and deficits in tests of motor coordination. However, the precise relationship between these two sets of findings has been difficult to determine. Eyeblink classical conditioning is known to engage a discrete brainstem-cerebellar circuit, making it an ideal test of cerebellar functional integrity after developmental alcohol exposure. In eyeblink conditioning, one of the deep cerebellar nuclei, the interpositus nucleus, as well as specific Purkinje cell populations, are sites of convergence for CS and US information. A series of studies have shown that eyeblink conditioning is impaired in both weanling and adult rats given binge-like exposure to alcohol as neonates, and that these deficits can be traced, at least in part, to impaired activation of cerebellar interpositus nucleus neurons and to an overall reduction in the deep cerebellar nuclear cell population. Because particular cerebellar cell populations are utilized in well-defined ways during eyeblink conditioning, conclusions regarding specific changes in the mediation of behavior by these cell populations are greatly strengthened. Further studies will be directed towards the impact of early exposure to alcohol on the functionality of specific Purkinje cell populations, as well as towards brainstem areas that process the tone CS and the somatosensory US.

  19. Behavioral Effects of Pre- and Postnatal Exposure to Smoking, Alcohol, and Caffeine in 5-Month-Old Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowler, Jeffrey K.; Jacobson, Sandra W.

    This study examined the behavioral effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to smoking, alcohol, and caffeinated beverages on 5-month-old infants. The sample consisted of 179 Caucasian infants and their mothers. All mothers were 19 years of age or older and had at least a tenth-grade education. Mental and motor portions of the Bayley Scales of…

  20. Serum metabolomic profiling in acute alcoholic hepatitis identifies multiple dysregulated pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Rachakonda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: While animal studies have implicated derangements of global energy homeostasis in the pathogenesis of acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAH, the relevance of these findings to the development of human AAH remains unclear. Using global, unbiased serum metabolomics analysis, we sought to characterize alterations in metabolic pathways associated with severe AAH and identify potential biomarkers for disease prognosis. METHODS: This prospective, case-control study design included 25 patients with severe AAH and 25 ambulatory patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. Serum samples were collected within 24 hours of the index clinical encounter. Global, unbiased metabolomics profiling was performed. Patients were followed for 180 days after enrollment to determine survival. RESULTS: Levels of 234 biochemicals were altered in subjects with severe AAH. Random-forest analysis, principal component analysis, and integrated hierarchical clustering methods demonstrated that metabolomics profiles separated the two cohorts with 100% accuracy. Severe AAH was associated with enhanced triglyceride lipolysis, impaired mitochondrial fatty acid beta oxidation, and upregulated omega oxidation. Low levels of multiple lysolipids and related metabolites suggested decreased plasma membrane remodeling in severe AAH. While most measured bile acids were increased in severe AAH, low deoxycholate and glycodeoxycholate levels indicated intestinal dysbiosis. Several changes in substrate utilization for energy homeostasis were identified in severe AAH, including increased glucose consumption by the pentose phosphate pathway, altered tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle activity, and enhanced peptide catabolism. Finally, altered levels of small molecules related to glutathione metabolism and antioxidant vitamin depletion were observed in patients with severe AAH. Univariable logistic regression revealed 15 metabolites associated with 180-day survival in severe AAH. CONCLUSION

  1. Adolescent oxytocin exposure causes persistent reductions in anxiety and alcohol consumption and enhances sociability in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T Bowen

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that administration of oxytocin (OT can have modulatory effects on social and anxiety-like behavior in mammals that may endure beyond the time of acute OT administration. The current study examined whether repeated administration of OT to male Wistar rats (n = 48 during a key developmental epoch (early adolescence altered their physiology and behavior in later-life. Group housed rats were given intraperitoneal injections of either 1 mg/kg OT or vehicle during early adolescence (post natal-days [PND] 33-42. OT treatment caused a transient inhibition of body weight gain that recovered quickly after the cessation of treatment. At PND 50, the rats pre-treated with OT displayed less anxiety-like behavior on the emergence test, while at PND 55 they showed greater levels of social interaction. A subgroup of OT pre-treated rats examined at PND 63 showed a strong trend towards increased plasma OT levels, and also displayed significantly increased OT receptor mRNA in the hypothalamus. Rats pre-treated with OT and their controls showed similar induction of beer intake in daily 70 min test sessions (PND 63 onwards in which the alcohol concentration of beer was gradually increased across days from 0.44% to 4.44%. However, when given ad libitum access to beer in their home cages from PND 72 onwards (early adulthood, consumption of beer but not water was significantly less in the OT pre-treated rats. A "booster" shot of OT (1 mg/kg given after 25 days of ad libitum access to beer had a strong acute inhibitory effect on beer intake without affecting water intake. Overall these results suggest that exogenous OT administered during adolescence can have subtle yet enduring effects on anxiety, sociability and the motivation to consume alcohol. Such effects may reflect the inherent neuroplasticity of brain OT systems and a feed-forward effect whereby exogenous OT upregulates endogenous OT systems.

  2. Acute and Chronic Exposure to CO2 in Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D.; Wu, J.; Barr, Y. R.; Watkins, S. D.

    2010-01-01

    Spacecraft and space stations, similar to other habitable confined spaces such as submarines, need to provide a breathable atmosphere for their inhabitants. The inevitable production of CO2 during respiration necessitates life support systems that "scrub" the atmosphere and lower CO2 levels. Due to operational limitations associated with space flight (limited mass, volume, power, and consumables) CO2 is not scrubbed down to its terrestrial equivalent of 0.03% CO2 (ppCO2 of 0.23 mmHg), but is kept below 0.7% (ppCO2 of 5.3 mmHg), a level established in NASA s 180-day mission Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentration (SMAC) to be safe and unlikely to cause symptoms. Reports of space flight crewmembers becoming symptomatic with headaches, fatigue, and malaise at levels below those known to cause such symptoms terrestrially has prompted studies measuring the levels of CO2 on both the space shuttle and the space station. Data from cabin atmosphere sampling were collected on space shuttle missions STS-113, STS-122, STS-123, and International Space Station Expeditions 12-15 and 17, and the measured CO2 levels were then correlated to symptoms reported by the crew. The results indicate that a correlation exists between CO2 levels and symptomatology, however causality cannot be established at this time. While the short-term effects of elevated CO2 exposure are well known terrestrially, less is known regarding potential long-term effects of prolonged exposure to a CO2-rich environment or how the physiological changes caused by microgravity may interact with such exposures. Other challenges include limitations in the CO2 monitors used, lack of convection in the microgravity environment, and formation of localized CO2 pockets. As it is unclear if the unique environment of space increases sensitivity to CO2 or if other confounding factors are present, further research is planned to elucidate these points. At the same time, efforts are underway to update the SMAC to a lower level

  3. Structural and functional changes of the human macula during acute exposure to high altitude.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dominik Fischer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to quantify structural and functional changes at the macula during acute exposure to high altitude and to assess their structure/function relationship. This work is related to the Tuebingen High Altitude Ophthalmology (THAO study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Spectral domain optical coherence tomography and microperimetry were used to quantify changes of central retinal structure and function in 14 healthy subjects during acute exposure to high altitude (4559 m. High-resolution volume scans and fundus-controlled microperimetry of the posterior pole were performed in addition to best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA measurements and assessment of acute mountain sickness. Analysis of measurements at altitude vs. baseline revealed increased total retinal thickness (TRT in all four outer ETDRS grid subfields during acute altitude exposure (TRT(outer = 2.80 ± 1.00 μm; mean change ± 95%CI. This change was inverted towards the inner four subfields (TRT(inner = -1.89 ± 0.97 μm with significant reduction of TRT in the fovea (TRT(foveal = -6.62 ± 0.90 μm at altitude. BCVA revealed no significant difference compared to baseline (0.06 ± 0.08 logMAR. Microperimetry showed stable mean sensitivity in all but the foveal subfield (MS(foveal = -1.12 ± 0.68 dB. At baseline recordings before and >2 weeks after high altitude exposure, all subjects showed equal levels with no sign of persisting structural or functional sequels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: During acute exposure to high altitude central retinal thickness is subject to minor, yet statistically significant changes. These alterations describe a function of eccentricity with an increase in regions with relatively higher retinal nerve fiber content and vascular arcades. However, these changes did not correlate with measures of central retinal function or acute mountain sickness. For the first time a quantitative approach has been used to assess these changes during acute

  4. Structural and Functional Changes of the Human Macula during Acute Exposure to High Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, M. Dominik; Willmann, Gabriel; Schatz, Andreas; Schommer, Kai; Zhour, Ahmad; Zrenner, Eberhart; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl U.; Gekeler, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aimed to quantify structural and functional changes at the macula during acute exposure to high altitude and to assess their structure/function relationship. This work is related to the Tuebingen High Altitude Ophthalmology (THAO) study. Methodology/Principal Findings Spectral domain optical coherence tomography and microperimetry were used to quantify changes of central retinal structure and function in 14 healthy subjects during acute exposure to high altitude (4559 m). High-resolution volume scans and fundus-controlled microperimetry of the posterior pole were performed in addition to best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measurements and assessment of acute mountain sickness. Analysis of measurements at altitude vs. baseline revealed increased total retinal thickness (TRT) in all four outer ETDRS grid subfields during acute altitude exposure (TRTouter = 2.80±1.00 μm; mean change±95%CI). This change was inverted towards the inner four subfields (TRTinner = −1.89±0.97 μm) with significant reduction of TRT in the fovea (TRTfoveal = −6.62±0.90 μm) at altitude. BCVA revealed no significant difference compared to baseline (0.06±0.08 logMAR). Microperimetry showed stable mean sensitivity in all but the foveal subfield (MSfoveal = −1.12±0.68 dB). At baseline recordings before and >2 weeks after high altitude exposure, all subjects showed equal levels with no sign of persisting structural or functional sequels. Conclusions/Significance During acute exposure to high altitude central retinal thickness is subject to minor, yet statistically significant changes. These alterations describe a function of eccentricity with an increase in regions with relatively higher retinal nerve fiber content and vascular arcades. However, these changes did not correlate with measures of central retinal function or acute mountain sickness. For the first time a quantitative approach has been used to assess these changes during acute, non

  5. Acute phase response, inflammation and metabolic syndrome biomarkers of Libby asbestos exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannahan, Jonathan H. [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Alzate, Oscar [Systems Proteomics Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Winnik, Witold M.; Andrews, Debora [Proteomics Core, Research Core Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Schladweiler, Mette C. [Cardiopulmonary and Immunotoxicology Branch, Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Ghio, Andrew J. [Clinical Research Branch, Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Gavett, Stephen H. [Cardiopulmonary and Immunotoxicology Branch, Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Kodavanti, Urmila P., E-mail: Kodavanti.Urmila@epa.gov [Cardiopulmonary and Immunotoxicology Branch, Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Identification of biomarkers assists in the diagnosis of disease and the assessment of health risks from environmental exposures. We hypothesized that rats exposed to Libby amphibole (LA) would present with a unique serum proteomic profile which could help elucidate epidemiologically-relevant biomarkers. In four experiments spanning varied protocols and temporality, healthy (Wistar Kyoto, WKY; and F344) and cardiovascular compromised (CVD) rat models (spontaneously hypertensive, SH; and SH heart failure, SHHF) were intratracheally instilled with saline (control) or LA. Serum biomarkers of cancer, inflammation, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and the acute phase response (APR) were analyzed. All rat strains exhibited acute increases in α-2-macroglobulin, and α1-acid glycoprotein. Among markers of inflammation, lipocalin-2 was induced in WKY, SH and SHHF and osteopontin only in WKY after LA exposure. While rat strain- and age-related changes were apparent in MetS biomarkers, no LA effects were evident. The cancer marker mesothelin was increased only slightly at 1 month in WKY in one of the studies. Quantitative Intact Proteomic profiling of WKY serum at 1 day or 4 weeks after 4 weekly LA instillations indicated no oxidative protein modifications, however APR proteins were significantly increased. Those included serine protease inhibitor, apolipoprotein E, α-2-HS-glycoprotein, t-kininogen 1 and 2, ceruloplasmin, vitamin D binding protein, serum amyloid P, and more 1 day after last LA exposure. All changes were reversible after a short recovery regardless of the acute or long-term exposures. Thus, LA exposure induces an APR and systemic inflammatory biomarkers that could have implications in systemic and pulmonary disease in individuals exposed to LA. -- Highlights: ► Biomarkers of asbestos exposure are required for disease diagnosis. ► Libby amphibole exposure is associated with increased human mortality. ► Libby amphibole increases circulating proteins involved

  6. Ceftriaxone attenuates locomotor activity induced by acute and repeated cocaine exposure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallarida, Christopher S; Corley, Gladys; Kovalevich, Jane; Yen, William; Langford, Dianne; Rawls, Scott M

    2013-11-27

    Ceftriaxone (CTX) decreases locomotor activation produced by initial cocaine exposure and attenuates development of behavioral sensitization produced by repeated cocaine exposure. An important question that has not yet been answered is whether or not CTX reduces behavioral sensitization to cocaine in cases in which the antibiotic is administered only during the period of cocaine absence that follows repeated cocaine exposure and precedes reintroduction to cocaine. We investigated this question using C57BL/6 mice. Mice pretreated with cocaine (15mg/kg×14 days) and then challenged with cocaine (15mg/kg) after 30 days of cocaine absence displayed sensitization of locomotor activity. For combination experiments, CTX injected during the 30 days of cocaine absence attenuated behavioral sensitization produced by cocaine challenge. In the case in which CTX was injected together with cocaine for 14 days, development of behavioral sensitization to cocaine challenge was also reduced. CTX attenuated the increase in locomotor activity produced by acute cocaine exposure; however, its efficacy was dependent on the dose of cocaine as inhibition was detected against 30mg/kg, but not 15mg/kg, of cocaine. These results from mice indicate that CTX attenuates locomotor activity produced by acute and repeated cocaine exposure and counters cocaine's locomotor activating properties in a paradigm in which the antibiotic is injected during the period of forced cocaine absence that follows repeated cocaine exposure.

  7. Factors affecting the estimated probabilistic acute dietary exposure to captan from apple consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentai, A; Sali, J; Szabó, I J; Szeitzné-Szabó, M; Ambrus, A; Vásárhelyi, A

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the number of pesticide residue values below the LOQ/LOD of analytical methods, the variability of residues in individual fruits, mass of fruit units and the number of bootstrap iterations was studied on the probabilistically estimated acute exposure of consumers. The 4720 daily apple consumption data and the results of 1239 apple sample analyses for captan residues, performed within the Hungarian monitoring programme between 2005 and 2011, were used in this study as model matrix. Up to about 95th percentile exposure (µg/(kg bw·day)), simply multiplying each residue in composite samples with each consumption value gave similar estimates to those obtained with the complex procedure taking also into account the mass of and residues in individual fruits. However, the exposure above the 95th percentile calculated with the complex procedure gradually increased with increasing percentile level compared to the simple procedure. Including the high number of non-detects reduced the estimated exposure, which was the highest when only the residues measured in treated fruits were taken into account. The number of bootstrap iterations between 100 and 10,000 did not significantly affect the calculated exposure. The 99.99th percentile exposure amounted to 17.9% of the acute reference dose of 300 µg/(kg bw·day) for women of childbearing age.

  8. Limited inflammatory response in rats after acute exposure to a silicon carbide nanoaerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laloy, J.; Lozano, O.; Alpan, L.; Masereel, B.; Toussaint, O.; Dogné, J. M.; Lucas, S.

    2015-08-01

    Inhalation represents the major route of human exposure to manufactured nanomaterials (NMs). Assessments are needed about the potential risks of NMs from inhalation on different tissues and organs, especially the respiratory tract. The aim of this limited study is to determine the potential acute pulmonary toxicity in rats exposed to a dry nanoaerosol of silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticles (NPs) in a whole-body exposure (WBE) model. The SiC nanoaerosol is composed of a bimodal size distribution of 92.8 and 480 nm. The exposure concentration was 4.91 mg/L, close to the highest recommended concentration of 5 mg/L by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Rats were exposed for 6 h to a stable and reproducible SiC nanoaerosol under real-time measurement conditions. A control group was exposed to the filtered air used to create the nanoaerosol. Animals were sacrificed immediately, 24 or 72 h after exposure. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from rat lungs was recovered. Macrophages filled with SiC NPs were observed in the rat lungs. The greatest load of SiC and macrophages filled with SiC were observed on the rat lungs sacrificed 24 h after acute exposure. A limited acute inflammatory response was found up to 24 h after exposure characterized by a lactate dehydrogenase and total protein increase or presence of inflammatory cells in pulmonary lavage. For this study a WBE model has been developed, it allows the simultaneous exposure of six rats to a nanoaerosol and six rats to clean-filtered air. The nanoaerosol was generated using a rotating brush system (RBG-1000) and analyzed with an electrical low pressure impactor in real time.

  9. Limited inflammatory response in rats after acute exposure to a silicon carbide nanoaerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laloy, J., E-mail: julie.laloy@unamur.be [University of Namur (UNamur), Department of Pharmacy, Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium); Lozano, O. [University of Namur (UNamur), Research Centre in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Namur Nanosafety Centre NNC, Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium); Alpan, L.; Masereel, B. [University of Namur (UNamur), Department of Pharmacy, Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium); Toussaint, O. [University of Namur (UNamur), Laboratory of Cellular Biochemistry and Biology (URBC), Namur Nanosafety Centre NNC, Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium); Dogné, J. M. [University of Namur (UNamur), Department of Pharmacy, Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium); Lucas, S. [University of Namur (UNamur), Research Centre in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Namur Nanosafety Centre NNC, Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium)

    2015-08-15

    Inhalation represents the major route of human exposure to manufactured nanomaterials (NMs). Assessments are needed about the potential risks of NMs from inhalation on different tissues and organs, especially the respiratory tract. The aim of this limited study is to determine the potential acute pulmonary toxicity in rats exposed to a dry nanoaerosol of silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticles (NPs) in a whole-body exposure (WBE) model. The SiC nanoaerosol is composed of a bimodal size distribution of 92.8 and 480 nm. The exposure concentration was 4.91 mg/L, close to the highest recommended concentration of 5 mg/L by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Rats were exposed for 6 h to a stable and reproducible SiC nanoaerosol under real-time measurement conditions. A control group was exposed to the filtered air used to create the nanoaerosol. Animals were sacrificed immediately, 24 or 72 h after exposure. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from rat lungs was recovered. Macrophages filled with SiC NPs were observed in the rat lungs. The greatest load of SiC and macrophages filled with SiC were observed on the rat lungs sacrificed 24 h after acute exposure. A limited acute inflammatory response was found up to 24 h after exposure characterized by a lactate dehydrogenase and total protein increase or presence of inflammatory cells in pulmonary lavage. For this study a WBE model has been developed, it allows the simultaneous exposure of six rats to a nanoaerosol and six rats to clean-filtered air. The nanoaerosol was generated using a rotating brush system (RBG-1000) and analyzed with an electrical low pressure impactor in real time.

  10. 酒精暴露与中枢神经系统的损伤%Alcohol exposure and the damages in central nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文玲; 文亚男; 郑红; 邓锦波

    2013-01-01

    急性酒精中毒可引起中枢神经系统广泛的抑制,甚至造成休克。慢性酒精中毒可造成中枢神经系统损伤, Wernicke ,s 综合征和 Korsakoff‘s 是其常见表现。妊娠期酒精暴露可产生胎儿酒精系列紊乱。中枢损伤表现为大脑皮质和海马神经细胞丧失和神经细胞凋亡,大脑皮质和海马树突棘数量减少,树突棘变长;突触数量明显减少,突触的超微结构也发生改变,突触小泡数量减少,突触间隙变窄,甚至模糊不清。氧化应激相关蛋白表达增多,胰岛素抵抗指数增加。视网膜损害尤为突出,可致神经干细胞增殖、细胞凋亡,视网膜片层化结构紊乱等。酒精中毒机制复杂,有受体途径、离子通道途径、氧化应激途径等。最近,神经酰胺通路参与了酒精的毒理学机制引起了广泛关注,神经酰胺可能作为第二信使调节酒精诱导的细胞凋亡、增殖和氧化应激反应。%Acute alcohol intoxication can suppress the actions of central nervous system (CNS) , even causes shock . Chronic alcohol intoxication can induce the damages in CNS , and Wernicke ,s syndrome and Korsakoff 's syndrome are their common manifestation . Prenatal alcohol exposure is the main cause of feta alcohol spectrum disorder ( FASD) , and the following is the CNS damages in FASD : ① neurons'loss and neuroapoptosis in cortex and hippocampus ; ② the dendritic spines decrease and their increase in cortical and hippocampal pyramidal cells ;③ ultrastructural alterations of synapses , such as the synapses loss , narrow synaptic cleft and synaptic vesicles decrease ; ④ the expression increase of oxidative-stress protein and increase of insulin resistance ; ⑤ retina is specifically sensitive to alcohol exposure , prenatal alcohol exposure can cause neural proliferation , neuroapoptosis and lamination disorder . The mechanism of alcohol intoxication is complicate . The receptors , ion

  11. Cancer Events After Acute or Chronic Exposure to Sulfur Mustard: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Seyed Mansour; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Salamati, Payman

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sulfur mustard (SM) has been considered as a carcinogen in the laboratory studies. However, its carcinogenic effects on human beings were not well discussed. The main purpose of our study is to assess carcinogenesis of SM following acute and/or chronic exposures in human beings. Methods: The valid scientific English and Persian databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, IranMedex, and Irandoc were searched and the collected papers reviewed. The used keywords were in two languages: English and Persian. The inclusion criteria were the published original articles indexed in above-mentioned databases. Eleven full-texts out of 296 articles were found relevant and then assessed. Results: Studies on the workers of the SM factories during the World Wars showed that the long-term chronic exposure to mustards can cause a variety of cancers in the organs such as oral cavity, larynx, lung, and skin. Respiratory system was the most important affected system. Acute single exposure to SM was assumed as the carcinogenic inducer in the lung and blood and for few cancers including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusions: SM is a proven carcinogen in chronic situations although data are not enough to strongly conclude in acute exposure. PMID:27280012

  12. Betaine supplementation reduces congenital defects after prenatal alcohol exposure (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunamuni, Ganga; Gu, Shi; Doughman, Yong Qiu; Sheehan, Megan M.; Ma, Pei; Peterson, Lindsy M.; Linask, Kersti K.; Jenkins, Michael W.; Rollins, Andrew M.; Watanabe, Michiko

    2016-03-01

    Over 500,000 women per year in the United States drink during pregnancy, and 1 in 5 of this population also binge drink. As high as 20-50% of live-born children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) present with congenital heart defects including outflow and valvuloseptal anomalies that can be life-threatening. Previously we established a model of PAE (modeling a single binge drinking episode) in the avian embryo and used optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to assay early-stage cardiac function/structure and late-stage cardiac defects. At early stages, alcohol/ethanol-exposed embryos had smaller cardiac cushions and increased retrograde flow. At late stages, they presented with gross morphological defects in the head and chest wall, and also exhibited smaller or abnormal atrio-ventricular (AV) valves, thinner interventricular septae (IVS), and smaller vessel diameters for the aortic trunk branches. In other animal models, the methyl donor betaine (found naturally in many foods such as wheat bran, quinoa, beets and spinach) ameliorates neurobehavioral deficits associated with PAE but the effects on heart structure are unknown. In our model of PAE, betaine supplementation led to a reduction in gross structural defects and appeared to protect against certain types of cardiac defects such as ventricular septal defects and abnormal AV valvular morphology. Furthermore, vessel diameters, IVS thicknesses and mural AV leaflet volumes were normalized while the septal AV leaflet volume was increased. These findings highlight the importance of betaine and potentially methylation levels in the prevention of PAE-related birth defects which could have significant implications for public health.

  13. Prenatal alcohol exposure alters methyl metabolism and programs serotonin transporter and glucocorticoid receptor expression in brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Ying Fai; Sulistyoningrum, Dian C.; O'Neill, Ryan; Innis, Sheila M.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) programs the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, resulting in HPA dysregulation and hyperresponsiveness to stressors in adulthood. Molecular mechanisms mediating these alterations are not fully understood. Disturbances in one-carbon metabolism, a source of methyl donors for epigenetic processes, contributes to alcoholic liver disease. We assessed whether PAE affects one-carbon metabolism (including Mtr, Mat2a, Mthfr, and Cbs mRNA) and programming of HPA function genes (Nr3c1, Nr3c2, and Slc6a4) in offspring from ethanol-fed (E), pair-fed (PF), and ad libitum-fed control (C) dams. At gestation day 21, plasma total homocysteine and methionine concentrations were higher in E compared with C dams, and E fetuses had higher plasma methionine concentrations and lower whole brain Mtr and Mat2a mRNA compared with C fetuses. In adulthood (55 days), hippocampal Mtr and Cbs mRNA was lower in E compared with C males, whereas Mtr, Mat2a, Mthfr, and Cbs mRNA were higher in E compared with C females. We found lower Nr3c1 mRNA and lower nerve growth factor inducible protein A (NGFI-A) protein in the hippocampus of E compared with PF females, whereas hippocampal Slc6a4 mRNA was higher in E than C males. By contrast, hypothalamic Slc6a4 mRNA was lower in E males and females compared with C offspring. This was accompanied by higher hypothalamic Slc6a4 mean promoter methylation in E compared with PF females. These findings demonstrate that PAE is associated with alterations in one-carbon metabolism and has long-term and region-specific effects on gene expression in the brain. These findings advance our understanding of mechanisms of HPA dysregulation associated with PAE. PMID:26180184

  14. Exposure to tobacco, alcohol and drugs of abuse during pregnancy. A study of prevalence among pregnant women in Malaga (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Alonso, Marta; González-Mesa, Ernesto; Gálvez Montes, Milagros; Lozano Bravo, Isabel; Merino Galdón, Federico; Cuenca Campos, Francisco; Marín Schiaffino, Gema; Pérez Torres, Sergio; Herrera Peral, José; Bellido Estévez, Inmaculada

    2015-06-17

    The prevalence of substance abuse in women who become pregnant is similar to that of the general population, resulting in a high fetal exposure rate during the most vulnerable period regarding neurodevelopment and organogenesis. The present study was intended to assess the level of prenatal exposure to tobacco, alcohol or illicit drugs in the city of Málaga (Spain). It was designed as a cross-sectional study, and based on the anonymous self-reports of participants. A total of 451 pregnant women were recruited in the first, second or third trimester. The prevalence in each of the quarters respectively was 21.2%, 18.5% and 13.3% for smoking, 40.7%, 23.1% and 17.1% for alcohol and 4.8%, 1.9% and 1.2% for cannabis. We also found that a higher educational level was associated with a lower consumption of tobacco (RR 0.659 [0.537-0.810] p<0.0001) and greater exposure to alcohol (RR 1.87 [1.30-2.69] p<0.0007). These results, particularly in regard to alcohol intake, are sufficiently alarming to alert obstetric care providers about the need to implement preventive measures.

  15. Timing of moderate level prenatal alcohol exposure influences gene expression of sensory processing behavior in rhesus monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary L Schneider

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Sensory processing disorder (SPD, characterized by over- or under-responsivity to non-noxious environmental stimuli, is a common but poorly understood disorder. We examined the role of prenatal alcohol exposure, serotonin transporter gene polymorphic region variation (rh5-HTTLPR, and striatal dopamine (DA function on behavioral measures of sensory responsivity to repeated non-noxious sensory stimuli in macaque monkeys. Results indicated that early gestation alcohol exposure induced behavioral under-responsivity to environmental stimuli in monkeys carrying the short (s rh5-HTTLPR allele compared to both early-exposed monkeys homozygous for the long (l allele and monkeys from middle-to-late exposed pregnancies and controls, regardless of genotype. Moreover, prenatal timing of alcohol exposure altered the relationship between sensory scores and DA D2R availability. In early-exposed monkeys, a positive relationship was shown between sensory scores and DA D2R availability, with low or blunted DA function associated with under-responsive sensory function. The opposite pattern was found for the middle-to-late gestation alcohol-exposed group. These findings raise questions about how the timing of prenatal perturbation and genotype contributes to effects on neural processing and possibly alters neural connections.

  16. An identification and brief advice programme for low-risk alcohol consumption in an acute medical setting: an implementation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Stuart A; Phekoo, Karen J; Grover, Vijay PB; Lovendoski, James; Anderson, Mike; Bowden-Jones, Owen; Foxton, Matthew R

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To implement an identification and brief advice (IBA) intervention to detect low-risk/hazardous alcohol consumption. Design Implementation was guided through the use of quality improvement tools and training. Setting This study was conducted over an 18-month period from April 2010 to September 2011 on a 42-bed acute medical unit at a central London acute hospital. Participants All medical patients over the age of 18 admitted to the acute assessment unit were eligible; any patient unable to provide a medical history either through language barriers or due to illness was excluded. Main outcome measures Percentage of medical patients admitted each week to the acute assessment unit who were screened for low-risk/hazardous alcohol consumption. Results Weekly data were analysed in time series run charts and cross-referenced to the date of educational sessions and their effect on the uptake of screening monitored. A demonstrable change in the mean percentage number of patients screened was observed in different time periods, 67.3–80.1%, following targeted teaching on the AAU. Conclusions Our study demonstrates the successful use of quality improvement methodology to guide the implementation of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C), an IBA intervention, in the acute medical setting. The incorporation of the AUDIT-C into an admission document has been well accepted by the junior doctors, attaining an average (mean) of 80% of patients being screened using the tool. Targeted teaching of clinical staff involved in admitting patients appears to be the most effective method in improving uptake of IBA by junior doctors. PMID:23772314

  17. Investigating the synchronization of hippocampal neural network in response to acute nicotine exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akay Metin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Previous studies suggested that γ oscillations in the brain are associated with higher order cognitive function including selective visual attention, motor task planning, sensory perception, working memory and dreaming REM sleep. These oscillations are mainly observed in cortical regions and also occur in neocortical and subcortical areas and the hippocampus. In this paper, we investigate the influence of acute exposure to nicotine on the complexity of hippocampal γ oscillations. Using the approximate entropy method, the influence of acute nicotine exposure on the hippocampal γ oscillations was investigated. The hippocampal γ oscillations have been generated in response to the 100 Hz stimulus and isolated using the visual inspection and spectral analysis method. Our central hypothesis is that acute exposure to nicotine significantly reduces the complexity of hippocampal γ oscillations. We used brain-slice recordings and the approximate entropy method to test this hypothesis. The approximate entropy (complexity values of the hippocampal γ oscillations are estimated from the 14 hippocampal slices. Our results show that it takes at least 100 msec to see any hippocampal activities in response to the 100 Hz stimulus. These patterns noticeably changed after 100 msec until 300 msec after the stimulus Finally, they were less prominent after 300 msec. We have analyzed the isolated hippocampal γ oscillations (between 150 and 250 msec after the stimulus using the approximate entropy (ApEn method. Our results showed that the ApEn (complexity values of hippocampal γ oscillations during nicotine exposure were reduced compared to those of hippocampal γ oscillations during control, and washout. This reduction was much more significant in response to acute nicotine exposure (p

  18. Effects of Acute Exposures to Carbon Dioxide Upon Cognitive Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, R. R.; Alexander, D. J.; Ryder, V. E.; Lam, C. W.; Statish, U.; Basner, M.

    2016-01-01

    Large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2) originate from human metabolism and typically, within spacecraft, remain about 10-fold higher in concentration than at the earth's surface. There have been recurring complaints by crew members of episodes of "mental viscosity" adversely affecting their performance, and there is evidence from the International Space Station (ISS) that associates CO2 levels with reports of headaches by crewmembers. Additionally, there is concern that CO2 may contribute to vision impairment and intracranial pressure that has been observed in some crewmembers. Consequently, flight rules have been employed to control the level of CO2 below 4 mm Hg, which is well below the existing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentration (SMAC) of 10 mm Hg for 24-hour exposures, and 5.3 mm Hg for exposures of 7 to 180 days. However, the flight rule imposed limit, which places additional demands upon resources and current technology, still exceeds the lower bound of the threshold range for reportable headaches (2 - 5 mm Hg). Headaches, while sometime debilitating themselves, are also symptoms that can provide evidence that physiological defense mechanisms have been breached. The causes of the headaches may elicit other subtle adverse effects that occur at CO2 levels well below that for headaches. The concern that CO2 may have effects at levels below the threshold for headaches appears to be substantiated in unexpected findings that CO2 at concentrations below 2 mm Hg substantially reduced some cognitive functions that are associated with the ability to make complex decisions in conditions that are characterized by volatility, uncertainty, complexity, ambiguity, and delayed feedback. These are conditions that could be encountered by crews in off-nominal situations or during the first missions beyond low earth orbit. If findings of the earlier study are confirmed in crew-like subjects, our findings would provide additional evidence that CO2 may need to be

  19. Alcohol screening for older adults in an acute general hospital: FAST v. MAST-G assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Knightly, Rachel; Tadros , George; Sharma, Juhi; Duffield, Peter; Carnall, Emma; Fisher, Jacqui; Salman, Shaza

    2016-01-01

    Aims and method Documented prevalence of alcohol misuse among older adult patients at Birmingham Heartlands Hospital is significantly lower than the national prevalence. We aimed to evaluate our alcohol misuse screening protocol for older adults to identify possible shortcomings. Hospital protocol is to screen all adults for alcohol misuse in the accident and emergency (A&E) department using the Fast Alcohol Screening Test (FAST). One hundred consecutive consenting in-patients aged 65-94 admi...

  20. Total Exposure and Exposure Rate Effects for Alcohol and Smoking and Risk of Head and Neck Cancer: A Pooled Analysis of Case-Control Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Lubin, Jay H.; Purdue, Mark; Kelsey, Karl; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Winn, Debbie; Wei, Qingyi; Talamini, Renato; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Sturgis, Erich M.; Smith, Elaine; Shangina, Oxana; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Rudnai, Peter; Neto, Jose Eluf; Muscat, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    Although cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption increase risk for head and neck cancers, there have been few attempts to model risks quantitatively and to formally evaluate cancer site-specific risks. The authors pooled data from 15 case-control studies and modeled the excess odds ratio (EOR) to assess risk by total exposure (pack-years and drink-years) and its modification by exposure rate (cigarettes/day and drinks/day). The smoking analysis included 1,761 laryngeal, 2,453 pharyngeal, an...

  1. Effects of Intermittent Alcohol Exposure on Emotion and Cognition: A Potential Role for the Endogenous Cannabinoid System and Neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Marin, Laura; Pavon, Francisco J; Decara, Juan; Suarez, Juan; Gavito, Ana; Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Rodriguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Serrano, Antonia

    2017-01-01

    Intermittent alcohol exposure is a common pattern of adolescent alcohol use that can lead to binge drinking episodes. Alcohol use is known to modulate the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is involved in neuronal communication, neuroplasticity, neuroinflammation and behavior. Adolescent male Wistar rats were exposed to 4-week intermittent alcohol intoxication (3 g/kg injections for 4 days/week) or saline (N = 12 per group). After alcohol deprivation, adult rats were assessed for emotionality and cognition and the gene expression of the ECS and other factors related to behavior and neuroinflammation was examined in the brain. Alcohol-exposed rats exhibited anxiogenic-like responses and impaired recognition memory but no motor alterations. There were brain region-dependent changes in the mRNA levels of the ECS and molecular signals compared with control rats. Thus, overall, alcohol-exposed rats expressed higher mRNA levels of endocannabinoid synthetic enzymes (N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D and diacylglycerol lipases) in the medial-prefrontal cortex (mPFC) but lower mRNA levels in the amygdala. Furthermore, we observed lower mRNA levels of receptors CB1 CB2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α in the striatum. Regarding neuropeptide signaling, alcohol-exposed rats displayed lower mRNA levels of the neuropeptide Y signaling, particularly NPY receptor-2, in the amygdala and hippocampus and higher mRNA levels of corticotropin-releasing factor in the hippocampus. Additionally, we observed changes of several neuroinflammation-related factors. Whereas, the mRNA levels of toll-like receptor-4, tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2 and glial fibrillary acidic protein were significantly increased in the mPFC, the mRNA levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and glial fibrillary acidic protein were decreased in the striatum and hippocampus. However, nuclear factor-κβ mRNA levels were lower in the mPFC and striatum and allograft inflammatory factor-1

  2. Effects of Intermittent Alcohol Exposure on Emotion and Cognition: A Potential Role for the Endogenous Cannabinoid System and Neuroinflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Marin, Laura; Pavon, Francisco J.; Decara, Juan; Suarez, Juan; Gavito, Ana; Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Rodriguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Serrano, Antonia

    2017-01-01

    Intermittent alcohol exposure is a common pattern of adolescent alcohol use that can lead to binge drinking episodes. Alcohol use is known to modulate the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is involved in neuronal communication, neuroplasticity, neuroinflammation and behavior. Adolescent male Wistar rats were exposed to 4-week intermittent alcohol intoxication (3 g/kg injections for 4 days/week) or saline (N = 12 per group). After alcohol deprivation, adult rats were assessed for emotionality and cognition and the gene expression of the ECS and other factors related to behavior and neuroinflammation was examined in the brain. Alcohol-exposed rats exhibited anxiogenic-like responses and impaired recognition memory but no motor alterations. There were brain region-dependent changes in the mRNA levels of the ECS and molecular signals compared with control rats. Thus, overall, alcohol-exposed rats expressed higher mRNA levels of endocannabinoid synthetic enzymes (N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D and diacylglycerol lipases) in the medial-prefrontal cortex (mPFC) but lower mRNA levels in the amygdala. Furthermore, we observed lower mRNA levels of receptors CB1 CB2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α in the striatum. Regarding neuropeptide signaling, alcohol-exposed rats displayed lower mRNA levels of the neuropeptide Y signaling, particularly NPY receptor-2, in the amygdala and hippocampus and higher mRNA levels of corticotropin-releasing factor in the hippocampus. Additionally, we observed changes of several neuroinflammation-related factors. Whereas, the mRNA levels of toll-like receptor-4, tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2 and glial fibrillary acidic protein were significantly increased in the mPFC, the mRNA levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and glial fibrillary acidic protein were decreased in the striatum and hippocampus. However, nuclear factor-κβ mRNA levels were lower in the mPFC and striatum and allograft inflammatory factor-1

  3. Acute alcohol effects on inhibitory control and implicit cognition: implications for loss of control over drinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Field; R.W. Wiers; P. Christiansen; M.T. Fillmore; J.C. Verster

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol impairs inhibitory control, and it alters implicit alcohol cognitions including attentional bias and implicit associations. These effects are seen after doses of alcohol which do not lead to global impairments in cognitive performance. We review studies which demonstrate that the effects of

  4. Opposite effects of acute ethanol exposure on GAP-43 and BDNF expression in the hippocampus versus the cerebellum of juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarny, V V; Wiest, N E; Marquez, C P; Nixon, S C; Valenzuela, C F; Perrone-Bizzozero, N I

    2011-08-01

    The adolescent brain is particularly vulnerable to the effects of alcohol, with intoxications at this developmental age often producing long-lasting effects. The present study addresses the effects of a single acute ethanol exposure on growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression in neurons in the cerebellum and hippocampus of adolescent rats. Male postnatal day 23 (P23) Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to ethanol vapors for 2h and after a recovery period of 2h, the cerebellum and hippocampus were harvested and samples were taken for blood alcohol concentration (BAC) determinations. We found that this exposure resulted in a mean BAC of 174 mg/dL, which resembles levels in human adolescents after binge drinking. Analyses of total RNA and protein by quantitative reverse transcription PCR and western blotting, respectively, revealed that this single ethanol exposure significantly decreased the levels of GAP-43 mRNA and protein in the cerebellum but increased the levels of mRNA and protein in the hippocampus. BDNF mRNA and protein levels were also increased in the hippocampus but not in the cerebellum of these animals. In situ hybridizations revealed that GAP-43 and BDNF mRNA levels were primarily increased by alcohol exposure in hippocampal dentate granule cells and CA3 neurons. Overall, the reported alterations in the expression of the plasticity-associated genes GAP-43 and BDNF in juvenile rats are consistent with the known deleterious effects of binge drinking on motor coordination and cognitive function.

  5. Endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) in acute alcoholic and biliary pancreatitis. Endoskopische retrograde Pankreatographie (ERP) bei akuter alkoholischer und biliaerer Pankreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambs, H.J. (Heidelberg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Radiologische Klinik)

    1991-05-01

    An analysis of the ERP findings in 31 patients with acute pancreatitis enable us to define the terminology of the pancreatogram in these diseases. Irregularities of the ducts indicate previous damage to the organ. A frequent phenomenon is thinning of lateral branches, which can be explained by compression due to oedema. Early parenchymal staining indicates abnormal permeability of the duct epithelium. Cavities are an expression of acute pseudo-cysts. A sign characteristic of alcoholic pancreatitis is the presence of contrast defects due to protein plugs and due to increased viscosity of pancreatic secretions. These observations confirm the theory that protein precipitates due to abnormal secretions play an important role in acute pancreatitis. (orig.).

  6. How CAGE, RAPS4QF and AUDIT can help practitioners for patients admitted with acute alcohol intoxication in emergency departments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges eBrousse

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To help clinicians to identify the severity of Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD from optimal thresholds found for recommended scales. Especially, taking account of the high prevalence of alcohol dependence among patients admitted to the Emergency Department (ED for acute alcohol intoxication (AAI, we propose to define thresholds of severity of dependence based on the AUDIT score.Methods: All patients admitted to the ED with AAI (blood alcohol level >0.8g/L, in a two-month period, were assessed using the CAGE, RAPS-QF and AUDIT, with the alcohol dependence/abuse section of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI used as the gold standard. To explore the relation between the AUDIT and the MINI the sum of the positive items on the MINI (dependence as a quantitative variable and as an ordinal parameter were analyzed. From the threshold score (TS found for each scale we proposed intervals of severity of Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs. Results: The mean age of the sample (122 males, 42 females was 46 years. Approximately 12 % of the patients were identified with alcohol abuse and 78 % with dependence (DSM-IV. Cut points were determined for the AUDIT in order to distinguish mild and moderate dependence from severe dependence. A strategy of intervention based on levels of severity of AUD was proposed. Conclusion: Different thresholds proposed for the CAGE, RAPS4-QF and AUDIT could be used to guide the choice of intervention for a patient: brief intervention, brief negotiation interviewing or longer more intensive motivational intervention.

  7. Acute Respiratory Failure due to Alveolar Hemorrhage after Exposure to Organic Dust

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    Sun Mi Choi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH is associated with severe outcomes. We report a case of acute respiratory failure that required mechanical ventilation and was clinically and pathologically diagnosed as DAH related to exposure to organic dust. A 39-year-old man, who had visited a warehouse to grade beans for purchase, was referred to our hospital for impending respiratory failure. His initial radiographic examinations revealed diffuse bilateral ground-glass opacities in his lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage resulted in progressively bloodier returns, which is characteristic of DAH. He underwent bedside open lung biopsy of his right lower lobe in the intensive care unit. Biopsy results revealed DAH and organization with accumulation of hemosiderin-laden macrophages and a few fibroblastic foci. The patient was treated with empirical antibiotics and high-dose corticosteroids and successfully weaned from mechanical ventilation. DAH might be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with acute respiratory failure after exposure to organic particles.

  8. Citric acid reduces the decline in P300 amplitude induced by acute alcohol consumption in healthy adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-xing CHEN; Chuan-qin XU; Shao-hua CHEN; Gen-yun XU; Huai-zhuang YE

    2012-01-01

    .05),while there were no significant differences between the latter two treatments.The results of this study suggest that citric acid could reduce the decline in ERP P300 amplitude and cognitive ability induced by acute alcohol consumption.It may also affect some blood biochemical indicators,but the specific mechanisms need further research.

  9. Acute and chronic toxicity of sodium sulfate to four freshwater organisms in water-only exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Dorman, Rebecca A; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Hardesty, Doug K; Brumbaugh, William G; Hammer, Edward J; Bauer, Candice R; Mount, David R

    2016-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of sulfate (tested as sodium sulfate) was determined in diluted well water (hardness of 100 mg/L and pH 8.2) with a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 2-d and 7-d exposures), a midge (Chironomus dilutus; 4-d and 41-d exposures), a unionid mussel (pink mucket, Lampsilis abrupta; 4-d and 28-d exposures), and a fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; 4-d and 34-d exposures). Among the 4 species, the cladoceran and mussel were acutely more sensitive to sulfate than the midge and fathead minnow, whereas the fathead minnow was chronically more sensitive than the other 3 species. Acute-to-chronic ratios ranged from 2.34 to 5.68 for the 3 invertebrates but were as high as 12.69 for the fish. The fathead minnow was highly sensitive to sulfate during the transitional period from embryo development to hatching in the diluted well water, and thus, additional short-term (7- to 14-d) sulfate toxicity tests were conducted starting with embryonic fathead minnow in test waters with different ionic compositions at a water hardness of 100 mg/L. Increasing chloride in test water from 10 mg Cl/L to 25 mg Cl/L did not influence sulfate toxicity to the fish, whereas increasing potassium in test water from 1 mg K/L to 3 mg K/L substantially reduced the toxicity of sulfate. The results indicate that both acute and chronic sulfate toxicity data, and the influence of potassium on sulfate toxicity to fish embryos, need to be considered when environmental guidance values for sulfate are developed or refined.

  10. The effects of low to moderate alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Hanne-Lise Falgreen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Kilburn, Tina R.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Falgreen Eriksen H, Mortensen E, Kilburn T, Underbjerg M, Bertrand J, Støvring H, Wimberley T, Grove J, Kesmodel U. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children. BJOG 2012;119:1191-1200. Objective To examine...... the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy on children's intelligence (IQ) at age 5 years. Design Prospective follow-up study. Setting Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from...... the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal smoking in pregnancy...

  11. A differential role for neuropeptides in acute and chronic adaptive responses to alcohol: behavioural and genetic analysis in Caenorhabditis elegans.

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    Philippa Mitchell

    Full Text Available Prolonged alcohol consumption in humans followed by abstinence precipitates a withdrawal syndrome consisting of anxiety, agitation and in severe cases, seizures. Withdrawal is relieved by a low dose of alcohol, a negative reinforcement that contributes to alcohol dependency. This phenomenon of 'withdrawal relief' provides evidence of an ethanol-induced adaptation which resets the balance of signalling in neural circuits. We have used this as a criterion to distinguish between direct and indirect ethanol-induced adaptive behavioural responses in C. elegans with the goal of investigating the genetic basis of ethanol-induced neural plasticity. The paradigm employs a 'food race assay' which tests sensorimotor performance of animals acutely and chronically treated with ethanol. We describe a multifaceted C. elegans 'withdrawal syndrome'. One feature, decrease reversal frequency is not relieved by a low dose of ethanol and most likely results from an indirect adaptation to ethanol caused by inhibition of feeding and a food-deprived behavioural state. However another aspect, an aberrant behaviour consisting of spontaneous deep body bends, did show withdrawal relief and therefore we suggest this is the expression of ethanol-induced plasticity. The potassium channel, slo-1, which is a candidate ethanol effector in C. elegans, is not required for the responses described here. However a mutant deficient in neuropeptides, egl-3, is resistant to withdrawal (although it still exhibits acute responses to ethanol. This dependence on neuropeptides does not involve the NPY-like receptor npr-1, previously implicated in C. elegans ethanol withdrawal. Therefore other neuropeptide pathways mediate this effect. These data resonate with mammalian studies which report involvement of a number of neuropeptides in chronic responses to alcohol including corticotrophin-releasing-factor (CRF, opioids, tachykinins as well as NPY. This suggests an evolutionarily conserved role

  12. Exposure to acute stress enhances decision-making competence: Evidence for the role of DHEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S; Lam, Jovian C W; Trainor, Brian C; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to acute stress can impact performance on numerous cognitive abilities, but little is known about how acute stress affects real-world decision-making ability. In the present study, we induced acute stress with a standard laboratory task involving uncontrollable socio-evaluative stress and subsequently assessed decision-making ability using the Adult Decision Making Competence index. In addition, we took baseline and post-test saliva samples from participants to examine associations between decision-making competence and adrenal hormones. Participants in the stress induction group showed enhanced decision-making competence, relative to controls. Further, although both cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) reactivity predicted decision-making competence when considered in isolation, DHEA was a significantly better predictor than cortisol when both hormones were considered simultaneously. Thus, our results show that exposure to acute stress can have beneficial effects on the cognitive ability underpinning real-world decision-making and that this effect relates to DHEA reactivity more than cortisol.

  13. Disrupted Nitric Oxide Metabolism from Type II Diabetes and Acute Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution.

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    Ashley P Pettit

    Full Text Available Type II diabetes is an established cause of vascular impairment. Particulate air pollution is known to exacerbate cardiovascular and respiratory conditions, particularly in susceptible populations. This study set out to determine the impact of exposure to traffic pollution, with and without particle filtration, on vascular endothelial function in Type II diabetes. Endothelial production of nitric oxide (NO has previously been linked to vascular health. Reactive hyperemia induces a significant increase in plasma nitrite, the proximal metabolite of NO, in healthy subjects, while diabetics have a lower and more variable level of response. Twenty type II diabetics and 20 controls (ages 46-70 years were taken on a 1.5 hr roadway traffic air pollution exposure as passengers. We analyzed plasma nitrite, as a measure of vascular function, using forearm ischemia to elicit a reactive hyperemic response before and after exposure to one ride with and one without filtration of the particle components of pollution. Control subjects displayed a significant increase in plasma nitrite levels during reactive hyperemia. This response was no longer present following exposure to traffic air pollution, but did not vary with whether or not the particle phase was filtered out. Diabetics did not display an increase in nitrite levels following reactive hyperemia. This response was not altered following pollution exposure. These data suggest that components of acute traffic pollution exposure diminish vascular reactivity in non-diabetic individuals. It also confirms that type II diabetics have a preexisting diminished ability to appropriately respond to a vascular challenge, and that traffic pollution exposure does not cause a further measureable acute change in plasma nitrite levels in Type II diabetics.

  14. Acute lead exposure increases arterial pressure: role of the renin-angiotensin system.

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    Maylla Ronacher Simões

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic lead exposure causes hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of acute exposure to lead on arterial pressure and elucidate the early mechanisms involved in the development of lead-induced hypertension. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Wistar rats were treated with lead acetate (i.v. bolus dose of 320 µg/Kg, and systolic arterial pressure, diastolic arterial pressure and heart rate were measured during 120 min. An increase in arterial pressure was found, and potential roles of the renin-angiotensin system, Na(+,K(+-ATPase and the autonomic reflexes in this change in the increase of arterial pressure found were evaluated. In anesthetized rats, lead exposure: 1 produced blood lead levels of 37±1.7 µg/dL, which is below the reference blood concentration (60 µg/dL; 2 increased systolic arterial pressure (Ct: 109±3 mmHg vs Pb: 120±4 mmHg; 3 increased ACE activity (27% compared to Ct and Na(+,K(+-ATPase activity (125% compared to Ct; and 4 did not change the protein expression of the α1-subunit of Na(+,K(+-ATPase, AT(1 and AT(2. Pre-treatment with an AT(1 receptor blocker (losartan, 10 mg/Kg or an ACE inhibitor (enalapril, 5 mg/Kg blocked the lead-induced increase of arterial pressure. However, a ganglionic blockade (hexamethonium, 20 mg/Kg did not prevent lead's hypertensive effect. CONCLUSION: Acute exposure to lead below the reference blood concentration increases systolic arterial pressure by increasing angiotensin II levels due to ACE activation. These findings offer further evidence that acute exposure to lead can trigger early mechanisms of hypertension development and might be an environmental risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

  15. Isopropyl alcohol intoxication in a neonate through chronic dermal exposure: a complication of a culturally-based umbilical care practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivier, P M; Lewander, W J; Martin, H F; Linakis, J G

    1994-04-01

    A 21-day-old boy presented to our emergency department hypotonic, lethargic, and intermittently unresponsive to pain. A workup for ketoacidosis, sepsis, and central nervous system hemorrhage was negative. A urine drug screen collected eight hours after hospitalization showed 39 mg/dl of isopropyl alcohol and 76 mg/dl of acetone. The first serum drug analysis was not performed until 18 hours after admission, at a time when there had been clinical improvement. The isopropyl alcohol concentration was 8 mg/dl, and the acetone concentration was 203 mg/dl. Management was supportive, and the patient stabilized. He was discharged from the hospital in good health in three days. A further review of the history showed no evidence for an oral exposure to isopropyl alcohol. However, since leaving the maternity hospital the mother had been applying gauze pads or cotton balls soaked with isopropyl alcohol to the umbilicus with every diaper change. We conclude that the child suffered from an isopropyl alcohol intoxication that occurred by absorption through the umbilical area.

  16. Low dose prenatal alcohol exposure does not impair spatial learning and memory in two tests in adult and aged rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlie L Cullen

    Full Text Available Consumption of alcohol during pregnancy can have detrimental impacts on the developing hippocampus, which can lead to deficits in learning and memory function. Although high levels of alcohol exposure can lead to severe deficits, there is a lack of research examining the effects of low levels of exposure. This study used a rat model to determine if prenatal exposure to chronic low dose ethanol would result in deficits in learning and memory performance and if this was associated with morphological changes within the hippocampus. Sprague Dawley rats were fed a liquid diet containing 6% (vol/vol ethanol (EtOH or an isocaloric control diet throughout gestation. Male and Female offspring underwent behavioural testing at 8 (Adult or 15 months (Aged of age. Brains from these animals were collected for stereological analysis of pyramidal neuron number and dendritic morphology within the CA1 and CA3 regions of the dorsal hippocampus. Prenatal ethanol exposed animals did not differ in spatial learning or memory performance in the Morris water maze or Y maze tasks compared to Control offspring. There was no effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on pyramidal cell number or density within the dorsal hippocampus. Overall, this study indicates that chronic low dose prenatal ethanol exposure in this model does not have long term detrimental effects on pyramidal cells within the dorsal hippocampus or impair spatial learning and memory performance.

  17. Gene networks and toxicity pathways induced by acute cadmium exposure in adult largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehinto, Alvine C., E-mail: alvinam@sccwrp.org [Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, Costa Mesa, CA 92626 (United States); Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Prucha, Melinda S. [Department of Human Genetics, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Colli-Dula, Reyna C.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Lavelle, Candice M.; Barber, David S. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Vulpe, Christopher D. [Department of Nutritional Sciences and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Denslow, Nancy D. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Low-level acute cadmium exposure elicited tissue-specific gene expression changes. • Molecular initiating events included oxidative stress and disruption of DNA repair. • Metallothionein, a marker of metal exposure, was not significantly affected. • We report effects of cadmium on cholesterol metabolism and steroid synthesis. • Diabetic complications and impaired reproduction are potential adverse outcomes. - Abstract: Cadmium is a heavy metal that can accumulate to toxic levels in the environment leading to detrimental effects in animals and humans including kidney, liver and lung injuries. Using a transcriptomics approach, genes and cellular pathways affected by a low dose of cadmium were investigated. Adult largemouth bass were intraperitoneally injected with 20 μg/kg of cadmium chloride (mean exposure level – 2.6 μg of cadmium per fish) and microarray analyses were conducted in the liver and testis 48 h after injection. Transcriptomic profiles identified in response to cadmium exposure were tissue-specific with the most differential expression changes found in the liver tissues, which also contained much higher levels of cadmium than the testis. Acute exposure to a low dose of cadmium induced oxidative stress response and oxidative damage pathways in the liver. The mRNA levels of antioxidants such as catalase increased and numerous transcripts related to DNA damage and DNA repair were significantly altered. Hepatic mRNA levels of metallothionein, a molecular marker of metal exposure, did not increase significantly after 48 h exposure. Carbohydrate metabolic pathways were also disrupted with hepatic transcripts such as UDP-glucose, pyrophosphorylase 2, and sorbitol dehydrogenase highly induced. Both tissues exhibited a disruption of steroid signaling pathways. In the testis, estrogen receptor beta and transcripts linked to cholesterol metabolism were suppressed. On the contrary, genes involved in cholesterol metabolism were highly

  18. Tlr4-mutant mice are resistant to acute alcohol-induced sterol-regulatory element binding protein activation and hepatic lipid accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Qian; Zhang, Cheng; He, Wei; Wang, Hua; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Chen, Xi; Xu, De-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that acute alcohol intoxication caused hepatic lipid accumulation. The present study showed that acute alcohol intoxication caused hepatic lipid accumulation in Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Hepatic sterol-regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1, a transcription factor regulating fatty acid and triglyceride (TG) synthesis, was activated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Hepatic Fas, Acc, Scd-1 and Dgat-2, the key genes for fatty acid and TG synthesis, were up-regulated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Additional experiment showed that hepatic MyD88 was elevated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Hepatic NF-κB was activated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Moreover, hepatic GSH content was reduced and hepatic MDA level was elevated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Hepatic CYP2E1 was elevated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Hepatic p67phox and gp91phox, two NADPH oxidase subunits, were up-regulated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone (PBN), a free radical spin-trapping agent, protected against alcohol-induced hepatic SREBP-1 activation and hepatic lipid accumulation. In conclusion, Tlr4-mutant mice are resistant to acute alcohol-induced hepatic SREBP-1 activation and hepatic lipid accumulation. PMID:27627966

  19. Chromosomal bands affected by acute oil exposure and DNA repair errors.

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    Gemma Monyarch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a previous study, we showed that individuals who had participated in oil clean-up tasks after the wreckage of the Prestige presented an increase of structural chromosomal alterations two years after the acute exposure had occurred. Other studies have also reported the presence of DNA damage during acute oil exposure, but little is known about the long term persistence of chromosomal alterations, which can be considered as a marker of cancer risk. OBJECTIVES: We analyzed whether the breakpoints involved in chromosomal damage can help to assess the risk of cancer as well as to investigate their possible association with DNA repair efficiency. METHODS: Cytogenetic analyses were carried out on the same individuals of our previous study and DNA repair errors were assessed in cultures with aphidicolin. RESULTS: Three chromosomal bands, 2q21, 3q27 and 5q31, were most affected by acute oil exposure. The dysfunction in DNA repair mechanisms, expressed as chromosomal damage, was significantly higher in exposed-oil participants than in those not exposed (p= 0.016. CONCLUSION: The present study shows that breaks in 2q21, 3q27 and 5q31 chromosomal bands, which are commonly involved in hematological cancer, could be considered useful genotoxic oil biomarkers. Moreover, breakages in these bands could induce chromosomal instability, which can explain the increased risk of cancer (leukemia and lymphomas reported in chronically benzene-exposed individuals. In addition, it has been determined that the individuals who participated in clean-up of the oil spill presented an alteration of their DNA repair mechanisms two years after exposure.

  20. Dysregulation of the cortisol diurnal rhythm following prenatal alcohol exposure and early life adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Rasmussen, Carmen; Oberlander, Tim F; Loock, Christine; Pei, Jacqueline; Andrew, Gail; Reynolds, James; Weinberg, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is impacted by a multitude of pre- and postnatal factors. Developmental programming of HPA axis function by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) has been demonstrated in animal models and in human infants, but remains understudied in older children and adolescents. Moreover, early life adversity (ELA), which occurs at higher rates in children with PAE than in non-exposed children, may also play a role in programming the stress response system. In a cohort of children and adolescents with PAE and ELA (PAE + ELA), we evaluated HPA function through assessment of diurnal cortisol activity compared to that in typically developing controls, as well as the associations among specific ELAs, adverse outcomes, protective factors, and diurnal cortisol. Morning and evening saliva samples were taken under basal conditions from 42 children and adolescents (5-18 years) with PAE + ELA and 43 typically developing controls. High rates of ELA were shown among children with PAE, and significantly higher evening cortisol levels and a flatter diurnal slope were observed in children with PAE + ELA, compared to controls. Medication use in the PAE + ELA group was associated with lower morning cortisol levels, which were comparable to controls. Complex associations were found among diurnal cortisol patterns in the PAE + ELA group and a number of ELAs and later adverse outcomes, whereas protective factors were associated with more typical diurnal rhythms. These results complement findings from research on human infants and animal models showing dysregulated HPA function following PAE, lending weight to the suggestion that PAE and ELA may interact to sensitize the developing HPA axis. The presence of protective factors may buffer altered cortisol regulation, underscoring the importance of early assessment and interventions for children with FASD, and in particular, for the many children with FASD who also have ELA.

  1. Development of Toxicological Risk Assessment Models for Acute and Chronic Exposure to Pollutants

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    Elke S. Reichwaldt

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Alert level frameworks advise agencies on a sequence of monitoring and management actions, and are implemented so as to reduce the risk of the public coming into contact with hazardous substances. Their effectiveness relies on the detection of the hazard, but with many systems not receiving any regular monitoring, pollution events often go undetected. We developed toxicological risk assessment models for acute and chronic exposure to pollutants that incorporate the probabilities that the public will come into contact with undetected pollution events, to identify the level of risk a system poses in regards to the pollutant. As a proof of concept, we successfully demonstrated that the models could be applied to determine probabilities of acute and chronic illness types related to recreational activities in waterbodies containing cyanotoxins. Using the acute model, we identified lakes that present a ‘high’ risk to develop Day Away From Work illness, and lakes that present a ‘low’ or ‘medium’ risk to develop First Aid Cases when used for swimming. The developed risk models succeeded in categorising lakes according to their risk level to the public in an objective way. Modelling by how much the probability of public exposure has to decrease to lower the risks to acceptable levels will enable authorities to identify suitable control measures and monitoring strategies. We suggest broadening the application of these models to other contaminants.

  2. The impact of sensory integration therapy on gross motor function in children after prenatal exposure to alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wilczyński

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : In Poland there are 900 cases of full-blown foetal alcohol syndrome (FAS in neonates per year, and in 9000 children there are some symptoms of it. Aim of the research : To analyse the impact of sensory integration (SI therapy on gross motor skills function in children after prenatal exposure to alcohol. Material and methods: The study was conducted on a group of 20 children aged 4–5 years with information from an interview about prenatal exposure to alcohol. The diagnosis of sensory integration disorder consisted of two 60-minute diagnostics meetings. Twelve trials with clinical observations were performed by Ayres: finger to nose, cocontraction, prone extension posture, flexed position supine, asymmetrical tonic neck reflex (ATOS, symmetrical tonic neck reflex (STOS, muscle tension, Schilder test, dynamic balance, static balance, gravitational insecurity, and trunk stabilisation. The therapeutic program included: normalisation of the vestibular and proprioceptive system, normalisation of the touch system, strengthening muscle tension, development of motion planning, development of oculomotor performance, development of motor coordination, hand therapy, integration of ATOS, STOS, development of locomotion and balance functions, and improving efficiency of gross and small motor skills. Results and conclusions : High efficiency of SI therapy has been shown in children after prenatal exposure to alcohol on the example of gross motor skills. Positive effects of SI therapy have been shown for tests: finger to nose, in the erect position on the stomach, the flexural position on the back, ATOS, STOS, Schilder test, dynamic balance, static balance, and the uncertainty of gravity and trunk stabilisation. Only cocontraction and muscle tension tests showed no efficacy of SI therapy. The a-Cronbach position analysis showed high reliability of the performed tests both before and after the therapy. It is advisable to continue the study on a

  3. Effect of smoking and alcohol drinking on the acute erosive oral lichen planus%烟酒刺激与口腔扁平苔藓糜烂症状急性发作的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周淳; 张珺晔; 周曾同; 徐珉华

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the impact of smoking and alcohol drinking on acute erosive OLP.Method:OLP patients have been divided into 3 groups:smoking group,alcohol drinking group,smoking and alcohol drinking.The impact of exposure factors such as smoking and drinking on acute erosive OLP was investigated by the prospective epidemiological approach:the effect of exposure factors on the attack and frequency of acute erosive OLP was illustrated,i.c.,dose-response function and group differences between smoking and alcohol drinking.Result:①Compared to non-smoking patients with OLP,smoker with OLP of erosive occurrences attractions were higher than non-smoking ones (P <0.01).②Compared to nondrinking patients with OLP,the alcohol drinker with OLP of erosive occurrences attractions were higher than no alcohol ones (P <0.05).③Compared to no alcohol and tobacco patients with OLP,the OLP patients with alcohol and tobacco attack frequency was significantly higher(P <0.01).④The amount of smoking,alcohol drinking stimulation and the erosion symptoms of acute exacerbation in OLP patients were significantly related (P <0.01).Conclusion:There is a significant relationship between the stimulation of smoking or alcohol drinking and the incidence of OLP erosive attack or seizure frequency.%目的:探讨烟酒刺激与口腔扁平苔藓(0LP)糜烂症状急性发作之间的关系.方法:根据是否吸烟、饮酒,分为吸烟暴露组(只吸烟不饮酒,共138人)、饮酒暴露组(只饮酒不吸烟,共110人)、烟加酒暴露组(既吸烟又饮酒,共77人)和非暴露组(不吸烟不饮酒).各暴露组与非暴露组1:1配对.分别对各组暴露情况与糜烂发作情况进行相关性研究.结果:①吸烟暴露组糜烂发作的发生率与发作频率较非暴露组显著升高(P <0.01).②饮酒暴露组糜烂发作的发生率与发作频率增高,较非暴露组有统计学差异(P<0.05).③烟加酒暴露组糜烂发作的发生

  4. Acute and chronic cadmium exposure promotes E-cadherin degradation in MCF7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Esmeralda; Louie, Maggie C; Sevigny, Mary B

    2015-10-01

    Cadmium is an environmental carcinogen that usually enters the body at minute concentrations through diet or cigarette smoke and bioaccumulates in soft tissues. In past studies, cadmium has been shown to contribute to the development of more aggressive cancer phenotypes including increased cell migration and invasion. This study aims to determine if cadmium exposure-both acute and chronic-contributes to breast cancer progression by interfering with the normal functional relationship between E-cadherin and β-catenin. An MCF7 breast cancer cell line (MCF7-Cd) chronically exposed to 10(-7)  M CdCl2 was previously developed and used as a model system to study chronic exposures, whereas parental MCF7 cells exposed to 10(-6)  M CdCl2 for short periods of time were used to study acute exposures. Cadmium exposure of MCF7 cells led to the degradation of the E-cadherin protein via the ubiquitination pathway. This resulted in fewer E-cadherin/β-catenin complexes and the relocation of active β-catenin to the nucleus, where it interacted with transcription factor TCF-4 to modulate gene expression. Interestingly, only cells chronically exposed to cadmium showed a significant decrease in the localization of β-catenin to the plasma membrane and an increased distance between cells. Our data suggest that cadmium exposure promotes breast cancer progression by (1) down-regulating E-cadherin, thus decreasing the number of E-cadherin/β-catenin adhesion complexes, and (2) enhancing the nuclear translocation of β-catenin to increase expression of cancer-promoting proteins (i.e., c-Jun and cyclin D1).

  5. Acute Exposure to Pacific Ciguatoxin Reduces Electroencephalogram Activity and Disrupts Neurotransmitter Metabolic Pathways in Motor Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gajendra; Au, Ngan Pan Bennett; Lei, Elva Ngai Yu; Mak, Yim Ling; Chan, Leanne Lai Hang; Lam, Michael Hon Wah; Chan, Leo Lai; Lam, Paul Kwan Sing; Ma, Chi Him Eddie

    2016-09-10

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a common human food poisoning caused by consumption of ciguatoxin (CTX)-contaminated fish affecting over 50,000 people worldwide each year. CTXs are classified depending on their origin from the Pacific (P-CTXs), Indian Ocean (I-CTXs), and Caribbean (C-CTXs). P-CTX-1 is the most toxic CTX known and the major source of CFP causing an array of neurological symptoms. Neurological symptoms in some CFP patients last for several months or years; however, the underlying electrophysiological properties of acute exposure to CTXs remain unknown. Here, we used CTX purified from ciguatera fish sourced in the Pacific Ocean (P-CTX-1). Delta and theta electroencephalography (EEG) activity was reduced remarkably in 2 h and returned to normal in 6 h after a single exposure. However, second exposure to P-CTX-1 induced not only a further reduction in EEG activities but also a 2-week delay in returning to baseline EEG values. Ciguatoxicity was detected in the brain hours after the first and second exposure by mouse neuroblastoma assay. The spontaneous firing rate of single motor cortex neuron was reduced significantly measured by single-unit recording with high spatial resolution. Expression profile study of neurotransmitters using targeted profiling approach based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry revealed an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in the motor cortex. Our study provides a possible link between the brain oscillations and neurotransmitter release after acute exposure to P-CTX-1. Identification of EEG signatures and major metabolic pathways affected by P-CTX-1 provides new insight into potential biomarker development and therapeutic interventions.

  6. Acute pulmonary toxicity following inhalation exposure to aerosolized VX in anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xinqi; Perkins, Michael W; Simons, Jannitt; Witriol, Alicia M; Rodriguez, Ashley M; Benjamin, Brittany M; Devorak, Jennifer; Sciuto, Alfred M

    2014-06-01

    This study evaluated acute toxicity and pulmonary injury in rats at 3, 6 and 24 h after an inhalation exposure to aerosolized O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX). Anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g) were incubated with a glass endotracheal tube and exposed to saline or VX (171, 343 and 514 mg×min/m³ or 0.2, 0.5 and 0.8 LCt₅₀, respectively) for 10 min. VX was delivered by a small animal ventilator at a volume of 2.5 ml × 70 breaths/minute. All VX-exposed animals experienced a significant loss in percentage body weight at 3, 6, and 24 h post-exposure. In comparison to controls, animals exposed to 514 mg×min/m³ of VX had significant increases in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein concentrations at 6 and 24 h post-exposure. Blood acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was inhibited dose dependently at each of the times points for all VX-exposed groups. AChE activity in lung homogenates was significantly inhibited in all VX-exposed groups at each time point. All VX-exposed animals assessed at 20 min and 3, 6 and 24 h post-exposure showed increases in lung resistance, which was prominent at 20 min and 3 h post-exposure. Histopathologic evaluation of lung tissue of the 514 mg×min/m³ VX-exposed animals at 3, 6 and 24 h indicated morphological changes, including perivascular inflammation, alveolar exudate and histiocytosis, alveolar septal inflammation and edema, alveolar epithelial necrosis, and bronchiolar inflammatory infiltrates, in comparison to controls. These results suggest that aerosolization of the highly toxic, persistent chemical warfare nerve agent VX results in acute pulmonary toxicity and lung injury in rats.

  7. Histopathological alterations of white seabass, Lates calcarifer, in acute and subchronic cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thophon, S.; Kruatrachue, M.; Upatham, E.S.; Pokethitiyook, P.; Sahaphong, S.; Jaritkhuan, S

    2003-03-01

    White seabass responded differently to cadmium at chronic and subchronic levels. - Histopathological alterations to white seabass, Lates calcarifer aged 3 months in acute and subchronic cadmium exposure were studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. The 96-h LC{sub 50} values of cadmium to L. calcarifer was found to be 20.12{+-}0.61 mg/l and the maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) was 7.79 mg/l. Fish were exposed to 10 and 0.8 mg/l of Cd (as CdCl{sub 2}H{sub 2}O) for 96 h and 90 days, respectively. The study showed that gill lamellae and kidney tubules were the primary target organs for the acute toxic effect of cadmium while in the subchronic exposure, the toxic effect to gills was less than that of kidney and liver. Gill alterations included edema of the epithelial cells with the breakdown of pillar cell system, aneurisms with some ruptures, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of epithelial and chloride cells. The liver showed blood congestion in sinusoids and hydropic swelling of hepatocytes, vacuolation and dark granule accumulation. Lipid droplets and glycogen content were observed in hepatocytes at the second and third month of subchronic exposure. The kidney showed hydropic swelling of tubular cell vacuolation and numerous dark granule accumulation in many tubules. Tubular degeneration and necrosis were seen in some areas.

  8. Acute toxicity effects of Prunus avium fruit extract and selection of optimum dose against radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisodia, Rashmi; Sharma, K; Singh, Smita

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of different doses of the methanolic extract of the fruit pulp of Prunus avium (family Rosaceae), which is used ethno-medicinally for the treatment of various diseases, and to find out the optimal dose of Prunus avium extract against 10 Gy gamma-radiation exposure. To test acute toxicity in mice, different doses of PAE (Prunus avium fruit extract) were given orally for 15 consecutive days, after which the animals were observed for another 15 days; the LD50/15 of the methanolic extract was calculated to be 4.947 gm/kg body weight (b.wt). In optimum dose selection against radiation exposure, oral administration of 450 mg/kg b.wt/d of PAE for 15 consecutive days before exposure to 10 Gy of gamma-radiation was found to afford maximum protection in terms of body weight and survivability of the mice in comparison to other doses.

  9. Long-term genomic and epigenomic dysregulation as a consequence of prenatal alcohol exposure: a model for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan L Kleiber

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is abundant evidence that prenatal alcohol exposure leads to a range of behavioural and cognitive impairments, categorized under the term fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs. These disorders are pervasive in Western cultures and represent the most common preventable source of neurodevelopmental disabilities. The genetic and epigenetic etiology of these phenotypes, including those factors that may maintain these phenotypes throughout the lifetime of an affected individual, has become a recent topic of investigation. This review integrates recent data that has progressed our understanding FASD as a continuum of molecular events, beginning with cellular stress response and ending with a long-term ‘footprint’ of epigenetic dysregulation across the genome. It reports on data from multiple ethanol-treatment paradigms in mouse models that identify changes in gene expression that occur with respect to neurodevelopmental timing of exposure and ethanol dose. These studies have identified patterns of genomic alteration that are dependent on the biological processes occurring at the time of ethanol exposure. This review also adds to evidence that epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNA regulation may underlie long-term changes to gene expression patterns. These may be initiated by ethanol-induced alterations to DNA and histone methylation, particularly in imprinted regions of the genome, affecting transcription which is further fine-tuned by altered microRNA expression. These processes are likely complex, genome-wide, and interrelated. The proposed model suggests a potential for intervention, given that epigenetic changes are malleable and may be altered by postnatal environment. This review accentuates the value of mouse models in deciphering the molecular etiology of FASD, including those processes that may provide a target for the ammelioration of this common yet entirely preventable disorder.

  10. Comparative assessment of blood and urine analyses in patients with acute poisonings by medical, narcotic substances and alcohol in clinical toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostapenko, Yury Nikolaevich; Lisovik, Zhanna Andreevna; Belova, Maria Vladimirovna; Luzhnikov, Evgeny Alekseevich; Livanov, Alexandr Sergeevich

    2005-01-01

    Acute poisonings by medical, narcotic substances and alcohol are actual in Russia in the recent years. Comparison of analytic facilities of modern analytical techniques: chromatographic (HPLC, GC, GC-MS) and immuno-chemical (FPIA) in clinical toxicology for urgent diagnostics, assessment of the severity of acute poisoning and the efficacy of the treatment in patients with acute poisonings by psychotropic drugs, narcotics and alcohol have been done. The object of the study were serum, blood, urine of 611 patients with acute poisonings by amitriptyline, clozapine, carbamazepine, opiates and also alcohol. Threshold concentrations (threshold, critical and lethal) of the toxicants and their active metabolites which corresponded to different degrees of poisoning severity have been determined. The most comfortable and informative screening method for express diagnostics and assessment of severity of acute poisonings by psychotropic drugs and narcotics showed the HPLC with using automatic analyzers. FPIA using the automatic analyzer could be applied for screening studies, if group identification is enough. GC-FID method is advisable in case of poisoning by medical substances and narcotics in view of repeated investigation for assessment of the efficacy of the therapy. GC-MS could be advisable for confirming the results of other methods. GC-TCD possess high sensitivity and specificity and is optimal for express differential diagnostics and quantitative assessment of acute poisoning by ethanol and other alcohols.

  11. Temporal changes in rat liver gene expression after acute cadmium and chromium exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Madejczyk

    Full Text Available U.S. Service Members and civilians are at risk of exposure to a variety of environmental health hazards throughout their normal duty activities and in industrial occupations. Metals are widely used in large quantities in a number of industrial processes and are a common environmental toxicant, which increases the possibility of being exposed at toxic levels. While metal toxicity has been widely studied, the exact mechanisms of toxicity remain unclear. In order to further elucidate these mechanisms and identify candidate biomarkers, rats were exposed via a single intraperitoneal injection to three concentrations of CdCl2 and Na(2Cr(2O(7, with livers harvested at 1, 3, or 7 days after exposure. Cd and Cr accumulated in the liver at 1 day post exposure. Cd levels remained elevated over the length of the experiment, while Cr levels declined. Metal exposures induced ROS, including hydroxyl radical (•OH, resulting in DNA strand breaks and lipid peroxidation. Interestingly, ROS and cellular damage appeared to increase with time post-exposure in both metals, despite declines in Cr levels. Differentially expressed genes were identified via microarray analysis. Both metals perturbed gene expression in pathways related to oxidative stress, metabolism, DNA damage, cell cycle, and inflammatory response. This work provides insight into the temporal effects and mechanistic pathways involved in acute metal intoxication, leading to the identification of candidate biomarkers.

  12. Temporal Changes in Rat Liver Gene Expression after Acute Cadmium and Chromium Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madejczyk, Michael S.; Baer, Christine E.; Dennis, William E.; Minarchick, Valerie C.; Leonard, Stephen S.; Jackson, David A.; Stallings, Jonathan D.; Lewis, John A.

    2015-01-01

    U.S. Service Members and civilians are at risk of exposure to a variety of environmental health hazards throughout their normal duty activities and in industrial occupations. Metals are widely used in large quantities in a number of industrial processes and are a common environmental toxicant, which increases the possibility of being exposed at toxic levels. While metal toxicity has been widely studied, the exact mechanisms of toxicity remain unclear. In order to further elucidate these mechanisms and identify candidate biomarkers, rats were exposed via a single intraperitoneal injection to three concentrations of CdCl2 and Na2Cr2O7, with livers harvested at 1, 3, or 7 days after exposure. Cd and Cr accumulated in the liver at 1 day post exposure. Cd levels remained elevated over the length of the experiment, while Cr levels declined. Metal exposures induced ROS, including hydroxyl radical (•OH), resulting in DNA strand breaks and lipid peroxidation. Interestingly, ROS and cellular damage appeared to increase with time post-exposure in both metals, despite declines in Cr levels. Differentially expressed genes were identified via microarray analysis. Both metals perturbed gene expression in pathways related to oxidative stress, metabolism, DNA damage, cell cycle, and inflammatory response. This work provides insight into the temporal effects and mechanistic pathways involved in acute metal intoxication, leading to the identification of candidate biomarkers. PMID:25993096

  13. Molecular Basis and Current Treatment for Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Armendariz-Borunda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use disorders and alcohol dependency affect millions of individuals worldwide. The impact of these facts lies in the elevated social and economic costs. Alcoholic liver disease is caused by acute and chronic exposure to ethanol which promotes oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Chronic consumption of ethanol implies liver steatosis, which is the first morphological change in the liver, followed by liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. This review comprises a broad approach of alcohol use disorders, and a more specific assessment of the pathophysiologic molecular basis, and genetics, as well as clinical presentation and current modalities of treatment for alcoholic liver disease.

  14. Long-term alterations of striatal parvalbumin interneurons in a rat model of early exposure to alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Giorgio Andrea

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to alcohol in utero is a known cause of mental retardation. Although a certain degree of motor impairment is always associated with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, little is known about the neurobiological basis of the defective motor control. We have studied the striatal interneurons containing parvalbumin in a rat model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Methods Newborn rats received ethanol by inhalation from postnatal day two through six and parvalbumin striatal neurons were labeled by immunohistochemistry on postnatal day 60. The spatial distribution of parvalbumin interneurons was studied using Voronoi spatial tessellation and their dendritic trees were completely reconstructed. Results Parvalbumin interneurons of ethanol-treated animals showed a clustered spatial distribution similar to that observed in control animals. The dendritic tree of parvalbumin interneurons was significantly reduced in ethanol-treated animals, as compared with controls. Conclusions Striatal parvalbumin interneurons are crucial components of the brain network serving motor control. Therefore, the shrinkage of their dendrites could contribute to the motor and cognitive symptoms observed in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

  15. Acute paraquat exposure impairs colonic motility by selectively attenuating nitrergic signalling in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diss, Lucy; Dyball, Sarah; Ghela, Tina; Golding, Jonathan; Morris, Rachel; Robinson, Stephen; Tucker, Rosemary; Walter, Talia; Young, Paul; Allen, Marcus; Fidalgo, Sara; Gard, Paul; Mabley, Jon; Patel, Bhavik; Chatterjee, Prabal; Yeoman, Mark

    2016-02-01

    Paraquat, a common herbicide, is responsible for large numbers of deaths worldwide through both deliberate and accidental ingestion. Previous studies have eluded that the bioavailability of paraquat increases substantially with increasing dose and that these changes may in part be due to the effects that these high concentrations have on the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). To date, the actions of acute, high concentrations (20mM for 60 min) of paraquat on the GI tract, particularly the colon which is a major site of paraquat absorption, are unknown. This study examined the effects of acute paraquat administration on colonic motility in the C57BL/6 mouse. Acute paraquat exposure decreased colonic motility and the amplitude of colonic migrating motor complexes (CMMCs), which are major motor patterns involved in faecal pellet propulsion. In isolated segments of distal colon, paraquat increased resting tension and markedly attenuated electrical field stimulation-evoked relaxations. Pharmacological dissection of paraquat's mechanism of action on both the CMMCs and field stimulated tissue using the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine and direct measurement of NO release from the myenteric plexus, demonstrated that paraquat selectively attenuates nitrergic signalling pathways. These changes did not appear to be due to alterations in colonic oxidative stress, inflammation or complex 1 activity, but were most likely caused by paraquat's ability to act as a redox couple. In summary, these data demonstrate that acute paraquat exposure attenuates colonic transit. These changes may facilitate the absorption of paraquat into the circulation and so facilitate its toxicity.

  16. Agricultural adjuvants: acute mortality and effects on population growth rate of Daphnia pulex after chronic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, John D; Walthall, William K

    2003-12-01

    Acute and chronic toxicity of eight agricultural adjuvants (Bond, Kinetic, Plyac, R-11, Silwet L-77, Sylgard 309, X-77, and WaterMaxx) to Daphnia pulex were evaluated with 48-h acute lethal concentration estimates (LC50) and a 10-d population growth-rate measurement, the instantaneous rate of increase (r1). Based on LC50, the order of toxicity was R-11 > X-77 = Sylgard 309 = Silwet L-77 > Kinetic > Bond > Plyac > WaterMaxx; all LC50 estimates were higher than the expected environmental concentration (EEC) of 0.79 mg/L, indicating that none of these adjuvants should cause high levels of mortality in wild D. pulex populations. Extinction, defined as negative population growth rate, occurred after exposure to 0.9 mg/L R-11, 13 mg/L X-77, 25 mg/L Kinetic, 28 mg/L Silwet, 18 mg/L Sylgard, 450 mg/L Bond, 610 mg/L Plyac, and 1,600 mg/L WaterMaxx. Concentrations that caused extinction were substantially below the acute LC50 for R-11, Kinetic, Plyac, X-77, and Bond. The no-observable-effects concentration (NOEC) and lowest-observable-effects concentration (LOEC) for the number of offspring per surviving female after exposure to R-11 were 0.5 and 0.75 mg/L, respectively. The NOEC and LOEC for population size after exposure to R-11 were (1.25 and 0.5 mg/L, respectively. Both of these values were lower than the EEC, indicating that R-11 does have the potential to cause damage to D. pulex populations after application at recommended field rates. The wide range of concentrations causing extinction makes it difficult to generalize about the potential impacts that agricultural adjuvants might have on aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, additional studies that examine effects on other nontarget organisms and determine residues in aquatic ecosystems may be warranted.

  17. Meta-analysis of gene expression patterns in animal models of prenatal alcohol exposure suggests role for protein synthesis inhibition and chromatin remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogic, Sanja; Wong, Albertina; Pavlidis, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Background Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can result in an array of morphological, behavioural and neurobiological deficits that can range in their severity. Despite extensive research in the field and a significant progress made, especially in understanding the range of possible malformations and neurobehavioral abnormalities, the molecular mechanisms of alcohol responses in development are still not well understood. There have been multiple transcriptomic studies looking at the changes in gene expression after PAE in animal models, however there is a limited apparent consensus among the reported findings. In an effort to address this issue, we performed a comprehensive re-analysis and meta-analysis of all suitable, publically available expression data sets. Methods We assembled ten microarray data sets of gene expression after PAE in mouse and rat models consisting of samples from a total of 63 ethanol-exposed and 80 control animals. We re-analyzed each data set for differential expression and then used the results to perform meta-analyses considering all data sets together or grouping them by time or duration of exposure (pre- and post-natal, acute and chronic, respectively). We performed network and Gene Ontology enrichment analysis to further characterize the identified signatures. Results For each sub-analysis we identified signatures of differential expressed genes that show support from multiple studies. Overall, the changes in gene expression were more extensive after acute ethanol treatment during prenatal development than in other models. Considering the analysis of all the data together, we identified a robust core signature of 104 genes down-regulated after PAE, with no up-regulated genes. Functional analysis reveals over-representation of genes involved in protein synthesis, mRNA splicing and chromatin organization. Conclusions Our meta-analysis shows that existing studies, despite superficial dissimilarity in findings, share features that allow us

  18. [Acute alcohol intoxication among children and adolescents admitted to the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice during 2000-2010--preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamińska, Halla; Agnieszka, Zachurzok-Buczyńska; Gawlik, Aneta; Małecka-Tendera, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The alcohol drinking at the young age is a risk factor of alcohol addiction later in life, and is connected with school problems, binge drinking, tobacco addiction, illegal drug use, violence, crime commitment, and risky sexual behaviors. Alcohol drinking in the last 12 months is declared by 78% Polish children. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of admissions due to alcohol intoxication to the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Pediatric Center of Silesia and the identification of the risk factors of the acute alcohol intoxication among Polish children and adolescents. Ten-year retrospective study includes investigation of patients medical records from the Department of Pediatrics. Among 8048 patients hospitalized in the Department of Pediatrics between the years 2000-2010, 220 (2.7%) cases of acute alcohol poisoning occurred The detailed data analysis from 139 patients [66 (47.5%) girls, 73 (52,5%) boys] was done. In the years 2006-2010 the number of girls admitted to the department increased in comparison to boys. The largest group of patients was at age between 14 and 16 years [61 (44%) children]. The blood alcohol concentration at the moment of admission to the hospital was 0.1 to 4.0 per thousand. In most cases (92.8%) the alcohol intoxication was intentional. Five percent of them were suicide attempts. In the youngest group of children alcohol abuse was unintentional. 23 (16.5%) of patients initially needed admission to the intensive care unit. In 30 (21.6%) patient the family was incomplete and five times more often father was absent. The alcohol addiction occurs in 18 (13.0%) fathers and 10 (7.2%) mothers of our patients. It is concluded that over the last decade the number of girls admitted due to alcohol abuse increased. Children at school grade between 7-9 are intoxicated most often. One six of intoxicated patents needed hospitalization at intensive care unit.

  19. Prenatal exposure to alcohol does not affect radial maze learning and hippocampal mossy fiber sizes in three inbred strains of mouse

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    Bertholet Jean-Yves

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on radial-maze learning and hippocampal neuroanatomy, particularly the sizes of the intra- and infrapyramidal mossy fiber (IIPMF terminal fields, in three inbred strains of mice (C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ, and DBA/2J. Results Although we anticipated a modification of both learning and IIPMF sizes, no such effects were detected. Prenatal alcohol exposure did, however, interfere with reproduction in C57BL/6J animals and decrease body and brain weight (in interaction with the genotype at adult age. Conclusion Prenatal alcohol exposure influenced neither radial maze performance nor the sizes of the IIPMF terminal fields. We believe that future research should be pointed either at different targets when using mouse models for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (e.g. more complicated behavioral paradigms, different hippocampal substructures, or other brain structures or involve different animal models.

  20. Genome-wide gene expression profiling of acute metal exposures in male zebrafish

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    Christine E. Baer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To capture global responses to metal poisoning and mechanistic insights into metal toxicity, gene expression changes were evaluated in whole adult male zebrafish following acute 24 h high dose exposure to three metals with known human health risks. Male adult zebrafish were exposed to nickel chloride, cobalt chloride or sodium dichromate at concentrations corresponding to their respective 96 h LC20, LC40 and LC60 (i.e. 96 h concentrations at which 20%, 40% and 60% lethality is expected, respectively. Histopathology was performed on a subset of metal-exposed zebrafish to phenotypically anchor transcriptional changes associated with each metal exposure. Here we describe in detail the contents and quality controls for the gene expression and other data associated with the study published by Hussainzada and colleagues in BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology (Hussainzada et al., 2014 with the data uploaded to Gene Expression Omnibus (accession number GSE50648.

  1. Genome-wide gene expression profiling of acute metal exposures in male zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Christine E.; Ippolito, Danielle L.; Hussainzada, Naissan; Lewis, John A.; Jackson, David A.; Stallings, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    To capture global responses to metal poisoning and mechanistic insights into metal toxicity, gene expression changes were evaluated in whole adult male zebrafish following acute 24 h high dose exposure to three metals with known human health risks. Male adult zebrafish were exposed to nickel chloride, cobalt chloride or sodium dichromate at concentrations corresponding to their respective 96 h LC20, LC40 and LC60 (i.e. 96 h concentrations at which 20%, 40% and 60% lethality is expected, respectively). Histopathology was performed on a subset of metal-exposed zebrafish to phenotypically anchor transcriptional changes associated with each metal exposure. Here we describe in detail the contents and quality controls for the gene expression and other data associated with the study published by Hussainzada and colleagues in BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology (Hussainzada et al., 2014) with the data uploaded to Gene Expression Omnibus (accession number GSE50648). PMID:26484131

  2. Acute vertigo in an anesthesia provider during exposure to a 3T MRI scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlin, Andrew; Hoxworth, Joseph M; Pavlicek, William; Thunberg, Christopher A; Seamans, David

    2015-01-01

    Vertigo induced by exposure to the magnetic field of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner is a well-known phenomenon within the radiology community but is not widely appreciated by other clinical specialists. Here, we describe a case of an anesthetist experiencing acute vertigo while providing sedation to a patient undergoing a 3 Tesla MRI scan. After discussing previous reports, and the evidence surrounding MRI-induced vertigo, we review potential etiologies that include the effects of both static and time-varying magnetic fields on the vestibular apparatus. We conclude our review by discussing the occupational standards that exist for MRI exposure and methods to minimize the risks of MRI-induced vertigo for clinicians working in the MRI environment.

  3. Acute Inhalation Exposure to Titanium Ethanolate as a Possible Cause of Metal Fume Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ahmadimanesh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Occupational inhalation exposure to noxious agents is not uncommon. Herein, we present a 26-year-old male student who had accidental acute inhalation exposure to a large quantity of titanium ethanolate and hydrogen chloride in chemistry lab. He was referred to the emergency department of our hospital with low-grade fever, dyspnea, headache, fatigue and myalgia. After 24 hrs of symptomatic treatment (oxygen therapy and acetaminophen, the fever was subsided and the patient discharged home in a good clinical condition. The presented symptoms could be interpreted as a form of metal fume fever. It can therefore be concluded that organo-metallic compound of titanium metal may have the potential to produce metal fume fever in human.

  4. Patient education for alcohol cessation intervention at the time of acute fracture surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne; Egholm, Julie Weber; Oppedal, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with hazardous alcohol intake are overrepresented in emergency departments and surgical wards. These patients have an increased risk of postoperative complications with prolonged hospital stays and admissions to intensive care unit after surgery. In elective surgery...... at university hospitals in Denmark, Sweden and Norway. Included patients will be randomly allocated to either standard care or the gold standard programme aimed at complete alcohol abstinence before, during and 6 weeks after surgery. It includes a structured patient education programme and weekly interventions...

  5. Acute and chronic effects of erythromycin exposure on oxidative stress and genotoxicity parameters of Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, S., E-mail: up201208875@fc.up.pt [Departamento de Biologia da Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto (FCUP), Rua do Campo Alegre s/n, 4169–007 Porto (Portugal); Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental (CIIMAR/CIMAR), Rua dos Bragas 289, 4050–123 Porto (Portugal); Antunes, S.C. [Departamento de Biologia da Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto (FCUP), Rua do Campo Alegre s/n, 4169–007 Porto (Portugal); Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental (CIIMAR/CIMAR), Rua dos Bragas 289, 4050–123 Porto (Portugal); Correia, A.T. [Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental (CIIMAR/CIMAR), Rua dos Bragas 289, 4050–123 Porto (Portugal); Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Fernando Pessoa (FCS-UFP), Rua Carlos da Maia, 296, 4200–150, Porto (Portugal); Nunes, B. [Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar (CESAM), Campus de Santiago, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810–193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810–193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2016-03-01

    Erythromycin (ERY) is a macrolide antibiotic used in human and veterinary medicine, and has been detected in various aquatic compartments. Recent studies have indicated that this compound can exert biological activity on non-target organisms environmentally exposed. The present study aimed to assess the toxic effects of ERY in Oncorhynchus mykiss after acute and chronic exposures. The here adopted strategy involved exposure to three levels of ERY, the first being similar to concentrations reported to occur in the wild, thus ecologically relevant. Catalase (CAT), total glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRed) activities and lipid peroxidation (TBARS levels) were quantified as oxidative stress biomarkers in gills and liver. Genotoxic endpoints, reflecting different types of genetic damage in blood cells, were also determined, by performing analysis of genetic damage (determination of the genetic damage index, GDI, measured by comet assay) and of erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENAs). The results suggest the occurrence of a mild, but significant, oxidative stress scenario in gills. For acutely exposed organisms, significant alterations were observed in CAT and GRed activities, and also in TBARS levels, which however are modifications with uncertain biological interpretation, despite indicating involvement of an oxidative effect and response. After chronic exposure, a significant decrease of CAT activity, increase of GPx activity and TBARS levels in gills was noticed. In liver, significant decrease in TBARS levels were observed in both exposures. Comet and ENAs assays indicated significant increases on genotoxic damage of O. mykiss, after erythromycin exposures. This set of data (acute and chronic) suggests that erythromycin has the potential to induce DNA strand breaks in blood cells, and demonstrate the induction of chromosome breakage and/or segregational abnormalities. Overall results indicate that both DNA damaging effects induced by

  6. Gene expression changes in female zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain in response to acute exposure to methylmercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Catherine A.; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Martyniuk, Chris; Knoebl, Iris; Pope, Marie; Wright-Osment, Maureen K.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2011-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxicant and endocrine disruptor that accumulates in aquatic systems. Previous studies have shown suppression of hormone levels in both male and female fish, suggesting effects on gonadotropin regulation in the brain. The gene expression profile in adult female zebrafish whole brain induced by acute (96 h) MeHg exposure was investigated. Fish were exposed by injection to 0 or 0.5(mu or u)g MeHg/g. Gene expression changes in the brain were examined using a 22,000-feature zebrafish microarray. At a significance level of pexposure. Individual genes exhibiting altered expression in response to MeHg exposure implicate effects on glutathione metabolism in the mechanism of MeHg neurotoxicity. Gene ontology (GO) terms significantly enriched among altered genes included protein folding, cell redox homeostasis, and steroid biosynthetic process. The most affected biological functions were related to nervous system development and function, as well as lipid metabolism and molecular transport. These results support the involvement of oxidative stress and effects on protein structure in the mechanism of action of MeHg in the female brain. Future studies will compare the gene expression profile induced in response to MeHg with that induced by other toxicants and will investigate responsive genes as potential biomarkers of MeHg exposure.

  7. Exposure to Discrimination and Heart Rate Variability Reactivity to Acute Stress among Women with Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Julie; Lampert, Rachel; Tennen, Howard; Feinn, Richard

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to racial discrimination has been linked to physiological reactivity. This study investigated self-reported exposure to racial discrimination and parasympathetic [high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV)] and sympathetic (norepinephrine and cortisol) activity at baseline and then again after acute laboratory stress. Lifetime exposure to racial discrimination was measured with the Schedule of Racist Events scale. Thirty-two women (16 Black and 16 White) with type 2 diabetes performed a public speaking stressor. Beat-to-beat intervals were recorded on electrocardiograph recorders, and HF-HRV was calculated using spectral analysis and natural log transformed. Norepinephrine and cortisol were measured in blood. Higher discrimination predicted lower stressor HF-HRV, even after controlling for baseline HF-HRV. When race, age, A1c and baseline systolic blood pressure were also controlled, racial discrimination remained a significant independent predictor of stressor HF-HRV. There was no association between lifetime discrimination and sympathetic markers. In conclusion, preliminary data suggest that among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), exposure to racial discrimination is adversely associated with parasympathetic, but not sympathetic, reactivity.

  8. Effects of acute prenatal exposure to ethanol on microRNA expression are ameliorated by social enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherry eIgnacio

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs are associated with abnormal social behavior. These behavioral changes may resemble those seen in autism. Rats acutely exposed to ethanol on gestational day 12 show decreased social motivation at postnatal day 42. We previously showed that housing these ethanol-exposed rats with non-exposed controls normalized this deficit. The amygdala is critical for social behavior and regulates it, in part, through connections with the basal ganglia, particularly the ventral striatum. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short, hairpin-derived RNAs that repress mRNA expression. Many brain disorders, including FASD, show dysregulation of miRNAs. In this study, we tested if miRNA and mRNA networks are altered in the amygdala and ventral striatum as a consequence of prenatal ethanol exposure and show any evidence of reversal as a result of Social Enrichment. RNA samples from two different brain regions in 72 male and female adolescent rats were analyzed by RNA-Seq and microarray analysis. Several miRNAs showed significant changes due to prenatal ethanol exposure and/or Social Enrichment in one or both brain regions. The top predicted gene targets of these miRNAs were mapped and subjected to pathway enrichment analysis. Several miRNA changes caused by ethanol were reversed by Social Enrichment, including mir-204, mir-299a, miR-384-5p, miR-222-3p, miR-301b-3p and mir-6239. Moreover, enriched gene networks incorporating the targets of these miRNAs also showed reversal. We also extended our previously published mRNA expression analysis by directly examining all annotated brain-related canonical pathways. The additional pathways that were most strongly affected at the mRNA level included p53, CREB, Glutamate and GABA signaling. Together, our data suggest a number of novel epigenetic mechanisms for Social Enrichment to reverse the effects of ethanol exposure through widespread influences on gene expression.

  9. Ontogeny and adolescent alcohol exposure in Wistar rats: open field conflict, light/dark box and forced swim test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desikan, Anita; Wills, Derek N; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2014-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that heavy drinking and alcohol abuse and dependence peak during the transition between late adolescence and early adulthood. Studies in animal models have demonstrated that alcohol exposure during adolescence can cause a modification in some aspects of behavioral development, causing the "adolescent phenotype" to be retained into adulthood. However, the "adolescent phenotype" has not been studied for a number of behavioral tests. The objective of the present study was to investigate the ontogeny of behaviors over adolescence/young adulthood in the light/dark box, open field conflict and forced swim test in male Wistar rats. These data were compared to previously published data from rats that received intermittent alcohol vapor exposure during adolescence (AIE) to test whether they retained the "adolescent phenotype" in these behavioral tests. Three age groups of rats were tested (post-natal day (PD) 34-42; PD55-63; PD69-77). In the light/dark box test, younger rats escaped the light box faster than older adults, whereas AIE rats returned to the light box faster and exhibited more rears in the light than controls. In the open field conflict test, both younger and AIE rats had shorter times to first enter the center, spent more time in the center of the field, were closer to the food, and consumed more food than controls. In the forced swim test no clear developmental pattern emerged. The results of the light/dark box and the forced swim test do not support the hypothesis that adolescent ethanol vapor exposure can "lock-in" all adolescent phenotypes. However, data from the open field conflict test suggest that the adolescent and the AIE rats both engaged in more "disinhibited" and food motivated behaviors. These data suggest that, in some behavioral tests, AIE may result in a similar form of behavioral disinhibition to what is seen in adolescence.

  10. [Reactive microglial changes in rat neocortex and hippocampus after exposure to acute perinatal hypoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khozhaĭ, L I; Otellin, V A

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of reactive changes of a population density of microglial cells and the reversibility of their phenotypic forms were studied in the brain of neonatal rats at different time intervals after 1 hr-long exposure to acute normobaric hypoxia in the pressure chamber at the second postnatal day. Different areas of the neocortex (frontal, motor, somatosensory and visual) and of the hippocampus (CAI, CA3, CA4 and fascia dentata) were examined 1 hr, 3 hrs, 1 and 5 days after exposure to hypoxia. Microglial cells were demonstrated using an immunocytochemical staining with the monoclonal antibodies against Iba- 1 antigen. The results have shown that the reaction of microglia to acute hypoxia in both the neocortex and the hippocampus of the new-borns developed simultaneously and synchronously with the augmentation of cell death. The increase of a population density of amoeboid form of microglial cells in the brain areas studied was recorded already after 1 hour as a result of their migration from the subventricular region and the areas adjacent to large vessels from where they practically disappeared. The number of amoeboid microglial cells in this area has recovered rather quickly (in 3 hrs). The population densify of microglial cells, especially of amoeboid forms, sharply increased with the augmentation of cell death and remained unchanged for about 5 days.

  11. Evidence Report: Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Simonsen, Lisa; Huff, Janice L.

    2016-01-01

    Possible acute and late risks to the central nervous system (CNS) from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) are concerns for human exploration of space. Acute CNS risks may include: altered cognitive function, reduced motor function, and behavioral changes, all of which may affect performance and human health. Late CNS risks may include neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia and premature aging. Although detrimental CNS changes are observed in humans treated with high-dose radiation (e.g., gamma rays and 9 protons) for cancer and are supported by experimental evidence showing neurocognitive and behavioral effects in animal models, the significance of these results on the morbidity to astronauts has not been elucidated. There is a lack of human epidemiology data on which to base CNS risk estimates; therefore, risk projection based on scaling to human data, as done for cancer risk, is not possible for CNS risks. Research specific to the spaceflight environment using animal and cell models must be compiled to quantify the magnitude of CNS changes in order to estimate this risk and to establish validity of the current permissible exposure limits (PELs). In addition, the impact of radiation exposure in combination with individual sensitivity or other space flight factors, as well as assessment of the need for biological/pharmaceutical countermeasures, will be considered after further definition of CNS risk occurs.

  12. Acute on chronic exposure to endotoxin is associated with enhanced chemoreflex responses in preterm fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Lindsea C; Drury, Paul P; Muir, Cameron; Jensen, Ellen C; Gunn, Alistair J; Bennet, Laura

    2013-05-15

    There is increasing evidence that exposure to infection can sensitize the fetus to subsequent hypoxic injury. However, it is unclear whether this involves compromise of the fetal cardiovascular adaptation to acute asphyxia. Chronically instrumented 103-day-old (0.7 gestational age, term is 147 days) fetal sheep in utero were randomized to receive either gram-negative lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a continuous low-dose infusion for 120 h plus boluses of 1 μg LPS at 48, 72, and 96 h with asphyxia at 102 h (i.e., 6 h after the final LPS bolus) induced by umbilical cord occlusion for 15 min (LPS treated, n = 8), or the same volume of saline plus occlusion (saline treated, n = 7). Fetuses were killed 5 days after occlusion. LPS was associated with a more rapid fall in fetal heart rate at the onset of occlusion (P fall in CaBF to similar values as saline controls during occlusion. There were no differences between the groups in femoral blood flow before or during occlusion. Contrary to our initial hypothesis, acute on chronic exposure to LPS was associated with more rapid cardiovascular adaptation to umbilical cord occlusion.

  13. Acute radiation enteritis caused by dose-dependent radiation exposure in dogs: experimental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenda; Chen, Jiang; Xu, Liu; Li, Hongyu; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2014-12-01

    Accidental or intended radiation exposure in mass casualty settings presents a serious and on-going threat. The development of mitigating and treating agents requires appropriate animal models. Unfortunately, the majority of research on radiation enteritis in animals has lacked specific assessments and targeted therapy. Our study showed beagle dogs, treated by intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for abdominal irradiation, were administered single X-ray doses of 8-30 Gy. The degree of intestinal tract injury for all of the animals after radiation exposure was evaluated with regard to clinical syndrome, endoscopic findings, histological features, and intestinal function. The range of single doses (8 Gy, 10-14 Gy, and 16-30 Gy) represented the degree of injury (mild, moderate, and severe, respectively). Acute radiation enteritis included clinical syndrome with fever, vomiting, diarrhea, hemafecia, and weight loss; typical endoscopic findings included edema, bleeding, mucosal abrasions, and ulcers; and intestinal biopsy results revealed mucosal necrosis, erosion, and loss, inflammatory cell infiltration, hemorrhage, and congestion. Changes in serum diamine oxides (DAOs) and d-xylose represented intestinal barrier function and absorption function, respectively, and correlated with the extent of damage (P enteritis, thus obtaining a relatively objective evaluation of intestinal tract injury based on clinical performance and laboratory examination. The method of assessment of the degree of intestinal tract injury after abdominal irradiation could be beneficial in the development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies for acute radiation enteritis.

  14. Evaluating Systemic Toxicity in Rabbits after Acute Ocular Exposure to Irritant Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshma Sebastian Cherian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute systemic toxicity via ocular exposure route is not a well understood aspect. Any material/drug/chemical that comes in contact with the eye can evade the first pass metabolism and enter the systemic circulation through the conjunctival blood vessels or via the nasolacrimal route. In this study, the effect of ocular irritant chemicals on the systemic toxicity was assessed in rabbit. Eyes of rabbits were exposed to known ocular irritant (cetyl pyridinium chloride, sodium salicylate, imidazole, acetaminophen, and nicotinamide for 24 h and scored. After a period of 72 h, blood was collected from the animals for examining the hematological and biochemical parameters. The animals were then sacrificed and the eyes were collected for histopathology and cytokine analysis by ELISA. Splenocyte proliferation was assessed by tritiated thymidine incorporation assay. The liver and brain of the treated animals were retrieved for evaluating oxidative damage. The chemicals showed moderate to severe eye irritation. Inflammation was not evident in the histopathology but proinflammatory markers were significantly high. The splenocyte proliferation capacity was undeterred. And there was minimal oxidative stress in the brain and liver. In conclusion, acute exposure of ocular irritants was incapable of producing a prominent systemic side effect in the current scenario.

  15. Acute exposure to apolipoprotein A1 inhibits macrophage chemotaxis in vitro and monocyte recruitment in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Asif J; Barrett, Tessa J; Taylor, Lewis; McNeill, Eileen; Manmadhan, Arun; Recio, Carlota; Carmineri, Alfredo; Brodermann, Maximillian H; White, Gemma E; Cooper, Dianne; DiDonato, Joseph A; Zamanian-Daryoush, Maryam; Hazen, Stanley L; Channon, Keith M

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) is the major protein component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and has well documented anti-inflammatory properties. To better understand the cellular and molecular basis of the anti-inflammatory actions of apoA1, we explored the effect of acute human apoA1 exposure on the migratory capacity of monocyte-derived cells in vitro and in vivo. Acute (20–60 min) apoA1 treatment induced a substantial (50–90%) reduction in macrophage chemotaxis to a range of chemoattractants. This acute treatment was anti-inflammatory in vivo as shown by pre-treatment of monocytes prior to adoptive transfer into an on-going murine peritonitis model. We find that apoA1 rapidly disrupts membrane lipid rafts, and as a consequence, dampens the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway that coordinates reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and cell migration. Our data strengthen the evidence base for therapeutic apoA1 infusions in situations where reduced monocyte recruitment to sites of inflammation could have beneficial outcomes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15190.001 PMID:27572261

  16. Role of carbon monoxide in impaired endothelial function mediated by acute second-hand tobacco, incense, and candle smoke exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Lynn P; Al-Dissi, Ahmad; Marit, Jordan S; German, Timothy N; Terletski, Sharilyn D

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if carbon monoxide (CO) is responsible for acute adverse cardiovascular effects of different sources of smoke: second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS), incense and candle smoke. Endothelial function was tested using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in pigs and was shown to be sensitive to nitric oxide synthase blockade. Subsequent experiments showed that FMD was significantly impaired compared to sham-exposed pigs at 30 min after a 30-min exposure to all three sources of smoke. In contrast, SHS significantly increased systolic, diastolic and pulse pressures compared to sham-exposure, while both incense and candle smoke exposure had no effect. The FMD impairment correlated well with CO levels in the exposure chamber, but not total particulates or venous CO-hemoglobin. Therefore, this study suggests a gas phase component of smoke that accompanies CO, but not CO itself, is responsible for acute endothelial dysfunction after SHS, incense or candle smoke exposure.

  17. Prenatal exposure to vanilla or alcohol induces crawling after these odors in the neonate rat: The role of mu and kappa opioid receptor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaztañaga, Mirari; Aranda-Fernández, P Ezequiel; Chotro, M Gabriela

    2015-09-01

    Rat fetuses can perceive chemosensory stimuli derived from their mother's diet, and they may learn about those stimuli. In previous studies we have observed that prenatal exposure to alcohol during the last days of gestation increases the acceptance and liking of an alcohol flavor in infant and adolescent rats. While these results were not found after prenatal exposure to vanilla, cineole or anise, suggesting that the pharmacological properties of alcohol, mediated by the opioid system, underlie the effects observed with this drug. Considering that other studies report enhanced acceptance of non-alcohol flavors experienced prenatally when subjects were tested before infancy, we explore the possibility of observing similar results if testing 1-day old rats exposed prenatally to vanilla. Using an "odor-induced crawling" testing procedure, it was observed that neonates exposed prenatally to vanilla or alcohol crawl for a longer distance towards the experienced odor than to other odors or than control pups. Blocking mu, but not kappa opioid receptors, reduced the attraction of vanilla odor to neonates exposed to vanilla in utero, while the response to alcohol in pups exposed prenatally to this drug was affected by both antagonists. Results confirm that exposure to a non-alcohol odor enhances postnatal responses to it, observable soon after birth, while also suggesting that the mu opioid receptor system plays an important role in generating this effect. The results also imply that with alcohol exposure, the prenatal opioid system is wholly involved, which could explain the longer retention of the enhanced attraction to alcohol following prenatal experience with the drug.

  18. Carryover Effects of Acute DEHP Exposure on Ovarian Function and Oocyte Developmental Competence in Lactating Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalo, Dorit; Hadas, Ron; Furman, Ori; Ben-Ari, Julius; Maor, Yehoshua; Patterson, Donald G; Tomey, Cynthia; Roth, Zvi

    2015-01-01

    We examined acute exposure of Holstein cows to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and its carryover effects on ovarian function and oocyte developmental competence. Synchronized cows were tube-fed with water or 100 mg/kg DEHP per day for 3 days. Blood, urine and milk samples were collected before, during and after DEHP exposure to examine its clearance pattern. Ovarian follicular dynamics was monitored through an entire estrous cycle by ultrasonographic scanning. Follicular fluids were aspirated from the preovulatory follicles on days 0 and 29 of the experiment and analyzed for phthalate metabolites and estradiol concentration. The aspirated follicular fluid was used as maturation medium for in-vitro embryo production. Findings revealed that DEHP impairs the pattern of follicular development, with a prominent effect on dominant follicles. The diameter and growth rate of the first- and second-wave dominant follicles were lower (P 25 mm). The pattern of growth and regression of the corpus luteum differed between groups, with a lower volume in the DEHP-treated group (P < 0.05). The follicular fluid aspirated from the DEHP-treated group, but not the controls, contained 23 nM mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Culturing of cumulus oocyte complexes in the follicular fluid aspirated from DEHP-treated cows reduced the proportion of oocytes progressing to the MII stage, and the proportions of 2- to 4-cell-stage embryos (P < 0.04) and 7-day blastocysts (P < 0.06). The results describe the risk associated with acute exposure to DEHP and its deleterious carryover effects on ovarian function, nuclear maturation and oocyte developmental competence.

  19. Carryover Effects of Acute DEHP Exposure on Ovarian Function and Oocyte Developmental Competence in Lactating Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalo, Dorit; Hadas, Ron; Furman, Ori; Ben-Ari, Julius; Maor, Yehoshua; Patterson, Donald G.; Tomey, Cynthia; Roth, Zvi

    2015-01-01

    We examined acute exposure of Holstein cows to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and its carryover effects on ovarian function and oocyte developmental competence. Synchronized cows were tube-fed with water or 100 mg/kg DEHP per day for 3 days. Blood, urine and milk samples were collected before, during and after DEHP exposure to examine its clearance pattern. Ovarian follicular dynamics was monitored through an entire estrous cycle by ultrasonographic scanning. Follicular fluids were aspirated from the preovulatory follicles on days 0 and 29 of the experiment and analyzed for phthalate metabolites and estradiol concentration. The aspirated follicular fluid was used as maturation medium for in-vitro embryo production. Findings revealed that DEHP impairs the pattern of follicular development, with a prominent effect on dominant follicles. The diameter and growth rate of the first- and second-wave dominant follicles were lower (P 25 mm). The pattern of growth and regression of the corpus luteum differed between groups, with a lower volume in the DEHP-treated group (P < 0.05). The follicular fluid aspirated from the DEHP-treated group, but not the controls, contained 23 nM mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Culturing of cumulus oocyte complexes in the follicular fluid aspirated from DEHP-treated cows reduced the proportion of oocytes progressing to the MII stage, and the proportions of 2- to 4-cell-stage embryos (P < 0.04) and 7-day blastocysts (P < 0.06). The results describe the risk associated with acute exposure to DEHP and its deleterious carryover effects on ovarian function, nuclear maturation and oocyte developmental competence. PMID:26154164

  20. Carryover Effects of Acute DEHP Exposure on Ovarian Function and Oocyte Developmental Competence in Lactating Cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorit Kalo

    Full Text Available We examined acute exposure of Holstein cows to di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and its carryover effects on ovarian function and oocyte developmental competence. Synchronized cows were tube-fed with water or 100 mg/kg DEHP per day for 3 days. Blood, urine and milk samples were collected before, during and after DEHP exposure to examine its clearance pattern. Ovarian follicular dynamics was monitored through an entire estrous cycle by ultrasonographic scanning. Follicular fluids were aspirated from the preovulatory follicles on days 0 and 29 of the experiment and analyzed for phthalate metabolites and estradiol concentration. The aspirated follicular fluid was used as maturation medium for in-vitro embryo production. Findings revealed that DEHP impairs the pattern of follicular development, with a prominent effect on dominant follicles. The diameter and growth rate of the first- and second-wave dominant follicles were lower (P 25 mm. The pattern of growth and regression of the corpus luteum differed between groups, with a lower volume in the DEHP-treated group (P < 0.05. The follicular fluid aspirated from the DEHP-treated group, but not the controls, contained 23 nM mono(2-ethylhexyl phthalate. Culturing of cumulus oocyte complexes in the follicular fluid aspirated from DEHP-treated cows reduced the proportion of oocytes progressing to the MII stage, and the proportions of 2- to 4-cell-stage embryos (P < 0.04 and 7-day blastocysts (P < 0.06. The results describe the risk associated with acute exposure to DEHP and its deleterious carryover effects on ovarian function, nuclear maturation and oocyte developmental competence.

  1. Prenatal alcohol exposure modifies glucocorticoid receptor subcellular distribution in the medial prefrontal cortex and impairs frontal cortex-dependent learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M Allan

    Full Text Available Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE has been shown to impair learning, memory and executive functioning in children. Perseveration, or the failure to respond adaptively to changing contingencies, is a hallmark on neurobehavioral assessment tasks for human fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD. Adaptive responding is predominantly a product of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and is regulated by corticosteroids. In our mouse model of PAE we recently reported deficits in hippocampal formation-dependent learning and memory and a dysregulation of hippocampal formation glucocorticoid receptor (GR subcellular distribution. Here, we examined the effect of PAE on frontal cortical-dependent behavior, as well as mPFC GR subcellular distribution and the levels of regulators of intracellular GR transport. PAE mice displayed significantly reduced response flexibility in a Y-maze reversal learning task. While the levels of total nuclear GR were reduced in PAE mPFC, levels of GR phosphorylated at serines 203, 211 and 226 were not significantly changed. Cytosolic, but not nuclear, MR levels were elevated in the PAE mPFC. The levels of critical GR trafficking proteins, FKBP51, Hsp90, cyclophilin 40, dynamitin and dynein intermediate chain, were altered in PAE mice, in favor of the exclusion of GR from the nucleus, indicating dysregulation of GR trafficking. Our findings suggest that there may be a link between a deficit in GR nuclear localization and frontal cortical learning deficits in prenatal alcohol-exposed mice.

  2. ACUTE NEUROTOXIC EFFECTS OF INHALED PERCHLOROETHYLENE ON PATTERN VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIALS AS A FUNCTION OF EXPOSURE AND ESTIMATED BLOOD AND BRAIN CONCENTRATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous experiments have shown the effects of acute inhalation exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) and toluene are related to the target tissue concentration at the time of testing. The current studies examined exposure to another volatile organic compound, perchloroethylene (P...

  3. Assessment of locomotion behavior in adult Zebrafish after acute exposure to different pharmacological reference compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of the present study was to assess locomotor behavior of adult zebrafish after acute exposure to different pharmacological reference compounds. Materials and Methods: Adult zebrafish of 4-5-months-old were exposed to different concentrations of known reference compounds for 15 min. The test was conducted separately for each drug concentration as well as control. Locomotor activity parameters viz. distance travelled, speed, total mobile time, and total immobile time were recorded for each animal during the exposure period. Results: Out of 11 compounds tested, nine compounds showed decrease in locomotor behavior with significant changes in distance travelled, speed, total mobile time, and total immobile time. Caffeine exhibited biphasic response in locomotion behavior, while scopolamine failed to induce any significant changes. Conclusion: In view of the above findings, these results suggested that exposure of adult zebrafish with different known compounds produce the expected changes in the locomotion behavior; therefore, adult zebrafish can be used an alternative approach for the assessment of new chemical entities for their effect on locomotor behavior.

  4. Setting safe acute exposure limits for halon replacement chemicals using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, A; Jepson, G W; Cisneros, M; Rubenstein, R; Brock, W J

    2000-08-01

    Most proposed replacements for Halon 1301 as a fire suppressant are halogenated hydrocarbons. The acute toxic endpoint of concern for these agents is cardiac sensitization. An approach is described that links the cardiac endpoint as assessed in dogs to a target arterial concentration in humans. Linkage was made using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. Monte Carlo simulations, which account for population variability, were used to establish safe exposure times at different exposure concentrations for Halon 1301 (bromotrifluoromethane), CF(3)I (trifluoroiodomethane), HFC-125 (pentafluoroethane), HFC-227ea (1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane), and HFC-236fa (1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropane). Application of the modeling technique described here not only makes use of the conservative cardiac sensitization endpoint, but also uses an understanding of the pharmacokinetics of the chemical agents to better establish standards for safe exposure. The combined application of cardiac sensitization data and physiologically based modeling provides a quantitative approach, which can facilitate the selection and effective use of halon replacement candidates.

  5. Proinflammatory cytokines in alcohol or gallstone induced acute pancreatitis. A prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novovic, Srdan; Andersen, Anders Møller; Ersbøll, Annette Kjaer;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: If differences of inflammatory pathways in acute pancreatitis exist for various etiologies, selective and specific antiinflammatory and other modulatory treatment regimens might be indicated. Circulating levels of prominent proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, 8, 18, and TNF-alpha were mea...... and clinical outcome is independent of the underlying etiology. Revealing the complex spatial and temporal profile of proinflammatory cytokine expression in acute pancreatitis is necessary and important for the development of a more targeted rational therapy....

  6. Effect of variations in treatment regimen and liver cirrhosis on exposure to benzodiazepines during treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershkovich, Pavel; Wasan, Kishor M; Ribeyre, Charles; Ibrahim, Fady; McNeill, John H

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Benzodiazepines (BDZs) are the drugs of choice to prevent the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). Various treatment protocols are published and have been shown to be effective in both office-managed and facility-managed treatment of AWS. The aim of this scientific commentary is to demonstrate the differences in the expected exposure to BDZs during AWS treatment using different treatment regimens available in the literature, in patients with or without alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Methods: Diazepam and lorazepam AWS protocols were examined and reviewed in the literature, and blood plasma levels were examined and compared, respectively. Results: Considerable variation in the blood levels with the different dosing schedules was found. Because the drugs are metabolized differently, we have also shown that liver disease affects the blood levels of diazepam, but not of lorazepam. Conclusions: Differences in treatment regimens, the choice of BDZ, as well as the presence of liver cirrhosis can substantially alter the exposure of patients to drugs used for AWS treatment. Outpatient treatment of AWS has been shown to be relatively safe and effective for the treatment of AWS but patients should be carefully monitored. PMID:26322116

  7. The body weight loss during acute exposure to high-altitude hypoxia in sea level residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ri-Li; Wood, Helen; Yang, Hui-Huang; Liu, Yi-Ning; Wang, Xiu-Juan; Babb, Tony

    2010-12-25

    Weight loss is frequently observed after acute exposure to high altitude. However, the magnitude and rate of weight loss during acute exposure to high altitude has not been clarified in a controlled prospective study. The present study was performed to evaluate weight loss at high altitude. A group of 120 male subjects [aged (32±6) years] who worked on the construction of the Golmud-Lhasa Railway at Kunlun Mountain (altitude of 4 678 m) served as volunteer subjects for this study. Eighty-five workers normally resided at sea level (sea level group) and 35 normally resided at an altitude of 2 200 m (moderate altitude group). Body weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference were measured in all subjects after a 7-day stay at Golmud (altitude of 2 800 m, baseline measurements). Measurements were repeated after 33-day working on Kunlun Mountain. In order to examine the daily rate of weight loss at high altitude, body weight was measured in 20 subjects from the sea level group (sea level subset group) each morning before breakfast for 33 d at Kunlun Mountain. According to guidelines established by the Lake Louise acute mountain sickness (AMS) consensus report, each subject completed an AMS self-report questionnaire two days after arriving at Kunlun Mountain. After 33-day stay at an altitude of 4 678 m, the average weight loss for the sea level group was 10.4% (range 6.5% to 29%), while the average for the moderate altitude group was 2.2% (-2% to 9.1%). The degree of weight loss (Δ weight loss) after a 33-day stay at an altitude of 4 678 m was significantly correlated with baseline body weight in the sea level group (r=0.677, P0.05). In the sea level subset group, a significant weight loss was observed within 20 d, but the weight remained stable thereafter. AMS-score at high altitude was significantly higher in the sea level group (4.69±2.48) than that in the moderate altitude group (2.97±1.38), and was significantly correlated with baseline body weight

  8. Pentoxifylline Treatment in Acute Pancreatitis (AP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-14

    Acute Pancreatitis (AP); Gallstone Pancreatitis; Alcoholic Pancreatitis; Post-ERCP/Post-procedural Pancreatitis; Trauma Acute Pancreatitis; Hypertriglyceridemia Acute Pancreatitis; Idiopathic (Unknown) Acute Pancreatitis; Medication Induced Acute Pancreatitis; Cancer Acute Pancreatitis; Miscellaneous (i.e. Acute on Chronic Pancreatitis)

  9. A case of acute psychosis in a patient following exposure to a single high dose of styrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Eunsoo; Suh, Hwagyu; Lee, Byung Dae; Park, Je Min; Lee, Young Min; Jeong, Hee Jeong

    2015-09-01

    We report a case of acute psychotic symptoms following exposure to a single high dose of styrene monomer. The 24-year-old male patient showed psychotic and cognitive symptoms immediately after exposure. His psychotic symptoms included auditory hallucinations and delusions of reference. Brain magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography, and laboratory examinations were performed to evaluate any other causes. The clinical, neuroimaging, and laboratory review in this case suggested that the suddenly developed psychotic symptoms that led to chronic deterioration were caused by the single exposure to styrene monomer. This is the first recent report in which acute psychotic symptoms developed from a single high dose of styrene suffocation compared with previous findings showing symptoms because of long-term low-dose exposure.

  10. Zn(II)-curcumin protects against hemorheological alterations, oxidative stress and liver injury in a rat model of acute alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chuan; Mei, Xue-Ting; Zheng, Yan-Ping; Xu, Dong-Hui

    2014-03-01

    Curcumin can chelate metal ions, forming metallocomplexes. We compared the effects of Zn(II)-curcumin with curcumin against hemorheological alterations, oxidative stress and liver injury in a rat model of acute alcoholism. Oral administration of Zn(II)-curcumin dose-dependently prevented the ethanol-induced elevation of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) content and reductions in glutathione level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Zn(II)-curcumin also inhibited ethanol-induced liver injury. Additionally, Zn(II)-curcumin dose-dependently inhibited hemorheological abnormalities, including the ethanol-induced elevation of whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, blood viscosity at corrected hematocrit (45%), erythrocyte aggregation index, erythrocyte rigidity index and hematocrit. Compared to curcumin at the same dose, Zn(II)-curcumin more effectively elevated SOD activity, ameliorated liver injury and improved hemorheological variables. These results suggest that Zn(II)-curcumin protected the rats from ethanol-induced liver injury and hemorheological abnormalities via the synergistic effect of curcumin and zinc.

  11. Diagnosing and quantification of acute alcohol intoxication. Comparison of dual-energy CT with biochemical analysis. Initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkusuz, H. [Frankfurt Univ. Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Abbas Raschidi, B.; Keese, D.; Kromen, W.; Bauer, R.W.; Vogl, T.J. [Frankfurt Univ. Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Namgaladze, D. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Biochemistry

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To quantify the correlation between fat content of an acute alcohol intoxication and the difference of computer tomography attenuation value in dual-energy CT in comparison to biochemical triglyceride analysis and to evaluate qualitatively the value of DECT in the diagnosis of fatty liver caused by ethanol-dosage in rats. Materials and Methods: DECT at 140 kV and 80 kV was performed on 20 rats before and two days after the administration of 3 ml of 50 % ethanol. The CT attenuation value in the livers at 140 kV, 80 kV and the differences between them in Hounsfield units ({Delta}H) were collected. Parts of the liver (100 mg) were measured in biochemical triglyceride analysis as the reference standard. A blood sample was also taken to measure specific liver enzymes. Results: Linear correlation between biochemical triglyceride analysis and CT density of {Delta}H was found (r = 0.949). 140 kV attenuation data were between 44 HU and 61.3 HU, 80 kV attenuation data were between 58.4 HU and 64.7 HU, and {Delta}H data were between 3.4 HU and 14.4 HU (p {<=} 0.037). The biochemical triglyceride analysis data were between 7.1 mg/g and 41.1 mg/g. The hepatic enzymes serum aspartate (ASAT) aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) were elevated in all rats. ASAT correlated directly with {Delta}HU (r = -0.86). Conclusion: DECT provides a non-invasive method to determine and evaluate hepatic fat content after acute alcohol intoxication. It provides the possibility to detect and quantify the hepatic fat content of liver graft. (orig.)

  12. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the development of white matter volume and change in executive function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause a wide range of deficits in executive function that persist throughout life, but little is known about how changes in brain structure relate to cognition in affected individuals. In the current study, we predicted that the rate of white matter volumetric development would be atypical in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD when compared to typically developing children, and that the rate of change in cognitive function would relate to differential white matter development between groups. Data were available for 103 subjects [49 with FASD, 54 controls, age range 6–17, mean age = 11.83] with 153 total observations. Groups were age-matched. Participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and an executive function (EF battery. Using white matter volumes measured bilaterally for frontal and parietal regions and the corpus callosum, change was predicted by modeling the effects of age, intracranial volume, sex, and interactions with exposure status and EF measures. While both groups showed regional increases in white matter volumes and improvement in cognitive performance over time, there were significant effects of exposure status on age-related relationships between white matter increases and EF measures. Specifically, individuals with FASD consistently showed a positive relationship between improved cognitive function and increased white matter volume over time, while no such relationships were seen in controls. These novel results relating improved cognitive function with increased white matter volume in FASD suggest that better cognitive outcomes could be possible for FASD subjects through interventions that enhance white matter plasticity.

  13. Comprehensive analysis of the renal transcriptional response to acute uranyl nitrate exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argiles Angel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical and radiological toxicities related to uranium acute exposure have been widely studied in nuclear fuel workers and military personnel. It is well known that uranyl nitrate induces acute renal failure (ARF. However, the mechanisms of this metal-induced injury are not well defined at the molecular level. Results Renal function and histology were assessed in mice receiving uranyl nitrate (UN(+ and controls (UN(-. To identify the genomic response to uranium exposure, serial analysis gene expression (SAGE of the kidney was performed in both groups. Over 43,000 mRNA SAGE tags were sequenced. A selection of the differentially expressed transcripts was confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting. UN(+ animals developed renal failure and displayed the characteristic histological lesions of UN nephropathy. Of the >14,500 unique tags identified in both libraries, 224 had a modified expression level; they are known to participate in inflammation, ion transport, signal transduction, oxidative stress, apoptosis, metabolism, and catabolism. Several genes that were identified had not previously been evaluated within the context of toxic ARF such as translationally controlled tumor protein, insulin like growth factor binding protein 7 and ribosomal protein S29, all apoptosis related genes. Conclusion We report a comprehensive description of the UN induced modifications in gene expression levels, including the identification of genes previously unrelated to ARF. The study of these genes and the metabolisms they control should improve our understanding of toxic ARF and enlighten on the molecular targets for potential therapeutic interventions.

  14. Exploring the molecular mechanism of acute heat stress exposure in broiler chickens using gene expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Q B; Song, X Y; Ji, C L; Zhang, X Q; Zhang, D X

    2014-08-10

    The process of heat regulation is complex and its exact molecular mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, to investigate the global gene regulation response to acute heat exposure, gene microarrays were exploited to analyze the effects of heat stress on three tissues (brain, liver, leg muscle) of the yellow broiler chicken (Gallus gallus). We detected 166 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the brain, 219 in the leg muscle and 317 in the liver. Six of these genes were differentially expressed in all three tissues and were validated by qRT-PCR, and included heat shock protein genes (HSPH1, HSP25), apoptosis-related genes (RB1CC1, BAG3), a cell proliferation and differentiation-related gene (ID1) and the hunger and energy metabolism related gene (PDK). All these genes might be important factors in chickens suffering from heat stress. We constructed gene co-expression networks using the DEGs of the brain, leg muscle and liver and two, four and two gene co-expression modules were identified in these tissues, respectively. Functional enrichment of these gene modules revealed that various functional clusters were related to the effects of heat stress, including those for cytoskeleton, extracellular space, ion binding and energy metabolism. We concluded that these genes and functional clusters might be important factors in chickens under acute heat stress. Further in-depth research on the newly discovered heat-related genes and functional clusters is required to fully understand their molecular functions in thermoregulation.

  15. Maternal metallothionein and zinc after acute ethanol exposure during gestation in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, J.E. (Univ. of Kansas, Kansas City (United States))

    1992-02-26

    Acute exposure of the rat fetus to ethanol at critical periods can cause growth retardation and brain damage; the mechanism(s) is not known. Ethanol may cause redistribution of maternal zinc which results in fetal zinc deficiency and subsequent interruption of growth and development. The purpose was to determine if acute ethanol administration to the pregnant rat alters Zn and the Zn binding protein metallothionein (MT) in selected tissues. On gestational day (gd) 14, eighteen pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into groups. By intragastric tube, ethanol treated dams were given ethanol and pairfed controls were given a 0.85% NaCl solution. On gd 15, intragastric feedings were repeated. Throughout, the Lieber-DeCarli control diet was fed (adlibitum to untreated controls and ethanol treated dams and in appropriate quantities to pair fed controls). Blood ethanol concentrations at 90 minutes after the ethanol dose were 154 {plus minus} 46 and 265 {plus minus} 110 mg% on gd 14 and 15, respectively.

  16. Regulation of heme oxygenase expression by alcohol,hypoxia and oxidative stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lisa; Nicole; Gerjevic; Jonathan; Pascal; Chaky; Duygu; Dee; Harrison-Findik

    2011-01-01

    AIM:To study the effect of both acute and chronic alcohol exposure on heme oxygenases(HOs) in the brain,liver and duodenum.METHODS:Wild-type C57BL/6 mice,heterozygous Sod2 knockout mice,which exhibit attenuated manganese superoxide dismutase activity,and liver-specific ARNT knockout mice were used to investigate the role of alcohol-induced oxidative stress and hypoxia.For acute alcohol exposure,ethanol was administered in the drinking water for 1 wk.Mice were pair-fed with regular or ethanol-containing Lieber De Carli liquid diets for 4 wk for chronic alcohol studies.HO expression was analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting.RESULTS:Chronic alcohol exposure downregulated HO-1 expression in the brain but upregulated it in the duodenum of wild-type mice.It did not alter liver HO-1 expression,nor HO-2 expression in the brain,liver or duodenum.In contrast,acute alcohol exposure decreased both liver HO-1 and HO-2 expression,and HO-2 expression in the duodenum of wild-type mice.The decrease in liver HO-1 expression was abolished in ARNT+/-mice.Sod2+/-mice with acute alcohol exposure did not exhibit any changes in liver HO-1 and HO-2 expression or in brain HO-2 expression.However,alcohol inhibited brain HO-1 and duodenal HO-2 but increased duodenal HO-1 expression in Sod2+/-mice.Collectively,these findings indicate that acute and chronic alcohol exposure regulates HO expression in a tissue-specific manner.Chronic alcohol exposure alters brain and duodenal,but not liver HO expression.However,acute alcohol exposure inhibits liver HO-1 and HO-2,and also duodenal HO-2 expression.CONCLUSION:The inhibition of liver HO expression by acute alcohol-induced hypoxia may play a role in the early phases of alcoholic liver disease progression.

  17. Acute vertigo in an anesthesia provider during exposure to a 3T MRI scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorlin A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Andrew Gorlin,1 Joseph M Hoxworth,2 William Pavlicek,2 Christopher A Thunberg,1 David Seamans1 1Department of Anesthesiology, 2Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, AZ, USA Abstract: Vertigo induced by exposure to the magnetic field of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scanner is a well-known phenomenon within the radiology community but is not widely appreciated by other clinical specialists. Here, we describe a case of an anesthetist experiencing acute vertigo while providing sedation to a patient undergoing a 3 Tesla MRI scan. After discussing previous reports, and the evidence surrounding MRI-induced vertigo, we review potential etiologies that include the effects of both static and time-varying magnetic fields on the vestibular apparatus. We conclude our review by discussing the occupational standards that exist for MRI exposure and methods to minimize the risks of MRI-induced vertigo for clinicians working in the MRI environment. Keywords: occupational medicine, MRI worker safety, vestibular dysfunction, magnetic field, 3T MRI scanner

  18. Acute Exposure to Stress Improves Performance in Trace Eyeblink Conditioning and Spatial Learning Tasks in Healthy Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncko, Roman; Cornwell, Brian; Cui, Lihong; Merikangas, Kathleen R.; Grillon, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of acute stress exposure on learning performance in humans using analogs of two paradigms frequently used in animals. Healthy male participants were exposed to the cold pressor test (CPT) procedure, i.e., insertion of the dominant hand into ice water for 60 sec. Following the CPT or the control procedure,…

  19. Epigenetics-beyond the genome in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkman, Bela G; Sakharkar, Amul J; Pandey, Subhash C

    2012-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors play a role in the development of alcoholism. Whole-genome expression profiling has highlighted the importance of several genes that may contribute to alcohol abuse disorders. In addition, more recent findings have added yet another layer of complexity to the overall molecular mechanisms involved in a predisposition to alcoholism and addiction by demonstrating that processes related to genetic factors that do not manifest as DNA sequence changes (i.e., epigenetic processes) play a role. Both acute and chronic ethanol exposure can alter gene expression levels in specific neuronal circuits that govern the behavioral consequences related to tolerance and dependence. The unremitting cycle of alcohol consumption often includes satiation and self-medication with alcohol, followed by excruciating withdrawal symptoms and the resultant relapse, which reflects both the positive and negative affective states of alcohol addiction. Recent studies have indicated that behavioral changes induced by acute and chronic ethanol exposure may involve chromatin remodeling resulting from covalent histone modifications and DNA methylation in the neuronal circuits involving a brain region called the amygdala. These findings have helped identify enzymes involved in epigenetic mechanisms, such as the histone deacetylase, histone acetyltransferase, and DNA methyltransferase enzymes, as novel therapeutic targets for the development of future pharmacotherapies for the treatment of alcoholism.

  20. Effects of Acute Exposure to Moderate Altitude on Vascular Function, Metabolism and Systemic Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöwhas, Anne-Christin; Latshang, Tsogyal D.; Lo Cascio, Christian M.; Lautwein, Sina; Stadelmann, Katrin; Tesler, Noemi; Ayers, Lisa; Berneis, Kaspar; Gerber, Philipp A.; Huber, Reto; Achermann, Peter; Bloch, Konrad E.; Kohler, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    Background Travel to mountain areas is popular. However, the effects of acute exposure to moderate altitude on the cardiovascular system and metabolism are largely unknown. Objectives To investigate the effects of acute exposure to moderate altitude on vascular function, metabolism and systemic inflammation. Methods In 51 healthy male subjects with a mean (SD) age of 26.9 (9.3) years, oxygen saturation, blood pressure, heart rate, arterial stiffness, lipid profiles, low density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size, insulin resistance (HOMA-index), highly-sensitive C-reactive protein and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured at 490 m (Zurich) and during two days at 2590 m, (Davos Jakobshorn, Switzerland) in randomized order. The largest differences in outcomes between the two altitudes are reported. Results Mean (SD) oxygen saturation was significantly lower at 2590 m, 91.0 (2.0)%, compared to 490 m, 96.0 (1.0)%, p<0.001. Mean blood pressure (mean difference +4.8 mmHg, p<0.001) and heart rate (mean difference +3.3 bpm, p<0.001) were significantly higher at 2590 m, compared to 490 m, but this was not associated with increased arterial stiffness. At 2590 m, lipid profiles improved (median difference triglycerides −0.14 mmol/l, p = 0.012, HDL +0.08 mmol/l, p<0.001, total cholesterol/HDL-ratio −0.25, p = 0.001), LDL particle size increased (median difference +0.45 nm, p = 0.048) and hsCRP decreased (median difference −0.18 mg/l, p = 0.024) compared to 490 m. No significant change in pro-inflammatory cytokines or insulin resistance was observed upon ascent to 2590 m. Conclusions Short-term stay at moderate altitude is associated with increased blood pressure and heart rate likely due to augmented sympathetic activity. Exposure to moderate altitude improves the lipid profile and systemic inflammation, but seems to have no significant effect on glucose metabolism. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01130948 PMID:23936377

  1. Effects of acute exposure to moderate altitude on vascular function, metabolism and systemic inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Christin Stöwhas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Travel to mountain areas is popular. However, the effects of acute exposure to moderate altitude on the cardiovascular system and metabolism are largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of acute exposure to moderate altitude on vascular function, metabolism and systemic inflammation. METHODS: In 51 healthy male subjects with a mean (SD age of 26.9 (9.3 years, oxygen saturation, blood pressure, heart rate, arterial stiffness, lipid profiles, low density lipoprotein (LDL particle size, insulin resistance (HOMA-index, highly-sensitive C-reactive protein and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured at 490 m (Zurich and during two days at 2590 m, (Davos Jakobshorn, Switzerland in randomized order. The largest differences in outcomes between the two altitudes are reported. RESULTS: Mean (SD oxygen saturation was significantly lower at 2590 m, 91.0 (2.0%, compared to 490 m, 96.0 (1.0%, p<0.001. Mean blood pressure (mean difference +4.8 mmHg, p<0.001 and heart rate (mean difference +3.3 bpm, p<0.001 were significantly higher at 2590 m, compared to 490 m, but this was not associated with increased arterial stiffness. At 2590 m, lipid profiles improved (median difference triglycerides -0.14 mmol/l, p=0.012, HDL +0.08 mmol/l, p<0.001, total cholesterol/HDL-ratio -0.25, p=0.001, LDL particle size increased (median difference +0.45 nm, p=0.048 and hsCRP decreased (median difference -0.18 mg/l, p=0.024 compared to 490 m. No significant change in pro-inflammatory cytokines or insulin resistance was observed upon ascent to 2590 m. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term stay at moderate altitude is associated with increased blood pressure and heart rate likely due to augmented sympathetic activity. Exposure to moderate altitude improves the lipid profile and systemic inflammation, but seems to have no significant effect on glucose metabolism. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01130948.

  2. Acute lung injury following inhalation exposure to nerve agent VX in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Benjamin S; Rezk, Peter E; Graham, Jacob R; Steele, Keith E; Gordon, Richard K; Sciuto, Alfred M; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P

    2006-05-01

    A microinstillation technique of inhalation exposure was utilized to assess lung injury following chemical warfare nerve agent VX [methylphosphonothioic acid S-(2-[bis(1-methylethyl)amino]ethyl) O-ethyl ester] exposure in guinea pigs. Animals were anesthetized using Telazol-meditomidine, gently intubated, and VX was aerosolized using a microcatheter placed 2 cm above the bifurcation of the trachea. Different doses (50.4 microg/m3, 70.4 micro g/m(m3), 90.4 microg/m(m3)) of VX were administered at 40 pulses/min for 5 min. Dosing of VX was calculated by the volume of aerosol produced per 200 pulses and diluting the agent accordingly. Although the survival rate of animals exposed to different doses of VX was similar to the controls, nearly a 20% weight reduction was observed in exposed animals. After 24 h of recovery, the animals were euthanized and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed with oxygen free saline. BAL was centrifuged and separated into BAL fluid (BALF) and BAL cells (BALC) and analyzed for indication of lung injury. The edema by dry/wet weight ratio of the accessory lobe increased 11% in VX-treated animals. BAL cell number was increased in VX-treated animals compared to controls, independent of dosage. Trypan blue viability assay indicated an increase in BAL cell death in 70.4 microg/m(m3) and 90.4 microg/m(m3) VX-exposed animals. Differential cell counting of BALC indicated a decrease in macrophage/monocytes in VX-exposed animals. The total amount of BAL protein increased gradually with the exposed dose of VX and was highest in animals exposed to 90.4 microg/m(m3), indicating that this dose of VX caused lung injury that persisted at 24 h. In addition, histopathology results also suggest that inhalation exposure to VX induces acute lung injury.

  3. Effects of alcohol on c-Myc protein in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyeke, Tunde; Weber, Sydney J; Davenport, April T; Baker, Erich J; Daunais, James B; Raber, Jacob

    2017-03-01

    Alcoholism is a disorder categorized by significant impairment that is directly related to persistent and extreme use of alcohol. The effects of alcoholism on c-Myc protein expression in the brain have been scarcely studied. This is the first study to investigate the role different characteristics of alcoholism have on c-Myc protein in the brain. We analyzed c-Myc protein in the hypothalamus and amygdala from five different animal models of alcohol abuse. c-Myc protein was increased following acute ethanol exposure in a mouse knockout model and following chronic ethanol consumption in vervet monkeys. We also observed increases in c-Myc protein exposure in animals that are genetically predisposed to alcohol and methamphetamine abuse. Lastly, c-Myc protein was increased in animals that were acutely exposed to methamphetamine when compared to control treated animals. These results suggest that in substance abuse c-Myc plays an important role in the brain's response.

  4. Studies of adaptive response and mutation induction in MCF-10A cells following exposure to chronic or acute ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manesh, Sara Shakeri; Sangsuwan, Traimate; Wojcik, Andrzej; Haghdoost, Siamak

    2015-10-01

    A phenomenon in which exposure to a low adapting dose of radiation makes cells more resistant to the effects of a subsequent high dose exposure is termed radio-adaptive response. Adaptive response could hypothetically reduce the risk of late adverse effects of chronic or acute radiation exposures in humans. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of such responses is of relevance for radiation protection as well as for the clinical applications of radiation in medicine. However, due to the variability of responses depending on the model system and radiation condition, there is a need to further study under what conditions adaptive response can be induced. In this study, we analyzed if there is a dose rate dependence for the adapting dose, assuming that the adapting dose induces DNA response/repair pathways that are dose rate dependent. MCF-10A cells were exposed to a 50mGy adapting dose administered acutely (0.40Gy/min) or chronically (1.4mGy/h or 4.1mGy/h) and then irradiated by high acute challenging doses. The endpoints of study include clonogenic cell survival and mutation frequency at X-linked hprt locus. In another series of experiment, cells were exposed to 100mGy and 1Gy at different dose rates (acutely and chronically) and then the mutation frequencies were studied. Adaptive response was absent at the level of clonogenic survival. The mutation frequencies were significantly decreased in the cells pre-exposed to 50mGy at 1.4mGy/h followed by 1Gy acute exposure as challenging dose. Importantly, at single dose exposures (1 Gy or 100mGy), no differences at the level of mutation were found comparing different dose rates.

  5. Proinflammatory cytokines in alcohol or gallstone induced acute pancreatitis. A prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novovic, Srdan; Andersen, Anders Møller; Ersbøll, Annette Kjaer

    2009-01-01

    , TNF-alpha, or CRP. Furthermore, no significant differences, either regarding the need for treatment at the intensive care unit or of 30-day mortality, were found. CONCLUSION: The present study confirms previous findings and supports the hypothesis that, except for IL-8, the biochemical profile...... to a standardized algorithm. Blood samples were obtained immediately on admission and, again, at days 1, 2, and 14. RESULTS: A significant effect of the etiology on the levels of IL-8 in the alcohol group as compared to the gallstone group (P=0.003) was found. No etiologic differences were observed for IL-6, IL-18...

  6. Effects of acute exposure to WIFI signals (2.45GHz) on heart variability and blood pressure in Albinos rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saili, Linda; Hanini, Amel; Smirani, Chiraz; Azzouz, Ines; Azzouz, Amina; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh; Bouslama, Zihad

    2015-09-01

    Electrocardiogram and arterial pressure measurements were studied under acute exposures to WIFI (2.45GHz) during one hour in adult male rabbits. Antennas of WIFI were placed at 25cm at the right side near the heart. Acute exposure of rabbits to WIFI increased heart frequency (+22%) and arterial blood pressure (+14%). Moreover, analysis of ECG revealed that WIFI induced a combined increase of PR and QT intervals. By contrast, the same exposure failed to alter maximum amplitude and P waves. After intravenously injection of dopamine (0.50ml/kg) and epinephrine (0.50ml/kg) under acute exposure to RF we found that, WIFI alter catecholamines (dopamine, epinephrine) action on heart variability and blood pressure compared to control. These results suggest for the first time, as far as we know, that exposure to WIFI affect heart rhythm, blood pressure, and catecholamines efficacy on cardiovascular system; indicating that radiofrequency can act directly and/or indirectly on cardiovascular system.

  7. Neurobehavioral and neurophysiological effects after acute exposure to a single peak of 200 ppm toluene in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobald, S Oliver; Wascher, Edmund; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Golka, Klaus; van Thriel, Christoph

    2015-05-01

    The solvent toluene has neurotoxic properties that are especially relevant in the working environment. Short-term exposure limits (STELs) vary from 50 ppm up to 300 ppm across countries but their acute effects remain elusive in humans. Several in vitro and in vivo studies elucidated that toluene acutely acts by perturbations of different neurotransmitter systems. More specifically visual evoked potentials (VEPs) of rats are decreased after acute toluene exposure, leading to the assumption that particularly visual attention processes might be a target of toluene in humans. Therefore a visual change detection task was applied to measure both neurobehavioral and neurophysiological effects by using electroencephalography (EEG) after a single peak exposure to 200 ppm toluene. Performance and event-related components of the EEG were examined before and after exposure in a toluene-exposed and a control group. Thirty-three young healthy volunteers participated in this study. The behavioral results of the experiment indicate that toluene impairs the rate of correct responses especially in task conditions in which an irrelevant distractor is given, while the response times did not differ between both groups. The neurophysiological findings hint toward a less efficient visual processing of behaviorally relevant stimuli and an increased distractibility by irrelevant distractors. Thus the present results are a promising starting point for further research specifically targeting visual attention after toluene exposure and the reconsideration of the presently very heterogeneous STELs.

  8. Proinflammatory cytokines in alcohol or gallstone induced acute pancreatitis. A prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novovic, Srdan; Andersen, Anders Møller; Ersbøll, Annette Kjaer;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: If differences of inflammatory pathways in acute pancreatitis exist for various etiologies, selective and specific antiinflammatory and other modulatory treatment regimens might be indicated. Circulating levels of prominent proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, 8, 18, and TNF-alpha were......, TNF-alpha, or CRP. Furthermore, no significant differences, either regarding the need for treatment at the intensive care unit or of 30-day mortality, were found. CONCLUSION: The present study confirms previous findings and supports the hypothesis that, except for IL-8, the biochemical profile...... and clinical outcome is independent of the underlying etiology. Revealing the complex spatial and temporal profile of proinflammatory cytokine expression in acute pancreatitis is necessary and important for the development of a more targeted rational therapy....

  9. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gonzalo; Guzzo-Merello; Marta; Cobo-Marcos; Maria; Gallego-Delgado; Pablo; Garcia-Pavia

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy(ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM.

  10. Physical Activity- and Alcohol-dependent Association Between Air Pollution Exposure and Elevated Liver Enzyme Levels: An Elderly Panel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Lee, Hyemi; Kim, Jin Hee; Jung, Kweon; Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The deleterious effects of air pollution on various health outcomes have been demonstrated. However, few studies have examined the effects of air pollution on liver enzyme levels. Methods: Blood samples were drawn up to three times between 2008 and 2010 from 545 elderly individuals who regularly visited a community welfare center in Seoul, Korea. Data regarding ambient air pollutants (particulate matter ≤2.5 μm [PM2.5], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], ozone [O3], carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide) from monitoring stations were used to estimate air pollution exposure. The effects of the air pollutants on the concentrations of three liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase [γ-GTP)]) were evaluated using generalized additive and linear mixed models. Results: Interquartile range increases in the concentrations of the pollutants showed significant associations of PM2.5 with AST (3.0% increase, p=0.0052), ALT (3.2% increase, p=0.0313), and γ-GTP (5.0% increase, p=0.0051) levels; NO2 with AST (3.5% increase, p=0.0060) and ALT (3.8% increase, p=0.0179) levels; and O3 with γ-GTP (5.3% increase, p=0.0324) levels. Significant modification of these effects by exercise and alcohol consumption was found (p for interaction <0.05). The effects of air pollutants were greater in non-exercisers and heavy drinkers. Conclusions: Short-term exposure to air pollutants such as PM2.5, NO2, and O3 is associated with increased liver enzyme levels in the elderly. These adverse effects can be reduced by exercising regularly and abstinence from alcohol. PMID:26081652

  11. Persistence of Breakage in Specific Chromosome Bands 6 Years after Acute Exposure to Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francés, Alexandra; Hildur, Kristin; Barberà, Joan Albert; Rodríguez-Trigo, Gema; Zock, Jan-Paul; Giraldo, Jesús; Monyarch, Gemma; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Emma; de Castro Reis, Fernanda; Souto, Ana; Gómez, Federico P.; Pozo-Rodríguez, Francisco; Templado, Cristina; Fuster, Carme

    2016-01-01

    analyses were performed in 47 exposed individuals. A total of 251 breakpoints in exposed individuals) were identified, showing a non-uniform distribution in the human ideogram. Ten chromosome bands were found to be especially prone to breakage through both statistical methods. By comparing these bands with those observed in certain exposed individuals who had already participated the previous study, it was found in both studies that four bands (2q21, 3q27, 5q31 and 17p11.2) are particularly sensitive to breakage. Additionally, the dysfunction in DNA repair mechanisms was not significantly higher in oil-exposed individuals than in non-exposed individuals. Limitations The sample size and the possibility of some kind of selection bias should be considered. Genotoxic results cannot be extrapolated to the high number of individuals who participated occasionally in clean-up tasks. Conclusion Our findings show the existence of at least four target bands (2q21, 3q27, 5q31 and 17p11.2) with a greater propensity to break over time after an acute exposure to oil. The breaks in these bands, which are commonly involved in hematological cancer, may explain the increase of cancer risk reported in chronically benzene-exposed individuals. In addition, a more efficiency of the DNA repair mechanisms has been detected six years after in fishermen who were highly exposed to the oil spill. To date, only this study, performed by our group on the previous and present genotoxic effects, has analyzed the chromosomal regions affected by breakage after an acute oil exposure. PMID:27479010

  12. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Linlong [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Chen, Liaobin [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  13. Chronic alcohol ingestion changes the landscape of the alveolar epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Charles A; Trac, David; Brewer, Elizabeth M; Brown, Lou Ann; Helms, My N

    2013-01-01

    Similar to effects of alcohol on the heart, liver, and brain, the effects of ethanol (EtOH) on lung injury are preventable. Unlike other vital organ systems, however, the lethal effects of alcohol on the lung are underappreciated, perhaps because there are no signs of overt pulmonary disorder until a secondary insult, such as a bacterial infection or injury, occurs in the lung. This paper provides overview of the complex changes in the alveolar environment known to occur following both chronic and acute alcohol exposures. Contemporary animal and cell culture models for alcohol-induced lung dysfunction are discussed, with emphasis on the effect of alcohol on transepithelial transport processes, namely, epithelial sodium channel activity (ENaC). The cascading effect of tissue and phagocytic Nadph oxidase (Nox) may be triggered by ethanol exposure, and as such, alcohol ingestion and exposure lead to a prooxidative environment; thus impacting alveolar macrophage (AM) function and oxidative stress. A better understanding of how alcohol changes the landscape of the alveolar epithelium can lead to improvements in treating acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) for which hospitalized alcoholics are at an increased risk.

  14. Gastroprotective activity of Nigella sativa L oil and its constituent, thymoquinone against acute alcohol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehmet Kanter; Halit Demir; Cengiz Karakaya; Hanefi Ozbek

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the role of reactive oxygen species in the pathogenesis of acute ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions and the effect of Nigella sativa L oil (NS) and its constituent thymoquinone (TQ) in an experimental model.METHODS: Male Wistar albino rats were assigned into 4groups. Control group was given physiologic saline orally (10 mL/kg body weight) as the vehicle (gavage); ethanol group was administrated 1 mL (per rat) absolute alcohol by gavage; the third and fourth groups were given NS (10 mL/kg body weight) and TQ (10 mg/kg body weight p.o) respectively 1 h prior to alcohol intake. One hour after ethanol administration, stomach tissues were excised for macroscopic examination and biochemical analysis.RESULTS: NS and TQ could protect gastric mucosa against the injurious effect of absolute alcohol and promote ulcer healing as evidenced from the ulcer index (UI) values. NS prevented alcohol-induced increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), an index of lipid peroxidation. NS also increased gastric glutathione content (GSH), enzymatic activities of gastric superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Likewise, TQ protected against the ulcerating effect of alcohol and mitigated most of the biochemical adverse effects induced by alcohol in gastric mucosa, but to a lesser extent than NS. Neither NS nor TQ affected catalase activity in gastric tissue.CONCLUSION: Both NS and TQ, particularly NS can partly protect gastric mucosa from acute alcohol-induced mucosal injury, and these gastroprotective effects might be induced, at least partly by their radical scavenging activity.

  15. Acute Radiation Effects Resulting from Exposure to Solar Particle Event-Like Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann; Cengel, Keith

    2012-07-01

    A major solar particle event (SPE) may place astronauts at significant risk for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which may be exacerbated when combined with other space flight stressors, such that the mission or crew health may be compromised. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) Center of Acute Radiation Research (CARR) is focused on the assessment of risks of adverse biological effects related to the ARS in animal models exposed to space flight stressors combined with the types of radiation expected during an SPE. As part of this program, FDA-approved drugs that may prevent and/or mitigate ARS symptoms are being evaluated. The CARR studies are focused on the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to the types of radiation, at the appropriate energies, doses and dose-rates, present during an SPE (and standard reference radiations, gamma rays or electrons). The ARS is a phased syndrome which often includes vomiting and fatigue. Other acute adverse biologic effects of concern are the loss of hematopoietic cells, which can result in compromised bone marrow and immune cell functions. There is also concern for skin damage from high SPE radiation doses, including burns, and resulting immune system dysfunction. Using 3 separate animal model systems (ferrets, mice and pigs), the major ARS biologic endpoints being evaluated are: 1) vomiting/retching and fatigue, 2) hematologic changes (with focus on white blood cells) and immune system changes resulting from exposure to SPE radiation with and without reduced weightbearing conditions, and 3) skin injury and related immune system functions. In all of these areas of research, statistically significant adverse health effects have been observed in animals exposed to SPE-like radiation. Countermeasures for the management of ARS symptoms are being evaluated. New research findings from the past grant year will be discussed. Acknowledgements: This research is supported by the NSBRI Center of Acute

  16. Genotoxic Evaluation of Mikania laevigata Extract on DNA Damage Caused by Acute Coal Dust Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, T.P.; Heuser, V.D.; Tavares, P.; Leffa, D.D.; da Silva, G.A.; Citadini-Zanette, V.; Romao, P.R.T.; Pinho, R.A.; Streck, E.L.; Andrade,V.M. [University of Extremo Catarinense, Criciuma, SC (Brazil)

    2009-06-15

    We report data on the possible antigenotoxic activity of Mikania laevigata extract (MLE) after acute intratracheal instillation of coal dust using the comet assay in peripheral blood, bone marrow, and liver cells and the micronucleus test in peripheral blood of Wistar rats. The animals were pretreated for 2 weeks with saline solution (groups 1 and 2) or MLE (100 mg/kg) (groups 3 and 4). On day 15, the animals were anesthetized with ketamine (80 mg/kg) and xylazine (20 mg/kg), and gross mineral coal dust (3 mg/0.3 mL saline) (groups 2 and 4) or saline solution (0.3 mL) (groups 1 and 3) was administered directly in the lung by intratracheal administration. Fifteen days after coal dust or saline instillation, the animals were sacrificed, and the femur, liver, and peripheral blood were removed. The results showed a general increase in the DNA damage values at 8 hours for all treatment groups, probably related to surgical procedures that had stressed the animals. Also, liver cells from rats treated with coal dust, pretreated or not with MLE, showed statistically higher comet assay values compared to the control group at 14 days after exposure. These results could be expected because the liver metabolizes a variety of organic compounds to more polar by-products. On the other hand, the micronucleus assay results did not show significant differences among groups. Therefore, our data do not support the antimutagenic activity of M. laevigata as a modulator of DNA damage after acute coal dust instillation.

  17. Influence of acute exposure to high altitude on basal and postprandial plasma levels of gastroenteropancreatic peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf L Riepl

    Full Text Available Acute mountain sickness (AMS is characterized by headache often accompanied by gastrointestinal complaints that vary from anorexia through nausea to vomiting. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of high altitude on plasma levels of gastroenteropancreatic (GEP peptides and their association to AMS symptoms. Plasma levels of 6 GEP peptides were measured by radioimmunoassay in 11 subjects at 490 m (Munich, Germany and, after rapid passive ascent to 3454 m (Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, over the course of three days. In a second study (n = 5, the same peptides and ghrelin were measured in subjects who consumed standardized liquid meals at these two elevations. AMS symptoms and oxygen saturation were monitored. In the first study, both fasting (morning 8 a.m. and stimulated (evening 8 p.m. plasma levels of pancreatic polypeptide (PP and cholecystokinin (CCK were significantly lower at high altitude as compared to baseline, whereas gastrin and motilin concentrations were significantly increased. Fasting plasma neurotensin was significantly enhanced whereas stimulated levels were reduced. Both fasting and stimulated plasma motilin levels correlated with gastrointestinal symptom severity (r = 0.294, p = 0.05, and r = 0.41, p = 0.006, respectively. Mean O(2-saturation dropped from 96% to 88% at high altitude. In the second study, meal-stimulated integrated (= area under curve plasma CCK, PP, and neurotensin values were significantly suppressed at high altitude, whereas integrated levels of gastrin were increased and integrated VIP and ghrelin levels were unchanged. In summary, our data show that acute exposure to a hypobaric hypoxic environment causes significant changes in fasting and stimulated plasma levels of GEP peptides over consecutive days and after a standardized meal. The changes of peptide levels were not uniform. Based on the inhibition of PP and neurotensin release a reduction of the cholinergic tone can be postulated.

  18. The different effects on cranial and trunk neural crest cell behaviour following exposure to a low concentration of alcohol in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnobaj, Joanna; Bagnall, Keith M; Bamforth, J Steven; Milos, Nadine C

    2014-05-01

    Embryonic neural crest cells give rise to large regions of the face and peripheral nervous system. Exposure of these cells to high alcohol concentrations leads to cell death in the craniofacial region resulting in facial defects. However, the effects of low concentrations of alcohol on neural crest cells are not clear. In this study, cranial neural crest cells from Xenopus laevis were cultured in an ethanol concentration approximately equivalent to one drink. Techniques were developed to study various aspects of neural crest cell behaviour and a number of cellular parameters were quantified. In the presence of alcohol, a significant number of cranial neural crest cells emigrated from the explant on fibronectin but the liberation of individual cells was delayed. The cells also remained close to the explant and their morphology changed. Cranial neural crest cells did not grow on Type 1 collagen. For the purposes of comparison, the behaviour of trunk neural crest cells was also studied. The presence of alcohol correlated with increased retention of single cells on fibronectin but left other parameters unchanged. The behaviour of trunk neural crest cells growing on Type 1 collagen in the presence of alcohol did not differ from controls. Low concentrations of alcohol therefore significantly affected both cranial and trunk neural crest cells, with a wider variety of effects on cells from the cranial as opposed to the trunk region. The results suggest that low concentrations of alcohol may be more detrimental to early events in organ formation than currently suspected.

  19. Rapid Recovery from Acute Liver Failure Secondary to Pancreatoduodenectomy-Related Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazushige Nirei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a case of liver failure secondary to pancreatoduodenectomy and rapid recovery following treatment. A 68-year-old woman with cancer on the ampulla of Vater underwent surgery for pancreatoduodenectomy. The patient developed liver failure 3 months postsurgically. She was hospitalized after presenting with jaundice, hypoalbuminemia and decreased serum zinc. Computed tomography (CT of the abdomen showed a reduction in CT attenuation values postoperatively. We suspected fatty liver due to impaired absorption caused by pancreatoduodenectomy. We initiated treatment with branched-chain amino acids and a zinc formulation orally. Trace elements were administered intravenously. Two months after treatment, there was a noticeable improvement in CT findings. The patient’s jaundice and hypoalbuminemia prompted a liver biopsy, which led to a diagnosis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

  20. Acute exposure to 17α-ethinylestradiol disrupts audience effect on male-female interactions in Betta splendens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forette, Lindsay M; Mannion, Krystal L; Dzieweczynski, Teresa L

    2015-04-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals can negatively impact the morphology and behavior of organisms inhabiting polluted waters. Male-typical behaviors are often reduced after exposure, suggesting that exposure may have population-level effects. One way in which exposure may exert population-level effects is by interfering with communication within a network of individuals. Acute exposure to the estrogen mimic 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) disrupts the ability of male Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, to modify their behavior during male-male interactions when an audience is present. However, it is unknown whether audience effects during male-female interactions may be similarly altered. To examine this, male-female pairs that were given an acute exposure to EE2 or remained unexposed interacted in the presence of a female, male, or no audience. Sex differences were found between unexposed males and females. More interactant-directed gill flaring was displayed by control males when a male audience was present while control females performed this behavior more in the presence of an audience, regardless of sex. Both males and females in the control group performed more interactant-directed tail beats in the presence of a female audience. EE2 exposure made all audience effects disappear as treated males and females did not differ in their responses between audience types. These results demonstrate that acute exposure to EE2 may disrupt behavioral adjustments to audience type within a social network. This disruption may, in turn, influence population dynamics in this species as both males and females use information obtained from observing interactions in later encounters with the observed individuals.

  1. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  2. Adolescent alcohol exposure reduces behavioral flexibility, promotes disinhibition, and increases resistance to extinction of ethanol self-administration in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Justin T; Glen, William Bailey; McGonigal, Justin T; Trantham-Davidson, Heather; Lopez, Marcelo F; Randall, Patrick K; Yaxley, Richard; Floresco, Stan B; Chandler, L Judson

    2014-10-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a brain region that is critically involved in cognitive function and inhibitory control of behavior, and adolescence represents an important period of continued PFC development that parallels the maturation of these functions. Evidence suggests that this period of continued development of the PFC may render it especially vulnerable to environmental insults that impact PFC function in adulthood. Experimentation with alcohol typically begins during adolescence when binge-like consumption of large quantities is common. In the present study, we investigated the effects of repeated cycles of adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure (postnatal days 28-42) by vapor inhalation on different aspects of executive functioning in the adult rat. In an operant set-shifting task, AIE-exposed rats exhibited deficits in their ability to shift their response strategy when the rules of the task changed, indicating reduced behavioral flexibility. There were no differences in progressive ratio response for the reinforcer suggesting that AIE did not alter reinforcer motivation. Examination of performance on the elevated plus maze under conditions designed to minimize stress revealed that AIE exposure enhanced the number of entries into the open arms, which may reflect either reduced anxiety and/or disinhibition of exploratory-like behavior. In rats that trained to self-administer ethanol in an operant paradigm, AIE increased resistance to extinction of ethanol-seeking behavior. This resistance to extinction was reversed by positive allosteric modulation of mGluR5 during extinction training, an effect that is thought to reflect promotion of extinction learning mechanisms within the medial PFC. Consistent with this, CDPPB was also observed to reverse the deficits in behavioral flexibility. Finally, diffusion tensor imaging with multivariate analysis of 32 brain areas revealed that while there were no differences in the total brain volume, the volume of

  3. Oral exposure to Phytomonas serpens attenuates thrombocytopenia and leukopenia during acute infection with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiane V da Silva

    Full Text Available Mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease, rapidly develop anemia and thrombocytopenia. These effects are partially promoted by the parasite trans-sialidase (TS, which is shed in the blood and depletes sialic acid from the platelets, inducing accelerated platelet clearance and causing thrombocytopenia during the acute phase of disease. Here, we demonstrate that oral immunization of C57BL/6 mice with Phytomonas serpens, a phytoflagellate parasite that shares common antigens with T. cruzi but has no TS activity, reduces parasite burden and prevents thrombocytopenia and leukopenia. Immunization also reduces platelet loss after intraperitoneal injection of TS. In addition, passive transfer of immune sera raised in mice against P. serpens prevented platelet clearance. Thus, oral exposure to P. serpens attenuates the progression of thrombocytopenia induced by TS from T. cruzi. These findings are not only important for the understanding of the pathogenesis of T. cruzi infection but also for developing novel approaches of intervention in Chagas disease.

  4. Effect of acute exposure to moderate altitude on muscle power: hypobaric hypoxia vs. normobaric hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriche, Belén; García-Ramos, Amador; Calderón-Soto, Carmen; Drobnic, Franchek; Bonitch-Góngora, Juan G; Galilea, Pedro A; Riera, Joan; Padial, Paulino

    2014-01-01

    When ascending to a higher altitude, changes in air density and oxygen levels affect the way in which explosive actions are executed. This study was designed to compare the effects of acute exposure to real or simulated moderate hypoxia on the dynamics of the force-velocity relationship observed in bench press exercise. Twenty-eight combat sports athletes were assigned to two groups and assessed on two separate occasions: G1 (n = 17) in conditions of normoxia (N1) and hypobaric hypoxia (HH) and G2 (n = 11) in conditions of normoxia (N2) and normobaric hypoxia (NH). Individual and complete force-velocity relationships in bench press were determined on each assessment day. For each exercise repetition, we obtained the mean and peak velocity and power shown by the athletes. Maximum power (Pmax) was recorded as the highest P(mean) obtained across the complete force-velocity curve. Our findings indicate a significantly higher absolute load linked to P(max) (∼ 3%) and maximal strength (1 RM) (∼ 6%) in G1 attributable to the climb to altitude (Ppress.

  5. Effects of Adolescent Intermittent Alcohol Exposure on the Expression of Endocannabinoid Signaling-Related Proteins in the Spleen of Young Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Mariam; Sánchez, Laura; Rivera, Patricia; Gavito, Ana; Mela, Virginia; Alén, Francisco; Decara, Juan; Suárez, Juan; Giné, Elena; López-Moreno, José Antonio; Chowen, Julie; Rodríguez-de-Fonseca, Fernando; Serrano, Antonia; Viveros, María Paz

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent alcohol exposure is a common pattern of alcohol consumption among adolescents and alcohol is known to modulate the expression of the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is involved in metabolism and inflammation. However, it is unknown whether this pattern may have short-term consequences on the ECS in the spleen. To address this question, we examined the plasma concentrations of metabolic and inflammatory signals and the splenic ECS in early adult rats exposed to alcohol during adolescence. A 4-day drinking in the dark (DID) procedure for 4 weeks was used as a model of intermittent forced-alcohol administration (20%, v/v) in female and male Wistar rats, which were sacrificed 2 weeks after the last DID session. First, there was no liver damage or alterations in plasma metabolic parameters. However, certain plasma inflammatory signals were altered according to sex and alcohol exposition. Whereas fractalkine [chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1] was only affected by sex with lower concentration in male rats, there was an interaction between sex and alcohol exposure in the TNF-α and interleukin-6 concentrations and only female rats displayed changes. Regarding the mRNA and protein expression of the ECS, the receptors and endocannabinoid-synthesizing enzymes were found to be altered with area-specific expression patterns in the spleen. Overall, whereas the expression of the cannabinoid receptor CB1 and the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor PPARα were lower in alcohol-exposed rats compared to control rats, the CB2 expression was higher. Additionally, the N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D expression was high in female alcohol-exposed rats and low in male alcohol-exposed rats. In conclusion, intermittent alcohol consumption during adolescence may be sufficient to induce short-term changes in the expression of splenic endocannabinoid signaling-related proteins and plasma pro-inflammatory cytokines in young adult rats

  6. Effects of Adolescent Intermittent Alcohol Exposure on the Expression of Endocannabinoid Signaling-Related Proteins in the Spleen of Young Adult Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavón, Francisco Javier; Marco, Eva María; Vázquez, Mariam; Sánchez, Laura; Rivera, Patricia; Gavito, Ana; Mela, Virginia; Alén, Francisco; Decara, Juan; Suárez, Juan; Giné, Elena; López-Moreno, José Antonio; Chowen, Julie; Rodríguez-de-Fonseca, Fernando; Serrano, Antonia; Viveros, María Paz

    Intermittent alcohol exposure is a common pattern of alcohol consumption among adolescents and alcohol is known to modulate the expression of the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is involved in metabolism and inflammation. However, it is unknown whether this pattern may have short-term consequences on the ECS in the spleen. To address this question, we examined the plasma concentrations of metabolic and inflammatory signals and the splenic ECS in early adult rats exposed to alcohol during adolescence. A 4-day drinking in the dark (DID) procedure for 4 weeks was used as a model of intermittent forced-alcohol administration (20%, v/v) in female and male Wistar rats, which were sacrificed 2 weeks after the last DID session. First, there was no liver damage or alterations in plasma metabolic parameters. However, certain plasma inflammatory signals were altered according to sex and alcohol exposition. Whereas fractalkine [chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1] was only affected by sex with lower concentration in male rats, there was an interaction between sex and alcohol exposure in the TNF-α and interleukin-6 concentrations and only female rats displayed changes. Regarding the mRNA and protein expression of the ECS, the receptors and endocannabinoid-synthesizing enzymes were found to be altered with area-specific expression patterns in the spleen. Overall, whereas the expression of the cannabinoid receptor CB1 and the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor PPARα were lower in alcohol-exposed rats compared to control rats, the CB2 expression was higher. Additionally, the N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D expression was high in female alcohol-exposed rats and low in male alcohol-exposed rats. In conclusion, intermittent alcohol consumption during adolescence may be sufficient to induce short-term changes in the expression of splenic endocannabinoid signaling-related proteins and plasma pro-inflammatory cytokines in young adult rats

  7. MR Imaging Findings in Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic Acute Wernicke’s Encephalopathy: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetana Manzo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wernicke’s encephalopathy (WE is a severe neurological syndrome caused by thiamine (vitamin B1 deficiency and clinically characterized by the sudden onset of mental status changes, ocular abnormalities, and ataxia. Apart from chronic alcoholism, the most common cause of WE, a lot of other conditions causing malnutrition and decreasing thiamine absorption such as gastrointestinal surgical procedures and hyperemesis gravidarum must be considered as predisposing factors. Due to its low prevalence and clinical heterogeneity, WE is often misdiagnosed, leading to persistent dysfunctions and, in some cases, to death. Nowadays, MR imaging of the brain, showing T2 and FLAIR hyperintensities in typical (thalami, mammillary bodies, tectal plate, and periaqueductal area and atypical areas (cerebellum, cranial nerve nuclei, and cerebral cortex, is surely the most important and effective tool in the diagnostic assessment of WE. The aim of this paper is to propose a state of the art of the role of MR imaging in the early diagnosis of this complex disease.

  8. Pre-conception and prenatal alcohol exposure from mothers and fathers drinking and head circumference: results from the Norwegian Mother-Child Study (MoBa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccolo, Luisa; DeRoo, Lisa A; Wills, Andrew K; Davey Smith, George; Suren, Pål; Roth, Christine; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Magnus, Per

    2016-12-23

    Although microcephaly is a feature of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, it is currently unknown whether low-to-moderate prenatal alcohol exposure affects head circumference. Small magnitude associations reported in observational studies are likely to be misleading due to confounding and misclassification biases. Alternative analytical approaches such as the use of family negative controls (e.g. comparing the effects of maternal and paternal exposure) could help disentangle causal effects. We investigated the association of maternal and paternal alcohol drinking before and early in pregnancy with infant head circumference, using data from 68,244 mother-father-offspring trios from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) (1999-2009). In analyses adjusted for potential confounders, we found no consistent pattern of association between maternal or paternal alcohol intake before or during pregnancy and offspring head circumference modelled as a continuous outcome. However, we found higher odds of microcephaly at birth for higher paternal, but not maternal, alcohol consumption before pregnancy, and similar but weaker effect estimates for first trimester drinking. Associations with paternal drinking before pregnancy were unexpected and should be regarded as hypothesis generating, until independently replicated, although potentially important given the absence of guidelines on safe drinking levels for men in couples trying for a pregnancy.

  9. Removal and environmental exposure of alcohol ethoxylates in US sewage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrall, S W; Dunphy, J C; Cano, M L; Evans, A; McAvoy, D C; Price, B P; Eckhoff, W S

    2006-05-01

    Alcohol ethoxylates (AE) are a common nonionic surfactant employed in consumer and industrial detergents worldwide. Commercial AE are typically complex mixtures composed of > 100 homologous compounds with varying alkyl chain lengths and varying numbers of ethylene oxide (EO) units. Recent improvements in analytical methodology have enabled accurate measurement of the entire AE mixture in sewage treatment plant (STP) influents and effluents, including alkyl chain lengths from 12 to 18 carbons with a range of ethoxylation from 0 to 18 EO units. These improved analytical methods were used to measure AE concentrations at nine sites representative of sewage treatment processes and geographical locations. These new data will make possible a more accurate assessment of environmental risk for AE in the United States. The results indicate that all AE homologues are effectively removed (> 99%) in the most common treatment types. Individual STP total AE effluent concentrations ranged from a low of 0.92 microg/L for activated sludge to a high of 15.6 microg/L for a trickling filter process. For the purpose of representing a national average distribution, an average-flow-weighted wastewater treatment plant effluent concentration was determined for each AE component. The total-flow-weighted average AE effluent concentration was 3.64 microg/L.

  10. Effects of an acute and a sub-chronic 900 MHz GSM exposure on brain activity and behaviors of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsa Brillaud; Aleksandra Piotrowski; Anthony Lecomte; Franck Robidel; Rene de Seze [Toxicology Unit, INERIS, Verneuil en Halatte (France)

    2006-07-01

    Radio frequencies are suspected to produce health effects. Concerning the mobile phone technology, according to position during use (close to the head), possible effects of radio frequencies on the central nervous system have to be evaluated. Previous works showed contradictory results, possibly due to experimental design diversity. In the framework of R.A.M.P. 2001 project, we evaluated possible effect of a 900 MHz GSM exposure on the central nervous system of rat at a structural, a functional and a behavioral level after acute or sub-chronic exposures. Rats were exposed using a loop antenna system to different S.A.R. levels and durations, according to results of the French C.O.M.O.B.I.O. 2001 project. A functional effect was found (modification of the cerebral activity and increase of the glia surface) after an acute exposure, even at a low level of brain averaged S.A.R. (1.5 W/kg). No cumulative effect was observed after a sub-chronic exposure (same amplitude of the effect). No structural or behavioral consequence was noted. We do not conclude on the neurotoxicity of the 900 MHz GSM exposure on the rat brain. Our results do not indicate any health risk. (authors)

  11. Assessment of locomotion behavioral defects induced by acute toxicity from heavy metal exposure in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dayong; XING Xiaojuan

    2008-01-01

    Locomotion behaviors are susceptible to disruption by a broad spectrum of chemicals and environmental stresses. However, no systematic testing of locomotion behavior defects induced by metal exposure has been conducted in the model organism of nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, the acute toxicity from heavy metal exposure on the locomotion behaviors was analyzed in nematodes. Endpoints of head thrash, body bend, forward turn, backward turn, and Omega/U turn were chosen to evaluate the locomotion behavioral defects. Our data suggest that the endpoints of head thrash, body bend, and forward turn will be useful for the evaluation of heavy metal toxicity in nematodes. The endpoint of head thrash could detect the toxicity from Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, and Pb exposures at a low concentration (2.5 μmol/L). The endpoint of body bend could be explored to evaluate the toxicity from all assayed heavy metal exposures at different concentrations, whereas the endpoint of forward turn will be more useful for the evaluation of heavy metal toxicity at high concentrations. Thus, endpoints of these locomotion behaviors establish a fast and economic way to assess the presence of acute toxicity from heavy metal exposure in nematode C. elegans.

  12. Operant alcohol self-administration in dependent rats: focus on the vapor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Roberts, Amanda J

    2014-05-01

    Alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is characterized by a compulsion to seek and ingest alcohol (ethanol), loss of control over intake, and the emergence of a negative emotional state during withdrawal. Animal models are critical in promoting our knowledge of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying alcohol dependence. Here, we review the studies involving operant alcohol self-administration in rat models of alcohol dependence and withdrawal with the focus on the alcohol vapor model. In 1996, the first articles were published reporting that rats made dependent on alcohol by exposure to alcohol vapors displayed increased operant alcohol self-administration during acute withdrawal compared with nondependent rats (i.e., not exposed to alcohol vapors). Since then, it has been repeatedly demonstrated that this model reliably produces physical and motivational symptoms of alcohol dependence. The functional roles of various systems implicated in stress and reward, including opioids, dopamine, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), glucocorticoids, neuropeptide Y (NPY), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), norepinephrine, and cannabinoids, have been investigated in the context of alcohol dependence. The combination of models of alcohol withdrawal and dependence with operant self-administration constitutes an excellent tool to investigate the neurobiology of alcoholism. In fact, this work has helped lay the groundwork for several ongoing clinical trials for alcohol dependence. Advantages and limitations of this model are discussed, with an emphasis on what future directions of great importance could be.

  13. Effects of acute and chronic waterborne lead exposure on the swimming performance and aerobic scope of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Edward M; Grosell, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Fathead minnows were subjected to an incremental velocity test using swim tunnel respirometry for the analysis of aerobic scope and swimming performance, as critical aerobic swim speed (U(crit)), following chronic exposures (33-57 ) to 0.9±0.4, 157±18 or 689±66 nmol L⁻¹ Pb and an acute exposure (24 h) to 672±35 nmol L⁻¹ Pb (mean±SEM). Assessment of Pb-induced anemia and neurological impairment were evaluated by blood hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations and a cost of transport (COT) analysis, respectively. Fish from the acute 672±35 nmol L⁻¹ Pb (24.4±1.2 BL s⁻¹) and chronic 689±66 nmol L⁻¹ Pb (24.6±0.9 BL s⁻¹) treatments exhibited reduced U(crits) compared to control fish (27.6±0.8 BL s⁻¹). Aerobic scope was reduced by acute Pb exposure (8.6±2.6 μmol O₂ g⁻¹ h⁻¹ vs. 22.6±3.8 μmol O₂ g⁻¹ h⁻¹ from controls) owing to a decrease in maximum oxygen consumption rate (38.8±0.8 μmol O₂ g⁻¹ h⁻¹ vs. 54.0±4.2 μmol O₂ g⁻¹ h⁻¹ from controls). However, no effect on aerobic scope was observed with fish chronically exposed to Pb. Significant differences were not observed for Hb concentrations or COT. These findings suggest that the impaired swimming performances arising from acute and chronic Pb exposures reflect different mechanisms of toxicity.

  14. Effects of acute versus repeated cocaine exposure on the expression of endocannabinoid signaling-related proteins in the mouse cerebellum

    OpenAIRE

    Ana ePalomino; Francisco Javier ePavon; Eduardo eBlanco Calvo; Antonia eSerrano; Sergio eArrabal; Patricia eRivera; Antonio eVargas; Ainhoa eBilbao; Leticia eRubio; Fernando eRodriguez de Fonseca; Juan eSuarez

    2014-01-01

    Growing awareness of cerebellar involvement in addiction is based on the cerebellum’s intermediary position between motor and reward, potentially acting as an interface between motivational and cognitive functions. Here, we examined the impact of acute and repeated cocaine exposure on the two main signaling systems in the mouse cerebellum: the endocannabinoid (eCB) and glutamate systems. To this end, we investigated whether eCB signaling-related gene and protein expression {cannabinoid recept...

  15. Trends in toxic alcohol exposures in the United States from 2000 to 2013: a focus on the use of antidotes and extracorporeal treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Hoffman, Robert S; Mowry, James B; Lavergne, Valery

    2014-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality from toxic alcohols like ethylene glycol and methanol remain prevalent worldwide. The introduction of fomepizole, a potent blocker of alcohol dehydrogenase, has modified current practice over the last 15 years. The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics of toxic alcohol poisoning reported to US poison centers, the trends in the incidence of antidote use and hemodialysis treatment, as well as the related mortality. A retrospective study of all electronic entries from the AAPCC National Poison Data System database, from the years 2000 to 2013 was reviewed. When considering all exposures, the great majority of patients had a benign outcome. Major effects (e.g., life threatening) occurred in 2.1% and 4.9% of methanol and ethylene glycol cases, respectively. Mortality rates were similar for both toxic alcohols, approximately 0.6%. When only considering ingestions reported to healthcare facilities, a major effect was reported in 9.5% and 20.5%, and the mortality rate was 2.9% and 2.4% for methanol and ethylene glycol exposures, respectively, and remained constant over time. The use of fomepizole increased statistically over the study period while that of ethanol decreased, until it became proportionally negligible by 2012-2013. The use of hemodialysis significantly decreased in "Early" ethylene glycol exposures during the study period. Similar to other reports, it appears that the use of fomepizole has largely supplanted ethanol as the antidote of choice in toxic alcohol exposures and may decrease the requirements for hemodialysis in patients poisoned with ethylene glycol who have no acidosis and normal kidney function.

  16. Exposure medium: key in identifying free Ag+ as the exclusive species of silver nanoparticles with acute toxicity to Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Mo-Hai; Zhou, Xiao-Xia; Yang, Xiao-Ya; Chao, Jing-Bo; Liu, Rui; Liu, Jing-Fu

    2015-04-10

    It is still not very clear what roles the various Ag species play in the toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). In this study, we found that traditional exposure media result in uncontrollable but consistent physicochemical transformation of AgNPs, causing artifacts in determination of median lethal concentration (LC50) and hindering the identification of Ag species responsible for the acute toxicity of AgNPs to Daphnia magna. This obstacle was overcome by using 8 h exposure in 0.1 mmol L(-1) NaNO3 medium, in which we measured the 8-h LC50 of seven AgNPs with different sizes and coatings, and determined the concentrations of various Ag species. The LC50 as free Ag(+) of the seven AgNPs (0.37-0.44 μg L(-1)) agreed very well with that of AgNO3 (0.40 μg L(-1)), and showed the lowest value compared to that as total Ag, total Ag(+), and dissolved Ag, demonstrating free Ag(+) is exclusively responsible for the acute toxicity of AgNPs to D. magna, while other Ag species in AgNPs have no contribution to the acute toxicity. Our results demonstrated the great importance of developing appropriate exposure media for evaluating risk of nanomaterials.

  17. Association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and biomarkers of oxidative stress among patients hospitalised with acute myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian L Megson

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was associated with oxidative stress among patients hospitalised for acute myocardial infarction. DESIGN: An existing cohort study of 1,261 patients hospitalised for acute myocardial infarction. SETTING: Nine acute hospitals in Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty never smokers who had been exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (admission serum cotinine ≥3.0 ng/mL were compared with 60 never smokers who had not (admission serum cotinine ≤0.1 ng/mL. INTERVENTION: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Three biomarkers of oxidative stress (protein carbonyl, malondialdehyde (MDA and oxidised low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL were measured on admission blood samples and adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: After adjusting for baseline differences in age, sex and socioeconomic status, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was associated with serum concentrations of both protein carbonyl (beta coefficient 7.96, 95% CI 0.76, 15.17, p = 0.031 and MDA (beta coefficient 10.57, 95% CI 4.32, 16.81, p = 0.001 but not ox-LDL (beta coefficient 2.14, 95% CI -8.94, 13.21, p = 0.703. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was associated with increased oxidative stress. Further studies are requires to explore the role of oxidative stress in the association between environmental tobacco smoke and myocardial infarction.

  18. Father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents and childhood acute leukemia: a new method to assess exposure (a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Rivera Maria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical research has not been able to establish whether a father's occupational exposures are associated with the development of acute leukemia (AL in their offspring. The studies conducted have weaknesses that have generated a misclassification of such exposure. Occupations and exposures to substances associated with childhood cancer are not very frequently encountered in the general population; thus, the reported risks are both inconsistent and inaccurate. In this study, to assess exposure we used a new method, an exposure index, which took into consideration the industrial branch, specific position, use of protective equipment, substances at work, degree of contact with such substances, and time of exposure. This index allowed us to obtain a grade, which permitted the identification of individuals according to their level of exposure to known or potentially carcinogenic agents that are not necessarily specifically identified as risk factors for leukemia. The aim of this study was to determine the association between a father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents and the presence of AL in their offspring. Methods From 1999 to 2000, a case-control study was performed with 193 children who reside in Mexico City and had been diagnosed with AL. The initial sample-size calculation was 150 children per group, assessed with an expected odds ratio (OR of three and a minimum exposure frequency of 15.8%. These children were matched by age, sex, and institution with 193 pediatric surgical patients at secondary-care hospitals. A questionnaire was used to determine each child's background and the characteristics of the father's occupation(s. In order to determine the level of exposure to carcinogenic agents, a previously validated exposure index (occupational exposure index, OEI was used. The consistency and validity of the index were assessed by a questionnaire comparison, the sensory recognition of the work area, and an

  19. Time course of systemic oxidative stress and inflammatory response induced by an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchini, T.; Magnani, N.D. [Cátedra de Química General e Inorgánica, Instituto de Bioquímica y Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Paz, M.L. [Cátedra de Inmunología, Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral (IDEHU UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vanasco, V. [Cátedra de Química General e Inorgánica, Instituto de Bioquímica y Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tasat, D. [CESyMA, Facultad de Ciencia Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de General San Martín, Martín de Irigoyen 3100, 1650 San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); González Maglio, D.H. [Cátedra de Inmunología, Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral (IDEHU UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2014-01-15

    It is suggested that systemic oxidative stress and inflammation play a central role in the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases associated with the exposure to particulate matter (PM). The aim of this work was to evaluate the time changes of systemic markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash (ROFA). Female Swiss mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0 mg/kg body weight) or saline solution, and plasma levels of oxidative damage markers [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) and protein carbonyls], antioxidant status [reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, ascorbic acid levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity], cytokines levels, and intravascular leukocyte activation were evaluated after 1, 3 or 5 h of exposure. Oxidative damage to lipids and decreased GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in ROFA-exposed mice as early as 1 h. Afterwards, increased protein oxidation, decreased ascorbic acid content and SOD activity were found in this group at 3 h. The onset of an adaptive response was observed at 5 h after the ROFA exposure, as indicated by decreased TBARS plasma content and increased SOD activity. The observed increase in oxidative damage to plasma macromolecules, together with systemic antioxidants depletion, may be a consequence of a systemic inflammatory response triggered by the ROFA exposure, since increased TNF-α and IL-6 plasma levels and polymorphonuclear leukocytes activation was found at every evaluated time point. These findings contribute to the understanding of the increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, in association with environmental PM inhalation. - Highlights: • An acute exposure to ROFA triggers the occurrence of systemic oxidative stress. • Changes in plasmatic oxidative stress markers appear as early as 1 h after exposure. • ROFA induces proinflammatory cytokines release and intravascular leukocyte activation. • PMN

  20. High Resolution ECG for Evaluation of QT Interval Variability during Exposure to Acute Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupet, P.; Finderle, Z.; Schlegel, Todd T.; Starc, V.

    2010-01-01

    Ventricular repolarization instability as quantified by the index of QT interval variability (QTVI) is one of the best predictors for risk of malignant ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Because it is difficult to appropriately monitor early signs of organ dysfunction at high altitude, we investigated whether high resolution advanced ECG (HR-ECG) analysis might be helpful as a non-invasive and easy-to-use tool for evaluating the risk of cardiac arrhythmias during exposure to acute hypoxia. 19 non-acclimatized healthy trained alpinists (age 37, 8 plus or minus 4,7 years) participated in the study. Five-minute high-resolution 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) were recorded (Cardiosoft) in each subject at rest in the supine position breathing room air and then after breathing 12.5% oxygen for 30 min. For beat-to-beat RR and QT variability, the program of Starc was utilized to derive standard time domain measures such as root mean square of the successive interval difference (rMSSD) of RRV and QTV, the corrected QT interval (QTc) and the QTVI in lead II. Changes were evaluated with paired-samples t-test with p-values less than 0.05 considered statistically significant. As expected, the RR interval and its variability both decreased with increasing altitude, with p = 0.000 and p = 0.005, respectively. Significant increases were found in both the rMSSDQT and the QTVI in lead II, with p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively. There was no change in QTc interval length (p = non significant). QT variability parameters may be useful for evaluating changes in ventricular repolarization caused by hypoxia. These changes might be driven by increases in sympathetic nervous system activity at ventricular level.

  1. Changes in Glutamate/NMDA Receptor Subunit 1 Expression in Rat Brain after Acute and Subacute Exposure to Methamphetamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walailuk Kerdsan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (METH is a psychostimulant drug of abuse that produces long-term behavioral changes including behavioral sensitization, tolerance, and dependence. METH has been reported to induce neurotoxic effects in several areas of the brain via the dopaminergic system. Changes of dopamine function can induce malfunction of the glutamatergic system. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of METH administration on the expression of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 1 (NMDAR1 in frontal cortex, striatum, and hippocampal formation after acute and subacute exposure to METH by western blotting. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of 8 mg/kg METH, 4 mg/kg/day METH for 14 days and saline in acute, subacute, and control groups, respectively. A significant increase in NMDAR1 immunoreactive protein was found in frontal cortex in the subacute group (P=.036 but not in the acute group (P=.580. Moreover, a significant increase in NMDAR1 was also observed in striatum in both acute (P=.025 and subacute groups (P=.023. However, no significant differences in NMDAR1 in hippocampal formation were observed in either acute or subacute group. The results suggest that an upregulation of NMDA receptor expression may be a consequence of glutamatergic dysfunction induced by METH.

  2. Genotype and toxicity relationships among Hyalella azteca: I. Acute exposure to metals or low pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Y.; Guttman, S.I.; Oris, J.T.; Bailer, A.J.

    2000-05-01

    Comparative genotype and toxin interactions at three polymorphic enzyme loci were examined in a laboratory population of amphipods (Hyalella azteca) during acute exposure to cadmium, zinc, copper, lead, or low pH. Significant toxin-genotype interactions were observed using logistic regression to model mortality in ten of 15 analyses. Both stressor-specific and nonspecific modes of selection were observed. In general, low pH selected for different genotypes than those selected by metals, especially zinc. Different modes of selection were also observed when amphipods were exposed to different metals. These results suggest that exposure to low pH would significantly reduce the ability of H. azteca to survive subsequent contamination by metals; exposure to stressors in the reverse order would also compromise a population's chance of survival. A genetic distance analysis showed that the magnitude of genetic differentiation consistently increased among survivors compared with that of the initial populations. These increases in genetic divergence estimates suggest that acute exposure to metals or low pH may have an evolutionarily significant impact on the species. They also suggest that both genotype frequency and genetic distance measures (based on allozyme data) may be used as bioindicators for environmental monitoring programs. Validation of such bioindicators requires an understanding of the population's genetic background, genetic structure, and history.

  3. Breath gas concentrations mirror exposure to sevoflurane and isopropyl alcohol in hospital environments in non-occupational conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Mar; Xifra, Gemma; Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Sánchez, Juan M

    2016-01-29

    Anaesthetic gases and disinfectants are a primary source of air contamination in hospitals. A highly sensitive sorbent-trap methodology has been used to analyse exhaled breath samples with detection limits in the pptv range, which allows volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to be detected at significantly lower levels (5-6 orders of magnitude below) than the recommended exposure limits by different organizations. Two common VOCs used in hospital environments, isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and sevoflurane, have been evaluated. Forced-expiratory breath samples were obtained from 100 volunteers (24 hospital staff, 45 hospital visitors and 31 external controls). Significant differences for IPA were found between samples from volunteers who had not been in contact with hospital environments (mean value of 8.032 ppbv) and people staying (20.981 ppbv, p  =  0.0002) or working (19.457 ppbv, p  =  0.000 09) in such an environment. Sevoflurane, an anaesthetic gas routinely used as an inhaled anaesthetic, was detected in all samples from volunteers in the hospital environment but not in volunteers who had not been in recent contact with a hospital environment. The levels of sevoflurane were significantly higher (p  =  0.000 24) among staff members (0.522 ppbv) than among visitors to the hospital (0.196 ppbv). We conclude that highly sensitive methods are required to detect anaesthetic gas contamination in hospital environments.

  4. Community violence exposure, coping, and problematic alcohol and drug use among urban, female caregivers: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliewer, Wendy; Zaharakis, Nikola

    2013-08-01

    Victimization is associated with substance use in women, but less is known about linkages between witnessing community violence and substance use, even though more women witness versus directly experience violence. Further, factors that contribute to or protect against women's problematic substance use are less well understood. Urban female caregivers (N = 318; > 92% African American/black) living in low-income communities were interviewed annually for three waves regarding exposure to community violence, coping behaviors, substance use, and protective factors. Path analyses revealed that lifetime witnessing of violence, but not victimization, assessed at baseline, was associated with changes in avoidant coping, but not active coping, one year later; avoidant coping, in turn, was related to changes in and higher levels of problematic drug use the following year. Victimization was directly related to problematic drug use, but not to alcohol use. Regression analyses indicated that high levels of religious commitment and social support at baseline were prospectively associated with lower levels of avoidant coping. Because caregivers are important role models for their children, it is important to attend to the factors that contribute to their substance use and abuse.

  5. Comparative assessments of the effects of alcohol exposure on fetal brain development using optical coherence tomography and ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudheendran, Narendran; Bake, Shameena; Miranda, Rajesh C.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2013-02-01

    The developing fetal brain is vulnerable to a variety of environmental agents including maternal ethanol consumption. Preclinical studies on the development and amelioration of fetal teratology would be significantly facilitated by the application of high resolution imaging technologies like optical coherence tomography (OCT) and high-frequency ultrasound (US). This study investigates the ability of these imaging technologies to measure the effects of maternal ethanol exposure on brain development, ex vivo, in fetal mice. Pregnant mice at gestational day 12.5 were administered ethanol (3 g/Kg b.wt.) or water by intragastric gavage, twice daily for three consecutive days. On gestational day 14.5, fetuses were collected and imaged. Three-dimensional images of the mice fetus brains were obtained by OCT and high-resolution US, and the volumes of the left and right ventricles of the brain were measured. Ethanol-exposed fetuses exhibited a statistically significant, 2-fold increase in average left and right ventricular volumes compared with the ventricular volume of control fetuses, with OCT-derived measures of 0.38 and 0.18 mm3, respectively, whereas the boundaries of the fetal mouse lateral ventricles were not clearly definable with US imaging. Our results indicate that OCT is a useful technology for assessing ventriculomegaly accompanying alcohol-induced developmental delay. This study clearly demonstrated advantages of using OCT for quantitative assessment of embryonic development compared with US imaging.

  6. Experimental Therapeutics Against the Toxic and Lethal Effects Resulting from Acute Exposure to Nerve Agents Without Carbamate Pretreatment in Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    induced airway blockage and acute autonomic effects such as mucoid-salivary hypersecretion, reduced airway patency, bradycardia, atrioventricular (AV...acute agent exposure. These included oro- facial movements (indicative of immoderate secretion), mild degree of dystonia/ataxia, and a short period of...intoxicated animals. At 24 hr post-CWA exposure, both the respiratory rate and breathing patterns across Groups 6-10 were comparable to those of

  7. Effect of acute treatment with a water-alcohol extract of Erythrina mulungu on anxiety-related responses in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onusic G.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of acute oral treatment with a water-alcohol extract of the inflorescence of Erythrina mulungu (EM, Leguminosae-Papilionaceae (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg on rats submitted to different anxiety models: the elevated T-maze (for inhibitory avoidance and escape measurements, the light/dark transition, and the cat odor test. These models were selected for their presumed capacity to demonstrate specific subtypes of anxiety disorders as recognized in clinical practice. Treatment with 200 mg/kg EM impaired avoidance latencies (avoidance 1 - 200 mg/kg EM: 18 ± 7 s, control group: 40 ± 9 s; avoidance 2 - 200 mg/kg EM: 15 ± 4 s, control group: 110.33 ± 38 s in a way similar to the reference drug diazepam (avoidance 1: 3 ± 0.79 s; avoidance 2: 3 ± 0.76 s, without altering escape. Additionally, the same treatments increased the number of transitions (200 mg/kg EM: 6.33 ± 0.90, diazepam: 10 ± 1.54, control group: 2.78 ± 0.60 between the two compartments and the time spent in the lighted compartment in the light/dark transition model (200 mg/kg EM: 39 ± 7 s; diazepam: 61 ± 9 s; control group: 14 ± 4 s. The dose of 400 mg/kg EM also increased this last measurement (38 ± 8 s. These results were not due to motor alterations since no significant effects were detected in the number of crossings or rearings in the arena. Furthermore, neither EM nor diazepam altered the behavioral responses of rats to a cloth impregnated with cat odor. These observations suggest that EM exerts anxiolytic-like effects on a specific subset of defensive behaviors, particularly those that have been shown to be sensitive to low doses of benzodiazepines.

  8. TOTAL NUMBER: A BRIEF REVIEW OF ITS IMPORTANCE AND ITS USE IN ASSESSING CEREBELLAR DAMAGE IN THE RAT FOLLOWING EARLY POSTNATAL ALCOHOL EXPOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth MA Napper

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the total number of structural components that make up the various neural networks within the central nervous system is fundamental to our understanding of its normal function and of dysfunction that may accompany injury and disease. This paper briefly reviews the methodology currently used to estimate number and discusses the importance of unbiased estimates of total number in determining changes in brain structure that may underlie dysfunction. An example from the olfactory bulb is used to demonstrate the potential invalidity of using estimates of total number of objects per single section. Exposure to alcohol during the early postnatal period results in motor dysfunction in adult rats. This paper presents data on the extent and magnitude of cell loss within the cerebellar network of the rat following alcohol exposure during postnatal days 4 to 9. High transient blood alcohol concentrations result in a Purkinje cell of 27% across the entire cerebellum but with regional variabiltiy, vermal lobule X has a 43% Purkinje cell deficit. This alcohol regimen also results in a neuronal loss of 28% and 25% within the deep cerebellar nucleus and inferior olivary nucleus respectively. Consistency of overall neuronal loss across diverse neuronal populations within the cerebellar network is discussed in the context of the maintenance of cerebellar connectivity.

  9. The Contribution of Childhood Parental Rejection and Early Androgen Exposure to Impairments in Socio-Cognitive Skills in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators with High Alcohol Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Moya-Albiol

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption, a larger history of childhood parental rejection, and high prenatal androgen exposure have been linked with facilitation and high risk of recidivism in intimate partner violence (IPV perpetrators. Participants were distributed into two groups according to their alcohol consumption scores as high (HA and low (LA. HA presented a higher history of childhood parental rejection, prenatal masculinization (smaller 2D:4D ratio, and violence-related scores than LA IPV perpetrators. Nonetheless, the former showed poor socio-cognitive skills performance (cognitive flexibility, emotional recognition and cognitive empathy. Particularly in HA IPV perpetrators, the history of childhood parental rejection was associated with high hostile sexism and low cognitive empathy. Moreover, a masculinized 2D:4D ratio was associated with high anger expression and low cognitive empathy. Parental rejection during childhood and early androgen exposure are relevant factors for the development of violence and the lack of adequate empathy in adulthood. Furthermore, alcohol abuse plays a key role in the development of socio-cognitive impairments and in the proneness to violence and its recidivism. These findings contribute to new coadjutant violence intervention programs, focused on the rehabilitation of basic executive functions and emotional decoding processes and on the treatment of alcohol dependence.

  10. Apoptotic cell death as a target for the treatment of acute and chronic liver injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoemaker, Marieke Henriëtte

    2004-01-01

    Acute liver failure can develop as a consequence of viral hepatitis, drug- or toxin-induced toxicity or rejection after liver transplantation, whereas chronic liver injury can be due to long-term exposure to alcohol, chemicals, chronic viral hepatitis, metabolic or cholestatic disorders. During acut

  11. Changes of learning and memory ability associated with neuronal nitric oxide synthase in brain tissues of rats with acute alcoholism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuang Li; Chunyang Xu; Dongliang Li; Xinjuan Li; Linyu Wei; Yuan Cheng

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUD: Ethanol can influence neural development and the ability of learning and memory, but its mechanism of the neural toxicity is not clear till now. Endogenous nitric oxide (NO) as a gaseous messenger is proved to play an important role in the formation of synaptic plasticity, transference of neuronal information and the neural development, but excessive nitro oxide can result in neurotoxicity.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of acute alcoholism on the learning and memory ability and the content of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in brain tissue of rats.DESIGN: A randomized controlled animal experiment.SETTING: Department of Physiology, Xinxiang Medical College.MATERIALS; Eighteen male clean-degree SD rats of 18-22 weeks were raised adaptively for 2 days, and then randomly divided into control group (n = 8) and experimental group (n = 10). The nNOS immunohistochemical reagent was provided by Beijing Zhongshan Golden Bridge Biotechnology Co.,Ltd. Y-maze was produced by Suixi Zhenghua Apparatus Plant.METHODS: The experiment was carried out in the laboratory of the Department of Physiology, Xinxiang Medical College from June to October in 2005. ① Rats in the experimental group were intraperitoneally injected with ethanol (2.5 g/kg) which was dissolved in normal saline (20%). The loss of righting reflex and ataxia within 5 minutes indicated the successful model. Whereas rats in the control group were given saline of the same volume. ② Examinations of learning and memory ability: The Y-maze tests for learning and memory ability were performed at 6 hours after the models establishment. The rats were put into the Y-maze separately. The test was performed in a quiet and dark room. There was a lamp at the end of each of three pathways in Y-maze and the base of maze had electric net. All the lamps of the three pathways were turned on for 3 minutes and then turned off. One lamp was turned on randomly, and the other two delayed automatically. In 5 seconds

  12. Biphasic changes in fetal heart rate variability in preterm fetal sheep developing hypotension after acute on chronic lipopolysaccharide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Christopher A; Davidson, Joanne O; Booth, Lindsea C; Wassink, Guido; Galinsky, Robert; Drury, Paul P; Fraser, Mhoyra; Bennet, Laura; Gunn, Alistair J

    2014-08-15

    Perinatal exposure to infection is highly associated with adverse outcomes. Experimentally, acute, severe exposure to gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is associated with increased fetal heart rate variability (FHRV). It is unknown whether FHRV is affected by subclinical infection with or without acute exacerbations. We therefore tested the hypothesis that FHRV would be associated with hypotension after acute on chronic exposure to LPS. Chronically instrumented fetal sheep at 0.7 gestation were exposed to a continuous low-dose LPS infusion (n = 12, 100 ng/kg over 24 h, followed by 250 ng·kg(-1)·24 h(-1) for a further 96 h) or the same volume of saline (n = 10). Boluses of either 1 μg LPS or saline were given at 48, 72, and 96 h. Low-dose infusion was not associated with hemodynamic or FHRV changes. The first LPS bolus was associated with tachycardia and suppression of nuchal electromyographic activity in all fetuses. Seven of twelve fetuses developed hypotension (a fall in mean arterial blood pressure ≥5 mmHg). FHRV was transiently increased only at the onset of hypotension, in association with increased cytokine induction and electroencephalogram suppression. FHRV then fell before the nadir of hypotension, with transient suppression of short-term FHRV. After the second LPS bolus, the hypotension group showed a biphasic pattern of a transient increase in FHRV followed by more prolonged suppression. These findings suggest that infection-related hypotension in the preterm fetus mediates the transient increase in FHRV and that repeated exposure to LPS leads to progressive loss of FHRV.

  13. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Amplifies the Incentive Value of Reward-Predictive Cues Through Potentiation of Phasic Dopamine Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoelder, Marcia; Tsutsui, Kimberly T; Lesscher, Heidi M B; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Clark, Jeremy J

    2015-12-01

    Adolescent alcohol use remains a major public health concern due in part to well-established findings implicating the age of onset in alcohol use in the development of alcohol use disorders and persistent decision-making deficits in adults. We have previously demonstrated that moderate adolescent alcohol consumption in rats promotes suboptimal decision making and an associated perturbation in mesolimbic dopamine transmission in adulthood. Dopamine-dependent incentive learning processes are an integral component of value-based decision making and a fundamental element to many theoretical accounts of addiction. Thus we tested the hypothesis that adolescent alcohol use selectively alters incentive learning processes through perturbation of mesolimbic dopamine systems. To assess incentive learning, behavioral and neurochemical measurements were made during the acquisition, maintenance, extinction, and reacquisition of a Pavlovian conditioned approach procedure in adult rats with a history of adolescent alcohol consumption. We show that moderate adolescent alcohol consumption potentiates stimulus-evoked phasic dopamine transmission, measured in vivo by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, in adulthood and biases individuals toward a dopamine-dependent incentive learning strategy. Moreover, we demonstrate that animals exposed to alcohol in adolescence are more sensitive to an unexpected variation in reward outcomes. This pattern of phasic dopamine signaling and the associated bias in learning may provide a mechanism for the well-documented vulnerability of individuals with early-life alcohol use for alcohol use disorders in adulthood.

  14. Rigorous tests of gene-environment interactions in a lab study of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR), alcohol exposure, and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoParo, Devon; Johansson, Ada; Walum, Hasse; Westberg, Lars; Santtila, Pekka; Waldman, Irwin

    2016-07-01

    Naturalistic studies of gene-environment interactions (G X E) have been plagued by several limitations, including difficulty isolating specific environmental risk factors from other correlated aspects of the environment, gene-environment correlation (rGE ), and the use of a single genetic variant to represent the influence of a gene. We present results from 235 Finnish young men in two lab studies of aggression and alcohol challenge that attempt to redress these limitations of the extant G X E literature. Specifically, we use a latent variable modeling approach in an attempt to more fully account for genetic variation across the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and to robustly test its main effects on aggression and its interaction with alcohol exposure. We also modeled aggression as a latent variable comprising various indices, including the average and maximum levels of aggression, the earliest trial on which aggression was expressed, and the proportion of trials on which the minimum and maximum levels of aggression were expressed. The best fitting model for the genetic variation across OXTR included six factors derived from an exploratory factor analysis, roughly corresponding to six haplotype blocks. Aggression levels were higher on trials in which participants were administered alcohol, won, or were provoked. There was a significant main effect of OXTR on aggression across studies after controlling for covariates. The interaction of OXTR and alcohol was also significant across studies, such that OXTR had stronger effects on aggression in the alcohol administration condition. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Alcohol Consumption Patterns among Adolescents are Related to Family Structure and Exposure to Drunkenness within the Family: Results from the SEYLE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüütel, Erik; Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Airi; Värnik, Peeter; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina W.; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Poštuvan, Vita; Sáiz, Pilar A.; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    There is expedient evidence showing that differences in adolescent alcohol consumption and other risk-behaviour depend on both family structure and family member drunkenness exposure. Data were obtained among adolescents (N = 12,115, mean age 14.9 ± 0.89) in Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Spain within the European Union’s 7th Framework Programme funded project, ‘Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE)’. The current study reveals how adolescents’ alcohol consumption patterns are related to their family structure and having seen their family member drunk. The results revealed statistically significant differences in adolescent alcohol consumption depending on whether the adolescent lives in a family with both birth parents, in a single-parent family or in a family with one birth parent and one step-parent. The study also revealed that the abstaining from alcohol percentage among adolescents was greater in families with both birth parents compared to other family types. The study also showed that the more often adolescents see their family member drunk the more they drink themselves. There is no difference in adolescent drinking patterns whether they see their family member drunk once a month or once a week. This study gives an insight on which subgroups of adolescents are at heightened risk of alcohol abuse and that decrease of family member drunkenness may have positive effects on the drinking habits of their children. PMID:25493392

  16. Alcohol Consumption Patterns among Adolescents are Related to Family Structure and Exposure to Drunkenness within the Family: Results from the SEYLE Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Rüütel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is expedient evidence showing that differences in adolescent alcohol consumption and other risk-behaviour depend on both family structure and family member drunkenness exposure. Data were obtained among adolescents (N = 12,115, mean age 14.9 ± 0.89 in Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Spain within the European Union’s 7th Framework Programme funded project, ‘Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE’. The current study reveals how adolescents’ alcohol consumption patterns are related to their family structure and having seen their family member drunk. The results revealed statistically significant differences in adolescent alcohol consumption depending on whether the adolescent lives in a family with both birth parents, in a single-parent family or in a family with one birth parent and one step-parent. The study also revealed that the abstaining from alcohol percentage among adolescents was greater in families with both birth parents compared to other family types. The study also showed that the more often adolescents see their family member drunk the more they drink themselves. There is no difference in adolescent drinking patterns whether they see their family member drunk once a month or once a week. This study gives an insight on which subgroups of adolescents are at heightened risk of alcohol abuse and that decrease of family member drunkenness may have positive effects on the drinking habits of their children.

  17. Chronic alcohol exposure induces muscle atrophy (myopathy) in zebrafish and alters the expression of microRNAs targeting the Notch pathway in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayrullin, Andrew; Smith, Lauren; Mistry, Dhwani; Dukes, Amy; Pan, Y Albert; Hamrick, Mark W

    2016-10-21

    Muscle wasting is estimated to affect 40-60% of alcoholics, and is more common than cirrhosis among chronic alcohol abusers. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying alcohol-related musculoskeletal dysfunction are, however, poorly understood. Muscle-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) referred to as myoMirs are now known to play a key role in both myogenesis and muscle atrophy. Yet, no studies have investigated a role for myoMirs in alcohol-related skeletal muscle damage. We developed a zebrafish model of chronic ethanol exposure to better define the mechanisms mediating alcohol-induced muscle atrophy. Adult fish maintained at 0.5% ethanol for eight weeks demonstrated significantly reduced muscle fiber cross-sectional area (∼12%, P < 0.05) compared to fish housed in normal water. Zebrafish miRNA microarray revealed marked changes in several miRNAs with ethanol treatment. Importantly, miR-140, a miRNA that shows 100% sequence homology with miR-140 from both mouse and human, is decreased 10-fold in ethanol treated fish. miR-140 targets several members of the Notch signaling pathway such as DNER, JAG1, and Hey1, and PCR data show that both Hey1 and Notch 1 are significantly up-related (3-fold) in muscle of ethanol treated fish. In addition, miR-146a, which targets the Notch antagonist Numb, is elevated in muscle from ethanol-treated fish. Upregulation of Notch signaling suppresses myogenesis and maintains muscle satellite cell quiescence. These data suggest that miRNAs targeting Notch are likely to play important roles in alcohol-related myopathy. Furthermore, zebrafish may serve as a useful model for better understanding the role of microRNAs in alcohol-related tissue damage.

  18. Sensitivity of a green alga to atrazine is not enhanced by previous acute exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Leilan; Brain, Richard; Prosser, Ryan; Solomon, Keith; Hanson, Mark

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to atrazine in small lotic systems can be episodic, with short-term pulses (peaks) followed by lower, decreasing concentrations. Algae and macrophytes recover rapidly from pulsed exposure to atrazine, but reported observations of population response to subsequent exposures are minimal and inconclusive. Consequently, the sensitivity of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata to atrazine following a pulsed exposure was assessed. Exposure concentrations reflected amplifications of those observed in streams from highly vulnerable watersheds in regions of intense use. Initial pulsed atrazine exposure at 0, 150 or 300 μg/L for 24-h was followed by 72-h exposure to 0, 5, 10, 25, or 50 μg/L. Measured responses were cell density, growth rate, chlorophyll-a, and maximum quantum yield of photosystem II. Algal recovery was rapid and prior pulsed exposure to atrazine did not significantly affect subsequent sensitivity (EC10s, EC25s) for any endpoint, indicating no changes in tolerance at the population level for this species.

  19. SYSTEMIC IMBALANCE OF ESSENTIAL METALS AND CARDIAC GENE EXPRESSION IN RATS FOLLOWING ACUTE PULMONARY ZINC EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have recently demonstrated that PM containing water-soluble zinc may cause cardiac injury following pulmonary exposure. To investigate if pulmonary zinc exposure causes systemic metal imbalance and direct cardiac effects, we intratracheally (IT) instilled male Wistar Kyoto (WK...

  20. Is hair analysis for dialkyl phosphate metabolites a suitable biomarker for assessing past acute exposure to organophosphate pesticides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsatsakis, A M; Tutudaki, M; Tzatzarakis, M N; Dawson, A; Mohamed, F; Christaki, M; Alegakis, A K

    2012-03-01

    In the present paper, the possibility to use dialkyl phosphate metabolites (DAPs) hair segmental analysis as a biomarker of past acute exposure to organophosphates is examined. Hair samples of four acute poisoning survivors were collected and segmental hair analysis was performed. The total hair samples were divided to 1 cm segments and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the presence of four DAP metabolites, dimethyl phosphate (DMP), diethyl phosphate (DEP), diethyl thiophosphate (DETP) and diethyl dithiophosphate (DEDTP). Results were examined under the light of pesticide type and time of hair sample collection. Although DAPs were detected all along the hair shaft, higher concentrations (peaks) were detected in the segments proximate to the suicide period. It was also observed that the elevated concentrations of the present metabolites corresponded to the ones produced by the ingested parent compound. Conclusively, measurements of DAPs in the appropriate hair segments of OP-poisoned patients can be used for assessing past acute exposure to organophosphates in certain cases.

  1. The effect of prior alcohol consumption on the ataxic response to alcohol in high-alcohol preferring mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Brandon M; Boehm, Stephen L

    2014-12-01

    We have previously shown that ethanol-naïve high-alcohol preferring (HAP) mice, genetically predisposed to consume large quantities of alcohol, exhibited heightened sensitivity and more rapid acute functional tolerance (AFT) to alcohol-induced ataxia compared to low-alcohol preferring mice. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of prior alcohol self-administration on these responses in HAP mice. Naïve male and female adult HAP mice from the second replicate of selection (HAP2) underwent 18 days of 24-h, 2-bottle choice drinking for 10% ethanol vs. water, or water only. After 18 days of fluid access, mice were tested for ataxic sensitivity and rapid AFT following a 1.75 g/kg injection of ethanol on a static dowel apparatus in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, a separate group of mice was tested for more protracted AFT development using a dual-injection approach where a second, larger (2.0 g/kg) injection of ethanol was given following the initial recovery of performance on the task. HAP2 mice that had prior access to alcohol exhibited a blunted ataxic response to the acute alcohol challenge, but this pre-exposure did not alter rapid within-session AFT capacity in Experiment 1 or more protracted AFT capacity in Experiment 2. These findings suggest that the typically observed increase in alcohol consumption in these mice may be influenced by ataxic functional tolerance development, but is not mediated by a greater capacity for ethanol exposure to positively influence within-session ataxic tolerance.

  2. The use of self-reported symptoms as a proxy for acute organophosphate poisoning after exposure to chlorpyrifos 50 % plus cypermethrin 5 % among Nepali farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Dea Haagensen; Jørs, Erik; Varma, Anshu

    2016-01-01

    cholinesterase (PchE) activity, in addition to the symptoms, when assessing occupational acute pesticide poisoning. This study evaluated self-reported symptoms as a proxy for acute organophosphate poisoning among Nepali farmers by examining self-reported acute organophosphate poisoning symptoms and PchE activity......%: moderately hazardous) spray session or a 2-h placebo spray session, and after 7 days' washout, the farmers were assigned to the other spray session. Before and after each spray session farmers were interviewed about acute organophosphate poisoning symptoms and PchE activity was measured. Analyses were...... symptoms among the farmers regardless of organophosphate exposure or poisoning. Thus, self-reported acute organophosphate symptoms seem to be a poor proxy for acute organophosphate poisoning as the occurrence of these symptoms is not necessarily associated with acute organophosphate poisoning. TRIAL...

  3. Acute Free-Iron Exposure Does Not Explain the Impaired Haemorheology Associated with Haemochromatosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony P McNamee

    Full Text Available Given the severity of the current imbalance between blood donor supply and recipient demand, discarded blood drawn from the routine venesections of haemochromatosis (HFE-HH patients may serve as a valuable alternative source for blood banks and transfusion. We investigated whether functional or biochemical differences existed between HFE-HH and control blood samples, with particular focus upon the haemorheological properties, to investigate the viability of venesected blood being subsequently harvested for blood products.Blood samples were collected from HFE-HH patients undergoing venesection treatment (n = 19 and healthy volunteers (n = 8. Moreover, a second experiment investigated the effects of a dose-response of iron (0, 40, 80, 320 mM FeCl3 on haemorheology in healthy blood samples (n = 7. Dependent variables included basic haematology, iron status, haematocrit, red blood cell (RBC aggregation (native and standardised haematocrit and "aggregability" (RBC tendency to aggregate in a standard aggregating medium; 0.4 L/L haematocrit in a Dx70, and RBC deformability.Indices of RBC deformability were significantly decreased for HFE-HH when compared with healthy controls: RBC deformability was significantly decreased at 1-7 Pa (p < 0.05, and the shear stress required for half maximal deformability was significantly increased (p < 0.05 for HFE-HH. RBC aggregation in plasma was significantly increased (p < 0.001 for HFE-HH, although when RBC were suspended in plasma-free Dx70 no differences were detected. No differences in RBC deformability or RBC aggregation/aggregability were detected when healthy RBC were incubated with varying dose of FeCl3.HFE-HH impairs the haemorheological properties of blood; however, RBC aggregability was similar between HFE-HH and controls when cells were suspended in a plasma-free medium, indicating that plasma factor(s may explain the altered haemorheology in HFE-HH patients. Acute exposure to elevated iron levels does

  4. [Effect of Bacillus natto-fermented product (BIOZYME) on blood alcohol, aldehyde concentrations after whisky drinking in human volunteers, and acute toxicity of acetaldehyde in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, H; Yatagai, C; Wada, H; Yoshida, E; Maruyama, M

    1995-04-01

    Effects of Bacillus natto-fermented product (BIOZYME) on blood alcohol and aldehyde concentrations after drinking whisky (corresponding to 30-65 ml ethanol) were studied in 21 healthy volunteers. When 100 ml of BIOZYME was orally administrated to the volunteers before drinking whisky, the time delay of both blood factors to attain maximum concentrations were observed. The maximum decrease in blood alcohol and aldehyde concentrations were about 23% and 45% (p whisky. The aldehyde lowering effect of BIOZYME was continued for at least 4 hr after whisky drinking. Concentration of the breath alcohol was also sharply decreased by BIOZYME administration. The breath alcohol concentration in the administered group (0.18 +/- 0.11 mg/l) was found to be lowered about 44% than that of the control group (0.32 +/- 0.11 mg/l) (p whisky. In acute toxicity experiments of aldehyde in mice (12 mmol AcH/mg), BIOZYME showed the survival effect as with alpha-D-Ala (134% increase of the living, at 40 min after i.p. administration) (p < 0.005, n = 22). These findings reveal the Bacillus natto produced BIOZYME as a reasonable, safety and useful anti-hangover agent.

  5. Quantifying fish swimming behavior in response to acute exposure of aqueous copper using computer assisted video and digital image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, Robin D.; Puglis, Holly J.; Little, Edward E.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral responses of aquatic organisms to environmental contaminants can be precursors of other effects such as survival, growth, or reproduction. However, these responses may be subtle, and measurement can be challenging. Using juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) with copper exposures, this paper illustrates techniques used for quantifying behavioral responses using computer assisted video and digital image analysis. In previous studies severe impairments in swimming behavior were observed among early life stage white sturgeon during acute and chronic exposures to copper. Sturgeon behavior was rapidly impaired and to the extent that survival in the field would be jeopardized, as fish would be swept downstream, or readily captured by predators. The objectives of this investigation were to illustrate protocols to quantify swimming activity during a series of acute copper exposures to determine time to effect during early lifestage development, and to understand the significance of these responses relative to survival of these vulnerable early lifestage fish. With mortality being on a time continuum, determining when copper first affects swimming ability helps us to understand the implications for population level effects. The techniques used are readily adaptable to experimental designs with other organisms and stressors.

  6. Risk Analysis of Acute Or Chronic Exposure to Arsenic of the Inhabitants in a District of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vázquez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The arsenic occurrence in the water constitutes a serious world health concern due to its toxicity. Depending on the intensity and duration of exposure, this element can be acutely lethal or may have a wide range of health effects in humans and animals. In Argentina, the origin of arsenic is mainly natural, and related to different geological processes. The Argentinean concern about arsenic and its influence on human health dates back to the previous century. The disease ascribed to arsenic contamination was called ‘chronic regional endemic hydroarsenism’. It is produced by the consumption of water with high levels of this element. In our study, we focused in La Matanza district, a very populated site in the Buenos Aires Province. An increasing concern of the inhabitants of the area regarding health problems was detected. In order to establish a full view of arsenic exposure in the area, several matrices and targets were analyzed. As matrices, water and soil samples were analyzed. As targets, canine and human hair was studied. The aim of this study was to investigate acute and chronically exposure to arsenic of La Matanza inhabitants.

  7. The effects of acute waterborne exposure to sublethal concentrations of molybdenum on the stress response in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea D Ricketts

    Full Text Available To determine if molybdenum (Mo is a chemical stressor, fingerling and juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss were exposed to waterborne sodium molybdate (0, 2, 20, or 1,000 mg l-1 of Mo and components of the physiological (plasma cortisol, blood glucose, and hematocrit and cellular (heat shock protein [hsp] 72, hsp73, and hsp90 in the liver, gills, heart, and erythrocytes and metallothionein [MT] in the liver and gills stress responses were measured prior to initiation of exposure and at 8, 24, and 96 h. During the acute exposure, plasma cortisol, blood glucose, and hematocrit levels remained unchanged in all treatments. Heat shock protein 72 was not induced as a result of exposure and there were no detectable changes in total hsp70 (72 and 73, hsp90, and MT levels in any of the tissues relative to controls. Both fingerling and juvenile fish responded with similar lack of apparent sensitivity to Mo exposure. These experiments demonstrate that exposure to waterborne Mo of up to 1,000 mg l(-1 did not activate a physiological or cellular stress response in fish. Information from this study suggests that Mo water quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life are highly protective of freshwater fish, namely rainbow trout.

  8. Slow and stepped re-warming after acute low temperature exposure do not improve survival of Drosophila melanogaster larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Brent J; Rajamohan, Arun

    2008-01-01

    We tested that hypothesis that slow re-warming rates would improve the ability of Drosophila melanogaster Meigen larvae to survive acute low temperature exposure. Four larval stages (1(st), 2(nd), 3(rd) instars and wandering stage 3(rd) instars) of four wild-type strains were exposed to -7 degrees C for periods of time expected to result in 90 % mortality. Larvae were then either directly transferred to their rearing temperature (21 degrees C), or returned to this temperature in a stepwise fashion (pausing at 0 and 15 degrees C) or by slow warming at 1 or 0.1 degrees C/min. We observed a reduced rapid cold-hardening effect and no general increase in survival of acute chilling in larvae re-warmed in a stepwise or slow fashion, and hypothesise that slow re-warming may result in accumulation of further chill injuries.

  9. Acute chlorine gas exposure produces transient inflammation and a progressive alteration in surfactant composition with accompanying mechanical dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massa, Christopher B.; Scott, Pamela; Abramova, Elena; Gardner, Carol; Laskin, Debra L.; Gow, Andrew J., E-mail: Gow@rci.rutgers.edu

    2014-07-01

    Acute Cl{sub 2} exposure following industrial accidents or military/terrorist activity causes pulmonary injury and severe acute respiratory distress. Prior studies suggest that antioxidant depletion is important in producing dysfunction, however a pathophysiologic mechanism has not been elucidated. We propose that acute Cl{sub 2} inhalation leads to oxidative modification of lung lining fluid, producing surfactant inactivation, inflammation and mechanical respiratory dysfunction at the organ level. C57BL/6J mice underwent whole-body exposure to an effective 60 ppm-hour Cl{sub 2} dose, and were euthanized 3, 24 and 48 h later. Whereas pulmonary architecture and endothelial barrier function were preserved, transient neutrophilia, peaking at 24 h, was noted. Increased expression of ARG1, CCL2, RETLNA, IL-1b, and PTGS2 genes was observed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells with peak change in all genes at 24 h. Cl{sub 2} exposure had no effect on NOS2 mRNA or iNOS protein expression, nor on BAL NO{sub 3}{sup −} or NO{sub 2}{sup −}. Expression of the alternative macrophage activation markers, Relm-α and mannose receptor was increased in alveolar macrophages and pulmonary epithelium. Capillary surfactometry demonstrated impaired surfactant function, and altered BAL phospholipid and surfactant protein content following exposure. Organ level respiratory function was assessed by forced oscillation technique at 5 end expiratory pressures. Cl{sub 2} exposure had no significant effect on either airway or tissue resistance. Pulmonary elastance was elevated with time following exposure and demonstrated PEEP refractory derecruitment at 48 h, despite waning inflammation. These data support a role for surfactant inactivation as a physiologic mechanism underlying respiratory dysfunction following Cl{sub 2} inhalation. - Highlights: • Effect of 60 ppm*hr Cl{sub 2} gas on lung inflammation and mechanical function examined. • Pulmonary inflammation is transient and minor.

  10. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li; Wang, Linlong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE+ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE+HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE+HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a "two-programming" hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is "the first programming", and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as "the second programming".

  11. Short-term exposure to ambient particulate matter and emergency ambulance dispatch for acute illness in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasmin, Saira; Ueda, Kayo; Stickley, Andrew; Yasumoto, Shinya; Phung, Vera Ling Hui; Oishi, Mizuki; Yasukouchi, Shusuke; Uehara, Yamato; Michikawa, Takehiro; Nitta, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    Short-term exposure to air pollution may be linked to negative health outcomes that require an emergency medical response. However, few studies have been undertaken on this phenomenon to date. The aim of this study therefore was to examine the association between short-term exposure to ambient suspended particulate matter (SPM) and emergency ambulance dispatches (EADs) for acute illness in Japan. Daily EAD data, daily mean SPM and meteorological data were obtained for four prefectures in the Kanto region of Japan for the period from 2007 to 2011. The area-specific association between daily EAD for acute illness and SPM was explored using generalized linear models while controlling for ambient temperature, relative humidity, seasonality, long-term trends, day of the week and public holidays. Stratified analyses were conducted to evaluate the modifying effects of age, sex and medical conditions. Area-specific estimates were combined using meta-analyses. For the total study period the mean level of SPM was 23.7μg/m(3). In general, higher SPM was associated with a significant increase in EAD for acute illness [estimated pooled relative risk (RR): 1.008, 95% CI: 1.007 to 1.010 per 10μg/m(3) increase in SPM at lag 0-1]. The effects of SPM on EAD for acute illness were significantly greater for moderate/mild medical conditions (e.g. cases that resulted in 3weeks hospitalization or which resulted in death). Using EAD data, this study has shown the adverse health effects of ambient air pollution. This highlights the importance of reducing the level of air pollution in order to maintain population health and well-being.

  12. 纳洛酮治疗急性酒精中毒75例临床观察%Clinical Observation of Naloxone in Treating Acute Alcoholism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪晓溪

    2013-01-01

    Objective to observe the clinical curative ef ect and safety of Naloxone in treating acute alcoholism. Methods 150 cases of acute alcoholism were randomly divided into the experimental group (n=75) and the control group (n=75). Patients in the control group were treated with conventional therapy.Patients in the experimental group were treated with Naloxone.Observing the clinical curative ef ect of two groups. Results The time of consciousness recovery and clearing up symptom was shorter in the Naloxone treatment group than that in the control group (P<0.01) .And no adverse event occurred. Conclusion Naloxone is safe and ef ective in treating acute alcoholism ,and could be wildly used.%目的:观察钠洛酮治疗急性酒精中毒的临床疗效及安全性。方法150例急性酒精中毒患者随机分为两组,对照组75例,采用常规治疗,治疗组75例,采用钠洛酮治疗,对比观察两组的疗效。结果纳洛酮治疗急性酒精中毒的清醒时间明显较对照组提前(P<0.01),且未发现副作用。结论说明纳洛酮使安全有效,值得推广。

  13. Effects of acute versus repeated cocaine exposure on the expression of endocannabinoid signaling-related proteins in the mouse cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana ePalomino

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Growing awareness of cerebellar involvement in addiction is based on the cerebellum’s intermediary position between motor and reward, potentially acting as an interface between motivational and cognitive functions. Here, we examined the impact of acute and repeated cocaine exposure on the two main signaling systems in the mouse cerebellum: the endocannabinoid (eCB and glutamate systems. To this end, we investigated whether eCB signaling-related gene and protein expression (CB1 receptors and enzymes that produce (DAGLα/β and NAPE-PLD and degrade (MAGL and FAAH eCB were altered. In addition, we analyzed the gene expression of relevant components of the glutamate signaling system (glutamate synthesizing enzymes LGA and KGA, mGluR3/5 metabotropic receptors, and NR1/2A/2B/2C-NMDA and GluR1/2/3/4-AMPA ionotropic receptor subunits and the gene expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, because noradrenergic terminals innervate the cerebellar cortex. Results indicated that acute cocaine exposure decreased DAGLα expression, suggesting a down-regulation of 2-AG production, as well as gene expression of TH, KGA, mGluR3 and all ionotropic receptor subunits analyzed in the cerebellum. The acquisition of conditioned locomotion and sensitization after repeated cocaine exposure were associated with an increased NAPE-PLD/FAAH ratio, suggesting enhanced anandamide production, and a decreased DAGLβ/MAGL ratio, suggesting decreased 2-AG generation. Repeated cocaine also increased LGA gene expression but had no effect on glutamate receptors. These findings indicate that acute cocaine modulates the expression of the eCB and glutamate systems. Repeated cocaine results in normalization of glutamate receptor expression, although sustained changes in eCB is observed. We suggest that cocaine-induced alterations to cerebellar eCB should be considered when analyzing the adaptations imposed by psychostimulants that

  14. Long-term ethanol exposure decreases the endotoxin-induced hepatic acute phase response in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glavind, Emilie; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Grønbaek, Henning

    2017-01-01

    -fed rats showed either no liver histopathological changes or varying degrees of steatosis. Ethanol feeding decreased the spontaneous liver mRNA expression of the prevailing acute phase protein alpha-2-macroglobulin by 30% (Ptumor necrosis factor...... an induced acute phase response is impaired in long-term ethanol-fed rats. METHODS: For six weeks, rats were either fed a Lieber-DeCarli ethanol-containing (36% as calories) liquid diet ad libitum or calorically pair-fed. Then, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with a low-dose of lipopolysaccharide...... (LPS) (0.5 mg/kg) to induce an acute phase response. Two hours after LPS, we measured the plasma concentrations of an array of inflammatory cytokines. Twenty-four hours after LPS, we measured the hepatic mRNA expression and serum concentrations of prominent rat acute phase proteins. RESULTS: Ethanol...

  15. Effects of Acute Oral 5-aminotetrazole (5-AT) Exposure to Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-12

    Micronucleus Assay (MNA) Male rats from the 5-AT study (three highest dose groups and the vehicle control) were tested for DNA damage in their peripheral...Dose Test (Sub-acute Study) - Sperm Collection and Analysis 09/25/2013 10/07/2013 14-Day Repeated Dose Test (Sub-acute Study) - Micronucleus Assay...2015 Prepared by: Valerie H Adams, Ph.D. Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Specialty: 500C Toxicity Test Toxicity Report No. S

  16. A prospective cohort study of alcohol exposure in early and late pregnancy within an urban population in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Deirdre J

    2014-02-01

    Most studies of alcohol consumption in pregnancy have looked at one time point only, often relying on recall. The aim of this longitudinal study was to determine whether alcohol consumption changes in early and late pregnancy and whether this affects perinatal outcomes. We performed a prospective cohort study, conducted from November 2010 to December 2011 at a teaching hospital in the Republic of Ireland. Of the 907 women with a singleton pregnancy who booked for antenatal care and delivered at the hospital, 185 (20%) abstained from alcohol in the first trimester but drank in the third trimester, 105 (12%) consumed alcohol in the first and third trimesters, and the remaining 617 (68%) consumed no alcohol in pregnancy. Factors associated with continuing to drink in pregnancy included older maternal age (30-39 years), Irish nationality, private healthcare, smoking, and a history of illicit drug use. Compared to pre-pregnancy, alcohol consumption in pregnancy was markedly reduced, with the majority of drinkers consuming ≤ 5 units per week (92% in first trimester, 72-75% in third trimester). Perhaps because of this, perinatal outcomes were similar for non-drinkers, women who abstained from alcohol in the first trimester, and women who drank in the first and third trimester of pregnancy. Most women moderate their alcohol consumption in pregnancy, especially in the first trimester, and have perinatal outcomes similar to those who abstain.

  17. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary acute exposure of the population of Denmark to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christensen, Tue

    2009-01-01

    Organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides are acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides and as such have a common mode of action. We assessed the cumulative acute exposure of the population of Denmark to 25 organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide residues from the consumption of fruit, vegetables...... the nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2000-2002. Contributions from 43 commodities were included in the calculations. We used the relative potency factor (RPF) approach to normalize the toxicity of the various organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides to the two index compounds chlorpyriphos...

  18. 急性氯氰菊酯中毒合并急性酒精中毒的临床探讨%Clinical study of acute cypermethrin poisoning afifliated with acute alcohol intoxication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿海龙; 梁璐; 麻月云

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of plasma concentration of alcohol on blood cypermethrin concentration and the prognosis of the patients when acute cypermethrin poisoning afifliated with acute alcohol intoxication. Methods 60 cypermethrin poisoning cases were divided into mixed cypermethrin group and cypermethrin group , blood samples were taken on admission from patients, the cypermethrin concentration were detected, blood alcohol concentration also detected in mixed group. Sex, age, cypermethrin concentration, mortality rate were analysised, meanwhile, speaman correlation were used to investigate whether associations between alcohol and cypermethrin. Results Compared with patients with no alcohol in their blood, patients with detectable alcohol were more likely to be male, the cypermethrin concentration and death rate were more higher than control group (P<0.05). There was a positive correlation between alcohol and cypermethrin levels. Conclusion Acute cypermethrin poisoning afifliated with acute alcohol intoxication is associated with higher blood concentrations of cypermethrin and increased risk of death.%目的:探讨急性氯氰菊酯中毒合并急性酒精中毒时,血浆酒精浓度及氯氰菊酯浓度相关性及此类患者的预后。方法对60例急性氯氰菊酯中毒患者,根据中毒前是否饮酒分为混合中毒组与单纯中毒组,所有患者行血浆氯氰菊酯浓度检测,对混合中毒组患者行血浆酒精浓度检测;对两组患者的一般资料(性别、年龄、氯氰菊酯浓度)及死亡率进行统计学处理,并对酒精浓度与氯氰菊酯浓度相关性进行分析。结果两组患者存在性别差异,混合中毒组男性明显高于女性(P<0.05);混合中毒组患者血液中氯氰菊酯含量、病死率明显升高(P<0.05);混合中毒组患者血浆酒精浓度与血液中氯氰菊酯浓度呈正相关,饮酒量越多,氯氰菊酯中毒程度越重。结论急性氯氰

  19. Renal effects of acute exposure to toluene. A controlled clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H K; Krusell, Lars Romer; Bælum, Jesper

    1985-01-01

    Urinary excretion rates of beta 2-microglobulin and albumin were measured in 43 male printing trade workers and 43 age-matched male controls before and during exposure to toluene, 382 mg/m3, for 6 1/2 hours in a climate chamber. There were no significant changes in renal excretion rates of albumin...... and beta 2-microglobulin during toluene exposure indicating that no causal relationship exists between moderate exposure to organic solvents and renal injury....

  20. Probabilistic acute dietary exposure assessments to captan and tolylfluanid using several European food consumption and pesticide concentration databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, Polly E.; Svensson, Kettil; Moussavian, Shahnaz

    2009-01-01

    Probabilistic dietary acute exposure assessments of captan and tolylfluanid were performed for the populations of the Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden. The basis for these assessments was national databases for food consumption and pesticide concentration data harmonised...... at the level of raw agricultural commodity. Data were obtained from national food consumption surveys and national monitoring programmes and organised in an electronic platform of databases connected to probabilistic software. The exposure assessments were conducted by linking national food consumption data...... to national food consumption surveys. In this way it is possible to exchange or merge concentration data between countries in situations of data scarcity. This electronic platform in connection with probabilistic software can be seen as a prototype of a data warehouse, including a harmonised approach...

  1. Quantification of optic disc edema during exposure to high altitude shows no correlation to acute mountain sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Willmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The study aimed to quantify changes of the optic nerve head (ONH during exposure to high altitude and to assess a correlation with acute mountain sickness (AMS. This work is related to the Tuebingen High Altitude Ophthalmology (THAO study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO, Heidelberg Retina Tomograph, HRT3® was used to quantify changes at the ONH in 18 healthy participants before, during and after rapid ascent to high altitude (4559 m. Slitlamp biomicroscopy was used for clinical optic disc evaluation; AMS was assessed with Lake Louise (LL and AMS-cerebral (AMS-c scores; oxygen saturation (SpO₂ and heart rate (HR were monitored. These parameters were used to correlate with changes at the ONH. After the first night spent at high altitude, incidence of AMS was 55% and presence of clinical optic disc edema (ODE 79%. Key stereometric parameters of the HRT3® used to describe ODE (mean retinal nerve fiber layer [RNFL] thickness, RNFL cross sectional area, optic disc rim volume and maximum contour elevation changed significantly at high altitude compared to baseline (p<0.05 and were consistent with clinically described ODE. All changes were reversible in all participants after descent. There was no significant correlation between parameters of ODE and AMS, SpO₂ or HR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Exposure to high altitude leads to reversible ODE in the majority of healthy subjects. However, these changes did not correlate with AMS or basic physiologic parameters such as SpO₂ and HR. For the first time, a quantitative approach has been used to assess these changes during acute, non-acclimatized high altitude exposure. In conclusion, ODE presents a reaction of the body to high altitude exposure unrelated to AMS.

  2. Quantification of Optic Disc Edema during Exposure to High Altitude Shows No Correlation to Acute Mountain Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmann, Gabriel; Fischer, M. Dominik; Schatz, Andreas; Schommer, Kai; Messias, Andre; Zrenner, Eberhart; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl U.; Gekeler, Florian

    2011-01-01

    Background The study aimed to quantify changes of the optic nerve head (ONH) during exposure to high altitude and to assess a correlation with acute mountain sickness (AMS). This work is related to the Tuebingen High Altitude Ophthalmology (THAO) study. Methodology/Principal Findings A confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO, Heidelberg Retina Tomograph, HRT3®) was used to quantify changes at the ONH in 18 healthy participants before, during and after rapid ascent to high altitude (4559 m). Slitlamp biomicroscopy was used for clinical optic disc evaluation; AMS was assessed with Lake Louise (LL) and AMS-cerebral (AMS-c) scores; oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate (HR) were monitored. These parameters were used to correlate with changes at the ONH. After the first night spent at high altitude, incidence of AMS was 55% and presence of clinical optic disc edema (ODE) 79%. Key stereometric parameters of the HRT3® used to describe ODE (mean retinal nerve fiber layer [RNFL] thickness, RNFL cross sectional area, optic disc rim volume and maximum contour elevation) changed significantly at high altitude compared to baseline (p<0.05) and were consistent with clinically described ODE. All changes were reversible in all participants after descent. There was no significant correlation between parameters of ODE and AMS, SpO2 or HR. Conclusions/Significance Exposure to high altitude leads to reversible ODE in the majority of healthy subjects. However, these changes did not correlate with AMS or basic physiologic parameters such as SpO2 and HR. For the first time, a quantitative approach has been used to assess these changes during acute, non-acclimatized high altitude exposure. In conclusion, ODE presents a reaction of the body to high altitude exposure unrelated to AMS. PMID:22069483

  3. Final report of the safety assessment of Alcohol Denat., including SD Alcohol 3-A, SD Alcohol 30, SD Alcohol 39, SD Alcohol 39-B, SD Alcohol 39-C, SD Alcohol 40, SD Alcohol 40-B, and SD Alcohol 40-C, and the denaturants, Quassin, Brucine Sulfate/Brucine, and Denatonium Benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    animals that died, respiratory arrest was the cause. The acute i.p. LD(50) for 15 ml/kg of Brucine base was 62.0 mg/kg, with central nervous system depression prior to the onset of convulsions, just as with oral Brucine. The acute intravenous (i.v.) LD(50) was 12.0 mg/kg. Brucine was nonmutagenic in an Ames assay at levels up to 6666 mu g/plate, with and without metabolic activation. In a repeat-insult patch test, for a hair care product containing 47% SD Alcohol 40 (95%), it was reported that Brucine Sulfate may be considered a nonprimary irritant and a nonprimary sensitizer. Three different sunscreen products (35% SD Alcohol 40-B, 72.4% SD Alcohol 40, and 74.5% SD Alcohol 40) did not show any signs of photoallergy in human subjects. Also, these three formulas did not exhibit any evidence of phototoxicity in humans. Denatonium Benzoate is a bitter substance detectable at a concentration of 10 ppb, discernibly bitter at 50 ppb, and unpleasantly bitter at 10 ppm. The distribution of topically applied lidocaine, a topical anesthetic chemically related to Denatonium Benzoate demonstrated that virtually no lidocaine appears in the plasma, suggesting that the larger Denatonium Benzoate molecule also would have little or no systemic exposure. Denatonium Benzoate (0.1%) did not show adverse effects in 10 rats in an acute inhalation toxicity test and 0.005% to 0.05% was nonirritating to ocular mucosa in 6 albino rabbits. The acute oral LD(50) for the male rats was 640 mg/kg and for females, 584 mg/kg. The LD(50) for the male rabbits was 508 mg/kg and for the female rabbits, 640 mg/kg. In two chronic toxicity studies, Denatonium Benzoate was administered (by gavage) at 1.6, 8, and 16 mg/kg/day, one using cynomologus monkeys and the other rats, resulted in no compound-related toxicity. The toxicity of SD Alcohols has also been tested, with implications for the particular denaturant used. An irritation test of 55.65% SD Alcohol 40-B denatured with Denatonium Benzoate using rabbits

  4. The Effect of Preconception Paternal Alcohol Exposure on Epigenetic Remodelling of the H19 and Rasgrf1 Imprinting Control Regions in Mouse Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaysen Gregory Knezovich

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Imprinted loci play a critical role in fetal development. Their expression is often regulated by CTCF protein binding at imprinting control regions (ICRs. Parental alcohol exposure has been shown to reduce global DNA methylation in the developing mouse fetus. This study explored the effect of preconception paternal alcohol exposure on DNA methylation at two paternally methylated ICRs (H19 and Rasgrf1 in the sperm of exposed males and somatic DNA of sired offspring. Significant reductions at the H19 CTCF 1 (p=0.0027 and CTCF 2 (p=0.0009 binding sites were observed in the offspring of ethanol-treated sires, which was significantly correlated with reduced weight at postnatal days 35 to 42 (p<0.05. As birth weight was unaffected and growth was only delayed during the postnatal weaning period, with subsequent re-convergence, we hypothesise that this may be the result of a mental deficit causing delayed establishment of independent feeding following weaning and would explain why this effect is transient. No difference in DNA methylation was observed in the sperm of alcohol-exposed males, indicating that the transmission of the epigenetic signal at conception is not due to altered methylation, but may be the result of an RNA-mediated mechanism or altered chromatin remodelling.

  5. Contributing Factors for Acute Illness/Injury from Childhood Pesticide Exposure in North Carolina, USA, 2007–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmalla Barros

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Between 2007 and 2013, there were 685 events with evidence of a relationship between pesticide exposure and acute illness/injury among persons less than 18 years old in North Carolina (United States. Median age of children affected was 4.3 years (range: 0.2–17.9. Distribution by gender was similar across all age groups. One fatality and four high severity events were observed. The greatest proportion (42% of events had ocular exposures, followed by dermal (25% and inhalation (18% exposures. When more than one route of exposure occurred, dermal and ocular routes were the most common (46%. Almost all events took place indoors and 32 events involved contact with pets. Insecticides (53% and insect repellants (31% were the most frequent agents contributing to these events. Manual application of pesticides contributed to the greatest number of events (25%, while application through a pressurized can and use of a trigger pump were involved in 21% and 15% of events, respectively. Additional contributors were due to inappropriate storage of pesticides and improper use of the pesticide. These contributing factors can be removed or minimized if pesticides are stored outside the residence or out of the reach of children and pets, and adequate ventilation is ensured whenever pesticides are applied.

  6. Enhanced biosynthesis of quercetin occurs as A photoprotective measure in Lycopersicon esculentum mill. under Acute UV-B exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilasha Shourie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Lycopersicon esculentum respond to UV-B by enhanced synthesis of flavonoid quercetin, a strong antioxidant that helps the plants to well acclimatize to UV-B stress. Three weeks old plants of L. esculentum were subjected to acute UV-B irradiation for 20, 40 and 60 minutes daily until 28 days and analyzed for the morphological and biochemical changes. UV-B exposure for 40 and 60 minutes considerably affected the growth and biomass of L. esculentum. The leaves were deformed, developed chlorosis and abscised early as compared to the unexposed plants. Biomass declined by 35% and total chlorophyll decreased by 24.7% due to disintegration of chloroplasts. Enhancement was seen in the content of carotenoids, anthocyanins and total flavonoids by 15, 33.3 and 22.8%, respectively, which was attributed to the photoprotective role of these compounds as potential quenchers of excess excitation energy. Quercetin content decreased on UV-B exposure to 20 and 40 min, and thereafter increased significantly by 5.19% on 60 min of exposure. This pattern probably indicated that the over-expression of genes involved in its biosynthesis such as phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, chalcone synthase (CHS, flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR occurred only after certain threshold exposure (60 min, which could be the strategy for developing tolerance against UV-B stress in L. esculentum.

  7. Probabilistic acute dietary exposure assessments to captan and tolylfluanid using several European food consumption and pesticide concentration databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Polly E; Svensson, Kettil; Moussavian, Shahnaz; van der Voet, Hilko; Petersen, Annette; Ruprich, Jiri; Debegnach, Francesca; de Boer, Waldo J; van Donkersgoed, Gerda; Brera, Carlo; van Klaveren, Jacob D; Busk, Leif

    2009-12-01

    Probabilistic dietary acute exposure assessments of captan and tolylfluanid were performed for the populations of the Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden. The basis for these assessments was national databases for food consumption and pesticide concentration data harmonised at the level of raw agricultural commodity. Data were obtained from national food consumption surveys and national monitoring programmes and organised in an electronic platform of databases connected to probabilistic software. The exposure assessments were conducted by linking national food consumption data either (1) to national pesticide concentration data or (2) to a pooled database containing all national pesticide concentration data. We show that with this tool national exposure assessments can be performed in a harmonised way and that pesticide concentrations of other countries can be linked to national food consumption surveys. In this way it is possible to exchange or merge concentration data between countries in situations of data scarcity. This electronic platform in connection with probabilistic software can be seen as a prototype of a data warehouse, including a harmonised approach for dietary exposure modelling.

  8. Influence of acclimation and exposure temperature on the acute toxicity of cadmium to the freshwater snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, V.; Forbes, V.E.; Depledge, M.H. (Odense Univ. (Denmark). Ecotoxicology Group)

    1994-09-01

    Forty-eight-hour acute toxicity tests were performed to determine the influence of acclimation temperature (5, 15, and 20 C) and exposure temperature (5, 15, and 20 C) on the toxicity of cadmium to the freshwater gastropod Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Mortality varied with cadmium concentration and treatment conditions, but did not conform to conventional sigmoid concentration-response relationships. Because the shapes of the concentration-response curves were treatment dependent, a nontraditional approach for data analysis was employed. Regardless of acclimation temperature, mortality increased with increasing exposure temperature, and at all exposure temperatures snails acclimated at 15 C were most susceptible to cadmium toxicity. Estimated LC50 values were within 1 to 4 mg Cd/L. Although the shapes of the concentration-response curves were different for each treatment, the slopes were generally quite steep, indicating a uniform response for the whole population. At a given Cd concentration, acclimation temperature and exposure temperature accounted for 57 and 40%, respectively, of the variation in mortality, and LC50s changed by a factor of four. The results indicate that changes in environmental variables can alter both the degree of response and the response distribution of a population, and that past as well as prevailing environmental conditions can influence organismic responses to toxicants.

  9. Cellular distribution of uranium after acute exposure of renal epithelial cells: SEM, TEM and nuclear microscopy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrière, Marie; Gouget, Barbara; Gallien, Jean-Paul; Avoscan, Laure; Gobin, Renée; Verbavatz, Jean-Marc; Khodja, Hicham

    2005-04-01

    The major health effect of uranium exposure has been reported to be chemical kidney toxicity, functional and histological damages being mainly observed in proximal tubule cells. Uranium enters the proximal tubule as uranyl-bicarbonate or uranyl-citrate complexes. The aim of our research is to investigate the mechanisms of uranium toxicity, intracellular accumulation and repartition after acute intoxication of rat renal proximal tubule epithelial cells, as a function of its chemical form. Microscopic observations of renal epithelial cells after acute exposure to uranyl-bicarbonate showing the presence of intracellular precipitates as thin needles of uranyl-phosphate localized in cell lysosomes have been published. However the initial site of precipitates formation has not been identified yet: they could either be formed outside the cells before internalization, or directly inside the cells. Uranium solubility as a function and initial concentration was specified by ICP-MS analysis of culture media. In parallel, uranium uptake and distribution in cell monolayers exposed to U-bicarbonate was investigated by nuclear microprobe analyses. Finally, the presence of uranium precipitates was tested out by scanning electron microscopic observations (SEM), while extracellular and/or intracellular precipitates were observed on thin sections of cells by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  10. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes exhibit heightened monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1 response to acute fatty acid exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dordevic, Aimee L; Konstantopoulos, Nicky; Cameron-Smith, David

    2014-01-01

    Preadipocytes contribute to the inflammatory responses within adipose tissue. Whilst fatty acids are known to elicit an inflammatory response within adipose tissue, the relative contribution of preadipocytes and mature adipocytes to this is yet to be determined. We aimed to examine the actions of common dietary fatty acids on the acute inflammatory and adipokine response in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and differentiated mature adipocytes. Gene expression levels of key adipokines in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and adipocytes were determined following incubation with palmitic acid, myristic acid or oleic acid and positive inflammatory control, lipopolysaccharide for 2 and 4 h. Inflammatory kinase signalling was assessed by analysis of nuclear factor-κB, p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-jun amino-terminal kinase phosphorylation. Under basal conditions, intracellular monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-6 gene expression levels were increased in preadipocytes, whereas mature adipocytes expressed increased gene expression levels of leptin and adiponectin. Fatty acid exposure at 2 and 4 h increased both monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-6 gene expression levels in preadipocytes to greater levels than in mature adipocytes. There was an accompanying increase of inhibitor of κB-α degradation and nuclear factor-κB (p65) (Ser536) phosphorylation with fatty acid exposure in the preadipocytes only. The current study points to preadipocytes rather than the adipocytes as the contributors to both immune cell recruitment and inflammatory adipokine secretion with acute increases in fatty acids.

  11. Clinical, cardiopulmonary and haemocytological effects of xylazine in goats after acute exposure to different environmental temperature and humidity conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G.M. Mogoa

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the influence of xylazine administration on clinical, cardiopulmonary and haemocytological variables after acute exposure to different environmental conditions. Xylazine hydrochloride was administered intravenously at 0.1 mg/kg body mass to 6 clinically healthy, castrated male goats. All animals were exposed for 60 min to 3 sets of climatic conditions: 14 °C, 33% relative humidity; 24 °C, 55% RH, and 34 °C, 65% RH. The variables that were measured for a period of 60 min after xylazine administration were sedation, analgesia, salivation, urination, ventilation rate, heart-rate, mean arterial blood pressure, oesophageal temperature, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration. Xylazine induced sedation, analgesia, salivation and urination independently of the 3 environmental conditions. Environment had no influence on the onset, duration and recovery from sedation. In the 14 °C environment, xylazine resulted in a significant decrease in ventilation and heart-rate from baseline values. Significant changes in mean arterial blood pressure, haemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, haematocrit and red cell count were observed in the 3 environments. Total plasma protein was significantly altered at 24 °C and 34 °C. Acute exposure of goats to different environmental conditions had no significant influence on the clinical, cardiopulmonary and haemocytological variables. Physiological changes induced by xylazine were therefore independent of the environment.

  12. Cellular distribution of uranium after acute exposure of renal epithelial cells: SEM, TEM and nuclear microscopy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carriere, Marie [Laboratoire Pierre Suee, CEA-CNRS UMR 9956, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)]. E-mail: carriere@drecam.cea.fr; Gouget, Barbara [Laboratoire Pierre Suee, CEA-CNRS UMR 9956, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gallien, Jean-Paul [Laboratoire Pierre Suee, CEA-CNRS UMR 9956, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Avoscan, Laure [Laboratoire Pierre Suee, CEA-CNRS UMR 9956, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gobin, Renee [Laboratoire d' imagerie cellulaire et moleculaire, DBJC/SBFM/LTMD, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Verbavatz, Jean-Marc [Laboratoire d' imagerie cellulaire et moleculaire, DBJC/SBFM/LTMD, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Khodja, Hicham [Laboratoire Pierre Suee, CEA-CNRS UMR 9956, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2005-04-01

    The major health effect of uranium exposure has been reported to be chemical kidney toxicity, functional and histological damages being mainly observed in proximal tubule cells. Uranium enters the proximal tubule as uranyl-bicarbonate or uranyl-citrate complexes. The aim of our research is to investigate the mechanisms of uranium toxicity, intracellular accumulation and repartition after acute intoxication of rat renal proximal tubule epithelial cells, as a function of its chemical form. Microscopic observations of renal epithelial cells after acute exposure to uranyl-bicarbonate showing the presence of intracellular precipitates as thin needles of uranyl-phosphate localized in cell lysosomes have been published. However the initial site of precipitates formation has not been identified yet: they could either be formed outside the cells before internalization, or directly inside the cells. Uranium solubility as a function and initial concentration was specified by ICP-MS analysis of culture media. In parallel, uranium uptake and distribution in cell monolayers exposed to U-bicarbonate was investigated by nuclear microprobe analyses. Finally, the presence of uranium precipitates was tested out by scanning electron microscopic observations (SEM), while extracellular and/or intracellular precipitates were observed on thin sections of cells by transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

  13. The effects of acute stress exposure on neural correlates of Pavlovian conditioning with monetary gains and losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea H Lewis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pavlovian conditioning involves the association of an inherently neutral stimulus with an appetitive or aversive outcome, such that the neutral stimulus itself acquires reinforcing properties. Across species, this type of learning has been shown to involve subcortical brain regions such as the striatum and the amygdala. It is less clear, however, how the neural circuitry involved in the acquisition of Pavlovian contingencies in humans is affected by acute stress. In the current study, we investigate the effect of acute stress exposure on Pavlovian conditioning using monetary reinforcers. Participants underwent a partial reinforcement conditioning procedure in which neutral stimuli were paired with high and low magnitude monetary gains and losses. A between-subjects design was used, such that half of the participants were exposed to cold stress while the remaining participants were exposed to a no stress control procedure. Cortisol measurements and subjective ratings were used as measures of stress. We observed an interaction between stress, valence and magnitude in the ventral striatum, with the peak in the putamen. More specifically, the stress group exhibited an increased sensitivity to magnitude in the gain domain. This effect was driven by those participants who experienced a larger increase in circulating cortisol levels in response to the stress manipulation. Taken together, these results suggest that acute stress can lead to individual differences in circulating cortisol levels which influence brain regions involved in associative learning such as the ventral striatum.

  14. The effects of acute stress exposure on striatal activity during Pavlovian conditioning with monetary gains and losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Andrea H; Porcelli, Anthony J; Delgado, Mauricio R

    2014-01-01

    Pavlovian conditioning involves the association of an inherently neutral stimulus with an appetitive or aversive outcome, such that the neutral stimulus itself acquires reinforcing properties. Across species, this type of learning has been shown to involve subcortical brain regions such as the striatum and the amygdala. It is less clear, however, how the neural circuitry involved in the acquisition of Pavlovian contingencies in humans, particularly in the striatum, is affected by acute stress. In the current study, we investigate the effect of acute stress exposure on Pavlovian conditioning using monetary reinforcers. Participants underwent a partial reinforcement conditioning procedure in which neutral stimuli were paired with high and low magnitude monetary gains and losses. A between-subjects design was used, such that half of the participants were exposed to cold stress while the remaining participants were exposed to a no stress control procedure. Cortisol measurements and subjective ratings were used as measures of stress. We observed an interaction between stress, valence, and magnitude in the ventral striatum, with the peak in the putamen. More specifically, the stress group exhibited an increased sensitivity to magnitude in the gain domain. This effect was driven by those participants who experienced a larger increase in circulating cortisol levels in response to the stress manipulation. Taken together, these results suggest that acute stress can lead to individual differences in circulating cortisol levels which influence the striatum during Pavlovian conditioning with monetary reinforcers.

  15. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  16. Hepatoprotective Effects of Antrodia cinnamomea: The Modulation of Oxidative Stress Signaling in a Mouse Model of Alcohol-Induced Acute Liver Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yange Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the components of A. cinnamomea (AC mycelia were systematically analyzed. Subsequently, its hepatoprotective effects and the underlying mechanisms were explored using a mouse model of acute alcohol-induced liver injury. AC contained 25 types of fatty acid, 16 types of amino acid, 3 types of nucleotide, and 8 types of mineral. The hepatoprotective effects were observed after 2 weeks of AC treatment at doses of 75 mg/kg, 225 mg/kg, and 675 mg/kg in the mouse model. These effects were indicated by the changes in the levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, several oxidation-related factors, and inflammatory cytokines in serum and/or liver samples. AC reduced the incidence rate of necrosis, inflammatory infiltration, fatty droplets formation, and cell apoptosis in liver detecting via histological and TUNEL assay. In addition, AC reduced the expression of cleaved caspase-3, -8, and -9 and the levels of phosphor-protein kinase B (Akt and phosphor-nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB in the liver samples. Collectively, AC-mediated hepatoprotective effects in a mouse model of acute alcohol-induced liver injury are the result of reduction in oxidative stress. This may be associated with Akt/NF-κB signaling. These results provide valuable evidence to support the use of A. cinnamomea as a functional food and/or medicine.

  17. [Physical diseases in alcoholism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Kojiro

    2015-09-01

    Rapid excessive alcohol drinking frequently causes disturbance of consciousness due to head trauma, brain edema, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, hepatic coma and so on, provoked by acute alcohol intoxication. Rapid differential diagnosis and management are extremely important to save a life. On the other hands, the chronic users of alcohol so called alcoholism has many kinds of physical diseases such as liver diseases (i.e., fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, alcoholic liver cirrhosis and miscellaneous liver disease), diabetes mellitus, injury to happen in drunkenness, pancreas disease (i.e., acute and chronic pancreatitis and deterioration of chronic pancreatitis), gastrontestinal diseases (i.e., gastroduodenal ulcer), and so on. Enough attention should be paid to above mentioned diseases, otherwise they would turn worse more with continuation and increase in quantity of the alcohol. It should be born in its mind that the excessive drinking becomes the weapon threatening life.

  18. The Role Of Neuropeptide Y (Npy) in Uncontrolled Alcohol Drinking and Relapse Behavior Resulting from Exposure to Stressful Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    and 3, mice were given intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of the orexigenic peptide ghrelin (0, 10 or 30 mg ⁄ kg) or the anorectic protein leptin (0 or...Drinking in the Dark, Food, Alcohol, Ghrelin , Leptin , Calories. T O ASSIST IN identifying the genetic and neurobiologi-cal factors that underlie...Nicolas et al., 2001). Thus, as with ghrelin , while leptin may be involved with craving in human alcoholics, its role in modulating ethanol consumption

  19. Renal excretion in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) after acute exposure to 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunn, J.B.; Allen, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    COHO SALMON (ONCORHYNCHUS KISUTCH) EXPOSED TO AN ACUTE, SUBLETHAL CONCENTRATION OF 3-TRIFLUOROMETHLY 1-4 NITROPHENOL (TFM) EXHIBITED AN INCREASED OUTPUT OF URINE WHEN COMPARED WITH CONTROLS, BUT THE URINARY EXCRETION OF NA, K, CA, MG AND C1 WAS NOT AFFECTED. ABOUT 35 TIMES MORE CONJUGATED TFM THAN FREE TFM WAS EXCRETED DURING THE 24-HOUR STUDY PERIOD.

  20. Clinical and pathological manifestations of cardiovascular disease in rat models: the influence of acute ozone exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper shows that rat models of cardiovascular diseases have differential degrees of underlying pathologies at a young age. Rodent models of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and metabolic disorders are used for examining susceptibility variations to environmental exposures. How...

  1. Acute exposure to high environmental ammonia (HEA) triggers the emersion response in the green shore crab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Alex M; Wood, Chris M

    2017-02-01

    The physiological effects of high environmental ammonia (HEA) exposure have been well documented in many aquatic species. In particular, it has recently been demonstrated that exposure to ammonia in fish leads to a similar hyperventilatory response as observed during exposure to hypoxia. In littoral crabs, such as the green crab (Carcinus maenas), exposure to severe hypoxia triggers an emersion response whereby crabs escape hypoxia to breathe air. We hypothesized that exposure to HEA in green crabs would lead to a similar behavioural response which is specific to ammonia. Using an experimental arena containing a rock bed onto which crabs could emerse, we established that exposure to HEA (4mmol/l NH4HCO3) for 15min triggers emersion in crabs. In experiments utilizing NaHCO3 controls and NH4HCO3 injections, we further determined that emersion was triggered specifically by external ammonia and was independent of secondary acid-base or respiratory disturbances caused by HEA. We then hypothesized that emersion from HEA provides a physiological benefit, similar to emersion from hypoxia. Exposure to 15min of HEA without emersion (no rock bed present) caused significant increases in arterial haemolymph total ammonia (Tamm), pH, and [HCO3(-)]. When emersion was allowed, arterial haemolymph Tamm and [HCO3(-)] increased, but no alkalosis developed. Moreover, emersion decreased haemolymph partial pressure of NH3 relative to crabs which could not emerse. Overall, we demonstrate a novel behavioural response to HEA exposure in crabs which we propose may share similar mechanistic pathways with the emersion response triggered by hypoxia.

  2. Exploring uncoupling proteins and antioxidant mechanisms under acute cold exposure in brains of fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Che Tseng

    Full Text Available Exposure to fluctuating temperatures accelerates the mitochondrial respiration and increases the formation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS in ectothermic vertebrates including fish. To date, little is known on potential oxidative damage and on protective antioxidative defense mechanisms in the brain of fish under cold shock. In this study, the concentration of cellular protein carbonyls in brain was significantly increased by 38% within 1 h after cold exposure (from 28 °C to 18 °C of zebrafish (Danio rerio. In addition, the specific activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and the mRNA level of catalase (CAT were increased after cold exposure by about 60% (6 h and by 60%-90% (1 and 24 h, respectively, while the specific glutathione content as well as the ratio of glutathione disulfide to glutathione remained constant and at a very low level. In addition, cold exposure increased the protein level of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF by about 50% and the mRNA level of the glucose transporter zglut3 in brain by 50%-100%. To test for an involvement of uncoupling proteins (UCPs in the cold adaptation of zebrafish, five UCP members were annotated and identified (zucp1-5. With the exception of zucp1, the mRNA levels of the other four zucps were significantly increased after cold exposure. In addition, the mRNA levels of four of the fish homologs (zppar of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR were increased after cold exposure. These data suggest that PPARs and UCPs are involved in the alterations observed in zebrafish brain after exposure to 18°C. The observed stimulation of the PPAR-UCP axis may help to prevent oxidative damage and to maintain metabolic balance and cellular homeostasis in the brains of ectothermic zebrafish upon cold exposure.

  3. Effect of Acute Noise Exposure on Salivary Cortisol: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouryaghoub, Gholamreza; Mehrdad, Ramin; Valipouri, Alireza

    2016-10-01

    Cardiovascular adverse effects are interesting aspects of occupational noise exposure. One possible mechanism of these effects is an alternation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Our aim was to measure salivary cortisol response to relatively high-intensity noise exposure in a controlled randomized trial study. We exposed 50 male volunteers to 90 dBA noise for 20 minutes and compared their level of salivary cortisol with 50 non-exposed controls. Salivary samples obtained before and after exposure. Before intervention means (SD) salivary cortisol level were 3.24 (0.47)ng/ml and 3.25 (0.41)ng/ml for exposed and non-exposed groups respectively. Mean salivary cortisol level increased to 4.17 ng/mlafter intervention in exposure group. This increment was statistically significant (P=0.00). Mean salivary cortisol level of the non-exposed group had statistically non-significant decrement after this period (0.2 ng/ml). The difference between salivary cortisol level of non-exposed and exposed groups after the intervention was statistically significant. Noise exposure may affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, and this may be one of the mechanisms of noise exposure cardiovascular effects.

  4. Mimicking exposures to acute and lifetime concentrations of inhaled silver nanoparticles by two different in vitro approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Herzog

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the emerging market of nano-sized products, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs are widely used due to their antimicrobial properties. Human interaction with Ag NPs can occur through the lung, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and bloodstream. However, the inhalation of Ag NP aerosols is a primary concern. To study the possible effects of inhaled Ag NPs, an in vitro triple cell co-culture model of the human alveolar/airway barrier (A549 epithelial cells, human peripheral blood monocyte derived dendritic and macrophage cells together with an air–liquid interface cell exposure (ALICE system was used in order to reflect a real-life exposure scenario. Cells were exposed at the air–liquid interface (ALI to 0.03, 0.3, and 3 µg Ag/cm2 of Ag NPs (diameter 100 nm; coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone: PVP. Ag NPs were found to be highly aggregated within ALI exposed cells with no impairment of cell morphology. Furthermore, a significant increase in release of cytotoxic (LDH, oxidative stress (SOD-1, HMOX-1 or pro-inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-8 was absent. As a comparison, cells were exposed to Ag NPs in submerged conditions to 10, 20, and 30 µg Ag/mL. The deposited dose per surface area was estimated by using a dosimetry model (ISDD to directly compare submerged vs ALI exposure concentrations after 4 and 24 h. Unlike ALI exposures, the two highest concentrations under submerged conditions promoted a cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory response after 24 h. Interestingly, when cell cultures were co-incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, no synergistic inflammatory effects were observed. By using two different exposure scenarios it has been shown that the ALI as well as the suspension conditions for the lower concentrations after 4 h, reflecting real-life concentrations of an acute 24 h exposure, did not induce any adverse effects in a complex 3D model mimicking the human alveolar/airway barrier. However, the highest concentrations used in the ALI setup, as well

  5. Acute Effects of Viral Exposure on P-Glycoprotein Function in the Mouse Fetal Blood-Brain Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrrico Bloise

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Viral infection during pregnancy is known to affect the fetal brain. The toll-like receptor (TLR-3 is a pattern recognition receptor activated by viruses known to elicit adverse fetal neurological outcomes. The P-glycoprotein (P-gp efflux transporter protects the developing fetus by limiting the transfer of substrates across both the placenta and the fetal blood-brain barrier (BBB. As such, inhibition of P-gp at these blood-barrier sites may result in increased exposure of the developing fetus to environmental toxins and xenobiotics present in the maternal circulation. We hypothesized that viral exposure during pregnancy would impair P-gp function in the placenta and in the developing BBB. Here we investigated whether the TLR-3 ligand, polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C, increased accumulation of one P-gp substrate in the fetus and in the developing fetal brain. Methods: Pregnant C57BL/6 mice (GD15.5 were injected (i.p. with PolyI:C (5 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg or vehicle (saline. [3H]digoxin (P-gp substrate was injected (i.v. 3 or 23h post-treatment and animals were euthanized 1h later. Maternal plasma, ‘fetal-units’ (fetal membranes, amniotic fluid and whole fetus, and fetal brains were collected. Results: PolyI:C exposure (4h significantly elevated maternal plasma IL-6 (P<0.001 and increased [3H]digoxin accumulation in the fetal brain (P<0.05. In contrast, 24h after PolyI:C exposure, no effect on IL-6 or fetal brain accumulation of P-gp substrate was observed. Conclusion: Viral infection modeled by PolyI:C causes acute increases in fetal brain accumulation of P-gp substrates and by doing so, may increase fetal brain exposure to xenobiotics and environmental toxins present in the maternal circulation.

  6. Time course of systemic oxidative stress and inflammatory response induced by an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchini, T; Magnani, N D; Paz, M L; Vanasco, V; Tasat, D; González Maglio, D H; Alvarez, S; Evelson, P A

    2014-01-15

    It is suggested that systemic oxidative stress and inflammation play a central role in the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases associated with the exposure to particulate matter (PM). The aim of this work was to evaluate the time changes of systemic markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash (ROFA). Female Swiss mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0mg/kg body weight) or saline solution, and plasma levels of oxidative damage markers [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) and protein carbonyls], antioxidant status [reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, ascorbic acid levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity], cytokines levels, and intravascular leukocyte activation were evaluated after 1, 3 or 5h of exposure. Oxidative damage to lipids and decreased GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in ROFA-exposed mice as early as 1h. Afterwards, increased protein oxidation, decreased ascorbic acid content and SOD activity were found in this group at 3h. The onset of an adaptive response was observed at 5h after the ROFA exposure, as indicated by decreased TBARS plasma content and increased SOD activity. The observed increase in oxidative damage to plasma macromolecules, together with systemic antioxidants depletion, may be a consequence of a systemic inflammatory response triggered by the ROFA exposure, since increased TNF-α and IL-6 plasma levels and polymorphonuclear leukocytes activation was found at every evaluated time point. These findings contribute to the understanding of the increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, in association with environmental PM inhalation.

  7. Oxidative DNA damage after acute exposure to arsenite and monomethylarsonous acid in biomethylation-deficient human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orihuela, Ruben; Kojima, Chikara; Tokar, Erik J; Person, Rachel J; Xu, Yuanyuan; Qu, Wei; Waalkes, Michael P

    2013-07-01

    The carcinogen inorganic arsenic (iAs) undergoes biomethylation (BMT) in some cells. The methylated metabolite, monomethylarsonous (MMA(3+)), may cause oxidative DNA damage (ODD). With chronic iAs exposure, BMT-competent cells show ODD while BMT-deficient do not. To further define these events, we studied ODD produced by acute iAs or MMA(3+) in the BMT-deficient human prostate cell line, RWPE-1. ODD, measured by the immuno-spin trapping method, was assessed after exposure to iAs or MMA(3+) alone, with the arsenic BMT inhibitor selenite or after glutathione (GSH) depletion. The expression of oxidative stress-related genes (HO-1, SOD-1, SOD-2, Nrf2 and Keap-1) was also assessed. Exposure to iAs at 24 h (0-20 µM), stimulated ODD only at levels above the LC50 of a 48 h exposure (17 µM). If iAs induced ODD, it also activated oxidative stress-related genes. Selenium did not alter iAs-induced ODD. MMA(3+) at 24 h (0-0.5 µM) caused ODD at levels below the LC50 of a 48 h exposure (1.5 µM), which were greatly increased by GSH depletion but not selenite. MMA(3+) induced ODD at levels not activating oxidant stress response genes. Overall, iAs induced ODD in BMT-deficient cells only at toxic levels. MMA(3+) caused ODD at non-toxic levels, independently of cellular BMT capacity and in a fashion not requiring further BMT.

  8. Acute exposure to selenium disrupts associative conditioning and long-term memory recall in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Christina M; Elmore, Christopher; Hladun, Kristen R; Trumble, John T; Smith, Brian H

    2016-05-01

    A plethora of toxic compounds - including pesticides, heavy metals, and metalloids - have been detected in honey bees (Apis mellifera) and their colonies. One such compound is selenium, which bees are exposed to by consuming nectar and pollen from flowers grown in contaminated areas. Though selenium is lethal at high concentrations, sublethal exposure may also impair honey bees' ability to function normally. Examining the effect of selenium exposure on learning and memory provides a sensitive assay with which to identify sublethal effects on honey bee health and behavior. To determine whether sublethal selenium exposure causes learning and memory deficits, we used proboscis extension reflex conditioning coupled with recall tests 30min and 24h post-conditioning. We exposed forager honey bees to a single sublethal dose of selenium, and 3h later we used an olfactory conditioning assay to train the bees to discriminate between one odor associated with sucrose-reinforcement and a second unreinforced odor. Following conditioning we tested short- and long-term recall of the task. Acute exposure to as little as 1.8ng of an inorganic form of selenium (sodium selenate) before conditioning caused a reduction in behavioral performance during conditioning. And, exposure to 18ng of either an inorganic form (sodium selenate) or an organic form (methylseleno-l-cysteine) of selenium caused a reduction in the bees' performance during the long-term recall test. These concentrations of selenium are lower than those found in the nectar of plants grown in selenium-contaminated soil, indicating that even low-grade selenium toxicity produces significant learning and memory impairments. This may reduce foragers' ability to effectively gather resources for the colony or nurse bees' ability to care for and maintain a healthy colony.

  9. Maternal benzene exposure during pregnancy and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfeng Zhou

    Full Text Available The prevalence of childhood leukemia is increasing rapidly all over the world. However, studies on maternal benzene exposure during pregnancy and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL have not been systematically assessed. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the association between maternal solvent, paint, petroleum exposure, and smoking during pregnancy and risk of childhood ALL.Relevant studies up to September 1st, 2013 were identified by searching the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library and the Web of Science databases. The effects were pooled using either fixed or random effect models based on the heterogeneity of the studies.Twenty-eight case-control studies and one cohort study were included for analysis, with a total of 16,695 cases and 1,472,786 controls involved. Pooled odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence interval (CI for ALL was 1.25 (1.09, 1.45 for solvent, 1.23 (1.02, 1.47 for paint, 1.42 (1.10, 1.84 for petroleum exposure, and 0.99 (0.93, 1.06 for maternal smoking during pregnancy. No publication bias was found in this meta-analysis and consistent results were observed for subgroup and sensitivity analyses.Childhood ALL was associated with maternal solvent, paint, and petroleum exposure during pregnancy. No association was found between ALL and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Avoidance of maternal occupational and environmental benzene exposure during pregnancy could contribute to a decrease in the risk of childhood ALL.

  10. Molecular changes during neurodevelopment following second-trimester binge ethanol exposure in a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: from immediate effects to long-term adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantha, Katarzyna; Laufer, Benjamin I; Singh, Shiva M

    2014-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is an umbrella term that refers to a wide range of behavioral and cognitive deficits resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure. It involves changes in brain gene expression that underlie lifelong FASD symptoms. How these changes are achieved from immediate to long-term effects, and how they are maintained, is unknown. We have used the C57BL/6J mouse to assess the dynamics of genomic alterations following binge alcohol exposure. Ethanol-exposed fetal (short-term effect) and adult (long-term effect) brains were assessed for gene expression and microRNA (miRNA) changes using Affymetrix mouse arrays. We identified 48 and 68 differentially expressed genes in short- and long-term groups, respectively. No gene was common between the 2 groups. Short-term (immediate) genes were involved in cellular compromise and apoptosis, which represent ethanol's toxic effects. Long-term genes were involved in various cellular functions, including epigenetics. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we confirmed the downregulation of long-term genes: Camk1g, Ccdc6, Egr3, Hspa5, and Xbp1. miRNA arrays identified 20 differentially expressed miRNAs, one of which (miR-302c) was confirmed. miR-302c was involved in an inverse relationship with Ccdc6. A network-based model involving altered genes illustrates the importance of cellular redox, stress and inflammation in FASD. Our results also support a critical role of apoptosis in FASD, and the potential involvement of miRNAs in the adaptation of gene expression following prenatal ethanol exposure. The ultimate molecular footprint involves inflammatory disease, neurological disease and skeletal and muscular disorders as major alterations in FASD. At the cellular level, these processes represent abnormalities in redox, stress and inflammation, with potential underpinnings to anxiety.

  11. Acute cold- and chronic heat-exposure upregulate hepatic leptin and muscle uncoupling protein (UCP) gene expression in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dridi, Sami; Temim, Soraya; Derouet, Michel; Tesseraud, Sophie; Taouis, Mohammed

    2008-08-01

    Emerging evidence showed that variations in environmental temperature affect both leptin and uncoupling protein (UCP) gene expression in mammals, whereas a little is known about such interactions in birds. Thus, we conducted the present study to investigate the influence of acute (2 hours) cold (4 degrees C) and chronic (10 days) heat (32 degrees C) exposure on hepatic leptin and muscle UCP gene expression in 5-wk-old broiler chickens. Both cold- and heat-exposure significantly (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001) upregulated hepatic leptin (by 35 and 46%, respectively) and muscle UCP mRNA levels (by 71 and 71%, respectively) compared to the thermoneutrality (22 degrees C). This result suggests that leptin and UCP may be involved in the thermoregulation response of chickens to extreme climate (cold and hot temperatures). The upregulation of hepatic leptin gene expression was accompanied by an increase in plasma leptin levels, indicating that leptin may be regulated at transcriptional level. The increase of leptin and UCP mRNA abundance, and leptinemia we report here were not related to plasma glucose or insulin levels. In conclusion, the exposure of broiler chickens to extreme ambient temperatures (cold and heat) increases hepatic leptin and muscle UCP gene expression.

  12. Effect of acute pesticide exposure on bee spatial working memory using an analogue of the radial-arm maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Elizabeth E. W.; Chen-Wishart, Zachary P.; Gill, Richard J.; Leadbeater, Ellouise

    2016-12-01

    Pesticides, including neonicotinoids, typically target pest insects by being neurotoxic. Inadvertent exposure to foraging insect pollinators is usually sub-lethal, but may affect cognition. One cognitive trait, spatial working memory, may be important in avoiding previously-visited flowers and other spatial tasks such as navigation. To test this, we investigated the effect of acute thiamethoxam exposure on spatial working memory in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris, using an adaptation of the radial-arm maze (RAM). We first demonstrated that bumblebees use spatial working memory to solve the RAM by showing that untreated bees performed significantly better than would be expected if choices were random or governed by stereotyped visitation rules. We then exposed bees to either a high sub-lethal positive control thiamethoxam dose (2.5 ng‑1 bee), or one of two low doses (0.377 or 0.091 ng‑1) based on estimated field-realistic exposure. The high dose caused bees to make more and earlier spatial memory errors and take longer to complete the task than unexposed bees. For the low doses, the negative effects were smaller but statistically significant, and dependent on bee size. The spatial working memory impairment shown here has the potential to harm bees exposed to thiamethoxam, through possible impacts on foraging efficiency or homing.

  13. Associations of acute exposure to fine and coarse particulate matter and mortality among older people in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kashima, Saori; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-15

    Recent studies have reported adverse health effects of short-term exposure to coarse particles independent of particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5), but evidence in Asian countries is limited. We therefore evaluated associations between short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) and mortality among older people in Tokyo, Japan. We used a time-stratified, case-crossover design. Study participants included 664,509 older people (≥65 years old) in the 23 urbanized wards of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, who died between January 2002 and December 2013. We obtained PM2.5 and suspended particulate matter (SPM; PMrespiratory diseases; for example, both pollutants were positively associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality even after simultaneous adjustment for each pollutant: OR of 1.006 (95% CI: 1.003, 1.009) for PM2.5 and 1.016 (95% CI: 1.011, 1.022) for PM7-2.5. Even below concentrations stipulated by the Japanese air quality guidelines for PM2.5 and SPM (PM7), we observed adverse health effects. This study provides further evidence that acute exposure to PM2.5 and coarse particles is associated with increased risk of mortality among older people. Rigorous evaluation of air quality guidelines for daily average PM2.5 and larger particles should be continued.

  14. Strain- and context-dependent behavioural responses of acute alarm substance exposure in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadros, Vanessa A; Silveira, Ariane; Giuliani, Giulie S; Didonet, Fernanda; Silveira, Alessandra S; Nunes, Mauro E; Silva, Tális O; Loro, Vania L; Rosemberg, Denis B

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the behavioural responses of wild type (WT) and leopard (leo) zebrafish elicited by alarm substances of conspecifics at three contexts: during the exposure period (Experiment 1); after exposure, in habituation to novelty (Experiment 2); or after exposure, in the light-dark preference test (Experiment 3), and analyse their influence on pigment response. During the exposure, leo showed decreased vertical drifts, increased number and duration of erratic movements, while WT had increased erratic movements and latency to enter the top. In the novel tank, we observed that angular velocity decreased in WT exposed to alarm substance, which also presented increased fear responses. Contrastingly, leo increased the number of entries and time in top, indicating differences in habituation profile. Alarm substance increased the number of erratic movements in the light-dark test, but elicited different responses between strains in scototaxis, latency to enter the dark compartment and risk assessment episodes. Moreover, the body colour of zebrafish did not change after alarm substance exposure. Principal component analyses suggest that burst swimming, anxiety-like behaviours, and locomotion/exploration were the components that most accounted for total variances of Experiments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. We conclude that chemical cue from conspecifics triggers strain- and context-dependent responses.

  15. Acute respiratory distress syndrome following cutaneous exposure to Lysol: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y Y; Lu, C C; Perng, R P

    1999-12-01

    Lysol (mixed cresols) is a brand of popular detergent commonly used to disinfect toilets and floors in Taiwan. We report a patient with acute respiratory failure immediately following chemical burns caused by skin contact with Lysol solution. On admission, chest radiography showed bilateral diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and an arterial blood gas analysis disclosed hypoxemia refractory to a high concentration of oxygen by inhalation. Under the impression of acute respiratory distress syndrome, our patient was admitted to the intensive care unit for respiratory care. Poor clinical improvement was noted, despite aggressive respiratory therapy. High-dose steroid therapy (hydrocortisone 30 mg/kg/day) was administered from the seventh day after mechanical ventilation began and the ratio of arterial partial pressure of oxygen to fractional concentration of oxygen in inspired gas improved thereafter. The amount of steroid was gradually tapered to the maintenance dose and the patient was successfully weaned from the ventilator after a 93-day course of mechanical ventilation.

  16. Effects of acute versus repeated cocaine exposure on the expression of endocannabinoid signaling-related proteins in the mouse cerebellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino, Ana; Pavón, Francisco-Javier; Blanco-Calvo, Eduardo; Serrano, Antonia; Arrabal, Sergio; Rivera, Patricia; Alén, Francisco; Vargas, Antonio; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Rubio, Leticia; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Growing awareness of cerebellar involvement in addiction is based on the cerebellum’s intermediary position between motor and reward, potentially acting as an interface between motivational and cognitive functions. Here, we examined the impact of acute and repeated cocaine exposure on the two main signaling systems in the mouse cerebellum: the endocannabinoid (eCB) and glutamate systems. To this end, we investigated whether eCB signaling-related gene and protein expression {cannabinoid receptor type 1 receptors and enzymes that produce [diacylglycerol lipase alpha/beta (DAGLα/β) and N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD)] and degrade [monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and fatty acid amino hydrolase (FAAH)] eCB} were altered. In addition, we analyzed the gene expression of relevant components of the glutamate signaling system [glutamate synthesizing enzymes liver-type glutaminase isoform (LGA) and kidney-type glutaminase isoform (KGA), metabotropic glutamatergic receptor (mGluR3/5), NMDA-ionotropic glutamatergic receptor (NR1/2A/2B/2C) and AMPA-ionotropic receptor subunits (GluR1/2/3/4)] and the gene expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, because noradrenergic terminals innervate the cerebellar cortex. Results indicated that acute cocaine exposure decreased DAGLα expression, suggesting a down-regulation of 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) production, as well as gene expression of TH, KGA, mGluR3 and all ionotropic receptor subunits analyzed in the cerebellum. The acquisition of conditioned locomotion and sensitization after repeated cocaine exposure were associated with an increased NAPE-PLD/FAAH ratio, suggesting enhanced anandamide production, and a decreased DAGLβ/MAGL ratio, suggesting decreased 2-AG generation. Repeated cocaine also increased LGA gene expression but had no effect on glutamate receptors. These findings indicate that acute cocaine modulates the expression of the eCB and

  17. Acute short-term dim light exposure can lower muscle strength endurance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arnold G. Nelson; Joke Kokkonen; Megan Mickenberg

    2015-01-01

    Background:Since it has been shown that spending 18 h under dim light conditions can result in reduced handgrip endurance, it was questioned whether or not a shorter exposure to dim light (i.e., 1 h) would have similar influence upon muscular endurance. Therefore this study compared the number of weighted knee extension lifts that could be done after spending 1 h in either dim or bright light. Methods:Participants (5 women, 11 men, college students 19-26 years) performed knee extension lifts to exhaustion with a load approximating 40%of their body weight. The lifts to exhaustion were measured immediately following 1 h of exposure to each of the following three con-ditions:dark (DL), room light (RL), and room light plus 5 mg melatonin (RLM). A minimum of 48 h separated each condition, and all par-ticipants started the exposures in a rested fed condition. Results:Average (±SD) number of knee extension lifts for RL (62.0 ± 22.0) was significantly ( p<0.05) greater than DL (51.4 ± 14.7) and RLM (57.8 ± 22.9). The number of RLM knee extension lifts was not significantly different from DL. Exposure to 1 h of dim light immediately prior to activity can result in a reduction in thigh muscle endurance. The decline in performance to short-term dim light exposure was similar to that found following longer-term exposure. Conclusion: It appears that light intensity can influence muscle endurance, however, at this time this effect cannot be directly related to endogenous melatonin production.

  18. The Role of Neuropeptide Y (NPY) in Uncontrolled Alcohol Drinking and Relapse Behavior Resulting from Exposure to Stressful Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 32(2):259-65. Wang L, Lui J, Harvey-White J, Zimmer A, Kunos G (2003) Endocannabinoid signaling via cannabinoid receptor 1 is... receptor (Y1R) promote high alcohol consumption in mice. Furthermore, combat-related PTSD is associated with decreased plasma levels of NPY, and...stress), half the animals were given i.p. injection of a 10 mg/kg dose of CP-154,526 (a corticotropin releasing factor type-1 receptor (CRF1R

  19. Prenatal alcohol exposure alters p35, CDK5 and GSK3β in the medial frontal cortex and hippocampus of adolescent mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha L. Goggin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs are the number one cause of preventable mental retardation. An estimated 2–5% of children are diagnosed as having a FASD. While it is known that children prenatally exposed to alcohol experience cognitive deficits and a higher incidence of psychiatric illness later in life, the pathways underlying these abnormalities remain uncertain. GSK3β and CDK5 are protein kinases that are converging points for a vast number of signaling cascades, including those controlling cellular processes critical to learning and memory. We investigated whether levels of GSK3β and CDK5 are affected by moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE, specifically in the hippocampus and medial frontal cortex of the adolescent mouse. In the present work we utilized immunoblotting techniques to demonstrate that moderate PAE increased hippocampal p35 and β-catenin, and decreased total levels of GSK3β, while increasing GSK3β Ser9 and Tyr216 phosphorylation. Interestingly, different alterations were seen in the medial frontal cortex where p35 and CDK5 were decreased and increased total GSK3β was accompanied by reduced Tyr216 of the enzyme. These results suggest that kinase dysregulation during adolescence might be an important contributing factor to the effects of PAE on hippocampal and medial frontal cortical functioning; and by extension, that global modulation of these kinases may produce differing effects depending on brain region.

  20. Third Trimester Equivalent Alcohol Exposure Reduces Modulation of Glutamatergic Synaptic Transmission by 5-HT1A Receptors in the Rat Hippocampal CA3 Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Russell A; Valenzuela, C Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Fetal alcohol exposure has been associated with many neuropsychiatric disorders that have been linked to altered serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) signaling, including depression and anxiety. During the first 2 weeks of postnatal life in rodents (equivalent to the third trimester of human pregnancy) 5-HT neurons undergo significant functional maturation and their axons reach target regions in the forebrain (e.g., cortex and hippocampus). The objective of this study was to identify the effects of third trimester ethanol (EtOH) exposure on hippocampal 5-HT signaling. Using EtOH vapor inhalation chambers, we exposed rat pups to EtOH for 4 h/day from postnatal day (P) 2 to P12. The average serum EtOH concentration in the pups was 0.13 ± 0.04 g/dl (legal intoxication limit in humans = 0.08 g/dl). We used brain slices to assess the modulatory actions of 5-HT on field excitatory postsynaptic potentials in the hippocampal CA3 region at P13-P15. Application of the GABAA/glycine receptor antagonist, picrotoxin, caused broadening of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs), an effect that was reversed by application of 5-HT in slices from air exposed rats. However, this effect of 5-HT was absent in EtOH exposed animals. In slices from naïve animals, application of a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist blocked the effect of 5-HT on the fEPSPs recorded in presence of picrotoxin, suggesting that third trimester ethanol exposure acts by inhibiting the function of these receptors. Studies indicate that 5-HT1A receptors play a critical role in the development of hippocampal circuits. Therefore, inhibition of these receptors by third trimester ethanol exposure could contribute to the pathophysiology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

  1. Altered Hippocampal Lipid Profile Following Acute Postnatal Exposure to Di(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Catherine A; Farmer, Kyle; Lee, Hyunmin; Holahan, Matthew R; Smith, Jeffrey C

    2015-10-27

    Slight changes in the abundance of certain lipid species in the brain may drastically alter normal neurodevelopment via membrane stability, cell signalling, and cell survival. Previous findings have demonstrated that postnatal exposure to di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) disrupts normal axonal and neural development in the hippocampus. The goal of the current study was to determine whether postnatal exposure to DEHP alters the lipid profile in the hippocampus during postnatal development. Systemic treatment with 10 mg/kg DEHP during postnatal development led to elevated levels of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin in the hippocampus of female rats. There was no effect of DEHP exposure on the overall abundance of phosphatidylcholine or sphingomyelin in male rats or of lysophosphatidylcholine in male or female rats. Individual analyses of each identified lipid species revealed 10 phosphatidylcholine and six sphingomyelin lipids in DEHP-treated females and a single lysophosphatidylcholine in DEHP-treated males with a two-fold or higher increase in relative abundance. Our results are congruent with previous work that found that postnatal exposure to DEHP had a near-selective detrimental effect on hippocampal development in males but not females. Together, results suggest a neuroprotective effect of these elevated lipid species in females.

  2. Altered Hippocampal Lipid Profile Following Acute Postnatal Exposure to Di(2-Ethylhexyl Phthalate in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A. Smith

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Slight changes in the abundance of certain lipid species in the brain may drastically alter normal neurodevelopment via membrane stability, cell signalling, and cell survival. Previous findings have demonstrated that postnatal exposure to di (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP disrupts normal axonal and neural development in the hippocampus. The goal of the current study was to determine whether postnatal exposure to DEHP alters the lipid profile in the hippocampus during postnatal development. Systemic treatment with 10 mg/kg DEHP during postnatal development led to elevated levels of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin in the hippocampus of female rats. There was no effect of DEHP exposure on the overall abundance of phosphatidylcholine or sphingomyelin in male rats or of lysophosphatidylcholine in male or female rats. Individual analyses of each identified lipid species revealed 10 phosphatidylcholine and six sphingomyelin lipids in DEHP-treated females and a single lysophosphatidylcholine in DEHP-treated males with a two-fold or higher increase in relative abundance. Our results are congruent with previous work that found that postnatal exposure to DEHP had a near-selective detrimental effect on hippocampal development in males but not females. Together, results suggest a neuroprotective effect of these elevated lipid species in females.

  3. Binge-like ingestion of a combination of an energy drink and alcohol leads to cognitive deficits and motivational changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tatiane T; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Takahashi, Reinaldo N

    2015-09-01

    The combination of alcohol with an energy drink (ED) is believed to contribute to risky alcohol-drinking behaviors, such as binge drinking. However, the long-term effects on cognition and reward function that are caused by the repeated binge-like ingestion of alcohol and EDs are still poorly known. The present study examined the effects of a history of repeated exposure to alcohol and/or an ED on short-term memory and alcohol-seeking behavior. Male Wistar rats were given daily intragastric administration of alcohol (3.4g/kg) combined or not with an ED (10.71ml/kg) for 6 consecutive days. The rats were tested for locomotion 15min after the first intragastric treatment. Short-term memory was assessed in the novel object recognition and social discrimination tests 2-3days after the last intragastric administration. The rewarding effect of alcohol was tested 1-3weeks following the last intragastric administration in a conditioned place preference paradigm. The acute binge-like ingestion of alcohol decreased locomotor activity, whereas the combination of alcohol and an ED increased locomotion in the first minutes of assessment. Alcohol exposure produced cognitive deficits in both the object recognition and social discrimination tests, and adding the ED to the alcohol solution did not modify these effects. The combination of alcohol and the ED increased alcohol-induced conditioned place preference. Thus, a history of binge-like alcohol exposure combined with the ED caused subsequent cognitive deficits and increased alcohol seeking behavior, and such behavioral effects might contribute to the progression to alcohol abuse disorders.

  4. Fetal alcohol exposure alters proopiomelanocortin gene expression and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function via increasing MeCP2 expression in the hypothalamus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omkaram Gangisetty

    Full Text Available Proopiomelanocortin (POMC is a precursor gene of the neuropeptide β-endorphin in the hypothalamus and is known to regulate various physiological functions including stress response. Several recent reports showed that fetal alcohol exposure programs the hypothalamus to produce lower levels of POMC gene transcripts and to elevate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis response to stressful stimuli. We investigated the role of methyl CpG binding protein (MeCP2 in the effects of prenatal ethanol on POMC gene expression and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis function. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were fed between GD 7 and 21 with a liquid diet containing 6.7% alcohol, pair-fed with isocaloric liquid diet, or fed ad libitum with rat chow, and their male offsprings were used at 60 days after birth in this study. Fetal alcohol exposure reduced the level of POMC mRNA, but increased the level of DNA methylation of this gene in the arcuate nucleus (ARC of the hypothalamus where the POMC neuronal cell bodies are located. Fetal alcohol exposed rats showed a significant increase in MeCP2 protein levels in POMC cells, MeCP2 gene transcript levels as well as increased MeCP2 protein binding on the POMC promoter in the arcuate nucleus. Lentiviral delivery of MeCP2 shRNA into the third ventricle efficiently reduced MeCP2 expression and prevented the effect of prenatal ethanol on POMC gene expression in the arcuate nucleus. MeCP2-shRNA treatment also normalized the prenatal ethanol-induced increase in corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH gene expression in the hypothalamus and elevated plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH and corticosterone hormone responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS challenge. These results suggest that fetal alcohol programming of POMC gene may involve recruitment of MeCP2 on to the methylated promoter of the POMC gene to suppress POMC transcript levels and contribute to HPA axis dysregulation.

  5. Histopathological Alterations of Hybrid Walking Catfish (Clarias macrocephalus x Clarias gariepinus in Acute and Subacute Cadmium Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuntiya Pantung

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Histopathological alterations occur in the gills, livers and kidneys of 3-month old hybrid walking catsfich (Clarias macrocephalus x Clarias gariepinos after acute and subacute cadmium exposure in water, and after intraperitoneal injection.The 96-h LC50 for cadmium in recirculation open systems was 13.6 mg/l, and the 96-h LD50 1.6 mg/kg of fish. Light microscopic studies were carried out in gills, livers and kidneys. Gill alterations included an increased number of chloride cells, breakdown of the pillar cells and edema of the epithelial cells. In the liver there was blood conjestion in sinusoids and swelling of hepatocytes. The kidneys showed vacuolation and necrosis of proximal tubular cells.

  6. [Retrospective Cytogenetic Dose Evaluation. I. Chromosome Aberration Levels in Remote Periods after Acute External Exposure in Different Situations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugs, V Yu; Khvostunov, I K; Goloub, E V; Kozlova, M G; Nadejina, N M; Galstian, I A

    2015-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis of peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures of 22 persons was performed in remote terms after acute external γ-, γ-β- or γ-neutron irradiation as a result of various accidents using the classical me- thod. The initial dose estimates were obtained using physical calculations, the method of measuring the EPR signal in tooth enamel, according to haematological and/or cytogenetic parameters. The purpose of this study was to obtain evidence about the state of the lymphocyte chromosome apparatus of people approxi- mately 17-50 years after an accidental radiation exposure. In general, elevated levels of chromosome aberra- tions were detected. An average correlation was observed between the atypical chromosome frequency and absorbed dose. It is proposed to use the obtained results in the future to explore the possibility of retrospective dose evaluation on the basis of a special computer program.

  7. Changes of autonomic nervous system function in healthy young men during initial phase at acute high-altitude exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Jun; Huang Lan; Tian Kaixin; Yu Shiyong; Yu Yang; Long Min

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of autonomic nervous system (ANS) function during the initial phase at acute high-altitude exposure. Methods: Ninety-nine healthy sea-level male residents were studied in Chengdu plain and then Tibet plateau. Heart rate variability (HRV), cold pressor test (CPT), resting heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were measured at baseline (560 m altitude) and in 2 to 4 d after arriving at Tibet plateau (3 675 m altitude) to assess the ANS function. Results: Compared with baseline, on day 2 in Tibet the standard deviation of normal to normal intervals (SDNN), high-frequency (HF) power, total power (TP), root mean square of delta RR (rMSSD), percentage of delta RR>50 ms (PNN50), normalized high-frequency (Hfnu) and fractal dimension (FD) decreased significantly (SDNN, HF,TP P<0.01, rMSSD, PNNs0, Hfnu, FD P<0.05), while the normalized low-frequency (Lfnu) and LF/HF increased significantly (P<0.01). During day 3-4 in Tibet, SDNN, rMSSD, HF, TP and Hfnu tended to rebound while Lfnu and LF/HF decreased towards baseline day by day. In addition, in Tibet the increase in systolic pressure (SP) and diastolic pressure (DP) during CPT decreased significantly (P<0.01, 0.05), but resting HR increased compared with baseline (P<0.01). Conclusion: ANS modulation is generally blunted, and the relatively predominant sympathetic control is enhanced originally, then it reverts to the sea level states gradually during the initial days of acute high-altitude exposure.

  8. Effects of Acute and Subacute Oral Methylnitroguanidine (MeNQ) Exposure to Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-20

    Assay Testing and sampling procedures for the micronucleus assay followed the methodology outlined in the protocol provided in the MicroFlow Basic...or female rats up to the limit dose of 2000 milligrams/kilogram (mg/kg) body weight in the acute test . There were also no signs clinical signs of...toxicity or morbidity in the subacute 14-day study up to 1250 mg/kg-day, the highest dose tested in both males and females. As no signs of toxicity were

  9. Cellular metabolic, stress, and histological response on exposure to acute toxicity of endosulfan in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Neeraj; Sharma, Rupam; Tripathi, Gayatri; Kumar, Kundan; Dalvi, Rishikesh S; Krishna, Gopal

    2016-01-01

    Endosulfan is one of the most hazardous organochlorines pesticides responsible for environmental pollution, as it is very persistent and shows bio-magnification. This study evaluated the impact of acute endosulfan toxicity on metabolic enzymes, lysozyme activities, heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 expression, and histopathology in Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Among the indicators that were induced in dose dependent manner were the enzymes of amino acid metabolism (serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase), carbohydrate metabolism (serum lactate dehydrogenase), pentose phosphate pathway (Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) as well as lysozyme and Hsp70 in liver and gill, while liver and gill Isocitrate dehydrogenase (TCA cycle enzyme) and marker of general energetics (Total adenosine triphosphatase) were inhibited. Histopathological alterations in gill were clubbing of secondary gill lamellae, marked hyperplasia, complete loss of secondary lamellae and atrophy of primary gill filaments. Whereas in liver, swollen hepatocyte, and degeneration with loss of cellular boundaries were distinctly noticed. Overall results clearly demonstrated the unbalanced metabolism and damage of the vital organs like liver and gill in Tilapia due to acute endosulfan exposure.

  10. Pulmonary Inflammatory Responses To Acute Meteorite Dust Exposures - Implications For Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, A. D.; McCubbin, F. M.; Kaur, J.; Smirnov, A.; Galdanes, K.; Schoonen, M. A. A.; Chen, L. C.; Tsirka, S. E.; Gordon, T.

    2017-01-01

    The previous manned missions to the Moon represent milestones of human ingenuity, perseverance, and intellectual curiosity. However, one of the major ongoing concerns is the array of hazards associated with lunar surface dust. Not only did the dust cause mechanical and structural integrity issues with the suits, the dust 'storm' generated upon reentrance into the crew cabin caused "lunar hay fever" and "almost blindness" (Figure 1). It was further reported that the allergic response to the dust worsened with each exposure. The lack of gravity exacerbated the exposure, requiring the astronauts to wear their helmet within the module in order to avoid breathing the irritating particles. Due to the prevalence of these high exposures, the Human Research Roadmap developed by NASA identifies the Risk of Adverse Health and Performance Effects of Celestial Dust Exposure as an area of concern. Extended human exploration will further increase the probability of inadvertent and repeated exposures to celestial dusts. Going forward, hazard assessments of celestial dusts will be determined through sample return efforts prior to astronaut deployment. Studies on the lunar highland regolith indicate that the dust is not only respirable but also reactive, and previous studies concluded that it is moderately toxic; generating a greater response than titanium oxide but a lower response than quartz. The presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the surface of the dust has been implicated. However, there is actually little data related to physicochemical characteristics of particulates and pulmonary toxicity, especially as it relates to celestial dust exposure. As a direct response to this deficit, the present study evaluates the role of a particulate's innate geochemical features (e.g., bulk chemistry, internal composition, morphology, size, and reactivity) in generating adverse toxicological responses in vitro and in vivo. This highly interdisciplinary study evaluates the relative

  11. The Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on Adolescent Cognitive Processing: A Speed-Accuracy Trade-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Paul D.; Kerr, Beth; Olson, Heather Carmichael; Streissguth, Ann P.; Hunt, Earl; Barr, Helen M.; Bookstein, Fred L.; Thiede, Keith

    1997-01-01

    Aspects of cognitive processing were evaluated for 462 adolescents followed for 14 years. Adolescents had been exposed prenatally to a broad range of maternal drinking, mostly at "social" levels. Alcohol-related deficits on cognitive tasks were summarized by a speed-accuracy trade-off on the spatial-visual reasoning task. (SLD)

  12. Temporal Changes in Rat Liver Gene Expression after Acute Cadmium and Chromium Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-19

    to ROS production [22]. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified both Cd and Cr as known human carcinogens [23]. Although...metabolism. There were thirteen pathways that were common to both exposures. The majority of the identified inflam - mation pathways were found after Cd...by macrophages and neutrophils. ROS can interact with DNA, leading to ad- duct formation that impairs base-pairing and/or blocks DNA replication and

  13. The Acute Effects of Single Exposures to White Phosphorus Smoke in Rats and Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    males and three females per dose, were used. The animals, weighing between 200 and 300 grams, were fasted overnight prior to desing . The liquid used in...min_’u n, nfinc animals died during exposure. The sunivine animal had respirator, problems far i houlr and t!-_- gradually recovered. 3. Hematology and...ATTN: MAJ Borges APO San Francisco 96328) Defense- Technical Information Center ATTN: DTIC-DDA-2 2 Commander Cau;icon Station, Building 5 2d Infantry

  14. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-05-01

    The current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of radiation in man is considered. The discussion is restricted to dose-incidence data in humans, particularly to certain of those epidemiological studies of human populations that are used most frequently for risk estimation for low-dose radiation carcinogenesis in man. Emphasis is placed solely on those surveys concerned with nuclear explosions and medical exposures. (ACR)

  15. Influence of Acute and Chronic Alcoholism on Rats' Heart%急慢性乙醇中毒对大鼠心脏的影响